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Sample records for occupational exposure level

  1. Glutathione level after long-term occupational elemental mercury exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Kobal, Alfred Bogomir Prezelj, Marija; Horvat, Milena; Krsnik, Mladen; Gibicar, Darija; Osredkar, Josko

    2008-05-15

    Many in vitro and in vivo studies have elucidated the interaction of inorganic mercury (Hg) and glutathione. However, human studies are limited. In this study, we investigated the potential effects of remote long-term intermittent occupational elemental Hg vapour (Hg{sup o}) exposure on erythrocyte glutathione levels and some antioxidative enzyme activities in ex-mercury miners in the period after exposure. The study included 49 ex-mercury miners divided into subgroups of 28 still active, Hg{sup o}-not-exposed miners and 21 elderly retired miners, and 41 controls, age-matched to the miners subgroup. The control workers were taken from 'mercury-free works'. Reduced glutathione (GSH) and oxidized disulphide glutathione (GSSG) concentrations in haemolysed erythrocytes were determined by capillary electrophoresis, while total glutathione (total GSH) and the GSH/GSSG ratio were calculated from the determined values. Catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and glutathione reductase (GR) activities in erythrocytes were measured using commercially available reagent kits, while urine Hg (U-Hg) concentrations were determined by cold vapour atomic absorption (CVAAS). No correlation of present U-Hg levels, GSH, GSSG, and antioxidative enzymes with remote occupational biological exposure indices were found. The mean CAT activity in miners and retired miners was significantly higher (p<0.05) than in the controls. No differences in mean GPx activity among the three groups were found, whereas the mean GR activity was significantly higher (p<0.05) in miners than in retired miners. The mean concentrations of GSH (mmol/g Hb) in miners (13.03{+-}3.71) were significantly higher (p<0.05) than in the control group (11.68{+-}2.66). No differences in mean total GSH, GSSG levels, and GSH/GSSG ratio between miners and controls were found. A positive correlation between GSSG and present U-Hg excretion (r=0.41, p=0.001) in the whole group of ex-mercury miners was observed. The significantly lower GSH level (p<0.05) determined in the group of retired miners (9.64{+-}1.45) seems to be age-related (r=-0.39, p=0.001). Thus, the moderate but significantly increased GSH level, GR and CAT activity in erythrocytes in the subgroup of miners observed in the period after exposure to Hg{sup o} could be an inductive and additive response to maintain the balance between GSH and antioxidative enzymes in interaction with the Hg body burden accumulated during remote occupational exposure, which does not represent a severely increased oxidative stress.

  2. Occupational exposure to mercury. What is a safe level?

    PubMed Central

    Moienafshari, R.; Bar-Oz, B.; Koren, G.

    1999-01-01

    QUESTION: One of my pregnant patients, a dental hygienist, uses mercury in her workplace, but appears to have no symptoms of mercury toxicity. She has heard that mercury might affect her fetus. What should I recommend to her? What is a safe level of mercury in the air for pregnant women? ANSWER: Testing for levels of mercury in whole blood and, preferably, urine is useful for confirming exposure. Currently, mercury vapour concentrations greater than 0.01 mg/m3 are considered unsafe. Also, women of childbearing age should avoid contact with mercury salts in the workplace. PMID:10889853

  3. Recent and long-term occupational noise exposure and salivary cortisol level.

    PubMed

    Stokholm, Zara Ann; Hansen, Åse Marie; Grynderup, Matias Brødsgaard; Bonde, Jens Peter; Christensen, Kent Lodberg; Frederiksen, Thomas Winther; Lund, Søren Peter; Vestergaard, Jesper Medom; Kolstad, Henrik Albert

    2014-01-01

    Environmental and occupational noise exposure have been related to increased risk of cardiovascular disease, hypothetically mediated by stress-activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. The objective of this study was to investigate the relation between recent and long-term occupational noise exposure and cortisol level measured off work to assess a possible sustained HPA-axis effect. We included 501 industrial, finance, and service workers who were followed for 24h during work, leisure, and sleep. Ambient occupational noise exposure levels were recorded every 5s by personal dosimeters and we calculated the full-shift LAEq value and estimated duration and cumulative exposure based on their work histories since 1980. For 332 workers who kept a log-book on the use of hearing protection devices (HPD), we subtracted 10 dB from every noise recording obtained during HPD use and estimated the noise level at the ear. Salivary cortisol concentration was measured at 20.00 h, the following day at awakening, and 30 min after awakening on average 5, 14 and 14.5h after finishing work. The mean ambient noise exposure level was 79.9 dB(A) [range: 55.0-98.9] and the mean estimated level at the ear 77.7 dB(A) [range: 55.0-94.2]. In linear and mixed regression models that adjusted for age, sex, current smoking, heavy alcohol consumption, personal income, BMI, leisure-time noise exposure level, time since occupational noise exposure ceased, awakening time, and time of saliva sampling, we observed no statistically significant exposure response relation between recent, or long-term ambient occupational noise exposure level and any cortisol parameter off work. This was neither the case for recent noise level at the ear. To conclude, neither recent nor long-term occupational noise exposure levels were associated with increased cortisol level off work. Thus, our results do not indicate that a sustained activation of the HPA axis, as measured by cortisol, is involved in the causal pathway between occupational noise exposure and cardiovascular disease. PMID:24275001

  4. Lead level in seminal plasma may affect semen quality for men without occupational exposure to lead

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Infertility affects approximately 1015% of reproductive-age couples. Poor semen quality contributes to about 25% of infertile cases. Resulting from the direct effect on testicular function or hormonal alterations, heavy metals exposure has been related to impaired semen quality. The objective of this study was to assess the level of lead in the seminal plasma in men without occupational exposure to lead, and to determine the relationship between semen quality and lead concentration in the semen. Methods This is a prospective and nonrandomized clinical study conducted in University infertility clinic and academic research laboratory. Three hundred and forty-one male partners of infertile couples undergoing infertility evaluation and management were recruited to the study. Semen samples collected for the analyses of semen quality were also used for the measurement of lead concentrations. Semen samples were evaluated according to the WHO standards. Results All subjects were married and from infertile couples without occupational exposure to lead. There is a significant inverse correlation between the lead concentration in seminal plasma and sperm count. A higher semen lead concentration was correlated with lower sperm count, but not with semen volume, sperm motility or sperm morphology as assessed by simple linear regression. Conclusions We found that semen lead concentration was significantly higher among the patients with lower sperm count. To our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate that a high level of lead accumulation in semen may reduce the sperm count contributing to infertility of men without occupational exposure to lead. PMID:23137356

  5. Occupational EMF exposure from radar at X and Ku frequency band and plasma catecholamine levels.

    PubMed

    Singh, Sarika; Kapoor, Neeru

    2015-09-01

    Workers in certain occupations such as the military may be exposed to technical radiofrequency radiation exposure above current limits, which may pose a health risk. The present investigation intended to find the effect of chronic electromagnetic field (EMF) exposure from radar on plasma catecholamines in the military workforce. In the study, 166 male personnel selected randomly were categorized into three groups: control (n?=?68), exposure group-I (X-band, 8-12?GHz, n?=?40), and exposure group-II (Ku-band, 12.5-18?GHz, n?=?58). The three clusters were further divided into two groups according to their years of service (YOS) (up to 9 years and ?10 years) to study the effect of years of radar exposure. Enzyme immunoassay was employed to assess catecholamine concentrations. EMF levels were recorded at different occupational distances from radar. Significant adrenaline diminution was registered in exposure group-II with no significant difference in exposure group-I when both groups were weighed against control. Nor-adrenaline and dopamine levels did not vary significantly in both exposure groups when compared to controls. Exposure in terms of YOS also did not yield any significant alteration in any of the catecholamines and in any of the exposure groups when compared with their respective control groups. The shift from baseline catecholamine values due to stress has immense significance for health and well-being. Their continual alteration may prove harmful in due course. Suitable follow-up studies are needed to further strengthen these preliminary observations and for now, exposures should be limited as much as possible with essential safeguards. PMID:26058851

  6. Current practices for maintaining occupational exposures ALARA at low-level waste disposal sites

    SciTech Connect

    Hadlock, D.E.; Herrington, W.N.; Hooker, C.D.; Murphy, D.W.; Gilchrist, R.L.

    1983-12-01

    The United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission contracted with Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to provide technical assistance in establishing operational guidelines, with respect to radiation control programs and methods of minimizing occupational radiation exposure, at Low-Level Waste (LLW) disposal sites. The PNL, through site visits, evaluated operations at LLW disposal sites to determine the adequacy of current practices in maintaining occupational exposures as low as is reasonably achievable (ALARA). The data sought included the specifics of: ALARA programs, training programs, external exposure control, internal exposure control, respiratory protection, surveillance, radioactive waste management, facilities and equipment, and external dose analysis. The results of the study indicated the following: The Radiation Protection and ALARA programs at the three commercial LLW disposal sites were observed to be adequate in scope and content compared to similar programs at other types of nuclear facilities. However, it should be noted that there were many areas that could be improved upon to help ensure the health and safety of occupationally exposed individuals.

  7. Occupational radiation exposures associated with alternative methods of low-level waste disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Herrington, W.N.; Harty, R.; Merwin, S.E.

    1987-05-01

    The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments (LLRWPA) Act of 1985 assigns the responsibility for disposal of low-level radioactive wastes to individual states. The Act also mandates that the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), in consultation with states and other interested parties, identify disposal methods other than shallow land burial (SLB), the method currently used at the three low-level waste (LLW) disposal sites operating in the United States. The NRC contracted with Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to compare projected occupational exposures associated with the SLB method and five alternative disposal methods, including below ground vaults (BGV), above ground vaults (AGV), earth mounded concrete bunkers (EMCB), augured holes (AH) and minded cavities (MC). This report is intended to inform state and local governments about these projected exposures in anticipation of their participation in siting new low-level waste disposal facilities. The results of this study suggest that, with the design and operation assumptions made in this study, occupational dose equivalents for the five methods examined in detail would be highest for the EMCB method (1.81 person-mrem/m/sup 3/ of waste disposed). The lowest occupational dose equivalents would occur for the AH method (1.29 person-mrem/m/sup 3/). Projected occupational dose equivalents for SLB, BGV, and AGV disposal methods are 1.38, 1.47, and 1.61 person-mrem/m/sup 3/, respectively. Based on simularities between the reference BGV and MC facilities, it was projected that the occupational dose equivalents for a MC facility would be 40% higher than for the reference BGV facility. 17 refs., 15 figs., 13 tabs.

  8. Occupational exposure of dentists to electromagnetic fields produced by magnetostrictive cavitrons alters the serum cortisol level

    PubMed Central

    Mortazavi, S. M. J.; Vazife-Doost, S.; Yaghooti, M.; Mehdizadeh, S.; Rajaie-Far, A.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Some studies indicate that dentistry is one of the job categories with high potential exposure to elevated levels of extremely low frequency magnetic fields. In spite of this, information on occupational exposure of dentists to these fields is scarce. Studies on other common sources of electromagnetic fields (EMFs) such as mobile base stations have shown alterations in the cortisol level following exposure of humans to these sources. The aim of this study is to compare the level of cortisol among dentists and dentistry students who are being occupationally exposed to EMFs emitted by magnetostrictive cavitrons (case group) and among their counterparts who are not being exposed to these fields (control group). Materials and Methods: In this casecontrol study, blood samples were collected from 41 dentists and dentistry students, 21 of whom were exposed to EMFs emitted by cavitrons as the case group and 20 who were not exposed as the control group, twice; i.e. before work (at 8:309:30 a.m.) and after work (11:3012:30 a.m.). The samples were coded and the serum cortisol level was investigated using the ELISA method (Cortisol AccuBind ELISA Kits). Results: The serum cortisol level of dentists and dental students in the morning (before starting the work) in the control group was 189.15 110.70 (mean SD) whereas it was 157.77 112.03 in those who were occupationally exposed to EMFs produced by the use of cavitrons. This difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.373). In contrast, the serum cortisol level of the participants in the noon (after stopping the work) in the control group was 136.25 67.91 (mean SD) while it was 88.58 52.83 in those who were occupationally exposed to EMFs produced by the use of cavitrons. This time, the observed difference was statistically significant (P = 0.016). In this light, while the difference between serum cortisol levels of dentists and dental students in the morning and after stopping the work was not statistically significant (P = 0.06), in the EMF-exposed group the cortisol level decreased significantly from 157.77 112.03 in the morning to 88.58 52.83 in the noon (P = 0.001). Conclusions: As far as we know, this is the first study that evaluated the effect of occupational exposure of dentists to EMFs on their serum cortisol level. The EMFs produced by magnetostrictive cavitrons can decrease the serum cortisol level in dentists. As cortisol plays an important role in blood pressure regulation, cardiovascular, and immune system function, a low cortisol level may threaten health. More studies are needed to clearly understand the effects of EMFs emitted by magnetostrictive cavitron on the level of stress hormones. As some studies have shown that exposure to EMFs has no effect on the cortisol level, whereas other studies reported either an increase or a decrease in the cortisol level, it can be concluded that the effects of exposure to EMFs may occur only at specific absorbed energies or energy absorption rates (usually known as window) similar to that exists in the case of exposure to the low doses of ionizing radiations. PMID:22690053

  9. Case-control study of congenital malformations and occupational exposure to low-level ionizing radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Sever, L.E.; Gilbert, E.S.; Hessol, N.A.; McIntyre, J.M.

    1988-02-01

    In a case-control study, the authors investigated the association of parental occupational exposure to low-level external whole-body penetrating ionizing radiation and risk of congenital malformations in their offspring. Cases and controls were ascertained from births in two counties in southeastern Washington State, where the Hanford Site has been a major employer. A unique feature of this study was the linking of quantitative individual measurement of external whole-body penetrating ionizing radiation exposure of employees at the Hanford Site, using personal dosimeters, and the disease outcome, congenital malformations. The study population included 672 malformation cases and 977 matched controls from births occurring from 1957 through 1980. Twelve specific malformation types were analyzed for evidence of association with employment of the parents at Hanford and with occupational exposure to ionizing radiation. Two defects, congenital dislocation of the hip and tracheoesophageal fistula, showed statistically significant associations with employment of the parents at Hanford, but not with parental radiation exposure. Neural tube defects showed a significant association with parental preconception exposure, on the basis of a small number of cases. Eleven other defects, including Down syndrome, for which an association with radiation was considered most likely, showed no evidence of such an association. When all malformations were analyzed as a group, there was no evidence of an association with employment of the parents at Hanford, but the relation of parental exposure to radiation before conception was in the positive direction (one-tailed p value between 0.05 and 0.10). Given the number of statistical tests conducted, some or all of the observed positive correlations are likely to represent false positive findings. 30 references.

  10. [Assessment of occupational exposure to aromatic polycyclic hydrocarbons determining urinary levels of 1-pyrenol].

    PubMed

    Pavanello, S; Genova, A; Fo, V; Clonfero, E

    2000-01-01

    In conformity with Italian law 626/94, occupational exposure to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH) in several types of work environments was assessed by analysing urinary levels of 1-pyrenol. A total of 231 non-smokers exposed to PAH (82 workers, employed in two different thermoelectric power plants using combustible oil (30 subjects from plant A and 52 from plant B), 18 subjects working for a company recovering exhausted oils, 12 working on rubber production, 10 on road surface asphalting operations, 22 working in the anodizing section of an aluminium plant, 27 chimney-sweeps, and 60 coke-oven workers (30 topside workers, and 30 doing other jobs)) were enrolled. There were also 53 non-smoker control subjects, not occupationally exposed to PAH. Current smokers were excluded, since smoking is an important confounding factor when occupational exposure to low PAH concentrations are monitored. Confounding factors, i.e., diet and passive smoking, were checked by means of a questionnaire which, in addition to personal data and habits, also requested specific details about the type of diet followed and possible exposure to passive smoking during the 24-hour period preceding urine collection. In controls, exposure to PAH in the diet significantly increased 1-pyrenol levels in urine: in subjects introducing > or = 1 microgram of pyrene with the diet, the mean urinary level of 1-pyrenol was significantly higher than that introduced with < 1 microgram (high versus low dietary intake, mean +/- SD, 0.08 +/- 0.13 and 0.04 +/- 0.06 1-pyrenol mumoles/mole of creatinine, respectively; Mann-Whitney U-test Z = 2.67, p < 0.01). Conversely, passive smoking did not influence 1-pyrenol levels. In the overall population (controls and exposed), multiple linear regression analysis showed that levels of urinary 1-pyrenol were significantly influenced by occupational exposure to PAH in asphalt workers, anodizing plant workers, chimney-sweeps, and coke-oven workers, both those working at the top side of the oven and those doing other jobs (t = 2.19, p = 0.02; t = 2.56, p = 0.01; t = 5.25, p = 0.001; t = 3.34, p = 0.001; t = 7.82, p = 0.001, respectively; F = 9.7, p < 0.01), but not in power plant workers in contact with combustible oils, workers recovering exhausted oils, or rubber production workers. Diet and passive smoking did not influence urinary 1-pyrenol levels in the entire sample population. This biomarker also allowed an assessment of exposure levels among certainly exposed subjects. The percentage of subjects with urinary 1-pyrenol values higher than the 99th percentile of the reference population (0.67 mumoles 1-pyrenol/mole of creatinine) was significantly higher than that of controls in asphalt workers (20%), anodizing plant workers (14%), chimney-sweeps (13%) and coke-oven workers (33%) (chi-square test: asphalt workers = 6.1, p = 0.01; anodizing plant workers = 4.3, p = 0.04; chimney-sweeps = 7.1, p = 0.008; coke-oven workers with other duties = 4.4, p = 0.04; top side workers = 16.5, p < 0.001). In chimney sweeps and top side workers, respectively 2 and 4 subjects (7% and 13%) exceeded the precautionary level of 1.4 mumoles 1-pyrenol/mole of creatinine; of these, 1 chimney sweep and 3 top side workers (4% and 10%) exceeded the recommended biological threshold of 2.3 mumoles 1-pyrenol/mole of creatinine. PMID:10965668

  11. Occupational exposure assessment using antibody levels: exposure to avian leukosis/sarcoma viruses in the poultry industry.

    PubMed

    Choi, Kyung-Mee; Johnson, Eric S

    2011-08-01

    Avian leukosis/sarcoma viruses (ALSV) infect and cause cancers in chickens. Poultry workers are exposed to ALSV and other infectious agents in the workplace. This study examines if industrial hygiene assessment of antibody levels in poultry workers can identify risky job tasks at the higher exposure risk to an infectious agent, i.e., ALSV. We compared ALSV antibody levels in poultry workers and control subjects. Occupational and demographical factors were examined for an association with the exposure risk in poultry workers. We found that the antibody levels were significantly higher in poultry workers than in control subjects. Job category and age together were significantly associated with the antibody levels in workers. Certain job tasks were identified with significantly higher antibody levels as compared to others, implying that recommendations should be made to protect workers at these jobs. The findings of this study indicate that the measurement of antibody levels in workers can be useful for industrial hygiene assessment of exposure to infectious agents. PMID:21469007

  12. Assessing risks from occupational exposure to low-level radiation: The statistician's role

    SciTech Connect

    Gilbert, E.S.

    1989-06-01

    Currently, several epidemiological studies of workers who have been exposed occupationally to radiation are being conducted. These include workers in the United States, Great Britain, and Canada, involved in the production of both defense materials and nuclear power. A major reason for conducting these studies is to evaluate possible adverse health effects that may have resulted because of the radiation exposure received. The general subject of health effects resulting from low levels of radiation, including these worker studies, has attracted the attention of various news media, and has been the subject of considerable controversy. These studies provide a good illustration of certain other aspects of the statistician's role; namely, communication and adequate subject matter knowledge. A competent technical job is not sufficient if these other aspects are not fulfilled.

  13. Occupational exposure in MRI

    PubMed Central

    Mcrobbie, D W

    2012-01-01

    This article reviews occupational exposure in clinical MRI; it specifically considers units of exposure, basic physical interactions, health effects, guideline limits, dosimetry, results of exposure surveys, calculation of induced fields and the status of the European Physical Agents Directive. Electromagnetic field exposure in MRI from the static field B0, imaging gradients and radiofrequency transmission fields induces electric fields and currents in tissue, which are responsible for various acute sensory effects. The underlying theory and its application to the formulation of incident and induced field limits are presented. The recent International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) Bundesministerium für Arbeit und Soziales and Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers limits for incident field exposure are interpreted in a manner applicable to MRI. Field measurements show that exposure from movement within the B0 fringe field can exceed ICNIRP reference levels within 0.5 m of the bore entrance. Rate of change of field dB/dt from the imaging gradients is unlikely to exceed the new limits, although incident field limits can be exceeded for radiofrequency (RF) exposure within 0.2–0.5 m of the bore entrance. Dosimetric surveys of routine clinical practice show that staff are exposed to peak values of 42±24% of B0, with time-averaged exposures of 5.2±2.8 mT for magnets in the range 0.6–4 T. Exposure to time-varying fields arising from movement within the B0 fringe resulted in peak dB/dt of approximately 2 T s−1. Modelling of induced electric fields from the imaging gradients shows that ICNIRP-induced field limits are unlikely to be exceeded in most situations; however, movement through the static field may still present a problem. The likely application of the limits is discussed with respect to the reformulation of the European Union (EU) directive and its possible implications for MRI. PMID:22457400

  14. The effect of occupational lead exposure on blood levels of zinc, iron, copper, selenium and related proteins.

    PubMed

    Kasperczyk, Aleksandra; Prokopowicz, Adam; Dobrakowski, Michał; Pawlas, Natalia; Kasperczyk, Sławomir

    2012-12-01

    The study objective was to evaluate the effect of occupational lead exposure on blood concentrations of zinc, iron, copper, selenium and proteins related to them, such as transferrin, caeruloplasmin and haptoglobin. The examined group consisted of 192 healthy male employees of zinc-lead works. By the degree of lead exposure, the exposed group was subdivided into three subgroups. The control group was composed of 73 healthy male administrative workers. The markers of lead exposure (blood levels of lead and zinc protoporphyrin) were significantly elevated in the exposed group compared with the control group. Additionally, concentrations of copper and caeruloplasmin were raised. The significant increase in haptoglobin level was observed only in the low exposure group. Selenium levels were significantly decreased, whereas iron, zinc and transferrin levels were unchanged in the exposed group compared with the control group. There were positive correlations between the lead toxicity parameters and the copper and caeruloplasmin levels. In conclusion, the effect of occupational exposure to lead on the metabolism of trace metals appears to be limited. However, significant associations between lead exposure and levels of copper and selenium were shown. Changed levels of positive acute-phase proteins, such as caeruloplasmin and haptoglobin, were also observed. PMID:22923205

  15. Occupational exposure to antineoplastic agents induces a high level of chromosome damage. Lack of an effect of GST polymorphisms

    SciTech Connect

    Testa, Antonella Giachelia, Manuela; Palma, Selena; Appolloni, Massimo; Padua, Luca; Tranfo, Giovanna; Spagnoli, Mariangela; Tirindelli, Donatella; Cozzi, Renata

    2007-08-15

    The aim of our study was to investigate whether occupational exposure to antineoplastic drugs (AND) resulted in genetic damage, possibly indicative of adverse health effects in the long term. We performed a chromosomal aberrations (CA) analysis in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) of a group of 76 trained nurses occupationally exposed to AND. Furthermore, we analysed whether genetic polymorphisms in four metabolic genes of the glutathione S-transferase (GST) family involved in antineoplastic drugs detoxification (GSTM1, GSTT1, GSTP1, GSTA1) had any effect on the yield of chromosomal aberrations in nurses exposed to antineoplastic agents. The exposed group showed a very significant increase of genetic damage (p < 0.0001) potentially indicative of an increased risk of cancer. Unexpectedly, besides the elevated level of chromatid-type aberrations usually related to exposure to chemical agents, we found also severe chromosome damages such as chromosome deletions and dicentric chromosomes, usually related to radiation exposure. No significant association was detected between all GSTs genotypes and chromosome damage. In conclusion, our data show how the occupational exposure to AND is associated to a potential cancer risk, suggesting that current prevention methods do not completely eliminate opportunities for exposure and supporting the need to improve the actual safety practices.

  16. Biomonitoring occupational sevoflurane exposure at low levels by urinary sevoflurane and hexafluoroisopropanol.

    PubMed

    Scapellato, Maria Luisa; Carrieri, Mariella; Maccà, Isabella; Salamon, Fabiola; Trevisan, Andrea; Manno, Maurizio; Bartolucci, Giovanni Battista

    2014-12-01

    This study aimed to correlate environmental sevoflurane levels with urinary concentrations of sevoflurane (Sev-U) or its metabolite hexafluoroisopropanol (HFIP) in order to assess and discuss the main issues relating to which biomarker of sevoflurane exposure is best, and possibly suggest the corresponding biological equivalent exposure limit values. Individual sevoflurane exposure was measured in 100 healthcare operators at five hospitals in north-east Italy using the passive air sampling device Radiello(®), and assaying Sev-U and HFIP concentrations in their urine collected at the end of the operating room session. All analyses were performed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Environmental sevoflurane levels in the operating rooms were also monitored continuously using an infrared photoacoustic analyzer. Our results showed very low individual sevoflurane exposure levels, generally below 0.5 ppm (mean 0.116 ppm; range 0.007-0.940 ppm). Sev-U and HFIP concentrations were in the range of 0.1-17.28 μg/L and 5-550 μg/L, respectively. Both biomarkers showed a statistically significant correlation with the environmental exposure levels (Sev-U, r=0.49; HFIP, r=0.52), albeit showing fairly scattered values. Sev-U values seem to be influenced by peaks of exposure, especially at the end of the operating-room session, whereas HFIP levels by exposure on the previous day, the data being consistent with the biomarkers' very different half-lives (2.8 and 19 h, respectively). According to our results, both Sev-U and HFIP are appropriate biomarkers for assessing sevoflurane exposure at low levels, although with some differences in times/patterns of exposure. More work is needed to identify the best biomarker of sevoflurane exposure and the corresponding biological equivalent exposure limit values. PMID:25455444

  17. Monitoring of zinc protoporphyrin levels in blood following occupational lead exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Wildt, K.; Berlin, M.; Isberg, P.E.

    1987-01-01

    The value of measurements of zinc protoporphyrin in blood (ZPP) in the surveillance of workers occupationally exposed to lead has been studied. From a group of referents, consisting of 1,088 men and 511 women, it has been established that the normal mean ZPP is in the region of 25 micrograms/100 ml, and only rarely do values exceed 45 micrograms/100 ml. The higher ZPP values are frequently associated with low blood hemoglobin concentrations and appear to be manifestations of an iron-deficiency anemia. Women have higher ZPP values than men; smoking has no influence. Measurements of ZPP and blood lead concentration (PbB) have been made every other month for 2.5 years on a group of around 200 men and 40 women exposed to lead in a storage battery factory. The mean ZPP of the group throughout the period was 70.9 micrograms/100 ml blood, and a linear relation between log ZPP and PbB in the PbB range of 10-80 micrograms/100 ml has been established. ZPP thresholds in the control of excessive occupational lead exposure, and the economic advantage of ZPP measurements over PbB, are discussed.

  18. Occupational Radiation Exposures

    Cancer.gov

    DCEG researchers are studying cancer risks among populations who are occupationally exposed to radiation. Chernobyl Clean-up Workers Mayak Nuclear Facility Workers U.S. Radiologic Technologists Interventional Fluoroscopists Print This Page Occupational

  19. DOE 2011 occupational radiation exposure

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2012-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Analysis within the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report to provide an overview of the status of radiation protection practices at DOE (including the National Nuclear Security Administration [NNSA]). The DOE 2011 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report provides an evaluation of DOE-wide performance regarding compliance with Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations (C.F.R.), Part 835, Occupational Radiation Protection dose limits and as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) process requirements. In addition, the report provides data to DOE organizations responsible for developing policies for protection of individuals from the adverse health effects of radiation. The report provides a summary and an analysis of occupational radiation exposure information from the monitoring of individuals involved in DOE activities. The occupational radiation exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site over the past five years.

  20. DOE 2012 occupational radiation exposure

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2013-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Analysis within the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report to provide an overview of the status of radiation protection practices at DOE (including the National Nuclear Security Administration [NNSA]). The DOE 2012 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report provides an evaluation of DOE-wide performance regarding compliance with Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations (C.F.R.), Part 835, Occupational Radiation Protection dose limits and as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) process requirements. In addition, the report provides data to DOE organizations responsible for developing policies for protection of individuals from the adverse health effects of radiation. The report provides a summary and an analysis of occupational radiation exposure information from the monitoring of individuals involved in DOE activities. Over the past 5-year period, the occupational radiation exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site.

  1. Occupational Chemical Exposures Among Cosmetologists

    PubMed Central

    Pak, Victoria M.; Powers, Martha; Liu, Jianghong

    2014-01-01

    More research is needed to understand possible occupational reproductive risks for cosmetologists, specifically hairdressers and nail technicians, two occupations that often share workspace and exposure to hair dyes and nail polish. Cosmetologists are predominantly females of reproductive age; thus, they may be at higher risk for the effects of exposure to reproductive toxins. The purpose of this article is to inform nurses and public health professionals about occupational exposures for cosmetologists and discuss interventions to reduce the risks of reproductive disorders among susceptible worker populations. PMID:24328919

  2. DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure, 2001 report

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2001-12-31

    The goal of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is to conduct its operations, including radiological, to ensure the safety and health of all DOE employees, contractors, and subcontractors. The DOE strives to maintain radiation exposures to its workers below administrative control levels and DOE limits and to further reduce these exposures to levels that are “As Low As Reasonably Achievable” (ALARA). The 2001 DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report provides a summary and analysis of the occupational radiation exposure received by individuals associated with DOE activities. The DOE mission includes stewardship of the nuclear weapons stockpile and the associated facilities, environmental restoration of DOE, and energy research.

  3. DOE 2009 occupational radiation exposure

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2010-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Corporate Safety Analysis (HS-30) within the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report to provide an overview of the status of radiation protection practices at DOE.* The DOE 2009 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report provides an evaluation of DOE-wide performance regarding compliance with DOE Part 835 dose limits and as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) process requirements. In addition, the report provides data to DOE organizations responsible for developing policies for protection of individuals from the effects of radiation. The report provides a summary and an analysis of occupational radiation exposure information from the monitoring of individuals involved in DOE activities. The occupational radiation exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site over the past 5 years.

  4. DOE 2010 occupational radiation exposure

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2011-11-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Analysis within the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report to provide an overview of the status of radiation protection practices at DOE.* The DOE 2010 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report provides an evaluation of DOE-wide performance regarding compliance with DOE Part 835 dose limits and as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) process requirements. In addition, the report provides data to DOE organizations responsible for developing policies for protection of individuals from the effects of radiation. The report provides a summary and an analysis of occupational radiation exposure information from the monitoring of individuals involved in DOE activities. The occupational radiation exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site over the past 5 years.

  5. DOE 2008 occupational radiation exposure

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2009-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Corporate Safety Analysis (HS-30) within the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report to provide an overview of the status of radiation protection practices at DOE. The DOE 2008 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report provides an evaluation of DOE-wide performance regarding compliance with DOE Part 835 dose limits and as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) process requirements. In addition, the report provides data to DOE organizations responsible for developing policies for protection of individuals from the effects of radiation. This report provides a summary and an analysis of occupational radiation exposure information from the monitoring of individuals involved in DOE activities. The occupational radiation exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site over the past 5 years.

  6. Critical exposure level of cadmium for elevated urinary metallothionein-An occupational population study in China

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Liang; Jin Taiyi . E-mail: tyjin@shmu.edu.cn; Huang, Bo; Nordberg, Gunnar; Nordberg, Monica

    2006-08-15

    Cadmium is a well-known nephrotoxic agent with extremely long biological half-time of 15-30 years in humans. To prevent nephrotoxicity induced by cadmium, it is necessary to identify specific and sensitive biomarkers of cadmium exposure and renal damage, and to define critical exposure levels related to minimal nephrotoxicity in humans. In this study, urinary cadmium (UCd) and blood cadmium (BCd) were used as cadmium exposure indicators, urinary {beta}{sub 2}-microglobulin (UB2M), N-acetyl-{beta}-D-glucosaminidase (UNAG) and albumin (UALB) were applied as the effect biomarkers of tubular and glomerular dysfunction. The relationship between urinary metallothionein (UMT) and cadmium exposure biomarkers as well as effect biomarkers was examined. Significant correlations were found between the UMT and BCd, and UCd. At the same time, UB2M, UALB and UNAG showed positive correlation with UMT as well. According to this result, cadmium-exposed individuals with renal dysfunction excreted more metallothionein than those without. Dose-response relationships between UCd and urinary indicators of renal dysfunction were studied. The critical concentration of UCd was quantitatively estimated by the benchmark dose (BMD) method. The lower confidence limit of the BMD-10 (BMDL) of UCd (3.1 {mu}g/g Cr) related to increased excretion of urinary metallothionein was slightly higher than that for UNAG (2.7 {mu}g/g Cr), but lower than those of UB2M (3.4 {mu}g/g Cr) and UALB (4.2 {mu}g/g Cr). The results demonstrate that UMT may be used as a sensitive biomarker of renal tubular dysfunction in cadmium-exposed populations.

  7. Brain cancer and occupational exposure to lead.

    PubMed

    Cocco, P; Dosemeci, M; Heineman, E F

    1998-11-01

    A recent report in the literature suggested a link between occupational exposure to lead and brain cancer. To explore the hypothesis, we applied a job-exposure matrix for lead to the occupation and industry codes given on the death certificate of 27,060 brain cancer cases and 108,240 controls who died of non-malignant diseases in 24 US states in 1984-1992. Brain cancer risk increased by probability of exposure to lead among Caucasian men and women with high-level exposure, with a significant twofold excess among Caucasian men with high probability and high level of exposure to lead (odds ratio = 2.1; 95% confidence interval, 1.1-4.0). Risks were also elevated in the low- and medium-probability cells for African-American men with high-level exposure to lead. Trend by intensity level was statistically significant among African-American men (all probabilities combined). Although exposure assessment was based solely on the occupation and industry reported on the death certificate, these results add to other epidemiologic and experimental findings in lending some support to the hypothesis of an association between occupational exposure to lead and brain cancer risk. Analytic studies are warranted to further test this hypothesis. PMID:9830598

  8. DOE 2013 occupational radiation exposure

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2014-11-01

    The Office of Analysis within the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environment, Health, Safety and Security (EHSS) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report to provide an overview of the status of radiation protection practices at DOE (including the National Nuclear Security Administration [NNSA]). The DOE 2013 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report provides an evaluation of DOE-wide performance regarding compliance with Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations (C.F.R.), Part 835, Occupational Radiation Protection dose limits and as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) process requirements. In addition, the report provides data to DOE organizations responsible for developing policies for protection of individuals from the adverse health effects of radiation. The report provides a summary and an analysis of occupational radiation exposure information from the monitoring of individuals involved in DOE activities. Over the past five-year period, the occupational radiation exposure information has been analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site.

