Sample records for occupational exposure level

  1. Occupational noise exposure and hearing levels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. AMBASANKARAN; D. BRAHMACHARI; V. K. CHADDA; M. G. PHADNIS; A. RAJU; A. RAMAMURTHY; V. R. SHAH

    1981-01-01

    A study was made at the Bhabha Atomic Research Center to measure the hearing levels of persons working in a noisy environment. Two different workplaces, central air-conditioning plant and glass blowing shops, where a number of persons were exposed to noise levels exceeding 85 dB(A) were chosen. The occupational exposure to noise was determined using a sound level meter, an

  2. Low level occupational benzene exposure and hematological parameters.

    PubMed

    Swaen, Gerard M H; van Amelsvoort, Ludovic; Twisk, Johannes J; Verstraeten, Etienne; Slootweg, Ronald; Collins, James J; Burns, Carol J

    2010-03-19

    At high and prolonged exposure levels (e.g. >30 ppm), benzene can cause hematological effects. However, there is conflicting evidence on potential hematological effects at lower concentrations. We conducted a study to examine hematological effects at low benzene exposure levels in an occupational setting. Extensive exposure data and data from routine hematology examinations were available for Dow employees at the Terneuzen site in the Netherlands. We compared 8532 blood samples of Dow employees with low benzene exposure to 12,173 samples of employees with no benzene exposure that were available for the period between 1981 and 2007. Based on 21,584 benzene air measurements, a Job Exposure Matrix (JEM) was constructed for all employees with exposure. The JEM was used to estimate benzene exposure in the year in which each blood sample was collected. The average lymphocyte counts for the exposed and non-exposed group were similar. By means of mixed model regression adjustments were made for smoking, age and month of blood sample. These adjustments did not change the results and there was no indication for an adverse effect on any of the hematological parameters under investigation. A further stratification of the exposed population into three subgroups (<0.5 ppm, 0.5-1 ppm and >1 ppm) showed no significant differences for any of the hematological parameters between the three exposure categories or compared with the non-exposed group. The analysis modeling the continuous exposure effect relationship showed similar findings. This study does not indicate that workers exposed to low benzene concentrations are at an increased risk for hematological effects. PMID:20074561

  3. Recent and long-term occupational noise exposure and salivary cortisol level.

    PubMed

    Stokholm, Zara Ann; Hansen, Åse Marie; Grynderup, Matias Brødsgaard; Bonde, Jens Peter; Christensen, Kent Lodberg; Frederiksen, Thomas Winther; Lund, Søren Peter; Vestergaard, Jesper Medom; Kolstad, Henrik Albert

    2014-01-01

    Environmental and occupational noise exposure have been related to increased risk of cardiovascular disease, hypothetically mediated by stress-activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. The objective of this study was to investigate the relation between recent and long-term occupational noise exposure and cortisol level measured off work to assess a possible sustained HPA-axis effect. We included 501 industrial, finance, and service workers who were followed for 24h during work, leisure, and sleep. Ambient occupational noise exposure levels were recorded every 5s by personal dosimeters and we calculated the full-shift LAEq value and estimated duration and cumulative exposure based on their work histories since 1980. For 332 workers who kept a log-book on the use of hearing protection devices (HPD), we subtracted 10 dB from every noise recording obtained during HPD use and estimated the noise level at the ear. Salivary cortisol concentration was measured at 20.00 h, the following day at awakening, and 30 min after awakening on average 5, 14 and 14.5h after finishing work. The mean ambient noise exposure level was 79.9 dB(A) [range: 55.0-98.9] and the mean estimated level at the ear 77.7 dB(A) [range: 55.0-94.2]. In linear and mixed regression models that adjusted for age, sex, current smoking, heavy alcohol consumption, personal income, BMI, leisure-time noise exposure level, time since occupational noise exposure ceased, awakening time, and time of saliva sampling, we observed no statistically significant exposure response relation between recent, or long-term ambient occupational noise exposure level and any cortisol parameter off work. This was neither the case for recent noise level at the ear. To conclude, neither recent nor long-term occupational noise exposure levels were associated with increased cortisol level off work. Thus, our results do not indicate that a sustained activation of the HPA axis, as measured by cortisol, is involved in the causal pathway between occupational noise exposure and cardiovascular disease. PMID:24275001

  4. High-Level, but Not Low-Level, Occupational Exposure to Inhaled Anesthetics Is Associated with Genotoxicity in the Micronucleus Assay

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gunther Wiesner; Klaus Hoerauf; Klaus Schroegendorfer; Pawel Sobczynski; Marion Harth; Hugo W. Ruediger

    2001-01-01

    To minimize the possible health risks posed by waste anesthetic gases, the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) recommends exposure lim- its. We investigated the genotoxicity of a previously es- tablished occupational exposure exceeding these limits (high-level exposure) and of one within these limits (low-level exposure). Genotoxicity was assessed by the formation of micronucleated lymphocytes in 25 anes-

  5. Occupational exposure of dentists to electromagnetic fields produced by magnetostrictive cavitrons alters the serum cortisol level

    PubMed Central

    Mortazavi, S. M. J.; Vazife-Doost, S.; Yaghooti, M.; Mehdizadeh, S.; Rajaie-Far, A.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Some studies indicate that dentistry is one of the job categories with high potential exposure to elevated levels of extremely low frequency magnetic fields. In spite of this, information on occupational exposure of dentists to these fields is scarce. Studies on other common sources of electromagnetic fields (EMFs) such as mobile base stations have shown alterations in the cortisol level following exposure of humans to these sources. The aim of this study is to compare the level of cortisol among dentists and dentistry students who are being occupationally exposed to EMFs emitted by magnetostrictive cavitrons (case group) and among their counterparts who are not being exposed to these fields (control group). Materials and Methods: In this case–control study, blood samples were collected from 41 dentists and dentistry students, 21 of whom were exposed to EMFs emitted by cavitrons as the case group and 20 who were not exposed as the control group, twice; i.e. before work (at 8:30–9:30 a.m.) and after work (11:30–12:30 a.m.). The samples were coded and the serum cortisol level was investigated using the ELISA method (Cortisol AccuBind ELISA Kits). Results: The serum cortisol level of dentists and dental students in the morning (before starting the work) in the control group was 189.15 ± 110.70 (mean ± SD) whereas it was 157.77 ± 112.03 in those who were occupationally exposed to EMFs produced by the use of cavitrons. This difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.373). In contrast, the serum cortisol level of the participants in the noon (after stopping the work) in the control group was 136.25 ± 67.91 (mean ± SD) while it was 88.58 ± 52.83 in those who were occupationally exposed to EMFs produced by the use of cavitrons. This time, the observed difference was statistically significant (P = 0.016). In this light, while the difference between serum cortisol levels of dentists and dental students in the morning and after stopping the work was not statistically significant (P = 0.06), in the EMF-exposed group the cortisol level decreased significantly from 157.77 ± 112.03 in the morning to 88.58 ± 52.83 in the noon (P = 0.001). Conclusions: As far as we know, this is the first study that evaluated the effect of occupational exposure of dentists to EMFs on their serum cortisol level. The EMFs produced by magnetostrictive cavitrons can decrease the serum cortisol level in dentists. As cortisol plays an important role in blood pressure regulation, cardiovascular, and immune system function, a low cortisol level may threaten health. More studies are needed to clearly understand the effects of EMFs emitted by magnetostrictive cavitron on the level of stress hormones. As some studies have shown that exposure to EMFs has no effect on the cortisol level, whereas other studies reported either an increase or a decrease in the cortisol level, it can be concluded that the effects of exposure to EMFs may occur only at specific absorbed energies or energy absorption rates (usually known as window) similar to that exists in the case of exposure to the low doses of ionizing radiations. PMID:22690053

  6. Occupational exposure in MRI

    PubMed Central

    Mcrobbie, D W

    2012-01-01

    This article reviews occupational exposure in clinical MRI; it specifically considers units of exposure, basic physical interactions, health effects, guideline limits, dosimetry, results of exposure surveys, calculation of induced fields and the status of the European Physical Agents Directive. Electromagnetic field exposure in MRI from the static field B0, imaging gradients and radiofrequency transmission fields induces electric fields and currents in tissue, which are responsible for various acute sensory effects. The underlying theory and its application to the formulation of incident and induced field limits are presented. The recent International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) Bundesministerium für Arbeit und Soziales and Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers limits for incident field exposure are interpreted in a manner applicable to MRI. Field measurements show that exposure from movement within the B0 fringe field can exceed ICNIRP reference levels within 0.5 m of the bore entrance. Rate of change of field dB/dt from the imaging gradients is unlikely to exceed the new limits, although incident field limits can be exceeded for radiofrequency (RF) exposure within 0.2–0.5 m of the bore entrance. Dosimetric surveys of routine clinical practice show that staff are exposed to peak values of 42±24% of B0, with time-averaged exposures of 5.2±2.8 mT for magnets in the range 0.6–4 T. Exposure to time-varying fields arising from movement within the B0 fringe resulted in peak dB/dt of approximately 2 T s?1. Modelling of induced electric fields from the imaging gradients shows that ICNIRP-induced field limits are unlikely to be exceeded in most situations; however, movement through the static field may still present a problem. The likely application of the limits is discussed with respect to the reformulation of the European Union (EU) directive and its possible implications for MRI. PMID:22457400

  7. Urinary sevoflurane and hexafluoro-isopropanol as biomarkers of low-level occupational exposure to sevoflurane

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Antonio Accorsi; Barbara Morrone; Irene Domenichini; Simona Valenti; Giovanni Battista Raffi; Francesco Saverio Violante

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: Sevoflurane is an inhalation halogenated anaesthetic widely used in day and paediatric surgery. We were interested in evaluating biological markers of exposure to sevoflurane, which should improve the health surveillance of occupationally exposed personnel. Methods: A group of 36 subjects (13 male, 23 female) occupationally exposed to volatile anaesthetics in paediatric operating rooms was studied in a 2-week survey.

  8. Occupational Noise Exposure

    MedlinePLUS

    ... reduce worker exposure to noise in a workplace. Engineering controls that reduce sound exposure levels are available and technologically feasible for most noise sources. Engineering controls involve modifying or replacing equipment, or making ...

  9. NATIONAL OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE SURVEY (NOES)

    EPA Science Inventory

    From 1981 to 1983, NIOSH conducted the National Occupational Exposure Survey (NOES) that collected data on potential occupational exposures to chemical, physical, and biological agents. The survey involved on-site visits to 4,490 establishments in 522 industry types [OMB 1972] em...

  10. Occupational Radiation Exposures

    Cancer.gov

    DCEG researchers are studying cancer risks among populations who are occupationally exposed to radiation. Chernobyl Clean-up Workers Mayak Nuclear Facility Workers U.S. Radiologic Technologists Interventional Fluoroscopists Print This Page Occupational

  11. Occupational noise exposure limits for developing countries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. H Shaikh

    1999-01-01

    Occupational noise is one of the major environmental problems in industrial plants. Therefore, in order to limit high level occupational noise, maximum permissible occupational noise exposure limit in the range of 90–85dB(A) Leq for 8h\\/day (40h\\/week) have been allowed by the International Standards Organization (ISO), EEC and other developed countries. But in developing countries, most of the industrial plants work

  12. Critical exposure level of cadmium for elevated urinary metallothionein-An occupational population study in China

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Liang [Department of Occupational Health, School of Public Health, Fudan University, Shanghai, 200032 (China); Jin Taiyi [Department of Occupational Health, School of Public Health, Fudan University, Shanghai, 200032 (China) and Environmental Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Umeaa University, SE-90187 Umeaa (Sweden)]. E-mail: tyjin@shmu.edu.cn; Huang, Bo [Department of Occupational Health, School of Public Health, Fudan University, Shanghai, 200032 (China); Nordberg, Gunnar [Environmental Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Umeaa University, SE-90187 Umeaa (Sweden); Nordberg, Monica [Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, SE-171 77, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2006-08-15

    Cadmium is a well-known nephrotoxic agent with extremely long biological half-time of 15-30 years in humans. To prevent nephrotoxicity induced by cadmium, it is necessary to identify specific and sensitive biomarkers of cadmium exposure and renal damage, and to define critical exposure levels related to minimal nephrotoxicity in humans. In this study, urinary cadmium (UCd) and blood cadmium (BCd) were used as cadmium exposure indicators, urinary {beta}{sub 2}-microglobulin (UB2M), N-acetyl-{beta}-D-glucosaminidase (UNAG) and albumin (UALB) were applied as the effect biomarkers of tubular and glomerular dysfunction. The relationship between urinary metallothionein (UMT) and cadmium exposure biomarkers as well as effect biomarkers was examined. Significant correlations were found between the UMT and BCd, and UCd. At the same time, UB2M, UALB and UNAG showed positive correlation with UMT as well. According to this result, cadmium-exposed individuals with renal dysfunction excreted more metallothionein than those without. Dose-response relationships between UCd and urinary indicators of renal dysfunction were studied. The critical concentration of UCd was quantitatively estimated by the benchmark dose (BMD) method. The lower confidence limit of the BMD-10 (BMDL) of UCd (3.1 {mu}g/g Cr) related to increased excretion of urinary metallothionein was slightly higher than that for UNAG (2.7 {mu}g/g Cr), but lower than those of UB2M (3.4 {mu}g/g Cr) and UALB (4.2 {mu}g/g Cr). The results demonstrate that UMT may be used as a sensitive biomarker of renal tubular dysfunction in cadmium-exposed populations.

  13. Malignant lymphomas and occupational exposures.

    PubMed

    Persson, B; Dahlander, A M; Fredriksson, M; Brage, H N; Ohlson, C G; Axelson, O

    1989-08-01

    The effects of potential risk factors for Hodgkin's disease (HD) and for non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHL) were evaluated in a case-referent study encompassing 54 cases of HD, 106 cases of NHL, and 275 referents, all alive. Exposure information was obtained by questionnaires posted to the subjects. Crude rate ratios were increased for various occupational exposures including solvents, welding, wood preservatives, phenoxy acids, and fresh wood (sawmill workers, lumberjacks, paper pulp workers). After further analyses based on logistic regression occupational exposures to welding and creosote remained as significant risk factors for HD. For NHL, occupational exposures to solvents, phenoxy acids, and creosote but also work as carpenter or cabinet maker and contacts with pets (other than dogs, cats, and birds) were associated with significantly increased risks. PMID:2775671

  14. A review of epidemiologic studies of low-level exposures to organophosphorus insecticides in non-occupational populations.

    PubMed

    Reiss, Richard; Chang, Ellen T; Richardson, Rudy J; Goodman, Michael

    2015-08-01

    This paper systematically reviews epidemiologic studies related to low-level non-occupational exposures to organophosphorus (OP) insecticides. Many of the studies evaluate levels of maternal OP metabolites and subsequent health outcomes in offspring. The studies focused primarily on birth outcomes (e.g., infant body weight or head circumference) and neurodevelopmental (e.g., mental and psychomotor) testing results. The evidence from these studies was reviewed under the Bradford Hill guidelines. Most of the studies assessing exposure based on urinary levels of OP insecticide metabolites used only one or two measurements during pregnancy. The potential for exposure misclassification with this method is largely due to (1) preformed metabolites that are ingested with food, (2) the short elimination half-life of OP insecticides, and (3) lack of specificity to particular OP insecticides for many of the metabolites. For birth outcomes, the majority of reported results are not statistically significant, and the associations are inconsistent within and across studies. There is more within-study consistency for some of the neurodevelopmental testing results, although few associations were examined across several studies. These associations are generally weak, have been replicated only to a limited extent, and require further confirmation before they can be considered established. The OP insecticide levels measured in the epidemiologic studies are too low to cause biologically meaningful acetylcholinesterase inhibition, the most widely used metric for OP insecticide toxicity. Overall, the available evidence does not establish that low-level exposures to OP insecticides cause adverse birth outcomes or neurodevelopmental problems in humans. PMID:26153436

  15. Occupational cancer in Britain. Exposure assessment methodology.

    PubMed

    Van Tongeren, Martie; Jimenez, Araceli S; Hutchings, Sally J; MacCalman, Laura; Rushton, Lesley; Cherrie, John W

    2012-06-19

    To estimate the current occupational cancer burden due to past exposures in Britain, estimates of the number of exposed workers at different levels are required, as well as risk estimates of cancer due to the exposures. This paper describes the methods and results for estimating the historical exposures. All occupational carcinogens or exposure circumstances classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer as definite or probable human carcinogens and potentially to be found in British workplaces over the past 20-40 years were included in this study. Estimates of the number of people exposed by industrial sector were based predominantly on two sources of data, the CARcinogen EXposure (CAREX) database and the UK Labour Force Survey. Where possible, multiple and overlapping exposures were taken into account. Dose-response risk estimates were generally not available in the epidemiological literature for the cancer-exposure pairs in this study, and none of the sources available for obtaining the numbers exposed provided data by different levels of exposure. Industrial sectors were therefore assigned using expert judgement to 'higher'- and 'lower'-exposure groups based on the similarity of exposure to the population in the key epidemiological studies from which risk estimates had been selected. Estimates of historical exposure prevalence were obtained for 41 carcinogens or occupational circumstances. These include exposures to chemicals and metals, combustion products, other mixtures or groups of chemicals, mineral and biological dusts, physical agents and work patterns, as well as occupations and industries that have been associated with increased risk of cancer, but for which the causative agents are unknown. There were more than half a million workers exposed to each of six carcinogens (radon, solar radiation, crystalline silica, mineral oils, non-arsenical insecticides and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin); other agents to which a large number of workers are exposed included benzene, diesel engine exhaust and environmental tobacco smoke. The study has highlighted several industrial sectors with large proportions of workers potentially exposed to multiple carcinogens. The relevant available data have been used to generate estimates of the prevalence of past exposure to occupational carcinogens to enable the occupational cancer burden in Britain to be estimated. These data are considered adequate for the present purpose, but new data on the prevalence and intensity of current occupational exposure to carcinogens should be collected to ensure that future policy decisions be based on reliable evidence. PMID:22710674

  16. Occupational exposure and malignant lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Persson, B

    1996-01-01

    The incidence of malignant lymphoma, especially non-Hodgkin's lymphoma has increased over the last few decades. This statement is true despite the fact that methods for diagnosing malignant lymphoma have changed and misclassification has become a problem. The present review is mainly concerned with occupational aspects of malignant lymphoma. Several subsequent studies have dealt with malignant lymphoma among woodworkers and pulp and paper mill workers pointing to increased risks. Exposure to phenoxy herbicides have provided reasonable evidence to be connected with an increased risk of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, whereas there is limited information regarding Hodgkin's disease. The relationship between solvent exposure and malignant lymphoma has been observed in a great number of studies. It is, however, still hard to identify specific solvent compounds responsible for the increased risk. Other occupational exposures i.e. wood preservatives, welding, asbestos, hair dyes and exposure to animal viruses among meatworkers and veterinarians have also been studied in relation to malignant lymphoma. This review shows that occupational factors, especially exposure to solvents and phenoxy herbicides and also to wood, play a role in the epidemiology of malignant lymphoma. PMID:9117190

  17. Occupational Exposures Associated with Petroleum-Derived Products Containing Trace Levels of Benzene

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pamela R. D. Williams; Julie M. Panko; Ken Unice; Jay L. Brown; Dennis J. Paustenbach

    2008-01-01

    Benzene may be present as a trace impurity or residual component of mixed petroleum products due to refining processes. In this article, the authors review the historical benzene content of various petroleum-derived products and characterize the airborne concentrations of benzene associated with the typical handling or use of these products in the United States, based on indoor exposure modeling and

  18. Occupational Exposure to Acrylamide in Closed System Production Plants: Air Levels and Biomonitoring

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William J. Moorman; Susan S. Reutman; Peter B. Shaw; Leo Michael Blade; David Marlow; Hubert Vesper; John C. Clark; Steven M. Schrader

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate biomarkers of acrylamide exposure, including hemoglobin adducts and urinary metabolites in acrylamide production workers. Biomarkers are integrated measures of the internal dose, and it is total acrylamide dose from all routes and sources that may present health risks. Workers from three companies were studied. Workers potentially exposed to acrylamide monomer wore personal

  19. Evaluation of occupational exposure to benzene by urinalysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sergio Ghittori; Luciano Maestri; Maria Lorena Fiorentino; Marcello Imbriani

    1995-01-01

    Urinary phenol determinations have traditionally been used to monitor high levels of occupational benzene exposure. However, urinary phenol cannot be used to monitor low-level exposures. New biological indexes for exposure to low levels of benzene are thus needed. The aim of this study was to investigate the relations between exposure to benzene (Abenzene, ppm), as measured by personal air sampling,

  20. Non-occupational exposure to silica dust

    PubMed Central

    Bhagia, L. J.

    2012-01-01

    Occupational exposure to silica occurs at workplaces in factories like quartz crushing facilities (silica flour milling), agate, ceramic, slate pencil, glass, stone quarries and mines, etc., Non-occupational exposure to silica dust can be from industrial sources in the vicinity of the industry as well as non-industrial sources. Recently, public concern regarding non-occupational or ambient exposure to crystalline silica has emerged making it important to gather information available on non-occupational exposures to silica dust and non-occupational silicosis. This paper reviews various non-occupational exposures reported in literature including some studies by the author. Methodology used in assessment of non-occupational exposures, standards for non-occupational exposures to silica dust and indirect estimation of cumulative risk % are also discussed. PMID:23776316

  1. Total mercury levels in hair, toenail, and urine among women free from occupational exposure and their relations to renal tubular function

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tomoko Ohno; Mineshi Sakamoto; Tomoko Kurosawa; Miwako Dakeishi; Toyoto Iwata; Katsuyuki. Murata

    2007-01-01

    To investigate the relations among total mercury levels in hair, toenail, and urine, together with potential effects of methylmercury intake on renal tubular function, we determined their levels, and urinary N-acetyl-?-d-glucosaminidase activity (NAG) and ?1-microglobulin (AMG) in 59 women free from occupational exposures, and estimated daily mercury intakes from fish and other seafood using a food frequency questionnaire. Mercury levels

  2. Occupational radiation exposure: population studies.

    PubMed

    Schleipman, A Robert

    2005-01-01

    Occupational exposure to ionizing radiation in the medical setting differs from the acute exposure received by survivors of atomic bomb blasts. Yet, atomic bomb survivors' disease and mortality outcomes have been the standard data source on the effects of ionizing radiation on humans. Therefore, the prevailing estimated risks of ionizing radiation may not apply to radiologic technologists and other medical radiation workers. Carefully designed epidemiological trials provide evidence that helps determine the strength of association between exposure and onset of disease in selected populations. This article reviews radiation effects, explains some basic design concepts of epidemiologic trials and surveys the epidemiology literature related to radiation exposure to humans, with special attention to radiology staff. PMID:15732889

  3. Occupational asthma following kapok exposure.

    PubMed

    Kern, D G; Kohn, R

    1994-01-01

    Whether a distinct kapok allergen exists or whether the fiber's allergenicity is due to contamination by other allergens has never been resolved. Several years ago, we evaluated a patient who appeared to develop occupational asthma to kapok. We performed an environmental assessment, cross-shift spirometric testing of the patient's co-workers, and the first reported bronchoprovocation challenge with kapok. The disappearance of the patient's asthma following cessation of kapok exposure, with now 7 years of follow-up, our inability to incriminate any other agent, and the patient's positive specific bronchoprovocation challenge strengthen the evidence, but do not prove definitively, that kapok fiber itself is allergenic. PMID:8040150

  4. DOE occupational radiation exposure 1996 report

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    The goal of the US Department of Energy (DOE) is to conduct its radiological operations to ensure the health and safety of all DOE employees including contractors and subcontractors. The DOE strives to maintain radiation exposures to its workers below administrative control levels and DOE limits and to further reduce these exposures and releases to levels that are ``As Low As Reasonably Achievable`` (ALARA). The DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report, 1996 provides summary and analysis of the occupational radiation exposure received by individuals associated with DOE activities. The DOE mission includes stewardship of the nuclear weapons stockpile and the associated facilities, environmental restoration of DOE and precursor agency sites, and energy research. Collective exposure at DOE has declined by 80% over the past decade due to a cessation in opportunities for exposure during the transition in DOE mission from weapons production to cleanup, deactivation and decommissioning, and changes in reporting requirements and dose calculation methodology. In 1996, the collective dose decreased by 10% from the 1995 value due to decreased doses at five of the seven highest-dose DOE sites. For 1996, these sites attributed the reduction in collective dose to the completion of several decontamination and decommissioning projects, reduced spent fuel storage activities, and effective ALARA practices. This report is intended to be a valuable tool for managers in their management of radiological safety programs and commitment of resources.

  5. Ubiquitin carboxy-terminal hydrolase-l1 as a serum neurotrauma biomarker for exposure to occupational low-level blast.

    PubMed

    Carr, Walter; Yarnell, Angela M; Ong, Ricardo; Walilko, Timothy; Kamimori, Gary H; da Silva, Uade; McCarron, Richard M; LoPresti, Matthew L

    2015-01-01

    Repeated exposure to low-level blast is a characteristic of a few select occupations and there is concern that such occupational exposures present risk for traumatic brain injury. These occupations include specialized military and law enforcement units that employ controlled detonation of explosive charges for the purpose of tactical entry into secured structures. The concern for negative effects from blast exposure is based on rates of operator self-reported headache, sleep disturbance, working memory impairment, and other concussion-like symptoms. A challenge in research on this topic has been the need for improved assessment tools to empirically evaluate the risk associated with repeated exposure to blast overpressure levels commonly considered to be too low in magnitude to cause acute injury. Evaluation of serum-based neurotrauma biomarkers provides an objective measure that is logistically feasible for use in field training environments. Among candidate biomarkers, ubiquitin carboxy-terminal hydrolase-L1 (UCH-L1) has some empirical support and was evaluated in this study. We used daily blood draws to examine acute change in UCH-L1 among 108 healthy military personnel who were exposed to repeated low-level blast across a 2-week period. These research volunteers also wore pressure sensors to record blast exposures, wrist actigraphs to monitor sleep patterns, and completed daily behavioral assessments of symptomology, postural stability, and neurocognitive function. UCH-L1 levels were elevated as a function of participating in the 2-week training with explosives, but the correlation of UCH-L1 elevation and blast magnitude was weak and inconsistent. Also, UCH-L1 elevations did not correlate with deficits in behavioral measures. These results provide some support for including UCH-L1 as a measure of central nervous system effects from exposure to low-level blast. However, the weak relation observed suggests that additional indicators of blast effect are needed. PMID:25852633

  6. Ubiquitin Carboxy-Terminal Hydrolase-L1 as a Serum Neurotrauma Biomarker for Exposure to Occupational Low-Level Blast

    PubMed Central

    Carr, Walter; Yarnell, Angela M.; Ong, Ricardo; Walilko, Timothy; Kamimori, Gary H.; da Silva, Uade; McCarron, Richard M.; LoPresti, Matthew L.

    2015-01-01

    Repeated exposure to low-level blast is a characteristic of a few select occupations and there is concern that such occupational exposures present risk for traumatic brain injury. These occupations include specialized military and law enforcement units that employ controlled detonation of explosive charges for the purpose of tactical entry into secured structures. The concern for negative effects from blast exposure is based on rates of operator self-reported headache, sleep disturbance, working memory impairment, and other concussion-like symptoms. A challenge in research on this topic has been the need for improved assessment tools to empirically evaluate the risk associated with repeated exposure to blast overpressure levels commonly considered to be too low in magnitude to cause acute injury. Evaluation of serum-based neurotrauma biomarkers provides an objective measure that is logistically feasible for use in field training environments. Among candidate biomarkers, ubiquitin carboxy-terminal hydrolase-L1 (UCH-L1) has some empirical support and was evaluated in this study. We used daily blood draws to examine acute change in UCH-L1 among 108 healthy military personnel who were exposed to repeated low-level blast across a 2-week period. These research volunteers also wore pressure sensors to record blast exposures, wrist actigraphs to monitor sleep patterns, and completed daily behavioral assessments of symptomology, postural stability, and neurocognitive function. UCH-L1 levels were elevated as a function of participating in the 2-week training with explosives, but the correlation of UCH-L1 elevation and blast magnitude was weak and inconsistent. Also, UCH-L1 elevations did not correlate with deficits in behavioral measures. These results provide some support for including UCH-L1 as a measure of central nervous system effects from exposure to low-level blast. However, the weak relation observed suggests that additional indicators of blast effect are needed. PMID:25852633

  7. Olfactory impairment after chronic occupational cadmium exposure.

    PubMed

    Rose, C S; Heywood, P G; Costanzo, R M

    1992-06-01

    Disorders of olfaction affect millions of Americans, but the extent to which occupational and environmental exposures contribute to these disorders is unknown. We examined 55 workers with chronic occupational exposure to cadmium fumes in a brazing operation. We estimated cadmium body burden using urinary cadmium levels and assessed cadmium-induced renal damage by urinary beta 2-microglobulin levels. We quantified olfactory function using a standardized test that measured two components of olfaction, butanol detection threshold and odor identification, and compared workers with a reference group. Forty-four percent of the cadmium-exposed workers were mildly hyposmic, and 13% were either moderately or severely hyposmic. In the reference group, 31% were mildly hyposmic, and the rest were normosmic. The workers with both high urinary cadmium levels and tubular proteinuria had the most significant olfactory dysfunction, with a selective defect in odor detection threshold. Our findings suggest that chronic occupational cadmium exposure sufficient to cause renal damage also is associated with impairment in olfactory function. PMID:1619490

  8. CAREX Canada: an enhanced model for assessing occupational carcinogen exposure

    PubMed Central

    Peters, Cheryl E; Ge, Calvin B; Hall, Amy L; Davies, Hugh W; Demers, Paul A

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To estimate the numbers of workers exposed to known and suspected occupational carcinogens in Canada, building on the methods of CARcinogen EXposure (CAREX) projects in the European Union (EU). Methods CAREX Canada consists of estimates of the prevalence and level of exposure to occupational carcinogens. CAREX Canada includes occupational agents evaluated by the International Agency for Research on Cancer as known, probable or possible human carcinogens that were present and feasible to assess in Canadian workplaces. A Canadian Workplace Exposure Database was established to identify the potential for exposure in particular industries and occupations, and to create exposure level estimates among priority agents, where possible. CAREX EU data were reviewed for relevance to the Canadian context and the proportion of workers likely to be exposed by industry and occupation in Canada was assigned using expert assessment and agreement by a minimum of two occupational hygienists. These proportions were used to generate prevalence estimates by linkage with the Census of Population for 2006, and these estimates are available by industry, occupation, sex and province. Results CAREX Canada estimated the number of workers exposed to 44 known, probable and suspected carcinogens. Estimates of levels of exposure were further developed for 18 priority agents. Common exposures included night shift work (1.9 million exposed), solar ultraviolet radiation exposure (1.5 million exposed) and diesel engine exhaust (781?000 exposed). Conclusions A substantial proportion of Canadian workers are exposed to known and suspected carcinogens at work. PMID:24969047

  9. Occupational exposure to diesel engine exhaust: A literature review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anjoeka Pronk; Joseph Coble; Patricia A Stewart

    2009-01-01

    Diesel exhaust (DE) is classified as a probable human carcinogen. Aims were to describe the major occupational uses of diesel engines and give an overview of personal DE exposure levels and determinants of exposure as reported in the published literature. Measurements representative of personal DE exposure were abstracted from the literature for the following agents: elemental carbon (EC), particulate matter

  10. Statistical evaluation of occupational noise exposure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Enrico Cagno; Augusto Di Giulio; Paolo Trucco

    2005-01-01

    Assessment of the risk involved in occupational noise exposure (LEP,d) is significantly affected by assumptions and uncertainties in setting true exposure conditions meaning that the calculation according to the European legislation might not be fully representative.The paper describes a probabilistic model to evaluate occupational noise exposure and calculate the confidence interval for LEP,d. This confidence interval is defined in function

  11. Chronic Electromagnetic Exposure at Occupational Safety Level Does Not Affect the Metabolic Profile nor Cornea Healing after LASIK Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Dabouis, Vincent; Gentilhomme, Edgar; Vignal, Rodolphe; Bourbon, Fréderic; Fauvelle, Florence; Debouzy, Jean-Claude

    2014-01-01

    LASIK eye surgery has become a very common practice for myopic people, especially those in the military. Sometimes undertaken by people who need to keep a specific medical aptitude, this surgery could be performed in secret from the hierarchy and from the institute medical staff. However, even though the eyes have been previously described as one of the most sensitive organs to electromagnetic fields in the human body, no data exist on the potential deleterious effects of electromagnetic fields on the healing eye. The consequences of chronic long-lasting radar exposures at power density, in accordance with the occupational safety standards (9.71?GHz, 50?W/m2), were investigated on cornea healing. The metabolic and clinical statuses after experimental LASIK keratotomy were assessed on the different eye segments in a New Zealand rabbit model. The analysis methods were performed after 5 months of exposure (1?hour/day, 3 times/week). Neither clinical or histological examinations, nor experimental data, such as light scattering, 1H-NMR HRMAS metabolomics, 13C-NMR spectra of lipidic extracts, and antioxidant status, evidenced significant modifications. It was concluded that withdrawing the medical aptitude of people working in electromagnetic field environments (i.e., radar operators in the navy) after eye surgery was not justified. PMID:24757560

  12. DOE 2008 Occupational Radiation Exposure October 2009

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security

    2009-10-01

    A major priority of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is to ensure the health, safety, and security of DOE employees, contractors, and subcontractors. The Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) provides the corporate-level leadership and strategic vision necessary to better coordinate and integrate health, safety, environment, security, enforcement, and independent oversight programs. One function that supports this mission is the DOE Corporate Operating Experience Program that provides collection, analysis, and dissemination of performance indicators, such as occupational radiation exposure information. This analysis supports corporate decision-making and synthesizes operational information to support continuous environment, safety, and health improvement across the DOE complex.

  13. Parkinsonism and occupational exposure to pesticides

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L S Engel; H Checkoway; M C Keifer; N S Seixas; W T Longstreth Jr; K C Scott; K Hudnell; W K Anger; R Camicioli

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVETo examine the risk of parkinsonism related to lifetime occupational exposure to pesticides among a cohort of men, mostly orchardists, in Washington State.METHODSAll 310 subjects in this study had previously participated in a cohort study of men occupationally exposed to pesticides. Subjects were given a structured neurological examination and completed a self administered questionnaire which elicited detailed information on pesticide

  14. Occupational Exposure to Carbon Nanotubes and Nanofibers

    MedlinePLUS

    ... for every working person and to preserve our human resources. This Act charges the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) with recommending occupational safety and health ... health effects occur in humans after exposure to CNT and CNF, the results ...

  15. Biologic interactions between smoking and occupational exposures

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, D.M.; Froines, J.R.; Jarvik, M.E.

    1988-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is a major cause of cancer and lung disease in the U.S. population. The biological processes that underlie the response of the lung to cigarette smoke are important considerations for designing analyses of the effects of occupational exposures. Interactions between cigarette smoking and occupational exposures may occur through a combined effect on the mechanism of disease production, through an effect on the dose of the toxic substances that reach the target issue, or through an effect on the response of the lung to the toxic agents. Disease due to occupational exposures can occur in a similar pattern in both smokers and nonsmokers; however, as more complex interactions are examined, different responses to the same occupational exposure may be identified for smokers and nonsmokers. It is only through the successful intermingling of biologic information with epidemiologic data that these interactions can be fully examined. 66 references.

  16. [Biological monitoring of occupational exposure to aluminum].

    PubMed

    Apostoli, P; Lucchini, R; Maccarrone, R; Alessio, L

    1992-01-01

    The meaning and usefulness of biological indicators in the study of occupational exposure to aluminium (Al) was assessed on the basis of the most recently acquired knowledge on the toxicokinetics of aluminium absorbed by inhalation, results of environmental and biological investigations recently carried out in industrial sectors with low risk of aluminium absorption (refining, casting and pressure moulding covering a total of 8 plants and 119 workers) and the results of investigations on a group of welders exposed to Al concentrations between 5 and 10 mg/m3. It was confirmed that not only the environmental Al concentrations but also certain chemical and physical characteristics (particle size, allotropic state, solubility), simultaneous exposure to other dusts, and mode of exposure (existence of exposure peaks) play a significant role in lung absorption of Al. Urinary Al (AlU) may be considered as an indicator of "recent" exposure with biphase excretion kinetics influenced also by duration of exposure, whereas Al in serum (AlS) can probably furnish indications both on overall exposure and on body burden. In low-level Al exposure (below 0.5 mg/m3), these indicators (especially AlU) permit differentiation of the exposed groups from the general population without, however, any clear relationship with the various environmental Al concentrations. It was also seen that AlU increased with increasing work seniority and was more marked in certain processes, such as casting, and in the first few months or years of work.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1297061

  17. Characterization of women's occupational musculoskeletal exposures.

    PubMed

    Landry, Lynette G

    2007-09-01

    Although women are often characterized as having "safe" occupations, they are at risk of experiencing occupational musculoskeletal injuries. This cross-sectional study examined the health status, occupations, and job tasks of a random sample of working women (N = 123) to characterize their risk of occupational injury. The women had been employed, most full-time, in the 12 months prior to administration of the telephone survey. The women tended to cluster into two types of occupational exposures. Overall, the women rated their health as excellent. However, those with diagnosed musculoskeletal disorders had significantly worse scores on two scales of the Short Form Health Survey than those without musculoskeletal disorders. Women are exposed to occupational musculoskeletal stressors that increase their risk of experiencing musculoskeletal injuries. PMID:17896649

  18. 30 CFR 62.130 - Permissible exposure level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Permissible exposure level. 62.130 Section...UNIFORM MINE HEALTH REGULATIONS OCCUPATIONAL NOISE EXPOSURE § 62.130 Permissible exposure...during any work shift a miner's noise exposure exceeds the permissible...

  19. Exposure Interactions in Occupational\\/Environmental Toxicology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. K. Nelson

    1997-01-01

    This article highlights the importance of evaluating the whole person when health professionals diagnose potential toxicity from occupational and\\/or environmental exposure. Health professionals must consider interactions of combined exposures to toxic agents resulting from the personal lifestyle of an individual, along with various drugs which the person may be taking. In addition, health professionals must evaluate potential family or home

  20. Problems in evaluating health effects of occupational and environmental exposures

    SciTech Connect

    Gilbert, E.S.

    1981-01-01

    The assessment of health effects from low-level exposure to radiation is a matter of considerable controversy. Existing standards for exposure are based primarily on estimates of health effects obtained by extrapolation from effects of high-level exposures such as those experienced at Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Occupational and environmental exposures provide one source of data for this task. A number of studies of populations exposed in this manner have attracted recent attention. Because of the size of most of the groups and the magnitude of the exposures received, the amount that can be learned from such populations is severely limited. A number of the problems involved in analyzing and interpreting such data are addressed. Many of these problems are illustrated by a current study of the effects on mortality of occupational exposure to radiation at the Hanford plant.

  1. Occupational noise levels in orthopaedic surgery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Mullett; K. Synnott; W. Quinlan

    1999-01-01

    Prolonged exposure to potentially damaging noise levels in the workplace has been the subject of much recent litigation. The\\u000a occupational risk of noise induced hearing loss among orthopaedic surgeons is unknown. Continuous readings of air-powered\\u000a instruments routinely used in orthopaedic surgery were made in a regional trauma unit at standard distances from the noise\\u000a source. All instruments generated noise levels

  2. Occupational noise exposure: how should we measure it

    SciTech Connect

    Barry, J.P.

    1982-01-01

    Historically, the American hygiene community has measured occupational noise exposure with a general purpose (ANSI type 2) sound level meter set to indicate A-weighted sound levels at slow response and a watch to indicate the exposure duration. Occupational noise exposures have been calculated by summing the fractions of the actual exposure time at a given A-weighted sound level over the permissible exposure time for that level. If the noise dose obtained by this method exceeded unity or 100%, then excessive exposure was documented for hearing conservation purposes. With the advent of the US Department of Labor's statutorily enforceable occupational noise standards in 1969 and 1971, the need arose for a less time-consuming way to do a workplace noise exposure survey. The answer was the personal noise dosimeter which automatically measures the A-weighted sound levels with slow dynamic characteristics and time weights the dose in concert with the standard of interest. In recent years the physical accuracy of noise dosimeter measurements has been questioned by a few acoustical consultants, particularly when rapidly time-varying or impulsive waveforms are encountered. Since noise dosimeters provide simple and economical documentation of employee daily noise exposure for hearing conservation and regulatory compliance purposes a discussion of their accuracy is necessary to clear up any confusion.

  3. Occupational exposures and risk of pancreatic cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Miguel Santibañez; Jesús Vioque; Juan Alguacil; Manuela García de la Hera; Eduardo Moreno-Osset; Alfredo Carrato; Miquel Porta; Timo Kauppinen

    2010-01-01

    The objective was to analyze the relationship between occupation (and specific occupational exposures) and risk of exocrine\\u000a pancreatic cancer (EPC). We conducted a multicenter hospital-based case–control study in Eastern Spain. We included 161 incident\\u000a cases of EPC (59.6% men, 94 with histological confirmation, of whom 80% had ductal adenocarcinoma). Cases were frequency-matched\\u000a with 455 controls by sex, age and province

  4. Occupational Noise Exposure among Toll Tellers at Toll Plaza in Malaysia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sharifah Nadya Syed Azmi; Tuan Mohammad Yusoff Shah Tuan Ya; Hamidi Saidin

    2010-01-01

    Toll tellers working at toll plaza have potential of exposure to high noise from the vehicles especially for the peak level of sound emitted by the heavy vehicles. However, occupational exposures in this workplace have not been adequately characterized and identified. Occupational noise exposure among toll tellers at toll plaza was assessed using Sound Level Meter, Noise Dosimeter and through

  5. Exposure to benzene, occupational stress, and reduced birth weight

    PubMed Central

    Chen, D.; Cho, S.; Chen, C.; Wang, X.; Damokosh, A.; Ryan, L.; Smith, T.; Christiani, D.; Xu, X.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—The association between birth weight and exposure to benzene, work stress, and other occupational and environmental hazards was investigated.?METHODS—In a large petrochemical industry, 792 pregnant workers were enrolled and followed up through delivery between May 1996 and December 1998. Exposure to benzene and other solvents was assessed by an industrial hygienist based on each woman's job title and workplace information. Other occupational and environmental exposures and personal information, including perceived work stress, exposure to noise, physical exertion at work, and passive smoking, were obtained by an interview questionnaire. Univariate and multivariate regression models were used to examine the individual and combined associations of occupational and environmental exposures with birth weight, with adjustment for major confounders including gestational age.?RESULTS—In the univariate model, birth weight was negatively associated with exposure to benzene (?58 g (95% confidence interval (95% CI), ?115 to ?2)) and with work stress (?84 g (95% CI, ?158 to ?10)). In the multivariate model, there was a significant interaction between exposure to benzene and work stress relative to reduced birth weight, after adjustment for other environmental and occupational exposures and personal variables. Adjusted mean birth weight was 3445 g (95% CI 3401 to 3489) among those with neither exposure, 3430 g for those with exposure to benzene only, 3426 g for those with work stress only, and 3262 g (95% CI 3156 to 3369) for those with both exposures. In other words, there was 183 g (95% CI 65 to 301) reduction in birth weight among those with both exposure to benzene and work stress compared with those with neither exposure. Other work or environmental factors could not explain these findings.?CONCLUSIONS—Low level exposure to benzene and work stress interact to reduce birth weight in this population.???Keywords: birth weight; benzene; work stress PMID:10984337

  6. Occupational exposures and lung cancer in New Caledonia

    PubMed Central

    Menvielle, G; Luce, D; Fevotte, J; Bugel, I; Salomon, C; Goldberg, P; Billon-Galland, M; Goldberg, M

    2003-01-01

    Aims: To study the associations between occupational exposures and the risk of lung cancer in New Caledonia. Methods: All cases diagnosed between January 1993 and December 1995 (228 lung cancers) and 305 population controls were included. Detailed information on lifetime job history, smoking, and other potential risk factors was collected by interview. Occupational exposures were assessed from the questionnaires by an industrial hygienist, without knowledge of case-control status. Results: No significant association was found with exposures related to nickel mining and refining, the main industrial activity in the territory. Among men, an excess risk of lung cancer was found for bus and truck drivers. Increased risks were also observed in men with the highest level of cumulative exposure to cleaning products and inorganic fertilisers. Exposure to field dust was associated with lung cancer risk in both sexes, and risk increased with cumulative exposure level. In some areas tremolite asbestos derived from local outcroppings was used as a whitewash. The association between exposure to field dust and lung cancer was limited to men and women exposed to this whitewash—that is, living in areas where the soil may contain tremolite. Conclusion: This study shows several associations between occupational exposures and lung cancer. The findings suggest that exposure to tremolite fibres from cultivated fields may increase the risk of lung cancer in New Caledonia. PMID:12883019

  7. The influence of occupational exposure to PAHs on the blood plasma levels of p53 and p21WAF1 proteins.

    PubMed

    Rössner, Pavel; Binková, Blanka; Srám, Radim J

    2003-02-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are the main source of carcinogenic risk among coke-oven workers. p53 is a tumor suppressor protein that is induced after DNA damage. It regulates the transcription of genes responsible for cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. p21(WAF1) protein is a downstream effector of p53; it induces cell cycle arrest either in the G(1), S, or G(2) phases. It has been shown that carcinogenic PAHs are able to induce the expression of both p53 and p21(WAF1) proteins in vitro. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effect of occupational exposure to carcinogenic PAHs on the level of p53 and p21(WAF1) proteins in blood plasma. The exposed group consisted of 66 coke-oven workers (males, average age 41 years, 42% smokers, 58% nonsmokers); the control group consisted of 49 machine workers (males, average age 49 years, 51% smokers, 49% nonsmokers). No difference in the plasma levels of either p53 (using anti-p53 antibody identifying both the mutated and the wild-type form of the protein) or p21(WAF1) protein was found between the exposed and control groups. Smoking had no effect on the levels of either protein in any of the analyzed groups. After stratification of all the subjects into groups according to their exposure to carcinogenic PAHs, a significantly higher level of p53 was found in the group exposed to carcinogenic PAHs <1 microg/m(3) as compared with the group exposed to carcinogenic PAHs >1 microg/m(3). A similar trend was observed for p21(WAF1) protein, even if no correlation between the levels of both proteins was detected. In the overall study a negative correlation between the levels of p53 protein and personal exposure to carcinogenic PAHs was found. These results did not support the expected response. The use of p53 as well as p21(WAF1) protein plasma levels as biomarkers of carcinogenic PAHs exposure requires further studies. PMID:12547286

  8. MINIMIZING OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE TO PESTICIDES: PERSONNEL MONITORING

    EPA Science Inventory

    This communication is presented with two objectives in mind. The first objective is to provide an introduction to personnel monitoring of occupational exposure to pesticides for those who are not familiar with this field of investigation. The second objective is to stimulate disc...

  9. Parental Occupational Exposures and Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCanlies, Erin C.; Fekedulegn, Desta; Mnatsakanova, Anna; Burchfiel, Cecil M.; Sanderson, Wayne T.; Charles, Luenda E.; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva

    2012-01-01

    Both self-report and industrial hygienist (IH) assessed parental occupational information were used in this pilot study in which 174 families (93 children with ASD and 81 unaffected children) enrolled in the Childhood Autism Risks from Genetics and Environment study participated. IH results indicated exposures to lacquer, varnish, and xylene…

  10. Paternal Occupational Exposures and Childhood Cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maria Feychting; Nils Plato; Gun Nise; Anders Ahlbom

    2001-01-01

    The objective of the study described here was to test the hypothesis that paternal occupational exposure near conception increases the risk of cancer in the offspring. We conducted a cohort study based on a population of 235,635 children born shortly after two different censuses in Sweden. The children were followed from birth to 14 years, and cases of cancer were

  11. Human occupational and nonoccupational exposure to fibers.

    PubMed Central

    Esmen, N A; Erdal, S

    1990-01-01

    Human exposure to fibers in occupational and nonoccupational environments has been a health concern for nearly a century. In this review, selected results from the literature are presented to highlight the availability, limitations, and interpretive difficulties associated with the past and current human fiber exposure data sets. In the traditionally defined asbestos fibers, large amounts of the data available suffer from the diversity of sample collection and analysis methods. Two simple generalizations suggest that occupational exposures are several orders of magnitude higher than that of environmental exposures; and currently extant data and the current routine measurement practices present significant difficulties in the consistent interpretation of the data with respect to health effects. The data on the human exposures to man-made vitreous fibers are much more complete than the data on asbestos exposure, while exposure data on other man-made fibrous materials are lacking. The human exposure data to many minerals which, at times, exist in fibrous habit, are very scanty, and in view of the biological activity of some of these fibers, this lack may be of significant concern. PMID:2272324

  12. Assessment of occupational exposures in foundries.

    PubMed

    Zakaria, Adel; El-Maghrabi, Gamal

    2003-01-01

    The working environment of foundries is hazardous and characterized by multiple simultaneous chemical and physical hazards exposure. In the present work, four foundries, namely; El Nasr Casting and Ramsis foundry in Alexandria and Misr Spinning and Weaving and Misr Rayon Companies in Kafr El-Dawar in Behira have been surveyed. Levels of total and respirable dust, free silica % in total dust and lead concentration in total and respirable dust; NO2, SO2 and CO concentrations; noise and heat stress levels have been determined in the present work utilizing recommended standard methods and direct reading calibrated instruments. The results of the present study revealed; 1. The levels of total dust and respirable dust taken at the four companies and at all operations are within threshold limit values, except at knockout and cleaning operation at El Nasr company. 2. Free silica concentration in total dust at all operations in all the companies are within threshold limit values, except at moulding, melting and knockout and cleaning operations in El Nasr Company. 3. Lead concentrations in total and respirable dust at melting and pouring in Misr Reyon Company are within threshold limit values. 4. Gases comprising NO2, SO2 and CO levels are within threshold limits in melting and pouring in all companies for the former two whereas CO levels in Misr spinning and weaving company are higher than threshold limit values. 5. Noise levels in knockout and cleaning operation at the four companies are exceeding threshold limit values. 6. Heat stress levels in melting and pouring operation in El Nasr and in pouring operation in Ramsis are higher than maximum allowable permissible levels. The present work is a massive survey, which highlights the occupational hazards in Egyptian foundries. PMID:17265616

  13. Occupational exposure to pesticides and respiratory health.

    PubMed

    Mamane, Ali; Baldi, Isabelle; Tessier, Jean-François; Raherison, Chantal; Bouvier, Ghislaine

    2015-06-01

    This article aims to review the available literature regarding the link between occupational exposure to pesticides and respiratory symptoms or diseases. Identification of epidemiological studies was performed using PubMed. 41 articles were included, 36 regarding agricultural workers and five regarding industry workers. Among the 15 cross-sectional studies focusing on respiratory symptoms and agricultural pesticide exposure, 12 found significant associations with chronic cough, wheeze, dyspnoea, breathlessness or chest tightness. All four studies on asthma found a relationship with occupational exposure, as did all three studies on chronic bronchitis. The four studies that performed spirometry reported impaired respiratory function linked to pesticide exposure, suggestive of either obstructive or restrictive syndrome according to the chemical class of pesticide. 12 papers reported results from cohort studies. Three out of nine found a significant relationship with increased risk of wheeze, five out of nine with asthma and three out of three with chronic bronchitis. In workers employed in pesticide production, elevated risks of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (two studies out of three) and impaired respiratory function suggestive of an obstructive syndrome (two studies out of two) were reported. In conclusion, this article suggests that occupational exposure to pesticides is associated with an increased risk of respiratory symptoms, asthma and chronic bronchitis, but the causal relationship is still under debate. PMID:26028642

  14. Simultaneous occupational exposure to FM and UHF transmitters.

    PubMed

    Vali?, Blaž; Kos, Bor; Gajšek, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Occupational exposure caused by large broadcasting transmitters exceeds current reference levels. As it is common for different radio and TV transmitters to share the location, we analysed combined exposure on a 40-m high mast. The frequency modulation (FM) transmitter, located between the 10th and 30th metre, had the power of 25 kW, whereas an ultra-high frequency (UHF) transmitter of 5 kW occupied the top 8 m of the mast. Measured and calculated values of the electric field strength exceeded the reference levels up to 10 times; however, the results for the specific absorption rate (SAR) values show that the reference levels are very conservative for FM exposure, i.e., basic restrictions are not exceeded even when the reference levels are exceeded 10 times. However, for UHF exposure the reference levels are not conservative; they give a good prediction of real exposure. PMID:22721535

  15. Adenocarcinoma of the stomach and exposure to occupational dust

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, W.E.; Bernstein, L.; Peters, J.M.; Garabrant, D.H.; Mack, T.M.

    1988-07-01

    The authors studied 1342 cases of adenocarcinoma of the stomach identified by a population-based cancer registry in Los Angeles County, California. The cases were males aged 20-64 years first diagnosed between 1972 and 1982. To determine whether exposure to occupational dust increased the risk of developing stomach cancer, occupational titles were rated for the likelihood of exposure to various kinds of dust. Men who worked in dusty jobs had a risk for developing stomach cancer 1.3 times that of unexposed men. The association of exposure to dust with stomach cancer was stronger at higher levels of exposure. The risk was not uniform throughout the stomach: the highest risk (1.8 times that of unexposed men) was found for the antrum/pylorus. At that site, exposure to mineral dust carried the greatest risk for cancer (3.7 times the risk for unexposed men). The highest risks from dust exposure were observed in blacks. Risk was related to race, socioeconomic status, and immigrant status, but these factors did not entirely explain the association with dust exposure. The observed relation between dust exposure and stomach cancer is consistent with results of previous mortality and case-control studies of cancer in men who worked in dusty occupations. Ingested dust may be one factor in the etiology of adenocarcinoma of the stomach.

  16. Occupational exposures to carcinogens in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Pearce, N; Matos, E; Boffetta, P; Kogevinas, M; Vainio, H

    1994-09-01

    There have been very few studies of exposure to occupational carcinogens in developing countries, and even fewer studies of the health consequences of such exposures. However, all industrial chemicals, occupations and industrial processes classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) as Group 1 or Group 2A (carcinogenic or possibly carcinogenic to humans) have been described in developing countries, and there is growing concern that the health impact of many chemicals used in the developing world has been underestimated. In all regions a very large workforce is employed in the construction industry, in which substantial exposure to asbestos may occur, and there has been a rapid increase in production in countries such as Brazil and India. There is, for instance, a similar pattern for tyre production with a large increase in production in developing countries in the 1980s. Thus, the number of workers in industries entailing a carcinogenic risk is increasing in developing countries, partly as a result of the transfer of hazardous industry from industrialized countries. There is much that could be achieved in the prevention of occupational cancer in developing countries, and there have been a number of successful initiatives. However, the greatest progress in the prevention of occupational cancer in developing countries is most likely to come from political and economic changes. PMID:7847748

  17. Wood-related occupations, wood dust exposure, and sinonasal cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Hayes, R.B.; Gerin, M.; Raatgever, J.W.; de Bruyn, A.

    1986-10-01

    A case-control study was conducted to examine the relations between type of woodworking and the extent of wood dust exposure to the risks for specific histologic types of sinonasal cancer. In cooperation with the major treatment centers in the Netherlands, 116 male patients newly diagnosed between 1978 and 1981 with primary malignancies of epithelial origin of this site were identified for study. Living controls were selected from the municipal registries, and deceased controls were selected from the national death registry. Interviews were completed for 91 (78%) cases and 195 (75%) controls. Job histories were coded by industry and occupation. An index of exposure was developed to classify the extent of occupational exposure to wood dust. When necessary, adjustment was made for age and usual cigarette use. The risk for nasal adenocarcinoma was elevated by industry for the wood and paper industry (odds ratio (OR) = 11.9) and by occupation for those employed in furniture and cabinet making (OR = 139.8), in factory joinery and carpentry work (OR = 16.3), and in association with high-level wood dust exposure (OR = 26.3). Other types of nasal cancer were not found to be associated with wood-related industries or occupations. A moderate excess in risk for squamous cell cancer (OR = 2.5) was associated with low-level wood dust exposure; however, no dose-response relation was evident. The association between wood dust and adenocarcinoma was strongest for those employed in wood dust-related occupations between 1930 and 1941. The risk of adenocarcinoma did not appear to decrease for at least 15 years after termination of exposure to wood dust. No cases of nasal adenocarcinoma were observed in men whose first exposure to wood dust occurred after 1941.

  18. Exposure assessment in the occupational setting.

    PubMed

    Stewart, P; Stenzel, M

    2000-05-01

    Exposure assessment, the first step in risk assessment, has traditionally been performed for a variety of purposes. These include compliance determinations; management of specific programs that are implemented by comparison with an occupational exposure limit (such as medical surveillance, training, and respiratory protection programs); task/source investigations for determination of exposure control strategies; epidemiologic studies; worker compensation/toxic tort cases; health complaint or problem investigations; risk assessment and management; and evaluation of future changes in the workplace (e.g., introduction of a new chemical). Each purpose requires slightly different approaches, but there are also many similarities. The goal of this paper is to identify a general approach to assessing exposures that can be used for all purposes with only slight modifications. Five components of exposure assessments are identified: collection of data, identification of the hazard, selection of exposure metrics, definition of exposure groups and estimation of the exposures. The characteristics of these components for each type of assessment are discussed. From this review, it is clear that there is substantial overlap across the types of assessment. A single exposure assessment program is suggested that encompasses all the needs of these assessments and incorporates assessment of exposures for an entire workforce at a site at minimal cost by using prediction models and validation with measurements. PMID:10808266

  19. Occupational exposure of UK adults to extremely low frequency magnetic fields

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T Mee; P Whatmough; L Broad; C Dunn; M Maslanyj; S Allen; K Muir; P A McKinney; M van Tongeren

    2009-01-01

    Background:Occupational exposure to extremely low frequency (ELF) magnetic fields (MF) in the UK general population is poorly documented.Aims:To assess levels of occupational exposure to ELF MF in the UK and evaluate the use of a rigid job-exposure matrix (JEM) to assign exposures to subjects in the UK Adult Brain Tumour Study (UKABTS).Methods:Personal ELF MF measurements were carried out. Exposure traces

  20. Occupational infectious disease exposures in EMS personnel.

    PubMed

    Reed, E; Daya, M R; Jui, J; Grellman, K; Gerber, L; Loveless, M O

    1993-01-01

    Reports of occupationally transmitted hepatitis B virus (HBV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prompted the Portland Bureau of Fire Rescue and Emergency Services (PFB) to institute a comprehensive program for handling and tracking on-the-job infectious disease exposures. Data were collected for a 2-year period beginning January 1, 1988, and ending December 31, 1989, utilizing verbal and written exposure reports, prehospital care reports, and PFB statistical information. Two hundred and fifty-six (256) exposures were categorized. The overall incidence of reported exposure was 4.4/1,000 emergency medical service (EMS) calls. Of these exposures, 14 (5.5%) were needle sticks, 15 (5.9%) were eye splashes, 8 (3.1%) were mucous membrane exposures, 38 (14.8%) were exposure to nonintact skin, 120 (46.9%) were exposures to intact skin, and 61 (23.8%) involved respiratory exposure only. The incidence of exposure of nonintact skin or mucous membranes to blood or body fluids and needle sticks was 1.3/1,000 EMS calls. Forty-eight individuals (64% of those incurring needle sticks, or exposure of non-intact skin or mucous membranes to blood or body fluids) were treated and followed for signs of infection. Of this group, 11 individuals (26%) previously vaccinated against hepatitis B demonstrated inadequate HBsAb titers at the time of exposure. Requests for HIV and HBV information on source patients were made for needle sticks or exposure of nonintact skin or mucous membranes to blood or high-risk body fluids. Information on the source patient's HIV status was obtained for 57% of these requests.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8445190

  1. Soft tissue sarcoma and occupational exposures

    SciTech Connect

    Wingren, G.; Fredrikson, M.; Brage, H.N.; Nordenskjoeld, B.A.; Axelson, O. (University Hospital, Linkoeping (Sweden))

    1990-08-15

    The associations between soft tissue sarcoma (STS) and occupational exposures were studied in a case-referent study in the southeast of Sweden. Exposure information was obtained through mailed questionnaires to 96 cases, 450 randomly selected population referents, and 200 cancer referents. Odds ratios (OR), were calculated for various occupational groups, and particularly, for occupations with potential exposure to chlorinated phenoxy herbicides and chlorophenols. In the analyses based on population referents, increased risks for soft tissue sarcoma were seen for especially gardeners (OR = 4.1), but also railroad workers (OR = 3.1); construction workers with exposure to impregnating agents (OR = 2.3), asbestos (OR = 1.8), or pressure impregnating agents (OR = 1.7); and unspecified chemical workers with potential exposure to phenoxy herbicides and/or chlorophenols (OR = 1.6). A similar pattern appeared when cancer referents were used although the numerical values of the odds ratios became different. A grouping of jobs resulted in Mantel-Haensel OR from 1.5 to 1.9 for farmers and forestry workers, dependent on referents used and even more increased OR for railroad workers and unspecified chemical workers with potential exposure to phenoxy herbicides and chlorophenols. The results of the study confirm rather than refute that phenoxy herbicides and chlorophenols could be of etiologic importance for STS; the high risk for gardeners, although based on a small number of individuals, was unexpected and remains unclear. Also, since other cancers were used as referents, no definite problems of recall bias should obtain in this material. None of the exposed groups had a higher proportion of smokers than the unexposed group.

  2. Monitoring occupational exposure to cancer chemotherapy drugs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, E. S.; Connor, T. H.

    1996-01-01

    Reports of the health effects of handling cytotoxic drugs and compliance with guidelines for handling these agents are briefly reviewed, and studies using analytical and biological methods of detecting exposure are evaluated. There is little conclusive evidence of detrimental health effects from occupational exposure to cytotoxic drugs. Work practices have improved since the issuance of guidelines for handling these drugs, but compliance with the recommended practices is still inadequate. Of 64 reports published since 1979 on studies of workers' exposure to these drugs, 53 involved studies of changes in cellular or molecular endpoints (biological markers) and 12 described chemical analyses of drugs or their metabolites in urine (2 involved both, and 2 reported the same study). The primary biological markers used were urine mutagenicity, sister chromatid exchange, and chromosomal aberrations; other studies involved formation of micronuclei and measurements of urinary thioethers. The studies had small sample sizes, and the methods were qualitative, nonspecific, subject to many confounders, and possibly not sensitive enough to detect most occupational exposures. Since none of the currently available biological and analytical methods is sufficiently reliable or reproducible for routine monitoring of exposure in the workplace, further studies using these methods are not recommended; efforts should focus instead on wide-spread implementation of improved practices for handling cytotoxic drugs.

