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1

Exposure Measurement Action Level and Occupational Environmental Variability.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The proposed Occupational Safety and Health Administration Health Standards define an exposure measurement action level as one half of the current permissible exposure limits. The action level is the point at which certain provisions of the proposed stand...

N. A. Leidel K. A. Busch W. E. Crouse

1975-01-01

2

Impact of Occupational Exposure on Lead Levels in Women  

PubMed Central

In 1994, 207 women participated in a study designed to examine the effects of occupational exposure and various lifestyle factors on bone and blood lead levels. In vivo measurements of Pb concentrations in tibia were performed by X-ray fluorescence. All 108 former smelter employees and 99 referents provided blood samples and answered a questionnaire on lifestyle characteristics and the relevant medical history. Lead concentrations in tibia and blood were significantly higher in the exposed group. The difference in mean bone Pb concentrations of the two groups is markedly greater than the difference in the mean blood Pb concentrations, supporting the view that bone Pb measurements are a more reliable determinant of Pb body burden. Chronic exposure did not result in any statistically significant differences in adverse pregnancy outcomes. A significantly lower age at the onset of menopause in occupationally exposed women may suggest that Pb causes adverse changes in the pattern of estrus and menses. The exposed women had lower bone Pb concentrations than those found in most studies on predominantly male workers. Blood Pb concentrations remain increased in women long after the cessation of occupational exposure, reflecting the importance of the endogenous exposure. The endogenous exposure relation found for postmenopausal exposed women is consistent with data on male smelter workers, whereas the relation found for premenopausal women is significantly lower. This suggests that sex plays an important role in the metabolism of lead, and current models of exposure extrapolated from male data may be inappropriate for use on women.

Popovic, Marija; McNeill, Fiona E.; Chettle, David R.; Webber, Colin E.; Lee, C. Virginia; Kaye, Wendy E.

2005-01-01

3

Glutathione level after long-term occupational elemental mercury exposure  

SciTech Connect

Many in vitro and in vivo studies have elucidated the interaction of inorganic mercury (Hg) and glutathione. However, human studies are limited. In this study, we investigated the potential effects of remote long-term intermittent occupational elemental Hg vapour (Hg{sup o}) exposure on erythrocyte glutathione levels and some antioxidative enzyme activities in ex-mercury miners in the period after exposure. The study included 49 ex-mercury miners divided into subgroups of 28 still active, Hg{sup o}-not-exposed miners and 21 elderly retired miners, and 41 controls, age-matched to the miners subgroup. The control workers were taken from 'mercury-free works'. Reduced glutathione (GSH) and oxidized disulphide glutathione (GSSG) concentrations in haemolysed erythrocytes were determined by capillary electrophoresis, while total glutathione (total GSH) and the GSH/GSSG ratio were calculated from the determined values. Catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and glutathione reductase (GR) activities in erythrocytes were measured using commercially available reagent kits, while urine Hg (U-Hg) concentrations were determined by cold vapour atomic absorption (CVAAS). No correlation of present U-Hg levels, GSH, GSSG, and antioxidative enzymes with remote occupational biological exposure indices were found. The mean CAT activity in miners and retired miners was significantly higher (p<0.05) than in the controls. No differences in mean GPx activity among the three groups were found, whereas the mean GR activity was significantly higher (p<0.05) in miners than in retired miners. The mean concentrations of GSH (mmol/g Hb) in miners (13.03{+-}3.71) were significantly higher (p<0.05) than in the control group (11.68{+-}2.66). No differences in mean total GSH, GSSG levels, and GSH/GSSG ratio between miners and controls were found. A positive correlation between GSSG and present U-Hg excretion (r=0.41, p=0.001) in the whole group of ex-mercury miners was observed. The significantly lower GSH level (p<0.05) determined in the group of retired miners (9.64{+-}1.45) seems to be age-related (r=-0.39, p=0.001). Thus, the moderate but significantly increased GSH level, GR and CAT activity in erythrocytes in the subgroup of miners observed in the period after exposure to Hg{sup o} could be an inductive and additive response to maintain the balance between GSH and antioxidative enzymes in interaction with the Hg body burden accumulated during remote occupational exposure, which does not represent a severely increased oxidative stress.

Kobal, Alfred Bogomir [University Medical Centre Ljubljana, Institute of Clinical Chemistry and Biochemistry, Njegoseva 4, SI-1525 Ljubljana (Slovenia)], E-mail: abkobal@volja.net; Prezelj, Marija [University Medical Centre Ljubljana, Institute of Clinical Chemistry and Biochemistry, Njegoseva 4, SI-1525 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Horvat, Milena [Department of Environmental Sciences, Jozef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Krsnik, Mladen [University Medical Centre Ljubljana, Institute of Clinical Chemistry and Biochemistry, Njegoseva 4, SI-1525 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Gibicar, Darija [Department of Environmental Sciences, Jozef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Osredkar, Josko [University Medical Centre Ljubljana, Institute of Clinical Chemistry and Biochemistry, Njegoseva 4, SI-1525 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

2008-05-15

4

Verification of effects on the nervous system of low level occupational exposure to CS2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neurotoxic effects associated with long term low level occupational exposure to CS2 were reinvestigated four years after the initial study in the same group of workers. The second study concerned 44 exposed and 31 matched control workers. For both studies a personal cumulative exposure Ec was calculated based on function specific exposure levels and the occupational histories, which were carefully

M W Ruijten; H J Sallé; M M Verberk

1993-01-01

5

Carcinogenic potential of formaldehyde in occupational settings: a critical assessment and possible impact on occupational exposure levels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives  To review epidemiological studies which led to a change in the classification of formaldehyde by the International Agency\\u000a for Research on Cancer (IARC) in 2004 as well as studies published thereafter, with the objective to examine whether occupational\\u000a exposure levels for formaldehyde should be adapted.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Method  Cohort and case–control studies investigating the association between occupational exposure to formaldehyde and nasopharyngeal\\u000a cancer

S. Duhayon; P. Hoet; G. Van Maele-Fabry; D. Lison

2008-01-01

6

Occupational exposure levels to benzene in Italy: findings from a national database  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  Benzene is classified as human carcinogen and the association with lymphohaematopoietic cancer has been observed in many occupational\\u000a epidemiological studies. The aim of this study is to summarize data about occupational exposure levels to benzene in Italy.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Airborne concentrations of benzene were selected from the Italian database on occupational exposure to carcinogens in the\\u000a period 1996–2007. Descriptive statistics were calculated

Alberto Scarselli; Alessandra Binazzi; Davide Di Marzio

2011-01-01

7

Current practices for maintaining occupational exposures ALARA at low-level waste disposal sites  

SciTech Connect

The United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission contracted with Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to provide technical assistance in establishing operational guidelines, with respect to radiation control programs and methods of minimizing occupational radiation exposure, at Low-Level Waste (LLW) disposal sites. The PNL, through site visits, evaluated operations at LLW disposal sites to determine the adequacy of current practices in maintaining occupational exposures as low as is reasonably achievable (ALARA). The data sought included the specifics of: ALARA programs, training programs, external exposure control, internal exposure control, respiratory protection, surveillance, radioactive waste management, facilities and equipment, and external dose analysis. The results of the study indicated the following: The Radiation Protection and ALARA programs at the three commercial LLW disposal sites were observed to be adequate in scope and content compared to similar programs at other types of nuclear facilities. However, it should be noted that there were many areas that could be improved upon to help ensure the health and safety of occupationally exposed individuals.

Hadlock, D.E.; Herrington, W.N.; Hooker, C.D.; Murphy, D.W.; Gilchrist, R.L.

1983-12-01

8

Occupational radiation exposures associated with alternative methods of low-level waste disposal  

SciTech Connect

The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments (LLRWPA) Act of 1985 assigns the responsibility for disposal of low-level radioactive wastes to individual states. The Act also mandates that the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), in consultation with states and other interested parties, identify disposal methods other than shallow land burial (SLB), the method currently used at the three low-level waste (LLW) disposal sites operating in the United States. The NRC contracted with Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to compare projected occupational exposures associated with the SLB method and five alternative disposal methods, including below ground vaults (BGV), above ground vaults (AGV), earth mounded concrete bunkers (EMCB), augured holes (AH) and minded cavities (MC). This report is intended to inform state and local governments about these projected exposures in anticipation of their participation in siting new low-level waste disposal facilities. The results of this study suggest that, with the design and operation assumptions made in this study, occupational dose equivalents for the five methods examined in detail would be highest for the EMCB method (1.81 person-mrem/m/sup 3/ of waste disposed). The lowest occupational dose equivalents would occur for the AH method (1.29 person-mrem/m/sup 3/). Projected occupational dose equivalents for SLB, BGV, and AGV disposal methods are 1.38, 1.47, and 1.61 person-mrem/m/sup 3/, respectively. Based on simularities between the reference BGV and MC facilities, it was projected that the occupational dose equivalents for a MC facility would be 40% higher than for the reference BGV facility. 17 refs., 15 figs., 13 tabs.

Herrington, W.N.; Harty, R.; Merwin, S.E.

1987-05-01

9

Occupational exposures and adult asthma.  

PubMed

Occupational exposures can cause a new onset of asthma in a subset of susceptible workers on the basis of sensitization to a specific work agent or a high-level irritant exposure. Epidemiologic studies give insight into the natural history of occupational asthma, including host factors and environmental factors leading to the development of occupational asthma, the progression, and the potential role of preventive measures. Work-exacerbated asthma has been a focus of studies only recently but is recognized as common among asthmatic workers and is a potential cause of significant morbidity and socioeconomic impact. PMID:18572107

Tarlo, Susan M

2008-08-01

10

Occupational exposure assessment using antibody levels: exposure to avian leukosis/sarcoma viruses in the poultry industry.  

PubMed

Avian leukosis/sarcoma viruses (ALSV) infect and cause cancers in chickens. Poultry workers are exposed to ALSV and other infectious agents in the workplace. This study examines if industrial hygiene assessment of antibody levels in poultry workers can identify risky job tasks at the higher exposure risk to an infectious agent, i.e., ALSV. We compared ALSV antibody levels in poultry workers and control subjects. Occupational and demographical factors were examined for an association with the exposure risk in poultry workers. We found that the antibody levels were significantly higher in poultry workers than in control subjects. Job category and age together were significantly associated with the antibody levels in workers. Certain job tasks were identified with significantly higher antibody levels as compared to others, implying that recommendations should be made to protect workers at these jobs. The findings of this study indicate that the measurement of antibody levels in workers can be useful for industrial hygiene assessment of exposure to infectious agents. PMID:21469007

Choi, Kyung-Mee; Johnson, Eric S

2011-05-24

11

Low level occupational exposure to styrene: its effects on DNA damage and DNA repair.  

PubMed

The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of styrene exposure at levels below the recommended standards of the Threshold Limit Value (TLV-TWA(8)) of 20 ppm (ACGIH, 2004) in reinforced-fiberglass plastics workers. Study subjects comprised 50 exposed workers and 40 control subjects. The exposed workers were stratified by styrene exposure levels, i.e. group I (<10 ppm, <42.20 mg/m(3)), group II (10-20 ppm, 42.20-84.40 mg/m(3)), and group III (>20 ppm, >84.40 mg/m(3)). The mean styrene exposure levels of exposed workers were significantly higher than those of the control workers. Biomarkers of exposure to styrene, including blood styrene and the urinary metabolites, mandelic acid (MA) and phenylglyoxylic acid (PGA), were significantly increased with increasing levels of styrene exposure, but were not detected in the control group. DNA damage, such as DNA strand breaks, 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), and DNA repair capacity, were used as biomarkers of early biological effects. DNA strand breaks and 8-OHdG/10(5)dG levels in peripheral leukocytes of exposed groups were significantly higher compared to the control group (P<0.05). In addition, DNA repair capacity, determined by the cytogenetic challenge assay, was lower in all exposed groups when compared to the control group (P<0.05). The expression of CYP2E1, which is involved in styrene metabolism, in all styrene exposed groups, was higher than that of the control group at a statistically significant level (P<0.05). Levels of expression of the DNA repair genes hOGG1 and XRCC1 were significantly higher in all exposed groups than in the control group (P<0.05). In addition to styrene contamination in ambient air, a trace amount of benzene was also found but, the correlation between benzene exposure and DNA damage or DNA repair capacity was not statistically significant. The results obtained from this study indicate an increase in genotoxic effects and thus health risk from occupational styrene exposure, even at levels below the recommended TLV-TWA(8) of 20 ppm. PMID:21030303

Wongvijitsuk, Sirilak; Navasumrit, Panida; Vattanasit, Udomratana; Parnlob, Varabhorn; Ruchirawat, Mathuros

2010-10-27

12

Interruption of chronic chlordane exposure and plasma residue levels in occupational workers  

SciTech Connect

Chlordane, which had been exclusively used for termite control, was completely prohibited in September 1986 in Japan, not only with respect to use but also with respect to import and manufacture. Some findings were reported previously regarding the accumulative characteristics of transnonachlor and oxychlordane in the plasma of spraymen following chlordane exposure. However, there has been no report on the residual disposition of these chlordane-related compounds in humans. Therefore, the levels of these residual compounds in the plasma of occupational workers were monitored after they ceased use of the insecticide. The present paper describes the time course of the changes in the levels of these lipophilic organochloride compounds after termination of the use of chlordane.

Takamiya, Koji (Chiba Univ. (Japan))

1990-06-01

13

Assessing risks from occupational exposure to low-level radiation: The statistician's role  

SciTech Connect

Currently, several epidemiological studies of workers who have been exposed occupationally to radiation are being conducted. These include workers in the United States, Great Britain, and Canada, involved in the production of both defense materials and nuclear power. A major reason for conducting these studies is to evaluate possible adverse health effects that may have resulted because of the radiation exposure received. The general subject of health effects resulting from low levels of radiation, including these worker studies, has attracted the attention of various news media, and has been the subject of considerable controversy. These studies provide a good illustration of certain other aspects of the statistician's role; namely, communication and adequate subject matter knowledge. A competent technical job is not sufficient if these other aspects are not fulfilled.

Gilbert, E.S.

1989-06-01

14

Occupational lead exposure and blood pressure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent community studies have suggested that low level lead exposure is significantly associated with blood pressure in the general population. This finding is inconsistent with the results of recent occupational studies of lead exposed workers, although the occupational studies contained serious methodological weaknesses. The present study examined the relation between occupational lead exposure and diastolic and systolic blood pressure in

D K Parkinson; M J Hodgson; E J Bromet; M A Dew; M M Connell

1987-01-01

15

Occupational lead exposure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantitative measures of saccadic eye movements were examined in 52 lead exposed autobody shop workers and 52 age matched controls with no history of occupational lead exposure. Three characteristics of saccadic eye movements were studied: 1) saccade accuracy; 2) number of overshoots; and 3) maximum velocity. The results indicated that workers exposed to inorganic lead showed a decrease in saccade

Linda Glickman; José A. Valciukas; Ruth Lilis; Irving Weisman

1984-01-01

16

Blood nickel and chromium levels in association with smoking and occupational exposure among head and neck cancer patients in Tunisia.  

PubMed

Chronic exposure to chromium (Cr) and nickel (Ni) has long been recognized as being capable to increase head and neck cancer (HNC) incidence among exposed human populations. This study represents the first biomonitoring of Cr and Ni exposure in Tunisia and focuses on a possible association with HNC risk. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the concentrations of Cr and Ni in the blood of HNC patients and controls. Metals blood levels of 169 HNC patients and 351 controls were determined using a Perkin-Elmer Analyst 800 Atomic Absorption Spectrometer. Mean blood levels of Cr and Ni in HNC cases (52.15 and 111.60 ?g/L, respectively) were significantly higher than those of controls (37.04 and 30.50 ?g/L, respectively). Cases' blood levels of Cr and Ni were significantly higher than those of controls after controlling for the other risk factors of HNC, including smoking, shisha consumption, occupational exposure, and nearby environment (P?occupational exposure presented the most significant association with HNC (odds ratio (OR)?=?6.54 and 7.66, respectively, P?levels in blood sample of cases and controls that are smoker/occupationally exposed were higher than that of non-smoker/non-occupationally exposed (P?occupationally exposed present the most significant association with HNC (OR?=?25.08, P?levels of blood Cr (OR?=?2.09) and high levels of blood Ni (OR?=?8.87) were strongly associated with HNC after other potential confounders were controlled (P?=?0.004 and P?

Khlifi, Rim; Olmedo, Pablo; Gil, Fernando; Feki-Tounsi, Molka; Chakroun, Amine; Rebai, Ahmed; Hamza-Chaffai, Amel

2013-04-28

17

Occupational exposure to antineoplastic agents induces a high level of chromosome damage. Lack of an effect of GST polymorphisms  

SciTech Connect

The aim of our study was to investigate whether occupational exposure to antineoplastic drugs (AND) resulted in genetic damage, possibly indicative of adverse health effects in the long term. We performed a chromosomal aberrations (CA) analysis in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) of a group of 76 trained nurses occupationally exposed to AND. Furthermore, we analysed whether genetic polymorphisms in four metabolic genes of the glutathione S-transferase (GST) family involved in antineoplastic drugs detoxification (GSTM1, GSTT1, GSTP1, GSTA1) had any effect on the yield of chromosomal aberrations in nurses exposed to antineoplastic agents. The exposed group showed a very significant increase of genetic damage (p < 0.0001) potentially indicative of an increased risk of cancer. Unexpectedly, besides the elevated level of chromatid-type aberrations usually related to exposure to chemical agents, we found also severe chromosome damages such as chromosome deletions and dicentric chromosomes, usually related to radiation exposure. No significant association was detected between all GSTs genotypes and chromosome damage. In conclusion, our data show how the occupational exposure to AND is associated to a potential cancer risk, suggesting that current prevention methods do not completely eliminate opportunities for exposure and supporting the need to improve the actual safety practices.

Testa, Antonella [Section of Toxicology and Biomedical Sciences, ENEA Research Center, Casaccia, Via Anguillarese 301, 00060, Rome (Italy)], E-mail: antonella.testa@casaccia.enea.it; Giachelia, Manuela; Palma, Selena; Appolloni, Massimo [Section of Toxicology and Biomedical Sciences, ENEA Research Center, Casaccia, Via Anguillarese 301, 00060, Rome (Italy); Padua, Luca [Fondazione Don Carlo Gnocchi, Via Maresciallo Caviglia 30, 00194, Rome (Italy); Tranfo, Giovanna; Spagnoli, Mariangela [Occupational Hygiene Department, Institute for Occupational Health and Safety, Rome (Italy); Tirindelli, Donatella [Section of Toxicology and Biomedical Sciences, ENEA Research Center, Casaccia, Via Anguillarese 301, 00060, Rome (Italy); Cozzi, Renata [Department of Biology, University of Rome 'Roma Tre', Viale Marconi 446, 00146, Rome (Italy)

2007-08-15

18

NATIONAL OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE SURVEY (NOES)  

EPA Science Inventory

From 1981 to 1983, NIOSH conducted the National Occupational Exposure Survey (NOES) that collected data on potential occupational exposures to chemical, physical, and biological agents. The survey involved on-site visits to 4,490 establishments in 522 industry types [OMB 1972] em...

19

Monitoring of zinc protoporphyrin levels in blood following occupational lead exposure  

SciTech Connect

The value of measurements of zinc protoporphyrin in blood (ZPP) in the surveillance of workers occupationally exposed to lead has been studied. From a group of referents, consisting of 1,088 men and 511 women, it has been established that the normal mean ZPP is in the region of 25 micrograms/100 ml, and only rarely do values exceed 45 micrograms/100 ml. The higher ZPP values are frequently associated with low blood hemoglobin concentrations and appear to be manifestations of an iron-deficiency anemia. Women have higher ZPP values than men; smoking has no influence. Measurements of ZPP and blood lead concentration (PbB) have been made every other month for 2.5 years on a group of around 200 men and 40 women exposed to lead in a storage battery factory. The mean ZPP of the group throughout the period was 70.9 micrograms/100 ml blood, and a linear relation between log ZPP and PbB in the PbB range of 10-80 micrograms/100 ml has been established. ZPP thresholds in the control of excessive occupational lead exposure, and the economic advantage of ZPP measurements over PbB, are discussed.

Wildt, K.; Berlin, M.; Isberg, P.E.

1987-01-01

20

Occupational exposure assessment using antibody levels: exposure to avian leukosis\\/sarcoma viruses in the poultry industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Avian leukosis\\/sarcoma viruses (ALSV) infect and cause cancers in chickens. Poultry workers are exposed to ALSV and other infectious agents in the workplace. This study examines if industrial hygiene assessment of antibody levels in poultry workers can identify risky job tasks at the higher exposure risk to an infectious agent, i.e., ALSV. We compared ALSV antibody levels in poultry workers

Kyung-Mee Choi; Eric S. Johnson

2011-01-01

21

Occupational exposure assessment using antibody levelsexposure to avian leukosis\\/sarcoma viruses in the poultry industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Avian leukosis\\/sarcoma viruses (ALSV) infect and cause cancers in chickens. Poultry workers are exposed to ALSV and other infectious agents in the workplace. This study examines if industrial hygiene assessment of antibody levels in poultry workers can identify risky job tasks at the higher exposure risk to an infectious agent, i.e., ALSV. We compared ALSV antibody levels in poultry workers

Kyung-Mee Choi; Eric S. Johnson

2011-01-01

22

Tissue levels of mercury determined in a deceased worker after occupational exposure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To examine mercury (Hg) and selenium (Se) levels in autopsy samples from a thermometer worker who had been exposed over a\\u000a long period to, and monitored for, mercury vapor. Case report: Hg and Se levels were determined using radiochemical neutron activation analysis in a worker who had commited suicide 4 weeks\\u000a after the end of 14 years of exposure

L. Barregård; G. Sällsten; N. Conradi

1999-01-01

23

Occupational Exposure to Organophosphate and Carbamate Pesticides Affects Sperm Chromatin Integrity and Reproductive Hormone Levels among Venezuelan Farm Workers.  

PubMed

Objectives: Several reports suggest that chronic pesticide exposure may affect semen quality and male fertility in humans. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between occupational exposure to organophosphate (OP) and carbamate (CB) pesticides and semen quality, as well as levels of reproductive and thyroid hormones of Venezuelan farm workers. Methods: Thirty-five healthy men (unexposed group) and 64 male agricultural workers (exposed group) were recruited for clinical evaluation of fertility status. Fresh semen samples were evaluated for sperm quality and analyzed for DNA fragmentation index (DFI) by flow cytometry. Pesticide exposure was assessed by measuring erythrocyte acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and plasma butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) with a Test-mate ChE field kit. Serum levels of total testosterone (Tt), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), prolactin (PRL), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and free thyroxine (FT4) were analyzed using enzyme immunoassay kits. Results: Evidence of pesticide exposure was found in 87.5% of farmers based on AChE and BuChE inhibition. Significant increments were observed in sperm DFI with significant decreases in some semen parameters. DFI was negatively correlated with BuChE, sperm concentration, morphology and vitality in these workers. The levels of Tt, PRL, FT4 and TSH appeared to be normal; however, there was a tendency for increased LH and FSH levels in exposed workers. Conclusions: Our results confirm the potential impact of chronic occupational exposure to OP/CB pesticides on male reproductive function, which may cause damage to sperm chromatin, decrease semen quality and produce alterations in reproductive hormones, leading to adverse reproductive health outcomes. PMID:23445617

Miranda-Contreras, Leticia; Gómez-Pérez, Roald; Rojas, Gerardo; Cruz, Ibis; Berrueta, Lisbeth; Salmen, Siham; Colmenares, Melisa; Barreto, Silvio; Balza, Alirio; Zavala, Leisalba; Morales, Yasmin; Molina, Yuri; Valeri, Lenin; Contreras, Carlos A; Osuna, Jesús A

2013-02-27

24

Monitoring occupational exposure to carcinogens.  

PubMed

32P-Postlabelling has been used for biomonitoring occupational exposure to complex mixtures of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in iron foundries, coke oven and aluminium plants and among roofers and surface-coating workers. Enhanced levels of aromatic DNA adducts have been detected in exposed populations in comparison to controls. Dose-related adduct formation has been found in iron foundry and coke-oven workers and roofers. The importance of longitudinal biomonitoring has been shown in two aluminium plants. Comparison between 32P-postlabelling and immunoassays revealed wide variations. DNA adduct levels obtained by the current methods should thus be regarded as relative values between individuals and control and exposure groups. PMID:8225504

Schoket, B

1993-01-01

25

Influence of occupational low-level lead exposure on renal parameters  

SciTech Connect

The influence of lead exposure on renal function was examined. In 155 lead workers and 126 control workers, lead in blood (PbB) and zinc protoporphyrin in blood (ZPP) were measured as indicators of exposure to lead; various proteins in urine were measured as parameters of renal functions. Regression and matched-pair analyses suggest that tubular parameters may be more influenced by lead exposure than glomerular parameters. Changes in renal function parameters may already occur at PbB levels below 3 mumol/liter (600 micrograms/liter). The excretion of N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase appears to be the most consistent and sensitive parameter of an early effect on the tubular function.

Verschoor, M.; Wibowo, A.; Herber, R.; van Hemmen, J.; Zielhuis, R.

1987-01-01

26

Occupational exposure and urological cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Occupational exposure is definitely a major cause of cancer. In the field of urology, the urinary bladder is the most important target. A classical cause of bladder cancer is exposure to carcinogenic aromatic amines, especially benzidine and ß-naphthylamine. Such exposures were related to work places in the chemical industry, implying production and processing of classical aromatic amines, and in the

Klaus Golka; Andreas Wiese; Giorgio Assennato; Hermann M. Bolt

2004-01-01

27

Sub-acute occupational hypersensitivity pneumonitis due to low-level exposure to diisocyanates in a secretary.  

PubMed

There is virtually no information in the literature about the exposure levels needed to induce hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) by diisocyanates. The present study reports a case of occupational HP due to diisocyanates after low-level exposure. A 53-yr-old female never-smoker developed progressive shortness of breath on exertion, cough, fatigue and flu-like symptoms shortly after she began work as a secretary of a car body repair shop. A diagnosis of HP was made 2 yrs later, based on a restrictive ventilatory defect, a reticulonodular and discrete ground-glass pattern on high-resolution computed tomography, lymphocytosis in bronchoalveolar lavage and specific immunoglobulin G antibodies to diisocyanate human serum albumin conjugates in the patient's serum. The diagnosis was confirmed by recovery after exposure cessation and deterioration after re-exposure. Ambient monitoring revealed air concentrations of different diisocyanate monomers below the detection limit in both the patient's work station and in front of the paint spray booths, with the exception of one measurement that showed 4,4-methylenediphenyl diisocyanate concentrations of 3 microg x m(-3) in front of one booth (corresponding to a total reactive isocyanate group concentration of 1 microg x m(-3)). The present authors conclude that concentrations of diisocyanates far below current exposure limits may induce hypersensitivity pneumonitis in susceptible subjects. PMID:18757705

Schreiber, J; Knolle, J; Sennekamp, J; Schulz, K T; Hahn, J U; Hering, K G; Raulf-Heimsoth, M; Merget, R

2008-09-01

28

Monitoring of zinc protoporphyrin levels in blood following occupational lead exposure  

Microsoft Academic Search

The value of measurements of zinc protoporphyrin in blood (ZPP) in the surveillance of workers occupationally exposed to lead has been studied. From a group of referents, consisting of 1,088 men and 511 women, it has been established that the normal mean ZPP is in the region of 25 micrograms\\/100 ml, and only rarely do values exceed 45 micrograms\\/100 ml.

Karl Wildt; Per Erik Isberg

1987-01-01

29

Occupational exposure and lung cancer  

PubMed Central

Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death for male and the second most usual cancer for women after breast cancer. Currently there are available several non-specific cytotoxic agents and several targeted agents for lung cancer therapy. However; early stage diagnosis is still unavailable and several efforts are being made towards this direction. Novel biomarkers are being investigated along with new biopsy techniques. The occupational and environmental exposure to carcinogenic agents is an everyday phenomenon. Therefore until efficient early diagnosis is available, avoidance of exposure to carcinogenic agents is necessary. In the current mini-review occupational and environmental carcinogenic agents will be presented.

Spyratos, Dionysios; Porpodis, Konstantinos; Tsakiridis, Kosmas; Machairiotis, Nikolaos; Katsikogiannis, Nikolaos; Kougioumtzi, Ioanna; Dryllis, Georgios; Kallianos, Anastasios; Rapti, Aggeliki; Li, Chen; Zarogoulidis, Konstantinos

2013-01-01

30

Occupational Exposure to Lead  

MedlinePLUS

... Headaches Stomachaches and cramps What is my employer's responsibility for lead in the workplace? The Lead Standard is a federal and state regulation (law) that requires employers to follow guidelines to protect workers from harmful lead exposure. An important part ...

31

Occupational cancer in Britain. Exposure assessment methodology.  

PubMed

To estimate the current occupational cancer burden due to past exposures in Britain, estimates of the number of exposed workers at different levels are required, as well as risk estimates of cancer due to the exposures. This paper describes the methods and results for estimating the historical exposures. All occupational carcinogens or exposure circumstances classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer as definite or probable human carcinogens and potentially to be found in British workplaces over the past 20-40 years were included in this study. Estimates of the number of people exposed by industrial sector were based predominantly on two sources of data, the CARcinogen EXposure (CAREX) database and the UK Labour Force Survey. Where possible, multiple and overlapping exposures were taken into account. Dose-response risk estimates were generally not available in the epidemiological literature for the cancer-exposure pairs in this study, and none of the sources available for obtaining the numbers exposed provided data by different levels of exposure. Industrial sectors were therefore assigned using expert judgement to 'higher'- and 'lower'-exposure groups based on the similarity of exposure to the population in the key epidemiological studies from which risk estimates had been selected. Estimates of historical exposure prevalence were obtained for 41 carcinogens or occupational circumstances. These include exposures to chemicals and metals, combustion products, other mixtures or groups of chemicals, mineral and biological dusts, physical agents and work patterns, as well as occupations and industries that have been associated with increased risk of cancer, but for which the causative agents are unknown. There were more than half a million workers exposed to each of six carcinogens (radon, solar radiation, crystalline silica, mineral oils, non-arsenical insecticides and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin); other agents to which a large number of workers are exposed included benzene, diesel engine exhaust and environmental tobacco smoke. The study has highlighted several industrial sectors with large proportions of workers potentially exposed to multiple carcinogens. The relevant available data have been used to generate estimates of the prevalence of past exposure to occupational carcinogens to enable the occupational cancer burden in Britain to be estimated. These data are considered adequate for the present purpose, but new data on the prevalence and intensity of current occupational exposure to carcinogens should be collected to ensure that future policy decisions be based on reliable evidence. PMID:22710674

Van Tongeren, Martie; Jimenez, Araceli S; Hutchings, Sally J; MacCalman, Laura; Rushton, Lesley; Cherrie, John W

2012-06-19

32

An overview of occupational benzene exposures and occupational exposure limits in Europe and North America.  

PubMed

Benzene has become one of the most intensely regulated substances in the world. Its ubiquitous use as a solvent has led to many working populations being exposed; in the early days often in uncontrolled conditions, leading to high exposures. Current occupational exposures are tightly controlled and are largely confined to workers in the petrochemical industry, vehicle mechanics, firefighters, workers exposed to automobile emissions, and some other occupational groups. Typically, occupational exposure levels are currently at or below 3.25 mg/m3 (1 ppm), and environmental exposures are typically below 50 microg/m3 (15 ppb). Smoking remains a significant source of exposure in both occupationally and non-occupationally exposed individuals. The early experiences of high occupational exposures led to the identification of haematopoietic effects of benzene and the need for improved control and regulation. As with most occupational standards, there has been a reduction in exposure limits as effects have been identified at ever-lower levels, accompanied by a societal concern for improved standards of occupational health. In 1946, the United States occupational exposure limit for benzene, promulgated by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, was 325 mg/m3 (100 ppm), but nowadays most European and North American countries have harmonised at 1.63-3.25mg/m3 (0.5-1 ppm). This latter figure was agreed within the European Union in 1997 and was adopted within national legislation by all Member States. The data on which this limit is set are essentially the same as those used by other standard-setting committees; this is an excellent example of how standards are set using science, pragmatism and societal values in the absence of complete information. PMID:15935799

Capleton, Alexander C; Levy, Leonard S

2005-04-18

33

Systematic Literature Review of Uses and Levels of Occupational Exposure to Tetrachloroethylene  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tetrachloroethylene has been one of the most widely used chlorinated solvents in the United States. This review provides a basis for tetrachloroethylene exposure assessment in population-based case-control studies. We performed literature searches in MEDLINE, TOXLINE, NIOSHTIC, and the NIOSH Health Hazard Evaluation databases using relevant search terms. We calculated weighted arithmetic means from the measurement data and compiled these into

Laura S. Gold; Anneclaire J. De Roos; Martha Waters; Patricia Stewart

2008-01-01

34

Safety standards for occupational exposure to dichloromethane  

SciTech Connect

The toxic effects of dichloromethane (DCM) are reviewed. Human dose-response data, tolerance levels, and the effects of physical exercise and smoking on DCM toxicity are reported. Finally, occupational exposure, current NIOSH (1976) recommendations, and the consequences of ill-health as they pertain to DCM in the workplace are discussed.

Skrabalak, D.S.; Babish, J.G.

1983-06-01

35

Reversal of aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) inhibition and reduction of erythrocyte protoporphyrin levels by Vitamin C in occupational lead exposure in Abeokuta, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to investigate the toxic effects of lead during occupational exposure to this metal, the activity of aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) and the concentrations of erythrocyte protoporphyrin (EPP) were determined in blood of various artisans in Abeokuta, Nigeria and these were related to blood lead levels. ALAD activity in the artisans was inhibited to varying extents. ALAD activity was

O. Ademuyiwa; R. N. Ugbaja; D. A. Ojo; A. O. Owoigbe; S. E. Adeokun

2005-01-01

36

Non-occupational exposure to silica dust.  

PubMed

Occupational exposure to silica occurs at workplaces in factories like quartz crushing facilities (silica flour milling), agate, ceramic, slate pencil, glass, stone quarries and mines, etc., Non-occupational exposure to silica dust can be from industrial sources in the vicinity of the industry as well as non-industrial sources. Recently, public concern regarding non-occupational or ambient exposure to crystalline silica has emerged making it important to gather information available on non-occupational exposures to silica dust and non-occupational silicosis. This paper reviews various non-occupational exposures reported in literature including some studies by the author. Methodology used in assessment of non-occupational exposures, standards for non-occupational exposures to silica dust and indirect estimation of cumulative risk % are also discussed. PMID:23776316

Bhagia, L J

2012-09-01

37

Non-occupational exposure to silica dust  

PubMed Central

Occupational exposure to silica occurs at workplaces in factories like quartz crushing facilities (silica flour milling), agate, ceramic, slate pencil, glass, stone quarries and mines, etc., Non-occupational exposure to silica dust can be from industrial sources in the vicinity of the industry as well as non-industrial sources. Recently, public concern regarding non-occupational or ambient exposure to crystalline silica has emerged making it important to gather information available on non-occupational exposures to silica dust and non-occupational silicosis. This paper reviews various non-occupational exposures reported in literature including some studies by the author. Methodology used in assessment of non-occupational exposures, standards for non-occupational exposures to silica dust and indirect estimation of cumulative risk % are also discussed.

Bhagia, L. J.

2012-01-01

38

Occupational radiation exposure: population studies.  

PubMed

Occupational exposure to ionizing radiation in the medical setting differs from the acute exposure received by survivors of atomic bomb blasts. Yet, atomic bomb survivors' disease and mortality outcomes have been the standard data source on the effects of ionizing radiation on humans. Therefore, the prevailing estimated risks of ionizing radiation may not apply to radiologic technologists and other medical radiation workers. Carefully designed epidemiological trials provide evidence that helps determine the strength of association between exposure and onset of disease in selected populations. This article reviews radiation effects, explains some basic design concepts of epidemiologic trials and surveys the epidemiology literature related to radiation exposure to humans, with special attention to radiology staff. PMID:15732889

Schleipman, A Robert

39

Total mercury levels in hair, toenail, and urine among women free from occupational exposure and their relations to renal tubular function  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate the relations among total mercury levels in hair, toenail, and urine, together with potential effects of methylmercury intake on renal tubular function, we determined their levels, and urinary N-acetyl-?-d-glucosaminidase activity (NAG) and ?1-microglobulin (AMG) in 59 women free from occupational exposures, and estimated daily mercury intakes from fish and other seafood using a food frequency questionnaire. Mercury levels

Tomoko Ohno; Mineshi Sakamoto; Tomoko Kurosawa; Miwako Dakeishi; Toyoto Iwata; Katsuyuki. Murata

2007-01-01

40

OCCUPATIONAL SILICA EXPOSURE AND CHRONIC KIDNEY DISEASE  

PubMed Central

Introduction Occupational exposure to silica may be associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Most studies have been conducted in occupational cohorts with high levels of exposure but small numbers of cases. We analyzed data from a population-based case-control study of occupational silica exposure and CKD. Methods Cases were hospital patients with newly diagnosed CKD and community controls were selected using random digit dialing and frequency matched by age, gender, race and proximity to the hospital. Silica exposure estimates were assigned by industrial hygiene review of lifetime job history data and weighted for certainty and intensity. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate the odds ratios (ORs) for CKD conditioned on demographic, lifestyle and clinical variables. Results The mean age of participants was 62 years (range, 30-83 years), 56% were male and 54% were white. Any silica exposure (compared to none) was associated with a 40% increased risk of CKD (OR=1.40, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.04, 1.89) in a multivariable adjusted model. The mean cumulative duration of silica exposure was significantly higher in exposed cases than in exposed controls (33.4 vs. 24.8 years, respectively). Overall, compared to non-exposed participants, the ORs (95% CI) for those below and above the median duration of silica exposure were 1.20 (95% CI: 0.77, 1.86) and 1.76 (95% CI: 1.14, 2.71), respectively. Conclusions We found a positive relationship between occupational silica exposure and CKD. A dose-response trend of increasing CKD risk with increasing duration of silica exposure was observed and was particularly strong among non-whites.

Vupputuri, Suma; Parks, Christine G.; Nylander-French, Leena A.; Owen-Smith, Ashli; Hogan, Susan L.; Sandler, Dale P.

2012-01-01

41

DOE occupational radiation exposure 1996 report  

SciTech Connect

The goal of the US Department of Energy (DOE) is to conduct its radiological operations to ensure the health and safety of all DOE employees including contractors and subcontractors. The DOE strives to maintain radiation exposures to its workers below administrative control levels and DOE limits and to further reduce these exposures and releases to levels that are ``As Low As Reasonably Achievable`` (ALARA). The DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report, 1996 provides summary and analysis of the occupational radiation exposure received by individuals associated with DOE activities. The DOE mission includes stewardship of the nuclear weapons stockpile and the associated facilities, environmental restoration of DOE and precursor agency sites, and energy research. Collective exposure at DOE has declined by 80% over the past decade due to a cessation in opportunities for exposure during the transition in DOE mission from weapons production to cleanup, deactivation and decommissioning, and changes in reporting requirements and dose calculation methodology. In 1996, the collective dose decreased by 10% from the 1995 value due to decreased doses at five of the seven highest-dose DOE sites. For 1996, these sites attributed the reduction in collective dose to the completion of several decontamination and decommissioning projects, reduced spent fuel storage activities, and effective ALARA practices. This report is intended to be a valuable tool for managers in their management of radiological safety programs and commitment of resources.

NONE

1996-12-31

42

Methyl isobutyl ketone and methyl ethyl ketone in urine as biological markers of occupational exposure to these solvents at low levels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. To examine whether unmetabolized methyl isobutyl ketone in urine is a useful marker of low-level occupational exposure to this ketone solvent, as is the case for methyl ethyl ketone. Methods. The study was conducted in the second half of a working week. In total, 27 furniture-making workers (19 men and eight women) and 11 non-exposed controls (six men and

T. Kawai; Z.-W. Zhang; A. Takeuchi; Y. Miyama; K. Sakamoto; K. Higashikawa; M. Ikeda

2003-01-01

43

Biologic interactions between smoking and occupational exposures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cigarette smoking is a major cause of cancer and lung disease in the U.S. population. The biological processes that underlie the response of the lung to cigarette smoke are important considerations for designing analyses of the effects of occupational exposures. Interactions between cigarette smoking and occupational exposures may occur through a combined effect on the mechanism of disease production, through

David M. Burns; John R. Froines; Murray E. Jarvik

1988-01-01

44

Toward WHO-recommended occupational exposure limits  

Microsoft Academic Search

The WHO Project on Recommended Health-based Limits in Occupational Exposure resulted in the development of occupational exposure limit (OEL) values for a few groups of widely used industrial chemicals. A comparative analysis of the WHO-recommended OEL and existing OEL in selected countries has been made. It was shown that in the OEL's development, there is need for harmonization of methodology,

M. I. Mikheev

1995-01-01

45

Occupational exposure to diesel engine exhaust: A literature review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diesel exhaust (DE) is classified as a probable human carcinogen. Aims were to describe the major occupational uses of diesel engines and give an overview of personal DE exposure levels and determinants of exposure as reported in the published literature. Measurements representative of personal DE exposure were abstracted from the literature for the following agents: elemental carbon (EC), particulate matter

Anjoeka Pronk; Joseph Coble; Patricia A Stewart

2009-01-01

46

DOE 2008 Occupational Radiation Exposure October 2009  

SciTech Connect

A major priority of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is to ensure the health, safety, and security of DOE employees, contractors, and subcontractors. The Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) provides the corporate-level leadership and strategic vision necessary to better coordinate and integrate health, safety, environment, security, enforcement, and independent oversight programs. One function that supports this mission is the DOE Corporate Operating Experience Program that provides collection, analysis, and dissemination of performance indicators, such as occupational radiation exposure information. This analysis supports corporate decision-making and synthesizes operational information to support continuous environment, safety, and health improvement across the DOE complex.

U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security

2009-10-01

47

Health-based recommended occupational exposure limits for ethyl acrylate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The experimental no effect level was 20 mg ethyl acrylate\\/m3. The exposure with slight effects was at 100 mg\\/m3. The real no effect level is between 20 and 100 mg\\/m3. Therefore an occupational exposure limit of 20 mg eth-acr\\/m3 TWA 8 hr is advised with \\

M. A. Maclaine Pont

1990-01-01

48

Parkinsonism and occupational exposure to pesticides  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVETo examine the risk of parkinsonism related to lifetime occupational exposure to pesticides among a cohort of men, mostly orchardists, in Washington State.METHODSAll 310 subjects in this study had previously participated in a cohort study of men occupationally exposed to pesticides. Subjects were given a structured neurological examination and completed a self administered questionnaire which elicited detailed information on pesticide

L S Engel; H Checkoway; M C Keifer; N S Seixas; W T Longstreth Jr; K C Scott; K Hudnell; W K Anger; R Camicioli

2001-01-01

49

Biologic interactions between smoking and occupational exposures  

SciTech Connect

Cigarette smoking is a major cause of cancer and lung disease in the U.S. population. The biological processes that underlie the response of the lung to cigarette smoke are important considerations for designing analyses of the effects of occupational exposures. Interactions between cigarette smoking and occupational exposures may occur through a combined effect on the mechanism of disease production, through an effect on the dose of the toxic substances that reach the target issue, or through an effect on the response of the lung to the toxic agents. Disease due to occupational exposures can occur in a similar pattern in both smokers and nonsmokers; however, as more complex interactions are examined, different responses to the same occupational exposure may be identified for smokers and nonsmokers. It is only through the successful intermingling of biologic information with epidemiologic data that these interactions can be fully examined. 66 references.

Burns, D.M.; Froines, J.R.; Jarvik, M.E.

1988-01-01

50

Therapeutic associated with occupational exposure to silica.  

PubMed

Occupational exposure to silica dust has been increasing the possible risk of varieties of pathologies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the protective activity of ethanolic extract of Glycyrrhiza glabra roots at doses of 500 and 1000 mg/kg, p.o., given for 7 days against the toxicity of SiO(2) nanoparticles (50mg/kg intraperitoneal for 6 weeks) in rats. Exposure to silica altered various respiratory and biochemical variables, including ALT, AST, albumin, urea, uric acid, creatinine, catalase, LPO and GSH. Treatments with G. glabra extract significantly improved antioxidant status towards control. Stone workers in the Gwalior region exposed to silica dust had higher prevalence of cough, wheezing and shortness of breath. Increased serum ACE level was noted in the silica exposed group. It is of immense need to monitor this problem for betterment of worker's health. PMID:22575538

Raghuvanshi, Suchita; Shrivastava, Sadhana; Johri, Sonia; Shukla, Sangeeta

2012-05-08

51

Occupational exposures and risk of pancreatic cancer.  

PubMed

The objective was to analyze the relationship between occupation (and specific occupational exposures) and risk of exocrine pancreatic cancer (EPC). We conducted a multicenter hospital-based case-control study in Eastern Spain. We included 161 incident cases of EPC (59.6% men, 94 with histological confirmation, of whom 80% had ductal adenocarcinoma). Cases were frequency-matched with 455 controls by sex, age and province of residence. Information was elicited using structured questionnaires. Occupations were coded according to the Spanish version of the International Standard Classification of Occupations 1988. Occupational exposure to a selection of carcinogenic substances was assessed with the Finnish Job-Exposure Matrix (FINJEM). Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated by multiple logistic regression, adjusting for sex, age, province, education, alcohol and smoking. A higher risk of EPC was associated with having worked as 'Miners, shotfirers, stone cutters and carvers', 'Machinery mechanics and fitters', 'Building trades workers' and 'Motor vehicle drivers' in men, 'Office Clerks' in women, and 'Waiters' in both sexes. Cases with ductal adenocarcinomas were more likely to have been exposed to chlorinated hydrocarbon solvents (OR = 4.1, 95% CI: 1.1-15.2, p-trend = 0.04). We also observed significant associations with exposure to 'synthetic polymer dust exposure' and 'ionizing radiation'. Suggestive increases in risk were observed for 'pesticides', 'diesel and gasoline engine exhaust', and 'hydrocarbon solvents'. Results support the hypothesis that occupational exposure to chlorinated hydrocarbon solvents is associated with exocrine pancreatic cancer. PMID:20640489

Santibañez, Miguel; Vioque, Jesús; Alguacil, Juan; de la Hera, Manuela García; Moreno-Osset, Eduardo; Carrato, Alfredo; Porta, Miquel; Kauppinen, Timo

2010-07-17

52

DOE occupational radiation exposure. Report 1992--1994  

SciTech Connect

The DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report, 1992-1994 reports occupational radiation exposures incurred by individuals at US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities from 1992 through 1994. This report includes occupational radiation exposure information for all DOE employees, contractors, subcontractors, and visitors. This information is analyzed and trended over time to provide a measure of the DOE`s performance in protecting its workers from radiation. Occupational radiation exposure at DOE has been decreasing over the past 5 years. In particular, doses in the higher dose ranges are decreasing, including the number of doses in excess of the DOE limits and doses in excess of the 2 rem Administrative Control Level (ACL). This is an indication of greater attention being given to protecting these individuals from radiation in the workplace.

NONE

1997-05-01

53

Occupational Exposure to Organophosphorous Compounds.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The terminal progress report reviews and summarizes work on occupational health hazards inherent in agricultural workplaces consequent to their treatment with organophosphate pesticides. The oxygen analogs of the organophosphothionate pesticides are readi...

R. C. Spear

1977-01-01

54

Total mercury levels in hair, toenail, and urine among women free from occupational exposure and their relations to renal tubular function.  

PubMed

To investigate the relations among total mercury levels in hair, toenail, and urine, together with potential effects of methylmercury intake on renal tubular function, we determined their levels, and urinary N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase activity (NAG) and alpha1-microglobulin (AMG) in 59 women free from occupational exposures, and estimated daily mercury intakes from fish and other seafood using a food frequency questionnaire. Mercury levels (mean+/-SD) in the women were 1.51+/-0.91 microg/g in hair, 0.59+/-0.32 microg/g in toenail, and 0.86+/-0.66 microg/g creatinine in urine; and, there were positive correlations among them (P<0.001). The daily mercury intake of 9.15+/-7.84 microg/day was significantly correlated with total mercury levels in hair, toenail, and urine (r=0.551, 0.537, and 0.604, P<0.001). Among the women, the NAG and AMG were positively correlated with both the daily mercury intake and mercury levels in hair, toenail, and urine (P<0.01); and, these relations were almost similar when using multiple regression analysis to adjust for possible confounders such as urinary cadmium (0.47+/-0.28 microg/g creatinine) and smoking status. In conclusion, mercury resulting from fish consumption can explain total mercury levels in hair, toenail, and urine to some degree (about 30%), partly through the degradation into the inorganic form, and it may confound the renal tubular effect of other nephrotoxic agents. Also, the following equation may be applicable to the population neither with dental amalgam fillings nor with occupational exposures: [hair mercury (microg/g)]=2.44x[toenail mercury (microg/g)]. PMID:16890218

Ohno, Tomoko; Sakamoto, Mineshi; Kurosawa, Tomoko; Dakeishi, Miwako; Iwata, Toyoto; Murata, Katsuyuki

2006-08-04

55

Total mercury levels in hair, toenail, and urine among women free from occupational exposure and their relations to renal tubular function  

SciTech Connect

To investigate the relations among total mercury levels in hair, toenail, and urine, together with potential effects of methylmercury intake on renal tubular function, we determined their levels, and urinary N-acetyl-{beta}-d-glucosaminidase activity (NAG) and {alpha}{sub 1}-microglobulin (AMG) in 59 women free from occupational exposures, and estimated daily mercury intakes from fish and other seafood using a food frequency questionnaire. Mercury levels (mean+/-SD) in the women were 1.51+/-0.91{mu}g/g in hair, 0.59+/-0.32{mu}g/g in toenail, and 0.86+/-0.66{mu}g/g creatinine in urine; and, there were positive correlations among them (P<0.001). The daily mercury intake of 9.15+/-7.84{mu}g/day was significantly correlated with total mercury levels in hair, toenail, and urine (r=0.551, 0.537, and 0.604, P<0.001). Among the women, the NAG and AMG were positively correlated with both the daily mercury intake and mercury levels in hair, toenail, and urine (P<0.01); and, these relations were almost similar when using multiple regression analysis to adjust for possible confounders such as urinary cadmium (0.47+/-0.28{mu}g/g creatinine) and smoking status. In conclusion, mercury resulting from fish consumption can explain total mercury levels in hair, toenail, and urine to some degree (about 30%), partly through the degradation into the inorganic form, and it may confound the renal tubular effect of other nephrotoxic agents. Also, the following equation may be applicable to the population neither with dental amalgam fillings nor with occupational exposures: [hair mercury ({mu}g/g)]=2.44x[toenail mercury ({mu}g/g)].