  9. Occupational exposure and lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Spyratos, Dionysios; Porpodis, Konstantinos; Tsakiridis, Kosmas; Machairiotis, Nikolaos; Katsikogiannis, Nikolaos; Kougioumtzi, Ioanna; Dryllis, Georgios; Kallianos, Anastasios; Rapti, Aggeliki; Li, Chen; Zarogoulidis, Konstantinos

    2013-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death for male and the second most usual cancer for women after breast cancer. Currently there are available several non-specific cytotoxic agents and several targeted agents for lung cancer therapy. However; early stage diagnosis is still unavailable and several efforts are being made towards this direction. Novel biomarkers are being investigated along with new biopsy techniques. The occupational and environmental exposure to carcinogenic agents is an everyday phenomenon. Therefore until efficient early diagnosis is available, avoidance of exposure to carcinogenic agents is necessary. In the current mini-review occupational and environmental carcinogenic agents will be presented. PMID:24102018

  10. Assessment of levels of occupational exposure to workers in radiofrequency fields of two television stations in Accra, Ghana.

    PubMed

    Osei, S; Amoako, J K; Fletcher, J J

    2016-03-01

    A survey of the radiofrequency (RF) radiation was undertaken within the premises of two television (TV) stations, TVA and TVB, in Accra, Ghana. The primary objective of this study was to determine the level of RF exposure to workers in the TV stations. A spectrum analyser, a bi-conical antenna (30-300 MHz) and a log-periodic antenna (200 MHz-2.0 GHz) were used. Results obtained indicated that the wideband electric field strength levels recorded in this work vary between 0.006 and 58.5 V m(-1) at TVA and between 0.007 and 28.5 V m(-1) at TVB. Compared with the results from TVB, TVA recorded relatively higher values in the 30-400 MHz range, whereas TVB produced relatively higher values in the 400 MHz-1.7 GHz range. Generally, results obtained were found to be below the occupational reference levels of the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection, but at some locations, the field intensity was 4.3 times higher than the reference levels for the general public. PMID:25979743

  11. Occupational Surveillance for Spaceflight Exposures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tarver, William J.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the importance of longterm occupational health surveillance of astronauts after exposure to the possible hazards of spaceflight. Because there is not much information about long term effects of spaceflight on human health, it is important to identify some of the possible results of exposure to the many possible factors that can influence longterm health impacts. This surveillance also allows for NASA to meet the obligation to care for the astronauts for their lifetime.

  12. Biological Monitoring of Blood Naphthalene Levels as a Marker of Occupational Exposure to PAHs among Auto-Mechanics and Spray Painters in Rawalpindi

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Routine exposure to chemical contaminants in workplace is a cause for concern over potential health risks to workers. In Pakistan, reports on occupational exposure and related health risks are almost non-existent, which reflects the scarce availability of survey data and criteria for determining whether an unsafe exposure has occurred. The current study was designed to evaluate blood naphthalene (NAPH) levels as an indicator of exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) among automobile workshop mechanics (MCs) and car-spray painters (PNs). We further determined the relationship between blood NAPH levels and personal behavioural, job related parameters and various environmental factors that may further be associated with elevated risks of occupational exposures to PAHs. Methods Sixty blood samples (n = 20 for each group i.e. MC, PN and control group) were collected to compare their blood NAPH levels among exposed (MCs and PNs) and un-exposed (control) groups. Samples were analyzed using high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). Data regarding demographic aspects of the subjects and their socioeconomic features were collected using a questionnaire. Subjects were also asked to report environmental hygiene conditions of their occupational environment. Results We identified automobile work areas as potential sites for PAHs exposure, which was reflected by higher blood NAPH levels among MCs. Blood NAPH levels ranged from 53.7 to 1980.6 ?gL-1 and 54.1 to 892.9 ?gL-1 among MCs and PNs respectively. Comparison within each group showed that smoking enhanced exposure risks several fold and both active and passive smoking were among personal parameters that were significantly correlated with log-transformed blood NAPH levels. For exposed groups, work hours and work experience were job related parameters that showed strong associations with the increase in blood NAPH levels. Poor workplace hygiene and ventilation were recognized as most significant predictors related to differences among workplaces that may enhance the extent of exposure to chemical contaminants. Conclusions It appeared that chemical exposure at the workplace may be influenced by multiple environmental factors, but poor workplace hygiene and duration of exposure (long work hours) were the most important factors. Smoking and negligence of workers regarding self protection were among some of the important personal behaviours than can be addressed with better training. There is also a need to improve workplaces hygiene and to rationalize work hours to minimize health risks. Since smoking was an important confounding factor that supplemented most of the actual occupational exposure, a study based on non-smoker subjects is needed to separate out the effects of smoking and other confounding factors that may obscure measurements of actual extent of occupational exposure. PMID:21668991

  13. Safety standards for occupational exposure to dichloromethane

    SciTech Connect

    Skrabalak, D.S.; Babish, J.G.

    1983-06-01

    The toxic effects of dichloromethane (DCM) are reviewed. Human dose-response data, tolerance levels, and the effects of physical exercise and smoking on DCM toxicity are reported. Finally, occupational exposure, current NIOSH (1976) recommendations, and the consequences of ill-health as they pertain to DCM in the workplace are discussed.

  14. Psychiatric epidemiologic study of occupational lead exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Parkinson, D.K.; Ryan, C.; Bromet, E.J.; Connell, M.M.

    1986-02-01

    The association of occupational lead exposure with neuropsychiatric functioning was evaluated using data collected in 1982 in eastern Pennsylvania from 288 lead-exposed workers and 181 nonexposed subjects. Both current and cumulative exposure indices were used. After controlling for age, education, and income, few meaningful differences between exposed and control workers were found on either neuropsychologic or psychosocial variables. Dose-response analyses indicated that among lead-exposed workers, cumulative and current exposure were unrelated to neuropsychologic performance. The only meaningful associations occurred between exposure and level of conflict in interpersonal relationships. The results thus give evidence against hypotheses suggesting adverse neuropsychologic effects.

  15. Non-occupational exposure to silica dust.

    PubMed

    Bhagia, L J

    2012-09-01

    Occupational exposure to silica occurs at workplaces in factories like quartz crushing facilities (silica flour milling), agate, ceramic, slate pencil, glass, stone quarries and mines, etc., Non-occupational exposure to silica dust can be from industrial sources in the vicinity of the industry as well as non-industrial sources. Recently, public concern regarding non-occupational or ambient exposure to crystalline silica has emerged making it important to gather information available on non-occupational exposures to silica dust and non-occupational silicosis. This paper reviews various non-occupational exposures reported in literature including some studies by the author. Methodology used in assessment of non-occupational exposures, standards for non-occupational exposures to silica dust and indirect estimation of cumulative risk % are also discussed. PMID:23776316

  16. Non-occupational exposure to silica dust

    PubMed Central

    Bhagia, L. J.

    2012-01-01

    Occupational exposure to silica occurs at workplaces in factories like quartz crushing facilities (silica flour milling), agate, ceramic, slate pencil, glass, stone quarries and mines, etc., Non-occupational exposure to silica dust can be from industrial sources in the vicinity of the industry as well as non-industrial sources. Recently, public concern regarding non-occupational or ambient exposure to crystalline silica has emerged making it important to gather information available on non-occupational exposures to silica dust and non-occupational silicosis. This paper reviews various non-occupational exposures reported in literature including some studies by the author. Methodology used in assessment of non-occupational exposures, standards for non-occupational exposures to silica dust and indirect estimation of cumulative risk % are also discussed. PMID:23776316

  17. Pancreatic cancer and occupational exposures.

    PubMed

    Kauppinen, T; Partanen, T; Degerth, R; Ojajrvi, A

    1995-09-01

    We conducted a nationwide case-control study in Finland to identify occupational risk factors for pancreatic cancer. We constructed the occupational exposure histories for 595 incident cases of primary exocrinic cancer of the pancreas and of 1,622 cancer controls, using three different methods. We found elevated odds ratios (OR) for ionizing radiation [OR = 4.3; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.6-11.4], nonchlorinated solvents (OR = 1.6-1.8), and pesticides (OR = 1.7; 95% CI = 0.8-3.4). Asbestos, chromates, cleaning agents, waxes, polishes, and most other exposures were not meaningfully associated with pancreatic cancer. Inorganic dust containing crystalline silica (OR = 2.0; 95% CI = 1.2-3.5), heat stress (OR = 2.2; 95% CI = 0.8-6.6), and rubber chemicals including acrylonitrile (OR = 2.1; 95% CI = 0.9-4.7) emerged as previously unsuspected risk factors. Occupational exposure probably has a small role in the etiology of pancreatic cancer in the present-day industrialized or postindustrial work environment. PMID:8562625

  18. OCCUPATIONAL SILICA EXPOSURE AND CHRONIC KIDNEY DISEASE

    PubMed Central

    Vupputuri, Suma; Parks, Christine G.; Nylander-French, Leena A.; Owen-Smith, Ashli; Hogan, Susan L.; Sandler, Dale P.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Occupational exposure to silica may be associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Most studies have been conducted in occupational cohorts with high levels of exposure but small numbers of cases. We analyzed data from a population-based case-control study of occupational silica exposure and CKD. Methods Cases were hospital patients with newly diagnosed CKD and community controls were selected using random digit dialing and frequency matched by age, gender, race and proximity to the hospital. Silica exposure estimates were assigned by industrial hygiene review of lifetime job history data and weighted for certainty and intensity. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate the odds ratios (ORs) for CKD conditioned on demographic, lifestyle and clinical variables. Results The mean age of participants was 62 years (range, 30-83 years), 56% were male and 54% were white. Any silica exposure (compared to none) was associated with a 40% increased risk of CKD (OR=1.40, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.04, 1.89) in a multivariable adjusted model. The mean cumulative duration of silica exposure was significantly higher in exposed cases than in exposed controls (33.4 vs. 24.8 years, respectively). Overall, compared to non-exposed participants, the ORs (95% CI) for those below and above the median duration of silica exposure were 1.20 (95% CI: 0.77, 1.86) and 1.76 (95% CI: 1.14, 2.71), respectively. Conclusions We found a positive relationship between occupational silica exposure and CKD. A dose-response trend of increasing CKD risk with increasing duration of silica exposure was observed and was particularly strong among non-whites. PMID:22032652

  19. Occupational lead exposure aboard a tall ship

    SciTech Connect

    Landrigan, P.J.; Straub, W.E.

    1985-01-01

    To evaluate occupational exposures to lead in shipfitters cutting and riveting lead-painted iron plates aboard an iron-hulled sailing vessel, the authors conducted an environmental and medical survey. Lead exposures in seven personal (breathing zone) air samples ranged from 108 to 500 micrograms/mT (mean 257 micrograms/mT); all were above the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) standard of 50 micrograms/mT. In two short-term air samples obtained while exhaust ventilation was temporarily disconnected, mean lead exposure rose to 547 micrograms/mT. Blood lead levels in ten shipfitters ranged from 25 to 53 micrograms/dl. Blood lead levels in shipfitters were significantly higher than in other shipyard workers. Smoking shipfitters had significantly higher lead levels than nonsmokers. Lead levels in shipfitters who wore respirators were not lower than in those who wore no protective gear. Four shipfitters had erythrocyte protoporphyrin (EP) concentrations above the adult upper normal limit of 50 micrograms/dl. A close correlation was found between blood lead and EP levels. Prevalence of lead-related symptoms was no higher in shipfitters than in other workers. These data indicate that serious occupational exposure to lead can occur in a relatively small boatyard.

  20. Occupational solvent exposure and cognition

    PubMed Central

    Sabbath, E.L.; Glymour, M.M.; Berr, C.; Singh-Manoux, A.; Zins, M.; Goldberg, M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Chronic occupational solvent exposure is associated with long-term cognitive deficits. Cognitive reserve may protect solvent-exposed workers from cognitive impairment. We tested whether the association between chronic solvent exposure and cognition varied by educational attainment, a proxy for cognitive reserve. Methods: Data were drawn from a prospective cohort of French national gas and electricity (GAZEL) employees (n = 4,134). Lifetime exposure to 4 solvent types (chlorinated solvents, petroleum solvents, benzene, and nonbenzene aromatic solvents) was assessed using a validated job-exposure matrix. Education was dichotomized at less than secondary school or below. Cognitive impairment was defined as scoring below the 25th percentile on the Digit Symbol Substitution Test at mean age 59 (SD 2.8; 88% of participants were retired at testing). Log-binomial regression was used to model risk ratios (RRs) for poor cognition as predicted by solvent exposure, stratified by education and adjusted for sociodemographic and behavioral factors. Results: Solvent exposure rates were higher among less-educated patients. Within this group, there was a dose-response relationship between lifetime exposure to each solvent type and RR for poor cognition (e.g., for high exposure to benzene, RR = 1.24, 95% confidence interval 1.091.41), with significant linear trends (p < 0.05) in 3 out of 4 solvent types. Recency of solvent exposure also predicted worse cognition among less-educated patients. Among those with secondary education or higher, there was no significant or near-significant relationship between any quantification of solvent exposure and cognition. Conclusions: Solvent exposure is associated with poor cognition only among less-educated individuals. Higher cognitive reserve in the more-educated group may explain this finding. PMID:22641403

  1. Ubiquitin carboxy-terminal hydrolase-l1 as a serum neurotrauma biomarker for exposure to occupational low-level blast.

    PubMed

    Carr, Walter; Yarnell, Angela M; Ong, Ricardo; Walilko, Timothy; Kamimori, Gary H; da Silva, Uade; McCarron, Richard M; LoPresti, Matthew L

    2015-01-01

    Repeated exposure to low-level blast is a characteristic of a few select occupations and there is concern that such occupational exposures present risk for traumatic brain injury. These occupations include specialized military and law enforcement units that employ controlled detonation of explosive charges for the purpose of tactical entry into secured structures. The concern for negative effects from blast exposure is based on rates of operator self-reported headache, sleep disturbance, working memory impairment, and other concussion-like symptoms. A challenge in research on this topic has been the need for improved assessment tools to empirically evaluate the risk associated with repeated exposure to blast overpressure levels commonly considered to be too low in magnitude to cause acute injury. Evaluation of serum-based neurotrauma biomarkers provides an objective measure that is logistically feasible for use in field training environments. Among candidate biomarkers, ubiquitin carboxy-terminal hydrolase-L1 (UCH-L1) has some empirical support and was evaluated in this study. We used daily blood draws to examine acute change in UCH-L1 among 108 healthy military personnel who were exposed to repeated low-level blast across a 2-week period. These research volunteers also wore pressure sensors to record blast exposures, wrist actigraphs to monitor sleep patterns, and completed daily behavioral assessments of symptomology, postural stability, and neurocognitive function. UCH-L1 levels were elevated as a function of participating in the 2-week training with explosives, but the correlation of UCH-L1 elevation and blast magnitude was weak and inconsistent. Also, UCH-L1 elevations did not correlate with deficits in behavioral measures. These results provide some support for including UCH-L1 as a measure of central nervous system effects from exposure to low-level blast. However, the weak relation observed suggests that additional indicators of blast effect are needed. PMID:25852633

  2. Ubiquitin Carboxy-Terminal Hydrolase-L1 as a Serum Neurotrauma Biomarker for Exposure to Occupational Low-Level Blast

    PubMed Central

    Carr, Walter; Yarnell, Angela M.; Ong, Ricardo; Walilko, Timothy; Kamimori, Gary H.; da Silva, Uade; McCarron, Richard M.; LoPresti, Matthew L.

    2015-01-01

    Repeated exposure to low-level blast is a characteristic of a few select occupations and there is concern that such occupational exposures present risk for traumatic brain injury. These occupations include specialized military and law enforcement units that employ controlled detonation of explosive charges for the purpose of tactical entry into secured structures. The concern for negative effects from blast exposure is based on rates of operator self-reported headache, sleep disturbance, working memory impairment, and other concussion-like symptoms. A challenge in research on this topic has been the need for improved assessment tools to empirically evaluate the risk associated with repeated exposure to blast overpressure levels commonly considered to be too low in magnitude to cause acute injury. Evaluation of serum-based neurotrauma biomarkers provides an objective measure that is logistically feasible for use in field training environments. Among candidate biomarkers, ubiquitin carboxy-terminal hydrolase-L1 (UCH-L1) has some empirical support and was evaluated in this study. We used daily blood draws to examine acute change in UCH-L1 among 108 healthy military personnel who were exposed to repeated low-level blast across a 2-week period. These research volunteers also wore pressure sensors to record blast exposures, wrist actigraphs to monitor sleep patterns, and completed daily behavioral assessments of symptomology, postural stability, and neurocognitive function. UCH-L1 levels were elevated as a function of participating in the 2-week training with explosives, but the correlation of UCH-L1 elevation and blast magnitude was weak and inconsistent. Also, UCH-L1 elevations did not correlate with deficits in behavioral measures. These results provide some support for including UCH-L1 as a measure of central nervous system effects from exposure to low-level blast. However, the weak relation observed suggests that additional indicators of blast effect are needed. PMID:25852633

  3. [Isocyanates: occupational exposures and disorders].

    PubMed

    Baur, X

    2003-09-01

    Isocyanates are extensively used for the production of different foams and elastomers. They also serve as glues, lacquer hardeners, inks, adhesives, fillers, finishes, sealants, coating and insulation materials. Usually, their application results in inhalative, partly also in cutaneous uptake. This review describes occupational exposures to isocyanates as well as hazardous effects. Isocyanates are used in the automotive/mechanical engineering/building and construction/mining/casting/electricity and electronic/plastics/printing/timber and furniture/white goods and textile industry, partly also in medicine. Hazardous exposures to thermal degradation products of isocyanate-based polyurethanes and other materials have also be taken into consideration. Obstructive airway diseases are the major disorder caused by isocyanates. Rare cases suffer from extrinsic allergic alveolitis or eczema. In addition to regulation-based primary prevention qualitative medical surveillance mostly prevents disorders. There is also a need for the establishment of a validated biomonitoring of endangered employees. PMID:13680473

  4. 41 CFR 50-204.10 - Occupational noise exposure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Occupational noise... CONTRACTS General Safety and Health Standards § 50-204.10 Occupational noise exposure. (a) Protection against the effects of noise exposure shall be provided when the sound levels exceed those shown in...

  5. 41 CFR 50-204.10 - Occupational noise exposure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2012-07-01 2009-07-01 true Occupational noise... CONTRACTS General Safety and Health Standards § 50-204.10 Occupational noise exposure. (a) Protection against the effects of noise exposure shall be provided when the sound levels exceed those shown in...

  6. 41 CFR 50-204.10 - Occupational noise exposure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Occupational noise... CONTRACTS General Safety and Health Standards § 50-204.10 Occupational noise exposure. (a) Protection against the effects of noise exposure shall be provided when the sound levels exceed those shown in...

  7. [On the problem of permissible levels of emergency and subsequent occupational radiation exposure for people of reproductive age].

    PubMed

    Ermalitski?, A P; Liaginskaia, A M; Osipov, V A; Kuptsov, V V

    2013-01-01

    The results of studies of indices of reproductive function in 3 groups of males examined accordingly to an unified method: Group 1 - The staff of the Kalinin Nuclear Power Plant (KNPP) and the Smolensk Nuclear Power Plant (SNPP), who worked for liquidation of consequences of the accident (LCA) in 1986-87 at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP), group 2 - the staff of the KNPP and the SNPP who did not work for LCA in ChNPP and the group 3 - the liquidators of the accident at ChNPP who were not included in the staff but are registered in the register of LPA participants in the Ryazan region are presented. The occurrence of congenital malformations (CM) and intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) in infants, indices of unfavourable outcomes of pregnancy (UOP) in the families of males, describing the possible radiation-induced genetic effects in male germ cells was evaluated It was made a conclusion that the given in NRB-99/2009 constraints for emergency and subsequent occupational radiation exposures of males fail to provide protection from genetic effects in the offspring. The necessity to increase the duration of the protected reproductive period in males, on which there are extended restrictions for occupational and emergency radiation exposures from 30 years of age, as it is now accepted to the age of 35 years is demonstrated. PMID:24340580

  8. DOE occupational radiation exposure 1996 report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-31

    The goal of the US Department of Energy (DOE) is to conduct its radiological operations to ensure the health and safety of all DOE employees including contractors and subcontractors. The DOE strives to maintain radiation exposures to its workers below administrative control levels and DOE limits and to further reduce these exposures and releases to levels that are ``As Low As Reasonably Achievable`` (ALARA). The DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report, 1996 provides summary and analysis of the occupational radiation exposure received by individuals associated with DOE activities. The DOE mission includes stewardship of the nuclear weapons stockpile and the associated facilities, environmental restoration of DOE and precursor agency sites, and energy research. Collective exposure at DOE has declined by 80% over the past decade due to a cessation in opportunities for exposure during the transition in DOE mission from weapons production to cleanup, deactivation and decommissioning, and changes in reporting requirements and dose calculation methodology. In 1996, the collective dose decreased by 10% from the 1995 value due to decreased doses at five of the seven highest-dose DOE sites. For 1996, these sites attributed the reduction in collective dose to the completion of several decontamination and decommissioning projects, reduced spent fuel storage activities, and effective ALARA practices. This report is intended to be a valuable tool for managers in their management of radiological safety programs and commitment of resources.

  9. Occupational Exposures and Longitudinal Lung Function Decline

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Shu-Yi; Lin, Xihong; Christiani, David C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Few longitudinal studies have been conducted on occupational exposure and lung function. This study investigated occupational dust exposure effects on lung function and whether genetic variants influence such effects. Methods The study population (1,332 participants) was from the Framingham Heart Study, in which participant lung function measures were available from up to five examinations over nearly 17 years. Occupational dust exposures were classified into more and less likely dust exposure. We used linear mixed effects models for the analysis. Results Participants with more likely dust exposure had a mean 4.5 mL/year excess loss rate of FEV1 over time. However, occupational dust exposures alone or interactions with age or time had no significant effect on FEV1/FVC. No statistically significant effects of genetic modifications in the different subgroups were identified for FEV1 loss. Conclusions Occupational dust exposures may accelerate the rate of FEV1 loss but not FEV1/FVC loss. PMID:25384732

  10. Metabolic polymorphisms and biomarkers of effect in the biomonitoring of occupational exposure to low-levels of benzene: state of the art.

    PubMed

    De Palma, G; Manno, M

    2014-12-01

    Current levels of occupational exposure to benzene, a genotoxic human carcinogen, in Western countries are reduced by two-three orders of magnitude (from ppm to ppb) as compared to the past. However, as benzene toxicity is strongly dependent on biotransformation and recent evidence underlines a higher efficiency of bio-activation pathways at lower levels of exposure, toxic effects at low doses could be higher than expected, particularly in susceptible individuals. Currently, biological monitoring can allow accurate exposure assessment, relying on sensitive and specific enough biomarkers of internal dose. The availability of similarly reliable biomarkers of early effect or susceptibility could greatly improve the risk assessment process to such an extent that risk could even be assessed at the individual level. As to susceptibility biomarkers, functional genetic polymorphisms of relevant biotransformation enzymes may modulate the risk of adverse effects (NQO1) and the levels of biomarkers of internal dose, in particular S-phenylmercapturic acid (GSTM1, GSTT1, GSTA1). Among biomarkers of early effect, genotoxicity indicators, although sensitive in some cases, are too aspecific for routine use in occupational health surveillance programmes. Currently only the periodical blood cell count seems suitable enough to be applied in the longitudinal monitoring of effects from benzene exposure. Novel biomarkers of early effect are expected from higher collaboration among toxicologists and clinicians, also using advanced "omics" techniques. PMID:25447454

  11. CAREX Canada: an enhanced model for assessing occupational carcinogen exposure

    PubMed Central

    Peters, Cheryl E; Ge, Calvin B; Hall, Amy L; Davies, Hugh W; Demers, Paul A

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To estimate the numbers of workers exposed to known and suspected occupational carcinogens in Canada, building on the methods of CARcinogen EXposure (CAREX) projects in the European Union (EU). Methods CAREX Canada consists of estimates of the prevalence and level of exposure to occupational carcinogens. CAREX Canada includes occupational agents evaluated by the International Agency for Research on Cancer as known, probable or possible human carcinogens that were present and feasible to assess in Canadian workplaces. A Canadian Workplace Exposure Database was established to identify the potential for exposure in particular industries and occupations, and to create exposure level estimates among priority agents, where possible. CAREX EU data were reviewed for relevance to the Canadian context and the proportion of workers likely to be exposed by industry and occupation in Canada was assigned using expert assessment and agreement by a minimum of two occupational hygienists. These proportions were used to generate prevalence estimates by linkage with the Census of Population for 2006, and these estimates are available by industry, occupation, sex and province. Results CAREX Canada estimated the number of workers exposed to 44 known, probable and suspected carcinogens. Estimates of levels of exposure were further developed for 18 priority agents. Common exposures included night shift work (1.9 million exposed), solar ultraviolet radiation exposure (1.5 million exposed) and diesel engine exhaust (781?000 exposed). Conclusions A substantial proportion of Canadian workers are exposed to known and suspected carcinogens at work. PMID:24969047

  12. Chronic Electromagnetic Exposure at Occupational Safety Level Does Not Affect the Metabolic Profile nor Cornea Healing after LASIK Surgery.

    PubMed

    Crouzier, David; Dabouis, Vincent; Gentilhomme, Edgar; Vignal, Rodolphe; Bourbon, Frderic; Fauvelle, Florence; Debouzy, Jean-Claude

    2014-01-01

    LASIK eye surgery has become a very common practice for myopic people, especially those in the military. Sometimes undertaken by people who need to keep a specific medical aptitude, this surgery could be performed in secret from the hierarchy and from the institute medical staff. However, even though the eyes have been previously described as one of the most sensitive organs to electromagnetic fields in the human body, no data exist on the potential deleterious effects of electromagnetic fields on the healing eye. The consequences of chronic long-lasting radar exposures at power density, in accordance with the occupational safety standards (9.71?GHz, 50?W/m(2)), were investigated on cornea healing. The metabolic and clinical statuses after experimental LASIK keratotomy were assessed on the different eye segments in a New Zealand rabbit model. The analysis methods were performed after 5 months of exposure (1?hour/day, 3 times/week). Neither clinical or histological examinations, nor experimental data, such as light scattering, (1)H-NMR HRMAS metabolomics, (13)C-NMR spectra of lipidic extracts, and antioxidant status, evidenced significant modifications. It was concluded that withdrawing the medical aptitude of people working in electromagnetic field environments (i.e., radar operators in the navy) after eye surgery was not justified. PMID:24757560

  13. Chronic Electromagnetic Exposure at Occupational Safety Level Does Not Affect the Metabolic Profile nor Cornea Healing after LASIK Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Dabouis, Vincent; Gentilhomme, Edgar; Vignal, Rodolphe; Bourbon, Frderic; Fauvelle, Florence; Debouzy, Jean-Claude

    2014-01-01

    LASIK eye surgery has become a very common practice for myopic people, especially those in the military. Sometimes undertaken by people who need to keep a specific medical aptitude, this surgery could be performed in secret from the hierarchy and from the institute medical staff. However, even though the eyes have been previously described as one of the most sensitive organs to electromagnetic fields in the human body, no data exist on the potential deleterious effects of electromagnetic fields on the healing eye. The consequences of chronic long-lasting radar exposures at power density, in accordance with the occupational safety standards (9.71?GHz, 50?W/m2), were investigated on cornea healing. The metabolic and clinical statuses after experimental LASIK keratotomy were assessed on the different eye segments in a New Zealand rabbit model. The analysis methods were performed after 5 months of exposure (1?hour/day, 3 times/week). Neither clinical or histological examinations, nor experimental data, such as light scattering, 1H-NMR HRMAS metabolomics, 13C-NMR spectra of lipidic extracts, and antioxidant status, evidenced significant modifications. It was concluded that withdrawing the medical aptitude of people working in electromagnetic field environments (i.e., radar operators in the navy) after eye surgery was not justified. PMID:24757560

  14. Measurement of the weighted peak level for occupational exposure to gradient magnetic fields for 1.5 and 3 Tesla MRI body scanners.

    PubMed

    Bonutti, F; Tecchio, M; Maieron, M; Trevisan, D; Negro, C; Calligaris, F

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this work is to give a contribution to the construction of a comprehensive knowledge of the exposure levels to gradient magnetic fields (GMF) in terms of the weighed peak (WP), especially for 3 Tesla scanners for which there are still few works available in the literature. A new generation probe for the measurement of electromagnetic fields in the range of 1 Hz-400 kHz was used to assess the occupational exposure levels to the GMF for 1.5 and 3.0 Tesla MRI body scanners, using the method of the WP according to the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) approach. The probe was placed at a height of 1.1 m, close to the MRI scanners, where operators could stay during some medical procedures with particular issues. The measurements were performed for a set of typical acquisition sequences for body (liver) and head exams. The measured values of WP were in compliance with ICNIRP 2010 reference levels for occupational exposures. PMID:25987585

  15. [Titanium dioxide nanoparticles: occupational exposure limits].

    PubMed

    Swidwi?ska-Gajewska, Anna Maria; Czerczak, S?awomir

    2014-01-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is produced in Poland as a high production volume chemical (HPVC). It is used mainly as a pigment for paints and coatings, plastics, paper, and also as additives to food and pharmaceuticals. Titanium dioxide nanoparticles are increasingly applied in cosmetics, textiles and plastics as the ultraviolet light blocker. This contributes to a growing occupational exposure to TiO2 nanoparticles. Nanoparticles are potentially responsible for the most adverse effects of titanium dioxide. Due to the absence of separate fraction of nanoobjects and appropriate measurement methods the maximum admissible concentrations (MAC) for particles < 100 nm and nano-TiO2 cannot be established. In the world there are 2 proposals of occupational exposure levels for titanium dioxide nanoparticles: 0.3 mg/m3, proposed by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), and 0.6 mg/m3, proposed by experts of the New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO). The authors of this article, based on the available data and existing methods for hygiene standards binding in Poland, concluded that the MAC value of 0.3 mg/m3 for nanoparticles TiO2 in the workplace air can be accepted. PMID:25230569

  16. 41 CFR 50-204.10 - Occupational noise exposure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... CONTRACTS General Safety and Health Standards § 50-204.10 Occupational noise exposure. (a) Protection against the effects of noise exposure shall be provided when the sound levels exceed those shown in Table... conservation program shall be administered. Table I permissible noise exposures 1 Duration per day, hours...

  17. 41 CFR 50-204.10 - Occupational noise exposure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... CONTRACTS General Safety and Health Standards § 50-204.10 Occupational noise exposure. (a) Protection against the effects of noise exposure shall be provided when the sound levels exceed those shown in Table... conservation program shall be administered. Table I permissible noise exposures 1 Duration per day, hours...

  18. DOE 2008 Occupational Radiation Exposure October 2009

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security

    2009-10-01

    A major priority of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is to ensure the health, safety, and security of DOE employees, contractors, and subcontractors. The Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) provides the corporate-level leadership and strategic vision necessary to better coordinate and integrate health, safety, environment, security, enforcement, and independent oversight programs. One function that supports this mission is the DOE Corporate Operating Experience Program that provides collection, analysis, and dissemination of performance indicators, such as occupational radiation exposure information. This analysis supports corporate decision-making and synthesizes operational information to support continuous environment, safety, and health improvement across the DOE complex.

  19. Historical Context and Recent Advances in Exposure-Response Estimation for Deriving Occupational Exposure Limits

    PubMed Central

    Wheeler, M.W.; Park, R. M.; Bailer, A. J.; Whittaker, C.

    2015-01-01

    Virtually no occupational exposure standards specify the level of risk for the prescribed exposure, and most occupational exposure limits are not based on quantitative risk assessment (QRA) at all. Wider use of QRA could improve understanding of occupational risks while increasing focus on identifying exposure concentrations conferring acceptably low levels of risk to workers. Exposure-response modeling between a defined hazard and the biological response of interest is necessary to provide a quantitative foundation for risk-based occupational exposure limits; and there has been considerable work devoted to establishing reliable methods quantifying the exposure-response relationship including methods of extrapolation below the observed responses. We review several exposure-response modeling methods available for QRA, and demonstrate their utility with simulated data sets. PMID:26252067

  20. DOE occupational radiation exposure 2006 report

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2006-12-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Corporate Safety Analysis (HS-30) within the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report to provide an overview of the status of radiation protection practices at DOE. This report provides a summary and an analysis of occupational radiation exposure information for all monitored individuals associated with DOE activities. The occupational radiation exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site over the past five years.

  1. DOE occupational radiation exposure 2005 report

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2005-12-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Offi ce of Corporate Safety Analysis (HS-30) within the Office of Health Safety and Security (HSS) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report to provide an overview of the status of radiation protection practices at DOE. This report provides a summary and an analysis of occupational radiation exposure information for all monitored individuals associated with the DOE activities. The occupational radiation exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site over the past 5 years.

  2. A comparison of occupational and nonoccupational noise exposures in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Neitzel, Richard L; Svensson, Eva B; Sayler, Stephanie K; Ann-Christin, Johnson

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate noise exposures and the contributions of occupational and nonoccupational activities among three groups of Swedish workers (office workers, day care workers, and military flight technicians), and to evaluate risk factors for elevated hearing threshold levels. Forty-five subjects were recruited across the three groups. Each subject completed a risk factor questionnaire along with Bksy audiometry at frequencies between 125 and 8000 Hz. Subjects also wore a noise dosimeter continuously for 1 week, and documented their occupational and nonoccupational activities using a time-activity log. Subjects in all groups completed >7400 h of dosimetry, and had weekly exposures between 76 and 81 dBA. Day care workers had the highest daily exposures, and flight technicians had the highest weekly exposures. Most daily and weekly exposures exceeded the 70 dBA exposure limit recommended for prevention of any hearing loss. Subjects' perceptions of their exposures generally agreed well with measured noise levels. Among office workers, exposures were predominately nonoccupational, while among flight technicians nonoccupational and occupational activities contributed roughly equally, and among day care workers occupational exposures were dominant. Extreme exposures and cumulative noise exposure were associated with an increased risk of hearing threshold levels >10 dB hearing level. Effective hearing loss prevention programs may be needed in occupations not historically considered to be at high risk of noise-induced hearing loss (e.g., day care workers). Prevention efforts need to address nonoccupational exposures as well as occupational exposures, as nonoccupational activities may present the dominant risk of noise-induced hearing loss for some workers. PMID:25209036

  3. A comparison of REACH-derived no-effect levels for workers with EU indicative occupational exposure limit values and national limit values in Finland.

    PubMed

    Tynkkynen, Sallamari; Santonen, Tiina; Stockmann-Juvala, Helene

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of occupational exposure limits values (OELs) is to regulate exposure to chemicals and minimize the risk of health effects at work. National authorities are responsible for the setting and updating of national OELs. In addition, the EU sets indicative occupational exposure limit values (IOELVs), which have to be considered by the Member States. Under the new European legislation on chemicals (REACH), manufacturers and importers are obliged to establish derived no-effect levels (DNELs) for chemicals that are manufactured or imported in quantities >10 tonnes per year. Chemical safety data sheets must report both OELs and the DNEL values, if such have been set. This may cause confusion at workplaces, especially if the values differ from each other. In this study, we explored how EU IOELVs and Finnish national OELs [Haitallisiksi tunnetut pitoisuudet (HTP) values] correlate with worker inhalation DNELs for substances registered under REACH. The long-term DNEL value for workers (inhalation) was identical to the corresponding IOELV for the majority of the substances (64/87 cases). Comparison of DNELs with HTP values revealed that the values were identical or close to each other in 159 cases (49%), whereas the DNEL was considerably higher in 69 cases, and considerably lower in 87 cases. Examples of cases with high differences between Finnish national OELs and DNELs are given. However, as the DNELs were not systematically lower than the OELs, the default assessment factors suggested by REACH technical guidance had obviously not been used in many of the REACH registrations. PMID:25638729

  4. [Nanosilver--Occupational exposure limits].