  3. Occupational exposure to crystalline silica and autoimmune disease.

    PubMed Central

    Parks, C G; Conrad, K; Cooper, G S

    1999-01-01

    Occupational exposure to silica dust has been examined as a possible risk factor with respect to several systemic autoimmune diseases, including scleroderma, rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and some of the small vessel vasculitidies with renal involvement (e.g., Wegener granulomatosis). Crystalline silica, or quartz, is an abundant mineral found in sand, rock, and soil. High-level exposure to respirable silica dust can cause chronic inflammation and fibrosis in the lung and other organs. Studies of specific occupational groups with high-level silica exposure (e.g., miners) have shown increased rates of autoimmune diseases compared to the expected rates in the general population. However, some clinic- and population-based studies have not demonstrated an association between silica exposure and risk of autoimmune diseases. This lack of effect may be due to the limited statistical power of these studies to examine this association or because the lower- or moderate-level exposures that may be more common in the general population were not considered. Experimental studies demonstrate that silica can act as an adjuvant to nonspecifically enhance the immune response. This is one mechanism by which silica might be involved in the development of autoimmune diseases. Given that several different autoimmune diseases may be associated with silica dust exposure, silica dust may act to promote or accelerate disease development, requiring some other factor to break immune tolerance or initiate autoimmunity. The specific manifestation of this effect may depend on underlying differences in genetic susceptibility or other environmental exposures. PMID:10970168

  4. Sinonasal cancer and occupational exposure to formaldehyde and other substances.

    PubMed

    Luce, D; Gérin, M; Leclerc, A; Morcet, J F; Brugère, J; Goldberg, M

    1993-01-21

    A case-control study of cancer of the nose and paranasal sinuses was conducted in France to determine whether occupational exposure to formaldehyde was associated with an increased risk of sinonasal cancer. Exposures to 14 other substances or groups of substances were also studied (wood dust, leather dust, textile dust, flour dust, sugar dust, coal/coke dust, nickel compounds, chromium compounds, chromium VI, welding fumes, soldering fumes, cutting oils, paints and lacquers, glues and adhesives). Cases (n = 207) and controls (n = 409) were interviewed to obtain detailed information on job history and other potential risk factors for sinonasal cancer. In addition, a questionnaire specially designed for this study was used to help assess exposures to formaldehyde and other substances of interest. The questionnaires were translated into history of occupational exposure by an expert in industrial hygiene, without knowledge of case-control status. Several exposure variables (lifetime average level, duration, cumulative level) were used to describe the risk related to exposure to formaldehyde. Potential confounding factors (occupational and non-occupational) were examined and adjusted for when necessary. No significant association was found between exposure to formaldehyde and squamous-cell carcinomas of the sinonasal cavities. Because of the strong association between exposure to wood dust and nasal adenocarcinoma, it was not possible to assess an independent effect of formaldehyde on this type of cancer. However, among males exposed to medium or high levels of wood dust, the risk of adenocarcinoma associated with formaldehyde was significantly elevated for the highest exposure categories for average level (OR = 5.3, 95% confidence interval = 1.3-22.2), cumulative level (OR = 6.9, 95% CI = 1.7-28.2) and duration of exposure (OR = 6.9, 95% CI = 1.7-27.8). Although a residual confounding effect of wood dust could not be excluded, this study suggests that exposure to both formaldehyde and wood dust may increase the risk of nasal adenocarcinoma, by comparison with the risk due to wood dust alone. This study also indicated an increased risk among males who had been exposed to glues and adhesives, for all histologic types, which was not explained by a confounding effect of paints and lacquers, wood dust or formaldehyde. No other significant association was observed. PMID:8425759

  5. Occupational exposure to diesel engine exhaust: A literature review

    PubMed Central

    Pronk, Anjoeka; Coble, Joseph; Stewart, Patricia

    2010-01-01

    Background Diesel exhaust (DE) is classified as a probable human carcinogen. Aims were to describe the major occupational uses of diesel engines and give an overview of personal DE exposure levels and determinants of exposure as reported in the published literature. Methods Measurements representative of personal DE exposure were abstracted from the literature for the following agents: elemental carbon (EC), particulate matter (PM), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxide (NO), and nitrogen dioxide (NO2). Information on determinants of exposure was abstracted. Results In total, 3528 EC, 4166 PM, 581 CO, 322 NO, and 1404 NO2 measurements were abstracted. From the 10,001 measurements, 32% represented exposure from on-road vehicles, and 68% from off-road vehicles (30% mining, 15% railroad, and 22% other). Highest levels were reported for enclosed underground work sites where heavy equipment is used: mining, mine maintenance, and construction, (EC: 27-658 ?g/m3). Intermediate exposure levels were generally reported for above ground (semi-)enclosed areas where smaller equipment was run: mechanics in a shop, emergency workers in fire stations, distribution workers at a dock, and workers loading/unloading inside a ferry (generally: EC< 50 ?g/m3). Lowest levels were reported for enclosed areas separated from the source such as drivers and train crew, or outside such as surface mining, parking attendants, vehicle testers, utility service workers, surface construction and airline ground personnel (EC<25 ?g/m3). The other agents showed a similar pattern. Determinants of exposure reported for enclosed situations were ventilation and exhaust after treatment devices. Conclusions Reported DE exposure levels were highest for underground mining and construction, intermediate for working in above ground (semi-)enclosed areas and lowest for working outside or separated from the source. The presented data can be used as a basis for assessing occupational exposure in population-based epidemiological studies and guide future exposure assessment efforts for industrial hygiene and epidemiological studies. PMID:19277070

  6. Occupational exposure to diesel engine exhaust: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Pronk, Anjoeka; Coble, Joseph; Stewart, Patricia A

    2009-07-01

    Diesel exhaust (DE) is classified as a probable human carcinogen. Aims were to describe the major occupational uses of diesel engines and give an overview of personal DE exposure levels and determinants of exposure as reported in the published literature. Measurements representative of personal DE exposure were abstracted from the literature for the following agents: elemental carbon (EC), particulate matter (PM), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxide (NO), and nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)). Information on determinants of exposure was abstracted. In total, 3528 EC, 4166 PM, 581 CO, 322 NO, and 1404 NO(2) measurements were abstracted. From the 10,001 measurements, 32% represented exposure from on-road vehicles and 68% from off-road vehicles (30% mining, 15% railroad, and 22% others). Highest levels were reported for enclosed underground work sites in which heavy equipment is used: mining, mine maintenance, and construction (EC: 27-658 microg/m(3)). Intermediate exposure levels were generally reported for above-ground (semi-) enclosed areas in which smaller equipment was run: mechanics in a shop, emergency workers in fire stations, distribution workers at a dock, and workers loading/unloading inside a ferry (generally: EC<50 microg/m(3)). Lowest levels were reported for enclosed areas separated from the source, such as drivers and train crew, or outside, such as surface mining, parking attendants, vehicle testers, utility service workers, surface construction and airline ground personnel (EC<25 microg/m(3)). The other agents showed a similar pattern. Determinants of exposure reported for enclosed situations were ventilation and exhaust after treatment devices. Reported DE exposure levels were highest for underground mining and construction, intermediate for working in above-ground (semi-) enclosed areas and lowest for working outside or separated from the source. The presented data can be used as a basis for assessing occupational exposure in population-based epidemiological studies and guide future exposure assessment efforts for industrial hygiene and epidemiological studies. PMID:19277070

  7. RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access Diet, occupational exposure and early asthma

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access Diet, occupational exposure and early asthma incidence among bakers,2 and Denis Zmirou-Navier1,2,3 Abstract Background: The natural history of occupational asthma (OA settings. Keywords: Occupational asthma, Epidemiology, Atopy, Vitamins Background Occupational asthma (OA

  8. Evaluation of occupational exposures: a proposed sampling method.

    PubMed

    Brunn, I O; Campbell, J S; Hutzel, R L

    1986-04-01

    Occupational exposures to potentially hazardous agents may vary considerably because of worker mobility, or workplace contaminant levels that fluctuate within or between-days. In addition, individual susceptibility to adverse health effects varies among identically exposed workers. Therefore, accounting for these variables can be difficult during assessment of worker exposure for occupational health and OSHA compliance purposes. This is particularly true when there is varied and repeated exposure from day to day. A cost-effective monitoring strategy for evaluating repeated employee exposure and potential health risk that considers the foregoing exposure variables is desirable. The method this article proposes uses a well-planned sampling strategy featuring 4-hr, rather than the traditional 7 or 8-hr sampling durations. Use of 4-hr samples has been found to improve monitoring efficiency without significantly reducing sampling precision or accuracy. Statistical protocols applied during the sampling procedure and subsequent data analysis also combine to minimize the frequency and duration of samples required to reach a decision regarding the significance of a worker's exposure. The development of an Acceptable Risk Level (ARL) is another important element of the proposed method. An ARL is a variable based on risk assessment and risk management principles, which have been established by the employer for each contaminant. The ARL is dependent on the contaminant's toxicity and the time pattern and spacing of successive exposures. Ultimately, an ARL can be developed by an employer for the productive allocation of health and safety dollars to ensure worker protection. PMID:3706151

  9. Occupational exposure of midwives to nitrous oxide on delivery suites

    PubMed Central

    Henderson, K; Matthews, I; Adisesh, A; Hutchings, A

    2003-01-01

    Aims: To compare environmental and biological monitoring of midwives for nitrous oxide in a delivery suite environment. Methods: Environmental samples were taken over a period of four hours using passive diffusion tubes. Urine measurements were taken at the start of the shift and after four hours. Results: Environmental levels exceeded the legal occupational exposure standards for nitrous oxide (100 ppm over an 8 hour time weighted average) in 35 of 46 midwife shifts monitored. There was a high correlation between personal environmental concentrations and biological uptake of nitrous oxide for those midwives with no body burden of nitrous oxide at the start of a shift, but not for others. Conclusions: Greater engineering control measures are needed to reduce daily exposure to midwives to below the occupational exposure standard. Further investigation of the toxicokinetics of nitrous oxide is needed. PMID:14634189

  10. Parental occupational exposures and autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    McCanlies, Erin C; Fekedulegn, Desta; Mnatsakanova, Anna; Burchfiel, Cecil M; Sanderson, Wayne T; Charles, Luenda E; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva

    2012-11-01

    Both self-report and industrial hygienist (IH) assessed parental occupational information were used in this pilot study in which 174 families (93 children with ASD and 81 unaffected children) enrolled in the Childhood Autism Risks from Genetics and Environment study participated. IH results indicated exposures to lacquer, varnish, and xylene occurred more often in the parents of children with ASD compared to the parents of unaffected children. Parents of children with ASD were more likely to report exposures to asphalt and solvents compared to parents of unaffected children. This study was limited by the small sample size, but results suggest that workplace exposures to some chemicals may be important in the etiology of ASD and deserve further investigation. PMID:22399411

  11. Occupational diesel exhaust exposure as a risk factor for COPD

    PubMed Central

    Hart, Jaime E; Eisen, Ellen A; Laden, Francine

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of Review Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a major source of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Although cigarette smoking is the major cause of COPD, occupational exposures have emerged as an important risk factor, especially in nonsmokers. In this review we assess the state of the literature on the association of COPD with a specific occupational exposure, diesel exhaust. Recent Findings A large body of literature links general occupational exposures to dust and fumes with an increased risk of COPD, particularly in nonsmokers. Few studies, however, have explicitly examined the role of occupational diesel exhaust exposures to COPD risk. Suggestive recent findings link occupational diesel exposures to an increased risk of COPD, Summary The available literature directly examining the effects of occupational diesel exhaust on risk of COPD is quite small, but does suggest that increasing exposures are associated with increasing risk. Additional research, with more advanced exposure metrics is needed to fully elucidate this association. PMID:22234274

  12. Occupational exposure to solvents and male infertility

    PubMed Central

    Cherry, N; Labreche, F; Collins, J; Tulandi, T

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To determine whether, in a case-referent study of infertility patients, cases with low motile sperm count were more likely than referents to have had exposure to organic solvents.?METHODS—Occupations of men attending fertility clinics in Canada were assigned codes reflecting probable exposure to organic solvents, at four grades of intensity, using a job exposure matrix previously developed. A case referent design was used, with cases being defined as men with <12×106/ml motile sperm. Information from 656 men in manual work attending a single clinic in Montreal in 1972-91 was used for the main study. A separate analysis was conducted with information for 574 men in manual work attending 10 further clinics across Canada in 1984-7.?RESULTS—In the Montreal series a significant association was found between intensity of exposure to solvents and clinical findings of <12×106/ml motile sperm. Odds ratios (ORs), after allowing for confounding, were 2.07 (95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.24 to 3.44) for moderate exposure to solvents and 3.83 (95% CI 1.37 to 10.65) for high exposure. In the second series of 568 men, the effect was confirmed at high exposure to solvents (OR 2.90, 95% CI 1.01 to 8.34) but not at moderate exposure (OR 1.01, 95% CI 0.53 to 1.92).?CONCLUSIONS—Exposure to organic solvents is common both at work and in recreational pursuits. The results of this study suggest that efforts should be made to identify the compounds hazardous to male fertility, and if the risk is confirmed, to regulate their use.???Keywords: infertility; solvents; male manual workers PMID:11555684

  13. Occupational exposure to environmental tobacco smoke: results of two personal exposure studies.

    PubMed Central

    Jenkins, R A; Counts, R W

    1999-01-01

    Personal monitoring is a more accurate measure of individual exposure to airborne constituents because it incorporates human activity patterns and collects actual breathing zone samples to which subjects are exposed. Two recent studies conducted by our laboratory offer perspective on occupational exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) from a personal exposure standpoint. In a study of nearly 1600 workers, levels of ETS were lower than or comparable to those in earlier studies. Limits on smoking in designated areas also acted to reduce overall exposure of workers. In facilities where smoking is permitted, ETS exposures are 10 to 20 times greater than in facilities in which smoking is banned. Service workers were exposed to higher levels of ETS than workers in white-collar occupations. For the narrower occupational category of waiters, waitresses, and bartenders, a second study in one urban location indicated that ETS levels to which wait staff are exposed are not considerably different from those exposure levels of subjects in the larger study who work in environments in which smoking is unrestricted. Bartenders were exposed to higher ETS levels, but there is a distinction between bartenders working in smaller facilities and those working in multiroom restaurant bars, with the former exposed to higher levels of ETS than the latter. In addition, ETS levels encountered by these more highly exposed workers are lower that those estimated by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration. Concomitant area monitoring in the smaller study suggests that area samples can only be used to estimate individual personal exposure to within an order of magnitude or greater. PMID:10350519

  14. Gene-environment interaction and biological monitoring of occupational exposures

    SciTech Connect

    Hirvonen, Ari [Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Topeliuksenkatu 41 a A, 00250 Helsinki (Finland)]. E-mail: Ari.Hirvonen@ttl.fi

    2005-09-01

    Biological monitoring methods and biological limit values applied in occupational and environmental medicine have been traditionally developed on the assumption that individuals do not differ significantly in their biotransformation capacities. It has become clear, however, that this is not the case, but wide inter-individual differences exist in the metabolism of chemicals. Integration of the data on individual metabolic capacity in biological monitoring studies is therefore anticipated to represent a significant refinement of the currently used methods. We have recently conducted several biological monitoring studies on occupationally exposed subjects, which have included the determination of the workers' genotypes for the metabolic genes of potential importance for a given chemical exposure. The exposure levels have been measured by urine metabolites, adducts in blood macromolecules, and cytogenetic alterations in lymphocytes. Our studies indicate that genetic polymorphisms in metabolic genes may indeed be important modifiers of individual biological monitoring results of, e.g., carbon disulphide and styrene. The information is anticipated to be useful in insuring that the workplace is safe for everyone, including the most sensitive individuals. This knowledge could also be useful to occupational physicians, industrial hygienists, and regulatory bodies in charge of defining acceptable exposure limits for environmental and/or occupational pollutants.

  15. Occupational Exposure to Nanoparticles and Medical Safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brochard, Patrick; Bloch, Daniel; Pairon, Jean-Claude

    The problem of occupational exposure to nanoparticles (NP) has raised many questions which remain unanswered today: When airborne NPs, either dissociated or more commonly in the form of aggregates, are inhaled by humans, will they produce a biological and/or tissular response where they are deposited, i.e., in the respiratory tract, or at some distance from the deposition area, i.e., an indirect effect secondary to the inflammatory response of the respiratory tract or a direct effect due to translocation of nanoparticles through the biological membranes?

  16. Occupational Noise Exposures Among Three Farm Families in Northwest Ohio

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sheryl A. Milz; J. R. Wilkins III; April L. Ames; Melisa K. Witherspoon

    2008-01-01

    A pilot project was conducted to evaluate occupational noise exposures of three families living and working on farms in Northwest Ohio. Noise exposures were measured continuously for 7 consecutive days for each participant for 1 week each during planting, growing, and harvesting seasons. The dosimeters were programmed to evaluate noise exposures using both the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)

  17. Occupational exposure to cadmium and lung function.

    PubMed

    Cortona, G; Apostoli, P; Toffoletto, F; Baldasseroni, A; Ghezzi, I; Goggi, E; Fornari, S; Alessio, L

    1992-01-01

    A total of 69 male subjects occupationally exposed to cadmium fumes in a factory producing silver-cadmium-copper alloys for brazing, were subjected to lung function tests, including ventilation (FVC and FEV1), residual volume (RV) and alveolar-capillary diffusion capacity (TLCO and KCO). For each subject, the cumulative exposure to cadmium was calculated as the product of the number of years in the job and the average atmospheric concentration of cadmium (expressed in micrograms/m3) encountered each year. Cadmium-exposed subjects had moderately higher mean values of RV (+ 8%) as compared with the control group; the increase was greater (+ 10%) in the subgroup of workers with greater cumulative exposure to cadmium. No significant differences were observed in FVC, FEV1, TLCO and KCO. PMID:1303942

  18. Environmental and occupational exposure to manganese: a multimedia assessment.

    PubMed

    Loranger, S; Zayed, J

    1995-01-01

    Methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl (MMT) is an organic additive used in Canada since 1976 as an anti-knock agent in unleaded gasoline. Its combustion leads to the emission of Mn oxides, especially Mn3O4. Since no study has assessed the potential risk of chronic exposure to low concentrations resulting from these emissions, the present investigation was undertaken to assess the level of environmental and occupational exposure of the human population. The multimedia exposure of two groups of workers (garage mechanics and blue-collar workers) potentially exposed to different levels of Mn from the combustion of MMT was assessed using personal air samplers, a dietary compilation, water samples at their places of residence, an epidemiological questionnaire and blood and hair samples. Results show that garage mechanics were exposed on average to higher atmospheric Mn at work (0.42 microgram/m3) than the blue-collar workers (0.04 microgram/m3). However, the contribution of atmospheric Mn to the total absorbed dose was less than 1%, and well below the standards established for occupational or environmental exposure; food contributes more than 95% of the multimedia dose. The average whole blood Mn concentrations were similar for the two groups (0.67-0.76 microgram/100 ml) and fall within the normal adult range. The average hair Mn concentrations were significantly higher for the garage mechanics (0.66 microgram/g) than for the blue-collar workers (0.39 microgram/g). The contribution of exogenous Mn versus endogenous Mn is questioned. As judged by the governmental standards or criteria for occupational and non-occupational environments, the current Mn levels in food, water and air may not cause any problems for the workers. PMID:7545647

  19. Medical graduates' knowledge of bloodborne viruses and occupational exposures.

    PubMed

    Koehler, Nicole; Vujovic, Olga; Dendle, Claire; McMenamin, Christine

    2014-02-01

    A survey of medical graduates commencing employment as junior doctors was performed to investigate knowledge of bloodborne viruses and occupational exposure management, coupled with their experience of occupational exposures. There was a mismatch between general knowledge (excellent) and knowledge of postexposure management (poor), and graduates had commonly experienced an occupational exposure and not reported it. The knowledge deficit regarding postexposure management and history of poor practice (ie, nonreporting) following an exposure implies that the transition period from student to junior doctor may be associated with increased occupational health and safety risk. PMID:24360355

  20. Pesticide exposure of non-occupationally exposed subjects compared to some occupational exposure: A French pilot study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Bouvier; O. Blanchard; I. Momas; N. Seta

    2006-01-01

    Data about non-dietary exposure to different chemical classes of pesticides are scarce, especially in France. Our objective was to assess residential pesticide exposure of non-occupationally exposed adults, and to compare it with occupational exposure of subjects working indoors. Twenty unexposed persons, five gardeners, seven florists and nine veterinary workers living in Paris area were recruited. Nineteen residences, two greenhouses, three

  1. Practical Protective Tools for Occupational Exposure:

    PubMed Central

    Kurokawa, S.; Yabe, S.; Takamura, A.; Ishizaki, H.; Aizawa, S.

    2000-01-01

    Summary Two practical protective tools for occupational exposure for neurointerventional radiologists are presented. The first purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of double focus spectacles for the aged with a highly refracted glass lens (special spectacles for the aged) for radiation protection of the crystalline lens of the eye in comparison with other spectacles on the market, based on the measurement of film density which was obtained by exposure of X-ray through those spectacles. As a result of the film densitometry mentioned above, the effectiveness of special spectacles for the aged in radiation protection was nearly equal to the effectiveness of a goggle type shield which is made with a 0.07 mm lead-equivalent plastic lens. The second purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of the protective barrier; which we remodeled for cerebral angiography or neuroendovascular therapy, for radiation exposure, based on the measurement in a simulated study with a head phantom, and on the measurement of radiation exposure in operaters during procedures of clinical cases. In the experimental study radiation exposure in supposed position of the crystalline lens was reduced to about one third and radiation exposure in supposed position of the gonadal glands was reduced to about one seventh, compared to radiation exposure without employing the barrier. The radiation exposure was monitored at the left breast of three radiologists, in 215 cases of cerebral angiography. Employing the barrier in cerebral angiography, average equivalent dose at the left breast measured 1.49µ Sv during 10 min of fluoroscopy. In three kinds of neuroendovascular therapy in 40 cases, radiation exposure in an operator was monitored in the same fashion and the dose was recorded less than the result reported in previous papers in which any protective barrier have not been employed in the procedure1,2. As a result, the two above mentioned protective tools are considered practical in clinical usage and very effective to reduce radiation exposure in an operator of interventional neuroradiolgy which may sometimes require many hours to complete the therapy under extended fluoroscopic time. PMID:20667219

  2. Modeling repeated measurement data for occupational exposure assessment and epidemiology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chava Peretz

    2003-01-01

    Repeated measurements designs, occur frequently in the assessment of exposure to toxic chemicals. This thesis deals with the possibilities of using mixed effects models for occupational exposure assessment and in the analysis of exposure response relationships. The model enables simultaneous estimation of both the variance components of exposure (between- and within-subject) and the unbiased regression coefficients for determinants of exposure.

  3. Parental occupational exposure and spontaneous abortions in Finland

    SciTech Connect

    Lindbohm, M.L.; Hemminki, K.; Kyyroenen, P.

    1984-09-01

    Spontaneous abortions were analyzed by the occupational exposure of women and their husbands, with data from the Finnish hospital discharge register and the national census. The occupations were grouped according to presumed exposure into seven categories: exposure to solvent; automobile exhaust fumes; polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; other chemicals; metals; textile dust; and animal microorganisms. The relative risks of spontaneous abortion were estimated with logistic regression analysis to adjust for potentially confounding factors. The broad exposure categories appeared, at most, to be weak risk factors of spontaneous abortion, because the relative risks of abortion were not significantly increased in any of the parental exposure groups. The analysis of detailed occupational categories showed some female and male occupations with an increased risk. The observations of increased risk related to laboratory work supported earlier findings. The high number of textile occupations with increased risk is also worth noting, and further investigations are necessary to confirm whether this is due to occupational hazards or other factors.

  4. Personality traits in miners with past occupational elemental mercury exposure.

    PubMed

    Kobal Grum, Darja; Kobal, Alfred B; Arneric, Niko; Horvat, Milena; Zenko, Bernard; Dzeroski, Saso; Osredkar, Josko

    2006-02-01

    In this study, we evaluated the impact of long-term occupational exposure to elemental mercury vapor (Hg0) on the personality traits of ex-mercury miners. Study groups included 53 ex-miners previously exposed to Hg0 and 53 age-matched controls. Miners and controls completed the self-reporting Eysenck Personality Questionnaire and the Emotional States Questionnaire. The relationship between the indices of past occupational exposure and the observed personality traits was evaluated using Pearson's correlation coefficient and on a subgroup level by machine learning methods (regression trees). The ex-mercury miners were intermittently exposed to Hg0 for a period of 7-31 years. The means of exposure-cycle urine mercury (U-Hg) concentrations ranged from 20 to 120 microg/L. The results obtained indicate that ex-miners tend to be more introverted and sincere, more depressive, more rigid in expressing their emotions and are likely to have more negative self-concepts than controls, but no correlations were found with the indices of past occupational exposure. Despite certain limitations, results obtained by the regression tree suggest that higher alcohol consumption per se and long-term intermittent, moderate exposure to Hg0 (exposure cycle mean U-Hg concentrations > 38.7 < 53.5 microg/L) in interaction with alcohol remain a plausible explanation for the depression associated with negative self-concept found in subgroups of ex-mercury miners. This could be one of the reason for the higher risk of suicide among miners of the Idrija Mercury Mine in the last 45 years. PMID:16451870

  5. Occupational exposures to radiofrequency fields: results of an Israeli national survey.

    PubMed

    Hareuveny, R; Kavet, R; Shachar, A; Margaliot, M; Kheifets, L

    2015-06-01

    Relatively high exposures to radiofrequency (RF) fields can occur in the broadcast, medical, and communications industries, as well in occupations that use RF emitting equipment (e.g. law enforcement). Information on exposure to workers employed in these industries and occupations is limited. We present results of an Israeli National Survey of occupational RF field levels at frequencies between ~100?kHz and 40?GHz, representing Industrial Heating, Communications, Radar, Research, and Medicine. Almost 4300 measurements from 900 sources across 25 occupations were recorded and categorised as 'routine', 'incidental', or 'unintended'. The occupation-specific geometric means (GMs) of the percentage of the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) threshold limit values (TLVs) for each of the three exposure scenarios are presented together with the geometric standard deviation (GSD). Additionally, we present estimates of occupation-specific annual personal exposures and collective exposures. The vast majority of the GM of routine exposures ranged from a fraction to less than 1% of ACGIH TLVs, except for Walkie-Talkie (GM 94% of ACGIH), Induction Heating (17%), Plastic Welding (11%), Industrial Heating (6%) and Diathermy (6%). The GM of incidental and unintended exposures exceeded the TLV for one and 14 occupations, respectively. In many cases, the within-occupation GSD was very large, and though the medians remained below TLV, variable fractions of these occupations were projected to exceed the TLV. In rank order, Walkie-Talkie, Plastic Welding, and Induction Heating workers had the highest annual cumulative personal exposure. For cumulative collective exposures within an occupation, Walkie-Talkie dominated with 96.3% of the total, reflecting both large population and high personal exposure. A brief exceedance of the TLV does not automatically translate to hazard as RF exposure limits (issued by various bodies, including ACGIH) include a 10-fold safety factor relative to thermal thresholds and are based on a 6?min averaging period. PMID:25978146

  6. Childhood cancer and occupational radiation exposure in parents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nancy Hicks; Matthew Zack; Glyn G. Caldwell; Donald J. Fernbach; John M. Falletta

    1984-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that a parent's job exposure to radiation affeOR). its his or her child's risk of cancer, the authors compared this exposure during the year before the child's birth for parents of children with and without cancer. Parents of children with cancer were no more likely to have worked in occupations, industries, or combined occupations and industries

  7. Occupational Noise Sources and Exposures in Construction Industries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dale Hattis

    1998-01-01

    This is an assessment of occupational noise exposures in the construction industry based on (1) noise measurements observed during Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) inspections over the period from 1986 through early 1997 and (2) the observed incidence of noise exposures over 85 dB (A) in a national random sample of construction firms done as part of the NIOSH

  8. Chemical Exposure and Occupational Symptoms Among Portuguese Hairdressers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ana Mendes; Joana Madureira; Paula Neves; Carlos Carvalhais; Blanca Laffon; João P. Teixeira

    2011-01-01

    Hairdressing is predominantly a female activity, in which several chemicals are handled, some of which are known to be allergenic and potentially carcinogenic. Several epidemiological studies showed an association between occupational exposure to chemicals in hairdressing salons and skin and respiratory-tract conditions. The aim of this study were to characterize the occupational exposure to total volatile organic compounds (VOC) and

  9. Dose - response relationship between noise exposure and the risk of occupational injury.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Jin-Ha; Hong, Jeong-Suk; Roh, Jaehoon; Kim, Chi-Nyon; Won, Jong-Uk

    2015-01-01

    Many workers worldwide experience fatality and disability caused by occupational injuries. This study examined the relationship between noise exposure and occupational injuries at factories in Korea. A total of 1790 factories located in northern Gyeonggi Province, Korea was evaluated. The time-weighted average levels of dust and noise exposure were taken from Workplace Exposure Assessment data. Apart occupational injuries, sports events, traffic accidents, and other accidents occurring outside workplaces were excluded. The incidences of occupational injury in each factory were calculated by data from the Korea Workers' Compensation and Welfare Services. Workplaces were classified according to the incidence of any occupational injuries (incident or nonincident workplaces, respectively). Workplace dust exposure was classified as <1 or ? 1 mg/m³ , and noise exposure as <80, 80-89, or >90 dB. Workplaces with high noise exposure were significantly associated with being incident workplaces, whereas workplaces with high dust exposure were not. The odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) derived from a logistic regression model were 1.68 (1.27-2.24) and 3.42 (2.26-5.17) at 80-89 dB and ? 90 dB versus <80 dB. These associations remained significant when in a separate analysis according to high or low dust exposure level. Noise exposure increases the risk of occupational injury in the workplace. Furthermore, the risk of occupational injury increases with noise exposure level in a dose-response relationship. Therefore, strategies for reducing noise exposure level are required to decrease the risk of occupational injury. PMID:25599757

  10. Strategies for preventing occupational exposure to potent compounds.

    PubMed

    Calhoun, Dean M; Coler, Angela B; Nieusma, Joe L

    2011-02-01

    Occupational exposure to active pharmaceutical ingredients in a manufacturing or laboratory environmental can cause unintended health effects in workers handling these compounds. Occupational health professionals in the pharmaceutical industry have responded to this hazard recognition by employing strategies for the risk evaluation and management of potent APIs, otherwise known by the term 'potent compounds'. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the necessary strategy components for preventing occupational exposure to potent compounds. PMID:20507226

  11. Occupational Noise Exposure and Risk of Acoustic Neuroma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Colin G. Edwards; Judith A. Schwartzbaum; Gun Nise; Ulla M. Forssen; Anders Ahlbom; Stefan Lonn; Maria Feychting

    A small number of prior epidemiologic studies of occupational noise exposure based on self-report have sug- gested an association with acoustic neuroma. The goal of the present study was to further examine the association between noise exposure and acoustic neuroma by using an objective measure of exposure in the form of a job exposure matrix. A total of 793 acoustic

  12. 77 FR 16865 - Proposed Extension of Existing Information Collection; Occupational Noise Exposure

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-22

    ...Information Collection; Occupational Noise Exposure AGENCY: Mine Safety and...Control Number 1219-0120, Occupational Noise Exposure. OMB last approved this...1219-0120 has been renamed ``Occupational Noise Exposure'' to more clearly...

  13. 78 FR 78962 - Criteria for a Recommended Standard; Occupational Exposure to Heat and Hot Environments; Draft...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-27

    ...Standard; Occupational Exposure to Heat and Hot Environments; Draft Criteria Document Availability...Standard: Occupational Exposure to Heat and Hot Environments for public comment. To view...Standard: Occupational Exposure to Heat and Hot Environments''. Special emphasis...

  14. Effects of occupational exposure to mercury vapor on lymphocyte micronuclei.

    PubMed

    Barregård, L; Högstedt, B; Schütz, A; Karlsson, A; Sällsten, G; Thiringer, G

    1991-08-01

    For 26 chloralkali workers exposed to inorganic mercury and 26 age-matched, occupationally unexposed referents, the frequency and size distribution of micronuclei were determined in peripheral lymphocytes stimulated with either phytohemagglutinin or pokeweed mitogen. For the exposed workers the mean concentrations of mercury in urine, plasma, and erythrocytes were 16 nmol/mmol of creatinine, 48 nmol/l, and 78 nmol/l, respectively, and their mean exposure time was 10 years. Neither the frequency nor the size of micronuclei was significantly different in the two groups; nor were there any correlations to current mercury levels. However, in the exposed group, and with phytohemagglutinin as the mitogen, a statistically significant correlation between previous exposure to mercury (cumulative exposure or number of blood mercury peaks) and the frequency of micronuclei was found. This association was also present when the effects of age and smoking were allowed for, and it may indicate an accumulation of cytogenetic effects in T-lymphocytes. PMID:1925438

  15. Occupational exposure to blood and compliance with standard precautions among health care workers in Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao-na; Sun, Xin-ying; van Genugten, Lenneke; Shi, Yu-hui; Wang, Yan-ling; Niu, Wen-yi; Richardus, Jan Hendrik

    2014-03-01

    This cross-sectional survey assessed both risk and prevention of health care workers to bloodborne virus transmission in 2 hospitals in Beijing. The identified discrepancy between the high level of occupational blood exposure and suboptimal compliance with standard precautions underscores the urgent need for interventions to enhance occupational safety of health care workers in China. PMID:24581027

  16. Biochemical diagnosis of occupational exposure to lead toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Somashekaraiah, B.V.; Venkaiah, B.; Prasad, A.R.K. (Sri Venkateswara Univ., Andhra Pradesh (India))

    1990-02-01

    Lead has been shown to interfere with the biosynthesis of heme in a number of in vitro systems and in experimental animals as well as in human beings. Several steps of the heme biosynthetic chain are subject to the toxic effects of lead. ALA- dehydratase and Ferrochelatase, in particular, are two enzymes which are strongly inhibited by lead, leading to decreased heme synthesis, a constituent of hemoglobin. The inhibition of ALA dehydratase in the red blood cells by lead is generally recognized as the most sensitive index of the individuals exposure to this environmental chemical. Earlier reports show that the determination of blood lead content (Pb-B), zinc protoporphyrin levels and erythrocyte Aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALA.D) are widely used as biological indicators for lead toxicity. Hence, the aim of the present study was to screen for occupational exposure to lead in the workers of three different occupations and correlate their blood lead levels with erythrocyte ALA.D and total blood porphyrin content as biochemical indicators of lead exposure.

  17. Effects of occupational exposure - is there a link between exposure based on an occupational questionnaire and semen quality?

    PubMed

    Jurewicz, Joanna; Radwan, Micha?; Sobala, Wojciech; Radwan, Pawe?; Bochenek, Micha?; Hanke, Wojciech

    2014-08-01

    Several studies have suggested that human semen quality has declined over past decades and some have associated decline with occupational exposures. Many studies have been conducted in occupational settings, where exposure to occupational pollutants is intense. Our objective was to examine the association between exposure to occupational factors based on an occupational exposure questionnaire, and semen quality parameters (sperm concentration, motility, sperm morphology) and sperm chromatin structure. The study population consisted of 336 men who were attending an infertility clinic for diagnostic purposes and who had a normal semen concentration of ?15?mln/ml according to WHO criteria. All participants were interviewed and provided a semen sample. Additionally, a detailed questionnaire about the exposure to occupational factors was performed among the study participants. The results of the study suggest that occupational factors may affect semen quality. The exposure to noise during work was associated with decreased motility and increased DNA damage (p?=?0.005 and p?=?0.02, respectively). Exposure to polyvinyl chloride (PVC) decreased sperm concentration and motility (p?=?0.02 and p?=?0.03, respectively). Whereas exposure to high temperatures and sitting for more than 6 hours during work was positively associated with DNA fragmentation index (DFI) (p?=?0.03 and p?=?0.001, respectively). After applying the correction for multiple comparisons only the exposure to noise and sitting ?6 hours during work was associated with poorer semen quality (decreased motility and increased DFI, respectively). This study showed associations between self-reported occupational exposures and impaired semen parameters. The occupational exposure questionnaire may be useful in clinical practice for patients and physicians to identify the work factors associated with poorer semen quality. PMID:24702586

  18. Occupational exposure to organic solvents and breast cancer in women

    PubMed Central

    Peplonska, Beata; Stewart, Patricia; Szeszenia-D?browska, Neonila; Lissowska, Jolanta; Brinton, Louise A.; Gromiec, Jan Piotr; Brzeznicki, Slawomir; Yang, Rose; Sherman, Mark; García-Closas, Montserrat; Blair, Aaron

    2009-01-01

    Background Although studies in rodents suggest possible associations between exposure to organic solvents and breast cancer, the evidence in humans is limited. Methods We evaluated job histories of 2383 incident breast cancer cases diagnosed during 2000–2003, and 2502 controls who participated in a large population-based case-control study in Poland. Industrial hygienists reviewed occupational histories and developed exposure metrics for total organic solvents and benzene. Unconditional logistic regression analyses estimated odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) as the measure of association with breast cancer, controlling for breast cancer risk factors. Stratified analyses examined the potential modification by known breast cancer risk factors. Associations were also evaluated by estrogen (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) status and by other clinical characteristics of the tumours using polytomous regression analyses. Results Women who ever worked at jobs with organic solvents exposure had a small, non-significant increase in breast cancer risk (OR=1.16; 95%CI 0.99 to 1.4). A significant association was present for ER and PR negative tumors (OR 1.40; 95% CI 1.1 to 1.8), but there was no association with tumors with both positive receptors (OR 0.97; 95% CI 0.8 to 1.2 (p-heterogeneity: 0.008)). We did not observe trends with increasing level of exposure. Known breast cancer risk factors did not modify the association with organic solvents and breast cancer risk. No association with breast cancer was found for benzene exposure (OR 1.00; 95% CI 0.8 to 1.3). Conclusion Our study provides weak evidence for a possible association between occupational exposure to organic solvents as a class and breast cancer risk. The association might be limited to hormone receptor negative tumors. PMID:19819862

  19. Occupational exposure to dusts and risk of renal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Karami, S; Boffetta, P; Stewart, P S; Brennan, P; Zaridze, D; Matveev, V; Janout, V; Kollarova, H; Bencko, V; Navratilova, M; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, N; Mates, D; Gromiec, J; Slamova, A; Chow, W-H; Rothman, N; Moore, L E

    2011-01-01

    Background: Occupational exposures to dusts have generally been examined in relation to cancers of the respiratory system and have rarely been examined in relation to other cancers, such as renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Although previous epidemiological studies, though few, have shown certain dusts, such as asbestos, to increase renal cancer risk, the potential for other occupational dust exposures to cause kidney damage and/or cancer may exist. We investigated whether asbestos, as well as 20 other occupational dust exposures, were associated with RCC risk in a large European, multi-center, hospital-based renal case–control study. Methods: General occupational histories and job-specific questionnaires were reviewed by occupational hygienists for subject-specific information. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) between RCC risk and exposures were calculated using unconditional logistic regression. Results: Among participants ever exposed to dusts, significant associations were observed for glass fibres (OR: 2.1; 95% CI: 1.1–3.9), mineral wool fibres (OR: 2.5; 95% CI: 1.2–5.1), and brick dust (OR: 1.5; 95% CI: 1.0–2.4). Significant trends were also observed with exposure duration and cumulative exposure. No association between RCC risk and asbestos exposure was observed. Conclusion: Results suggest that increased RCC risk may be associated with occupational exposure to specific types of dusts. Additional studies are needed to replicate and extend findings. PMID:21540858

  20. Health and safety implications of occupational exposure to engineered nanomaterials.

    PubMed

    Stebounova, Larissa V; Morgan, Hallie; Grassian, Vicki H; Brenner, Sara

    2012-01-01

    The rapid growth and commercialization of nanotechnology are currently outpacing health and safety recommendations for engineered nanomaterials. As the production and use of nanomaterials increase, so does the possibility that there will be exposure of workers and the public to these materials. This review provides a summary of current research and regulatory efforts related to occupational exposure and medical surveillance for the nanotechnology workforce, focusing on the most prevalent industrial nanomaterials currently moving through the research, development, and manufacturing pipelines. Their applications and usage precedes a discussion of occupational health and safety efforts, including exposure assessment, occupational health surveillance, and regulatory considerations for these nanomaterials. PMID:22131295

  1. Occupational exposure to airborne lead in Brazilian police officers.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Ernesto Díaz; Sarkis, Jorge E Souza; Carvalho, Maria de Fátima H; Santos, Gerson Vechio Dos; Canesso, Claudemir

    2014-07-01

    Shooting with lead-containing ammunition in indoor firing ranges is a known source of lead exposure in adults. Police officers may be at risk of lead intoxication when regular training shooting exercises are yearly mandatory to law enforcement officers. Effects on health must be documented, even when low-level elemental (inorganic) lead exposure is detected. Forty police officers (nineteen cadets and twenty-one instructors) responded to a questionnaire about health, shooting habits, and potential lead exposure before a training curse. Blood samples were collected and analyzed for blood lead level (BLL) before and after a three days training curse. The mean BLL for the instructors' group was 5.5 ?g/dL ± 0.6. The mean BLL for the cadets' group before the training was 3.3 ?g/dL ± 0.15 and after the training the main BLL was 18.2 ?g/d L± 1.5. Samples were analyzed by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (ICP-MS). All the participants in the training curse had significantly increased BLL (mean increment about 15 ?g/dL) after the three days indoor shooting season. In conclusion, occupational lead exposure in indoor firing ranges is a source of lead exposure in Brazilian police officers, and appears to be a health risk, especially when heavy weapons with lead-containing ammunition are used in indoor environments during the firing training seasons. PMID:24411572

  2. Occupational exposures to potentially hazardous agents in the petroleum industry

    SciTech Connect

    Runion, H.E.

    1988-07-01

    This chapter has been created to acquaint the reader with occupational exposures that are more common in, and somewhat unique to, the petroleum industry. Both highly toxic materials capable of causing acute illness or even death following short-term exposure, and chemical and physical agents that pose risk of chronic and irreversible damage to health during prolonged exposure are addressed.

  3. Use of the Finnish Information System on Occupational Exposure (FINJEM) in epidemiologic, surveillance, and other applications.

    PubMed

    Kauppinen, Timo; Uuksulainen, Sanni; Saalo, Anja; Mäkinen, Ilpo; Pukkala, Eero

    2014-04-01

    This paper reviews the use of the Finnish Information System on Occupational Exposure (Finnish job-exposure matrix, FINJEM) in different applications in Finland and other countries. We describe and discuss studies on FINJEM and studies utilizing FINJEM in regard to the validity of exposure estimates, occupational epidemiology, hazard surveillance and prevention, the assessment of health risks and the burden of disease, the assessment of exposure trends and future hazards, and the construction of job-exposure matrices (JEMs) in countries other than Finland. FINJEM can be used as an exposure assessment tool in occupational epidemiology, particularly in large register-based studies. It also provides information for hazard surveillance at the national level. It is able to identify occupations with high average exposures to chemical agents and can therefore serve the priority setting of prevention. However, it has only limited use at the workplace level due to the variability of exposure between workplaces. The national estimates of exposure and their temporal trends may contribute to the assessment of both the recent and future burden of work-related health outcomes. FINJEM has also proved to be useful in the construction of other national JEMs, for example in the Nordic Occupational Cancer study in the Nordic countries. FINJEM is a quantitative JEM, which can serve many purposes and its comprehensive documentation also makes it potentially useful in countries other than Finland. PMID:24401793

  4. Post-exposure prophylaxis after occupational and non-occupational exposures to HIV: An overview of the policies implemented in 27 European countries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Rey; M. K. Bendiane; J. P. Moatti; K. Wellings; R. Danziger; W. MacDowall

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this survey, which was part of an English-French project supported by the Commission of the European Communities, was to compare access to HIV post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) in the occupational and non-occupational contexts in 27 European countries. A protocol was designed in May 1998 in collaboration with all country consultants. Data were collected at country level by each

  5. Application of oligonucleotide microarray technology to toxic occupational exposures.

    PubMed

    Gwinn, Maureen R; Weston, Ainsley

    2008-01-01

    Microarray technology has advanced toward analysis of toxic occupational exposures in biological systems. Microarray analysis is an ideal way to search for biomarkers of exposure, even if no specific gene or pathway has been identified. Analysis may now be performed on thousands of genes simultaneously, as opposed to small numbers of genes as in the past. This ability has been put to use to analyze gene expression profiles of a variety of occupational toxins in animal models to classify toxins into specific categories based on response. Analysis of normal human cell strains allows an extension of this analysis to investigate the role of interindividual variation in response to various toxins. This methodology was used to analyze four occupationally related toxins in our lab: oxythioquinox (OTQ), a quinoxaline pesticide; malathion, an organophosphate pesticide; di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), a chemical commonly found in personal care and cosmetic items; and benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), an environmental and occupational carcinogen. The results for each exposure highlighted signaling pathways involved in response to these occupational exposures. Both pesticides showed increase in metabolic enzymes, while DBP showed alterations in genes related to fertility. BaP exposure showed alterations in two cytochrome P450s related to carcinogenicity. When used with occupational exposure information, these data may be used to augment risk assessment to make the workplace safer for a greater proportion of the workforce, including individuals susceptible to disease related to exposures. PMID:18214805

  6. TEXAS: a Tool for EXposure ASsessment-Statistical models for estimating occupational exposure to chemical agents.

    PubMed

    Clerc, Frédéric; Bertrand, Nicolas; Vincent, Raymond

    2015-04-01

    Measurements of occupational exposure to chemical agents are performed by sampling and analyzing workplace atmospheres. In France, this is done by the industrial hygienists of the prevention network of the Social Security Service, who collect and then enter the data in the COLCHIC database. More than 900000 measurements performed in French companies over the past 25 years have been collected. Using this amount of data is major challenge for obtaining knowledge and predicting occupational exposures. This study presents the way in which statistical models are built and used on the basis of almost 19000 recent measurements of 26 frequent chemical substances. For a given substance, the models use 13 exposure determinants as inputs, such as the task performed, the occupation of the operator or the type of process employed. The models permit to estimate two parameters: the geometric mean and geometric standard deviation. These parameters are used to build an exposure profile. By combining them with the limit value, an exposure index is estimated using a Bayesian network. A decision rule based on the interpretation of this probability is proposed to qualify the predicted situation as 'well-controlled situation', 'controlled situation', and 'poorly controlled situation'. On the basis of this decision rule, 62% of predictions are true for all substances confounded, an average of 36% of predictions are approximate and only 2% of them are wrong. The result of this study led to the development of a pragmatic software tool named TEXAS, tool for exposure assessment, which enables industrial hygienists to obtain a rapid estimation of the level of exposure control as a function of simple determinants of work situations. PMID:25433001

  7. Occupational Pesticide Exposures and Cancer Risk: A Review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael C. R. Alavanja; Matthew R. Bonner

    2012-01-01

    A review of the epidemiological literature linking pesticides to cancers in occupational studies worldwide was conducted, with particular focus on those articles published after the release of IARC Monograph 53 (1991): Occupational Exposures in Insecticide Applications and Some Pesticides. Important new data are now available. Chemicals in every major functional class of pesticides including insecticides, herbicide, fungicides, and fumigants have

  8. RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access Occupational exposure to asbestos and lung

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    : Lung cancer, Asbestos, Cigarette smoking, Case­control, Occupational epidemiology Background Lung that 13,300 men would be diagnosed with lung cancer and 10,800 would die of it [1]. While cigaretteRESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access Occupational exposure to asbestos and lung cancer in men: evidence

  9. Renal cell cancer correlated with occupational exposure to trichloroethene

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Vamvakas; T. Brüning; B. Thomasson; M. Lammert; A. Baumüller; H. M. Bolt; W. Dekant; G. Birner; D. Henschler; K. Ulm

    1998-01-01

    A previous cohort-study in a cardboard factory demonstrated that high and prolonged occupational exposure to trichloroethene\\u000a (C2HCl3) is associated with an increased incidence of renal cell cancer. The present hospital-based case\\/control study investigates\\u000a occupational exposure in 58 patients with renal cell cancer with special emphasis on C2HCl3 and the structurally and toxicologically closely related compound tetrachloroethene (C2Cl4). A group of

  10. Electromagnetic field occupational exposure: non-thermal vs. thermal effects.

    PubMed

    Israel, M; Zaryabova, V; Ivanova, M

    2013-06-01

    There are a variety of definitions for "non-thermal effects" included in different international standards. They start by the simple description that they are "effects of electromagnetic energy on a body that are not heat-related effects", passing through the very general definition related to low-level effects: "biological effects ascribed to exposure to low-level electric, magnetic and electromagnetic fields, i.e. at or below the corresponding dosimetric reference levels in the frequency range covered in this standard (0 Hz-300 GHz)", and going to the concrete definition of "the stimulation of muscles, nerves, or sensory organs, vertigo or phosfenes". Here, we discuss what kind of effect does the non-thermal one has on human body and give data of measurements in different occupations with low-frequency sources of electromagnetic field such as electric power distribution systems, transformers, MRI systems and : video display units (VDUs), whereas thermal effects should not be expected. In some of these workplaces, values above the exposure limits could be found, nevertheless that they are in the term "non-thermal effects" on human body. Examples are workplaces in MRI, also in some power plants. Here, we will not comment on non-thermal effects as a result of RF or microwave exposure because there are not proven evidence about the existance of such effects and mechanisms for them are not clear. PMID:23675617

  11. Occupational exposures during routine activities in coal-fueled power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Bird, M.J.; MacIntosh, D.L.; Williams, P.L. [University of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States). Dept. of Environmental Health Science

    2004-06-15

    Limited information is available on occupational exposures during routine, nonoutage work activities in coal-fueled power plants. This study evaluated occupational exposures to the principal contaminants in the facilities, including respirable dust (coal dust), arsenic, noise, asbestos, and heat stress. The data were collected over a 3-month period, during the summer of 2001. Each of the 5 facilities was divided into 5 similar exposure groups based on previous exposure assessments and job tasks performed. Of the nearly 400 air samples collected, only 1 exceeded the allowable occupational exposure value. For the noise samples, 55 (about 18%) were equal to or greater than the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) 8-hour hearing conservation program level of 85 dBA, and 12 (about 4%) were equal to or greater than the OSHA 8-hour permissible exposure level of 90 dBA. Heat stress monitoring at the facilities indicates that 26% of the 1-hour TWAs were exceeded for one or all of the recommended heat stress limits. The data also concluded that some work sites were above the heat stress ceiling values recommended by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). Four of the 20 employees personally monitored exceeded the recommended limits for heart rate or body core temperature. This suggests there is a potential for heat strain if signs and symptoms are ignored. Recommendations are made to better control the heat stress exposure.

  12. DOE 2010 Occupational Radiation Exposure November 2011

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Analysis

    2011-11-11

    This report discusses radiation protection and dose reporting requirements, presents the 2010 occupational radiation dose data trended over the past 5 years, and includes instructions to submit successful ALARA projects.

  13. Prevalence and pattern of occupational exposure to whole body vibration in Great Britain: findings from a national survey

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, K.; Griffin, M.; Bendall, H.; Pannett, B.; Coggon, D.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To estimate the number of workers in Great Britain with significant occupational exposure to whole body vibration (WBV) and to identify the common sources of exposure and the occupations and industries where such exposures arise.?METHODS—A postal questionnaire was posted to a random community sample of 22 194 men and women of working age. Among other things, the questionnaire asked about exposure to WBV in the past week, including occupational and common non-occupational sources. Responses were assessed by occupation and industry, and national prevalence estimates were derived from census information. Estimates were also made of the average estimated daily personal dose of vibration (eVDV).?RESULTS—From the 12 907 responses it was estimated that 7.2 million men and 1.8 million women in Great Britain are exposed to WBV at work in a 1 week period if the occupational use of cars, vans, buses, trains, and motor cycles is included within the definition of exposure. The eVDV of >374 000 men and 9000 women was estimated to exceed a proposed British Standard action level of 15 ms-1.75. Occupations in which the estimated exposures most often exceeded 15 ms-1.75 included forklift truck and mechanical truck drivers, farm owners and managers, farm workers, and drivers of road goods vehicles. These occupations also contributed the largest estimated numbers of workers in Great Britain with such levels of exposure. The highest estimated median occupational eVDVs were found in forklift truck drivers, drivers of road goods vehicles, bus and coach drivers, and technical and wholesale sales representatives, among whom a greater contribution to total dose was received from occupational exposures than from non-occupational ones; but in many other occupations the reverse applied. The most common sources of occupational exposure to WBV are cars, vans, forklift trucks, lorries, tractors, buses, and loaders.?CONCLUSIONS—Exposure to whole body vibration is common, but only a small proportion of exposures exceed the action level proposed in British standards, and in many occupations, non-occupational sources are more important than those at work. The commonest occupational sources of WBV and occupations with particularly high exposures have been identified, providing a basis for targeting future control activities.???Keywords: whole body vibration; population; prevalence; exposure PMID:10810108

  14. Some considerations in choosing an occupational noise exposure regulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. A. Ashford; D. Hattis; G. Heaton

    1976-01-01

    Some issues in conflict regarding the proposed OSHA standard for occupational exposure to noise are examined. These include material impairment, the extent of possible hearing loss, nonauditory effects, and the nature of social and economic costs benefits of regulation at 85 dBA and 90 dBA exposure limits. A preliminary analysis of the methodology and difficulties in arriving at cost benefit

  15. Occupational Exposure to Noise and Ototoxic Organic Solvents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thais C. Morata; Derek E. Dunn; W. Karl Sieber

    1994-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to review the literature on the effects of occupational exposure to organic solvents on the auditory system and to identify work settings in which exposure to these agents and to noise might occur. The criteria for selecting the chemicals were (a) evidence available that indicated that the chemicals may affect the auditory system and

  16. Hexavalent chromium compounds in the workplace: assessing the extent and magnitude of occupational exposure in Italy.

    PubMed

    Scarselli, Alberto; Binazzi, Alessandra; Marzio, Davide Di; Marinaccio, Alessandro; Iavicoli, Sergio

    2012-01-01

    Hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) compounds have been classified as carcinogenic to humans. This study evaluates the extent and magnitude of occupational exposures to Cr(VI) in Italy. Data were collected from exposure registries of companies compulsorily notified by the National Workers' Compensation Authority. Each measurement was characterized by economic activity sector, work force size, worker personal data, job description, year of measurement, and level of exposure. Descriptive statistical analysis was carried out on the retrieved information. The number of workers potentially exposed was estimated for some industrial sectors. A mixed-effects model was adopted to evaluate the association between exposure variables and exposure concentrations. Over 8400 measurements of Cr(VI) exposures were selected from the database of registries for 1996-2009. Most exposures occurred in the manufacture of fabricated metal products (>50%), and the occupational group most frequently measured was metal finishing-, plating- and coating-machine operators (>52%). Measurements were associated with various Cr(VI) compounds, including chromium trioxide, potassium dichromate, sodium dichromate, strontium chromate, and zinc chromate. Cr(VI) exposure has decreased in more recent years, and the fixed-effects (Cr(VI) compound, activity sector, size and location of the facility, job category, and year of measurement of the final statistical model explained more than 70% of the variance in the observed exposure data. This study summarized data recorded in the Italian occupational exposure database and identified specific exposure patterns to Cr(VI). The mean level of exposure to Cr(VI) was 30.41 ?g/m³, and 50,118 workers were estimated at exposure risk in the selected industrial sectors. Systematic recording of occupational exposures is a source of data that allows recognition of high risk situations and improvements in exposure assessment for epidemiologic studies. PMID:22577838

  17. Impact of expert versus measurement-based occupational noise exposure estimates on exposure-response relationships

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Melissa C. Friesen; Hugh W. Davies; Aleck Ostry; Kay Teschke; Paul A. Demers

    2008-01-01

    Objective  Expert-judgment has frequently been used to assess quantitative exposure for epidemiologic studies, but accuracy varies widely\\u000a dependent on the type of exposure and the availability of measurements to anchor estimates. There is limited empirical evidence\\u000a of the sensitivity of exposure-response relationships to expert- versus measurement-based exposure assessment strategies.\\u000a We examined the sensitivity of the exposure-response relationship between occupational noise exposure

  18. Achieving Control of Occupational Exposures to Engineered Nanomaterials.

    PubMed

    Juric, Amanda; Meldrum, Richard; Liberda, Eric N

    2015-08-01

    Occupational exposures resulting from Engineered Nanomaterials (ENMs) can pose a challenge for applying traditional risk assessment, control, or evaluation standards. This article discusses the limitations in traditional risk management approaches when it comes to ENM exposures, reviews current monitoring options, and suggests an interim management framework until research can meet the standard of evidence required by legislators. The proposed Nanomaterial Occupational Exposure Management Model (NOEM) offers a pragmatic approach that integrates resources from current academic research to provide a framework that can be applied by both industry and regulators. The NOEM Model focuses on addressing three concerns to exposure management: Risk Assessment, Exposure Control, and Exposure Monitoring. The resources supported for meeting these three components involve the integration of the Control Banding Nanotool and Nano Reference Values, both of which have been piloted and accepted through peer-reviewed processes and industry consultation. PMID:25635953

  19. Effects of paternal occupational exposure on spontaneous abortions.

    PubMed Central

    Lindbohm, M L; Hemminki, K; Bonhomme, M G; Anttila, A; Rantala, K; Heikkilä, P; Rosenberg, M J

    1991-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Paternal exposure to mutagenic agents has been suggested to affect pregnancy outcome adversely. METHODS: A nationwide data base of medically diagnosed spontaneous abortions and other pregnancies and national census data was used to evaluate the effects of men's occupational exposures on risk of spontaneous abortion in 99,186 pregnancies in Finland. Census data from the years 1975 and 1980 provided information about the occupation, industry, and socioeconomic status. A job-exposure classification was developed to classify women and their husbands according to possible occupational exposures on the basis of their occupational title and industry. RESULTS: In 10% of the pregnancies, the husband was exposed to one or more of the mutagens, and the rate of spontaneous abortion was unaffected (OR = 1.0). Of the 25 specific mutagenic exposures evaluated, paternal exposure to four (ethylene oxide, rubber chemicals, solvents used in refineries, and solvents used in the manufacturing of rubber products) was associated with an increased relative risk of spontaneous abortion. In addition, the risk of spontaneous abortion was higher among wives of rubber products workers than among unexposed men. CONCLUSIONS: Although there is some biological rationale for the findings of this study, these findings need to be confirmed by studies in which individual exposures can be measured directly. PMID:1853994

  20. Occup Environ Med . Author manuscript Heavy manual work, exposure to vibration and Dupuytrens disease?'

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    .descatha@rpc.aphp.fr > Abstract Introduction In view of the debate about occupational factors in Dupuytren s disease, the aim ; Occupational Diseases ; etiology ; Occupational Exposure ; adverse effects ; Occupations ; PopulationOccup Environ Med . Author manuscript Page /1 8 Heavy manual work, exposure to vibration

  1. Hairy cell leukaemia and occupational exposure to benzene.

    PubMed Central

    Clavel, J; Conso, F; Limasset, J C; Mandereau, L; Roche, P; Flandrin, G; Hémon, D

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The role of occupational exposures in hairy cell leukaemia (HCL) was investigated through a multicentre, hospital based, case-control study. This paper analyses the role of exposure to benzene in HCL. METHODS: A population of 226 male cases of HCL and 425 matched controls were included in the study. Benzene exposure was evaluated by expert review of the detailed data on occupational exposures generated by case-control interviews. RESULTS: No association was found between HCL and employment in a job exposed to benzene (odds ratio (OR) 0.9 (95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.6-1.3)). The sample included 125 subjects, 34 cases (15%), and 91 controls (21%) who had been exposed to benzene, as individually assessed by the experts, for at least one hour a month during one of their jobs. Benzene exposure was not associated with a risk of HCL (OR 0.8 (0.5-1.2)). No trend towards an increase in OR was detected for increasing exposures, the percentage of work time involving exposure to > 1 ppm, or the duration of exposure. No findings suggested a particular risk period, when the OR associated with the time since first or last exposure, or since the end of exposure, were examined. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, with the low exposures prevalent in the sample, the study did not show any association between benzene exposure and HCL. PMID:8983464

  2. Management of occupational hazards in healthcare: exposure to diphencyprone

    PubMed Central

    Basu, Subhashis; Adisesh, Anil

    2013-01-01

    Diphencyprone is a chemical agent used most commonly in the treatment of alopecia areata. Its mechanism of action is through the sensitisation (type IV immune reaction) of affected areas to stimulate hair follicle growth. The consequences of accidental occupational exposure, however, have not been widely recognised. This report describes the clinical presentation and management of two pharmacy technicians that presented to Sheffield Occupational Health Service (SOHS) centre in 2012. Exposure sources were identified through a workplace visit arranged between the SOHS centre and the hospital's pharmacy; a chemical analysis revealed concentrations of the chemical sufficient to induce sensitisation at several points during the manufacturing process. The case highlights the role of close liaison between specialist services (dermatology and occupational medicine) in managing individual patient cases and mitigating risk within relevant occupational groups. PMID:23417940

  3. Management of occupational hazards in healthcare: exposure to diphencyprone.

    PubMed

    Basu, Subhashis; Adisesh, Anil

    2013-01-01

    Diphencyprone is a chemical agent used most commonly in the treatment of alopecia areata. Its mechanism of action is through the sensitisation (type IV immune reaction) of affected areas to stimulate hair follicle growth. The consequences of accidental occupational exposure, however, have not been widely recognised. This report describes the clinical presentation and management of two pharmacy technicians that presented to Sheffield Occupational Health Service (SOHS) centre in 2012. Exposure sources were identified through a workplace visit arranged between the SOHS centre and the hospital's pharmacy; a chemical analysis revealed concentrations of the chemical sufficient to induce sensitisation at several points during the manufacturing process. The case highlights the role of close liaison between specialist services (dermatology and occupational medicine) in managing individual patient cases and mitigating risk within relevant occupational groups. PMID:23417940

  4. Current employment status, occupational category, occupational hazard exposure, and job stress in relation to telomere length: The Multiethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA)

    PubMed Central

    Fujishiro, Kaori; Diez-Roux, Ana V; Landsbergis, Paul; Jenny, Nancy Swords; Seeman, Teresa

    2014-01-01

    Objective Telomere length has been proposed as a biomarker of cell senescence, which is associated with a wide array of adverse health outcomes. While work is a major determinant of health, few studies have investigated the association of telomere length with various dimensions of occupation. Accelerated cellular aging could be a common pathway linking occupational exposure to several health outcomes. Methods Leukocyte telomere length was assessed using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (Q-PCR) in a community-based sample of 981 individuals (age: 45–84 years old). Questionnaires were used to collect information on current employment status, current or main occupation before retirement, and job strain. The O*NET (Occupational Resource Network) database was linked to the questionnaire data to create 5 exposure measures: physical activity on the job, physical hazard exposure, interpersonal stressors, job control, and job demands. Linear regression was used to estimate associations of occupational characteristics with telomere lengths after adjustment for age, sex, race, socioeconomic position, and several behavioral risk factors. Results There were no mean differences in telomere lengths across current employment status, occupational category, job strain categories or levels of most O*NET exposure measures. There was also no evidence that being in lower status occupational categories or being exposed to higher levels of adverse physical or psychosocial exposures accelerated the association between age and telomere shortening. Conclusions Cellular aging as reflected by shorter telomeres does not appear to be an important pathway linking occupation to various health outcomes. PMID:23686115

  5. Childhood cancer and occupational radiation exposure in parents.

    PubMed

    Hicks, N; Zack, M; Caldwell, G G; Fernbach, D J; Falletta, J M

    1984-04-15

    To test the hypothesis that a parent's job exposure to radiation affects his or her child's risk of cancer, the authors compared this exposure during the year before the child's birth for parents of children with and without cancer. Parents of children with cancer were no more likely to have worked in occupations, industries, or combined occupations and industries with potential ionizing radiation exposure. Bone cancer and Wilms' tumor occurred more frequently among children of fathers in all industries with moderate potential ionizing radiation exposure. Children with cancer more often had fathers who were aircraft mechanics (odds ratio (OR) = infinity, one-sided 95% lower limit = 1.5; P = 0.04). Although four of these six were military aircraft mechanics, only children whose fathers had military jobs with potential ionizing radiation exposure had an increased cancer risk (OR = 2.73; P = 0.01). Four cancer types occurred more often among children of fathers in specific radiation-related occupations: rhabdomyosarcoma among children whose fathers were petroleum industry foremen; retinoblastoma among children whose fathers were radio and television repairmen; central nervous system cancers and other lymphatic cancers among children of Air Force fathers. Because numbers of case fathers are small and confidence limits are broad, the associations identified by this study need to be confirmed in other studies. Better identification and gradation of occupational exposure to radiation would increase the sensitivity to detect associations. PMID:6321012

  6. Occupational exposure to elemental constituents in fingerprint powders

    SciTech Connect

    Van Netten, C.; Souter, F.; Teschke, K.E. (Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada))

    1990-03-01

    Fingerprint detection is an essential component of any crime detection agency. Little information is available regarding the elemental constituents of powders that are available currently. One recent case of lead poisoning coupled with many complaints from the Vancouver identification Squad members initiated a study regarding the elemental composition of, and the occupational exposure to, these powders. Multi-elemental analysis of the powders investigated showed that all contained varying amounts of aluminum, calcium, zinc, iron, magnesium, manganese, and nickel. One powder, however, contained 41% lead. The time spent at the scene of crime during a normal working shift averaged 95.5 min. Assessment of inhalation exposure during this period by personal air sampling pumps never exceeded the occupational exposure standards for these elements. Secondary exposure from dust-contaminated police vehicles and clothing can be an important contributor to overall exposure.