Ohno, Tomoko [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Akita University School of Medicine, 1-1-1 Hondo, Akita 010-8543 (Japan); Sakamoto, Mineshi [Department of Epidemiology, National Institute for Minamata Disease, Minamata 867-0008 (Japan); Kurosawa, Tomoko [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Akita University School of Medicine, 1-1-1 Hondo, Akita 010-8543 (Japan); Dakeishi, Miwako [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Akita University School of Medicine, 1-1-1 Hondo, Akita 010-8543 (Japan); Iwata, Toyoto [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Akita University School of Medicine, 1-1-1 Hondo, Akita 010-8543 (Japan); Murata, Katsuyuki [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Akita University School of Medicine, 1-1-1 Hondo, Akita 010-8543 (Japan)]. E-mail: winestem@med.akita-u.ac.jp

2007-02-15

56

Biological monitoring for mutagenic effects of occupational exposure to butadiene  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of biological markers in the evaluation of human exposure to hazardous agents has increased rapidly in recent years. Because 1,3-butadiene is a mutagenic carcinogen, existing occupational levels of exposure may be appropriately evaluated using somatic cell mutation as a biomarker. Previously, we have described a biomarker study of workers in a butadiene monomer plant (Ward et al., 1994).

Jonathan B. Ward; Marinel M. Ammenheuser; Elbert B. Whorton; William E. Bechtold; Karl T. Kelsey; Marvin S. Legator

1996-01-01

57

Effects of occupational lead exposure.  

PubMed

Fifty-three workers in a battery factory, 52 solderers in a television factory, and 50 embroidery workers (a reference group) were studied. The average air lead levels of the three workplaces were 0.578 mg/m3, 0.002 mg/m3, and 0.001 mg/m3, respectively. Adverse effects in terms of clinical manifestations and biochemical criteria were evident among the battery factory workers. A significant dose-response relationship existed between the toxic effects and the air lead levels. The solderers showed no apparent abnormalities in comparison with the embroidery workers. The early clinical manifestations were dysfunction of the central nervous system, indigestion, arthralgia, and myalgia in the extremities. A positive association was observed between the prevalence of fatigue, mild abdominal pain, and arthralgia and the blood lead (PbB), urinary lead (PbU), and zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) levels. The symptomatic threshold values of PbB, PbU, and ZPP were 30 micrograms/dl (1.5 mumol/l), 0.045 mg/l (0.2 mumol/l), and 40 micrograms/dl (0.7 mumol/l), respectively. The PbB, PbU, free erythrocyte protoporphyrin, and ZPP levels and the blood aminolevulinic dehydratase ratio could be used as indicators of lead exposure, although ZPP is preferred for a preventive monitoring program. The motor and sensory conduction velocities of the median nerve were slower in the exposed groups than in the reference group. No effects on behavioral function were observed among the solderers. PMID:3832431

Wang, Y L; Lu, P K; Chen, Z Q; Liang, Y X; Lu, Q M; Pan, Z Q; Shao, M

1985-01-01

58

Paternal occupational exposures and childhood cancer.  

PubMed Central

The objective of the study described here was to test the hypothesis that paternal occupational exposure near conception increases the risk of cancer in the offspring. We conducted a cohort study based on a population of 235,635 children born shortly after two different censuses in Sweden. The children were followed from birth to 14 years, and cases of cancer were identified in the Swedish Cancer Registry. Occupational hygienists assessed the probability of exposure to different agents in each combination of the father's industry and occupation as reported in the censuses. We also analyzed individual job titles. We compared the cancer incidence among children of exposed fathers to that among children of unexposed fathers using Cox proportional hazards modeling. The main findings were an increased risk of nervous system tumors related to paternal occupational exposure to pesticides [relative risk (RR) = 2.36; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.27-4.39] and work as a painter (RR = 3.65; 95% CI, 1.71-7.80), and an increased risk of leukemia related to wood work by fathers (RR = 2.18; 95% CI, 1.26-3.78). We found no associations between childhood leukemia and paternal exposure to pesticides or paint. Our results support previous findings of an increased risk of childhood brain tumors and leukemia associated with certain paternal occupational exposures. Some findings in previous studies were not confirmed in this study.

Feychting, M; Plato, N; Nise, G; Ahlbom, A

2001-01-01

59

Occupational exposures and risk of acoustic neuroma  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesAcoustic neuroma is a benign tumour accounting for approximately 6–10% of all intracranial tumours and occurs mainly in patients aged ?50 years. Our aim was to investigate a wide range of occupational exposures, individual occupational titles and socioeconomic status (SES) as potential risk factors for acoustic neuroma.MethodsWe conducted a population-based case–control study of 793 acoustic neuroma cases identified through the

Michaela Prochazka; Maria Feychting; Anders Ahlbom; Colin G Edwards; Gun Nise; Nils Plato; Judith A Schwartzbaum; Ulla M Forssén

2010-01-01

60

Occupational exposure to radiofrequency fields in antenna towers.  

PubMed

Exposure of workers to radiofrequency fields was assessed in two medium-sized antenna towers. Towers had transmitting antennas from different networks, e.g. mobile phone networks, radio and digital TV sub-stations and amateur radio. The levels of radiofrequency fields were measured close to the ladders of the towers. All measured values were below ICNIRP occupational reference levels. PMID:17166878

Alanko, T; Hietanen, M

2006-12-13

61

An investigation of occupational metal exposure in thermal spraying processes.  

PubMed

A cross-sectional study of 34 workers engaged in thermal spraying at six worksites was undertaken in order to determine levels of exposure to and uptake of metals during different metal spraying activities. Levels of exposure to cobalt, chromium and nickel were highest in plasma sprayers and, on occasions exceeded UK Occupational Exposure Limits. Exposure to metals during detonation gun and electric arc spraying was better controlled and levels remained below the relevant Occupational Exposure Limits throughout the study period. Urinary levels of cobalt and nickel mirrored the airborne concentrations and the highest urine concentrations were again found in plasma sprayers. Urinary chromium levels were highest in electric arc sprayers, which may also reflect an increased body burden in this group due to a longer history of exposure. The findings clearly indicate that exposure to and uptake of metals may exceed UK Occupational Limits or Standards when spraying is performed manually or semi-automatically and where control relies on local exhaust ventilation (LEV) and personal respiratory protective equipment (RPE). PMID:9200854

Chadwick, J K; Wilson, H K; White, M A

1997-06-20

62

Health risk assessment in occupational EMF exposure  

Microsoft Academic Search

In our study we tried to evaluate the health estate of physiotherapists in relationship with occupational exposure. EMF measurements were made in workplaces, we applied special questionnaires, performed micronucleus test from lymfocytes, and urinary thioethers assay. The results were compared to those of a control group by statistical analytical methods like logistic regression. We found an overexposure of this profession

D. C. Dabala; Didi Surcel; Csaba Szanto

2009-01-01

63

Paternal Occupational Exposures and Childhood Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the study described here was to test the hypothesis that paternal occupational exposure near conception increases the risk of cancer in the offspring. We conducted a cohort study based on a population of 235,635 children born shortly after two different censuses in Sweden. The children were followed from birth to 14 years, and cases of cancer were

Maria Feychting; Nils Plato; Gun Nise; Anders Ahlbom

2001-01-01

64

Parental Occupational Exposures and Autism Spectrum Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Both self-report and industrial hygienist (IH) assessed parental occupational information were used in this pilot study in which 174 families (93 children with ASD and 81 unaffected children) enrolled in the Childhood Autism Risks from Genetics and Environment study participated. IH results indicated exposures to lacquer, varnish, and xylene…

McCanlies, Erin C.; Fekedulegn, Desta; Mnatsakanova, Anna; Burchfiel, Cecil M.; Sanderson, Wayne T.; Charles, Luenda E.; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva

2012-01-01

65

MINIMIZING OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE TO PESTICIDES: PERSONNEL MONITORING  

EPA Science Inventory

This communication is presented with two objectives in mind. The first objective is to provide an introduction to personnel monitoring of occupational exposure to pesticides for those who are not familiar with this field of investigation. The second objective is to stimulate disc...

66

Occupational exposure to hexavalent chromium. Final rule.  

PubMed

The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) is amending the existing standard which limits occupational exposure to hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)). OSHA has determined based upon the best evidence currently available that at the current permissible exposure limit (PEL) for Cr(VI), workers face a significant risk to material impairment of their health. The evidence in the record for this rulemaking indicates that workers exposed to Cr(VI) are at an increased risk of developing lung cancer. The record also indicates that occupational exposure to Cr(VI) may result in asthma, and damage to the nasal epithelia and skin. The final rule establishes an 8-hour time-weighted average (TWA) exposure limit of 5 micrograms of Cr(VI) per cubic meter of air (5 [mu]g/cu m). This is a considerable reduction from the previous PEL of 1 milligram per 10 cubic meters of air (1 mg/10 cu m, or 100 [mu]g/cu m) reported as CrO3, which is equivalent to a limit of 52 [mu]g/cu m as Cr(VI). The final rule also contains ancillary provisions for worker protection such as requirements for exposure determination, preferred exposure control methods, including a compliance alternative for a small sector for which the new PEL is infeasible, respiratory protection, protective clothing and equipment, hygiene areas and practices, medical surveillance, recordkeeping, and start-up dates that include four years for the implementation of engineering controls to meet the PEL. The final standard separately regulates general industry, construction, and shipyards in order to tailor requirements to the unique circumstances found in each of these sectors. The PEL established by this rule reduces the significant risk posed to workers by occupational exposure to Cr(VI) to the maximum extent that is technologically and economically feasible. PMID:16528853

2006-02-28

67

Prevention of occupational allergy caused by exposure to acid anhydrides.  

PubMed

This paper focuses on the prevention of IgE-mediated symptoms of the eyes and airways caused by exposure to acid anhydrides in the workplace. Acid anhydrides are widely used in the production of alkyd resins and as curing agents for epoxy resins. Heavy exposure to acid anhydrides causes severe irritation. However, reports of direct irritation of mucous membranes or skin are rare in recent years, since a package of multiple engineering controls has been introduced to reduce exposure. On the other hand, acid anhydrides are well-known industrial inhalant sensitizers and can cause occupational allergy even at very low exposure intensities. Therefore, safe use in industry demands both control of the level of exposure causing allergic diseases in the workshop and programmes for prevention of occupational allergy. PMID:10441899

Yokota, K; Takeshita, T; Morimoto, K

1999-07-01

68

Criteria for a Recommended Standard-Occupational Exposure to Chloroform.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

NIOSH recommendations for an occupational exposure standard for chloroform include: air concentration, air sampling and analysis, medical examinations, posting areas in which there is occupational exposure to chloroform, personal protective equipment, inf...

1974-01-01

69

Occupational exposure to environmental tobacco smoke and health risk assessment.  

PubMed Central

This article addresses concepts of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure assessment relevant for health risk assessment based on human studies. We present issues that should be considered when selecting a method for ETS exposure assessment for the purposes of health risk assessment and review data on ETS exposure levels in the workplace and in home environments. Two types of estimates are needed for a quantitative risk assessment of the health effects resulting from occupational ETS exposure: (italic)a(/italic)) an unbiased estimate of the exposure-effect (or dose-response) relation between ETS and the health effect of interest, and (italic)b(/italic)) estimates of the distribution of ETS exposure in different workplaces. By combining the estimated exposure-effect relation with information on exposure distribution for a population of interest, we can calculate the proportions of disease cases attributable to occupational ETS exposure as well as the excess number of cases due to specified exposure conditions. Several dimensions of the exposure profile should be considered when assessing ETS exposure for estimating the exposure-effect relation, including the magnitude of exposure and the biologically relevant time specificity of exposure. The magnitude of exposure is determined by the ETS source strength, environmental factors modifying concentrations, and duration of exposure. Time specificity considerations include the latency period for each health outcome of interest, the time-exposure profile relevant for different disease mechanisms, and the sensitive age period with regard to health effects. The most appropriate indicator of ETS exposure depends on these factors and on the time period that can be assessed with different methods. Images Figure 1 Figure 3 Figure 4

Jaakkola, M S; Samet, J M

1999-01-01

70

Health-based recommended occupational exposure limit for dimethylamine  

Microsoft Academic Search

18 mg\\/m3 is an adverse effect level, causing minimal local (no systemic) effects in rats and mice. To take this into account a safety factor of 10 is applied which results in a recommended occupational exposure limit of 1.8 mg\\/m3 (1 ppm) TWA 8 h for DMA.

M. A. Maclaine Pont

1991-01-01

71

Adenocarcinoma of the stomach and exposure to occupational dust  

SciTech Connect

The authors studied 1342 cases of adenocarcinoma of the stomach identified by a population-based cancer registry in Los Angeles County, California. The cases were males aged 20-64 years first diagnosed between 1972 and 1982. To determine whether exposure to occupational dust increased the risk of developing stomach cancer, occupational titles were rated for the likelihood of exposure to various kinds of dust. Men who worked in dusty jobs had a risk for developing stomach cancer 1.3 times that of unexposed men. The association of exposure to dust with stomach cancer was stronger at higher levels of exposure. The risk was not uniform throughout the stomach: the highest risk (1.8 times that of unexposed men) was found for the antrum/pylorus. At that site, exposure to mineral dust carried the greatest risk for cancer (3.7 times the risk for unexposed men). The highest risks from dust exposure were observed in blacks. Risk was related to race, socioeconomic status, and immigrant status, but these factors did not entirely explain the association with dust exposure. The observed relation between dust exposure and stomach cancer is consistent with results of previous mortality and case-control studies of cancer in men who worked in dusty occupations. Ingested dust may be one factor in the etiology of adenocarcinoma of the stomach.

Wright, W.E.; Bernstein, L.; Peters, J.M.; Garabrant, D.H.; Mack, T.M.

1988-07-01

72

Parkinsonism and occupational exposure to pesticides  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE—To examine the risk of parkinsonism related to lifetime occupational exposure to pesticides among a cohort of men, mostly orchardists, in Washington State.?METHODS—All 310 subjects in this study had previously participated in a cohort study of men occupationally exposed to pesticides. Subjects were given a structured neurological examination and completed a self administered questionnaire which elicited detailed information on pesticide (insecticide, herbicide, and fungicide) use throughout their working careers. Demographic characteristics were also sought. Subjects had a mean age of 69.6 years (range 49-96, SD 8.1). There were 238 (76.8%) subjects who reported some occupational exposure to pesticides, whereas 72 (23.2%) reported none. Parkinsonism was defined by the presence of two or more of rest tremor, rigidity, bradykinesia, and impairment of postural reflexes in subjects not on antiparkinsonian medication, or the presence of at least one sign if they were on such medication. Parkinson's disease was not studied explicitly because of the difficulty in distinguishing it from other parkinsonian syndromes. A generalised linear model was used to estimate prevalence ratios (PRs) for parkinsonism relative to history of farming, pesticide use, and use of well water.?RESULTS—A PR of 2.0 (95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.0 to 4.2) was found for subjects in the highest tertile of years of exposure to pesticides; a similarly increased, non-significant, PR was found for the middle tertile (1.9 (95% CI 0.9 to 4.0)), although a trend test did not show a significant exposure-response relation. No increased risks were found associated with specific pesticides or pesticide classes, nor with a history of farming or use of well water.?CONCLUSION—Parkinsonism may be associated with long term occupational exposure to pesticides, although no associations with specific pesticides could be detected. This finding is consistent with most of the publications on this topic.???Keywords: farmer; parkinsonism; pesticides

Engel, L; Checkoway, H; Keifer, M; Seixas, N; Longstreth, W; Scott, K; Hudnell, K; Anger, W; Camicioli, R

2001-01-01

73

Occupational mercury exposure and male reproductive health  

SciTech Connect

This retrospective cohort study was designed to investigate the relationship of male occupational exposure to elemental mercury and several reproductive outcomes. All subjects worked at least 4 months between 1953 and 1966 at a plant that used elemental mercury; 247 white male employees who had the highest exposures were compared to 255 matched nonexposed employees. Individual exposure to mercury was estimated from urinary mercury measurement records. Information on reproductive history and potential confounding variables was obtained through personal interview with each of the employees and with a subset of their wives. No associations were demonstrated between mercury exposure and decreased fertility or increased rates of major malformations or serious childhood illnesses. After controlling for previous miscarriage history, mercury exposure was not a significant risk factor for miscarriage. Because of this study's potential problems with long-term recall, further studies of the effect of mercury on pregnancy outcome are warranted in other populations.

Alcser, K.H.; Brix, K.A.; Fine, L.J.; Kallenbach, L.R.; Wolfe, R.A.

1989-01-01

74

Simultaneous occupational exposure to FM and UHF transmitters.  

PubMed

Occupational exposure caused by large broadcasting transmitters exceeds current reference levels. As it is common for different radio and TV transmitters to share the location, we analysed combined exposure on a 40-m high mast. The frequency modulation (FM) transmitter, located between the 10th and 30th metre, had the power of 25 kW, whereas an ultra-high frequency (UHF) transmitter of 5 kW occupied the top 8 m of the mast. Measured and calculated values of the electric field strength exceeded the reference levels up to 10 times; however, the results for the specific absorption rate (SAR) values show that the reference levels are very conservative for FM exposure, i.e., basic restrictions are not exceeded even when the reference levels are exceeded 10 times. However, for UHF exposure the reference levels are not conservative; they give a good prediction of real exposure. PMID:22721535

Vali?, Blaž; Kos, Bor; Gajšek, Peter

2012-01-01

75

Magnetic-field Exposures in the Workplace: Reference Distribution and Exposures in Occupational Groups.  

PubMed

Exposures to extremely-low-frequency magnetic fields were assessed by taking personal measurements with a dosimeter calibrated at 50 Hz with a bandwidth of 40-400 Hz. The study group was a population-based random sample of 1,098 Swedish men. Exposures were determined as workday mean, median, maximum, and standard deviation, and the time fraction of the day when exposures exceeded 0.20 µT. For workday means, the 50th percentile was 0.17 µT, and the 75th percentile was 0.27 µT. For median values, the 50th percentile was 0.11 µT and the 75th percentile was 0.16 µT. The strongest correlation (Spearman rank correlation = r&infs;) found was between the workday mean and the fraction of time above 0.20 µT (r&infs; = 0.89). The authors used the same data to estimate exposures for the 100 most common occupations according to the 1990 Swedish census. A minimum of four independent measurements for each occupation was required. Among occupations with low workday mean values were earth-moving machine operator, health care worker, and concrete worker. Among occupations with high workday mean exposures were welder and electrical or electronics engineer or technician. High exposure levels were also found in occupations outside the study base, such as train engine driver and glass, ceramic, or brick worker. Exposures to magnetic fields vary widely, since levels of exposure are strongly affected by factors such as duration of exposure and distance from the source. Large variations often found between individuals within occupations could reflect variations in tasks across different workdays for the particular occupations and/or local conditions such as tools and installations, and/or how the work is organized and performed. PMID:9933877

Floderus; Persson; Stenlund

1996-07-01

76

Overview of occupational exposure to electric and magnetic fields and cancer: advancements in exposure assessment.  

PubMed Central

For over ten years, there has been concern with the potential for increased risk of cancer among "electrical workers." In contrast to studies of residential exposure to magnetic fields, occupational studies include electric and magnetic field exposures and have much greater variability in field intensity, frequency, and temporal patterns. Studies of leukemia in electrical workers show a moderate consistency, with elevated risk ratios of 1.2 to 2.0 commonly observed. Brain tumors are similarly elevated with some consistency, and three recent studies have suggested increased risk of male breast cancer. Retrospective exposure assessment methods were advanced in recent studies of diverse occupations in a study in central Sweden, which yielded evidence of increased risk of chronic lymphocytic leukemia among men in more highly exposed occupations. A study of telephone workers in New York State incorporated measurements and found some indication of increased leukemia risk only when exposures were based on historical technology. Utility workers in southern California were studied and found not to have increased risks of leukemia and brain cancer based on exposures estimated with measurements. An ongoing study of electric utility workers at five companies in the United States incorporates an extensive measurement protocol. Randomly selected workers within occupational categories wore a time-integrating magnetic-field meter to provide estimates of exposure for the occupational category. We were able to estimate and partition the variance into between-day (the largest contributor), within occupational categories, and between occupational categories. Principal research needs concern optimal levels of worker aggregation for exposure assignment, historical extrapolation, study of diverse work environments, and integration of residential and occupational exposure in the same study.

Savitz, D A

1995-01-01

77

Overview of occupational exposure to electric and magnetic fields and cancer: Advancements in exposure assessment  

SciTech Connect

For over ten years, there has been concern with the potential for increased risk of cancer among {open_quotes}electrical workers.{close_quotes} In contrast to studies of residential exposure to magnetic fields, occupational studies include electric and magnetic field exposures and have much greater variability in field intensity, frequency, and temporal patterns. Studies of leukemia in electrical workers show a moderate consistency, with elevated risk ratios of 1.2 to 2.0 commonly observed. Brain tumors are similarly elevated with some consistency, and three recent studies have suggested increased risk of male breast cancer. Retrospective exposure assessment methods were advanced in recent studies of diverse occupations in a study in central Sweden, which yielded evidence of increased risk of chronic lymphocytic leukemia among men in more highly exposed occupations. A study of telephone workers in New York State incorporated measurements and found some indication of increased leukemia risk only when exposures were based on historical technology. Utility workers in southern California were studied and found not to have increased risks of leukemia and brain cancer based on exposures estimated with measurements. An ongoing study of electric utility workers at five companies in the United States incorporates an extensive measurement protocol. Randomly selected workers within occupational categories wore a time integrating magnetic-field meter to provide estimates of exposure for the occupational category. We were able to estimate and partition the variance into between-day (the largest contributor), within occupational categories, and between occupational categories. Principal research needs concern optimal levels of worker aggregation for exposure assignment, historical extrapolation, study of diverse work environments, and integration of residential and occupational exposure in the same study. 19 refs., 1 tab.

Savitz, D.A. [Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States)

1995-03-01

78

Occupational exposure to environmental tobacco smoke  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES--To measure occupational exposures to environmental tobacco smoke in diverse settings, including offices and production areas, and to evaluate the effectiveness of policies that restrict or ban smoking in the workplace.\\u000aDESIGN--Survey. The average weekly concentration of environmental tobacco smoke was measured with passive monitors that sample nicotine. Approximately 25 samples were placed in each worksite for 1 week.\\u000aSETTING--Twenty-five

S. Katharine Hammond; Glorian Sorensen; Richard Youngstrom; Judith K. Ockene

1995-01-01

79

Soft tissue sarcoma and occupational exposures  

SciTech Connect

The associations between soft tissue sarcoma (STS) and occupational exposures were studied in a case-referent study in the southeast of Sweden. Exposure information was obtained through mailed questionnaires to 96 cases, 450 randomly selected population referents, and 200 cancer referents. Odds ratios (OR), were calculated for various occupational groups, and particularly, for occupations with potential exposure to chlorinated phenoxy herbicides and chlorophenols. In the analyses based on population referents, increased risks for soft tissue sarcoma were seen for especially gardeners (OR = 4.1), but also railroad workers (OR = 3.1); construction workers with exposure to impregnating agents (OR = 2.3), asbestos (OR = 1.8), or pressure impregnating agents (OR = 1.7); and unspecified chemical workers with potential exposure to phenoxy herbicides and/or chlorophenols (OR = 1.6). A similar pattern appeared when cancer referents were used although the numerical values of the odds ratios became different. A grouping of jobs resulted in Mantel-Haensel OR from 1.5 to 1.9 for farmers and forestry workers, dependent on referents used and even more increased OR for railroad workers and unspecified chemical workers with potential exposure to phenoxy herbicides and chlorophenols. The results of the study confirm rather than refute that phenoxy herbicides and chlorophenols could be of etiologic importance for STS; the high risk for gardeners, although based on a small number of individuals, was unexpected and remains unclear. Also, since other cancers were used as referents, no definite problems of recall bias should obtain in this material. None of the exposed groups had a higher proportion of smokers than the unexposed group.

Wingren, G.; Fredrikson, M.; Brage, H.N.; Nordenskjoeld, B.A.; Axelson, O. (University Hospital, Linkoeping (Sweden))

1990-08-15

80

Validation of the end-expired method for measuring carboxyhaemoglobin levels for the use in occupational and environmental exposure studies.  

PubMed

Carbon monoxide is one of the most common toxins encountered in work settings, the gas being emitted in situations where there is incomplete combustion of carbon-containing substances. Its acute and chronic health effects have been well-documented. While identification of dangerous situations and evaluation of control measures are conducted by environmental monitoring, the body burden due to inhalation of carbon monoxide is measured by an individual's blood carboxyhaemoglobin level. Carboxyhaemoglobin level can be measured directly from a blood sample or, indirectly, by measuring the end-expired carbon monoxide level and using the charts provided to read the corresponding carboxyhaemoglobin level. As the end-expired method is not an intervention method, and is therefore easy to conduct, it is being used widely in epidemiological studies and it could also be used for individual measurements. This study presents a better statistical method for validating the end-expired method than the correlation method used and described in previous studies. PMID:10451586

Wickramatillake, H D

1999-01-01

81

Neurotoxic effects of occupational exposure to organotins  

SciTech Connect

The authors gave 22 chemical workers neurological, psychiatric, and neuropsychological examinations and placed them in one of two groups according to their degree of exposure to trimethyltin chloride spillage during January 1978. Other chemicals to which they had been exposed were dimethyltin dichloride and methyl chloride. Specific and nonspecific symptoms of intoxication of the CNS showed a significantly greater frequency in the highly exposed group, including cycles of depression and destructive rage, each lasting a few hours. These observations should alert diagnosticians to this type of occupational exposure.

Ross, W.D.; Emmett, E.A.; Steiner, J.; Tureen, R.

1981-08-01

82

[Subacute hypersensitivity pneumonitis after occupational mold exposure].  

PubMed

Mold-induced hypersensitivity pneumonitis is a rare and usually slowly progressing disorder. Therefore, the diagnosis and etiological investigations may be challenging and may often cause delay, despite the fact that early diagnosis and avoidance of the disease inducing agent are essential for the management of the disease. When appropriately treated, hypersensitivity pneumonitis is usually a relatively benign disorder. Irreversible pulmonary fibrosis may develop in cases of prolonged exposure. The disorder is considered as an occupational disease if the sufficient exposure occurs at workplace. PMID:23786111

Eerikäinen, Johanna; Nynäs, Pia; Uitti, Jukka

2013-01-01

83

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and occupational exposure to silica.  

PubMed

Prolonged exposure to high levels of silica has long been known to cause silicosis This paper evaluates the evidence for an increased risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in occupations and industries in which exposure to crystalline silica is the primary exposure, with a focus on the magnitude of risks and levels of exposure causing disabling health effects. The literature suggests consistently elevated risks of developing COPD associated with silica exposure in several occupations, including the construction industry; tunneling; cement industry; brick manufacturing; pottery and ceramic work; silica sand, granite and diatomaceous earth industries; gold mining; and iron and steel founding, with risk estimates being high in some, even after taking into account the effect of confounders like smoking. Average dust levels vary from about 0.5 mg.m3 to over 10 mg.m3 and average silica levels from 0.04 to over 5 mg.m3, often well above occupational standards. Factors influencing the variation from industry to industry in risks associated with exposure to silica-containing dusts include (a) the presence of other minerals in the dust, particularly when associated with clay minerals; (b) the size of the particles and percentage of quartz; (c) the physicochemical characteristics, such as whether the dust is freshly fractured. Longitudinal studies suggest that loss of lung function occurs with exposure to silica dust at concentrations of between 0.1 and 0.2 mg.m3, and that the effect of cumulative silica dust exposure on airflow obstruction is independent of silicosis. Nevertheless, a disabling loss of lung function in the absence of silicosis would not occur until between 30 and 40 years exposure. PMID:18351226

Rushton, Lesley

84

Occupational exposure of UK adults to extremely low frequency magnetic fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background:Occupational exposure to extremely low frequency (ELF) magnetic fields (MF) in the UK general population is poorly documented.Aims:To assess levels of occupational exposure to ELF MF in the UK and evaluate the use of a rigid job-exposure matrix (JEM) to assign exposures to subjects in the UK Adult Brain Tumour Study (UKABTS).Methods:Personal ELF MF measurements were carried out. Exposure traces

T Mee; P Whatmough; L Broad; C Dunn; M Maslanyj; S Allen; K Muir; P A McKinney; M van Tongeren

2009-01-01

85

Occupational exposure to DDT among mosquito control sprayers  

SciTech Connect

DDT, a broad action insecticide whose use is restricted or banned in most industrialized countries is still often used for vector control in many tropical and developing countries. Despite the fact that DDT is accumulative and persistant in the ecosystem use of such substitutes as malathion or propoxur is not popular because these increases costs by 3.4 to 8.5 fold. As such DDT is economically attractive to poorer countries. As far as can be ascertained no systemic poisoning has resulted from occupational exposure to DDT. Due to the large particle size, the amount of DDT inhaled by workers is far less than the amount reaching exposed portions of skin. As such occupational exposure is mainly dermal or tropical. Occupational exposure to DDT studies have been done before. The present study is an analysis of some characteristics, (i.e. age, body size, relationship between plasma vitamin A and DDE levels, and smoking habits), of occupational exposure to DDT among spraymen in a Zimbabwe population.

Nhachi, C.F.B.; Kasilo, O.J. (Univ. of Zimbabwe, Harare (Zimbabwe))

1990-08-01

86

Occupational exposure to crystalline silica and autoimmune disease.  

PubMed Central

Occupational exposure to silica dust has been examined as a possible risk factor with respect to several systemic autoimmune diseases, including scleroderma, rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and some of the small vessel vasculitidies with renal involvement (e.g., Wegener granulomatosis). Crystalline silica, or quartz, is an abundant mineral found in sand, rock, and soil. High-level exposure to respirable silica dust can cause chronic inflammation and fibrosis in the lung and other organs. Studies of specific occupational groups with high-level silica exposure (e.g., miners) have shown increased rates of autoimmune diseases compared to the expected rates in the general population. However, some clinic- and population-based studies have not demonstrated an association between silica exposure and risk of autoimmune diseases. This lack of effect may be due to the limited statistical power of these studies to examine this association or because the lower- or moderate-level exposures that may be more common in the general population were not considered. Experimental studies demonstrate that silica can act as an adjuvant to nonspecifically enhance the immune response. This is one mechanism by which silica might be involved in the development of autoimmune diseases. Given that several different autoimmune diseases may be associated with silica dust exposure, silica dust may act to promote or accelerate disease development, requiring some other factor to break immune tolerance or initiate autoimmunity. The specific manifestation of this effect may depend on underlying differences in genetic susceptibility or other environmental exposures.

Parks, C G; Conrad, K; Cooper, G S

1999-01-01

87

Occupational and recreational noise exposure from indoor arena hockey games.  

PubMed

Occupational and recreational noise exposures were evaluated at two sporting arenas hosting collegiate hockey games (Venue 1) and semi-professional hockey (Venue 2). A total of 54 personal noise dosimetry samples were taken over the course of seven home hockey games: 15 workers and 9 fans at Venue 1, and 19 workers and 11 fans at Venue 2. None of the sampled workers were overexposed to noise based on Occupational Safety and Health Administration criteria. However, 40% and 57% of workers at Venue 1 and 33% and 91% of fans at Venue 2 were overexposed based on ACGIH noise exposure criteria. Noise exposures for fans were significantly different between venues, but worker noise exposures between venues were not significantly different. In addition, extensive area noise monitoring was conducted at each venue to further characterize the stadium noise on a location-by-location basis. Mean equivalent sound pressure levels ranged from 81 to 96 dBA at Venue 1 and from 85 to 97 dBA at Venue 2. Mean noise peak levels ranged from 105 to 124 dBA at Venue 1, and from 110 to 117 dBA at Venue 2. These data reflect the potential for overexposure at indoor hockey events and are useful in characterizing occupational noise exposure of indoor arena support staff and may also provide a foundation for future noise control research in indoor sports arenas. PMID:23145529

Cranston, Cory J; Brazile, William J; Sandfort, Delvin R; Gotshall, Robert W

2013-01-01

88

Occupational exposure to diesel engine exhaust: a literature review.  

PubMed

Diesel exhaust (DE) is classified as a probable human carcinogen. Aims were to describe the major occupational uses of diesel engines and give an overview of personal DE exposure levels and determinants of exposure as reported in the published literature. Measurements representative of personal DE exposure were abstracted from the literature for the following agents: elemental carbon (EC), particulate matter (PM), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxide (NO), and nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)). Information on determinants of exposure was abstracted. In total, 3528 EC, 4166 PM, 581 CO, 322 NO, and 1404 NO(2) measurements were abstracted. From the 10,001 measurements, 32% represented exposure from on-road vehicles and 68% from off-road vehicles (30% mining, 15% railroad, and 22% others). Highest levels were reported for enclosed underground work sites in which heavy equipment is used: mining, mine maintenance, and construction (EC: 27-658 microg/m(3)). Intermediate exposure levels were generally reported for above-ground (semi-) enclosed areas in which smaller equipment was run: mechanics in a shop, emergency workers in fire stations, distribution workers at a dock, and workers loading/unloading inside a ferry (generally: EC<50 microg/m(3)). Lowest levels were reported for enclosed areas separated from the source, such as drivers and train crew, or outside, such as surface mining, parking attendants, vehicle testers, utility service workers, surface construction and airline ground personnel (EC<25 microg/m(3)). The other agents showed a similar pattern. Determinants of exposure reported for enclosed situations were ventilation and exhaust after treatment devices. Reported DE exposure levels were highest for underground mining and construction, intermediate for working in above-ground (semi-) enclosed areas and lowest for working outside or separated from the source. The presented data can be used as a basis for assessing occupational exposure in population-based epidemiological studies and guide future exposure assessment efforts for industrial hygiene and epidemiological studies. PMID:19277070

Pronk, Anjoeka; Coble, Joseph; Stewart, Patricia A

2009-03-11

89

Occupational diesel exhaust exposure as a risk factor for COPD  

PubMed Central

Purpose of Review Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a major source of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Although cigarette smoking is the major cause of COPD, occupational exposures have emerged as an important risk factor, especially in nonsmokers. In this review we assess the state of the literature on the association of COPD with a specific occupational exposure, diesel exhaust. Recent Findings A large body of literature links general occupational exposures to dust and fumes with an increased risk of COPD, particularly in nonsmokers. Few studies, however, have explicitly examined the role of occupational diesel exhaust exposures to COPD risk. Suggestive recent findings link occupational diesel exposures to an increased risk of COPD, Summary The available literature directly examining the effects of occupational diesel exhaust on risk of COPD is quite small, but does suggest that increasing exposures are associated with increasing risk. Additional research, with more advanced exposure metrics is needed to fully elucidate this association.

Hart, Jaime E; Eisen, Ellen A; Laden, Francine

2013-01-01

90

A Recommended Standard for Occupational Exposure to Ketones.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A complete criteria document for occupational exposure to ketones has been prepared by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). The criteria document and the standard contained therein apply to acetone, methyl ethyl ketone, methy...

1978-01-01

91

Metallothionein and occupational exposure to cadmium.  

PubMed Central

The relationship between metallothionein (MT), chronic exposure to cadmium (Cd), and renal function was investigated in 53 men who were occupationally exposed to Cd. The aim was to determine if MT is a potential biological monitor for chronic exposure to Cd which would be useful for preventing Cd nephropathy. In this study MT excretion, serum MT, and serum creatinine concentrations were significantly higher in subjects with abnormal renal function who had been exposed to Cd. MT excretion was also linearly related on an individual basis to protein excretion, beta 2-microglobulin (beta 2-M) excretion, and cumulative time weighted exposure (dose). MT excretion was also a better predictor of dose than either beta 2-M excretion or Cd excretion. The findings suggest that MT is a potential biological monitor for chronic Cd exposure that would be useful for preventing Cd-induced nephropathy. Further studies of non-specific nephropathies and MT are needed to determine if MT is a specific indicator of proximal tubule function secondary to chronic exposure to Cd.

Falck, F Y; Fine, L J; Smith, R G; Garvey, J; Schork, A; England, B; McClatchey, K D; Linton, J

1983-01-01

92

Occupational Exposure in Nuclear Medicine and PET.  

PubMed

Purpose: With the increasing use of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) for scanning in oncology in our center, a radiation dose survey was performed to determine the impact on staff exposure. Conventional nuclear medicine procedures such as gallium scan, bone scans, and sestamibi cardiac scans are used for comparative purposes.Procedure: Patients were measured using a hand-held radiation monitor (Victoreen 450-P) at various distances and times that replicate typical patient contact scenarios in the Diagnostic Imaging Department.Results: We present our findings from the survey and the implications these have on staff radiation exposure. The data suggest that emerging oncologic techniques such as PET, high dose gallium-67, and high dose Tl-201 do not represent a significantly greater occupational radiation hazard than conventional nuclear medicine procedures. PMID:11008102

White; Binns; Johnston; Fawcett; Greer; Ciavarella; Hicks

2000-05-01

93

Occupational noise exposure in the printing industry  

SciTech Connect

The noise exposures of 274 printing production workers in 34 establishments in the New York city area were monitored. Results showed that 43% were exposed to 8-hr time-weighted average (TWA) noise exposures of 85 dBA or greater and that 14% were exposed to 8-hr TWAs of 90 dBA or greater. Within the press department, web press workers were exposed to significantly greater mean 8-hr TWAs than sheetfed press workers. In general, a greater percentage of the workers in the bindery departments were exposed to potentially harmful noise than workers in the press departments. Results of this study indicate that many workers in the printing industry may be at risk of occupational hearing loss. Further research is needed to determine the extent of hearing impairment in this group of workers.

McMahon, K.J.; McManus, P.E.

1988-01-01

94

Occupational Exposure to Metalworking Fluid Mist and Sump Fluid Contaminants  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper summarizes the analytical and occupational hygiene findings from a recent survey of occupational exposure to metalworking fluids (MWFs) in the engineering industry. The aim of the survey was to link MWF mist exposure measurements with particular engineering processes and controls, and utilize the data obtained to develop exposure standards. At the same time the opportunity was taken to

A. T. SIMPSON; M. STEAR; J. A. GROVES; M. PINEY; S. D. BRADLEY; S. STAGG; B. CROOK

2003-01-01

95

Environmental and occupational exposures in immigrant health.  

PubMed

Immigrants comprise vulnerable populations that are frequently exposed to a multitude of environmental and occupational hazards. The historical context behind state and federal legislation has helped to foster an environment that is particularly hostile toward caring for immigrant health. Current hazards include toxic exposures, air and noise pollution, motor vehicle accidents, crowded living and work environments with inadequate ventilation, poor sanitation, mechanical injury, among many others. Immigrants lack the appropriate training, materials, health care access, and other resources to reduce their exposure to preventable environmental and occupational health risks. This dilemma is exacerbated by current anti-immigrant sentiments, miscommunication between native and immigrant populations, and legislation denying immigrants access to publicly funded medical care. Given that current health policy has failed to address immigrant health appropriately and political impetus is lacking, efforts should also focus on alternative solutions, including organized labor. Labor unions that serve to educate workers, survey work environments, and defend worker rights will greatly alleviate and prevent the burden of disease incurred by immigrants. The nation's health will benefit from improved regulation of living and workplace environments to improve the health of immigrants, regardless of legal status. PMID:21572847

Eamranond, Pracha P; Hu, Howard

2008-09-23

96

Environmental and Occupational Exposures in Immigrant Health  

PubMed Central

Immigrants comprise vulnerable populations that are frequently exposed to a multitude of environmental and occupational hazards. The historical context behind state and federal legislation has helped to foster an environment that is particularly hostile toward caring for immigrant health. Current hazards include toxic exposures, air and noise pollution, motor vehicle accidents, crowded living and work environments with inadequate ventilation, poor sanitation, mechanical injury, among many others. Immigrants lack the appropriate training, materials, health care access, and other resources to reduce their exposure to preventable environmental and occupational health risks. This dilemma is exacerbated by current anti-immigrant sentiments, miscommunication between native and immigrant populations, and legislation denying immigrants access to publicly funded medical care. Given that current health policy has failed to address immigrant health appropriately and political impetus is lacking, efforts should also focus on alternative solutions, including organized labor. Labor unions that serve to educate workers, survey work environments, and defend worker rights will greatly alleviate and prevent the burden of disease incurred by immigrants. The nation’s health will benefit from improved regulation of living and workplace environments to improve the health of immigrants, regardless of legal status.

Eamranond, Pracha P.; Hu, Howard

2008-01-01

97

Statistical Methods for Describing Occupational Exposure Measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

An important step in studies relating worker health to industrial exposure is the estimation of mean exposure levels. The investigator frequently has to rely on industrial hygiene measurements collected for other purposes. Samples may have been taken at several companies on different dates, and on each occasion multiple individual samplers may have been employed. Often it is not recognized that

STEVEN J. SAMUELS; GRACE K. LEMASTERS; ARCH CARSON

1985-01-01

98

Chemical exposure and occupational symptoms among Portuguese hairdressers.  

PubMed

Hairdressing is predominantly a female activity, in which several chemicals are handled, some of which are known to be allergenic and potentially carcinogenic. Several epidemiological studies showed an association between occupational exposure to chemicals in hairdressing salons and skin and respiratory-tract conditions. The aim of this study were to characterize the occupational exposure to total volatile organic compounds (VOC) and ammonia (NH?) in 50 Portuguese hairdressers' salons and to analyze the prevalence of respiratory and skin symptoms in 134 hairdressing professionals. Data indicated that internal sources of total VOC are mainly due to indoor sources, with average concentrations (1.4 mg/m³) above the Portuguese reference levels (0.6 mg/m³). Of the hairdressers' salons studied, 4% had a mean NH? concentration higher than Portuguese (20 ppm) and American Conference of Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) (25 ppm) reference levels. Hand dermatitis was the occupational symptom most reported by hairdressers (50%), followed by eye irritation (43%). The results of this study suggest that hairdressers' occupational activities are linked with higher risk of developing hand and wrist/arm dermatitis and symptoms in the upper respiratory tract. The proper use of disposable gloves, hands, wrists, and arms skin monitoring, and the frequent use of moisturizers in the workplace are effective measures to prevent the occurrence of dermatitis in these professionals. Displacement ventilation and/or local exhaust with adequate air exchange rate are recommended particularly in technical areas where hairdressing chemicals are mixed. PMID:21707424

Mendes, Ana; Madureira, Joana; Neves, Paula; Carvalhais, Carlos; Laffon, Blanca; Teixeira, João P

2011-01-01

99

Biological monitoring for mutagenic effects of occupational exposure to butadiene.  

PubMed

The use of biological markers in the evaluation of human exposure to hazardous agents has increased rapidly in recent years. Because 1,3-butadiene is a mutagenic carcinogen, existing occupational levels of exposure may be appropriately evaluated using somatic cell mutation as a biomarker. Previously, we have described a biomarker study of workers in a butadiene monomer plant (Ward et al., 1994). We now report results from a second study of the same group of workers, conducted after plant modernization, and present preliminary results from a study of exposures in a styrene butadiene rubber (SBR) plant. Air levels of butadiene were determined using either charcoal tubes with air pumps or passive badge dosimeters. The quantity of a butadiene metabolite in the urine was used as a biomarker of exposure and the mutagenic effects of exposure were measured using the autoradiographic hprt mutant lymphocyte assay. In all three studies, the frequencies of hprt mutants were significantly elevated in workers from the areas of highest exposure when compared to workers from lower exposure areas or non-exposed subjects. The concentration of the urinary metabolite was significantly increased in high-exposed workers in the first study of monomer plant workers but not in the second. In the first monomer plant study, historical air concentrations of butadiene were higher in the production units than in the central control unit. While concurrent determined air concentrations were not elevated in the second monomer plant study, they were elevated in high exposure areas in the SBR plant study. Mutant frequencies in the lower-exposure and the non-exposed groups were consistent with historical values for non-smoking individuals who were not exposed to known mutagens. The use of biomarkers, including the hprt mutant lymphocyte assay, may be of great value in determining an appropriate occupational exposure limit for butadiene. PMID:8901886

Ward, J B; Ammenheuser, M M; Whorton, E B; Bechtold, W E; Kelsey, K T; Legator, M S

1996-10-28

100

Occupational exposure to cadmium and kidney dysfunction.  

PubMed

Investigations were carried out in an alkaline battery factory. The study group consisted of 102 persons and the control group of 85 persons. Cadmium in blood (Cd-B) and cadmium in urine (Cd-U), as well as beta 2-microglobulin (B2-M), retinol binding protein (RBP), amino acids in urine were determined. Exposure to cadmium was high; Cd-B and Cd-U concentrations were higher than recommended, 10 micrograms/l and 10 micrograms/g creat. In 65% and 56% of workers, respectively. Excretion of B2-M and RBP in urine was higher than the accepted upper limits of 380 and 130 micrograms/g creat. in about 20% of the workers. A significant correlation was observed between: log Cd-U.log Cd-B (r = 0.85), log B2-M.log RBP (r = 0.66), log Cd-U.log B2-M (r = 0.52), and log Cd-U.log RBP (r = 0.55). To evaluate the admissible period of occupational exposure to cadmium, an integrated exposure index (Cd-B x years of exposure) is proposed. According to the dose-response relationship, an increase of low molecular protein excretion in urine can be expected in 10% of the cases at Cd-U amounting to 10 to 15 micrograms/g creat. and Cd-B x years of about 300 to 400. PMID:3679555

Jakubowski, M; Trojanowska, B; Kowalska, G; Gendek, E; Starzy?ski, Z; Krajewska, B; Jajte, J

1987-01-01

101

Psychiatric disorders and occupational exposure to solvents.  

PubMed Central

Three hundred and eighty one men admitted to hospital for the first time with any psychiatric diagnosis were individually matched for age and year to patients admitted to general hospitals. An occupational history was obtained from 90% of this study group by telephone interview or mail. Exposure to solvents was assessed by three methods, individual rating of each job recorded, application of an exposure matrix based on job title, and assessment of lifetime job histories of selected case-referent pairs. A sample of individual ratings used in the analysis was compared with ratings made by five experts. The panel values tended to be lower but all six sets of ratings correlated well. There was no increased risk of psychiatric illness among subjects exposed to moderate or greater solvent concentrations for at least 10 years (odds ratio (OR) 1.0, 90% confidence interval (90% CI) 0.7-1.4, individual rating; OR 1.1, 90% CI 0.6-2.0, job title matrix; OR 0.9, 90% CI 0.5-1.7, lifetime assessments). At higher exposures the risk was increased--although not to a statistically significant degree--especially for cases with non-psychotic diagnoses (ICD-9 codes 300-316). This negative result, by all three methods of assessment of exposure, contrasted with that from a parallel investigation of cases of organic psychoses and cerebral degeneration.

Labreche, F P; Cherry, N M; McDonald, J C

1992-01-01

102

Contributions of non-occupational activities to total noise exposure of construction workers.  

PubMed

This paper describes how exposures received during routine and episodic non-occupational activities contribute to total noise exposure in a group of occupationally exposed workers. Two-hundred and sixty-six construction apprentices enrolled in a longitudinal hearing loss study and completed questionnaires at 1 yr of follow-up to determine their episodic activities (e.g. concert attendance, power tool use, firearms exposure). Noise exposure levels for these episodic exposures were determined from the published literature. Routine activities were assessed using activity cards filled out over 530 subject-days, along with noise dosimetry measurements made over 124 subject-days of measurement. Equivalent Leq exposure levels were then calculated for specific activities. These activity-specific Leq values were combined into estimated individual annual Leq exposure levels for the 6760 nominal annual non-occupational hours in a year (LAeq6760h), which were then transformed into equivalent levels for a 2000 h exposure period (LA2000hn) for comparison with occupational noise exposure risk criteria. The mean non-occupational LAeq6760h exposure values for the cohort ranged from 56 to 87 dBA (equivalent LA2000hn 62-93 dBA). At the mid range of the routine and episodic activity exposure level distribution, the mean LAeq6760h was 73 dBA (LA2000hn 78 dBA). Nineteen percent of the LA2000hn non-occupational exposures exceeded 85 dBA, the generally recommended occupational limit for a 2000 h workyear, at the mid-range of exposure levels. Due to a lack of available data, firearms use could not be incorporated into the total noise exposure estimates. However, firearms users reported more exposure to other noisy non-occupational activities and had statistically significantly higher estimated exposure levels even without including their firearms exposure than did non-shooters. When compared with the high levels of occupational noise found in construction, non-occupational noise exposures generally present little additional exposure for most workers. However, they may contribute significantly to overall exposure in the subset of workers who frequently participate in selected noisy activities. PMID:15242844

Neitzel, Richard; Seixas, Noah; Goldman, Bryan; Daniell, William

2004-07-08

103

Neuropsychological symptoms and occupational exposure to anaesthetics.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE--To analyse the relation between symptoms regularly reported by hospital personnel and exposure to anaesthetics. SETTING--Personnel of 18 hospitals in Paris from 1987 to 1989. DESIGN--An exposed group that included all operating theatre members except for doctors, and which was divided into three subgroups depending on the degree of exposure--exposure was measured by the frequency of the use of the scavenging system--and a control group that included other hospital personnel matched by hospital, sex, occupation, age, and duration of service. SUBJECTS--557 exposed workers and 566 unexposed workers. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--The groups were compared according to the crude rates of regular symptoms. Adjusted odds ratios were calculated to estimate the risks associated with exposure to anaesthetic gas. Liver transaminase activities (alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase (s-ASAT, and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase) were measured and compared between groups of exposure. RESULTS--After controlling for working conditions and matching factors, neuropsychological symptoms and tiredness were reported more by workers in less often scavenged theatres than by controls. No difference was found between workers of the well scavenged theatres and controls. Among the exposed workers, the members of paediatric surgical staffs reported a higher rate of neurological complaints (tingling, numbness, cramps) and tiredness than the members of the other surgical staffs. They had a high value of s-ASAT more frequently than the other exposed workers. CONCLUSION--These results strengthen the hypothesis of a causal relation between exposure to anaesthetics and neuropsychological symptoms, and show a dose-response effect. They suggest that the use of ventilating systems in operating rooms is an effective means of prevention.