    PubMed

    ?widwi?ska-Gajewska, Anna Maria; Czerczak, S?awomir

    2015-01-01

    Historically, nanosilver has been known as colloidal silver composed of particles with a size below 100 nm. Silver nanoparticles are used in many technologies, creating a wide range of products. Due to antibacterial properties nanosilver is used, among others, in medical devices (wound dressings), textiles (sport clothes, socks), plastics and building materials (paints). Colloidal silver is considered by many as an ideal agent in the fight against pathogenic microorganisms, unlike antibiotics, without side effects. However, in light of toxicological research, nanosilver is not inert to the body. The inhalation of silver nanoparticles have an adverse effect mainly on the liver and lung of rats. The oxidative stress caused by reactive oxygen species is responsible for the toxicity of nanoparticles, contributing to cytotoxic and genotoxic effects. The activity of the readily oxidized nanosilver surface underlies the molecular mechanism of toxicity. This leads to the release of silver ions, a known harmful agent. Occupational exposure to silver nanoparticles may occur in the process of its manufacture, formulation and also usage during spraying, in particular. In Poland, as well as in other countries of the world, there is no separate hygiene standards applicable to nanomaterials. The present study attempts to estimate the value of MAC-TWA (maximum admissible concentration--the time-weighted average) for silver--a nano-objects fraction, which amounted to 0.01 mg/m3. The authors are of the opinion that the current value of the MAC-TWA for silver metallic--inhalable fraction (0.05 mg/m3) does not provide sufficient protection against the harmful effects of silver in the form of nano-objects. PMID:26325054

  5. Occupational Exposure to Carbon Nanotubes and Nanofibers

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Topics Publications and Products Programs Contact NIOSH Current Intelligence Bulletin 65: Occupational Exposure to Carbon Nanotubes and ... his or her work experience. NIOSH issues Current Intelligence Bulletins (CIBs) to disseminate new scientific information about ...

  6. Occupational Pesticide Exposures and Respiratory Health

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Ming; Beach, Jeremy; Martin, Jonathan W.; Senthilselvan, Ambikaipakan

    2013-01-01

    Pesticides have been widely used to control pest and pest-related diseases in agriculture, fishery, forestry and the food industry. In this review, we identify a number of respiratory symptoms and diseases that have been associated with occupational pesticide exposures. Impaired lung function has also been observed among people occupationally exposed to pesticides. There was strong evidence for an association between occupational pesticide exposure and asthma, especially in agricultural occupations. In addition, we found suggestive evidence for a link between occupational pesticide exposure and chronic bronchitis or COPD. There was inconclusive evidence for the association between occupational pesticide exposure and lung cancer. Better control of pesticide uses and enforcement of safety behaviors, such as using personal protection equipment (PPE) in the workplace, are critical for reducing the risk of developing pesticide-related symptoms and diseases. Educational training programs focusing on basic safety precautions and proper uses of personal protection equipment (PPE) are possible interventions that could be used to control the respiratory diseases associated with pesticide exposure in occupational setting. PMID:24287863

  7. Occupational exposures and risk of pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Santibañez, Miguel; Vioque, Jesús; Alguacil, Juan; de la Hera, Manuela García; Moreno-Osset, Eduardo; Carrato, Alfredo; Porta, Miquel; Kauppinen, Timo

    2010-10-01

    The objective was to analyze the relationship between occupation (and specific occupational exposures) and risk of exocrine pancreatic cancer (EPC). We conducted a multicenter hospital-based case-control study in Eastern Spain. We included 161 incident cases of EPC (59.6% men, 94 with histological confirmation, of whom 80% had ductal adenocarcinoma). Cases were frequency-matched with 455 controls by sex, age and province of residence. Information was elicited using structured questionnaires. Occupations were coded according to the Spanish version of the International Standard Classification of Occupations 1988. Occupational exposure to a selection of carcinogenic substances was assessed with the Finnish Job-Exposure Matrix (FINJEM). Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated by multiple logistic regression, adjusting for sex, age, province, education, alcohol and smoking. A higher risk of EPC was associated with having worked as 'Miners, shotfirers, stone cutters and carvers', 'Machinery mechanics and fitters', 'Building trades workers' and 'Motor vehicle drivers' in men, 'Office Clerks' in women, and 'Waiters' in both sexes. Cases with ductal adenocarcinomas were more likely to have been exposed to chlorinated hydrocarbon solvents (OR = 4.1, 95% CI: 1.1-15.2, p-trend = 0.04). We also observed significant associations with exposure to 'synthetic polymer dust exposure' and 'ionizing radiation'. Suggestive increases in risk were observed for 'pesticides', 'diesel and gasoline engine exhaust', and 'hydrocarbon solvents'. Results support the hypothesis that occupational exposure to chlorinated hydrocarbon solvents is associated with exocrine pancreatic cancer. PMID:20640489

  8. Total mercury levels in hair, toenail, and urine among women free from occupational exposure and their relations to renal tubular function

    SciTech Connect

    Ohno, Tomoko; Sakamoto, Mineshi; Kurosawa, Tomoko; Dakeishi, Miwako; Iwata, Toyoto; Murata, Katsuyuki . E-mail: winestem@med.akita-u.ac.jp

    2007-02-15

    To investigate the relations among total mercury levels in hair, toenail, and urine, together with potential effects of methylmercury intake on renal tubular function, we determined their levels, and urinary N-acetyl-{beta}-d-glucosaminidase activity (NAG) and {alpha}{sub 1}-microglobulin (AMG) in 59 women free from occupational exposures, and estimated daily mercury intakes from fish and other seafood using a food frequency questionnaire. Mercury levels (mean+/-SD) in the women were 1.51+/-0.91{mu}g/g in hair, 0.59+/-0.32{mu}g/g in toenail, and 0.86+/-0.66{mu}g/g creatinine in urine; and, there were positive correlations among them (P<0.001). The daily mercury intake of 9.15+/-7.84{mu}g/day was significantly correlated with total mercury levels in hair, toenail, and urine (r=0.551, 0.537, and 0.604, P<0.001). Among the women, the NAG and AMG were positively correlated with both the daily mercury intake and mercury levels in hair, toenail, and urine (P<0.01); and, these relations were almost similar when using multiple regression analysis to adjust for possible confounders such as urinary cadmium (0.47+/-0.28{mu}g/g creatinine) and smoking status. In conclusion, mercury resulting from fish consumption can explain total mercury levels in hair, toenail, and urine to some degree (about 30%), partly through the degradation into the inorganic form, and it may confound the renal tubular effect of other nephrotoxic agents. Also, the following equation may be applicable to the population neither with dental amalgam fillings nor with occupational exposures: [hair mercury ({mu}g/g)]=2.44x[toenail mercury ({mu}g/g)].

  9. DOE occupational radiation exposure. Report 1992--1994

    SciTech Connect

    1997-05-01

    The DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report, 1992-1994 reports occupational radiation exposures incurred by individuals at US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities from 1992 through 1994. This report includes occupational radiation exposure information for all DOE employees, contractors, subcontractors, and visitors. This information is analyzed and trended over time to provide a measure of the DOE`s performance in protecting its workers from radiation. Occupational radiation exposure at DOE has been decreasing over the past 5 years. In particular, doses in the higher dose ranges are decreasing, including the number of doses in excess of the DOE limits and doses in excess of the 2 rem Administrative Control Level (ACL). This is an indication of greater attention being given to protecting these individuals from radiation in the workplace.

  10. Unusual Non-Occupational Exposure to Metals

    PubMed Central

    Wrbitzky, Renate

    2003-01-01

    Exposure to metals at workplaces is well known and in many cases occupational studies led to an adoption of limit values. For airborne concentrations of substances as metals refer to the “Maximaleo Arbeitsplatz-Konzentration” (MAK) in Germany or the “Threshold Limit Value” (TLV) in USA. Biological monitoring consists of an assessment of overall exposure to chemicals at the workplace and in the environment. The “Biologischer Arbeitsstoff Toleranzwert” (BAT) in Germany and the “Biological Exposure Index” in the USA serve as reference values. Besides these occupational limit values, reference values exist in Germany for the background exposure of the non occupationally exposed general population. In some cases the reference values are exceeded without any occupational exposure. Several cases of unusual environmental exposure to cobalt, mercury and manganese are reported. In such cases, it is often difficult to evaluate the measured concentration. In Germany, therefore, the “Human-Biomonitoring-Werte” (HBMValues) have been adopted in order to evaluate such high background exposures. The HBM-concept is presented. Environmental exposure to metals is usual within some limits. Reference values are helpful for an assessment. Unusual exposure occurs and the physician should be alert to symptoms of poisoning. PMID:18365042

  11. Occupational exposure and lung cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Kvle, G; Bjelke, E; Heuch, I

    1986-02-15

    The importance of occupation held longest as a risk factor for lung cancer was examined in a prospective study in Norway of 11,995 men, among whom 125 cases occurred in a follow-up from 1966 through 1978. Based on information about occupation held longest, the respondents were classified into 3 groups according to suspected exposure to respiratory carcinogens at the workplace. After stratification for age, place of residence and cigarette smoking, we found a highly significant relative risk of 2.6 for those judged to have experienced definite exposure versus the group with no workplace exposure. The apparent risk-enhancing effect of occupational exposure was observed for all histologic subtypes. Stratification including a socioeconomic factor score led to a moderate reduction in the relative risk estimate. High risk estimates still obtained, however, for a limited number of occupations, the highest for workers in the mining and quarrying industries. Although the interpretation of the observed effect associated with a crude index of occupational exposure may be difficult, our results suggest that between 13 and 27% of the lung cancer cases observed among Norwegian men in the relevant time period can be attributed to harmful work-place exposure. PMID:3943919

  12. Asthma severity and exposure to occupational asthmogens

    PubMed Central

    Le Moual, Nicole; Siroux, Valrie; Pin, Isabelle; Kauffmann, Francine; Kennedy, Susan

    2005-01-01

    Rationale Severe asthma is a public health problem with limited information regarding preventable causes. Although occupational exposures have been implicated as important risk factors for asthma and asthma exacerbations, associations between occupational exposures and asthma severity have not been reported. Objective To examine associations between occupational exposures and asthma severity. Methods The Epidemiological study on the Genetics and Environment of Asthma combines a case control study with a family study of relatives of asthmatic cases. Adult cases (n=148) were recruited in chest clinics and non-asthmatic controls (n=228) were population-based. Occupational exposures to non-asthmagenic irritants and asthmagens (classified as any asthmagen and 3 broad groups (high molecular weight agents, low molecular weight agents, mixed environments)) were assessed by an asthma-specific job exposure matrix. Asthma severity was defined from a 7-grade clinical score (frequency of attacks, persistent symptoms and hospitalisation). Severe (score ? 2) and mild asthmatics were compared to controls using nominal logistic regression. Main Results Significant associations were observed between severe adult onset asthma and exposure to any occupational asthmagen (odds ratio 4.0 [95% CI 2.08.1]); high molecular weight agents (3.7 [1.311.1]); low molecular weight agents (4.4 [1.910.1]), including industrial cleaning agents (7.2 [1.339.9]); and mixed environments (7.5 [2.423.5]). No significant associations were found between non-asthmagenic irritants and asthma severity, nor between asthmagens and childhood onset asthma or mild adult onset asthma. Conclusions Our results suggested a strong deleterious role of occupational asthmagens in severe asthma. Clinicians should consider occupational exposures in patients with moderate to severe asthma. PMID:15961697

  13. DOE 2012 Occupational Radiation Exposure October 2013

    SciTech Connect

    2012-02-02

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Analysis within the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report to provide an overview of the status of radiation protection practices at DOE (including the National Nuclear Security Administration [NNSA]). The DOE 2012 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report provides an evaluation of DOE-wide performance regarding compliance with Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations (C.F.R.), Part 835, Occupational Radiation Protection dose limits and as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) process requirements. In addition, the report provides data to DOE organizations responsible for developing policies for protection of individuals from the adverse health effects of radiation. The report provides a summary and an analysis of occupational radiation exposure information from the monitoring of individuals involved in DOE activities. Over the past 5-year period, the occupational radiation exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site. As an indicator of the overall amount of radiation dose received during the conduct of operations at DOE, the report includes information on collective total effective dose (TED). The TED is comprised of the effective dose (ED) from external sources, which includes neutron and photon radiation, and the internal committed effective dose (CED), which results from the intake of radioactive material into the body. The collective ED from photon exposure decreased by 23% between 2011 and 2012, while the neutron dose increased by 5%. The internal dose components of the collective TED decreased by 7%. Over the past 5-year period, 99.99% of the individuals receiving measurable TED have received doses below the 2 roentgen equivalent in man (rems) (20 millisievert [mSv]) TED administrative control level (ACL), which is well below the DOE regulatory limit of 5 rems (50 mSv) TED annually. The occupational radiation exposure records show that in 2012, DOE facilities continued to comply with DOE dose limits and ACLs and worked to minimize exposure to individuals. The DOE collective TED decreased 17.1% from 2011 to 2012. The collective TED decreased at three of the five sites with the largest collective TED. u Idaho Site – Collective dose reductions were achieved as a result of continuing improvements at the Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Project (AMWTP) through the planning of drum movements that reduced the number of times a container is handled; placement of waste containers that created highradiation areas in a centralized location; and increased worker awareness of high-dose rate areas. In addition, Idaho had the largest decrease in the total number of workers with measurable TED (1,143 fewer workers). u Hanford Site (Hanford) – An overall reduction of decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) activities at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) and Transuranic (TRU) retrieval activities resulted in collective dose reductions. u Savannah River Site (SRS) – Reductions were achieved through ALARA initiatives employed site wide. The Solid Waste Management Facility used extended specialty tools, cameras and lead shield walls to facilitate removal of drums. These tools and techniques reduce exposure time through improved efficiency, increase distance from the source of radiation by remote monitoring, shield the workers to lower the dose rate, and reduce the potential for contamination and release of material through repacking of waste. Overall, from 2011 to 2012, there was a 19% decrease in the number of workers with measurable dose. Furthermore, due to a slight decrease in both the DOE workforce (7%) and monitored workers (10%), the ratio of workers with measurable doses to monitored workers decreased to 13%. Another primary indicator of the level of radiation exposure covered in this report is the average measurable dose, which normalizes the collective dose over the population of workers who actually received a measurable dose. The average measurable TED increased by 3% from 2011 to 2012. Additional analyses show that the dose distribution in 2012 was similar to the distribution in 2011. In 2012, 13% of the monitored workers received a measurable TED and the average measurable TED, 0.069 rem, was less than 2% of the DOE limit. From 2011 to 2012, the collective TED and the number of individuals with measurable TED decreased 17.1% and 19%, respectively. These decreases were mainly due to an overall reduction of D&D activities at the PFP and TRU retrieval activities at Hanford; a 78% decrease in the number of targeted waste drums that were processed at the Idaho Site’s Accelerated Retrieval Project (ARP) from 5,566 drums in 2011 to a total of 1,211 drums processed in 2012; and ALARA initiatives employed site wide at SRS. In addition, the decreases were the result of decreased American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) activities and continuing D&D, particularly at the DOE sites that comprise the majority of DOE collective dose. Over the past 5 years, the size of the monitored workforce has remained at a fairly stable level (within 12%), while the collective dose has varied up to 37%. No reported doses exceeded the DOE occupational limit of 5 rems TED in 2012 and no reported doses exceeded the DOE ACL of 2 rems TED.

  14. Effects of occupational lead exposure.

    PubMed

    Wang, Y L; Lu, P K; Chen, Z Q; Liang, Y X; Lu, Q M; Pan, Z Q; Shao, M

    1985-01-01

    Fifty-three workers in a battery factory, 52 solderers in a television factory, and 50 embroidery workers (a reference group) were studied. The average air lead levels of the three workplaces were 0.578 mg/m3, 0.002 mg/m3, and 0.001 mg/m3, respectively. Adverse effects in terms of clinical manifestations and biochemical criteria were evident among the battery factory workers. A significant dose-response relationship existed between the toxic effects and the air lead levels. The solderers showed no apparent abnormalities in comparison with the embroidery workers. The early clinical manifestations were dysfunction of the central nervous system, indigestion, arthralgia, and myalgia in the extremities. A positive association was observed between the prevalence of fatigue, mild abdominal pain, and arthralgia and the blood lead (PbB), urinary lead (PbU), and zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) levels. The symptomatic threshold values of PbB, PbU, and ZPP were 30 micrograms/dl (1.5 mumol/l), 0.045 mg/l (0.2 mumol/l), and 40 micrograms/dl (0.7 mumol/l), respectively. The PbB, PbU, free erythrocyte protoporphyrin, and ZPP levels and the blood aminolevulinic dehydratase ratio could be used as indicators of lead exposure, although ZPP is preferred for a preventive monitoring program. The motor and sensory conduction velocities of the median nerve were slower in the exposed groups than in the reference group. No effects on behavioral function were observed among the solderers. PMID:3832431

  15. [Occupational exposure and bladder cancer].

    PubMed

    Conso, Franoise

    2004-10-15

    There is an important gap between the number of bladder cancer cases--over a 1000 per year--that are imputable, by epidemiologists'estimations, to occupational factors and the small number--fewer than 20--compensated as occupational diseases. This can be explained by the latency of the disease and by the fact that the chemicals mainly responsible for bladder cancer--aromatic amines compounds and, to a lesser extent, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons--are very complex and disseminated in a large variety of industrial settings. Besides the sectors historically known as involving this occupational risk--the dye and the rubber industries--new branches have been identified as hazardous: some sectors of plastic materials or aluminium industries, of laboratory research, the industrial gas production from coke ovens, foundries... The European policy for the prevention of occupational cancers has applied for over 10 years to carcinogenic aromatic amines. Screening for the early detection of vesical lesions is legally prescribed in France for workers that are or have been exposed to chemicals or processes potentially carcinogenic for the bladder. PMID:15605580

  16. DOE occupational radiation exposure 2007 report

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2007-12-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Corporate Safety Analysis (HS-30) within the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report to provide an overview of the status of radiation protection practices at DOE.* The annual DOEOccupational Radiation Exposure 2007 Report provides an evaluation of DOE-wide performance regarding compliance with DOE Part 835 dose limits and ALARA process requirements. In addition the report provides data to DOE organizations responsible for developing policies for protection of individuals from the effects of radiation. This report provides a summary and an analysis of occupational radiation exposure information from the monitoring of individuals involved in DOE activities. The occupational radiation exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site over the past five years.

  17. Occupational exposure to ultraviolet radiation: the duality dilemma.

    PubMed

    Kimlin, Michael G; Tenkate, Thomas D

    2007-01-01

    Human exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation is a component of everyday life and a significant hazard for outdoor workers. In addition, a large range of artificial sources also has the potential to provide extreme occupational UV exposure. Even though the human health risks of overexposure to UV are well documented, to date relatively little is known quantitatively about UV exposure. For example, the evidence indicates that workers who are exposed to particular sources (for example, welding arcs) are exposed to extreme UV exposures, despite the use of current control measures. In contrast, increasing evidence points to significant health impacts resulting from underexposure to UV, particularly with the production (or more correctly lack of production) of vitamin D in the skin. The latter poses a serious issue for the work-force, with specific risks for workers lacking adequate sun exposure-underground miners, long-haul flight crews, shift workers, and perhaps indoor workers. Using a risk-management approach, this paper provides a comprehensive review of occupational UV sources, health impact of occupational UV exposure, occupational exposure standards, and levels of exposure in various settings, and discusses the appropriate control measures. In addition, the duality aspect of health impacts from overexposure and underexposure to UV and the associated occupational health implications are specifically explored. PMID:17508696

  18. Occupational exposure and risk of breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    FENGA, CONCETTINA

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is a multifactorial disease and the most commonly diagnosed cancer in women. Traditional risk factors for breast cancer include reproductive status, genetic mutations, family history and lifestyle. However, increasing evidence has identified an association between breast cancer and occupational factors, including environmental stimuli. Epidemiological and experimental studies demonstrated that ionizing and non-ionizing radiation exposure, night-shift work, pesticides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and metals are defined environmental factors for breast cancer, particularly at young ages. However, the mechanisms by which occupational factors can promote breast cancer initiation and progression remains to be elucidated. Furthermore, the evaluation of occupational factors for breast cancer, particularly in the workplace, also remains to be explained. The present review summarizes the occupational risk factors and the associated mechanisms involved in breast cancer development, in order to highlight new environmental exposures that could be correlated to breast cancer and to provide new insights for breast cancer prevention in the occupational settings. Furthermore, this review suggests that there is a requirement to include, through multidisciplinary approaches, different occupational exposure risks among those associated with breast cancer development. Finally, the design of new epigenetic biomarkers may be useful to identify the workers that are more susceptible to develop breast cancer. PMID:26998264

  19. Occupational exposure in dentistry and miscarriage

    PubMed Central

    Lindbohm, Marja‐Liisa; Ylöstalo, Pekka; Sallmén, Markku; Henriks‐Eckerman, Maj‐Len; Nurminen, Tuula; Forss, Helena; Taskinen, Helena

    2007-01-01

    Background Information on the reproductive effects of chemical exposures in dental work is sparse or inconsistent. Aim To investigate whether dental workers exposed to acrylate compounds, mercury amalgam, solvents or disinfectants are at an increased risk of miscarriage. Methods The study was conducted among women dental workers and a comparison group of workers occupationally unexposed to dental restorative materials. Information on pregnancies was obtained from national registers and outpatient units of hospitals. Data on occupational exposure were obtained using postal questionnaires. The final study population included 222 cases of miscarriage and 498 controls (births). An occupational hygienist assessed exposure to acrylate compounds, disinfectants and solvents. Exposure to other agents was assessed on the basis of the questionnaire data. Odds ratios (ORs) and confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using conditional logistic regression. Results The ORs adjusted for confounding factors were increased for moderate‐exposure and high‐exposure categories of mercury amalgam (OR 2.0, 95% CI 1.0 to 4.1 and OR 1.3, 95% CI 0.6 to 2.5, respectively). The risk was slightly increased for the highest‐exposure category of 2‐hydroxyethylmethacrylate (OR 1.4, 95% CI 0.7 to 2.6) and polymethylmethacrylate dust (OR 1.4, 95% CI 0.8 to 2.4). A slightly increased risk was also detected for likely exposure to organic solvents (OR 1.4, 95% CI 0.8 to 2.3) and disinfectants (OR 1.5, 95% CI 0.9 to 2.7). Conclusions No strong association or consistent dose–response relationship was observed between exposure to chemical agents in dental work and the risk of miscarriage. A slightly increased risk was found for exposure to mercury amalgam, some acrylate compounds, solvents and disinfectants. These findings indicate that the possibility of a weak association between exposure to these agents and an increased risk of miscarriage cannot be excluded. PMID:17053021

  20. An investigation of occupational metal exposure in thermal spraying processes.

    PubMed

    Chadwick, J K; Wilson, H K; White, M A

    1997-06-20

    A cross-sectional study of 34 workers engaged in thermal spraying at six worksites was undertaken in order to determine levels of exposure to and uptake of metals during different metal spraying activities. Levels of exposure to cobalt, chromium and nickel were highest in plasma sprayers and, on occasions exceeded UK Occupational Exposure Limits. Exposure to metals during detonation gun and electric arc spraying was better controlled and levels remained below the relevant Occupational Exposure Limits throughout the study period. Urinary levels of cobalt and nickel mirrored the airborne concentrations and the highest urine concentrations were again found in plasma sprayers. Urinary chromium levels were highest in electric arc sprayers, which may also reflect an increased body burden in this group due to a longer history of exposure. The findings clearly indicate that exposure to and uptake of metals may exceed UK Occupational Limits or Standards when spraying is performed manually or semi-automatically and where control relies on local exhaust ventilation (LEV) and personal respiratory protective equipment (RPE). PMID:9200854

  1. Parental Occupational Exposures and Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCanlies, Erin C.; Fekedulegn, Desta; Mnatsakanova, Anna; Burchfiel, Cecil M.; Sanderson, Wayne T.; Charles, Luenda E.; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva

    2012-01-01

    Both self-report and industrial hygienist (IH) assessed parental occupational information were used in this pilot study in which 174 families (93 children with ASD and 81 unaffected children) enrolled in the Childhood Autism Risks from Genetics and Environment study participated. IH results indicated exposures to lacquer, varnish, and xylene

  2. MINIMIZING OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE TO PESTICIDES: PERSONNEL MONITORING

    EPA Science Inventory

    This communication is presented with two objectives in mind. The first objective is to provide an introduction to personnel monitoring of occupational exposure to pesticides for those who are not familiar with this field of investigation. The second objective is to stimulate disc...

  3. Parental Occupational Exposures and Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCanlies, Erin C.; Fekedulegn, Desta; Mnatsakanova, Anna; Burchfiel, Cecil M.; Sanderson, Wayne T.; Charles, Luenda E.; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva

    2012-01-01

    Both self-report and industrial hygienist (IH) assessed parental occupational information were used in this pilot study in which 174 families (93 children with ASD and 81 unaffected children) enrolled in the Childhood Autism Risks from Genetics and Environment study participated. IH results indicated exposures to lacquer, varnish, and xylene…

  4. [Occupational exposure to lead in production units in Maracaibo, Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Corzo, G; Naveda, R

    1998-09-01

    A medical occupational study was performed in 40 workers belonging to productive units in telecommunication works, 22 to car radiator mechanics and 11 to battery repairs. A practical medical and occupational study was applied to the group and also were determined their blood lead and air lead exposure levels. Seventy-three individuals, without risk of laboral exposure to lead, without familiar, pathological and occupational antecedents, and healthy at the time of the test, to whom the blood lead levels were determined served as control group. The mean values of plumbemia in exposure workers to inorganic lead exceed the level threshold of the COVENIN 2277-85 norm (30 micrograms/dl) (Telecommunication work, 40.10 micrograms/dl, radiators mechanics, 37.40 micrograms/dl and battery repairs, 45.77 micrograms/dl), values that were significantly higher (p < 0.0001) compared with the ones obtained in the non-exposed population. The factors that can influence the variability of the results were analyzed and it was established a correlation between the plumbemia of the radiator mechanics and battery repairmen and the length of occupational period and air lead levels (p < 0.0001). The inherent factors to the climatic, occupational and personal conditions of technicians in telecommunications, are presented as elements able to explain the lack of correlation between blood lead levels and length of occupational period and air lead. The clinical findings in exposed workers were unspecific. The workers do not practice or follow the basic sanitary regulations, personal protection and industrial security. This work will contribute to establish a basic description, to further and more complex observational prospective studies in order to determine the occurrence of alterations that are derived from occupational lead exposure. PMID:9780551

  5. Human occupational and nonoccupational exposure to fibers.

    PubMed Central

    Esmen, N A; Erdal, S

    1990-01-01

    Human exposure to fibers in occupational and nonoccupational environments has been a health concern for nearly a century. In this review, selected results from the literature are presented to highlight the availability, limitations, and interpretive difficulties associated with the past and current human fiber exposure data sets. In the traditionally defined asbestos fibers, large amounts of the data available suffer from the diversity of sample collection and analysis methods. Two simple generalizations suggest that occupational exposures are several orders of magnitude higher than that of environmental exposures; and currently extant data and the current routine measurement practices present significant difficulties in the consistent interpretation of the data with respect to health effects. The data on the human exposures to man-made vitreous fibers are much more complete than the data on asbestos exposure, while exposure data on other man-made fibrous materials are lacking. The human exposure data to many minerals which, at times, exist in fibrous habit, are very scanty, and in view of the biological activity of some of these fibers, this lack may be of significant concern. PMID:2272324

  6. DOE occupational radiation exposure 1996 report

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    1996-12-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environment, Safety and Health publishes the DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report. This report is intended to be a valuable tool for DOE/DOE contractor managers in their management of radiological safety programs and to assist them in the prioritization of resources. We appreciate the efforts and contributions from the various stakeholders within and outside the DOE and hope we have succeeded in making the report more useful. This report includes occupational radiation exposure information for all DOE employees, contractors, subcontractors, and visitors. The exposure information is analyzed in terms of collective data, dose to individuals, and dose by site. For the purposes of examining trends, data for the past 5 years are included in the analysis.

  7. DOE occupational radiation exposure 2000 report

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2000-12-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Safety and Health publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report. This report is intended to be a valuable tool for DOE and DOE contractor managers in managing radiological safety programs and to assist them in prioritizing resources. We appreciate the efforts and contributions from the various stakeholders within and outside DOE in making this report most useful to them. This report includes occupational radiation exposure information for all monitored DOE employees, contractors, subcontractors, and visitors. The exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site. For the purposes of examining trends, data for the past 5 years are included in the analysis.

  8. DOE occupational radiation exposure 1998 report

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    1998-12-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environment, Safety and Health with support from Environment Safety and Health Technical Information Services publishes the DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report. This report is intended to be a valuable tool for DOE/DOE contractor managers in managing radiological safety programs and to assist them in prioritizing resources. We appreciate the efforts and contributions from the various stakeholders within and outside DOE and hope we have succeeded in making the report more useful. This report includes occupational radiation exposure information for all monitored DOE employees, contractors, subcontractors, and visitors. The exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site. For the purposes of examining trends, data for the past 5 years are included in the analysis.

  9. DOE occupational radiation exposure 1997 report

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    1997-12-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environment, Safety and Health publishes the DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report. This report is intended to be a valuable tool for DOE/DOE contractor managers in managing radiological safety programs and to assist them in prioritizing resources. We appreciate the efforts and contributions from the various stakeholders within and outside DOE and hope we have succeeded in making the report more useful. This report includes occupational radiation exposure information for all monitored DOE employees, contractors, subcontractors, and visitors. The exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site. For the purposes of examining trends, data for the past 5 years are included in the analysis.

  10. DOE occupational radiation exposure 2003 report

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2003-12-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Corporate Performance Assessment (EH-3) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report. This report is intended to be a valuable tool for DOE and DOE contractor managers and workers in managing radiological safety programs and to assist them in prioritizing resources. We appreciate the efforts and contributions from the various stakeholders within and outside DOE to make the report most useful. This report includes occupational radiation exposure information for all monitored DOE employees, contractors, subcontractors, and members of the public. DOE is defined to include the National Nuclear Security Administration sites. The exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site. For the purposes of examining trends, data for the past 5 years are included in the analysis.

  11. DOE occupational radiation exposure 2002 report

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2002-12-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Corporate Performance Assessment (EH-3) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report. This report is intended to be a valuable tool for DOE and DOE contractor managers and workers in managing radiological safety programs and to assist them in prioritizing resources. We appreciate the efforts and contributions from the various stakeholders within and outside DOE to make the report most useful. This report includes occupational radiation exposure information for all monitored DOE employees, contractors, subcontractors, and members of the public. The exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site. For the purposes of examining trends, data for the past 5 years are included in the analysis.

  12. DOE occupational radiation exposure 1999 report

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    1999-12-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Safety and Health publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report. This report is intended to be a valuable tool for DOE and DOE contractor managers in managing radiological safety programs and to assist them in prioritizing resources. We appreciate the efforts and contributions from the various stakeholders within and outside DOE and hope we have succeeded in making the report more useful. This report includes occupational radiation exposure information for all monitored DOE employees, contractors, subcontractors, and visitors. The exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site. For the purposes of examining trends, data for the past 5 years are included in the analysis.

  13. DOE occupational radiation exposure 2004 report

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2004-12-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Corporate Performance Assessment (EH-3) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report. This report is intended to be a valuable tool for DOE and DOE contractor managers and workers in managing radiological safety programs and to assist them in prioritizing resources. We appreciate the efforts and contributions from the various stakeholders within and outside DOE to make the report most useful. This report includes occupational radiation exposure information for all monitored DOE employees, contractors, and subcontractors, as well as members of the public. DOE is defined to include the National Nuclear Security Administration sites. The exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site. For the purposes of examining trends, data for the past 5 years are included in the analysis.

  14. Biomonitoring of human genotoxicity induced by complex occupational exposures.

    PubMed

    Schoket, B; Poirier, M C; Mayer, G; Trk, G; Kolozsi-Ringelhann, A; Bognr, G; Bigbee, W L; Vincze, I

    1999-09-30

    Sensitivity, specificity and correlations among several biomarkers for monitoring occupational exposure to complex mixtures of genotoxic agents were assessed in occupational environments in Hungarian study populations. The studies have been focused on DNA adduct formation, urinary metabolites, mutations and micronuclei induced by exposures to complex organic mixtures. In two Hungarian aluminium plants, increased DNA adduct and 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OH-PY) levels were observed in workers as compared to controls. However, no association between the biomarker levels was evident on an individual basis. In Hungarian garage mechanics, DNA adduct determinations did not show increased genotoxic exposure as compared to the controls. However, ambient air measurements, significantly enhanced 1-OH-PY levels, and slightly enhanced frequency of micronuclei indicated increased polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposure in the garages, as compared to the general environment. In a Hungarian vulcanizing plant, DNA adduct determinations and 1-OH-PY did not show significantly elevated exposure levels as compared to controls. The glycophorin A (GPA) somatic mutation assay was also negative for this occupational exposure. The results support previous observations of a lack of correlation between DNA adducts detectable by 32P-postlabelling and those measured by the PAH-DNA immunoassay in the same DNA sample. These studies also demonstrate a lack of close correlation between levels of DNA adducts and urinary 1-OH-PY in the same individual. PMID:10575430

  15. OCCUPATIONAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL EXPOSURES TO RADON: A PERSPECTIVE FOR MITIGATORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper compares normal environmental and occupational exposures to radon and radon decay products for the occupational group including radon mitigators and diagnosticians. ccupational exposures to radon and radon decay products and the associated high incidence of radiation-in...

  16. Adenocarcinoma of the stomach and exposure to occupational dust

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, W.E.; Bernstein, L.; Peters, J.M.; Garabrant, D.H.; Mack, T.M.

    1988-07-01

    The authors studied 1342 cases of adenocarcinoma of the stomach identified by a population-based cancer registry in Los Angeles County, California. The cases were males aged 20-64 years first diagnosed between 1972 and 1982. To determine whether exposure to occupational dust increased the risk of developing stomach cancer, occupational titles were rated for the likelihood of exposure to various kinds of dust. Men who worked in dusty jobs had a risk for developing stomach cancer 1.3 times that of unexposed men. The association of exposure to dust with stomach cancer was stronger at higher levels of exposure. The risk was not uniform throughout the stomach: the highest risk (1.8 times that of unexposed men) was found for the antrum/pylorus. At that site, exposure to mineral dust carried the greatest risk for cancer (3.7 times the risk for unexposed men). The highest risks from dust exposure were observed in blacks. Risk was related to race, socioeconomic status, and immigrant status, but these factors did not entirely explain the association with dust exposure. The observed relation between dust exposure and stomach cancer is consistent with results of previous mortality and case-control studies of cancer in men who worked in dusty occupations. Ingested dust may be one factor in the etiology of adenocarcinoma of the stomach.