  7. Exposure assessment in industry specific retrospective occupational epidemiology studies.

    PubMed Central

    Seixas, N S; Checkoway, H

    1995-01-01

    Quantitative estimation of exposure for occupational epidemiology studies has received increasing attention in recent years and, as a result, a body of methodological literature has begun to take form. This paper reviews the generic issues in the methodology of exposure assessment, particularly methods for quantitative retrospective assessment studies. A simple framework, termed an exposure data matrix (EDM), for defining and analysing exposure data is proposed and discussed in terms of the definition of matrix dimensions and scales. Several methods for estimation, interpolation, and extrapolation, ranging from subjective ratings to quantitative statistical modelling are presented and discussed. The various approaches to exposure assessment based on the EDM concept are illustrated with studies of lung disease among coal miners and other dust and chemically induced chronic occupational diseases. The advantages of validated statistical models are emphasised. The importance of analysis and control of errors in exposure assessments, and integration of the exposure assessment and exposure-response processes, especially for emerging occupational health issues, is emphasised. PMID:7489051

  8. Occupational PAH exposures during prescribed pile burns.

    PubMed

    Robinson, M S; Anthony, T R; Littau, S R; Herckes, P; Nelson, X; Poplin, G S; Burgess, J L

    2008-08-01

    Wildland firefighters are exposed to particulate matter and gases containing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), many of which are known carcinogens. Our objective was to evaluate the extent of firefighter exposure to particulate and PAHs during prescribed pile burns of mainly ponderosa pine slash and determine whether these exposures were correlated with changes in urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-HP), a PAH metabolite. Personal and area sampling for particulate and PAH exposures were conducted on the White Mountain Apache Tribe reservation, working with 21 Bureau of Indian Affairs/Fort Apache Agency wildland firefighters during the fall of 2006. Urine samples were collected pre- and post-exposure and pulmonary function was measured. Personal PAH exposures were detectable for only 3 of 16 PAHs analyzed: naphthalene, phenanthrene, and fluorene, all of which were identified only in vapor-phase samples. Condensed-phase PAHs were detected in PM2.5 area samples (20 of 21 PAHs analyzed were detected, all but naphthalene) at concentrations below 1 microg m(-3). The total PAH/PM2.5 mass fractions were roughly a factor of two higher during smoldering (1.06 +/- 0.15) than ignition (0.55 +/- 0.04 microg mg(-1)). There were no significant changes in urinary 1-HP or pulmonary function following exposure to pile burning. In summary, PAH exposures were low in pile burns, and urinary testing for a PAH metabolite failed to show a significant difference between baseline and post-exposure measurements. PMID:18515848

  9. Occupational exposure monitoring using breath analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. O. Droz; M. P. Guillemin

    1986-01-01

    Breath analysis has been proposed on numerous occasions for monitoring solvent exposure. Nevertheless, it is still rarely used routinely because of difficulties in the methodology itself (sampling and analysis) and lack of data concerning its relationship to exposure dose. The various methods available today are briefly reviewed, compared, and discussed. Emphasis is on the simultaneous use of COâ as a

  10. Occupational PAH Exposures during Prescribed Pile Burns

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. S. Robinson; T. R. Anthony; S. R. Littau; P. Herckes; X. Nelson; G. S. Poplin; J. L. Burgess

    2008-01-01

    Wildland firefighters are exposed to particulate matter and gases containing polycyclic aro- matic hydrocarbons (PAHs), many of which are known carcinogens. Our objective was to eval- uate the extent of firefighter exposure to particulate and PAHs during prescribed pile burns of mainly ponderosa pine slash and determine whether these exposures were correlated with changes in urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-HP), a PAH

  11. Feasibility of a cohort study on health risks caused by occupational exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to examine the feasibility of performing a cohort study on health risks from occupational exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) in Germany. Methods A set of criteria was developed to evaluate the feasibility of such a cohort study. The criteria aimed at conditions of exposure and exposure assessment (level, duration, preferably on an individual basis), the possibility to assemble a cohort and the feasibility of ascertaining various disease endpoints. Results Twenty occupational settings with workers potentially exposed to RF-EMF and, in addition, a cohort of amateur radio operators were considered. Based on expert ratings, literature reviews and our set of predefined criteria, three of the cohorts were identified as promising for further evaluation: the personnel (technicians) of medium/short wave broadcasting stations, amateur radio operators, and workers on dielectric heat sealers. After further analyses, the cohort of workers on dielectric heat sealers seems not to be feasible due to the small number of exposed workers available and to the difficulty of assessing exposure (exposure depends heavily on the respective working process and mixture of exposures, e.g. plastic vapours), although exposure was highest in this occupational setting. The advantage of the cohort of amateur radio operators was the large number of persons it includes, while the advantage of the cohort of personnel working at broadcasting stations was the quality of retrospective exposure assessment. However, in the cohort of amateur radio operators the exposure assessment was limited, and the cohort of technicians was hampered by the small number of persons working in this profession. Conclusion The majority of occupational groups exposed to RF-EMF are not practicable for setting up an occupational cohort study due to the small numbers of exposed subjects or due to exposure levels being only marginally higher than those of the general public. PMID:19480652

  12. Extensive survey of occupational noise exposure in the metal working industry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. H. Granneman; J. P. J. Oostdijk; F. A. G. M. Schermer

    Many workers in the metal working industry are exposed to high noise levels. An extensive survey regarding occupational noise in this industry has been done to provide adequate information for a proposed agreement between the government of The Netherlands and the representative branches of this industry. The obtained information concerns noise levels due to different activities, average exposure times in

  13. 1-hydroxypyrene as a biomarker of occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in boilermakers.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Sutapa; Rodrigues, Ema; Weker, Robert; Palmer, Lyle J; Christiani, David C

    2002-12-01

    A repeated measures short-term prospective study was performed in boilermakers to determine occupational polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposure using the biomarker, 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP). Two work sites were studied; an apprentice school (metal fume exposure) and a boiler overhaul (residual oil fly ash [ROFA] and metal fume exposure). Pre- and postshift urine samples (n = 241; 41 male subjects) were analyzed for cotinine and 1-OHP. Descriptive statistics and generalized estimating equations were calculated. At the apprentice school cross-shift 1-OHP levels did not significantly differ. At the overhaul 1-OHP levels increased during the week in smokers and nonsmokers; in nonsmokers the 1-OHP level increased significantly postshift compared to preshift. In conclusion this study suggests that boilermakers exposed to occupational particulates are exposed to PAH. The urinary 1-OHP level may be a useful biomarker of PAH exposure in boilermakers exposed to ROFA, particularly in nonsmokers. PMID:12500453

  14. Occupational exposures estimated by means of job exposure matrices in relation to lung function in the PAARC survey.

    PubMed Central

    Le Moual, N; Orlowski, E; Schenker, M B; Avignon, M; Brochard, P; Kauffmann, F

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--The aim of this analysis of the French Cooperative PAARC (Pollution Atmosphérique et Affections Respiratoires Chroniques) survey, was to test whether occupational exposures to dusts, gases, or chemical fumes or to specific hazards, estimated by job exposure matrices, were related to a decrease in forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1). METHODS--The most recent occupation was recorded in adults, aged 25-59, from non-manual worker households. Analysis was restricted to 10,046 subjects whose occupation was encountered at least 10 times in the study and who performed good FEV1 tracings. From occupational title, exposures to dusts, gases, and chemical fumes, and to specific hazards were classified in three categories (no, low, and high) with a British, a French, and an Italian job exposure matrix. Specific hazards were analysed for the British and French job exposure matrices for the same 42 specific dusts, gases, and chemical fumes. To limit spurious associations, a selection of seven hazard groups and 12 specific hazards was set before the start of the analysis. Based on the consistency of the relations according to sex and the British and French job exposure matrices, associations of age, height, city, and smoking adjusted FEV1 score with occupational exposures were classified as very likely, possible, or unlikely. RESULTS--For the three job exposure matrices and both sexes clear exposure-response relations between the level of exposure to dusts, gases, and chemical fumes, and a decrease in FEV1 were found. Associations with FEV1 were classified as very likely for known hazards such as organic dusts and textile dusts, and not previously recognised hazards such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and detergents, and as possible for solvents, waxes and polishes, and diesel fumes. Associations found for PAHs and solvents were confirmed by the Italian job exposure matrix. Associations remained significant in women, but not in men, after adjustment for educational level. CONCLUSIONS--Hypotheses have been generated for exposure to detergents, PAHs, and solvents, but they need to be interpreted with caution before replication. Significant associations found for known risk factors with a decrease in FEV1 are arguments for the validity of the matrices. Despite the expected limitations of job exposure matrices, these results encourage further work to improve exposure assessment by job exposure matrices. PMID:7489052

  15. Occupational Exposure and the Risk of Barrett’s Esophagus: A Case–Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Qureshi, Zeeshan; Ramsey, David; Kramer, Jennifer R.; Whitehead, Lawrence

    2014-01-01

    Background Case–control studies in the United States and Europe have linked occupational exposure to volatile sulfur compounds, solvents, and pesticide to increased risk of esophageal adenocarcinoma. However, the association between occupational exposures and the risk of Barrett’s esophagus (BE) is unclear given the absence of studies in this area. Methods This is a case–control study in patients undergoing endoscopy who were either referred directly or were eligible for screening colonoscopy and recruited from primary care clinics. All participants completed a survey on (1) self-reported occupational exposures to asbestos, metal dust, organic solvents, and pesticides, and (2) self reported longest held job and job-related activities. The latter were assigned by an industrial hygienist who was blinded to the case and control status into one of 99 standard occupational categories used by the US Department of Labor. Each occupational category was then assigned an expected level of exposure to the same four classes of agents in addition to radiation. We compared the self-reported exposure and the expected occupational exposure based on the self-reported occupation between cases with definitive BE and controls without BE. We examined the associations adjusting for age, sex, race, and patient recruitment source in a multivariable logistic regression analysis. Results We examined 226 cases of definitive BE and 1,424 controls without BE. There was a greater proportion of patients with self-reported asbestos exposure in cases than controls (16.2 % vs. 12.0 %; p = 0.08) but no significant differences in metal dust, organic solvents, or pesticides. The multivariate model did not show an independent association between self-reported asbestos exposure and BE. For the calculated occupational exposure, there were no significant differences between cases and controls for asbestos (29.6 % vs. 27.5 %; p = 0.5), metal dust, organic solvents, pesticides, or radiation exposure. Among commonly reported occupation, there were significantly greater proportion of retail sales workers in BE cases than controls (10.8 % vs. 4.9 %; p = 0.01). Conclusions Exposure to asbestos and sedentary jobs may be risk factors for Barrett’s esophagus. Further studies are needed to confirm this finding. PMID:23381104

  16. Risk assessment and management of occupational exposure to pesticides.

    PubMed

    Maroni, M; Fait, A; Colosio, C

    1999-06-30

    Occupational exposure to pesticides in agriculture and public health applications may cause acute and long-term health effects. Prevention of adverse effects in the users requires actions to be undertaken in the pre-marketing and post-marketing phase of these products. The pre-marketing preventive actions are primary responsibility of industry and the public administration. Admission of pesticide use (registration) is carried out by considering the toxicological properties of each pesticide (hazard identification), determining the dose-response relationship (NOEL identification), assessing or predicting the exposure level in the various scenarios of their use, and characterising the risk. The decision about admission takes into consideration the balance between risks and benefits. The post-marketing preventive activities consist of the promotion of a proper risk management at the workplace. Such a management includes the risk assessment of the specific conditions of use, the adoption of proper work practices, and the health surveillance of the workers. Each country should develop an adequate National Plan for Prevention of Pesticide Risk which allocates different roles and tasks at the central, regional and local level. PMID:10414791

  17. Occupational Noise Exposure in the Printing Industry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    KEVIN J. McMAHON; PATRICK E. McMANUS

    1988-01-01

    The noise exposures of 274 printing production workers in 34 establishments in the New York city area were monitored. Results showed that 43% were exposed to 8-hr time-weighted average (TWA) noise exposures of 85 dBA or greater and that 14% were exposed to 8-hr TWAs of 90 dBA or greater. Within the press department, web press workers were exposed to

  18. Reconstruction of occupational mercury exposures at a chloralkali plant

    PubMed Central

    Williams, P; Frumkin, H; Pierce, M; Manning, C; Elon, L; Sanders, A

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To reconstruct historical workplace exposure to mercury (Hg) from 1956 to 1994 at a large chloralkali factory for use in a current epidemiology study of the factory.?METHODS—All job activities of the employees were classified into one of 16 exposure categories, and the dates of changes in the processes were identified. Exposures to Hg for each job category, at each period of the plant's operation, were then reconstructed from several data sources. A job-time period-exposure matrix was created, and the individual exposures of former workers were calculated. Data on exposure to Hg in air were compared with modelled concentrations of Hg in air and data on urinary Hg of the employees.?RESULTS—Within an exposure category, concentrations of Hg in air were fairly constant for the first 20 years of the factory's operation, but began to increase in the late 1970s. Employees working in the cell room had the greatest exposures to Hg. The exposure estimates had significant correlations (p<0.001) with the urinary data and were well within the modelled range of concentrations of Hg in air.?CONCLUSIONS—The highest exposures occurred from 1987 until the plant closed in early 1994 with some exposure categories having time weighted average exposures to Hg greater than 140 µg/m3.???Keywords: mercury; chloralkali; occupational exposure; job exposure matrix PMID:11160985

  19. Association of expired nitric oxide with occupational particulate exposure.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jee Young; Wand, Matthew P; Hauser, Russ; Mukherjee, Sutapa; Herrick, Robert F; Christiani, David C

    2003-05-01

    Particulate air pollution has been associated with adverse respiratory health effects. This study assessed the utility of expired nitric oxide to detect acute airway responses to metal-containing fine particulates. Using a repeated-measures study design, we investigated the association between the fractional concentration of expired nitric oxide (F(E)NO) and exposure to particulate matter with an aerodynamic mass median diameter of less than or equal to 2.5 micro m (PM(2.5)) in boilermakers exposed to residual oil fly ash and metal fumes. Subjects were monitored for 5 days during boiler repair overhauls in 1999 (n = 20) or 2000 (n = 14). The Wilcoxon median baseline F(E)NO was 10.6 ppb [95% confidence interval (CI): 9.1, 12.7] in 1999 and 7.4 ppb (95% CI: 6.7, 8.0) in 2000. The Wilcoxon median PM(2.5) 8-hr time-weighted average was 0.56 mg/m(3) (95% CI: 0.37, 0.93) in 1999 and 0.86 mg/m(3) (95% CI: 0.65, 1.07) in 2000. F(E)NO levels during the work week were significantly lower than baseline F(E)NO in 1999 (p < 0.001). A significant inverse exposure-response relationship between log-transformed F(E)NO and the previous workday's PM(2.5) concentration was found in 1999, after adjusting for smoking status, age, and sampling year. With each 1 mg/m(3) incremental increase in PM(2.5) exposure, log F(E)NO decreased by 0.24 (95% CI: -0.38, -0.10) in 1999. The lack of an exposure-response relationship between PM(2.5) exposure and F(E)NO in 2000 could be attributable to exposure misclassification resulting from the use of respirators. In conclusion, occupational exposure to metal-containing fine particulates was associated with significant decreases in F(E)NO in a survey of workers with limited respirator usage. PMID:12727593

  20. Use of birth certificates to examine maternal occupational exposures and autism spectrum disorders in offspring.

    PubMed

    Windham, Gayle C; Sumner, Austin; Li, Sherian X; Anderson, Meredith; Katz, Elizabeth; Croen, Lisa A; Grether, Judith K

    2013-02-01

    The continuing rise in the prevalence of autism spectrum disorders has led to heightened interest in the role of nongenetic factors, including exogenous exposures, but little research has been conducted. To explore a possible role in autism etiology, we used data available from our prior studies to examine potential occupational exposures, as these may occur at higher levels than environmental exposures. Parental occupation was obtained from birth certificates for 284 children with autism and 659 controls, born in 1994 in the San Francisco Bay Area. Self-reported occupation and industry were coded into eight exposure/chemical groups based on potential neurotoxicity or reprotoxicity by a board-certified physician in occupational medicine and an industrial hygienist blinded to case-control status. Mothers of autistic children were twice as likely to work in occupations considered exposed (14.4%) as mothers of controls (7.2%) (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 2.3 [95% confidence interval {CI} 1.3-4.2]). The exposure categories of the greatest frequency among case mothers were exhaust and combustion products (AOR = 12.0 [95% CI 1.4-104.6]) and disinfectants (AOR = 4.0 [95% CI 1.4-12.0]). Paternal occupational exposure was not associated with autism, potentially consistent with a direct in-utero exposure effect. There are several limitations of this hypothesis-generating study, including lack of detail on workplace and job duties, leading to possible misclassification and low proportion exposed. However, this misclassification would not be biased by case-control status and is unlikely to explain the associations we did find, suggesting that further research on exogenous exposures may yield useful etiologic clues. PMID:23361991

  1. [Health hazards associated with occupational exposure to birds].

    PubMed

    Swiderska-Kie?bik, Sylwia; Krakowiak, Anna; Wiszniewska, Marta; Dudek, Wojciech; Walusiak-Skorupa, Jolanta; Krawczyk-Szulc, Patrycja; Michowicz, Aleksandra; Pa?czy?ski, Cezary

    2010-01-01

    The occupational group particularly exposed to contact with birds are zoo keepers, animal shop workers, individual bird's keepers and food industry workers. Work associated with contact with birds may contribute to the development of different symptoms and diseases, including allergic and contagious ones. This paper reviews the most common allergens occurring in the environment of bird's keepers, namely: feathers, egg proteins, allergens of plant origin, acarinae, allergens from latex and disinfectants. The most common health effects associated with occupational exposure to birds are also presented. Taking account of not fully understood pathogenesis of allergy to these allergens, complexity of occupational exposure and a possible coincidence of non-specific irritant effects of factors present in work environment, the diagnostic and certification procedures for occupational allergic diseases require highly specialized investigations. Objective and subjective medical examinations, taken medical history and physical examination also play a significant role in diagnostics of contagious diseases, whereas different laboratory tests are used in searching for their etiologic factors. The prevention of diseases associated with occupational exposure to birds comprises educational work, technical actions (hygiene prophylaxis) and medical prophylaxis. PMID:20509558

  2. Occupational Exposure to Diagnostic Radiology in Workers without Training in Radiation Safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaona, Enrique; Enríquez, Jesús G. Franco

    2004-09-01

    The physicians, technicians, nurses, and others involved in radiation areas constitute the largest group of workers occupationally exposed to man-made sources of radiation. Personnel radiation exposure must be monitored for safety and regulatory considerations, this assessment may need to be made over a period of one month or several months. The purpose of this study was to carry out an exploratory survey of occupational exposures associated with diagnostic radiology. The personnel dosimeters used in this study were thermoluminiscent dosimeters (TLDs). The reported number of monitored workers was 110 of different departments of radiology of the Mexican Republic without education in radiation safety, included general fluoscopic/radiographic imaging, computed tomography and mammography procedures. Physicians and X-ray technologist in diagnostic radiology receive an average annual effective dose of 2.9 mSv with range from 0.18 to 5.64 mSv. The average level of occupational exposures is generally similar to the global average level of natural radiation exposure. The annual global per capita effective dose due to natural radiation sources is 2.4 mSv (UNSCEAR 2000 Report). There is not significant difference between average occupational exposures and natural radiation exposure for p < 0.05.

  3. NIOSH comments to DOL on Occupational Safety and Health Administration advance notice of proposed rulemaking: Occupational exposure to formaldehyde by J. D. Millar, July 30, 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-07-30

    The testimony contains comments from NIOSH regarding the general format provided by OSHA in the Advanced Notice of Proposed Rulemaking regarding the occupational exposure to formaldehyde (50000). NIOSH recommends an exposure limit of 1 part per million (ppm) as a 30 minute ceiling to protect against the irritative effects of formaldehyde. NIOSH also recommends that the chemical be considered a potential occupational carcinogen and that exposure be kept to the lowest feasible limit. In the case of formaldehyde, it has been established that some workers experience symptoms of irritation as a result of relatively brief exposures at concentrations of 2 ppm. Adherence to an action level would avoid such problems.

  4. Occupational exposure to fluorinated hydrocarbons during refrigeration repair work.

    PubMed

    Gjølstad, Merete; Ellingsen, Dag G; Espeland, Oscar; Nordby, Karl-Christian; Evenseth, Harald; Thorud, Syvert; Skaugset, Nils Petter; Thomassen, Yngvar

    2003-04-01

    This study describes refrigeration repair workers' occupational exposures to halogenated refrigerants, focusing on difluorochloromethane (HCFC 22), tetrafluoroethane (HFC 134a) and a mixture of tri-, tetra- and pentafluoroethane (R404A) in 30 work operations. Unlike earlier reported studies, the present study includes working procedures involving welding in order to measure possible occupational exposure to decomposition products. The measurements included hydrogen fluoride (HF), hydrogen chloride (HCl), phosgene (COCl2) and volatile organic compounds (VOC). The exposures were assessed during work operations on small-scale cooling installations like refrigerators and freezers. The repair workers' occupational exposures to refrigerants were moderate, and the major part of the exposures were associated with specific working procedures lasting for relatively short periods of time (<20 min). During these exposure events the concentrations were occasionally high (up to 42434 mg m(-3)). Although welding operations lasted only for short periods of time, HF was detected in 9 out of 15 samples when HCFC 22, HFC 134a or R404A had been used. Hydrogen chloride was detected in 3 out of 5 samples in air polluted with HCFC 22. Phosgene was not detected. A large number of VOCs in various concentrations were found during welding. Except for the applied refrigerants, halogenated compounds were only found in one sample. PMID:12729261

  5. Occupational Exposures in the Oil and Gas Extraction Industry: State of the Science and Research Recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Witter, Roxana Z.; Tenney, Liliana; Clark, Suzanne; Newman, Lee S.

    2015-01-01

    The oil and gas extraction industry is rapidly growing due to horizontal drilling and high volume hydraulic fracturing (HVHF). This growth has provided new jobs and economic stimulus. The industry occupational fatality rate is 2.5 times higher than the construction industry and 7 times higher than general industry; however injury rates are lower than the construction industry, suggesting injuries are not being reported. Some workers are exposed to crystalline silica at hazardous levels, above occupational health standards. Other hazards (particulate, benzene, noise, radiation) exist. In this article, we review occupational fatality and injury rate data; discuss research looking at root causes of fatal injuries and hazardous exposures; review interventions aimed at improving occupational health and safety; and discuss information gaps and areas of needed research. We also describe Wyoming efforts to improve occupational safety in this industry, as a case example. PMID:24634090

  6. Occupational exposure to anaesthetic gases: a role for TIVA.

    PubMed

    Irwin, Michael G; Trinh, Theresa; Yao, Che-Lin

    2009-07-01

    Modern anaesthesia is still mostly administered by the inhalational route and there is increasing concern over its potential for pollution. One of the first gaseous anaesthetic agents was nitrous oxide and this is still widely used today despite being associated with adverse effects caused by depression of vitamin B(12) function and diminished reproductive health. The use of halothane is associated with hepatitis but the adverse effects of newer halogenated hydrocarbons are less well recognised. Chronic exposure may cause reduction in antioxidant activity in plasma and erythrocytes, inhibition of neutrophil apoptosis, depression of central neuro-respiratory activity, increased DNA breaks, effects on cerebral blood circulation and altered renal function. Inhalational anaesthetics also have adverse environmental effects, including ozone damage and greenhouse gas effects. Levels of inhalational anaesthetics in the ambient air of operating theatres and recovery rooms often exceed those stated in national guidelines. Anaesthetic procedures can be modified and air-conditioning and air scavenging systems should be used to minimise the risks from occupational exposure and threats to the environment. Such contamination could be avoided with the use of total intravenous anaesthesia. PMID:19480607

  7. Biological monitoring of occupational exposure to inorganic arsenic

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Apostoli; D. Bartoli; L. Alessio; J. P. Buchet

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study was undertaken to assess reliable biological indicators for monitoring the occupational exposure to inorganic arsenic (iAs), taking into account the possible confounding role of arsenicals present in food and of the element present in drinking water. METHODS: 51 Glass workers exposed to As trioxide were monitored by measuring dust in the breathing zone, with personal air samplers.

  8. Occupational Exposure to Natural Sources of Ionising Radiation in Ireland

    SciTech Connect

    Organo, Catherine; Colgan, Tony; Fenton, David; Synnott, Hugh; Currivan, Lorraine [Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland, 3 Clonskeagh Square, Dublin 14 (Ireland)

    2008-08-07

    The Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland (RPII) has recently completed a detailed evaluation of all radiation exposure pathways from sources of both natural and artificial radiation in the Irish environment. This paper presents a compilation of the occupational doses received by Irish workers exposed to natural sources of ionising radiation.

  9. Length of occupational noise exposure and blood pressure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thierry Lang; Christiane Fouriaud; Marie-Christine Jacquinet-Salord

    1992-01-01

    Summary A cross-sectional study was performed in the Paris area, with a total of 7901 subjects; 432 of them were exposed to occupational noise = 85 dBA. Noise was measured by the worksite physicians, and length of exposure was collected through interview. The subjects exposed to noise were mainly workers, their body mass index was higher and their job characteristics

  10. Occupational exposures during routine activities in coal-fueled power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Mona J. Bird; David L. MacIntosh; Phillip L. Williams [University of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States). Dept. of Environmental Health Science

    2004-06-15

    Limited information is available on occupational exposures during routine, nonoutage work activities in coal-fueled power plants. This study evaluated occupational exposures to the principal contaminants in the facilities, including respirable dust (coal dust), arsenic, noise, asbestos, and heat stress. The data were collected over a 3-month period, during the summer of 2001, in 5 representative power plants of a large southeastern power-generating company. From 4 of the 5 facilities, 392 air samples and 302 noise samples were collected with approximately 50 respirable coal dust, 32 arsenic, 15 asbestos, and 70 noise samples from each of the 4 plants. One of the previously surveyed facilities was also evaluated for heat stress, and 1 additional coal-fueled power plant was surveyed for a total of 20 personal heat stress samples. Of the nearly 400 air samples collected, only 1 exceeded the allowable occupational exposure value. For the noise samples, 55 were equal to or greater than the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) 8-hour hearing conservation program level of 85 dBA, and 12 were equal to or greater than the OSHA 8-hour permissible exposure level of 90 dBA. The data concluded that some work sites were above the heat stress ceiling values recommended by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). Four of the 20 employees personally monitored exceeded the recommended limits for heart rate or body core temperature.

  11. Occupational exposure to crystalline silica and the risk of lung cancer in Canadian men.

    PubMed

    Kachuri, Linda; Villeneuve, Paul J; Parent, Marie-Élise; Johnson, Kenneth C; Harris, Shelley A

    2014-07-01

    Crystalline silica is a recognized carcinogen, but the association with lung cancer at lower levels of exposure has not been well characterized. This study investigated the relationship between occupational silica exposure and lung cancer and the combined effects of cigarette smoking and silica exposure on lung cancer risk. A population-based case-control study was conducted in eight Canadian provinces between 1994 and 1997. Self-reported questionnaires were used to obtain a lifetime occupational history and information on other risk factors. Occupational hygienists assigned silica exposures to each job based on concentration, frequency and reliability. Data from 1681 incident lung cancer cases and 2053 controls were analyzed using logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (OR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI). Models included adjustments for cigarette smoking, lifetime residential second-hand smoke and occupational exposure to diesel and gasoline engine emissions. Relative to the unexposed, increasing duration of silica exposure at any concentration was associated with a significant trend in lung cancer risk (OR???30 years: 1.67, 1.21-2.24; ptrend ?=?0.002). The highest tertile of cumulative silica exposure was associated with lung cancer (OR?=?1.81, 1.34-2.42; ptrend ?=?0.004) relative to the lowest. Men exposed to silica for ?30 years with ?40 cigarette pack-years had the highest risk relative to those unexposed with <10 pack-years (OR?=?42.53, 23.54-76.83). The joint relationship with smoking was consistent with a multiplicative model. Our findings suggest that occupational exposure to silica is a risk factor for lung cancer, independently from active and passive smoking, as well as from exposure to other lung carcinogens. PMID:24272527

  12. 75 FR 80819 - Draft Current Intelligence Bulletin “Occupational Exposure to Carbon Nanotubes and Nanofibers”

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-23

    ...Number NIOSH 161-A] Draft Current Intelligence Bulletin ``Occupational Exposure to...potential health risks. A draft Current Intelligence Bulletin entitled ``Occupational Exposure...address, telephone number, and relevant business affiliations of the presenter,...

  13. 78 FR 45981 - Occupational Exposure to Noise Standard; Extension of the Office of Management and Budget's (OMB...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-30

    ...OSHA-2010-0017] Occupational Exposure to Noise Standard; Extension...requirements specified in the Occupational Exposure to Noise Standard (29 CFR 1910...requirements contained in the Occupational Exposure to Noise Standard (29 CFR...

  14. 75 FR 24746 - Occupational Exposure to Noise Standard; Extension of the Office of Management and Budget's (OMB...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-05

    ...OSHA-2010-0017] Occupational Exposure to Noise Standard; Extension...requirements specified in the Occupational Exposure to Noise Standard. The information...requirements contained in the Occupational Exposure to Noise Standard (29 CFR...

  15. Occupational exposure through spraying remedial pesticides.

    PubMed

    Garrod, A N; Rimmer, D A; Robertshaw, L; Jones, T

    1998-04-01

    A total of 20 surveys at 15 sites of remedial in-situ timber and masonry treatment took place in the latter half of 1996. Two of these surveys concerned wall washes (biocides), the remainder were non-agricultural pesticides. The purpose was to measure the surface deposition and inhalation exposure of the operatives to the pesticide spray fluids used. The diluted spray fluids were found to have significantly different concentrations from those intended by the sprayer. The pesticides were applied at pressures between 320 and 1050 kPa. Deposition rates for spray fluid on coveralls covered a wide range, with more than 30 fold difference between the median and the highest results (median 209 mg/minute; range 27.4 to 6550 mg/min). Contamination of coveralls occurred in all surveys, with the pesticide getting beneath the coveralls in 95% of surveys, with a median 5% contamination beneath the overall. The averaged and normalised deposition pattern was 75% legs, 11% arms, 12% torso and 2% head. Exposure of hands to pesticide (expressed as spray fluid) beneath protective gloves occurred in 89% of surveys (median 5.78 mg/minute; range 0.23 to 358 mg/min) and contamination of socks by spray fluid in 78% of surveys (median 2.08 mg/minute; range 0.12 to 260 mg/min). Exposure by inhalation to spray fluid was measurable in 72% of surveys (median 53.5 mg/m3 TWA; range 4.33 to 1320 mg/m3; 2 data excluded). Inhalation exposure and deposition on coveralls rose markedly at spray pressures above 700 kPa (100 psi). PMID:9684556

  16. Environmental and biological monitoring of exposure to organophosphorus pesticides: application to occupationally and non-occupationally exposed adult populations.

    PubMed

    Bouvier, Ghislaine; Blanchard, Olivier; Momas, Isabelle; Seta, Nathalie

    2006-09-01

    The purpose of the study was to assess non-dietary exposure of workers and the general population in the Paris area to some organophosphorus (OP) pesticides. In total, 21 workers from different occupational places (two greenhouses, three florist shops and three veterinary departments) and 20 subjects assumed to be non-occupationally exposed were recruited. Indoor air, hand wipes, and three first morning urine samples were collected. Seven OPs were measured by GC/ECD and GC/TSD, and six urinary dialkylphosphate metabolites by GC/PFPD. All indoor air samples from the workplaces and only one-third of the samples from the residences contained at least one of the seven OPs. However, almost all participants were dermally exposed to OPs. Total OP indoor air and cutaneous levels were significantly higher for workers than for the general population (air median = 185 pmol/m3 versus nondetectable, P < 0.0001; hands median = 1250 pmol/hands versus 475 pmol/hands, P = 0.03). From the air, gardeners and florists were mainly exposed to methyl-OPs and veterinary staff to ethyl-OPs (mainly diazinon). From their hands, all subjects were exposed to methyl-OPs, with gardeners and florists exposed to somewhat but not significantly higher levels. Ethyl-OPs were more found frequently and at higher levels on the hands of veterinary workers. Total OP levels in indoor air and from hand wipes were significantly correlated (Spearman R = 0.34, P = 0.03). DAP detection frequencies and levels were not different between workers and the general population (workers median=168 nmol/g creat and general population median = 241 nmol/g creat, P = 0.31), and did not correlate with air or hand levels. Subjects not occupationally exposed showed significant residential exposure to OPs, more frequently from their hands than from the air. Different occupations were associated with different exposure profiles and levels. The lack of differences in DAP levels between the different groups of exposure suggests that dietary exposure to OP residues and exposure to other OPs are involved. PMID:16519410

  17. Occup Environ Med. Author manuscript Occupational exposure to pesticides and lymphoid neoplasms among

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    neoplasms among men: results of a French case-control study Orsi Laurent 1 * , Delabre Laurene 2 , Monnereau between occupational exposure to pesticides and the risk of lymphoid neoplasms (LN) in men. Methods were incident cases with a diagnosis of lymphoid neoplasm aged 18 to 75 years. During the same period

  18. Occupational exposure to carbon black in its manufacture.

    PubMed

    Gardiner, K; Trethowan, W N; Harrington, J M; Calvert, I A; Glass, D C

    1992-10-01

    Carbon black is manufactured by the vapour phase pyrolysis of heavy aromatic hydrocarbon feedstocks. Its manufacture is worldwide and the majority of its production is for use in the rubber industry especially tyre manufacture. Its carbonaceous nature has led many to investigate the occurrence of exposure-related medical conditions. To quantify any such relationships, it is necessary to assess exposure accurately. As part of such an epidemiological investigation survey involving the measurement both of respirable and of total inhalable carbon black was undertaken in 18 plants in seven European countries between mid-1987 and mid-1989. A total of 1298 respirable samples (SIMPEDS cyclone) and 1317 total inhalable samples (IOM head) were taken and deemed of sufficient quality for inclusion in the study. The distributions of the time-weighted average values were assessed and found to be best described by a log-normal distribution, and so exposure is characterized by geometric means and standard deviations. The data are presented in terms of 13 separate job titles for both dust fractions and shows a wide variation between job titles, with the highest mean exposure experienced by the site cleaners, and 30% of the samples taken from the warehouse packers being in excess of the relevant countries' occupational exposure limits for total inhalable dust. The quality and extent of this data allows both for comparison with exposure standards and for generation of occupational exposure indices, which will be presented in another paper (Gardiner et al., in preparation). PMID:1444068

  19. Occupational exposure to dioxins at UK worksites.

    PubMed

    Sweetman, Andy; Keen, Chris; Healy, John; Ball, Elanor; Davy, Colin

    2004-07-01

    Following a request from a Governmental Interdepartmental Group, the Health and Safety Executive undertook a polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (PCDD) and polychorinated dibenzofuran (PCDF) sampling exercise at several work sites in the UK. An initial survey suggested potential PCDD/F production at metal recycling sites, during cement manufacture, at municipal waste incinerators and landfill sites and during the use of thermal oxygen lances. PCDD/F sampling, using static and personal air samplers, revealed that the highest PCDD/F exposures were found at metal recycling sites, particularly aluminium recycling sites. The reasons for these results and the possible consequential intakes are discussed. PMID:15148051

  20. Isocyanate exposure and occupational asthma: a case-referent study

    PubMed Central

    Meredith, S; Bugler, J; Clark, R

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To examine the quantitative relation between exposure to isocyanates and occupational asthma, and to explore the role of atopy and smoking in occurrence of the disease.?METHOD—A case-referent study was undertaken of cases from two manufacturing companies (A and B) from which referents without disease could be selected and reliable exposure measurements were available. In company A, 27 cases mainly attributed to toluene diisocyanate (TDI) were matched to 51 referents on work area, start and duration of employment, sex, and age. Exposures were estimated from existing measurements by job category. In company B there were seven cases attributed to 4,4'-diphenylmethane diisocyanate (MDI) in two areas of the plant; 12 non-cases from the same areas were used as referents. Personal exposure measurements were available for all cases and 11 referents.?RESULTS—No difference in peak exposures between cases and referents was found in either plant; but in both, time weighted average (TWA) exposures at the time of onset of asthma were higher for cases. In A, the mean TWA exposure for cases was 1.5 (95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.2 to 1.8) ppb compared with 1.2 (1.0 to 1.4) ppb for referents. From a matched analysis, the odds ratio (OR) associated with 8 hour TWA exposure to isocyanates greater than 1.125 ppb (the median concentration for the referent group) was 3.2 (95% CI 0.96 to 10.6; p=0.06). Occupational asthma was associated with a pre-employment history of atopic illness (OR 3.5, p=0.04) and, less strongly, with smoking (OR 2.1, p=0.14). In B, small numbers limited analysis, but three of seven cases had at least one TWA exposure measurement greater than 5 ppb compared with one of 11 referents (OR 7.5, p=0.09).?CONCLUSION—Asthma can occur at low concentrations of isocyanates, but even at low concentrations, the higher the exposure the greater the risk. By contrast with other studies, smoking and atopy seemed to increase the odds of occupational asthma due to isocyanates, but did not affect the estimate of risk associated with exposure.???Keywords: occupational asthma; isocyanates PMID:11077012

  1. The health of the workers in a rapidly developing country: effects of occupational exposure to noise and heat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Gomes; O. Lloyd; N. Norman

    2002-01-01

    Occupational hygiene and safety have not been high on the agenda of industrial management in developing countries for a variety of reasons. This cross-sectional study was undertaken to assess the exposure to noise and heat, and to study the level of occupational hygiene practiced, at a foundry in a rapidly developing country (Dubai, United Arab Emirates). Audiometry, muscle cramps and

  2. Complex chlorinated hydrocarbons: occupational exposure in the sawmill industry.

    PubMed

    Kalliokoski, P; Kauppinen, T

    1990-01-01

    Exposure to chlorophenols occurs in the vicinity of the lumber treatment area in sawmills and in subsequent work phases where treated lumber is handled. Measurements from several countries indicate that the concentration of chlorophenols in the workroom air is generally below 0.5 mg/m3, the occupational exposure limit of chlorophenols in many countries. Inhalation usually leads to relatively low concentrations of chlorophenols in urine of exposed workers. Frequent skin contact with chlorophenol solution or with freshly treated lumber can produce urine concentrations 10-100 times higher than among those with inhalatory exposure only. In addition to chlorophenols, exposure to toxic polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans may occur in some tasks carried out in sawmills. Jobs with potentially heavy exposure include the treatment of dipping-vat sludge and processes involving heating of chlorophenols, such as burning of treated waste wood and welding of metal structures contaminated by chlorophenols. PMID:2228138

  3. Occupational Exposure to Crystalline Silica Dust in the United States, 1988–2003

    PubMed Central

    Yassin, Abdiaziz; Yebesi, Francis; Tingle, Rex

    2005-01-01

    The purposes of this study were a) to summarize measurements of airborne (respirable) crystalline silica dust exposure levels among U.S. workers, b) to provide an update of the 1990 Stewart and Rice report on airborne silica exposure levels in high-risk industries and occupations with data for the time period 1988–2003, c) to estimate the number of workers potentially exposed to silica in industries that the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) inspected for high exposure levels, and d) to conduct time trend analyses on airborne silica dust exposure levels for time-weighted average (TWA) measurements. Compliance inspection data that were taken from the OSHA Integrated Management Information System (IMIS) for 1988–2003 (n = 7,209) were used to measure the airborne crystalline silica dust exposure levels among U.S. workers. A second-order autoregressive model was applied to assess the change in the mean silica exposure measurements over time. The overall geometric mean of silica exposure levels for 8-hr personal TWA samples collected during programmed inspections was 0.077 mg/m3, well above the applicable American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists threshold limit value of 0.05 mg/m3. Surgical appliances supplies industry [Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) 3842] had the lowest geometric mean silica exposure level of 0.017 mg/m3, compared with the highest level, 0.166 mg/m3, for the metal valves and pipe fitting industry (SIC 3494), for an 8-hr TWA measurement. Although a downward trend in the airborne silica exposure levels was observed during 1988–2003, the results showed that 3.6% of the sampled workers were exposed above the OSHA-calculated permissible exposure limit. PMID:15743711

  4. Potential Health Effects Associated with Dermal Exposure to Occupational Chemicals

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Stacey E; Meade, B Jean

    2014-01-01

    There are a large number of workers in the United States, spanning a variety of occupational industries and sectors, who are potentially exposed to chemicals that can be absorbed through the skin. Occupational skin exposures can result in numerous diseases that can adversely affect an individual’s health and capacity to perform at work. In general, there are three types of chemical–skin interactions of concern: direct skin effects, immune-mediated skin effects, and systemic effects. While hundreds of chemicals (metals, epoxy and acrylic resins, rubber additives, and chemical intermediates) present in virtually every industry have been identified to cause direct and immune-mediated effects such as contact dermatitis or urticaria, less is known about the number and types of chemicals contributing to systemic effects. In an attempt to raise awareness, skin notation assignments communicate the potential for dermal absorption; however, there is a need for standardization among agencies to communicate an accurate description of occupational hazards. Studies have suggested that exposure to complex mixtures, excessive hand washing, use of hand sanitizers, high frequency of wet work, and environmental or other factors may enhance penetration and stimulate other biological responses altering the outcomes of dermal chemical exposure. Understanding the hazards of dermal exposure is essential for the proper implementation of protective measures to ensure worker safety and health. PMID:25574139

  5. Ethyl benzene should be considered ototoxic at occupationally relevant exposure concentrations.

    PubMed

    Vyskocil, A; Leroux, T; Truchon, G; Lemay, F; Gendron, M; Gagnon, F; El Majidi, N; Viau, C

    2008-05-01

    Organic solvents can produce ototoxic effects in both man and experimental animals. The objective of this study was to review the literature on the effects of low-level exposure to ethyl benzene on the auditory system and consider its relevance for the occupational settings. Both human and animal investigations were evaluated only for realistic exposure concentrations based on the permissible exposure limits. In Quebec, the Time-Weighed Average Exposure Value for 8A h (TWAEV) is 100A ppm (434A mg/m(3)) and the Short-Term Exposure Value for 15A min (STEV) is 125A ppm (543A mg/m(3)). In humans, the upper limit for considering ototoxicity data relevant to the occupational exposure situation was set at STEV. Animal data were evaluated only for exposure concentrations up to 100 times the TWAEV. In workers, there is no evidence of either ethyl benzene-induced hearing losses or ototoxic interaction after combined exposure to ethyl benzene and noise. In rats, ethyl benzene affects the auditory function mainly in the cochlear mid-frequency range and ototoxic interaction was observed after combined exposure to noise and ethyl benzene. Further studies with sufficient data on the ethyl benzene exposure of workers are necessary to make a definitive conclusion. Given the current evidence from animal studies, we recommend considering ethyl benzene as an ototoxic agent. PMID:19022877

  6. Inhalable dust measurements as a first approach to assessing occupational exposure in the pharmaceutical industry.

    PubMed

    Champmartin, C; Clerc, F

    2014-01-01

    Occupational exposure to active ingredients in the pharmaceutical industry has been the subject of very few published studies. Nevertheless, operations involving active powdered drugs or dusty operations potentially lead to operator exposure. The aim of this study was to collect occupational exposure data in the pharmaceutical industry for production processes involving powdered active ingredients. While the possibility of assessing drug exposure from dust level is examined, this article focuses on inhalable dust exposure, without taking chemical risk into account. A total of 377 atmospheric (ambient and personal) samples were collected in nine drug production sites (pharmaceutical companies and contract manufacturing organizations) and the dust levels were assessed. For each sample, relevant contextual information was collected. A wide range of results was observed, both site- and operation-dependent. Exposure to inhalable dust levels varied from 0.01 mg/m(3)to 135 mg/m(3). Though restricted to dust exposure, the study highlighted some potentially critical situations or operations, in particular manual tasks (loading, unloading, mechanical actions) performed in open systems. Simple preventive measures such as ventilation, containment, and minimization of manual handling should reduce dust emissions and workers' exposure to inhalable dust. PMID:24369930

  7. Occupational exposure to mineral fibres: analysis of results stored on colchic database.

    PubMed

    Kauffer, Edmond; Vincent, Raymond

    2007-03-01

    The aim of this paper is to present fibre exposure data recorded on the COLCHIC database. This database consolidates all occupational exposure data collected in French companies by the Caisses Régionales d'Assurance Maladie (regional health insurance funds, CRAM) and the Institut National de Recherche et de Sécurité (national institute for research and safety, INRS). A total of 8029 concentration results, expressed in number of fibres measured by phase-contrast optical microscopy, are available for exposure to asbestos fibres, ceramic fibres and man-made mineral fibres other than ceramic fibres. Presentation of base data by activity branch, activity sector or workplace permits identification of situations, for which prevention efforts are most essential. Analysis of exposure levels during the 1986-2004 period show that these are broadly influenced by changes in the exposure limit values. Wearing of respiratory protection equipment by employees is also discussed. The data may be helpful to occupational physicians performing occupational screening of exposed workers and to epidemiologists seeking information for building job-exposures matrices. In this respect, a database (FIBREX) will be available on the INRS web site (www.inrs.fr) at the beginning of 2007. This database will provide a higher level of detail in activity and workplace description than that which was possible for practical reasons in this paper. PMID:16984948

  8. Bronchial hyperresponsiveness and level of exposure in occupational asthma due to western red cedar (Thuja plicata). Serial observations before and after development of symptoms.

    PubMed

    Chan-Yeung, M; Desjardins, A

    1992-12-01

    Four workers from a cedar sawmill who developed red cedar asthma are described. They had serial measurements of lung function and nonspecific bronchial hyperresponsiveness (NSBH) several years before and after the development of chest symptoms. Measurements of dust concentration and specific IgE antibodies to plicatic acid-human serum albumin (PA-HSA) conjugate were also carried out before the onset of disease. NSBH developed in parallel with the development of asthma and was not present in any of the workers beforehand, indicating that it is not a predisposing host factor. Nasal symptoms preceded chest symptoms in three workers, suggesting that this may be an early marker of the disease. Although dust concentrations for jobs located both inside and outside the sawmill were low, jobs associated with somewhat higher exposures were associated with the initiation of asthma symptoms. PMID:1456584

  9. An analysis of multimodal occupational exposure leading to blood borne infections among health care workers.

    PubMed

    Priya, N Lakshmi; Krishnan, K Usha; Jayalakshmi, G; Vasanthi, S

    2015-01-01

    Occupational exposure poses a significant risk of transmission of blood-borne pathogens to healthcare workers (HCWs). Adherence to standard precautions, awareness about post exposure prophylaxis is poor in developing countries. This retrospective study analyzes the self-reported cases of occupational exposure in a tertiary care hospital. During the study period, 105 HCWs sustained occupational exposure to blood and body fluids. Majority of the victims 36 (34.2%) were interns and the clinical practice that led to the occupational exposure was withdrawal of blood (45.7%). Good infection control practices and emphasis on appropriate disposal are needed to increase the occupational safety for HCWs. PMID:25673596

  10. Occupational lead exposure in Denmark: screening with the haematofluorometer.

    PubMed Central

    Grandjean, P

    1979-01-01

    The zinc protoporphyrin/haemoglobin (ZPP/Hb) ratio was measured in the field with a haematofluorometer. A significant increase in ZPP/Hb ratio with advancing age was found in 1295 men who denied any excess exposure to lead. Ninety-seven per cent of the results were below 110 mumol ZPP/mol Hb(Fe) (4.4 microgram ZPP/g Hb). The ZPP/Hb ratio was determined in a lead-exposed population of 2275 men, and in 305 a blood lead analysis was also performed. A blood lead limit of 2.9 mumol/l (60 microgram/100 ml) corresponds to about 500 mumol ZPP/mol Hb(Fe) (20 microgram/g). This limit was exceeded in workers engaged in secondary lead smelting, storage battery manufacture, car radiator repair, crystal glass manufacture, storage battery repair, ship breaking, metal foundries, the ceramic industry, scrap metal handling, and PVC plastic manufacture. Other occupations caused lower lead exposures with ZPP/Hb ratios between 110 and 500 mumol ZPP/mol Hb(Fe): such ratios were found in men from shooting ranges, in leaded pane manufacturers, gunsmiths, car paint sprayers, type setters, steel rolling mill workers, shipbuilders and welders, car mechanics, lead pigment handlers, and solderers. Increased ZPP/Hb ratios and blood lead levels in 210 workers were associated with a decrease in haemoglobin concentration in the blood. Thus, the haematofluorometer has proved to be very useful for screening purposes. A blood lead determination should be performed if the ZPP/Hb ratio exceeds 300 microgram ZPP/mol Hb(Fe) (12 microgram/g). PMID:444441

  11. Acquired amegakaryocytic thrombocytopenia in a patient with occupational chemical exposure.

    PubMed

    Patel, Monaliben; Kalra, Ankur; Surapaneni, Rakesh; Schwarting, Roland; Devereux, Linda

    2014-01-01

    Acquired amegakaryocytic thrombocytopenia (AAT) is a hematologic disorder that presents as thrombocytopenia with absent megakaryocytes in the bone marrow. Causes of AAT include toxins, drugs, viral infections, systemic lupus erythematosus, and cytokine deficiencies. Patients with AAT should be followed for possible progression to aplastic anemia or myelodysplastic syndrome. We present a case of a 61-year-old woman with AAT due to occupational chemical exposure. PMID:22314209

  12. Occupational exposure to glycol ethers and human congenital malformations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    George Maldonado; Elizabeth Delzell; Rochelle W. Tyl; Lowell E. Sever

    2003-01-01

    ObjectivesThis commentary reviews toxicological information and critically evaluates epidemiological information on the relationship between glycol ethers and congenital malformations.MethodsThe authors identified and assessed toxicological and epidemiological research on glycol ethers used in occupational settings and congenital malformations. Sensitivity analyses evaluated the possible role of methodological problems in explaining the findings of the epidemiological studies.ResultsExposure to certain glycol ethers, including ethylene

  13. Occupational and environmental human lead exposure in Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Paoliello, M.M.B. [Departamento de Patologia, Analises Clinicas e Toxicologicas, Centro de Ciencias da Saude, Universidade Estadual de Londrina, Avenida Robert Koch 60, 86038-440 Londrina, Parana (Brazil)]. E-mail: monibas@sercomtel.com.br; De Capitani, E.M. [Centro de Controle de Intoxicacoes, Hospital Universitario da UNICAMP, Faculdade de Ciencias Medicas, Universidade Estadual de Campinas (Brazil)

    2007-02-15

    The purpose of this paper is to present a review of data on assessment of exposure and adverse effects due to environmental and occupational lead exposure in Brazil. Epidemiological investigations on children lead exposure around industrial and mining areas have shown that lead contamination is an actual source of concern. Lead in gasoline has been phasing out since the 1980s, and it is now completely discontinued. The last lead mining and lead refining plant was closed in 1995, leaving residual environmental lead contamination which has recently been investigated using a multidisciplinary approach. Moreover, there are hundreds of small battery recycling plants and secondary smelting facilities all over the country, which produce focal urban areas of lead contamination. Current regulatory limits for workplace lead exposure have shown to be inadequate as safety limits according to a few studies carried out lately.

  14. Evidence for unapparent Brucella canis infections among adults with occupational exposure to dogs.

    PubMed

    Krueger, W S; Lucero, N E; Brower, A; Heil, G L; Gray, G C

    2014-11-01

    Human serological assays designed to detect brucellosis will miss infections caused by Brucella canis, and low levels of periodic bacteremia limit diagnosis by blood culture. Recent B. canis outbreaks in dogs and concomitant illnesses in caretakers suggest that unapparent human infections may be occurring. With more than a quarter of a million persons in occupations involving dogs, and nearly 80 million dog owners in the United States, this pathogen is an under-recognized human health threat. To investigate occupational exposure to B. canis, we adapted a commercial canine serological assay and present the first controlled seroepidemiological study of human B. canis infections in recent years. 306 adults with occupational exposure to dogs and 101 non-matched, non-canine-exposed subjects were enrolled. Antibodies were detected using the canine D-Tec(®) CB rapid slide agglutination test (RSAT) kit with a secondary 2-mercaptoethanol (ME)-RSAT. Results were validated on a blinded subset of sera with an additional RSAT and indirect enzyme-linked immunoassay at the National Administration of Laboratories and Health Institutes (ANLIS) in Argentina. Seroprevalence ranged from 10.8% (RSAT) to 3.6% (ME-RSAT) among canine-exposed subjects. Kennel employees were more likely to test RSAT seropositive compared with other canine exposures (OR = 2.7; 95% CI, 1.3-5.8); however, low seroprevalence limited meaningful occupational risk factor analyses. Two seropositive participants reported experiencing symptoms consistent with brucellosis and having exposure to B. canis-infected dogs; however, temporality of symptom onset with reported exposure could not be determined. D-Tec(®) CB results had substantial agreement with ANLIS assays (Cohen's kappa = 0.60-0.68). These data add to a growing body of literature suggesting that people occupationally exposed to dogs may be at risk of unapparent B. canis infection. It seems prudent to consider B. canis as an occupational public health concern and encourage the development of serological assays to detect human B. canis infections. PMID:24751191

  15. Association of occupational pesticide exposure with accelerated longitudinal decline in lung function.

    PubMed

    de Jong, Kim; Boezen, H Marike; Kromhout, Hans; Vermeulen, Roel; Postma, Dirkje S; Vonk, Judith M

    2014-06-01

    Cross-sectional studies have shown that occupational exposure to vapors, gases, dusts, and fumes (VGDF) and pesticides is associated with a lower level of lung function. These associations seem to be stronger in ever smokers. In the current study, we aimed to assess whether occupational exposure to VGDF and pesticides is associated with longitudinal decline in lung function. We used 12,772 observations from 2,527 participants in the Vlagtwedde-Vlaardingen Study, a general-population-based cohort study that followed subjects for 25 years, from 1965 to the last survey in 1989/1990. Job-specific exposure was estimated with the ALOHA+ job exposure matrix. Associations between exposures and annual changes in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) and FEV1 as a percentage of inspiratory vital capacity (FEV1%VC) were assessed with linear mixed-effect models including sex, age, and level of lung function at the first measurement and pack-years of smoking at the last measurement. We tested for interaction between smoking and occupational exposure and assessed associations separately for never smokers and ever smokers. Exposure to VGDF was not associated with accelerated lung function decline after adjustment for co-exposure to pesticides. Exposure to pesticides, both in the last-held job and as a cumulative measure, was associated with accelerated decline in FEV1 and FEV1%VC, especially among ever smokers, where we found an excess change in FEV1 of -6.9 mL/year (95% confidence interval: -10.2, -3.7) associated with high pesticide exposure. PMID:24780843

  16. Occupational Noise Exposure among Toll Tellers at Toll Plaza in Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azmi, Sharifah Nadya Syed; Dawal, Siti Zawiah Md; Ya, Tuan Mohammad Yusoff Shah Tuan; Saidin, Hamidi

    2010-10-01

    Toll tellers working at toll plaza have potential of exposure to high noise from the vehicles especially for the peak level of sound emitted by the heavy vehicles. However, occupational exposures in this workplace have not been adequately characterized and identified. Occupational noise exposure among toll tellers at toll plaza was assessed using Sound Level Meter, Noise Dosimeter and through questionnaire survey. These data were combined to estimate the work shift exposure level and health impacts to the toll tellers by using statistical analysis. Noise Dosimeter microphone was located at the hearing zone of the toll teller which working inside the toll booth and full-period measurements were collected for each work shift. The measurements were taken at 20 toll booths from 6.00 am to 2.00 pm for 5 days. 71 respondents participated in the survey to identify the symptoms of noise induced hearing loss and other health related problems among toll tellers. Results of this study indicated that occupational noise exposure among toll tellers for Mean Continuous Equivalent Level, Leq was 79.2±1.4 dB(A), Mean Maximum Level, Lmax was 107.8±3.6 dB(A) and Mean Peak Level, Lpeak was 136.6±9.9 dB. The Peak Level reported statistically significantly at 140 dB, the level of TLV recommended by ACGIH. The research findings indicated that the primary risk exposure to toll tellers comes from noise that emitted from heavy vehicles. Most of the toll tellers show symptoms of noise induced hearing loss and annoyed by the sources of noise at the toll plaza.

  17. Job exposure matrix (JEM)-derived estimates of lifetime occupational pesticide exposure and the risk of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Liew, Zeyan; Wang, Anthony; Bronstein, Jeff; Ritz, Beate

    2014-01-01

    Studies that report an association between Parkinson's disease (PD) and occupational pesticide exposure often use self-reported exposure and none adjust for concomitant ambient pesticide exposure. For a population-based case-control study of PD conducted in California's heavily agricultural region, the authors developed a comprehensive job exposure matrix (JEM) to assess occupational exposure to pesticides. Relying on 357 incident cases and 750 population controls enrolled between 2001 and 2011, the authors estimated more than a 2-fold risk increase for PD among men classified as highly occupationally exposed. The authors also observed an exposure-response pattern and farming tasks with direct and intense pesticide exposures such as spraying and handling of pesticides resulted in greater risks than indirect bystander exposures. Results did not change after adjustment for ambient pesticide exposure. The authors provide further evidence that occupational pesticide exposure increases the risk of PD. PMID:24499252

  18. Occupational and environmental exposures and lung cancer in an industrialised area in Italy

    PubMed Central

    Fano, V; Michelozzi, P; Ancona, C; Capon, A; Forastiere, F; Perucci, C

    2004-01-01

    Aims: To investigate the effects of occupational exposures and residence near to industrial sites on lung cancer mortality in an area in Italy. Methods: 234 cases of lung cancer and 729 controls matched by sex, age, and date of death were enrolled. Environmental exposure was evaluated using historical residence data. A geographical information system was used to compute distances from residence to pollution source (cement factory, power plants, harbour) and an average distance was computed for each subject. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) in a logistic regression model were used to estimate the relative risk of lung cancer associated with the risk factors (smoking habits and occupational exposure) collected by questionnaire; ORs for distances from pollution sources and from city centre were computed, adjusting for smoking habits, education, and occupation. Results: Smoking habits (?10 cigarettes/day, OR = 2.28; 11–20, OR = 4.64; >20, OR = 6.61) and occupational exposure to asbestos (OR = 3.50) were significantly associated with lung cancer risk. Reported traffic level of area of residence and residence near the four sources were not associated with increased risk of lung cancer. There was a significantly increased risk for those residing outside the city centre, in the southern outskirts (OR = 1.51). Conclusions: The increased lung cancer risk observed in the area can partly be explained by occupational exposures. The increased risk in the outskirts of the city is consistent with the results of dispersion models that indicate high levels of pollutant deposition in the same area. PMID:15317916

  19. Occupational Exposure to Ultrafine Particles among Airport Employees - Combining Personal Monitoring and Global Positioning System

    PubMed Central

    Møller, Karina Lauenborg; Thygesen, Lau Caspar; Schipperijn, Jasper; Loft, Steffen; Bonde, Jens Peter; Mikkelsen, Sigurd; Brauer, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    Background Exposure to ultrafine particles (UFP) has been linked to cardiovascular and lung diseases. Combustion of jet fuel and diesel powered handling equipment emit UFP resulting in potentially high exposure levels among employees working at airports. High levels of UFP have been reported at several airports, especially on the apron, but knowledge on individual exposure profiles among different occupational groups working at an airport is lacking. Purpose The aim of this study was to compare personal exposure to UFP among five different occupational groups working at Copenhagen Airport (CPH). Method 30 employees from five different occupational groups (baggage handlers, catering drivers, cleaning staff and airside and landside security) at CPH were instructed to wear a personal monitor of particle number concentration in real time and a GPS device. The measurements were carried out on 8 days distributed over two weeks in October 2012. The overall differences between the groups were assessed using linear mixed model. Results Data showed significant differences in exposure levels among the groups when adjusted for variation within individuals and for effect of time and date (p<0.01). Baggage handlers were exposed to 7 times higher average concentrations (geometric mean, GM: 37×103 UFP/cm3, 95% CI: 25–55×103 UFP/cm3) than employees mainly working indoors (GM: 5×103 UFP/cm3, 95% CI: 2–11×103 UFP/cm3). Furthermore, catering drivers, cleaning staff and airside security were exposed to intermediate concentrations (GM: 12 to 20×103 UFP/cm3). Conclusion The study demonstrates a strong gradient of exposure to UFP in ambient air across occupational groups of airport employees. PMID:25203510

  20. Risk Factors for Breast Cancer, Including Occupational Exposures

    PubMed Central

    Meo, Margrethe; Vainio, Harri

    2011-01-01

    The knowledge on the etiology of breast cancer has advanced substantially in recent years, and several etiological factors are now firmly established. However, very few new discoveries have been made in relation to occupational risk factors. The International Agency for Research on Cancer has evaluated over 900 different exposures or agents to-date to determine whether they are carcinogenic to humans. These evaluations are published as a series of Monographs (www.iarc.fr). For breast cancer the following substances have been classified as "carcinogenic to humans" (Group 1): alcoholic beverages, exposure to diethylstilbestrol, estrogen-progestogen contraceptives, estrogen-progestogen hormone replacement therapy and exposure to X-radiation and gamma-radiation (in special populations such as atomic bomb survivors, medical patients, and in-utero exposure). Ethylene oxide is also classified as a Group 1 carcinogen, although the evidence for carcinogenicity in epidemiologic studies, and specifically for the human breast, is limited. The classification "probably carcinogenic to humans" (Group 2A) includes estrogen hormone replacement therapy, tobacco smoking, and shift work involving circadian disruption, including work as a flight attendant. If the association between shift work and breast cancer, the most common female cancer, is confirmed, shift work could become the leading cause of occupational cancer in women. PMID:22953181

  1. Environmental and Occupational Pesticide Exposure and Human Sperm Parameters: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Martenies, Sheena E.; Perry, Melissa J.

    2013-01-01

    Of continuing concern are the associations between environmental or occupational exposures to pesticides and semen quality parameters. Prior research has indicated that there may be associations between exposure to pesticides of a variety of classes and decreased sperm health. The intent of this review was to summarize the most recent evidence related to pesticide exposures and commonly used semen quality parameters, including concentration, motility and morphology. The recent literature was searched for studies published between January, 2007 and August, 2012 that focused on environmental or occupational pesticide exposures. Included in the review are 17 studies, 15 of which reported significant associations between exposure to pesticides and semen quality indicators. Two studies also investigated the roles genetic polymorphisms may play in the strength or directions of these associations. Specific pesticides targeted for study included dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), and abamectin. Pyrethroids and organophosphates were analyzed as classes of pesticides rather than as individual compounds, primarily due to the limitations of exposure assessment techniques. Overall, a majority of the studies reported significant associations between pesticide exposure and sperm parameters. A decrease in sperm concentration was the most commonly reported finding among all of the pesticide classes investigated. Decreased motility was also associated with exposures to each of the pesticide classes, although these findings were less frequent across studies. An association between pesticide exposure and sperm morphology was less clear, with only two studies reporting an association. The evidence presented in this review continues to support the hypothesis that exposures to pesticides at environmentally or occupationally relevant levels may be associated with decreased sperm health. Future work in this area should focus on associations between specific pesticides or metabolic products and sperm quality parameters. Analysis of effects of varying genetic characteristics, especially in genes related to pesticide metabolism, also needs further attention. PMID:23438386

  2. Parental occupational lead exposure and lead concentration of newborn cord blood

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, J.D.; Shy, W.Y.; Chen, J.S.; Yang, K.H.; Hwang, Y.H.

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of parental occupational lead exposure on the lead levels of newborn cord blood in the Taipei area. From September 1984 to June 1985, 5,000 pregnant women voluntarily participated in the study at the Taipei Municipal Maternal and Child Hospital. Each woman was interviewed regarding her and her husband's occupational exposures; 2,948 successfully delivered healthy newborns, and cord blood samples were obtained using Terumo Venoject, and 242 samples were analyzed by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry using an Instrumentation Laboratory 251 instrument. Nine cord blood samples were from newborns with both parents exposed, 26 samples had maternal exposure only, 105 samples had paternal exposure only, and 102 were nonexposed. The results showed that the average lead level of cord blood with both parents exposed was 8.9 +/- 2.9 micrograms%, maternal exposure 9.0 +/- 3.8 micrograms%, paternal exposure 8.3 +/- 3.4 micrograms%, and 6.9 +/- 3.2 micrograms% in the nonexposed group. There were significant differences between the nonexposed and the maternal exposure groups, and also between the nonexposed and paternal exposure groups. All 26 maternal exposures were from lead soldering operations. Multivariate analysis revealed that, after control of father's exposure status, newborn cord blood lead level increased 0.27 micrograms% for each hour the mother spent on lead soldering during a normal working day, thus suggesting that soldering during pregnancy may be hazardous to newborns. Paternal contribution to the cord blood lead levels seemed to be through either working at home with the pregnant mother also at home or bringing work clothes home for laundering.

  3. Lung Cancer Mortality and Occupational Exposure to Asbestos Among Telephone Linemen: A Historical Cohort Study in France

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Djamila Meguellati-Hakkas; Isabelle Stucker; Joelle Fevotte; Daniele Luce; Pascal Guenel

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The authors studied the mortality by lung cancer in telephone linemen exposed to asbestos at low levels during installation of telephone cables. Methods: Three hundred eight lung cancers deaths were identified in the cohort. Exposure to asbestos and to other occupational carcinogens was assessed using a job-exposure matrix. Results: The relative risk for lung cancer death associated with an

  4. Risk of birth defects by parental occupational exposure to 50 Hz electromagnetic fields: a population based study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K G Blaasaas; T Tynes; A? Irgens; R T Lie

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: To study the risk of birth defects by parental occupational exposure to 50 Hz electromagnetic fields.Methods: The Medical Birth Registry of Norway was linked with census data on parental occupation. An expert panel constructed a job exposure matrix of parental occupational exposure to 50 Hz magnetic fields. Exposure to magnetic fields was estimated by combining branch and occupation into

  5. Parental occupational exposures to endocrine disruptors and the risk of simple isolated congenital heart defects.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chuan; Zhan, Yalan; Wang, Fang; Li, Huaying; Xie, Liang; Liu, Bin; Li, Yifei; Mu, Dezhi; Zheng, Hong; Zhou, Kaiyu; Hua, Yimin

    2015-06-01

    This study aims to explore the associations between parental occupational exposures to endocrine disruptors (EDs) and simple isolated congenital heart defects (CHDs). A case-control study with standardized data collection involving 761 children with isolated CHDs and 609 children without any congenital malformations was conducted in Sichuan Province of China from March in 2012 to August in 2013. An adjusted job exposure matrix was used for occupational EDs exposure assessment. Logistic regression analysis was performed to assess the associations between parental occupational EDs exposures and CHDs. Maternal age at births, maternal education level, gravity, parity, induced abortion, folic acid use, medication use, drinking capacity and area of residence periconceptionally were selected as confounding factors for mothers. For fathers, we selected the following confounding factors: paternal education level, smoking, drinking frequencies and drinking capacity periconceptionally. Maternal occupational exposures to phthalates are associated with perimembranous ventricular septal defect (PmVSD) (P = 0.001, adjusted OR 3.7, 95 % CI 1.7-8.0), patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) (P = 0.002, adjusted OR 3.8, 95 % CI 1.6-8.9), secundum atrial septal defect (s-ASD) (P = 0.008, adjusted OR 3.5, 95 % CI 1.4-8.7) and pulmonary valve stenosis (PS) (P = 0.035, adjusted OR 4.2, 95 % CI 1.1-16.0), to alkylphenolic compounds and PmVSD (P = 0.003, adjusted OR 2.2, 95 % CI 1.3-3.6), PDA (P = 0.005, adjusted OR 2.0, 95 % CI 1.1-3.5) and PS (P = 0.004, adjusted OR 3.8, 95 % CI 1.5-9.4), to heavy metals with PmVSD (P = 0.003, adjusted OR 7.3, 95 % CI 2.0-27.6) and s-ASD (P = 0.034, adjusted OR 6.5, 95 % CI 1.1-36.7). Paternal occupational exposures to phthalates are associated with PmVSD (P = 0.035, adjusted OR 1.6, 95 % CI 1.0-2.4) and PS (P = 0.026, adjusted OR 2.4, 95 % CI 1.1-5.2), to alkylphenolic compounds (P = 0.027, adjusted OR 1.5, 95 % CI 1.0-2.2) with PmVSD. In conclusion, parental occupational exposures to some specific EDs, in particular phthalates and alkylphenolic compounds, are associated with an increased risk of some CHD phenotypes. However, the findings need to be considered more circumspectly regarding a crude measure of exposure probabilities and small numbers. PMID:25628158

  6. Occupational exposure to chrome VI compounds in French companies: results of a national campaign to measure exposure (2010-2013).

    PubMed

    Vincent, Raymond; Gillet, Martine; Goutet, Pierre; Guichard, Christine; Hédouin-Langlet, Catherine; Frocaut, Anne Marie; Lambert, Pierre; Leray, Fabrice; Mardelle, Patricia; Dorotte, Michel; Rousset, Davy

    2015-01-01

    A campaign to measure exposure to hexavalent chromium compounds was carried out in France by the seven CARSAT chemistry laboratories, CRAMIF laboratory, and INRS over the 2010-2013 period. The survey included 99 companies involved in various activity sectors. The inhalable fraction of airborne particles was sampled, and exposure levels were determined using ion chromatography analysis combined with post-column derivatization and UV detection. The quality of the measurement results was guaranteed by an inter-laboratory comparison system involving all the laboratories participating in this study. Exposure levels frequently exceeded the French occupational exposure limit value (OELV) of 1 µg m(-3), in activities such as thermal metallization and manufacturing and application of paint in the aeronautics sector. The results also reveal a general trend for a greater proportion of soluble Chromium VI (Cr VI) compounds compared with insoluble compounds. Qualitative and quantitative information relating to the presence of other metallic compounds in the air of workplaces is also provided, for example for Cr III, Ni, Fe, etc. The sampling strategy used and the measurement method are easy to implement, making it possible to check occupational exposure with a view to comparing it to an 8 h-OELV of 1 µg m(-3). PMID:25381441

  7. Parental occupational exposure to pesticides and childhood brain cancer.

    PubMed

    van Wijngaarden, Edwin; Stewart, Patricia A; Olshan, Andrew F; Savitz, David A; Bunin, Greta R

    2003-06-01

    The authors examined the risk of childhood brain cancer in relation to parental exposure to classes of pesticides among 154 children diagnosed with astrocytoma and 158 children diagnosed with primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNET) in the United States and Canada between 1986 and 1989. Controls were selected by random digit dialing and were individually matched to cases by race, age, and geographic area. Each job in the fathers' work history and the usual occupation of mothers were assigned a probability, intensity, and frequency of exposure to insecticides, herbicides, and agricultural and nonagricultural fungicides. Elevated risks of astrocytoma were found for paternal exposure (ever vs. never) to all four classes of pesticides (odds ratio (OR) = 1.4-1.6). An increased risk of PNET was observed for only herbicides (OR = 1.5). For mothers, odds ratios for astrocytoma were elevated for insecticides, herbicides, and nonagricultural fungicides (OR = 1.3-1.6) but not agricultural fungicides (OR = 1.0). No indication was found of an increased risk for PNET. There was little indication for an association with cumulative and average parental exposure. Most risk estimates were around unity, and exposure-response patterns were absent. Overall, it seems unlikely that parental exposure to pesticides plays an important role in the etiology of childhood brain cancer. PMID:12777362

  8. Occupational Exposure to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Airborne Particulate Matter: Validation and Application of a Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry Analytical Method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marzia Fioretti; Tamara Catrambone; Andrea Gordiani; Renato Cabella

    2010-01-01

    This study concerns the validation of an analytical method for the measurement of occupational exposure to trace levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in airborne particulate matter (APM). Personal exposure to selected PAHs of five workers occupationally exposed to urban pollution in Rome, Italy, was evaluated. The samples were collected over 10 days evenly distributed during winter and summer of

  9. Occupational exposure and cancer of the pancreas: a review.

    PubMed Central

    Pietri, F; Clavel, F

    1991-01-01

    Many hypotheses have been proposed about the aetiology of cancer of the pancreas, especially concerning the effects of tobacco, coffee, alcohol, diet, and pancreatic pathology. Results of numerous epidemiological studies are, however, inconsistent. Chemical carcinogens have been implicated as possible risk factors. Animal studies have been carried out to determine the role of these chemical factors but, except for nitrosamines and their derivatives (components of tobacco), chemicals have not been proved carcinogenic for the pancreas. Many studies have also been conducted among occupational groups. Several of them showed an excess risk of cancer of the pancreas, especially in the chemical and petroleum industries. The lack of accuracy about the nature of products used, however, does not permit a definitive conclusion as to their carcinogenic role. This paper is a review of publications about occupational exposures and cancer of the pancreas. PMID:1911399

  10. [Predictive models for the assessment of occupational exposure to chemicals: a new challenge for employers].