Saurel-Cubizolles, M J; Estryn-Behar, M; Maillard, M F; Mugnier, N; Masson, A; Monod, G

1992-01-01

104

Effects of occupational chronic co-exposure to n-hexane, toluen, and methyl ethyl ketone on NK cell activity and some immunoregulatory cytokine levels in shoe workers  

Microsoft Academic Search

1 To evaluate the effects of occupational long-term coexposure to n-hexane, toluen, and methyl ethyl ketone (MEK) on NK cell activity and serum IL-2, g-IFN levels, we studied a group of workers employed in a shoe factory where the jobs include use of glues and adhesives containing mainly n-hexane, and at low concentrations, toluen and MEK.2 No differences were found

B. Yücesoy; A. Yücel; O. Erdem; S. Burgaz; A. E. Karakaya

1999-01-01

105

Parental occupational exposure and spontaneous abortions in Finland  

SciTech Connect

Spontaneous abortions were analyzed by the occupational exposure of women and their husbands, with data from the Finnish hospital discharge register and the national census. The occupations were grouped according to presumed exposure into seven categories: exposure to solvent; automobile exhaust fumes; polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; other chemicals; metals; textile dust; and animal microorganisms. The relative risks of spontaneous abortion were estimated with logistic regression analysis to adjust for potentially confounding factors. The broad exposure categories appeared, at most, to be weak risk factors of spontaneous abortion, because the relative risks of abortion were not significantly increased in any of the parental exposure groups. The analysis of detailed occupational categories showed some female and male occupations with an increased risk. The observations of increased risk related to laboratory work supported earlier findings. The high number of textile occupations with increased risk is also worth noting, and further investigations are necessary to confirm whether this is due to occupational hazards or other factors.

Lindbohm, M.L.; Hemminki, K.; Kyyroenen, P.

1984-09-01

106

Modeling repeated measurement data for occupational exposure assessment and epidemiology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Repeated measurements designs, occur frequently in the assessment of exposure to toxic chemicals. This thesis deals with the possibilities of using mixed effects models for occupational exposure assessment and in the analysis of exposure response relationships. The model enables simultaneous estimation of both the variance components of exposure (between- and within-subject) and the unbiased regression coefficients for determinants of exposure.

Chava Peretz

2003-01-01

107

Cardiac Autonomic Dysfunction from Occupational Exposure to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons  

PubMed Central

Objectives Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) exposures have been associated with cardiopulmonary mortality and cardiovascular events. This study investigated the association between a biological marker of PAHs exposure, assessed by urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP), and heart rate variability (HRV) in an occupational cohort of boilermakers. Methods Continuous 24-hour monitoring of the ambulatory electrocardiogram (ECG) and pre and post shift urinary 1-OHP were repeated over extended periods of the work week. Mixed effects models were fit for the 5-minute standard deviation of normal-to-normal intervals (SDNN) in relation to urinary 1-OHP levels pre and post workshift on the day they wore the monitor, controlling for potential confounders. Results We found a significant decrease in 5-min SDNN during work of ?13.6% (95% confidence interval, ?17.2% to ?9.8%) for every standard deviation (0.53 microgram/gram [?g/g] creatinine) increase in the next-morning pre-shift 1-OHP levels. The magnitude of reduction in 5-min SDNN were largest during the late night period after work and increased with every standard deviation (0.46 ?g/g creatinine) increase in post-shift 1-OHP levels. Conclusion This is the first report providing evidence that occupational exposure to PAHs is associated with altered cardiac autonomic function. Acute exposure to PAHs may be an important predictor of cardiovascular disease risk in the work environment.

Lee, Mi-Sun; Magari, Shannon; Christiani, David C.

2013-01-01

108

Occupational exposure to hexabromocyclododecane at an industrial plant.  

PubMed

Occupational exposure to hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) among workers at an industrial plant producing expandable polystyrene (PS) added HBCD as flame retardant has been assessed in the present study. Airborne dust samples were collected near the breathing zone of 10 male workers during three 8-h work shifts. The HBCD concentrations in the airborne dust varied from 0.2 to 150 microg/m3 (mean 12.2 and median 2.1 microg/m3). Two serum samples were obtained from each of the workers. The mean serum concentration was 190 ng/g lipids; the median was 101 ng/g lipids (range 6 to 856 ng/g lipids). HBCD was not detected above 1 ng/g lipids (LOD) in any samples from persons in a reference group with no occupational exposure to HBCD. The contribution of gamma-HBCD to the total HBCD serum concentration was notably high (39%) compared to what has usually been observed in biological samples. There was no clear correlation of serum levels with average HBCD concentrations in the airborne dust samples collected near the subjects' breathing zone. The elevated exposure levels reported in this study compared to urban air and serum levels in general populations suggest that further and more detailed exposure assessment studies should be initiated in industries where HBCD is applied. PMID:17822081

Thomsen, Cathrine; Molander, Paal; Daae, Hanne L; Janák, Karel; Froshaug, May; Liane, Veronica H; Thorud, Syvert; Becher, Georg; Dybing, Erik

2007-08-01

109

OCCUPATIONAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL PESTICIDE EXPOSURE STUDY IN SOUTH FLORIDA  

EPA Science Inventory

The investigation was designed to assess the occupational and environmental exposure to pesticides in South Florida, an area where pesticides are widely used. In addition to the conventional approach for measuring exposure to organophosphates and carbamates by means of cholineste...

110

Personality Traits in Miners with Past Occupational Elemental Mercury Exposure  

PubMed Central

In this study, we evaluated the impact of long-term occupational exposure to elemental mercury vapor (Hg0) on the personality traits of ex-mercury miners. Study groups included 53 ex-miners previously exposed to Hg0 and 53 age-matched controls. Miners and controls completed the self-reporting Eysenck Personality Questionnaire and the Emotional States Questionnaire. The relationship between the indices of past occupational exposure and the observed personality traits was evaluated using Pearson’s correlation coefficient and on a subgroup level by machine learning methods (regression trees). The ex-mercury miners were intermittently exposed to Hg0 for a period of 7–31 years. The means of exposure-cycle urine mercury (U-Hg) concentrations ranged from 20 to 120 ?g/L. The results obtained indicate that ex-miners tend to be more introverted and sincere, more depressive, more rigid in expressing their emotions and are likely to have more negative self-concepts than controls, but no correlations were found with the indices of past occupational exposure. Despite certain limitations, results obtained by the regression tree suggest that higher alcohol consumption per se and long-term intermittent, moderate exposure to Hg0 (exposure cycle mean U-Hg concentrations > 38.7 < 53.5 ?g/L) in interaction with alcohol remain a plausible explanation for the depression associated with negative self-concept found in subgroups of ex-mercury miners. This could be one of the reason for the higher risk of suicide among miners of the Idrija Mercury Mine in the last 45 years.

Grum, Darja Kobal; Kobal, Alfred B.; Arneric, Niko; Horvat, Milena; Zenko, Bernard; Dzeroski, Saso; Osredkar, Josko

2006-01-01

111

Childhood cancer and occupational radiation exposure in parents  

Microsoft Academic Search

To test the hypothesis that a parent's job exposure to radiation affeOR). its his or her child's risk of cancer, the authors compared this exposure during the year before the child's birth for parents of children with and without cancer. Parents of children with cancer were no more likely to have worked in occupations, industries, or combined occupations and industries

Nancy Hicks; Matthew Zack; Glyn G. Caldwell; Donald J. Fernbach; John M. Falletta

1984-01-01

112

Occupational exposure to hydrazine and subsequent risk of cancer.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES--The aim was to examine the cause specific mortality of men exposed to hydrazine. METHODS--Hydrazine was produced at a factory in the east midlands between 1945 and 1971. The cohort of all 427 men who were employed there for at least six months with varying degrees of occupational exposure to hydrazine were followed up until the end of January 1992. RESULTS--By the end of July 1982 49 deaths had occurred and the observed mortality was found to be close to that expected at each level of exposure. By the end of January 1992 a further 37 deaths had occurred. Again the observed mortality was close to that expected for all causes and also for lung cancer, cancers of the digestive system, other cancers, and all other causes, irrespective of the level of exposure. CONCLUSIONS--The results weigh against there having been any material hazard of occupational exposure to hydrazine. The small number of men studied means, however, that a relative risk as high as 3.5 for lung cancer cannot confidently be excluded.

Morris, J; Densem, J W; Wald, N J; Doll, R

1995-01-01

113

Occupational exposure to butadiene, isoprene and chloroprene.  

PubMed

Workers are exposed to butadiene, isoprene and chloroprene in the manufacture of these monomers and in their use in the production of various elastomers. These include styrene butadiene rubber, polybutadiene, polyisoprene, butyl rubber and neoprene. Monomer production and extraction are done in typical closed chemical process units where low background levels of the monomers are the result of minor leaks in valves and pumps. Occasionally, higher levels occur as a result of planned or unplanned events that cause releases. Polymer production is also a closed process, but the occasional clogging of pipes and equipment with polymer requiring maintenance operations where some release is likely occurs much more often than for monomer production. For this reason, exposure levels are generally higher on polymer production units. Polymer finishing is essentially an open process, but almost all monomer should have been stripped from the polymer before finishing. Where small amounts of solvents or monomers remain in the polymer and are volatilized in finishing, they are captured by vapor control systems. As a result, exposures in finishing are typically low. Measured levels of exposure in recent years are presented. In general, modern levels of exposure are well below OSHA, ACGIH and other applicable limits. Few measurements were made prior to the 1970s, but epidemiological estimates made by modeling suggest that levels could have been quite high in the 1940s and 1950s. In these years, manual reactor cleaning was common, and pumps often leaked. PMID:11397391

Lynch, J

2001-06-01

114

Respiratory Symptoms and Occupational Dust Exposure In US Veterans  

PubMed Central

PROBLEM Occupational exposure to organic and inorganic dusts may result in symptoms of chronic respiratory disease. METHOD To investigate the utility of obtaining a history of occupational exposure to dust in US veterans, a respiratory health survey was conducted between 1988 and 1992. They were asked for history of cough, phlegm, and wheeze, and occupational dust exposures Information on cigarette use and other possible confounders was also obtained. RESULTS In 2,617 white males, after adjusting for cigarette smoking, age, distance to the nearest major roadway, and chronic respiratory disease, there was an overall 2-fold increased risk of all three respiratory symptoms attributable to occupational dust exposure. The odds ratio (OR) increased based on exposure intensity. CONCLUSIONS After considering possible confounders, dust exposure was associated with respiratory symptoms, with the greatest risk attributable to heavy intensity exposure.

Garshick, Eric; Laden, Francine; Hart, Jaime; Moy, Marilyn L.

2007-01-01

115

Electric and magnetic field exposure, chemical exposure, and leukemia risk in electrical'' occupations  

SciTech Connect

This project was conducted to address what are the extremely low frequency (ELF) magnetic and electric field exposures of workers in electrical'' occupations and do they exceed exposures encountered in non-electrical'' occupations and what are the chemical and physical exposures in the electrical'' occupations and do they exceed exposures encountered in non-electrical'' occupations Two subsidiary issues were does characterization and quantification of ELF magnetic field exposure in the electrical'' occupations provide data to support a dose response relationship between leukemia risk and electric or magnetic field exposure and do dffferences in chemical exposure between the occupations help explain the previously observed leukemia risk associated with these electrical'' occupations Data were collected in 3 regions in which electrical workers had been reported to have an excess of leukemia - New Zealand, Los Angeles and Seattle Measurements of magnetic fields were made on 493 electrical workers and 163 non-electrical workers.

Bowman, J.D.; Sobel, E.; London, S.J.; Thomas, D.C.; Garabrant, D.H.; Pearce, N.; Peters, J.M. (University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Preventive Medicine)

1992-12-01

116

Statistical methods for describing occupational exposure measurements.  

PubMed

An important step in studies relating worker health to industrial exposure is the estimation of mean exposure levels. The investigator frequently has to rely on industrial hygiene measurements collected for other purposes. Samples may have been taken at several companies on different dates, and on each occasion multiple individual samplers may have been employed. Often it is not recognized that readings from such a hierarchical arrangement are correlated; for example, samples taken at the same time and location are more alike than samples taken on different days. This correlation invalidates the commonly used standard errors of sample means and the usual sample standard deviation. A component of variance analysis is suggested which quantifies within-day, between-day and between-company variation. Estimators of mean exposure are presented with correct standard errors. The techniques are illustrated by a small set of data and by a recent study of exposures to styrene in 36 companies manufacturing reinforced plastics. PMID:4050679

Samuels, S J; Lemasters, G K; Carson, A

1985-08-01

117

77 FR 16865 - Proposed Extension of Existing Information Collection; Occupational Noise Exposure  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...pervasive health hazards in mining. Repeated exposure to high levels of sound over time causes occupational noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL), a serious, often profound physical impairment in mining, with far- reaching psychological...

2012-03-22

118

Analysis of BPA Occupational Electric Field Exposure Data : Final Report.  

SciTech Connect

This report presents analyses of data collected during a Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) pilot study to quantify occupational exposures to 60-Hz electric fields. The objectives were: (1) to provide estimates of 60-Hz electric field exposures of BPA workers; (2) to identify job categories with the highest exposure potential; and (3) to determine the feasibility of a large scale monitoring program. Twenty-nine small electric field exposure monitors (EFEM's) were worn by 295 employee participants for a total of 3098 exposure days. Median accumulated daily exposures above a threshold of 0.4 kV/m were estimated to be 0.05, 0.15 and 0.5 (kV/m)h for employees reporting time spent near 115-, 230- and 500-kV equipment, respectively. Mean exposure levels for these respective groups were 0.2, 0.5 and 0.8 kV/m. Specific job categories had higher average exposures: the highest being the 230-kV linemen with about 1.7 (kV/m)h per day. In general, cumulative exposures were higher as the reported voltage increased except for line crews working on energized equipment. It appears that cumulative exposures for line crews were independent of voltage. There did not seem to be any specific lineman task which, on the average, was associated with high exposures. The maximum daily exposure of 5.1 to 7.6 (kV/m)h was recorded by a lineman while replacing poles and crossarms on an energized 115-kV line.

Bracken, T. Daniel

1986-01-01

119

Biological monitoring of occupational exposure to electrophilic compounds.  

PubMed

Electrophilic compounds are widely used in industry. Plastic and dyeing industries are foremost examples of sites where workers are exposed to electrophilic compounds. Besides their immediate effect on different body systems, electrophilic compounds include most mutagenic and carcinogenic substances. The present study was carried out to elucidate the possibility of using nonselective assays in the biological monitoring of occupational exposure to electrophilic compounds. The study included a total number of 225 workers selected from the Plastic and Battery Company where workers are exposed to styrene (n = 70), and the Kafr El Dawar chemical and Dyeing Company where workers are exposed to aniline (n = 60) and benzidine (n = 25). Workers exposed to diesel engine exhaust were selected from a bus garage in Smoha (n = 70). A comparison group consisting of 141 subjects was selected from the administrative departments of the selected factories. The biochemical tests carried out on each subject included: (1) estimation of the biological indices of exposure: urinary mandelic acid and benzidine, blood methemoglobin, and carboxyhemoglobin, (2) liver and kidney function tests; and (3) nonselective biochemical parameters of early detection of carcinogenic and mutagenic risk: urinary thioether levels, urinary RNase and alpha esterase activities. The study revealed that two out of three nonselective assays have been affected by occupational exposure to electrophilic compounds. These were the urinary thioethers and RNase levels. Their determination is recommended in the biological monitoring of workers exposed to such agents especially in developing countries. PMID:7529835

el Gazzar, R M; Abdel Hamid, H; Shamy, M Y

1994-01-01

120

Occupational exposure to radio-frequency electromagnetic fields  

SciTech Connect

The paper considers occupational exposure to radio-frequency (RF) electromagnetic (EM) fields in industrial processes in near-field situations where electric and magnetic field strengths are monitored to assess the health hazard. Plastic materials are joined by an RF machine whose electrodes are not shielded and which may produce high level RF fields in the immediate vicinity, exceeding the ANSI standard. A physiotherapist may be exposed to high E and H fields using RF shortwave therapy, the maintenance personnel in FM/TV broadcast towers are subject to intense RF fields, and induction heating equipment used for forging, annealing and brazing can expose operators' hands to magnetic fields.

Mild, K.H.

1980-01-01

121

Health and safety implications of occupational exposure to engineered nanomaterials.  

PubMed

The rapid growth and commercialization of nanotechnology are currently outpacing health and safety recommendations for engineered nanomaterials. As the production and use of nanomaterials increase, so does the possibility that there will be exposure of workers and the public to these materials. This review provides a summary of current research and regulatory efforts related to occupational exposure and medical surveillance for the nanotechnology workforce, focusing on the most prevalent industrial nanomaterials currently moving through the research, development, and manufacturing pipelines. Their applications and usage precedes a discussion of occupational health and safety efforts, including exposure assessment, occupational health surveillance, and regulatory considerations for these nanomaterials. PMID:22131295

Stebounova, Larissa V; Morgan, Hallie; Grassian, Vicki H; Brenner, Sara

2011-11-30

122

Occupational exposure to dusts and risk of renal cell carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Background: Occupational exposures to dusts have generally been examined in relation to cancers of the respiratory system and have rarely been examined in relation to other cancers, such as renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Although previous epidemiological studies, though few, have shown certain dusts, such as asbestos, to increase renal cancer risk, the potential for other occupational dust exposures to cause kidney damage and/or cancer may exist. We investigated whether asbestos, as well as 20 other occupational dust exposures, were associated with RCC risk in a large European, multi-center, hospital-based renal case–control study. Methods: General occupational histories and job-specific questionnaires were reviewed by occupational hygienists for subject-specific information. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) between RCC risk and exposures were calculated using unconditional logistic regression. Results: Among participants ever exposed to dusts, significant associations were observed for glass fibres (OR: 2.1; 95% CI: 1.1–3.9), mineral wool fibres (OR: 2.5; 95% CI: 1.2–5.1), and brick dust (OR: 1.5; 95% CI: 1.0–2.4). Significant trends were also observed with exposure duration and cumulative exposure. No association between RCC risk and asbestos exposure was observed. Conclusion: Results suggest that increased RCC risk may be associated with occupational exposure to specific types of dusts. Additional studies are needed to replicate and extend findings.

Karami, S; Boffetta, P; Stewart, P S; Brennan, P; Zaridze, D; Matveev, V; Janout, V; Kollarova, H; Bencko, V; Navratilova, M; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, N; Mates, D; Gromiec, J; Slamova, A; Chow, W-H; Rothman, N; Moore, L E

2011-01-01

123

Effective biological dose from occupational exposure during nanoparticle synthesis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanomaterial and nanotechnology safety require the characterization of occupational exposure levels for completing a risk assessment. However, equally important is the estimation of the effective internal dose via lung deposition, transport and clearance mechanisms. An integrated source-to-biological dose assessment study is presented using real monitoring data collected during nanoparticle synthesis. Experimental monitoring data of airborne exposure levels during nanoparticle synthesis of CaSO4 and BiPO4 nanoparticles in a research laboratory is coupled with a human lung transport and deposition model, which solves in an Eulerian framework the general dynamic equation for polydisperse aerosols using particle specific physical-chemical properties. Subsequently, the lung deposition model is coupled with a mathematical particle clearance model providing the effective biological dose as well as the time course of the biological dose build-up after exposure. The results for the example of BiPO4 demonstrate that even short exposures throughout the day can lead to particle doses of 1.10·E+08#/(kg-bw·8h-shift), with the majority accumulating in the pulmonary region. Clearance of particles is slow and is not completed within a working shift following a 1 hour exposure. It mostly occurs via macrophage activity in the alveolar region, with small amounts transported to the interstitium and less to the lymph nodes.

Demou, Evangelia; Tran, Lang; Housiadas, Christos

2009-02-01

124

Brain tumors in children and occupational exposure of parents.  

PubMed

Ninety-two cases of brain tumor in children less than 10 years old were compared with 92 matched controls for parental occupational history. Cases were more likely than controls to show material occupations involving chemical exposure, paternal occupations involving solvents, and employment of father in the aircraft industry. These three factors were not affected by adjustment for the potential confounding variables examined in this study. PMID:7244631

Peters, F M; Preston-Martin, S; Yu, M C

1981-07-10

125

Interaction between tobacco smoking and occupational exposures in the causation of lung cancer  

SciTech Connect

The nature of the interaction between smoking and occupational exposure is controversial, in part because of lack of agreement on the definition of interaction and in part because of the scarcity of adequate epidemiologic data. Occupational investigators have assessed interaction primarily as a departure from an additive rather than from a multiplicative model of relative risks (or rate ratios). To determine whether smoking modifies the effect of occupational lung carcinogens, the literature was reviewed for the only four established occupational lung carcinogens for which there are data on smoking: radon daughters, asbestos, arsenic, and chloromethyl ethers. Where possible, departure was assessed from both an additive (synergism) and a multiplicative model (effect modification). Only nine studies were considered to have sufficient sample size and to provide sufficient information on tobacco use and occupational exposure to evaluate interaction. The existing data were contradictory for three of the agents studied: asbestos, radon daughters, and arsenic. Inconclusive or contradictory findings may result from small sample size or lack of comparability of the level of occupational or tobacco exposure. It is noteworthy that, for these four agents, whenever smoking did modify the effect of occupational exposure, the lung cancer rate ratio was greater for nonsmokers (compared to nonexposed nonsmokers) than smokers (compared to nonexposed smokers). However, with the exception of chloromethyl ethers, absolute lung cancer rates were higher for smokers than nonsmokers, regardless of occupational exposure.37 references.

Steenland, K.; Thun, M.

1986-02-01

126

Application of oligonucleotide microarray technology to toxic occupational exposures.  

PubMed

Microarray technology has advanced toward analysis of toxic occupational exposures in biological systems. Microarray analysis is an ideal way to search for biomarkers of exposure, even if no specific gene or pathway has been identified. Analysis may now be performed on thousands of genes simultaneously, as opposed to small numbers of genes as in the past. This ability has been put to use to analyze gene expression profiles of a variety of occupational toxins in animal models to classify toxins into specific categories based on response. Analysis of normal human cell strains allows an extension of this analysis to investigate the role of interindividual variation in response to various toxins. This methodology was used to analyze four occupationally related toxins in our lab: oxythioquinox (OTQ), a quinoxaline pesticide; malathion, an organophosphate pesticide; di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), a chemical commonly found in personal care and cosmetic items; and benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), an environmental and occupational carcinogen. The results for each exposure highlighted signaling pathways involved in response to these occupational exposures. Both pesticides showed increase in metabolic enzymes, while DBP showed alterations in genes related to fertility. BaP exposure showed alterations in two cytochrome P450s related to carcinogenicity. When used with occupational exposure information, these data may be used to augment risk assessment to make the workplace safer for a greater proportion of the workforce, including individuals susceptible to disease related to exposures. PMID:18214805

Gwinn, Maureen R; Weston, Ainsley

2008-01-01

127

Does occupational exposure to dust prevent colorectal cancer?  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES--To explore the impression that occupational epidemiologists tend to focus on associations suggestive of increased risk and tend to ignore those associations in which risk is not increased. To examine the risk of colorectal cancer in cohorts exposed to dust, cohorts in which it has been suggested that occupational exposure is a cause of increased risk of stomach cancer. METHODS--A

M M Finkelstein

1995-01-01

128

Health-based recommended occupational exposure limits for halothane  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Dutch Expert Committee on Occupational Standards recommends a health-based occupational exposure limit (HBR-OEL) for halothane of 0.41 mg\\/m3 (0.05 ppm) as an eight-hour time-weighted average concentration.

M. A. Maclaine Pont

2002-01-01

129

Occupational Pesticide Exposures and Cancer Risk: A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

A review of the epidemiological literature linking pesticides to cancers in occupational studies worldwide was conducted, with particular focus on those articles published after the release of IARC Monograph 53 (1991): Occupational Exposures in Insecticide Applications and Some Pesticides. Important new data are now available. Chemicals in every major functional class of pesticides including insecticides, herbicide, fungicides, and fumigants have

Michael C. R. Alavanja; Matthew R. Bonner

2012-01-01

130

Occupational Component. 36-Level Courses. Teacher Resource Manual. Integrated Occupational Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This 36-level occupational component of Integrated Occupational Program (IOP) consists of 8 occupational clusters composed of 20 occupational courses. Each course contains learning activities so that students in Alberta (Canada) may develop occupational concepts, skills, and attitudes. This teacher's manual consists of the following sections:…

Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton. Curriculum Branch.

131

Occupational exposure to solvents and hairy cell leukaemia  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: The role of occupational exposures in hairy cell leukaemia was investigated through a multicentre, hospital based, case-control study. This paper analyses the role of exposure to solvents other than benzene in hairy cell leukaemia. METHODS: The study included 226 male cases and 425 matched controls, exposure to solvents was evaluated by expert case by case review of the detailed data on occupational exposures generated by specific interviews. Also, exposure to solvents was evaluated with an independently constructed job exposure matrix (JEM). RESULTS: No association was found between hairy cell leukaemia and previous employment in a job exposed to solvents (odds ratio (OR) 0.9 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.6 to 1.3). ORs for the main occupational tasks exposed to solvents were around 1 and did not increase with the frequency or the duration of the tasks. No specific type of paint or glue was found to be significantly associated with hairy cell leukaemia. No association was found with exposure to solvents, taken as a whole, with either expert assessments or the JEM. No association was found with aromatic, chlorinated, or oxygenated subgroups of solvents. The ORs did not increase with the average intensity of exposure assessed by the experts, with the frequency of use, or with the duration of exposure. Finally, no association was found with non-occupational exposure to solvents. CONCLUSIONS: The study did not show any association between exposure to solvents and hairy cell leukaemia.  

Clavel, J.; Mandereau, L.; Conso, F.; Limasset, J. C.; Pourmir, I.; Flandrin, G.; Hemon, D.

1998-01-01

132

Occupational exposure of workers to 1,3-butadiene  

Microsoft Academic Search

Researchers from the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) conducted an extent-of-exposure study of the 1,3-butadiene monomer, polymer, and end-user industries to determine the size of the exposed workforce, evaluate control technologies and personal protective equipment programs, and assess occupational exposure to 1,3-butadiene. A new analytical method was developed for 1,3-butadiene that increased the sensitivity and selectivity of

John M. Fajen; Dennis R. Roberts; Leslie J. Ungers; E. Radha Krishnan

1990-01-01

133

Renal cell cancer correlated with occupational exposure to trichloroethene  

Microsoft Academic Search

A previous cohort-study in a cardboard factory demonstrated that high and prolonged occupational exposure to trichloroethene\\u000a (C2HCl3) is associated with an increased incidence of renal cell cancer. The present hospital-based case\\/control study investigates\\u000a occupational exposure in 58 patients with renal cell cancer with special emphasis on C2HCl3 and the structurally and toxicologically closely related compound tetrachloroethene (C2Cl4). A group of

S. Vamvakas; T. Brüning; B. Thomasson; M. Lammert; A. Baumüller; H. M. Bolt; W. Dekant; G. Birner; D. Henschler; K. Ulm

1998-01-01

134

Smoking, Occupational Exposure and Mortality in Workers in Guangzhou, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE: To compare the mortality risk of smoking and overall occupational exposure in Guangzhou, China.METHODS: Baseline data on smoking and occupational exposure of 82159 workers aged 30+ were retrieved from medical records established in 1988—92. Vital status and causes of death were followed through 1998.RESULTS: During follow-up 1584 workers had died. Adjusted relative risks (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (95%CI)

Sai Yin Ho; Tai Hing Lam; Chao Qiang Jiang; Wei Sen Zhang; Wei Wei Liu; Jian Min He; Anthony Jonathon Hedley

2002-01-01

135

Self-assessed Versus Expert-assessed Occupational Exposures  

Microsoft Academic Search

While self-response to a checklist of substances may be a convenient and inexpensive method for obtaining information on occupational exposure, the validity of such information has not been evaluated. The objective of this report is to provide some evidence concerning validity of self-reported occupational exposures. In the context of a large case-control study, it was possible to compare self-reports with

Un Fritschi; Jack Siemiatycki; Lesley Richardson

136

Are occupational, hobby, or lifestyle exposures associated with Philadelphia chromosome positive chronic myeloid leukaemia?  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES—To investigate a broad range of occupational, hobby, and lifestyle exposures, suggested as risk factors for Philadelphia chromosome positive (Ph+) chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML).?METHODS—A case-control study, comprising 255 Ph+CML patients from southern Sweden and matched controls, was conducted. Individual data on work tasks, hobbies, and lifestyle exposures were obtained by telephone interviews. Occupational hygienists assessed occupational and hobby exposures for each subject individually. Also, occupational titles were obtained from national registries, and group level exposure—that is, the exposure proportion for each occupational title—was assessed with a job exposure matrix. The effects of 11 exposures using individual data and two exposures using group data (organic solvents and animal dust) were estimated.?RESULTS—For the individual data on organic solvents, an effect was found for moderate or high intensity of exposure (odds ratio (OR) 3.4, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.1 to 11) and for long duration (15-20 years) of exposure (OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.1 to 4.0). By contrast, the group data showed no association (OR 0.69, 95% CI 0.27 to 1.8; moderate or high intensity versus no exposure). For extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (EMFs), only individual data were available. An association with long occupational exposure to EMFs was found (OR 2.3, 95% CI 1.2 to 4.5). However, no effect of EMF intensity was indicated. No significant effects of benzene, gasoline or diesel, or tobacco smoking were found. OR estimates below unity were suggested for personal use of hair dye and for agricultural exposures.?CONCLUSIONS—Associations between exposure to organic solvents and EMFs, and Ph+CML were indicated but were not entirely consistent.???Keywords: risk factors; epidemiology; case-control study

Bjork, J; Albin, M; Welinder, H; Tinnerberg, H; Mauritzson, N; Kauppinen, T; Stromberg, U; Johansson, B; Billstrom, R; Mikoczy, Z; Ahlgren, T; Nilsson, P; Mitelman, F; Hagmar, L

2001-01-01

137

Occupational and environmental exposure correlates of adverse live-birth outcomes among 1032 US Navy women.  

PubMed

The integration of women into non-traditional military occupations raises questions concerning the impact of such jobs on women's reproductive health. This study examines the extent to which US Navy women in their reproductive years report exposures to potential occupational and environmental hazards, and the degree to which such exposures are associated with self-reported adverse live-birth outcomes. Data from a survey of pregnant Navy women provided both maternal and paternal exposure information on more than 1000 active-duty women. Self-reported exposures to heavy metals, pesticides, petroleum products, and other chemicals were associated with adverse live-birth outcomes at the bivariate level. Only a father's exposure to pesticides at work predicted an adverse live-birth outcome (preterm delivery) in multivariate models. Maternal occupational exposures may exert their influence through maternal health and/or pregnancy complications and may act as mediators of health-reproductive outcome relationships. PMID:11125678

Hourani, L; Hilton, S

2000-12-01

138

Occupational exposure to arsine. An epidemiologic reappraisal of current standards.  

PubMed

In an evaluation of chronic occupational exposure to arsine (AsH3), an epidemiologic survey was conducted at a lead-acid battery manufacturing plant. Personal (breathing zone) air samples were obtained for the measurement of exposure to arsine and particulate arsenic (As), and area air samples were also collected for the determination of arsenic trioxide (As2O3) vapor concentrations. For the quantification of arsenic absorption, total arsenic content was determined in duplicate 24-h urine samples. Arsine in 177 breathing-zone air samples ranged from nondetectable to 49 micron/m3. The highest levels were found in the battery formation area, where arsine is generated by the reaction of battery acid with lead-arsenic alloy. Exposures to particulate arsenic (maximum 5.1 micron/m3) and to As2O3 (maximum (20.5%) of 39 production workers had urinary arsenic concentrations (corrected to a specific gravity of 1.024) of 50 micron/1 (0.67 mumol/1) or above, indicating increased arsenic absorption. None of eight office staff had elevated urinary arsenic levels. A close correlation was found between urinary arsenic concentration and arsine exposure (N = 47; r = 0.84; p = 0.0001). Arsine levels above 15.6 micron/m3 were associated with urinary arsenic concentrations in excess of 50 micron/1 (0.67 mumol/1). No correlation was found between urinary arsenic content and exposures to particulate arsenic or to As2O3. Consumption of neither seafood, red wine, tobacco, nor contaminated drinking water accounted for urinary arsenic excretion. It was concluded that the current arsine exposure standard, 200 micron/m3, fails to prevent chronic increased absorption of trivalent arsenic from the inhalation of arsine. PMID:7156936

Landrigan, P J; Costello, R J; Stringer, W T

1982-09-01

139

48 CFR 952.223-75 - Preservation of individual occupational radiation exposure records.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...occupational radiation exposure records...of individual occupational radiation exposure records...safety, and health into work planning...223-72, Radiation protection and...of Individual Occupational Radiation...

2010-10-01

140

48 CFR 952.223-75 - Preservation of individual occupational radiation exposure records.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...occupational radiation exposure records...of individual occupational radiation exposure records...safety, and health into work planning...223-72, Radiation protection and...of Individual Occupational Radiation...

2009-10-01

141

Electromagnetic field occupational exposure: non-thermal vs. thermal effects.  

PubMed

There are a variety of definitions for "non-thermal effects" included in different international standards. They start by the simple description that they are "effects of electromagnetic energy on a body that are not heat-related effects", passing through the very general definition related to low-level effects: "biological effects ascribed to exposure to low-level electric, magnetic and electromagnetic fields, i.e. at or below the corresponding dosimetric reference levels in the frequency range covered in this standard (0 Hz-300 GHz)", and going to the concrete definition of "the stimulation of muscles, nerves, or sensory organs, vertigo or phosfenes". Here, we discuss what kind of effect does the non-thermal one has on human body and give data of measurements in different occupations with low-frequency sources of electromagnetic field such as electric power distribution systems, transformers, MRI systems and : video display units (VDUs), whereas thermal effects should not be expected. In some of these workplaces, values above the exposure limits could be found, nevertheless that they are in the term "non-thermal effects" on human body. Examples are workplaces in MRI, also in some power plants. Here, we will not comment on non-thermal effects as a result of RF or microwave exposure because there are not proven evidence about the existance of such effects and mechanisms for them are not clear. PMID:23675617

Israel, M; Zaryabova, V; Ivanova, M

2013-06-01

142

Occupational Component. 36-Level Courses. Program of Studies/Curriculum Guide. Integrated Occupational Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Integrated Occupational Program (IOP) enables students in Alberta (Canada) who have experienced difficulty in learning to develop essential concepts, skills, and attitudes in the context of one or more occupational clusters. The IOP has four levels: occupational awareness (grades 8-9), career exploration (level 16), occupational orientation…

Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton. Curriculum Branch.

143

Determination of Occupational Exposure to Depleted Uranium Based on Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We used a simple method based on inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) to determine the isotopic composition of uranium in urine at levels that indicate occupational exposure to depleted uranium (DU). DU exposure is indicated by a range fo...

P. R. Boyd R. W. Tardiff J. W. Ejnik A. J. Carmichael M. M. Hamiliton

2000-01-01

144

Establishment of occupational exposure limit for warfarin in China.  

PubMed

This study aims to establish the occupational exposure limit (OEL) in the air for workplace of warfarin based on the available toxicological studies and field investigations by using questionnaire and air monitoring. The clinical therapeutic dose was used as lowest observed effect level (LOEL), and no observed effect level (NOEL) was achieved by using a safety factor. The highest concentration of warfarin monitored in the worksite of centrifuge washing, drying and packing were 0.029 mg/m3, 0.051 mg/m3 respectively, which did not exceed the OEL 0.1 mg/m3 recommended by NIOSH and ACGIH. Considering its feasibility for enforcement and protection for workers, we recommend OEL 0.1 mg/m3 of warfarin in China. PMID:23816588

Xu, Jian Ning; Fu, Zhao Hui; Yu, Wen Lan; Wang, Quan Kai; Tan, Feng

2013-06-01

145

Strategies for setting occupational exposure limits for particles.  

PubMed Central

To set occupational exposure limits (OELs) for aerosol particles, dusts, or chemicals, one has to evaluate whether mechanistic considerations permit identification of a no observed effect level (NOEL). In the case of carcinogenic effects, this can be assumed if no genotoxicity is involved, and exposure is considered safe if it does not exceed the NOEL. If tumor induction is associated with genotoxicity, any exposure is considered to be of risk, although a NOEL may be identified in the animal or human exposure studies. This must also be assumed when no information on the carcinogenic mechanism, including genotoxicity, is available. Aerosol particles, especially fibrous dusts, which include man-made mineral fiber(s) (MMMF), present a challenge for toxicological evaluation. Many MMMF that have been investigated have induced tumors in animals and genotoxicity in vitro. Since these effects have been associated with long-thin fiber geometry and high durability in vivo, all fibers meeting such criteria are considered carcinogenic unless the opposite has been demonstrated. This approach is practicable. Investigations on fiber tumorigenicity/genotoxicity should include information on dose response, pathobiochemistry, particle clearance, and persistence of the material in the target organ. Such information will introduce quantitative aspects into the qualitative approach that has so far been used to classify fibrous dusts as carcinogens. The rationales for classifying the potential carcinogenicity of MMMF and for setting OELs used by the different European committees and regulatory agencies are described.

Greim, H A; Ziegler-Skylakakis, K

1997-01-01

146

Isocyanate exposure and occupational asthma: a case-referent study  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVETo examine the quantitative relation between exposure to isocyanates and occupational asthma, and to explore the role of atopy and smoking in occurrence of the disease.METHODA case-referent study was undertaken of cases from two manufacturing companies (A and B) from which referents without disease could be selected and reliable exposure measurements were available. In company A, 27 cases mainly attributed

S K Meredith; J Bugler; R L Clark

2000-01-01

147

Parental occupational exposures and risk of childhood cancer: A review  

SciTech Connect

The authors reviewed the literature in order to summarize the present knowledge on the association between parental occupational exposures to chemicals and the risk of childhood malignancy. The 32 studies pertaining to this topic were evaluated by considering various study qualities such as sample size, specificity of outcome, confounding, exposure specificity, and control selection. When evaluating the findings from any epidemiologic study, the potential sources of bias have to be considered. The selection of subjects, misclassification of exposure or outcome, and confounding from extraneous factors can contribute to a biased estimate of effect. Studies done to minimize these potential biases will be more valid, and these studies should be given the most weight when parental occupational exposures are evaluated as risk factors for childhood malignancy. We conclude that the preponderance of evidence supports the hypothesis that occupational exposure of parents to chemicals increases the risk of childhood malignancy. The parental occupational exposures implicated in childhood malignancy risk are exposure to chemicals including paints, petroleum products, solvents (especially chlorinated hydrocarbons) and pesticides, and exposure to metals. The available data do not allow the identification of specific etiologic agents within these categories of compounds. Future epidemiologic and toxicologic studies should be designed to pursue these leads. 49 references.

O'Leary, L.M.; Hicks, A.M.; Peters, J.M.; London, S. (University of Southern California School of Medicine, Los Angeles (USA))

1991-01-01

148

Respiratory effects of occupational exposures in a milk powder factory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ingestion of milk powder is a known cause of allergies in children, but the risks to respiratory health from exposure to inhaled milk powder have not been studied previously. The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of occupational exposures in a milk powder factory on respiratory symptoms and lung function. A cross-sectional study was conducted on

P. Sripaiboonkij; W. Phanprasit; M. S. Jaakkola

2008-01-01

149

Parental occupational exposures and risk of childhood cancer: A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors reviewed the literature in order to summarize the present knowledge on the association between parental occupational exposures to chemicals and the risk of childhood malignancy. The 32 studies pertaining to this topic were evaluated by considering various study qualities such as sample size, specificity of outcome, confounding, exposure specificity, and control selection. When evaluating the findings from any

L. M. OLeary; Anthony M. Hicks; John M. Peters; Stephanie London

1991-01-01

150

Application of Oligonucleotide Microarray Technology to Toxic Occupational Exposures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microarray technology has advanced toward analysis of toxic occupational exposures in biological systems. Microarray analysis is an ideal way to search for biomarkers of exposure, even if no specific gene or pathway has been identified. Analysis may now be performed on thousands of genes simultaneously, as opposed to small numbers of genes as in the past. This ability has been

Maureen R. Gwinn; Ainsley Weston

2008-01-01

151

Occupational exposures during routine activities in coal-fueled power plants  

SciTech Connect

Limited information is available on occupational exposures during routine, nonoutage work activities in coal-fueled power plants. This study evaluated occupational exposures to the principal contaminants in the facilities, including respirable dust (coal dust), arsenic, noise, asbestos, and heat stress. The data were collected over a 3-month period, during the summer of 2001. Each of the 5 facilities was divided into 5 similar exposure groups based on previous exposure assessments and job tasks performed. Of the nearly 400 air samples collected, only 1 exceeded the allowable occupational exposure value. For the noise samples, 55 (about 18%) were equal to or greater than the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) 8-hour hearing conservation program level of 85 dBA, and 12 (about 4%) were equal to or greater than the OSHA 8-hour permissible exposure level of 90 dBA. Heat stress monitoring at the facilities indicates that 26% of the 1-hour TWAs were exceeded for one or all of the recommended heat stress limits. The data also concluded that some work sites were above the heat stress ceiling values recommended by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). Four of the 20 employees personally monitored exceeded the recommended limits for heart rate or body core temperature. This suggests there is a potential for heat strain if signs and symptoms are ignored. Recommendations are made to better control the heat stress exposure.

Bird, M.J.; MacIntosh, D.L.; Williams, P.L. [University of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States). Dept. of Environmental Health Science

2004-06-15

152

Occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields and acute leukaemia: analysis of a case-control study  

PubMed Central

Aims: To investigate whether the risk of acute leukaemia among adults is associated with occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields. Methods: Probable occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields at higher than typical residential levels was investigated among 764 patients diagnosed with acute leukaemia during 1991–96 and 1510 sex and age matched controls. A job exposure matrix was applied to the self reported employment histories to determine whether or not a subject was exposed to electromagnetic fields. Risks were assessed using conditional logistic regression for a matched analysis. Results: Study subjects considered probably ever exposed to electromagnetic fields at work were not at increased risk of acute leukaemia compared to those considered never exposed. Generally, no associations were observed on stratification by sex, leukaemia subtype, number of years since exposure stopped, or occupation; there was no evidence of a dose-response effect using increasing number of years exposed. However, relative to women considered never exposed, a significant excess of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia was observed among women probably exposed to electromagnetic fields at work that remained increased irrespective of time prior to diagnosis or job ever held. Conclusion: This large population based case-control study found little evidence to support an association between occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields and acute leukaemia. While an excess of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia among women was observed, it is unlikely that occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields was responsible, given that increased risks remained during periods when exposure above background levels was improbable.

Willett, E; McKinney, P; Fear, N; Cartwright, R; Roman, E

2003-01-01

153

Occupational exposure to metalworking fluid mist and sump fluid contaminants.  

PubMed

This paper summarizes the analytical and occupational hygiene findings from a recent survey of occupational exposure to metalworking fluids (MWFs) in the engineering industry. The aim of the survey was to link MWF mist exposure measurements with particular engineering processes and controls, and utilize the data obtained to develop exposure standards. At the same time the opportunity was taken to assess fluid management and control, including bacterial and fines contamination in the machine sumps. In general, occupational exposure to mineral oil MWF mist was controlled to <3 mg/m(3) (8 h time-weighted average) and to <1 mg/m(3) for water-mix MWF mist (in terms of the concentrate). These exposure values do not necessarily represent best practice, but are believed to be achievable and representative of industry as a whole. Gravimetric analysis of the total inhalable particulate was found to be a good predictor of mineral oil MWF mist but not for water-mix MWF mist. Grinding and drilling operations produced higher exposures than turning and milling for water-mix fluids. There were insufficient data to compare machining operations for mineral oil MWFs. On the whole, fluid management was found to be poor, with most sites failing to meet industry good practice or Health & Safety Executive (HSE) standards. Some of the operating procedures utilized were deficient or unsatisfactory. Poor standards of fluid management were found at all sizes of company. High levels of bacteria, endotoxin and fines were found in sumps, and control of other factors, such as water-mix fluid concentration, was often poor. Mineral oils had higher levels of fines than water-mix fluids (medians of 395 and 18 mg/l, respectively), and grinding produced high levels of fines in both types of MWF. Many water-mix sumps contained bacterial levels of >1 x 10(6) CFU/ml, and endotoxin levels of >100 000 EU/ml were not uncommon. The median values were 109 000 CFU/ml and 8039 EU/ml, respectively. Mists could potentially contain extensive contamination from bacteria and endotoxin. Analysis of the data suggests that sumps operating under typical conditions for machining (a temperature of 20 degrees C, a pH of 9 and a fluid strength below 10%), also appear to provide optimum conditions for the proliferation of bacteria. Low levels of benzo[a]pyrene (median 0.03 micro g/g) were found in the mineral oils, and low levels of N-nitrosodiethanolamine (median 0.4 micro g/ml) were found in the water-mix MWFs. The results of this work will contribute to guidance from the HSE, setting out accepted industry good practice, including guide values for MWF mist and sump fluid contaminants, with significant emphasis on sump fluid management (maintenance and monitoring), as well as control issues. PMID:12505903

Simpson, A T; Stear, M; Groves, J A; Piney, M; Bradley, S D; Stagg, S; Crook, B

2003-01-01

154

Occupational exposure to dust: inflammation and ischaemic heart disease.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: To review the possible association between occupational exposure to dust and ischaemic heart disease (IHD). METHODS: A literature search was performed of relevant studies regarding IHD in specific exposures to dust. The chosen exposures were arsenic, asbestos, beryllium, lead, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and quartz. The chosen occupations were farmers, paper and paper pulp workers, sawyers, and welders. DISCUSSION: A theory was launched in 1995 that urban particulate air pollution may provoke alveolar inflammation, with release of mediators capable of increasing blood coagulability in susceptible people and cause cardiovascular deaths. The present review expands this hypothesis and links occupational exposure to inhaled particles with the occurrence of ischaemic heart disease. CONCLUSION: This hypothesis should be tested by comparing the concentrations of fibrinogen in workers exposed and nonexposed to particles with control for other possible confounders such as smoking habits.

Sjogren, B

1997-01-01

155

Risk Assessment of Occupational Exposure to Pesticides  

Microsoft Academic Search

The agricultural chemicals commonly labeled as pesticides are perhaps the largest group of poisonous substances being intentionally disseminated throughout the environment. For some pesticides neither health nor environmental risk evaluations are available. Therefore, at the moment the prevention of occupational and environmental consequences of pesticide use may only be achieved if methodologies and threshold environmental values are developed for the

A. M. ATTIA

156

Management of occupational hazards in healthcare: exposure to diphencyprone.  

PubMed

Diphencyprone is a chemical agent used most commonly in the treatment of alopecia areata. Its mechanism of action is through the sensitisation (type IV immune reaction) of affected areas to stimulate hair follicle growth. The consequences of accidental occupational exposure, however, have not been widely recognised. This report describes the clinical presentation and management of two pharmacy technicians that presented to Sheffield Occupational Health Service (SOHS) centre in 2012. Exposure sources were identified through a workplace visit arranged between the SOHS centre and the hospital's pharmacy; a chemical analysis revealed concentrations of the chemical sufficient to induce sensitisation at several points during the manufacturing process. The case highlights the role of close liaison between specialist services (dermatology and occupational medicine) in managing individual patient cases and mitigating risk within relevant occupational groups. PMID:23417940

Basu, Subhashis; Adisesh, Anil

2013-02-15

157

Ranking the carcinogenic hazards of occupational exposures: Exposure-Potency Index (EPI) values for nine volatile industrial chemicals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Employers, employees, and occupational health professionals need a simple index to rank carcinogens according to their potential danger at exposure levels which are commonly encountered in workplaces. We describe such an index, the Exposure-Potency Index (EPI). This simple proportion, dose level (mg\\/kg body weight\\/day) to which workers are permitted to be exposed\\/cancer-causing dose (mg\\/kg body weight\\/day) in test animals, permits

K. Hooper; L. S. Gold

1986-01-01

158

[Occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields in physiotherapy departments].  

PubMed

An assessment of the electromagnetic fields emitted from short and ultrashort wave diathermy sources and from magneto therapy operating at a frequency of 50 Hz was made to evaluate the occupational exposure to the operators. Operators were exposed to electromagnetic fields which rarely exceed the recommended limits of International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) and American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH). Only a measurement of electromagnetic fields near short wave diathermy equipment operating at a frequency of 27.12 MHz exposed operators to levels above those recommended by ICNIRP at a distance of 1 metre. Magnetic fields of magneto therapy exceeded residential exposition of 1 microtesla, at a distance of 4 metres. PMID:12528353

Maccà, I; Scapellato, M L; Perini, M; Virgili, A; Saia, B; Bartolucci, G B

159

Evaluation of mutagenicity and other adverse effects of occupational exposure to sodium azide  

SciTech Connect

The ubiquitous use of sodium azide has resulted in widespread occupational exposure to it in both laboratory and industrial settings, despite a lack of knowledge of the risks which may be involved. Explosive, toxic, and mutagenic hazards have been shown at even low-dose exposures. These effects occur in many species, from cellular damage through pathology of whole systems, and human fatalities have been reported. The advantages to its availability for applicable uses precludes reaching a ''no exposure'' level, but efforts to decrease unnecessary exposure can reduce its risk; therefore a quantitative procedure for determining human exposure is necessary. However, for various reasons present methods for this type of evaluation of azide are unsatisfactory, and minimizing hazard is dependent upon good laboratory hygiene and motivated personnel. The increasing use of azide and proportionally increasing occupational and accidental exposure in the future warrants the undertaking of chronic exposure studies, which hopefully will result in more explicit guidelines for human protection.

Frederick, K.A.; Babish, J.G.

1982-12-01

160

[Identification of occupational exposures among patients with lung cancer].  

PubMed

Despite the rising number of lung cancers recognized as occupational disease, occupational lung cancers are still under-reported. To improve the recognition of occupational lung cancer, we implemented at the Léon-Bérard Cancer Centre, a questionnaire-based process to identify occupational exposures in these patients and improve compensation. Between January 2010 and December 2011, 91 lung cancer patients responded to a questionnaire. An "occupational cancer" consultation was proposed to patients reporting exposure to carcinogens or jobs with risk of exposure. Fifty-one patients were seen in consultation (34 following the questionnaire and 17 directly addressed by the oncologist). A suspicion of high or average imputability was identified in 31 (60.8%) patients and a compensation process seemed possible for 27 (61.4%). Asbestos was the most common carcinogen identified. Among 17 compensation processes engaged, 12 succeeded and one is ongoing. The complexity of the administrative process seems to be an obstacle for patients and perpetuates inequality. The implementation of our approach increased the identification and the compensation of occupational lung cancer. Our approach responds to the objectives of the National Cancer Plan and helps to improve the overall care of patients with cancer. This approach has been awarded by the national label in 2011 "Year of the patients and their rights". PMID:23831888

Cellier, Camille; Charbotel, Barbara; Carretier, Julien; Rebattu, Paul; Fayette, Jérôme; Pérol, Maurice; Claude, Line; Philip, Thierry; Fervers, Béatrice

161

Occupational PAH Exposures during Prescribed Pile Burns  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wildland firefighters are exposed to particulate matter and gases containing polycyclic aro- matic hydrocarbons (PAHs), many of which are known carcinogens. Our objective was to eval- uate the extent of firefighter exposure to particulate and PAHs during prescribed pile burns of mainly ponderosa pine slash and determine whether these exposures were correlated with changes in urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-HP), a PAH

M. S. Robinson; T. R. Anthony; S. R. Littau; P. Herckes; X. Nelson; G. S. Poplin; J. L. Burgess

2008-01-01

162

Occupational PAH exposures during prescribed pile burns.  