  17. Risks from occupational and dietary exposure to mevinphos.

    PubMed

    Cochran, R C; Formoli, T A; Silva, M H; Kellner, T P; Lewis, C M; Pfeifer, K F

    1996-01-01

    Mevinphos (trade name, Phosdrin), a category 1 organophosphorus insecticide, has been used mainly as a cleanup pesticide for vegetable crops. A risk assessment for occupational and dietary exposure to mevinphos was initiated because of the high acute toxicity of the compound. Repetitive dosing with mevinphos did not cause any discernible histopathological effects in mice or rats, nor was it oncogenic in either species. The principal toxic effects of mevinphos, both short- and long term, were due to inhibition of cholinesterase activity. Consequently, potential adverse effects from short-term exposures were the primary concern. A human no-observed-effect level (0.025 mg/kg) for cholinergic signs was used as the regulatory basis for calculating margins of safety (MOSs) for potential acute dietary and short-term occupational exposures. Estimates of exposure to mixer/loaders, pilots, and flaggers associated with aerial application of mevinphos were based on passive dosimetry. Because no acceptable exposure studies for work tasks associated with ground application of mevinphos were available, surrogate data based on ground application of oxydemeton-methyl were used. Exposure estimates for field workers and harvesters relied on measured dislodgeable foliar residues of mevinphos and transfer factors generated from studies of other active ingredients. MOSs for mean acute occupational exposure of mixer/loader/applicators associated with ground application and of harvesters working in fruit trees were less than the value conventionally recommended to protect people from the toxic effects of mevinphos. MOSs for the 95th percentile of short-term worker exposure for all mixer/loader work categories associated with mevinphos application were also inadequate. Calculated MOSs for potential acute dietary exposure to measured residue levels of mevinphos were adequate for the various population subgroups. However, 25 of the USEPA tolerances for mevinphos on agricultural commodities were not adequate to protect for the toxic effects of mevinphos from theoretical acute dietary exposure to one or more population subgroups if commodities are consumed with residues at the tolerance level. When the mean short-term occupational exposures were combined with potential acute dietary exposure, the MOSs for mixer/loaders engaged in aerial applications, as well as ground applications, were inadequate to protect people from the toxic effects of mevinphos. As mitigation of the estimated excessive occupational exposures did not appear possible, both California and the USEPA were preparing to cancel registration of the product. However, an agreement was worked out between the manufacturer and the two agencies that ended production for domestic use but allowed existing stocks in the channels of trade to continue to be used for a limited period. PMID:8714219

  18. Soft tissue sarcoma and occupational exposures

    SciTech Connect

    Wingren, G.; Fredrikson, M.; Brage, H.N.; Nordenskjoeld, B.A.; Axelson, O. )

    1990-08-15

    The associations between soft tissue sarcoma (STS) and occupational exposures were studied in a case-referent study in the southeast of Sweden. Exposure information was obtained through mailed questionnaires to 96 cases, 450 randomly selected population referents, and 200 cancer referents. Odds ratios (OR), were calculated for various occupational groups, and particularly, for occupations with potential exposure to chlorinated phenoxy herbicides and chlorophenols. In the analyses based on population referents, increased risks for soft tissue sarcoma were seen for especially gardeners (OR = 4.1), but also railroad workers (OR = 3.1); construction workers with exposure to impregnating agents (OR = 2.3), asbestos (OR = 1.8), or pressure impregnating agents (OR = 1.7); and unspecified chemical workers with potential exposure to phenoxy herbicides and/or chlorophenols (OR = 1.6). A similar pattern appeared when cancer referents were used although the numerical values of the odds ratios became different. A grouping of jobs resulted in Mantel-Haensel OR from 1.5 to 1.9 for farmers and forestry workers, dependent on referents used and even more increased OR for railroad workers and unspecified chemical workers with potential exposure to phenoxy herbicides and chlorophenols. The results of the study confirm rather than refute that phenoxy herbicides and chlorophenols could be of etiologic importance for STS; the high risk for gardeners, although based on a small number of individuals, was unexpected and remains unclear. Also, since other cancers were used as referents, no definite problems of recall bias should obtain in this material. None of the exposed groups had a higher proportion of smokers than the unexposed group.

  19. Overview of occupational exposure to electric and magnetic fields and cancer: Advancements in exposure assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Savitz, D.A.

    1995-03-01

    For over ten years, there has been concern with the potential for increased risk of cancer among {open_quotes}electrical workers.{close_quotes} In contrast to studies of residential exposure to magnetic fields, occupational studies include electric and magnetic field exposures and have much greater variability in field intensity, frequency, and temporal patterns. Studies of leukemia in electrical workers show a moderate consistency, with elevated risk ratios of 1.2 to 2.0 commonly observed. Brain tumors are similarly elevated with some consistency, and three recent studies have suggested increased risk of male breast cancer. Retrospective exposure assessment methods were advanced in recent studies of diverse occupations in a study in central Sweden, which yielded evidence of increased risk of chronic lymphocytic leukemia among men in more highly exposed occupations. A study of telephone workers in New York State incorporated measurements and found some indication of increased leukemia risk only when exposures were based on historical technology. Utility workers in southern California were studied and found not to have increased risks of leukemia and brain cancer based on exposures estimated with measurements. An ongoing study of electric utility workers at five companies in the United States incorporates an extensive measurement protocol. Randomly selected workers within occupational categories wore a time integrating magnetic-field meter to provide estimates of exposure for the occupational category. We were able to estimate and partition the variance into between-day (the largest contributor), within occupational categories, and between occupational categories. Principal research needs concern optimal levels of worker aggregation for exposure assignment, historical extrapolation, study of diverse work environments, and integration of residential and occupational exposure in the same study. 19 refs., 1 tab.

  20. Overview of occupational exposure to electric and magnetic fields and cancer: advancements in exposure assessment.

    PubMed

    Savitz, D A

    1995-03-01

    For over ten years, there has been concern with the potential for increased risk of cancer among "electrical workers." In contrast to studies of residential exposure to magnetic fields, occupational studies include electric and magnetic field exposures and have much greater variability in field intensity, frequency, and temporal patterns. Studies of leukemia in electrical workers show a moderate consistency, with elevated risk ratios of 1.2 to 2.0 commonly observed. Brain tumors are similarly elevated with some consistency, and three recent studies have suggested increased risk of male breast cancer. Retrospective exposure assessment methods were advanced in recent studies of diverse occupations in a study in central Sweden, which yielded evidence of increased risk of chronic lymphocytic leukemia among men in more highly exposed occupations. A study of telephone workers in New York State incorporated measurements and found some indication of increased leukemia risk only when exposures were based on historical technology. Utility workers in southern California were studied and found not to have increased risks of leukemia and brain cancer based on exposures estimated with measurements. An ongoing study of electric utility workers at five companies in the United States incorporates an extensive measurement protocol. Randomly selected workers within occupational categories wore a time-integrating magnetic-field meter to provide estimates of exposure for the occupational category. We were able to estimate and partition the variance into between-day (the largest contributor), within occupational categories, and between occupational categories. Principal research needs concern optimal levels of worker aggregation for exposure assignment, historical extrapolation, study of diverse work environments, and integration of residential and occupational exposure in the same study. PMID:7614951

  1. Neurotoxic effects of occupational exposure to organotins

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, W.D.; Emmett, E.A.; Steiner, J.; Tureen, R.

    1981-08-01

    The authors gave 22 chemical workers neurological, psychiatric, and neuropsychological examinations and placed them in one of two groups according to their degree of exposure to trimethyltin chloride spillage during January 1978. Other chemicals to which they had been exposed were dimethyltin dichloride and methyl chloride. Specific and nonspecific symptoms of intoxication of the CNS showed a significantly greater frequency in the highly exposed group, including cycles of depression and destructive rage, each lasting a few hours. These observations should alert diagnosticians to this type of occupational exposure.

  2. Biological monitoring of occupational exposure to tetrahydrofuran.

    PubMed Central

    Ong, C N; Chia, S E; Phoon, W H; Tan, K T

    1991-01-01

    Occupational exposure to tetrahydrofuran (THF) was studied by analysis of environmental air, blood, alveolar air, and urine from 58 workers in a video tape manufacturing plant. Head space gas chromatography (GC) with an FID detector was used for determination of THF concentration in alveolar air, urine, and blood. Environmental exposure to THF was measured by personal sampling with a carbon felt passive dosimeter. When the end of shift urinary THF concentrations were compared with environmental time weighted average (TWA) values, urinary THF concentration corrected for specific gravity correlated well with THF concentration in air (r = 0.88), and uncorrected urinary THF concentration gave a similar result (r = 0.86). Correction for creatinine in urine weakened the correlation (r = 0.56). For exposure at the TWA concentration of 200 ppm the extrapolated concentration of THF was 33 mumol/l in blood and 111.9 mumol/l (61 mumol/g creatinine) or 109 mumol/l at a specific gravity of 1.018 in urine. The correlation between exposure to THF and its concentration in exhaled breath and blood was low (r = 0.61 and 0.68 respectively). Laboratory methodological considerations together with the good correlation between urinary THF concentration and the environmental concentration suggest that THF concentration in urine is a useful biological indicator of occupational exposure to THF. PMID:1911404

  3. Monitoring occupational exposure to cancer chemotherapy drugs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, E. S.; Connor, T. H.

    1996-01-01

    Reports of the health effects of handling cytotoxic drugs and compliance with guidelines for handling these agents are briefly reviewed, and studies using analytical and biological methods of detecting exposure are evaluated. There is little conclusive evidence of detrimental health effects from occupational exposure to cytotoxic drugs. Work practices have improved since the issuance of guidelines for handling these drugs, but compliance with the recommended practices is still inadequate. Of 64 reports published since 1979 on studies of workers' exposure to these drugs, 53 involved studies of changes in cellular or molecular endpoints (biological markers) and 12 described chemical analyses of drugs or their metabolites in urine (2 involved both, and 2 reported the same study). The primary biological markers used were urine mutagenicity, sister chromatid exchange, and chromosomal aberrations; other studies involved formation of micronuclei and measurements of urinary thioethers. The studies had small sample sizes, and the methods were qualitative, nonspecific, subject to many confounders, and possibly not sensitive enough to detect most occupational exposures. Since none of the currently available biological and analytical methods is sufficiently reliable or reproducible for routine monitoring of exposure in the workplace, further studies using these methods are not recommended; efforts should focus instead on wide-spread implementation of improved practices for handling cytotoxic drugs.

  4. [Occupational exposure to chromium(VI) compounds].

    PubMed

    Skowroń, Jolanta; Konieczko, Katarzyna

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the effect of chromium(VI) (Cr(VI)) on human health under conditions of acute and chronic exposure in the workplace. Chromium(VI) compounds as carcinogens and/or mutagens pose a direct danger to people exposed to them. If carcinogens cannot be eliminated from the work and living environments, their exposure should be reduced to a minimum. In the European Union the proposed binding occupational exposure limit value (BOELV) for chromium(VI) of 0.025 mg/m³ is still associated with high cancer risk. Based on the Scientific Commitee of Occupational Exposure Limits (SCOEL) document chromium(VI) concentrations at 0.025 mg/m³ increases the risk of lung cancer in 2-14 cases per 1000 exposed workers. Exposure to chromium(VI) compounds expressed in Cr(VI) of 0.01 mg Cr(VI)/m3; is responsible for the increased number of lung cancer cases in 1-6 per 1000 people employed in this condition for the whole period of professional activity. PMID:26325053

  5. Monitoring human occupational and environmental exposures to polycyclic aromatic compounds.

    PubMed

    Brandt, Henk C A; Watson, William P

    2003-07-01

    Many research groups have been carrying out studies to develop biomarkers of exposure to polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs) and apply these for human biomonitoring. The main objectives of the use of biomarkers are to determine specific occupational and environmental exposures to monitor the effectiveness of exposure controls and prediction of the risk of disease. This article presents a review of the literature in the field of biomarkers of human exposure to PACs and an evaluation of the relevant biomarkers for monitoring exposure to PACs in a range of exposure situations from coke ovens to bitumen handling and environmental exposures. For this evaluation, the relationships between external PAC exposures and the corresponding biomarker levels have been studied. The literature data indicate that urinary excretion of 1-hydroxypyrene correlates well with external PAC exposure and this compound appears to be a suitable marker for internal exposure to PACs. DNA adducts, mostly measured in white blood cells, do not show satisfactory correlations with exposure to PACs in a variety of workplace and exposure situations. It is not clear which factors are mainly responsible for this poor correlation. Micronuclei and sister chromatid exchanges measured in peripheral white blood cells are also unsatisfactory as biomarkers for PAC exposure. From the relatively limited data available, chromosome aberrations appear to show considerable promise as indicators of exposure to PACs. Because of their strong association with cancer, chromosome aberrations are considered suitable indicators of increased cancer risk arising from exposure to PACs. PMID:12855487

  6. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and occupational exposure to silica.

    PubMed

    Rushton, Lesley

    2007-01-01

    Prolonged exposure to high levels of silica has long been known to cause silicosis This paper evaluates the evidence for an increased risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in occupations and industries in which exposure to crystalline silica is the primary exposure, with a focus on the magnitude of risks and levels of exposure causing disabling health effects. The literature suggests consistently elevated risks of developing COPD associated with silica exposure in several occupations, including the construction industry; tunneling; cement industry; brick manufacturing; pottery and ceramic work; silica sand, granite and diatomaceous earth industries; gold mining; and iron and steel founding, with risk estimates being high in some, even after taking into account the effect of confounders like smoking. Average dust levels vary from about 0.5 mg.m3 to over 10 mg.m3 and average silica levels from 0.04 to over 5 mg.m3, often well above occupational standards. Factors influencing the variation from industry to industry in risks associated with exposure to silica-containing dusts include (a) the presence of other minerals in the dust, particularly when associated with clay minerals; (b) the size of the particles and percentage of quartz; (c) the physicochemical characteristics, such as whether the dust is freshly fractured. Longitudinal studies suggest that loss of lung function occurs with exposure to silica dust at concentrations of between 0.1 and 0.2 mg.m3, and that the effect of cumulative silica dust exposure on airflow obstruction is independent of silicosis. Nevertheless, a disabling loss of lung function in the absence of silicosis would not occur until between 30 and 40 years exposure. PMID:18351226

  7. Lead exposure among five distinct occupational groups: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Gharaibeh, Mohammad Younis; Alzoubi, Karem Hasan; Khabour, Omar Falah; Khader, Yousef Saleh; Gharaibeh, Mamoun Abdallah; Matarneh, Sulaiman Khalid

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate blood lead concentration among five selected occupational groups. The five groups were: hospital health workers, shop workers, taxi drivers, automobiles mechanics, and wood workers. The groups did not significantly differ among each other in the average of age and work years. ANOVA test revealed significantly higher mean lead blood concentration in taxi drivers, automechanics, and wood workers compared to other groups. Additionally, workers with lead concentration >0.483 umol/L (10?g/dL) were more likely to have frequent muscle pain compared to those with lower concentrations. No association between other symptoms of lead exposure/toxicity and blood lead concentration was detected. In conclusion, special attention must be directed toward lead blood levels and lead poisoning symptoms when examining patients from certain occupational groups such as taxi drivers, automechanics, and wood workers. Special safety precautions and educational programs are also needed to limit the lead exposure in these occupational groups. PMID:24374433

  8. Occupational exposure to crystalline silica and autoimmune disease.

    PubMed Central

    Parks, C G; Conrad, K; Cooper, G S

    1999-01-01

    Occupational exposure to silica dust has been examined as a possible risk factor with respect to several systemic autoimmune diseases, including scleroderma, rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and some of the small vessel vasculitidies with renal involvement (e.g., Wegener granulomatosis). Crystalline silica, or quartz, is an abundant mineral found in sand, rock, and soil. High-level exposure to respirable silica dust can cause chronic inflammation and fibrosis in the lung and other organs. Studies of specific occupational groups with high-level silica exposure (e.g., miners) have shown increased rates of autoimmune diseases compared to the expected rates in the general population. However, some clinic- and population-based studies have not demonstrated an association between silica exposure and risk of autoimmune diseases. This lack of effect may be due to the limited statistical power of these studies to examine this association or because the lower- or moderate-level exposures that may be more common in the general population were not considered. Experimental studies demonstrate that silica can act as an adjuvant to nonspecifically enhance the immune response. This is one mechanism by which silica might be involved in the development of autoimmune diseases. Given that several different autoimmune diseases may be associated with silica dust exposure, silica dust may act to promote or accelerate disease development, requiring some other factor to break immune tolerance or initiate autoimmunity. The specific manifestation of this effect may depend on underlying differences in genetic susceptibility or other environmental exposures. PMID:10970168

  9. Occupational exposure to crystalline silica and autoimmune disease.

    PubMed

    Parks, C G; Conrad, K; Cooper, G S

    1999-10-01

    Occupational exposure to silica dust has been examined as a possible risk factor with respect to several systemic autoimmune diseases, including scleroderma, rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and some of the small vessel vasculitidies with renal involvement (e.g., Wegener granulomatosis). Crystalline silica, or quartz, is an abundant mineral found in sand, rock, and soil. High-level exposure to respirable silica dust can cause chronic inflammation and fibrosis in the lung and other organs. Studies of specific occupational groups with high-level silica exposure (e.g., miners) have shown increased rates of autoimmune diseases compared to the expected rates in the general population. However, some clinic- and population-based studies have not demonstrated an association between silica exposure and risk of autoimmune diseases. This lack of effect may be due to the limited statistical power of these studies to examine this association or because the lower- or moderate-level exposures that may be more common in the general population were not considered. Experimental studies demonstrate that silica can act as an adjuvant to nonspecifically enhance the immune response. This is one mechanism by which silica might be involved in the development of autoimmune diseases. Given that several different autoimmune diseases may be associated with silica dust exposure, silica dust may act to promote or accelerate disease development, requiring some other factor to break immune tolerance or initiate autoimmunity. The specific manifestation of this effect may depend on underlying differences in genetic susceptibility or other environmental exposures. PMID:10970168

  10. Assessing occupational exposure to sea lamprey pesticides

    PubMed Central

    Ceballos, Diana M; Beaucham, Catherine C; Kurtz, Kristine; Musolin, Kristin

    2015-01-01

    Background: Sea lampreys are parasitic fish found in lakes of the United States and Canada. Sea lamprey is controlled through manual application of the pesticides 3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol (TFM) and BayluscideTM into streams and tributaries. 3-Trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol may cause irritation and central nervous system depression and Bayluscide may cause irritation, dermatitis, blisters, cracking, edema, and allergic skin reactions. Objectives: To assess occupational exposures to sea lamprey pesticides. Methods: We developed a wipe method for evaluating surface and skin contamination with these pesticides. This method was field tested at a biological field station and at a pesticide river application. We also evaluated exposures using control banding tools. Results: We verified TFM surface contamination at the biological station. At the river application, we found surfaces and worker’s skin contaminated with pesticides. Conclusion: We recommended minimizing exposures by implementing engineering controls and improved use of personal protective equipment. PMID:25730600

  11. Occupational exposure to DDT among mosquito control sprayers

    SciTech Connect

    Nhachi, C.F.B.; Kasilo, O.J. )

    1990-08-01

    DDT, a broad action insecticide whose use is restricted or banned in most industrialized countries is still often used for vector control in many tropical and developing countries. Despite the fact that DDT is accumulative and persistant in the ecosystem use of such substitutes as malathion or propoxur is not popular because these increases costs by 3.4 to 8.5 fold. As such DDT is economically attractive to poorer countries. As far as can be ascertained no systemic poisoning has resulted from occupational exposure to DDT. Due to the large particle size, the amount of DDT inhaled by workers is far less than the amount reaching exposed portions of skin. As such occupational exposure is mainly dermal or tropical. Occupational exposure to DDT studies have been done before. The present study is an analysis of some characteristics, (i.e. age, body size, relationship between plasma vitamin A and DDE levels, and smoking habits), of occupational exposure to DDT among spraymen in a Zimbabwe population.

  12. Dupuytren's contracture and occupational exposure to hand-transmitted vibration

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, Keith T; D'Angelo, Stefania; Syddall, Holly; Griffin, Michael J; Cooper, Cyrus; Coggon, David

    2014-01-01

    Aims The relation between Dupuytren's contracture and occupational exposure to hand-transmitted vibration (HTV) has frequently been debated. We explored associations in a representative national sample of workers with well-characterised exposure to HTV. Methods We mailed a questionnaire to 21?201 subjects aged 1664?years, selected at random from the age-sex registers of 34 general practices in Great Britain and to 993 subjects chosen randomly from military pay records, asking about occupational exposure to 39 sources of HTV and about fixed flexion contracture of the little or ring finger. Analysis was restricted to men at work in the previous week. Estimates were made of average daily vibration dose (A(8) root mean squared velocity (rms)) over that week. Associations with Dupuytren's contracture were estimated by Poisson regression, for lifetime exposure to HTV and for exposures in the past week >A(8) of 2.8?ms?2 rms. Estimates of relative risk (prevalence ratio (PR)) were adjusted for age, smoking status, social class and certain manual activities at work. Results In all 4969 eligible male respondents supplied full information on the study variables. These included 72 men with Dupuytren's contracture, 2287 with occupational exposure to HTV and 409 with A(8)>2.8?ms?2 in the past week. PRs for occupational exposure to HTV were elevated 1.5-fold. For men with an A(8)>2.8?ms?2 in the past week, the adjusted PR was 2.85 (95% CI 1.37 to 5.97). Conclusions Our findings suggest that risk of Dupuytren's contracture is more than doubled in men with high levels of weekly exposure to HTV. PMID:24449599

  13. Occupational exposure to hydrazine and subsequent risk of cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Wald, N; Boreham, J; Doll, R; Bonsall, J

    1984-01-01

    Four hundred and twenty seven men with varying degrees of occupational exposure to hydrazine, a weak animal carcinogen, were studied to see if they provided any evidence of carcinogenicity to man. The observed mortality was close to that expected for lung cancer, other cancers, and all other causes, irrespective of the level of exposure. There were 49 deaths (61.47 expected) from all causes including five deaths from lung cancer (6.65 expected). The results show that no obvious hazards associated with hydrazine exposure have yet appeared but because of the small number of men studied they can only exclude gross hazards. PMID:6691933

  14. 29 CFR 1926.52 - Occupational noise exposure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Occupational noise exposure. 1926.52 Section 1926.52 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Occupational Health and Environmental Controls § 1926.52 Occupational...

  15. 29 CFR 1926.52 - Occupational noise exposure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Occupational noise exposure. 1926.52 Section 1926.52 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Occupational Health and Environmental Controls § 1926.52 Occupational...

  16. 29 CFR 1926.52 - Occupational noise exposure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Occupational noise exposure. 1926.52 Section 1926.52 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Occupational Health and Environmental Controls § 1926.52 Occupational...

  17. Occupational exposure to diesel engine exhaust: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Pronk, Anjoeka; Coble, Joseph; Stewart, Patricia A

    2009-07-01

    Diesel exhaust (DE) is classified as a probable human carcinogen. Aims were to describe the major occupational uses of diesel engines and give an overview of personal DE exposure levels and determinants of exposure as reported in the published literature. Measurements representative of personal DE exposure were abstracted from the literature for the following agents: elemental carbon (EC), particulate matter (PM), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxide (NO), and nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)). Information on determinants of exposure was abstracted. In total, 3528 EC, 4166 PM, 581 CO, 322 NO, and 1404 NO(2) measurements were abstracted. From the 10,001 measurements, 32% represented exposure from on-road vehicles and 68% from off-road vehicles (30% mining, 15% railroad, and 22% others). Highest levels were reported for enclosed underground work sites in which heavy equipment is used: mining, mine maintenance, and construction (EC: 27-658 microg/m(3)). Intermediate exposure levels were generally reported for above-ground (semi-) enclosed areas in which smaller equipment was run: mechanics in a shop, emergency workers in fire stations, distribution workers at a dock, and workers loading/unloading inside a ferry (generally: EC<50 microg/m(3)). Lowest levels were reported for enclosed areas separated from the source, such as drivers and train crew, or outside, such as surface mining, parking attendants, vehicle testers, utility service workers, surface construction and airline ground personnel (EC<25 microg/m(3)). The other agents showed a similar pattern. Determinants of exposure reported for enclosed situations were ventilation and exhaust after treatment devices. Reported DE exposure levels were highest for underground mining and construction, intermediate for working in above-ground (semi-) enclosed areas and lowest for working outside or separated from the source. The presented data can be used as a basis for assessing occupational exposure in population-based epidemiological studies and guide future exposure assessment efforts for industrial hygiene and epidemiological studies. PMID:19277070

  18. Occupational exposure to diesel engine exhaust: A literature review

    PubMed Central

    Pronk, Anjoeka; Coble, Joseph; Stewart, Patricia

    2010-01-01

    Background Diesel exhaust (DE) is classified as a probable human carcinogen. Aims were to describe the major occupational uses of diesel engines and give an overview of personal DE exposure levels and determinants of exposure as reported in the published literature. Methods Measurements representative of personal DE exposure were abstracted from the literature for the following agents: elemental carbon (EC), particulate matter (PM), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxide (NO), and nitrogen dioxide (NO2). Information on determinants of exposure was abstracted. Results In total, 3528 EC, 4166 PM, 581 CO, 322 NO, and 1404 NO2 measurements were abstracted. From the 10,001 measurements, 32% represented exposure from on-road vehicles, and 68% from off-road vehicles (30% mining, 15% railroad, and 22% other). Highest levels were reported for enclosed underground work sites where heavy equipment is used: mining, mine maintenance, and construction, (EC: 27-658 μg/m3). Intermediate exposure levels were generally reported for above ground (semi-)enclosed areas where smaller equipment was run: mechanics in a shop, emergency workers in fire stations, distribution workers at a dock, and workers loading/unloading inside a ferry (generally: EC< 50 μg/m3). Lowest levels were reported for enclosed areas separated from the source such as drivers and train crew, or outside such as surface mining, parking attendants, vehicle testers, utility service workers, surface construction and airline ground personnel (EC<25 μg/m3). The other agents showed a similar pattern. Determinants of exposure reported for enclosed situations were ventilation and exhaust after treatment devices. Conclusions Reported DE exposure levels were highest for underground mining and construction, intermediate for working in above ground (semi-)enclosed areas and lowest for working outside or separated from the source. The presented data can be used as a basis for assessing occupational exposure in population-based epidemiological studies and guide future exposure assessment efforts for industrial hygiene and epidemiological studies. PMID:19277070

  19. 30 CFR 62.130 - Permissible exposure level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... REGULATIONS OCCUPATIONAL NOISE EXPOSURE § 62.130 Permissible exposure level. (a) The mine operator must assure that no miner is exposed during any work shift to noise that exceeds the permissible exposure level. If during any work shift a miner's noise exposure exceeds the permissible exposure level, the mine...

  20. 30 CFR 62.130 - Permissible exposure level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... REGULATIONS OCCUPATIONAL NOISE EXPOSURE § 62.130 Permissible exposure level. (a) The mine operator must assure that no miner is exposed during any work shift to noise that exceeds the permissible exposure level. If during any work shift a miner's noise exposure exceeds the permissible exposure level, the mine...

  1. Metallothionein and occupational exposure to cadmium.

    PubMed Central

    Falck, F Y; Fine, L J; Smith, R G; Garvey, J; Schork, A; England, B; McClatchey, K D; Linton, J

    1983-01-01

    The relationship between metallothionein (MT), chronic exposure to cadmium (Cd), and renal function was investigated in 53 men who were occupationally exposed to Cd. The aim was to determine if MT is a potential biological monitor for chronic exposure to Cd which would be useful for preventing Cd nephropathy. In this study MT excretion, serum MT, and serum creatinine concentrations were significantly higher in subjects with abnormal renal function who had been exposed to Cd. MT excretion was also linearly related on an individual basis to protein excretion, beta 2-microglobulin (beta 2-M) excretion, and cumulative time weighted exposure (dose). MT excretion was also a better predictor of dose than either beta 2-M excretion or Cd excretion. The findings suggest that MT is a potential biological monitor for chronic Cd exposure that would be useful for preventing Cd-induced nephropathy. Further studies of non-specific nephropathies and MT are needed to determine if MT is a specific indicator of proximal tubule function secondary to chronic exposure to Cd. PMID:6347245

  2. Occupational noise exposure in the printing industry

    SciTech Connect

    McMahon, K.J.; McManus, P.E.

    1988-01-01

    The noise exposures of 274 printing production workers in 34 establishments in the New York city area were monitored. Results showed that 43% were exposed to 8-hr time-weighted average (TWA) noise exposures of 85 dBA or greater and that 14% were exposed to 8-hr TWAs of 90 dBA or greater. Within the press department, web press workers were exposed to significantly greater mean 8-hr TWAs than sheetfed press workers. In general, a greater percentage of the workers in the bindery departments were exposed to potentially harmful noise than workers in the press departments. Results of this study indicate that many workers in the printing industry may be at risk of occupational hearing loss. Further research is needed to determine the extent of hearing impairment in this group of workers.

  3. Gene-environment interaction and biological monitoring of occupational exposures

    SciTech Connect

    Hirvonen, Ari . E-mail: Ari.Hirvonen@ttl.fi

    2005-09-01

    Biological monitoring methods and biological limit values applied in occupational and environmental medicine have been traditionally developed on the assumption that individuals do not differ significantly in their biotransformation capacities. It has become clear, however, that this is not the case, but wide inter-individual differences exist in the metabolism of chemicals. Integration of the data on individual metabolic capacity in biological monitoring studies is therefore anticipated to represent a significant refinement of the currently used methods. We have recently conducted several biological monitoring studies on occupationally exposed subjects, which have included the determination of the workers' genotypes for the metabolic genes of potential importance for a given chemical exposure. The exposure levels have been measured by urine metabolites, adducts in blood macromolecules, and cytogenetic alterations in lymphocytes. Our studies indicate that genetic polymorphisms in metabolic genes may indeed be important modifiers of individual biological monitoring results of, e.g., carbon disulphide and styrene. The information is anticipated to be useful in insuring that the workplace is safe for everyone, including the most sensitive individuals. This knowledge could also be useful to occupational physicians, industrial hygienists, and regulatory bodies in charge of defining acceptable exposure limits for environmental and/or occupational pollutants.

  4. The interntional system on occupational exposure, ISOE

    SciTech Connect

    Lazo, T.; Miller, D.W.

    1996-06-01

    The Information System on Occupational Exposure (ISOE) was initiated by the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) in 1992 to facilitate the global exchange of dose information. The goal of the program is to provide timely benchmarking of dose performance at nuclear power plants and promote effective dose reduction practices. Currently, over 300 nuclear power plants (70% of the world`s operating plants), representing 17 countries, participate in ISOE making it one of the largest occupational exposure data bases in the world. National regulatory authorities from 11 countries also participate. The recent developments in the ISOE data base and software enhancement will be discussed in this paper. Also, global trends will be presented comparing dose by plant, country, type of reactor, age of reactor, total annual dose, outage dose, dose per outage task and historical dose. Results of software development committee`s work on ACCESS applications for the ISOE data base will be presented. Finally, highlights of technical reports from regional ISOE centers including Illinois, Paris, Tokyo, and Vienna will be summarized.

  5. Environmental and Occupational Exposures in Immigrant Health

    PubMed Central

    Eamranond, Pracha P.; Hu, Howard

    2008-01-01

    Immigrants comprise vulnerable populations that are frequently exposed to a multitude of environmental and occupational hazards. The historical context behind state and federal legislation has helped to foster an environment that is particularly hostile toward caring for immigrant health. Current hazards include toxic exposures, air and noise pollution, motor vehicle accidents, crowded living and work environments with inadequate ventilation, poor sanitation, mechanical injury, among many others. Immigrants lack the appropriate training, materials, health care access, and other resources to reduce their exposure to preventable environmental and occupational health risks. This dilemma is exacerbated by current anti-immigrant sentiments, miscommunication between native and immigrant populations, and legislation denying immigrants access to publicly funded medical care. Given that current health policy has failed to address immigrant health appropriately and political impetus is lacking, efforts should also focus on alternative solutions, including organized labor. Labor unions that serve to educate workers, survey work environments, and defend worker rights will greatly alleviate and prevent the burden of disease incurred by immigrants. The nations health will benefit from improved regulation of living and workplace environments to improve the health of immigrants, regardless of legal status. PMID:21572847

  6. Early Liver and Kidney Dysfunction Associated with Occupational Exposure to Sub-Threshold Limit Value Levels of Benzene, Toluene, and Xylenes in Unleaded Petrol

    PubMed Central

    Neghab, Masoud; Hosseinzadeh, Kiamars; Hassanzadeh, Jafar

    2015-01-01

    Background Unleaded petrol contains significant amounts of monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons such as benzene, toluene, and xylenes (BTX). Toxic responses following occupational exposure to unleaded petrol have been evaluated only in limited studies. The main purpose of this study was to ascertain whether (or not) exposure to unleaded petrol, under normal working conditions, is associated with any hepatotoxic or nephrotoxic response. Methods This was a cross-sectional study in which 200 employees of Shiraz petrol stations with current exposure to unleaded petrol, as well as 200 unexposed employees, were investigated. Atmospheric concentrations of BTX were measured using standard methods. Additionally, urine and fasting blood samples were taken from individuals for urinalysis and routine biochemical tests of kidney and liver function. Results The geometric means of airborne concentrations of BTX were found to be 0.8 mg m−3, 1.4 mg m−3, and 2.8 mg m−3, respectively. Additionally, means of direct bilirubin, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, blood urea and plasma creatinine were significantly higher in exposed individuals than in unexposed employees. Conversely, serum albumin, total protein, and serum concentrations of calcium and sodium were significantly lower in petrol station workers than in their unexposed counterparts. Conclusion The average exposure of petrol station workers to BTX did not exceed the current threshold limit values (TLVs) for these chemicals. However, evidence of subtle, subclinical and prepathologic early liver and kidney dysfunction was evident in exposed individuals. PMID:26929843

  7. Chemical exposure and occupational symptoms among Portuguese hairdressers.

    PubMed

    Mendes, Ana; Madureira, Joana; Neves, Paula; Carvalhais, Carlos; Laffon, Blanca; Teixeira, Joo P

    2011-01-01

    Hairdressing is predominantly a female activity, in which several chemicals are handled, some of which are known to be allergenic and potentially carcinogenic. Several epidemiological studies showed an association between occupational exposure to chemicals in hairdressing salons and skin and respiratory-tract conditions. The aim of this study were to characterize the occupational exposure to total volatile organic compounds (VOC) and ammonia (NH?) in 50 Portuguese hairdressers' salons and to analyze the prevalence of respiratory and skin symptoms in 134 hairdressing professionals. Data indicated that internal sources of total VOC are mainly due to indoor sources, with average concentrations (1.4 mg/m) above the Portuguese reference levels (0.6 mg/m). Of the hairdressers' salons studied, 4% had a mean NH? concentration higher than Portuguese (20 ppm) and American Conference of Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) (25 ppm) reference levels. Hand dermatitis was the occupational symptom most reported by hairdressers (50%), followed by eye irritation (43%). The results of this study suggest that hairdressers' occupational activities are linked with higher risk of developing hand and wrist/arm dermatitis and symptoms in the upper respiratory tract. The proper use of disposable gloves, hands, wrists, and arms skin monitoring, and the frequent use of moisturizers in the workplace are effective measures to prevent the occurrence of dermatitis in these professionals. Displacement ventilation and/or local exhaust with adequate air exchange rate are recommended particularly in technical areas where hairdressing chemicals are mixed. PMID:21707424

  8. Occupational exposure to environmental tobacco smoke: results of two personal exposure studies.

    PubMed Central

    Jenkins, R A; Counts, R W

    1999-01-01

    Personal monitoring is a more accurate measure of individual exposure to airborne constituents because it incorporates human activity patterns and collects actual breathing zone samples to which subjects are exposed. Two recent studies conducted by our laboratory offer perspective on occupational exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) from a personal exposure standpoint. In a study of nearly 1600 workers, levels of ETS were lower than or comparable to those in earlier studies. Limits on smoking in designated areas also acted to reduce overall exposure of workers. In facilities where smoking is permitted, ETS exposures are 10 to 20 times greater than in facilities in which smoking is banned. Service workers were exposed to higher levels of ETS than workers in white-collar occupations. For the narrower occupational category of waiters, waitresses, and bartenders, a second study in one urban location indicated that ETS levels to which wait staff are exposed are not considerably different from those exposure levels of subjects in the larger study who work in environments in which smoking is unrestricted. Bartenders were exposed to higher ETS levels, but there is a distinction between bartenders working in smaller facilities and those working in multiroom restaurant bars, with the former exposed to higher levels of ETS than the latter. In addition, ETS levels encountered by these more highly exposed workers are lower that those estimated by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration. Concomitant area monitoring in the smaller study suggests that area samples can only be used to estimate individual personal exposure to within an order of magnitude or greater. PMID:10350519

  9. Hearing loss in the elderly: History of occupational noise exposure

    PubMed Central

    Meneses-Barriviera, Caroline Luiz; Melo, Juliana Jandre; Marchiori, Luciana Lozza de Moraes

    2013-01-01

    Summary Introduction: Noise exposure is one of the most common health risk factors, and workers are exposed to sound pressure levels capable of producing hearing loss. Aim: To assess the prevalence of hearing loss in the elderly and its possible association with a history of occupational noise exposure and with sex. Methods: A prospective study in subjects aged over 60 years. The subjects underwent anamnesis and audiological assessment. The Mann–Whitney test and multiple logistic regression, with 95% confidence interval and p < 0.05, were used for statistical analysis. Results: There were 498 subjects from both sexes, and the median age was 69 years. From the comparison between men and women, we obtained the medium hearing I (500, 1000, and 2000 Hz p = 0.8318) and the mean hearing II (3000, 4000, and 6000 Hz; p < 0.0001). Comparing the thresholds of individuals with and without a history of occupational noise exposure, we obtained the medium hearing I (p = 0.9542) and the mean hearing II (p = 0.0007). Conclusion: There was a statistically significant association between hearing loss at high frequencies and the risk factors being male and occupational noise exposure. PMID:25992010

  10. Worker awareness of exposure: industries and occupations with low awareness.

    PubMed

    Behrens, V J; Brackbill, R M

    1993-05-01

    A goal of occupational health is to inform workers of hazards on their jobs. This analysis addresses this goal by identifying industries and occupations with low worker awareness of potential exposures. Industries and occupations were ranked by the greatest positive difference between the proportion of workers exposed and proportion perceiving exposure to chemical and physical hazards. Those with low awareness had the greatest difference, i.e., high exposure and low perception. This analysis was performed by adding exposure data from a national exposure survey to a national health survey with perceived exposure data. The hospital and construction industries and occupations in these industries ranked among the top five for all hazards. For example, for hospital workers the difference between proportion exposed and proportion perceiving exposure to chemicals was 62% and to radiation was 42%, and for workers in construction the difference was 54% for exposure to noise and 63% for exposure to vibration. PMID:8506847

  11. Parental occupational exposure and spontaneous abortions in Finland

    SciTech Connect

    Lindbohm, M.L.; Hemminki, K.; Kyyroenen, P.