    PubMed

    Gromiec, Jan Piotr; Kupczewska-Dobecka, Ma?gorzata; Jankowska, Agnieszka; Czerczak, S?awomir

    2013-01-01

    Employers are obliged to carry out and document the risk associated with the use of chemical substances. The best but the most expensive method is to measure workplace concentrations of chemicals. At present no "measureless" method for risk assessment is available in Poland, but predictive models for such assessments have been developed in some countries. The purpose of this work is to review and evaluate the applicability of selected predictive methods for assessing occupational inhalation exposure and related risk to check the compliance with Occupational Exposure Limits (OELs), as well as the compliance with REACH obligations. Based on the literature data HSE COSHH Essentials, EASE, ECETOC TRA, Stoffenmanager, and EMKG-Expo-Tool were evaluated. The data on validation of predictive models were also examined. It seems that predictive models may be used as a useful method for Tier 1 assessment of occupational exposure by inhalation. Since the levels of exposure are frequently overestimated, they should be considered as "rational worst cases" for selection of proper control measures. Bearing in mind that the number of available exposure scenarios and PROC categories is limited, further validation by field surveys is highly recommended. Predictive models may serve as a good tool for preliminary risk assessment and selection of the most appropriate risk control measures in Polish small and medium size enterprises (SMEs) providing that they are available in the Polish language. This also requires an extensive training of their future users. PMID:24502133

  11. Occupational Exposure to Chromium of Assembly Workers in Aviation Industries.

    PubMed

    Genovese, G; Castiglia, L; Pieri, M; Novi, C; d'Angelo, R; Sannolo, N; Lamberti, M; Miraglia, N

    2015-08-01

    Aircraft are constructed by modules that are covered by a "primer" layer, which can often contain hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)], known carcinogen to humans. While the occupational exposure to Cr(VI) during aircraft painting is ascertained, the exposure assessment of assembly workers (assemblers) requires investigations. Three biological monitoring campaigns (BM-I,II,III) were performed in an aviation industry, on homogeneous groups of assemblers (N = 43) and controls (N = 23), by measuring chromium concentrations in end-shift urine collected at the end of the working week and the chromium concentration difference between end- and before-shift urines. BM-I was conducted on full-time workers, BM-II was performed on workers after a 3-4 day absence from work, BM-III on workers using ecoprimers with lower Cr(VI) content. Samples were analyzed by atomic absorption spectroscopy and mean values were compared by T-test. Even if Cr concentrations measured during BM-I were lower than Biological Exposure Indices by ACGIH, statistically significant differences were found between urinary Cr concentrations of workers and controls. Despite 3-4 days of absence from work, urinary chromium concentrations measured during BM-II were still higher than references from nonoccupationally exposed populations. In the BM-III campaign, the obtained preliminary results suggested the efficacy of using ecoprimers. The healthcare of workers exposed to carcinogenic agents follows the principle of limiting the exposure to "the minimum technically possible". The obtained results evidence that assemblers of aviation industries, whose task does not involve the direct use of primers containing Cr(VI), show an albeit slight occupational exposure to Cr(VI), that must be carefully taken into consideration in planning suitable prevention measures during risk assessment and management processes. PMID:25793365

  12. Occupational radiation Exposure at Agreement State-Licensed Materials Facilities, 1997-2010

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research

    2012-07-07

    The purpose of this report is to examine occupational radiation exposures received under Agreement State licensees. As such, this report reflects the occupational radiation exposure data contained in the Radiation Exposure Information and Reporting System (REIRS) database, for 1997 through 2010, from Agreement State-licensed materials facilities.

  13. Changes in the peripheral blood transcriptome associated with occupational benzene exposure identified by cross-comparison on two microarray platforms

    E-print Network

    Ajo-Franklin, Jonathan

    Changes in the peripheral blood transcriptome associated with occupational benzene exposure Available online 20 January 2009 Keywords: Benzene exposure Gene expression Human blood Toxicogenomics expression changes associated with well-characterized occupational benzene exposure in the peripheral blood

  14. NIOSH comments to DOL on the Occupational Safety and Health Administration's proposed rule on occupational exposure to cadmium

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-05-07

    The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) has issued their response to the Occupational Safety and Health Administration's (OSHA) proposed rule on occupational exposure to cadmium. The response includes a NIOSH policy statement followed by responses to specific sections of the proposed rule, including medical surveillance and screening requirements, sampling, monitoring frequency, risk assessment models currently in use, and NIOSH's response to OSHA questions.

  15. Validity of Expert Assigned Retrospective Estimates of Occupational Polychlorinated Biphenyl Exposure.

    PubMed

    DellaValle, Curt T; Purdue, Mark P; Ward, Mary H; Locke, Sarah J; Stewart, Patricia A; De Roos, Anneclaire J; Hartge, Patricia; Rothman, Nathanial; Friesen, Melissa C

    2015-06-01

    Assessment of retrospective exposures based on expert judgment in case-control studies is usually of unknown validity because of the difficulty in finding gold standards for comparison. We investigated the relationship between expert-assigned retrospective occupational polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) exposure estimates and serum PCB concentrations. Analyses were conducted on a subset of cases (n = 94) and controls (n = 96) in the multi-center National Cancer Institute, Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Case-Control Study of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Based on the subjects' lifetime work histories, an industrial hygienist assigned each job a probability of PCB exposure [<5% (unexposed), 5-<50% (possibly exposed), ?50% (probably exposed)]. Ordinary least squares regression was used to investigate associations between the probability rating and log-transformed lipid-adjusted serum levels of 14 PCB congeners and total PCBs (?PCBs). Compared to unexposed participants (n = 163), those with a probably exposed job (n = 7) had serum levels that were 87% higher for ?PCBs (95% confidence interval: 1.33-2.62) and 38% of serum level variability was explained by the probability rating. Statistically significant associations between probability ratings and serum levels for 12 of 14 individual congeners were also observed. In summary, the observed contrast in PCB serum levels by probability rating provides support for the occupational PCB exposure assessment. PMID:25737332

  16. Occupational exposure to environmental tobacco smoke: a study in Lisbon restaurants.

    PubMed

    Pacheco, Solange A; Aguiar, Fátima; Ruivo, Patrícia; Proença, Maria Carmo; Sekera, Michael; Penque, Deborah; Simões, Tânia

    2012-01-01

    Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), also referred to as secondhand smoke (SHS), is a major threat to public health and is increasingly recognized as an occupational hazard to workers in the hospitality industry. Therefore, several countries have implemented smoke-free regulations at hospitality industry sites. In Portugal, since 2008, legislation partially banned smoking in restaurants and bars but until now no data have been made available on levels of indoor ETS pollution/exposure at these locations. The aim of this study was to examine the occupational exposure to ETS/SHS in several restaurants in Lisbon, measured by indoor fine particles (PM(2.5)) and urinary cotinine concentration in workers, after the partial smoking ban in Portugal. Results showed that the PM(2.5) median level in smoking designated areas was 253 ?g/m³, eightfold higher than levels recorded in canteens or outdoor. The nonsmoking rooms of mixed restaurants exhibited PM(2.5) median level of 88 ?g/m³, which is higher than all smoke-free locations studied, approximately threefold greater than those found in canteens. Importantly, urinary cotinine concentrations were significantly higher in nonsmoker employees working in those smoking designated areas, confirming exposure to ETS. The proportion of smokers in those rooms was found to be significantly positively correlated with nonsmoker urinary cotinine and indoor PM(2.5) levels, establishing that both markers were occupational-ETS derived. The use of reinforced ventilation systems seemed not to be sufficient to decrease the observed ETS pollution/exposure in those smoking locations. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that the partial restrictions on smoking in Portuguese venues failed to provide adequate protection to their employees, irrespective of protective measures used. Therefore, a smoke-free legislation protecting individuals from exposure to ETS/SHS in all public places and workplaces is urgently needed in Portugal. PMID:22788372

  17. Occupational exposure to inhalable wood dust in the member states of the European Union.

    PubMed

    Kauppinen, Timo; Vincent, Raymond; Liukkonen, Tuula; Grzebyk, Michel; Kauppinen, Antti; Welling, Irma; Arezes, Pedro; Black, Nigel; Bochmann, Frank; Campelo, Filipe; Costa, Manuel; Elsigan, Gerhard; Goerens, Robert; Kikemenis, Anastasia; Kromhout, Hans; Miguel, Sérgio; Mirabelli, Dario; McEneany, Roisin; Pesch, Beate; Plato, Nils; Schlünssen, Vivi; Schulze, Johannes; Sonntag, Roland; Verougstraete, Violaine; De Vicente, Maria Angeles; Wolf, Joachim; Zimmermann, Marta; Husgafvel-Pursiainen, Kirsti; Savolainen, Kai

    2006-08-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate occupational exposure to inhalable wood dust by country, industry, the level of exposure and type of wood dust in 25 member states of the European Union (EU-25) for the purposes of hazard control, exposure surveillance and assessment of health risks. National labour force statistics, a country questionnaire (in 15 member states, EU-15), a company survey (in Finland, France, Germany and Spain), exposure measurements (from Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, The Netherlands and the United Kingdom) and expert judgements were used to generate preliminary estimates of exposure to different types of wood dust. The estimates were generated according to industrial class (six wood industries, four other sectors) and level of exposure (five classes). These estimates were reviewed and finalized by national experts from 15 member states. Crude estimates were generated also for 10 new member states (EU-10). The basic data and final estimates were included in the WOODEX database. In 2000-2003, about 3.6 million workers (2.0% of the employed EU-25 population) were occupationally exposed to inhalable wood dust. Of those, construction employed 1.2 million exposed workers (33%), mostly construction carpenters. The numbers of exposed workers were 700,000 (20%) in the furniture industry, 300,000 (9%) in the manufacture of builders' carpentry, 200,000 (5%) in sawmilling, 150,000 (4%) in forestry and <100,000 in other wood industries. In addition, there were 700,000 exposed workers (20%) in miscellaneous industries employing carpenters, joiners and other woodworkers. The numbers of exposed workers varied by country ranging from <3,000 in Luxembourg and Malta to 700,000 in Germany. The highest exposure levels were estimated to occur in the construction sector and furniture industry. Due to limited exposure data there was considerable uncertainty in the estimates concerning construction woodworkers. About 560,000 workers (16% of the exposed) may be exposed to a level exceeding 5 mg m(-3). Mixed exposure to more than one species of wood and dust from wooden boards was very common, but reliable data on exposure to different species of wood could not be retrieved. This kind of assessment procedure integrating measurement data, company data, country-specific data and expert judgement could also serve as one model for the assessment of other occupational exposures. PMID:16571638

  18. Paternal occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields and neuroblastoma in offspring

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkins, J.R. 3d.; Hundley, V.D. (Ohio State Univ., Columbus (USA))

    1990-06-01

    Investigators in Texas have reported an association between paternal employment in jobs linked with exposure to electromagnetic fields and risk of neuroblastoma in offspring. In an attempt to replicate this finding, the authors conducted a case-control study in Ohio. A total of 101 incident cases of neuroblastoma were identified through the Columbus (Ohio) Children's Hospital Tumor Registry. All cases were born sometime during the period 1942-1967. From a statewide roster of birth certificates, four controls were selected for each case, with individual matching on the case's year of birth, race, and sex, and the mother's county of residence at the time of the (index) child's birth. Multiple definitions were employed to infer the potential for paternal occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields from the industry/occupation statements on the birth certificates. Case-control comparisons revealed adjusted odds ratios ranging in magnitude from 0.5 to 1.9. For two of the exposure definitions employed--both of which are similar to one used by the Texas investigators--the corresponding odds ratios were modestly elevated (odds ratios = 1.6 and 1.9). Notably, the magnitude of these odds ratios is not inconsistent with the Texas findings, where the exposure definition referred to yielded an odds ratio of 2.1. Because the point estimates in this study are imprecise, and because the biologic plausibility of the association is uncertain, the results reported here must be interpreted cautiously. However, the apparent consistency between two independent studies suggests that future evaluation of the association is warranted.

  19. Environmental and biological monitoring of exposure to organophosphorus pesticides: Application to occupationally and non-occupationally exposed adult populations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ghislaine Bouvier; Olivier Blanchard; Isabelle Momas; Nathalie Seta

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to assess non-dietary exposure of workers and the general population in the Paris area to some organophosphorus (OP) pesticides. In total, 21 workers from different occupational places (two greenhouses, three florist shops and three veterinary departments) and 20 subjects assumed to be non-occupationally exposed were recruited. Indoor air, hand wipes, and three first morning

  20. Application of statistical models for secondary data usage of the US Navy's Occupational Exposure Database (NOED).

    PubMed

    Formisano, J A; Still, K; Alexander, W; Lippmann, M

    2001-02-01

    Many organizations around the world have collected data related to individual worker exposures that are used to determine compliance with workplace standards. These data are often warehoused and thereafter rarely used as an information resource. Using appropriate groupings and analysis of OSHA data, Gómez showed that such stored data can provide additional insight on factors affecting occupational exposures. Using data from the Occupational Exposure Database of the United States Navy, the usefulness of statistical models for defining probabilities of exposure above permissible limits for observed work conditions is examined. Analyses have highlighted worker Similar Exposure Groups (SEGs) with potential for overexposure to asbestos and lead. In terms of grouping data, Rappaport et al. defined the Within-Between Lognormal Model, a scale-independent measure for quantifying between-worker variability within a selected worker group: (B)R.95 = exp[3.92s(sB)], representing the ratio of arithmetic mean exposures received by workers in the 97.5th and 2.5th percentiles. To help search for groups, the Proportional Odds Model, a generalization of the logistic model to ordinal data, can predict probabilities for group exposure above the Occupational Exposure Limit (OEL), or the Action Level (AL), which is one-half of the OEL. Worker SEGs have been identified for asbestos workers removing friable asbestos ((B)R.95 = 11.0) and nonfriable asbestos ((B)R.95 = 6.5); metal cleaning workers sandingspecialized equipment ((B)R.95 = 11.3), and workers at target shooting ranges cleaning up lead debris ((B)R.95 = 10). Estimated probabilities for the categories OEL support current understanding of work processes examined. Differences in probability noted between tasks and levels of ventilation validate this method for evaluating other available workplace exposure determinants, and for predicting probability of membership in categories that may help further define worker exposure groups, and determinants of excessive exposures. Thus, analyses of retrospective exposure data can help identify work site and work practice factors for efficient targeting of remediation resources. PMID:11217712

  1. Urinary hexane diamine as an indicator of occupational exposure to hexamethylene diisocyanate.

    PubMed

    Maître, A; Berode, M; Perdrix, A; Stoklov, M; Mallion, J M; Savolainen, H

    1996-01-01

    The occupational exposure of 19 men to hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI) vapour was monitored during one 8-h shift. It ranged from 0.30 to 97.7 micrograms/m3. This was compared with the urinary output of hexane diamine (HDA) liberated by acid hydrolysis from its conjugates in post-shift samples. The excretion varied from 1.36 to 27.7 micrograms g creatinine, and there was a linear association of HDI air concentration with urinary HDA excretion. The validity of the urinary analysis was confirmed by simultaneous blind analysis in another laboratory. The results had an excellent linear concordance. Thus, it seems that while the gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric detection method requires sophisticated apparatus, the results are very useful to occupational health practices. A biological exposure index limit of 19 micrograms HDA/g creatinine in a post-shift urine specimen is proposed as an occupational limit level of HDI monomer (time-weighted average = 75 micrograms/m3). Most importantly, biological monitoring of HDA is sensitive enough to be used at and below the current allowable exposure limit levels. PMID:9017437

  2. Occupational Level and Holland's Theory for Employed Men and Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spokane, Arnold R.; Walsh, W. Bruce

    1978-01-01

    Investigated occupational level differences among men and women employed in Enterprising environments using the Vocational Preference Inventory (VPI) and the Self Directed Search (SDS). All workers (N=84) were employed in Enterprising environments. Findings showed high occupational level workers tend to be more differentiated and more masculine…

  3. NIOSH testimony to DOL on the Occupational Safety and Health Administration's proposed rule on occupational exposure to cadmium by R. A. Lemen, July 17, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-07-17

    The testimony summarizes the position of NIOSH in support of the proposed rule on cadmium (7440439). NIOSH supports the position of OSHA that exposure to cadmium is associated with increased incidence of lung cancer, emphysema, and kidney dysfunction. Because cadmium is a potential occupational carcinogen, occupational exposures to cadmium should be reduced to the lowest feasible level. NIOSH strongly recommends the use of engineering controls and work practices instead of personal protective equipment, including respiratory protection, for controlling exposures to cadmium. NIOSH responds in this testimony to specific areas covered in the proposed rule including respiratory protection, medical surveillance, medical screening requirements, and exposure monitoring frequency. Use of specific control methods is considered for cadmium plating operations, stabilizer production, and pigment production.

  4. Development of a National Occupational Exposure Survey and Database Associated with NIOSH Hazard Surveillance Initiatives

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James M. Boiano; R. Delon Hull

    2001-01-01

    NIOSH pioneered hazard surveillance in the workplace by designing and conducting the 1972 to 1974 National Occupational Hazard Survey (NOHS), the 1981 to 1983 National Occupational Exposure Survey (NOES), and the 1984 to 1989 National Occupational Health Survey of Mining (NOHSM). The databases developed from these three on-site surveys represent unique resources for associating potential chemical, physical and biological agents

  5. Contributions of Non-occupational Activities to Total Noise Exposure of Construction Workers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    RICHARD NEITZEL; NOAH SEIXAS; BRYAN GOLDMAN; WILLIAM DANIELL

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes how exposures received during routine and episodic non-occupational activities contribute to total noise exposure in a group of occupationally exposed workers. Two- hundred and sixty-six construction apprentices enrolled in a longitudinal hearing loss study and completed questionnaires at 1 yr of follow-up to determine their episodic activities (e.g. concert attendance, power tool use, firearms exposure). Noise exposure

  6. 30 CFR 62.130 - Permissible exposure level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...UNIFORM MINE HEALTH REGULATIONS OCCUPATIONAL NOISE EXPOSURE § 62.130 Permissible...exposed during any work shift to noise that exceeds the permissible exposure...during any work shift a miner's noise exposure exceeds the...

  7. 30 CFR 62.130 - Permissible exposure level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...UNIFORM MINE HEALTH REGULATIONS OCCUPATIONAL NOISE EXPOSURE § 62.130 Permissible...exposed during any work shift to noise that exceeds the permissible exposure...during any work shift a miner's noise exposure exceeds the...

  8. 30 CFR 62.130 - Permissible exposure level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...UNIFORM MINE HEALTH REGULATIONS OCCUPATIONAL NOISE EXPOSURE § 62.130 Permissible...exposed during any work shift to noise that exceeds the permissible exposure...during any work shift a miner's noise exposure exceeds the...

  9. 30 CFR 62.130 - Permissible exposure level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...UNIFORM MINE HEALTH REGULATIONS OCCUPATIONAL NOISE EXPOSURE § 62.130 Permissible...exposed during any work shift to noise that exceeds the permissible exposure...during any work shift a miner's noise exposure exceeds the...

  10. Occupational Radiation Exposure at Commercial Nuclear Power Reactors and Other Facilities 2008

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research

    2009-12-01

    This report summarizes the occupational exposure data that are maintained in the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Radiation Exposure Information and Reporting System (REIRS). The bulk of the information contained in the report was compiled from the 2008 annual reports submitted by five of the seven categories1 of NRC licensees subject to the reporting requirements of 10 CFR 20.2206. The annual reports submitted by these licensees consist of radiation exposure records for each monitored individual. These records are analyzed for trends and presented in this report in terms of collective dose and the distribution of dose among the monitored individuals. Because there are no geologic repositories for high-level waste currently licensed and no low-level waste disposal facilities in operation, only five categories will be considered in this report.

  11. The three most common occupational exposures reported by pregnant women: A update

    SciTech Connect

    Bentur, Y.; Koren, G. (Motherisk Program, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario (Canada))

    1991-08-01

    Many uncertainties exist in regard to counseling women with occupational exposures during pregnancy. This is due to limited knowledge of the reproductive toxicologic effects of industrial agents, lack of safety standards aimed at protecting the fetus, and limitations in assessing the extent of exposure. The approach to this subject taken by the Motherisk Program and a review of the three most common occupational exposures are presented. Epidemiologic studies and measurements of radiation do not suggest a reproductive hazard for video display terminals. Exposure to organic solvents is hard to quantitate, and information is sparse and sometimes contradictory, and therapeutic decisions are difficult to reach. To date there is no convincing evidence that working with organic solvents within safety regulations would harm a fetus, in contradistinction to detrimental fetal effects of solvent abuse. The reproductive risks of lead are well documented, fetal exposure can be assessed, and effective treatment exists, but its effects on the pregnancy have not been fully established. However, new evidence suggests that maternal levels that are much lower than the accepted adult limits may be damaging to the fetus. 107 references.

  12. 28 CFR 544.52 - Levels of Occupational Education Programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...and the classroom level. Each level may include the following types of training: (a) Exploratory Training. Exploratory training is a study of occupations and industries for the purpose of providing the student with a general...

  13. 28 CFR 544.52 - Levels of Occupational Education Programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...and the classroom level. Each level may include the following types of training: (a) Exploratory Training. Exploratory training is a study of occupations and industries for the purpose of providing the student with a general...

  14. 28 CFR 544.52 - Levels of Occupational Education Programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...and the classroom level. Each level may include the following types of training: (a) Exploratory Training. Exploratory training is a study of occupations and industries for the purpose of providing the student with a general...

  15. 28 CFR 544.52 - Levels of Occupational Education Programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...and the classroom level. Each level may include the following types of training: (a) Exploratory Training. Exploratory training is a study of occupations and industries for the purpose of providing the student with a general...

  16. 28 CFR 544.52 - Levels of Occupational Education Programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...and the classroom level. Each level may include the following types of training: (a) Exploratory Training. Exploratory training is a study of occupations and industries for the purpose of providing the student with a general...

  17. Revisiting the NIOSH Criteria for a Recommended Standard: Occupational Noise Exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, William J.; Franks, John R.

    2002-05-01

    In 1998, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) revised the Criteria for a Recommended Standard: Occupational Noise Exposure [DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 98-126]. NIOSH reevaluated the recommended exposure limit (REL) for occupational noise exposure and reaffirms support for 85-dBA REL. Based upon scientific evidence, NIOSH recommends a 3-dB exchange rate. NIOSH recommends that significant threshold shift be identified as an increase of 15 dB in the hearing threshold level at 500, 1000, 2000, 3000, 4000, or 6000 Hz in either ear, with two consecutive audiometric tests. The new criterion has the advantages of a high identification rate and a low false-positive rate. In contrast with the former 1972 criterion, NIOSH no longer recommends age correction on individual audiograms. NIOSH has revisited its recommendations on the using of single-number laboratory-derived Noise Reduction Rating (NRR) required by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for labeling of hearing protectors sold within the United States. In 1972, NIOSH recommended the use of the full NRR value; however, the new criterion recommends derating the NRR by 25%, 50%, and 70% for earmuffs, formable earplugs, and all other earplugs, respectively. This presentation will compare and contrast current regulations against the NIOSH recommendations.

  18. Paternal occupational exposures and the risk of Down syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Olshan, A F; Baird, P A; Teschke, K

    1989-01-01

    An exploratory case-control study of paternal occupation as a risk factor for Down syndrome was conducted. With the use of the British Columbia Health Surveillance Registry, 1,008 cases of live-born Down syndrome were identified for the period 1952-73. Two controls were matched to each case by using the birth files of British Columbia. Paternal occupation was obtained from the birth notice. Elevated maternal age-adjusted relative risks of Down syndrome were found for fathers employed as janitors (odds ratio [OR] = 3.26; 95% confidence interval [C.I.] = 1.02-10.44); mechanics (OR = 3.27; C.I. = 1.57-6.80); farm managers/workers (OR = 2.03; C.I. = 1.25-3.03); material-moving equipment operators (OR = 1.88; C.I. = 0.93-3.82); food processors (OR = 1.79; C.I. = 0.96-3.31); sheet-metal workers, iron workers, and other metalworkers (OR = 1.57; C.I. = 0.92-2.69); and sawmill workers (OR = 1.43; C.I. = 0.90-2.66). This large study provides new leads for further evaluation of the role of paternal exposures in the etiology of Down syndrome. PMID:2523192

  19. Occupational Radiation Exposure Analysis of US ITER DCLL TBM

    SciTech Connect

    Merrill, Brad J; Cadwallader, Lee C; Dagher, Mohamad

    2007-08-01

    This report documents an Occupational Radiation Exposure (ORE) analysis that was performed for the US International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) Dual Coolant Lead Lithium (DCLL) Test Blanket Module (TBM). This analysis was performed with the QADMOD dose code for anticipated maintenance activities for this TBM concept and its ancillary systems. The QADMOD code was used to model the PbLi cooling loop of this TBM concept by specifying gamma ray source terms that simulated radioactive material within the piping, valves, heat exchanger, permeator, pump, drain tank, and cold trap of this cooling system. Estimates of the maintenance tasks that will have to be performed and the time required to perform these tasks where developed based on either expert opinion or on industrial maintenance experience for similar technologies. This report details the modeling activity and the calculated doses for the maintenance activities envisioned for the US DCLL TBM.

  20. {sup 125}I Measurements for Occupational Exposure Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Silva, L.; Pinhao, N. R. [Department of Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety, ITN-Nuclear and Technological Institute, Estrada Nacional N 10, 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal)

    2008-08-14

    Whenever there is a risk of occupational exposure to dispersible radioactive material, it is necessary to have a monitoring program to assess the effective dose arising from the intake of radionuclides by workers. In this paper we present our experience in bioassay measurements of {sup 125}I in urine samples of workers using high resolution gamma spectrometry. For a 24-hour excretion period, we found activity values of the order of one Bq and estimated the committed effective doses to be less than one {mu}Sv. Although very small, these values led to a re-evaluation and improvement of the laboratory safety conditions. We discuss the calibration procedure followed for the activity measurements, the estimation of the uncertainty in the excreted activity, the calculation of detection and quantification limits and estimation of performance indicators. Aspects regarding the spectral analysis, true coincidence summing and matrix effects are also considered.

  1. The development and regulation of occupational exposure limits in Korea.

    PubMed

    Paek, Domyung; Park, Doo Yong

    2006-11-01

    With the institution of the new chemical regulatory framework in 2003, chemicals at the workplace have been classified into five categories; banned substances, permission-required substances, regulated substances, occupational exposure limit set substances, and other generally controlled substances. Currently, there are 698 substances with OELs. As we have come to gain our own experiences in the study and control of chemical hazards at the workplace such as the 2-bromopropane poisoning, OEL setting process has been streamlined. The OELs in Korea, however, remain merely as a recommendation, which does not require all the substances with OELs to be measured at the workplace. Coordination of whole program for hazardous chemicals including workplace measurement, OEL setting process, and enforcement activities is still needed in Korea. PMID:16564609

  2. Occupational exposure to carcinogens and risk of lung cancer: results from The Netherlands cohort study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A J van Loon; I. J. Kant; G. M. H. Swaen; R. A. Goldbohm; A M Kremer; P A van den Brandt

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate risk of lung cancers associated with common established carcinogenic occupational exposures (asbestos, paint dust, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and welding fumes) in a prospective cohort study among the general population, and to estimate the proportion of lung cancer cases attributable to these occupational exposures. METHODS: A prospective cohort study on diet, other lifestyle factors, job history, and cancer

  3. NON-OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURES TO PESTICIDES FOR RESIDENTS OF TWO U.S. CITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Non-Occupational Pesticide Exposure Study, funded by the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency, was designed to assess total human exposures to 32 pesticides and pesticide degradation products in the non-occupational environment; however, the study focused primarily on inhala...

  4. Fungi, ?-Glucan, and Bacteria in Nasal Lavage of Greenhouse Workers and Their Relation to Occupational Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Madsen, Anne Mette; Tendal, Kira; Thilsing, Trine; Frederiksen, Margit W.; Baelum, Jesper; Hansen, Jørgen V.

    2013-01-01

    The nose and mouth are the first regions of the respiratory tract in contact with airborne microorganisms. Occupational exposures to airborne microorganisms are associated with inflammation and different symptoms of the airways. The purpose of this study is to investigate the relation between occupational exposure to fungi, ?-glucan, and bacteria and contents of fungi, ?-glucan, and bacteria in nasal lavage (NAL) of greenhouse workers. We also studied whether contents of microorganisms in NAL were related to gender, time of the work week, and runny nose. NAL samples (n = 135) were taken Monday morning and Thursday at noon and personal exposure to inhalable bioaerosols was measured during a working day. The content of fungi and ?-glucan in NAL of men was affected by their exposure to fungi and ?-glucan. The content of fungi, ?-glucan, and bacteria in NAL was higher Thursday at noon than Monday morning. The ratios of fungi in NAL between Thursday at noon and Monday morning were 14 (median value) for men and 3.5 for women. Gender had no effect on the exposure level but had a significant effect on the content of fungi, ?-glucan, and bacteria in NAL, with the highest contents in NAL of men. On Thursdays, the median content of fungi in NAL samples of men without runny noses was 9408 cfu per NAL sample, whereas the same content for women was 595 cfu per NAL sample. Workers with runny noses had fewer fungi in NAL than workers without runny noses. A higher content of ?-glucan per fungal spore was found in NAL than in the air. This indicates that mainly the larger fungal spores or pollen grains deposit in the nose. The difference between genders and the fact that the content of fungi in NAL was significantly affected by the exposure indicate that the two genders are affected by the same exposure level differently. PMID:23749501

  5. Occupational radiation exposure due to norm in a rare-earth compounds production facility.

    PubMed

    Haridasan, P P; Pillai, P M B; Tripathi, R M; Puranik, V D

    2008-01-01

    In India, rare-earth compounds are produced from the beach sand mineral monazite. Caustic digestion of the mineral followed by selective acid extraction is the method used to separate composite rare-earth fraction. The composite rare-earth chloride contains low levels of natural radionuclides and is the starting material for individual rare-earth compounds which have wide applications. Activity concentrations in composite rare-earth compounds such as chlorides, fluorides, carbonates and oxides of Ce, Nd, Pr, Sm, Gd, etc. are presented in this paper. The external gamma exposure rates and airborne activity due to thorium and thoron progeny in the occupational environment are studied. The activity levels in liquid effluent are presented. The potential individual occupational dose is estimated to be 1.9 mSv per annum. PMID:18550514

  6. The occupational role of women in military service: validation of occupation and prevalence of exposures in the Millennium Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Smith, Tyler C; Jacobson, Isabel G; Smith, Besa; Hooper, Tomoko I; Ryan, Margaret A K

    2007-08-01

    To better understand the US military's global peacekeeping and combat operations, which may expose a growing population of American service women to challenging occupations and environments. Concordance between self-reported and electronic occupation codes for female participants in the Millennium Cohort was measured using kappa statistics. Multivariable logistic regression modeling was used to assess the odds of five self-reported potentially toxic environmental exposures or disturbing experiences among different occupational categories, while adjusting for demographic and military characteristics, including deployment. Self-reported occupations were moderately to highly reliable when compared with electronic occupation data. Active-duty and Reserve/Guard females differentially reported witnessing death or trauma and exposure to chemical or biological warfare, depleted uranium, or pesticides. Findings suggest that self-reported occupation can be used with a high degree of confidence. Occupational groups with higher odds of reporting military exposures of concern will be followed longitudinally through 2022 and prospectively compared using baseline and follow-up evaluations. PMID:17613091

  7. Illinois Occupational Skill Standards: Entry-Level Truck Driver.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Occupational Skill Standards and Credentialing Council, Carbondale.

    This document, which is intended to serve as a guide for workforce preparation program providers, details the Illinois Occupational Skill Standards for programs preparing students for employment as entry-level truck drivers. The document begins with a brief overview of the Illinois perspective on occupational skill standards and credentialing, the…

  8. Chest imaging and lung function impairment after long-term occupational exposure to low concentrations of chrysotile.

    PubMed

    Spyratos, Dionisios; Chloros, Diamantis; Haidich, Bettina; Dagdilelis, Loukas; Markou, Stamatia; Sichletidis, Lazaros

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was the investigation of radiographic findings in relation to lung function after occupational exposure to permissible levels of relatively pure chrysotile (0.5-3% amphiboles). We studied 266 out of the total 317 employees who have worked in an asbestos cement factory during the period 1968-2004 with chest x-ray, high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) and lung function tests. Sensitivity of chest x-ray was 43% compared to HRCT. Abnormal HRCT findings were found in 75 subjects (67%) and were related to age, occupational exposure duration, and spirometric data. The presence of parenchymal or visceral pleural lesions (exclusively or as the predominant abnormality) was being accompanied by lower total lung capacity and diffusion capacity. HRCT was much more sensitive than chest x-ray for occupational chrysotile exposure. Lung function impairment was related with parenchymal but not with pleural HRCT abnormalities. PMID:22524648

  9. Extensive changes to occupational exposure limits in Korea.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Jee Yeon; Choi, Sangjun; Kho, Young Lim; Kim, Pan Gyi

    2010-11-01

    Occupational exposure limits (OELs) are used as an important tool to protect workers from adverse chemical exposures and its detrimental effects on their health. The Ministry of Labor (MOL) can establish and publish OELs based on the Industrial Safety and Health Act in Korea. The first set of OELs was announced by the MOL in 1986. At that time, it was identical to the Threshold Limit Values of the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists. Until 2006, none the first OELs except for those of three chemicals (asbestos, benzene, and 2-bromopropane) were updated during the last twenty years. The Hazardous Agents Review Committee established under the MOL selected 126 chemicals from 698 chemicals covered by OELs using several criteria. From 2005 to 2006, the MOL provided research funds for academic institutions and toxicological laboratories to gather the evidence documenting the need to revise the outdated OELs. Finally, the MOL notified the revised OELs for 126 chemicals from 2007 to 2008. The revised OELs of 58 substances from among these chemicals were lowered to equal or less than half the value of the original OELs. This is the most substantial change in the history of OEL revisions in Korea. PMID:20709131

  10. Aggregation of exposure level and probability into a single metric in job-exposure matrices creates bias.

    PubMed

    Burstyn, Igor; Lavoué, Jérôme; Van Tongeren, Martie

    2012-11-01

    Job-exposure matrices (JEMs) are often used in occupational epidemiological studies to provide an exposure estimate for a typical person in a 'job' during a particular time period. A JEM can produce exposure estimates on a variety of scales, such as (but not limited to) binary assessments of presence or absence of exposure, ordinal ranking of exposure level and frequency, and quantitative exposure estimates of exposure intensity and frequency. Specifically, one popular approach to construct a JEM, engendered in a Finnish job exposure matrix (FINJEM), provides a probability that a worker within an occupational group is exposed and an estimate of intensity of exposure among the exposed workers within this occupation. Often the product of the probability and intensity (aka level) is used to obtain the estimate of exposure for the epidemiological analyses. This procedure aggregates exposure across exposed and non-exposed individuals and the effect of this particular procedure on epidemiological analyses has never been studied. We developed a theoretical framework for understanding how these aggregate exposure estimates relate to true exposure (either unexposed or log-normally distributed for 'exposed'), assuming that there is no uncertainty about estimates of level and probability of exposure. Theoretical derivations show that multiplying occupation-specific exposure level and probability of non-zero exposure results in both systematic and differential measurement errors. Simulations demonstrated that under certain conditions bias in odds ratios in a cohort study away from the null are possible and that this bias is smaller when (a) arithmetic rather than geometric mean is used to assess exposure level and (b) exposure level and prevalence are positively correlated. We illustrate the potential impact of using the specified JEM in a simulation based on a case-control study of non-Hodgkin lymphoma and exposure to ionizing and non-ionizing radiation. Inflation of standard errors in the log-odds was observed as well as bias away from null for two out of three specific exposures/data structures. Overall, it is clear that influence of the phenomenon we studied on epidemiological results is complex and difficult to predict, being influenced a great deal by the structure of data. We recommend exploring the influence of JEMs that use the product of exposure level and probability in epidemiological analyses through simulations during planning of such studies to assess both the expected extent of the potential bias in risk estimates and impact on power. The SAS and R code required to implement such simulations are provided. All our calculations are either theoretical or based on simulated data. PMID:22986426

  11. Interleukin-1? gene polymorphism and hearing loss related to the history of occupational noise exposure in Brazilian elderly.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Luiz C L; Marchiori, Luciana L M; Melo, Juliana J; Maciel, Sandra M; Poli-Frederico, Regina C

    2013-01-01

    Hearing loss is the most common sensory impairment in older people, and may have social and psychological consequences, such as social isolation, frustration and depression. Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) is an interaction of both genetic and environmental factors. Some studies have led to the identification of possible NIHL susceptibility genes. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the polymorphism of the interleukin (IL)-1? gene at position + 3954 was associated with complaints of hearing loss due to occupational exposure. The sample was composed of elderly people with hearing loss (age ? 60 years) divided into two groups: 99 with occupational exposure to noise and 193 without exposure. Information on occupational exposure to noise was obtained through interviews using a semi-structured questionnaire. Hearing acuity was measured from 500 to 6000 Hz and the IL-1? genotype was obtained by the polymerase chain reaction- restriction fragment length polymorphism technique. Differences in allelic and genotypic frequencies, and the association between genotypic frequencies and complaints of hearing loss due to occupational exposure, were analyzed by the Chi-square test at the 5% significance level. Fifty-one percent of the elderly were homozygous for the ancestral allele (C), 17.2% were homozygous for the polymorphic allele (T) and 31.8% were heterozygous. The frequency was found to be 67-33% C to allele T. There was no significant association between polymorphism in gene IL-1? and hearing loss associated with occupational exposure (?2 = 0.538; P = 0.676). No association was found with the polymorphism of the IL-1? +3954 C/T gene and hearing loss associated with the occupational noise exposure history. PMID:23689297

  12. Myocardial infarction and occupational exposure to motor exhaust: a population-based case-control study in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Ilar, Anna; Lewné, Marie; Plato, Nils; Hallqvist, Johan; Alderling, Magnus; Bigert, Carolina; Hogstedt, Christer; Gustavsson, Per

    2014-07-01

    There is a well-established association between particulate urban air pollution and cardiovascular disease, but few studies have investigated the risk associated with occupational exposure to particles from motor exhaust. This study investigated the risk of myocardial infarction (MI) after occupational exposure to motor exhaust, using elemental carbon (EC) as a marker of exposure. A population-based case-control study of first-time non-lethal MI was conducted among Swedish citizens in ages 45-70 living in Stockholm County 1992-1994, including 1,643 cases and 2,235 controls. Working histories and data on potential confounders were collected by questionnaire and medical examination. The exposure to EC was assessed through a job-exposure matrix. Odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated by unconditional logistic regression. We investigated various exposure metrics: intensity, cumulative exposure and years since exposure. There was an exposure-response relation between the highest average exposure intensity during the work history and the risk of MI when adjusting for smoking and alcohol drinking (p for trend 0.034), with an OR of 1.30 (95% CI 0.99-1.71) in the highest tertile of exposure compared to the unexposed. An exposure-response pattern was observed in the analysis of years since exposure cessation among formerly exposed. Additional adjustments for markers of the metabolic syndrome reduced ORs and trends to non-significant levels, although this might be an over-adjustment since the metabolic syndrome may be part of the causal pathway. Occupational exposure to motor exhaust was associated with a moderately increased risk of MI. PMID:24981789

  13. Occupational Radiation Exposure from C Arm Fluoroscopy During Common Orthopaedic Surgical Procedures and its Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Samuel, Sumant; Saran, Atul K; Mahajan, M K; Mam, M K

    2015-01-01

    Background: Image intensifiers have become popular due to the concept of minimally invasive surgeries leading to decreasing invasiveness, decreased operative time, and less morbidity. The drawback, however, is an increased risk of radiation exposure to surgeon, patient and theatre staff. These exposures have been of concern due to their potential ability to produce biological effects. The present study was embarked upon to analyse the amount of radiation received by orthopedic surgeons in India using standard precautionary measures and also to bring awareness about the use of image intensifier safety in everyday practice. Materials and Methods: Twelve right-handed male orthopedic surgeons (4 senior consultants, 5 junior consultants and 3 residents) were included in a three month prospective study for radiation exposure measurement with adequate protection measures in all procedures requiring C Arm fluoroscopy. Each surgeon was provided with 5 Thermo Luminescent Dosimeter (TLD) badges which were tagged at the level of neck, chest, gonads and both wrists. Operative time and exposure time of each procedure was recorded. Exposure dose of each badge at the end of the study was obtained and the results were analysed. Results: Mean radiation exposure to all the parts were well within permissible limits. There was a significantly positive correlation between the exposure time and the exposure dose for the left wrist (r=0.735, p<0.01) and right wrist (r=0.58, p<0.05). The dominant hand had the maximum exposure overall. Conclusion: Orthopaedic surgeons are not classified radiation workers. The mean exposure doses to all parts of the body were well within permissible limits. Nothing conclusive, however, can be said about the stochastic effects (chance effects like cancers). Any amount of radiation taken is bound to pose an additional occupational hazard. It is thus desirable that radiation safety precautions should be taken and exposures regularly monitored with at least one dosimeter for monitoring the whole-body dose. PMID:25954671

  14. Exposure-Response Estimates for Diesel Engine Exhaust and Lung Cancer Mortality Based on Data from Three Occupational Cohorts

    PubMed Central

    Silverman, Debra T.; Garshick, Eric; Vlaanderen, Jelle; Portengen, Lützen; Steenland, Kyle

    2013-01-01

    Background: Diesel engine exhaust (DEE) has recently been classified as a known human carcinogen. Objective: We derived a meta-exposure–response curve (ERC) for DEE and lung cancer mortality and estimated lifetime excess risks (ELRs) of lung cancer mortality based on assumed occupational and environmental exposure scenarios. Methods: We conducted a meta-regression of lung cancer mortality and cumulative exposure to elemental carbon (EC), a proxy measure of DEE, based on relative risk (RR) estimates reported by three large occupational cohort studies (including two studies of workers in the trucking industry and one study of miners). Based on the derived risk function, we calculated ELRs for several lifetime occupational and environmental exposure scenarios and also calculated the fractions of annual lung cancer deaths attributable to DEE. Results: We estimated a lnRR of 0.00098 (95% CI: 0.00055, 0.0014) for lung cancer mortality with each 1-?g/m3-year increase in cumulative EC based on a linear meta-regression model. Corresponding lnRRs for the individual studies ranged from 0.00061 to 0.0012. Estimated numbers of excess lung cancer deaths through 80 years of age for lifetime occupational exposures of 1, 10, and 25 ?g/m3 EC were 17, 200, and 689 per 10,000, respectively. For lifetime environmental exposure to 0.8 ?g/m3 EC, we estimated 21 excess lung cancer deaths per 10,000. Based on broad assumptions regarding past occupational and environmental exposures, we estimated that approximately 6% of annual lung cancer deaths may be due to DEE exposure. Conclusions: Combined data from three U.S. occupational cohort studies suggest that DEE at levels common in the workplace and in outdoor air appear to pose substantial excess lifetime risks of lung cancer, above the usually acceptable limits in the United States and Europe, which are generally set at 1/1,000 and 1/100,000 based on lifetime exposure for the occupational and general population, respectively. Citation: Vermeulen R, Silverman DT, Garshick E, Vlaanderen J, Portengen L, Steenland K. 2014. Exposure-response estimates for diesel engine exhaust and lung cancer mortality based on data from three occupational cohorts. Environ Health Perspect 122:172–177;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1306880 PMID:24273233

  15. Skin disease after occupational dermal exposure to coal tar: a review of the scientific literature.

    PubMed

    Moustafa, Giannis-Aimant; Xanthopoulou, Eleni; Riza, Elena; Linos, Athena

    2015-08-01

    For about a century, coal tar has been used in industry and has been applied in the therapeutic management of several skin diseases. However, in the last decades the benefits of coal tar exploitation for humans could not outweigh its harmful effects on health. The aim of this study is to present the main adverse effects of coal tar on skin, with the emphasis on occupational exposure. The scientific literature indicates that dermal exposure to coal tar and coal tar pitches can be the cause of phototoxic reactions, irritation and burn, allergic dermatitis, folliculitis, occupational acne, atrophy of the epidermis, and hyperpigmentation. Moreover coal tar has been implicated in tumorigenesis, a relationship shown in numerous studies but not confirmed yet as the mechanism has not been fully clarified. A common finding in most studies is that exposure over a long period is the main risk factor for malignancy development, even in low exposure levels. Additional prospective, well-designed studies need to be performed to confirm the validity of the carcinogenic, mutagenic, and cytotoxic potential of coal tar on skin. PMID:26183242

  16. Headphone Noise: Occupational Noise Exposure Assessment for Communication Personnel

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Perettia; F. Pedriellic; F. Maulid; A. Farinae

    For communication personnel exposed to noise emitted by headphones, the sound pressure level measured at the position of the exposed person (but the person absent) does not adequately represent the sound exposure. The first section of this paper reports comments concerning the legislation, the relevant international standards and the state- of-the-art of researches in this field. Then, the second section

  17. "Quasi nonparametric" upper tolerance limits for occupational exposure evaluations.

    PubMed

    Davis, Charles B; Wambach, Paul F

    2015-01-01

    Upper tolerance limits (UTLs) are often used in comparing exposure data sets with an occupational exposure limit (OEL) or other regulatory criterion (RC): if the 95%-95% UTL does not exceed the OEL, one is 95% confident that at most 5% of exposures exceed the OEL, and the comparison "passes." The largest of 59 observations is a nonparametric (distribution-free) 95%-95% UTL (NPUTL); the chance that this largest value equals or exceeds the actual 95th percentile is at least 95%, regardless of the underlying data distribution. That many observations may seem excessive in clean environments or small studies, though, and one would like to "pass" using UTLs based on fewer observations sufficiently far below the OEL or RC. "Quasi-nonparametric" UTLs (QNP UTLs) accomplish this. QNP UTLs assign a "pass" so long as one has "59 [values] less than the RC" (the NPUTL itself), "30 less than 1/2 [of the RC]," "21 less than 1/3," and on down to "8 less than 1/10," the last matching a rule-of-thumb given in 2006 American Industrial Hygiene Association (AIHA) guidance. They are derived using the conservative, experience-based assumption that the data distribution is lognormal with log-scale standard deviation ? at most 2.0 (geometric standard deviation at most 7.39). Although based on this assumption, their statistical performance is reasonably unaffected or conservative when data come from other distributions often assumed for contaminant concentrations; moreover, their performance is insensitive to analytical variation. This conservative robustness merits the description "quasi-nonparametric." QNP UTLs are very easy to use. Reporting Limit (RL) issues do not arise. QNP UTLs reduce the numbers of observations needed to support conservative risk management decisions when sampling from compliant working conditions. PMID:25647534

  18. Experimental PVC Material Challenge in Subjects with Occupational PVC Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Tuomainen, Anneli; Stark, Harri; Seuri, Markku; Hirvonen, Maija-Riitta; Linnainmaa, Markku; Sieppi, Anne; Tukiainen, Hannu

    2006-01-01

    Background Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) materials have been linked to asthma in several epidemiologic studies, but the possible causal factors remain unknown. Participants We challenged 10 subjects experimentally to degraded PVC products under controlled conditions. All of the subjects had previously experienced respiratory symptoms suspected to be caused by this kind of exposure in their work place. Five subjects had doctor-diagnosed asthma. Methods The subjects were exposed to degraded PVC material in an exposure chamber; a challenge with ceramic tile was used as the control test. We followed exhaled nitric oxide, nasal NO, lung functions, cytokines [tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), interleukin-4 (IL-4), IL-6, and IL-12] and NO in nasal lavage fluid (NAL) during and after the exposures. We also measured 2-ethylhexanol in exhaled breath samples and NAL. Results On the morning after the PVC exposure, subjects reported respiratory tract symptoms significantly more often than they did after the control test (50% vs. 0%, respectively; p = 0.029; n = 10). We did not detect any changes in lung functions or levels of exhaled NO, nasal NO, or NO in NAL after PVC challenge compared with the control test. Cytokine levels increased after both exposures, with no statistically significant difference between situations. All of the exhaled breath samples collected during the PVC exposure contained 2-ethylhexanol. Conclusions PVC flooring challenge can evoke respiratory tract symptoms in exposed subjects. Our results do not support the hypothesis that PVC materials themselves evoke immediate asthmatic reactions. The chamber test used is well suited to this type of exposure study. PMID:16966097

  19. An overview of the characterization of occupational exposure to nanoaerosols in workplaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castellano, Paola; Ferrante, Riccardo; Curini, Roberta; Canepari, Silvia

    2009-05-01

    Currently, there is a lack of standardized sampling and metric methods that can be applied to measure the level of exposure to nanosized aerosols. Therefore, any attempt to characterize exposure to nanoparticles (NP) in a workplace must involve a multifaceted approach characterized by different sampling and analytical techniques to measure all relevant characteristics of NP exposure. Furthermore, as NP aerosols are always complex mixtures of multiple origins, sampling and analytical methods need to be improved to selectively evaluate the apportionment from specific sources to the final nanomaterials. An open question at the world's level is how to relate specific toxic effects of NP with one or more among several different parameters (such as particle size, mass, composition, surface area, number concentration, aggregation or agglomeration state, water solubility and surface chemistry). As the evaluation of occupational exposure to NP in workplaces needs dimensional and chemical characterization, the main problem is the choice of the sampling and dimensional separation techniques. Therefore a convenient approach to allow a satisfactory risk assessment could be the contemporary use of different sampling and measuring techniques for particles with known toxicity in selected workplaces. Despite the lack of specific NP exposure limit values, exposure metrics, appropriate to nanoaerosols, are discussed in the Technical Report ISO/TR 27628:2007 with the aim to enable occupational hygienists to characterize and monitor nanoaerosols in workplaces. Moreover, NIOSH has developed the Document Approaches to Safe Nanotechnology (intended to be an information exchange with NIOSH) in order to address current and future research needs to understanding the potential risks that nanotechnology may have to workers.

  20. Occupational noise exposure and hearing loss characteristics of a blue-collar population.

    PubMed

    Helmkamp, J C; Talbott, E O; Margolis, H

    1984-12-01

    Recent studies of health effects from chronic exposure to noise in the workplace have not consistently addressed nonoccupational variables. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 197 randomly selected male hourly workers from a noisy plant (greater than or equal to 89 dBA) in Pittsburgh to fully assess noise exposure and hearing loss, incorporating information on duration of exposure, noise level, occupational and medical histories, audiometric evaluation, and external noise sources. Population audiometric profiles are characteristic of noise-induced hearing loss; mean hearing thresholds for press room men were significantly higher at 2, 3, and 6 kHz (p less than or equal to .05). Only 40% of the men consistently wore hearing protection. Recent use of ototoxic drugs, noisy hobbies/second jobs, military service, family history of hearing loss, and ear-related problems were not found to have a significant effect on hearing levels at high frequencies, suggesting that observed hearing losses were of an occupational origin. PMID:6512611

  1. Exposure-response analysis of risk of respiratory disease associated with occupational exposure to chrysotile asbestos.

    PubMed Central

    Stayner, L; Smith, R; Bailer, J; Gilbert, S; Steenland, K; Dement, J; Brown, D; Lemen, R

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate alternative models and estimate risk of mortality from lung cancer and asbestosis after occupational exposure to chrysotile asbestos. METHODS: Data were used from a recent update of a cohort mortality study of workers in a South Carolina textile factory. Alternative exposure-response models were evaluated with Poisson regression. A model designed to evaluate evidence of a threshold response was also fitted. Lifetime risks of lung cancer and asbestosis were estimated with an actuarial approach that accounts for competing causes of death. RESULTS: A highly significant exposure-response relation was found for both lung cancer and asbestosis. The exposure-response relation for lung cancer seemed to be linear on a multiplicative scale, which is consistent with previous analyses of lung cancer and exposure to asbestos. In contrast, the exposure-response relation for asbestosis seemed to be nonlinear on a multiplicative scale in this analysis. There was no significant evidence for a threshold in models of either the lung cancer or asbestosis. The excess lifetime risk for white men exposed for 45 years at the recently revised OSHA standard of 0.1 fibre/ml was predicted to be about 5/1000 for lung cancer, and 2/1000 for asbestosis. CONCLUSIONS: This study confirms the findings from previous investigations of a strong exposure-response relation between exposure to chrysotile asbestos and mortality from lung cancer, and asbestosis. The risk estimates for lung cancer derived from this analysis are higher than those derived from other populations exposed to chrysotile asbestos. Possible reasons for this discrepancy are discussed. PMID:9423577

  2. Renal cancer risk and occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and plastics

    PubMed Central

    Karami, Sara; Boffetta, Paolo; Brennan, Paul; Stewart, Patricia A.; Zaridze, David; Matveev, Vsevolod; Janout, Vladimir; Kollarova, Helena; Bencko, Vladimir; Navratilova, Marie; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonila; Mates, Dana; Gromiec, Jan P.; Sobotka, Roman; Chow, Wong-Ho; Rothman, Nathaniel; Moore, Lee E.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and certain plastic monomers increased renal cell carcinomas (RCC) risk. Methods Unconditional logistic regression was used to calculate RCC risk in relation to exposure. Results No association between RCC risk and having ever been occupationally exposed to any polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons or plastics was observed. Duration of exposure and average exposure also showed no association with risk. Suggestive positive associations between RCC risk and cumulative exposure to styrene (P-trend = 0.02) and acrylonitrile (P-trend = 0.06) were found. Cumulative exposure to petroleum/gasoline engine emissions was inversely associated with risk (P-trend = 0.02). Conclusions Results indicate a possible association between occupational styrene and acrylonitrile exposure and RCC risk. Additional studies are needed to replicate findings, as this is the first time these associations have been reported and they may be due to chance. PMID:21270648

  3. Occupational Styrene Exposure Induces Stress-Responsive Genes Involved in Cytoprotective and Cytotoxic Activities

    PubMed Central

    Strafella, Elisabetta; Bracci, Massimo; Staffolani, Sara; Manzella, Nicola; Giantomasi, Daniele; Valentino, Matteo; Amati, Monica; Tomasetti, Marco; Santarelli, Lory

    2013-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the expression of a panel of genes involved in toxicology in response to styrene exposure at levels below the occupational standard setting. Methods Workers in a fiber glass boat industry were evaluated for a panel of stress- and toxicity-related genes and associated with biochemical parameters related to hepatic injury. Urinary styrene metabolites (MA+PGA) of subjects and environmental sampling data collected for air at workplace were used to estimate styrene exposure. Results Expression array analysis revealed massive upregulation of genes encoding stress-responsive proteins (HSPA1L, EGR1, IL-6, IL-1?, TNSF10 and TNF?) in the styrene-exposed group; the levels of cytokines released were further confirmed in serum. The exposed workers were then stratified by styrene exposure levels. EGR1 gene upregulation paralleled the expression and transcriptional protein levels of IL-6, TNSF10 and TNF? in styrene exposed workers, even at low level. The activation of the EGR1 pathway observed at low-styrene exposure was associated with a slight increase of hepatic markers found in highly exposed subjects, even though they were within normal range. The ALT and AST levels were not affected by alcohol consumption, and positively correlated with urinary styrene metabolites as evaluated by multiple regression analysis. Conclusion The pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNF? are the primary mediators of processes involved in the hepatic injury response and regeneration. Here, we show that styrene induced stress responsive genes involved in cytoprotection and cytotoxicity at low-exposure, that proceed to a mild subclinical hepatic toxicity at high-styrene exposure. PMID:24086524

  4. Chronic exposure of rats to occupational textile noise causes cytological changes in adrenal cortex.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Maria Joao R; Monteiro, Mariana P; Ribeiro, Andreia M; Pignatelli, Duarte; Aguas, Artur P

    2009-01-01

    Chronic exposure to industrial noise and its effects on biological systems. Occupational exposure to noise may result in health disorders. Our aim was to evaluate the effects of chronic exposure to high-intensity noise of textile industry cotton rooms on the adrenal morphology. The environmental noise of a cotton-mill room from a large textile factory of Northern Portugal was recorded and reproduced by an adopted electroacoustic setup in a sound-insulated animal room where the rats were housed. The sounds were reproduced at the original levels of approximately 92 dB, which was achieved by equalization and distribution of sound output in the room. Wistar rats were submitted to noise exposure, in the same time schedule as employed in textile plants. After one, three, five, and seven months, the adrenals were collected and analyzed by light microscopy. Analyzed by multivariate analysis of variance and post hoc Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons of the means between the groups. Noise exposure induced time-dependent changes in adrenal cortex, with decrease of zona fasciculata (ZF) and increase of zona reticularis volumes, together with a significant depletion of lipid droplet density in ZF cells of exposed rats, in comparison to control rats. Chronic exposure of rats to textile industry noise triggers cytological changes in the adrenals that suggest the existence of a sustained stress response. PMID:19414932

  5. Environmental and occupational exposure to manganese: a multimedia assessment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sylvain Loranger; Joseph Zayed

    1995-01-01

    Methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl (MMT) is an organic additive used in Canada since 1976 as an anti-knock agent in unleaded gasoline. Its combustion leads to the emission of Mn oxides, especially Mn3O4. Since no study has assessed the potential risk of chronic exposure to low concentrations resulting from these emissions, the present investigation was undertaken to assess the level of environmental

  6. Validity of self-reported occupational noise exposure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Klaus Schlaefer; Brigitte Schlehofer; Joachim Schüz

    2009-01-01

    In all epidemiological studies the validity of self-reported questionnaire data is an important issue as the exposure assessment\\u000a based on such data is a major source of bias in the risk estimation. A validation study was conducted based on a case–control\\u000a study including 94 acoustic neuroma cases and 191 matched controls from the German Interphone Study to investigate the level

  7. Childhood nervous system tumors--an evaluation of the association with paternal occupational exposure to hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, C.C.; Annegers, J.F.; Frankowski, R.F.; Spitz, M.R.; Buffler, P.A.

    1987-10-01

    Paternal occupational exposures to hydrocarbons have been associated with childhood nervous system cancer, but study results have not been consistent. This population-based case-control study was designed to examine this association using a large sample size to increase the precision of risk estimates. The birth certificates of 499 children who died in Texas from intracranial and spinal cord tumors were compared with 998 control certificates randomly selected from all Texas live births. Information on parental job title and industry at the time of birth was obtained from the birth certificates. No significant associations were identified for the dichotomized variable of all hydrocarbon-related occupations combined, as variously defined in previous studies, or for most of the specific jobs affiliated with exposures to hydrocarbons. Significant, relatively stable odds ratios (OR) were found for printers and graphics arts workers (OR = 4.5; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.4-14.7) and chemical and petroleum workers with high exposure levels (OR = 3.0; CI = 1.1-8.5). A discussion of the biases involved in this type of study design is presented.

  8. The role of environmental and occupational exposures in Turkish immigrants with fibre-related disease.

    PubMed

    Dumortier, P; Göcmen, A; Laurent, K; Manço, A; De Vuyst, P

    2001-05-01

    Environmental exposure to tremolite and erionite causes endemic diseases of the lung and pleura in Turkey. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of these exposures and further occupational exposures on fibre-related diseases in Turkish immigrants living in Belgium. The study included 51 males and 17 females that emigrated < 1-38 yrs ago. Most of them (n=46) had nonmalignant pleural lesions, one had asbestosis and one had mesothelioma. Environmental asbestos exposure was likely for the majority of patients (60%), but there were also reports of possible occupational asbestos (n = 14) and erionite (n = 2) exposure. Tremolite was the main fibre type in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). Elevated concentrations of amosite or crocidolite were detected in only two patients. The delay elapsed since the end of the environmental exposure had no influence on the asbestos body or the tremolite fibre concentrations in the BALF of Turkish immigrants. Most fibre-related diseases in Turkish immigrants are probably due to environmental rather than occupational exposure. Precise information about geographical origin and occupation should be obtained when investigating these patients. Mineralogical analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid gives valuable information on the type and intensity of exposure, especially in patients with both environmental and occupational exposure. PMID:11488327

  9. Risk of lymphatic or haematopoietic cancer mortality with occupational exposure to animals or the public

    PubMed Central

    Svec, M; Ward, M; Dosemeci, M; Checkoway, H; De Roos, A J

    2005-01-01

    Background: Occupational exposure to animals or the public could result in exposure to infectious agents, which may play a role in the aetiology of lymphohaematopoietic (LH) cancers. Aims: To conduct a population based, case-control study of death certificate data from 1984 to 1998 in 24 US states in order to evaluate the risk of mortality from LH neoplasms associated with occupational exposure to animals or the public. Methods: Cases were selected as those with an underlying cause of death of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL, n = 72 589), Hodgkin's disease (HD, n = 5479), multiple myeloma (n = 35 857), or leukaemia (n = 68 598); 912 615 controls were randomly selected from all remaining deaths, frequency matched on age, sex, race, and geographic region. Results: Occupational exposure to animals was associated with modest increased risks of mortality from all four LH cancers; these associations varied by region. Occupational exposure to the public was associated with only negligible increased risk with LH cancer outcomes. Occupations involving animal exposure were predominantly agricultural, and the risks associated with employment in the livestock industry exceeded the corresponding risks associated with the crop industry for all outcomes except HD. Conclusions: Increased risks of NHL, HD, multiple myeloma, and leukaemia were associated with occupations that involved animal exposure. Regional differences in risk imply that the risks may be associated with exposure to specific livestock or farming practices. However, these associations may be confounded by other farming related exposures, such as pesticides. Because the use of death certificates to classify occupation may result in misclassification during aetiologically relevant time periods, these hypotheses should be further explored in studies with detailed information on lifetime occupation. PMID:16169919

  10. Lifelong occupational exposures and hearing loss among elderly Latino Americans aged 65–75 years

    PubMed Central

    Hong, OiSaeng; Chin, Dal Lae; Kerr, Madeleine J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study is to determine the relationship between occupational exposures and hearing among elderly Latino Americans. Design A descriptive, correlational design used for this secondary analysis with the data from the Sacramento Area Latino Study of Aging (SALSA). Study sample A total of 547 older adults were included. Results A majority of participants (58%) reported occupational exposures to loud noise and/or ototoxic chemicals. About 65% and over 90% showed hearing loss at low and high frequencies, respectively. Participants with occupational exposure to loud noise and/or ototoxic chemicals were, significantly, two times more likely to have hearing loss at high frequencies compared to those without exposure (OR = 2.29; 95% CI: 1.17 – 4.51, p = .016), after controlling for other risk factors of hearing loss such as age, gender, household income, current smoking, and diabetes. However, lifelong occupational exposure was not significantly associated with hearing loss at low frequencies (OR = 1.43; 95% CI: 0.94 – 2.18, p = .094). Conclusion Lifelong occupational exposure to loud noise and/or ototoxic chemicals was significantly associated with hearing loss among elderly Latino Americans. Healthy work life through protection from harmful auditory effects of occupational exposures to noise and chemicals will have a positive impact on better hearing in later life. PMID:25549170

  11. Sensory irritation as a basis for setting occupational exposure limits.

    PubMed

    Brüning, Thomas; Bartsch, Rüdiger; Bolt, Hermann Maximillian; Desel, Herbert; Drexler, Hans; Gundert-Remy, Ursula; Hartwig, Andrea; Jäckh, Rudolf; Leibold, Edgar; Pallapies, Dirk; Rettenmeier, Albert W; Schlüter, Gerhard; Stropp, Gisela; Sucker, Kirsten; Triebig, Gerhard; Westphal, Götz; van Thriel, Christoph

    2014-10-01

    There is a need of guidance on how local irritancy data should be incorporated into risk assessment procedures, particularly with respect to the derivation of occupational exposure limits (OELs). Therefore, a board of experts from German committees in charge of the derivation of OELs discussed the major challenges of this particular end point for regulatory toxicology. As a result, this overview deals with the question of integrating results of local toxicity at the eyes and the upper respiratory tract (URT). Part 1 describes the morphology and physiology of the relevant target sites, i.e., the outer eye, nasal cavity, and larynx/pharynx in humans. Special emphasis is placed on sensory innervation, species differences between humans and rodents, and possible effects of obnoxious odor in humans. Based on this physiological basis, Part 2 describes a conceptual model for the causation of adverse health effects at these targets that is composed of two pathways. The first, "sensory irritation" pathway is initiated by the interaction of local irritants with receptors of the nervous system (e.g., trigeminal nerve endings) and a downstream cascade of reflexes and defense mechanisms (e.g., eyeblinks, coughing). While the first stages of this pathway are thought to be completely reversible, high or prolonged exposure can lead to neurogenic inflammation and subsequently tissue damage. The second, "tissue irritation" pathway starts with the interaction of the local irritant with the epithelial cell layers of the eyes and the URT. Adaptive changes are the first response on that pathway followed by inflammation and irreversible damages. Regardless of these initial steps, at high concentrations and prolonged exposures, the two pathways converge to the adverse effect of morphologically and biochemically ascertainable changes. Experimental exposure studies with human volunteers provide the empirical basis for effects along the sensory irritation pathway and thus, "sensory NOAEChuman" can be derived. In contrast, inhalation studies with rodents investigate the second pathway that yields an "irritative NOAECanimal." Usually the data for both pathways is not available and extrapolation across species is necessary. Part 3 comprises an empirical approach for the derivation of a default factor for interspecies differences. Therefore, from those substances under discussion in German scientific and regulatory bodies, 19 substances were identified known to be human irritants with available human and animal data. The evaluation started with three substances: ethyl acrylate, formaldehyde, and methyl methacrylate. For these substances, appropriate chronic animal and a controlled human exposure studies were available. The comparison of the sensory NOAEChuman with the irritative NOAECanimal (chronic) resulted in an interspecies extrapolation factor (iEF) of 3 for extrapolating animal data concerning local sensory irritating effects. The adequacy of this iEF was confirmed by its application to additional substances with lower data density (acetaldehyde, ammonia, n-butyl acetate, hydrogen sulfide, and 2-ethylhexanol). Thus, extrapolating from animal studies, an iEF of 3 should be applied for local sensory irritants without reliable human data, unless individual data argue for a substance-specific approach. PMID:25182421

  12. NIOSH comments to DOL on the Occupational Safety and Health Administration's proposed rule on occupational exposure to cadmium by R. W. Niemeier, May 7, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-05-07

    The testimony concerns the support of NIOSH for the assessment of OSHA that exposure to cadmium (7440439) is associated with the increased incidence of lung cancer and kidney dysfunction. Because cadmium is a potential occupational carcinogen and because OSHA estimates that the total cancer risk is 2.1 excess deaths per 1000 at an 8 hour time weighted average exposure of 1 microgram/cubic meter, NIOSH maintains that occupational exposures to cadmium should be reduced to the lowest feasible level. NIOSH strongly supports the use of engineering controls and work practices instead of the use of personal protective equipment, including respiratory protection, for controlling exposures to cadmium. Specific comments addressed include the control of confounding factors in kidney dysfunction analysis, the number of workers exposed to cadmium, the industries in which cadmium exposure occurs, standards for the construction industry, engineering and work practice controls, analytical methods for determining exposures, monitoring intervals, medical surveillance provisions, proteinuria and medical removal, return to work, and reproductive effects.