PubMed

Wildland firefighters are exposed to particulate matter and gases containing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), many of which are known carcinogens. Our objective was to evaluate the extent of firefighter exposure to particulate and PAHs during prescribed pile burns of mainly ponderosa pine slash and determine whether these exposures were correlated with changes in urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-HP), a PAH metabolite. Personal and area sampling for particulate and PAH exposures were conducted on the White Mountain Apache Tribe reservation, working with 21 Bureau of Indian Affairs/Fort Apache Agency wildland firefighters during the fall of 2006. Urine samples were collected pre- and post-exposure and pulmonary function was measured. Personal PAH exposures were detectable for only 3 of 16 PAHs analyzed: naphthalene, phenanthrene, and fluorene, all of which were identified only in vapor-phase samples. Condensed-phase PAHs were detected in PM2.5 area samples (20 of 21 PAHs analyzed were detected, all but naphthalene) at concentrations below 1 microg m(-3). The total PAH/PM2.5 mass fractions were roughly a factor of two higher during smoldering (1.06 +/- 0.15) than ignition (0.55 +/- 0.04 microg mg(-1)). There were no significant changes in urinary 1-HP or pulmonary function following exposure to pile burning. In summary, PAH exposures were low in pile burns, and urinary testing for a PAH metabolite failed to show a significant difference between baseline and post-exposure measurements. PMID:18515848

Robinson, M S; Anthony, T R; Littau, S R; Herckes, P; Nelson, X; Poplin, G S; Burgess, J L

2008-05-31

163

Childhood cancer and occupational radiation exposure in parents.  

PubMed

To test the hypothesis that a parent's job exposure to radiation affects his or her child's risk of cancer, the authors compared this exposure during the year before the child's birth for parents of children with and without cancer. Parents of children with cancer were no more likely to have worked in occupations, industries, or combined occupations and industries with potential ionizing radiation exposure. Bone cancer and Wilms' tumor occurred more frequently among children of fathers in all industries with moderate potential ionizing radiation exposure. Children with cancer more often had fathers who were aircraft mechanics (odds ratio (OR) = infinity, one-sided 95% lower limit = 1.5; P = 0.04). Although four of these six were military aircraft mechanics, only children whose fathers had military jobs with potential ionizing radiation exposure had an increased cancer risk (OR = 2.73; P = 0.01). Four cancer types occurred more often among children of fathers in specific radiation-related occupations: rhabdomyosarcoma among children whose fathers were petroleum industry foremen; retinoblastoma among children whose fathers were radio and television repairmen; central nervous system cancers and other lymphatic cancers among children of Air Force fathers. Because numbers of case fathers are small and confidence limits are broad, the associations identified by this study need to be confirmed in other studies. Better identification and gradation of occupational exposure to radiation would increase the sensitivity to detect associations. PMID:6321012

Hicks, N; Zack, M; Caldwell, G G; Fernbach, D J; Falletta, J M

1984-04-15

164

Childhood cancer and occupational radiation exposure in parents  

SciTech Connect

To test the hypothesis that a parent's job exposure to radiation affeOR). its his or her child's risk of cancer, the authors compared this exposure during the year before the child's birth for parents of children with and without cancer. Parents of children with cancer were no more likely to have worked in occupations, industries, or combined occupations and industries with potential ionizing radiation exposure. Bone cancer and Wilms' tumor occurred more frequently among children of fathers in all industries with moderate potential ionizing radiation exposure. Children with cancer more often had fathers who were aircraft mechanics (odds ratio (OR)) . infinity, one-sided 95% lower limit . 1.5; P . 0.04). Although four of these six were military aircraft mechanics, only children whose fathers had military jobs with potential ionizing radiation exposure had an increased cancer risk (OR . 2.73; P . 0.01). Four cancer types occurred more often among children of fathers in specific radiation-related occupations: rhabdomyosarcoma among children whose fathers were petroleum industry foremen; retinoblastoma among children whose fathers were radio and television repairmen; central nervous system cancers and other lymphatic cancers among children of Air Force fathers. Because numbers of case fathers are small and confidence limits are broad, the associations identified by this study need to be confirmed in other studies. Better identification and gradation of occupational exposure to radiation would increase the sensitivity to detect associations.

Hicks, N.; Zack, M.; Caldwell, G.G.; Fernbach, D.J.; Falletta, J.M.

1984-04-15

165

Occupational exposure to elemental constituents in fingerprint powders  

SciTech Connect

Fingerprint detection is an essential component of any crime detection agency. Little information is available regarding the elemental constituents of powders that are available currently. One recent case of lead poisoning coupled with many complaints from the Vancouver identification Squad members initiated a study regarding the elemental composition of, and the occupational exposure to, these powders. Multi-elemental analysis of the powders investigated showed that all contained varying amounts of aluminum, calcium, zinc, iron, magnesium, manganese, and nickel. One powder, however, contained 41% lead. The time spent at the scene of crime during a normal working shift averaged 95.5 min. Assessment of inhalation exposure during this period by personal air sampling pumps never exceeded the occupational exposure standards for these elements. Secondary exposure from dust-contaminated police vehicles and clothing can be an important contributor to overall exposure.

Van Netten, C.; Souter, F.; Teschke, K.E. (Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada))

1990-03-01

166

Annual occupational exposure to ultraviolet radiation in central Queensland.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to determine annual occupational exposure to UV radiation by measurement and derive ambient exposure fractions for an entire year that could be applied in the human exposure model. Using polysulphone the daily occupational erythema effective solar ultraviolet radiation exposure at selected body sites of Australia Post mail delivery personnel and physical education teachers were measured over an 18-mo period on a daily basis in the Rockhampton (lat. 23.5 degrees S) region. The daily exposures were summed to estimate an annual exposure for these occupations in this region. For the Australia Post mail delivery personnel, who had very little change to the posture or route during delivery, the annual mean estimates of exposure to erythema effective solar irradiance for the chest, hands, and back were in the range of 192+/-27 kJ m(-2), 388+/-45 kJ m(-2), and 283+/-32 kJ m(-2), respectively. Physical education teachers had varied duties on a day-to-day basis and many changes in their posture and outdoor locations where the exposure occurred. Their annual mean exposure on the vertex (hat), chest, shoulder, thigh, and back were in the range 340+/-71 kJ m(-2), 140+/-28 kJ m(-2), 180+/-40 kJ m(-2), 129+/-24 kJ m(-2), and 212+/-42 kJ m(-2), respectively. The annual exposure range for erythema effective solar irradiance at different body sites during the experimental period was between 120 and 440 kJ m(-2) for the two occupational groups. These exposures greatly exceed the National Health and Medical Research Council occupational standard limit of 30 J m(-2) for daily exposure, which indicates the need for additional protective measures. The ambient exposure was also measured and used to compute ambient exposure fractions for the different body sites over an entire year, which are useful for model calculations on human exposure and assess increase in risk of n on melanoma skin cancer. PMID:11669207

Vishvakarman, D; Wong, J C; Boreham, B W

2001-11-01

167

Dose levels of the occupational radiation exposures in Poland based on results from the accredited dosimetry service at the IFJ PAN, Krakow.  

PubMed

Individual dosimetry service based on thermoluminescence (TLD) detectors has started its activity at the Institute of Nuclear Physics (IFJ) in Krakow in 1965. In 2002, the new Laboratory of Individual and Environment Dosimetry (Polish acronym LADIS) was established and underwent the accreditation according to the EN-PN-ISO/IEC 17025 standard. Nowadays, the service is based on the worldwide known standard thermoluminescent detectors MTS-N (LiF:Mg,Ti) and MCP-N (LiF:Mg,Cu,P), developed at IFJ, processed in automatic thermoluminescent DOSACUS or RE2000 (Rados Oy, Finland) readers. Laboratory provides individual monitoring in terms of personal dose equivalent H(p)(10) and H(p)(0.07) in photon and neutron fields, over the range from 0.1 mSv to 1 Sv, and environmental dosimetry in terms of air kerma K(a) over the range from 30 ?Gy to 1 Gy and also ambient dose equivalent H*(10) over the range from 30 ?Sv to 1 Sv. Dosimetric service is currently performed for ca. 3200 institutions from Poland and abroad, monitored on quarterly and monthly basis. The goal of this paper is to identify the main activities leading to the highest radiation exposures in Poland. The paper presents the results of statistical evaluation of ? 100,000 quarterly H(p)(10) and K(a) measurements performed between 2002 and 2009. Sixty-five per cent up to 90 % of all individual doses in Poland are on the level of natural radiation background. The dose levels between 0.1 and 5 mSv per quarter are the most frequent in nuclear medicine, veterinary and industrial radiography sectors. PMID:21183549

Budzanowski, Maciej; Kope?, Renata; Obryk, Barbara; Olko, Pawe?

2010-12-23

168

Potential Benefits of Reducing Occupation Radiation Exposure.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The study presents a theoretical framework for estimating plant operating costs that can be attributed to whole-body external radiation exposures incurred during nuclear power plant operation and maintenance and describes the development of a generic meth...

C. A. Pelletier P. G. Voilleque

1978-01-01

169

Occupational Exposure in Adult Glioma Patients,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A case/control study was carried out for 326 subjects with glioma to examine possible relationships between petrochemical exposure and brain tumors. Glioma cases were identified from medical records at a hospital and death certificates reporting a brain t...

A. R. Moss

1988-01-01

170

Chromosome aberrations as a means to determine occupational exposure: an alternative  

SciTech Connect

The methodology developed to study chromosome aberrations in vitro, and the results gained in application of the method in in vivo studies of individuals receiving ionizing radiation, may provide a basis to more definitively assess occupational exposure in radiographers and radiation therapy technologists. The need for more definitive methods in measuring occupational exposure is given impetus by the fact that there is now a large group of individuals in whom a significant duration of occupational exposure may be measured. Further, increased knowledge of the effects of radiation has resulted in lower and lower levels of maximum permissible dose. And there is the undeniable, albeit relatively unproven, claim of radiation hazard in occupations not previously considered. As a group, technologists are now better organized and more aware of occupational hazards than in the past. It behooves us as professionals to act in our own behalf to improve the state of knowledge and methods of evaluation of occupational hazards that we have endured for several decades. There is no longer any more time to waste in the light of what we now know. In the author's opinion, the method described herein has the potential to determine occupational dose more accurately and definitively than has been possible heretofore and, therefore, should be tested as an alternative to present methods of personnel monitoring. History, rationale, and method are presented, and a protocol for a research study is described.

Sullivan, C.A.

1980-09-01

171

Occupational exposure to bitumen during road paving.  

PubMed

The exposure of road pavers to total particulates, bitumen fumes, semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), low-molecular-weight amines, styrene, and 1,3-butadiene was studied at 13 paving sites where 11 different asphalt mixtures were laid. Researchers analyzed 1-hydroxypyrene in the workers' pre- and postshift urine samples. The arithmetic mean concentrations of total particulates, bitumen fumes, SVOCs, and PAHs in the breathing zone of road pavers were 0.6 mg/m3, 0.29 mg/m3, 5.6 mg/m3, and 5.03 microg/m3, respectively. The highest bitumen fume concentrations (2.65 mg/m3) were measured in manual mastic laying, that is, when the paving temperature was highest. More than 90% of air impurities measured were in the vapor phase. Workers laying surface dressing were exposed to the highest SVOC concentrations (27.8 mg/m3). The paving temperature and the concentrations of bitumen fume correlated positively, but the weather conditions significantly affected the workers' exposure; for example, increased wind velocity resulted in lower concentrations of SVOCs and PAHs. Job title was not found to be a significant determinant of exposure, but exposure to bitumen fume and greater than or equal to four-ring PAHs among manual mastic pavers, and that to SVOCs and total PAHs among surface dressing workers, were significantly higher than among other pavers. Exposure during road paving operations was, on average, more than 10-fold higher to PAHs than was the exposure of a traffic controller (0.34 microg/m3) caused by automobile exhausts from background traffic. The PAHs were comprised mainly of two- and three-ring compounds. The concentrations of amines, and impurities from polymer modified bitumens, styrene, and 1,3-butadiene were below detection limits. Urinary 1-hydroxypyrene concentrations were higher among road pavers than among office workers serving as referents. PMID:11975651

Heikkilä, Pirjo; Riala, Riitta; Hämeilä, Mervi; Nykyri, Erkki; Pfäffli, Pirkko

172

Maternal occupational exposure to ionizing radiation and birth defects  

Microsoft Academic Search

So far, only a few studies investigated occupational exposure to ionizing radiation in pregnancy to cause birth defects (BDs).\\u000a No association between BDs and ionizing radiation, although described for high-dose exposure, could ever be confirmed for\\u000a employees, or specific job titles. Here, an explorative analysis of a prospective population-based birth cohort used to quantify\\u000a the prevalence of BDs in infants

Awi Wiesel; Claudia Spix; Andreas Mergenthaler; Annette Queißer-Luft

2011-01-01

173

Neurobehavioral effects in occupational chemical exposure  

SciTech Connect

Neurobehavioral effects in 30 female workers (aged 18-41, mean 25.6) exposed to an average of 341 mg/m[sup 3] (SD 100) toluene for an average of 5.7 years (SD 3.3) compared with 30 matched controls (aged 18-48, mean 25.1), 24 male workers (aged 18-32, mean 24.7) exposed to 268 Mg/M[sup 3] (SD 185) toluene equivalent of mixed solvent (82.2% toluene, 12.3% ethyl acetate, and 5.5% methyl ethyl ketone) for 2.3 years (SD 3.0) compared with 24 matched controls (aged 17-31, mean 24.3), and 94 dentists (aged 24-49, mean 31.7) exposed to 0.017 Mg/M[sup 3] (SD 0.009) of elemental mercury for 7.4 years (SD 5.3) compared with 54 referents (aged 23-50, mean 33.6) were studied. The Z score (made up of Digit Span, Symbols Digit, and Grooved Peg Board) for the workers exposed to toluene was 0.79, for workers exposed to mixed solvents was 0.38, and for the dentists exposed to mercury was 0.42. The Z score for each group of exposed subjects was statistically poorer than that for its controls. Neurobehavioral performance was statistically related to exposure intensity for the toluene-exposed workers and to years of exposure or dose (exposure intensity x years of exposure) for mixed solvent- and mercury-exposed subjects. The type of chemical species and pattern of exposure appear to influence whether the adverse effects will be cumulative. 14 refs., 1 figs., 3 tabs.

Foo, Sweecheng; Ngim, Chunhan; Salleh, Ismail; Jeryaratnam, J.; Boey, Kamweng (National Univ. of Singapore (Singapore))

1993-02-01

174

Occupational exposures estimated by means of job exposure matrices in relation to lung function in the PAARC survey.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES--The aim of this analysis of the French Cooperative PAARC (Pollution Atmosphérique et Affections Respiratoires Chroniques) survey, was to test whether occupational exposures to dusts, gases, or chemical fumes or to specific hazards, estimated by job exposure matrices, were related to a decrease in forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1). METHODS--The most recent occupation was recorded in adults, aged 25-59, from non-manual worker households. Analysis was restricted to 10,046 subjects whose occupation was encountered at least 10 times in the study and who performed good FEV1 tracings. From occupational title, exposures to dusts, gases, and chemical fumes, and to specific hazards were classified in three categories (no, low, and high) with a British, a French, and an Italian job exposure matrix. Specific hazards were analysed for the British and French job exposure matrices for the same 42 specific dusts, gases, and chemical fumes. To limit spurious associations, a selection of seven hazard groups and 12 specific hazards was set before the start of the analysis. Based on the consistency of the relations according to sex and the British and French job exposure matrices, associations of age, height, city, and smoking adjusted FEV1 score with occupational exposures were classified as very likely, possible, or unlikely. RESULTS--For the three job exposure matrices and both sexes clear exposure-response relations between the level of exposure to dusts, gases, and chemical fumes, and a decrease in FEV1 were found. Associations with FEV1 were classified as very likely for known hazards such as organic dusts and textile dusts, and not previously recognised hazards such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and detergents, and as possible for solvents, waxes and polishes, and diesel fumes. Associations found for PAHs and solvents were confirmed by the Italian job exposure matrix. Associations remained significant in women, but not in men, after adjustment for educational level. CONCLUSIONS--Hypotheses have been generated for exposure to detergents, PAHs, and solvents, but they need to be interpreted with caution before replication. Significant associations found for known risk factors with a decrease in FEV1 are arguments for the validity of the matrices. Despite the expected limitations of job exposure matrices, these results encourage further work to improve exposure assessment by job exposure matrices.

Le Moual, N; Orlowski, E; Schenker, M B; Avignon, M; Brochard, P; Kauffmann, F

1995-01-01

175

The development and regulation of occupational exposure limits in Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The occupational exposure limits (OELs) in Taiwan was promulgated in 1974 and has been revised five times since then. Many of the OELs were adopted from the most recent ACGIH TLVs and US OSHA PELs. A total of 483 chemicals were listed in the current Taiwan OELs Standard. The procedures of OELs development in Taiwan include the IOSH organized a

Tung-Sheng Shih; Kuen-Yuh Wu; Hong-I Chen; Cheng-Ping Chang; Ho-Yuan Chang; Yi-Shiao Huang; Saou-Hsing Liou

2006-01-01

176

Occupational Exposure to Natural Sources of Ionising Radiation in Ireland  

SciTech Connect

The Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland (RPII) has recently completed a detailed evaluation of all radiation exposure pathways from sources of both natural and artificial radiation in the Irish environment. This paper presents a compilation of the occupational doses received by Irish workers exposed to natural sources of ionising radiation.

Organo, Catherine; Colgan, Tony; Fenton, David; Synnott, Hugh; Currivan, Lorraine [Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland, 3 Clonskeagh Square, Dublin 14 (Ireland)

2008-08-07

177

LINKING DATA TO STUDY REPRODUCTIVE EFFECTS OF OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURES  

EPA Science Inventory

Many existing data systems or registers can be used to study occupational exposures and reproduction. Use of these data systems, especially those already computerized, results in great savings in time and resources. The report describes existing record systems on reproductive out...

178

Occupational Exposure to Extreme Temperature and Risk of Testicular Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study of 250 patients with pathologically confirmed testicular cancer diagnosed between January 1977 and June 1980 and 250 population controls matched for age and residence was carried out to investigate risk factors for testicular cancer. This paper reports results of risk associated with occupational exposure to extreme (? 60 °F or ?80 °F), high (? 80 °F), and low

Zuo-Feng Zhang; John E. Vena; Maria Zielezny; Saxon Graham; Brenda P. Haughey; John Brasure; James R. Marshall

1995-01-01

179

Cancer in relation to occupational exposure to perchloroethylene  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exposure to perchloroethylene (PCE) occurs in a number of occupational settings in which organic solvents are used, and, in particular, is widely prevalent in the dry-cleaning industry. This review summarizes the results of studies of the occurrence of the individual types of cancer in dry cleaners. Two of those cancers of greatest a priori concern (because of results in PCE-exposed

Noel S. Weiss

1995-01-01

180

Characteristics of Occupational Exposure to Benzene during Turnaround in the Petrochemical Industries  

PubMed Central

Objectives The level of benzene exposure in the petrochemical industry during regular operation has been well established, but not in turnaround (TA), where high exposure may occur. In this study, the characteristics of occupational exposure to benzene during TA in the petrochemical companies were investigated in order to determine the best management strategies and improve the working environment. This was accomplished by evaluating the exposure level for the workers working in environments where benzene was being produced or used as an ingredient during the unit process. Methods From 2003 to 2008, a total of 705 workers in three petrochemical companies in Korea were studied. Long- and short-term (< 1 hr) samples were taken during TAs. TA was classified into three stages: shut-down, maintenance and start-up. All works were classified into 12 occupation categories. Results The long-term geometric mean (GM) benzene exposure level was 0.025 (5.82) ppm (0.005-42.120 ppm) and the short-term exposure concentration during TA was 0.020 (17.42) ppm (0.005-61.855 ppm). The proportions of TA samples exceeding the time-weighted average, occupational exposure level (TWA-OEL in Korea, 1 ppm) and the short-term exposure limit (STEL-OEL, 5 ppm) were 4.1% (20 samples of 488) and 6.0% (13 samples of 217), respectively. The results for the benzene exposure levels and the rates of exceeding the OEL were both statistically significant (p < 0.05). Among the 12 job categories of petrochemical workers, mechanical engineers, plumbers, welders, fieldman and scaffolding workers exhibited long-term samples that exceeded the OEL of benzene, and the rate of exceeding the OEL was statistically significant for the first two occupations (p < 0.05). Conclusion These findings suggest that the periodic work environment must be assessed during non-routine works such as TA.

Shin, Jung-Ah; Lee, Byung-Kyu; Kwon, Jiwoon; Lee, Naroo; Chung, Kwang-Jae; Lee, Jong-Han; Lee, In-Seop; Kang, Seong-Kyu; Jang, Jae-Kil

2010-01-01

181

Toxic hepatitis in occupational exposure to solvents  

PubMed Central

The liver is the main organ responsible for the metabolism of drugs and toxic chemicals, and so is the primary target organ for many organic solvents. Work activities with hepatotoxins exposures are numerous and, moreover, organic solvents are used in various industrial processes. Organic solvents used in different industrial processes may be associated with hepatotoxicity. Several factors contribute to liver toxicity; among these are: species differences, nutritional condition, genetic factors, interaction with medications in use, alcohol abuse and interaction, and age. This review addresses the mechanisms of hepatotoxicity. The main pathogenic mechanisms responsible for functional and organic damage caused by solvents are: inflammation, dysfunction of cytochrome P450, mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress. The health impact of exposure to solvents in the workplace remains an interesting and worrying question for professional health work.

Malaguarnera, Giulia; Cataudella, Emanuela; Giordano, Maria; Nunnari, Giuseppe; Chisari, Giuseppe; Malaguarnera, Mariano

2012-01-01

182

Occupational Exposure in Nuclear Medicine and PET  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: With the increasing use of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) for scanning in oncology in our center, a radiation dose survey was performed to determine the impact on staff exposure. Conventional nuclear medicine procedures such as gallium scan, bone scans, and sestamibi cardiac scans are used for comparative purposes.Procedure: Patients were measured using a hand-held radiation monitor (Victoreen

Stephen White; David Binns; Val Johnston; Megan Fawcett; Brett Greer; Filomena Ciavarella; Rodney Hicks

2000-01-01

183

Postmenopausal breast cancer and occupational exposures  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveTo determine whether exposures in the workplace to organic solvents and to other agents, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, are associated with increased risks of developing postmenopausal breast cancer.MethodsBetween 1996 and 1997 a case–control study was conducted in Montreal, Quebec. Cases comprised 556 women, aged 50–75 years, with incident malignant breast cancer, and their controls were 613 women with other

Mark S Goldberg; Marie-France Valois; Louise Nadon

2010-01-01

184

[Health effects of non-occupational exposure to asbestos].  

PubMed

Mesothelioma has occurred in a relative large number not only among miners but also among non-occupationally exposed persons living in the northwestern region of Cape State of South Africa, where crocidolite is mined and transported. The long-term residents of Thetford Mines in Quebec Province, Canada, who have never engaged in mining and milling of chrysolite have not shown an excess mortality of respiratory diseases. Tremolite in soil is responsible for mesothelioma among residents of certain geologic regions such as Cyprus, Corcica, northwestern Greece and Turkey. An increased prevalence of malignant mesothelioma has been reported among residents of three Turkish villages due to exposure to erionite fibers having a high carcinogenic potency. Mesothelioma has infrequently developed in wives who were exposed while washing the work clothes of their husbands contaminated with asbestos, especially amphiboles. The levels of airborne asbestos in public buildings and schools in the U.S.A. and England having walls and ceilings constructed with asbestos containing materials are approximately 1/100 of the permissible concentration of 0.2 f/cm3. The estimated risk from asbestos exposure in schools and buildings is lower than the level of other risks in other society. During the work of removing asbestos from buildings the asbestos concentration is remarkably increased and this persists for many weeks thereafter. The level of asbestos fibers released from brake linings of motor vehicles is higher along roads with heavy traffic, at intersections, and near toll booths than elsewhere. The concentration of asbestos fibers released from motor vehicles is generally low and not of the level to induce mesothelioma. PMID:1619796

Koike, S

1992-05-01

185

Occupational exposure to low levels of organic and inorganic substances in a chemical plant for the production of terephtalic acid dimethyl ester  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of our study was the evaluation of personal exposure to chemical pollutants in workers employed in a plant for the production of terephtalic acid dimethyl ester. Chemical agents have been included in the monitoring program on the basis of the industrial process. In the plant, the oxidation of p-xylene is performed by air and the resulting acid is

I. Iavicoli; C. Laurini; G. Carelli

2005-01-01

186

Occupational noise and effects on blood pressure: exploring the relationship of hypertension and noise exposure in workers.  

PubMed

Hearing loss is the second most self reported occupational illness or injury. According to the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, approximately 30 million workers are exposed to hazardous noise on the job. Often only hearing loss is thought of when one refers to occupational noise, but there may be other factors to consider when addressing occupational noise such as blood pressure. What is not clear, however, is whether noise contributes to changes in blood pressure. Occupational noise is a problem in various settings and comes with known and possible health consequences. To identify and prevent possible health related effects, workplace monitoring, audiometry, and blood pressure screenings are essential. When in work settings with elevated noise exposures, occupational and environmental health nurses should be focused on creating a program designed to prevent exposure to high levels of occupational noise. PMID:15587460

Penney, Pamela J; Earl, Catherine E

2004-11-01

187

Biomarkers of occupational exposure to air pollution, inflammation and oxidative damage in taxi drivers.  

PubMed

Exposure to environmental pollutants has been recognised as a risk factor for cardiovascular events. 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP) is a biomarker of exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from traffic-related air pollution. Experimental studies indicate that PAH exposure could be associated with inflammation and atherogenesis. Thus, the purpose of this study was to evaluate whether the biomarker of PAH exposure is associated with biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress and if these effects modulate the risk of developing cardiovascular diseases in workers exposed to air pollution. This study included 60 subjects, comprising 39 taxi drivers and 21 non-occupationally exposed persons. Environmental PM2.5 and benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) levels, in addition to biomarkers of exposure and oxidative damage, were determined. Inflammatory cytokines (IL-1?, IL-6, IL-10, TNF-?, IFN-? and hs-CRP) and serum levels of oxidised LDL (ox-LDL), auto-antibodies (ox-LDL-Ab) and homocysteine (Hcy) were also evaluated. PM2.5 and BaP exhibited averages of 12.4±6.9?gm(-3) and 1.0±0.6ngm(-3), respectively. Urinary 1-OHP levels were increased in taxi drivers compared to the non-occupationally exposed subjects (p<0.05) and were positively correlated with pro-inflammatory cytokines and negatively correlated with antioxidants. Furthermore, taxi drivers had elevated pro-inflammatory cytokines, biomarkers of oxidative damage, and ox-LDL, ox-LDL-Ab and Hcy levels, although antioxidant enzymes were decreased compared to the non-occupationally exposed subjects (p<0.05). In summary, our findings indicate that taxi drivers showed major exposure to pollutants, such as PAHs, in relation to non-occupationally exposed subjects. This finding was associated with higher inflammatory biomarkers and Hcy, which represent important predictors for cardiovascular events. These data suggest a contribution of PAHs to cardiovascular diseases upon occupational exposure. PMID:23872245

Brucker, Natália; Moro, Angela M; Charão, Mariele F; Durgante, Juliano; Freitas, Fernando; Baierle, Marília; Nascimento, Sabrina; Gauer, Bruna; Bulcão, Rachel P; Bubols, Guilherme B; Ferrari, Pedro D; Thiesen, Flávia V; Gioda, Adriana; Duarte, Marta M M F; de Castro, Iran; Saldiva, Paulo H; Garcia, Solange C

2013-07-19

188

Occupational exposures during routine activities in coal-fueled power plants  

SciTech Connect

Limited information is available on occupational exposures during routine, nonoutage work activities in coal-fueled power plants. This study evaluated occupational exposures to the principal contaminants in the facilities, including respirable dust (coal dust), arsenic, noise, asbestos, and heat stress. The data were collected over a 3-month period, during the summer of 2001, in 5 representative power plants of a large southeastern power-generating company. From 4 of the 5 facilities, 392 air samples and 302 noise samples were collected with approximately 50 respirable coal dust, 32 arsenic, 15 asbestos, and 70 noise samples from each of the 4 plants. One of the previously surveyed facilities was also evaluated for heat stress, and 1 additional coal-fueled power plant was surveyed for a total of 20 personal heat stress samples. Of the nearly 400 air samples collected, only 1 exceeded the allowable occupational exposure value. For the noise samples, 55 were equal to or greater than the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) 8-hour hearing conservation program level of 85 dBA, and 12 were equal to or greater than the OSHA 8-hour permissible exposure level of 90 dBA. The data concluded that some work sites were above the heat stress ceiling values recommended by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). Four of the 20 employees personally monitored exceeded the recommended limits for heart rate or body core temperature.

Mona J. Bird; David L. MacIntosh; Phillip L. Williams [University of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States). Dept. of Environmental Health Science

2004-06-15

189

Occupational exposure to aldrin: clinical and laboratory findings  

PubMed Central

Avar, P., and Czeglédi-Jankó, G. (1970).Brit. J. industr. Med.,27, 279-282. Occupational exposure to aldrin: clinical and laboratory findings. The paper reports the relation of neurological symptoms and EEG findings to the concentration of HEOD in whole blood. Fifteen men who had been making aldrin in a fertilizer plant for up to five years were examined in the last month of exposure. Three of them were followed up for seven months after cessation of exposure. Eight were examined on one occasion two years after their last period of exposure to aldrin. Some men in whom the HEOD concentrations in whole blood were above 0·10 ppm had symptoms of poisoning but these were absent in others with higher (0·25 ppm) concentrations. In three men severely affected at the time of cessation of exposure, symptoms ceased within seven months. Symptoms that were still present in others two years later are ascribed to occupational exposure to lindane. After cessation of exposure, the concentration of HEOD in whole blood fell slowly, initially at a rate corresponding to a biological half-life of 50 to 150 days. Later, it fell more slowly, so that two years after the cessation of exposure the concentrations of HEOD in whole blood were still higher than in the general Hungarian population.

Avar, P.; Czegledi-Janko, G.

1970-01-01

190

Occupational lead exposure and renin release.  

PubMed

Hypertension may result from chronic lead exposure. Lead poisoning arising from "moonshine whiskey" drinking has been associated with a rise in plasma renin activity. In the present study, plasma renin concentration following intravenous administration of frusemide was measured in eleven subjects with moderate or severe lead poisoning of industrial origin. The results were compared with those obtained for seven normal, control subjects. There was no significant difference in response obtained in the two groups. Industrial lead poisoning does not appear to affect renin release. The combined insult of lead and alcohol may explain the findings in the previous study. PMID:518124

Campbell, B C; Beattie, A D; Elliott, H L; Goldberg, A; Moore, M R; Beevers, D G; Tree, M

191

Occupational exposures and practices in nuclear power plants  

SciTech Connect

As the first generation of commercial nuclear power comes to a close, it is timely to consider the status of occupational exposure in the power generation industry, that is, the collective occupational radiation doses received by workers in nuclear power plants. The picture is surprising. One might have thought that as newer, larger, and more modern plants came on line, there would be a significant decrease in exposure per unit of electricity generated. There is some indication that this is now happening. One might also have thought that the United States, being a leader in the development of nuclear power, and in the knowledge, experience and technology of nuclear radiation protection, would have the greatest success in controlling exposure. This expectation has not been fulfilled. 32 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

Baum, J.W.

1989-01-01

192

Occupational exposure to aflatoxin (AFB?) in poultry production.  

PubMed

Aflatoxin B? (AFB?) has been recognized to produce cancer in human liver. In addition, epidemiological and laboratory studies demonstrated that the respiratory system was a target for AFB?. Exposure occurs predominantly through the food chain, but inhalation represents an additional route of exposure. The present study aimed to examine AFB? exposure among poultry workers in Portugal. Blood samples were collected from a total of 31 poultry workers from six poultry farms. In addition, a control group (n?=?30) was included comprised of workers who undertook administrative tasks. Measurement of AFB? in serum was performed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). For examining fungi contamination, air samples were collected through an impaction method. Air sampling was obtained in pavilion interior and outside the premises, since this was the place regarded as the reference location. Using molecular methods, toxicogenic strains (aflatoxin-producing) were investigated within the group of species belonging to Aspergillus flavus complex. Eighteen poultry workers (59%) had detectable levels of AFB? with values ranging from <1 ng/ml to 4.23 ng/ml and with a mean value of 2 ± 0.98 ng/ml. AFB? was not detected in the serum sampled from any of the controls. Aspergillus flavus was the fungal species third most frequently found in the indoor air samples analyzed (7.2%) and was the most frequently isolated species in air samples containing only Aspergillus genus (74.5%). The presence of aflatoxigenic strains was only confirmed in outdoor air samples from one of the units, indicating the presence of a source inside the building in at least one case. Data indicate that AFB? inhalation represents an additional risk in this occupational setting that needs to be recognized, assessed, and prevented. PMID:23095151

Viegas, Susana; Veiga, Luisa; Malta-Vacas, Joana; Sabino, Raquel; Figueredo, Paula; Almeida, Ana; Viegas, Carla; Carolino, Elisabete

2012-01-01

193

48 CFR 952.223-75 - Preservation of individual occupational radiation exposure records.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Preservation of individual occupational radiation exposure records. 952.223-75...Preservation of individual occupational radiation exposure records. As prescribed...planning and execution, or 952.223-72, Radiation protection and nuclear...

2011-10-01

194

48 CFR 952.223-75 - Preservation of individual occupational radiation exposure records.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Preservation of individual occupational radiation exposure records. 952.223-75...Preservation of individual occupational radiation exposure records. As prescribed...planning and execution, or 952.223-72, Radiation protection and nuclear...

2012-10-01

195

Isocyanate exposure and occupational asthma: a case-referent study  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE—To examine the quantitative relation between exposure to isocyanates and occupational asthma, and to explore the role of atopy and smoking in occurrence of the disease.?METHOD—A case-referent study was undertaken of cases from two manufacturing companies (A and B) from which referents without disease could be selected and reliable exposure measurements were available. In company A, 27 cases mainly attributed to toluene diisocyanate (TDI) were matched to 51 referents on work area, start and duration of employment, sex, and age. Exposures were estimated from existing measurements by job category. In company B there were seven cases attributed to 4,4'-diphenylmethane diisocyanate (MDI) in two areas of the plant; 12 non-cases from the same areas were used as referents. Personal exposure measurements were available for all cases and 11 referents.?RESULTS—No difference in peak exposures between cases and referents was found in either plant; but in both, time weighted average (TWA) exposures at the time of onset of asthma were higher for cases. In A, the mean TWA exposure for cases was 1.5 (95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.2 to 1.8) ppb compared with 1.2 (1.0 to 1.4) ppb for referents. From a matched analysis, the odds ratio (OR) associated with 8 hour TWA exposure to isocyanates greater than 1.125 ppb (the median concentration for the referent group) was 3.2 (95% CI 0.96 to 10.6; p=0.06). Occupational asthma was associated with a pre-employment history of atopic illness (OR 3.5, p=0.04) and, less strongly, with smoking (OR 2.1, p=0.14). In B, small numbers limited analysis, but three of seven cases had at least one TWA exposure measurement greater than 5 ppb compared with one of 11 referents (OR 7.5, p=0.09).?CONCLUSION—Asthma can occur at low concentrations of isocyanates, but even at low concentrations, the higher the exposure the greater the risk. By contrast with other studies, smoking and atopy seemed to increase the odds of occupational asthma due to isocyanates, but did not affect the estimate of risk associated with exposure.???Keywords: occupational asthma; isocyanates

Meredith, S; Bugler, J; Clark, R

2000-01-01

196

Variability and consistency of electric and magnetic field occupational exposure measurements.  

PubMed

There is widespread scientific and public interest in possible health effects from exposure to electric and magnetic fields at frequencies associated with electricity use. Electric and magnetic field exposure assessment presents specific problems, among which are the inherent variability in exposure, the lack of robust statistical summary measures, and the lack of an accepted metric based on biological response. These pose challenges in defining distinct exposure groups, a basic goal for exposure assessments used in epidemiological studies. This paper explores the extent to which distinct electric and magnetic field exposure groups can be defined, by examining the variability and consistency of occupational electric and magnetic field exposure measurements among studies and within individual studies. Principal analyses are made by job titles because they are the most frequently used descriptors for stratifying occupational exposures to electric and magnetic fields. Methodological issues affecting the degree of consistency in measured electric and magnetic field exposures among occupational environments are also examined. Exposures by job title reported from electric and magnetic field measurement studies are summarized by general job category and industry. Analyses are performed both within and between job categories. Distributions of daily measured exposures for job categories taken from three large studies in the U.S. electric utility industry are compared to investigate consistency of exposures at a more detailed level. Analyses of reported personal exposure measurements from many studies and countries are consistent with less rigorous observations made heretofore on the basis of individual studies. In these studies, significantly elevated electric and magnetic field exposures are found in the electrician, lineworker, and substation worker categories; significantly elevated magnetic field exposures are also noted in the generation worker category; and magnetic field exposures in these groups are consistent across countries. Analyses within and among the elevated exposure job categories indicate that there are no significant differences between them. Among the studies, it is not possible to distinguish between exposures for well-defined groups within the categories, such as between transmission lineworkers and distribution lineworkers in the lineworker category; between generation operators and generation mechanics; or between substation operators and substation maintenance workers. This information provides a context for past studies and will help future efforts to define distinct occupational exposure groups exposed to electric and magnetic fields. Compilations of measured personal exposure data by industry and job title have been prepared as appendices (available from the author upon request). PMID:8889954

Bracken, T D; Patterson, R M

197

Occupational exposures worldwide and revision of international standards for protection.  

PubMed

United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) has become the world authority on the levels and effects of ionising radiation. Since 1975, UNSCEAR has evaluated inter alia the level of occupational exposure worldwide. Based on revised questionnaires, more detailed information is now available. The results of the last evaluation (1995-2002) will be shown in the paper. Lessons learned from the responses by UN Member States will be given, as well as an outline of plans for data collection in future cycles. The requirements for protection against exposure to ionising radiation of workers, the public and patients are established in the International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionising Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources (BSS), published in 1996. As a result of a review of the BSS in 2006, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) started a process for the revision of these standards in 2007. International organisations including the joint sponsoring organisations of the BSS-IAEA, FAO, ILO, OECD/NEA, PAHO and WHO--as well as potential new joint sponsoring organisations of the revised BSS--the European Commission and UNEP-were involved from the beginning in the revision process. The paper also provides a summary of the status of the Draft Revised BSS and describes the new format. The paper focuses, in particular, on requirements for the protection of workers as well as recordkeeping requirements, which provide the legal basis for the collection of specific data; these data are of the type that can be used by UNSCEAR. PMID:21148586

Czarwinski, R; Crick, M J

2010-12-09

198

Occupational exposure limits based on biological monitoring: the Japan Society for Occupational Health  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Japan Society for Occupational Health started to recommend an occupational exposure limit based on biological monitoring\\u000a (OEL-B) in 1993. Up to 1998, OEL-Bs for mercury, lead, hexane and 3,3?-dichloro-4,4?-diaminodiphenylmethane had been adopted\\u000a and those for 17 chemical substances (arsenic, cadmium, chromium, nickel, acetone, methanol, benzene, toluene, xylene, styrene,\\u000a tetrachloroethylene, trichloroethylene, N,N-dimethylacetoamide, N,N-dimethylformamide,carbon disulfide, carbon monoxide, and organophospate insecticides) are

K. Omae; T. Takebayashi; H. Sakurai

1999-01-01

199

The health of the workers in a rapidly developing country: effects of occupational exposure to noise and heat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Occupational hygiene and safety have not been high on the agenda of industrial management in developing countries for a variety of reasons. This cross-sectional study was undertaken to assess the exposure to noise and heat, and to study the level of occupational hygiene practiced, at a foundry in a rapidly developing country (Dubai, United Arab Emirates). Audiometry, muscle cramps and

J. Gomes; O. Lloyd; N. Norman

2002-01-01

200

Occupational exposure of workers to 1,3-butadiene.  

PubMed

Researchers from the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) conducted an extent-of-exposure study of the 1,3-butadiene monomer, polymer, and end-user industries to determine the size of the exposed workforce, evaluate control technologies and personal protective equipment programs, and assess occupational exposure to 1,3-butadiene. A new analytical method was developed for 1,3-butadiene that increased the sensitivity and selectivity of the previous NIOSH method. The new method is sensitive to 0.2 microgram per 1,3-butadiene sample. Walk-through surveys were conducted in 11 monomer, 17 polymer, and 2 end-user plants. In-depth industrial hygiene surveys were conducted at 4 monomer, 5 polymer, and 2 end-user plants. Airborne exposure concentrations of 1,3-butadiene were determined using personal sampling for each job category. A total of 692 full shift and short-term personnel and 259 area air samples were examined for the presence of 1,3-butadiene. Sample results indicated that all worker exposures were well below the current OSHA PEL of 1000 ppm. Exposures ranged from less than 0.006 ppm to 374 ppm. The average exposure for all samples was less than 2 ppm. The present American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) threshold limit value for 1,3-butadiene is 10 ppm. To reduce the potential for occupational exposure, it is recommended that quality control sampling be conducted using a closed loop system. Also all process pumps should be retrofitted with dual mechanical seals, magnetic gauges should be used in loading and unloading rail cars, and engineering controls should be designed for safely voiding quality control cylinders. PMID:2401251

Fajen, J M; Roberts, D R; Ungers, L J; Krishnan, E R

1990-06-01

201

Occupational exposure of workers to 1,3-butadiene  

SciTech Connect

Researchers from the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) conducted an extent-of-exposure study of the 1,3-butadiene monomer, polymer, and end-user industries to determine the size of the exposed workforce, evaluate control technologies and personal protective equipment programs, and assess occupational exposure to 1,3-butadiene. A new analytical method was developed for 1,3-butadiene that increased the sensitivity and selectivity of the previous NIOSH method. The new method is sensitive to 0.2 microgram per 1,3-butadiene sample. Walk-through surveys were conducted in 11 monomer, 17 polymer, and 2 end-user plants. In-depth industrial hygiene surveys were conducted at 4 monomer, 5 polymer, and 2 end-user plants. Airborne exposure concentrations of 1,3-butadiene were determined using personal sampling for each job category. A total of 692 full shift and short-term personnel and 259 area air samples were examined for the presence of 1,3-butadiene. Sample results indicated that all worker exposures were well below the current OSHA PEL of 1000 ppm. Exposures ranged from less than 0.006 ppm to 374 ppm. The average exposure for all samples was less than 2 ppm. The present American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) threshold limit value for 1,3-butadiene is 10 ppm. To reduce the potential for occupational exposure, it is recommended that quality control sampling be conducted using a closed loop system. Also all process pumps should be retrofitted with dual mechanical seals, magnetic gauges should be used in loading and unloading rail cars, and engineering controls should be designed for safely voiding quality control cylinders.

Fajen, J.M.; Roberts, D.R.; Ungers, L.J.; Krishnan, E.R. (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Cincinnati, OH (USA))

1990-06-01

202

Occupational exposure of workers to 1,3-butadiene.  

PubMed Central

Researchers from the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) conducted an extent-of-exposure study of the 1,3-butadiene monomer, polymer, and end-user industries to determine the size of the exposed workforce, evaluate control technologies and personal protective equipment programs, and assess occupational exposure to 1,3-butadiene. A new analytical method was developed for 1,3-butadiene that increased the sensitivity and selectivity of the previous NIOSH method. The new method is sensitive to 0.2 microgram per 1,3-butadiene sample. Walk-through surveys were conducted in 11 monomer, 17 polymer, and 2 end-user plants. In-depth industrial hygiene surveys were conducted at 4 monomer, 5 polymer, and 2 end-user plants. Airborne exposure concentrations of 1,3-butadiene were determined using personal sampling for each job category. A total of 692 full shift and short-term personnel and 259 area air samples were examined for the presence of 1,3-butadiene. Sample results indicated that all worker exposures were well below the current OSHA PEL of 1000 ppm. Exposures ranged from less than 0.006 ppm to 374 ppm. The average exposure for all samples was less than 2 ppm. The present American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) threshold limit value for 1,3-butadiene is 10 ppm. To reduce the potential for occupational exposure, it is recommended that quality control sampling be conducted using a closed loop system. Also all process pumps should be retrofitted with dual mechanical seals, magnetic gauges should be used in loading and unloading rail cars, and engineering controls should be designed for safely voiding quality control cylinders.

Fajen, J M; Roberts, D R; Ungers, L J; Krishnan, E R

1990-01-01

203

Exposure-response analysis of risk of respiratory disease associated with occupational exposure to chrysotile asbestos  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate alternative models and estimate risk of mortality from lung cancer and asbestosis after occupational exposure to chrysotile asbestos. METHODS: Data were used from a recent update of a cohort mortality study of workers in a South Carolina textile factory. Alternative exposure-response models were evaluated with Poisson regression. A model designed to evaluate evidence of a threshold response

L Stayner; R Smith; J Bailer; S Gilbert; K Steenland; J Dement; D Brown; R Lemen

1997-01-01

204

A recommended occupational exposure limit for formaldehyde based on irritation.  

PubMed

In recent years, several regulatory agencies and professional societies have recommended an occupational exposure limit (OEL) for formaldehyde. This article presents the findings of a panel of experts, the Industrial Health Foundation panel, who were charged to identify an OEL that would prevent irritation. To accomplish this task, they critiqued approximately 150 scientific articles. Unlike many other chemicals, a large amount of data is available upon which to base a concentration-response relationship for human irritation. A mathematical model developed by Kane et al. (1979) for predicting safe levels of exposure to irritants based on animal data was also evaluated. The panel concluded that for most persons, eye irritation clearly due to formaldehyde does not occur until at least 1.0 ppm. Information from controlled studies involving volunteers indicated that moderate to severe eye, nose, and throat irritation does not occur for most persons until airborne concentrations exceed 2.0-3.0 ppm. The data indicated that below 1.0 ppm, if irritation occurs in some persons, the effects rapidly subside due to "accommodation." Based on the weight of evidence from published studies, the panel found that persons exposed to 0.3 ppm for 4-6 h in chamber studies generally reported eye irritation at a rate no different than that observed when persons were exposed to clean air. It was noted that at a concentration of 0.5 ppm (8-h TWA) eye irritation was not observed in the majority of workers (about 80%). Consequently, the panel recommended an OEL of 0.3 ppm as an 8-h time-weighted average (TWA) with a ceiling value (CV) of 1.0 ppm (a concentration not to be exceeded) to avoid irritation. The panel believes that the ACGIH TLV of 0.3 ppm as a ceiling value was unnecessarily restrictive and that this value may have been based on the TLV Committee's interpretation of the significance of studies involving self-reported responses at concentrations less than 0.5 ppm. The panel concluded that any occupational or environmental guideline for formaldehyde should be based primarily on controlled studies in humans, since nearly all other studies are compromised by the presence of other contaminants. The panel also concluded that if concentrations of formaldehyde are kept below 0.1 ppm in the indoor environment (where exposures might occur 24 h/d) this should prevent irritation in virtually all persons. The panel could not identify a group of persons who were hypersensitive, nor was there evidence that anyone could be sensitized (develop an allergy) following inhalation exposure to formaldehyde. The panel concluded that there was sufficient evidence to show that persons with asthma respond no differently than healthy individuals following exposure to concentrations up to 3.0 ppm. Although cancer risk was not a topic that received exhaustive evaluation, the panel agreed with other scientific groups who have concluded that the cancer risk of formaldehyde is negligible at airborne concentrations that do not produce chronic irritation. PMID:9055874

Paustenbach, D; Alarie, Y; Kulle, T; Schachter, N; Smith, R; Swenberg, J; Witschi, H; Horowitz, S B

1997-02-21

205

Occupational Exposure to Polychlorinated Biphenyls and Risk of Breast Cancer  

PubMed Central

Background Despite the endocrine system activity exhibited by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), recent studies have shown little association between PCB exposure and breast cancer mortality. Objectives To further evaluate the relation between PCB exposure and breast cancer risk, we studied incidence, a more sensitive end point than mortality, in an occupational cohort. Methods We followed 5,752 women employed for at least 1 year in one of three capacitor manufacturing facilities, identifying cases from questionnaires, cancer registries, and death certificates through 1998. We collected lifestyle and reproductive information via questionnaire from participants or next of kin and used semiquantitative job-exposure matrices for inhalation and dermal exposures combined. We generated standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) and standardized rate ratios and used Cox proportional hazards regression models to evaluate potential confounders and effect modifiers. Results Overall, the breast cancer SIR was 0.81 (95% confidence interval, 0.72–0.92; n = 257), and regression modeling showed little effect of employment duration or cumulative exposure. However, for the 362 women of questionnaire-identified races other than white, we observed positive, statistically significant associations with employment duration and cumulative exposure; only smoking, birth cohort, and self- or proxy questionnaire completion had statistically significant explanatory power when added to models with exposure metrics. Conclusions We found no overall elevation in breast cancer risk after occupational exposure to PCBs. However, the exposure-related risk elevations seen among nonwhite workers, although of limited interpretability given the small number of cases, warrant further investigation, because the usual reproductive risk factors accounted for little of the increased risk.

Silver, Sharon R.; Whelan, Elizabeth A.; Deddens, James A.; Steenland, N. Kyle; Hopf, Nancy B.; Waters, Martha A.; Ruder, Avima M.; Prince, Mary M.; Yong, Lee C.; Hein, Misty J.; Ward, Elizabeth M.