    1984-09-01

    Spontaneous abortions were analyzed by the occupational exposure of women and their husbands, with data from the Finnish hospital discharge register and the national census. The occupations were grouped according to presumed exposure into seven categories: exposure to solvent; automobile exhaust fumes; polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; other chemicals; metals; textile dust; and animal microorganisms. The relative risks of spontaneous abortion were estimated with logistic regression analysis to adjust for potentially confounding factors. The broad exposure categories appeared, at most, to be weak risk factors of spontaneous abortion, because the relative risks of abortion were not significantly increased in any of the parental exposure groups. The analysis of detailed occupational categories showed some female and male occupations with an increased risk. The observations of increased risk related to laboratory work supported earlier findings. The high number of textile occupations with increased risk is also worth noting, and further investigations are necessary to confirm whether this is due to occupational hazards or other factors.

  12. Preconception Brief: Occupational/Environmental Exposures

    PubMed Central

    Gehle, Kim

    2006-01-01

    In the last decade, more than half of U.S. children were born to working mothers and 65% of working men and women were of reproductive age. In 2004 more than 28 million women age 1844 were employed full time. This implies the need for clinicians to possess an awareness about the impact of work on the health of their patients and their future offspring. Most chemicals in the workplace have not been evaluated for reproductive toxicity, and where exposure limits do exist, they were generally not designed to mitigate reproductive risk. Therefore, many toxicants with unambiguous reproductive and developmental effects are still in regular commercial or therapeutic use and thus present exposure potential to workers. Examples of these include heavy metals, (lead, cadmium), organic solvents (glycol ethers, percholoroethylene), pesticides and herbicides (ethylene dibromide) and sterilants, anesthetic gases and anti-cancer drugs used in healthcare. Surprisingly, many of these reproductive toxicants are well represented in traditional employment sectors of women, such as healthcare and cosmetology. Environmental exposures also figure prominently in evaluating a womans health risk and that to a pregnancy. Food and water quality and pesticide and solvent usage are increasingly topics raised by women and men contemplating pregnancy. The microenvironment of a woman, such as her choices of hobbies and leisure time activities also come into play. Caregivers must be aware of their patients potential environmental and workplace exposures and weigh any risk of exposure in the context of the time-dependent window of reproductive susceptibility. This will allow informed decision-making about the need for changes in behavior, diet, hobbies or the need for added protections on the job or alternative duty assignment. Examples of such environmental and occupational history elements will be presented together with counseling strategies for the clinician. PMID:16897370

  13. Preconception brief: occupational/environmental exposures.

    PubMed

    McDiarmid, Melissa A; Gehle, Kim

    2006-09-01

    In the last decade, more than half of U.S. children were born to working mothers and 65% of working men and women were of reproductive age. In 2004 more than 28 million women age 18-44 were employed full time. This implies the need for clinicians to possess an awareness about the impact of work on the health of their patients and their future offspring. Most chemicals in the workplace have not been evaluated for reproductive toxicity, and where exposure limits do exist, they were generally not designed to mitigate reproductive risk. Therefore, many toxicants with unambiguous reproductive and developmental effects are still in regular commercial or therapeutic use and thus present exposure potential to workers. Examples of these include heavy metals, (lead, cadmium), organic solvents (glycol ethers, percholoroethylene), pesticides and herbicides (ethylene dibromide) and sterilants, anesthetic gases and anti-cancer drugs used in healthcare. Surprisingly, many of these reproductive toxicants are well represented in traditional employment sectors of women, such as healthcare and cosmetology. Environmental exposures also figure prominently in evaluating a woman's health risk and that to a pregnancy. Food and water quality and pesticide and solvent usage are increasingly topics raised by women and men contemplating pregnancy. The microenvironment of a woman, such as her choices of hobbies and leisure time activities also come into play. Caregivers must be aware of their patients' potential environmental and workplace exposures and weigh any risk of exposure in the context of the time-dependent window of reproductive susceptibility. This will allow informed decision-making about the need for changes in behavior, diet, hobbies or the need for added protections on the job or alternative duty assignment. Examples of such environmental and occupational history elements will be presented together with counseling strategies for the clinician. PMID:16897370

  14. [Biological monitoring of occupational exposure to sevoflurane].

    PubMed

    Imbriani, M; Zadra, P; Negri, S; Alessio, A; Maestri, L; Ghittori, S

    2001-01-01

    Sevoflurane has been used in the last few years in brief surgical operations, either alone or in combination with nitrous oxide. Occupationally exposed groups include anesthesiologists, surgeons and operating room nurses. In 1977 the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) recommended that occupational exposure to halogenated anesthetic agents (halothane, enflurane, and isoflurane), when used as the sole anesthetic, should be controlled so that no worker would be exposed to time-weighted average concentrations greater than 2 ppm during anesthetic administration. When halogenated anesthetics are associated with nitrous oxide, NIOSH recommends that the limit value should not exceed 0.5 ppm. We think these recommendations can be extended to sevoflurane. Metabolism of sevoflurane is catalyzed by cytochrome P-450; this involves oxidation of the fluoromethyl side chain of the molecule, followed by glucuronidation. Two urinary metabolites of sevoflurane have been identified: inorganic fluoride (which, however, is not specific) and a non-volatile compound that yields hexafluoroisopropanol (HFIP) when digested with the enzyme beta-glucuronidase. In order to investigate the role of urinary HFIP as an indicator of occupational exposure to sevoflurane (CI, ppm), CI was measured in 145 members of 18 operating room staffs. The measurements of the time-weighted average of CI in the breathing zone were made by means of diffusive personal samplers. Each sampler was exposed during the whole working period. Sevoflurane was desorbed with CS2 from charcoal and the concentrations were measured on a gas chromatograph (GC) equipped with a mass selective detector (MSD). The GC was equipped with a 25 meter cross-linked phenylmethylsilicon column (internal diameter 0.2 mm). GC conditions were as follows: injector column temperature = 200 degrees C; column temperature = 30 degrees C; carrier gas = helium; injection technique of samples = splitless. The analytical conditions for the MSD were the following: ion mass monitored = 131 m/e; dwell time = 50 msec; selected ion monitoring window time = 0.1 amu; electromultiplier = 400 V. Urine samples were collected near the end of the shift and were analyzed for HFIP by head-space gas chromatography after glucuronide hydrolysis. 0.5 ml of urine and 1.5 ml of 10 M sulfuric acid were added to 21.8 ml headspace vials. The vials were immediately capped, vortexed, and loaded into the headspace autosampler. Samples were maintained at 100 degrees C for 30 min, after which glucuronide hydrolysis was 99% complete. Analyses were performed on a GC equipped with a MSD. The analytical conditions for urine analysis were as follows: cross-linked 5% phenylmethylsilicon column (internal diameter 0.2 mm, length 25 m); column temperature = 35 degrees C; carrier gas = helium. The analytical conditions for the MSD were: monitored ions = 51.05 and 99; dwell time = 100 ms; selected ion monitoring window time = 0.1 amu; electromultiplier voltage = 2000 Volt. With our analytical procedure, the detection limit of HFIP in urine was 20 micrograms/L. The variation coefficient (CV) for HFIP measurement in urine was 8.7% (on 10 determinations; mean value = 1000 micrograms/L). The median value of CI was 0.77 ppm (Geometric Standard Deviation = 4.08; range = 0.05-27.9 ppm). The correlation between CI and HFIP (Cu, microgram/L) was: Log Cu (microgram/L) = 0.813 x Log CI (ppm) + 2.517 (r = 0.79, n = 145, p < 0.0001). On the basis of the equation it was possible to establish tentatively the biological limit values corresponding to the respective occupational exposure limit values proposed for sevoflurane. According to our experimental results, HFIP values of 488 micrograms/L and 160 micrograms/L correspond to airborne sevoflurane concentrations of 2 and 0.5 ppm respectively. PMID:11515150

  15. Antipyrine clearance during occupational exposure to styrene.

    PubMed Central

    Dssing, M

    1983-01-01

    Animal experiments have indicated that styrene, which is a widely used organic solvent, may induce the microsomal enzyme function of the liver. Thirteen workers with long-term exposure to styrene in a polyester plant were investigated. They worked at air concentrations about the maximal allowed time-weighted average concentration of styrene in most Western countries (50 ppm). The clearance of antipyrine was determined from saliva concentrations before and after three weeks free of exposure and then again three weeks after returning to work. Thirteen matched controls were investigated with similar intervals and methods. No significant differences were found between the half life, apparent volume of distribution, or clearance of antipyrine either within the groups or between the groups. The data exclude (95% confidence limit) the possibility that occupational exposure to styrene at concentrations about 50 ppm stimulates the microsomal enzyme function of the liver to a degree compatible with an increase in antipyrine clearance of more than 2 ml x min-1 (3%). While the first antipyrine estimation was carried out under medical supervision, the workers themselves managed to perform the antipyrine test correctly after verbal and written instructions. This has broadened the application of the antipyrine test. PMID:6131688

  16. 125I Measurements for Occupational Exposure Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, L.; Pinho, N. R.

    2008-08-01

    Whenever there is a risk of occupational exposure to dispersible radioactive material, it is necessary to have a monitoring program to assess the effective dose arising from the intake of radionuclides by workers. In this paper we present our experience in bioassay measurements of 125I in urine samples of workers using high resolution gamma spectrometry. For a 24-hour excretion period, we found activity values of the order of one Bq and estimated the committed effective doses to be less than one ?Sv. Although very small, these values led to a re-evaluation and improvement of the laboratory safety conditions. We discuss the calibration procedure followed for the activity measurements, the estimation of the uncertainty in the excreted activity, the calculation of detection and quantification limits and estimation of performance indicators. Aspects regarding the spectral analysis, true coincidence summing and matrix effects are also considered.

  17. 78 FR 56273 - Occupational Exposure to Respirable Crystalline Silica

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-12

    ...The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) proposes to amend its existing standards for occupational exposure to respirable crystalline silica. The basis for issuance of this proposal is a preliminary determination by the Assistant Secretary of Labor for Occupational Safety and Health that employees exposed to respirable crystalline silica face a significant risk to their health......

  18. 29 CFR 1926.52 - Occupational noise exposure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Occupational noise exposure. 1926.52 Section 1926.52 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Occupational Health and Environmental...

  19. 29 CFR 1926.52 - Occupational noise exposure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Occupational noise exposure. 1926.52 Section 1926.52 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Occupational Health and Environmental...

  20. Cardiac Autonomic Dysfunction from Occupational Exposure to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Mi-Sun; Magari, Shannon; Christiani, David C.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) exposures have been associated with cardiopulmonary mortality and cardiovascular events. This study investigated the association between a biological marker of PAHs exposure, assessed by urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP), and heart rate variability (HRV) in an occupational cohort of boilermakers. Methods Continuous 24-hour monitoring of the ambulatory electrocardiogram (ECG) and pre and post shift urinary 1-OHP were repeated over extended periods of the work week. Mixed effects models were fit for the 5-minute standard deviation of normal-to-normal intervals (SDNN) in relation to urinary 1-OHP levels pre and post workshift on the day they wore the monitor, controlling for potential confounders. Results We found a significant decrease in 5-min SDNN during work of −13.6% (95% confidence interval, −17.2% to −9.8%) for every standard deviation (0.53 microgram/gram [μg/g] creatinine) increase in the next-morning pre-shift 1-OHP levels. The magnitude of reduction in 5-min SDNN were largest during the late night period after work and increased with every standard deviation (0.46 μg/g creatinine) increase in post-shift 1-OHP levels. Conclusion This is the first report providing evidence that occupational exposure to PAHs is associated with altered cardiac autonomic function. Acute exposure to PAHs may be an important predictor of cardiovascular disease risk in the work environment. PMID:21172795

  1. 28 CFR 544.52 - Levels of Occupational Education Programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... MANAGEMENT EDUCATION Occupational Education Programs § 544.52 Levels of Occupational Education Programs. Occupational education programs are offered at the certificate level and the classroom level. Each level...

  2. OCCUPATIONAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL PESTICIDE EXPOSURE STUDY IN SOUTH FLORIDA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The investigation was designed to assess the occupational and environmental exposure to pesticides in South Florida, an area where pesticides are widely used. In addition to the conventional approach for measuring exposure to organophosphates and carbamates by means of cholineste...

  3. Occupational exposure to hydrazine and subsequent risk of cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Morris, J; Densem, J W; Wald, N J; Doll, R

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--The aim was to examine the cause specific mortality of men exposed to hydrazine. METHODS--Hydrazine was produced at a factory in the east midlands between 1945 and 1971. The cohort of all 427 men who were employed there for at least six months with varying degrees of occupational exposure to hydrazine were followed up until the end of January 1992. RESULTS--By the end of July 1982 49 deaths had occurred and the observed mortality was found to be close to that expected at each level of exposure. By the end of January 1992 a further 37 deaths had occurred. Again the observed mortality was close to that expected for all causes and also for lung cancer, cancers of the digestive system, other cancers, and all other causes, irrespective of the level of exposure. CONCLUSIONS--The results weigh against there having been any material hazard of occupational exposure to hydrazine. The small number of men studied means, however, that a relative risk as high as 3.5 for lung cancer cannot confidently be excluded. PMID:7697139

  4. Investing in Prospective Cohorts for Etiologic Study of Occupational Exposures

    PubMed Central

    Blair, A.; Hines, C.J.; Thomas, K.W.; Alavanja, M.C.R.; Beane Freeman, L.E.; Hoppin, J.A.; Kamel, F.; Lynch, C.F.; Lubin, J.H.; Silverman, D.T.; Whelan, E.; Zahm, S. H.; Sandler, D. P.

    2015-01-01

    Prospective cohorts have played a major role in understanding the contribution of diet, physical activity, medical conditions, and genes to the development of many diseases, but have not been widely used for occupational exposures. Studies in agriculture are an exception. We draw upon our experience using this design to study agricultural workers to identify conditions that might foster use of prospective cohorts to study other occupational settings. Prospective cohort studies are perceived by many as the strongest epidemiologic design. It allows updating of information on exposure and other factors, collection of biologic samples before disease diagnosis for biomarker studies, assessment of effect modification by genes, lifestyle, and other occupational exposures, and evaluation of a wide range of health outcomes. Increased use of prospective cohorts would be beneficial in identifying hazardous exposures in the workplace. Occupational epidemiologists should seek opportunities to initiate prospective cohorts to investigate high priority, occupational exposures. PMID:25603935

  5. Occupational exposures to radiofrequency fields: results of an Israeli national survey.

    PubMed

    Hareuveny, R; Kavet, R; Shachar, A; Margaliot, M; Kheifets, L

    2015-06-01

    Relatively high exposures to radiofrequency (RF) fields can occur in the broadcast, medical, and communications industries, as well in occupations that use RF emitting equipment (e.g. law enforcement). Information on exposure to workers employed in these industries and occupations is limited. We present results of an Israeli National Survey of occupational RF field levels at frequencies between ~100?kHz and 40?GHz, representing Industrial Heating, Communications, Radar, Research, and Medicine. Almost 4300 measurements from 900 sources across 25 occupations were recorded and categorised as 'routine', 'incidental', or 'unintended'. The occupation-specific geometric means (GMs) of the percentage of the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) threshold limit values (TLVs) for each of the three exposure scenarios are presented together with the geometric standard deviation (GSD). Additionally, we present estimates of occupation-specific annual personal exposures and collective exposures. The vast majority of the GM of routine exposures ranged from a fraction to less than 1% of ACGIH TLVs, except for Walkie-Talkie (GM 94% of ACGIH), Induction Heating (17%), Plastic Welding (11%), Industrial Heating (6%) and Diathermy (6%). The GM of incidental and unintended exposures exceeded the TLV for one and 14 occupations, respectively. In many cases, the within-occupation GSD was very large, and though the medians remained below TLV, variable fractions of these occupations were projected to exceed the TLV. In rank order, Walkie-Talkie, Plastic Welding, and Induction Heating workers had the highest annual cumulative personal exposure. For cumulative collective exposures within an occupation, Walkie-Talkie dominated with 96.3% of the total, reflecting both large population and high personal exposure. A brief exceedance of the TLV does not automatically translate to hazard as RF exposure limits (issued by various bodies, including ACGIH) include a 10-fold safety factor relative to thermal thresholds and are based on a 6?min averaging period. PMID:25978146

  6. [Parental occupational exposures and autism spectrum disorder in children].

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Pino-Lpez M; Romero-Ayuso DM

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Studies of siblings and twins suggest a genetic component of autism that does not fully explain its current increase. The aim is to investigate whether environmental factors such as exposure to occupational hazards (night work, handling of solvents and/or electromagnetic fields) increases the likelihood of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) in children.METHODS: Observational case control study by analyzing the records of 206 children (age between 16 and 36 months) evaluated in the Early Intervention Service of Ciudad Real (70 with ASD and 136 unaffected children). To assess the risk of ASD associated with night work, handling of solvents and/or electromagnetic fields, odds ratio (OR) were calculated with 95% confidence intervals (CI).RESULTS: The risk of ASD is multiplied by 2.22 when one parent works in the studied occupations (OR=2.22, 95% CI=1.42-3.48), highlighting work with solvents (OR=2.81, 95% CI=1.28-6.17) and night work (OR=2.18, 95% CI=1.21-3.93). It is multiplied by 3 if the mother's job is one of these occupations (OR=3, 95% CI=1.44-6.26), standing out night work (OR=3.47, 95% CI=1.39-8.63), and handling of solvents (OR=2.88, 95% CI=1.28-6.17); whereas it is multiplied by 1.94 if the father works in these occupations (OR=1.94, 95% CI=1.07-3.53), standing out handling of solvents (OR=2.81, 95% CI=1.01-7.86). A positive association between the educational level of parents and ASD is found.CONCLUSIONS: The results show a significant relationship between the exposure of the parents to occupational hazards and ASD in the children, suggesting the involvement of genetic alterations caused by environmental factors in the origin of the disorder.

  7. Parental occupational exposures and risk of childhood cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Colt, J S; Blair, A

    1998-01-01

    Occupational exposures of parents might be related to cancer in their offspring. Forty-eight published studies on this topic have reported relative risks for over 1000 specific occupation/cancer combinations. Virtually all of the studies employed the case-control design. Occupations and exposures of fathers were investigated much more frequently than those of the mother. Information about parental occupations was derived through interviews or from birth certificates and other administrative records. Specific exposures were typically estimated by industrial hygienists or were self-reported. The studies have several limitations related to the quality of the exposure assessment, small numbers of exposed cases, multiple comparisons, and possible bias toward the reporting of positive results. Despite these limitations, they provide evidence that certain parental exposures may be harmful to children and deserve further study. The strongest evidence is for childhood leukemia and paternal exposure to solvents, paints, and employment in motor vehicle-related occupations; and childhood nervous system cancers and paternal exposure to paints. To more clearly evaluate the importance of these and other exposures in future investigations, we need improvements in four areas: a) more careful attention must be paid to maternal exposures; b) studies should employ more sophisticated exposure assessment techniques; c) careful attention must be paid to the postulated mechanism, timing, and route of exposure; and d) if postnatal exposures are evaluated, studies should provide evidence that the exposure is actually transferred from the workplace to the child's environment. PMID:9646055

  8. Aggregate Exposure and Cumulative Risk Assessment—Integrating Occupational and Non-occupational Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Lentz, T. J.; Dotson, G. S.; Williams, P. R.D.; Maier, A.; Gadagbui, B.; Pandalai, S. P.; Lamba, A.; Hearl, F.; Mumtaz, M.

    2015-01-01

    Occupational exposure limits have traditionally focused on preventing morbidity and mortality arising from inhalation exposures to individual chemical stressors in the workplace. While central to occupational risk assessment, occupational exposure limits have limited application as a refined disease prevention tool because they do not account for all of the complexities of the work and non-occupational environments and are based on varying health endpoints. To be of greater utility, occupational exposure limits and other risk management tools could integrate broader consideration of risks from multiple exposure pathways and routes (aggregate risk) as well as the combined risk from exposure to both chemical and non-chemical stressors, within and beyond the workplace, including the possibility that such exposures may cause interactions or modify the toxic effects observed (cumulative risk). Although still at a rudimentary stage in many cases, a variety of methods and tools have been developed or are being used in allied risk assessment fields to incorporate such considerations in the risk assessment process. These approaches, which are collectively referred to as cumulative risk assessment, have potential to be adapted or modified for occupational scenarios and provide a tangible path forward for occupational risk assessment. Accounting for complex exposures in the workplace and the broader risks faced by the individual also requires a more complete consideration of the composite effects of occupational and non-occupational risk factors to fully assess and manage worker health problems. Barriers to integrating these different factors remain, but new and ongoing community-based and worker health-related initiatives may provide mechanisms for identifying and integrating risk from aggregate exposures and cumulative risks from all relevant sources, be they occupational or non-occupational. PMID:26583907

  9. Speciation of airborne nickel in occupational exposures

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, J.L.; Wu, Tingguo )

    1991-02-01

    Speciation from airborne nickel is important because total nickel in air has not shown a dose-response relationship in occupational hazards. A preliminary monitoring of nickel process equipment showed varying Ni{sup 0}: NiO{sub x} ratios in the range of 0.01-0.17. Further study involved air sampling on three levels of a trilevel nickel manufacturing building by two filter types: one group of three area stations and another group of three personal-type monitors, at each site. One sample of each filter group was analyzed by atomic absorption for total nickel, and the other two were analyzed for speciation of nickel as metallic Ni{sup 0}, soluble salt Ni{sup 2+}, and the insoluble oxides NiO{sub x}, by adsorptive stripping voltammetry. These results and the analysis of variance performed have shown for the first time significant heterogeneity in airborne nickel concentrations and nickel species, which are important variables in occupational dose-response studies.

  10. A case-control study of occupational sunlight exposure and renal cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Karami, Sara; Colt, Joanne S; Stewart, Patricia A; Schwartz, Kendra; Davis, Faith G; Ruterbusch, Julie J; Chow, Wong-Ho; Wacholder, Sholom; Graubard, Barry I; Purdue, Mark P; Moore, Lee E

    2016-04-01

    Epidemiological evidence of a relationship between vitamin D and kidney cancer risk has been inconsistent despite experimental data indicating that vitamin D and its metabolites may inhibit carcinogenesis. Previously we reported an inverse association between renal cell carcinoma (RCC) risk and occupational ultraviolet (UV) exposure among European men. In this study, we examined the association between occupational UV exposure and RCC risk among US residents and investigated whether this association varied by race and sex. Lifetime occupational data for 1,217 RCC cases and 1,235 controls in a population-based case-control study, conducted from 2002 to 2007, were assessed for occupational UV exposure. We evaluated exposure metrics in quartiles based on control exposure levels and calculated associations between RCC risk and occupational UV exposure using unconditional logistic regression adjusted for sex, race, body mass index, smoking, hypertension, center, education, family history of cancer and dietary vitamin D intake. A general pattern of decreasing RCC risk with increasing UV exposure was observed. Cases had significantly lower cumulative occupational UV exposure than controls (fourth quartile vs. first: odds ratio = 0.74 [95% confidence interval = 0.56-0.99], p-trend = 0.03). Similar results were observed for other UV exposure metrics. The association with occupational UV exposure was stronger for women than for men, but did not differ by race. Our findings suggest an inverse association between occupational UV exposure and RCC, particularly among women. Given the sex finding discrepancies in this study versus our previous study, additional research is need to clarify whether the protective effects of occupational UV exposure and RCC risk are real. PMID:26505275

  11. Exposure Estimation and Interpretation of Occupational Risk: Enhanced Information for the Occupational Risk Manager

    PubMed Central

    Waters, Martha; McKernan, Lauralynn; Maier, Andrew; Jayjock, Michael; Schaeffer, Val; Brosseau, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    The fundamental goal of this article is to describe, define, and analyze the components of the risk characterization process for occupational exposures. Current methods are described for the probabilistic characterization of exposure, including newer techniques that have increasing applications for assessing data from occupational exposure scenarios. In addition, since the probability of health effects reflects variability in the exposure estimate as well as the dose-response curve—the integrated considerations of variability surrounding both components of the risk characterization provide greater information to the occupational hygienist. Probabilistic tools provide a more informed view of exposure as compared to use of discrete point estimates for these inputs to the risk characterization process. Active use of such tools for exposure and risk assessment will lead to a scientifically supported worker health protection program. Understanding the bases for an occupational risk assessment, focusing on important sources of variability and uncertainty enables characterizing occupational risk in terms of a probability, rather than a binary decision of acceptable risk or unacceptable risk. A critical review of existing methods highlights several conclusions: (1) exposure estimates and the dose-response are impacted by both variability and uncertainty and a well-developed risk characterization reflects and communicates this consideration; (2) occupational risk is probabilistic in nature and most accurately considered as a distribution, not a point estimate; and (3) occupational hygienists have a variety of tools available to incorporate concepts of risk characterization into occupational health and practice. PMID:26302336

  12. Biochemical diagnosis of occupational exposure to lead toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Somashekaraiah, B.V.; Venkaiah, B.; Prasad, A.R.K. )

    1990-02-01

    Lead has been shown to interfere with the biosynthesis of heme in a number of in vitro systems and in experimental animals as well as in human beings. Several steps of the heme biosynthetic chain are subject to the toxic effects of lead. ALA- dehydratase and Ferrochelatase, in particular, are two enzymes which are strongly inhibited by lead, leading to decreased heme synthesis, a constituent of hemoglobin. The inhibition of ALA dehydratase in the red blood cells by lead is generally recognized as the most sensitive index of the individuals exposure to this environmental chemical. Earlier reports show that the determination of blood lead content (Pb-B), zinc protoporphyrin levels and erythrocyte Aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALA.D) are widely used as biological indicators for lead toxicity. Hence, the aim of the present study was to screen for occupational exposure to lead in the workers of three different occupations and correlate their blood lead levels with erythrocyte ALA.D and total blood porphyrin content as biochemical indicators of lead exposure.

  13. Biological monitoring of occupational exposure to electrophilic compounds.

    PubMed

    el Gazzar, R M; Abdel Hamid, H; Shamy, M Y

    1994-01-01

    Electrophilic compounds are widely used in industry. Plastic and dyeing industries are foremost examples of sites where workers are exposed to electrophilic compounds. Besides their immediate effect on different body systems, electrophilic compounds include most mutagenic and carcinogenic substances. The present study was carried out to elucidate the possibility of using nonselective assays in the biological monitoring of occupational exposure to electrophilic compounds. The study included a total number of 225 workers selected from the Plastic and Battery Company where workers are exposed to styrene (n = 70), and the Kafr El Dawar chemical and Dyeing Company where workers are exposed to aniline (n = 60) and benzidine (n = 25). Workers exposed to diesel engine exhaust were selected from a bus garage in Smoha (n = 70). A comparison group consisting of 141 subjects was selected from the administrative departments of the selected factories. The biochemical tests carried out on each subject included: (1) estimation of the biological indices of exposure: urinary mandelic acid and benzidine, blood methemoglobin, and carboxyhemoglobin, (2) liver and kidney function tests; and (3) nonselective biochemical parameters of early detection of carcinogenic and mutagenic risk: urinary thioether levels, urinary RNase and alpha esterase activities. The study revealed that two out of three nonselective assays have been affected by occupational exposure to electrophilic compounds. These were the urinary thioethers and RNase levels. Their determination is recommended in the biological monitoring of workers exposed to such agents especially in developing countries. PMID:7529835

  14. Childhood brain tumours: associations with parental occupational exposure to solvents

    PubMed Central

    Peters, S; Glass, D C; Greenop, K R; Armstrong, B K; Kirby, M; Milne, E; Fritschi, L

    2014-01-01

    Background: Parental occupational exposures have been associated with childhood brain tumours (CBT), but results are inconsistent. Few studies have studied CBT risk and parental solvent exposure, suggesting a possible association. We examined the association between CBT and parental occupational exposure to solvents in a casecontrol study. Methods: Parents of 306 cases and 950 controls completed detailed occupational histories. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated for both maternal and paternal exposure to benzene, other aromatics, aliphatics and chlorinated solvents in key time periods relative to the birth of their child. Adjustments were made for matching variables (child's age, sex and state of residence), best parental education and occupational exposure to diesel exhaust. Results: An increased risk of CBT was observed with maternal occupational exposures to chlorinated solvents (OR=8.59, 95% CI 0.9478.9) any time before birth. Paternal exposure to solvents in the year before conception was associated with an increased CBT risk: OR=1.55 (95% CI 0.992.43). This increased risk appeared to be mainly attributable to exposure to aromatic solvents: OR=2.72 (95% CI 0.947.86) for benzene and OR=1.76 (95% CI 1.102.82) for other aromatics. Conclusions: Our results indicate that parental occupational exposures to solvents may be related to an increased risk of CBT. PMID:24960405

  15. Occupational exposure to woodsmoke and oxidative stress in wildland firefighters.

    PubMed

    Adetona, Olorunfemi; Zhang, Jim Junfeng; Hall, Daniel B; Wang, Jia-Sheng; Vena, John E; Naeher, Luke P

    2013-04-01

    Experimental studies indicate that exposure to woodsmoke could induce oxidative stress. However studies have not been conducted among the general population and specialized occupational groups despite the existence of elevated woodsmoke exposure situations. Therefore, we investigated whether there were across workshift changes in oxidative stress biomarkers among wildland firefighters who are occupationally exposed to elevated levels of woodsmoke. We collected pre- and post-workshift urine samples from 19 wildland firefighters before and after prescribed burns. We measured malondialdehyde (MDA) and 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxo-dG) in the samples, and analyzed whether there were cross-shift changes in their levels, and the relationships between the changes and the length of firefighting career, age of firefighter, and quantified workshift exposure to particulate matter. Overall no significant cross-shift change was observed for 8-oxodG or MDA in the urine samples of the firefighters. Changes in both biomarkers were also not associated with PM2.5, which was used as a marker of exposure. However, overall unadjusted geometric mean 8-oxo-dG levels in the samples (31 ?g/g creatinine) was relatively higher compared to those measured in healthy individuals in many occupational or general population studies. Additionally, cross-shift changes in 8-oxo-dG excretion were dependent on the length of firefighting career (p=0.01) or age of the subject (p=0.01). Significant increases in 8-oxo-dG level from pre-shift to post-shift were observed for those who had been firefighters for 2 years or less. The results indicate that oxidative stress response measured as cross-shift changes in 8-oxo-dG may depend on age or the length of a firefighter's career. These results suggest the need to investigate the longer term health effects of cumulative exposure of woodsmoke exposure among wildland firefighters, because increased body burden of oxidative stress is a risk factor for many diseases and is theorized to be involved in aging. PMID:23434577

  16. Occupational exposure to radio-frequency electromagnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Mild, K.H.

    1980-01-01

    The paper considers occupational exposure to radio-frequency (RF) electromagnetic (EM) fields in industrial processes in near-field situations where electric and magnetic field strengths are monitored to assess the health hazard. Plastic materials are joined by an RF machine whose electrodes are not shielded and which may produce high level RF fields in the immediate vicinity, exceeding the ANSI standard. A physiotherapist may be exposed to high E and H fields using RF shortwave therapy, the maintenance personnel in FM/TV broadcast towers are subject to intense RF fields, and induction heating equipment used for forging, annealing and brazing can expose operators' hands to magnetic fields.

  17. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Davanipour, Z.; Sobel, E.; Bowman, J.D.; Qian, Z.; Will, A.D.