  13. Statistical modeling of occupational chlorinated solvent exposures for case–control studies using a literature-based database

    PubMed Central

    Hein, Misty J.; Waters, Martha A.; Ruder, Avima M.; Stenzel, Mark R.; Blair, Aaron; Stewart, Patricia A.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: Occupational exposure assessment for population-based case–control studies is challenging due to the wide variety of industries and occupations encountered by study participants. We developed and evaluated statistical models to estimate the intensity of exposure to three chlorinated solvents—methylene chloride, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, and trichloroethylene—using a database of air measurement data and associated exposure determinants. Methods: A measurement database was developed after an extensive review of the published industrial hygiene literature. The database of nearly 3000 measurements or summary measurements included sample size, measurement characteristics (year, duration, and type), and several potential exposure determinants associated with the measurements: mechanism of release (e.g. evaporation), process condition, temperature, usage rate, type of ventilation, location, presence of a confined space, and proximity to the source. The natural log-transformed measurement levels in the exposure database were modeled as a function of the measurement characteristics and exposure determinants using maximum likelihood methods. Assuming a single lognormal distribution of the measurements, an arithmetic mean exposure intensity level was estimated for each unique combination of exposure determinants and decade. Results: The proportions of variability in the measurement data explained by the modeled measurement characteristics and exposure determinants were 36, 38, and 54% for methylene chloride, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, and trichloroethylene, respectively. Model parameter estimates for the exposure determinants were in the anticipated direction. Exposure intensity estimates were plausible and exhibited internal consistency, but the ability to evaluate validity was limited. Conclusions: These prediction models can be used to estimate chlorinated solvent exposure intensity for jobs reported by population-based case–control study participants that have sufficiently detailed information regarding the exposure determinants. PMID:20418277

  14. Secondary sex ratio in Greece: evidence of an influence by father's occupational exposure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexopoulos C. Evangelos; Alamanos Yannis

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Several medical, occupational and environmental paternal exposures have been suggested to be associated with low offspring sex ratios. The purpose of this study was to analyse trends and variations in the second- ary sex ratio in Greece during the last 50 years and among different occupational groups of male employees of a ship- yard. METHODS: Data were retrieved from

  15. A cross sectional study of chemical industry workers with occupational exposure to persulphates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R Merget; A Buenemann; R Kulzer; A Rueckmann; R Breitstadt; A Kniffka; H Kratisch; R Vormberg; G Schultze-Werninghaus

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Hair bleaches containing persulphates have been identified as the cause of occupational asthma in hairdressers. Also employees in persulphate production with occupational asthma have been described. It was the aim of this study to give an estimate of the prevalence of asthma due to persulphates in chemical workers with exposure to ammonium and sodium persulphate. METHODS: A cross sectional

  16. Cancer risk from occupational and environmental exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paolo Boffetta; Nadia Jourenkova; Per Gustavsson

    1997-01-01

    Epidemiologic evidence on the relationship between polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and cancer is reviewed. High occupational exposure to PAHs occurs in several industries and occupations. Covered here are aluminum production, coal gasification, coke production, iron and steel foundries, tar distillation, shale oil extraction, wood impregnation, roofing, road paving, carbon black production, carbon electrode production, chimney sweeping, and calcium carbide production.

  17. Occupational exposure to impulse noise associated with shooting.

    PubMed

    Lwow, Felicja; Jó?ków, Pawe?; M?dra?, Marek

    2011-01-01

    Shooting training is associated with exposure to a considerable amount of unique noise. We wanted to evaluate noise exposure during such training. Our observations especially apply to professional sport shooters, but they are also valid for shooting coaches/instructors. We collected acoustic signals in 10-, 25- and 50-m as well as open-air shooting ranges. The recorded material was analysed with orthogonal, adaptive parameterization by Shur. The mean duration of a single acoustic signal was 250-800 ms with the C-weighted sound peak pressure level of 138.2-165.2 dB. Shooters may be exposed to as many as 600-1350 acoustic impulses during a training unit. The actual load for the hearing organ of a professional shooter or a shooting coach is ~200 000 acoustic stimuli in a year-long training macrocycle. Orthogonal, adaptive parameterization by Shur makes safe scheduling of shooters' training possible. PMID:21375955

  18. OCCUPATIONAL STYRENE EXPOSURE FOR TWELVE PRODUCT CATEGORIES IN THE REINFORCED-PLASTICS INDUSTRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Approximately 1500 occupational styrene exposure values from 28 reinforced-plastic manufacturers were collected retrospectively from companies and state and federal agencies. The report describes the major types of manufacturing processes within the reinforced-plastics industry a...

  19. NIOSH comments to DOL on the Occupational Safety and Health Administration proposed rule on occupational exposure to lead by R. A. Lemen, September 1, 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-09-01

    The testimony concerns the view of NIOSH regarding the OSHA proposed rule on occupational exposure to lead. Data in reports of air and blood analysis for lead suggest that there are highly variable concentrations of lead in air that range from more than 900 micrograms/cubic meter to levels less than the detection limits of the methods used. Blood concentrations also varied from those typical of concentrations found in the general population to levels substantially in excess of occupational standards of 60 microg/dl. A walk through survey report on air and blood lead concentrations is underway in a brass foundry. The National Occupational Exposure Survey, conducted by NIOSH, has been used to estimate the number of workers in the nine industry sectors requested by OSHA. Microfiche copies of three control technology reports on lead exposure and control in nonferrous foundries and secondary copper smelting were submitted. NIOSH is also submitting a final control technology report on a low energy battery shredder designed to reduce lead emissions.

  20. Occupational exposure to pesticides and consequences on male semen and fertility: a review.

    PubMed

    Mehrpour, Omid; Karrari, Parissa; Zamani, Nasim; Tsatsakis, Aristides M; Abdollahi, Mohammad

    2014-10-15

    Exposure to pesticides affects many body organs including reproductive system. Disorder of the reproductive system leads to infertility and therefore has been in the center of attention within the recent decades. Pesticides are one of the compounds that might reduce the semen quality in the exposed workers according to current knowledge. Although many underlying mechanisms have been proposed, the mechanisms of action are not clarified yet. The object of the present review was to criticize all the results of studies which evaluated the pesticide effects on male reproductive system. Results indicate that semen changes are multifactorial in the workers exposed to pesticides as there are numerous factors affecting sperm quality in occupational exposures. Majority of pesticides including organophosphoruses affect the male reproductive system by mechanisms such as reduction of sperm density and motility, inhibition of spermatogenesis, reduction of testis weights, reduction of sperm counts, motility, viability and density, and inducing sperm DNA damage, and increasing abnormal sperm morphology. Reduced weight of testes, epididymis, seminal vesicle, and ventral prostate, seminiferous tubule degeneration, change in plasma levels of testosterone, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and luteinizing hormone (LH), decreased level and activity of the antioxidant enzymes in testes, and inhibited testicular steroidogenesis are other possible mechanisms. Moreover, DDT and its metabolites have estrogenic effects on males. Although effect of pesticides on sperm quality is undeniable, well-designed long-term studies are needed to elucidate all the possible affecting variables such as socioeconomic, cultural, nutritional, occupational, physical, and clinical characteristics alongside pesticides. PMID:24487096

  1. Standard Precautions: Occupational Exposure and Behavior of Health Care Workers in Ethiopia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ayalu A. Reda; Shiferaw Fisseha; Bezatu Mengistie; Jean-Michel Vandeweerd; Srikanth Tripathy

    2010-01-01

    BackgroundOccupational exposure to blood and body fluids is a serious concern for health care workers, and presents a major risk for the transmission of infections such as HIV and hepatitis viruses. The objective of this study was to investigate occupational exposures and behavior of health care workers (HCWs) in eastern Ethiopia.MethodsWe surveyed 475 HCWs working in 10 hospitals and 20

  2. Occupational exposure measurements of static and pulsed gradient magnetic fields in the vicinity of MRI scanners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kännälä, Sami; Toivo, Tim; Alanko, Tommi; Jokela, Kari

    2009-04-01

    Recent advances in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have increased occupational exposure to magnetic fields. In this study, we examined the assessment of occupational exposure to gradient magnetic fields and time-varying magnetic fields generated by motion in non-homogeneous static magnetic fields of MRI scanners. These magnetic field components can be measured simultaneously with an induction coil setup that detects the time rate of change of magnetic flux density (dB/dt). The setup developed was used to measure the field components around two MRI units (1 T open and 3 T conventional). The measured values can be compared with dB/dt reference levels derived from magnetic flux density reference levels given by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP). The measured motion-induced dB/dt values were above the dB/dt reference levels for both MRI units. The measured values for the gradient fields (echo planar imaging (EPI) and fast field echo (FFE) sequences) also exceeded the dB/dt reference levels in positions where the medical staff may have access during interventional procedures. The highest motion-induced dB/dt values were 0.7 T s-1 for the 1 T scanner and 3 T s-1 for the 3 T scanner when only the static field was present. Even higher values (6.5 T s-1) were measured for simultaneous exposure to motion-induced and gradient fields in the vicinity of the 3 T scanner.

  3. Occupational exposure in small and medium scale industry with specific reference to heat and noise.

    PubMed

    Singh, Lakhwinder Pal; Bhardwaj, Arvind; Deepak, Kishore Kumar

    2010-01-01

    This study was undertaken to assess heat and noise exposure and occupational safety practices in small and medium scale casting and forging units (SMEs) of Northern India. We conducted personal interviews of 350 male workers of these units through a comprehensive questionnaire and collected information on heat and noise exposure, use of protective equipment, sweat loss and water intake, working hour. The ambient wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT index) was measured using quest temp 34/36o area heat stress monitor. A-weighted Leq ambient noise was measured using a quest sound level meter "ANSI SI. 43-1997 (R 2002) type-1 model SOUNDPRO SE/DL". We also incorporated OSHA norms for hearing conservation which include - an exchange rate of 5dB(A), criterion level at 90dB(A), criterion time of eight hours, threshold level is equal to 80dB(A), upper limit is equal to 140dB(A) and with F/S response rate. Results of the study revealed that occupational heat exposure in melting, casting, forging and punching sections is high compared to ACGIH/NIOSH norms. Ambience noise in various sections like casting / molding, drop forging, cutting presses, punching, grinding and barreling process was found to be more than 90dB(A). About 95% of the workers suffered speech interference where as high noise annoyance was reported by only 20%. Overall, 68% workers were not using any personal protective equipment (PPE). The study concluded that the proportion of SME workers exposed to high level heat stress and noise (60 - 72 hrs/week) is high. The workers engaged in forging and grinding sections are more prone to noise induced hearing loss (NIHL) at higher frequencies as compared to workers of other sections. It is recommended that there is a strong need to implement the standard of working hours as well as heat stress and noise control measures. PMID:20160389

  4. Beyond crosswalks: reliability of exposure assessment following automated coding of free-text job descriptions for occupational epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Burstyn, Igor; Slutsky, Anton; Lee, Derrick G; Singer, Alison B; An, Yuan; Michael, Yvonne L

    2014-05-01

    Epidemiologists typically collect narrative descriptions of occupational histories because these are less prone than self-reported exposures to recall bias of exposure to a specific hazard. However, the task of coding these narratives can be daunting and prohibitively time-consuming in some settings. The aim of this manuscript is to evaluate the performance of a computer algorithm to translate the narrative description of occupational codes into standard classification of jobs (2010 Standard Occupational Classification) in an epidemiological context. The fundamental question we address is whether exposure assignment resulting from manual (presumed gold standard) coding of the narratives is materially different from that arising from the application of automated coding. We pursued our work through three motivating examples: assessment of physical demands in Women's Health Initiative observational study, evaluation of predictors of exposure to coal tar pitch volatiles in the US Occupational Safety and Health Administration's (OSHA) Integrated Management Information System, and assessment of exposure to agents known to cause occupational asthma in a pregnancy cohort. In these diverse settings, we demonstrate that automated coding of occupations results in assignment of exposures that are in reasonable agreement with results that can be obtained through manual coding. The correlation between physical demand scores based on manual and automated job classification schemes was reasonable (r = 0.5). The agreement between predictive probability of exceeding the OSHA's permissible exposure level for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, using coal tar pitch volatiles as a surrogate, based on manual and automated coding of jobs was modest (Kendall rank correlation = 0.29). In the case of binary assignment of exposure to asthmagens, we observed that fair to excellent agreement in classifications can be reached, depending on presence of ambiguity in assigned job classification (? = 0.5-0.8). Thus, the success of automated coding appears to depend on the setting and type of exposure that is being assessed. Our overall recommendation is that automated translation of short narrative descriptions of jobs for exposure assessment is feasible in some settings and essential for large cohorts, especially if combined with manual coding to both assess reliability of coding and to further refine the coding algorithm. PMID:24504175

  5. Father's occupational exposure to carcinogenic agents and childhood acute leukemia: a new method to assess exposure (a case-control study)

    PubMed Central

    Perez-Saldivar, Maria Luisa; Ortega-Alvarez, Manuel Carlos; Fajardo-Gutierrez, Arturo; Bernaldez-Rios, Roberto; del Campo-Martinez, Maria de los Angeles; Medina-Sanson, Aurora; Palomo-Colli, Miguel Angel; Paredes-Aguilera, Rogelio; Martínez-Avalos, Armando; Borja-Aburto, Victor Hugo; Rodriguez-Rivera, Maria de Jesus; Vargas-Garcia, Victor Manuel; Zarco-Contreras, Jesus; Flores-Lujano, Janet; Mejia-Arangure, Juan Manuel

    2008-01-01

    Background Medical research has not been able to establish whether a father's occupational exposures are associated with the development of acute leukemia (AL) in their offspring. The studies conducted have weaknesses that have generated a misclassification of such exposure. Occupations and exposures to substances associated with childhood cancer are not very frequently encountered in the general population; thus, the reported risks are both inconsistent and inaccurate. In this study, to assess exposure we used a new method, an exposure index, which took into consideration the industrial branch, specific position, use of protective equipment, substances at work, degree of contact with such substances, and time of exposure. This index allowed us to obtain a grade, which permitted the identification of individuals according to their level of exposure to known or potentially carcinogenic agents that are not necessarily specifically identified as risk factors for leukemia. The aim of this study was to determine the association between a father's occupational exposure to carcinogenic agents and the presence of AL in their offspring. Methods From 1999 to 2000, a case-control study was performed with 193 children who reside in Mexico City and had been diagnosed with AL. The initial sample-size calculation was 150 children per group, assessed with an expected odds ratio (OR) of three and a minimum exposure frequency of 15.8%. These children were matched by age, sex, and institution with 193 pediatric surgical patients at secondary-care hospitals. A questionnaire was used to determine each child's background and the characteristics of the father's occupation(s). In order to determine the level of exposure to carcinogenic agents, a previously validated exposure index (occupational exposure index, OEI) was used. The consistency and validity of the index were assessed by a questionnaire comparison, the sensory recognition of the work area, and an expert's opinion. Results The adjusted ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were 1.69 (0.98, 2.92) during the preconception period; 1.98 (1.13, 3.45) during the index pregnancy; 2.11 (1.17, 3.78) during breastfeeding period; 2.17 (1.28, 3.66) after birth; and 2.06 (1.24, 3.42) for global exposure. Conclusion This is the first study in which an OEI was used to assess a father's occupational exposure to carcinogenic agents as a risk factor for the development of childhood AL in his offspring. From our results, we conclude that children whose fathers have been exposed to a high level of carcinogenic agents seem to have a greater risk of developing acute leukemia. However, confounding factors cannot be disregarded due to an incomplete control for confounding. PMID:18194546

  6. Occupational exposures and asthma in 14,000 adults from the general population. Nicole Le Moual1

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Occupational exposures and asthma in 14,000 adults from the general population. Nicole Le Moual1 69 E-mail : lemoual@vjf.inserm.fr Keywords: asthma, occupational diseases, occupations, occupational study on the Genetics and Environment of Asthma; ECRHS, European Community Respiratory Health Survey

  7. Screening values for Non-Carcinogenic Hanford Waste Tank Vapor Chemicals that Lack Established Occupational Exposure Limits

    SciTech Connect

    Poet, Torka S.; Mast, Terryl J.; Huckaby, James L.

    2006-02-06

    Over 1,500 different volatile chemicals have been reported in the headspaces of tanks used to store high-level radioactive waste at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site. Concern about potential exposure of tank farm workers to these chemicals has prompted efforts to evaluate their toxicity, identify chemicals that pose the greatest risk, and incorporate that information into the tank farms industrial hygiene worker protection program. Established occupation exposure limits for individual chemicals and petroleum hydrocarbon mixtures have been used elsewhere to evaluate about 900 of the chemicals. In this report headspace concentration screening values were established for the remaining 600 chemicals using available industrial hygiene and toxicological data. Screening values were intended to be more than an order of magnitude below concentrations that may cause adverse health effects in workers, assuming a 40-hour/week occupational exposure. Screening values were compared to the maximum reported headspace concentrations.

  8. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease due to occupational exposure to silica dust: a review of epidemiological and pathological evidence

    PubMed Central

    Hnizdo, E; Vallyathan, V

    2003-01-01

    Occupational exposure is an important risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and silica dust is one of the most important occupational respiratory toxins. Epidemiological and pathological studies suggest that silica dust exposure can lead to COPD, even in the absence of radiological signs of silicosis, and that the association between cumulative silica dust exposure and airflow obstruction is independent of silicosis. Recent clinicopathological and experimental studies have contributed further towards explaining the potential mechanism through which silica can cause pathological changes that may lead to the development of COPD. In this paper we review the epidemiological and pathological evidence relevant to the development of COPD in silica dust exposed workers within the context of recent findings. The evidence surveyed suggests that chronic levels of silica dust that do not cause disabling silicosis may cause the development of chronic bronchitis, emphysema, and/or small airways disease that can lead to airflow obstruction, even in the absence of radiological silicosis. PMID:12660371

  9. NIOSH comments to DOL on the Occupational Safety and Health Administration proposed rule on occupational exposure to formaldehyde by R. A. Lemen, February 9, 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-02-09

    The testimony contains the comments of NIOSH regarding the proposed rule on occupational exposure to formaldehyde (50000). The comments concern the results of epidemiologic and industrial hygiene studies of workers exposed to formaldehyde, along with risk estimates for cancer sites of the upper respiratory system associated with such exposures. NIOSH encourages further research to evaluate the cancer risk associated with the combined exposure to formaldehyde and particulates. NIOSH recommends that the occupational exposure to formaldehyde be controlled to the lowest feasible concentration.

  10. Risk of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia following parental occupational exposure to extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields

    PubMed Central

    Reid, A; Glass, D C; Bailey, H D; Milne, E; de Klerk, N H; Downie, P; Fritschi, L

    2011-01-01

    Background: Earlier studies have reported moderate increases in the risk of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) among children whose mothers have been occupationally exposed to extremely low frequency (ELF) electromagnetic fields. Other studies examining parental occupational exposure to ELF and ALL have reported mixed results. Methods: In an Australian case–control study of ALL in children aged <15 years, parents were asked about tasks they undertook in each job. Exposure variables were created for any occupational exposure before the birth of the child, in jobs 2 years before birth, in jobs 1 year before birth and up to 1 year after birth. Results: In all, 379 case and 854 control mothers and 328 case and 748 control fathers completed an occupational history. Exposure to ELF in all time periods was similar in case and control mothers. There was no difference in exposure between case and control fathers. There was no association between maternal (odds ratio (OR)=0.96; 95% CI=0.74–1.25) or paternal (OR=0.78; 95% CI=0.56–1.09) exposure to ELF any time before the birth and risk of childhood ALL. Conclusion: We did not find an increased risk of ALL in offspring of parents with occupational exposure to ELF. PMID:21915123

  11. Occupation and occupational exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals in male breast cancer: a case-control study in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Villeneuve, Sara; Cyr, Diane; Lynge, Elsebeth; Orsi, Laurent; Sabroe, Svend; Merletti, Franco; Gorini, Giuseppe; Morales-Suarez-Varela, Maria; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Baumgardt-Elms, Cornelia; Kaerlev, Linda; Eriksson, Mikael; Hardell, Lennart; Févotte, Joëlle; Guénel, Pascal

    2010-01-01

    Objectives Male breast cancer is a rare disease of largely unknown etiology. Besides genetic or hormone-related risk factors, a large number of environmental chemicals are suspected to play a role in breast cancer. The identification of occupations or occupational exposures associated with an increased incidence of breast cancer in men may help to identify mammary carcinogens in the environment. Methods Occupational risk factors of male breast cancer were investigated in a multi-centre case-control study conducted in 8 European countries, including 104 cases and 1901 controls. Lifetime work history was obtained during in-person interviews. Occupational exposures to endocrine disrupting chemicals (alkylphenolic compounds, phthalates, PCBs and dioxins) were assessed on a case-by-case basis from expert judgment. Results Male breast cancer incidence was more particularly increased in motor vehicle mechanics (OR=2.1, CI 1.0–4.4) with a dose-effect relationship with duration employment. It was also increased in paper makers and painters, and in workers in forestry and logging, health and social work, and manufacture of furniture. The odds ratio for exposure to alkylphenolic compounds above median was 3.8 (CI 1.5–9.5). This association persisted after adjustment for occupational exposures to other environmental estrogens. Conclusion These findings suggest that some environmental chemicals are possible mammary carcinogens. Gasoline, organic petroleum solvents or PAH can be suspected from the consistent elevated risk of male breast cancer observed in motor vehicle mechanics. Endocrine disruptors such as alkylphenolic compounds may play a role in breast cancer. PMID:20798010

  12. Low level exposure to chemicals and immune system

    SciTech Connect

    Colosio, C. [International Centre for Pesticides and Health Risk Prevention of the Azienda Ospedaliera Luigi Sacco, Polo Universitario, Via Magenta 25, 20020 Busto Garolfo, Milan (Italy)]. E-mail: claudio.colosio@icps.it; Birindelli, S. [International Centre for Pesticides and Health Risk Prevention of the Azienda Ospedaliera Luigi Sacco, Polo Universitario, Via Magenta 25, 20020 Busto Garolfo, Milan (Italy); Corsini, E. [Laboratory of Toxicology, Department of Pharmacological Sciences, University of Milan, Milan (Italy); Galli, C.L. [Laboratory of Toxicology, Department of Pharmacological Sciences, University of Milan, Milan (Italy); Maroni, M. [International Centre for Pesticides and Health Risk Prevention of the Azienda Ospedaliera Luigi Sacco, Polo Universitario, Via Magenta 25, 20020 Busto Garolfo, Milan (Italy)

    2005-09-01

    Industrialized countries are facing an increase of diseases attributable to an alteration of the immune system function, and concern is growing that this trend could be at least partially attributable to new and modified patterns of exposure to chemicals. Among chemicals matter of concern, pesticides can be included. The Authors have reviewed the existing evidence of pesticide immunotoxicity in humans, showing that existing data are inadequate to raise conclusions on the immunotoxic risk related to these compounds. The limits of existing studies are: poor knowledge on exposure levels, heterogeneity of the approach, and difficulty in giving a prognostic significance to the slight changes often observed. To overcome these limits, the Authors have proposed a tier approach, based on three steps: the first, addressed at pointing out a possible immunomodulation; the second, at refining the results and the third one, when needed, to finalize the study and to point out concordance with previous results. Studies should preferably be carried out through comparison of pre- and post-exposure findings in the same groups of subjects to be examined immediately after the end of the exposure. A simplification of the first step approach can be used by the occupational health physician and the occupational toxicologist. Conclusions on the prognostic significance of the slight changes often observed will be reached only by validating the hypothesis generated by field studies with an epidemiological approach. In this field, the most useful option is represented by longitudinal perspective studies.

  13. Occupational exposure to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in wood dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huynh, C. K.; Schüpfer, P.; Boiteux, P.

    2009-02-01

    Sino-nasal cancer (SNC) represents approximately 3% of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology (ORL) cancers. Adenocarcinoma SNC is an acknowledged occupational disease affecting certain specialized workers such as joiners and cabinetmakers. The high proportion of woodworkers contracting a SNC, subjected to an estimated risk 50 to 100 times higher than that affecting the general population, has suggested various study paths to possible causes such as tannin in hardwood, formaldehyde in plywood and benzo(a)pyrene produced by wood when overheated by cutting tools. It is acknowledged that tannin does not cause cancer to workers exposed to tea dust. Apart from being an irritant, formaldehyde is also classified as carcinogenic. The path involving carcinogenic Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) emitted by overheated wood is attractive. In this study, we measured the particle size and PAHs content in dust emitted by the processing of wood in an experimental chamber, and in field situation. Quantification of 16 PAHs is carried out by capillary GC-ion trap Mass Spectrometric analysis (GC-MS). The materials tested are rough fir tree, oak, impregnated polyurethane (PU) oak. The wood dust contains carcinogenic PAHs at the level of ?g.g-1 or ppm. During sanding operations, the PU varnish-impregnated wood produces 100 times more PAHs in dust than the unfinished wood.

  14. NIOSH comments to DOL on the Occupational Safety and Health Administration's proposed rule on occupational exposure to cadmium by R. W. Niemeier, October 18, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-10-18

    The testimony contains the comments of NIOSH regarding the proposed rule on occupational exposure to cadmium (7440439). The testimony contains a NIOSH summary by occupations of workers exposed to cadmium, the final submission from NIOSH on the measurement of cadmium in blood and urine, and the finalized NIOSH health hazard evaluation on exposure to cadmium at Gates Energy Products, Incorporated.

  15. Neuropsychological Effects of Low-Level Manganese Exposure in Welders

    PubMed Central

    Laohaudomchok, Wisanti; Lin, Xihong; Herrick, Robert F.; Fang, Shona C.; Cavallari, Jennifer M.; Shrairman, Ruth; Landau, Alexander; Christiani, David C.; Weisskopf, Marc G.

    2011-01-01

    While the neuropsychological effects of high manganese (Mn) exposure in occupational settings are well known, the effects of lower levels of exposure are less understood. In this study, we investigated the neuropsychological effects of lower level occupational Mn exposure in 46 male welders (mean age = 37.4, sd = 11.7 years). Each welders’ cumulative Mn exposure indices (Mn-CEI) for the past 12 months and total work history Mn exposure were constructed based on air Mn measurements and work histories. The association between these exposure indices and performance on cognitive, motor control, and psychological tests was examined. In addition, among a subset of welders (n=24) who completed the tests both before and after a work shift, we examined the association between cross-shift Mn exposure assessed from personal monitoring and acute changes in test scores. Mn exposures in this study (median = 12.9 ?g/m3) were much lower, as compared to those observed in other similar studies. Increasing total Mn-CEI was significantly associated with slower reaction time on the continuous performance test (CPT; p<0.01), as well as worse mood for several scales on the Profile of Mood States (POMS; confused, tired, and a composite of tired and energetic, all p?0.03). Increasing Mn-CEI over the previous 12 months was significantly associated with worse mood on the sad, tense, and confused POMS scales (all p?0.03) and the association with worse CPT performance approached significance (p=0.10). Higher Mn exposure over the course of a workday was associated with worse performance on the CPT test across the day (p=0.06) as well as declines in fine motor control over the work-shift (p=0.04), adjusting for age and time between the 2 tests. Our study suggests that even at relatively low Mn exposure levels neuropsychological effects may manifest particularly with respect to attention, mood, and fine motor control. PMID:21192973

  16. Asthma following occupational exposure to Lycopodium clavatum in condom manufacturers.

    PubMed

    Cullinan, P; Cannon, J; Sheril, D; Newman Taylor, A

    1993-07-01

    Occupational asthma in two women employed in the manufacture of condoms is reported. The spores of Lycopodium clavatum, used as a rubber dusting agent, were identified as the causative agent. PMID:8153931

  17. Asthma following occupational exposure to Lycopodium clavatum in condom manufacturers.

    PubMed Central

    Cullinan, P; Cannon, J; Sheril, D; Newman Taylor, A

    1993-01-01

    Occupational asthma in two women employed in the manufacture of condoms is reported. The spores of Lycopodium clavatum, used as a rubber dusting agent, were identified as the causative agent. PMID:8153931

  18. Occupational exposure to synthetic musks in barbershops, compared with the common exposure in the dormitories and households.

    PubMed

    Liu, Nannan; Shi, Yali; Xu, Lin; Li, Wenhui; Cai, Yaqi

    2013-11-01

    Synthetic musks (SMs) have been widely used as fragrance ingredients in personal care and sanitary commodities. Due to their high volatility and particle-binding affinity, the indoor dust is a major reservoir of SMs, and dust ingestion could be an important exposure way to special populations, such as hairdressers. In spite of the known toxicity of SMs, there is no information regarding the occurrence of SMs in barbershop dusts and the exposure of hairdressers through indoor dust ingestion. In the present study, the levels of two nitro musks and five polycyclic musks were measured from indoor dust samples collected from barbershops, and some other indoor dust samples were also collected from dormitories, bathhouses and households for comparison. The concentrations of ?SMs in barbershop dusts were 10-100 times higher than those from the other three indoor microenvironments. Polycyclic musks accounted for 89.4% of ?SMs on average in all samples, of which two compounds, HHCB and AHTN jointly dominated 97.9% of polycyclic musks. The levels of HHCB and AHTN varied from 12.2 to 8.39×10(5) and from 13.2 to 3.49×10(5) ng g(-1), respectively. The daily intakes (DIs) of ?SMs through house dust ingestion were estimated using the model of high dust ingestion and worst-case exposure (P95), and the corresponding exposure rates were 2791, 135 and 727 ng d(-1) for the hairdressers, general population and toddlers. SMs were also detected in blood samples collected from the hairdressers and normal adults (n=50 and 10, respectively). There was no significant difference between these two groups. Despite the absence of higher SM concentrations in hairdresser's blood, we should not overlook the potential occupational health risks due to their high SMs ingestion rate. PMID:23849834

  19. Occupational risk factors for blood and body fluid exposure among home care aides.

    PubMed

    Amuwo, Shakirudeen; Sokas, Rosemary K; McPhaul, Kathleen; Lipscomb, Jane

    2011-04-01

    This cross-sectional study of home care aides examines self-reported occupational exposure to blood and body fluids to determine if factors that place these workers at risk can be identified. Home care aides working for two agencies in the Chicagoland area were surveyed. A total of 62 (6.3%) of the home care aides reported instances of blood and body fluid exposure either via sharps or mucous membrane contact. Although few aides reported performing health care-related tasks such as colostomy care, caring for a urinary catheter, or bowel stimulation (which were outside their scope of duties), those who did were significantly more likely to experience blood and body fluid exposure (p?.01). Level of assistance needed by clients in tasks such as feeding, laundry, and transportation was also found to be significantly associated with blood and body fluid exposure (p?.01). These data highlight the importance of, and need for, home care aid training in the use of universal precautions. PMID:21590568

  20. Elemental Carbon-Based Method for Monitoring Occupational Exposures to Particulate Diesel Exhaust

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. E. Birch; R. A. Cary

    1996-01-01

    Diesel exhaust has been classified a probable human carcinogen, and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) has recommended that employers reduce workers' exposures. Because diesel exhaust is a chemically complex mixture containing thousands of compounds, some measure of exposure must be selected. Previously used methods involving gravimetry or analysis of the soluble organic fraction of diesel soot

  1. Estimating the incidence of lung cancer attributable to occupational exposure in Iran

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alireza Mosavi-Jarrahi; Mohammadali Mohagheghi; Bita Kalaghchi; Yasaman Mousavi-Jarrahi; Mohammad Kazem Noori

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to estimate the fraction of lung cancer incidence in Iran attributed to occupational exposures to the well-established lung cancer carcinogens, including silica, cadmium, nickel, arsenic, chromium, diesel fumes, beryllium, and asbestos. METHODS: Nationwide exposure to each of the mentioned carcinogens was estimated using workforce data from the Iranian population census of 1995, available

  2. Occupational Noise Exposure and Hearing Protector Use in Canadian Lumber Mills

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hugh W. Davies; Kay Teschke; Susan M. Kennedy; Murray R. Hodgson; Paul A. Demers

    2008-01-01

    Noise exposure is probably the most ubiquitous of all occupational hazards, and there is evidence for causal links between noise and both auditory and nonauditory health effects. Noise control at source is rarely considered, resulting in reliance on hearing protection devices to reduce exposure. A comprehensive noise survey of four lumber mills using a randomized sampling strategy was undertaken, resulting

  3. Broad exposure screening of air pollutants in the occupational environment of Swedish soldiers deployed in Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Magnusson, Roger; Hägglund, Lars; Wingfors, Håkan

    2012-03-01

    The main objective of this study was to perform an initial characterization of Swedish soldiers' exposure to air pollutants in Afghanistan and screen for potential health hazards. Stationary monitoring was performed in two military camps, International Security Assistance Force Headquarters in Kabul and Camp Northern Lights in Mazar-e Sharif, at both outdoor and indoor locations. A broad screening including particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), oxygenated PAHs, n-alkanes, nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulfur dioxide, toxic metals, and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) was performed over 2 weeks in the autumn of 2009. The results were compared to current air quality guidelines. Particulate matter was identified as the main potential health hazard since military exposure guidelines for marginal effects were exceeded outdoors. In addition, especially in Kabul, levels of particle-bound PAHs and oxy-PAHs were high, whereas levels of toxic metals were generally low. Among gaseous pollutants, elevated NO2 levels in Kabul supported combustion as a major contributor to the poor air quality. VOC levels were generally low, but levels of some pollutants exceeded current guidelines. Because of elevated concentrations of particles with a high content of toxic organics, further monitoring and characterization of the occupational environment are warranted. PMID:22479921

  4. Metalworking fluid mist occupational exposure limits: a discussion of alternative methods.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Howard; White, Eugene M

    2006-09-01

    NIOSH published a recommended exposure limit (REL) for metalworking fluids (MWF) in 1998 that was designed to prevent respiratory disorders associated with these industrial lubricants. The REL of 0.4 mg/m(3) (as a time-weighted average for up to 10 hours) was for the fraction of aerosol corresponding to deposition in the thoracic region of the lungs. This nonregulatory occupational exposure limit (OEL) corresponded to approximately 0.5 mg/m(3) for total particulate mass. Although this REL was designed to prevent respiratory disorders from MWF exposures, NIOSH acknowledged that exposures below the REL may still result in occupational asthma and hypersensitivity pneumonitis--two of the most significant respiratory illnesses associated with MWF. In the 8 years since the publication of the NIOSH MWF REL, neither the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) nor the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) has recommended an exposure limit for water-soluble MWF specifically, other than their previous exposure limits for mineral oil. An informal effort to benchmark companies involved in the manufacture of automobiles and automotive parts in North America indicated that most companies are using the NIOSH MWF REL as a guide for the purchase of new equipment. Furthermore, most companies have adopted a goal to limit exposures to below 1.0 mg/m3. We failed to find any company that has strictly enforced an OEL of 1.0 mg/m(3) through the use of either administrative controls or personal protective equipment, when engineering controls failed to bring the exposures to below this limit. We also found that most companies have failed to implement specific medical surveillance programs for those employees exposed to MWF mist above 1.0 mg/m(3). Organization Resources Counselors (ORC) published in 1999 (on their website) a "best practices" manual for maintaining MWF systems and reducing the likelihood of MWF-related illnesses. The emphasis of this approach was on control techniques, and there was no assignment of a specific OEL for MWF due to the wide variety of fluids that exist. The ORC did suggest that maintaining exposure levels to below 2.0 mg/m(3) would assist in minimizing upper respiratory complaints associated with MWF. Although the ORC manual indicated that MWF vary in composition and no single OEL is likely to be appropriate for all such fluids, it adopted a very similar concept to control banding, placing all MWF operations into a single band using similar (if not identical) controls. OSHA, in lieu of adopting a 6B health standard for MWF, has also published a voluntary "best practices" manual on their website. Their document drew heavily from the work of ORC and also incorporated information from the 1998 NIOSH MWF criteria document. Industrial users of MWF need to have guidance, such as an OEL, to determine when either engineering, administrative controls, or personal protective equipment must be implemented to protect their employees. The purpose of this article is to explore various approaches that might be taken to result in a single or multiple limits for exposures to MWF and its components. Approaches such as control banding are discussed in terms of an alternative to the use of an OEL. PMID:16857649

  5. NIOSH comments to DOL on the Occupational Safety and Health Administration's proposed rule on occupational exposure to cadmium by J. D. Millar, September 18, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Millar, J.D.

    1990-09-18

    The testimony contains comments from NIOSH regarding requests for information at an OSHA hearing on cadmium (7440439). The following steel making operations were listed as potentially problematic with respect to low level cadmium exposure: blast furnace operations; sinter facility operations; basic oxygen, electric, and open hearth furnace operations; leaded steel production; maintenance, cleanup and repair operations; lead and zinc coating operations; teeming and pouring operations. The estimate of total workers potentially exposed to cadmium compounds is given as 297,684 for 15,501 facilities. NIOSH recommends that workers with occupational exposure to cadmium not smoke in the workplace. Population studies are reviewed which deal with trace metals in occupationally and nonoccupationally exposed individuals; the exposure and accumulation of cadmium in populations from Japan, the United States and Sweden; normal levels of cadmium in diet, urine, blood, and tissues of inhabitants of the United States; and urinary cadmium and beta-2-microglobulin levels of individuals. Other topics briefly noted include air monitoring, medical monitoring and laboratory measurements of blood and urine cadmium concentrations.

  6. The History of OSHA's Asbestos Rulemakings and Some Distinctive Approaches that They Introduced for Regulating Occupational Exposure to Toxic Substances

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John F. Martonik; Edith Nash; Elizabeth Grossman

    2001-01-01

    The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) has regulated occupational exposure to asbestos since 1971. Since issuing its first asbestos standard, OSHA has modified it several times in response to new information about the health risk of exposure and concern expressed by workers and public health groups. As each modification has reduced worker exposure and disease risk, each also has

  7. Reconstruction of occupational mercury exposures at a chloralkali plant

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P L Williams; H Frumkin; M L Pierce; C C Manning; L Elon; A G Sanders

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVETo reconstruct historical workplace exposure to mercury (Hg) from 1956 to 1994 at a large chloralkali factory for use in a current epidemiology study of the factory.METHODSAll job activities of the employees were classified into one of 16 exposure categories, and the dates of changes in the processes were identified. Exposures to Hg for each job category, at each period

  8. NIOSH testimony to DOL on Occupational Safety and Health Administration's proposed rule on occupational exposure to 1,3-butadiene, by R. W. Niemeier, January 17, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-17

    The testimony concerned the views of NIOSH supporting OSHA in developing a more protective standard for exposure to 1,3-butadiene (106990) (BD). The testimony reviewed carcinogenicity testing results, studies of reproductive effects, epidemiology investigations, comments on the risk assessment of the proposed rule, the feasibility of controlling exposure including analytical methods for determining exposure levels and engineering controls, and medical surveillance of workers. Since BD has been demonstrated to be a potential occupational carcinogen, NIOSH recommended the use of the most protective respirators which included any self contained respirator equipped with a full facepiece and operated in a pressure demand or other positive pressure mode or any supplied air respirator equipped with a full facepiece operated in a pressure demand or other positive pressure mode in combination with an auxiliary self contained breathing apparatus operatus in a pressure demand or other positive pressure mode.

  9. Neurobehavioral function and low-level metal exposure in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kicinski, Michal; Vrijens, Jan; Vermier, Griet; Hond, Elly Den; Schoeters, Greet; Nelen, Vera; Bruckers, Liesbeth; Sioen, Isabelle; Baeyens, Willy; Van Larebeke, Nicolas; Viaene, Mineke K; Nawrot, Tim S

    2015-01-01

    An excessive metal exposure is harmful to the brain. However, many aspects of metal neurotoxicity remain unclear including the magnitude of the low-level exposure effects and the level of exposure that can be assumed safe. The aim of our study was to investigate the association between a low-level metal exposure and three neurobehavioral domains (sustained attention, short-term memory, and manual motor speed). We measured Cd, Cu, Mn, Pb, and Tl in blood, Cd, Ni, and toxicologically relevant As in urine and methyl Hg in hair in 606 adolescents between 13.6 and 17 years of age. A two-fold increase in blood Cu was associated with a 0.37 standard deviations decrease in sustained attention (95% CI: -0.67 to -0.07, p=0.02) and 0.39 standard deviations decrease in short-term memory (95% CI: -0.70 to -0.07, p=0.02), accounting for gender, age, smoking, passive smoking, household income per capita, occupation of the parents, and education level of the mother. None of the other metals was significantly associated with the neurobehavioral domains that were measured. The observed associations between blood Cu and neurobehavioral performance are in line with recent studies in elderly. However, the relevance of our results for public health remains to be elucidated. PMID:25287296

  10. Criteria for a recommended standard. Occupational exposure to respirable coal mine dust

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    Information regarding adverse health effects resulting from exposure to respirable coal mine dust was reviewed as a basis for the development of new occupational safety and health standards. Evidence indicated that coal mine dust exposures over a working lifetime may result in the development of simple coal workers` pneumonocoiosis, progressive massive fibrosis, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Recommendations are provided concerning respirable coal mine dust sampling to monitor worker exposure, the proper use of personal protective equipment, and medical screening and surveillance examinations.

  11. Occupational exposures to noise resulting from the workplace use of personal media players at a manufacturing facility.

    PubMed

    Autenrieth, Daniel A; Sandfort, Delvin R; Lipsey, Tiffany; Brazile, William J

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the contribution of noise exposures from personal media player (PMP) use in the workplace to overall employee noise exposures at a Colorado manufacturing facility. A total of 24 workers' PMP and background noise exposures were measured. Twelve PMP users worked in high-background-noise exposure (HBNE) areas, and 12 worked in low-background-noise exposure (LBNE) areas. The self-selected PMP listening level of each worker was measured using an ear simulator, and the background noise of each employee workstation was measured using a sound level meter. Workers' self-reported PMP duration of use, PMP listening exposure levels, and background noise levels were used to estimate the daily occupational noise exposures. Measured background noise levels averaged 81 dBA for HBNE workers and 59 dBA for LBNE workers. Measured, free-field equivalent listening exposure levels were significantly greater for HBNE workers (85 dBA) compared with LBNE workers (75 dBA) (p = 0.0006). Estimated mean daily noise exposures for both groups were below the ACGIH threshold limit value for noise of 85 dBA8-hr time weighted average (TWA), specifically 84 dBA TWA for HBNE workers and 72 dBA TWA for LBNE workers. Three of 12 (25%) HBNE workers had estimated exposures greater than 85 dBA TWA when only background noise was considered, yet when PMP use was also considered, 6 of 12 (50%) had estimated exposures greater than 85 dBA TWA, suggesting that PMP use doubled the number of overexposed workers. None of the LBNE workers had estimated exposures greater than 85 dBA TWA. The contribution of PMP use to overall noise exposures was substantially less among HBNE workers than LBNE workers due to the disproportionate selection of noise-attenuating headsets among HBNE workers compared with LBNE workers. It is recommended that the facility management either restrict workplace PMP use among HBNE workers or require output-limiting technology to prevent occupational noise-induced hearing loss. PMID:22937995

  12. Occupational and environmental exposures among Alaska Native and American Indian people living in Alaska and the Southwest United States.

    PubMed

    Redwood, Diana; Lanier, Anne P; Brubaker, Michael; Orell, Laurie; Tom-Orme, Lillian; George, Carmen; Edwards, Sandra; Slattery, Martha

    2012-05-01

    Most occupational and environmental research describes associations between specific occupational and environmental hazards and health outcomes, with little information available on population-level exposure, especially among unique subpopulations. The authors describe the prevalence of self-reported lifetime exposure to nine occupational and environmental hazards among 11,326 American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) adults enrolled in the Education and Research Towards Health (EARTH) Study in the Southwest U.S. and Alaska. The top three hazards experienced by AI/AN people in Alaska were petroleum products, military chemicals, and asbestos. The top three hazards experienced by AI/AN living in the Southwest U.S. were pesticides, petroleum, and welding/silversmithing. The study described here found that male sex, lower educational attainment, AI/AN language use, and living in the Southwest U.S. (vs. Alaska) were all associated with an increased likelihood of hazard exposure. The authors' study provides baseline data to facilitate future exposure-response analyses. Future studies should measure dose and duration as well as environmental hazards that occur in community settings. PMID:22590848

  13. Parental occupational exposure to extremely low frequency magnetic fields and childhood cancer: a German case-control study.

    PubMed

    Hug, Kerstin; Grize, Leticia; Seidler, Andreas; Kaatsch, Peter; Schüz, Joachim

    2010-01-01

    Extremely low frequency magnetic fields (ELF-MFs) have been classified as possibly carcinogenic to humans by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. The authors investigated, in a population-based case-control study in Germany, if children whose parents were exposed preconceptionally at work to ELF-MFs had an increased risk of developing cancer. Cases aged 0-14 years were ascertained from the German Childhood Cancer Registry. Controls were selected from local resident registration offices. The parental occupational history was recorded in questionnaires and telephone interviews, and preconceptional magnetic field exposure was estimated according to a job-exposure matrix. The analysis included 2,382 controls and 2,049 cases (846 children with acute leukemia, 159 children with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, 444 children with central nervous system tumors, and 600 children with other solid tumors). Frequency-matched conditional logistic regression models revealed no increased cancer risks in children whose fathers were occupationally exposed to magnetic fields above 0.2 microT. Additionally, there was no evidence for a risk increase at magnetic field levels exceeding 1 microT. Based on much smaller numbers, maternal occupational exposure was also not related to increased cancer risks. In this large case-control study, the risk of childhood cancer was not linked to preconceptional parental ELF-MF exposure. PMID:19942577

  14. Underestimation of self-reported occupational exposure by questionnaire in hospital workers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C Donnay; M-A Denis; R Magis; J Fevotte; N Massin; O Dumas; I Pin; D Choudat; F Kauffmann; N Le Moual

    2011-01-01

    ObjectivesThe aim of the study was to determine whether self-reported occupational exposure to cleaning\\/disinfecting agents in hospital workers is accurate, in comparison to expert assessment, taken to be the gold standard.MethodsIn the Epidemiological Study of the Genetics and Environment of Asthma (EGEA), participants were interviewed on occupation with a specific questionnaire for hospital workers regarding tasks and cleaning\\/disinfecting agents. Two

  15. Hearing loss associated with smoking and occupational noise exposure in a Japanese metal working company

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kyoko Nomura; Mutsuhiro Nakao; Eiji Yano

    2005-01-01

    The effects of smoking on hearing loss within the context of atherosclerosis was assessed, and the statistical interaction of occupational noise evaluated. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 397 Japanese males working at a metal factory, aged 21–66 years, in a periodical health checkup. The following information was obtained: two smoking indices of smoking status and Brinkman index, occupational noise exposures

  16. Occupational Noise Exposure of Operators of Heavy Trucks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Baily Seshagiri

    1998-01-01

    Over 400 measurements were taken across Canada to assess the noise exposure of truck operators. The exposure of the driver was evaluated using both 3-dB (Leq) and 5-dB (L5dB) exchange rates. Driving with windows closed and radio not operating resulted in the lowest exposure. The drivers' Leq ranged from 78 to 89 dBA, with a mean of 82.7 dBA; operating

  17. Management of Occupational Exposure to Engineered Nanoparticles Through a Chance-Constrained Nonlinear Programming Approach

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhi; Yuan, Yuan; Zhang, Shu-Shen; Chen, Yu; Yang, Feng-Lin

    2013-01-01

    Critical environmental and human health concerns are associated with the rapidly growing fields of nanotechnology and manufactured nanomaterials (MNMs). The main risk arises from occupational exposure via chronic inhalation of nanoparticles. This research presents a chance-constrained nonlinear programming (CCNLP) optimization approach, which is developed to maximize the nanaomaterial production and minimize the risks of workplace exposure to MNMs. The CCNLP method integrates nonlinear programming (NLP) and chance-constrained programming (CCP), and handles uncertainties associated with both the nanomaterial production and workplace exposure control. The CCNLP method was examined through a single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) manufacturing process. The study results provide optimal production strategies and alternatives. It reveal that a high control measure guarantees that environmental health and safety (EHS) standards regulations are met, while a lower control level leads to increased risk of violating EHS regulations. The CCNLP optimization approach is a decision support tool for the optimization of the increasing MNMS manufacturing with workplace safety constraints under uncertainties. PMID:23531490

  18. Exposure monitoring and health effect studies of workers occupationally exposed to cyclohexane vapor.

    PubMed

    Yasugi, T; Kawai, T; Mizunuma, K; Kishi, R; Harabuchi, I; Yuasa, J; Eguchi, T; Sugimoto, R; Seiji, K; Ikeda, M

    1994-01-01

    A survey was conducted in the second half of a working week on 33 women who either applied glue (with cyclohexane as an almost exclusive solvent component) or worked in the vicinity of glue application. Carbon cloth-equipped diffusive samplers were used for personal measurement of time-weighted average intensity of exposure to the solvent. The geometric mean and the highest cyclohexane concentration observed in air were 27 ppm and 274 ppm, respectively. Concentrations of cyclohexanol in urine samples and cyclohexane in whole blood and serum collected at the end of a shift showed significant correlations with the solvent exposure levels. Urinary cyclohexanone also correlated, but with a smaller correlation coefficient. The observation suggests that cyclohexanol in urine and cyclohexane in blood or serum collected at the end of a shift are useful indicators of occupational exposure to cyclohexane vapor. Quantitative estimation of balance at the end of the shift suggested that only a minute portion (< 1%) of cyclohexane absorbed is excreted in the urine as cyclohexanol, almost exclusively as a glucuronide. A survey of subjective symptoms revealed an increase in the prevalence of "dimmed vision " and "unusual smell", but hematology and serum biochemistry testing did not indicate any specific signs. PMID:8175191

  19. Creatinine and specific gravity normalization in biological monitoring of occupational exposures.

    PubMed

    Sauvé, Jean-François; Lévesque, Martine; Huard, Mélanie; Drolet, Daniel; Lavoué, Jérôme; Tardif, Robert; Truchon, Ginette

    2015-01-01

    Reference values for the biological monitoring of occupational exposures are generally normalized on the basis of creatinine (CR) concentration or specific gravity (SG) to account for fluctuations in urine dilution. For instance, the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH(®)) uses a reference value of 1g/L for CR. The comparison of urinary concentrations of biomarkers between studies requires the adjustment of results based on a reference CR and/or SG value, although studies have suggested that age, sex, muscle mass, and time of the day can exert non-negligible influences on CR excretion, while SG appears to be less affected. The objective of this study was to propose reference values for urinary CR and SG based on the results of samples sent for analysis by occupational health practitioners to the laboratory of the Occupational Health and Safety Research Institute of Québec (IRSST). We analyzed a database containing 20,395 urinary sample results collected between 1985 and 2010. Linear mixed-effects models with worker as a random effect were used to estimate the influence of sex and collection period on urinary CR and SG. Median CR concentrations were 25-30% higher in men (1.6 g/L or 14.4 mmol/L) than in women (1.2 g/L or 10.2 mmol/L). Four percent of the samples for men and 12% for women were below the acceptable threshold for CR (4.4 mmol/L). For SG, 5% of samples for men and 12% for women were below the threshold of 1.010. The difference in SG levels between sexes was lower than for CR, with a median of 1.024 for men compared to 1.020 for women. Our results suggest that the normalization of reference values based on a standard CR value of 1 g/L as proposed by the ACGIH is a conservative approach. According to the literature, CR excretion is more influenced by physiological parameters than SG. We therefore suggest that correction based on SG should be favored in future studies involving the proposal of reference values for the biological monitoring of occupational exposures. PMID:25192246

  20. Mental retardation and parental occupation: a study on the applicability of job exposure matrices.

    PubMed Central

    Roeleveld, N; Zielhuis, G A; Gabreëls, F

    1993-01-01

    In a case-referent study on mental retardation and parental occupation, the applicability of job exposure matrices for the identification of risk factors was evaluated. The parents of 306 mentally retarded children (cases) and 322 referents were interviewed about their occupational activities in the pregnancy period. Detailed occupational histories were obtained that were compared with exposures generated by two different job exposure matrices. The agreement between interview and matrices was low: the sensitivity ranged from 17.9% to 32.4% and the percentages of false positive exposures from 66.7% to 96.0%. By means of the interview, significantly increased odds ratios (ORs) were found for exposure of the mother in late pregnancy to radiation (OR = 9.3), mercury (OR = 8.7), organic solvents (OR = 1.7), hair cosmetics and dyes (OR = 3.7), paint (OR = 2.7), hexachlorophene/phenylphenol (OR = 3.1), antibiotics (OR = 2.9), and dust (OR = 2.2) and for working with copying machines (OR = 3.0) or in occupations with poor climatological circumstances and permanent contact with people. The last was confirmed by the British matrix (OR = 1.7). Otherwise, most of the mentioned associations were missed by the job exposure matrices. Therefore, these matrices were not considered to be applicable in this particular study, nor in most other reproductive epidemiological studies in view of their general properties and limitations. PMID:8217856

  1. Cancer risk from occupational and environmental exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Boffetta, P; Jourenkova, N; Gustavsson, P

    1997-05-01

    Epidemiologic evidence on the relationship between polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and cancer is reviewed. High occupational exposure to PAHs occurs in several industries and occupations. Covered here are aluminum production, coal gasification, coke production, iron and steel foundries, tar distillation, shale oil extraction, wood impregnation, roofing, road paving, carbon black production, carbon electrode production, chimney sweeping, and calcium carbide production. In addition, workers exposed to diesel engine exhaust in the transport industry and in related occupations are exposed to PAHs and nitro-PAHs. Heavy exposure to PAHs entails a substantial risk of lung, skin, and bladder cancer, which is not likely to be due to other carcinogenic exposures present in the same industries. The lung seems to be the major target organ of PAH carcinogenicity and increased risk is present in most of the industries and occupations listed above. An increased risk of skin cancer follows high dermal exposure. An increase in bladder cancer risk is found mainly in industries with high exposure to PAHs from coal tars and pitches. Increased risks have been reported for other organs, namely the larynx and the kidney; the available evidence, however, is inconclusive. The results of studies addressing environmental PAH exposure are consistent with these conclusions. PMID:9498904

  2. The relation between occupational exposure to lead and blood pressure among employed normotensive men

    PubMed Central

    Taheri, Ladan; Sadeghi, Masoumeh; Sanei, Hamid; Rabiei, Katayoun; Arabzadeh, Somayeh; Golshahi, Jafar; Afshar, Hamid; Sarrafzadegan, Nizal

    2014-01-01

    Background: Lead is a pollutant with numerous adverse effects on health. Since it can affect blood pressure, peripheral blood vessels, and the heart, the present study aimed to evaluate the relation between occupational exposure to lead and blood pressure. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study included male individuals working in battery firms in Isfahan. A questionnaire covering demographic characteristics and the history of different diseases and occupational exposure to lead was completed. Each participant's blood pressure was also measured and recorded. After obtaining blood samples and determining lead levels, mean and frequency analyses were performed. In addition, Pearson's correlation test and linear regression were used to assess the relation between blood lead levels (BLLs) and systolic and diastolic blood pressure. All analyses were performed in SPSS.19 Results: The mean age of the 182 studied workers was 42.85 ± 13.65 years. They had worked in battery firms for a mean period of 23.67 ± 14.72 years. Moreover, the mean value of BLLs among the participants was 7.92 ± 3.44 ?g/dL. Correlation between BLL and systolic and diastolic blood pressure was not significant. The effects of lead on systolic and diastolic blood pressure after stepwise regression were B = –0.327 [confidence interval (CI) 95%: –0.877 to 0.223] and B = –0.094 (CI 95%: –0.495 to 0.307), respectively. Conclusion: This study revealed that BLLs in battery firm workers to be normal. Additionally, BLLs were not significantly related with either systolic or diastolic blood pressure which might have been the result of normal BLLs. PMID:25197288

  3. Effect of occupational lead exposure on lymphocyte enzymes involved in heme biosynthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Rossi, E.; Costin, K.A.; Garcia-Webb, P. (Queen Elizabeth II Medical Centre, Nedlands (Australia))

    1990-11-01

    Lead exposure is a well-known cause of increases in urinary coproporphyrin and erythrocyte zinc-protoporphyrin, so these compounds are often used to monitor occupational lead exposure. The increased concentrations are usually assumed to result from lead inhibition of two of the mitochondrial enzymes of heme biosynthesis, coproporphyrinogen oxidase and ferrochelatase. We studied 88 subjects in whom the degree of occupational lead exposure was established by measuring erythrocyte lead and protoporphyrin. Assay of lymphocyte coproporphyrinogen oxidase and ferrochelatase activities showed that these enzymes were unaffected by lead exposure, as was a related enzyme, lymphocyte NADH-ferricyanide reductase. We propose alternative explanations for the increased concentrations of coproporphyrin and zinc-protoporphyrin seen in lead exposure.

  4. Occupational exposure to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)--how can we reduce the risk?

    PubMed

    Leszczyszyn-Pynka, Magdalena; K?ys-Rachwalska, Ma?gorzata; Sacharczuk, Beata; Boro?-Kaczmarska, Anna

    2004-01-01

    We analyzed occupational exposure to potentially infectious body fluids among health care workers (HCWs). Nurses were the most common exposed category of HCWs. In 73.6% cases needle sticks had been the reason of exposure. Recapping a needle was the cause of exposure in 6.9% accidents. Among 189 registered HCWs, 66 (34.9%) performed invasive procedures without any personal protective equipment. Prophylaxis with antiretroviral drugs was necessary in 43 (22.8%) cases. As many as 60.3% of exposure incidents to potentially infectious material result from non-compliance with the relevant recommendations. Continuous education and training is critically needed to prevent occupational exposure to blood-borne infections among health care workers. PMID:15598365

  5. [Occupational lung diseases caused by exposure to chrysotile asbestos dust and the preventive measures].

    PubMed

    Pliukhin, A E; Burmistrova, T B

    2014-01-01

    To reveal major principles in system of occupational lung diseases prevention among workers engaged into extraction and usage of chrysotile asbestos, the authors specified main criteria for diagnosis of asbestos-related pulmonary diseases and signs of exposure to chrysotile dust, with identification of risk groups for occupational diseases development. The authors formulated main principles of prevention and rehabilitation for workers with asbestos-related pulmonary diseases. Special attention was paid to harmonization of all medical and technical measures aimed at prevention and liquidation of occupational asbestos-related diseases. PMID:25282798

  6. Increased Mitochondrial DNA Copy Number in Occupations Associated with Low-Dose Benzene Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Pesatori, Angela Cecilia; Dioni, Laura; Hoxha, Mirjam; Bollati, Valentina; Albetti, Benedetta; Byun, Hyang-Min; Bonzini, Matteo; Fustinoni, Silvia; Cocco, Pierluigi; Satta, Giannina; Zucca, Mariagrazia; Merlo, Domenico Franco; Cipolla, Massimo; Bertazzi, Pier Alberto; Baccarelli, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    Background: Benzene is an established leukemogen at high exposure levels. Although low-level benzene exposure is widespread and may induce oxidative damage, no mechanistic biomarkers are available to detect biological dysfunction at low doses. Objectives: Our goals were to determine in a large multicenter cross-sectional study whether low-level benzene is associated with increased blood mitochondrial DNA copy number (mtDNAcn, a biological oxidative response to mitochondrial DNA damage and dysfunction) and to explore potential links between mtDNAcn and leukemia-related epigenetic markers. Methods: We measured blood relative mtDNAcn by real-time polymerase chain reaction in 341 individuals selected from various occupational groups with low-level benzene exposures (> 100 times lower than the Occupational Safety and Health Administration/European Union standards) and 178 referents from three Italian cities (Genoa, Milan, Cagliari). Results: In each city, benzene-exposed participants showed higher mtDNAcn than referents: mtDNAcn was 0.90 relative units in Genoa bus drivers and 0.75 in referents (p = 0.019); 0.90 in Milan gas station attendants, 1.10 in police officers, and 0.75 in referents (p-trend = 0.008); 1.63 in Cagliari petrochemical plant workers, 1.25 in referents close to the plant, and 0.90 in referents farther from the plant (p-trend = 0.046). Using covariate-adjusted regression models, we estimated that an interquartile range increase in personal airborne benzene was associated with percent increases in mtDNAcn equal to 10.5% in Genoa (p = 0.014), 8.2% (p = 0.008) in Milan, 7.5% in Cagliari (p = 0.22), and 10.3% in all cities combined (p < 0.001). Using methylation data available for the Milan participants, we found that mtDNAcn was associated with LINE-1 hypomethylation (–2.41%; p = 0.007) and p15 hypermethylation (+15.95%, p = 0.008). Conclusions: Blood MtDNAcn was increased in persons exposed to low benzene levels, potentially reflecting mitochondrial DNA damage and dysfunction. PMID:22005026

  7. Analysis of Occupational Asbestos Exposure and Lung Cancer Mortality Using the G Formula

    PubMed Central

    Cole, Stephen R.; Richardson, David B.; Chu, Haitao; Naimi, Ashley I.

    2013-01-01

    We employed the parametric G formula to analyze lung cancer mortality in a cohort of textile manufacturing workers who were occupationally exposed to asbestos in South Carolina. A total of 3,002 adults with a median age of 24 years at enrollment (58% male, 81% Caucasian) were followed for 117,471 person-years between 1940 and 2001, and 195 lung cancer deaths were observed. Chrysotile asbestos exposure was measured in fiber-years per milliliter of air, and annual occupational exposures were estimated on the basis of detailed work histories. Sixteen percent of person-years involved exposure to asbestos, with a median exposure of 3.30 fiber-years/mL among those exposed. Lung cancer mortality by age 90 years under the observed asbestos exposure was 9.44%. In comparison with observed asbestos exposure, if the facility had operated under the current Occupational Safety and Health Administration asbestos exposure standard of <0.1 fibers/mL, we estimate that the cohort would have experienced 24% less lung cancer mortality by age 90 years (mortality ratio = 0.76, 95% confidence interval: 0.62, 0.94). A further reduction in asbestos exposure to a standard of <0.05 fibers/mL was estimated to have resulted in a minimal additional reduction in lung cancer mortality by age 90 years (mortality ratio = 0.75, 95% confidence interval: 0.61, 0.92). PMID:23558355

  8. Analysis of occupational asbestos exposure and lung cancer mortality using the g formula.

    PubMed

    Cole, Stephen R; Richardson, David B; Chu, Haitao; Naimi, Ashley I

    2013-05-01

    We employed the parametric G formula to analyze lung cancer mortality in a cohort of textile manufacturing workers who were occupationally exposed to asbestos in South Carolina. A total of 3,002 adults with a median age of 24 years at enrollment (58% male, 81% Caucasian) were followed for 117,471 person-years between 1940 and 2001, and 195 lung cancer deaths were observed. Chrysotile asbestos exposure was measured in fiber-years per milliliter of air, and annual occupational exposures were estimated on the basis of detailed work histories. Sixteen percent of person-years involved exposure to asbestos, with a median exposure of 3.30 fiber-years/mL among those exposed. Lung cancer mortality by age 90 years under the observed asbestos exposure was 9.44%. In comparison with observed asbestos exposure, if the facility had operated under the current Occupational Safety and Health Administration asbestos exposure standard of <0.1 fibers/mL, we estimate that the cohort would have experienced 24% less lung cancer mortality by age 90 years (mortality ratio = 0.76, 95% confidence interval: 0.62, 0.94). A further reduction in asbestos exposure to a standard of <0.05 fibers/mL was estimated to have resulted in a minimal additional reduction in lung cancer mortality by age 90 years (mortality ratio = 0.75, 95% confidence interval: 0.61, 0.92). PMID:23558355

  9. Maternal occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and small for gestational age offspring

    PubMed Central

    Langlois, Peter H.; Hoyt, Adrienne T.; Desrosiers, Tania A.; Lupo, Philip J.; Lawson, Christina C.; Waters, Martha A.; Rocheleau, Carissa M.; Shaw, Gary M.; Romitti, Paul A.; Gilboa, Suzanne M.; Malik, Sadia

    2015-01-01

    Objectives While some of the highest maternal exposures to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) occur in the workplace, there is only one previous study of occupational PAH exposure and adverse pregnancy outcomes. We sought to extend this literature using interview data combined with detailed exposure assessment. Methods Data for 1997–2002 were analysed from mothers of infants without major birth defects in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study, a large population-based case-control study in the USA. Maternal telephone interviews yielded information on jobs held in the month before conception through delivery. From 6252 eligible control mothers, 2803 completed the interview, had a job, met other selection criteria, and were included in the analysis. Two industrial hygienists independently assessed occupational exposure to PAHs from the interview and reviewed results with a third to reach consensus. Small for gestational age (SGA) was the only adverse pregnancy outcome with enough exposed cases to yield meaningful results. Logistic regression estimated crude and adjusted ORs. Results Of the 2803 mothers, 221 (7.9%) had infants who were SGA. Occupational PAH exposure was found for 17 (7.7%) of the mothers with SGA offspring and 102 (4.0%) of the remaining mothers. Almost half the jobs with exposure were related to food preparation and serving. After adjustment for maternal age, there was a significant association of occupational exposure with SGA (OR=2.2, 95% CI 1.3 to 3.8). Conclusions Maternal occupational exposure to PAHs was found to be associated with increased risk of SGA offspring. PMID:24893704

  10. Regional maps of occupational heat exposure: past, present, and potential future

    PubMed Central

    Hyatt, Olivia M.; Lemke, Bruno; Kjellstrom, Tord

    2010-01-01

    Background An important feature of climate change is increasing human heat exposure in workplaces without cooling systems in tropical and subtropical countries. Detailed gridded heat exposure maps will provide essential information for public health authorities. Objectives To develop and test methods for calculating occupational heat exposures and present results in easily interpreted maps. Design Published formulas for a common occupational heat exposure index, the WBGT (Wet Bulb Globe Temperature), were used in combination with global gridded climate data to calculate heat exposure in 0.5° grid squares. Monthly averages of daily maximum temperatures, as indicators of typical temperatures during the hottest part of the day, and corresponding water vapour pressures produced estimates of monthly WBGT indoors (without cooling systems) or outdoors in the shade. Results The maps show the WBGT within four hot regions of the world during the three hottest months in 1975 and 2000: Australia, South Asia, Southern Africa, Central America, and southern US. Between 1975 and 2000 a WBGT increase of 0.5–1°C was common and the maps show clear decreases in some places. The time trends fit with the development of global climate change. The high WBGT values (particularly in South Asia) already cause excessive occupational heat exposures during the three hottest months. If continued climate change increases WBGT by 3°C, our maps identify areas where occupational heat stress in non-cooled workplaces will be extreme. Conclusions The mapping method provides a rapid visual impression of occupational heat exposures in large regions of the world. The local changes in WBGT between 1975 and 2000 fit with the global climate change trends. Future increases of WBGT may create extreme heat exposure situations in large areas of the world. PMID:21165172

  11. Occupational Exposure of Veterinarians to Waste Anesthetic Gases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Lionel Potts; Bobby F. Craft

    1988-01-01

    An evaluation of anesthetic waste gas exposures was conducted in small private practice animal clinics throughout the Salt Lake Valley. The two most frequently used anesthetic gases, methoxyflurane and halothane, were chosen to be studied. Exposures during 38 surgeries were studied in a total of 10 facilities involving 13 veterinarians. Veterinarian breathing zones were sampled on a real-time basis with

  12. Occupational exposure to carcinogens in the European Union

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Timo Kauppinen; Jouni Toikkanen; David Pedersen; Randy Young; Wolfgang Ahrens; Paolo Boffetta; Johnni Hansen; Hans Kromhout; Jeronimo Maqueda Blasco; Dario Mirabelli; Victoria de la Orden-Rivera; Brian Pannett; Nils Plato; Anja Savela; Raymond Vincent; Manolis Kogevinas

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVESTo construct a computer assisted information system for the estimation of the numbers of workers exposed to established and suspected human carcinogens in the member states of the European Union (EU).METHODSA database called CAREX (carcinogen exposure) was designed to provide selected exposure data and documented estimates of the number of workers exposed to carcinogens by country, carcinogen, and industry. CAREX

  13. Breast cancer risk after occupational solvent exposure: the influence of timing and setting

    PubMed Central

    Ekenga, Christine C; Parks, Christine G.; D’Aloisio, Aimee A.; DeRoo, Lisa A.; Sandler, Dale P.