2009-01-01

206

Occupational exposure to formaldehyde and wood dust and nasopharyngeal carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVESTo investigate whether occupational exposures to formaldehyde and wood dust increase the risk of nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC).METHODSA multicentred, population based case-control study was carried out at five cancer registries in the United States participating in the National Cancer Institute's SEER program. Cases (n=196) with a newly diagnosed NPC between 1987 and 1993, and controls (n=244) selected over the same period

Thomas L Vaughan; Patricia A Stewart; Kay Teschke; Charles F Lynch; G Marie Swanson; Joseph L Lyon; Marianne Berwick

2000-01-01

207

Occupational exposure to glycol ethers and human congenital malformations  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesThis commentary reviews toxicological information and critically evaluates epidemiological information on the relationship between glycol ethers and congenital malformations.MethodsThe authors identified and assessed toxicological and epidemiological research on glycol ethers used in occupational settings and congenital malformations. Sensitivity analyses evaluated the possible role of methodological problems in explaining the findings of the epidemiological studies.ResultsExposure to certain glycol ethers, including ethylene

George Maldonado; Elizabeth Delzell; Rochelle W. Tyl; Lowell E. Sever

2003-01-01

208

Overview and characteristics of some occupational exposures and health risks on offshore oil and gas installations.  

PubMed

This review considers the nature, and recognition and control, of health risks in the offshore oil and gas industry from the occupational hygiene point of view. Particular attention is given to the changes in the nature of exposure and control of inhalation risks from substances hazardous to health in the UK sector, but other risks (e.g. dermatitis, noise and vibration) are also considered. The amount of published information on exposure to these hazards in the sector, or indeed on long-term health outcomes of working offshore, is limited. The approach taken to occupational health and hygiene in the sector has to be set in the context of the challenge of working in a remote and hostile environment where attention to safety and the need for emergency response to acute, rather than chronic, medical events are vital. However, changes in attitudes towards occupational health in the sector, legislation, the impact of environmental protection requirements and technology have all contributed to increasing the attention given to assessment and control of chemical and physical hazards. The health risks and benefits associated with the abandonment of installations, the application of new technologies, recovery of oil from ever deeper waters, lower staffing levels, environmental changes, the ageing workforce and the recognition of exposure patterns needing further attention/control (sequential multiple exposures, smaller workforce, peak/short-term exposures, etc.) are other current and future occupational hygiene challenges. PMID:12639833

Gardner, Ron

2003-04-01

209

Occupational Exposure to Crystalline Silica Dust in the United States, 1988-2003  

PubMed Central

The purposes of this study were a) to summarize measurements of airborne (respirable) crystalline silica dust exposure levels among U.S. workers, b) to provide an update of the 1990 Stewart and Rice report on airborne silica exposure levels in high-risk industries and occupations with data for the time period 1988–2003, c) to estimate the number of workers potentially exposed to silica in industries that the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) inspected for high exposure levels, and d) to conduct time trend analyses on airborne silica dust exposure levels for time-weighted average (TWA) measurements. Compliance inspection data that were taken from the OSHA Integrated Management Information System (IMIS) for 1988–2003 (n = 7,209) were used to measure the airborne crystalline silica dust exposure levels among U.S. workers. A second-order autoregressive model was applied to assess the change in the mean silica exposure measurements over time. The overall geometric mean of silica exposure levels for 8-hr personal TWA samples collected during programmed inspections was 0.077 mg/m3, well above the applicable American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists threshold limit value of 0.05 mg/m3. Surgical appliances supplies industry [Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) 3842] had the lowest geometric mean silica exposure level of 0.017 mg/m3, compared with the highest level, 0.166 mg/m3, for the metal valves and pipe fitting industry (SIC 3494), for an 8-hr TWA measurement. Although a downward trend in the airborne silica exposure levels was observed during 1988–2003, the results showed that 3.6% of the sampled workers were exposed above the OSHA-calculated permissible exposure limit.

Yassin, Abdiaziz; Yebesi, Francis; Tingle, Rex

2005-01-01

210

Comparison of Occupational Exposure Using Three Different Methods: Hygiene Panel, Job Exposure Matrix (JEM), and Self Reports  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was undertaken to compare the agreement of occupational exposure assessment by a panel of occupational hygienists with a job exposure matrix and self-reported exposures in a community-based case-control study. We also investigated the intra-rater reliability and degree of attenuation of the hypothetical odds ratio of the panel in retrospective chemical exposure assessment. A panel of three occupational hygienists

G. Benke; M. Sim; L. Fritschi; G. Aldred; A. Forbes; T. Kauppinen

2001-01-01

211

Occupational and environmental human lead exposure in Brazil  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this paper is to present a review of data on assessment of exposure and adverse effects due to environmental and occupational lead exposure in Brazil. Epidemiological investigations on children lead exposure around industrial and mining areas have shown that lead contamination is an actual source of concern. Lead in gasoline has been phasing out since the 1980s, and it is now completely discontinued. The last lead mining and lead refining plant was closed in 1995, leaving residual environmental lead contamination which has recently been investigated using a multidisciplinary approach. Moreover, there are hundreds of small battery recycling plants and secondary smelting facilities all over the country, which produce focal urban areas of lead contamination. Current regulatory limits for workplace lead exposure have shown to be inadequate as safety limits according to a few studies carried out lately.

Paoliello, M.M.B. [Departamento de Patologia, Analises Clinicas e Toxicologicas, Centro de Ciencias da Saude, Universidade Estadual de Londrina, Avenida Robert Koch 60, 86038-440 Londrina, Parana (Brazil)]. E-mail: monibas@sercomtel.com.br; De Capitani, E.M. [Centro de Controle de Intoxicacoes, Hospital Universitario da UNICAMP, Faculdade de Ciencias Medicas, Universidade Estadual de Campinas (Brazil)

2007-02-15

212

[ALAD polymorphism and indicators of dose and effects of occupational exposure to inorganic lead].  

PubMed

The delta-aminolevulinate dehydrase (ALAD) genetic polymorphism was investigated along with biomarkers of lead exposure and effect on 333 male workers, occupationally exposed to lead, with blood lead levels (PbB) higher than 100 microg/l. ALAD genotype frequencies were distributed as expected among Caucasians. Workers bearing at least one ALAD-2 allele showed PbB values slightly higher than those from ALAD-1-1 subjects, who also exhibited higher urinary delta-aminolevulinic acid (ALAU) and blood zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) levels. The plasmatic lead (PbP)/PbB ratio was similar in both groups. Exposure and effect biomarkers were significantly each other correlated among ALAD-1-1 subjects only, who showed also a significant inverse relationship between ALAD activity and ZPP values. Results confirm previous studies, supporting the hypothesis that ALAD polymorphism may interfere with toxico-kinetic and toxico-dynamic parameters of occupational exposure to Pb. PMID:15915653

De Palma, G; Scotti, E; Mozzoni, P; Alinovi, R; Apostoli, P; Neri, G; Soleo, L; Cassano, F; Carta, P; Murgia, N; Muzi, G; Muttil, A

213

Childhood leukemia and parents' occupational and home exposures.  

PubMed

A case-control study of children of ages 10 years and under in Los Angeles County was conducted to investigate the causes of leukemia. The mothers and fathers of acute leukemia cases and their individually matched controls were interviewed regarding specific occupational and home exposures as well as other potential risk factors associated with leukemia. Analysis of the information from the 123 matched pairs showed an increased risk of leukemia for children whose fathers had occupational exposure after the birth of the child to chlorinated solvents [odds ratio (OR) = 3.5, P = .01], spray paint (OR = 2.0, P = .02), dyes or pigments (OR = 4.5, P = .03), methyl ethyl ketone (CAS: 78-93-3; OR = 3.0, P = .05), and cutting oil (OR = 1.7, P = .05) or whose fathers were exposed during the mother's pregnancy with the child to spray paint (OR = 2.2, P = .03). For all of these, the risk associated with frequent use was greater than for infrequent use. There was an increased risk of leukemia for the child if the father worked in industries manufacturing transportation equipment (mostly aircraft) (OR = 2.5, P = .03) or machinery (OR = 3.0, P = .02). An increased risk was found for children whose parents used pesticides in the home (OR = 3.8, P = .004) or garden (OR = 6.5, P = .007) or who burned incense in the home (OR = 2.7, P = .007). The risk was greater for frequent use. Risk of leukemia was related to mothers' employment in personal service industries (OR = 2.7, P = .04) but not to specified occupational exposures. Risk related to fathers' exposure to chlorinated solvents, employment in the transportation equipment-manufacturing industry, and parents' exposure to household or garden pesticides and incense remains statistically significant after adjusting for the other significant findings. PMID:3474448

Lowengart, R A; Peters, J M; Cicioni, C; Buckley, J; Bernstein, L; Preston-Martin, S; Rappaport, E

1987-07-01

214

Risk factors for breast cancer, including occupational exposures.  

PubMed

The knowledge on the etiology of breast cancer has advanced substantially in recent years, and several etiological factors are now firmly established. However, very few new discoveries have been made in relation to occupational risk factors. The International Agency for Research on Cancer has evaluated over 900 different exposures or agents to-date to determine whether they are carcinogenic to humans. These evaluations are published as a series of Monographs (www.iarc.fr). For breast cancer the following substances have been classified as "carcinogenic to humans" (Group 1): alcoholic beverages, exposure to diethylstilbestrol, estrogen-progestogen contraceptives, estrogen-progestogen hormone replacement therapy and exposure to X-radiation and gamma-radiation (in special populations such as atomic bomb survivors, medical patients, and in-utero exposure). Ethylene oxide is also classified as a Group 1 carcinogen, although the evidence for carcinogenicity in epidemiologic studies, and specifically for the human breast, is limited. The classification "probably carcinogenic to humans" (Group 2A) includes estrogen hormone replacement therapy, tobacco smoking, and shift work involving circadian disruption, including work as a flight attendant. If the association between shift work and breast cancer, the most common female cancer, is confirmed, shift work could become the leading cause of occupational cancer in women. PMID:22953181

Weiderpass, Elisabete; Meo, Margrethe; Vainio, Harri

2011-03-31

215

Throwing the baby out with the bath water? Occupational hygienists' views on the revised dutch system for occupational exposure limits.  

PubMed

In 2007, the Dutch Working Conditions Act was revised with the goal to decrease the regulatory burden, and to open up for company-specific solutions of establishing a safe and healthy work environment. One tool geared towards company-specific solutions is the compilation of the Arbocatalogs, which are company or sector-level collections of safe working methods and guidelines developed both by employers and employees. The revision also introduced a new occupational exposure limit (OEL) system in the Netherlands. This system encompasses two kinds of OELs: private and public. Private OELs are to be derived by the industry, while public OELs are issued by the Ministry of Social Affairs and Employment. With this change, the majority of the previously set Dutch OELs were removed, as the substances in question now are falling under the private realm. The motivations, expectations, and practical impacts of these revisions have been investigated through interviews with stakeholder organizations and a questionnaire study targeted at occupational hygienists. The questionnaire results show that although the Arbocatalogs seem to be relatively well received, a majority of the Dutch occupational hygienists are still relatively negative to the changes. There is a fear that private OELs will be less scientifically robust than public OELs and that the lack of robustness will have a negative impact on the field of occupational hygiene as a whole. PMID:23253359

Schenk, Linda; Palmen, Nicole Gm

2012-12-18

216

The role of environmental and occupational exposures in Turkish immigrants with fibre-related disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of environmental and occupational exposures in Turkish immigrants with fibre- related disease. P. Dumortier, A.Gocmen, K. Laurent, A. Manco, P. De Vuyst. #ERS Journals Ltd 2001. ABSTRACT: Environmental exposure to tremolite and erionite causes endemic diseases of the lung and pleura in Turkey. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of these exposures and further occupational exposures on

P. Dumortier; A. Göcmen; K. Laurent; A. Manço; P. de Vuyst

2001-01-01

217

Surveillance of occupational lead exposure in New Jersey: 1986 to 1989.  

PubMed Central

Between January 1986 and June 1989, 1916 New Jersey workers were identified through a surveillance system for occupational lead exposure. The average annual proportion of workers with a blood lead level above 2.42 mumol/L was 12%. Industries with the highest proportion of workers with blood lead levels above 2.42 mumol/L were special trade construction (35%) and industries dealing with scrap and waste materials (27%).

Tepper, A

1992-01-01

218

Occupational Noise Exposure among Toll Tellers at Toll Plaza in Malaysia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Toll tellers working at toll plaza have potential of exposure to high noise from the vehicles especially for the peak level of sound emitted by the heavy vehicles. However, occupational exposures in this workplace have not been adequately characterized and identified. Occupational noise exposure among toll tellers at toll plaza was assessed using Sound Level Meter, Noise Dosimeter and through questionnaire survey. These data were combined to estimate the work shift exposure level and health impacts to the toll tellers by using statistical analysis. Noise Dosimeter microphone was located at the hearing zone of the toll teller which working inside the toll booth and full-period measurements were collected for each work shift. The measurements were taken at 20 toll booths from 6.00 am to 2.00 pm for 5 days. 71 respondents participated in the survey to identify the symptoms of noise induced hearing loss and other health related problems among toll tellers. Results of this study indicated that occupational noise exposure among toll tellers for Mean Continuous Equivalent Level, Leq was 79.2+/-1.4 dB(A), Mean Maximum Level, Lmax was 107.8+/-3.6 dB(A) and Mean Peak Level, Lpeak was 136.6+/-9.9 dB. The Peak Level reported statistically significantly at 140 dB, the level of TLV recommended by ACGIH. The research findings indicated that the primary risk exposure to toll tellers comes from noise that emitted from heavy vehicles. Most of the toll tellers show symptoms of noise induced hearing loss and annoyed by the sources of noise at the toll plaza.

Azmi, Sharifah Nadya Syed; Dawal, Siti Zawiah Md; Ya, Tuan Mohammad Yusoff Shah Tuan; Saidin, Hamidi

2010-10-01

219

Occupational Exposure to Solvents and Risk of Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma in Connecticut Women  

PubMed Central

A population-based case-control study involving 601 incident cases of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) and 717 controls was conducted in 1996–2000 among Connecticut women to examine associations with exposure to organic solvents. A job-exposure matrix was used to assess occupational exposures. Increased risk of NHL was associated with occupational exposure to chlorinated solvents (odds ratio (OR)?=?1.4, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.1, 1.8) and carbon tetrachloride (OR?=?2.3, 95% CI: 1.3, 4.0). Those ever exposed to any organic solvent in work settings had a borderline increased risk of NHL (OR?=?1.3, 95% CI: 1.0, 1.6); moreover, a significantly increased risk was observed for those with average probability of exposure to any organic solvent at medium-high level (OR?=?1.5, 95% CI: 1.1, 1.9). A borderline increased risk was also found for ever exposure to formaldehyde (OR?=?1.3, 95% CI: 1.0, 1.7) in work settings. Risk of NHL increased with increasing average intensity (P?=?0.01), average probability (P?level of organic solvent and with average probability level (P?=?0.02) and cumulative intensity level of chlorinated solvent (P?=?0.02). Analyses by NHL subtype showed a risk pattern for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma similar to that for overall NHL, with stronger evidence of an association with benzene exposure. Results suggest an increased risk of NHL associated with occupational exposure to organic solvents for women.

Wang, Rong; Zhang, Yawei; Lan, Qing; Holford, Theodore R.; Leaderer, Brian; Hoar Zahm, Shelia; Boyle, Peter; Dosemeci, Mustafa; Rothman, Nathaniel; Zhu, Yong; Qin, Qin

2009-01-01

220

Urinary naphthalene and phenanthrene as biomarkers of occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons  

PubMed Central

Objectives We investigated the utility of unmetabolized naphthalene (Nap) and phenanthrene (Phe) in urine as surrogates for exposures to mixtures of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Methods Our study included workers exposed to diesel exhausts (low PAH exposure level, n = 39) as well as those exposed to emissions from asphalt (medium PAH exposure level, n = 26) and coke ovens (high PAH exposure level, n = 28). Levels of Nap and Phe were measured in urine from each subject using head space-solid phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Published levels of airborne Nap, Phe, and other PAHs in the coke-producing and aluminum industries were also investigated. Results In post-shift urine, the highest estimated geometric mean concentrations of Nap and Phe were observed in coke-oven workers (Nap: 2,490 ng/l; Phe: 975 ng/l), followed by asphalt workers (Nap: 71.5 ng/l; Phe: 54.3 ng/l), and by diesel-exposed workers (Nap: 17.7 ng/l; Phe: 3.60 ng/l). After subtracting logged background levels of Nap and Phe from the logged post-shift levels of these PAHs in urine, the resulting values [referred to as ln(adjNap) and ln(adjPhe), respectively] were significantly correlated in each group of workers (0.71 ? Pearson r ? 0.89), suggesting a common exposure source in each case. Surprisingly, multiple linear regression analysis of ln(adjNap) on ln(adjPhe) showed no significant effect of the source of exposure (coke ovens, asphalt, and diesel exhaust) and further suggested that the ratio of urinary Nap/Phe (in natural scale) decreased with increasing exposure levels. These results were corroborated with published data for airborne Nap and Phe in the coke-producing and aluminum industries. The published air measurements also indicated that Nap and Phe levels were proportional to the levels of all combined PAHs in those industries. Conclusion Levels of Nap and Phe in urine reflect airborne exposures to these compounds and are promising surrogates for occupational exposures to PAH mixtures. Main Messages Urinary naphthalene and phenanthrene are promising surrogates for occupational exposures to PAHs. Policy Implications Measurement of urinary naphthalene and phenanthrene could simplify the assessment of occupational exposures to PAHs.

Sobus, Jon R.; Waidyanatha, Suramya; McClean, Michael D.; Herrick, Robert F.; Smith, Thomas J.; Garshick, Eric; Laden, Francine; Hart, Jaime E.; Zheng, Yuxin; Rappaport, Stephen M.

2009-01-01

221

Carbofuran occupational dermal toxicity, exposure and risk assessment†  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Carbofuran is a carbamate insecticide that inhibits AChE. Although toxic by ingestion in mammals, it has low dermal toxicity, with relatively few confirmed worker illnesses. This risk assessment describes its time of onset, time to peak effect and time to recovery in rats using brain AChE inhibition in acute and 21 day dermal studies; in vitro rat/human relative dermal absorption for granular (5G) and liquid (4F) formulations; occupational exposure estimates using the Pesticide Handlers' Exposure Database and Agricultural Handlers' Exposure Database (PHED/AHED). RESULTS The point of departure for acute risk calculation (BMDL10) was 6.7 mg kg?1 day?1 for brain AChE inhibition after 6 h exposure. In a 21 day study, the BMDL10 was 6.8 mg kg?1 day?1, indicating reversibility. At 75 mg kg?1 day?1, time of onset was ?30 min and time to peak effect was 6–12 h. Rat skin had ca tenfold greater dermal absorption of carbofuran (Furadan® 5G or 4F) than human skin. Exposure estimates for 5G in rice and 4F in ten crops had adequate margins of exposure (>100). CONCLUSION Rat dermal carbofuran toxicity was assessed in terms of dose and time-related inhibition of AChE. Comparative dermal absorption in rats was greater than in humans. Worker exposure estimates indicated acceptable risk for granular and liquid formulations of carbofuran. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry

Gammon, Derek W; Liu, Zhiwei; Becker, John M

2012-01-01

222

Parental occupation, occupational exposure to solvents and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and risk of childhood brain tumors (Italy, France, Spain)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of parental occupational exposure in childhood brain tumorswas investigated in a population-based case-control study grouping 251 casesand 601 controls from three European centers: Milan (Italy), Paris (France),and Valencia (Spain). Parental occupational exposure to solvents andpolycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) during the five-year period beforebirth was estimated using a job-exposure matrix developed earlier in the samecountries. Odds ratios (OR) of

Sylvaine Cordier; Brigitte Lefeuvre; Graziella Filippini; Rafael Peris-Bonet; Mariangela Farinotti; Gianfranca Lovicu; Laurence Mandereau

1997-01-01

223

Effects of occupational exposure to tobacco smoke: is there a link between environmental exposure and disease?  

PubMed

In a previous study, evidence was provided that indoor secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS) air pollution remains high in Lisbon restaurants where smoking is allowed, regardless of the protective measures used. The aim of this study was to determine in these locations the levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) associated with the particulate phase of SHS (PPAH), a fraction that contains recognized carginogens, such as benzo[a]pyrene (BaP). Data showed that restaurant smoking areas might contain PPAH levels as high as 110 ng/m(3), a value significantly higher than that estimated for nonsmoking areas (30 ng/m(3)) or smoke-free restaurants (22 ng/m(3)). The effective exposure to SHS components in restaurant smoking rooms was confirmed as cotinine levels found in workers' urine. Considering that all workers exhibited normal lung function, eventual molecular changes in blood that might be associated with occupational exposure to SHS and SHS-associated PPAH were investigated by measurement of two oxidative markers, total antioxidant status (TAS) and 8-hydroxyguanosine (8-OHdG) in plasma and serum, respectively. SHS-exposed workers exhibited higher mean levels of serum 8-OHdG than nonexposed workers, regardless of smoking status. By using a proteomics approach based on 2D-DIGE-MS, it was possible to identify nine differentially expressed proteins in the plasma of SHS-exposed nonsmoker workers. Two acute-phase inflammation proteins, ceruloplasmin and inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor heavy chain 4 (ITIH4), were predominant. These two proteins presented a high number of isoforms modulated by SHS exposure with the high-molecular-weight (high-MW) isoforms decreased in abundance while low-MW isoforms were increased in abundance. Whether these expression profiles are due to (1) a specific proteolytic cleavage, (2) a change on protein stability, or (3) alterations on post-translational modification pattern of these proteins remains to be investigated. Considering that these events seem to precede the first symptoms of tobacco-related diseases, our findings might contribute to elucidation of early SHS-induced pathogenic mechanisms and constitute a useful tool for monitoring the effects of SHS on occupationally exposed individuals such as those working in the hospitality industry. PMID:23514073

Pacheco, Solange A; Torres, Vukosava M; Louro, Henriqueta; Gomes, Filomena; Lopes, Carlos; Marçal, Nelson; Fragoso, Elsa; Martins, Carla; Oliveira, Cátia L; Hagenfeldt, Manuela; Bugalho-Almeida, António; Penque, Deborah; Simões, Tânia

2013-01-01

224

Occupational Health and Safety. Numeracy. Level 1. Level 2. Level 3. Support Materials for Agricultural Training.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This publication contains the three numeracy units of the three levels of Support Materials for Agricultural Training (SMAT) in the area of occupational health and safety: Level 1 (starting), 2 (continuing), and 3 (completing). The units are designed to help the learner improve his or her numeracy skills needed to deal with occupational safety…

Batman, Kangan; Tully, Chris

225

Occupational radiation exposure at nuclear power plants in Japan and the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

The annual statistical summaries of occupational exposures at nuclear power plants in Japan and the United States are compiled by reactor type for the years 1970 to 1980. The trends of occupational exposures at nuclear power plants in both countries are similar in many respects. Individual doses have been well controlled below the occupational dose limit (0.05 Sv\\/yr), but the

Imahori

1983-01-01

226

Occupational Exposure to HDI: Progress and Challenges in Biomarker Analysis  

PubMed Central

1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI) is extensively used in the automotive repair industry and is a commonly reported cause of occupational asthma in industrialized populations. However, the exact pathological mechanism remains uncertain. Characterization and quantification of biomarkers resulting from HDI exposure can fill important knowledge gaps between exposure, susceptibility, and the rise of immunological reactions and sensitization leading to asthma. Here, we discuss existing challenges in HDI biomarker analysis including the quantification of N-acetyl-1,6-hexamethylene diamine (monoacetyl-HDA) and N,N?-diacetyl-1,6-hexamethylene diamine (diacetyl-HDA) in urine samples based on previously established methods for HDA analysis. In addition, we describe the optimization of reaction conditions for the synthesis of monoacetyl-HDA and diacetyl-HDA, and utilize these standards for the quantification of these metabolites in the urine of three occupationally exposed workers. Diacetyl-HDA was present in untreated urine at 0.015 – 0.060 ?g/l. Using base hydrolysis, the concentration range of monoacetyl-HDA in urine was 0.19 – 2.2 ?g/l, 60-fold higher than in the untreated samples on average. HDA was detected only in one sample after base hydrolysis (0.026 ?g/l). In contrast, acid hydrolysis yielded HDA concentrations ranging from 0.36 to 10.1 ?g/l in these three samples. These findings demonstrate HDI metabolism via N-acetylation metabolic pathway and protein adduct formation resulting from occupational exposure to HDI.

Flack, Sheila L.; Ball, Louise M.; Nylander-French, Leena A.

2010-01-01

227

Occupational exposure to lindane: clinical and laboratory findings  

PubMed Central

Czeglédi-Jankó, G., and Avar, P. (1970).Brit. J. industr. Med.,27, 283-286. Occupational exposure to lindane: clinical and laboratory findings. Workers exposed to lindane for up to two years have been observed clinically, with EEGs and by chemical analysis of whole blood for lindane. In workers with mild but definite symptoms, the concentrations of lindane in whole blood were likely to be greater than 0·02 ppm, a value close to the upper values in members of the general population in Hungary.

Czegledi-Janko, G.; Avar, P.

1970-01-01

228

Naphthalene and its biomarkers as measures of occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.  

PubMed

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) include compounds with two or more fused benzene rings, many of which are carcinogens. Industrial sources produce hundreds of PAH, notably in the coke- and aluminium-producing industries. Because PAH are distributed at varying levels between gaseous and particulate phases, exposure assessment has been problematic. Here, we recommend that occupational exposures to naphthalene be considered as a potential surrogate for occupational PAH exposure for three reasons. Naphthalene is usually the most abundant PAH in a given workplace; naphthalene is present almost entirely in the gaseous phase and is, therefore, easily measured; and naphthalene offers several useful biomarkers, including the urinary metabolites 1- and 2-hydroxynaphthalene. These biomarkers can be used to evaluate total-body exposure to PAH, in much the same way that 1-hydroxypyrene has been applied. Using data from published sources, we show that log-transformed airborne levels of naphthalene are highly correlated with those of total PAH (minus naphthalene) in several industries (creosote impregnation: Pearson r= 0.815, coke production: r= 0.917, iron foundry: r= 0.854, aluminium production: r= 0.933). Furthermore, the slopes of the log-log regressions are close to one indicating that naphthalene levels are proportional to those of total PAH in those industries. We also demonstrate that log-transformed urinary levels of the hydroxynaphthalenes are highly correlated with those of 1-hydroxypyrene among coke oven workers and controls (r= 0.857 and 0.876), again with slopes of log-log regressions close to one. These results support the conjecture that naphthalene is a useful metric for occupational PAH exposure. Since naphthalene has also been shown to be a respiratory carcinogen in several animal studies, it is also argued that naphthalene exposures should be monitored per se in industries with high levels of PAH. PMID:15152308

Rappaport, Stephen M; Waidyanatha, Suramya; Serdar, Berrin

2004-02-12

229

Occupation and occupational exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals in male breast cancer: a case–control study in Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesMale breast cancer is a rare disease of largely unknown aetiology. In addition to genetic and hormone-related risk factors, a large number of environmental chemicals are suspected of playing a role in breast cancer. The identification of occupations or occupational exposures associated with an increased incidence of breast cancer in men may help to identify mammary carcinogens in the environment.MethodsOccupational

Sara Villeneuve; Diane Cyr; Elsebeth Lynge; Laurent Orsi; Svend Sabroe; Franco Merletti; Giuseppe Gorini; Maria Morales-Suarez-Varela; Wolfgang Ahrens; Cornelia Baumgardt-Elms; Linda Kaerlev; Mikael Eriksson; Lennart Hardell; Joëlle Févotte; Pascal Guénel

2010-01-01

230

Occupational exposure and laryngeal and hypopharyngeal cancer risk in central and eastern Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

A multicenter case-control study was conducted during 1999-2002 in four European countries (Poland, Romania, Russia, and Slovakia) to evaluate the role of occupational exposures in risk of laryngeal\\/hypopharyngeal cancer. Male cancer cases (34 hypopharyngeal, 316 laryngeal) with full data on occupational history and nonoccupational factors were compared with 728 hospital controls for occupational exposure to 73 suspected carcinogens. Occupational history

O. Shangina; P. Brennan; N. Szeszenia-Dabrowska; D. Mates; E. Fabianova; T. Fletcher; A. Mannetje; P. Boffetta; D. Zaridze

2006-01-01

231

Comprehensive evaluation of long-term trends in occupational exposure: Part 1. Description of the database  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: To conduct a comprehensive evaluation of long term changes in occupational exposure among a broad cross section of industries worldwide. METHODS: A review of the scientific literature identified studies that reported historical changes in exposure. About 700 sets of data from 119 published and several unpublished sources were compiled. Data were published over a 30 year period in 25 journals that spanned a range of disciplines. For each data set, the average exposure level was compiled for each period and details on the contaminant, the industry and location, changes in the threshold limit value (TLV), as well as the type of sampling method were recorded. Spearman rank correlation coefficients were used to identify monotonic changes in exposure over time and simple linear regression analyses were used to characterise trends in exposure. RESULTS: About 78% of the natural log transformed data showed linear trends towards lower exposure levels whereas 22% indicated increasing trends. (The Spearman rank correlation analyses produced a similar breakdown between exposures monotonically increasing or decreasing over time.) Although the rates of reduction for the data showing downward trends ranged from -1% to -62% per year, most exposures declined at rates between -4% and -14% per year (the interquartile range), with a median value of -8% per year. Exposures seemed to increase at rates that were slightly lower than those of exposures which have declined over time. Data sets that showed downward (versus upward) trends were influenced by several factors including type and carcinogenicity of the contaminant, type of monitoring, historical changes in the threshold limit values (TLVs), and period of sampling. CONCLUSIONS: This review supports the notion that occupational exposures are generally lower today than they were years or decades ago. However, such trends seem to have been affected by factors related to the contaminant, as well as to the period and type of sampling.  

Symanski, E.; Kupper, L. L.; Rappaport, S. M.

1998-01-01

232

Occupational Component. 26-Level Courses. Teacher Resource Manual. Integrated Occupational Program. Interim-1991: Curriculum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This planning and instructional manual is designed to assist teachers in implementing the 20 10-credit-hour courses that make up the 26-level occupational component of the Integrated Occupational Program (IOP) in Alberta, Canada. (The IOP was developed to assist students who experience difficulties in secondary education and to help students make…

Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton. Curriculum Branch.

233

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and occupational exposures  

PubMed Central

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in both industrialized and developing countries. Cigarette smoking is the major risk factor for COPD. However, relevant information from the literature published within the last years, either on general population samples or on workplaces, indicate that about 15% of all cases of COPD is work-related. Specific settings and agents are quoted which have been indicated or confirmed as linked to COPD. Coal miners, hard-rock miners, tunnel workers, concrete-manufacturing workers, nonmining industrial workers have been shown to be at highest risk for developing COPD. Further evidence that occupational agents are capable of inducing COPD comes from experimental studies, particularly in animal models. In conclusion, occupational exposure to dusts, chemicals, gases should be considered an established, or supported by good evidence, risk factor for developing COPD. The implications of this substantial occupational contribution to COPD must be considered in research planning, in public policy decision-making, and in clinical practice.

Boschetto, Piera; Quintavalle, Sonia; Miotto, Deborah; Lo Cascio, Natalina; Zeni, Elena; Mapp, Cristina E

2006-01-01

234

Hazardous health effects of occupational exposure to wood dust.  

PubMed

Because of the world-wide increase in the use of wood, diseases due to exposure to wood dust and substances connected with the wood-processing industry are also likely to increase. Many authors have written about disorders of this kind, ranging from irritative and allergic reactions to cancerogenic effects. There exist a great deal of widely disseminated publications on this subject. Moreover, the various existing synonyms, especially for tropical woods, render more difficult the valuation of published results. The purpose of this review of publications issued in recent years is to represent all known symptoms and disorders due to occupational wood-dust exposure. Furthermore, points that remain unclarified should be shown in order to stimulate further investigations. Recommendations for safety restrictions are also given. PMID:2283318

Flechsig, R; Nedo, G

1990-01-01

235

Occupational exposure to formaldehyde, hematotoxicity and leukemia-specific chromosome changes in cultured myeloid progenitor cells  

PubMed Central

There are concerns about the health effects of formaldehyde exposure, including carcinogenicity, in light of elevated indoor air levels in new homes and occupational exposures experienced by workers in health care, embalming, manufacturing and other industries. Epidemiological studies suggest that formaldehyde exposure is associated with an increased risk of leukemia. However, the biological plausibility of these findings has been questioned because limited information is available on formaldehyde’s ability to disrupt hematopoietic function. Our objective was to determine if formaldehyde exposure disrupts hematopoietic function and produces leukemia-related chromosome changes in exposed humans. We examined the ability of formaldehyde to disrupt hematopoiesis in a study of 94 workers in China (43 exposed to formaldehyde and 51 frequency-matched controls) by measuring complete blood counts and peripheral stem/progenitor cell colony formation. Further, myeloid progenitor cells, the target for leukemogenesis, were cultured from the workers to quantify the level of leukemia-specific chromosome changes, including monosomy 7 and trisomy 8, in metaphase spreads of these cells. Among exposed workers, peripheral blood cell counts were significantly lowered in a manner consistent with toxic effects on the bone marrow and leukemia-specific chromosome changes were significantly elevated in myeloid blood progenitor cells. These findings suggest that formaldehyde exposure can have an adverse impact on the hematopoietic system and that leukemia induction by formaldehyde is biologically plausible, which heightens concerns about its leukemogenic potential from occupational and environmental exposures.

Zhang, Luoping; Tang, Xiaojiang; Rothman, Nathaniel; Vermeulen, Roel; Ji, Zhiying; Shen, Min; Qiu, Chuangyi; Guo, Weihong; Liu, Songwang; Reiss, Boris; Laura Beane, Freeman; Ge, Yichen; Hubbard, Alan E.; Hua, Ming; Blair, Aaron; Galvan, Noe; Ruan, Xiaolin; Alter, Blanche P.; Xin, Kerry X.; Li, Senhua; Moore, Lee E.; Kim, Sungkyoon; Xie, Yuxuan; Hayes, Richard B.; Azuma, Mariko; Hauptmann, Michael; Xiong, Jun; Stewart, Patricia; Li, Laiyu; Rappaport, Stephen M.; Huang, Hanlin; Fraumeni, Joseph F.; Smith, Martyn T.; Lan, Qing

2010-01-01

236

Occupational radiation Exposure at Agreement State-Licensed Materials Facilities, 1997-2010  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this report is to examine occupational radiation exposures received under Agreement State licensees. As such, this report reflects the occupational radiation exposure data contained in the Radiation Exposure Information and Reporting System (REIRS) database, for 1997 through 2010, from Agreement State-licensed materials facilities.

U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research

2012-07-07

237

Validity of self reported occupational exposures to hand transmitted and whole body vibration  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVESTo assess the accuracy with which workers report their exposure to occupational sources of hand transmitted (HTV) and whole body vibration (WBV).METHODS179 Workers from various jobs involving exposure to HTV or WBV completed a self administered questionnaire about sources of occupational exposure to vibration in the past week. They were then observed at work over 1 hour, after which they

Keith T Palmer; Barbara Haward; Michael J Griffin; Holly Bendall; David Coggon

2000-01-01

238

Lead poisoning: I. Some clinical and toxicological observations on the effects of occupational lead exposure among firearms instructors.  

PubMed

Lead poisoning continues to be a common occupational disease in many countries. During the past two decades, poisoning presenting with overt clinical symptoms has become less frequent because of improvement in control of exposure, and attention has been focused on subtle biochemical and "subclinical" manifestations of lead toxicity. Firearms instructors constitute an occupational group at risk for excessive exposure to lead from the firing of arms in shooting galleries. This paper summarizes clinical and toxicological observations among lead-exposed firearms instructors and illustrates the wide spectrum of clinical and laboratory abnormalities that may occur in this occupational group. As clinical research has advanced, significant biochemical and clinical aberrations have been detected at progressively lower blood lead levels both among occupationally exposed adults and among children who are exposed to lead in the general environment. The latter is of great public health concern and has spurred efforts worldwide to reduce human exposure to lead to an absolute minimum. PMID:1428811

Fischbein, A

239

[Occupational exposure to formaldehyde in three pathology departments].  

PubMed

Although formaldehyde has recently been classified by the IARC as "carcinogenic in humans" (class 1), it is still widely used in pathology departments for the fixing and conservation of biological tissues. Its use therefore raises the question of occupational exposure. The present paper reports the results of an environmental monitoring campaign to evaluate pollution by formaldehyde in various areas of three pathology departments. Chemi-adsorbent cartridges able to adsorb airborne formaldehyde were used to detect the substance. Quantitative determination of the formaldehyde was carried out by means of liquid chromatography (HPLC). The concentrations of airborne formaldehyde in the areas monitored were fairly modest, being below the limits of indoor concentration proposed by the OSHA. In one of the three departments, however these limits were exceeded in 40% of the samples taken in the room used for the storage of containers. As yet, in spite of the recent class 1 classification by the IARC, no provisions have been made to ban the use of formaldehyde. It is therefore essential to draw up environmental monitoring programmes in order to evaluate occupational exposure and to assess the efficacy of any preventive measures adopted. PMID:17228606

Perdelli, F; Spagnolo, A M; Cristina, M L; Sartini, M; Dallera, M; Ottria, G; Orlando, P

240

Are occupational, hobby, or lifestyle exposures associated with Philadelphia chromosome positive chronic myeloid leukaemia?  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVESTo investigate a broad range of occupational, hobby, and lifestyle exposures, suggested as risk factors for Philadelphia chromosome positive (Ph+) chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML).METHODSA case-control study, comprising 255 Ph+CML patients from southern Sweden and matched controls, was conducted. Individual data on work tasks, hobbies, and lifestyle exposures were obtained by telephone interviews. Occupational hygienists assessed occupational and hobby exposures for

J Björk; M Albin; H Welinder; H Tinnerberg; N Mauritzson; T Kauppinen; U Strömberg; B Johansson; R Billström; Z Mikoczy; T Ahlgren; P-G Nilsson; F Mitelman; L Hagmar

2001-01-01

241

Revisiting the NIOSH Criteria for a Recommended Standard: Occupational Noise Exposure  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1998, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) revised the Criteria for a Recommended Standard: Occupational Noise Exposure [DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 98-126]. NIOSH reevaluated the recommended exposure limit (REL) for occupational noise exposure and reaffirms support for 85-dBA REL. Based upon scientific evidence, NIOSH recommends a 3-dB exchange rate. NIOSH recommends that significant threshold shift be

William J. Murphy; John R. Franks

2002-01-01

242

Adverse reproductive outcomes among male painters with occupational exposure to organic solvents  

PubMed Central

Objectives To assess the risks of reproductive disorders and birth defects in offspring of male painters with exposure to organic solvents, and to determine the shape of the dose?response relationship. Methods Random samples of painters and carpenters were drawn from workers affiliated with the Dutch Trade Union for Construction Workers, the Netherlands, 2001. Information on reproductive outcomes, occupational exposures, and lifestyle habits was retrospectively obtained through self?administered questionnaires filled in by 398 painters exposed to organic solvents in paints, thinners, and cleansers in the period of three months before the last pregnancy, and 302 carpenters with little or no exposure to solvents. A statistical model was used to estimate quantitative exposure measures. Results Workers employed as painters at three months before pregnancy had an increased risk (odds ratio 6.2, 95% CI 1.4 to 27.9) of congenital malformations in offspring compared to carpenters. There was a positive exposure?response trend with increasing exposure to organic solvents based on quantitative model predicted exposure estimates using toluene as a marker. There was some indication of an increased risk of functional developmental disorders in offspring among painters with intermediate and high model predicted exposure. The risk of low birth weight children seemed to be slightly increased among painters as well. Results for other reproductive outcomes (time to pregnancy, spontaneous abortion, and preterm birth) did not show increased risks. Conclusion This study showed a positive association between paternal occupational exposure to organic solvents and congenital malformations in offspring. However, the small numbers of cases, especially when examining different exposure levels, as well as the self?reported nature of exposure and outcome variables, may hamper interpretation of the results.

Hooiveld, M; Haveman, W; Roskes, K; Bretveld, R; Burstyn, I; Roeleveld, N

2006-01-01

243

Psychomotor performance and subjective symptoms at low level toluene exposure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: Possible effects of long term occupational exposure to toluene below the level of 100 ppm on psychomotor performance and subjective symptoms were investigated in a cross sectional approach.Methods: From German rotogravure printing plants 278 male workers, mean age 39.8 years, mean duration of employment 14.9 years, were examined. A mean lifetime weighted average exposure (LWAE) of 45.1 ppm toluene

M Zupanic; P Demes; A Seeber

2002-01-01

244

Heavy metal toxicity: lessons from a case of simultaneous occupational exposure to manganese and mercury.  

PubMed

Heavy metal toxicity represents a heterogenous group of rare diseases that are associated with a wide variety of neurological syndromes. Manganese and mercury are two heavy metals that are neurotoxic and have been associated with occupational exposures. Manganese toxicity is an established cause of Parkinsonism however the causal relationship with occupational exposures such as welding remains disputed. Chronic mercury toxicity is associated with the classic triad of tremor, gingivitis and erethism as well as visual, sensory and cerebellar disturbances. There are no well-defined therapeutic protocols for toxicity to mercury or many other heavy metals. We present a case of a 33 year-old male oil rig painter who regularly worked adjacent to active welding and did not take protective measures. His wife noticed that he was initially confused and then developed clumsiness, slurred speech, social withdrawal and hallucinations over the following year. On examination he had bilateral cerebellar signs, cognitive impairment and a chaotic intention tremor consistent with mercury toxicity. There were also symmetrical parkinsonian features including bradykinesia and rigidity in both upper and lower limbs with a cock-like walk typical of manganese toxicity. Blood mercury and manganese levels were both significantly raised. This case highlights the importance of considering a broad heavy metal screen in the context of neurological disease associated with industrial occupations. It also leads us to revisit the controversial association of welding and manganese exposure and then review sources of heavy metal exposures and the current recommendations for treatment. PMID:24108897

Shribman, Sam; Davis, Angharad; Vella, Norbert; Giovannoni, Gavin

2013-11-01

245

29 CFR 1910.95 - Occupational noise exposure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...exposure shall be provided when the sound levels exceed those shown in...on the A scale of a standard sound level meter at slow response...Appendix D âSpecification for Sound Level Meters,â S1.4-1971...STD, American Institute of Physics, 333 E. 45th St.,...

2010-07-01

246

29 CFR 1910.95 - Occupational noise exposure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...exposure shall be provided when the sound levels exceed those shown in...on the A scale of a standard sound level meter at slow response...Appendix D âSpecification for Sound Level Meters,â S1.4-1971...STD, American Institute of Physics, 333 E. 45th St.,...

2009-07-01

247

Father's occupational exposure to carcinogenic agents and childhood acute leukemia: a new method to assess exposure (a case-control study)  

PubMed Central

Background Medical research has not been able to establish whether a father's occupational exposures are associated with the development of acute leukemia (AL) in their offspring. The studies conducted have weaknesses that have generated a misclassification of such exposure. Occupations and exposures to substances associated with childhood cancer are not very frequently encountered in the general population; thus, the reported risks are both inconsistent and inaccurate. In this study, to assess exposure we used a new method, an exposure index, which took into consideration the industrial branch, specific position, use of protective equipment, substances at work, degree of contact with such substances, and time of exposure. This index allowed us to obtain a grade, which permitted the identification of individuals according to their level of exposure to known or potentially carcinogenic agents that are not necessarily specifically identified as risk factors for leukemia. The aim of this study was to determine the association between a father's occupational exposure to carcinogenic agents and the presence of AL in their offspring. Methods From 1999 to 2000, a case-control study was performed with 193 children who reside in Mexico City and had been diagnosed with AL. The initial sample-size calculation was 150 children per group, assessed with an expected odds ratio (OR) of three and a minimum exposure frequency of 15.8%. These children were matched by age, sex, and institution with 193 pediatric surgical patients at secondary-care hospitals. A questionnaire was used to determine each child's background and the characteristics of the father's occupation(s). In order to determine the level of exposure to carcinogenic agents, a previously validated exposure index (occupational exposure index, OEI) was used. The consistency and validity of the index were assessed by a questionnaire comparison, the sensory recognition of the work area, and an expert's opinion. Results The adjusted ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were 1.69 (0.98, 2.92) during the preconception period; 1.98 (1.13, 3.45) during the index pregnancy; 2.11 (1.17, 3.78) during breastfeeding period; 2.17 (1.28, 3.66) after birth; and 2.06 (1.24, 3.42) for global exposure. Conclusion This is the first study in which an OEI was used to assess a father's occupational exposure to carcinogenic agents as a risk factor for the development of childhood AL in his offspring. From our results, we conclude that children whose fathers have been exposed to a high level of carcinogenic agents seem to have a greater risk of developing acute leukemia. However, confounding factors cannot be disregarded due to an incomplete control for confounding.

Perez-Saldivar, Maria Luisa; Ortega-Alvarez, Manuel Carlos; Fajardo-Gutierrez, Arturo; Bernaldez-Rios, Roberto; del Campo-Martinez, Maria de los Angeles; Medina-Sanson, Aurora; Palomo-Colli, Miguel Angel; Paredes-Aguilera, Rogelio; Martinez-Avalos, Armando; Borja-Aburto, Victor Hugo; Rodriguez-Rivera, Maria de Jesus; Vargas-Garcia, Victor Manuel; Zarco-Contreras, Jesus; Flores-Lujano, Janet; Mejia-Arangure, Juan Manuel

2008-01-01

248

Occupational exposure limits in Europe and Asia--continued divergence or global harmonization?  

PubMed

Occupational exposure limits (OELs) are used as a risk management tool aiming at protecting against negative health effects of occupational exposure to harmful substances. The systems of OEL development have not been standardized and divergent outcomes have been reported. However some harmonization processes have been initiated, primarily in Europe. This study investigates the state of harmonization in a global context. The OEL systems of eight Asian and seventeen European organizations are analyzed with respect to similarities and differences in: (1) the system for determining OELs, (2) the selection of substances, and (3) the levels of the OELs. The majority of the investigated organizations declare themselves to have been influenced by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH), and in many cases this can be empirically confirmed. The EU harmonization process is reflected in trends towards convergence within the EU. However, comparisons of Asian and European organizations provide no obvious evidence that OELs are becoming globally harmonized. PMID:21907258

Ding, Qian; Schenk, Linda; Malkiewicz, Katarzyna; Hansson, Sven Ove

2011-08-31

249

Occupational exposure to hepatitis infection among Turkish nurses: frequency of needle exposure, sharps injuries and vaccination.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to assess the demographic factors and pattern of injuries sustained by nurses, and to determine the occupational hazard of exposure to hepatitis B (HBV) and C (HCV) viruses among nurses. The study involved 906 hospital-based nurses working in three large hospitals. Between August 2002 and January 2003 a total of 595 practising nurses were accepted for inclusion. The results of questionnaires completed were collated and chi2 and ratios were used for analysis. Of the 595 nurses, 111 (18.7%) had evidence of previous or current HBV infection and 32 (5.4%) of HCV infection. We found that 11.2% of the nurses who had worked for a period of between 0 and 5 years and 37.1% of those who had worked for a period between 16 and 20 years had evidence of HBV or HCV infection. Of the nurses working in surgical clinics, 59.4% had evidence of previous HBV or HCV infection and those working in hospital clinics had an 18.2% infection rate. Of the nurses occupationally exposed to HBV and HCV infections, 22.4% had received sharps injuries from apparatus and 63.6% had suffered needlestick exposure. Findings also showed 2.7% HBsAg positivity and 5.4% anti-HCV positivity. Of the 452 (76%) nurses who faced the occupational hazard of exposure to hepatitis infections, 27.7% (125/452) had not been vaccinated against HBV. Nurses working in our health-care sector are frequently exposed to occupational exposure for HBV and HCV infections. In order to prevent the infection of nurses with hepatitis, we advocate precautions and protection from sharps injuries. A programme of education, vaccination and post-exposure prophylaxis must be implemented. PMID:14979586

Kosgeroglu, N; Ayranci, U; Vardareli, E; Dincer, S

2004-01-01

250

Defining occupational and consumer exposure limits for enzyme protein respiratory allergens under REACH.  

PubMed

A wide range of substances have been recognized as sensitizing, either to the skin and/or to the respiratory tract. Many of these are useful materials, so to ensure that they can be used safely it is necessary to characterize the hazards and establish appropriate exposure limits. Under new EU legislation (REACH), there is a requirement to define a derived no effect level (DNEL). Where a DNEL cannot be established, e.g. for sensitizing substances, then a derived minimal effect level (DMEL) is recommended. For the bacterial and fungal enzymes which are well recognized respiratory sensitizers and have widespread use industrially as well as in a range of consumer products, a DMEL can be established by thorough retrospective review of occupational and consumer experience. In particular, setting the validated employee medical surveillance data against exposure records generated over an extended period of time is vital in informing the occupational DMEL. This experience shows that a long established limit of 60 ng/m(3) for pure enzyme protein has been a successful starting point for the definition of occupational health limits for sensitization in the detergent industry. Application to this of adjustment factors has limited sensitization induction, avoided any meaningful risk of the elicitation of symptoms with known enzymes and provided an appropriate level of security for new enzymes whose potency has not been fully characterized. For example, in the detergent industry, this has led to general use of occupational exposure limits 3-10 times lower than the 60 ng/m(3) starting point. In contrast, consumer exposure limits vary because the types of exposure themselves cover a wide range. The highest levels shown to be safe in use, 15 ng/m(3), are associated with laundry trigger sprays, but very much lower levels (e.g. 0.01 ng/m(3)) are commonly associated with other types of safe exposure. Consumer limits typically will lie between these values and depend on the actual exposure associated with product use. PMID:20026217

Basketter, D A; Broekhuizen, C; Fieldsend, M; Kirkwood, S; Mascarenhas, R; Maurer, K; Pedersen, C; Rodriguez, C; Schiff, H-E

2009-12-21

251

Application of statistical models for secondary data usage of the US Navy's Occupational Exposure Database (NOED).  