    1997-03-01

    In an hypothesis-generating case-control study of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, lifetime occupational histories were obtained. The patients (n = 28) were clinic based. The occupational exposure of interest in this report is electromagnetic fields (EMFs). This is the first and so far the only exposure analyzed in this study. Occupational exposure up to 2 years prior to estimated disease symptom onset was used for construction of exposure indices for cases. Controls (n = 32) were blood and nonblood relatives of cases. Occupational exposure for controls was through the same age as exposure for the corresponding cases. Twenty (71%) cases and 28 (88%) controls had at least 20 years of work experience covering the exposure period. The occupational history and task data were used to classify blindly each occupation for each subject as having high, medium/high, medium, medium/low, or low EMF exposure, based primarily on data from an earlier and unrelated study designed to obtain occupational EMF exposure information on workers in ``electrical`` and ``nonelectrical`` jobs. By using the length of time each subject spent in each occupation through the exposure period, two indices of exposure were constructed: total occupational exposure (E{sub 1}) and average occupational exposure (E{sub 2}). For cases and controls with at least 20 years of work experience, the odds ratio (OR) for exposure at the 75th percentile of the E{sub 1} case exposure data relative to minimum exposure was 7.5 (P < 0.02; 95% CI, 1.4--38.1) and the corresponding OR for E{sub 2} was 5.5 (P < 0.02; 95% CI, 1.3--22.5). For all cases and controls, the ORs were 2.5 (P < 0.1; 95% CI, 0.9--8.1) for E{sub 1} and 2.3 (P = 0.12; 95% CI, 0.8--6.6) for E{sub 2}. This study should be considered an hypothesis-generating study. Larger studies, using incident cases and improved exposure assessment, should be undertaken.

  18. [Toxic nephropathy secondary to occupational exposure to metallic mercury].

    PubMed

    Voitzuk, Ana; Greco, Vanina; Caputo, Daniel; Alvarez, Estela

    2014-01-01

    Toxic nephrophaties secondary to occupational exposure to metals have been widely studied, including membranous nephropathy by mercury, which is rare. Occupational poisoning by mercury is frequent, neurological symptoms are the main form of clinical presentation. Secondary renal involvement in chronic exposure to metallic mercury can cause glomerular disease by deposit of immune-complexes. Membranous glomerulopathy and minimal change disease are the most frequently reported forms. Here we describe the case of a patient with occupational exposure to metallic mercury, where nephrotic syndrome due to membranous glomerulonephritis responded favorably to both chelation and immunosuppressive therapy. PMID:25347904

  19. Occupational exposure to dusts and risk of renal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Karami, S; Boffetta, P; Stewart, P S; Brennan, P; Zaridze, D; Matveev, V; Janout, V; Kollarova, H; Bencko, V; Navratilova, M; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, N; Mates, D; Gromiec, J; Slamova, A; Chow, W-H; Rothman, N; Moore, L E

    2011-01-01

    Background: Occupational exposures to dusts have generally been examined in relation to cancers of the respiratory system and have rarely been examined in relation to other cancers, such as renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Although previous epidemiological studies, though few, have shown certain dusts, such as asbestos, to increase renal cancer risk, the potential for other occupational dust exposures to cause kidney damage and/or cancer may exist. We investigated whether asbestos, as well as 20 other occupational dust exposures, were associated with RCC risk in a large European, multi-center, hospital-based renal case–control study. Methods: General occupational histories and job-specific questionnaires were reviewed by occupational hygienists for subject-specific information. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) between RCC risk and exposures were calculated using unconditional logistic regression. Results: Among participants ever exposed to dusts, significant associations were observed for glass fibres (OR: 2.1; 95% CI: 1.1–3.9), mineral wool fibres (OR: 2.5; 95% CI: 1.2–5.1), and brick dust (OR: 1.5; 95% CI: 1.0–2.4). Significant trends were also observed with exposure duration and cumulative exposure. No association between RCC risk and asbestos exposure was observed. Conclusion: Results suggest that increased RCC risk may be associated with occupational exposure to specific types of dusts. Additional studies are needed to replicate and extend findings. PMID:21540858

  20. Occupational exposure to airborne lead in Brazilian police officers.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Ernesto Díaz; Sarkis, Jorge E Souza; Carvalho, Maria de Fátima H; Santos, Gerson Vechio Dos; Canesso, Claudemir

    2014-07-01

    Shooting with lead-containing ammunition in indoor firing ranges is a known source of lead exposure in adults. Police officers may be at risk of lead intoxication when regular training shooting exercises are yearly mandatory to law enforcement officers. Effects on health must be documented, even when low-level elemental (inorganic) lead exposure is detected. Forty police officers (nineteen cadets and twenty-one instructors) responded to a questionnaire about health, shooting habits, and potential lead exposure before a training curse. Blood samples were collected and analyzed for blood lead level (BLL) before and after a three days training curse. The mean BLL for the instructors' group was 5.5 μg/dL ± 0.6. The mean BLL for the cadets' group before the training was 3.3 μg/dL ± 0.15 and after the training the main BLL was 18.2 μg/d L± 1.5. Samples were analyzed by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (ICP-MS). All the participants in the training curse had significantly increased BLL (mean increment about 15 μg/dL) after the three days indoor shooting season. In conclusion, occupational lead exposure in indoor firing ranges is a source of lead exposure in Brazilian police officers, and appears to be a health risk, especially when heavy weapons with lead-containing ammunition are used in indoor environments during the firing training seasons. PMID:24411572

  1. Occupational exposures to potentially hazardous agents in the petroleum industry.

    PubMed

    Runion, H E

    1988-01-01

    This chapter has been created to acquaint the reader with occupational exposures that are more common in, and somewhat unique to, the petroleum industry. Both highly toxic materials capable of causing acute illness or even death following short-term exposure, and chemical and physical agents that pose risk of chronic and irreversible damage to health during prolonged exposure are addressed. PMID:3043733

  2. Occupational exposures to potentially hazardous agents in the petroleum industry

    SciTech Connect

    Runion, H.E.

    1988-07-01

    This chapter has been created to acquaint the reader with occupational exposures that are more common in, and somewhat unique to, the petroleum industry. Both highly toxic materials capable of causing acute illness or even death following short-term exposure, and chemical and physical agents that pose risk of chronic and irreversible damage to health during prolonged exposure are addressed.

  3. Occupational Component. 36-Level Courses. Teacher Resource Manual. Integrated Occupational Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton. Curriculum Branch.

    This 36-level occupational component of Integrated Occupational Program (IOP) consists of 8 occupational clusters composed of 20 occupational courses. Each course contains learning activities so that students in Alberta (Canada) may develop occupational concepts, skills, and attitudes. This teacher's manual consists of the following sections:

  4. Occupational Component. 36-Level Courses. Teacher Resource Manual. Integrated Occupational Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton. Curriculum Branch.

    This 36-level occupational component of Integrated Occupational Program (IOP) consists of 8 occupational clusters composed of 20 occupational courses. Each course contains learning activities so that students in Alberta (Canada) may develop occupational concepts, skills, and attitudes. This teacher's manual consists of the following sections:…

  5. Renal effects of environmental and occupational lead exposure.

    PubMed Central

    Loghman-Adham, M

    1997-01-01

    Environmental and industrial lead exposures continue to pose major public health problems in children and in adults. Acute exposure to high concentrations of lead can result in proximal tubular damage with characteristic histologic features and manifested by glycosuria and aminoaciduria. Chronic occupational exposure to lead, or consumption of illicit alcohol adulterated with lead, has also been linked to a high incidence of renal dysfunction, which is characterized by glomerular and tubulointerstitial changes resulting in chronic renal failure, hypertension, hyperuricemia, and gout. A high incidence of nephropathy was reported during the early part of this century from Queensland, Australia, in persons with a history of childhood lead poisoning. No such sequela has been found in studies of three cohorts of lead-poisoned children from the United States. Studies in individuals with low-level lead exposure have shown a correlation between blood lead levels and serum creatinine or creatinine clearance. Chronic low-level exposure to lead is also associated with increased urinary excretion of low molecular weight proteins and lysosomal enzymes. The relationship between renal dysfunction detected by these sensitive tests and the future development of chronic renal disease remains uncertain. Epidemiologic studies have shown an association between blood lead levels and blood pressure, and hypertension is a cardinal feature of lead nephropathy. Evidence for increased body lead burden is a prerequisite for the diagnosis of lead nephropathy. Blood lead levels are a poor indicator of body lead burden and reflect recent exposure. The EDTA lead mobilization test has been used extensively in the past to assess body lead burden. It is now replaced by the less invasive in vivo X-ray fluorescence for determination of bone lead content. Images p928-a Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 2. Figure 3. PMID:9300927

  6. Interaction between tobacco smoking and occupational exposures in the causation of lung cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Steenland, K.; Thun, M.

    1986-02-01

    The nature of the interaction between smoking and occupational exposure is controversial, in part because of lack of agreement on the definition of interaction and in part because of the scarcity of adequate epidemiologic data. Occupational investigators have assessed interaction primarily as a departure from an additive rather than from a multiplicative model of relative risks (or rate ratios). To determine whether smoking modifies the effect of occupational lung carcinogens, the literature was reviewed for the only four established occupational lung carcinogens for which there are data on smoking: radon daughters, asbestos, arsenic, and chloromethyl ethers. Where possible, departure was assessed from both an additive (synergism) and a multiplicative model (effect modification). Only nine studies were considered to have sufficient sample size and to provide sufficient information on tobacco use and occupational exposure to evaluate interaction. The existing data were contradictory for three of the agents studied: asbestos, radon daughters, and arsenic. Inconclusive or contradictory findings may result from small sample size or lack of comparability of the level of occupational or tobacco exposure. It is noteworthy that, for these four agents, whenever smoking did modify the effect of occupational exposure, the lung cancer rate ratio was greater for nonsmokers (compared to nonexposed nonsmokers) than smokers (compared to nonexposed smokers). However, with the exception of chloromethyl ethers, absolute lung cancer rates were higher for smokers than nonsmokers, regardless of occupational exposure.37 references.

  7. [Evaluation of occupational exposure to mineral oil].

    PubMed

    Gaweda, E; Kurpiewska, J; Benczek, K M; Kije?ska, D

    2000-01-01

    The results of measurements of mineral oil concentrations in the air of selected workposts in five plants, taken in 1996-99, are presented. Absorption spectrometry in IR was used for determining mineral oils. In order to collect oil mist on a glass filter a personal sampling or stationary method was used. The results obtained show that the level of exposure to mineral oils in Polish industry is rather low. In few cases only oil mist was present in the air in amounts exceeding the Polish MAC value of 5 mg/m3. It was also noted that the situation has improved during the recent years. PMID:11059409

  8. Use of the Finnish Information System on Occupational Exposure (FINJEM) in epidemiologic, surveillance, and other applications.

    PubMed

    Kauppinen, Timo; Uuksulainen, Sanni; Saalo, Anja; Mkinen, Ilpo; Pukkala, Eero

    2014-04-01

    This paper reviews the use of the Finnish Information System on Occupational Exposure (Finnish job-exposure matrix, FINJEM) in different applications in Finland and other countries. We describe and discuss studies on FINJEM and studies utilizing FINJEM in regard to the validity of exposure estimates, occupational epidemiology, hazard surveillance and prevention, the assessment of health risks and the burden of disease, the assessment of exposure trends and future hazards, and the construction of job-exposure matrices (JEMs) in countries other than Finland. FINJEM can be used as an exposure assessment tool in occupational epidemiology, particularly in large register-based studies. It also provides information for hazard surveillance at the national level. It is able to identify occupations with high average exposures to chemical agents and can therefore serve the priority setting of prevention. However, it has only limited use at the workplace level due to the variability of exposure between workplaces. The national estimates of exposure and their temporal trends may contribute to the assessment of both the recent and future burden of work-related health outcomes. FINJEM has also proved to be useful in the construction of other national JEMs, for example in the Nordic Occupational Cancer study in the Nordic countries. FINJEM is a quantitative JEM, which can serve many purposes and its comprehensive documentation also makes it potentially useful in countries other than Finland. PMID:24401793

  9. Benzyl alcohol as a marker of occupational exposure to toluene.

    PubMed

    Kawai, Toshio; Yamauchi, Tsuneyuki; Miyama, Yuriko; Sakurai, Haruhiko; Ukai, Hirohiko; Takada, Shiro; Ohashi, Fumiko; Ikeda, Masayuki

    2007-01-01

    Benzyl alcohol (BeOH) is a urinary metabolite of toluene, which has been seldom evaluated for biological monitoring of exposure to this popular solvent. The present study was initiated to develop a practical method for determination of BeOH in urine and to examine if this metabolite can be applied as a marker of occupational exposure to toluene. A practical gas-liquid chromatographic method was successfully developed in the present study with sensitivity low enough for the application (the limit of detection; 5 microg BeOH /l urine with CV=2.7%). Linearity was confirmed up to 10 mg BeOH/l, the highest concentration tested, and the reproducibility was also satisfactory with a coefficient of variation of 2.7% (n=10). A tentative application of the method in a small scale study with 45 male workers [exposed to toluene up to 130 ppm as an 8-h time-weighted average (8-h TWA)] showed that BeOH in the end-of-shift urine samples was proportional to the intensity of exposure to toluene. The calculated regression equation was Y=50+1.7X (r=0.80, p<0.01), where X was toluene in air (in ppm as 8-h TWA) and Y was BeOH in urine (in microg/l of end-of-shift urine). The levels of BeOH in the urine of the non-exposed was about 50 microg/l, and ingestion of benzoate as a preservative in soft drinks did not affect the BeOH level in urine. The findings as a whole suggest that BeOH is a promising candidate for biological monitoring of occupational exposure to toluene. PMID:17284886

  10. Exposure to Stress: Occupational Hazards in Hospitals

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and quality of care: cross-national findings. Int J Quality Health Care 14 :5–13. Bourbonnais R, ... strain and evolution of mental health among nurses. J Occup Health Psychol 4 :95–105. Bunce D, ...

  11. DOE 2010 Occupational Radiation Exposure November 2011

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Analysis

    2011-11-11

    This report discusses radiation protection and dose reporting requirements, presents the 2010 occupational radiation dose data trended over the past 5 years, and includes instructions to submit successful ALARA projects.

  12. Health Occupations Orientation Level Core Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyum, Paula G.; And Others

    This guide is intended for use in teaching a secondary-level orientation course in health occupations that is designed to prepare students for employment in all types of health care facilities and for entry into postsecondary programs. The guide is divided into two parts. The first part consists of a teacher's guide and 11 instructional units…

  13. TEXAS: a Tool for EXposure ASsessment-Statistical models for estimating occupational exposure to chemical agents.

    PubMed

    Clerc, Frédéric; Bertrand, Nicolas; Vincent, Raymond

    2015-04-01

    Measurements of occupational exposure to chemical agents are performed by sampling and analyzing workplace atmospheres. In France, this is done by the industrial hygienists of the prevention network of the Social Security Service, who collect and then enter the data in the COLCHIC database. More than 900000 measurements performed in French companies over the past 25 years have been collected. Using this amount of data is major challenge for obtaining knowledge and predicting occupational exposures. This study presents the way in which statistical models are built and used on the basis of almost 19000 recent measurements of 26 frequent chemical substances. For a given substance, the models use 13 exposure determinants as inputs, such as the task performed, the occupation of the operator or the type of process employed. The models permit to estimate two parameters: the geometric mean and geometric standard deviation. These parameters are used to build an exposure profile. By combining them with the limit value, an exposure index is estimated using a Bayesian network. A decision rule based on the interpretation of this probability is proposed to qualify the predicted situation as 'well-controlled situation', 'controlled situation', and 'poorly controlled situation'. On the basis of this decision rule, 62% of predictions are true for all substances confounded, an average of 36% of predictions are approximate and only 2% of them are wrong. The result of this study led to the development of a pragmatic software tool named TEXAS, tool for exposure assessment, which enables industrial hygienists to obtain a rapid estimation of the level of exposure control as a function of simple determinants of work situations. PMID:25433001

  14. Occupational Component. 36-Level Courses. Program of Studies/Curriculum Guide. Integrated Occupational Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton. Curriculum Branch.

    The Integrated Occupational Program (IOP) enables students in Alberta (Canada) who have experienced difficulty in learning to develop essential concepts, skills, and attitudes in the context of one or more occupational clusters. The IOP has four levels: occupational awareness (grades 8-9), career exploration (level 16), occupational orientation

  15. Occupational Component. 36-Level Courses. Program of Studies/Curriculum Guide. Integrated Occupational Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton. Curriculum Branch.

    The Integrated Occupational Program (IOP) enables students in Alberta (Canada) who have experienced difficulty in learning to develop essential concepts, skills, and attitudes in the context of one or more occupational clusters. The IOP has four levels: occupational awareness (grades 8-9), career exploration (level 16), occupational orientation…

  16. [The toxic effect of mercury in occupational exposure].

    PubMed

    Affelska-Jercha, A

    1999-01-01

    The paper addresses the problems of environmental and occupational exposures to mercury compounds. Mercury and its compounds are very toxic. Occupational exposure and environmental pollution are the major sources of hazard to human health. Metallic mercury evaporates at room temperature producing inorganic and organic compounds, and forms amalgams with many metals. In more than 50 professions, workers may be exposed to mercury, particularly in the mining and chemical industries and in agriculture. Occupational poisoning is rarely acute but it is usually chronic. The symptoms result from the damage to the central nervous system, and the kidney, as well as from the impairment of erythrocyte metabolism, coagulation and immune response. Mercury may also induce allergic reactions. Chronic mercury poisoning is diagnosed on the basis of the clinical picture in the presence of the occupational exposure. Inorganic mercury poisoning is treated specifically with chelating agents. PMID:10582209

  17. Occupational exposure in the fluorescent lamp recycling sector in France.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Franois; Lecler, Marie-Thrse; Clerc, Frdric; Chollot, Alain; Silvente, Eric; Grosjean, Jrome

    2014-07-01

    The fluorescent lamp recycling sector is growing considerably in Europe due to increasingly strict regulations aimed at inciting the consumption of low energy light bulbs and their end-of-life management. Chemical risks were assessed in fluorescent lamp recycling facilities by field measurement surveys in France, highlighting that occupational exposure and pollutant levels in the working environment were correlated with the main recycling steps and processes. The mean levels of worker exposure are 4.4 mg/m(3), 15.4 ?g/m(3), 14.0 ?g/m(3), 247.6 ?g/m(3), respectively, for total inhalable dust, mercury, lead and yttrium. The mean levels of airborne pollutants are 3.1mg/m(3), 9.0 ?g/m(3), 9.0 ?g/m(3), 219.2 ?g/m(3), respectively, for total inhalable dust, mercury, lead and yttrium. The ranges are very wide. Surface samples from employees' skin and granulometric analysis were also carried out. The overview shows that all the stages and processes involved in lamp recycling are concerned by the risk of hazardous substances penetrating into the bodies of employees, although exposure of the latter varies depending on the processes and tasks they perform. The conclusion of this study strongly recommends the development of a new generation of processes in parallel with more information sharing and regulatory measures. PMID:24768515

  18. Electromagnetic field occupational exposure: non-thermal vs. thermal effects.

    PubMed

    Israel, M; Zaryabova, V; Ivanova, M

    2013-06-01

    There are a variety of definitions for "non-thermal effects" included in different international standards. They start by the simple description that they are "effects of electromagnetic energy on a body that are not heat-related effects", passing through the very general definition related to low-level effects: "biological effects ascribed to exposure to low-level electric, magnetic and electromagnetic fields, i.e. at or below the corresponding dosimetric reference levels in the frequency range covered in this standard (0Hz-300GHz)", and going to the concrete definition of "the stimulation of muscles, nerves, or sensory organs, vertigo or phosfenes". Here, we discuss what kind of effect does the non-thermal one has on human body and give data of measurements in different occupations with low-frequency sources of electromagnetic field such as electric power distribution systems, transformers, MRI systems and : video display units (VDUs), whereas thermal effects should not be expected. In some of these workplaces, values above the exposure limits could be found, nevertheless that they are in the term "non-thermal effects" on human body. Examples are workplaces in MRI, also in some power plants. Here, we will not comment on non-thermal effects as a result of RF or microwave exposure because there are not proven evidence about the existance of such effects and mechanisms for them are not clear. PMID:23675617

  19. Strategies for setting occupational exposure limits for particles.

    PubMed Central

    Greim, H A; Ziegler-Skylakakis, K

    1997-01-01

    To set occupational exposure limits (OELs) for aerosol particles, dusts, or chemicals, one has to evaluate whether mechanistic considerations permit identification of a no observed effect level (NOEL). In the case of carcinogenic effects, this can be assumed if no genotoxicity is involved, and exposure is considered safe if it does not exceed the NOEL. If tumor induction is associated with genotoxicity, any exposure is considered to be of risk, although a NOEL may be identified in the animal or human exposure studies. This must also be assumed when no information on the carcinogenic mechanism, including genotoxicity, is available. Aerosol particles, especially fibrous dusts, which include man-made mineral fiber(s) (MMMF), present a challenge for toxicological evaluation. Many MMMF that have been investigated have induced tumors in animals and genotoxicity in vitro. Since these effects have been associated with long-thin fiber geometry and high durability in vivo, all fibers meeting such criteria are considered carcinogenic unless the opposite has been demonstrated. This approach is practicable. Investigations on fiber tumorigenicity/genotoxicity should include information on dose response, pathobiochemistry, particle clearance, and persistence of the material in the target organ. Such information will introduce quantitative aspects into the qualitative approach that has so far been used to classify fibrous dusts as carcinogens. The rationales for classifying the potential carcinogenicity of MMMF and for setting OELs used by the different European committees and regulatory agencies are described. PMID:9400750

  20. Occupational exposures to respirable crystalline silica during hydraulic fracturing.

    PubMed

    Esswein, Eric J; Breitenstein, Michael; Snawder, John; Kiefer, Max; Sieber, W Karl

    2013-01-01

    This report describes a previously uncharacterized occupational health hazard: work crew exposures to respirable crystalline silica during hydraulic fracturing. Hydraulic fracturing involves high pressure injection of large volumes of water and sand, and smaller quantities of well treatment chemicals, into a gas or oil well to fracture shale or other rock formations, allowing more efficient recovery of hydrocarbons from a petroleum-bearing reservoir. Crystalline silica ("frac sand") is commonly used as a proppant to hold open cracks and fissures created by hydraulic pressure. Each stage of the process requires hundreds of thousands of pounds of quartz-containing sand; millions of pounds may be needed for all zones of a well. Mechanical handling of frac sand creates respirable crystalline silica dust, a potential exposure hazard for workers. Researchers at the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health collected 111 personal breathing zone samples at 11 sites in five states to evaluate worker exposures to respirable crystalline silica during hydraulic fracturing. At each of the 11 sites, full-shift samples exceeded occupational health criteria (e.g., the Occupational Safety and Health Administration calculated permissible exposure limit, the NIOSH recommended exposure limit, or the ACGIH threshold limit value), in some cases, by 10 or more times the occupational health criteria. Based on these evaluations, an occupational health hazard was determined to exist for workplace exposures to crystalline silica. Seven points of dust generation were identified, including sand handling machinery and dust generated from the work site itself. Recommendations to control exposures include product substitution (when feasible), engineering controls or modifications to sand handling machinery, administrative controls, and use of personal protective equipment. To our knowledge, this represents the first systematic study of work crew exposures to crystalline silica during hydraulic fracturing. Companies that conduct hydraulic fracturing using silica sand should evaluate their operations to determine the potential for worker exposure to respirable crystalline silica and implement controls as necessary to protect workers. PMID:23679563

  1. Occupational exposure in the fluorescent lamp recycling sector in France

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmermann, François Lecler, Marie-Thérèse; Clerc, Frédéric; Chollot, Alain; Silvente, Eric; Grosjean, Jérome

    2014-07-15

    Highlights: • Chemical risks were assessed in the five fluorescent lamp recycling facilities. • The main hazardous agents are mercury vapors and dust containing lead and yttrium. • Exposure and pollutant levels were correlated with steps and processes. • All the stages and processes are concerned by worrying levels of pollutants. • We suggest recommendations to reduce chemical risk. - Abstract: The fluorescent lamp recycling sector is growing considerably in Europe due to increasingly strict regulations aimed at inciting the consumption of low energy light bulbs and their end-of-life management. Chemical risks were assessed in fluorescent lamp recycling facilities by field measurement surveys in France, highlighting that occupational exposure and pollutant levels in the working environment were correlated with the main recycling steps and processes. The mean levels of worker exposure are 4.4 mg/m{sup 3}, 15.4 μg/m{sup 3}, 14.0 μg/m{sup 3}, 247.6 μg/m{sup 3}, respectively, for total inhalable dust, mercury, lead and yttrium. The mean levels of airborne pollutants are 3.1 mg/m{sup 3}, 9.0 μg/m{sup 3}, 9.0 μg/m{sup 3}, 219.2 μg/m{sup 3}, respectively, for total inhalable dust, mercury, lead and yttrium. The ranges are very wide. Surface samples from employees’ skin and granulometric analysis were also carried out. The overview shows that all the stages and processes involved in lamp recycling are concerned by the risk of hazardous substances penetrating into the bodies of employees, although exposure of the latter varies depending on the processes and tasks they perform. The conclusion of this study strongly recommends the development of a new generation of processes in parallel with more information sharing and regulatory measures.

  2. 28 CFR 544.52 - Levels of Occupational Education Programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Levels of Occupational Education Programs. 544.52 Section 544.52 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT EDUCATION Occupational Education Programs 544.52 Levels of Occupational Education Programs. Occupational education programs...

  3. 28 CFR 544.52 - Levels of Occupational Education Programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Levels of Occupational Education Programs. 544.52 Section 544.52 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT EDUCATION Occupational Education Programs 544.52 Levels of Occupational Education Programs. Occupational education programs...

  4. 28 CFR 544.52 - Levels of Occupational Education Programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Levels of Occupational Education Programs. 544.52 Section 544.52 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT EDUCATION Occupational Education Programs 544.52 Levels of Occupational Education Programs. Occupational education programs...

  5. 28 CFR 544.52 - Levels of Occupational Education Programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Levels of Occupational Education Programs. 544.52 Section 544.52 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT EDUCATION Occupational Education Programs 544.52 Levels of Occupational Education Programs. Occupational education programs...

  6. [Allergic rhinoconjunctivitis caused by occupational exposure to ginger].

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Jan; Dahl, Sren; Sherson, David Lee

    2015-07-01

    We present a case report of occupational allergic rhinoconjunctivitis after exposure to dust from ginger-containing herbal medicine. The likelihood of an aetiological connection between exposure and the patient's symptoms was supported by a temporal association, positive specific IgE, positive histamine release test, positive prick test, and positive acoustic rhinometry test. Occupational allergy to ginger has rarely been reported. The cases described - including the one we present - suggest that work-related IgE-mediated allergy is associated with exposure to dry aerosols/dust. PMID:26239858

  7. Occupational exposure to dust: inflammation and ischaemic heart disease.

    PubMed Central

    Sjögren, B

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To review the possible association between occupational exposure to dust and ischaemic heart disease (IHD). METHODS: A literature search was performed of relevant studies regarding IHD in specific exposures to dust. The chosen exposures were arsenic, asbestos, beryllium, lead, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and quartz. The chosen occupations were farmers, paper and paper pulp workers, sawyers, and welders. DISCUSSION: A theory was launched in 1995 that urban particulate air pollution may provoke alveolar inflammation, with release of mediators capable of increasing blood coagulability in susceptible people and cause cardiovascular deaths. The present review expands this hypothesis and links occupational exposure to inhaled particles with the occurrence of ischaemic heart disease. CONCLUSION: This hypothesis should be tested by comparing the concentrations of fibrinogen in workers exposed and nonexposed to particles with control for other possible confounders such as smoking habits. PMID:9282121

  8. Occupational exposures during routine activities in coal-fueled power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Bird, M.J.; MacIntosh, D.L.; Williams, P.L.

    2004-06-15

    Limited information is available on occupational exposures during routine, nonoutage work activities in coal-fueled power plants. This study evaluated occupational exposures to the principal contaminants in the facilities, including respirable dust (coal dust), arsenic, noise, asbestos, and heat stress. The data were collected over a 3-month period, during the summer of 2001. Each of the 5 facilities was divided into 5 similar exposure groups based on previous exposure assessments and job tasks performed. Of the nearly 400 air samples collected, only 1 exceeded the allowable occupational exposure value. For the noise samples, 55 (about 18%) were equal to or greater than the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) 8-hour hearing conservation program level of 85 dBA, and 12 (about 4%) were equal to or greater than the OSHA 8-hour permissible exposure level of 90 dBA. Heat stress monitoring at the facilities indicates that 26% of the 1-hour TWAs were exceeded for one or all of the recommended heat stress limits. The data also concluded that some work sites were above the heat stress ceiling values recommended by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). Four of the 20 employees personally monitored exceeded the recommended limits for heart rate or body core temperature. This suggests there is a potential for heat strain if signs and symptoms are ignored. Recommendations are made to better control the heat stress exposure.

  9. Prevalence and pattern of occupational exposure to whole body vibration in Great Britain: findings from a national survey

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, K.; Griffin, M.; Bendall, H.; Pannett, B.; Coggon, D.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVESTo estimate the number of workers in Great Britain with significant occupational exposure to whole body vibration (WBV) and to identify the common sources of exposure and the occupations and industries where such exposures arise.?METHODSA postal questionnaire was posted to a random community sample of 22194 men and women of working age. Among other things, the questionnaire asked about exposure to WBV in the past week, including occupational and common non-occupational sources. Responses were assessed by occupation and industry, and national prevalence estimates were derived from census information. Estimates were also made of the average estimated daily personal dose of vibration (eVDV).?RESULTSFrom the 12907 responses it was estimated that 7.2million men and 1.8million women in Great Britain are exposed to WBV at work in a 1week period if the occupational use of cars, vans, buses, trains, and motor cycles is included within the definition of exposure. The eVDV of >374000 men and 9000women was estimated to exceed a proposed British Standard action level of 15ms-1.75. Occupations in which the estimated exposures most often exceeded 15ms-1.75 included forklift truck and mechanical truck drivers, farm owners and managers, farm workers, and drivers of road goods vehicles. These occupations also contributed the largest estimated numbers of workers in Great Britain with such levels of exposure. The highest estimated median occupational eVDVs were found in forklift truck drivers, drivers of road goods vehicles, bus and coach drivers, and technical and wholesale sales representatives, among whom a greater contribution to total dose was received from occupational exposures than from non-occupational ones; but in many other occupations the reverse applied. The most common sources of occupational exposure to WBV are cars, vans, forklift trucks, lorries, tractors, buses, and loaders.?CONCLUSIONSExposure to whole body vibration is common, but only a small proportion of exposures exceed the action level proposed in British standards, and in many occupations, non-occupational sources are more important than those at work. The commonest occupational sources of WBV and occupations with particularly high exposures have been identified, providing a basis for targeting future control activities.???Keywords: whole body vibration; population; prevalence; exposure PMID:10810108

  10. Occupation, occupational exposure to chemicals and rheumatological disease. A register based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Lundberg, I; Alfredsson, L; Plato, N; Sverdrup, B; Klareskog, L; Kleinau, S

    1994-01-01

    The cumulative incidence of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) was compared between different occupations, and between different exposure groups based on a job-exposure matrix (JEM). The study population comprised those subjects who in 1980 lived in one of 13 Swedish counties, were born between 1905 and 1945, and who had stated the same occupation in the censuses of 1960 and 1970, a total of 375,035 men and 140,139 women. The study population was followed concerning hospital care for rheumatoid arthritis in 1981-1983 by lineage to the Swedish Hospital Discharge Register. In general there were rather small differences in the relative risk of RA in different exposure groups and different occupations. Most of the occupations associated with an increased risk of RA were occupations in which it was possible to work when the disease was present, i.e. cost accountants, estimating clerks and working proprietors in the retail trade. However, an increased relative risk of RA was also observed in some occupations where selection of RA patients out of heavy work should have biased genuinely increased relative risks towards unity. Such occupations were farmers, upholsterers, lacquerers, concrete workers, and hair-dressers. Substantial handling of organic solvents, according to the JEM, was associated with an increased relative risk. PMID:7801054

  11. The influence of occupational exposure on male reproductive function.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Tina Kold; Bonde, Jens Peter; Joffe, Michael

    2006-12-01

    Recently, many studies have found a decrease in semen quality which has increased the focus on male reproductive health. Occupational hazards are by far the best documented in reproductive epidemiological research. Generally, occupational exposures have been divided into physical exposures (heat and radiation), chemical exposures (solvents and pesticides), psychological exposures (distress), exposure to metals and welding. The recent and/or most important epidemiological studies exploring the effect of occupational exposures on semen quality and fecundity, the ability to conceive, are reviewed. The evidence for an adverse effect on male reproduction of several occupational and environmental exposures and toxicants, such as heat, ionizing radiation, inorganic lead, dibromochloropropane, ethylene dibromide, some ethylene glycol ethers, carbon disulfide and welding operations, is strongly supported in well-designed epidemiological studies. For other agents, the association is only suspected or suggested and needs further evaluation before conclusions can be drawn. It is also important to bear in mind that many workers in the non-Western world still are exposed to substances that are banned in the Western world, sometimes in high concentrations. PMID:17151390

  12. DOE Basic Overview of Occupational Radiation Exposure_2011 pamphlet

    SciTech Connect

    ORAU

    2012-08-08

    This pamphlet focusses on two HSS activities that help ensure radiation exposures are accurately assessed and recorded, namely: 1) the quality and accuracy of occupational radiation exposure monitoring, and 2) the recording, reporting, analysis, and dissemination of the monitoring results. It is intended to provide a short summary of two specific HSS programs that aid in the oversight of radiation protection activities at DOE. The Department of Energy Laboratory Accreditation Program (DOELAP) is in place to ensure that radiation exposure monitoring at all DOE sites is precise and accurate, and conforms to national and international performance and quality assurance standards. The DOE Radiation Exposure Monitoring Systems (REMS) program provides for the collection, analysis, and dissemination of occupational radiation exposure information. The annual REMS report is a valuable tool for managing radiological safety programs and for developing policies to protect individuals from occupational exposure to radiation. In tandem, these programs provide DOE management and workers an assurance that occupational radiation exposures are accurately measured, analyzed, and reported.

  13. Maternal Periconceptional Occupational Pesticide Exposure and Neural Tube Defects

    PubMed Central

    Makelarski, Jennifer A.; Romitti, Paul A.; Rocheleau, Carissa M.; Burns, Trudy L.; Stewart, Patricia A.; Waters, Martha A.; Lawson, Christina C.; Bell, Erin M.; Lin, Shao; Shaw, Gary M.; Olney, Richard S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Adverse associations between maternal pesticide exposure and neural tube defects (NTDs) have been suggested but not consistently observed. This study used data from the multisite National Birth Defects Prevention Study to examine associations between maternal periconceptional (1 month preconception through 2 months postconception) occupational pesticide exposure and NTDs. Methods Mothers of 502 NTD cases and 2950 unaffected live-born control infants with estimated delivery dates from 1997 through 2002 were included. Duration, categorical intensity scores, and categorical frequency scores for pesticide classes (e.g., insecticides) were assigned using a modified, literature-based job-exposure matrix and maternal-reported occupational histories. Adjusted odds ratios (aORs) and 95% confidence intervals were estimated based on fitted multivariable logistic regression models that described associations between maternal periconceptional occupational pesticide exposure and NTDs. The aORs were estimated for pesticide exposure (any [yes/no] and cumulative exposure [intensity × frequency × duration] to any pesticide class, each pesticide class, or combination of pesticide classes) and all NTD cases combined and NTD subtypes. Results Positive, but marginally significant or nonsignificant, aORs were observed for exposure to insecticides + herbicides for all NTD cases combined and for spina bifida alone. Similarly, positive aORs were observed for any exposure and cumulative exposure to insecticides + herbicides + fungicides and anencephaly alone and encephalocele alone. All other aORs were near unity. Conclusion Pesticide exposure associations varied by NTD subtype and pesticide class. Several aORs were increased, but not significantly. Future work should continue to examine associations between pesticide classes and NTD subtypes using a detailed occupational pesticide exposure assessment and examine pesticide exposures outside the workplace. PMID:25124525

  14. Occupational exposure to Streptococcus suis type 2.

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, I. D.; Blackmore, D. K.