    2014-01-01

    Organic solvents are ubiquitous in occupational settings where they may contribute to risks for carcinogenesis. However, there is limited information on organic solvents as human breast carcinogens. We examined the relationship between occupational exposure to solvents and breast cancer in a prospective study of 47,661 women with an occupational history in the Sister Study cohort. Occupational solvent exposure was categorized using self-reported job-specific solvent use collected at baseline. Multivariable Cox regression analyses were used to assess breast cancer risk, adjusting for established breast cancer risk factors. A total of 1,798 women were diagnosed with breast cancer during follow-up, including 1,255 invasive cases. Overall, the risk of invasive breast cancer was not associated with lifetime exposure to solvents (HR: 1.04; 95% CI = 0.88–1.24). Parous women who worked with solvents prior to their first full-term birth had an increased risk of estrogen receptor-positive invasive breast cancer compared to women who never worked with solvents (HR: 1.39; 95% CI = 1.03–1.86). A significantly elevated risk for estrogen receptor-positive invasive breast cancer was associated with solvent exposure among clinical laboratory technologists and technicians (HR: 2.00; 95%CI: 1.07–3.73). Occupational exposure to solvents prior to first birth, a critical period of breast tissue differentiation, may result in increased vulnerability for breast cancer. Our findings suggest a need for future studies in this area to focus on exposure time windows and solvent types in different occupational settings. PMID:24879566

  14. High pressure air jet in the endoscopic preparation room: risk of noise exposure on occupational health.

    PubMed

    Chiu, King-Wah; Lu, Lung-Sheng; Wu, Cheng-Kun

    2015-01-01

    After high-level disinfection of gastrointestinal endoscopes, they are hung to dry in order to prevent residual water droplets impact on patient health. To allow for quick drying and clinical reuse, some endoscopic units use a high pressure air jet (HPAJ) to remove the water droplets on the endoscopes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the excessive noise exposure with the use of HPAJ in endoscopic preparation room and to investigate the risk to occupational health. Noise assessment was taken during 7 automatic endoscopic reprocessors (AERs) and combined with/without HPAJ use over an 8-hour time-weighted average (TWA). Analytical procedures of the NIOSH and the ISO for noise-induced hearing loss were estimated to develop analytic models. The peak of the noise spectrum of combined HPAJ and 7 AERs was significantly higher than that of the 7 AERs alone (108.3 ± 1.36 versus 69.3 ± 3.93?dBA, P < 0.0001). The risk of hearing loss (HL?>?2.5?dB) was 2.15% at 90?dBA, 11.6% at 95?dBA, and 51.3% at 100?dBA. The odds ratio was 49.1 (95% CI: 11.9 to 203.6). The noise generated by the HPAJ to work over TWA seriously affected the occupational health and safety of those working in an endoscopic preparation room. PMID:25710009

  15. High Pressure Air Jet in the Endoscopic Preparation Room: Risk of Noise Exposure on Occupational Health

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Lung-Sheng; Wu, Cheng-Kun

    2015-01-01

    After high-level disinfection of gastrointestinal endoscopes, they are hung to dry in order to prevent residual water droplets impact on patient health. To allow for quick drying and clinical reuse, some endoscopic units use a high pressure air jet (HPAJ) to remove the water droplets on the endoscopes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the excessive noise exposure with the use of HPAJ in endoscopic preparation room and to investigate the risk to occupational health. Noise assessment was taken during 7 automatic endoscopic reprocessors (AERs) and combined with/without HPAJ use over an 8-hour time-weighted average (TWA). Analytical procedures of the NIOSH and the ISO for noise-induced hearing loss were estimated to develop analytic models. The peak of the noise spectrum of combined HPAJ and 7 AERs was significantly higher than that of the 7 AERs alone (108.3 ± 1.36 versus 69.3 ± 3.93?dBA, P < 0.0001). The risk of hearing loss (HL?>?2.5?dB) was 2.15% at 90?dBA, 11.6% at 95?dBA, and 51.3% at 100?dBA. The odds ratio was 49.1 (95% CI: 11.9 to 203.6). The noise generated by the HPAJ to work over TWA seriously affected the occupational health and safety of those working in an endoscopic preparation room. PMID:25710009

  16. [Genesis under occupational exposure to toxic and radiation hazards].

    PubMed

    Panacheva, L A; Shpagina, L A; Musatova, A S; Liulina, N V; Zakrevskaia, A E

    2005-01-01

    The authors studied frequency, periods of development and morbidity structure of malignances among chronic uranium intoxication patients. tumors were diagnosed in 19.1% of the cases. Neoplasms developed in the presence of uranium intoxication symptoms in 57.8% of the patients, occurred after the occupational disease was ruled out in 42.2% of the cases. The oncologic morbidity structure was presented mostly by tumors of gastro-intestinal tract (33.3%) and respiratory system (20%). PMID:15859502

  17. Occupational noise exposure during pregnancy: a case control study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anna-Liisa Hartikainen-Sorri; Martti Sorri; Hannu P. Anttonen; Risto Tuimala; Esa Läärä

    1988-01-01

    The possible effects of occupational noise on human pregnancy were examined in a case-control study. The case groups consisted of 284 women with premature deliveries and of 299 women with full-term, low birth weight infants (below the 25th centile), each case having a matched pair. The whole material, all cases and controls included, comprised 1166 women. The percentage of employment

  18. NIOSH comments to DOL on the Occupational Safety and Health Administration's proposed rule; limited reopening of the rulemaking record on occupational exposure to formaldehyde by R. A. Lemen, February 9, 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-02-09

    The testimony concerns the position of NIOSH regarding occupational exposures to formaldehyde (50000). The testimony contains a letter sent from NIOSH regarding the NCI epidemiologic and industrial hygiene studies of workers exposed to formaldehyde. While statistically significant findings were not observed in some of the studies, both the report of the occupational epidemiologic study and the companion residential epidemiologic study indicate that the analyses demonstrated elevated risk estimates for cancer sites of the upper respiratory system associated with exposure potential to formaldehyde. This was strongest for individuals with long residence times in mobile homes. NIOSH indicates additional research should be conducted to assess the cancer risk associated with a combined exposure to formaldehyde on particulates. NIOSH is not aware of data that describe a safe exposure concentration to a carcinogen and thereby urges that the exposure limits to formaldehyde be for as low a level as possible.

  19. Critical review of studies relating occupational exposures of males and reproductive capacity

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, C.R.

    1984-01-01

    At this point, 1,2Dibromo-3-Chloropropane (DBCP) appears to be the chemical agent with the most recognizable effect on the testis of any chemical studied in regard to occupational exposure. The impact DBCP has upon the testis is gross in character, as manifested by markedly decreased sperm counts. With the discovery of new sensitive laboratory analytical techniques and the use of sophisticated epidemiological methods, new studies will help define the impact of occupational exposures to chemical and physical agents on the reproductive potential of man.

  20. A meta-analysis of occupational trichloroethylene exposure and liver cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dominik D. Alexander; Michael A. Kelsh; Pamela J. Mink; Jeffrey H. Mandel; Rupa Basu; Michal Weingart

    2007-01-01

    Objective  Findings from epidemiologic studies of trichloroethylene (TCE) exposure and liver cancer have been inconsistent. To quantitatively\\u000a evaluate this association and to examine sources of heterogeneity, we conducted a meta-analysis of occupational studies of\\u000a TCE exposure and liver\\/biliary tract cancer.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  We identified 14 occupational cohort studies of TCE exposed workers and one case-control study that met our inclusion criteria.\\u000a Nine studies

  1. Dental students and bloodborne pathogens: occupational exposures, knowledge, and attitudes.

    PubMed

    Myers, Julie E; Myers, Ronnie; Wheat, Mary E; Yin, Michael T

    2012-04-01

    Dental professionals may be exposed to bloodborne pathogens in their work, and dental students may be a particularly vulnerable group. Fear of exposure has also been linked to discriminatory practices. A cross-sectional survey of dental students was conducted at one U.S. dental school to assess their knowledge about the transmission of bloodborne pathogens and management of exposures; the frequency of their bloodborne pathogen exposures (BBPEs); and associations among their prior exposure, knowledge, perception of knowledge, and attitudes toward practice. Overall, 220 students (72.1 percent) responded to the survey, and 215 (70.5 percent) answered questions about exposures. The prevalence of BBPE was 19.1 percent and was greater among clinical than preclinical students (p<0.01). Percutaneous injuries occurred in 87.5 percent of those exposed. All students (preclinical and clinical combined) answered more survey questions correctly about transmission of bloodborne pathogens (66.7 percent) than about post-exposure management (25.0 percent). Fewer than half reported adequate knowledge of transmission and management (47.5 percent and 37.3 percent, respectively). In this context, 8.2 percent of the respondents acknowledged an unwillingness to perform procedures on patients with HIV. Since knowledge gaps may lead to failure to report incidents and delays in appropriate exposure management and some negative attitudes towards treating individuals with HIV persist, these findings justify improving BBPE education at U.S. dental schools. PMID:22473560

  2. Occupational exposure and laryngeal and hypopharyngeal cancer risk in central and eastern Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Shangina, O.; Brennan, P.; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, N.; Mates, D.; Fabianova, E.; Fletcher, T.; Mannetje, A.; Boffetta, P.; Zaridze, D. [International Agency for Research Center, Lyon (France)

    2006-08-15

    A multicenter case-control study was conducted during 1999-2002 in four European countries (Poland, Romania, Russia, and Slovakia) to evaluate the role of occupational exposures in risk of laryngeal/hypopharyngeal cancer. Male cancer cases (34 hypopharyngeal, 316 laryngeal) with full data on occupational history and nonoccupational factors were compared with 728 hospital controls for occupational exposure to 73 suspected carcinogens. Occupational history was evaluated by industrial hygienists blinded to case/control status. Elevated risks for over exposure to coal dust were found for both hypopharyngeal (odds ratio (OR) = 4.19, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.18, 14.89) and laryngeal (OR = 1.81, 95% CI: 0.94, 3.47) cancer, with clear dose-response patterns. Inclusion of a 20-year lag in the analysis strengthened these associations. Hypopharyngeal cancer risk was also significantly associated with exposure to mild steel dust (OR = 3.04, 95% CI: 1.39, 6.64) and iron compounds and fumes (OR = 2.74, 95% CI: 1.29, 5.84), without clear dose-response relations. Laryngeal cancer was significantly associated with exposure to hard-alloys dust (OR = 2.23, 95% CI: 1.08, 4.57) and chlorinated solvents (OR = 2.18, 95% CI: 1.03, 4.61), without dose-response relations. A possible link between high formaldehyde exposure and laryngeal cancer was suggested. These data indicate that occupational exposure to coal dust may play a role in laryngeal and hypopharyngeal cancer. Other possible relations need further evaluation.

  3. Occupational airborne exposure of the general population of a Norwegian county.

    PubMed

    Bakke, P; Baste, V; Hanoa, R; Gulsvik, A

    1992-02-01

    Occupational airborne exposure was examined for a stratified sample (N = 1275) of the general population aged 18-73 years in Hordaland County, Norway. The subjects identified all jobs of more than six months since leaving school and stated whether they had been occupationally exposed to specific agents and work processes potentially harmful to the lungs. The prevalence in the population ever having been exposed was 18% for asbestos, 9% for quartz, 5% for aluminum dust, 6% for wood dust, 12% for metal gases, 12% for welding, 9% for soldering, and 1% for hairdressing. According to occupational title (last job), 3% of the population had held a job with a high degree of airborne exposure, 26% a job with moderate exposure, and 70% a job with no airborne exposure. During their worklife both the men and the women tended to leave polluted jobs more often than unpolluted jobs. Occupational exposure to airborne pollutants potentially harmful to the lungs is widespread in this Norwegian general population. PMID:1553512

  4. Analysis of the asbestos permissible-exposure-level threshold standard. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, M.W.

    1991-06-01

    This thesis examines the reasoning of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration's (OSHA) decision to set stringent exposure levels for airborne asbestos in the work place. Technical recommendations from the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), the Bureau of Mines, and the American conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists were presented to OSHA for consideration. OSHA and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) set industry standards for permissible exposure levels (PEL) of airborne asbestos. Exposure to asbestos poses a health hazard to workers, their families, and consumers of asbestos products. Because it poses an unreasonable risk human life, OSHA has repeatedly lowered the Permissible Exposure Levels and the EPA will ban the manufacture, importation, processing and commercial distribution of asbestos containing products from the United States in phases by 1997. These decisions may have been made too hastily because of the long latency (15-40 years) period before cancer develops, and the added risks that smoking imposes.

  5. Mapping probability of shipping sound exposure level.

    PubMed

    Gervaise, Cédric; Aulanier, Florian; Simard, Yvan; Roy, Nathalie

    2015-06-01

    Mapping vessel noise is emerging as one method of identifying areas where sound exposure due to shipping noise could have negative impacts on aquatic ecosystems. The probability distribution function (pdf) of sound exposure levels (SEL) is an important metric for identifying areas of concern. In this paper a probabilistic shipping SEL modeling method is described to obtain the pdf of SEL using the sonar equation and statistical relations linking the pdfs of ship traffic density, source levels, and transmission losses to their products and sums. PMID:26093451

  6. Levels of exposure from drinking water.

    PubMed

    van Dijk-Looijaard, A M; van Genderen, J

    2000-01-01

    The relative exposure from drinking water is generally small, although there is a lack of information on total daily intake of individual organic micropollutants. There are, however, a few exceptions. Materials used in domestic distribution systems (lead, copper and plastics) may cause a deterioration of the water quality, especially in stagnant water. The relative exposure to the related compounds may increase considerably. Monitoring data from the tap (with defined sampling techniques) are needed. Also, disinfection/oxidation by-products (bromate, trihalomethanes) can be present in drinking water in considerable amounts and the relative exposure from drinking water may even approach 100%. Especially for volatile organic micropollutants, exposure routes from drinking water other than ingestion must be taken into account (inhalation, percutaneous uptake). When there is a need for detection of substances at very low levels it is important that the measurements are reliable. International interlaboratory comparisons for organic micropollutants are lacking at the moment. PMID:10717369

  7. Neurodevelopmental toxicity risks due to occupational exposure to industrial chemicals during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Julvez, Jordi; Grandjean, Philippe

    2009-10-01

    Exposure to neurotoxic chemicals is of particular concern when it occurs during early development. The immature brain is highly vulnerable prenatally and is therefore at risk due to occupational exposures incurred by pregnant women. A systematic search of the literature has been performed with emphasis on epidemiological studies on female workers and the neurodevelopment of their children. The majority of recent occupational studies focused on organic solvents and pesticides, which were associated with neurobehavioral impairments in the progeny. Additional evidence on environmental exposures demonstrates the vulnerability of the developing brain to substances like lead and methylmercury. Despite the evident hazards involved, the number of occupational cohort studies carried out in this field is very low. However, the lack of evidence for assumed neurotoxicants should not divert the attention by occupational health researchers and practitioners from the need to protect pregnant workers. Due to the vulnerability of the brain during early development, a precautionary approach to neurodevelopmental toxicity needs to be applied in occupational health. PMID:19834254

  8. Setting occupational exposure limits in humans: contributions from the field of experimental psychology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Monique A. M. Smeets; Jan H. A. Kroeze; Pamela H. Dalton

    2006-01-01

    Psychophysical methods from the field of experimental psychology are evaluated for their utility in the derivation of occupational\\u000a exposure limits (OELs) for volatile chemicals based on acute sensory irritation in humans. The lateralization threshold method,\\u000a which involves the localization of trigeminal vapor to the stimulated nostril, is evaluated for its underlying assumptions,\\u000a reliability and validity. Whole body exposures, on the

  9. A Meta-Analysis of the Neuropsychological Effects of Occupational Exposure to Mercury

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin L. Rohling; George J. Demakis

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports a meta-analysis of 36 peer-reviewed published studies of the neuropsychological effects of occupational exposure to mercury, which yielded 43 independent samples. These studies included 2,512 exposed participants and 1,846 controls, for a total sample size of 4,358. Because the independent variables defining mercury exposure varied across studies, effect sizes were calculated for exposed versus non-exposed workers. Dose–response

  10. Occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields and adult leukaemia: a review of the epidemiological evidence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maria Feychting

    1996-01-01

    The relationship between occupational exposure to extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields and adult leukaemia has\\u000a been studied extensively during the last decade. The first studies were based on crude exposure assessments, estimated through\\u000a job titles, with no or only limited control of confounding factors. The results were often inconsistent, indicating no effects\\u000a in about 50% of the studies, while the other

  11. Smoking status and occupational exposure affects oxidative DNA injury in boilermakers exposed to metal fume and residual oil fly ash.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Sutapa; Palmer, Lyle J; Kim, Jee Young; Aeschliman, David B; Houk, Robert S; Woodin, Mark A; Christiani, David C

    2004-03-01

    Epidemiologic studies demonstrate increased cancer incidence among workers exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and metals, probably through cumulative oxidative DNA damage in response to carcinogens. Boilermakers are exposed to particulates of residual oil fly ash (ROFA) and metal fume that contain carcinogenic PAH and metals. We conducted a repeated-measures cohort study in boilermakers during the overhaul of an oil-fired boiler to determine a possible association between the level of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OH-dG; an oxidative injury biomarker) and biomarkers of PAH (1-hydroxypyrene; 1-OHP) and metal exposure. Preshift and postshift urine samples were analyzed for 8-OH-dG, cotinine, 1-OHP, and metals. Generalized estimating equations were used to model the multivariate relationship of 8-OH-dG to the explanatory variables of interest. Biomarker levels were determined for 181 urine samples from 20 male subjects (mean age 45 years, 50% smokers). Metal and 1-OHP levels increased cross-week and were affected by smoking status. Levels of 8-OH-dG were higher in nonsmokers at the start of the workweek yet declined after occupational exposure to similar levels as in smokers. Multivariate analysis indicated that metal x cotinine interaction terms for nickel, vanadium, chromium, and copper were significantly associated with the 8-OH-dG level, but there were differential effects depending on the metal. This study suggests that oxidative DNA damage in boilermakers is influenced by the interaction between occupational exposures and smoking status. In addition, boilermakers may have reduced ability to repair damaged DNA after ROFA and metal fume exposure. This finding has clinical relevance because these exposures may increase the cancer susceptibility of boilermakers. PMID:15006923

  12. Occupational exposure to pesticides and lymphoid neoplasms among men: results of a French case-control study.

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Occupational exposure to pesticides and lymphoid neoplasms among men: results of a French case labour office; LN, lymphoid neoplasm; LPS, lymphoproliferative syndrome; MM, multiple myeloma; NHL, non: Investigating the relationship between occupational exposure to pesticides and the risk of lymphoid neoplasms

  13. Occupational exposure to amorphous silica dust and pulmonary function.

    PubMed Central

    Choudat, D; Frisch, C; Barrat, G; el Kholti, A; Conso, F

    1990-01-01

    Respiratory manifestations among 41 workers exposed to amorphous silica dust were compared with a control group comprising 90 workers of equivalent socioeconomic state in the same plant. Flow volumes were determined, blood gas concentrations were measured at rest and during exercise, chest radiographs were obtained, and data about respiratory symptoms were collected by questionnaire. A dust exposure index was calculated for each exposed worker. It was not possible to differentiate between the two groups from the questionnaire, blood gas analysis, or chest radiographs. On the other hand, the tests of respiratory function showed a significant decrease in forced expiratory flow (FEF25-75, FEF50, and FEF75) in the exposed group compared with the controls, although no correlation was found between the exposure index and pulmonary function. It appears that smoking and exposure to amorphous silica synergise to induce small airway disease. PMID:2173947

  14. Occupational Exposure to Solvents and Cognitive Performance in the GAZEL Cohort: Preliminary Results

    PubMed Central

    Berr, C.; Vercambre, M.N.; Bonenfant, S.; Singh Manoux, A.; Zins, M.; Goldberg, M.

    2010-01-01

    Background The impact of occupational exposure to solvents on cognitive ageing remains unclear. We examined whether long-term occupational exposure is associated with poor cognitive performance in late midlife. Methods Participants in the GAZEL cohort, set up in 1989, are employees of the French national electricity and gas company. Data on the working environment were used to create measures of cumulative exposures to solvents using a job-exposure matrix. In 2002–2004, cognitive performance was assessed using the Digit Symbol Substitution Test (DSST) and the Mini Mental State Examination in 5,242 participants (aged 55–65 years). Results In cross-sectional analysis using multiple logistic regression, there was a greater risk of poor cognitive performance (DSST score <25th percentile) among those with high exposure to benzene (OR = 1.58; 95% CI 1.31–1.90) and the grouped categories of chlorinated (OR = 1.39; 95% CI 1.3–2.3), aromatic (OR = 1.76; 95% CI 1.08–2.87), and petroleum solvents (OR = 1.50; 95% CI 1.23–1.81). Conclusions These results suggest that occupational exposures to solvents may be associated later in life with cognitive impairment, even after taking into account the effects of education, employment grade, and numerous health factors. PMID:20606440

  15. Silica-associated limited systemic sclerosis after occupational exposure to calcined diatomaceous earth.

    PubMed

    Moisan, Stéphanie; Rucay, Pierre; Ghali, Alaa; Penneau-Fontbonne, Dominique; Lavigne, Christian

    2010-10-01

    Silica-associated systemic sclerosis can occur in persons using calcined diatomaceous earth for filtration purpose. A limited systemic sclerosis was diagnosed in a 52-year-old male winegrower who had a combination of Raynaud's phenomenon, oesophageal dysfunction, sclerodactyly and telangectasia. The anti-centromere antibodies titre was 1/5000. The patient was frequently exposed to high atmospheric concentrations of calcined diatomaceous earth when performing the filtration of wines. Calcined diatomaceous earth is almost pure crystalline silica under the cristobalite form. The diagnosis of silica-associated limited systemic sclerosis after exposure to calcined diatomaceous earth was made. The patient's disease met the medical, administrative and occupational criteria given in the occupational diseases list 22 bis of the agriculture Social Security scheme and thence was presumed to be occupational in origin, without need to be proved. The diagnosis of occupational disease had been recognized by the compensation system of the agricultural health insurance. PMID:20605509

  16. An evaluation of compliance with occupational exposure limits for crystalline silica (quartz) in ten Georgia granite sheds.

    PubMed

    Wickman, Arthur R; Middendorf, Paul J

    2002-06-01

    Since the 1920s, industrial hygiene studies have documented granite shed workers' exposures to crystalline silica, and the data from these studies have contributed to a better understanding of the relationship between silica exposures and adverse health effects, such as silicosis. The majority of these studies were conducted in the Barre, Vermont, granite sheds. However, a second major granite processing region is located in Elberton, Georgia, where approximately 1800 workers are employed in 150 granite sheds and 45 quarries. The current study reports the exposures of 40 workers in 10 granite sheds in Elberton, Georgia. The arithmetic mean exposure to silica for all monitored employees was 0.052 mg/m3. Employees were classified into one of seven job task groups. The job task group with the greatest exposure was the top polish group, which had a mean exposure of 0.085 mg/m3. Among the top polish workers, the greatest percentage of exposures above the Occupational Safety and Health Administration's permissible exposure limit (OSHA PEL) occurred among the workers who used dry grinders. Wet methods were effective in reducing these exposures to below the OSHA PEL. The mean exposure of Elberton granite shed workers was less than the OSHA PEL, but was not below the threshold limit value of the American Conference of Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH TLV), which was lowered in the year 2000 to 0.05 mg/m3. The Elberton granite shed workers provide a valuable cohort for research on the effects of exposure to crystalline silica at levels between the ACGIH TLV and the OSHA PEL. They are a relatively permanent worker population, are concentrated geographically, and have a quantitatively documented exposure to crystalline silica over the past twenty years. PMID:12049432

  17. Genotoxicity biomarkers in occupational exposure to formaldehyde--the case of histopathology laboratories.

    PubMed

    Ladeira, Carina; Viegas, Susana; Carolino, Elisabete; Prista, João; Gomes, Manuel C; Brito, Miguel

    2011-03-18

    Formaldehyde, classified by the IARC as carcinogenic in humans and experimental animals, is a chemical agent that is widely used in histopathology laboratories. The exposure to this substance is epidemiologically linked to cancer and to nuclear changes detected by the cytokinesis-block micronucleus test (CBMN). This method is extensively used in molecular epidemiology, since it provides information on several biomarkers of genotoxicity, such as micronuclei (MN), which are biomarkers of chromosomes breakage or loss, nucleoplasmic bridges (NPB), common biomarkers of chromosome rearrangement, poor repair and/or telomere fusion, and nuclear buds (NBUD), biomarkers of elimination of amplified DNA. The aim of this study is to compare the frequency of genotoxicity biomarkers, provided by the CBMN assay in peripheral lymphocytes and the MN test in buccal cells, between individuals occupationally exposed and non-exposed to formaldehyde and other environmental factors, namely tobacco and alcohol consumption. The sample comprised two groups: 56 individuals occupationally exposed to formaldehyde (cases) and 85 unexposed individuals (controls), from whom both peripheral blood and exfoliated epithelial cells of the oral mucosa were collected in order to measure the genetic endpoints proposed in this study. The mean level of TWA(8h) was 0.16±0.11 ppm (occupational exposure to formaldehyde and the presence of genotoxicity biomarkers. PMID:21256246

  18. Angiotensin-converting enzyme gene polymorphisms and hypertension in occupational noise exposure in Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Zawilla, Nermin; Shaker, Dalia; Abdelaal, Amaal; Aref, Wael

    2014-01-01

    Background: The gene–environment interaction in the pathogenesis of hypertension has not been extensively studied in occupational noise. Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between noise and hypertension in Egyptian workers, the interaction of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene polymorphisms as modifiers, and the possible relationship between noise hearing impairment and hypertension. Methods: Study subjects were divided into two groups depending on noise exposure level. The control group (n?=?161) was exposed to noise intensity <85 dB and the exposed group (n?=?217) was exposed to noise intensity ?85 dB. A polymerase chain reaction was used to differentiate the various genotypes of ACE insertion/deletion (I/D) and ACE G2350A. Results: Noise significantly increased the likelihood of hypertension. Carriers of the genotypes AG, GG, and DD were vulnerable to hypertension on noise exposure. No association between hypertension and hearing impairment or noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) was found. Conclusion: Our results support the association between ACE gene polymorphisms and occurrence of hypertension in noise-exposed workers. PMID:25000107

  19. Is occupational exposure to solvents associated with an increased risk for developing systemic scleroderma?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Birgitta Kütting; Wolfgang Uter; Hans Drexler

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Our study was aimed to investigate in a German collective if there are any hints for an increased occupational or environmental risk to develop systemic sclerosis, especially, focussing on work-related exposure to solvents. Moreover, we tried to evaluate the feasibility of a sampling method addressing support groups. METHODS: A standardised questionnaire was published in two journals subscribed by members

  20. UK: legal action launched against government's guidelines on non-occupational post-exposure prophylaxis.

    PubMed

    Valette, Delphine

    2006-04-01

    In December 2005, two gay men were granted legal aid on public interest grounds by the Legal Services Commission to take the UK Department of Health to court over its policy regarding non-occupational post-exposure prophylaxis for HIV (NPEP). PMID:16805016

  1. Occupational Exposures at Nuclear Power Plants, 1969--1993: ISOE Report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stuart Hughes

    1996-01-01

    The Nuclear Energy Agency of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development has set up an information system on occupational exposure (ISOE) received at nuclear power stations throughout the world. The third annual report produced by NEA on the data held on ISOE has recently been published. Data from 16 countries are included in the report, mainly from OECD countries,

  2. Impact on Rocky Flats Plant of proposed reductions in occupational radiation-exposure standards

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Putzier

    1982-01-01

    Any changing conditions that might affect operation of the Rocky Flats Plant are being considered in the Long-Range Rocky Flats Utilization Study that was commissioned by the US Department of Energy. This report was prepared because standards-setting agencies are reviewing proposals for reducing occupational exposure limits. Rocky Flats is designed to operate within current standards; thus, an evaluation was made

  3. PAPER PRODUCTION AND PROCESSING - OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE AND ENVIRONMENTAL RELEASE STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report presents an analysis of chemicals and processes used during the production and processing of paper and paper goods with emphasis on the workplace exposure and environmental release of chemicals from these operations. Reviews of chemical substances in this report are i...

  4. Sensory Perception: An Overlooked Target of Occupational Exposure to Metals

    PubMed Central

    Gobba, Fabriziomaria

    2003-01-01

    The effect of exposure to industrial metals on sensory perception of workers has received only modest interest from the medical community to date. Nevertheless, some experimental and epidemiological data exist showing that industrial metals can affect vision, hearing and olfactory function, and a similar effect is also suggested for touch and taste. In this review the main industrial metals involved are discussed. An important limit in available knowledge is that, to date, the number of chemicals studied is relatively small. Another is that the large majority of the studies have evaluated the effect of a single chemical on a single sense. As an example, we know that mercury can impair hearing, smell, taste, touch and also vision, but we have scant idea if, in the same worker, a relation exists between impairments in different senses, or if impairments are independent. Moreover, workers are frequently exposed to different chemicals; a few available results suggest that a co-exposure may have no effect, or result in both an increase and a decrease of the effect, as observed for hearing loss, but this aspect certainly deserves much more study. As a conclusion, exposure to industrial metals can affect sensory perception, but knowledge of this effect is yet incomplete, and is largely inadequate especially for an estimation of “safe” thresholds of exposure. These data support the desirability of further good quality studies in this field. PMID:18365054

  5. Occupational blood and body fluids exposures in health care workers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amaud Tarantola; Franck Golliot; Pascal Astagneau; Laurent Fleury; Gilles Brücker; Elisabeth Bouvet

    2003-01-01

    The risk of accidental blood and body fluid (BBF) exposure is a daily concern for health care workers throughout the world, and various strategies have been introduced during the past decade to help reduce that risk. To assess the impact of multifocal reduction strategies introduced in hospitals affiliated with the Northern France network, we recently examined data from 4 years

  6. An Assessment of Occupational Noise Exposures in Four Construction Trades

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard Neitzel; Noah S. Seixas; Janice Camp; Michael Yost

    1999-01-01

    Three hundred thirty-eight noise exposure samples were collected from 133 construction workers employed in 4 construction trades: carpenters, laborers, ironworkers, and operating engineers. Four sites using a variety of construction techniques were sampled at least 12 times on a randomly chosen date over a 22-week period. Up to 10 volunteer workers were sampled for an entire work shift on each

  7. Occupational exposure to natural UV radiation and premature skin ageing.

    PubMed

    Lastowiecka-Moras, El?bieta; Bugajska, Joanna; M?ynarczyk, Beata

    2014-01-01

    The skin is the part of the human body most vulnerable to ultraviolet (UV) radiation. The spectrum of the negative effects of UV radiation on the skin ranges from acute erythema to carcinogenesis. Between these extreme conditions, there are other common skin lesions, e.g., photoageing. The aim of this study was to assess the skin for signs of photoageing in a group of 52 men occupationally exposed to natural UV radiation. There were 2 types of examinations: an examination of skin condition (moisture, elasticity, sebum, porosity, smoothness, discolourations and wrinkles) with a device for diagnosing the skin, and a dermatological examination. The results of both examinations revealed a higher percentage of skin characteristics typical for photoageing in outdoor workers compared to the general population. PMID:25513799

  8. Maternal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls and the secondary sex ratio: an occupational cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Though commercial production of polychlorinated biphenyls was banned in the United States in 1977, exposure continues due to their environmental persistence. Several studies have examined the association between environmental polychlorinated biphenyl exposure and modulations of the secondary sex ratio, with conflicting results. Objective Our objective was to evaluate the association between maternal preconceptional occupational polychlorinated biphenyl exposure and the secondary sex ratio. Methods We examined primipara singleton births of 2595 women, who worked in three capacitor plants at least one year during the period polychlorinated biphenyls were used. Cumulative estimated maternal occupational polychlorinated biphenyl exposure at the time of the infant's conception was calculated from plant-specific job-exposure matrices. A logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the association between maternal polychlorinated biphenyl exposure and male sex at birth (yes/no). Results Maternal body mass index at age 20, smoking status, and race did not vary between those occupationally exposed and those unexposed before the child's conception. Polychlorinated biphenyl-exposed mothers were, however, more likely to have used oral contraceptives and to have been older at the birth of their first child than non-occupationally exposed women. Among 1506 infants liveborn to polychlorinated biphenyl-exposed primiparous women, 49.8% were male; compared to 49.9% among those not exposed (n = 1089). Multivariate analyses controlling for mother's age and year of birth found no significant association between the odds of a male birth and mother's cumulative estimated polychlorinated biphenyl exposure to time of conception. Conclusions Based on these data, we find no evidence of altered sex ratio among children born to primiparous polychlorinated biphenyl-exposed female workers. PMID:21418576

  9. Maternal periconceptional occupational exposure to pesticides and selected musculoskeletal birth defects.

    PubMed

    Kielb, Christine; Lin, Shao; Herdt-Losavio, Michele; Bell, Erin; Chapman, Bonnie; Rocheleau, Carissa M; Lawson, Christina; Waters, Martha; Stewart, Patricia; Olney, Richard S; Romitti, Paul A; Cao, Yanyan; Druschel, Charlotte

    2014-03-01

    This population-based U.S. study investigated the association between major musculoskeletal malformations and periconceptional maternal occupational pesticide exposure for a wide range of occupations. We conducted a multi-site case-control analysis using data from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study among employed women with due dates from October 1, 1997 through December 31, 2002. Cases included 871 live-born, stillborn, or electively terminated fetuses with isolated craniosynostosis, gastroschisis, diaphragmatic hernia, or transverse limb deficiencies. Controls included 2857 live-born infants without major malformations. Using self-reported maternal occupational information, an industrial hygienist used a job-exposure matrix and expert opinion to evaluate the potential for exposure to insecticides, herbicides or fungicides for each job held during one month pre-conception through three months post-conception. Exposures analyzed included any exposure (yes/no) to pesticides, to insecticides only, to both insecticides and herbicides (I+H) and to insecticides, herbicides and fungicides (I+H+F). We used logistic regression to evaluate the association between exposures and defects, controlling for infant and maternal risk factors. Occupational exposure to I+H+F was associated with gastroschisis among infants of women aged 20 years or older (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]=1.88; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.16-3.05), but not for women under age 20 (aOR=0.48; 95% CI: 0.20-1.16). We found no significant associations for the other defects. Additional research is needed to validate these findings in a separate population. PMID:23871272

  10. Nasal cancer and occupational exposures. Preliminary report of a joint Nordic case-referent study.

    PubMed

    Hernberg, S; Collan, Y; Degerth, R; Englund, A; Engzell, U; Kuosma, E; Mutanen, P; Nordlinder, H; Hansen, H S; Schultz-Larsen, K

    1983-04-01

    Nasal and sinus paranasal cancers have been associated with several occupational exposures, for example, dust from hardwood, nickel and unspecific agents occurring in the boot and shoe industry. A joint Danish-Finnish-Swedish case-referent investigation was initiated in 1977 to study further the connection between nasal and sinus paranasal cancers and various occupational exposures. All new cases of these cancers were collected from the national cancer registers (Finland & Sweden) or from hospitals (Denmark). Those still alive who agreed to the interview (N = 167) were individually matched for age and sex with patients with colonic or rectal cancer. A detailed telephone interview was performed according to a standardized procedure. Both the cases and referents thought that their condition was the one under study. The exposures were coded blindly by an experienced industrial hygienist. The results showed associations between nasal or sinus paranasal cancer and exposure to hardwood or mixed wood dust (discordant pairs 14/2); softwood dust alone (13/4); chromium 16/6); nickel (12/5, not significant); welding, flamecutting, and soldering (17/16); and lacquers and paints (12/0). Hardwood dust exposure showed a connection with adenocarcinoma. Softwood dust exposure alone was associated with epidermoid and anaplastic carcinomas. No associations were found for a number of exposures, including agricultural chemicals, textile dust, asbestos, quartz dust, organic solvents, and leather work. Possible exposure to formaldehyde was evenly distributed between the cases and referents. PMID:6648420

  11. Developing a Semi-Quantitative Occupational Risk Prediction Model for Chemical Exposures and Its Application to a National Chemical Exposure Databank

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shih-Min; Wu, Trong-Neng; Juang, Yow-Jer; Dai, Yu-Tung; Tsai, Perng-Jy; Chen, Chiu-Ying

    2013-01-01

    In this study, a semi-quantitative occupational chemical exposure risk prediction model, based on the calculation of exposure hazard indexes, was proposed, corrected, and applied to a national chemical exposure databank. The model comprises one factor used to describe toxicity (i.e., the toxicity index), and two factors used to reflect the exposure potential (i.e., the exposure index and protection deficiency index) of workers exposed to chemicals. An expert system was used to correct the above proposed model. By applying the corrected model to data obtained from a national occupational chemical hazard survey program, chemical exposure risks of various manufacturing industries were determined and a national control strategy for the abatement of occupational chemical exposures was proposed. The results of the present study would provide useful information for governmental agencies to allocate their limited resources effectively for reducing chemical exposures of workers. PMID:23892550

  12. Exposures and Health Outcomes in Relation to Bioaerosol Emissions From Composting Facilities: A Systematic Review of Occupational and Community Studies

    PubMed Central

    Pearson, Clare; Littlewood, Emma; Douglas, Philippa; Robertson, Sarah; Gant, Timothy W.; Hansell, Anna L.

    2015-01-01

    The number of composting sites in Europe is rapidly increasing, due to efforts to reduce the fraction of waste destined for landfill, but evidence on possible health impacts is limited. This article systematically reviews studies related to bioaerosol exposures within and near composting facilities and associated health effects in both community and occupational health settings. Six electronic databases and bibliographies from January 1960 to July 2014 were searched for studies reporting on health outcomes and/or bioaerosol emissions related to composting sites. Risk of bias was assessed using a customized score. Five hundred and thirty-six papers were identified and reviewed, and 66 articles met the inclusion criteria (48 exposure studies, 9 health studies, 9 health and exposure studies). Exposure information was limited, with most measurements taken in occupational settings and for limited time periods. Bioaerosol concentrations were highest on-site during agitation activities (turning, shredding, and screening). Six studies detected concentrations of either Aspergillus fumigatus or total bacteria above the English Environment Agency’s recommended threshold levels beyond 250 m from the site. Occupational studies of compost workers suggested elevated risks of respiratory illnesses with higher bioaerosol exposures. Elevated airway irritation was reported in residents near composting sites, but this may have been affected by reporting bias. The evidence base on health effects of bioaerosol emissions from composting facilities is still limited, although there is sufficient evidence to support a precautionary approach for regulatory purposes. While data to date are suggestive of possible respiratory effects, further study is needed to confirm this and to explore other health outcomes. PMID:25825807

  13. Exposures and health outcomes in relation to bioaerosol emissions from composting facilities: a systematic review of occupational and community studies.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Clare; Littlewood, Emma; Douglas, Philippa; Robertson, Sarah; Gant, Timothy W; Hansell, Anna L

    2015-01-01

    The number of composting sites in Europe is rapidly increasing, due to efforts to reduce the fraction of waste destined for landfill, but evidence on possible health impacts is limited. This article systematically reviews studies related to bioaerosol exposures within and near composting facilities and associated health effects in both community and occupational health settings. Six electronic databases and bibliographies from January 1960 to July 2014 were searched for studies reporting on health outcomes and/or bioaerosol emissions related to composting sites. Risk of bias was assessed using a customized score. Five hundred and thirty-six papers were identified and reviewed, and 66 articles met the inclusion criteria (48 exposure studies, 9 health studies, 9 health and exposure studies). Exposure information was limited, with most measurements taken in occupational settings and for limited time periods. Bioaerosol concentrations were highest on-site during agitation activities (turning, shredding, and screening). Six studies detected concentrations of either Aspergillus fumigatus or total bacteria above the English Environment Agency's recommended threshold levels beyond 250 m from the site. Occupational studies of compost workers suggested elevated risks of respiratory illnesses with higher bioaerosol exposures. Elevated airway irritation was reported in residents near composting sites, but this may have been affected by reporting bias. The evidence base on health effects of bioaerosol emissions from composting facilities is still limited, although there is sufficient evidence to support a precautionary approach for regulatory purposes. While data to date are suggestive of possible respiratory effects, further study is needed to confirm this and to explore other health outcomes. PMID:25825807

  14. Occupational exposure to roadway emissions and inside informal settlements in sub-Saharan Africa: A pilot study in Nairobi, Kenya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ngo, Nicole S.; Gatari, Michael; Yan, Beizhan; Chillrud, Steven N.; Bouhamam, Kheira; Kinney, Patrick L.

    2015-06-01

    Few studies examine urban air pollution in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), yet urbanization rates there are among the highest in the world. In this study, we measured 8-hr average occupational exposure levels of fine particulate matter (PM2.5), black carbon (BC), ultra violet active-particulate matter (UV-PM), and trace elements for individuals who worked along roadways in Nairobi, specifically bus drivers, garage workers, street vendors, and women who worked inside informal settlements. We found BC and re-suspended dust were important contributors to PM2.5 levels for all study populations, particularly among bus drivers, while PM2.5 exposure levels for garage workers, street vendors, and informal settlement residents were not statistically different from each other. We also found a strong signal for biomass emissions and trash burning, which is common in Nairobi's low-income areas and open-air garages. These results suggest that the large portion of urban residents in SSA who walk along roadways would benefit from air quality regulations targeting roadway emissions from diesel vehicles, dust, and trash burning. This is the first study to measure occupational exposure to urban air pollution in SSA and results imply that roadway emissions are a serious public health concern.

  15. Occupational exposure to roadway emissions and inside informal settlements in sub-Saharan Africa: A pilot study in Nairobi, Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Ngo, Nicole S.; Gatari, Michael; Yan, Beizhan; Chillrud, Steven N.; Bouhamam, Kheira; Kinneym, Patrick L.

    2015-01-01

    Few studies examine urban air pollution in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), yet urbanization rates there are among the highest in the world. In this study, we measured 8-hr average occupational exposure levels of fine particulate matter (PM2.5), black carbon (BC), ultra violet active-particulate matter (UV-PM), and trace elements for individuals who worked along roadways in Nairobi, specifically bus drivers, garage workers, street vendors, and women who worked inside informal settlements. We found BC and re-suspended dust were important contributors to PM2.5 levels for all study populations, particularly among bus drivers, while PM2.5 exposure levels for garage workers, street vendors, and informal settlement residents were not statistically different from each other. We also found a strong signal for biomass emissions and trash burning, which is common in Nairobi’s low-income areas and open-air garages. These results suggest that the large portion of urban residents in SSA who walk along roadways would benefit from air quality regulations targeting roadway emissions from diesel vehicles, dust, and trash burning. This is the first study to measure occupational exposure to urban air pollution in SSA and results imply that roadway emissions are a serious public health concern. PMID:26034383

  16. Neuropsychological function in retired workers with previous long-term occupational exposure to solvents

    PubMed Central

    Daniell, W. E.; Claypoole, K. H.; Checkoway, H.; Smith-Weller, T.; Dager, S. R.; Townes, B. D.; Rosenstock, L.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: It is plausible that neurodegenerative processes of aging might have a contributing role in the development of chronic effects of exposure to organic solvents. This study evaluated the risk for neuropsychological deficits among retired workers, relative to their histories of exposure to occupational solvents. METHODS: This cross sectional study evaluated retired male workers, 62-74 years of age, including 89 people with previous long-term occupational exposure to solvents (67 retired painters and 22 retired aerospace manufacturing workers), and 126 retired carpenters with relatively minimal previous exposure to solvents. Subjects completed a standardised neuropsychological evaluation and psychiatric interview, structured interviews for histories of occupational exposure and alcohol consumption, and questionnaires assessing neurological and depressive symptoms. RESULTS: By comparison with the carpenters, the painters on average reported greater cumulative alcohol consumption and had lower scores on the WAIS-R vocabulary subtest, usually presumed to reflect premorbid intellectual functioning. These findings, however, were not sufficient to account for the other study findings. Controlling for age, education, vocabulary score, and alcohol use, the painters had lower mean scores on test measures of motor, memory, and reasoning ability; and a subgroup of aerospace workers with moderate to high cumulative exposure to solvents (n = 8) had lower mean scores on measures of visuomotor speed, and motor, attention, memory, and reasoning ability. Subjects were more likely to have an increased number of relatively abnormal test scores (three or more outlier scores on 17 test measures) among both the painter group (odds ratio (OR), 3.1; 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.5 to 6.2) and the subgroup of aerospace workers with higher cumulative exposure (OR 5.6; 95% CI 1.0 to 38). The painters, but not the aerospace workers, reported significantly more neurological and depressive symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: The findings are consistent with residual central nervous system dysfunction from long-term exposure to organic solvents, persisting years after the end of exposure.   PMID:10448313

  17. Indoor Air in Beauty Salons and Occupational Health Exposure of Cosmetologists to Chemical Substances

    PubMed Central

    Tsigonia, Alexandra; Lagoudi, Argyro; Chandrinou, Stavroula; Linos, Athena; Evlogias, Nikos; Alexopoulos, Evangelos C.

    2010-01-01

    The indoor environment in four beauty salons located in Athens (Greece) was examined in order to investigate the occupational health exposure of cosmetologists to various chemical products typically used in their work. Chemical substances chosen for investigation were volatile organic compounds (VOCs), formaldehyde, ozone and carbon dioxide. Total VOCs levels measured showed significant variation (100–1,450 ?g m?3) depending on the products used and the number of treatments carried out, as well as ventilation. The main VOCs found in the salons were aromatics (toluene, xylene), esters and ketones (ethyl acetate, acetone, etc.) which are used as solvents in various beauty products; terpenes (pinene, limonene, camphor, menthenol) which have a particular odor and others like camphor which have specific properties. Ozone concentrations measured in all salons were quite low (0.1 and 13.3 ?g m?3) and formaldehyde concentrations detected were lower than the detection limit of the method in all salons (<0.05 ppm). Carbon dioxide levels ranged between 402 and 1,268 ppm, depending on the number of people present in the salons during measurements and ventilation. Cosmetologists may be exposed to high concentrations of a mixture of volatile organic compounds although these levels could be decreased significantly by following certain practices such as good ventilation of the areas, closing the packages of the beauty products when not in use and finally selecting safer beauty products without strong odor. PMID:20195448

  18. Chemical Markers of Occupational Exposure to Teak Wood Dust

    PubMed Central

    Carrieri, Mariella; Bartolucci, Giovanni Battista; Lee, Taekhee; Barbero, Ana; Harper, Martin

    2014-01-01

    A novel high-performance liquid chromatographic/ultraviolet method was developed to detect lapachol (LP) and deoxylapachol (DLP) in wood dust as chemical markers of teak wood (a suspected human carcinogen). The specificity of this analysis was determined by noting the absence of LP and DLP in 12 other specimens of different woods belonging to the angiosperm family. The consistency was examined by analyzing teak from three different sources, where the percentages (wt/wt) of the chemicals ranged from 0.006 to 0.261 for LP and from 0.038 to 0.497 for DLP, respectively. Although the LP and DLP components of teak varied according to source, a very high correlation coefficient (r 2 > 0.98 always) was found between the content of the two markers in the bulk specimens and in bulk dust derived from them. The method was then applied to teak dust collected on polyvinylchloride filters from aerosol in an exposure chamber in the range of mass loadings between 0.03 and 3.65mg, which corresponds to a dust exposure between 0.124 and 8.703mg m?3 for a sampling time of 2h. A field test was also carried out in a small factory where teak was used. A good correlation was confirmed between LP and DLP versus the dust collected on the filter in both cases. LP and DLP can be markers to estimate the true quantities of teak dust inhaled in a workplace with mixed wood dust, provided the results are matched to the content of LP and DLP in the bulk wood. LP and DLP have also been proposed as the agents responsible for allergic reaction to teak dust. Therefore, it would be useful to evaluate the exposure to these two substances even without a relationship to teak dust exposure. PMID:24671613

  19. Occupational exposure to benzene in the shoe industry

    SciTech Connect

    Karacic, V.; Skender, L.; Prpic-Majic, D.

    1987-01-01

    In order to determine the possible actual exposure to benzene in the shoe industry from industrially used solvents, glues, and paints containing benzene as a nondeclared constituent, phenol in urine and benzene in blood, as indices of internal exposure to benzene, were measured in workers (N = 33). Since toluene, in contrast to benzene, is declared as a constituent in several glues, toluene in the blood of workers was also analysed. All analyses were performed using gas chromatography. Urine samples were collected on Monday morning (MI) before work and on Wednesday (WI) before and (WII) after work. Venous blood samples were taken on Wednesday only, 1/2 hour after work. There was no difference in the phenol concentrations of MI and WI, while the phenol concentration of WII was about twice as high as that in WI. In all blood samples, benzene was found, as well as toluene, which was about four times higher in comparison with benzene. A correlation (r = 0.465; p less than .01) was found between the difference in pre- and postshift phenol concentrations (WII-WI) in urine and the benzene concentrations in blood. The results presented show that a trace amount of benzene, which is often not declared as a constitutent in industrially used chemicals, could be a source of marked exposure to benzene. It can also be concluded that changes in phenol in urine (if preshift and postshift samples are taken) might be a sufficiently sensitive parameter to assess exposure to benzene even when other data concerning the presence of benzene in the working atmosphere are not available.

  20. Occupational Exposure to Noise and Mortality From Acute Myocardial Infarction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hugh W. Davies; Kay Teschke; Susan M. Kennedy; Murray R. Hodgson; Clyde Hertzman; Paul A. Demers

    2005-01-01

    Background: Exposure to noise is highly prevalent in the work- place, and an etiologic association with cardiovascular disease has been hypothesized. Although there is evidence of hypertension among noise-exposed workers, evidence of heart disease has been less conclusive. Methods: We identified a cohort of 27,464 blue-collar workers from 14 lumber mills in British Columbia who worked at least 1 year

  1. Occupational exposure to diisononyl phthalate (DiNP) in polyvinyl chloride processing operations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cynthia J. Hines; Nancy B. Hopf; James A. Deddens; Manori J. Silva; Antonia M. Calafat

    Purpose  Diisononyl phthalate (DiNP) is primarily used as a plasticizer in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) materials. While information is\\u000a available on general population exposure to DiNP, occupational exposure data are lacking. We present DiNP metabolite urinary\\u000a concentrations in PVC processing workers, estimate DiNP daily intake for these workers, and compare worker estimates to other\\u000a populations.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  We assessed DiNP exposure in participants from

  2. A Formaldehyde Exposure Assessment Tool for Occupants of FEMA Temporary Housing Units

    SciTech Connect

    Parthasarathy, Srinandini; Spears, Michael; Maddalena, Randy L.; Russell, Marion L; Apte, Michael G.

    2010-10-01

    The report outlines the methodology used to develop a web-based tool to assess the formaldehyde exposure of the occupants of Federal Emergency Management Administration (FEMA) temporary housing units (THUs) after Hurricanes Katrina and Rita in 2005. Linear regression models were built using available data to retrospectively estimate the indoor temperature and relative humidity, formaldehyde emission factors and concentration, and hence the formaldehyde exposures. The interactive web-tool allows the user to define the inputs to the model to evaluate formaldehyde exposures for different scenarios.

  3. Sinonasal Cancer and Occupational Exposure in a Population-Based Registry

    PubMed Central

    Mensi, Carolina; Sieno, Claudia; Riboldi, Luciano; Bertazzi, Pier Alberto

    2013-01-01

    We examined occupational exposures among subjects with sinonasal cancer (SNC) recorded in a population-based registry in the Lombardy Region, the most populated and industrialized Italian region. The registry collects complete clinical information and exposure to carcinogens regarding all SNC cases occurring in the population of the region. In the period 2008–2011, we recorded 210 SNC cases (137 men, 73 women). The most frequent occupational exposures were to wood (44 cases, 21.0%) and leather dust (29 cases, 13.8%), especially among men: 39 cases (28.5%) to wood and 23 cases (16.8%) to leather dust. Exposure to other agents was infrequent (<2%). Among 62 subjects with adenocarcinoma, 50% had been exposed to wood dust and 30.7% to leather dust. The proportions were around 10% in subjects with squamous cell carcinoma and about 20% for tumors with another histology. The age-standardized rates (×100,000 person-years) were 0.7 in men and 0.3 in women. Complete collection of cases and their occupational history through a specialized cancer registry is fundamental to accurately monitor SNC occurrence in a population and to uncover exposure to carcinogens in different industrial sectors, even those not considered as posing a high risk of SNC, and also in extraoccupational settings. PMID:24082884

  4. Wet-work Exposure: A Main Risk Factor for Occupational Hand Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Behroozy, Ali; Keegel, Tessa G.

    2014-01-01

    Wet-work can be defined as activities where workers have to immerse their hands in liquids for >2 hours per shift, or wear waterproof (occlusive) gloves for a corresponding amount of time, or wash their hands >20 times per shift. This review considers the recent literature on wet-work exposure, and examines wet-work as a main risk factor for developing irritant contact dermatitis of the hands. The aim of this paper is to provide a detailed description of wet-work exposure among specific occupational groups who extensively deal with water and other liquids in their occupations. Furthermore, it highlights the extent and importance of the subsequent adverse health effects caused by exposure to wet-work. PMID:25516808

  5. Occupational radiation exposure at commercial nuclear power reactors and other facilities 1986: Nineteenth annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Brooks, B.G.; Hagemeyer, D.

    1989-08-01

    This report summarizes the occupational exposure data that are maintained in the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Radiation Exposure Information and Reporting System (REIRS). The bulk of the information contained in the report was extracted from the 1986 annual statistical reports submitted by six of the seven categories of NRC licensees subject to the reporting requirements of 10 CFR /section/ 20.407. Since there are no geologic repositories for high level waste currently licensed, only six categories will be considered in this report. These six categories of licensees also submit personal identification and exposure information for terminating employees pursuant to 10 CFR /section/ 20.408, and some analysis of this ''termination'' data is also presented in this report. Annual report for 1986 were received from a total of 482 NRC licensees, 101 of whom were licensed nuclear power reactors. Compilations of the 482 reports indicated that some 227,652 individuals were monitored, 116,241 of whom received a measurable dose (Table 3.1). The collective dose incurred by these individuals was calculated to be 46,366 person-rems (person-cSv) which represents a decrease of 23% from the 1985 value. The number of workers receiving a measurable dose increased while the collective dose decreased slightly, causing the average measurable dose to decrease from 0.43 rem (cSv) to 0.40 rem (cSv). About 13% of the monitored individuals were found to have received doses greater than 0.50 rem (cSv), which is about the same as the value for 1985. 16 refs., 11 figs., 26 tabs.

  6. Combined effect of smoking habits and occupational exposure to hard metal on total IgE antibodies

    SciTech Connect

    Shirakawa, T.; Kusaka, Y.; Morimoto, K. (Department of Hygiene and Preventive Medicine, School of Medicine, Osaka University (Japan))

    1992-06-01

    A survey was made within a population of workers (n = 706) exposed to hard metal dust (an alloy including cobalt), an agent known to cause occupational allergy. Twenty-seven (4 percent) of 733 workers were eliminated from consideration in this study because of atopic status identified prior to starting work in the plant. Using a Phadebas PRIST, the subjects' total IgE levels were determined and related to their smoking and exposure status. Nonexposed male smokers (n = 135) had a higher geometric mean IgE level (39.7 IU/ml) than did nonexposed subjects who had never smoked (33.1 IU/ml; n = 99); those with a higher Brinkman index (greater than 300), a smoking index obtained by multiplying the number of cigarettes per day by the duration of smoking in years, had significantly (p less than 0.05) decreased IgE levels. Although ex-smokers (n = 72) had a higher geometric mean IgE level (73.3 IU/ml) than did those who had never smoked, their serum IgE level declined with age since the time they quit smoking, regardless of their hard metal exposure status. Hard metal (cobalt) exposure may play a significant role as an adjuvant in the production of total IgE. A multivariate analysis demonstrated that hard metal exposure and a smoking habit together arithmetically (p less than 0.05) increased total IgE levels. These two factors may be preventable risk factors for occupational allergy in hard metal workers.

  7. Surveillance of nasal and bladder cancer to locate sources of exposure to occupational carcinogens.

    PubMed Central

    Teschke, K; Morgan, M S; Checkoway, H; Franklin, G; Spinelli, J J; van Belle, G; Weiss, N S

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To locate sources of occupational exposure to nasal and bladder carcinogens for surveillance follow up in British Columbia, Canada. METHODS: Incident cases of nasal cancer (n = 48), bladder cancer (n = 105), and population based controls (n = 159) matched for sex and age, were interviewed about their jobs, exposures, and smoking histories. Odds ratios (ORs) were calculated for 57 occupational groups with stratified exact methods to control for age, sex, and smoking. RESULTS: Occupational groups at increased risk of nasal cancer included: textile workers (six cases, OR 7.6); miners, drillers, and blasters (six cases, OR 3.5); welders (two cases, OR 3.5); pulp and paper workers (three cases, OR 3.1); and plumbers and pipefitters (two cases, OR 3.0). Nasal cancer ORs were not increased in occupations exposed to wood dust, possibly due to low exposures in local wood industries. Strongly increased risks of bladder cancer were found for sheet metal workers (four cases, OR 5.3), miners (19 cases, OR 4.5), gardeners (six cases, OR 3.7), and hairdressers (three cases, OR 3.2). Among occupations originally considered at risk, the following had increased risks of bladder cancer: painters (four cases, OR 2.8); laundry workers (five cases, OR 2.3); chemical and petroleum workers (15 cases, OR 1.8); machinists (eight cases, OR 1.6); and textile workers (three cases, OR 1.5). CONCLUSIONS: Occupational groups with increased risks and three or more cases with similar duties were selected for surveillance follow up. For nasal cancer, these included textile workers (five were garment makers) and pulp and paper workers (three performed maintenance tasks likely to entail stainless steel welding). For bladder cancer, these included miners (12 worked underground), machinists (five worked in traditional machining), hairdressers (three had applied hair dyes), and laundry workers (three were drycleaners). PMID:9245952

  8. Severe Cognitive Dysfunction and Occupational Extremely Low Frequency Magnetic Field Exposure among Elderly Mexican Americans

    PubMed Central

    Davanipour, Zoreh; Tseng, Chiu-Chen; Lee, Pey-Jiuan; Markides, Kyriakos S.; Sobel, Eugene

    2014-01-01

    Aims This report is the first study of the possible relationship between extremely low frequency (50–60 Hz, ELF) magnetic field (MF) exposure and severe cognitive dysfunction. Earlier studies investigated the relationships between MF occupational exposure and Alzheimer’s disease (AD) or dementia. These studies had mixed results, depending upon whether the diagnosis of AD or dementia was performed by experts and upon the methodology used to classify MF exposure. Study Design Population-based case-control. Place and Duration of Study Neurology and Preventive Medicine, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, 2 years. Methodology The study population consisted of 3050 Mexican Americans, aged 65+, enrolled in Phase 1 of the Hispanic Established Population for the Epidemiologic Study of the Elderly (H-EPESE) study. Mini-Mental State Exam (MMSE) results, primary occupational history, and other data were collected. Severe cognitive dysfunction was defined as an MMSE score below 10. The MF exposure methodology developed and used in earlier studies was used. Results Univariate odds ratios (OR) were 3.4 (P< .03; 95% CI: 1.3–8.9) for high and 1.7 (P=.27; 95% CI: 0.7–4.1) for medium or high (M/H) MF occupations. In multivariate main effects models, the results were similar. When interaction terms were allowed in the models, the interactions between M/H or high occupational MF exposure and smoking history or age group were statistically significant, depending upon whether two (65–74, 75+) or three (65–74, 75–84, 85+) age groups were considered, respectively. When the analyses were limited to subjects aged 75+, the interactions between M/H or high MF occupations and a positive smoking history were statistically significant. Conclusion The results of this study indicate that working in an occupation with high or M/H MF exposure may increase the risk of severe cognitive dysfunction. Smoking and older age may increase the deleterious effect of MF exposure. PMID:24839595

  9. Estimating the incidence of lung cancer attributable to occupational exposure in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Mosavi-Jarrahi, Alireza; Mohagheghi, Mohammadali; Kalaghchi, Bita; Mousavi-Jarrahi, Yasaman; Noori, Mohammad Kazem

    2009-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to estimate the fraction of lung cancer incidence in Iran attributed to occupational exposures to the well-established lung cancer carcinogens, including silica, cadmium, nickel, arsenic, chromium, diesel fumes, beryllium, and asbestos. Methods Nationwide exposure to each of the mentioned carcinogens was estimated using workforce data from the Iranian population census of 1995, available from the International Labor Organization (ILO) website. The prevalence of exposure to carcinogens in each industry was estimated using exposure data from the CAREX (CARcinogen EXposure) database, an international occupational carcinogen information system kept and maintained by the European Union. The magnitude of the relative risk of lung cancer for each carcinogen was estimated from local and international literature. Using the Levin modified population attributable risk (incidence) fraction, lung cancer incidence (as estimated by the Tehran Population-Based Cancer Registry) attributable to workplace exposure to carcinogens was estimated. Results The total workforce in Iran according to the 1995 census identified 12,488,020 men and 677,469 women. Agriculture is the largest sector with 25% of the male and 0.27% of female workforce. After applying the CAREX exposure estimate to each sector, the proportion exposed to lung carcinogens was 0.08% for male workers and 0.02% for female workers. Estimating a relative risk of 1.9 (95% CI of 1.7–2.1) for high exposure and 1.3 (95% CI 1.2–1.4) for low exposure, and employing the Levin modified formula, the fraction of lung cancer attributed to carcinogens in the workplace was 1.5% (95% CI of 1.2–1.9) for females and 12% (95% CI of 10–15) for males. These fractions correspond to an estimated incidence of 1.3 and 0.08 cases of lung cancer per 100,000 population for males and females, respectively. Conclusion The incidence of lung cancer due to occupational exposure is low in Iran and, as in other countries, more lung cancer is due to occupational exposure among males than females. PMID:19435522

  10. Perspective on occupational radiation exposures at a hypothetical fusion power station

    SciTech Connect

    Easterly, C.E.; Cannon, J.B.

    1983-01-01

    If current technology were used, several major sources of potential occupational radiation exposure at fusion power stations would be quite similar to those at current light water reactor power stations. Based upon this similarity, crude estimates of doses received from various maintenance operations at fusion power reactors are made. The dose estimates reinforce the need for concurrent development of sophisticated remote maintenance devices and low-activation materials for fusion reactors. It is concluded that minimization of occupational doses can be best achieved by developing an overall maintenance strategy that combines the best features of remote techniques and low activation materials as opposed to developing one or the other exclusively.

  11. Occupational exposure to intermediate frequency and extremely low frequency magnetic fields among personnel working near electronic article surveillance systems.

    PubMed

    Roivainen, Päivi; Eskelinen, Tuomo; Jokela, Kari; Juutilainen, Jukka

    2014-05-01

    Cashiers are potentially exposed to intermediate frequency (IF) magnetic fields at their workplaces because of the electronic article surveillance (EAS) systems used in stores to protect merchandise against theft. This study aimed at investigating occupational exposure of cashiers to IF magnetic fields in Finnish stores. Exposure to extremely low frequency (ELF) magnetic fields was also evaluated because cashiers work near various devices operating with 50?Hz electric power. The peak magnetic flux density was measured for IF magnetic fields, and was found to vary from 0.2 to 4?µT at the cashier's seat. ELF magnetic fields from 0.03 to 4.5?µT were found at the cashier's seat. These values are much lower than exposure limits. However, according to the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) occupational reference levels for IF magnetic fields (141?µT for the peak field) were exceeded in some cases (maximum 189?µT) for short periods of time when cashiers walked through the EAS gates. As the ICNIRP reference levels do not define any minimum time for exposure, additional investigations are recommended to determine compliance with basic restrictions. Even if the basic restrictions are not exceeded, persons working near EAS devices represent an exceptional group of workers with respect to exposure to electromagnetic fields. This group could serve as a basis for epidemiological studies addressing possible health effects of IF magnetic fields. Compliance with the reference levels for IF fields was evaluated using both broadband measurement of peak fields and the ICNIRP summation rule for multiple frequencies. The latter was generally more conservative, and the difference between the two methods was large (>10-fold) for EAS systems using a 58?kHz signal with complex waveform. This indicates that the ICNIRP multiple frequency rule can be unnecessarily conservative when measuring complex waveforms. PMID:24615825

  12. Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (Baytubes): approach for derivation of occupational exposure limit.

    PubMed

    Pauluhn, Jürgen

    2010-06-01

    Carbon nanotubes come in a variety of types, but one of the most common forms is multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT). This paper focuses on the dose-response and time course of pulmonary toxicity of Baytubes, a more flexible MWCNT type with the tendency to form assemblages of nanotubes. This MWCNT has been examined in previous single and repeated exposure 13-week rat inhalation studies. Kinetic endpoints and the potential to translocate to extrapulmonary organs have been examined during postexposure periods of 3 and 6 months, respectively. The focus of both studies was to compare dosimetric endpoints and the time course of pulmonary inflammation characterized by repeated bronchoalveolar lavage and histopathology during the respective follow-up periods. To better understand the etiopathology of pulmonary inflammation and time-related lung remodeling, two metrics of retained lung dose were compared. The first used the mass metric based on the exposure concentration obtained by filter analyses and aerodynamic particle size of airborne MWCNT. The second was based on calculated volumetric lung burdens of retained MWCNT. Kinetic analyses of lung burdens support the conclusion that Baytubes, in principal, act like poorly soluble agglomerated carbonaceous particulates. However, the difference in pulmonary toxic potency (mass-based) appears to be associated with the low-density (approximately 0.1-0.3g/m(3)) of the MWCNT assemblages. Of note is that assemblages of MWCNT were found predominantly both in the exposure atmosphere and in digested alveolar macrophages. Isolated fibers were not observed in exposure atmospheres or biological specimens. All findings support the conclusion that the low specific density of microstructures was conducive to attaining the volumetric lung overload-related inflammatory response conditions earlier than conventional particles. Evidence of extrapulmonary translocation or toxicity was not found in any study. Thus, pulmonary overload is believed to trigger the cascade of events leading to a stasis of clearance and consequently increased MWCNT doses high enough to trigger sustained pulmonary inflammation. This mechanism served as conceptual basis for the calculation of the human equivalent concentration. Accordingly, multiple interspecies adjustments were necessary which included species-specific differences in alveolar deposition, differences in ventilation, and the time-dependent particle accumulation accounting for the known species-specific differences in particle clearance half-times in rats and humans. Based on this rationale and the NOAEL (no-observed adverse effect level) from the 13-week subchronic inhalation study on rats, an occupational exposure limit (OEL) of 0.05 mg Baytubes/m(3) (time weighted average) is considered to be reasonably protective to prevent lung injury to occur in the workplace environment. PMID:20074606

  13. Occupational exposure to hydrazines: treatment of acute central nervous system toxicity.

    PubMed

    Zelnick, Sanford D; Mattie, David R; Stepaniak, Philip C

    2003-12-01

    Exposure to hydrazine and hydrazines' alkylated derivatives is an important occupational health issue, which will increase in significance as space applications increase. Despite their widespread usage as rocket fuels in manned and unmanned space and missile systems, serious exposures to hydrazines are rare. While a significant number of experimental studies were performed in the late 1950s through the mid-1960s, conflicting information exists concerning the most appropriate treatment for these exposures. A cross-sectional study evaluating the most common rocket fuels such as hydrazine; 1,1-dimethylhydrazine (UDMH); mono-methylhydrazine (MMH); and Aerozine-50 against the most commonly suggested therapies, such as pyridoxine, traditional antiseizure therapies, and arginine is needed to clarify the treatment implications for human exposure. Treatments that have been useful for hyperammonemic states, such as those for the six inherited urea cycle defects, have significant potential for the improvement of hydrazine exposure treatment. PMID:14692474

  14. Whole-Body Lifetime Occupational Lead Exposure and Risk of Parkinson’s Disease

    SciTech Connect

    Coon , Steven; Stark, Azadeh; Peterson, Edward; Gloi, Aime; Kortsha, Gene; Pounds, Joel G.; Chettle, D. R.; Gorell, Jay M.