PubMed

Many organizations around the world have collected data related to individual worker exposures that are used to determine compliance with workplace standards. These data are often warehoused and thereafter rarely used as an information resource. Using appropriate groupings and analysis of OSHA data, Gómez showed that such stored data can provide additional insight on factors affecting occupational exposures. Using data from the Occupational Exposure Database of the United States Navy, the usefulness of statistical models for defining probabilities of exposure above permissible limits for observed work conditions is examined. Analyses have highlighted worker Similar Exposure Groups (SEGs) with potential for overexposure to asbestos and lead. In terms of grouping data, Rappaport et al. defined the Within-Between Lognormal Model, a scale-independent measure for quantifying between-worker variability within a selected worker group: (B)R.95 = exp[3.92s(sB)], representing the ratio of arithmetic mean exposures received by workers in the 97.5th and 2.5th percentiles. To help search for groups, the Proportional Odds Model, a generalization of the logistic model to ordinal data, can predict probabilities for group exposure above the Occupational Exposure Limit (OEL), or the Action Level (AL), which is one-half of the OEL. Worker SEGs have been identified for asbestos workers removing friable asbestos ((B)R.95 = 11.0) and nonfriable asbestos ((B)R.95 = 6.5); metal cleaning workers sandingspecialized equipment ((B)R.95 = 11.3), and workers at target shooting ranges cleaning up lead debris ((B)R.95 = 10). Estimated probabilities for the categories OEL support current understanding of work processes examined. Differences in probability noted between tasks and levels of ventilation validate this method for evaluating other available workplace exposure determinants, and for predicting probability of membership in categories that may help further define worker exposure groups, and determinants of excessive exposures. Thus, analyses of retrospective exposure data can help identify work site and work practice factors for efficient targeting of remediation resources. PMID:11217712

Formisano, J A; Still, K; Alexander, W; Lippmann, M

2001-02-01

252

Occupational exposures and pancreatic cancer: a meta-analysis  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES—Consolidation of epidemiological data on pancreatic cancer and worksite exposures.?METHODS—Publications during 1969-98 were surveyed. Studies without verified exposures were excluded. Meta-analyses were conducted on data from 92 studies covering 161 populations, with results for 23 agents or groups of agents. With a standard format, five epidemiologists extracted risk estimates and variables of the structure and quality of each study. The extracted data were centrally checked. Random meta-models were applied.?RESULTS—Based on 20 populations, exposure to chlorinated hydrocarbon (CHC) solvents and related compounds was associated with a meta-risk ratio (MRR) of 1.4 (95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.0 to 1.8). Nickel and nickel compounds were considered in four populations (1.9; 1.2 to 3.2). Excesses were found also for chromium and chromium compounds (1.4; 0.9 to 2.3), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) (1.5; 0.9 to 2.5), organochlorine insecticides (1.5; 0.6 to 3.7), silica dust (1.4; 0.9 to 2.0), and aliphatic and alicyclic hydrocarbon solvents (1.3; 0.8 to 2.8). Evidence on pancreatic carcinogenicity was weak or non-positive for the following agents: acrylonitrile (1.1; 0.0 to 6.2); arsenic (1.0; 0.6 to 1.5); asbestos (1.1; 0.9 to 1.5); diesel engine exhaust (1.0; 0.9 to 1.3); electromagnetic fields (1.1; 0.8 to 1.4); formaldehyde (0.8; 0.5 to 1.0); flour dust (1.1; 0.3 to 3.2); cadmium and cadmium compounds (0.7; 0.4 to 1.4); gasoline (1.0; 0.8 to 1.2); herbicides (1.0; 0.8 to 1.3); iron and iron compounds (1.3; 0.7 to 2.5); lead and lead compounds (1.1; 0.8 to 1.5); man-made vitreous fibres (1.0; 0.6 to 1.6); oil mist (0.9; 0.8 to 1.0); and wood dust (1.1; 0.9 to 2.5). The occupational aetiological fraction of pancreatic cancer was estimated at 12%. In a subpopulation exposed to CHC solvents and related compounds, it was 29%; to chromium and chromium compounds, 23%; to nickel and nickel compounds, 47%; to insecticides, 33%; and to PAHs, 33%.?CONCLUSION—Occupational exposures may increase risk of pancreatic cancer. High quality studies are called for on interactions between occupational, environmental, and lifestyle factors as well as interactions between genes and the environment.???Keywords: pancreatic cancer; occupational exposure; meta-analysis

Ojajarvi, I; Partanen, T.; Ahlbom, A.; Boffetta, P.; Hakulinen, T.; Jourenkova, N.; Kauppinen, T.; Kogevinas, M.; Porta, M.; Vainio, H.; Weiderpass, E.; Wesseling, C.

2000-01-01

253

Residential and occupational exposure to 50 Hz magnetic fields and malignant melanoma: a population based study  

PubMed Central

Aims: To test the hypothesis that exposure to electromagnetic fields from high voltage power lines increases the incidence of cutaneous malignant melanoma in adults aged 16 and above. Methods: Nested case-control study. The study population comprised subjects aged 16 and above who had lived in a residence situated in a broad corridor around a high voltage power line in 1980, or one of the years from 1986 to 1996. The cases were incident cases that were diagnosed in 1980–96 and reported to the Cancer Registry of Norway. Two controls were matched to each case by year of birth, sex, municipality, and first year entering the cohort. Time weighted average exposure to residential magnetic fields generated by the power lines was calculated for the exposure follow up from 1 January 1967 until diagnosis by means of a computer program, in which distance from residency to the line, line configuration, and current load were taken into account. Exposure was analysed using cut off points at 0.05 and 0.2 microtesla (µT). Exposure to magnetic fields at work was classified by an expert panel who assessed magnetic field exposure by combining branch and occupation into one of three levels: <4 hours, 4–24 hours, and >24 hours per week above background (0.1 µT). The categories were cumulated over the occupationally active years for the exposure follow up from 1 January 1955 until diagnosis, and cut off points at 18 and 31 category-years were evaluated. Results: Analysis of the two upper residential magnetic field categories showed an odds ratio of 2.01 (95% CI 1.09 to 3.69) and 2.68 (95% CI 1.43 to 5.04) for women, and an odds ratio of 1.70 (95% CI 0.96 to 3.01) and 1.37 (95% CI 0.77 to 2.44) for men, respectively. Occupational exposure showed no significant association with cutaneous malignant melanoma, and analysis of both residential and occupational exposure simultaneously, showed no additional effect. Conclusion: The present study provides some support for an association between exposure to calculated residential magnetic fields and cutaneous malignant melanoma, but because of the lack of a biological hypothesis and the known strong association between solar radiation and melanoma, no firm conclusions can be drawn and further studies would be of interest.

Tynes, T; Klaeboe, L; Haldorsen, T

2003-01-01

254

Respiratory effects of occupational exposure to tobacco dust.  

PubMed Central

Few investigations of the respiratory effects of occupational exposure to tobacco dust have been carried out and the threshold limit value has not well been established. A cross sectional survey on a sample of 223 male and female workers at a cigar and cigarette factory in Lucca (Tuscany) showed a significantly higher prevalence of wheezing, attacks of shortness of breath with wheezing, dyspnoea, and rhinitis than in a reference population. A trend towards a decrease in forced end expiratory flows according to smoking habit and work duration was evident. Positive skin prick tests were observed in 26% of men and 23% of women and were positively associated with duration of work and negatively with cigarette smoking. Thin interstitial space involvement was observed on chest x ray examination in almost half the female workers with more than 35 years exposure. These findings suggest that prolonged exposure to tobacco dust may have negative health effects and that it is advisable to establish a threshold limit value for tobacco dust different from that of inert dust.

Viegi, G; Paggiaro, P L; Begliomini, E; Vaghetti, E; Paoletti, P; Giuntini, C

1986-01-01

255

Radiation exposure levels within timber industries in Calabar, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

The UNSCEAR (2000) observed that there could be some exposure at work which would require regulatory control but is not really considered. This study was, therefore, set up to evaluate the effective dose in timber industries in Calabar, Nigeria to determine if the evaluated dose levels could lead to any radiological health effect in the workers, and also determine if the industries require regulatory control. The gamma ray exposure at four timber industries measured using an exposure meter were converted to effective dose and compared with the public and occupational values. The evaluated effective dose values in the timber industries were below public and occupational exposure limits and may not necessarily result in any radiological health hazard. Therefore, they may not require regulatory control.

Inyang, S. O.; Inyang, I. S.; Egbe, N. O.

2009-01-01

256

Risk of birth defects by parental occupational exposure to 50 Hz electromagnetic fields: a population based study  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To study the risk of birth defects by parental occupational exposure to 50 Hz electromagnetic fields. Methods: The Medical Birth Registry of Norway was linked with census data on parental occupation. An expert panel constructed a job exposure matrix of parental occupational exposure to 50 Hz magnetic fields. Exposure to magnetic fields was estimated by combining branch and occupation into one of three exposure levels: <4 hours, 4–24 hours, and >24 hours/week above approximately 0.1 µT. Risks of 24 categories of birth defects were compared across exposure levels. Out of all 1.6 million births in Norway in the period 1967–95, 836 475 and 1 290 298 births had information on maternal and paternal exposure, respectively. Analyses were based on tests for trend and were adjusted for parents' educational level, place of birth, maternal age, and year of birth. Results: The total risk of birth defects was not associated with parental exposure. Maternal exposure was associated with increased risks of spina bifida (p=0.04) and clubfoot (p=0.04). A negative association was found for isolated cleft palate (p=0.01). Paternal exposure was associated with increased risks of anencephaly (p=0.01) and a category of "other defects" (p=0.02). Conclusion: The present study gives an indication of an association between selected disorders of the central nervous system and parental exposure to 50 Hz magnetic fields. Given the crude exposure assessment, lack of comparable studies, and the high number of outcomes considered, the results should be interpreted with caution.

Blaasaas, K; Tynes, T; Irgens, A; Lie, R

2002-01-01

257

Paternal occupational exposures and the risk of Down syndrome.  

PubMed Central

An exploratory case-control study of paternal occupation as a risk factor for Down syndrome was conducted. With the use of the British Columbia Health Surveillance Registry, 1,008 cases of live-born Down syndrome were identified for the period 1952-73. Two controls were matched to each case by using the birth files of British Columbia. Paternal occupation was obtained from the birth notice. Elevated maternal age-adjusted relative risks of Down syndrome were found for fathers employed as janitors (odds ratio [OR] = 3.26; 95% confidence interval [C.I.] = 1.02-10.44); mechanics (OR = 3.27; C.I. = 1.57-6.80); farm managers/workers (OR = 2.03; C.I. = 1.25-3.03); material-moving equipment operators (OR = 1.88; C.I. = 0.93-3.82); food processors (OR = 1.79; C.I. = 0.96-3.31); sheet-metal workers, iron workers, and other metalworkers (OR = 1.57; C.I. = 0.92-2.69); and sawmill workers (OR = 1.43; C.I. = 0.90-2.66). This large study provides new leads for further evaluation of the role of paternal exposures in the etiology of Down syndrome.

Olshan, A F; Baird, P A; Teschke, K

1989-01-01

258

Association of years of occupational quartz exposure with spirometric airflow limitation in Norwegian men aged 30-46 years  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND—The association between occupational quartz exposure and ventilatory function was investigated in men in a general population after adjusting for other potential determinants of outcome.?METHODS—All eligible men aged 30-46 years living in western Norway (n = 45 380) were invited to a cross sectional community survey. This included a self administered questionnaire (with respiratory symptoms, smoking habits and occupational exposures), spirometric recordings (using dry wedge bellow spirometers), and a chest radiograph (65% attendance). Measurements of forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC) were obtained in 91% (n = 26 803) of those who participated, 26 106 of whom performed successful spirometric tests and had normal chest radiographs and remained for further analysis. Age, body mass index, and technician standardised residuals ((observed minus predicted value)/residual standard error) of maximum FEV1/height2 and FVC/height2 were used as outcome variables for adjusted lung function levels, respectively.?RESULTS—Occupational quartz exposure was reported by 13% (n = 3445) of those who participated in the survey, with a mean duration of seven years. Among those exposed to quartz, significant inverse linear relationships were observed between years of exposure and FEV1 level and the ratio of FEV1/FVC, independent of host characteristics. Multiple linear regression analyses showed that the difference in FEV1 associated with each year of quartz exposure was -4.3 ml (95% Cl -1.1 to -7.5 ml; p = 0.01) compared with -6.9 ml (95% Cl -4.7 to -9.1 ml; p<0.01) from smoking 20 cigarettes/day for one year after adjusting for age, atopy, asthma, wheezing, marital status, and other occupational exposures.?CONCLUSION—In men aged 30-46 years with occupational quartz exposure and normal chest radiographs the duration of occupational quartz exposure was an independent predictor for spirometric airflow limitation.??

Humerfelt, S.; Eide, G.; Gulsvik, A.

1998-01-01

259

Occupational therapists and patients' rights: their level of Clinical knowledge  

PubMed Central

Addressing patients’ rights issues brings occupational therapists ethical and political responsibilities that involve patients’ privileges and new facilitating factors which influence their needs. The goal of this study was to determine the level of occupational therapists’ knowledge about patients’ rights. The present research was a cross-sectional study which involved 125 occupational therapists chosen by a convenience sampling strategy in Tehran during the year of 2012. A four-part questionnaire was used for data collection, and the degree of the subjects’ self-assessment of their knowledge was measured based on the obtained numbers of correct answers in the third part. The validity and reliability of this questionnaire were assessed prior to its being distributed among participants. The results demonstrated no significant association between the level of occupational therapists’ knowledge about patients’ rights and their existing experiences within their areas of occupational therapy (P>0.05). Based on the result, 53.6% of the respondents had high level of knowledge about patients’ rights. Facilitating factors which influence the attainment of patients’ rights were classified into three groups: organizations, therapists and clients. The results of the present research demonstrated that the level of occupational therapists’ knowledge about patients’ rights were high. Furthermore, this study showed that for optimal result, there is a need to provide milieu for observing the patients’ rights in clinical occupational therapy services.

Dehghan, Leila; Dalvand, Hamid; Haghgoo, Hojjat Allah; Hosseini, Seyed Ali; Karimlou, Masoud

2013-01-01

260

{sup 125}I Measurements for Occupational Exposure Assessment  

SciTech Connect

Whenever there is a risk of occupational exposure to dispersible radioactive material, it is necessary to have a monitoring program to assess the effective dose arising from the intake of radionuclides by workers. In this paper we present our experience in bioassay measurements of {sup 125}I in urine samples of workers using high resolution gamma spectrometry. For a 24-hour excretion period, we found activity values of the order of one Bq and estimated the committed effective doses to be less than one {mu}Sv. Although very small, these values led to a re-evaluation and improvement of the laboratory safety conditions. We discuss the calibration procedure followed for the activity measurements, the estimation of the uncertainty in the excreted activity, the calculation of detection and quantification limits and estimation of performance indicators. Aspects regarding the spectral analysis, true coincidence summing and matrix effects are also considered.

Silva, L.; Pinhao, N. R. [Department of Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety, ITN-Nuclear and Technological Institute, Estrada Nacional N 10, 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal)

2008-08-14

261

Occupational Exposure to Solvents and Risk of Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma in Connecticut Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

A population-based case-control study involving 601 incident cases of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) and 717 controls was conducted in 1996-2000 among Connecticut women to examine associations with exposure to organic solvents. A job-exposure matrix was used to assess occupational exposures. Increased risk of NHL was associated with occupational exposure to chlorinated solvents (odds ratio (OR) ¼ 1.4, 95% confidence in- terval

Rong Wang; Yawei Zhang; Qing Lan; Theodore R. Holford; Brian Leaderer; Shelia Hoar Zahm; Peter Boyle; Mustafa Dosemeci; Nathaniel Rothman; Yong Zhu; Qin Qin; Tongzhang Zheng

262

Occupational exposures to bloodborne viruses among German dental professionals and students in a clinical setting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  Exposures to bloodborne pathogens pose a serious risk to dental healthcare workers (DHCW). Despite improved methods of preventing\\u000a exposures like needlestick injuries (NSI), occupational exposures still continue to occur. The purpose of this study was to\\u000a evaluate the incidence of occupational exposures to patient body fluids among German DHCW, to assess the rate of reporting\\u000a of such incidents, and to

Sabine Wicker; Holger F. Rabenau

2010-01-01

263

Contributions of Non-occupational Activities to Total Noise Exposure of Construction Workers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes how exposures received during routine and episodic non-occupational activities contribute to total noise exposure in a group of occupationally exposed workers. Two- hundred and sixty-six construction apprentices enrolled in a longitudinal hearing loss study and completed questionnaires at 1 yr of follow-up to determine their episodic activities (e.g. concert attendance, power tool use, firearms exposure). Noise exposure

RICHARD NEITZEL; NOAH SEIXAS; BRYAN GOLDMAN; WILLIAM DANIELL

2004-01-01

264

Integrated indexes of occupational exposure as predictors of kidney dysfunction.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to evaluate the dose-effect and dose-response relationships between the integrated indexes Cd-A x t (mg/m3 x years of exposure) and Cd-B x t (microg/l x years of exposure), and the increase in retinol binding protein excretion in urine (RBP-U) and beta2-microglobulin concentration in serum (beta2M-S). The study was carried out in the nickel-cadmium battery factory in 1998-1999. Exposure to cadmium was formerly very high. The study group consisted of 116 persons for whom the results of determinations of Cd-B were available during two former observation periods (1983 and 1986-1988). The mean age of the group was 49 years and the mean period of exposure was 17 years. The dose-effect relationship between Cd-B x t and RBP-U or beta2M-S was much better (r = 0.642 and 0.513) than between Cd-A x t and RBP-U or beta2M-S (r = 0.173 and 0.127). There was also correlation between Cd-U (microg/g creatinine), measured in 1998-1999, and RBP-U or beta2M-S (r = 0.343 and 0.198). Urinary cadmium should, however, be used with caution as a dose estimate because its excretion may increase as a result of renal damage. According to the dose-response relationship, an increase in RBP excretion above 300 microg/g creatinine can be expected in 10% of subjects at the integrated exposure index (Cd-B x t) of about 450 microg/l x years, and an increase in beta2M-S above the accepted cut-off point of 2.4 mg/l can be expected in 10 % of subjects at Cd-B x t of about 190 microg/l x years. The data obtained confirmed the validity of the recommended at present health-based limit for occupational exposure of 5 microg/l of blood, as well as the superiority of the biological monitoring of exposure to cadmium over the environmental monitoring. PMID:12608627

Jakubowski, Marek; Trzcinka-Ochocka, Ma?gorzata; Ha?atek, Tadeusz; Ra?niewska, Grazyna; Szymczak, Wies?aw

2002-01-01

265

Occupational Radiation Exposure at Commercial Nuclear Power Reactors and Other Facilities 2008  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the occupational exposure data that are maintained in the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Radiation Exposure Information and Reporting System (REIRS). The bulk of the information contained in the report was compiled from the 2008 annual reports submitted by five of the seven categories1 of NRC licensees subject to the reporting requirements of 10 CFR 20.2206. The annual reports submitted by these licensees consist of radiation exposure records for each monitored individual. These records are analyzed for trends and presented in this report in terms of collective dose and the distribution of dose among the monitored individuals. Because there are no geologic repositories for high-level waste currently licensed and no low-level waste disposal facilities in operation, only five categories will be considered in this report.

U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research

2009-12-01

266

Development of occupational exposure limits for the Hanford tank farms.  

PubMed

Production of plutonium for the United States' nuclear weapons program from the 1940s to the 1980s generated 53 million gallons of radioactive chemical waste, which is stored in 177 underground tanks at the Hanford site in southeastern Washington State. Recent attempts to begin the retrieval and treatment of these wastes require moving the waste to more modern tanks and result in potential exposure of the workers to unfamiliar odors emanating from headspace in the tanks. Given the unknown risks involved, workers were placed on supplied air respiratory protection. CH2MHILL, the managers of the Hanford site tank farms, asked an Independent Toxicology Panel (ITP) to assist them in issues relating to an industrial hygiene and risk assessment problem. The ITP was called upon to help determine the risk of exposure to vapors from the tanks, and in general develop a strategy for solution of the problem. This paper presents the methods used to determine the chemicals of potential concern (COPCs) and the resultant development of screening values and Acceptable Occupational Exposure Limits (AOELs) for these COPCs. A total of 1826 chemicals were inventoried and evaluated. Over 1500 chemicals were identified in the waste tanks headspaces and more than 600 of these were assigned screening values; 72 of these compounds were recommended for AOEL development. Included in this list of 72 were 57 COPCs identified by the ITP and of these 47 were subsequently assigned AOELs. An exhaustive exposure assessment strategy was developed by the CH2MHILL industrial hygiene department to evaluate these COPCs. PMID:20180654

Still, Kenneth R; Gardner, Donald E; Snyder, Robert; Anderson, Thomas J; Honeyman, James O; Timchalk, Charles

2010-04-01

267

The three most common occupational exposures reported by pregnant women: A update  

SciTech Connect

Many uncertainties exist in regard to counseling women with occupational exposures during pregnancy. This is due to limited knowledge of the reproductive toxicologic effects of industrial agents, lack of safety standards aimed at protecting the fetus, and limitations in assessing the extent of exposure. The approach to this subject taken by the Motherisk Program and a review of the three most common occupational exposures are presented. Epidemiologic studies and measurements of radiation do not suggest a reproductive hazard for video display terminals. Exposure to organic solvents is hard to quantitate, and information is sparse and sometimes contradictory, and therapeutic decisions are difficult to reach. To date there is no convincing evidence that working with organic solvents within safety regulations would harm a fetus, in contradistinction to detrimental fetal effects of solvent abuse. The reproductive risks of lead are well documented, fetal exposure can be assessed, and effective treatment exists, but its effects on the pregnancy have not been fully established. However, new evidence suggests that maternal levels that are much lower than the accepted adult limits may be damaging to the fetus. 107 references.

Bentur, Y.; Koren, G. (Motherisk Program, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario (Canada))

1991-08-01

268

Occupational exposure limits in Europe and Asia – Continued divergence or global harmonization?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Occupational exposure limits (OELs) are used as a risk management tool aiming at protecting against negative health effects of occupational exposure to harmful substances. The systems of OEL development have not been standardized and divergent outcomes have been reported. However some harmonization processes have been initiated, primarily in Europe. This study investigates the state of harmonization in a global context.

Qian Ding; Linda Schenk; Katarzyna Malkiewicz; Sven Ove Hansson

2011-01-01

269

Occupational exposure measurements of static and pulsed gradient magnetic fields in the vicinity of MRI scanners  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent advances in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have increased occupational exposure to magnetic fields. In this study, we examined the assessment of occupational exposure to gradient magnetic fields and time-varying magnetic fields generated by motion in non-homogeneous static magnetic fields of MRI scanners. These magnetic field components can be measured simultaneously with an induction coil setup that detects the time

Sami Kännälä; Tim Toivo; Tommi Alanko; Kari Jokela

2009-01-01

270

Bias in Studies of Parental Self-reported Occupational Exposure and Childhood Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several case-control studies have demonstrated positive associations between parental occupational exposures and childhood cancer. However, an overestimation of risk estimates due to recall bias is of concern. The magnitude and nature of this bias were explored using data from a German case-control study on childhood leukemia conducted between 1992 and 1997. A moderate overreporting of occupational exposures by fathers was

Joachim Schüz; Logan G. Spector; Julie A. Ross

271

Occupational Exposure to Solvents and Cognitive Performance in the GAZEL Cohort: Preliminary Results  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The impact of occupational exposure to solvents on cognitive ageing remains unclear. We examined whether long-term occupational exposure is associated with poor cognitive performance in late midlife. Methods: Participants in the GAZEL cohort, set up in 1989, are employees of the French national electricity and gas company. Data on the working environment were used to create measures of cumulative

C. Berr; M. N. Vercambre; S. Bonenfant; A. Singh Manoux; M. Zins; M. Goldberg

2010-01-01

272

Occupational exposure to carcinogens and risk of lung cancer: results from The Netherlands cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES: To investigate risk of lung cancers associated with common established carcinogenic occupational exposures (asbestos, paint dust, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and welding fumes) in a prospective cohort study among the general population, and to estimate the proportion of lung cancer cases attributable to these occupational exposures. METHODS: A prospective cohort study on diet, other lifestyle factors, job history, and cancer

A J van Loon; I. J. Kant; G. M. H. Swaen; R. A. Goldbohm; A M Kremer; P A van den Brandt

1997-01-01

273

Occupational exposure and lung cancer risk in a coastal area of Northeastern Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

A case-control study of lung cancer and occupational exposure was conducted in a coastal area of Northeastern Italy where metallurgical and mechanical industries, docks and shipyards are located. Cases comprised 756 men who died of primary lung cancer in a 5-year period. Controls comprised 756 male subjects dying from other causes during the same period. Occupational exposures to lung carcinogens

Massimo Bovenzi; Giorgio Stanta; Gianluigi Antiga; Paolo Peruzzo; Furio Cavallieri

1993-01-01

274

Occupational radiation exposure due to norm in a rare-earth compounds production facility.  

PubMed

In India, rare-earth compounds are produced from the beach sand mineral monazite. Caustic digestion of the mineral followed by selective acid extraction is the method used to separate composite rare-earth fraction. The composite rare-earth chloride contains low levels of natural radionuclides and is the starting material for individual rare-earth compounds which have wide applications. Activity concentrations in composite rare-earth compounds such as chlorides, fluorides, carbonates and oxides of Ce, Nd, Pr, Sm, Gd, etc. are presented in this paper. The external gamma exposure rates and airborne activity due to thorium and thoron progeny in the occupational environment are studied. The activity levels in liquid effluent are presented. The potential individual occupational dose is estimated to be 1.9 mSv per annum. PMID:18550514

Haridasan, P P; Pillai, P M B; Tripathi, R M; Puranik, V D

2008-06-10

275

Occupational exposure to eight organic dusts and respiratory cancer among Finns  

PubMed Central

Background There is inconclusive evidence concerning cancer risks of organic dusts. Aim The carcinogenic exposures are mainly inhalatory and the authors therefore studied associations between occupational exposure to eight different organic dusts and respiratory cancers in Finland. Methods The authors followed up a cohort of all economically active Finns born between 1906 and 1945 for 30 million person?years during 1971–95. Incident cases of nasal, laryngeal, and lung cancer and mesotheliomas were identified through a record linkage with the Finnish Cancer Registry. Occupations from the population census in 1970 were converted to exposures to eight organic dusts with a job?exposure matrix (FINJEM). Cumulative exposure (CE) was calculated as a product of prevalence, level, and estimated duration of exposure. Standardised incidence ratios (SIR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) adjusted for age, period, and social class were calculated for each organic dust using the economically active population as the reference. Results A total of 20?426 incident cases of respiratory cancer were observed. Slightly increased risk was observed among men exposed to wood dust for nasal cancer (SIR 1.42, 95% CI 0.79 to 2.44). For laryngeal cancer, men exposed to plant dust (mainly grain millers) had a raised SIR in the high exposure class (SIR 3.55, 95% CI 1.30 to 7.72). Men exposed to wood dust had a raised SIR for lung cancer, but only in the low exposure class (SIR 1.11, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.18). Women exposed to wood dust showed an increased SIR for mesotheliomas in the low exposure class (SIR 4.57, 95% CI 1.25 to 11.7) and some excess in the medium exposure category. Conclusions Exposure to organic dusts is unlikely to be a major risk factor of respiratory cancer. Even exposure to wood dust which is a major exposure in Finland seems to have minor effect for nasal cancer. The authors found suggestive evidence that exposure to grain dust may increase the risk of laryngeal cancer, and some support to the hypothesis that exposure to textile dust, and to plant and animal dust (agricultural dusts) may decrease the risk of lung cancer.

Laakkonen, A; Kyyronen, P; Kauppinen, T; Pukkala, E I

2006-01-01

276

Ototoxic occupational exposures for a stock car racing team: I. Noise surveys.  

PubMed

The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) surveyed noise exposure for a professional stock car team at their race shop and during two races at one racetrack. At the team's shop, area sound pressure levels (SPLs) were measured for various work tasks. Equivalent levels (Leqs) ranged from 58 to 104 decibels, A-weighted (dBA). Personal noise dosimetry was conducted for at least one employee for each job description in race car assembly (n = 9). The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) permissible exposure limit (PEL) of 90 dBA for an 8-hour, 5-dB exchange rate time-weighted average (TWA) was never exceeded, but in two instances values exceeded OSHA's action level of 85 dBA for hearing conservation implementation. The NIOSH recommended exposure limit (REL) of 85 dBA for a 3-dB exchange rate Leq was exceeded for five of the measured jobs. During the races, SPLs averaged above 100 dBA in the pit area where cars undergo adjustments/refueling, both before and during the race. Peak levels reached 140 dB SPL. NIOSH REL was exceeded for every personal noise dosimetry measurement. Recommendations for hearing protection and communication are presented. PMID:16080260

Van Campen, Luann E; Morata, Thais; Kardous, Chucri A; Gwin, Kristin; Wallingford, Kenneth M; Dallaire, Jacques; Alvarez, Frank J

2005-08-01

277

A Retrospective Assessment of Occupational Exposure to Elemental Carbon in the U.S. Trucking Industry  

PubMed Central

Background: Despite considerable epidemiologic evidence about the health effects of chronic exposure to vehicle exhaust, efforts at defining the extent of risk have been limited by the lack of historical exposure measurements suitable for use in epidemiologic studies and for risk assessment. Objectives: We sought to reconstruct exposure to elemental carbon (EC), a marker of diesel and other vehicle exhaust exposure, in a large national cohort of U.S. trucking industry workers. Methods: We identified the predictors of measured exposures based on a statistical model and used this information to extrapolate exposures across the cohort nationally. These estimates were adjusted for changes in work-related conditions over time based on a previous exposure assessment of this industry, and for changes in background levels based on a trend analysis of historical air pollution data, to derive monthly estimates of EC exposure for each job and trucking terminal combination between 1971 and 2000. Results: Occupational exposure to EC declined substantially over time, and we found significant variability in estimated exposures both within and across job groups, trucking terminals, and regions of the United States. Average estimated EC exposures during a typical work shift ranged from < 1 ?g/m3 in the lowest exposed category in the 1990s to > 40 ?g/m3 for workers in the highest exposed jobs in the 1970s. Conclusions: Our results provide a framework for understanding changes over time in exposure to EC in the U.S. trucking industry. Our assessment should minimize exposure misclassification by capturing variation among terminals and across U.S. regions, and changes over time.

Hart, Jaime E.; Laden, Francine; Garshick, Eric; Smith, Thomas J.

2011-01-01

278

Occupational exposure to perchloroethylene in the dry cleaning industry.  

PubMed

Field surveys were conducted of 67 dry cleaning establishments to assess working conditions and potential for exposure to perchloroethylene, a solvent of choice in this industry. Evaluation of ventilation controls showed that 28% of cleaning machines (transfer type) did not have functioning local exhaust systems, and an additional 32% had inadequately maintained systems providing less than the recommended face velocity at the door opening. Personal sampling was performed in 20 firms to relate operator exposure levels to the process used and degree of local exhaust ventilation. Utilization of the dry-to-dry (closed system) process resulted in a lower mean TWA exposure, 28.3 ppm, as compared to 86.6 ppm for transfer operations. Five-minute peak samples taken during clothing transfer demonstrated significant exposure levels ranging from 11.3 to 533.8 ppm. A lower mean peak exposure (25.3 ppm) was found for firms with local exhaust ventilation at the recommended rate than for facilities with poorly or unventilated cleaning machines (159.7 ppm). The study points out the manner in which available control measures can be used optimally to reduce employee exposure. Increased involvement of trade associations and local health authorities is also recommended to promote the safe use of perchloroethylene in the dry cleaning industry. PMID:4003279

Materna, B L

1985-05-01

279

Statistical Methods and Software for the Analysis of Occupational Exposure Data with Non-detectable Values  

SciTech Connect

Environmental exposure measurements are, in general, positive and may be subject to left censoring; i.e,. the measured value is less than a ''detection limit''. In occupational monitoring, strategies for assessing workplace exposures typically focus on the mean exposure level or the probability that any measurement exceeds a limit. Parametric methods used to determine acceptable levels of exposure, are often based on a two parameter lognormal distribution. The mean exposure level, an upper percentile, and the exceedance fraction are used to characterize exposure levels, and confidence limits are used to describe the uncertainty in these estimates. Statistical methods for random samples (without non-detects) from the lognormal distribution are well known for each of these situations. In this report, methods for estimating these quantities based on the maximum likelihood method for randomly left censored lognormal data are described and graphical methods are used to evaluate the lognormal assumption. If the lognormal model is in doubt and an alternative distribution for the exposure profile of a similar exposure group is not available, then nonparametric methods for left censored data are used. The mean exposure level, along with the upper confidence limit, is obtained using the product limit estimate, and the upper confidence limit on an upper percentile (i.e., the upper tolerance limit) is obtained using a nonparametric approach. All of these methods are well known but computational complexity has limited their use in routine data analysis with left censored data. The recent development of the R environment for statistical data analysis and graphics has greatly enhanced the availability of high-quality nonproprietary (open source) software that serves as the basis for implementing the methods in this paper.

Frome, EL

2005-09-20

280

Occupational Exposure to HIV Among Health Care Providers: A Qualitative Study in Yunnan, China  

PubMed Central

With the HIV/AIDS epidemic spreading, health care providers (HCPs) in China are facing a growing risk of occupational exposure to and infection with HIV. There is a need to describe occupational exposure cases and compliance with postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) guidelines among HCPs. Qualitative in-depth interviews were conducted with 33 HCPs in Yunnan Province, China. Information about occupational exposures the HCPs and their co-workers experienced was collected and analyzed using ATLAS.ti. Most occupational exposure accidents happened during emergencies, when HCPs did not have time to consider self-protection. Exposure to HIV caused exposed HCPs severe adverse psychological pressure, such as stress and anxiety. Compliance with PEP guidelines among participants was poor; barriers to better compliance were identified. This study underscored the importance of institutional support in promoting compliance with PEP guidelines among exposed providers. Further training and emphasis on universal precautions and PEP guidelines may reduce the risk of occupational infections.

Lin, Chunqing; Li, Li; Wu, Zunyou; Wu, Sheng; Jia, Manhong

2009-01-01

281

Occupational hydrocarbon exposure and nephrotoxicity: a cohort study and literature review.  

PubMed Central

Hydrocarbon exposure has been shown to play an important role in the development of renal dysfunction in several occupational settings. In this study, renal screening was performed in a group of paint sprayers with exposure to hydrocarbon-based paints, recruited from a car manufacturing plant where personal protective equipment was widely used. The hydrocarbon exposure scores and various markers of renal injury were compared between these subjects and a group of paint sprayers from a previous study who did not use personal protective equipment regularly. Cumulative hydrocarbon exposure scores were calculated from a validated questionnaire. Serum creatinine, urinary total protein, albumin, transferrin, retinol-binding protein, and N-acetylglucosaminidase were evaluated, Both groups experienced heavy hydrocarbon exposure but sprayers who regularly used personal protective equipment had significantly reduced exposure scores due to improved skin and respiratory protection. A significant number of sprayers from both groups had elevated levels of serum creatinine. Interestingly, urinary N-acetylglucosaminidase activity, a marker of proximal tubular damage, was abnormal in a significant proportion of sprayers in the unprotected group but normal in those with improved protection. Our results are in keeping with the hypothesis that hydrocarbon exposure through paint spraying may result in active proximal tubular damage which may be reduced by improvement of protection at the worksite. However, renal impairment independent of tubular injury may result from chronic paint exposure, even with improved protection.

Pai, P.; Stevenson, A.; Mason, H.; Bell, G. M.

1998-01-01

282

Urinary biomarkers of occupational jet fuel exposure among Air Force personnel.  

PubMed

There is a potential for widespread occupational exposure to jet fuel among military and civilian personnel. Urinary metabolites of naphthalene have been suggested for use as short-term biomarkers of exposure to jet fuel (jet propulsion fuel 8 (JP8)). In this study, urinary biomarkers of JP8 were evaluated among US Air Force personnel. Personnel (n=24) were divided a priori into high, moderate, and low exposure groups. Pre- and post-shift urine samples were collected from each worker over three workdays and analyzed for metabolites of naphthalene (1- and 2-naphthol). Questionnaires and breathing-zone naphthalene samples were collected from each worker during the same workdays. Linear mixed-effects models were used to evaluate the exposure data. Post-shift levels of 1- and 2-naphthol varied significantly by a priori exposure group (levels in high group>moderate group>low group), and breathing-zone naphthalene was a significant predictor of post-shift levels of 1- and 2-naphthol, indicating that for every unit increase in breathing-zone naphthalene, there was an increase in naphthol levels. These results indicate that post-shift levels of urinary 1- and 2-naphthol reflect JP8 exposure during the work-shift and may be useful surrogates of JP8 exposure. Among the high exposed workers, significant job-related predictors of post-shift levels of 1- and 2-naphthol included entering the fuel tank, repairing leaks, direct skin contact with JP8, and not wearing gloves during the work-shift. The job-related predictors of 1- and 2-naphthol emphasize the importance of reducing inhalation and dermal exposure through the use of personal protective equipment while working in an environment with JP8. PMID:22044926

Smith, Kristen W; Proctor, Susan P; Ozonoff, A L; McClean, Michael D

2011-11-02

283

Retrospective Evaluation of Occupational Exposures in Cancer Epidemiology: A European Concerted Action of Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Assessing exposures in the investigation of occupational cancer is difficult because of the historical nature of exposures. Yet, misclassification of exposures can have a profound effect on the interpretation of risk. It is therefore important to reduce misclassification as much as possible. In an effort to improve our ability to assess exposures, the European Concerted Action of Research has identified

Denis Hémon; Jean Bouyer; F. Berrino; P. Brochard; D. C. Glass; M. Goldberg; H. Kromhout; E. Lynge; B. Pannett; N. Segnan; H. A. Smit

1991-01-01

284

FINAL REPORT OF THE NON-OCCUPATIONAL PESTICIDE EXPOSURE STUDY (NOPES)  

EPA Science Inventory

The Non-occupational pesticide Exposure Study was the first attempt to develop a methodology for measuring the potential exposure of specified populations to pesticides. n this study, as in other studies utilizing the Tota1 Exposure Asessment Methodology (TEAM), the exposures wer...

285

Neuropsychological dysfunction related to earlier occupational exposure to mercury vapor.  

PubMed

We assessed the neuropsychological test performances of 26 patients (mean age = 41.5 +/- 6.1 years; mean years of education = 9.8 +/- 1.8; 20 males) diagnosed with chronic occupational mercurialism who were former workers at a fluorescent lamp factory. They had been exposed to elemental mercury for an average of 10.2 +/- 3.8 years and had been away from this work for 6 +/- 4.7 years. Mean urinary mercury concentrations 1 year after cessation of work were 1.8 +/- 0.9 microg/g creatinine. Twenty control subjects matched for age, gender, and education (18 males) were used for comparison. Neuropsychological assessment included attention, inhibitory control, verbal and visual memory, verbal fluency, manual dexterity, visual-spatial function, executive function, and semantic knowledge tests. The Beck Depression Inventory and the State and Trait Inventory were used to assess depression and anxiety symptoms, respectively. The raw score for the group exposed to mercury indicated slower information processing speed, inferior performance in psychomotor speed, verbal spontaneous recall memory, and manual dexterity of the dominant hand and non-dominant hand (P < 0.05). In addition, the patients showed increased depression and anxiety symptoms (P < 0.001). A statistically significant correlation (Pearson) was demonstrable between mean urinary mercury and anxiety trait (r = 0.75, P = 0.03). The neuropsychological performances of the former workers suggest that occupational exposure to elemental mercury has long-term effects on information processing and psychomotor function, with increased depression and anxiety also possibly reflecting the psychosocial context. PMID:17334541

Zachi, E C; D F, Ventura; Faria, M A M; Taub, A

2007-03-01

286

Occupational Exposure to Asbestos; Criteria for a Recommended Standard.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Recommended standards for control of exposure to asbestos dust in the workplace are set out from the following standpoints: environmental, medical, labeling, personal protective equipment and clothing, apprisal of employees, work practices, and monitoring and recordkeeping requirements. The goal is maintenance of a low level of concentration to…

National Inst. for Occupational Safety and Health (DHEW/PHS), Rockville, MD.

287

Experimental PVC Material Challenge in Subjects with Occupational PVC Exposure  

PubMed Central

Background Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) materials have been linked to asthma in several epidemiologic studies, but the possible causal factors remain unknown. Participants We challenged 10 subjects experimentally to degraded PVC products under controlled conditions. All of the subjects had previously experienced respiratory symptoms suspected to be caused by this kind of exposure in their work place. Five subjects had doctor-diagnosed asthma. Methods The subjects were exposed to degraded PVC material in an exposure chamber; a challenge with ceramic tile was used as the control test. We followed exhaled nitric oxide, nasal NO, lung functions, cytokines [tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), interleukin-4 (IL-4), IL-6, and IL-12] and NO in nasal lavage fluid (NAL) during and after the exposures. We also measured 2-ethylhexanol in exhaled breath samples and NAL. Results On the morning after the PVC exposure, subjects reported respiratory tract symptoms significantly more often than they did after the control test (50% vs. 0%, respectively; p = 0.029; n = 10). We did not detect any changes in lung functions or levels of exhaled NO, nasal NO, or NO in NAL after PVC challenge compared with the control test. Cytokine levels increased after both exposures, with no statistically significant difference between situations. All of the exhaled breath samples collected during the PVC exposure contained 2-ethylhexanol. Conclusions PVC flooring challenge can evoke respiratory tract symptoms in exposed subjects. Our results do not support the hypothesis that PVC materials themselves evoke immediate asthmatic reactions. The chamber test used is well suited to this type of exposure study.

Tuomainen, Anneli; Stark, Harri; Seuri, Markku; Hirvonen, Maija-Riitta; Linnainmaa, Markku; Sieppi, Anne; Tukiainen, Hannu

2006-01-01

288

Interleukin-1? gene polymorphism and hearing loss related to the history of occupational noise exposure in Brazilian elderly.  

PubMed

Hearing loss is the most common sensory impairment in older people, and may have social and psychological consequences, such as social isolation, frustration and depression. Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) is an interaction of both genetic and environmental factors. Some studies have led to the identification of possible NIHL susceptibility genes. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the polymorphism of the interleukin (IL)-1? gene at position + 3954 was associated with complaints of hearing loss due to occupational exposure. The sample was composed of elderly people with hearing loss (age ? 60 years) divided into two groups: 99 with occupational exposure to noise and 193 without exposure. Information on occupational exposure to noise was obtained through interviews using a semi-structured questionnaire. Hearing acuity was measured from 500 to 6000 Hz and the IL-1? genotype was obtained by the polymerase chain reaction- restriction fragment length polymorphism technique. Differences in allelic and genotypic frequencies, and the association between genotypic frequencies and complaints of hearing loss due to occupational exposure, were analyzed by the Chi-square test at the 5% significance level. Fifty-one percent of the elderly were homozygous for the ancestral allele (C), 17.2% were homozygous for the polymorphic allele (T) and 31.8% were heterozygous. The frequency was found to be 67-33% C to allele T. There was no significant association between polymorphism in gene IL-1? and hearing loss associated with occupational exposure (?2 = 0.538; P = 0.676). No association was found with the polymorphism of the IL-1? +3954 C/T gene and hearing loss associated with the occupational noise exposure history. PMID:23689297

Carvalho, Luiz C L; Marchiori, Luciana L M; Melo, Juliana J; Maciel, Sandra M; Poli-Frederico, Regina C

289

Occupational Health and Safety. Level 1. Level 2. Level 3. Support Materials for Agricultural Training.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This publication contains the three communication skills units of the three levels of Support Materials for Agricultural Training (SMAT) in the area of occupational health and safety: Level 1 (starting), 2 (continuing), and 3 (completing). The units are designed to help the learner improve his or her written and spoken communication skills needed…

Batman, Kangan; Gadd, Nick; Lucas, Michele

290

BIOMarkers for occupational diesel exhaust exposure monitoring (BIOMODEM)--a study in underground mining.  

PubMed

Methods for the assessment of exposures to diesel exhaust were evaluated, including various biomarkers of internal exposure and early biological effects. The impact of possible biomarkers of susceptibility was also explored. Underground workers (drivers of diesel-powered excavators) at an oil shale mine in Estonia were compared with surface workers. Personal exposures to particle-associated 1-nitropyrene (NP) were some eight times higher underground than on the surface. Underground miners were also occupationally exposed to benzene and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, as indicated by excretion of urinary metabolites of benzene and pyrene. In addition, increased O(6)-alkylguanine DNA adducts were detected in the white blood cells of underground workers, suggesting higher exposure to nitroso-compounds. However, no differences between underground and surface workers were observed in the levels of other bulky DNA adducts determined by 32P-postlabelling, or in DNA damage. The study indicated that smoking, diet and residential indoor air pollution are important non-occupational factors to consider when interpreting biomonitoring results. PMID:12191893

Scheepers, P T J; Coggon, D; Knudsen, L E; Anzion, R; Autrup, H; Bogovski, S; Bos, R P; Dahmann, D; Farmer, P; Martin, E A; Micka, V; Muzyka, V; Neumann, H G; Poole, J; Schmidt-Ott, A; Seiler, F; Volf, J; Zwirner-Baier, I

2002-08-01

291

Biological monitoring of occupational exposure to inorganic arsenic  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: This study was undertaken to assess reliable biological indicators for monitoring the occupational exposure to inorganic arsenic (iAs), taking into account the possible confounding role of arsenicals present in food and of the element present in drinking water. METHODS: 51 Glass workers exposed to As trioxide were monitored by measuring dust in the breathing zone, with personal air samplers. Urine samples at the end of work shift were analysed for biological monitoring. A control group of 39 subjects not exposed to As, and eight volunteers who drank water containing about 45 micrograms/l iAs for a week were also considered. Plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was used for the analysis of total As in air and urine samples, whereas the urinary As species (trivalent, As3; pentavalent, As5; monomethyl arsonic acid, MMA; dimethyl arsinic acid, DMA; arsenobetaine, AsB) were measured by liquid chromatography coupled with plasma mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) RESULTS: Environmental concentrations of As in air varied widely (mean 84 micrograms/m3, SD 61, median 40) and also the sum of urinary iAs MMA and DMA, varied among the groups of exposed subjects (mean 106 micrograms/l, SD 84, median 65). AsB was the most excreted species (34% of total As) followed by DMA (28%), MMA (26%), and As3 + As5 (12%). In the volunteers who drank As in the water the excretion of MMA and DMA increased (from a median of 0.5 to 5 micrograms/day for MMA and from 4 to 13 micrograms/day for DMA). The best correlations between As in air and its urinary species were found for total iAs and As3 + As5. CONCLUSIONS: To avoid the effect of As from sources other than occupation on urinary species of the element, in particular on DMA, it is proposed that urinary As3 + As5 may an indicator for monitoring the exposure to iAs. For concentrations of 10 micrograms/m3 the current environmental limit for iAs, the limit for urinary As3 + As5 was calculated to be around 5 micrograms/l, even if the wide variation of values needs critical evaluation and application of data. The choice of this indicator might be relevant also from a toxicological point of view. Trivalent arsenic is in fact the most active species and its measure in urine could be the best indicator of some critical effects of the element, such as cancer.  

Apostoli, P.; Bartoli, D.; Alessio, L.; Buchet, J. P.

1999-01-01

292

Occupational exposure to airborne asbestos from coatings, mastics, and adhesives.  

PubMed

Over the past few years, a question has arisen about the degree of exposure to airborne asbestos associated with the application, cleanup, and tear-out of glues and mastics used between 1940 and the present. These liquid products were used either to adhere insulation to pipes and boilers or to cover the insulation so as to protect it. In this study, four asbestos-containing products, a coating, two mastics, and an adhesive, which were representative of the various classes of products that have been used historically, were tested to determine the airborne concentration of asbestos fibers released during five different activities (application, spill cleanup, sanding, removal, and sweep cleaning). Each activity was performed for 30 min (often in triplicate). Personal (n=172) and area (n=280) air samples were collected during the tests, and each was analyzed for total fiber concentrations using phase contrast microscopy (PCM), and for asbestos fiber count using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). A measurable concentration of asbestos fibers was detected in six of the 452 samples collected (0.0017-0.0184 fibers/ml). The observed asbestos fibers counts for each product were similar to background. Only one asbestos fiber was detected in an indoor background sample; no asbestos fibers were identified in any of the outdoor background samples. The (raw) PCM-total fiber concentrations were adjusted based on TEM analyses that reported fraction of asbestos fibers (to derive a PCM-asbestos concentration) and by the fraction of the 8-h workday that a worker spends performing the activity (to derive a calculated TWA). For the coatings, mastics, and adhesives evaluated in the present study, the calculated TWAs using hypothetical work scenarios were well below the current Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL) of 0.1 fibers/ml. The calculated TWAs ranged from 0.03 to 0.009 fibers/ml. The actual concentration of airborne asbestos due to these products is almost certainly much less than the TWAs, and may be so low as to not be measurable. These results support the historical view that these products, over the past 50 years, did not pose an occupational health hazard under foreseeable uses. PMID:15141152

Paustenbach, Dennis J; Sage, Amy; Bono, Michael; Mowat, Fionna

2004-05-01

293

Occupational exposure to volatile organic compounds and aldehydes in the U.S. trucking industry.  

PubMed

Diesel exhaust is a complex chemical mixture that has been linked to lung cancer mortality in a number of epidemiologic studies. However, the dose-response relationship remains largely undefined, and the specific components responsible for carcinogenicity have not been identified. Although previous focus has been on the particulate phase, diesel exhaust includes a vapor phase of numerous volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and aldehydes that are either known or suspected carcinogens, such as 1,3-butadiene, benzene, and formaldehyde. However, there are relatively few studies that quantify exposure to VOCs and aldehydes in diesel-heavy and other exhaust-related microenvironments. As part of a nationwide assessment of exposure to diesel exhaust in the trucking industry, we collected measurements of VOCs and aldehydes at 15 different U.S. trucking terminals and in city truck drivers (with 6 repeat site visits), observing average shift concentrations in truck cabs and at multiple background and work area locations within each terminal. In this paper, we characterize occupational exposure to 18 different VOCs and aldehydes, as well as relationships with particulate mass (elemental carbon in PM < 1 microm and PM2.5) across locations to determine source characteristics. Our results show that occupational exposure to VOCs and aldehydes varies significantly across the different sampling locations within each terminal, with significantly higher exposures noted in the work environments over background levels (p < 0.01). A structural equation model performed well in predicting terminal exposures to VOCs and aldehydes as a function of job, background levels, weather conditions, proximity to a major road, and geographic location (R2 = 0.2-0.4 work area; R2 = 0.5-0.9 background). PMID:17993162

Davis, M E; Blicharz, A P; Hart, J E; Laden, F; Garshick, E; Smith, T J

2007-10-15

294

Occupational Exposure to Volatile Organic Compounds and Aldehydes in the U.S. Trucking Industry  

PubMed Central

Diesel exhaust is a complex chemical mixture that has been linked to lung cancer mortality in a number of epidemiologic studies. However, the dose–response relationship remains largely undefined, and the specific components responsible for carcinogenicity have not been identified. Although previous focus has been on the particulate phase, diesel exhaust includes a vapor phase of numerous volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and aldehydes that are either known or suspected carcinogens, such as 1,3-butadiene, benzene, and formaldehyde. However, there are relatively few studies that quantify exposure to VOCs and aldehydes in diesel-heavy and other exhaust-related microenvironments. As part of a nationwide assessment of exposure to diesel exhaust in the trucking industry, we collected measurements of VOCs and aldehydes at 15 different U.S. trucking terminals and in city truck drivers (with 6 repeat site visits), observing average shift concentrations in truck cabs and at multiple background and work area locations within each terminal. In this paper, we characterize occupational exposure to 18 different VOCs and aldehydes, as well as relationships with particulate mass (elemental carbon in PM < 1 ? m and PM2.5) across locations to determine source characteristics. Our results show that occupational exposure to VOCs and aldehydes varies significantly across the different sampling locations within each terminal, with significantly higher exposures noted in the work environments over background levels (p < 0.01). A structural equation model performed well in predicting terminal exposures to VOCs and aldehydes as a function of job, background levels, weather conditions, proximity to a major road, and geographic location (R2 = 0.2–0.4 work area; R2 = 0.5–0.9 background).