    1989-01-01

    Antibody titres to Streptococcus suis type 2 were measured with an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in four occupational groups in New Zealand. No veterinary students, 9% of dairy farmers, 10% of meat inspectors and 21% of pig farmers were seropositive to S. suis type 2. The development of antibody to S. suis type 2 was associated with occupational contact with pigs or their meat products. Subclinical infection with S. suis type 2 appears to occur in humans and the antibody produced is of only short duration. The annual incidence of subclinical infection and seroconversion in pig farmers may approach 28%. Thus S. suis type 2 may be one of the most infectious potentially zoonotic agents present in New Zealand, although very rarely resulting in clinical disease. PMID:2776849

  15. Dose levels of the occupational radiation exposures in Poland based on results from the accredited dosimetry service at the IFJ PAN, Krakow.

    PubMed

    Budzanowski, Maciej; Kope?, Renata; Obryk, Barbara; Olko, Pawe?

    2011-03-01

    Individual dosimetry service based on thermoluminescence (TLD) detectors has started its activity at the Institute of Nuclear Physics (IFJ) in Krakow in 1965. In 2002, the new Laboratory of Individual and Environment Dosimetry (Polish acronym LADIS) was established and underwent the accreditation according to the EN-PN-ISO/IEC 17025 standard. Nowadays, the service is based on the worldwide known standard thermoluminescent detectors MTS-N (LiF:Mg,Ti) and MCP-N (LiF:Mg,Cu,P), developed at IFJ, processed in automatic thermoluminescent DOSACUS or RE2000 (Rados Oy, Finland) readers. Laboratory provides individual monitoring in terms of personal dose equivalent H(p)(10) and H(p)(0.07) in photon and neutron fields, over the range from 0.1 mSv to 1 Sv, and environmental dosimetry in terms of air kerma K(a) over the range from 30 ?Gy to 1 Gy and also ambient dose equivalent H*(10) over the range from 30 ?Sv to 1 Sv. Dosimetric service is currently performed for ca. 3200 institutions from Poland and abroad, monitored on quarterly and monthly basis. The goal of this paper is to identify the main activities leading to the highest radiation exposures in Poland. The paper presents the results of statistical evaluation of ? 100,000 quarterly H(p)(10) and K(a) measurements performed between 2002 and 2009. Sixty-five per cent up to 90 % of all individual doses in Poland are on the level of natural radiation background. The dose levels between 0.1 and 5 mSv per quarter are the most frequent in nuclear medicine, veterinary and industrial radiography sectors. PMID:21183549

  16. Hexavalent chromium compounds in the workplace: assessing the extent and magnitude of occupational exposure in Italy.

    PubMed

    Scarselli, Alberto; Binazzi, Alessandra; Marzio, Davide Di; Marinaccio, Alessandro; Iavicoli, Sergio

    2012-01-01

    Hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) compounds have been classified as carcinogenic to humans. This study evaluates the extent and magnitude of occupational exposures to Cr(VI) in Italy. Data were collected from exposure registries of companies compulsorily notified by the National Workers' Compensation Authority. Each measurement was characterized by economic activity sector, work force size, worker personal data, job description, year of measurement, and level of exposure. Descriptive statistical analysis was carried out on the retrieved information. The number of workers potentially exposed was estimated for some industrial sectors. A mixed-effects model was adopted to evaluate the association between exposure variables and exposure concentrations. Over 8400 measurements of Cr(VI) exposures were selected from the database of registries for 1996-2009. Most exposures occurred in the manufacture of fabricated metal products (>50%), and the occupational group most frequently measured was metal finishing-, plating- and coating-machine operators (>52%). Measurements were associated with various Cr(VI) compounds, including chromium trioxide, potassium dichromate, sodium dichromate, strontium chromate, and zinc chromate. Cr(VI) exposure has decreased in more recent years, and the fixed-effects (Cr(VI) compound, activity sector, size and location of the facility, job category, and year of measurement of the final statistical model explained more than 70% of the variance in the observed exposure data. This study summarized data recorded in the Italian occupational exposure database and identified specific exposure patterns to Cr(VI). The mean level of exposure to Cr(VI) was 30.41 ?g/m, and 50,118 workers were estimated at exposure risk in the selected industrial sectors. Systematic recording of occupational exposures is a source of data that allows recognition of high risk situations and improvements in exposure assessment for epidemiologic studies. PMID:22577838

  17. Hairy cell leukaemia and occupational exposure to benzene.

    PubMed Central

    Clavel, J; Conso, F; Limasset, J C; Mandereau, L; Roche, P; Flandrin, G; Hmon, D

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The role of occupational exposures in hairy cell leukaemia (HCL) was investigated through a multicentre, hospital based, case-control study. This paper analyses the role of exposure to benzene in HCL. METHODS: A population of 226 male cases of HCL and 425 matched controls were included in the study. Benzene exposure was evaluated by expert review of the detailed data on occupational exposures generated by case-control interviews. RESULTS: No association was found between HCL and employment in a job exposed to benzene (odds ratio (OR) 0.9 (95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.6-1.3)). The sample included 125 subjects, 34 cases (15%), and 91 controls (21%) who had been exposed to benzene, as individually assessed by the experts, for at least one hour a month during one of their jobs. Benzene exposure was not associated with a risk of HCL (OR 0.8 (0.5-1.2)). No trend towards an increase in OR was detected for increasing exposures, the percentage of work time involving exposure to > 1 ppm, or the duration of exposure. No findings suggested a particular risk period, when the OR associated with the time since first or last exposure, or since the end of exposure, were examined. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, with the low exposures prevalent in the sample, the study did not show any association between benzene exposure and HCL. PMID:8983464

  18. Evaluation of mutagenicity and other adverse effects of occupational exposure to sodium azide

    SciTech Connect

    Frederick, K.A.; Babish, J.G.

    1982-12-01

    The ubiquitous use of sodium azide has resulted in widespread occupational exposure to it in both laboratory and industrial settings, despite a lack of knowledge of the risks which may be involved. Explosive, toxic, and mutagenic hazards have been shown at even low-dose exposures. These effects occur in many species, from cellular damage through pathology of whole systems, and human fatalities have been reported. The advantages to its availability for applicable uses precludes reaching a ''no exposure'' level, but efforts to decrease unnecessary exposure can reduce its risk; therefore a quantitative procedure for determining human exposure is necessary. However, for various reasons present methods for this type of evaluation of azide are unsatisfactory, and minimizing hazard is dependent upon good laboratory hygiene and motivated personnel. The increasing use of azide and proportionally increasing occupational and accidental exposure in the future warrants the undertaking of chronic exposure studies, which hopefully will result in more explicit guidelines for human protection.

  19. Occupational Bloodborne Exposure Incident Survey & Management of Exposure Incidents in a Dental Teaching Environment

    PubMed Central

    Sedky, Nabila A.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of occupational exposure incidents among undergraduate dental students and the factors associated with it in the educational dental clinics at Pharos University in Alexandria Egypt, and to measure the commitment with applying infection control policy in the form of compliance with post-exposure management protocol and reporting exposure incidents. Materials and Methods An anonymous self-administered questionnaire consisting of thirteen multiple-choice questions was distributed among 350 undergraduate dental students in mid-senior and senior levels during lectures at the end of the second semester of 2011, with a response rate of 90.00%. Results About 62.00% of the senior students reported that exposures occurred outside the patients mouth. A high percentage of both the mid-senior and senior students (74.70% and 70.70%, respectively) reported that they were exposed to multiple sources of incidents. The vast majority of studied groups stated that they didnt follow Infection Control Protocol after Incident Exposure. Conclusion The findings of this study confirm that dental students experience exposure incidents but are not likely to report them, thus it is important that the principles of infection control training and reporting of all exposure incidents continue to be emphasized throughout undergraduate dental education. PMID:24421746

  20. Impact of Daily Noise Exposure Monitoring on Occupational Noise Exposures in Manufacturing Workers

    PubMed Central

    McTague, Michael F.; Galusha, Deron; Dixon-Ernst, Christine; Kirsche, Sharon R.; Slade, Martin D.; Cullen, Mark R.; Rabinowitz, Peter M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Despite the use of hearing protective devices (HPDs), noise induced hearing loss (NIHL) remains one of the most prevalent occupational conditions. A new technology allows for daily monitoring of noise exposures under HPDs. We report on an intervention employing the voluntary use of this technology in a worksite setting. Design Volunteers were fitted with a device allowing them to monitor noise exposure under their hearing protection on a daily basis. The trends in noise exposures for individuals who completed at least six months of the intervention were analyzed. Study Sample Recruitment occurred at three manufacturing facilities, with 127 workers enrolling and 66 workers actively using the device during their work shifts. Results Among volunteers downloading regularly, the percentage of daily exposures in excess of the OSHA action level (85dBA) decreased from 14% to 8%, while the percentage of daily exposures in excess of 90dBA decreased from 4% to less than 2%. Conclusion Initial results from this longitudinal study indicate that volunteers find daily noise exposure monitoring to be feasible, and that workers who monitor daily are able to reduce exposures. The results of subject adherence shed light on the challenges and possibilities of worksite interventions for health and safety. PMID:23373740

  1. Occupational Exposure to Aflatoxin B1 in a Portuguese Poultry Slaughterhouse.

    PubMed

    Viegas, Susana; Veiga, Lusa; Almeida, Ana; Dos Santos, Mateus; Carolino, Elisabete; Viegas, Carla

    2016-03-01

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a secondary metabolite produced by the fungi Aspergillus flavus and is the most potent hepatocarcinogen known in mammals and has been classified by the International Agency of Research on Cancer as Group 1 carcinogen. Although dietary exposure to AFB1 has been extensively documented, there are still few studies dedicated to the problem of occupational exposure. Considering recent findings regarding AFB1 occupational exposure in poultry production, it was considered relevant to clarify if there is also exposure in poultry slaughterhouses. Occupational exposure assessment to AFB1 was done with a biomarker of internal dose that measures AFB1 in the serum by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Thirty workers from a slaughterhouse were enrolled in this study. A control group (n = 30) was also considered in order to know AFB1 background levels for Portuguese population. Fourteen workers (47.0%) showed detectable levels of AFB1 with values from 1.06 to 4.03ng ml(-1), with a mean value of 1.73ng ml(-1). No AFB1 was detected in serum of individuals used as controls. Despite uncertainties regarding the exposure route that is contributing more to exposure (inhalation or dermal) is possible to state that exposure to AFB1 is occurring in the slaughterhouse studied. It seems that reducing AFB1 contamination in poultry production can have a positive result in this occupational setting. PMID:26568583

  2. Occupational exposure to elemental constituents in fingerprint powders

    SciTech Connect

    Van Netten, C.; Souter, F.; Teschke, K.E. )

    1990-03-01

    Fingerprint detection is an essential component of any crime detection agency. Little information is available regarding the elemental constituents of powders that are available currently. One recent case of lead poisoning coupled with many complaints from the Vancouver identification Squad members initiated a study regarding the elemental composition of, and the occupational exposure to, these powders. Multi-elemental analysis of the powders investigated showed that all contained varying amounts of aluminum, calcium, zinc, iron, magnesium, manganese, and nickel. One powder, however, contained 41% lead. The time spent at the scene of crime during a normal working shift averaged 95.5 min. Assessment of inhalation exposure during this period by personal air sampling pumps never exceeded the occupational exposure standards for these elements. Secondary exposure from dust-contaminated police vehicles and clothing can be an important contributor to overall exposure.

  3. Developing regulations for occupational exposures to health hazards in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Rampal, Krishna Gopal; Mohd Nizam, J

    2006-11-01

    In Malaysia exposures in the workplace are regulated under the Factories and Machinery Act (FMA), 1967 and also under the more comprehensive Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA) enacted in 1994. With OSHA 1994 the philosophy of legislating safety and health in the workplace changed from one that was very prescriptive and containing detailed technical provisions under FMA, 1967 to one that is more flexible and encourages self-regulation under OSHA 1994. OSHA 1994 is supported by regulations, codes of practices and guidelines to further clarify the provisions in the Act. Under the FMA 1967 emphasis was on safety while with OSHA 1994 there has been equal emphasis on addressing health hazards in the workplace. Regulations for occupational exposures are developed by the Department of Occupational Safety and Health with tripartite and stakeholder consultation. When developing these regulations International Labor Organization Conventions, laws of other countries and occupational exposure standards adopted internationally are reviewed. The government also conducts surveys to collect information on both exposures and health effects in workplaces to have better understanding on specific occupational health problems. Effective law enforcement is crucial in ensuring compliance to safety and health law. The challenge at the moment is to ensure all employers and employees, particularly those in the small and medium enterprises, understand and comply with the provisions stipulated in the legislation. PMID:16899331

  4. Exposure assessment in industry specific retrospective occupational epidemiology studies.

    PubMed

    Seixas, N S; Checkoway, H

    1995-10-01

    Quantitative estimation of exposure for occupational epidemiology studies has received increasing attention in recent years and, as a result, a body of methodological literature has begun to take form. This paper reviews the generic issues in the methodology of exposure assessment, particularly methods for quantitative retrospective assessment studies. A simple framework, termed an exposure data matrix (EDM), for defining and analysing exposure data is proposed and discussed in terms of the definition of matrix dimensions and scales. Several methods for estimation, interpolation, and extrapolation, ranging from subjective ratings to quantitative statistical modelling are presented and discussed. The various approaches to exposure assessment based on the EDM concept are illustrated with studies of lung disease among coal miners and other dust and chemically induced chronic occupational diseases. The advantages of validated statistical models are emphasised. The importance of analysis and control of errors in exposure assessments, and integration of the exposure assessment and exposure-response processes, especially for emerging occupational health issues, is emphasised. PMID:7489051

  5. Paternal occupational exposure around conception and spina bifida in offspring.

    PubMed

    Blatter, B M; Hermens, R; Bakker, M; Roeleveld, N; Verbeek, A L; Zielhuis, G A

    1997-09-01

    A multi-center case-referent study was conducted on the relation between paternal occupational exposure and spina bifida in offspring. Cases were born between 1980 and 1992 in The Netherlands. Referents were recruited from hospitals and from the general population. Postal questionnaires were used to gather information on occupation and potential confounders. Through job-specific telephone interviews with 122 case fathers and 411 referent fathers, detailed exposure information was collected on specific tasks, the use of chemical or physical agents, frequency of exposure, and use of protective equipment. The study yielded statistically significant associations between spina bifida and low exposure to welding fumes (OR = 1.6, 95% CI: 1.0-2.6) and low exposure to UV radiation during welding (OR = 2.6, 95% CI: 1.2-5.6), and suggestive findings of an association between spina bifida and moderate or high exposure to cleaning agents, moderate or high pesticide exposure (OR = 1.7, 95% CI: 0.7-4.0), and stainless steel dust (OR = 2.0, 95% CI: 0.8-5.2). No associations were identified for other paternal occupational exposures, such as organic solvents. PMID:9219659

  6. Bloodborne pathogens exposure from occupational fingernail scratches.

    PubMed Central

    Lohiya, Ghan-Shyam; Tan-Figueroa, Lilia; Lohiya, Sonia

    2007-01-01

    Following occupational fingernail scratches (OFSs) in a developmental center, the source resident and the injured employee were tested for bloodborne pathogens (BPs). The pros and cons of this practice were scrutinized since fingernails usually contain no blood. Available records revealed no OFS-related BP transmission in 14 years. PubMed displayed no article linking OFS with BP. The facility's practice was discontinued as it was deemed unnecessary, wasteful, an impediment to the event's expeditious closure, an ineffective workers' compensation safeguard, and a potential source of venipuncture-related complications and false-positive laboratory results. Even long-standing practices require periodic scientific review. PMID:18020103

  7. Occupational Skin Hazards From Ultraviolet (UV) Exposures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urbach, F.; Wolbarsht, M. L.

    1981-11-01

    The various types of UV effects on the skin are classified according to the part of the spectrum and their beneficial or deleterious nature. Some hazardous ultraviolet sources used in industrial processes are described, and examples of photoallergy, phototoxicity, and photosensitization resulting from UV exposures are given. The incidence of skin cancer as a function of geographical location and exposure to sunlight is discussed in relation to natural and artificial exposures to long and short wavelength UV, especially in connection with tanning booths. The conclusion is reached that there is enough ultraviolet in a normal environment to propose a hazard, and additional ultraviolet exposure from industrial or consumer sources is not necessary, and should be eliminated wherever possible.

  8. Occupational Skin Hazards From Ultraviolet (UV) Exposures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urbach, F.; Wolbarsht, M. L.

    1980-10-01

    The various types of UV effects on the skin are classified according to the part of the spectrum and their beneficial or deleterious nature. Some hazardous ultraviolet sources used in industrial processes are described, and examples of photoallergy, phototoxicity, and photosensitization resulting from UV exposures are given. The incidence of skin cancer as a function of geographical location and exposure to sunlight is discussed in relation to natural and artificial exposures to long and short wavelength UV, especially in connection with tanning booths. The conclusion is reached that there is enough ultraviolet in a normal environment to propose a hazard, and additional ultraviolet exposure from industrial or consumer sources is not necessary, and should be eliminated wherever possible.

  9. Occupational PAH Exposures during Prescribed Pile Burns

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, M. S.; Anthony, T. R.; Littau, S. R.; Herckes, P.; Nelson, X.; Poplin, G. S.; Burgess, J. L.

    2008-01-01

    Wildland firefighters are exposed to particulate matter and gases containing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), many of which are known carcinogens. Our objective was to evaluate the extent of firefighter exposure to particulate and PAHs during prescribed pile burns of mainly ponderosa pine slash and determine whether these exposures were correlated with changes in urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-HP), a PAH metabolite. Personal and area sampling for particulate and PAH exposures were conducted on the White Mountain Apache Tribe reservation, working with 21 Bureau of Indian Affairs/Fort Apache Agency wildland firefighters during the fall of 2006. Urine samples were collected pre- and post-exposure and pulmonary function was measured. Personal PAH exposures were detectable for only 3 of 16 PAHs analyzed: naphthalene, phenanthrene, and fluorene, all of which were identified only in vapor-phase samples. Condensed-phase PAHs were detected in PM2.5 area samples (20 of 21 PAHs analyzed were detected, all but naphthalene) at concentrations below 1 μg m−3. The total PAH/PM2.5 mass fractions were roughly a factor of two higher during smoldering (1.06 ± 0.15) than ignition (0.55 ± 0.04 μg mg−1). There were no significant changes in urinary 1-HP or pulmonary function following exposure to pile burning. In summary, PAH exposures were low in pile burns, and urinary testing for a PAH metabolite failed to show a significant difference between baseline and post-exposure measurements. PMID:18515848

  10. Risks of occupational exposure to optical radiation.

    PubMed

    Sliney, D H

    2006-01-01

    During the past 40 years a wide body of biomedical research has been conducted to understand the factors which influence injury to optical radiation-particularly with respect to the eye. A primary motivation for much of this research has been the advent of lasers, since focal damage of the retina from a collimated beam exposure is possible at some distance. A wide range of research studies provided the basis for establishing human exposure limits for ultraviolet and infrared radiation as well as for intense visible light. The International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) has published guidelines for human exposure, and these are available at no cost from the ICNIRP website (http://www. icnirp.org). Laser Maximum Permissible Exposure (MPE) limits used in international safety standards, such as those of the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) are based upon ICNIRP guidelines. Practical laser safety standards and regulations have evolved to promote the safe design and use of laser products. As a result of newer laser applications and increased knowledge of the biological effects, MPEs have been revised a number of times. Despite the existence of safety standards and regulations, accidental eye injuries from lasers still occur. Accidental exposure to welding arcs and intense lights occur more fequently, but the consequential loss of vision is much less, with permanent effects rare. Accidental human exposure information also adds to our understanding of ultraviolet, blue-light and laser induced retinal injury. Accidents are most frequently attributed to the lack of understanding of hazards and a failure to follow established safe work practices. PMID:17017352

  11. Lead exposure in the construction industry: results from the California Occupational Lead Registry, 1987 through 1989.

    PubMed Central

    Waller, K; Osorio, A M; Maizlish, N; Royce, S

    1992-01-01

    The construction industry is exempt from the medical monitoring portions of the US Federal Occupational Safety and Health Administration General Industry Lead Standard. Of 28 construction workers reported to the California Occupational Lead Registry through March 1989, 11 (39%) had blood lead levels of 2.90 mumol/L (60 micrograms/dL) or greater, the level at which immediate removal from lead exposure is mandated in nonconstruction industries. Many workers had not been warned of possible lead exposure. The exemption of the construction industry from the General Industry Lead Standard should be reconsidered. PMID:1456344

  12. Lead exposure: Public and Occupational Health Hazards. (Latest citations from Pollution Abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-06-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the effects of chronic lead exposure in humans and animals. The citations explore lead exposure resulting from occupational hazards, automobile emissions, and air pollution. Lead absorption in children is discussed. The clinical features of lead toxicity are noted, and biochemical assays for the quantification of blood and tissue lead levels are discussed. D-aminolevulenic acid dehydratase and its relation to blood lead levels are cited. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  13. Toxic hepatitis in occupational exposure to solvents

    PubMed Central

    Malaguarnera, Giulia; Cataudella, Emanuela; Giordano, Maria; Nunnari, Giuseppe; Chisari, Giuseppe; Malaguarnera, Mariano

    2012-01-01

    The liver is the main organ responsible for the metabolism of drugs and toxic chemicals, and so is the primary target organ for many organic solvents. Work activities with hepatotoxins exposures are numerous and, moreover, organic solvents are used in various industrial processes. Organic solvents used in different industrial processes may be associated with hepatotoxicity. Several factors contribute to liver toxicity; among these are: species differences, nutritional condition, genetic factors, interaction with medications in use, alcohol abuse and interaction, and age. This review addresses the mechanisms of hepatotoxicity. The main pathogenic mechanisms responsible for functional and organic damage caused by solvents are: inflammation, dysfunction of cytochrome P450, mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress. The health impact of exposure to solvents in the workplace remains an interesting and worrying question for professional health work. PMID:22719183

  14. Assessing the reproductive health of men with occupational exposures

    PubMed Central

    Schrader, Steven M; Marlow, Katherine L

    2014-01-01

    The earliest report linking environmental (occupational) exposure to adverse human male reproductive effects dates back to1775 when an English physician, Percival Pott, reported a high incidence of scrotal cancer in chimney sweeps. This observation led to safety regulations in the form of bathing requirements for these workers. The fact that male-mediated reproductive harm in humans may be a result of toxicant exposures did not become firmly established until relatively recently, when Lancranjan studied lead-exposed workers in Romania in 1975, and later in 1977, when Whorton examined the effects of dibromochloropropane (DBCP) on male workers in California. Since these discoveries, several additional human reproductive toxicants have been identified through the convergence of laboratory and observational findings. Many research gaps remain, as the pool of potential human exposures with undetermined effects on male reproduction is vast. This review provides an overview of methods used to study the effects of exposures on male reproduction and their reproductive health, with a primary emphasis on the implementation and interpretation of human studies. Emphasis will be on occupational exposures, although much of the information is also useful in assessing environmental studies, occupational exposures are usually much higher and better defined. PMID:24369130

  15. Association between occupational exposure and the clinical characteristics of COPD

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The contribution of occupational exposures to COPD and their interaction with cigarette smoking on clinical pattern of COPD remain underappreciated. The aim of this study was to explore the contribution of occupational exposures on clinical pattern of COPD. Methods Cross-sectional data from a multicenter tertiary care cohort of 591 smokers or ex-smokers with COPD (median FEV1 49%) were analyzed. Self-reported exposure to vapor, dust, gas or fumes (VDGF) at any time during the entire career was recorded. Results VDGF exposure was reported in 209 (35%) subjects aged 31 to 88 years. Several features were significantly associated with VDGF exposure: age (median 68 versus 64 years, p < 0.001), male gender (90% vs 76%; p < 0.0001), reported work-related respiratory disability (86% vs 7%, p < 0.001), current wheezing (71% vs 61%, p = 0.03) and hay fever (15.5% vs 8.5%, p < 0.01). In contrast, current and cumulative smoking was less (p = 0.01) despite similar severity of airflow obstruction. Conclusion In this patient series of COPD patients, subjects exposed to VDGF were older male patients who reported more work-related respiratory disability, more asthma-like symptoms and atopy, suggesting that, even in smokers or ex-smokers with COPD, occupational exposures are associated with distinct patients characteristics. PMID:22537093

  16. Occupational Exposure to Natural Sources of Ionising Radiation in Ireland

    SciTech Connect

    Organo, Catherine; Colgan, Tony; Fenton, David; Synnott, Hugh; Currivan, Lorraine

    2008-08-07

    The Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland (RPII) has recently completed a detailed evaluation of all radiation exposure pathways from sources of both natural and artificial radiation in the Irish environment. This paper presents a compilation of the occupational doses received by Irish workers exposed to natural sources of ionising radiation.

  17. Investing in Prospective Cohorts for Etiologic Study of Occupational Exposures

    EPA Science Inventory

    Prospective cohorts have played a major role in understanding the role of diet, physical activity, medical conditions, and genes in the development of many diseases, but have not been widely used in the study of occupational exposures. Studies in agriculture are an exception. W...

  18. LINKING DATA TO STUDY REPRODUCTIVE EFFECTS OF OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many existing data systems or registers can be used to study occupational exposures and reproduction. Use of these data systems, especially those already computerized, results in great savings in time and resources. The report describes existing record systems on reproductive out...

  19. Antimyeloperoxidase antibodies in individuals with occupational exposure to silica.

    PubMed Central

    Wichmann, I; Sanchez-Roman, J; Morales, J; Castillo, M J; Ocaña, C; Nuñez-Roldan, A

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of autoantibodies to myeloperoxidase (MPO) in a series of patients exposed to silica. METHODS: The study included 52 patients with occupational exposure to silica (mean exposure time seven years) and a control group comprising seven patients with progressive systemic sclerosis (PSS), six patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), and 15 healthy individuals. Antibodies to MPO were detected using commercial enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) plates coated with MPO. Indirect immunoflurescence studies for antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies were performed using ethanol and formol fixed neutrophils. Clinical and biological data of individuals exposed to silica were recorded (published previously). RESULTS: Antibodies to MPO were detected in 14 individuals exposed to silica (27%). There was a statistically significant difference in anti-MPO ELISA units between the healthy subjects and patients (SLE, PSS, silica exposed individuals) (p < 0.01), but no difference between the different disease groups. CONCLUSIONS: Individuals chronically exposed to silica, whether or not they have a connective tissue disease, have levels of antibodies to MPO (as detected by ELISA) that are greater than those found in the normal population, but similar to those in patients with systemic diseases not induced by silica (SLE/PSS). PMID:8712888

  20. Occupational exposures estimated by means of job exposure matrices in relation to lung function in the PAARC survey.

    PubMed Central

    Le Moual, N; Orlowski, E; Schenker, M B; Avignon, M; Brochard, P; Kauffmann, F

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--The aim of this analysis of the French Cooperative PAARC (Pollution Atmosphérique et Affections Respiratoires Chroniques) survey, was to test whether occupational exposures to dusts, gases, or chemical fumes or to specific hazards, estimated by job exposure matrices, were related to a decrease in forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1). METHODS--The most recent occupation was recorded in adults, aged 25-59, from non-manual worker households. Analysis was restricted to 10,046 subjects whose occupation was encountered at least 10 times in the study and who performed good FEV1 tracings. From occupational title, exposures to dusts, gases, and chemical fumes, and to specific hazards were classified in three categories (no, low, and high) with a British, a French, and an Italian job exposure matrix. Specific hazards were analysed for the British and French job exposure matrices for the same 42 specific dusts, gases, and chemical fumes. To limit spurious associations, a selection of seven hazard groups and 12 specific hazards was set before the start of the analysis. Based on the consistency of the relations according to sex and the British and French job exposure matrices, associations of age, height, city, and smoking adjusted FEV1 score with occupational exposures were classified as very likely, possible, or unlikely. RESULTS--For the three job exposure matrices and both sexes clear exposure-response relations between the level of exposure to dusts, gases, and chemical fumes, and a decrease in FEV1 were found. Associations with FEV1 were classified as very likely for known hazards such as organic dusts and textile dusts, and not previously recognised hazards such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and detergents, and as possible for solvents, waxes and polishes, and diesel fumes. Associations found for PAHs and solvents were confirmed by the Italian job exposure matrix. Associations remained significant in women, but not in men, after adjustment for educational level. CONCLUSIONS--Hypotheses have been generated for exposure to detergents, PAHs, and solvents, but they need to be interpreted with caution before replication. Significant associations found for known risk factors with a decrease in FEV1 are arguments for the validity of the matrices. Despite the expected limitations of job exposure matrices, these results encourage further work to improve exposure assessment by job exposure matrices. PMID:7489052

  1. Occupational exposures in the oil and gas extraction industry: State of the science and research recommendations.

    PubMed

    Witter, Roxana Z; Tenney, Liliana; Clark, Suzanne; Newman, Lee S

    2014-07-01

    The oil and gas extraction industry is rapidly growing due to horizontal drilling and high volume hydraulic fracturing (HVHF). This growth has provided new jobs and economic stimulus. The industry occupational fatality rate is 2.5 times higher than the construction industry and 7 times higher than general industry; however injury rates are lower than the construction industry, suggesting injuries are not being reported. Some workers are exposed to crystalline silica at hazardous levels, above occupational health standards. Other hazards (particulate, benzene, noise, radiation) exist. In this article, we review occupational fatality and injury rate data; discuss research looking at root causes of fatal injuries and hazardous exposures; review interventions aimed at improving occupational health and safety; and discuss information gaps and areas of needed research. We also describe Wyoming efforts to improve occupational safety in this industry, as a case example. PMID:24634090

  2. Occupational Exposures in the Oil and Gas Extraction Industry: State of the Science and Research Recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Witter, Roxana Z.; Tenney, Liliana; Clark, Suzanne; Newman, Lee S.

    2015-01-01

    The oil and gas extraction industry is rapidly growing due to horizontal drilling and high volume hydraulic fracturing (HVHF). This growth has provided new jobs and economic stimulus. The industry occupational fatality rate is 2.5 times higher than the construction industry and 7 times higher than general industry; however injury rates are lower than the construction industry, suggesting injuries are not being reported. Some workers are exposed to crystalline silica at hazardous levels, above occupational health standards. Other hazards (particulate, benzene, noise, radiation) exist. In this article, we review occupational fatality and injury rate data; discuss research looking at root causes of fatal injuries and hazardous exposures; review interventions aimed at improving occupational health and safety; and discuss information gaps and areas of needed research. We also describe Wyoming efforts to improve occupational safety in this industry, as a case example. PMID:24634090

  3. Assessing Occupational Exposure to Chemicals in an International Epidemiological Study of Brain Tumours

    PubMed Central

    van Tongeren, Martie

    2013-01-01

    The INTEROCC project is a multi-centre casecontrol study investigating the risk of developing brain cancer due to occupational chemical and electromagnetic field exposures. To estimate chemical exposures, the Finnish Job Exposure Matrix (FINJEM) was modified to improve its performance in the INTEROCC study and to address some of its limitations, resulting in the development of the INTEROCC JEM. An international team of occupational hygienists developed a crosswalk between the Finnish occupational codes used in FINJEM and the International Standard Classification of Occupations 1968 (ISCO68). For ISCO68 codes linked to multiple Finnish codes, weighted means of the exposure estimates were calculated. Similarly, multiple ISCO68 codes linked to a single Finnish code with evidence of heterogeneous exposure were refined. One of the key time periods in FINJEM (19601984) was split into two periods (19601974 and 19751984). Benzene exposure estimates in early periods were modified upwards. The internal consistency of hydrocarbon exposures and exposures to engine exhaust fumes was improved. Finally, exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon and benzo(a)pyrene was modified to include the contribution from second-hand smoke. The crosswalk ensured that the FINJEM exposure estimates could be applied to the INTEROCC study subjects. The modifications generally resulted in an increased prevalence of exposure to chemical agents. This increased prevalence of exposure was not restricted to the lowest categories of cumulative exposure, but was seen across all levels for some agents. Although this work has produced a JEM with important improvements compared to FINJEM, further improvements are possible with the expansion of agents and additional external data. PMID:23467593

  4. Occupational exposure to zeranol, an animal growth promoter.

    PubMed Central

    Aw, T C; Smith, A B; Stephenson, R L; Glueck, C J

    1989-01-01

    Zeranol (3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12-Decahydro-7,14,16-trihydroxy-3-methyl-1H-2 - benzoxacyclotetradecin-1-one) is a synthetic oestrogenic agent used as an animal growth promoter. The effects of occupational exposure to zeranol in 11 exposed workers from a pelletising plant and 14 nonexposed subjects were assessed. A questionnaire showed that more breast symptoms were reported by male and female plant workers compared with non-exposed subjects, although the difference was not statistically significant. Clinical assessment showed no cases of gynaecomastia in all the male participants. Blood samples analysed by high performance liquid chromatography for zeranol, its precursor zearalenone, and its main metabolites did not show any of these compounds above the laboratory limit of detection. Serum levels of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinising hormone (LH), prolactin, and oestradiol showed no striking differences between the exposed and the non-exposed subjects. Total and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL cholesterol) levels did not significantly differ between the two groups but mean high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL cholesterol) levels were higher in the exposed group; this could be due to relatively high HDL cholesterol in two women exposed to zeranol or relatively low HDL cholesterol in three non-exposed men. PMID:2751933

  5. Occupational exposure to lead in ancient times.

    PubMed

    Nriagu, J O

    1983-11-01

    The uses and regional production of lead in ancient times are summarized. Since there is no evidence to suggest that any deliberate attempts were made to curtail personal exposure to the mine dusts or the emissions from the forges and crucibles, it is surmised that many of the ancient artisans who worked with lead probably contracted plumbism. The number of workers so exposed is estimated to be over 140,000 per year during the Roman Empire. The ancient literary records of work-related plumbism, however, are surprisingly sparse. PMID:6362001

  6. Occupational Exposure to Diagnostic Radiology in Workers without Training in Radiation Safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaona, Enrique; Enrquez, Jess G. Franco

    2004-09-01

    The physicians, technicians, nurses, and others involved in radiation areas constitute the largest group of workers occupationally exposed to man-made sources of radiation. Personnel radiation exposure must be monitored for safety and regulatory considerations, this assessment may need to be made over a period of one month or several months. The purpose of this study was to carry out an exploratory survey of occupational exposures associated with diagnostic radiology. The personnel dosimeters used in this study were thermoluminiscent dosimeters (TLDs). The reported number of monitored workers was 110 of different departments of radiology of the Mexican Republic without education in radiation safety, included general fluoscopic/radiographic imaging, computed tomography and mammography procedures. Physicians and X-ray technologist in diagnostic radiology receive an average annual effective dose of 2.9 mSv with range from 0.18 to 5.64 mSv. The average level of occupational exposures is generally similar to the global average level of natural radiation exposure. The annual global per capita effective dose due to natural radiation sources is 2.4 mSv (UNSCEAR 2000 Report). There is not significant difference between average occupational exposures and natural radiation exposure for p < 0.05.