    2006-12-01

    We enrolled 121 PD patients and 414 age-, sex-, and race-, frequency-matched controls in a case–control study. As an indicator of chronic Pb exposure, we measured concentrations of tibial and calcaneal bone Pb stores using 109Cadmium excited K-series X-ray fluorescence. As an indicator of recent exposure, we measured blood Pb concentration. We collected occupational data on participants from 18 years of age until the age at enrollment, and an industrial hygienist determined the duration and intensity of environmental Pb exposure. We employed physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling to combine these data, and we estimated whole-body lifetime Pb exposures for each individual. Logistic regression analysis produced estimates of PD risk by quartile of lifetime Pb exposure.

  15. Occupational exposure to dust and lung disease among sheet metal workers.

    PubMed Central

    Hunting, K L; Welch, L S

    1993-01-01

    A previous large medical survey of active and retired sheet metal workers with 20 or more years in the trade indicated an unexpectedly high prevalence of obstructive pulmonary disease among both smokers and non-smokers. This study utilised interviews with a cross section of the previously surveyed group to explore occupational risk factors for lung disease. Four hundred and seven workers were selected from the previously surveyed group on the basis of their potential for exposure to fibreglass and asbestos. Selection was independent of health state, and excluded welders. A detailed history of occupational exposure was obtained by telephone interview for 333 of these workers. Exposure data were analysed in relation to previously collected data on chronic bronchitis, obstructive lung disease, and personal characteristics. Assessment of the effects of exposure to fibreglass as distinct from the effects of exposure to asbestos has been difficult in previous studies of construction workers. The experienced workers studied here have performed a diversity of jobs involving exposure to many different types of materials, and this enabled exposure to each dust to be evaluated separately. The risk of chronic bronchitis increased sharply by pack-years of cigarettes smoked; current smokers had a double risk compared with those who had never smoked or had stopped smoking. The occurrence of chronic bronchitis also increased with increasing duration of exposure to asbestos. Workers with a history of high intensity exposure to fibreglass had a more than doubled risk of chronic bronchitis. Obstructive lung disease, defined by results of pulmonary function tests at the medical survey, was also related to both smoking and occupational risk factors. Number of pack years smoked was the strongest predictor of obstructive lung disease. Duration of direct and indirect exposure to welding fume was also a positive predictor of obstructive lung disease. Duration of exposure to asbestos was significantly associated with obstructive lung disease but the dose-response relation was inconsistent, especially for those with higher pack-years of smoking exposure. Exposure to fibreglass was not a risk factor for obstructive lung disease. PMID:8507596

  16. Occupational and environmental exposure to tribromophenol used for wood surface protection in sawmills.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, Manuel; Becerra, José; Godoy, Juan; Barra, Ricardo

    2005-06-01

    This study analyses the occupational and environmental conditions of sawmills where the lumber is protected from microorganism action by dipping it in 2,4,6 tribromophenol (TBP). Three processes were evaluated: hydraulic immersion, chain conveyor system and manual immersion. The biggest occupational exposure to TBP was registered in manual and chain conveyor systems. The average values in the workers' urine for TBP were 6.9 and 5.7 mg/g creatinine, respectively. For environmental exposure, the highest value in well waters was 25.1 microg/L and in soil was 4,602 mg/kg. It could be established that the hydraulic immersion system presents less occupational TBP exposure. Nevertheless, the hydraulic system, as well as the other two anti-stain alternatives, requires the introduction of pollution prevention efforts. To reduce the environmental exposure to TBP, the lumber-dipping tank area, the forklift traffic areas, and the storage areas need to be waterproofed. It is also necessary to implement a TBP solution recovery system to eliminate dripping from the lumber once it is removed from the fungicide dipping tanks. PMID:16134480

  17. Occupational exposure to solid chemical agents in biomass-fired power plants and associated health effects.

    PubMed

    Jumpponen, M; Rönkkömäki, H; Pasanen, P; Laitinen, J

    2014-06-01

    Occupational exposure to aluminium, arsenic, lead, cadmium, and manganese can increase the risk of numerous neurophysiological changes in workers, and may lead to conditions resembling Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease. However, although the health hazard aspect of these agents has been examined, biomass-fired power plant workers' exposure to them remains a neglected issue. The purpose of this study was to measure maintenance and ash removal workers' multiple exposures to inhalable dust, metals, and crystalline silica during their work tasks in biomass-fired power plants. Maintenance and ash removal workers were exposed to high inhalable dust concentrations inside biomass-fired boilers. The median air inhalable dust concentration in workers' breathing zones were 33 mg m(-3) and 120 mg m(-3) in ash removal and maintenance tasks, respectively. The median concentration of manganese (0.31 mg m(-3)) exceeded the occupational exposure limit in worker's breathing zone samples in maintenance tasks. The most evident exposure-associated health risk from multiple exposures to metals was that of cancer, followed by central nervous system disorders, lower respiratory tract irritation, and finally upper respiratory tract irritation. To avoid the above mentioned health effects, powered air respirators with ABEK+P3 cartridges and carbon monoxide gas detectors are recommended as the minimum requirement for these work tasks. A compressed air breathing apparatus is the best form of protection for the most demanding work phases inside boilers in biomass-fired power plants. PMID:24289933

  18. A guidance value of 1-hydroxypyrene in urine in view of acceptable occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Jongeneelen, Frans J

    2014-12-01

    Occupational exposure limits for carcinogens are increasingly based on excess lifetime risks of cancer. Acceptable limits in some countries in Europe are set at 4/1000 (=highest tolerable risk level) and 4/100,000 (=acceptable risk level) based on 40 year working exposure for the occupational population. When an exposure metric is used that is fairly new, epidemiology does not offer dose-response data that is needed for the derivation of a science based limit value. The urinary concentration of 1-hydroxypyrene is a fairly new bioindicator of exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). Nowadays, measurements of 1-hydroxypyrene in urine are routinely applied to control industrial exposure to PAH as present in coke ovens and primary aluminium production and to control exposure of professionals when handling coal tar derived products. Due to lacking dose-response data from epidemiological studies, a cancer risk based limit of 1-hydroxypyrene in urine cannot be derived. An alternative derivation procedure is proposed for the limit value that can be used as guidance for the intermediate period. For the period in-between, it is suggested to take the 'no observed genotoxic effect level' (=NOGEL) in PAH-exposed workers as the point-of-departure for setting the limit value. The genotoxic endpoints are genotoxic effects in white blood cells of PAH-exposed workers (chromosomal aberrations, sister chromatid exchanges, micronuclei, comet assay, DNA adducts). In order to assess the point-of-departure for limit setting, cross-sectional studies were searched for that report on the response of early genotoxic effects in white blood cells of workers that could be related to the degree of PAH-exposure (expressed as 1-hydroxypyrene in urine). Nine cross-sectional studies were traced that met these requirements. From each study, the concentration of 1-hydroxypyrene in end-of-shift urine samples was determined, at which no genotoxic effects was found. From 4 out of 9 studies a no-observed genotoxic effect level could be derived, the lowest level was 1.0 ?mol/mol creatinine. This limit level is recommended as a state-of-the-art guidance, valid when the PAH-profile in the work environment is similar to that of coke oven with a typical pyrene/BaP ratio of 2.5. For work environments with a deviating PAH-profile an adjustment procedure with the pyrene/BaP ratio is suggested. PMID:24831967

  19. 61 FR 56746 - Occupational Exposure to 1,3-Butadiene

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    1996-11-04

    ...polymer workers. Complementary studies of metabolic products and genotoxicity support these...Sprague-Dawley rat at levels far above BD metabolic saturation, the carcinogenic response...have sought to better characterize the metabolic, distributional, and elimination...

  20. Evaluation of occupational noise exposure using a wireless microphone 

    E-print Network

    Nash, Robert Bacot

    1974-01-01

    Wireless Microphone system was channeled into a General Radio (GR) Type 1558 Octave-Band Analyzer in order to give an overall sound pressure level reading. This reading was statistically compared to the sound pressure level reading obtained... simultaneously from a noise measuring system consisting of a GR P-1560 ceramic microphone connected to a GR Type 1564 Sound and Vibration Analyzer. The microphones of the two systems were first exposed to twenty-one discrete frequencies ranging from 100...

  1. Survey of studies of occupational populations exposed to low-level radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Marks, S.

    1980-04-01

    Studies of occupational populations exposed to large doses of radiation, principally from the ingestion of radium by dial painters and inhalation of radon and its daughters by miners, have provided important information on the health effects of those radioisotopes. Studies of medical radiologists, military personnel exposed to nuclear tests, and factory workers exposed to thorium are in progress. Employees of DOE-contractor facilities and of naval shipyards are also under study. Personnel dosimetry data are generally available for the latter category of occupational populations. Reasons for conducting the studies include interest in exploring the verification at low exposure levels of results of studies of heavily exposed populations and the responsibility of the employer to maintain adequate surveillance of the health of his workers by conducting appropriate epidemiologic studies. The low level of exposure of workers in facilities where adequate personnel dosimetry records are available make it unlikely that the results of such studies can be used to provide health risk estimates in the near future.

  2. Hepatitis caused by occupational chronic exposure to trichloroethylene.

    PubMed

    Anagnostopoulos, G; Sakorafas, G H; Grigoriadis, K; Margantinis, G; Kostopoulos, P; Tsiakos, S; Arvanitidis, D

    2004-01-01

    Trichloroethylene (TCE) is an organic solvent used in a variety of industries for more than 60 years. Several adverse events following acute or chronic exposure to trichloroethylene have been reported. However, TCE-induced hepatitis is very rare. We present the case of a 55-year old male who was presented with anorexia, fatigue and upper abdominal discomfort. Routine laboratory examination revealed marked elevation of liver enzyme values. All possible causes of hepatitis were ruled out. The patient has been working as a shoemaker, in a small room of a basement, with insufficient air-exchange; during the last 5 years he used daily a glue containing 1,1,1 trichloroethylene. The diagnosis of hepatitis was confirmed by liver biopsy. The offending agent was withdrawn. Three months later, he was "feeling well" and liver enzyme values had returned to normal. Six months after the initial biopsy, a second liver biopsy was performed and histology was markedly improved. Workers exposed to hazardous chemicals, such as trichloroethylene, must have periodic follow-up examinations. Good work practices are very important when using toxic substances. In patients whose initial diagnostic workout is negative for common causes of acute or chronic hepatitis, toxic causes should be considered, with emphasis on patient's job and working conditions. PMID:15727081

  3. Occupational and patient exposure in coronary angiography procedures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sulieman, A.; Alzimami, K.; Gafar, R.; Babikir, E.; Alsafi, K.; Suliman, I. I.

    2014-11-01

    Cardiac catheterization is the gold standard in the diagnosis and management of coronary artery diseases. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the radiation dose of patients and staff during cardiology procedures. Staff was monitored using thermoluminescence dosimeter (TLD) chips for 86 procedures. The mean patient dose was 2813.6 ?Gy m2 and the mean fluoroscopic time was 4.8 min. The mean radiation doses for cardiologists were 0.9 mGy for the forehead, 0.92 mGy for the thyroid, 1.38 mGy for the chest, 1.28 mGy for the waist and 1.41 mGy for the hand. The mean radiation doses for assistants were 0.72 mGy for the chest, 0.82 mGy for the hand. High patient and staff exposure is due to lack of experience and protective equipment, exacerbated by a high workload. Interventional procedures remain operator dependent; therefore, continuous training is crucial.

  4. Occupational nitrosamine exposure. 1. Rubber and tyre industry.

    PubMed

    Spiegelhalder, B; Preussmann, R

    1983-09-01

    To determine the role of N-nitrosamines in the known increased cancer risk of rubber workers, air concentrations of such carcinogens were measured by area sampling or personal monitoring in 19 factories. N-Nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) and N-nitrosomorpholine (NMOR) were found regularly, the air concentrations varying between 0.1 and 380 micrograms/m3 personal monitoring. The mean concentration was usually in the range of 1-10 micrograms/m3. Several other nitrosamines could be detected in certain production branches. In retail shops and storage rooms of tyres NDMA and NMOR were found. Most rubber chemicals based on amines are contaminated with N-nitrosamines, but this contamination cannot explain the air concentrations of nitrosamines found. The occurrence of nitrosamines mainly depends upon their formation during production of rubber and rubber products from used vulcanisation accelerators based on amines and the presence of nitrosating agents, such as diphenylnitrosamine (retarder A) and of nitrous gases, in products or production areas. Elimination of one or both precursors for nitrosamine formation resulted in significant reduction of airial contamination of nitrosamines. The results are discussed in regard to the mechanisms of nitrosamine formation during rubber production, as basis for future epidemiological studies and their potential for exposure prevention. PMID:6883637

  5. Organizational-level interventions to reduce occupational stressors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ronald J. Burke

    1993-01-01

    Occupational stress research continues to grow, and is increasingly being used to inform national policy on worker health and well-being. Most models of occupational stress emphasize notions of person-environment fit. Two approaches for intervention to minimize adverse consequences of occupational stress follow from such models. One emphasizes the strengthening and enhancement of indwiduals and their resources, the other emphasizes the

  6. Latino Immigrants: Preventing Occupational Exposure to Pesticides: Using Participatory Research with Latino Farmworkers to Develop an Intervention

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sara A. Quandt; Thomas A. Arcury; Colin K. Austin; Luis F. Cabrera

    2001-01-01

    Pesticide exposure is an occupational health hazard for migrant farmworkers. The US-EPA Worker Protection Standard (WPS) mandates training programs to prevent or reduce exposure. WPS implementation in a local context requires understanding individual, workplace, and community environmental factors that lead to exposure and influence intervention effectiveness. Participatory research within the PRECEDE–PROCEED planning framework was used to design a WPS training

  7. Determination of arsenic in urine by atomic absorption spectrophotometry for biological monitoring of occupational exposure to arsenic.

    PubMed

    Dang, T M; Tran, Q T; Vu, K V

    1999-09-01

    An atomic absorption spectrophotometric (AAS) method was successfully applied to analysis of urine for arsenic (As) as a measure of biological monitoring of occupational exposure to As in Vietnam. The application of the method to urine samples from 75 non-exposed control urbanites (after 2-day abstinence from sea foods) gave a reference level of 62.4 +/- 11.6 microg/l (as mean +/- S.D.), from which the upper limit of the normal value (74 microg/l as mean +/- 1 S.D.) and the acceptable limit (100 microg/l as mean +/- 3S.D.) were deduced. Further application to urine samples from 147 workers occupationally exposed to As in Bacthai Non-ferrous Metallurgic Corporation showed significantly elevated levels of As in urine, with mean +/- S.D. of 78.5 +/- 20.2 microg/l. Improvement of working conditions to reduce As exposure resulted in substantial reduction in the ratio of those with urinary As at the level in excess of the acceptable limit. The practical importance of total arsenic determination in urine after 2-day sea food abstinence is discussed in connection with current conditions in analytical laboratories in Vietnam. PMID:10511260

  8. Rules and recent trends for setting health-based occupational exposure limits for chemicals.

    PubMed

    Skowro?, Jolanta; Czerczak, S?awomir

    2015-01-01

    The working environment is the special case of the non-natural environment created by man in which the increased production activity brings about the concentration of stimulators particularly aggressive to the human organism, such as chemical hazards, noise, vibration, extreme temperatures, and finally, intensified psychological and emotional stress. Depending on the nature and intensity, working environment factors have been classified into dangerous, harmful and annoying. The workers are more and more frequently exposed to dangerous chemicals in the working environment. The chemicals cause many diseases including, in the 1st place, respiratory insufficiency, inflammatory skin conditions, psychoneurological disorders and neoplastic diseases. Occupational exposure limit values (OELs), the main criteria for occupational exposure assessment, constitute an important factor for the safe use of chemicals in the working environment. In Poland, to date there are 524 chemical substances and 19 dusts for which maximum admissible concentrations (MAC) have been established. PMID:26182920

  9. 62 FR 1494 - Occupational Exposure to Methylene Chloride

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    1997-01-10

    ...model incorporating rodent and human metabolic information. That analysis shows a...assumption that, as a general rule, metabolic parameters scale proportional to a function...those species lack the high level of GST metabolic activity to MC found in the mouse...

  10. Occupational exposure to mercury in dentistry and pregnancy outcome

    SciTech Connect

    Brodsky, J.B.; Cohen, E.N.; Whitcher, C.; Brown, B.W. Jr.; Wu, M.L.

    1985-11-01

    A questionnaire was mailed to dentists and dental assistants requesting information about work, health, and reproductive history. Statistical analysis of the data indicated that there were no increased rates of spontaneous abortions or congenital abnormalities in the children of men and women who were exposed to low versus high levels of mercury in a dental environment.

  11. Occupational exposure to airborne contaminants during offshore oil drilling.

    PubMed

    Kirkhus, Niels E; Thomassen, Yngvar; Ulvestad, Bente; Woldbæk, Torill; Ellingsen, Dag G

    2015-07-01

    The aim was to study exposure to airborne contaminants in oil drillers during ordinary work. Personal samples were collected among 65 drill floor workers on four stationary and six moveable rigs in the Norwegian offshore sector. Air concentrations of drilling mud were determined based on measurements of the non-volatile mud components Ca and Fe. The median air concentration of mud was 140 ?g m(-3). Median air concentrations of oil mist (180 ?g m(-3)), oil vapour (14 mg m(-3)) and organic carbon (46 ?g m(-3)) were also measured. All contaminants were detected in all work areas (drill floor, shaker area, mud pits, pump room, other areas). The highest air concentrations were measured in the shaker area, but the differences in air concentrations between working areas were moderate. Oil mist and oil vapour concentrations were statistically higher on moveable rigs than on stationary rigs, but after adjusting for differences in mud temperature the differences between rig types were no longer of statistical significance. Statistically significant positive associations were found between mud temperature and the concentrations of oil mist (Spearman's R = 0.46) and oil vapour (0.39), and between viscosity of base oil and oil mist concentrations. Use of pressure washers was associated with higher air concentrations of mud. A series of 18 parallel stationary samples showed a high and statistically significant association between concentrations of organic carbon and oil mist (r = 0.98). This study shows that workers are exposed to airborne non-volatilized mud components. Air concentrations of volatile mud components like oil mist and oil vapour were low, but were present in all the studied working areas. PMID:26020723

  12. Reproductive toxicity of low-level lead exposure in men

    SciTech Connect

    Telisman, Spomenka [Institute for Medical Research and Occupational Health, Ksaverska cesta 2, P.O. Box 291, HR-10001 Zagreb (Croatia)], E-mail: telisman@imi.hr; Colak, Bozo [University Clinic for Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolic Diseases 'Vuk Vrhovac', Zagreb (Croatia); Pizent, Alica; Jurasovic, Jasna [Institute for Medical Research and Occupational Health, Ksaverska cesta 2, P.O. Box 291, HR-10001 Zagreb (Croatia); Cvitkovic, Petar [University Clinic for Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolic Diseases 'Vuk Vrhovac', Zagreb (Croatia)

    2007-10-15

    Parameters of semen quality, seminal plasma indicators of secretory function of the prostate and seminal vesicles, sex hormones in serum, and biomarkers of lead, cadmium, copper, zinc, and selenium body burden were measured in 240 Croatian men 19-52 years of age. The subjects had no occupational exposure to metals and no known other reasons suspected of influencing male reproductive function or metal metabolism. After adjusting for age, smoking, alcohol, blood cadmium, and serum copper, zinc, and selenium by multiple regression, significant (P<0.05) associations of blood lead (BPb), {delta}-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD), and/or erythrocyte protoporphyrin (EP) with reproductive parameters indicated a lead-related increase in immature sperm concentration, in percentages of pathologic sperm, wide sperm, round sperm, and short sperm, in serum levels of testosterone and estradiol, and a decrease in seminal plasma zinc and in serum prolactin. These reproductive effects were observed at low-level lead exposure (BPb median 49 {mu}g/L, range 11-149 {mu}g/L in the 240 subjects) common for general populations worldwide. The observed significant synergistic effect of BPb and blood cadmium on increasing serum testosterone, and additive effect of a decrease in serum selenium on increasing serum testosterone, may have implications on the initiation and development of prostate cancer because testosterone augments the progress of prostate cancer in its early stages.

  13. Occupational and Lifestyle Determinants of Blood Lead Levels among Men in Madras, India.

    PubMed

    Potula; Hu

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this epidemiologic study was to assess the relationship of blood lead levels to occupational exposure to the combustion products of leaded gasoline and to several lifestyle factors (smoking, alcohol consumption, and diet) among men from four occupational groups in Madras, India. Blood lead was measured using graphite-furnace atomic-absorption spectrophotometry. The mean (SD) blood lead levels in 129 blood samples collected from traffic police, bus drivers, and auto-shop workers were 11.2 (8.8), 12 (11.1), and 17.5 (8.4) µg/dL, respectively; the corresponding value for urban controls (office workers) was 4.1 (2.1) µg/dL. In a final multivariate regression model, a non-vegetarian diet and job category remained the strongest predictors of blood lead level (p < 0.05), while smoking, alcohol consumption, and duration of employment were not significantly correlated with blood lead levels. The authors conclude that continued use of leaded gasoline probably plays a dominant role in determining blood lead levels in Madras. PMID:9933858

  14. Human hair lead copper levels in three occupationally unexposed population groups in Calcutta

    SciTech Connect

    Sen, J.; Chaudhuri, A.B.D. [Univ. of Calcutta (India)] [Univ. of Calcutta (India)

    1996-10-01

    The element lead (Pb) has been very widely studied in man due to its widespread occurrence and toxic effects. There is no known nutritional value of Pb and it is stored in the bone by replacing calcium. In the cellular level, Pb alters cell membrane structure and membrane on function. It is a potent inhibitor of the Na{sup +} K{sup +} ATPase. Pb also interferes with the activity of the enzymes delta-aminoevulinic acid synthetase, delta-aminolevulinic dehydrase and intra-mitochondrial ferrochelatase. In the pre-natal level, Pb-exposure may lead to an increased risk of prematurity and reduction of gestational age in humans. Pb-exposure causes adverse neuro-psychological effects among young children and numerous endrocrinal disturbances among adults. It has shown that Human Scalp Hair (HSH) Pb concentration can be used very successfully to document population exposure to this toxic element. Copper is known to be biologically essential, but Cu poisoning is rare in humans. This study attempts to document exposure and to determine `base-line` values for HSH Pb and CU among three occupationally unexposed population groups in Calcutta. 15 refs., 1 tab.

  15. Evaluation of Occupational Exposure of Glazers of a Ceramic Industry to Cobalt Blue Dye

    PubMed Central

    KARGAR, Fatemeh; SHAHTAHERI, Seyed Jamaleddin; GOLBABAEI, Farideh; BARKHORDARI, Abolfazl; RAHIMI-FROUSHANI, Abbas; KHADEM, Monireh

    2013-01-01

    Background: Cobalt is one of the most important constituent present in ceramic industries. Glazers are the relevant workers when they are producing blue colored ceramic, causing occupational exposure to such metal. Through this study, urinary cobalt was determined in glazers in a ceramic industry when they were producing blue-colored ceramic glazes. Methods: In this case-control study, spot urine samples were collected from 49 glazers at the start and end of work shifts (totally 98 samples) in 2011. Control group were well matched for age, height, and weight. A solid phase extraction system was used for separation and preconcentration of samples followed by analysis by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). All participants filled out a self administered questionnaire comprises questions about duration of exposure, work shift, use of mask, skin dermatitis, kind of job, ventilation system, overtime work, age, weight, and height. The lung function tests were performed on each control and cobalt exposed subjects. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to evaluate the obtained results. Results: Urinary levels of cobalt were significantly higher in the glazers compared to the control group. There were significant differences at urinary concentration of cobalt at the start and end of the work shift in glazers. Spirometric parameters were significantly lower in the glazers compared to the control group. Among the variables used in questionnaire the significant variables were dermatitis skin, mask, ventilation, and overtime work. Conclusion: This study verified existence of cobalt in the urine glazers, showing lower amount than the ACGIH standard.

  16. Occupational blood exposure and HIV infection among oral and maxillofacial surgeons

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barbara F Gooch; Chakwan Siew; Jennifer L Cleveland; Stephen E Gruninger; Stuart A Lockwood; Edwin D Joy

    1998-01-01

    Objective. The purpose of this study was to examine occupational blood exposure and the seroprevalence of HIV infection among oral and maxillofacial surgeons.Study Design. Three hundred twenty-one oral and maxillofacial surgeons attending an annual meeting voluntarily and anonymously participated in an HIV serosurvey and completed a questionnaire assessing practice and demographic factors. Statistical tests included the Wilcoxon rank-sum test and

  17. Urinary hexane diamine as an indicator of occupational exposure to hexamethylene diisocyanate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Maître; M. Berode; A. Perdrix; M. Stoklov; J. M. Mallion; H. Savolainen

    1996-01-01

    The occupational exposure of 19 men to hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI) vapour was monitored during one 8-h shift. It ranged\\u000a from 0.30 to 97.7 ?g\\/m3. This was compared with the urinary output of hexane diamine (HDA) liberated by acid hydrolysis from its conjugates in post-shift\\u000a samples. The excretion varied from 1.36 to 27.7 ?g\\/g creatinine, and there was a linear association

  18. Occupational exposure to noise and the cardiovascular system: A meta-analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Tomei; M. Fioravanti; D. Cerratti; A. Sancini; E. Tomao; M. V. Rosati; D. Vacca; T. Palitti; M. Di Famiani; R. Giubilati; S. De Sio; F. Tomei

    2010-01-01

    The aim of our meta-analysis is to evaluate the association between the modifications of the cardiovascular system and chronic exposure to noise in occupationally exposed subjects.We considered the articles published from 1950 to May 2008. Only 15 papers were conforming to the inclusion criteria identified for this meta-analysis. A total of 18,658 workers were divided in three groups according to

  19. Occupational Noise Exposure of Employees at Locally-Owned Restaurants in a College Town.

    PubMed

    Green, Deirdre R; Anthony, T Renée

    2015-07-01

    While many restaurant employees work in loud environments, in both dining and food preparation areas, little is known about worker exposures to noise. The risk of hearing loss to millions of food service workers around the country is unknown. This study evaluated full-shift noise exposure to workers at six locally-owned restaurants to examine risk factors associated with noise exposures during the day shift. Participants included cooks, counter attendants, bartenders, and waiters at full-service restaurants with bar service and at limited-service restaurants that provided counter service only. Assessments were made on weekdays and weekends, both during the summer and the fall (with a local university in session) to examine whether the time of week or year affects noise exposures to this population in a college town. In addition, the relationships between noise exposures and the type of restaurant and job classification were assessed. One-hundred eighty full-shift time-weighted average (TWA) exposures were assessed, using both Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) and National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) criteria. No TWA measurements exceeded the 90 dBA OSHA 8 hr permissible exposure limit, although six projected TWAs exceeded the 85 dBA OSHA hearing conservation action limit. Using NIOSH criteria, TWAs ranged from 69-90 dBA with a mean of 80 dBA (SD = 4 dBA). Nearly 8% (14) of the exposures exceeded the NIOSH 8-hr 85 dBA. Full-shift exposures were larger for all workers in full-service restaurants (p < 0.001) and for cooks (p = 0.003), regardless of restaurant type. The fall semester (p = 0.003) and weekend (p = 0.048) exposures were louder than summer and weekdays. Multiple linear regression analysis suggested that the combination of restaurant type, job classification, and season had a significant effect on restaurant worker noise exposures (p < 0.001) in this college town. While evening/night shift exposures, where noise exposures may be anticipated to be louder, were not assessed, this study identified that restaurant type, job classification, time of week, and season significantly affected the noise exposures for day-shift workers. Intervention studies to prevent noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) should consider these variables. PMID:25738733

  20. Effects of occupational exposures and smoking on lung function in tile factory workers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maritta S. Jaakkola; Penpatra Sripaiboonkij; Jouni J. K. Jaakkola

    2011-01-01

    Purpose  The aims of this study were to investigate the relations of occupational exposures in tile industry to lung function and to\\u000a evaluate potential interaction between smoking and tile dust exposure containing silica.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  A cross-sectional study of 232 workers (response rate 100%) in a tile factory and 76 office workers (response rate 73%) from\\u000a four factories in Thailand was conducted in

  1. Modeled occupational exposures to gas-phase medical laser-generated air contaminants.

    PubMed

    Lippert, Julia F; Lacey, Steven E; Jones, Rachael M

    2014-01-01

    Exposure monitoring data indicate the potential for substantive exposure to laser-generated air contaminants (LGAC); however the diversity of medical lasers and their applications limit generalization from direct workplace monitoring. Emission rates of seven previously reported gas-phase constituents of medical laser-generated air contaminants (LGAC) were determined experimentally and used in a semi-empirical two-zone model to estimate a range of plausible occupational exposures to health care staff. Single-source emission rates were generated in an emission chamber as a one-compartment mass balance model at steady-state. Clinical facility parameters such as room size and ventilation rate were based on standard ventilation and environmental conditions required for a laser surgical facility in compliance with regulatory agencies. All input variables in the model including point source emission rates were varied over an appropriate distribution in a Monte Carlo simulation to generate a range of time-weighted average (TWA) concentrations in the near and far field zones of the room in a conservative approach inclusive of all contributing factors to inform future predictive models. The concentrations were assessed for risk and the highest values were shown to be at least three orders of magnitude lower than the relevant occupational exposure limits (OELs). Estimated values do not appear to present a significant exposure hazard within the conditions of our emission rate estimates. PMID:24762065

  2. The Occupational Exposure Limit for Fluid Aerosol Generated in Metalworking Operations: Limitations and Recommendations

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this review was to assess current knowledge related to the occupational exposure limit (OEL) for fluid aerosols including either mineral or chemical oil that are generated in metalworking operations, and to discuss whether their OEL can be appropriately used to prevent several health risks that may vary among metalworking fluid (MWF) types. The OEL (time-weighted average; 5 mg/m3, short-term exposure limit ; 15 mg/m3) has been applied to MWF aerosols without consideration of different fluid aerosol-size fractions. The OEL, is also based on the assumption that there are no significant differences in risk among fluid types, which may be contentious. Particularly, the health risks from exposure to water-soluble fluids may not have been sufficiently considered. Although adoption of The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health's recommended exposure limit for MWF aerosol (0.5 mg/m3) would be an effective step towards minimizing and evaluating the upper respiratory irritation that may be caused by neat or diluted MWF, this would fail to address the hazards (e.g., asthma and hypersensitivity pneumonitis) caused by microbial contaminants generated only by the use of water-soluble fluids. The absence of an OEL for the water-soluble fluids used in approximately 80-90 % of all applicants may result in limitations of the protection from health risks caused by exposure to those fluids. PMID:22953224

  3. The occupational exposure limit for fluid aerosol generated in metalworking operations: limitations and recommendations.

    PubMed

    Park, Donguk

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this review was to assess current knowledge related to the occupational exposure limit (OEL) for fluid aerosols including either mineral or chemical oil that are generated in metalworking operations, and to discuss whether their OEL can be appropriately used to prevent several health risks that may vary among metalworking fluid (MWF) types. The OEL (time-weighted average; 5 mg/m(3), short-term exposure limit ; 15 mg/m(3)) has been applied to MWF aerosols without consideration of different fluid aerosol-size fractions. The OEL, is also based on the assumption that there are no significant differences in risk among fluid types, which may be contentious. Particularly, the health risks from exposure to water-soluble fluids may not have been sufficiently considered. Although adoption of The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health's recommended exposure limit for MWF aerosol (0.5 mg/m(3)) would be an effective step towards minimizing and evaluating the upper respiratory irritation that may be caused by neat or diluted MWF, this would fail to address the hazards (e.g., asthma and hypersensitivity pneumonitis) caused by microbial contaminants generated only by the use of water-soluble fluids. The absence of an OEL for the water-soluble fluids used in approximately 80-90 % of all applicants may result in limitations of the protection from health risks caused by exposure to those fluids. PMID:22953224

  4. Nasal and sinonasal cancer. Connection with occupational exposures in Denmark, Finland and Sweden.

    PubMed

    Hernberg, S; Westerholm, P; Schultz-Larsen, K; Degerth, R; Kuosma, E; Englund, A; Engzell, U; Hansen, H S; Mutanen, P

    1983-08-01

    A joint Danish-Finnish-Swedish case-referent investigation was initiated in 1977 in order to study the connection between nasal and sinonasal cancer and various occupational exposures. All new cases of nasal and sinonasal cancer were collected from the national cancer registers (Finland and Sweden) or from the hospitals (Denmark). Those still alive who agreed to an interview (N = 167) were individually matched for age and sex with patients with colonic or rectal cancer. A detailed telephone interview was made according to standardized forms. Both cases and referents thought that their condition was the one under study. The exposures were coded blindly by an industrial hygienist. The results showed associations between nasal and sinonasal cancer and exposure to (i) hardwood or mixed wood dust (discordant pairs 14: 2), (ii) softwood dust alone (13:4), (iii) chromium (16: 6), (iv) nickel (12: 5, not significant), (v) welding, flame-cutting and soldering (17: 6), and (vi) lacquers and paints (14: 0). The last finding was probably due to confounding from wood dust exposure. Hardwood dust exposure was associated with adenocarcinoma. Softwood dust exposure alone was associated with epidermoid and anaplastic carcinomas. No associations were found for a number of exposures, including agricultural chemicals, textile dust, asbestos, quartz dust, organic solvents and leather work. Possible exposure to formaldehyde was evenly distributed between the cases and referents. PMID:6635610

  5. FLOW CYTOMETRY OF ACRIDINE ORANGE STAINED SPERM IS A RAPID AND PRACTICAL METHOD FOR MONITORING OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE TO GENOTOXICANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Public awareness is growing concerning the reproductive consequences of the numerous environmental and occupational chemicals. Exposure of germ cells within the seminiferous tubules of the mammalian testis to chemical toxins often causes severe perturbation of cell growth, divisi...

  6. An overview of the characterization of occupational exposure to nanoaerosols in workplaces

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paola Castellano; Riccardo Ferrante; Roberta Curini; Silvia Canepari

    2009-01-01

    Currently, there is a lack of standardized sampling and metric methods that can be applied to measure the level of exposure to nanosized aerosols. Therefore, any attempt to characterize exposure to nanoparticles (NP) in a workplace must involve a multifaceted approach characterized by different sampling and analytical techniques to measure all relevant characteristics of NP exposure. Furthermore, as NP aerosols

  7. Circumstances surrounding occupational blood exposure events in the National Study to Prevent Blood Exposure in Paramedics.

    PubMed

    Leiss, Jack K; Sousa, Sara; Boal, Winifred L

    2009-04-01

    More than 20% of U.S. paramedics are exposed to blood each year. Little is known about the circumstances that lead to these exposures. The objective of this study was to describe blood exposure events among U.S. paramedics. A mail survey was conducted in 2002-2003 among a nationally representative sample of licensed paramedics. Eighty percent of needle/lancet sticks involved non-safety devices. A third of mucous membrane exposures occurred even though the paramedic was wearing eye or face protection; in half of the events, the exposures were caused by the patient vomiting, spitting, or coughing up blood; in a third of the events, the patient was being uncooperative or combative. In 83% of the non-intact skin exposures, the paramedic was wearing disposable gloves; the non-intact skin was covered before the call in a third of the events, but the cover did not prevent exposure; 40% of the events occurred when the patient was being uncooperative or combative. These results suggest that blood exposure among paramedics could be reduced through increased use of safety devices and personal protective equipment, improved engineering and design, and increased compliance with Universal Precautions, and that paramedics need techniques for avoiding blood exposure while treating uncooperative or combative patients. PMID:19367042

  8. TASK-BASED EXPOSURE MATRIX TOWARD EVALUATING AND IDENTIFYING OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE TO ENGINEERED CARBONACEOUS NANOMATERIALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    It is expected that the findings from this study will contribute to human exposure estimation during the product lifecycle analysis of carbon nanotubes and nanofibers. In addition, the task exposure matrix will provide important background information for the design of future ...

  9. Association between Occupational Exposure to Wood Dust and Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Alonso-Sardón, Montserrat; Chamorro, Antonio-J.; Hernández-García, Ignacio; Iglesias-de-Sena, Helena; Martín-Rodero, Helena; Herrera, Cristian; Marcos, Miguel; Mirón-Canelo, José Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Objective To perform a systematic review to analyze the association between occupational exposure to wood dust and cancer. Methods A systematic literature search of entries made in the MEDLINE-PubMed database between 1957 and 2013 was conducted to identify studies that had assessed the relationship between occupational exposure to wood dust and different types of cancer. A meta-analysis of selected case-control and cohort studies was subsequently performed. Results A total of 114 studies were identified and 70 were selected for review. Of these, 42 studies focused on the relationship between wood dust and nasal cancer (n = 22), lung cancer (n = 11), and other types of cancer (n = 9). Low-to-moderate quality evidence that wood dust acts as a carcinogen was obtained, and a stronger association between wood dust and nasal adenocarcinoma was observed. A lesser association between wood dust exposure and lung cancer was also observed. Several studies suggested that there is a relationship between wood dust and the onset of other cancers, although there was no evidence to establish an association. A meta-analysis that included four case-controls studies showed that workers exposed to wood dust exhibited higher rates of nasal adenocarcinoma than other workers (odds ratio = 10.28; 95% confidence interval: 5.92 and 17.85; P<0,0001), although a large degree of heterogeneity was found. Conclusions Low-to-moderate quality evidence supports a causal association between cancer and occupational exposure to wood dust, and this association was stronger for nasal adenocarcinoma than for lung cancer. There was no evidence of an association between wood dust exposure and the other cancers examined. PMID:26191795

  10. Evaluating health risks from occupational exposure to pesticides and the regulatory response.

    PubMed Central

    Woodruff, T J; Kyle, A D; Bois, F Y

    1994-01-01

    In this study, we used measurements of occupational exposures to pesticides in agriculture to evaluate health risks and analyzed how the federal regulatory program is addressing these risks. Dose estimates developed by the State of California from measured occupational exposures to 41 pesticides were compared to standard indices of acute toxicity (LD50) and chronic effects (reference dose). Lifetime cancer risks were estimated using cancer potencies. Estimated absorbed daily doses for mixers, loaders, and applicators of pesticides ranged from less than 0.0001% to 48% of the estimated human LD50 values, and doses for 10 of 40 pesticides exceeded 1% of the estimated human LD50 values. Estimated lifetime absorbed daily doses ranged from 0.1% to 114,000% of the reference doses developed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and doses for 13 of 25 pesticides were above them. Lifetime cancer risks ranged from 1 per million to 1700 per million, and estimates for 12 of 13 pesticides were above 1 per million. Similar results were obtained for field workers and flaggers. For the pesticides examined, exposures pose greater risks of chronic effects than acute effects. Exposure reduction measures, including use of closed mixing systems and personal protective equipment, significantly reduced exposures. Proposed regulations rely primarily on requirements for personal protective equipment and use restrictions to protect workers. Chronic health risks are not considered in setting these requirements. Reviews of pesticides by the federal pesticide regulatory program have had little effect on occupational risks. Policy strategies that offer immediate protection for workers and that are not dependent on extensive review of individual pesticides should be pursued. Images Figure 1. PMID:7713022

  11. Determinants of occupational exposure to metals by gas metal arc welding and risk management measures: a biomonitoring study.

    PubMed

    Persoons, Renaud; Arnoux, Damien; Monssu, Théodora; Culié, Olivier; Roche, Gaëlle; Duffaud, Béatrice; Chalaye, Denis; Maitre, Anne

    2014-12-01

    Welding fumes contain various toxic metals including chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni) and manganese (Mn). An assessment of the risk to health of local and systemic exposure to welding fumes requires the assessment of both external and internal doses. The aims of this study were to test the relevance in small and medium sized enterprises of a biomonitoring strategy based on urine spot-samples, to characterize the factors influencing the internal doses of metals in gas metal arc welders and to recommend effective risk management measures. 137 welders were recruited and urinary levels of metals were measured by ICP-MS on post-shift samples collected at the end of the working week. Cr, Ni and Mn mean concentrations (respectively 0.43, 1.69 and 0.27 ?g/g creatinine) were well below occupational health guidance values, but still higher than background levels observed in the general population, confirming the absorption of metals generated in welding fumes. Both welding parameters (nature of base metal, welding technique) and working conditions (confinement, welding and grinding durations, mechanical ventilation and welding experience) were predictive of occupational exposure. Our results confirm the interest of biomonitoring for assessing health risks and recommending risk management measures for welders. PMID:25223250

  12. Occupational Lung Disease Risk and Exposure to Butter-Flavoring Chemicals After Implementation of Controls at a Microwave Popcorn Plant

    PubMed Central

    Kanwal, Richard; Kullman, Greg; Fedan, Kathleen B.; Kreiss, Kathleen

    2011-01-01

    Objectives After an outbreak of severe lung disease among workers exposed to butter-flavoring chemicals at a microwave popcorn plant, we determined whether or not lung disease risk declined after implementation of exposure controls. Methods National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health staff performed eight serial cross-sectional medical and industrial hygiene surveys at the plant from November 2000 through August 2003. Medical surveys included standardized questionnaires and spirometry testing. Industrial hygiene surveys measured levels of production-related air contaminants, including butter-flavoring chemicals such as diacetyl. All diacetyl concentrations above detectable limits were corrected for the effects of absolute humidity and days to sample extraction. Results Ventilation and isolation of the production process resulted in one to three orders of magnitude reductions in diacetyl air concentrations in different areas of the plant. Workers with past high exposures had stable chest symptoms over time; nasal, eye, and skin irritation symptoms declined. New workers had lower symptom prevalences and higher lung function than workers with past high exposures, and they did not worsen over time. In workers who had at least three spirometry tests, those with past high exposures were more likely to experience rapid declines in lung function than new workers. Conclusions Implemented controls lowered exposures to butter-flavoring chemicals and decreased lung disease risk for much of the plant workforce. Some workers with continuing potential for intermittent, short-term peak and measurable time-weighted exposures remain at risk and should use respiratory protection and have regularly scheduled spirometry to detect rapid lung function declines that may be work-related. Close follow-up of such workers is likely to yield additional information on risks due to peak and time-weighted exposure levels. PMID:21800743

  13. Occupational asbestos exposure and risk of esophageal, gastric and colorectal cancer in the prospective Netherlands Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Offermans, Nadine S M; Vermeulen, Roel; Burdorf, Alex; Goldbohm, R Alexandra; Keszei, András P; Peters, Susan; Kauppinen, Timo; Kromhout, Hans; van den Brandt, Piet A

    2014-10-15

    The evidence for an association between occupational asbestos exposure and esophageal, gastric and colorectal cancer is limited. We studied this association specifically addressing risk differences between relatively low and high exposure, risk associated with cancer subtypes, the influence of potential confounders and the interaction between asbestos and smoking in relation to cancer risk. Using the Netherlands Cohort Study (n = 58,279 men, aged 55-69 years at baseline), asbestos exposure was estimated by linkage to a job-exposure matrix. After 17.3 years of follow-up, 187 esophageal, 486 gastric and 1,724 colorectal cancer cases were available for analysis. The models adjusted for age and family history of cancer showed that mainly (prolonged) exposure to high levels of asbestos was statistically significantly associated with risk of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC), total and distal colon cancer and rectal cancer. For overall gastric cancer and gastric non-cardia adenocarcinoma (GNCA), also exposure to lower levels of asbestos was associated. Additional adjustment for lifestyle confounders, especially smoking status, yielded non-significant associations with overall gastric cancer and GNCA in the multivariable-adjusted model, except for the prolonged highly exposed subjects (tertile 3 vs. never: HR 2.67, 95% CI: 1.11-6.44 and HR 3.35, 95% CI: 1.33-8.44, respectively). No statistically significant additive or multiplicative interaction between asbestos and smoking was observed for any of the studied cancers. This prospective population-based study showed that (prolonged) high asbestos exposure was associated with overall gastric cancer, EAC, GNCA, total and distal colon cancer and rectal cancer. PMID:24585528

  14. Validation of a radial diffusive sampler for measuring occupational exposure to 1,3-butadiene.

    PubMed

    Carrieri, Mariella; Bartolucci, Giovanni B; Paci, Enrico; Sacco, Paolo; Pigini, Daniela; Zaratin, Laura; Cottica, Danilo; Scapellato, Maria L; Tranfo, Giovanna

    2014-08-01

    1,3-Butadiene (BD) is a major industrial chemical used in the manufacture of rubbers and latexes; it is also a ubiquitous environmental pollutant whose major source is traffic. Occupational exposure to (BD) can occur both during its production and during its use as a raw material. The objective of the study was the laboratory and field validation of a new diffusive sampler for BD. The nominal sampling rate of the Radiello diffusive sampler filled with Carbopack X is 30.5 cm(3)/min, at 0.177 mg/m(3), 20 °C and 50% relative humidity (RH), for an 8-h exposure time. A model can be used for calculating the sampling rate as a function of temperature, time and RH. The concentration does not affect the sampling rate above 30 ?g/m(3). The measurement uncertainty (k=2), calculated both by laboratory data and by field comparison according to International Standard Organization (ISO) 13752, satisfies the EN 482:2006 requirement for measurements between 0.1 and 0.5 times the threshold limit value-time weighted average (TLV-TWA) (uncertainty<50%). For field validation study, 38 workers exposed to BD and 20 administrative employees, as the control group, underwent environmental and biological monitoring. Personal exposure to BD was measured by diffusive samplers (Radiello) in comparison with active samplers. The BD exposure levels detected for the exposed subjects were low (mean 0.059, range <0.010-1.340 mg/m(3)) but higher than the controls levels, all below 0.010 mg/m(3). The comparison between diffusive and active (pumped) air sampling showed a good correlation, with no systematic deviation from the ideal values of the intercept and slope of the optimized regression line. The concentrations of two biomarkers were also determined on urine samples, collected at the end of the work-shift: unchanged BD, by GC-MS, and the metabolite dihydroxybutylmercapturic acid (DHBMA), by HPLC-MS/MS. The urinary excretion of the biomarkers was on average higher in the exposed group (urinary BD: mean 8.8, range <1-48.1 ng/l; DHBMA: mean 0.232, range 0.016-0.572 mg/l) than in controls (urinary BD: mean 6.4, range 2.6-14.5 ng/l; DHBMA: mean 0.205, range 0.037-0.602 mg/l), but a statistically significant difference was achieved only for unchanged BD and not for DHBMA. In conclusion, the environmental monitoring measured by diffusive samplers (Radiello) appears to be a reliable method for the assessment of exposure to low levels of airborne BD and a convenient alternative to the conventional active sampling. PMID:24602307

  15. Occupational exposure to neurotoxic substances in Asian countries - challenges and approaches.

    PubMed

    Meyer-Baron, Monika; Kim, Eun A; Nuwayhid, Iman; Ichihara, Gaku; Kang, Seong-Kyu

    2012-08-01

    The fact that a conference on neurotoxicity was held in China triggered the idea to provide an insight into occupational diseases, their development and the approaches to investigate them in Asian countries. A historical review, a meta-analysis, and studies on humans and animals provide impressions on past and current problems. The Korean example showed that each newly introduced industry is accompanied by its own problems as regards occupational diseases. Mercury and carbon disulfide were of importance in the beginning, whereas solvents and manganese became important later. Outbreaks of diseases were important reasons to guide both the public and the governmental attention to prevention and allowed within a relatively short time considerable progress. As the example on the replacement of 2-bromopropane by 1-bromopropane showed, also the introduction of chemicals that are more beneficial for the environment may result in additional occupational risks. A lower mutagenicity of 1-bromopopane was shown to be associated with a greater neurotoxicity in Japanese studies. Although occupational health and diseases are commonly related to adults, child workers exposed to solvents were examined in a Lebanese study. The study started outlining the health hazards in young workers because they might be at a much greater risk due to the not yet completed maturation of their nervous system. That some occupational diseases are not yet a focus of prevention was shown by the study on pesticides. If at all, the serious health consequences resulting from excessive exposure were investigated. Research enabling precautionary actions was not available from the international literature. Despite globalization the knowledge on occupational diseases is not yet "globalized" and each country obviously undergoes its own development triggered by local experiences. Economic development that requires a healthy workforce, but also public interest that challenges governmental regulations further efforts on the prevention of occupational diseases. The paper reflects a summary of the talks presented at the symposium "Occupational Neurotoxicities in Asian Countries" as part of the 11th International Symposium on Neurobehavioral Methods and Effects in Occupational and Environmental Health. PMID:22202747

  16. Human Benzene Metabolism Following Occupational and Environmental Exposures

    PubMed Central

    Rappaport, Stephen M.; Kim, Sungkyoon; Lan, Qing; Li, Guilan; Vermeulen, Roel; Waidyanatha, Suramya; Zhang, Luoping; Yin, Songnian; Smith, Martyn T.; Rothman, Nathaniel

    2011-01-01

    We previously reported evidence that humans metabolize benzene via two enzymes, including a hitherto unrecognized high-affinity enzyme that was responsible for an estimated 73 percent of total urinary metabolites [sum of phenol (PH), hydroquinone (HQ), catechol (CA), E,E-muconic acid (MA), and S-phenylmercapturic acid (SPMA)] in nonsmoking females exposed to benzene at sub-saturating (ppb) air concentrations. Here, we used the same Michaelis-Menten-like kinetic models to individually analyze urinary levels of PH, HQ, CA and MA from 263 nonsmoking Chinese women (179 benzene-exposed workers and 84 control workers) with estimated benzene air concentrations ranging from less than 0.001 ppm to 299 ppm. One model depicted benzene metabolism as a single enzymatic process (1-enzyme model) and the other as two enzymatic processes which competed for access to benzene (2-enzyme model). We evaluated model fits based upon the difference in values of Akaike’s Information Criterion (?AIC), and we gauged the weights of evidence favoring the two models based upon the associated Akaike weights and Evidence Ratios. For each metabolite, the 2-enzyme model provided a better fit than the 1-enzyme model with ?AIC values decreasing in the order 9.511 for MA, 7.379 for PH, 1.417 for CA, and 0.193 for HQ. The corresponding weights of evidence favoring the 2-enzyme model (Evidence Ratios) were: 116.2:1 for MA, 40.0:1 for PH, 2.0:1 for CA and 1.1:1 for HQ. These results indicate that our earlier findings from models of total metabolites were driven largely by MA, representing the ring-opening pathway, and by PH, representing the ring-hydroxylation pathway. The predicted percentage of benzene metabolized by the putative high-affinity enzyme at an air concentration of 0.001 ppm was 88% based upon urinary MA and was 80% based upon urinary PH. As benzene concentrations increased, the respective percentages of benzene metabolized to MA and PH by the high-affinity enzyme decreased successively to 66% and 77% at 0.1 ppm, 20% and 58% at 1 ppm, and 2.7% and 17% at 10 ppm. This indicates that the putative high-affinity enzyme was active primarily below 1 ppm and favored the ring-opening pathway. PMID:20026321

  17. Occupational asthma.

    PubMed

    Brooks, S M

    1995-12-01

    Occupational asthma is an important occupational respiratory disorder, both in terms of morbidity, disability and in the total number of cases. The two types of occupational asthma are classified on the basis of their temporal relationship to onset. Occupational asthma with latency reflects allergic occupational asthma and is a condition characterized by a preceding latent period of workplace exposure during which allergic sensitization to a material present at the work site occurs. It is characterized biochemically by immunologic alterations and physiologically by variable and work-related airflow limitation with the presence of both specific and nonspecific airway hyperresponsiveness. In contrast, occupational asthma without latency is an asthmatic condition that develops suddenly and without a preceding latent period, as epitomized by the reactive airways dysfunction syndrome (RADS). RADS is distinguished physiologically by chronic, persistent nonspecific airway hyperresponsiveness and usually occurs after a single brief high-level exposure to an irritant gas, vapor of fume; new information suggests that a more prolonged irritant exposure, in certain susceptible persons with a pre-existing allergic predisposition, can also lead to the initiation of new-onset asthma. The factors that may be influential in the pathogenesis of occupational asthma include: exposure characteristics, industrial factors, job attributes, geographic and climatic conditions, economic considerations and personal or host conditions, such as atopy and cigarette smoking. Preventive measures and opportunities for intervention are essential and must address plans for reducing or eliminating accidents and spills, as well as plans for engineering control methods and proper and effective local exhaust ventilation. Medical surveillance programs are the keystone for prevention and should identify persons who are at an increased risk for developing occupational asthma, as well as detecting asthma at an early stage when intervention options are likely to be successful. For sensitized workers, the best preventive option is completed removal from the work environment. PMID:8597082

  18. 30 CFR 57.5042 - Revised exposure levels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Radiation-Underground Only § 57.5042 Revised exposure levels. If levels of permissible exposures to concentrations of radon daughters different from those prescribed in 57.5038 are recommended by the Environmental Protection Agency and approved by...

  19. Performance of population specific job exposure matrices (JEMs): European collaborative analyses on occupational risk factors for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease with job exposure matrices (ECOJEM)

    PubMed Central

    Le Moual, N; Bakke, P; Orlowski, E; Heederik, D; Kromhout, H; Kennedy, S; Rijcken, B; Kauffmann, F

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To compare the performance of population specific job exposure matrices (JEMs) and self reported occupational exposure with data on exposure and lung function from three European general populations.?METHODS—Self reported occupational exposure (yes or no) and present occupation were recorded in the three general population surveys conducted in France, The Netherlands, and Norway. Analysis was performed on subjects, aged 25-64, who provided good forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) tracings and whose occupations were performed by at least two people, in the French (6217 men and 5571 women), the Dutch (men from urban (854) and rural (780) areas), and the Norwegian (395 men) surveys. Two population specific JEMs, based on the percentage of subjects who reported themselves exposed in each job, were constructed for each survey and each sex. The first matrix classified jobs into three categories of exposure according to the proportion of subjects who reported themselves exposed in each job (P10-50 JEM, low < 10%, moderate 10-49%, high ? 50%). For the second matrix, a dichotomous variable was constructed to have the same statistical power as the self reported exposure—that is, the exposure prevalence (p) was the same with both exposure assessment methods (Pp JEM). Relations between occupational exposure, as estimated by the two JEMs and self reported exposure, and age, height, city, and smoking adjusted FEV1 score were compared.?RESULTS—Significant associations between occupational exposure estimated by the population specific JEM and lung function were found in the French and the rural Dutch surveys, whereas no significant relation was found with self reported exposure. In populations with few subjects in most jobs, exposure cannot be estimated with sufficient precision by a population specific JEM, which may explain the lack of relation in the Norwegian and the Dutch (urban area) surveys.?CONCLUSION—The population specific JEM, which was easy to construct and cost little, seemed to perform better than crude self reported exposures, in populations with sufficient numbers of subjects per job.???Keywords: job exposure matrix; occupational exposure; lung function PMID:10711281

  20. A novel approach to the characterization of cumulative exposure for the study of chronic occupational disease

    SciTech Connect

    Seixas, N.S.; Robins, T.G.; Becker, M. (Univ. of Washington, Seattle (United States))

    1993-02-15

    Inappropriate parameterization of an exposure metric for the study of occupational and environmental hazards may lead to significant misclassification and biased results. A model for identification of an optimal expression for cumulative exposure that includes exponentiated terms for concentration and time was developed. When the values of the exponents are allowed to vary, an optimal expression for cumulative exposure may be identified. The approach has advantages for the study of chronic hazards, in that it is flexible, limits the number of assumptions, and incorporates many of the models generally suggested in the literature. In addition, the model results may be interpreted to suggest particular pathophysiologic mechanisms. The model was implemented with data from a previously studied cohort of underground coal miners, and the associations between the exposure metric and measures of obstructive lung disease were identified. The results demonstrated that the exposure metric can improve the association of dust exposure histories with various outcomes over the usual measure of cumulative exposure. However, in the particular data set used, the overall predictive power of alternative models was similar and the interpretability of the results was limited.

  1. Correlation of fluorescent tracer measurements of dermal exposure and urinary metabolite excretion during occupational exposure to malathion.

    PubMed

    Fenske, R A

    1988-09-01

    Nineteen workers conducting mixing and high-volume airblast applications of the organophosphorus pesticide malathion were monitored simultaneously by biological monitoring and fluorescent tracer evaluation of dermal exposure. Complete 72-hr urine samples were collected and analyzed for dimethylthiophosphate and dimethyldithiophosphate metabolites. Dermal exposure was measured through the addition of a fluorescent tracer to the tank mix, subsequent examination of the skin surface under long-wave ultraviolet light, and fluorescence quantification with a video imaging system. Dermal exposure to applicators was correlated highly with total metabolite excretion (r = 0.91). Mixer exposure was not correlated significantly (r = 0.73) because of wide scatter in the data and the small number of workers monitored. Applicator exposures were more than 3 times higher than mixer exposures, reflecting the high exposure potential inherent in airblast spraying. Exposure to regions protected by gloves or clothing was more than 75% of total exposure for both mixers and applicators. These results provide evidence that the fluorescent tracer technique is a valid methodology for measuring relative levels of dermal exposure during agricultural work activities. The technique also holds promise as a quantitative procedure for evaluating the effectiveness of engineering control strategies and protective clothing performance. PMID:3177222

  2. Incidence of cancer in persons with occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields in Denmark.

    PubMed Central

    Guénel, P; Raskmark, P; Andersen, J B; Lynge, E

    1993-01-01

    Several studies suggest that work in electrical occupations is associated with an increased risk of cancer, mainly leukaemia and brain tumours. These studies may, however, not be representative if there is a publication bias where mainly positive results are reported. To study an unselected population the incidence of cancer was followed up over a 17 year period (1970-87) in a cohort of 2.8 million Danes aged 20-64 years in 1970. Each person was classified by his or her industry and occupation in 1970. Before tabulation of the data on incidence of cancer, each industry-occupation group was coded for potential exposure to magnetic fields above the threshold 0.3 microT. Some 154,000 men were considered intermittently exposed and 18,000 continuously exposed. The numbers for women were 79,000 and 4000 respectively. Intermittent exposure was not associated with an increased risk of leukaemia, brain tumours, or melanoma. Men with continuous exposure, however, had an excess risk of leukaemia (observed (obs) 39, expected (exp) 23.80, obs/exp 1.64, 95% CI 1.20-2.24) with equal contributions from acute and other leukaemias. These men had no excess risk of brain tumours or melanoma. A risk for breast cancer was suggested in exposed men but not in women. The risk for leukaemia in continuously exposed men was mainly in electricians in installation works and iron foundry workers. Besides electromagnetic fields other exposures should be considered as possible aetiological agents. PMID:8398864

  3. Heat acclimation decreased oxidative DNA damage resulting from exposure to high heat in an occupational setting.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yung-Kai; Lin, Che-Wei; Chang, Chen-Chen; Chen, Pai-Fen; Wang, Chien-Jen; Hsueh, Yu-Mei; Chiang, Hung-Che

    2012-12-01

    Heat acclimation is a physiologically and biochemically adapted process when species transition from one environmental temperature to one of the increased temperature. There is very limited epidemiological evidence on the heat-related impacts during exposure to extremely high heat in an occupational environment. This study sought to identify a potential biomarker of heat acclimation and the burden of heat on the body. The aim of this study was to elucidate oxidative DNA damage and heat acclimation through a self-comparison study design in navy boiler tenders, subjects exposed to extremely high heat in an occupational setting. Fifty-eight male soldiers who work in a boiler room were recruited for this study. The subjects were initially assessed with a health examination and body composition assessment before sailing. In order to compare the within-subject differences before and after heat exposure, the index-related heat exposure was collected before and after a routine 5-h work shift and 7-day sailing. Urinary 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), a useful marker of oxidative DNA damage was the measurement by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. The median of the change in urinary 8-OHdG was 0.78 ?g/g creatinine, as the urinary 8-OHdG after sailing was significantly higher than before sailing (p < 0.01). The urinary 8-OHdG was significantly decreased in heat-acclimated boiler tenders. Oxidative DNA damage was significantly decreased in heat-acclimated subjects. Urinary 8-OHdG can be used as a biomarker to assess the effect of heat stress as a result of occupational exposure to extremely high heat conditions. PMID:22526251

  4. Occupational exposures and colorectal cancers: a quantitative overview of epidemiological evidence.

    PubMed

    Oddone, Enrico; Modonesi, Carlo; Gatta, Gemma

    2014-09-21

    A traditional belief widespread across the biomedical community was that dietary habits and genetic predisposition were the basic factors causing colorectal cancer. In more recent times, however, a growing evidence has shown that other determinants can be very important in increasing (or reducing) incidence of this malignancy. The hypothesis that environmental and occupational risk factors are associated with colorectal cancer is gaining ground, and high risks of colorectal cancer have been reported among workers in some industrial branches. The aim of this study was to investigate the epidemiologic relationship between colorectal cancer and occupational exposures to several industrial activities, by means of a scientific literature review and meta-analysis. This work pointed out increased risks of colorectal cancer for labourers occupied in industries with a wide use of chemical compounds, such as leather (RR = 1.70, 95%CI: 1.24-2.34), basic metals (RR = 1.32, 95%CI: 1.07-1.65), plastic and rubber manufacturing (RR = 1.30, 95%CI: 0.98-1.71 and RR = 1.27, 95%CI: 0.92-1.76, respectively), besides workers in the sector of repair and installation of machinery exposed to asbestos (RR = 1.40, 95%CI: 1.07-1.84). Based on our results, the estimated crude excess risk fraction attributable to occupational exposure ranged from about 11% to about 15%. However, homogeneous pattern of association between colorectal cancer and industrial branches did not emerge from this review. PMID:25253943

  5. Some confounding factors in the study of mortality and occupational exposures

    SciTech Connect

    Gilbert, E.S.

    1982-01-01

    With the recent interest in the study of occupational exposures, the impact of certain selective biases in the groups studied is a matter of some concern. In this paper, data from the Hanford nuclear facility population (southeastern Washington State, 1947-1976), which includes many radiation workers, are used to illustrate a method for examining the effect on mortality of such potentially confounding variables as calendar year, length of time since entering the industry, employment status, length of employment, job category, and initial employment year. The analysis, which is based on the Mantel-Haenszel procedure as adapted for a prospective study, differs from most previous studies of occupational variables which have relied primarily on comparing standardized mortality ratios (utilizing an external control) for various subgroups of the population. Results of this analysis confirm other studies in that reduced death rates are observed for early years of follow-up and for those with higher socioeconomic status (as indicated by job category). In addition, workers employed less than two years and especially terminated workers are found to have elevated death rates as compared with the remainder of the study population. It is important that such correlations be taken into account in planning and interpreting analyses of the effects of occupational exposure.

  6. Occupational exposures and colorectal cancers: A quantitative overview of epidemiological evidence

    PubMed Central

    Oddone, Enrico; Modonesi, Carlo; Gatta, Gemma

    2014-01-01

    A traditional belief widespread across the biomedical community was that dietary habits and genetic predisposition were the basic factors causing colorectal cancer. In more recent times, however, a growing evidence has shown that other determinants can be very important in increasing (or reducing) incidence of this malignancy. The hypothesis that environmental and occupational risk factors are associated with colorectal cancer is gaining ground, and high risks of colorectal cancer have been reported among workers in some industrial branches. The aim of this study was to investigate the epidemiologic relationship between colorectal cancer and occupational exposures to several industrial activities, by means of a scientific literature review and meta-analysis. This work pointed out increased risks of colorectal cancer for labourers occupied in industries with a wide use of chemical compounds, such as leather (RR = 1.70, 95%CI: 1.24-2.34), basic metals (RR = 1.32, 95%CI: 1.07-1.65), plastic and rubber manufacturing (RR = 1.30, 95%CI: 0.98-1.71 and RR = 1.27, 95%CI: 0.92-1.76, respectively), besides workers in the sector of repair and installation of machinery exposed to asbestos (RR = 1.40, 95%CI: 1.07-1.84). Based on our results, the estimated crude excess risk fraction attributable to occupational exposure ranged from about 11% to about 15%. However, homogeneous pattern of association between colorectal cancer and industrial branches did not emerge from this review. PMID:25253943

  7. Review and update of leukemia risk potentially associated with occupational exposure to benzene.

    PubMed Central

    Brett, S M; Rodricks, J V; Chinchilli, V M

    1989-01-01

    Since the 1980 U.S. Supreme Court decision on the Occupational Safety and Health Administration's (OSHA) proposal to lower the occupational benzene standard from 10 ppm to 1 ppm, numerous quantitative assessments of the leukemia risk of benzene exposure have been prepared. The primary difference between these risk assessments has been in the way in which benzene exposure has been estimated and in the models applied to describe the dose-response relationship. The more recent assessments, in attempting to estimate benzene exposures on an individual basis, and in applying models which make maximal use of the available data points, represent a substantial improvement over earlier assessments. In this paper, we will review the available risk assessments and the data upon which they are based and will present our own assessment, which builds on prior efforts. Our reevaluation of the underlying data on the cohort that we judged to be most suitable for quantitative risk analysis suggested that past assessments may have overestimated risk by a factor of 3 to 24. In addition, we will present some recently made available data of relevance to the benzene exposure histories of cohort of concern. These data provide additional suggestion that the total benzene exposure of certain members of this cohort has likely been seriously underestimated, the extent to which remains to be determined. Further analysis of these data and pursuit of additional sources to improve the characterization of the benzene exposure of this cohort appear to be warranted in order to define more precisely the benzene-leukemia dose-response relationship. PMID:2676499

  8. Occupational Behaviors and Farmworkers’ Pesticide Exposure: Findings From a Study in Monterey County, California

    PubMed Central

    Salvatore, Alicia L.; Bradman, Asa; Castorina, Rosemary; Camacho, José; López, Jesús; Barr, Dana B.; Snyder, John; Jewell, Nicholas P.; Eskenazi, Brenda

    2008-01-01

    Background We studied the relationship between behaviors promoted through the US Environmental Protection Agency Worker Protection Standard (WPS) and other programs and agricultural pesticide exposures in 73 strawberry fieldworkers employed in Monterey County, California. Methods Farmworkers’ behaviors were assessed via self-report and organophosphorus (OP) pesticide exposure was measured using dimethyl alkylphosphate (DMAP) and malathion dicarboxylic acid (MDA) urinary metabolite levels. Results Wearing WPS-recommended clothing, wearing clean work clothes, and the combination of handwashing with soap and wearing gloves were associated with decreases in DMAP and MDA metabolite levels. Despite these protective behaviors, however, participants had significantly higher levels of exposure as compared with a national reference sample. Conclusions Interventions that facilitate compliance with these behaviors may be effective in decreasing fieldworkers’ pesticide exposures. However, further efforts are needed to reduce the exposure disparities experienced by farmworkers and decrease the potential for “take home” exposures to farmworkers’ families. PMID:18702096

  9. CYP1A2 polymorphisms, occupational and environmental exposures and risk of bladder cancer.

    PubMed

    Pavanello, Sofia; Mastrangelo, Giuseppe; Placidi, Donatella; Campagna, Marcello; Pulliero, Alessandra; Carta, Angela; Arici, Cecilia; Porru, Stefano

    2010-07-01

    Cytochrome P4501A2 (CYP1A2) is a key enzyme for activation of bladder carcinogens. Polymorphisms in the 5'-noncoding promoter region of CYP1A2 gene [mainly -2467T/delT(rs35694136) and -163C/A(rs762551)], are crucial in modifying CYP1A2 activity in smokers. Within the framework of a hospital-based case/control study, we investigated the relationship between CYP1A2 polymorphisms, occupational/environmental exposures and bladder cancer (BC) risk. The study population included 185 BC cases and 180 non-cancer controls, all Caucasian males. Data were collected on lifetime smoking, coffee drinking, dietary habits and lifetime occupation, with particular reference to exposure to aromatic amines (AAs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). A case-only design was applied to study the interaction between CYP1A2 -2467T/delT (or -163C/A) and occupational and environmental factors. Multiple logistic regression showed a significantly increased risk among heavy smokers (> or =50 packyears; OR 5.6, 95% CI: 2.5-12.5) and heavy coffee drinkers (>5 cups/day; OR 3.1, 95% CI: 1.2-7.9). Exposure to AAs showed a significant trend of BC risk with increasing cumulative exposure (CE) (P = 0.04), with heavy smoking as possible confounder. A decreased risk was noted for large leaf vegetable consumption, with significant trend from <1/month to >3 times/week (P = 0.008). The case-only analysis showed an interaction between -2467T/delT and tobacco smoking >25 packyears (P = 0.04); no interaction was detected between such polymorphisms and coffee consumption, dietary habits and occupational exposure to AAs. No effects were shown with -163C/A genotype as well as no overall effect of CYP1A2 by itself on BC risk. This is the first study suggesting that CYP1A2 -2467T/delT modifies the effect of cigarette smoking on BC risk. PMID:20559687

  10. Residual neurologic deficits 30 years after occupational exposure to elemental mercury.

    PubMed

    Letz, R; Gerr, F; Cragle, D; Green, R C; Watkins, J; Fidler, A T

    2000-08-01

    A battery of tests of peripheral and central nervous system function was administered to 205 former workers of a large heavy industrial plant, 104 of whom were previously exposed to inorganic mercury. The mean age of those examined was 71 years. Exposed subjects had participated in a urine-mercury exposure monitoring program during the time of operation of a process that required the use of mercury and its subsequent clean-up. Mercury exposure had been high (mean peak urine mercury concentration was >600 microg/l) and had ended 30 years or more prior to the investigation. Peripheral nerve function outcomes that were statistically significantly associated with cumulative mercury exposure after controlling for covariates included classification as having peripheral neuropathy, peroneal motor nerve conduction velocity, ulnar motor nerve conduction velocity, and peroneal motor nerve F-wave latency. Quantitative assessment of resting tremor was nearly significantly associated with cumulative mercury exposure (p=0.07). Among tests of central nervous system function, results of the Handeye Coordination test were significantly associated with cumulative mercury exposure after controlling for covariates. Cumulative mercury exposure was not observed to be associated with a quantitative measure of dementia or with a number of cognitive neurobehavioral test outcomes. The statistically significant associations with mercury exposure were observed in spite of greater mortality among the exposed group than the unexposed group. These results suggest that substantial occupational mercury exposure can have long-term adverse effects on the peripheral nervous system detectable decades after cessation of exposure. Such long-term adverse effects were not observed for a measure of dementia or other measures of cognitive function. PMID:11022856

  11. Occupational Exposure to Mercury: Air Exposure Assessment and Biological Monitoring based on Dispersive Ionic Liquid-Liquid Microextraction

    PubMed Central

    SHIRKHANLOO, Hamid; GOLBABAEI, Farideh; HASSANI, Hamid; EFTEKHAR, Farrokh; KIAN, Mohammad Javad

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background Exposure to mercury (Hg) as a heavy metal can cause health effects. The objective of this study was to assess occupational exposure to Hg in a chlor-alkali petrochemical industry in Iran by determining of Hg concentrations in air, blood and urine samples. Methods The study was performed on 50 exposed subjects and 50 unexposed controls. Air samples were collected in the breathing zone of exposed subjects, using hopcalite sorbents. Analysis was performed using a cold vapor atomic absorption spectrophotometer (CV-AAS) according to NIOSH analytical method 6009. For all participants, blood and urine samples were collected and then transferred into sterile glass tubes. After micro-extraction with ionic liquid and back extraction with nitric acid, Hg concentrations in blood and urine samples were determined by CV-AAS. Results The mean concentration of air Hg was 0.042± 0.003 mg/m3. The mean concentrations of Hg in blood and urine samples of exposed subjects were significantly higher than unexposed controls (22.41± 12.58 versus 1.19± 0.95 ?g/l and 30.61± 10.86 versus 1.99± 1.34 ?g/g creatinine, respectively). Correlation of air Hg with blood Hg, urine Hg and blood Hg-urine Hg ratio were significant statistically (P< 0.05). Conclusions The values of Hg in blood and urine samples of chlor-alkali workers were considerably high. Correlation coefficients showed that blood Hg and blood Hg-urine Hg ratio are better indicators than urine Hg for assessing occupationally exposed workers in terms of current exposure assessment.