DAVIS, M. E.; BLICHARZ, A. P.; HART, J. E.; LADEN, F.; GARSHICK, E.; SMITH, T. J.

2008-01-01

295

Non-occupational exposures to pesticides for residents of two U.S. cities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Non-Occupational Pesticide Exposure Study, funded by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, was designed to assess total human exposures to 32 pesticides and pesticide degradation products in the non-occupational environment; however, the study focused primarily on inhalation exposures. Two sites—Jacksonville, Florida (USA) and Springfield\\/Chicopee, Massachusetts (USA)—were studied during three seasons: Summer 1986 (Jacksonville only), Spring 1987, and Winter 1988. Probability

R. W. Whitmore; F. W. Immerman; D. E. Camann; A. E. Bond; R. G. Lewis; J. L. Schaum

1994-01-01

296

Non-occupational exposure to asbestos and malignant mesothelioma in the Italian National Registry of Mesotheliomas  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundMalignant mesotheliomas are strictly related to asbestos, but in a proportion of cases no exposure can be recalled. Published estimates of this proportion have important variations. Historical and geographical differences in the fraction of cancer due to any given exposure are to be expected, but incomplete identification of non-occupational exposures may have played a role.MethodsTo assess the role of non-occupational

Dario Mirabelli; Domenica Cavone; Enzo Merler; Valerio Gennaro; Antonio Romanelli; Carolina Mensi; Elisabetta Chellini; Carmela Nicita; Alessandro Marinaccio; Corrado Magnani; Marina Musti

2010-01-01

297

Clinical and pathological characteristics of hepatotoxicity associated with occupational exposure to dimethylformamide  

SciTech Connect

The clinical characteristics, laboratory results, and liver biopsy findings of seven workers with toxic liver injury associated with exposure to several solvents, including substantial levels of the widely used solvent dimethylformamide, are presented. Three patients had short exposure (less than 3 months), four long exposure (greater than 1 year). Among those with brief exposure, symptoms included anorexia, abdominal pain, and disulfiram-type reaction. Aminotransferases were markedly elevated with the ratio of alanine aminotransferase to aspartate aminotransferase always greater than 1. Liver biopsy showed focal hepatocellular necrosis and microvesicular steatosis with prominence of smooth endoplasmic reticulum, complex lysosomes, and pleomorphic mitochondria with crystalline inclusions. Among workers with long exposure, symptoms were minimal and enzyme elevations modest. Biopsies showed macrovesicular steatosis, pleomorphic mitochondria without crystalloids, and prominent smooth endoplasmic reticulum, but no evidence of persisting acute injury or fibrosis. Abnormal aminotransferases in both groups may persist for months after removal from exposure, but progression to cirrhosis in continually exposed workers was not observed. We conclude that exposure of these workers to solvents, chiefly dimethylformamide, may result in two variants of toxic liver injury with subtle clinical, laboratory, and morphological features. This may be readily overlooked if occupational history and biopsy histology are not carefully evaluated.

Redlich, C.A.; West, A.B.; Fleming, L.; True, L.D.; Cullen, M.R.; Riely, C.A. (Yale Univ. School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (USA))

1990-09-01

298

Experiences from occupational exposure limits set on aerosols containing allergenic proteins.  

PubMed

Occupational exposure limits (OELs) together with determined airborne exposures are used in risk assessment based managements of occupational exposures to prevent occupational diseases. In most countries, OELs have only been set for few protein-containing aerosols causing IgE-mediated allergies. They comprise aerosols of flour dust, grain dust, wood dust, natural rubber latex, and the subtilisins, which are proteolytic enzymes. These aerosols show dose-dependent effects and levels have been established, where nearly all workers may be exposed without adverse health effects, which are required for setting OELs. Our aim is to analyse prerequisites for setting OELs for the allergenic protein-containing aerosols. Opposite to the key effect of toxicological reactions, two thresholds, one for the sensitization phase and one for elicitation of IgE-mediated symptoms in sensitized individuals, are used in the OEL settings. For example, this was the case for flour dust, where OELs were based on dust levels due to linearity between flour dust and its allergen levels. The critical effects for flour and grain dust OELs were different, which indicates that conclusion by analogy (read-across) must be scientifically well founded. Except for subtilisins, no OEL have been set for other industrial enzymes, where many of which are high volume chemicals. For several of these, OELs have been proposed in the scientific literature during the last two decades. It is apparent that the scientific methodology is available for setting OELs for proteins and protein-containing aerosols where the critical effect is IgE sensitization and IgE-mediated airway diseases. PMID:22843406

Nielsen, Gunnar D; Larsen, Søren T; Hansen, Jitka S; Poulsen, Lars K

2012-07-28

299

Experiences from Occupational Exposure Limits Set on Aerosols Containing Allergenic Proteins  

PubMed Central

Occupational exposure limits (OELs) together with determined airborne exposures are used in risk assessment based managements of occupational exposures to prevent occupational diseases. In most countries, OELs have only been set for few protein-containing aerosols causing IgE-mediated allergies. They comprise aerosols of flour dust, grain dust, wood dust, natural rubber latex, and the subtilisins, which are proteolytic enzymes. These aerosols show dose-dependent effects and levels have been established, where nearly all workers may be exposed without adverse health effects, which are required for setting OELs. Our aim is to analyse prerequisites for setting OELs for the allergenic protein-containing aerosols. Opposite to the key effect of toxicological reactions, two thresholds, one for the sensitization phase and one for elicitation of IgE-mediated symptoms in sensitized individuals, are used in the OEL settings. For example, this was the case for flour dust, where OELs were based on dust levels due to linearity between flour dust and its allergen levels. The critical effects for flour and grain dust OELs were different, which indicates that conclusion by analogy (read-across) must be scientifically well founded. Except for subtilisins, no OEL have been set for other industrial enzymes, where many of which are high volume chemicals. For several of these, OELs have been proposed in the scientific literature during the last two decades. It is apparent that the scientific methodology is available for setting OELs for proteins and protein-containing aerosols where the critical effect is IgE sensitization and IgE-mediated airway diseases.

Nielsen, Gunnar D.

2012-01-01

300

Occupational noise exposure and hearing loss characteristics of a blue-collar population  

SciTech Connect

Recent studies of health effects from chronic exposure to noise in the workplace have not consistently addressed nonoccupational variables. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 197 randomly selected male hourly workers from a noisy plant ( greater than or equal to 89 dBA) in Pittsburgh to fully assess noise exposure and hearing loss, incorporating information on duration of exposure, noise level, occupational and medical histories, audiometric evaluation, and external noise sources. Population audiometric profiles are characteristic of noise-induced hearing loss; mean hearing thresholds for press room men were significantly higher at 2, 3, and 6 kHz (p less than or equal to .05). Only 40% of the men consistently wore hearing protection. Recent use of ototoxic drugs, noisy hobbies/second jobs, military service, family history of hearing loss, and ear-related problems were not found to have a significant effect on hearing levels at high frequencies, suggesting that observed hearing losses were of an occupational origin. 31 references, 3 figures, 3 tables.

Helmkamp, J.C.; Talbott, E.O.; Margolis, H.

1984-12-01

301

Asthma caused by occupational exposures is common - A systematic analysis of estimates of the population-attributable fraction  

PubMed Central

Background The aim of this paper is to highlight emerging data on occupational attributable risk in asthma. Despite well documented outbreaks of disease and the recognition of numerous specific causal agents, occupational exposures previously had been relegated a fairly minor role relative to other causes of adult onset asthma. In recent years there has been a growing recognition of the potential importance of asthma induced by work-related exposures Methods We searched Pub Med from June 1999 through December 2007. We identified six longitudinal general population-based studies; three case-control studies and eight cross-sectional analyses from seven general population-based samples. For an integrated analysis we added ten estimates prior to 1999 included in a previous review. Results The longitudinal studies indicate that 16.3% of all adult-onset asthma is caused by occupational exposures. In an overall synthesis of all included studies the overall median PAR value was 17.6%. Conclusion Clinicians should consider the occupational history when evaluating patients in working age who have asthma. At a societal level, these findings underscore the need for further preventive action to reduce the occupational exposures to asthma-causing agents.

Toren, Kjell; Blanc, Paul D

2009-01-01

302

Occupational exposures estimated by means of job exposure matrices in relation to lung function in the PAARC survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES--The aim of this analysis of the French Cooperative PAARC (Pollution Atmosphérique et Affections Respiratoires Chroniques) survey, was to test whether occupational exposures to dusts, gases, or chemical fumes or to specific hazards, estimated by job exposure matrices, were related to a decrease in forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1). METHODS--The most recent occupation was recorded in adults, aged

N Le Moual; E Orlowski; M B Schenker; M Avignon; P Brochard; F Kauffmann

1995-01-01

303

Metabolic and health consequences of occupational exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls.  

PubMed Central

In surveys of three groups of workers occupationally exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) serum PCB concentrations were quantitated as lower chlorinated biphenyls (L-PCBs) and higher chlorinated biphenyls (H-PCBs). Serum L-PCB and H-PCB concentrations were many times greater among workers employed in power capacitor manufacturing than exposed areas. Statistically significant positive correlations of symptoms suggestive of mucous membrane and skin irritation, of systemic malaise, and altered peripheral sensation were noted with increasing concentrations of serum PCB. No clinical abnormalities attributable to exposure to PCB were observed. Serum PCB concentrations were positively and significantly correlated with glutamic-oxalacetic transaminase (SGOT), serum gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGTP), and plasma triglyceride, and inversely correlated with plasma high density lipoprotein-cholesterol. These correlations were present across all study sites. These findings are indicative of PCBs' physiological effect on the liver, whose long-range health significance is unknown. Nevertheless, the consistent positive association of serum PCB with plasma triglyceride and negative association with plasma HDL-cholesterol may have long-term cardiovascular consequences.

Smith, A B; Schloemer, J; Lowry, L K; Smallwood, A W; Ligo, R N; Tanaka, S; Stringer, W; Jones, M; Hervin, R; Glueck, C J

1982-01-01

304

Plasma fluorescent oxidation products and short-term occupational particulate exposures  

PubMed Central

Background Evidence suggests that fine particulate air pollution results in oxidative induced tissue damage. Methods A global fluorescent oxidation products (FLOx) assay (fluorescent intensity (FI) units per milliliter of plasma) was measured in blood samples collected from 236 nonsmoking, Caucasian, male trucking industry workers either prior to, during, or after their work shifts. Occupational exposures to PM2.5 were based on job-specific area-level sampling. Generalized linear models were used to determine associations between FLOx levels and PM2.5, adjusted for age, time since last meal, alcohol consumption, aspirin, and cholesterol medications. Results The mean (standard deviation) level of FLOx was 265.9 FI/ml (96.0). Levels of FLOx were higher among older individuals and lower among those who had consumed alcohol in the past 24 hours. However, no associations were observed between FLOx and PM2.5. Conclusions Our results indicate no association between occupational PM2.5 exposure and this marker of global oxidative stress.

Hart, Jaime E; Wu, Tianying; Laden, Francine; Garshick, Eric

2012-01-01

305

Age Norms: The Influence of Age, Sex, and Occupational Level.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although informal age norms which influence the timing of major role transitions have been well documented, recent research questions the pervasiveness of this influence. In order to assess the effects of age, sex, and occupational level on perceptions of informal age norms, white-collar and blue-collar men and women (N=462) at two age levels,…

Zepelin, Harold; And Others

306

Neuropsychological Effects of Low-Level Manganese Exposure in Welders  

PubMed Central

While the neuropsychological effects of high manganese (Mn) exposure in occupational settings are well known, the effects of lower levels of exposure are less understood. In this study, we investigated the neuropsychological effects of lower level occupational Mn exposure in 46 male welders (mean age = 37.4, sd = 11.7 years). Each welders’ cumulative Mn exposure indices (Mn-CEI) for the past 12 months and total work history Mn exposure were constructed based on air Mn measurements and work histories. The association between these exposure indices and performance on cognitive, motor control, and psychological tests was examined. In addition, among a subset of welders (n=24) who completed the tests both before and after a work shift, we examined the association between cross-shift Mn exposure assessed from personal monitoring and acute changes in test scores. Mn exposures in this study (median = 12.9 ?g/m3) were much lower, as compared to those observed in other similar studies. Increasing total Mn-CEI was significantly associated with slower reaction time on the continuous performance test (CPT; p<0.01), as well as worse mood for several scales on the Profile of Mood States (POMS; confused, tired, and a composite of tired and energetic, all p?0.03). Increasing Mn-CEI over the previous 12 months was significantly associated with worse mood on the sad, tense, and confused POMS scales (all p?0.03) and the association with worse CPT performance approached significance (p=0.10). Higher Mn exposure over the course of a workday was associated with worse performance on the CPT test across the day (p=0.06) as well as declines in fine motor control over the work-shift (p=0.04), adjusting for age and time between the 2 tests. Our study suggests that even at relatively low Mn exposure levels neuropsychological effects may manifest particularly with respect to attention, mood, and fine motor control.

Laohaudomchok, Wisanti; Lin, Xihong; Herrick, Robert F.; Fang, Shona C.; Cavallari, Jennifer M.; Shrairman, Ruth; Landau, Alexander; Christiani, David C.; Weisskopf, Marc G.

2011-01-01

307

Occupational exposure to carbon black: a particulate sampling study  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to determine the particulate exposure levels within carbon black production plants, a sampling survey involving workers from seven carbon black producers was initiated in late 1979. A total of 1,951 acceptable samples (1,564 total dust and 387 respirable dust) were collected from closed-face filter cassettes worn by carbon black workers performing normal work operations. A one-centimeter cyclone separator

RALPH G. SMITH; DAVID C. MUSCH

1982-01-01

308

Risk of hypospadias in relation to maternal occupational exposure to potential endocrine disrupting chemicals  

PubMed Central

Background: Reported rises in the prevalence of hypospadias and other abnormalities of the male reproductive system may be a result of exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals. Aims: To analyse the relation between risk of hypospadias and maternal occupation, particularly with regard to exposure to potential endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). Methods: Data (1980–96) from the National Congenital Anomaly System (NCAS) were used to analyse the proportion of all congenital anomaly cases (n = 35 962) which were notified with hypospadias (n = 3471) by occupational codes (348 individual job titles) and by categories of exposure to potential EDCs from a job exposure matrix. Results: Five individual occupations (of 348) showed nominally statistically significant excesses, none of which had possible or probable exposure to potential EDCs. Odds ratios for "possible" or "probable" compared to "unlikely" exposure to potential EDCs did not show statistically significant increases in any of the EDC categories after adjustment for social class of the mother and father, nor was there evidence of an upward trend in risk with likelihood of exposure. In the 1992–96 time period odds ratios were increased for hairdressers (the largest group exposed to potential EDCs) and for probable exposure to phthalates (of which hairdressers form the largest group) before social class adjustment. Conclusions: There was little evidence for a relation between risk of hypospadias and maternal occupation or occupational exposure to potential EDCs, but as the exposure classification was necessarily crude, these findings should be interpreted with caution.

Vrijheid, M; Armstrong, B; Dolk, H; van Tongeren, M; Botting, B

2003-01-01

309

Occupational Styrene Exposure Induces Stress-Responsive Genes Involved in Cytoprotective and Cytotoxic Activities  

PubMed Central

Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the expression of a panel of genes involved in toxicology in response to styrene exposure at levels below the occupational standard setting. Methods Workers in a fiber glass boat industry were evaluated for a panel of stress- and toxicity-related genes and associated with biochemical parameters related to hepatic injury. Urinary styrene metabolites (MA+PGA) of subjects and environmental sampling data collected for air at workplace were used to estimate styrene exposure. Results Expression array analysis revealed massive upregulation of genes encoding stress-responsive proteins (HSPA1L, EGR1, IL-6, IL-1?, TNSF10 and TNF?) in the styrene-exposed group; the levels of cytokines released were further confirmed in serum. The exposed workers were then stratified by styrene exposure levels. EGR1 gene upregulation paralleled the expression and transcriptional protein levels of IL-6, TNSF10 and TNF? in styrene exposed workers, even at low level. The activation of the EGR1 pathway observed at low-styrene exposure was associated with a slight increase of hepatic markers found in highly exposed subjects, even though they were within normal range. The ALT and AST levels were not affected by alcohol consumption, and positively correlated with urinary styrene metabolites as evaluated by multiple regression analysis. Conclusion The pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNF? are the primary mediators of processes involved in the hepatic injury response and regeneration. Here, we show that styrene induced stress responsive genes involved in cytoprotection and cytotoxicity at low-exposure, that proceed to a mild subclinical hepatic toxicity at high-styrene exposure.

Strafella, Elisabetta; Bracci, Massimo; Staffolani, Sara; Manzella, Nicola; Giantomasi, Daniele; Valentino, Matteo; Amati, Monica; Tomasetti, Marco; Santarelli, Lory

2013-01-01

310

[Occupational exposure to hexavalent chromium during aircraft painting].  

PubMed

Hygienists are interested in hexavalent chromium due to its genotoxic and carcinogenic effect on humans. The use of products containing hexavalent chromium is decreasing in many industrial fields because of the substitution with less-toxic compounds. In the aeronautical industry, however, the chromate are added to primer paint as a corrosion inhibitor of aircrafts surfaces: so hexavalent chromium compounds are available in many primers with a composition ranging from 10% to 13%. The application of these primers by using electrostatic guns potentially exposes painting and coating workers at high concentrations of aerosols containing Cr(VI). The aim of the present study is the evaluation of professional exposure to hexavalent chromium during aircraft painting, by adopting both environmental personal sampling and biological monitoring. To valuate workers exposure levels the personal measurements results have been compared with the exposure limit values (TLV-TWA) and the urinary chromium contents with the biological exposure indices (IBE). Moreover the strategy of coupling environmental sampling with biological monitoring seems to be a useful instrument to measure the validity of the individual protection devices. PMID:18409827

Gherardi, M; Gatto, M P; Gordiani, A; Paci, E; Proietto, A

311

Auditory event-related potential changes in chronic occupational exposure to organophosphate pesticides  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine whether chronic occupational exposure to organophosphates (OP) pesticides leads to cognitive impairment using event-related potentials (ERPs). Methods ERPs of 38 vegetable farmers applying OP pesticides and 35 controls were recorded using an auditory oddball paradigm. The N1, P2, N2 and P300 ERP components and the number of counting errors were compared between the groups. Results The farmers made significantly more counting errors than controls in the oddball task. The mixed model ANOVA of component latencies revealed a significant component × group interaction, suggesting farmers had a greater delay in later ERP components. Intergroup comparisons of individual components showed significant delays in N2 and P300 latencies. Subsequent ANCOVA showed significant P300 delay even after adjusting for the latency of the preceding component, N2. Intergroup differences of P300 amplitudes were not significant, although there was limited evidence of a difference in scalp topography. Conclusion Our findings indicate that chronic low-level occupational exposure to OP pesticides is associated with progressively increasing delay in successive ERP components, particularly P300. Significance Chronic exposure to OP pesticides may delay the neurophysiological processes underlying early stages of selective attention and late stages of sensory information processing that include stimulus evaluation and updating of working memory.

Dassanayake, T.; Gawarammana, I. B.; Weerasinghe, V.; Dissanayake, P. S.; Pragaash, S.; Dawson, A.; Senanayake, N.

2011-01-01

312

Childhood nervous system tumors--an evaluation of the association with paternal occupational exposure to hydrocarbons  

SciTech Connect

Paternal occupational exposures to hydrocarbons have been associated with childhood nervous system cancer, but study results have not been consistent. This population-based case-control study was designed to examine this association using a large sample size to increase the precision of risk estimates. The birth certificates of 499 children who died in Texas from intracranial and spinal cord tumors were compared with 998 control certificates randomly selected from all Texas live births. Information on parental job title and industry at the time of birth was obtained from the birth certificates. No significant associations were identified for the dichotomized variable of all hydrocarbon-related occupations combined, as variously defined in previous studies, or for most of the specific jobs affiliated with exposures to hydrocarbons. Significant, relatively stable odds ratios (OR) were found for printers and graphics arts workers (OR = 4.5; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.4-14.7) and chemical and petroleum workers with high exposure levels (OR = 3.0; CI = 1.1-8.5). A discussion of the biases involved in this type of study design is presented.

Johnson, C.C.; Annegers, J.F.; Frankowski, R.F.; Spitz, M.R.; Buffler, P.A.

1987-10-01

313

Evaluation of occupational exposures to respirable dust in underground coal mines.  

PubMed

Dust can be produced by almost all mining operations in underground coal mines and seen all around the mine. Different occupational groups get exposed to different dust levels and in order to minimize the probability of developing coal workers' pneumoconiosis (CWP), it is necessary to investigate the workers exposed to dust. This study aimed to evaluate the dust concentration conditions in underground coal mines and also the occupational health risks associated with exposures to respirable dust. The data obtained from the dust measurement studies conducted in various underground coal mines between the years 1978-2006 was evaluated by using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey-Kramer procedure. In the statistical analyses, the comparison of dustiness between mines and their mining regions were made by using the average dust concentration values. In addition, the numbers of workers with doubtful pneumoconiosis diagnosis were evaluated according to the occupational job category by using the number of the workers with the job illness. It was concluded that the production regions have the higher dust concentration levels and the CWP is mostly diagnosed in the workers working in production regions. PMID:19218756

Onder, Mustafa; Onder, Seyhan

2009-01-01

314

A Critical Appraisal of the Setting and Implementation of Occupational Exposure Limits in the Netherlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since 1978 in the Netherlands occupational exposure limits, designated maxi mum accepted concentrations (MACs), have been established by a three-step procedure. In the first, purely health-based, step the Dutch Expert Committee on Occupational Standards (DECOS), a committee of the Health Council of the Netherlands, establishes a health-based recommended occupational expo sure limit (HBR-OEL). In the second, feasibility, step the Subcommittee

V. J. Feron; C. Hoeksema; J. H. E. Artsa; P. C. Noordam; C. L. Maas

1994-01-01

315

Occupational exposure to antineoplastic agents at several departments in a hospital  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The occupational exposure to cyclophosphamide (CP), ifosfamide (IF), 5-fluorouracil (5FU), and methotrexate (MTX) of 25 pharmacy technicians and nurses from four departments of a hospital was investigated. Previously developed methods for the detection of exposure to some antineoplastic agents were validated. Exposure to CP, IF, 5FU, and MTX was measured by the analysis of these compounds in the environment

P. J. M. Sessink; K. A. Boer; A. P. H. Scheefhals; R. B. M. Anzion; R. P. Bos

1992-01-01

316

Aggregation of exposure level and probability into a single metric in job-exposure matrices creates bias.  

PubMed

Job-exposure matrices (JEMs) are often used in occupational epidemiological studies to provide an exposure estimate for a typical person in a 'job' during a particular time period. A JEM can produce exposure estimates on a variety of scales, such as (but not limited to) binary assessments of presence or absence of exposure, ordinal ranking of exposure level and frequency, and quantitative exposure estimates of exposure intensity and frequency. Specifically, one popular approach to construct a JEM, engendered in a Finnish job exposure matrix (FINJEM), provides a probability that a worker within an occupational group is exposed and an estimate of intensity of exposure among the exposed workers within this occupation. Often the product of the probability and intensity (aka level) is used to obtain the estimate of exposure for the epidemiological analyses. This procedure aggregates exposure across exposed and non-exposed individuals and the effect of this particular procedure on epidemiological analyses has never been studied. We developed a theoretical framework for understanding how these aggregate exposure estimates relate to true exposure (either unexposed or log-normally distributed for 'exposed'), assuming that there is no uncertainty about estimates of level and probability of exposure. Theoretical derivations show that multiplying occupation-specific exposure level and probability of non-zero exposure results in both systematic and differential measurement errors. Simulations demonstrated that under certain conditions bias in odds ratios in a cohort study away from the null are possible and that this bias is smaller when (a) arithmetic rather than geometric mean is used to assess exposure level and (b) exposure level and prevalence are positively correlated. We illustrate the potential impact of using the specified JEM in a simulation based on a case-control study of non-Hodgkin lymphoma and exposure to ionizing and non-ionizing radiation. Inflation of standard errors in the log-odds was observed as well as bias away from null for two out of three specific exposures/data structures. Overall, it is clear that influence of the phenomenon we studied on epidemiological results is complex and difficult to predict, being influenced a great deal by the structure of data. We recommend exploring the influence of JEMs that use the product of exposure level and probability in epidemiological analyses through simulations during planning of such studies to assess both the expected extent of the potential bias in risk estimates and impact on power. The SAS and R code required to implement such simulations are provided. All our calculations are either theoretical or based on simulated data. PMID:22986426

Burstyn, Igor; Lavoué, Jérôme; Van Tongeren, Martie

2012-09-17

317

Occupational exposures as risk factors for gastric cancer in Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Occupational associations with gastric cancer were investigated in a multicenter case-control study in Italy involving interviews with 640 histologically confirmed male cases and 959 controls, randomly selected from the resident populations of the study areas. From information on the three jobs each person held the longest, risks were evaluated according to employment in 35 occupations (ever or 21+ years) and

Pierluigi Cocco; Domenico Palli; Eva Buiatti; Francesco Cipriani; Adriano DeCarli; Pierina Manca; Mary H. Ward; William J. Blot; Joseph F. Fraumeni

1994-01-01

318

Occupational and residential 60-Hz electromagnetic fields and high-frequency electric transients: exposure assessment using a new dosimeter.  

PubMed

One problem that has limited past epidemiologic studies of cancer and exposure to extremely low-frequency (0-100 Hz) electric and magnetic fields has been the lack of adequate methods for assessing personal exposure to these fields. A new 60-Hz electromagnetic field dosimeter was tested to assess occupational and residential exposures of a group of electrical utility workers and a comparison background group over a 7-day period. Comparing work periods only, utility workers' exposures were significantly higher than background levels by a factor of about 10 for electric (E) and magnetic (B) fields and by a factor of 171 for high-frequency transient electric (HFTE) fields. When overall weekly time-weighted averages combining work and nonwork exposures were compared, ratios of the exposed to background groups were lower. B and HFTE exposure ratios remained statistically significant, with values of 3.5 and 58, respectively, whereas the electric field exposure ratio was no longer significant, with a value of 1.7. E-field exposures of the background group were the highest during the nonwork period, probably reflecting the use of electrical appliances at home. Residential E- and B-field exposures were in the same range as published results from other surveys, whereas occupational E-field exposures tended to be lower than exposures reported in other studies. The high variability associated with occupational exposures probably accounts for the latter discrepancy. Worker acceptance of wearing the dosimeter was good: 95% of participants found it to be of little or no inconvenience while at work. At home, 37% found the device to be inconvenient in its present form but would not object to wearing a slightly smaller and lighter dosimeter. PMID:3177219

Deadman, J E; Camus, M; Armstrong, B G; Héroux, P; Cyr, D; Plante, M; Thériault, G

1988-08-01

319

The role of environmental and occupational exposures in Turkish immigrants with fibre-related disease.  

PubMed

Environmental exposure to tremolite and erionite causes endemic diseases of the lung and pleura in Turkey. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of these exposures and further occupational exposures on fibre-related diseases in Turkish immigrants living in Belgium. The study included 51 males and 17 females that emigrated < 1-38 yrs ago. Most of them (n=46) had nonmalignant pleural lesions, one had asbestosis and one had mesothelioma. Environmental asbestos exposure was likely for the majority of patients (60%), but there were also reports of possible occupational asbestos (n = 14) and erionite (n = 2) exposure. Tremolite was the main fibre type in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). Elevated concentrations of amosite or crocidolite were detected in only two patients. The delay elapsed since the end of the environmental exposure had no influence on the asbestos body or the tremolite fibre concentrations in the BALF of Turkish immigrants. Most fibre-related diseases in Turkish immigrants are probably due to environmental rather than occupational exposure. Precise information about geographical origin and occupation should be obtained when investigating these patients. Mineralogical analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid gives valuable information on the type and intensity of exposure, especially in patients with both environmental and occupational exposure. PMID:11488327

Dumortier, P; Göcmen, A; Laurent, K; Manço, A; De Vuyst, P

2001-05-01

320

Occupationally Related Stress Exposures and Stress Reactions in the Emergency Medical Services  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explored the phenomenon of occupationally related stress exposures and stress reactions in the emergency medical services. While the emergency services are nearly ubiquitous in the United States, very little exploration has been done into the prevalence and sequelae of occupationally related stresses to which emergency medical technicians (EMTs) are exposed as part of their work. This study, based

Elizabeth Anne Donnelly

2010-01-01

321

Proposed Occupational Exposure Limits for Non-Carcinogenic Hanford Waste Tank Vapor Chemicals  

Microsoft Academic Search

A large number of volatile chemicals have been identified in the headspaces of tanks used to store mixed chemical and radioactive waste at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site, and there is concern that vapor releases from the tanks may be hazardous to workers. Contractually established occupational exposure limits (OELs) established by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration

Torka S. Poet; Chuck Timchalk

2006-01-01

322

[Health effects of occupational exposure to cadmium and its compounds and proposed preventive measures].  

PubMed

The paper presents effects of cadmium compounds upon human organism. Special attention was paid to disturbances resulting from chronic occupational exposure to those compounds. In addition, the description of toxic effects was supplemented with suggestions to carry on pre-employment and periodic examinations that would enable undertaking appropriate preventive measures for the population occupationally exposed to cadmium compounds. PMID:4088037

Starzy?ski, Z; Jakubowski, M

1985-01-01

323

Interaction between tobacco smoking and occupational exposures in the causation of lung cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nature of the interaction between smoking and occupational exposure is controversial, in part because of lack of agreement on the definition of interaction and in part because of the scarcity of adequate epidemiologic data. Occupational investigators have assessed interaction primarily as a departure from an additive rather than from a multiplicative model of relative risks (or rate ratios). To

K. Steenland; M. Thun

1986-01-01

324

A Proposed Approach for Setting Occupational Exposure Limits for Sensory Irritants Based on Chemosensory Models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: Setting occupational exposure limits (OELs) for odorous or irritating chemicals is a global occupational health challenge. However, often there is inadequate knowledge about the toxicology of these chemicals to set an OEL and their irritation potencies are usually not rec- ognized until they are manufactured or used in large quantities. Methods: In this paper, the importance of accounting for

SHANNON H. GAFFNEY; DENNIS J. PAUSTENBACH

2007-01-01

325

Gases and organic solvents in urine as biomarkers of occupational exposure: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

A brief review of urine analysis in studies of occupational exposure to volatile organic compounds and gases is provided. Analysis of exhaled breath for volatile compounds does not have a long history in occupational medicine. A number of studies has been undertaken since the 1980s, and the methods are well enough accepted to be put forward as biological equivalents of

M. Imbriani; S. Ghittori

2005-01-01

326

Occupational noise exposure in small scale hand tools manufacturing (forging) industry (SSI) in Northern India.  

PubMed

Occupational noise has been recognized as hazardous for the human beings. A high noise level in forging shops is considered to lower the labour productivity and cause illness however occupational noise is being accepted as an integral part of the job. The present study has been carried out in 5 small scale hand tool forging units (SSI) of different sizes in Northern India in Punjab. Noise levels at various sections were measured. OSHA norms for hearing conservation has been incorporated which includes an exchange rate of 5 dB (A), criterion level at 90 dB (A), criterion time of 8 h, threshold level=80 dB (A), upper limit=140 dB (A) and with F/S response rate. Equivalent sound pressure level (L(eq)) has been measured in various sections of these plants. Noise at various sections like hammer section, cutting presses, punching, grinding and barrelling process was found to be >90 dB (A), which is greater than OSHA norms. A cross-sectional study on the basis of questionnaire has been carried out. The results of which revealed that 68% of the workers are not wearing ear protective equipments out of these 50% were not provided with PPE by the company. About 95% of the workers were suffering speech interference though high noise annoyance was reported by only 20%. It has been established that the maximum noise exposure is being taken by the workers as they are working more than 8h a day for six days per week. More than 90% workers are working 12 to 24 h over time per week which lead to very high noise exposure i.e. 50 to 80% per week higher than exposure time/week in USA or European countries(15, 16)). PMID:19672017

Singh, Lakhwinder Pal; Bhardwaj, Arvind; Deepak, K K; Bedi, Raman

2009-08-01

327

Occupational exposure to anaesthetic gases and high-frequency audiometry.  

PubMed

Objectives: Occupational exposure to anaestethic gases has been suggested to induce auditory damages. The aim of this study is to investigate high-frequency audiometric responses in subjects exposed to anaesthetic gases, in order to highlight the possible effects on auditory system. METHODS: The study was performed on a sample of 30 medical specialists of Messina University Anaesthesia and Intensive care. We have used tonal audiometry as well as high-frequency one. We have compared the responses with those obtained in a similar control group not exposed to anaesthetic gases. Results were compared statistically. Results: Results show a strong correlation (p = 0.000) between left and right ear responses to all the audiometric tests. The exposed and the control group run though the standard audiometry analysis plays different audiometric responses up only to higher frequencies (2000 HZ p = 0.009 and 4000 Hz p = 0.04); in high-frequency audiometry, as all other frequencies, the attention is drew to the fact that the sample groups distinguish themselves in a significantly statistic way (10,000 Hz p = 0.025, 12,000 Hz p = 0.008, 14,000 Hz p = 0.026, 16,000 Hz p = 0.08). The highest values are the ones related to exposed subjects both in standard (2000 Hz p = 0.01, 4000 Hz p = 0.02) and in high-frequency audiometry (10,000 Hz p = 0.011, 12,000 Hz p = 0.004, 14,000 Hz p = 0.012, 16,000 Hz p = 0.004). Conclusion: Results, even if preliminary and referred to a low-range sample, show an involvement of the anatomic structure responsible for the perception of high-frequency audiometric responses in subjects exposed to anaesthetic gases. PMID:23355493

Giorgianni, Concetto; Gangemi, Silvia; Tanzariello, Maria Giuseppina; Barresi, Gaetano; Miceli, Ludovica; D'Arrigo, Graziella; Spatari, Giovanna

2013-01-25

328

Occupational exposure to impulse noise associated with shooting.  

PubMed

Shooting training is associated with exposure to a considerable amount of unique noise. We wanted to evaluate noise exposure during such training. Our observations especially apply to professional sport shooters, but they are also valid for shooting coaches/instructors. We collected acoustic signals in 10-, 25- and 50-m as well as open-air shooting ranges. The recorded material was analysed with orthogonal, adaptive parameterization by Shur. The mean duration of a single acoustic signal was 250-800 ms with the C-weighted sound peak pressure level of 138.2-165.2 dB. Shooters may be exposed to as many as 600-1350 acoustic impulses during a training unit. The actual load for the hearing organ of a professional shooter or a shooting coach is ~200 000 acoustic stimuli in a year-long training macrocycle. Orthogonal, adaptive parameterization by Shur makes safe scheduling of shooters' training possible. PMID:21375955

Lwow, Felicja; Jó?ków, Pawe?; M?dra?, Marek

2011-01-01

329

Study of Occupational Magnetic Field Personal Exposures Associated with Seattle Metro Transit's Electric Trolley System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study characterized the occupational exposures to magnetic fields of workers employed in the electric trolley operations of Metro Transit, the agency that operates the public transportation system in and around the City of Seattle. From the approxima...

1999-01-01

330

Occupational and environmental health guidelines for the evaluation and control of asbestos exposure. Technical guide  

SciTech Connect

This publication provides preventive-medicine information and guidance about controlling asbestos exposure. It applies to military and civilian personnel and on-post dependents worldwide who are occupationally or nonoccupationally exposed to asbestos.

Tuggle

1986-07-01

331

OCCUPATIONAL STYRENE EXPOSURE FOR TWELVE PRODUCT CATEGORIES IN THE REINFORCED-PLASTICS INDUSTRY  

EPA Science Inventory

Approximately 1500 occupational styrene exposure values from 28 reinforced-plastic manufacturers were collected retrospectively from companies and state and federal agencies. The report describes the major types of manufacturing processes within the reinforced-plastics industry a...

332

Ethyl Methacrylate, n-butyl Methacrylate and Isobutyl Methacrylate: Health Based Recommended Occupational Exposure Limit.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Upon request by the Minister of Social Affairs and Employment the Health Council of the Netherlands recommends health-based occupational exposure limits for the concentration of toxic substances in air of the workplace. These recommendations are made by t...

1994-01-01

333

USE OF PHARMACOKINETIC MODELS TO ASSESS OCCUPATIONAL AND RESIDENTIAL PESTICIDE EXPOSURE  

EPA Science Inventory

Urinary biomarker measurements were analyzed using a dynamic pharmacokinetic model. The dynamic model provided the structure to link spot urine samples with corresponding exposure and absorbed dose. Data from both occupational and residential studies were analyzed. In the Agri...

334

Principles and Practices for Keeping Occupational Radiation Exposures at Medical Institutions as Low as Reasonably Achievable.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report is a companion document to Regulatory Guide 8.18, 'Information Relevant to Ensuring that Occupational Radiation Exposures at Medical Institutions Will Be As Low As Reasonably Achievable.' Both documents have now been revised to incorporate man...

A. Brodsky

1982-01-01

335

Occupational exposure to PCBs reduces striatal dopamine transporter densities only in women: A ?-CIT imaging study  

PubMed Central

We hypothesize that occupational exposure to PCBs is associated with a reduction in central dopamine (DA) similar to changes previously seen in PCB exposed adult non-human primates. To test that hypothesis we used [123I]?-CIT SPECT imaging to estimate basal ganglia DA transporter density in former capacitor workers. Women, but not men, showed an inverse relationship between lipid-adjusted total serum PCB concentrations and DA transporter densities in the absence of differences in serum PCB concentrations. These sex differences may reflect age-related reductions in the levels of gonadal hormones since these hormones have been shown experimentally to alter response to DA neurotoxicants. These findings may aid in better understanding the roles that sex and age play in modifying central DA function following exposure, not only to PCBs, but also to other DA neurotoxicants as well as further elucidating the role of gonadal hormones in influencing the initiation and/or progression of neurodegenerative disorders.

Seegal, Richard F.; Marek, Kenneth L.; Seibyl, John P.; Jennings, Danna L.; Molho, Eric S.; Higgins, Donald S.; Factor, Stewart A.; Fitzgerald, Edward F.; Hills, Elaine A.; Korrick, Susan A.; Wolff, Mary S.; Haase, Richard F.; Todd, Andrew C.; Parsons, Patrick; McCaffrey, Robert F.

2010-01-01

336

Testicular cancer, occupation and exposure to chemical agents among Finnish men in 1971–1995  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To find associations between testicular cancer, occupation and chemical exposure.Methods: A cohort of all economically active Finnish men born between 1906 and 1945 was followed-up for 19.7 million person-years during 1971–1995. Incident cases of testicular cancer (n=387) were identified in a record linkage with the Finnish Cancer Registry. The Census occupations in 1970 were converted to chemical exposures with

Johannes Guo; Eero Pukkala; Pentti Kyyrönen; Marja-Liisa Lindbohm; Pirjo Heikkilä; Timo Kauppinen

2005-01-01

337

A new carbon monoxide occupational dosimeter: results from a worker exposure assessment survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

The LBNL\\/QGI occupational carbon monoxide (CO) dosimeter (LOCD), a new, inexpensive CO passive sampler, was field-validated in an occupational exposure assessment study in the Moscone Convention Center (MCC) in San Francisco, CA in January, 1997. The LOCD measures time-weighed-average (TWA) CO exposures from 10 to 800 parts per million hours (ppm h; accuracy ±20%; precision 10 ppm h). This device

MICHAEL G APTE; DANIEL D COX; S KATHARINE HAMMOND; LARA A GUNDEL

1999-01-01

338

Occupational exposure measurements of static and pulsed gradient magnetic fields in the vicinity of MRI scanners.  

PubMed

Recent advances in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have increased occupational exposure to magnetic fields. In this study, we examined the assessment of occupational exposure to gradient magnetic fields and time-varying magnetic fields generated by motion in non-homogeneous static magnetic fields of MRI scanners. These magnetic field components can be measured simultaneously with an induction coil setup that detects the time rate of change of magnetic flux density (dB/dt). The setup developed was used to measure the field components around two MRI units (1 T open and 3 T conventional). The measured values can be compared with dB/dt reference levels derived from magnetic flux density reference levels given by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP). The measured motion-induced dB/dt values were above the dB/dt reference levels for both MRI units. The measured values for the gradient fields (echo planar imaging (EPI) and fast field echo (FFE) sequences) also exceeded the dB/dt reference levels in positions where the medical staff may have access during interventional procedures. The highest motion-induced dB/dt values were 0.7 T s(-1) for the 1 T scanner and 3 T s(-1) for the 3 T scanner when only the static field was present. Even higher values (6.5 T s(-1)) were measured for simultaneous exposure to motion-induced and gradient fields in the vicinity of the 3 T scanner. PMID:19293469

Kännälä, Sami; Toivo, Tim; Alanko, Tommi; Jokela, Kari

2009-03-17

339

Occupational exposure in small and medium scale industry with specific reference to heat and noise.  

PubMed

This study was undertaken to assess heat and noise exposure and occupational safety practices in small and medium scale casting and forging units (SMEs) of Northern India. We conducted personal interviews of 350 male workers of these units through a comprehensive questionnaire and collected information on heat and noise exposure, use of protective equipment, sweat loss and water intake, working hour. The ambient wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT index) was measured using quest temp 34/36o area heat stress monitor. A-weighted Leq ambient noise was measured using a quest sound level meter "ANSI SI. 43-1997 (R 2002) type-1 model SOUNDPRO SE/DL". We also incorporated OSHA norms for hearing conservation which include - an exchange rate of 5dB(A), criterion level at 90dB(A), criterion time of eight hours, threshold level is equal to 80dB(A), upper limit is equal to 140dB(A) and with F/S response rate. Results of the study revealed that occupational heat exposure in melting, casting, forging and punching sections is high compared to ACGIH/NIOSH norms. Ambience noise in various sections like casting / molding, drop forging, cutting presses, punching, grinding and barreling process was found to be more than 90dB(A). About 95% of the workers suffered speech interference where as high noise annoyance was reported by only 20%. Overall, 68% workers were not using any personal protective equipment (PPE). The study concluded that the proportion of SME workers exposed to high level heat stress and noise (60 - 72 hrs/week) is high. The workers engaged in forging and grinding sections are more prone to noise induced hearing loss (NIHL) at higher frequencies as compared to workers of other sections. It is recommended that there is a strong need to implement the standard of working hours as well as heat stress and noise control measures. PMID:20160389

Singh, Lakhwinder Pal; Bhardwaj, Arvind; Deepak, Kishore Kumar

340

[Problems of the evaluation of occupational exposure in epidemiologic case-control studies].  

PubMed

The paper presents issues concerning collecting and assessing data on occupational exposure in case-referent studies. The authors discuss different opinions and methods for obtaining relatively trustworthy and valuable information regarding this subject. The system of combining data on profession and kind of exposure (the so-called occupational exposure system) and the method for constructing a job exposure matrix are paid much attention. Complexity of problems discussed, the absence of reliable methods and standardized instruments for case-referent study all require every caution in interpreting the data obtained in this type of examination. PMID:2697790

Kubasiewicz, M; Starzy?ski, Z

1989-01-01

341

Occupational exposure to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in wood dust  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sino-nasal cancer (SNC) represents approximately 3% of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology (ORL) cancers. Adenocarcinoma SNC is an acknowledged occupational disease affecting certain specialized workers such as joiners and cabinetmakers. The high proportion of woodworkers contracting a SNC, subjected to an estimated risk 50 to 100 times higher than that affecting the general population, has suggested various study paths to possible causes such as tannin in hardwood, formaldehyde in plywood and benzo(a)pyrene produced by wood when overheated by cutting tools. It is acknowledged that tannin does not cause cancer to workers exposed to tea dust. Apart from being an irritant, formaldehyde is also classified as carcinogenic. The path involving carcinogenic Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) emitted by overheated wood is attractive. In this study, we measured the particle size and PAHs content in dust emitted by the processing of wood in an experimental chamber, and in field situation. Quantification of 16 PAHs is carried out by capillary GC-ion trap Mass Spectrometric analysis (GC-MS). The materials tested are rough fir tree, oak, impregnated polyurethane (PU) oak. The wood dust contains carcinogenic PAHs at the level of ?g.g-1 or ppm. During sanding operations, the PU varnish-impregnated wood produces 100 times more PAHs in dust than the unfinished wood.

Huynh, C. K.; Schüpfer, P.; Boiteux, P.

2009-02-01

342

Occupational exposure to whole-body vibration and Parkinson's disease: results from a population-based case-control study.  

PubMed

Mechanical stress producing head injury is associated with Parkinson's disease, suggesting that relations with other physical hazards such as whole-body vibration (WBV) should be tested. In this study, the authors evaluated the relation between occupational exposure to WBV and Parkinson's disease. A population-based case-control study with 403 cases and 405 controls was conducted in British Columbia, Canada, between 2001 and 2008. From detailed occupational histories and published measurements, metrics of occupational WBV exposure were constructed and tested for associations with Parkinson's disease using logistic regression and adjusting for age and sex first, and then also for smoking and history of head injury. While ever being occupationally exposed to WBV was inversely associated with Parkinson's disease (odds ratio = 0.67, 95% confidence interval: 0.48, 0.94), higher intensities had consistently elevated odds ratios, with a statistically significant effect being noted for intermediate intensities when exposures were restricted to the 10 years or more prior to diagnosis. Possible mechanisms of an inverse relation between low levels of WBV exposure and Parkinson's disease could include direct protective effects or correlation with other protective effects such as exercise. Higher intensities of WBV could result in micro-injury, leading to vascular or inflammatory pathology in susceptible neurons. PMID:22798480

Harris, M Anne; Marion, Stephen A; Spinelli, John J; Tsui, Joseph K C; Teschke, Kay

2012-07-12

343

The effect of occupational exposure to manganese dust and fume on neuropsychological functioning in Australian smelter workers.  

PubMed

Chronic low-level occupational exposure to manganese (Mn) is reportedly associated with the development of Parkinsonian-like symptoms. In a study of 143 manganese smelter workers, inhalable Mn exposure was associated with lower performances on the Digit Symbol Coding and Stroop tests; respirable Mn exposure was associated with improved Digit Symbol Coding test performance and reduced performance on the Trail Making (Part A), Matrix Reasoning, and Stroop tests. While these relationships reached statistical significance, the magnitude of these effects was significantly smaller than the standard error of measurement of the neuropsychological tests, indicating that these differences are not of clinical significance. PMID:21416424

Summers, M J; Summers, J J; White, T F; Hannan, G J

2011-07-01

344

Statistical modeling of occupational chlorinated solvent exposures for case-control studies using a literature-based database  

PubMed Central

Objectives: Occupational exposure assessment for population-based case–control studies is challenging due to the wide variety of industries and occupations encountered by study participants. We developed and evaluated statistical models to estimate the intensity of exposure to three chlorinated solvents—methylene chloride, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, and trichloroethylene—using a database of air measurement data and associated exposure determinants. Methods: A measurement database was developed after an extensive review of the published industrial hygiene literature. The database of nearly 3000 measurements or summary measurements included sample size, measurement characteristics (year, duration, and type), and several potential exposure determinants associated with the measurements: mechanism of release (e.g. evaporation), process condition, temperature, usage rate, type of ventilation, location, presence of a confined space, and proximity to the source. The natural log-transformed measurement levels in the exposure database were modeled as a function of the measurement characteristics and exposure determinants using maximum likelihood methods. Assuming a single lognormal distribution of the measurements, an arithmetic mean exposure intensity level was estimated for each unique combination of exposure determinants and decade. Results: The proportions of variability in the measurement data explained by the modeled measurement characteristics and exposure determinants were 36, 38, and 54% for methylene chloride, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, and trichloroethylene, respectively. Model parameter estimates for the exposure determinants were in the anticipated direction. Exposure intensity estimates were plausible and exhibited internal consistency, but the ability to evaluate validity was limited. Conclusions: These prediction models can be used to estimate chlorinated solvent exposure intensity for jobs reported by population-based case–control study participants that have sufficiently detailed information regarding the exposure determinants.

Hein, Misty J.; Waters, Martha A.; Ruder, Avima M.; Stenzel, Mark R.; Blair, Aaron; Stewart, Patricia A.

2010-01-01

345

A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Childhood Leukemia and Parental Occupational Pesticide Exposure  

PubMed Central

Objectives We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of childhood leukemia and parental occupational pesticide exposure. Data sources Searches of MEDLINE (1950–2009) and other electronic databases yielded 31 included studies. Data extraction Two authors independently abstracted data and assessed the quality of each study. Data synthesis Random effects models were used to obtain summary odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). There was no overall association between childhood leukemia and any paternal occupational pesticide exposure (OR = 1.09; 95% CI, 0.88–1.34); there were slightly elevated risks in subgroups of studies with low total-quality scores (OR = 1.39; 95% CI, 0.99–1.95), ill-defined exposure time windows (OR = 1.36; 95% CI, 1.00–1.85), and exposure information collected after offspring leukemia diagnosis (OR = 1.34; 95% CI, 1.05–1.70). Childhood leukemia was associated with prenatal maternal occupational pesticide exposure (OR = 2.09; 95% CI, 1.51–2.88); this association was slightly stronger for studies with high exposure-measurement-quality scores (OR = 2.45; 95% CI, 1.68–3.58), higher confounder control scores (OR = 2.38; 95% CI, 1.56–3.62), and farm-related exposures (OR = 2.44; 95% CI, 1.53–3.89). Childhood leukemia risk was also elevated for prenatal maternal occupational exposure to insecticides (OR = 2.72; 95% CI, 1.47–5.04) and herbicides (OR = 3.62; 95% CI, 1.28–10.3). Conclusions Childhood leukemia was associated with prenatal maternal occupational pesticide exposure in analyses of all studies combined and in several subgroups. Associations with paternal occupational pesticide exposure were weaker and less consistent. Research needs include improved pesticide exposure indices, continued follow-up of existing cohorts, genetic susceptibility assessment, and basic research on childhood leukemia initiation and progression.