  12. New trends in the development of occupational exposure limits for airborne chemicals in China.

    PubMed

    Liang, You-xin; Su, Zhi; Wu, Wei-ai; Lu, Bo-qin; Fu, Wei-zu; Yang, Lei; Gu, Jin-yu

    2003-10-01

    Occupational exposure limits (OELs) are well established in many countries, which serve occupational professionals as benchmarks of industrial hygiene practice at workplaces worldwide. Starting in the mid-1950s, the central government of China began promulgating OELs for hazardous substances at workplaces. This paper discusses the historical basis, philosophical principles and schematic protocols of developing and setting OELs in China. The underlying principles include: (1) protection of human health being the first and the most important criterion; (2) the use of quantitative epidemiological studies in humans being given top priority; (3) integration and full use of all information sources, including animal experimental data for new chemicals or chemicals with new toxicity concerns; (4) considerations of socioeconomic and technological feasibilities in the country; and (5) amending existing standards based on new evidence. The strategy of the World Health Organization's "Two-step Procedure" is applied to convert health-based recommendations to law-based operational OELs, with considerations for national technological and socioeconomic conditions and priorities. As a result of the recent passage of the new law Occupational Diseases Prevention and Control Act of the People's Republic of China (ODPCAct), an official document Occupational Exposure Limits for Hazardous Agents in the Workplace containing a comprehensive list of new and amended OELs has been issued, which has now become one of the most essential regulations affiliated with the ODPCAct. This paper provides a brief summary of the salient features of the new law ODPCAct and the principles and processes of developing or amending OELs. This paper also discusses the challenges that lie ahead in enforcing the new regulations in China. PMID:14550754

  13. Informing Selection of Nanomaterial Concentrations for ToxCast in Vitro Testing Based on Occupational Exposure Potential

    PubMed Central

    Brown, James S.; Wang, Amy; Houck, Keith A.; Dix, David J.; Kavlock, Robert J.; Hubal, Elaine A. Cohen

    2011-01-01

    Background: Little justification is generally provided for selection of in vitro assay testing concentrations for engineered nanomaterials (ENMs). Selection of concentration levels for hazard evaluation based on real-world exposure scenarios is desirable. Objectives: Our goal was to use estimates of lung deposition after occupational exposure to nanomaterials to recommend in vitro testing concentrations for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s ToxCast™ program. Here, we provide testing concentrations for carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and titanium dioxide (TiO2) and silver (Ag) nanoparticles (NPs). Methods: We reviewed published ENM concentrations measured in air in manufacturing and R&D (research and development) laboratories to identify input levels for estimating ENM mass retained in the human lung using the multiple-path particle dosimetry (MPPD) model. Model input parameters were individually varied to estimate alveolar mass retained for different particle sizes (5–1,000 nm), aerosol concentrations (0.1 and 1 mg/m3), aspect ratios (2, 4, 10, and 167), and exposure durations (24 hr and a working lifetime). The calculated lung surface concentrations were then converted to in vitro solution concentrations. Results: Modeled alveolar mass retained after 24 hr is most affected by activity level and aerosol concentration. Alveolar retention for Ag and TiO2 NPs and CNTs for a working-lifetime (45 years) exposure duration is similar to high-end concentrations (~ 30–400 ?g/mL) typical of in vitro testing reported in the literature. Conclusions: Analyses performed are generally applicable for providing ENM testing concentrations for in vitro hazard screening studies, although further research is needed to improve the approach. Understanding the relationship between potential real-world exposures and in vitro test concentrations will facilitate interpretation of toxicological results. PMID:21788197

  14. Occupational exposure to polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in a magnesium production plant.

    PubMed Central

    Hansson, M; Grimstad, T; Rappe, C

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--The production of magnesium is a well known source of both aliphatic and aromatic chlorinated compounds, among others the polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs). The aim of this study was to establish whether increased concentrations of PCDDs and PCDFs could be found in the blood of workers in a magnesium plant. METHODS--Blood plasma from 10 workers, employed at a magnesium plant for 10 to 36 years, and from a control group consisting of nine people who had no direct contact with the production were studied. Isomer specific analyses of PCDDs and PCDFs by means of high resolution gas chromatography/high resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS) techniques were performed. RESULTS--A significant increase was found in the concentrations of some of the congeners, mainly PCDFs, in the workers compared with the control group. Octachlorodibenzofuran (OCDF) is the congener that most strongly correlates with occupational exposure in the magnesium plant. Low concentrations of 1,2,3,4,6,8,9-heptachlorodibenzofuran were found in seven of the workers. Such isomers--that is, not 2,3,7,8-substituted--are rarely found in human samples. CONCLUSION--Due to the long biological half lives and lipid solubility of PCDDs and PCDFs, blood analyses may serve as an index of past cumulative occupational exposure and a means of assessing a person's exposure situation. PMID:8563846

  15. Hygienic and toxicological aspects of occupational and environmental exposure to beryllium.

    PubMed

    Bencko, V; Vasil'eva, E V

    1983-01-01

    As the production of missile, nuclear devices and electronics grew and modern industrial technologies emerged the risk of the occupational exposure to beryllium has become increasingly common and widespread. The environmental burden of beryllium is also on the increase, not only as a result of emissions from plants producing and processing beryllium, or its alloys and compounds, but also from burning coal of higher beryllium content in some localities. This article discusses primarily the hygienic and toxicologic aspects of beryllium and its threat to human health. The following topics are included in this review: occurrence, production and uses of beryllium; its metabolism and experimental toxicology; clinical toxicology and pathogenesis of berylliosis; hygienic and epidemiologic aspects of berylliosis; berylliosis treatment and prevention. Berylliosis is here characterized as a disease combining clinical manifestations of pneumosclerosis, allergy to beryllium and, in its granulomatous form, autoimmune reactions. Importantly, the available technical means and measures can ensure that the both occupational and environmental exposure to beryllium can be kept below the established MAC values. If occasionally impossible, special preventive measures should be adopted. It is essential that all persons with allergy be prophylactically excluded from work at risk of exposure to beryllium. PMID:6663073

  16. The association between occupational exposures and cigarette smoking among operating engineers.

    PubMed

    Hong, OiSaeng; Duffy, Sonia A; Choi, Seung Hee; Chin, Dal Lae

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between occupational exposures and cigarette smoking among operating engineers. A cross-sectional survey was conducted with operating engineers (N = 412) from a midwestern state in the United States. The survey included validated questions on cigarette smoking, occupational exposures, demographics, comorbidities, and health behaviors. About 35% were current smokers. Those exposed to asphalt fumes, heat stress, concrete dust, and welding fumes were less likely to smoke (odds ratio [OR] = .79, 95% confidence interval [CI]: .64-.98). Other factors associated with smoking included younger age (OR = .97, 95% CI: .94-.99), problem drinking (OR = 1.07, 95% CI: 1.03-1.12), lower Body Mass Index (OR = .95, 95% CI: .90-.99), and being separated/widowed/divorced (OR = 2.24, 95% CI: 1.19-4.20). Further investigation is needed for better understanding about job-specific exposure patterns and their impact on cigarette smoking among operating engineers. PMID:24325748

  17. Occupational exposure to diesel exhaust and lung cancer: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Lipsett, M; Campleman, S

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: We undertook a meta-analysis of epidemiological studies investigating the relationship between occupational diesel exhaust exposure and lung cancer. METHODS: Thirty of 47 studies initially identified as potentially relevant met specified inclusion criteria. We extracted or calculated 39 independent estimates of relative risk and derived pooled estimates of risk for all studies and for numerous study subsets by using a random-effects model. We also examined interstudy heterogeneity by using linear metaregressions. RESULTS: There was substantial heterogeneity in the pooled risk estimates for all studies combined and for most subsets. Several factors consistent with higher study quality, however, contributed to increased pooled estimates of risk and lower heterogeneity, including (1) adjustment for confounding by cigarette smoking and other covariates, (2) having a lower likelihood of selection bias, and (3) having increased study power. CONCLUSION: This analysis provides quantitative support for prior qualitative reviews that have ascribed an etiologic role to occupational diesel exhaust exposure in lung cancer induction. Among study populations most likely to have had substantial exposure to diesel exhaust, the pooled smoking-adjusted relative risk was 1.47 (95% confidence interval = 1.29, 1.67). PMID:10394308

  18. Mesothelioma: cases associated with non-occupational and low dose exposures

    PubMed Central

    Hillerdal, G.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To estimate the importance of low dose exposure to asbestos on the risk of mesothelioma. METHODS: A review of the literature. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: There is no evidence of a threshold level below which there is no risk of mesothelioma. Low level exposure more often than not contains peak concentrations which can be very high for short periods. There might exist a background level of mesothelioma occurring in the absence of exposure ot asbestos, but there is no proof of this and this "natural level" is probably much lower than the 1- 2/million/year which has been often cited.   PMID:10492646

  19. Human exposure to heavy metals. Rare earth pneumoconiosis in occupational workers. [From Carbon arc lamps in photoengraving

    SciTech Connect

    Vocaturo, G.; Colombo, F.; Zanoni, M.; Rodi, F.; Sabbioni, E.; Pietra, R.

    1983-05-01

    A male subject exposed for many years to rare earth (RE)-containing fumes and dusts emitted from carbon arc lamps in photoengraving laboratories was investigated to rule out RE pneumoconiosis. While chest x-ray films showed a severe pulmonary fibrosis, clinical analysis showed obvious high RE concentrations in the pulmonary and lymph node biopsy specimens compared with the corresponding tissues of 11 unexposed subjects. In addition to other elements, levels of thorium (Th), which is generally present as an impurity of RE compounds, were also determined to estimate the radiation dose which may be involved in inducing pneumoconiosis. The results show that the levels of Th are more than two orders of magnitude lower than the maximum permissible concentration for occupational exposure to natural 232Th, suggesting that the long-term accumulation of RE in the lungs played a role in the pathogenesis of the observed pulmonary fibrosis of the worker.

  20. Factors influencing nurses' compliance with Standard Precautions in order to avoid occupational exposure to microorganisms: A focus group study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Georgios Efstathiou; Evridiki Papastavrou; Vasilios Raftopoulos; Anastasios Merkouris

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Nurses may acquire an infection during the provision of nursing care because of occupational exposure to microorganisms. Relevant literature reports that, compliance with Standard Precautions (a set of guidelines that can protect health care professionals from being exposed to microorganisms) is low among nurses. Additionally, high rates of exposure to microorganisms among nurses via several modes (needlesticks, hand contamination

  1. Asbestos lung burden and asbestosis after occupational and environmental exposure in an asbestos cement manufacturing area: a necropsy study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Magnani; F. Mollo; L. Paoletti; D. Bellis; P. Bernardi; P. Betta; M. Botta; M. Falchi; C. Ivaldi; M. Pavesi

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The largest Italian asbestos cement factory had been active in Casale Monferrato until 1986: in previous studies a substantial increase in the incidence of pleural mesothelioma was found among residents without occupational exposure to asbestos. To estimate exposure to asbestos in the population, this study evaluated the presence of histological asbestosis and the lung burden of asbestos fibres (AFs)

  2. Use of and Occupational Exposure to Indium in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Hines, Cynthia J.; Roberts, Jennifer L.; Andrews, Ronnee N.; Jackson, Matthew V.; Deddens, James A.

    2015-01-01

    Indium use has increased greatly in the past decade in parallel with the growth of flat-panel displays, touchscreens, optoelectronic devices, and photovoltaic cells. Much of this growth has been in the use of indium tin oxide (ITO). This increased use has resulted in more frequent and intense exposure of workers to indium. Starting with case reports and followed by epidemiological studies, exposure to ITO has been linked to serious and sometimes fatal lung disease in workers. Much of this research was conducted in facilities that process sintered ITO, including manufacture, grinding, and indium reclamation from waste material. Little has been known about indium exposure to workers in downstream applications. In 2009–2011, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) contacted 89 potential indium-using companies; 65 (73%) responded, and 43 of the 65 responders used an indium material. Our objective was to identify current workplace applications of indium materials, tasks with potential indium exposure, and exposure controls being used. Air sampling for indium was either conducted by NIOSH or companies provided their data for a total of 63 air samples (41 personal, 22 area) across 10 companies. Indium exposure exceeded the NIOSH recommended exposure limit (REL) of 0.1 mg/m3 for certain methods of resurfacing ITO sputter targets, cleaning sputter chamber interiors, and in manufacturing some inorganic indium compounds. Indium air concentrations were low in sputter target bonding with indium solder, backside thinning and polishing of fabricated indium phosphide-based semiconductor devices, metal alloy production, and in making indium-based solder pastes. Exposure controls such as containment, local exhaust ventilation (LEV), and tool-mounted LEV can be effective at reducing exposure. In conclusion, occupational hygienists should be aware that the manufacture and use of indium materials can result in indium air concentrations that exceed the NIOSH REL. Given recent findings of adverse health effects in workers, research is needed to determine if the current REL sufficiently protects workers against indium-related diseases. PMID:24195539

  3. Do young adults with childhood asthma avoid occupational exposures at first hire?

    PubMed

    Dumas, O; Smit, L A M; Pin, I; Kromhout, H; Siroux, V; Nadif, R; Vermeulen, R; Heederik, D; Hery, M; Choudat, D; Kauffmann, F; Le Moual, N

    2011-05-01

    Information on the healthy worker hire effect in relation to asthma is scant. We aimed to assess whether and how childhood asthma-related characteristics (before hire) relate to occupational exposures at first hire. Analyses were conducted in 298 children examined at the first survey of the Epidemiological Study on the Genetics and Environment of Asthma (1991-1995), who reported a training period or a job at follow-up in 2003-2007 (aged 17-29 yrs; 53% males). Exposure likelihood to dust, gases and/or fumes in their first occupation was estimated by the ALOHA job exposure matrix. Asthma before the first occupation and two asthma classifications for severity (Global Initiative for Asthma 2002 guidelines) and symptoms were defined by questionnaire. In their first job, 47% of subjects were exposed. After adjustment (age, sex and education), pre-hire onset asthmatics (59%) were nonsignificantly less likely to be exposed (OR 0.67, 95% CI 0.41-1.11). Associations were stronger when considering those with severe asthma or high symptom score in childhood (OR 0.27 (95% CI 0.11-0.63) and OR 0.49 (95% CI 0.25-0.99), respectively). The association was observed in those who completed a university degree (OR 0.55, 95% CI 0.29-1.04) but not in the others (OR 0.98, 95% CI 0.44-2.22), with consistent results for all asthma characteristics. Results suggest a healthy worker hire effect in subjects with more severe or more symptomatic asthma in childhood. Education may modulate self-selection. PMID:20884739

  4. Role of the CYP1A2 Gene Polymorphism on Early Ageing from Occupational Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Eshkoor, SA; Ismail, P; Rahman, SA; Moin, S; Adon, MY

    2013-01-01

    The ageing process is influenced by many internal and external factors. The toxic substances in the environment can cause genomic damages to cells, which increase the risk of early ageing. Furthermore, the cytochrome P450 1A2 (CYP1A2) gene polymorphism is a susceptibility factor and may enhance the risk of DNA damage in cells. The current study was carried out to show whether occupational exposure could cause genotoxicity in cells carrying the CYP1A2 gene polymorphism, thus enhancing the likelihood of early ageing. This study was conducted on mechanical workshop workers and a control group by collecting buccal cells from their mouths. Restriction fragment length polymorphism-polymerase chain reaction (RFLP-PCR) was used to identify the CYP1A2 gene polymorphism in the cells. In addition, three extra methods including micronuclei (MN) test, comet assay and real-time PCR (RT-PCR) were applied to determine the effects of gene polymorphisms on DNA damage and ageing from occupational exposure. The results showed that DNA damage in the cells carrying the mutated genotype was higher than the wild genotype. In addition, the difference in MN frequency (p = 0.001) and relative telomere length (p = 0.002) between workers and controls was significant (p <0.05) in the mutated genotype. The findings indicated a possible protective effect of gene polymorphism against early ageing, which was characterized by lack of a significant influence of CYP1A2 gene polymorphism on genetic material in the subjects (p >0.05). It was concluded that the CYP1A2 gene could be a contributing factor to prevent early ageing from occupational exposure. PMID:24778563

  5. Pan-Thames Survey of Occupational Exposure to HIV and the Use of Post-exposure Prophylaxis in 71 NHS Trusts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. R. Grime; L. Ris; C. Binns; J. R. Carruthers; S. Williams

    2001-01-01

    Objectives: To review the management of occupational exposure to definite or suspected HIV-infected blood, following the introduction of the 1997 UK Department of Health guidelines on the use of post-exposure prophylaxis.Methods: Cross-sectional telephone survey of protocols in 71 NHS Trusts in the Pan-Thames region. Retrospective postal survey of the management of each definite or suspected HIV blood exposure between 1

  6. Long-term exposure to jet fuel. II. A cross-sectional epidemiologic investigation on occupationally exposed industrial workers with special reference to the nervous system.

    PubMed

    Knave, B; Olson, B A; Elofsson, S; Gamberale, F; Isaksson, A; Mindus, P; Persson, H E; Struwe, G; Wennberg, A; Westerholm, P

    1978-03-01

    Thirty jet fuel exposed workers selected according to exposure criteria and thirty nonexposed controls from a jet motor factory were examined, with special reference to the nervous system, by occupational hygiene physicians, psychiatrists, psychologists, and neurophysiologists. The controls and the exposed subjects were matched with respect to age, employment duration, and education. Among the exposed subjects the mean exposure duration was 17 years, and 300 mg/m3 was calculated as a rough time-weighted average exposure level. The investigation revealed significant differences between the exposed and nonexposed groups for (a) incidence and prevalence of psychiatric symptoms, (b) psychological tests with the load on attention and sensorimotor speed and (c) electroencephalograms. When the control group was selected, it was ensured that the two groups were essentially equivalent except for exposure to jet fuel. It is concluded, therefore, that the differences found between the groups are probably related to exposure to jet fuel. PMID:644265

  7. Assessment of occupational exposures in a general population: comparison of different methods

    PubMed Central

    Tielemans, E.; Heederik, D.; Burdorf, A.; Vermeulen, R.; Veulemans, H.; Kromhout, H.; Hartog, K.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the relative merits of job specific questionnaires and various alternative assessment methods of occupational exposures often used in general population studies. METHODS: Subjects were participants in a hospital based case-control study of risk factors for male infertility. Estimates of exposure to organic solvents and chromium, based on job specific questionnaires, generic questionnaires, self reports of exposure, an external job exposure matrix (JEM), and a population specific JEM were compared with passive diffuse dosimeter results and measurements in urine. Urine samples from the end of the shift were analysed for metabolites of toluene, xylene, several glycol ethers, trichloroethylene, and chromium. Passive dosimeter date, metabolites of specific solvents, and urinary chromium concentrations were available for 89, 267, and 156 subjects, respectively. The alternative methods and measurements in urine were compared by means of the Cohen's kappa statistic and by computing the positive predictive value, sensitivity, and specificity of the alternative methods against measurements in urine. RESULTS: Passive dosimeter results indicated that exposure classifications with job specific questionnaire information could discriminate between high and low exposures. The kappa coefficients were < 0.4, so agreement between the various methods and measurements in urine was poor. Sensitivity of the methods ranged from 0.21 to 0.85, whereas specificity ranged from 0.34 to 0.94. Positive predictive values ranged from 0.19 to 0.58, with the highest values for job specific questionnaires. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that the implementation of job specific questionnaires in a general population study might be worth the extra expense it entails, bearing in mind the paramount importance of avoiding false positive exposure estimates when exposure prevalence is low.   PMID:10448321

  8. A PRELIMINARY ASSESSMENT OF THE OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION EXPOSURE FROM MAINTAINING THE US ITER DCLL TBM

    SciTech Connect

    B. J. Merrill; L. C. Cadwallader; M. Dagher

    2008-09-01

    This paper details an Occupational Radiation Exposure (ORE) analysis performed for the US International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) Dual Coolant Lead Lithium (DCLL) Test Blanket Module (TBM). This ORE analysis was performed with the QADMOD dose code for maintenance activities anticipated for the US DCLL TBM concept and its ancillary systems. Identification of the maintenance tasks that will have to be performed and estimates of the time required to perform these tasks were developed based on either expert opinion or on industrial maintenance experience for similar technologies. This paper details the modeling activity and the calculated doses for the maintenance activities envisioned for the US DCLL TBM.

  9. Personal air sampling and biological monitoring of occupational exposure to the soil fumigant cis-1,3-dichloropropene

    PubMed Central

    Brouwer, E; Verplanke, A; Boogaard, P; Bloemen, L; Van Sittert, N J; Christian, F; Stokkentreeff, M; Dijksterhuis, A; Mulder, A; De Wolff, F A

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To assess exposure of commercial application workers to the nematocide cis-1,3-dichloropropene (cis-DCP).?METHODS—The study was conducted during the annual application season, August to 15 November, in the starch potato growing region in The Netherlands. 14 Application workers collected end of shift urine samples on each fumigation day (n=119). The mercapturic acid metabolite N-acetyl-S-(cis-3-chloro-2-propenyl)-L-cysteine (cis-DCP-MA) in urine was used for biological monitoring of the cis-DCP uptake. Inhalatory exposure was assessed by personal air sampling during a representative sample (n=37) of the fumigation days. Extensive information was collected on factors of possible relevance to the exposure and the application workers were observed for compliance with the statutory directions for use. The inhalatory exposure during all fumigation days was estimated from the relation between the personal air sampling data and the biological monitoring data. Exposure levels were correlated with the general work practice. The fumigation equipment and procedures were in accordance with the statutory directions of use, with the exception of the antidrip systems. Two antidrip systems were used: antidrip nozzles or a compressed air system.?RESULTS—The geometric mean exposure of the application workers was 2.7 mg/m3 (8 hour time weighted average); range 0.1-9.5 mg/m3. On 25 days (21%) the exposure exceeded the Dutch occupational exposure limit (OEL) of 5 mg/m3. This could mainly be explained by prolonged working days of more than 8 hours. The general work practice of the application workers was rated by the observers as good or poor. No difference in exposure to cis-DCP was found in the use of none, one, or two antidrip systems. Malfunctioning of the antidrip systems and lack of experience with the compressed air system were identified as possible causes for the lack of effectiveness of these antidrip systems. The use of personal protection was not always in accordance with the statutory directions of use. Dermal exposure to liquid cis-DCP was found four times during repair and maintenance, but the biological monitoring data did not suggest a significant increase in cis-DCP uptake.?CONCLUSIONS—The application of cis-DCP in the potato growing industry can be performed at exposure concentrations below the Dutch OEL of 5 mg/m3 if the working days are limited to 8 hours. An injector equipped with either kind of antidrip system which is in good working order, as well as the consistent use of personal protection in accordance with the statutory directions of use, may ensure exposure concentrations below the Dutch OEL.???Keywords: cis-1,3-dichloropropene; occupational exposure; soil fumigation; N-acetyl-S-(cis-3-chloro-2-propenyl)-L-cysteine PMID:11024197

  10. Occupational exposure to NDMA and NMor in the European rubber industry.

    PubMed

    de Vocht, F; Burstyn, I; Straif, K; Vermeulen, R; Jakobsson, K; Nichols, L; Peplonska, B; Taeger, D; Kromhout, H

    2007-03-01

    Many nitrosamines are suspected of being human carcinogens, with the highest concentrations in the environment being measured in the rubber industry. Time trends of personal exposure to N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) and to N-nitrosomorpholine (NMor) during the past two decades in the German rubber industry were analysed and compared with cross-sectional studies in the same period in the Netherlands, Poland, the UK and Sweden. In the majority of the surveyed departments exposures reduced over time, but considerable heterogeneity was present between departments and sectors. Significant reductions were primarily found in curing and post-treating departments and ranged from -3% year(-1) to -19% year(-1). In contrast, NDMA levels increased (+13% year(-1)) in maintenance and engineering in the tyres industry. Average NDMA-levels in general rubber goods (GRG) and NMor-levels in tyre production in Germany did not decrease significantly in the past two decades, whereas NDMA-levels in tyre production (-10% year(-1)) and NMor-levels in GRG (-7% year(-1)) declined significantly after the introduction of an exposure limit for total nitrosamines in Germany in 1988. Confidence intervals of average exposures in other studied countries largely overlap trends observed in Germany. Exposure to N-nitrosamines decreased on average two-to-five fold in the German rubber industry with comparable concentration levels in other European countries. Although average levels are well below the current limits exposure has not been eliminated, and incidental high exposures do still occur. PMID:17344951

  11. Occupancy Based Fault Detection on Building Level - a Feasibility Study

    E-print Network

    Tuip, B.; Houten, M.; Trcka, M.; Hensen, M.

    2010-01-01

    based on real time weather conditions and occupancy. Fault detection is performed by comparing this predicted consumption with measured values. The prototype procedure is currently tested in an office building in the Netherlands, the first results...

  12. Occupational radiation exposure history of Idaho Field Office Operations at the INEL

    SciTech Connect

    Horan, J.R.; Braun, J.B.

    1993-10-01

    An extensive review has been made of the occupational radiation exposure records of workers at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) over the period of 1951 through 1990. The focus has been on workers employed by contractors and employees of the Idaho Field Operations Office (ID) of the United States Department of Energy (USDOE) and does not include the Naval Reactors Facility (NRF), the Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), or other operations field offices at the INEL. The radiation protection guides have decreased from 15 rem/year to 5 rem/year in 1990 for whole body penetrating radiation exposure. During these 40 years of nuclear operations (in excess of 200,000 man-years of work), a total of twelve individuals involved in four accidents exceeded the annual guidelines for exposure; nine of these exposures were received during life saving efforts on January 3, 1961 following the SL-1 reactor accident which killed three military personnel. These exposures ranged from 8 to 27 rem. Only one individual has exceeded the annual whole body penetrating radiation protection guidelines in the last 29 years.

  13. Non-occupational post-exposure prophylaxis for HIV: 10-year retrospective analysis in Seattle, Washington.

    PubMed

    McDougal, Sarah J; Alexander, Jeremiah; Dhanireddy, Shireesha; Harrington, Robert D; Stekler, Joanne D

    2014-01-01

    Despite treatment guidelines in place since 2005, non-occupational post-exposure HIV prophylaxis (nPEP) remains an underutilized prevention strategy. We conducted a retrospective chart review of patients presenting to a publicly-funded HIV clinic in Seattle, Washington for nPEP between 2000 and 2010 (N?=?360). nPEP prescriptions were provided for 324 (90%) patients; 83% of prescription decisions were appropriate according to Centers for Disease Control and Prevention guidelines, but only 31% (N?=?111/360) of patients were considered "high risk." In order to use limited resources most efficiently, public health agencies should target messaging for this high-cost intervention to individuals with high-risk HIV exposures. PMID:25140868

  14. Proposal for the assessment to quantitative dermal exposure limits in occupational environments: Part 2. Feasibility study for application in an exposure scenario for MDA by two different dermal exposure sampling methods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. H. Brouwer; L. Hoogendoorn; P. M. Bos; P. J. Boogaard; J. J. van Hemmen

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate two different techniques for assessing dermal exposure to 4,4'-methylene dianiline (MDA) in a field study. The results were used to test the applicability of a recently proposed quantitative dermal occupational exposure limit (DOEL) for MDA in a workplace scenario. METHODS: For two consecutive weeks six workers were monitored for exposure to MDA in a factory that made

  15. [Occupational exposure to HIV among Polish surgeons from the province of West Pomerania].

    PubMed

    Ga?czak, Maria; Boro?-Kaczmarska, Anna; Bia?ecki, Piotr; Szych, Zbigniew

    2003-07-01

    In order to establish appropriate strategies making possible to reduce the risk of HIV infection in operating suite an attempt was undertaken at determination of the incidence of occupational exposure to blood among surgeons and of the factors that have influence on the occurrence of such events. The questionnaire study included 200 physicians from hospitals both in the City of Szczecin and in the Province of West Pomernia. Most responders (97.5%) answered that they had at least one skin damage over the year preceding the study (median of cuts--10) including 87% that had at least one needle puncture and 24% that had over 10 punctures. The number of cuts was independent of such variables as: gender, age, degree of speciality, working place or training on HIV/AIDS (p > 0.07), however, a correlation was demonstrated with specialisation degree, number of operating hours and number of HIV-positive patients treated. With respect to the most recent occupational injury it was found that: it occurred most frequently in the operating room during elective operation, it was never reported, it involved the main operator and was self-inflicted. The high number of occupational skin injuries observed among the studied physicians points to the need of modification of current professional practices and of systematic training of the staff in protection against HIV infection. PMID:14593966

  16. One-year occupational exposure to a cold environment alters lung function.

    PubMed

    Jammes, Yves; Delvolgo-Gori, Marie José; Badier, Monique; Guillot, Chantal; Gazazian, Ghislaine; Parlenti, Laurence

    2002-01-01

    Numerous observations have shown that breathing cold air causes bronchospasm and increases respiratory tract secretions in asthmatic patients and normal individuals. However, few studies have been conducted on the respiratory effects of protracted daily exposures to a cold environment. In this 1-yr study, the authors examined individuals who spent 6 hr a day in cold stores (+3 degrees C to + 10 degrees C) and spent approximately 25% of that time at +3 degrees C. The protocol included a questionnaire about clinical symptoms, with measurements of baseline pulmonary function and airway responses to carbachol and to nasal inhalation of cold air (-5 degrees C). Eleven subjects were examined prior to their first occupational exposure to cold, and again following 6 mo and 12 mo of work in the cold environment. Compared with a control group of 6 subjects engaged at the same time but who did not work in cold stores, 6 of 11 individuals who worked 12 mo in a cold environment experienced increased symptoms of rhinitis, sore throat, and cough. Physiological measurements at 6 mo and 12 mo showed a progressive decrease in forced expiratory volume in 1 sec and a progressive increase in the baseline value of central airway resistance. Forced expiratory flow measured between 25% and 75% of vital capacity had decreased at 6 mo, but showed no further change at 12 mo. A progressive enhancement of bronchial reactivity to carbachol was noted at 6 mo and again at 12 mo, but airway response to nasal breathing of cold air did not vary. The authors concluded that 1 yr of daily exposure to a cold occupational environment elicits a modest--but significant--airflow limitation, accompanied by bronchial hyperresponsiveness, with the effects beginning within 6 mo of exposure. PMID:12530605

  17. Levels of exposure from drinking water

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. M van Dijk-Looijaard; J van Genderen

    2000-01-01

    The relative exposure from drinking water is generally small, although there is a lack of information on total daily intake of individual organic micropollutants. There are, however, a few exceptions. Materials used in domestic distribution systems (lead, copper and plastics) may cause a deterioration of the water quality, especially in stagnant water. The relative exposure to the related compounds may

  18. Bus drivers' exposure to bullying at work: an occupation-specific approach.

    PubMed

    Glasø, Lars; Bele, Edvard; Nielsen, Morten Birkeland; Einarsen, Ståle

    2011-10-01

    The present study employs an occupation-specific approach to examine bus drivers' exposure to bullying and their trait anger, job engagement, job satisfaction and turnover intentions. A total of 1,023 bus drivers from a large public transport organization participated in the study. The findings show that bus driving can be a high risk occupation with regard to bullying, since 70% of the bus drivers had experienced one or more acts typical of bullying during the last six months. As many as 11% defined themselves as victims of bullying, 33% of whom (i.e. 3.6% of the total sample) see themselves as victims of frequent bullying. Colleagues were most frequently reported as perpetrators. Exposure to bullying was negatively related to job engagement and job satisfaction and positively related to turnover intentions. Job engagement and job satisfaction mediated the relationship between bullying and intention to leave, respectively. Trait anger had an interaction effect on the relationship between bullying and turnover intentions. This study indicates that workplace bullying has context-specific aspects that require increased use of context-specific policies and intervention methods. PMID:21605122

  19. Approach to setting occupational exposure limits for sensory irritants in The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Feron, V J; Art, J H; Mojet, J

    2001-01-01

    This article describes how scientists in the Netherlands set occupational exposure limits (OELs) for sensory irritants. When they tackle this issue, a number of key questions need to be answered. For example, did the studies indeed measure sensory irritation and not cytotoxicity? When the irritant is an odorant, can interference of olfactory stimulation be excluded? In the case of subjective measurements, can psychological irritation be excluded? When adaptation is an issue, did the studies indeed measure adaptation and not habituation? When OELs are established in the Netherlands, each of these issues is carefully addressed before a value is suggested. When setting an OEL in the Netherlands, human data carry more weight than animal data of comparable quality. As in the United States, documentation for the recommended OEL is written and a discussion of all available relevant and reliable data culminating in the selection of the key study for deriving the health-based recommended occupational exposure limit is provided. Special effort is dedicated to reconciling differences between the animal and human data. If the toxicological database is considered to be inadequate, the committee acknowledges this limitation and will not recommend a limit value due to insufficient data. PMID:11767940

  20. Adverse health effects of occupational exposure to radiofrequency radiation in airport surveillance radar operators

    PubMed Central

    Dehghan, Naser; Taeb, Shahram

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Radar workers are exposed to pulsed high frequency electromagnetic fields. In this study, health effects of these radiations in personnel who routinely work with radar systems are investigated. Materials and Methods: The 28-item General Health Questionnaire was used as a self-administered tool for assessment of general mental health and mental distress. One hundred workers occupationally exposed to radar radiations (14-18 GHz) participated in the study. Visual reaction time was recorded with a simple blind computer-assisted-visual reaction time test. To assess the short-term memory, Wechsler Memory Scale-III test was performed. Results: Twenty to 39% of the radar workers reported different problems such as needing a good tonic, feeling run down and out of sorts, headache, tightness or pressure in the head, insomnia, getting edgy and bad-tempered. Furthermore, 47% of the radar workers reported feeling under strain. In response to this question that if they have been able to enjoy their normal day-to-day activities, 31% responded less than usual. It was also shown that work experience had significant relationships with reaction time and short-term memory indices i.e., forward digit span, reverse digit span, word recognition and paired words. Conclusion: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to show that occupational exposure to radar microwave radiation leads to changes in somatic symptoms, anxiety and insomnia, social dysfunction, and severe depression. Altogether these results indicate that occupational exposure to radar microwave radiations may be linked to some adverse health effects. PMID:24082641

  1. Association between sperm DNA integrity and seminal plasma antioxidant levels in health workers occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Dayanidhi; Salian, Sujith Raj; Kalthur, Guruprasad; Uppangala, Shubhashree; Kumari, Sandhya; Challapalli, Srinivas; Chandraguthi, Shrinidhi Gururajarao; Jain, Navya; Krishnamurthy, Hanumanthappa; Kumar, Pratap; Adiga, Satish Kumar

    2014-07-01

    There is a paucity of data regarding the association between occupational radiation exposure and risk to human fertility. Recently, we provided the first evidence on altered sperm functional characteristics, DNA damage and hypermethylation in radiation health workers. However, there is no report elucidating the association between seminal plasma antioxidants and sperm chromatin integrity in occupationally exposed subjects. Here, we assessed the seminal plasma antioxidants and lipid peroxidation level in 83 men who were occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation and then correlated with the sperm chromatin integrity. Flow cytometry based sperm chromatin integrity assay revealed a significant decline in ?t value in the exposed group in comparison to the non-exposed group (P<0.0001). Similarly, both total and reduced glutathione levels and total antioxidant capacity in the seminal plasma were significantly higher in exposed group than the non-exposed group (P<0.01, 0.001 and 0.0001, respectively). However, superoxide dismutase level and malondialdehyde level, which is an indicator of lipid peroxidation in the seminal plasma, did not differ significantly between two groups. The total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and GSH level exhibited a positive correlation with sperm DNA integrity in exposed subjects. To conclude, this study distinctly shows that altered sperm chromatin integrity in radiation health workers is associated with increase in seminal plasma antioxidant level. Further, the increased seminal plasma GSH and TAC could be an adaptive measure to tackle the oxidative stress to protect genetic and functional sperm deformities in radiation health workers. PMID:24834825

  2. Occupational radiation exposure at commercial nuclear power reactors and other facilities, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Raddatz, C.T. (Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States). Div. of Regulatory Applications); Hagemeyer, D. (Science Applications International Corp., Oak Ridge, TN (United States))

    1992-04-01

    This report summarizes the occupational radiation exposure information that has been reported to the NRC's Radiation Exposure Information Reporting System (REIRS) by nuclear power facilities and certain other categories of NRC 1 licensees during the years 1969 through 1989. The bulk of the data presented in the report was obtained from annual radiation exposure reports submitted in accordance with the requirements of 10 CFR 20.407 and the technical specifications of nuclear power plants. Data on workers terminating their employment at certain NRC 1 licensed facilities were obtained from reports submitted pursuant to 10 CFR 20.408. The 1989 annual reports submitted by about 448 licensees indicated that approximately 216,294 individuals were monitored 111,000 of whom were monitored by nuclear power facilities. They incurred an average individual does of 0.18 rem (cSv) and an average measurable dose of 0.36 (cSv). Termination radiation exposure reports were analyzed to reveal that about 113,535 individuals completed their employment with one or more of the 448 covered licensees during 1989. Some 76,561 of these individuals terminated from power reactor facilities, and about 10, 344 of them were considered to be transient workers who received an average dose of 0.64 rem (cSv).

  3. Occupational radiation exposure at commercial nuclear power reactors and other facilities, 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Raddatz, C.T. (Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States). Div. of Regulatory Applications); Hagemeyer, D. (Science Applications International Corp., McLean, VA (United States))

    1991-07-01

    This report summarizes the occupational radiation exposure information that has been reported to the NRC's Radiation Exposure Information Reporting System (REIRS) by nuclear power facilities and certain other categories of NRC licensees during the years 1969 through 1988. The bulk of the data presented in the report was obtained from annual radiation exposure reports submitted in accordance with the requirements of 10 CFR 20.407 and the technical specifications of nuclear power plants. Data on workers terminating their employment at certain NRC licensed facilities were obtained from reports submitted pursuant to 10 CFR 20.408. The 1988 annual reports submitted by about 429 licensees indicated that approximately 220,048 individuals were monitored, 113,00 of whom were monitored by nuclear power facilities. They incurred an average individual dose of 0.20 rem (cSv) and an average measurable dose of 0.41 (cSv). Termination radiation exposure reports were analyzed to reveal that about 113,072 individuals completed their employment with one or more of the 429 covered licensees during 1988. Some 80,211 of these individuals terminated from power reactor facilities, and about 8,760 of them were considered to be transient workers who received an average dose of 0.27 rem (cSv). 17 refs., 11 figs., 29 tabs.

  4. [Antineoplastic profile assessment for the evaluation of occupational exposure in hospital personnel involved in handling cytotoxic agents].

    PubMed

    Sottani, C; Fugnoli, L; Businaro, J; Poma, P; Ronchi, A; Micoli, G; Minoia, C

    2012-01-01

    Environmental and biological monitoring performed in health care settings during a 14-year period allowed numerous data to be obtained by using the HPLC coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). Data was stored in a specific data-base for the assessment of risk exposure to antineoplastic agents (CA). The strategy of analysis was based on the simultaneous determination of different active substances with a lower limit of quantification (LOQ) optimized in the range of sub-units of microg/L. In the present study, the MRM-ESI-MS/MS profiles of seven antineoplastic agents in both environmental and biological matrices are reported. These methods validated according to FDA guidelines allowed our lab to define a profile of antineoplastic agents that was representative of the four IARC classes, such as cyclophosphamide (group 1), cisplatin and doxorubicin (group 2A), daunorubicin (group 2B), 5-fluorouracil, ifosfamide (group 3), taxol, and gemcitabine (group 4). Moreover, contamination levels on a number of work surfaces and trends over a 14-year period are presented. The evaluation of occupational exposure to CA has been based on ALARA principle for most of the past decades but this principle is nowadays overwhelmed by the fast development of technology. The assessment of a possible in-take of CA in hospital personnel, when the sources of environmental contamination are identified, has become possible by the defining of a limit of exposure close to the limit of detection of the analytical method. PMID:23405646

  5. Occupational gradients in smoking behavior and exposure to workplace environmental tobacco smoke: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA)

    PubMed Central

    Fujishiro, Kaori; Stukovsky, Karen D Hinckley; Roux, Ana Diez; Landsbergis, Paul; Burchfiel, Cecil

    2012-01-01

    Objectives This study examines associations of occupation with smoking status, amount smoked among current- and former-smokers (number of cigarettes/day and lifetime cigarette consumption (pack-years)), and workplace exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) independent from income and education. Methods This is a cross-sectional analysis of data from a community sample (n=6355, age range: 45–84) using logistic and multinomial regression. All analyses were stratified by sex and adjusted for socio-demographic variables. Results Male blue-collar and sales/office workers had higher odds of having consumed >20 pack-years of cigarettes than managers/professionals. For both male and female current- or former-smokers, exposure to workplace ETS was consistently and strongly associated with heavy smoking and greater pack-years. Conclusions Blue-collar workplaces are associated with intense smoking and ETS exposure. Smoking must be addressed at both the individual- and workplace-levels especially in blue-collar workplaces. PMID:22261926

  6. Employability Competencies for Entry Level Occupations in Electronics. Part Two: Job Specific Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werner, Claire

    This syllabus, which is the second of a two-volume set describing the basic competencies needed by entry-level workers in the field of electronics, deals with the competencies needed in five different electrical occupations. Competencies are organized according to the following occupational areas: electronic assembly, telephone repair and…

  7. Establishment of an Occupational Diseases Surveillance System to Monitor Blood Lead Levels in Taiwan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. N. Wu; C. Y. Shen; G. Y. Yang; S. H. Liou; K. N. Ko; H. C. Chiang; J. S. Lai; C. K. Ho; P. Y. Chang

    1995-01-01

    Background. Occupational diseases share many common characteristics with infectious diseases. However, the successful approach of using surveillance systems to eradicate infectious diseases has never been applied to the control and prevention of occupational diseases. Methods. On the basis of a nationwide survey of blood lead levels in the general population in Taiwan, we (the Ministry of Health, Taiwan) have developed

  8. The entry-level occupational therapy clinical doctorate: advantages, challenges, and international issues to consider.

    PubMed

    Brown, Ted; Crabtree, Jeffrey L; Mu, Keli; Wells, Joe

    2015-04-01

    Internationally, occupational therapy education has gone through several paradigm shifts during the last few decades, moving from certificate to diploma to bachelors to masters and now in some instances to clinical doctorate as the entry-level professional credential to practice. In the United States there is a recommendation under consideration by the American Occupational Therapy Association (AOTA) that by 2025, all occupational therapy university programs will move to the clinical doctorate level. It should be noted, however, that the AOTA Board can only make recommendations and it is the Accreditation Council for Occupational Therapy Education (ACOTE) who has regulatory authority to approve such a change. What are the potential implications for the profession, our clients, and funders of occupational therapy services? What are the primary drivers for the move towards the clinical doctorate being the educational entry point? Is the next step in the evolution of occupational therapy education globally a shift to the entry-level clinical doctorate? This article reviews current literature and discusses issues about the occupational therapy entry-level clinical doctorate. The published evidence available about the occupational therapy entry-level clinical doctorate is summarized and the perceived or frequently cited pros and cons of moving to the clinical doctorate as the singular entry point to occupational therapy practice are considered. The potential impacts of the introduction of the clinical doctorate as the entry-to-practice qualification across the United States on the occupational therapy community internationally will be briefly discussed. If the United States moves toward the entry-level clinical doctorate as the only educational starting point for the profession, will other jurisdictions follow suit? Further discourse and investigation of this issue both inside and outside of the United States is needed so that informed decisions can be made. PMID:25821889

  9. Occupational lead exposure among automotive garage workers – a case study for Jimma town, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In Ethiopia, although there are numerous small-scale and medium industries which use lead-based raw materials that may pose health risks to workers, there are no workplace regulations for lead exposure. Moreover, there are no studies carried out on the blood lead levels (BLLs) of workers or on the contribution of common workplace practices to lead poisoning. Method A cross-sectional study on the BLLs of 45 automotive garage workers and 40 non-garage workers was carried out in the town of Jimma, Ethiopia. In addition to BLL analysis, data on some risk factors such as smoking, and chewing ‘khat’ (the leaves of Catha adulis) were gathered through structured questionnaires and interviews and data analysis was performed using SPSS (version 16). The t-test was used to compare mean BLLs of study groups. The analysis of variance (ANOVA), Kruskal-Wallis, Pearson chi-square and odds ratio tests were used to investigate the associations between specific job type, smoking and/or ‘khat’ chewing, service years and occurrence of non-specific symptoms with BLLs. Results The mean BLL of the automotive-garage workers was found to be significantly greater than that of the controls. The BLLs of all the lead-exposed individuals were found to be over 10??g/dL, and 53% of them had BLLs ranging 12 – 20??g/dL, with the remaining 47% having over 20??g/dL. The BLL of the workers increased with the duration of working in an automotive garage. Individuals involved in manual car painting comprise a larger percentage (58%) of those with the highest BLLs (? 20??g/dL). Lead accumulation in individuals who chew ‘khat’ in the work place was found to be faster than in those who are not used to chewing ‘khat’. ‘Khat’ is an evergreen shrub native to tropical East Africa, with dark green opposite leaves which are chewed when fresh for their stimulating effects. Conclusion The findings of the study have clearly demonstrated that the BLLs of automotive-garage workers in Jimma town are considerably high with a range of 11.73 – 36.52??g/dL and the workers are in danger of impending lead toxicity. The BLLs of the workers are influenced by their occupational practices, chewing Catha adulis leaves at the workplace, and the time spent working in an automotive garage. PMID:22776678

  10. Maximum likelihood estimates of mean and variance of occupation radiation doses subjected to minimum detection levels.

    PubMed

    Datta, D; Singh, Sanjay; Johnson, B E; Kushwaha, H S

    2008-01-01

    Data collection and its analysis in the field of nuclear safety is an important task in the sense that it powers the improvement of safety as well as reliability of the plant. Thus, occupational exposure data analysis is presented to measure the safety or reliability of radiation protection of a given facility. It also is required as a basic input in making decisions on radiation protection regulations and recommendations. A common practice in radiation protection is to record a zero for observation below minimum detection limit (MDL) doses, which leads to an underestimation of true doses and overestimation of the dose-response relationship. Exposure data (both external and internal) are collected by monitoring each individual and this kind of monitoring generally is graded as low-level monitoring. So, in such low-level monitoring, the occurrence of exposure below MDL invites statistical complications for estimating mean and variance because the data are generally censored, i.e observations below MDL are marked. In Type I censoring, the point of censoring (e.g. the detection limit) is 'fixed' a priori for all observations and the number of the censored observations varies. In Type II censoring, the number of censored observations is fixed a priori, and the point of censoring vary. The methodology generally followed in estimating mean and variance with these censored data was the replacement of missing dose by half the MDL. In this paper, authors have used the maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) approach for the estimation of mean and standard deviation. A computer code BDLCENSOR has been developed in which all these MLE-based advanced algorithms are implemented. In addition to the MLE-based method, an expectation maximisation algorithm has also been implemented. The code is written using Visual BASIC 6.0. The paper describes the details of the algorithms adopted for handling such censored data to estimate bias free mean and standard deviation. PMID:18083720

  11. 78 FR 65242 - Occupational Exposure to Crystalline Silica; Extension of Comment Period; Extension of Period To...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-31

    ...Parts 1910, 1915, and 1926 [Docket No. OSHA-2010-0034] RIN 1218-AB70 Occupational...Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), Labor. ACTION: Proposed rule; extension...Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) is extending the deadline for...

  12. Occupational exposure to magnetic fields in relation to mortality from brain cancer among electricity generation and transmission workers.

    PubMed Central

    Harrington, J M; McBride, D I; Sorahan, T; Paddle, G M; van Tongeren, M

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether the risks of mortality from brain cancer are related to occupational exposure to magnetic fields. METHODS: A total of 112 cases of primary brain cancer (1972-91) were identified from a cohort of 84,018 male and female employees of the (then) Central Electricity Generating Board and its privatised successor companies. Individual cumulative occupational exposures to magnetic fields were estimated by linking available computerised job history data with magnetic field measurements collected over 675 person-workshifts. Estimated exposure histories of the case workers were compared with those of 654 control workers drawn from the cohort (nested case-control study), by means of conditional logistic regression. RESULTS: For exposure assessments based on arithmetic means, the risk of mortality from brain cancer for subjects with an estimated cumulative exposure to magnetic fields of 5.4-13.4 microT.y v subjects with lower exposures (0.0-5.3 microT.y) was 1.04 (95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.60 to 1.80). The corresponding relative risk in subjects with higher exposures (> or = 13.5 microT.y) was 0.95 (95% CI 0.54 to 1.69). There was no indication of a positive trend for cumulative exposure and risk of mortality from brain cancer either when the analysis used exposure assessments based on geometric means or when the analysis was restricted to exposures received within five years of the case diagnosis (or corresponding period for controls). CONCLUSIONS: Although the exposure categorisation was based solely on recent observations, the study findings do not support the hypothesis that the risk of brain cancer is associated with occupational exposure to magnetic fields. PMID:9072027

  13. Quantitative assessment of regulatory proteins in blood as markers of radiation effects in the late period after occupational exposure.

    PubMed

    Kirillova, Evgenia N; Zakharova, Maria L; Muksinova, Klara N; Drugova, Elena D; Pavlova, Olga S; Sokolova, Svetlana N

    2012-07-01

    The objective of this research was quantitative assessment of serum and membrane regulatory proteins in blood from nuclear workers as markers of radiation-induced alterations in immune homeostasis in the late period after protracted exposure of nuclear workers with different doses. The effector and regulatory lymphocytes were measured using a flow cytofluorometer in workers from the main facilities of the Mayak PA (aged ?60 y up to 80 y) in the late period after combined exposure to external gamma-rays and internal alpha-radiation from incorporated 239Pu. The control group included non-occupationally exposed members of the Ozyorsk population matched by gender and age to the group of Mayak workers. Thirty serum proteins involved in regulation of immune homeostasis, such as growth factors, multifunctional interleukins, pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, and their receptors, were measured using ELISA in blood serum specimens from the Radiobiology Human Tissue Repository. The dosimetry estimates were obtained using Doses-2005. The correlation analysis revealed a statistically significant direct relationship of T-killers and plutonium body burden and a decreasing level of T-helpers with accumulated external dose in exposed individuals. There were differences in expression of membrane markers in young regulatory cells (double null T-lymphocytes, NKT-lymphocytes, regulatory T-cells, and an increase of activated forms of T-lymphocytes), which indicated an active role of regulatory cells in maintaining immune homeostasis in terms of protracted exposure. The assessment of regulatory proteins in blood indicated that growth factors (EGF, TGF-?1, PDGF), multifunctional interleukins (IL-17A, IL-18), and pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1? and INF-?) could be potential markers of radiation-induced alterations in protein status. An imbalance of pro- and antiinflammatory proteins in blood and variations of protein profiles at the lower exposure levels (gamma-ray dose <1 Gy, plutonium body burden <0.74 kBq) in the late period after protracted exposure were less pronounced than at the higher exposure levels, which was probably explained by compensatory-adaptive responses in the late period among senile individuals with polypathology. PMID:22647909

  14. Study on the relation between occupational fenvalerate exposure and spermatozoa DNA damage of pesticide factory workers

    PubMed Central

    Bian, Q; Xu, L; Wang, S; Xia, Y; Tan, L; Chen, J; Song, L; Chang, H; Wang, X

    2004-01-01

    Aims: To determine sperm nuclear DNA integrity and to investigate the relation between fenvalerate (FE) exposure and spermatozoa DNA damage. Methods: Sperm DNA fragmentation was detected by a modified alkaline single cell gel electrophoresis (Comet) assay and a terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase mediated dUTP nick end labelling (TUNEL) assay. The olive tail moment (OTM) and percentage tail DNA were measured by the Comet assay, and cell positive percentage was measured by the TUNEL assay for DNA damage evaluation. Results: The DNA integrity of spermatozoa of external and internal control groups were both significantly greater than that of the FE exposed group. The median value of tail DNA percentage in the exposure group was 11.30, which was significantly higher than 5.60 in the internal control group and 5.10 in the external control group. The median value of OTM was 3.80 in the exposure group, significantly higher than 1.50 in the internal control group and 2.00 in the external control group. Mean cell positive was 31.2% in the exposure group, significantly higher than 17.4% in the internal control and 19.6% in the external control groups. Cell positive (%) was significantly correlated with tail DNA percentage and with OTM of whole subjects (n = 63). Conclusions: Results showed that occupational FE exposure is associated with an increase in sperm DNA damage. A combination of the Comet and TUNEL assays would offer more comprehensive information for a better understanding of sperm DNA damage, and the biological significance of sperm DNA damage in sperm function and male infertility. PMID:15550606

  15. Occupational exposures to Cd, Ni, and Cr modulate titers of antioxidized DNA base autoantibodies.

    PubMed Central

    Frenkel, K; Karkoszka, J; Cohen, B; Bara?ski, B; Jakubowski, M; Cosma, G; Taioli, E; Toniolo, P

    1994-01-01

    This study was undertaken to establish whether occupational exposures to derivatives of carcinogenic metals evoke inflammatory immune responses, as determined by the presence of elevated titers of antibodies (Ab) that recognize oxidized DNA bases. Sera obtained from the blood of steel welders (Delaware) and from workers of the Centra Ni-Cd Battery Factory (Pozna?, Poland) were analyzed by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. To determine specific and nonspecific binding, an oxidized thymidine [5-hydroxymethyl-2'-deoxyuridine (HMdU)] coupled to bovine serum albumin (HMdU-BSA) as well as mock-coupled BSA (M-BSA) were used as antigens for coating the wells of microtiter plates. Titers of anti-HMdU Ab were significantly elevated in the high Cd and Ni exposure groups (18.3 +/- 3.2 vs 10.8 +/- 2.1 A492/microliters; p < 0.05). The sera of the groups with low exposures to Cd and Ni also had enhanced titers of those Ab but those increases were not statistically significant. Interestingly, the Ab titers present in the sera of controls for Cd and Ni exposures appear to be constant regardless of the protein content. In contrast, both lightly and heavily exposed subjects exhibited Ab titers that increased with increasing protein content. When 12 randomly selected workers (4 from each of the control, lightly, and heavily exposed groups) were outfitted with personal monitors, anti-HMdU Ab titers of those workers showed a significant difference between the groups with light (< 100 micrograms/m3) and heavy (> 200 micrograms/m3) exposures to Cd (9.8 +/- 3.7 vs 22.1 +/- 3.7 A492/microliters; p < 0.01) and Ni (11.7 +/- 1.4 vs 31.0 +/- 1.8; p < 0.001).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7843102

  16. Occupational and other exposures associated with male end-stage renal disease: A case/control study

    SciTech Connect

    Steenland, N.K.; Thun, M.J.; Ferguson, C.W.; Port, F.K. (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Cincinnati, OH (USA))

    1990-02-01

    We conducted a case-control study of 325 men ages 30-69 who were diagnosed with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) between 1976 and 1984, and resided in four urban areas of Michigan in 1984. Cases were selected from the Michigan Kidney Registry and excluded men with diabetic, congenital, and obstructive nephropathies. Controls were selected by random-digit dialing and were pair-matched to cases for age, race, and area of residence. Telephone interviews were conducted with 69 percent of eligible cases and 79 percent of eligible controls. Risk of ESRD was significantly related to phenacetin or acetaminophen consumption (odds ratio(OR) = 2.66), moonshine consumption (OR = 2.43), a family history of renal disease (OR = 9.30); and regular occupational exposures to solvents (OR = 1.51) or silica (OR = 1.67). Particular occupational exposures with elevated risk were solvents used as cleaning agents and degreasers (OR = 2.50) silica exposure in foundries or brick factories (OR = 1.92), and silica exposure during sandblasting (OR = 3.83). Little or no trend of increased risk with duration of exposure was found for these occupational exposures, with the exception of silica in sandblasting. Limitations of these data include representativeness of cases, possible overreporting by cases, and misclassification of exposures inherent in self-reports.

  17. [Occupational exposure to gases emitted in mild and stainless steel welding].

    PubMed

    Matczak, W; Gromiec, J

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this work was to select optimal methods for determination of toxic gases (NOx, NO2, CO, CO2, O3) and to evaluate occupational exposure of welders to those gases. The survey covered workers employed in shipyards, and other metal product fabrication plants engaged in welding mild and stainless steel by different techniques (manual metal are, metal active gas, tungsten inert gas welding; gas, plasma, laser cutting and resistance welding). Personal and stationary air samples were collected to determine time weighted average (TWA) and short-term concentrations of gases. For determination of nitrogen oxides the following analytical techniques were employed: spectrophotometry with collection on liquid and solid sorbents and ion chromatography with collection on solid sorbents. All the gases were determined also by automatic or direct reading methods: flow or diffusion detector tubes and photometric and electrochemical analyzers. The determined TWA concentrations were below respective Maximum Allowable Concentrations (MAC) but exposure limits for short term exposure were exceeded in some cases. The average NO2 i NOx ratio was 1:4. According to Polish regulations regarding the MAC value for nitrogen oxides the analytical method should enable determination of total NOx by either direct or indirect simultaneous determination of both NO and NO2. The applicability of the spectrophotometric method of analysis of atmospheric NOx to determination of low NOx concentrations at welders working posts has been confirmed. PMID:11928672

  18. Occupational exposure to coal tar pitch volatiles, benzo/a/pyrene and dust in tyre production.

    PubMed

    Rogaczewska, T; Ligocka, D

    1994-01-01

    Occupational exposure to coal tar pitch volatiles (CTPVs), benzo/a/pyrene (BaP) and dust was evaluated by means of individual measurements carried out in 80 workers and by stationary measurements on 16 work-posts in two divisions of the tyre producing plant. Dust and coal tar pitch volatiles concentrations in the air were determinated by the gravimetric method, measured, in the case of CPTVs, benzene-soluble fraction (BSF) with ultrasonic extraction. Benzo/a/pyrene analysis was performed using high performance liquid chromato-graphy (HPLC) with a spectrofluorimetric detector. It was found that nearly all personal sampling results for BaP were within the range < 4 divided by 142 ng/m3, except for the exposure of workers employed at weighing the raw materials (3,470-6,060 ng/m3) in the Semiproducts Division. Attention should be paid to the recorded CTPVs concentrations (benzene solubles). About 56% of the Vulcanizing Division workers and about 90% of the Semiproducts Division workers were exposed to these substances at concentrations of over 0.2 mg/m3 (hygienic standard for benzene solubles in USA). Exposure to dust (of high respirable fraction percentage > 90%) which exceeded the admissible value (4 mg/m3) was found mainly only in the workers of the Semiproducts Division at some work-posts. PMID:7719665

  19. Elevated levels of perfluoroalkyl acids in family members of occupationally exposed workers: the importance of dust transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Jianjie; Gao, Yan; Wang, Thanh; Liang, Yong; Zhang, Aiqian; Wang, Yawei; Jiang, Guibin

    2015-03-01

    The exposure pathways of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) to humans are still not clear because of the complex living environment, and few studies have simultaneously investigated the bioaccumulative behaviour of different PFAAs in humans. In this study, serum, dust, duplicate diet, and other matrices were collected around a manufacturing plant in China, and homologous series of PFAAs were analysed. PFAA levels in dust and serum of local residents in this area were considerably higher than those in non-polluted area. Although dietary intake was the major exposure pathway in the present study, dust ingestion played an important role in this case. Serum PFAAs in local residents was significantly correlated with dust PFAAs levels in their living or working microenvironment. Serum PFAAs and dust PFAAs were significantly higher in family members of occupational workers (FM) than in ordinary residents (OR) (p < 0.01). After a careful analysis of the PFAAs exposure pathway, a potential pathway in addition to direct dust ingestion was suggested: PFAAs might transferred from occupational worker's clothes to dinners via cooking processes. The bioaccumulative potential of PFHxS and PFOS were higher than other PFAAs, which suggested a substantial difference between the bioaccumulative ability of perfluorinated sulfonic acids and perfluorinated carboxylic acids.

  20. NIOSH comments to DOL on the Occupational Safety and Health Administration's notice of proposed rulemaking on occupational exposure to asbestos, tremolite, anthophyllite, and actinolite

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-04-09

    NIOSH is concerned that deleting coverage of cleavage fragments from nonasbestiform tremolite, anthophyllite and actinolite from the standard poses a health risk for exposed workers. On June 21, 1984, NIOSH testified at the OSHA public hearings on occupational exposure to asbestos and presented supporting evidence that there is no safe concentration for exposure to asbestos (NIOSH 1984). In the NIOSH/OSHA report, NIOSH also reaffirmed its position that there is no scientific basis for differentiating health risks between types of asbestos fibers for regulatory purposes. In its 1984 testimony, NIOSH urged that the goal be to eliminate asbestos exposure (NIOSH 1984). Where asbestos exposure cannot be eliminated, it should be limited to the lowest concentration possible. NIOSH finds no scientifically valid health evidence for removing from the asbestos standard cleavage fragments that (1) become airborne when nonasbestiform tremolite, anthophyllite, and actinolite are mined, milled and used and (2) meet the microscopic definition of a fiber.

  1. Chronic Exposure to Low Frequency Noise at Moderate Levels Causes Impaired Balance in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Tamura, Haruka; Ohgami, Nobutaka; Yajima, Ichiro; Iida, Machiko; Ohgami, Kyoko; Fujii, Noriko; Itabe, Hiroyuki; Kusudo, Tastuya; Yamashita, Hitoshi; Kato, Masashi

    2012-01-01

    We are routinely exposed to low frequency noise (LFN; below 0.5 kHz) at moderate levels of 60–70 dB sound pressure level (SPL) generated from various sources in occupational and daily environments. LFN has been reported to affect balance in humans. However, there is limited information about the influence of chronic exposure to LFN at moderate levels for balance. In this study, we investigated whether chronic exposure to LFN at a moderate level of 70 dB SPL affects the vestibule, which is one of the organs responsible for balance in mice. Wild-type ICR mice were exposed for 1 month to LFN (0.1 kHz) and high frequency noise (HFN; 16 kHz) at 70 dB SPL at a distance of approximately 10–20 cm. Behavior analyses including rotarod, beam-crossing and footprint analyses showed impairments of balance in LFN-exposed mice but not in non-exposed mice or HFN-exposed mice. Immunohistochemical analysis showed a decreased number of vestibular hair cells and increased levels of oxidative stress in LFN-exposed mice compared to those in non-exposed mice. Our results suggest that chronic exposure to LFN at moderate levels causes impaired balance involving morphological impairments of the vestibule with enhanced levels of oxidative stress. Thus, the results of this study indicate the importance of considering the risk of chronic exposure to LFN at a moderate level for imbalance. PMID:22768129

  2. Changes in male hormone profile after occupational organophosphate exposure. A longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Aguilar-Garduño, C; Lacasaña, M; Blanco-Muñoz, J; Rodríguez-Barranco, M; Hernández, A F; Bassol, S; González-Alzaga, B; Cebrián, M E

    2013-05-10

    There is a growing concern about the endocrine effects of long-term, low-level exposure to organophosphate (OP) compounds. Studies on experimental animals have found that OP pesticides have an impact on the endocrine system and a few clinical and epidemiological studies have also shown that OPs may affect the male hormone profile, although results are inconsistent. We have evaluated the effect of exposure to OP pesticides, measured through urinary levels of six dialkylphosphate