Wigle, Donald T.; Turner, Michelle C.; Krewski, Daniel

2009-01-01

346

Laryngeal and hypopharyngeal cancers and occupational exposure to formaldehyde and various dusts: a case-control study in France  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVESA case-control study was conducted in France to assess possible associations between occupational exposures and squamous cell carcinomas of the larynx and hypopharynx.METHODSThe study was restricted to men, and included 201 hypopharyngeal cancers, 296 laryngeal cancers, and 296 controls (patients with other tumour sites). Detailed information on smoking, alcohol consumption, and lifetime occupational history was collected. Occupational exposure to seven

Laurent Laforest; Danièle Luce; Paquerette Goldberg; Denis Bégin; Michel Gérin; Paul A Demers; Jacques Brugère; Annette Leclerc

2000-01-01

347

Occupational exposure to diesel and gasoline emissions and lung cancer in Canadian men.  

PubMed

The International Agency for Research on Cancer classifies diesel exhaust as a probable human carcinogen; this decision is based largely from lung cancer evidence. Gasoline exhaust is classified as a possible carcinogen. Epidemiological studies are needed that improve upon some of the limitations of previous research with respect to the characterization of exposure, and the control for the potential confounding influence of smoking and other occupational exposures. Our objective was to investigate associations between occupational exposure to diesel and gasoline engine emissions and lung cancer. We used a case-control study design that involved men 40 years of age and older at the time of interview. Analyses are based on 1681 incident cases of lung cancer and 2,053 population controls. A self-reported questionnaire elicited a lifetime occupational history, including general tasks, and information on other potential risk factors. Occupational exposures to diesel and gasoline emissions, crystalline silica, and asbestos were assigned to each job held by study subjects by industrial hygienists who were blind to case-control status. Exposure metrics for diesel and gasoline emissions that were modeled included: ever exposure, cumulative exposure, and concentration of exposure. We found a dose-response relationship between cumulative occupational exposure to diesel engine emissions and lung cancer. This association was more pronounced for the squamous and large cell subtypes with adjusted odds ratios across the three increasing tertiles of cumulative lifetime exposure relative to those with no exposure of 0.99, 1.25, and 1.32 (p=0.04) for squamous cell carcinoma, and 1.06, 1.19, 1.68 (p=0.02) for large cell carcinoma. While the association with cumulative exposure to gasoline was weakly positive, it was not statistically significant. Our findings suggest that exposure to diesel engine emissions increases the risk of lung cancer particularly for squamous and large cell carcinoma subtypes. PMID:21536265

Villeneuve, Paul J; Parent, Marie-Élise; Sahni, Vanita; Johnson, Kenneth C

2011-05-04

348

Identifying pesticide use patterns among flower growers to assess occupational exposure to mixtures  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesExposure assessment to a single pesticide does not capture the complexity of the occupational exposure. Recently, pesticide use patterns analysis has emerged as an alternative to study these exposures. The aim of this study is to identify the pesticide use pattern among flower growers in Mexico participating in the study on the endocrine and reproductive effects associated with pesticide exposure.MethodsA

Astrid Schilmann; Marina Lacasaña; Julia Blanco-Muñoz; Clemente Aguilar-Garduño; Aarón Salinas-Rodríguez; Mario Flores-Aldana; Mariano E Cebrián

2009-01-01

349

[Locomotor and cardiorespiratory impairments after retirement in relation to certain occupational exposures during working life].  

PubMed

The relationships between locomotor and cardiorespiratory impairments and occupational exposures during working life were examined, using a sample of 627 retired persons in the greater Paris area. Among men, there was a significant statistical association between carrying heavy weights and locomotor impairment. There were also significant associations between exposure to toxic products, tiring postures and vibrations and cardiorespiratory impairment among men. Concerning women, associations between exposure to dust and tiring postures during working life and cardiorespiratory impairment were observed. These results were obtained after adjusting for age, socio-professional status, tobacco use, living alone and after adjusting also for the other occupational exposures. These results are compatible with the hypothesis of long-term effects of occupational exposures on the principal health characteristics of the aged. PMID:3671856

Derriennic, F; Cassou, B; Lecuyer, G; Amphoux, M

1987-01-01

350

Cancer risk in nuclear workers occupationally exposed to uranium-emphasis on internal exposure.  

PubMed

Workers involved in the nuclear fuel cycle have a potential for internal exposure to uranium. The present review of epidemiological studies of these workers aims to elucidate the relationship between occupational internal uranium exposure and cancer risk. Eighteen cohort and 5 nested case-control studies published since 1980 are reviewed. Workers occupationally exposed to uranium appear to be at increased risk of mortality from neoplasms of the lung, larynx, and lymphatic and haematopoietic tissue. Currently available evidence for a positive association between internal exposure to uranium and the risk of cancer is limited. The common weaknesses in reviewed studies include low statistical power and inaccurate assessment of internal exposure to uranium. Further investigations should focus on precise assessment of occupational exposure and address the issue of potential confounders. PMID:18091147

Canu, Irina Guseva; Ellis, Elizabeth Dupree; Tirmarche, Margot

2008-01-01

351

Occupational exposures, animal exposure and smoking as risk factors for hairy cell leukaemia evaluated in a case-control study  

Microsoft Academic Search

To evaluate occupational exposures as risk factors for hairy cell leukaemia (HCL), a population-based case-control study on 121 male HCL patients and 484 controls matched for age and sex was conducted. Elevated odds ratio (OR) was found for exposure to farm animals in general: OR 2.0, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.2-3.2. The ORs were elevated for exposure to cattle, horse,

M Nordström; L Hardell; A Magnuson; H Hagberg; A Rask-Andersen

1998-01-01

352

Risk of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia following parental occupational exposure to extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields  

PubMed Central

Background: Earlier studies have reported moderate increases in the risk of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) among children whose mothers have been occupationally exposed to extremely low frequency (ELF) electromagnetic fields. Other studies examining parental occupational exposure to ELF and ALL have reported mixed results. Methods: In an Australian case–control study of ALL in children aged <15 years, parents were asked about tasks they undertook in each job. Exposure variables were created for any occupational exposure before the birth of the child, in jobs 2 years before birth, in jobs 1 year before birth and up to 1 year after birth. Results: In all, 379 case and 854 control mothers and 328 case and 748 control fathers completed an occupational history. Exposure to ELF in all time periods was similar in case and control mothers. There was no difference in exposure between case and control fathers. There was no association between maternal (odds ratio (OR)=0.96; 95% CI=0.74–1.25) or paternal (OR=0.78; 95% CI=0.56–1.09) exposure to ELF any time before the birth and risk of childhood ALL. Conclusion: We did not find an increased risk of ALL in offspring of parents with occupational exposure to ELF.

Reid, A; Glass, D C; Bailey, H D; Milne, E; de Klerk, N H; Downie, P; Fritschi, L

2011-01-01

353

Stable and Unstable Chromosome Aberrations Measured after Occupational Exposure to Ionizing Radiation and Ultrasound  

PubMed Central

Aim To evaluate chromosome aberration and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) assays as a method to estimate of health risk, we monitored 9 male subjects occupationally exposed to low doses of both ionizing radiation and ultrasound during a period of over 3 years. Methods Sampling was performed at 6-month intervals during a three-year period. First we used conventional chromosomal aberrations analysis. When the aberration frequency for a particular subject reached the background, we measured translocations in the final sample, using fluorescence in situ hybridization. Chromosome painting probes for chromosomes 1, 2, and 4 were used simultaneously. Results Dicentric and ring chromosomes were eliminated within a year. Translocations persisted and deviated from control values in all examinees. Translocations were detected long after unstable aberrations decreased to the background level. Conclusion Fluorescence in situ hybridization-based translocation detection was a reliable method for monitoring chronic occupational clastogen exposure. Chromosome aberration assay correlated with translocation frequency. Stable chromosomal aberrations reflected cumulative genome damage during job exposure.

Fucic, Aleksandra; Zeljezic, Davor; Kasuba, Vilena; Kopjar, Nevenka; Rozgaj, Ruzica; Lasan, Ruzica; Mijic, August; Hitrec, Vlasta; Lucas, Joe Nathan

2007-01-01

354

Is occupationally induced exposure to radiation a risk factor for thyroid nodule formation?  

SciTech Connect

The prevalance of thyroid nodules was studied with ultrasonography in a group of male hospital workers (n = 44) who had been exposed occupationally to x-rays. This group was compared with a group of nonexposed workers (n = 88) who were age- and sex-matched with the exposed workers. Thyroid nodules were detected in 18 (41%) of the exposed workers, compared with 11 (13%) of the nonexposed controls. Both groups were subdivided with respect to age (i.e., 30-39 y, 40-49 y, 50-59 y), and there was a higher and significant relative risk for thyroid nodule formation in the exposed group. We also divided the groups into subgroups according to levels of exposure (i.e., nonexposed, exposed for {le} 20 y, and exposed for {ge} 20 y), and a significant result was obtained with the linear-trend chi-square test. The preliminary results of our study suggest that occupationally induced exposure to radiation may be a risk factor for thyroid nodule formation. 9 refs., 2 tabs.

Antonelli, A.; Silvano, G.; Gambuzza, C. [Univ. of Pisa (Italy); Bianchi, F.; Tana, L.; Baschieri, L. [Inst. of Clinical Medicine II, Pisa (Italy)

1996-05-01

355

Screening values for Non-Carcinogenic Hanford Waste Tank Vapor Chemicals that Lack Established Occupational Exposure Limits  

SciTech Connect

Over 1,500 different volatile chemicals have been reported in the headspaces of tanks used to store high-level radioactive waste at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site. Concern about potential exposure of tank farm workers to these chemicals has prompted efforts to evaluate their toxicity, identify chemicals that pose the greatest risk, and incorporate that information into the tank farms industrial hygiene worker protection program. Established occupation exposure limits for individual chemicals and petroleum hydrocarbon mixtures have been used elsewhere to evaluate about 900 of the chemicals. In this report headspace concentration screening values were established for the remaining 600 chemicals using available industrial hygiene and toxicological data. Screening values were intended to be more than an order of magnitude below concentrations that may cause adverse health effects in workers, assuming a 40-hour/week occupational exposure. Screening values were compared to the maximum reported headspace concentrations.

Poet, Torka S.; Mast, Terryl J.; Huckaby, James L.

2006-02-06

356

Exposure levels and determinants of inhalable dust exposure in bakeries.  

PubMed

The study's objectives were to measure full-shift exposure to inhalable dust in bakeries and define the determinants of full-shift exposure. Inhalable dust was measured gravimetrically. Ninety-six bakery workers, employed in seven different bakeries, participated in the study. Two side-by-side full-shift inhalable dust samples were obtained from each study participant on a single occasion. Samples were collected on 18 days selected at random. During the entire sampling period, bakers were observed and information on 14 different tasks was recorded at 15 min intervals. Other production characteristics were also recorded for each sampling day. These task and production variables were used in statistical modelling to identify significant predictors of exposure. The mean full-shift inhalable dust exposure was 8.2 mg/m3 (range: 0.1-110 mg/m3). A regression model explained 79% of the variability in exposure. The model indicated that tasks such as weighing, pouring and operating dough-brakers and reversible sheeters increased the exposure, while packing, catching and decorating decreased the exposure. Bread and bun production lines were associated with increased full-shift inhalable dust exposure, while cake production and substitution of dusting with the use of divider oil were associated with decreased exposure. Production tasks and characteristics are strong predictors of personal full-shift exposures to flour dust among bakers; these can be altered to reduce exposure levels. PMID:9375522

Burstyn, I; Teschke, K; Kennedy, S M

1997-12-01

357

A review of environmental and occupational exposure to asbestos in Israel.  

PubMed

The case for a total ban on manufacture and use of asbestos products is stated by the history of asbestos use, exposures, and risks in Israel. Manufacture and use of asbestos began in Israel in the 1950s, rising to a peak in the mid-1970s, and dropping gradually thereafter until reaching minimal levels in the 1990s. Following heightened public concern regarding the carcinogenic effects of asbestos products, there were reductions in use, manufacture, and persons exposed. Since the 1960s, asbestos-related diseases have been diagnosed in hundreds patients nationwide, including asbestos workers and users, as well as individuals living proximally to the manufacturing facilities. Exposures to asbestos in place remain, and patients with asbestos-related disease from environmental exposure are expected to appear for at least another 20-30 years. In the 1980s, an advisory committee appointed by the Ministry of Health of Israel outlined a comprehensive approach towards prevention, control, management, and compensation for health risks from asbestos exposures. As certain areas are still contaminated with asbestos waste and as environmental exposure persists, continued and improved medical monitoring and compensation programs are urgently needed in order to reduce the suffering of exposed individuals and their families. The ban on asbestos prevents risks from new exposures, but does not undo the damage from past manufacture, use, disposal, and dumping. In this paper, we review the history of Israel's import and use of asbestos, and the management of occupational and environmental exposures. We also address policy, practice, and the need to protect future victims of asbestos-related disease. PMID:12418711

Richter, E D; Chlamtac, N; Berman, T; Laster, R

2001-01-01

358

Testicular cancer in young men and parental occupational exposure.  

PubMed

To investigate whether parental occupation, especially during the 12 month period before birth, could be responsible for elevated rates of testicular cancer in young men, we used data from a case-control study of 223 cases and 212 controls conducted in the Washington, DC area. For all histologic types of testicular cancer combined, no significant associations were found for specific occupations, nor for the broad occupational categories of professional, other white collar, or blue collar workers. However, for cases with seminomas, excess risks were seen for those with parents employed in the following occupations: mothers in health-related occupations, O.R. = 4.6 (1.1-19.1), and fathers working in automobile service stations, O.R. = 4.0 (0.6-24.5), manufacturing industries, O.R. = 2.2 (1.0-4.2), and aircraft production and maintenance, O.R. = 5.3 (0.7-24.1). Although these findings for seminoma are intriguing, they do not explain the increase of testicular cancer in young men. PMID:1951369

Kardaun, J W; Hayes, R B; Pottern, L M; Brown, L M; Hoover, R N

1991-01-01

359

Prevalence and pattern of occupational exposure to hand transmitted vibration in Great Britain: findings from a national survey  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES—To estimate the number of workers in Great Britain with significant occupational exposure to hand transmitted vibration (HTV). Also, to identify the occupations and industries where such exposures arise, and the main sources of exposure.?METHODS—A questionnaire was posted to 22 194 men and women aged 16-64, comprising 21 201 subjects selected at random from the age-sex registers of 34 general practices in England, Scotland, and Wales, and a further 993 subjects selected at random from the central pay registers of the three armed services. Among other things, the questionnaire asked about exposure to sources of HTV in current and earlier employment. Responses were assessed by occupation and industry, and prevalence estimates for the country as a whole were derived from census information on occupational and industrial populations nationally. Estimates were also made in exposed workers of the average daily dose of vibration (A(8) root mean squared (rms) for the past week, based on their reported sources and durations of exposure.?RESULTS—Usable questionnaires were returned by 12 907 subjects (overall response rate 58%). From these it was estimated that some 4.2 million men and 667 000 women in Great Britain are exposed to HTV at work in a 1 week period, and that personal daily exposures to vibration exceed a suggested action level equivalent to 2.8 ms-2 for 8 hours (A(8) >2.8 ms-2 rms) in at least 1.2 million men and 44 000 women. High estimated doses (A(8) >5 ms-2 rms) arose most often in bricklayers and masons, gardeners and groundsmen, carpenters and joiners, electricians and electrical maintenance fitters, and builders and building contractors. The industries where high A(8) values most often arose were construction, motor vehicle repair and maintenance, manufacture of basic metals, and agriculture. The most common sources of exposure were hammer drills, hand held portable grinders, and jigsaws.?CONCLUSIONS—Exposure to HTV is surprisingly prevalent, and preventive measures and health surveillance may be warranted for many men in Britain. Control strategies should focus on prevention at source, with priority accorded to the common sources of exposure and the occupations in which significant exposures tend to arise. Many vibratory tools that are common in Britain have been overlooked in previous surveys, highlighting an important focus for future research.???Keywords: hand transmitted vibration; population; prevalence; exposure

Palmer, K.; Griffin, M.; Bendall, H.; Pannett, B.; Coggon, D.

2000-01-01

360

Human exposure to heavy metals. Rare earth pneumoconiosis in occupational workers.  

PubMed

A male subject exposed for many years to rare earth (RE)-containing fumes and dusts emitted from carbon arc lamps in photoengraving laboratories was investigated to rule out RE pneumoconiosis. While chest x-ray films showed a severe pulmonary fibrosis, clinical analysis showed obvious high RE concentrations in the pulmonary and lymph node biopsy specimens compared with the corresponding tissues of 11 unexposed subjects. In addition to other elements, levels of thorium (Th), which is generally present as an impurity of RE compounds, were also determined to estimate the radiation dose which may be involved in inducing pneumoconiosis. The results show that the levels of Th are more than two orders of magnitude lower than the maximum permissible concentration for occupational exposure to natural 232Th, suggesting that the long-term accumulation of RE in the lungs played a role in the pathogenesis of the observed pulmonary fibrosis of the worker. PMID:6839821

Vocaturo, G; Colombo, F; Zanoni, M; Rodi, F; Sabbioni, E; Pietra, R

1983-05-01

361

FIRST-YEAR CHANGES IN BLOOD LEAD AND ZINC PROTOPORPHYRIN LEVELS WITHIN TWO GROUPS OF OCCUPATIONAL LEAD WORKERS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quarterly changes in blood lead (PbB) and zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) levels experienced by 30 male lead-acid storage battery workers and 24 auto assembly workers during their initial year of occupational lead exposure are described. The greatest absolute and percentage increases above baseline PbB levels occurred during the first 3 months of continuous exposure when battery and assembly workers average PbB

Douglas W. Kononen

1991-01-01

362

Health effects of low-level exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls  

SciTech Connect

A polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) spill resulting from a transformer explosion in Syracuse, New York, with no subsequent fire, provided an opportunity for the examination of the effects of low-level PCB exposure without the confounding presence of furans and dioxins. The incident provided 52 individuals exposed to PCB among building personnel, police, firemen, and public utility employees. Sixty-eight nonexposed were matched to the exposed group by sex, age, employer, and job description. Data were collected on the exposed relative to their activities at the spill site, their location, possible routes of exposure duration of exposure, and subsequent health effects. Exposed and nonexposed were interviewed for past medical history and relevant symptoms. Blood chemistries were studied inclusive of SGOT, SGPT, total protein, CBC, cholesterol, and triglyceride levels, as well as a fasting blood PCB level measurement. Six weeks after the spill, exposed and nonexposed were re-interviewed and had their blood work repeated except for the CBC and PCB levels. Exposed and nonexposed laboratory results were unremarkable. Some transient skin irritation believed to be associated with PCBs was noted. There were significant PCBs in blood level trends for occupation, age, duration of exposure, and level of alcohol consumption. Triglyceride level was highly correlated with PCB level. This relationship held when age and alcohol consumption were controlled for.

Stark, A.D.; Costas, K.; Chang, H.G.; Vallet, H.L.

1986-10-01

363

Dose-response analysis and quantitative assessment of lung-cancer risk and occupational cadmium exposure  

SciTech Connect

A quantitative assessment was performed of the risk of lung cancer from exposure to cadmium (7440439) in a population of workers at a facility that processed cadmium metals and compounds. The population consisted of all workers who worked in a production area for at least 6 months from 1940 through 1969; the vital status of the workers was updated through 1984. A total of 606 white male workers, contributing 16,898 person years and 162 deaths were analyzed. A statistically significant dose response was evident in nearly all of the Poisson regression models evaluated. A nearly significant excess in mortality from lung cancer was noted for the entire cohort. Mortality from lung cancer was significantly elevated among non Hispanic workers, workers in the highest cadmium exposure group, and among workers with 20 or more years since first exposure. Based on these analyses, the lifetime excess lung cancer risk at the current OSHA standard for cadmium fumes of 100 micrograms per cubic meter was estimated to be approximately 50 to 111 lung cancer deaths per 1000 workers exposed to cadmium for 45 years. The authors conclude that efforts should be made to further reduce the risk by lowering occupational exposures to cadmium to the lowest level feasible.

Stayner, L.; Smith, R.; Thun, M.; Schnorr, T.; Lemen, R.

1990-09-04

364

Occupational exposure and defects of the central nervous system in offspring: review.  

PubMed Central

A study of published work was carried out in a search for evidence of a causal role for parental occupational exposure in the origin of structural and functional defects of the central nervous system (CNS) in children. Studies that consider this topic are scarce and mostly refer to broad categories of exposures and effects. Non-occupational studies referring to environmental exposure of humans and studies on experimental animals were also reviewed. The studies on animals provided straightforward evidence about morphological and behavioural abnormalities resulting from some agents used occupationally. The studies on humans yielded a scala of defects that could be ascribed to exposure to high doses of various agents in the environment. Evidence for a causal role of occupational exposure has not been found, but a highly probable influence on the developing CNS is hypothesised for lead, methyl mercury, and ionising radiation. Parental occupational exposure to cadmium, organic solvents, anaesthetics, and pesticides may also play a part in causing defects of the CNS. Well designed future research is needed to test the above hypotheses.

Roeleveld, N; Zielhuis, G A; Gabreels, F

1990-01-01

365

[Occupational exposure and environmental pollution: the role of inhalation anesthetics with special consideration of sevoflurane].  

PubMed

There are a number of assays available to study genetic toxicity of inhalation anaesthetics. Those discussed in this review are the Ames Salmonella mutagenesis test and assays for structural chromosome aberrations, micronuclei (MN) and sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs). None of these assays showed abnormalities induced by volatile inhalation anaesthetics. Only Compound A induced a slight increase in the number of SCEs. However, the implications of this in vitro study are unclear. Results of studies focussing on the effects of long-term occupational exposure to inhalation anaesthetics are controversial. Neither harmfulness nor safety of chronic exposure to low concentrations of inhalation anaesthetics have been proven. Although there is no clear evidence of harmfulness, there is general agreement that occupational exposure should be minimized for precautionary reasons. This particularly applies to N2O. Therefore, occupational exposure standards have been established in many countries, though not yet for sevoflurane and desflurane. In Germany, occupational exposure can be kept below the threshold values, when working in operation theatres with a standard air conditioning system, a high-flow scavenging system, low leakage anaesthesia machines and preventative maintenance of equipment. Under these conditions occupational exposure is low even when using laryngeal mask airways and uncuffed tracheal tubes. Sevoflurane is a halocarbon, but is only partially halogenated and the only halogen it contains is fluorine. Sevoflurane, therefore, appears to have an insignificant effect on ozone depletion and its contribution to the greenhouse effect is negligible. PMID:9893886

Hobbhahn, J; Wiesner, G; Taeger, K

1998-11-01

366

A Systematic Review of Occupational Exposure to Particulate Matter and Cardiovascular Disease  

PubMed Central

Exposure to ambient particulate air pollution is a recognized risk factor for cardiovascular disease; however the link between occupational particulate exposures and adverse cardiovascular events is less clear. We conducted a systematic review, including meta-analysis where appropriate, of the epidemiologic association between occupational exposure to particulate matter and cardiovascular disease. Out of 697 articles meeting our initial criteria, 37 articles published from January 1990 to April 2009 (12 mortality; 5 morbidity; and 20 intermediate cardiovascular endpoints) were included. Results suggest a possible association between occupational particulate exposures and ischemic heart disease (IHD) mortality as well as non-fatal myocardial infarction (MI), and stronger evidence of associations with heart rate variability and systemic inflammation, potential intermediates between occupational PM exposure and IHD. In meta-analysis of mortality studies, a significant increase in IHD was observed (meta-IRR = 1.16; 95% CI: 1.06–1.26), however these data were limited by lack of adequate control for smoking and other potential confounders. Further research is needed to better clarify the magnitude of the potential risk of the development and aggravation of IHD associated with short and long-term occupational particulate exposures and to clarify the clinical significance of acute and chronic changes in intermediate cardiovascular outcomes.

Fang, Shona C.; Cassidy, Adrian; Christiani, David C.

2010-01-01

367

Comparison of tanker drivers' occupational exposures before and after the installation of a vapour recovery system.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to compare tanker drivers' occupational exposure level before and after the installation of vapour recovery facilities at 14 service stations. Road tanker drivers are exposed when handling volatile petrol liquid in bulk in the distribution chain. The drivers' exposure was studied during the unloading operation as the bulk petrol flowed into underground storage tanks, displacing vapours in the tank space and causing emission to the environment and the drivers' work area. The exposures were measured again when the dual point Stage I vapour recovery systems were installed for recycling vapours. Short-term measurements were carried out in the drivers' breathing zones by drawing polluted air through a charcoal tube during unloading. The samples were analysed in the laboratory by gas chromatography for C3-C11 aliphatic hydrocarbons, tert-butyl methyl ether (MTBE), tert-amyl methyl ether (MTAE), benzene, toluene and xylene. The road tanker loads delivered consisted of oxygenated and reformulated petrol (E95 and E98 brands), which contained on average 13% oxygenates. Before the installation of the vapour recovery system, the geometric mean (GM) concentration of aliphatic hydrocarbons was 65 mg m-3 (range 6-645 mg m-3) in the drivers' breathing zones. After the installation at the same service stations, the corresponding exposure level was 8.3 mg m-3 (range < 1-79 mg m-3). The GM of the MTBE concentrations was 8.6 mg m-3 (range 1-67 mg m-3) without vapour recovery and 1.5 mg m-3 (range < 0.1-10 mg m-3) with vapour recovery. The differences between the aliphatic hydrocarbons and the MTBE exposure levels during the unloading of the road tankers without and with vapour recovery were statistically significant (p < 0.05). PMID:11296758

Saarinen, L; Hakkola, M; Kangas, J

2000-12-01

368

Occupational Insecticide Exposure and Perception of Safety Measures among Cacao Farmers in Southwestern Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors assessed occupational exposure hazards among cacao farmers in Southwestern Nigeria. They administered structured questionnaires, supplemented with oral interviews, to 150 farmers to obtain information on insecticide use and perception of safety measures. The farmers used lindane, diazinon, endosulfan, and propoxur for cacao mirid control. Factors promoting exposure included eating and drinking during spraying operations, failure to use protective

Mosudi B. Sosan; Amos E. Akingbohungbe

2009-01-01

369

Occupational Endotoxin Exposure Reduces the Risk of Atopic Sensitization but Increases the Risk of Bronchial Hyperresponsiveness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Microbial exposures in both childhood and adult life are protective against atopy, allergic rhinitis and atopic asthma. In adults, this protective effect is paralleled by an increased prevalence of non-atopic asthma. This study was undertaken to investigate associations between occupational endotoxin exposure and atopic sensitization and bronchial hyperresponsiveness to methacholine (BHR) in agricultural workers. In addition, the role of

Lidwien A. M. Smit; Dick Heederik; Gert Doekes; Jan-Willem J. Lammers; Inge M. Wouters

2010-01-01

370

Biological monitoring of occupational exposure to methyl ethyl ketone in Japanese workers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between occupational exposure to methyl ethyl ketone (MEK) and its concentration in urine and blood was studied in a group of 72 workers in a printing factory. Personal exposure monitoring was carried out with passive samplers during the workshifts. The time weighted average (TWA) concentration of MEK ranged from 1.3 to 223.7 ppm, with a mean concentration of

M. Yoshikawa; T. Kawamoto; K. Murata; K. Arashidani; T. Katoh; Y. Kodama

1995-01-01

371

Hexavalent Chromium Compounds in the Workplace: Assessing the Extent and Magnitude of Occupational Exposure in Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) compounds have been classified as carcinogenic to humans. This study evaluates the extent and magnitude of occupational exposures to Cr(VI) in Italy. Data were collected from exposure registries of companies compulsorily notified by the National Workers’ Compensation Authority. Each measurement was characterized by economic activity sector, work force size, worker personal data, job description, year of measurement,

Alberto Scarselli; Alessandra Binazzi; DavideDi Marzio; Alessandro Marinaccio; Sergio Iavicoli

2012-01-01

372

Estimating the incidence of lung cancer attributable to occupational exposure in Iran  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to estimate the fraction of lung cancer incidence in Iran attributed to occupational exposures to the well-established lung cancer carcinogens, including silica, cadmium, nickel, arsenic, chromium, diesel fumes, beryllium, and asbestos. METHODS: Nationwide exposure to each of the mentioned carcinogens was estimated using workforce data from the Iranian population census of 1995, available

Alireza Mosavi-Jarrahi; Mohammadali Mohagheghi; Bita Kalaghchi; Yasaman Mousavi-Jarrahi; Mohammad Kazem Noori

2009-01-01

373

Environmental and occupational exposure to lead as a potential risk factor for cardiovascular disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have evaluated current knowledge on relations between environmental and occupational exposure to lead with a strong emphasis on cardiovascular disease risk factors, such as the influence of lead compounds on lipid disturbances and arterial blood pressure. In addition, “novel” biochemical and vascular risk factors for cardiovascular diseases were discussed, as well as the combination of lead exposure and genetic

Rafa? Por?ba; Pawe? Ga?; Ma?gorzata Por?ba; Ryszard Andrzejak

2011-01-01

374

A Method for Assessing Occupational Dermal Exposure to Permanent Hair Dyes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hairdressers have an increased risk of developing occupational skin diseases due to exposure to skin irritants and sensitizers. In the present work a method of assessing dermal exposure to permanent hair dyes was developed. The sampling performance characteristics of hand wash sampling with bag rinsing were studied for five hair dye compounds. The effect of residence time, sample load and

MARIE-LOUISE LIND; ANDERS BOMAN; JOUNI SURAKKA; JAN SOLLENBERG; BIRGITTA MEDING

2004-01-01

375

A Synthetic Vitreous Fiber (SVF) Occupational Exposure Database: Implementing the SVF Health and Safety Partnership Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Health and Safety Partnership Program is a voluntary workplace safety program for workers involved in the manufacture, fabrication, installation, and removal of glass wool and mineral wool products. This article describes one element of this Partnership Program, the development of an occupational exposure database that characterizes exposures by fiber type, industry sector, product type, and job description. Approximately 6000

Gary E. Marchant; Michael A. Amen; Christopher H. Bullock; Charles M. Carter; Kathleen A. Johnson; Janis W. Reynolds; Francis R. Connelly; Angus E. Crane

2002-01-01

376

The Development of a Prototype Database for the Voluntary Reporting of Occupational Exposure Data on Chemicals  

Microsoft Academic Search

A prototype occupational exposure database was developed as part of a study to retrospectively collect chemical exposure data from U.K. industry. The data dictionary for the database was constructed using existing recommendations on core data elements developed by working groups from the ACGIH and the European Union. The study also made use of existing job and workplace coding schemes. The

Peter J. Ritchie; John W. Cherrie

2001-01-01

377

Assessment of time to pregnancy and spontaneous abortion status following occupational exposure to organic solvents mixture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  Due to increasing usage of chemicals in various industries, occupational exposure of women with these materials is unavoidable.\\u000a Nowadays, some studies indicate adverse effects of exposure to these chemicals, especially organic solvents on the reproductive\\u000a system of females. This study aimed to assess the relationship between spontaneous abortion and occupational exposure to organic\\u000a solvents mixture in pharmaceutical industry.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  This study

Mir Saeed Attarchi; Monir Ashouri; Yasser Labbafinejad; Saber Mohammadi

378

Occupational exposure to synthetic musks in barbershops, compared with the common exposure in the dormitories and households.  

PubMed

Synthetic musks (SMs) have been widely used as fragrance ingredients in personal care and sanitary commodities. Due to their high volatility and particle-binding affinity, the indoor dust is a major reservoir of SMs, and dust ingestion could be an important exposure way to special populations, such as hairdressers. In spite of the known toxicity of SMs, there is no information regarding the occurrence of SMs in barbershop dusts and the exposure of hairdressers through indoor dust ingestion. In the present study, the levels of two nitro musks and five polycyclic musks were measured from indoor dust samples collected from barbershops, and some other indoor dust samples were also collected from dormitories, bathhouses and households for comparison. The concentrations of ?SMs in barbershop dusts were 10-100 times higher than those from the other three indoor microenvironments. Polycyclic musks accounted for 89.4% of ?SMs on average in all samples, of which two compounds, HHCB and AHTN jointly dominated 97.9% of polycyclic musks. The levels of HHCB and AHTN varied from 12.2 to 8.39×10(5) and from 13.2 to 3.49×10(5)ngg(-1), respectively. The daily intakes (DIs) of ?SMs through house dust ingestion were estimated using the model of high dust ingestion and worst-case exposure (P95), and the corresponding exposure rates were 2791, 135 and 727ngd(-1) for the hairdressers, general population and toddlers. SMs were also detected in blood samples collected from the hairdressers and normal adults (n=50 and 10, respectively). There was no significant difference between these two groups. Despite the absence of higher SM concentrations in hairdresser's blood, we should not overlook the potential occupational health risks due to their high SMs ingestion rate. PMID:23849834

Liu, Nannan; Shi, Yali; Xu, Lin; Li, Wenhui; Cai, Yaqi

2013-07-09

379

Health effects associated with long-term occupational exposure of employees of a chlor-alkali plant to mercury.  

PubMed

This study aimed to evaluate possible health effects associated with long-term occupational exposure to low levels of mercury vapors. Forty-six subjects exposed to mercury and 65 healthy unexposed employees were studied. The subjects were administered a questionnaire on experienced symptoms and underwent clinical examinations as well as routine biochemical tests. Atmospheric and urinary concentrations of mercury were measured, too. Environmental concentrations of mercury were estimated to be 3.97 ± 6.28 ?g/m(3) and urinary concentrations of mercury in exposed and referent groups were 34.30 ± 26.77 and 10.15 ± 3.82 ?g/dm(3), respectively. Additionally, symptoms such as somatic fatigue, anorexia, loss of memory, erethism, blurred vision and teeth problems were significantly more common among exposed individuals. These observations indicate that occupational exposure to mercury vapors, even at low levels, is likely to be associated with neurological and psychological symptoms. PMID:22429533

Neghab, Masoud; Norouzi, Mohamad Amin; Choobineh, Alireza; Kardaniyan, Mohamad Reza; Zadeh, Jafar Hassan

2012-01-01

380

A Job-Exposure Matrix for Potential Endocrine-disrupting Chemicals Developed for a Study into the Association between Maternal Occupational Exposure and Hypospadias  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study to assess the association between the prevalence of hypospadias and maternal occupa- tional exposure to potential endocrine-disrupting chemicals was carried out using data from the congenital anomaly register of the Office for National Statistics. The occupation of the mother is recorded in this register and to facilitate the assessment of maternal occupational exposure, a specific job-exposure matrix for

MARTIE VAN TONGEREN; MARK J. NIEUWENHUIJSEN; KERRY GARDINER; BEN ARMSTRONG; MARTINE VRIJHEID; HELEN DOLK; BEVERLY BOTTING

2002-01-01

381

Father's occupational exposure to carcinogenic agents and childhood acute leukemia: a new method to assess exposure (a case-control study)  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Medical research has not been able to establish whether a father's occupational exposures are associated with the development of acute leukemia (AL) in their offspring. The studies conducted have weaknesses that have generated a misclassification of such exposure. Occupations and exposures to substances associated with childhood cancer are not very frequently encountered in the general population; thus, the reported

Maria Luisa Perez-Saldivar; Manuel Carlos Ortega-Alvarez; Arturo Fajardo-Gutierrez; Roberto Bernaldez-Rios; Aurora Medina-Sanson; Miguel Angel Palomo-Colli; Rogelio Paredes-Aguilera; Armando Martínez-Avalos; Victor Hugo Borja-Aburto; Maria Rodriguez-Rivera; Victor Manuel Vargas-Garcia; Jesus Zarco-Contreras; Janet Flores-Lujano; Juan Manuel Mejia-Arangure

2008-01-01

382

Occupational Exposure to Cancer Chemotherapeutic Drugs: A Literature Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemotherapeutic drugs are frequently used in cancer treatment. The mutagenic and carcinogenic potential of many antineoplastic agents has been well established. Clinical personnel may be occupationally exposed to antineoplastic agents during the preparation, administration or disposal procedures. This article provides a brief review of the current literature in medical, pharmacy and nursing journals concerning chemotherapeutic drugs. Its purpose is to

MIRIAM C. VAUGHN; WILLIAM D. CHRISTENSEN

1985-01-01

383

Airways Disease and Occupational Exposure to Nonfibrogenic Dust  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this workshop was to address the question implicit in its title: Are particulates not otherwise classified (PNOC) a cause of airways disease? This, the first presentation in the workshop, was aimed at providing a framework within which to review the evidence and provide recommendations. A historical perspective was used to emphasize the shift in focus in occupational

Margaret R. Becklake

1998-01-01

384

Occupational exposure to beryllium in primary aluminium production.  

PubMed

Alumina used in the production of primary aluminium contains Be which partly vaporises from the cryolite bath into the workroom atmosphere. Since Be may be toxic at lower exposure levels than previously thought, the personal exposure to Be among workers in 7 Norwegian primary smelters has been assessed. In total, 480 personal Respicon® virtual impactor full shift air samples have been collected during 2 sampling campaigns and analysed for water soluble Be, Al and Na using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. In addition, water soluble F(-) has been measured by ion chromatography. The Be air concentrations in the inhalable, thoracic and respirable aerosol fractions have been calculated. The Be concentrations in the inhalable aerosol fraction vary between the different smelters. The highest GM concentration of Be in the inhalable fraction (122 ng m(-3), n = 30) was measured in the prebake pot room of a smelter using predominantly Jamaican alumina where also the highest individual air concentration of 270 ng m(-3) of Be was identified. The relative distribution of Be in the different aerosol fractions was fairly constant with the mean Be amount for the two sampling campaigns between 44-49% in the thoracic fraction expressed as % of the inhalable amount. Linear regression analysis shows a high correlation between water soluble Be, Al, F and Na describing an average measured chemical bulk composition of the water soluble thoracic fraction as Na(5.7)Al(3.1)F(18). Be is likely to be present as traces in this particulate matter by replacing Al atoms in the condensed fluorides and/or as a major element in a nanoparticle sized fluoride. Thus, the major amount of Be present in the work room atmosphere of Al smelter pot rooms will predominantly be present in combination with substantial amounts of water soluble Al, F and Na. PMID:21993554

Skaugset, Nils Petter; Ellingsen, Dag G; Dahl, Kari; Martinsen, Ivar; Jordbekken, Lars; Drabløs, Per Arne; Thomassen, Yngvar

2011-10-13

385

Smoking and degree of occupational exposure: are internal analyses in cohort studies likely to be confounded by smoking status  

SciTech Connect

Occupational cohort studies are usually carried out without the benefit of information on smoking habits of cohort members. One common approach to avoid confounding bias related to smoking habits is to carry out an internal analysis, comparing workers with different degrees of occupational exposure. The premise behind this approach is that within a cohort there is unlikely to be correlation between degree of exposure and smoking habits. If this were untrue, smoking could confound the disease-exposure relationships. Our purpose was to verify the premise. The study sample consisted of 857 French-Canadian men born between 1910 and 1930, with 11 or fewer years of education, and interviewed around 1980 in the context of an occupational cancer case-control study. For each man we had information on smoking habits, job history, and a history of the chemicals he was exposed to in each of his jobs. We computed two indices of the dirtiness of workers' job histories: one based on the job titles held by the man and a second based on the degree of exposures to workplace substances. There was no correlation between these indices of job dirtiness and smoking history. We also examined the smoking-exposure relationship among the subsets of men who had been occupationally exposed to ten especially noticeable substances. Within the subsets, there was no indication of a consistent difference among the smoking subgroups in level or duration of exposure to these index substances. These findings do not support the view that nonsmokers sought out cleaner job environments than smokers; they imply that internal analyses of dose-response in cohort studies are unlikely to be seriously confounded by smoking habits.

Siemiatycki, J.; Wacholder, S.; Dewar, R.; Wald, L.; Begin, D.; Richardson, L.; Rosenman, K.; Gerin, M.

1988-01-01

386

The History of OSHA's Asbestos Rulemakings and Some Distinctive Approaches that They Introduced for Regulating Occupational Exposure to Toxic Substances  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) has regulated occupational exposure to asbestos since 1971. Since issuing its first asbestos standard, OSHA has modified it several times in response to new information about the health risk of exposure and concern expressed by workers and public health groups. As each modification has reduced worker exposure and disease risk, each also has

John F. Martonik; Edith Nash; Elizabeth Grossman

2001-01-01

387

A proposal for a safe exposure level for diacetyl.  

PubMed

Diacetyl is a naturally occurring compound that has been used in concentrated form as a food additive, particularly in butter flavorings. Inhalation of diacetyl and butter flavoring fumes has caused a variety of respiratory diseases in workers and consumers including bronchiolitis obliterans (BO), a relatively rare, severe, and irreversible lung disease. A safe level of exposure to diacetyl has not been established. We review the literature on diacetyl and flavoring toxicity and critique a recent proposal for an occupational exposure limit (OEL) of 0.2 ppm for diacetyl. We present unpublished data and novel analyses in support of our proposal for a safe level of exposure. Our findings indicate that a safe level of exposure exists around or below a time-weighted average of 1 ppb for an eight-hour workday. The levels of exposure we found to be unsafe include ranges that popcorn consumers may potentially be exposed to, indicating a risk of severe lung disease (including BO) for some consumers. PMID:21618944

Egilman, David S; Schilling, John Henry; Menendez, Lelia

388

The Relationship between Multiple Myeloma and Occupational Exposure to Six Chlorinated Solvents  

PubMed Central

Objectives Few studies have examined whether exposure to chlorinated solvents is associated with increased risk of multiple myeloma (MM). Using occupational exposure information, we evaluated associations between the risk of MM and exposure to six chlorinated solvents: 1,1,1-trichloroethane (TCA), trichloroethylene (TCE), methylene chloride (DCM), perchloroethylene (PCE), carbon tetrachloride, and chloroform. Methods MM cases were identified through cancer registries and controls were identified in the general population. In-person interviews obtained lifetime occupational histories and additional information on jobs with likely solvent exposure. We reviewed each job and assigned exposure metrics of probability, frequency, intensity, and confidence using job-exposure matrices modified by job-specific questionnaire information. We used logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for associations between MM and having ever been exposed to each, and any, chlorinated solvent and also analyzed whether associations varied by duration and cumulative exposure. We also considered all occupations that were given the lowest confidence scores as unexposed and repeated all analyses. Results Risk of MM was significantly elevated for subjects ever exposed to TCA (OR (95% CI): 1.8 (1.1–2.9)). Ever-exposure to TCE or DCM also entailed elevated, but not statistically significant, risks of MM; these became statistically significant when occupations that had low confidence scores were considered unexposed (TCE: 1.7 (1.0–2.7); DCM: 2.0 (1.2–3.2)). Increasing duration and cumulative exposure to TCE were associated with significantly increasing risk of MM when jobs given low confidence were considered unexposed. Increasing cumulative exposure to PCE was also associated with increasing MM risk. We observed non-significantly increased MM risks with exposure to chloroform; however, few subjects were exposed. Conclusions Evidence from this relatively large case-control study suggests that exposures to certain chlorinated solvents may be associated with increased incidence of MM; however, the study is limited by relatively low participation (52%) among controls.

Gold, Laura S; Stewart, Patricia A; Milliken, Kevin; Purdue, Mark; Severson, Richard; Seixas, Noah; Blair, Aaron; Hartge, Patricia; Davis, Scott; De Roos, Anneclaire J

2011-01-01

389

Population-Based Case-Control Study of Occupational Exposure to Electromagnetic Fields and Breast Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE: This population-based case-control study examined occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields in relation to female breast cancer incidence among 843 breast cancer cases and 773 controls.METHODS: Exposure was classified based on work in the two longest-held jobs, and indices of cumulative exposure to magnetic fields based on a measurement survey.RESULTS: Female breast cancer was not associated with employment as an

Edwin Van Wijngaarden; Leena A Nylander-French; Robert C Millikan; David A Savitz; Dana Loomis

2001-01-01

390

Population ... Based ·Case... Control Study of Occupational Exposure to Electromagnetic Fields and ·Breast Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE: This population-based case-control study examined occupational exposure to electromag- netic fieldsin relation to female breast cancer incidence among 843 breast cancer casesand 773 controls. METIIODS: Exposure was classified based on work in the two longest-held jobs. and indices of cumu1a~ tive exposure to magnetic fieldsbasedon a measurement survey. , RESULTS: Female breast cancer was not associated with employment as

DANA LOOMIS

391

Health-based recommended occupational exposure limits for phthalic anhydride  

Microsoft Academic Search

As inhalation is the most likely route of exposure the proposed MAC-value is based on an evaluation of the inhalatory data in man and animals. The earliest appearing effect after prolonged exposure of experimental animals (3 hr\\/day on 4 consecutive days, followed by 10 days without exposure, during 8 months) to 8.5 mg PAN\\/m3 was hyperaemia of the mucous membrane

M. A. Maclaine Pont

1989-01-01

392

Occupational Noise Exposure of Operators of Heavy Trucks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over 400 measurements were taken across Canada to assess the noise exposure of truck operators. The exposure of the driver was evaluated using both 3-dB (Leq) and 5-dB (L5dB) exchange rates. Driving with windows closed and radio not operating resulted in the lowest exposure. The drivers' Leq ranged from 78 to 89 dBA, with a mean of 82.7 dBA; operating

Baily Seshagiri

1998-01-01

393

Occupational exposure to chemicals and fetal growth: the Generation R Study  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Developmental diseases, such as birth defects, growth restriction and preterm delivery, account for >25% of infant mortality and morbidity. Several studies have shown that exposure to chemicals during pregnancy is associated with adverse birth outcomes. The aim of this study was to identify whether occupational exposure to various chemicals might adversely influence intrauterine growth patterns and placental weight. METHODS Associations between maternal occupational exposure to various chemicals and fetal growth were studied in 4680 pregnant women participating in a population-based prospective cohort study from early pregnancy onwards in the Netherlands (2002–2006), the Generation R Study. Mothers who filled out a questionnaire during mid-pregnancy (response: 77% of enrolment) were included if they conducted paid employment during pregnancy and had a spontaneously conceived singleton live born pregnancy (n = 4680). A job exposure matrix was used, linking job titles to expert judgement on exposure to chemicals in the workplace. Fetal growth characteristics were repeatedly measured by ultrasound and were used in combination with measurements at birth. Placental weight was obtained from medical records and hospital registries. Linear regression models for repeated measurements were used to study the associations between maternal occupational exposure to chemicals and intrauterine growth. RESULTS We observed that maternal occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, phthalates, alkylphenolic compounds and pesticides adversely influenced several domains of fetal growth (fetal weight, fetal head circumference and fetal length). We found a significant association between pesticide and phthalate exposure with a decreased placental weight. CONCLUSIONS Our results suggest that maternal occupational exposure to several chemicals is associated with impaired fetal growth during pregnancy and a decreased placental weight. Further studies are needed to confirm these findings and to assess post-natal consequences.

Snijder, Claudia A.; Roeleveld, Nel; te Velde, Egbert; Steegers, Eric A.P.; Raat, Hein; Hofman, Albert; Jaddoe, Vincent W.V.; Burdorf, Alex

2012-01-01

394

Temporal patterns of occupational asbestos exposure and risk of pleural mesothelioma.  

PubMed

Asbestos is the primary cause of pleural mesothelioma (PM). The objective of this study was to elucidate the importance of different temporal patterns of occupational asbestos exposure on the risk of PM using case-control data in male subjects. Cases were selected from a French case-control study conducted in 1987-1993 and the French National Mesothelioma Surveillance Program in 1998-2006. Population controls were frequency matched to cases by year of birth. Occupational asbestos exposure was evaluated with a job-exposure matrix. The dose-response relationships were estimated using restricted cubic spline functions in logistic regression models. A total of 2,466 ever-asbestos-exposed males (1,041 cases and 1,425 controls) were used. After adjustment for intensity and total duration of occupational asbestos exposure, the risk of PM was lower for subjects first exposed after the age of 20 yrs and continued to increase until 30 yrs after cessation of exposure. The effect of total duration of exposure decreased when age at first exposure and time since last exposure increased. These results, based on a large population-based case-control study, underline the need to take into account the temporal pattern of exposure on risk assessment. PMID:22075480

Lacourt, Aude; Leffondré, Karen; Gramond, Céline; Ducamp, Stéphane; Rolland, Patrick; Gilg Soit Ilg, Anabelle; Houot, Marie; Imbernon, Ellen; Févotte, Joëlle; Goldberg, Marcel; Brochard, Patrick

2011-11-10

395

Occupational exposures and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma: Canadian case-control study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The objective was to study the association between Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma (NHL) and occupational exposures related to long held occupations among males in six provinces of Canada. METHODS: A population based case-control study was conducted from 1991 to 1994. Males with newly diagnosed NHL (ICD-10) were stratified by province of residence and age group. A total of 513 incident cases

Chandima P Karunanayake; Helen H McDuffie; James A Dosman; John J Spinelli; Punam Pahwa

2008-01-01

396

Feasibility of determining Pu-239 environmental and occupational levels in urinary excretion by fission track analysis  

SciTech Connect

The results of bioassay programs for detecting human exposure to plutonium are currently playing a role that they were never intended or prepared to fulfill. With little resistance or support from the scientific community, the regulatory community established exposure limits for plutonium burdens based largely on imprecise inference of causes and effects; thus, to an extent, incomplete data and analysis formed the basis for most existing bioassay programs. At the time these early programs were developed, they were used only to determine the occupational exposure to radiation workers and populations unintentionally exposed to occupational levels during open air testing. The results from these programs are now used in litigation to determine cause, negligence and responsibility for health problems associated with the populations surrounding facilities that store, handle and process nuclear materials. As this role is beyond the scope of most bioassay programs` designs, concern for the use of existing bioassay programs in this manner is rising. It is imperative that defendable, scientifically-based, more sensitive techniques be researched and developed to measure the presence of Plutonium (Pu), which in turn can be used to establish and predict the health effects of a minimal Pu exposure. Currently, estimates to predict systemic deposition using urinalysis data are several times greater than the exposure levels