  7. Occupational exposures among nurses and risk of spontaneous abortion

    PubMed Central

    LAWSON, Christina C; ROCHELEAU, Carissa M.; WHELAN, Elizabeth A; LIVIDOTI HIBERT, Eileen N.; GRAJEWSKI, Barbara; SPIEGELMAN, Donna; RICH-EDWARDS, Janet W.

    2015-01-01

    Objective We investigated self-reported occupational exposure to antineoplastic drugs, anesthetic gases, antiviral drugs, sterilizing agents (disinfectants), and X-rays and the risk of spontaneous abortion in U.S. nurses. Study Design Pregnancy outcome and occupational exposures were collected retrospectively from 8,461 participants of the Nurses’ Health Study II. Of these, 7,482 were eligible for analysis using logistic regression. Results Participants reported 6,707 live births, and 775 (10%) spontaneous abortions (<20 weeks). After adjusting for age, parity, shift work, and hours worked, antineoplastic drug exposure was associated with a 2-fold increased risk of spontaneous abortion, particularly with early spontaneous abortion before the 12th week, and 3.5-fold increased risk among nulliparous women. Exposure to sterilizing agents was associated with a 2-fold increased risk of late spontaneous abortion (12–20 weeks), but not with early spontaneous abortion. Conclusion This study suggests that certain occupational exposures common to nurses are related to risks of spontaneous abortion. PMID:22304790

  8. Occupational exposures during routine activities in coal-fueled power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Mona J. Bird; David L. MacIntosh; Phillip L. Williams

    2004-06-15

    Limited information is available on occupational exposures during routine, nonoutage work activities in coal-fueled power plants. This study evaluated occupational exposures to the principal contaminants in the facilities, including respirable dust (coal dust), arsenic, noise, asbestos, and heat stress. The data were collected over a 3-month period, during the summer of 2001, in 5 representative power plants of a large southeastern power-generating company. From 4 of the 5 facilities, 392 air samples and 302 noise samples were collected with approximately 50 respirable coal dust, 32 arsenic, 15 asbestos, and 70 noise samples from each of the 4 plants. One of the previously surveyed facilities was also evaluated for heat stress, and 1 additional coal-fueled power plant was surveyed for a total of 20 personal heat stress samples. Of the nearly 400 air samples collected, only 1 exceeded the allowable occupational exposure value. For the noise samples, 55 were equal to or greater than the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) 8-hour hearing conservation program level of 85 dBA, and 12 were equal to or greater than the OSHA 8-hour permissible exposure level of 90 dBA. The data concluded that some work sites were above the heat stress ceiling values recommended by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). Four of the 20 employees personally monitored exceeded the recommended limits for heart rate or body core temperature.

  9. Evaluation of occupational magnetic field exposure guidelines. Interim report

    SciTech Connect

    Bracken, T.D.

    1998-10-01

    This collection of five reports presents a diverse set of research results related to occupational magnetic-field exposure guidelines. The work was performed by several groups of investigators, and includes the following: (1) an assessment of electric utility job sites that may be unrepresented in the available exposure data sets; (2) modeling of induced current density in the human body in realistic work scenarios; (3) modeling of induced current density in cardiac tissue under different assumptions; (4) an assessment of uncertainty in establishing occupational magnetic-field limits protective of adverse acute effects; and (5) development of a decision framework to evaluate the consequences of different work practices for addressing magnetic-field exposure guidelines.

  10. Occupational exposures and practices in nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Baum, J.W.

    1989-01-01

    As the first generation of commercial nuclear power comes to a close, it is timely to consider the status of occupational exposure in the power generation industry, that is, the collective occupational radiation doses received by workers in nuclear power plants. The picture is surprising. One might have thought that as newer, larger, and more modern plants came on line, there would be a significant decrease in exposure per unit of electricity generated. There is some indication that this is now happening. One might also have thought that the United States, being a leader in the development of nuclear power, and in the knowledge, experience and technology of nuclear radiation protection, would have the greatest success in controlling exposure. This expectation has not been fulfilled. 32 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  11. Interstitial pulmonary disease induced by occupational exposure to paraffin.

    PubMed

    Pujol, J L; Barnon, G; Bousquet, J; Michel, F B; Godard, P

    1990-01-01

    An occupational interstitial pulmonary disease was observed in a 59-year-old workman after five years of massive exposure to aerosolized paraffin. Histologic studies of open-lung biopsy showed a lipoid pneumonia characterized by (1) alveolitis involving large lipid-laden macrophages and (2) interstitial fibrosis. Electron microscopy of AMs disclosed features of paraffin-laden cytoplasmic vacuoles. Successive treatments included prednisolone and cyclophosphamide. Despite these treatments and withdrawal from exposure, the pulmonary function became impaired progressively, resulting in restrictive syndrome and severe exertional dyspnea. Concomitantly, PMNs harvested by BAL increased, whereas initial lymphocytosis decreased. This is the first case observed of occupational interstitial fibrosis in which electron-microscopic findings clearly established a relationship with an exposure to paraffin. This observation also emphasizes the switch from alveolitis to fibrosis in the pathogenesis of interstitial pulmonary disease. PMID:2295245

  12. Occupational Component. 16-Level Courses. Integrated Occupational Program. Program of Studies/Curriculum Guide. Interim-1990.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton. Curriculum Design Branch.

    This curriculum guide provides an overview of the 16-level occupational component of the integrated occupational program for grades 10-12 in Alberta. The integrated occupational program is a vocational education program for students who have experienced difficulty in learning. The program consists of both core and complementary courses designed to

  13. Relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of fission neutrons and gamma rays at occupational exposure levels: Volume 1, Studies on the genetic effects in mice of 60 equal once-weekly exposures to fission neutrons and gamma rays

    SciTech Connect

    Grahn, D.; Carnes, B.A.

    1987-10-01

    The relative biological effectiveness (RBE) values for low doses of fission neutrons compared to /sup 60/Co gamma rays were determined with four separate assessments of genetic damage induced in young hybrid male mice. Both radiations were delivered at low dose levels over about one-half the adult lifetime as 60 once-weekly exposures. Genetic damage assessed included both transient and residual injury. The latter is more critical, as residual genetic injury can be transmitted to subsequent generations long after the radiation exposures have ceased. Assays were performed periodically during the 60-week exposure period and at 10 or more weeks after the irradiations had terminated. RBE values, with few exceptions, ranged between 5 and 15 for transient injury and between 25 and 50 for different types of residual genetic injury. The most important form of residual genetic damage in this study was the balanced reciprocal chromosome translocation. These translocations continue to be transmitted throughout reproductive life and can lead to reduced fertility and increased prenatal mortality. The best estimate of the RBE value for translocations was 45 +- 10. Implications and recommendations with regard to the neutron quality factor will be presented conjointly with the findings from the data obtained in this same project on life shortening and on the risks of incidence or death from neoplastic disease. 64 refs., 23 tabs.

  14. Occupational exposure during remediation works at a uranium tailings pile.

    PubMed

    Dinis, Maria de Lurdes; Fiza, Antnio

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this study was to assess by different approaches the occupational exposure during the remediation of a tailings dam in an abandoned uranium mining site, with an area of about 13.3ha and an estimated volume of 1.39millionm. A hypothetical scenario was created in which the workers involved in the remediation activities were exposed to radiation through both internal and external pathways. It was intended to assess quantitatively the potential exposure of the workforce involved in the remediation works, focussing particularly on the inhalation of radon and on the gamma irradiation from the contaminated soil. Different methodologies were considered based on a deterministic and a probabilistic approach for dose assessment and risk assessment, respectively. The deterministic approach typically employs a highly "conservative" single value for each input parameter. The probabilistic approach employs sensitivity and uncertainty analysis of input parameters using probabilistic distributions of the sensitive parameters. The results indicate that annual effective dose limit for occupational exposure (worst scenario case created) may reach a significant fraction of occupational radiation protection limits. This is also stressed by the values obtained for the occupational risk estimated by Monte Carlo methodology using probabilistic distributions for the input parameters. The results also showed that the pathway with the highest dose does not necessarily correspond to the pathway with the highest risk. Nevertheless, it is well known that probabilistic analysis generally produces more realistic results. PMID:22974553

  15. Occupational radiation exposures in Canada, 1987. Annual publication

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    The information in this tenth annual report is derived from the National Dose Registry of the Bureau of Radiation and Medical Devices, Dept. of National Health and Welfare. It provides statistics on occupational radiation exposures of all monitored workers in Canada from NDR records as well as from data submitted by nuclear power generating stations, Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd. and uranium mines. This report presents by occupation: Average yearly whole body doses by region, dose distributions, and variations of the average doses with time. Statistical data are tabulated in summary form.

  16. Advanced REACH Tool: a Bayesian model for occupational exposure assessment.

    PubMed

    McNally, Kevin; Warren, Nicholas; Fransman, Wouter; Entink, Rinke Klein; Schinkel, Jody; van Tongeren, Martie; Cherrie, John W; Kromhout, Hans; Schneider, Thomas; Tielemans, Erik

    2014-06-01

    This paper describes a Bayesian model for the assessment of inhalation exposures in an occupational setting; the methodology underpins a freely available web-based application for exposure assessment, the Advanced REACH Tool (ART). The ART is a higher tier exposure tool that combines disparate sources of information within a Bayesian statistical framework. The information is obtained from expert knowledge expressed in a calibrated mechanistic model of exposure assessment, data on inter- and intra-individual variability in exposures from the literature, and context-specific exposure measurements. The ART provides central estimates and credible intervals for different percentiles of the exposure distribution, for full-shift and long-term average exposures. The ART can produce exposure estimates in the absence of measurements, but the precision of the estimates improves as more data become available. The methodology presented in this paper is able to utilize partially analogous data, a novel approach designed to make efficient use of a sparsely populated measurement database although some additional research is still required before practical implementation. The methodology is demonstrated using two worked examples: an exposure to copper pyrithione in the spraying of antifouling paints and an exposure to ethyl acetate in shoe repair. PMID:24665110

  17. Occupational exposure to crystalline silica and the risk of lung cancer in Canadian men.

    PubMed

    Kachuri, Linda; Villeneuve, Paul J; Parent, Marie-Élise; Johnson, Kenneth C; Harris, Shelley A

    2014-07-01

    Crystalline silica is a recognized carcinogen, but the association with lung cancer at lower levels of exposure has not been well characterized. This study investigated the relationship between occupational silica exposure and lung cancer and the combined effects of cigarette smoking and silica exposure on lung cancer risk. A population-based case-control study was conducted in eight Canadian provinces between 1994 and 1997. Self-reported questionnaires were used to obtain a lifetime occupational history and information on other risk factors. Occupational hygienists assigned silica exposures to each job based on concentration, frequency and reliability. Data from 1681 incident lung cancer cases and 2053 controls were analyzed using logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (OR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI). Models included adjustments for cigarette smoking, lifetime residential second-hand smoke and occupational exposure to diesel and gasoline engine emissions. Relative to the unexposed, increasing duration of silica exposure at any concentration was associated with a significant trend in lung cancer risk (OR ≥ 30 years: 1.67, 1.21-2.24; ptrend  = 0.002). The highest tertile of cumulative silica exposure was associated with lung cancer (OR = 1.81, 1.34-2.42; ptrend  = 0.004) relative to the lowest. Men exposed to silica for ≥30 years with ≥40 cigarette pack-years had the highest risk relative to those unexposed with <10 pack-years (OR = 42.53, 23.54-76.83). The joint relationship with smoking was consistent with a multiplicative model. Our findings suggest that occupational exposure to silica is a risk factor for lung cancer, independently from active and passive smoking, as well as from exposure to other lung carcinogens. PMID:24272527

  18. A Case–Control Study of Occupational Exposure to Trichloroethylene and Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Purdue, Mark P.; Bakke, Berit; Stewart, Patricia; De Roos, Anneclaire J.; Schenk, Maryjean; Lynch, Charles F.; Bernstein, Leslie; Morton, Lindsay M.; Cerhan, James R.; Severson, Richard K.; Cozen, Wendy; Davis, Scott; Rothman, Nathaniel; Hartge, Patricia; Colt, Joanne S.

    2011-01-01

    Background Previous epidemiologic findings suggest an association between exposure to trichloroethylene (TCE), a chlorinated solvent primarily used for vapor degreasing of metal parts, and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). Objectives We investigated the association between occupational TCE exposure and NHL within a population-based case–control study using detailed exposure assessment methods. Methods Cases (n = 1,189; 76% participation rate) and controls (n = 982; 52% participation rate) provided information on their occupational histories and, for selected occupations, on possible workplace exposure to TCE using job-specific interview modules. An industrial hygienist assessed potential TCE exposure based on this information and a review of the TCE industrial hygiene literature. We computed odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) relating NHL and different metrics of estimated TCE exposure, categorized using tertiles among exposed controls, with unexposed subjects as the reference group. Results We observed associations with NHL for the highest tertiles of estimated average weekly exposure (23 exposed cases; OR = 2.5; 95% CI, 1.1–6.1) and cumulative exposure (24 exposed cases; OR = 2.3; 95% CI, 1.0–5.0) to TCE. Tests for trend with these metrics surpassed or approached statistical significance (p-value for trend = 0.02 and 0.08, respectively); however, we did not observe dose–response relationships across the exposure levels. Overall, neither duration nor intensity of exposure was associated with NHL, although we observed an association with the lowest tertile of exposure duration (OR = 2.1; 95% CI, 1.0–4.7). Conclusions Our findings offer additional support for an association between high levels of exposure to TCE and increased risk of NHL. However, we cannot rule out the possibility of confounding from other chlorinated solvents used for vapor degreasing and note that our exposure assessment methods have not been validated. PMID:21370516

  19. Occupational exposures worldwide and revision of international standards for protection.

    PubMed

    Czarwinski, R; Crick, M J

    2011-03-01

    United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) has become the world authority on the levels and effects of ionising radiation. Since 1975, UNSCEAR has evaluated inter alia the level of occupational exposure worldwide. Based on revised questionnaires, more detailed information is now available. The results of the last evaluation (1995-2002) will be shown in the paper. Lessons learned from the responses by UN Member States will be given, as well as an outline of plans for data collection in future cycles. The requirements for protection against exposure to ionising radiation of workers, the public and patients are established in the International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionising Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources (BSS), published in 1996. As a result of a review of the BSS in 2006, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) started a process for the revision of these standards in 2007. International organisations including the joint sponsoring organisations of the BSS-IAEA, FAO, ILO, OECD/NEA, PAHO and WHO--as well as potential new joint sponsoring organisations of the revised BSS--the European Commission and UNEP-were involved from the beginning in the revision process. The paper also provides a summary of the status of the Draft Revised BSS and describes the new format. The paper focuses, in particular, on requirements for the protection of workers as well as recordkeeping requirements, which provide the legal basis for the collection of specific data; these data are of the type that can be used by UNSCEAR. PMID:21148586

  20. Occupational exposures associated with severe exacerbation of asthma

    PubMed Central

    Henneberger, P. K.; Liang, X.; Lillienberg, L.; Dahlman-Hglund, A.; Torn, K.; Andersson, E.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY BACKGROUND The exacerbation of asthma by workplace conditions is common, but little is known about which agents pose a risk. OBJECTIVE We used data from an existing survey of adults with asthma to identify occupational exposures associated with severe exacerbation of asthma. DESIGN Questionnaires were completed by 557 working adults with asthma. Severe exacerbation of asthma in the past 12 months was defined as asthma-related hospitalization, or reports of both unplanned asthma care and treatment with a short course of oral corticosteroids. Occupational exposures for the same time period were assessed using an asthma-specific job exposure matrix. We modeled severe exacerbation to yield prevalence ratios (PRs) for exposures while controlling for potential confounders. RESULTS A total of 164 participants (29%) were positive for severe exacerbation, and 227 (40.8%) were assessed as being exposed to asthma agents at work. Elevated PRs were observed for several specific agents, notably the irritant subcategories of environmental tobacco smoke (PR 1.84, 95%CI 1.342.51) among all participants, inorganic dusts (PR 2.53, 95%CI 1.37 4.67) among men, and the low molecular weight subcategory of other highly reactive agents (PR 1.97, 95%CI 1.083.60) among women. CONCLUSION Among working adults with asthma, severe exacerbation was associated with several occupational agents. PMID:25574926

  1. Potential Health Effects Associated with Dermal Exposure to Occupational Chemicals

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Stacey E; Meade, B Jean

    2014-01-01

    There are a large number of workers in the United States, spanning a variety of occupational industries and sectors, who are potentially exposed to chemicals that can be absorbed through the skin. Occupational skin exposures can result in numerous diseases that can adversely affect an individual’s health and capacity to perform at work. In general, there are three types of chemical–skin interactions of concern: direct skin effects, immune-mediated skin effects, and systemic effects. While hundreds of chemicals (metals, epoxy and acrylic resins, rubber additives, and chemical intermediates) present in virtually every industry have been identified to cause direct and immune-mediated effects such as contact dermatitis or urticaria, less is known about the number and types of chemicals contributing to systemic effects. In an attempt to raise awareness, skin notation assignments communicate the potential for dermal absorption; however, there is a need for standardization among agencies to communicate an accurate description of occupational hazards. Studies have suggested that exposure to complex mixtures, excessive hand washing, use of hand sanitizers, high frequency of wet work, and environmental or other factors may enhance penetration and stimulate other biological responses altering the outcomes of dermal chemical exposure. Understanding the hazards of dermal exposure is essential for the proper implementation of protective measures to ensure worker safety and health. PMID:25574139

  2. Exploring the Usefulness of Occupational Exposure Registries for Surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Genesove, Leon; Moore, Kris; Del Bianco, Ann; Kramer, Desre

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The ongoing presence of asbestos in products used across workplaces in Canada reinforces the importance of occupational exposure surveillance. This study evaluates the usefulness of the Ontario Asbestos Workers Registry. Methods: The study includes 30,829 workers aged 15 to 80 years. Researchers reported on the data quality and analyzed the proportions of workers exposed by industry, and standardized rates by geographic areas and over time. Results: The incidence of exposure started to decrease around 1990; but about 2000 workers were still exposed annually until 2006. Results showed large geographical disparities. Unexpectedly, workers from industries other than construction reported exposure. Conclusions: The Ontario Asbestos Workers Registry is a useful but challenging source of information for the surveillance of asbestos exposure in Ontario. The registry could benefit from well-defined surveillance objectives, a clear exposure definition, systematic enforcement, regular data analyses, and results dissemination. PMID:25162835

  3. Relationship between the lead concentration in hair and occupational exposure.

    PubMed Central

    Niculescu, T; Dumitru, R; Botha, V; Alexandrescu, R; Manolescu, N

    1983-01-01

    The lead content of hair in workers occupationally exposed was correlated with the blood lead concentration. Determinations of lead in blood and hair were performed by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrophotometry in two exposed groups and a control group. A significant correlation was observed between the blood lead and hair lead concentrations, and a regression analysis showed an exponential accumulation of the lead content in hair, simultaneously with the increase of the values in blood. The colour of the hair and the age of the subject did not influence the lead accumulation in hair in the occupationally exposed subjects. The assessment of lead in hair is considered a useful screening test in estimating occupational exposure. Images PMID:6824602

  4. Occupational exposure to noise in maxillofacial operating theatres: an initial prospective study.

    PubMed

    Tay, Brian Diaz; Prabhu, I S; Cousin, C H S; Cousin, G C S

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to excessive noise could impair surgical performance and communication, and lead to long-term hearing loss, but it is only recently that studies on occupational exposure to noise in operating theatres have been published. The aim of this prospective study was to assess mean and peak levels of noise during maxillofacial operations. We found that both were comparable to those in other surgical specialties such as orthopaedics in which power tools are used. PMID:26597912

  5. Variability and consistency of electric and magnetic field occupational exposure measurements.

    PubMed

    Bracken, T D; Patterson, R M

    1996-01-01

    There is widespread scientific and public interest in possible health effects from exposure to electric and magnetic fields at frequencies associated with electricity use. Electric and magnetic field exposure assessment presents specific problems, among which are the inherent variability in exposure, the lack of robust statistical summary measures, and the lack of an accepted metric based on biological response. These pose challenges in defining distinct exposure groups, a basic goal for exposure assessments used in epidemiological studies. This paper explores the extent to which distinct electric and magnetic field exposure groups can be defined, by examining the variability and consistency of occupational electric and magnetic field exposure measurements among studies and within individual studies. Principal analyses are made by job titles because they are the most frequently used descriptors for stratifying occupational exposures to electric and magnetic fields. Methodological issues affecting the degree of consistency in measured electric and magnetic field exposures among occupational environments are also examined. Exposures by job title reported from electric and magnetic field measurement studies are summarized by general job category and industry. Analyses are performed both within and between job categories. Distributions of daily measured exposures for job categories taken from three large studies in the U.S. electric utility industry are compared to investigate consistency of exposures at a more detailed level. Analyses of reported personal exposure measurements from many studies and countries are consistent with less rigorous observations made heretofore on the basis of individual studies. In these studies, significantly elevated electric and magnetic field exposures are found in the electrician, lineworker, and substation worker categories; significantly elevated magnetic field exposures are also noted in the generation worker category; and magnetic field exposures in these groups are consistent across countries. Analyses within and among the elevated exposure job categories indicate that there are no significant differences between them. Among the studies, it is not possible to distinguish between exposures for well-defined groups within the categories, such as between transmission lineworkers and distribution lineworkers in the lineworker category; between generation operators and generation mechanics; or between substation operators and substation maintenance workers. This information provides a context for past studies and will help future efforts to define distinct occupational exposure groups exposed to electric and magnetic fields. Compilations of measured personal exposure data by industry and job title have been prepared as appendices (available from the author upon request). PMID:8889954

  6. Statistical Modeling of Occupational Exposure to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Using OSHA Data.

    PubMed

    Lee, Derrick G; Lavou, Jrme; Spinelli, John J; Burstyn, Igor

    2015-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a group of pollutants with multiple variants classified as carcinogenic. The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) provided access to two PAH exposure databanks of United States workplace compliance testing data collected between 1979 and 2010. Mixed-effects logistic models were used to predict the exceedance fraction (EF), i.e., the probability of exceeding OSHA's Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL = 0.2 mg/m3) for PAHs based on industry and occupation. Measurements of coal tar pitch volatiles were used as a surrogate for PAHs. Time, databank, occupation, and industry were included as fixed-effects while an identifier for the compliance inspection number was included as a random effect. Analyses involved 2,509 full-shift personal measurements. Results showed that the majority of industries had an estimated EF < 0.5, although several industries, including Standardized Industry Classification codes 1623 (Water, Sewer, Pipeline, and Communication and Powerline Construction), 1711 (Plumbing, Heating, and Air-Conditioning), 2824 (Manmade Organic Fibres), 3496 (Misc. Fabricated Wire products), and 5812 (Eating Places), and Major group's 13 (Oil and Gas Extraction) and 30 (Rubber and Miscellaneous Plastic Products), were estimated to have more than an 80% likelihood of exceeding the PEL. There was an inverse temporal trend of exceeding the PEL, with lower risk in most recent years, albeit not statistically significant. Similar results were shown when incorporating occupation, but varied depending on the occupation as the majority of industries predicted at the administrative level, e.g., managers, had an estimated EF < 0.5 while at the minimally skilled/laborer level there was a substantial increase in the estimated EF. These statistical models allow the prediction of PAH exposure risk through individual occupational histories and will be used to create a job-exposure matrix for use in a population-based case-control study exploring PAH exposure and breast cancer risk. PMID:26011057

  7. Urinary metallothionein as a biological indicator of occupational cadmium exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Tohyama, C.; Shaikh, Z.A.; Ellis, K.J.; Cohn, S.H.

    1981-01-01

    Radioimmunoassay and neutron activation data indicate that the urinary metallothionein concentration is related to the liver Cd concentration in occupational Cd exposure. It is also related to the kidney Cd content - but only before the onset of renal dysfunction. Further epidemiological studies are needed to establish a dose-response relationship, which may be useful in minimizing the hazard of Cd-induced renal dysfunction.

  8. Occupational lead exposure in Denmark: screening with the haematofluorometer.

    PubMed

    Grandjean, P

    1979-02-01

    The zinc protoporphyrin/haemoglobin (ZPP/Hb) ratio was measured in the field with a haematofluorometer. A significant increase in ZPP/Hb ratio with advancing age was found in 1295 men who denied any excess exposure to lead. Ninety-seven per cent of the results were below 110 mumol ZPP/mol Hb(Fe) (4.4 microgram ZPP/g Hb). The ZPP/Hb ratio was determined in a lead-exposed population of 2275 men, and in 305 a blood lead analysis was also performed. A blood lead limit of 2.9 mumol/l (60 microgram/100 ml) corresponds to about 500 mumol ZPP/mol Hb(Fe) (20 microgram/g). This limit was exceeded in workers engaged in secondary lead smelting, storage battery manufacture, car radiator repair, crystal glass manufacture, storage battery repair, ship breaking, metal foundries, the ceramic industry, scrap metal handling, and PVC plastic manufacture. Other occupations caused lower lead exposures with ZPP/Hb ratios between 110 and 500 mumol ZPP/mol Hb(Fe): such ratios were found in men from shooting ranges, in leaded pane manufacturers, gunsmiths, car paint sprayers, type setters, steel rolling mill workers, shipbuilders and welders, car mechanics, lead pigment handlers, and solderers. Increased ZPP/Hb ratios and blood lead levels in 210 workers were associated with a decrease in haemoglobin concentration in the blood. Thus, the haematofluorometer has proved to be very useful for screening purposes. A blood lead determination should be performed if the ZPP/Hb ratio exceeds 300 microgram ZPP/mol Hb(Fe) (12 microgram/g). PMID:444441

  9. Evaluation of biomarkers for occupational exposure to benzene.

    PubMed Central

    Ong, C N; Kok, P W; Lee, B L; Shi, C Y; Ong, H Y; Chia, K S; Lee, C S; Luo, X W

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To evaluate the relations between environmental benzene concentrations and various biomarkers of exposure to benzene. METHODS--Analyses were carried out on environmental air, unmetabolised benzene in urine, trans, trans-muconic acid (ttMA), and three major phenolic metabolites of benzene; catechol, hydroquinone, and phenol, in two field studies on 64 workers exposed to benzene concentrations from 0.12 to 68 ppm, the time weighted average (TWA). Forty nonexposed subjects were also investigated. RESULTS--Among the five urinary biomarkers studied, ttMA correlated best with environmental benzene concentration (correlation coefficient, r = 0.87). When urinary phenolic metabolites were compared with environmental benzene, hydroquinone correlated best with benzene in air. No correlation was found between unmetabolised benzene in urine and environmental benzene concentrations. The correlation coefficients for environmental benzene and end of shift catechol, hydroquinone, and phenol were 0.30, 0.70, and 0.66, respectively. Detailed analysis, however, suggests that urinary phenol was not a specific biomarker for exposure below 5 ppm. In contrast, ttMA and hydroquinone seemed to be specific and sensitive even at concentrations of below 1 ppm. Although unmetabolised benzene in urine showed good correlation with atmospheric benzene (r = 0.50, P < 0.05), data were insufficient to suggest that it is a useful biomarker for exposure to low concentrations of benzene. The results from the present study also showed that both ttMA and hydroquinone were able to differentiate the background level found in subjects not occupationally exposed and those exposed to less than 1 ppm of benzene. This suggests that these two biomarkers are useful indices for monitoring low concentrations of benzene. Furthermore, these two metabolites are known to be involved in bone marrow leukaemogenesis, their applications in biological monitoring could thus be important in risk assessment. CONCLUSION--The good correlations between ttMA, hydroquinone, and atmospheric benzene, even at concentrations of less than 1 ppm, suggest that they are sensitive and specific biomarkers for benzene exposure. PMID:7663638

  10. Occupational Exposure to Crystalline Silica Dust in the United States, 19882003

    PubMed Central

    Yassin, Abdiaziz; Yebesi, Francis; Tingle, Rex

    2005-01-01

    The purposes of this study were a) to summarize measurements of airborne (respirable) crystalline silica dust exposure levels among U.S. workers, b) to provide an update of the 1990 Stewart and Rice report on airborne silica exposure levels in high-risk industries and occupations with data for the time period 19882003, c) to estimate the number of workers potentially exposed to silica in industries that the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) inspected for high exposure levels, and d) to conduct time trend analyses on airborne silica dust exposure levels for time-weighted average (TWA) measurements. Compliance inspection data that were taken from the OSHA Integrated Management Information System (IMIS) for 19882003 (n = 7,209) were used to measure the airborne crystalline silica dust exposure levels among U.S. workers. A second-order autoregressive model was applied to assess the change in the mean silica exposure measurements over time. The overall geometric mean of silica exposure levels for 8-hr personal TWA samples collected during programmed inspections was 0.077 mg/m3, well above the applicable American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists threshold limit value of 0.05 mg/m3. Surgical appliances supplies industry [Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) 3842] had the lowest geometric mean silica exposure level of 0.017 mg/m3, compared with the highest level, 0.166 mg/m3, for the metal valves and pipe fitting industry (SIC 3494), for an 8-hr TWA measurement. Although a downward trend in the airborne silica exposure levels was observed during 19882003, the results showed that 3.6% of the sampled workers were exposed above the OSHA-calculated permissible exposure limit. PMID:15743711

  11. Occupational Exposure to Respirable Crystalline Silica. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2016-03-25

    The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) is amending its existing standards for occupational exposure to respirable crystalline silica. OSHA has determined that employees exposed to respirable crystalline silica at the previous permissible exposure limits face a significant risk of material impairment to their health. The evidence in the record for this rulemaking indicates that workers exposed to respirable crystalline silica are at increased risk of developing silicosis and other non-malignant respiratory diseases, lung cancer, and kidney disease. This final rule establishes a new permissible exposure limit of 50 micrograms of respirable crystalline silica per cubic meter of air (50 [mu]g/m\\3\\) as an 8-hour time-weighted average in all industries covered by the rule. It also includes other provisions to protect employees, such as requirements for exposure assessment, methods for controlling exposure, respiratory protection, medical surveillance, hazard communication, and recordkeeping. OSHA is issuing two separate standards--one for general industry and maritime, and the other for construction--in order to tailor requirements to the circumstances found in these sectors. PMID:27017634

  12. Current issues in the epidemiology and toxicology of occupational exposure to lead

    SciTech Connect

    Landrigan, P.J. )

    1990-11-01

    Occupational exposure to lead is widespread in the US. Clinically evident lead poisoning as well as subclinical toxicity occur in populations with occupational lead exposure. The focus of current research on lead toxicity in industrial populations is in the definition of dose-response relationships, particularly at low levels of exposure. Major interest surrounds the development of biochemical and physiologic markers of subclinical toxicity. Need exists to better delineate the toxicity of lead on the peripheral and central nervous system, the kidneys, the cardiovascular system, and the reproductive organs using newly developed markers. To obtain more accurate information on cumulative individual exposure to lead, future research on lead toxicity will increasingly use x-ray fluorescence analysis for determination of the lead content in bone.

  13. Evaluation of several methods for assessing the effects of occupational exposure to radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Gilbert, E.S.

    1980-05-01

    The evaluation of health effects in populations occupationally exposed to low-level ionizing radiation is a matter of considerable current controversy. The analysis of data on such exposures presents a variety of problems resulting from the time dependent nature of the exposure data, certain selective biases found in working populations, and particularly limits imposed by the size of the populations, and the magnitudes of exposures received. In this paper, several methods of analysis are presented and evaluated using data from the Hanford plant for illustration. Questions of interest include whether or not to utilize an external control, and how to handle the highly skewed exposure data most effectively. Expressions for the power of various procedures are used not only to compare methods but also to evaluate the potential for detecting effects in occupationally exposed populations.

  14. Occupational and environmental human lead exposure in Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Paoliello, M.M.B. . E-mail: monibas@sercomtel.com.br; De Capitani, E.M.

    2007-02-15

    The purpose of this paper is to present a review of data on assessment of exposure and adverse effects due to environmental and occupational lead exposure in Brazil. Epidemiological investigations on children lead exposure around industrial and mining areas have shown that lead contamination is an actual source of concern. Lead in gasoline has been phasing out since the 1980s, and it is now completely discontinued. The last lead mining and lead refining plant was closed in 1995, leaving residual environmental lead contamination which has recently been investigated using a multidisciplinary approach. Moreover, there are hundreds of small battery recycling plants and secondary smelting facilities all over the country, which produce focal urban areas of lead contamination. Current regulatory limits for workplace lead exposure have shown to be inadequate as safety limits according to a few studies carried out lately.

  15. Exposure to flour dust in the occupational environment

    PubMed Central

    Stobnicka, Agata; Górny, Rafał L.

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to flour dust can be found in the food industry and animal feed production. It may result in various adverse health outcomes from conjunctivitis to baker's asthma. In this paper, flour dust exposure in the above-mentioned occupational environments is characterized and its health effects are discussed. A peer-reviewed literature search was carried out and all available published materials were included if they provided information on the above-mentioned elements. The hitherto conducted studies show that different components of flour dust like enzymes, proteins and baker's additives can cause both non-allergic and allergic reactions among exposed workers. Moreover, the problem of exposure to cereal allergens present in flour dust can also be a concern for bakers’ family members. Appreciating the importance of all these issues, the exposure assessment methods, hygienic standards and preventive measures are also addressed in this paper. PMID:26414680

  16. Occupational exposure and 12-year spirometric changes among Paris area workers.

    PubMed

    Kauffmann, F; Drouet, D; Lellouch, J; Brille, D

    1982-08-01

    A follow-up study over 12 years was conducted among 556 men aged 30 to 54 in 1960 and working at that time in factories around Paris (France). Various occupational exposures were recorded at the time of the 1960 survey after a technical study of each workplace. The annual rate of decline of FEV1 during 12 years was estimated for each subject from the measurements in 1960 and 1972. This rate (the FEV1 slope) was related independently of FEV1 level (which reflects the loss since the beginning of adult life) and of smoking habits to occupational exposure to dust, gases, and heat. FEV1 slope was significantly related to inhalation of mineral dust (even in the absence of silica) as well as to grain dust, and the slope was steeper with increased intensity of exposure to dust. Analysis of job changes showed that among heavily exposed subjects, those who changed jobs had a less steep slope than those who did not. Our results support the hypothesis of a causal role of exposure to dust in the development of chronic airflow obstruction and of a benefit when exposure to dust ceases. Exposure to dust, gas, and heat usually occurred together so data on gas and heat were analysed after taking account of exposure to dust. The influence of heat on FEV1 decline showed a clear trend. Results suggest that exposure to gases associated with exposure to dust or heat or both had a deleterious effect. After adjusting for age, smoking, and FEV1 level (ASLA) the following average slopes were obtained: 44 ml/a (for exposure to none or to only a slight amount of dust, or to gases alone), 51 ml/a (heat), 53 ml/a (noticeable dust), 55 ml/a (noticeable dust and heat), 60 ml/a (noticeable dust, heat, and high concentration of gases). Independently of the occupational exposures, ASLA FEV1 slopes among manual workers were related to skill, being 44 ml/a for skilled and 51 ml/a for unskilled men. Independently of social class and occupational exposures recorded, there were differences in FEV1 slopes by factory, suggesting that one should not rely on using one factory as the control of studies of occupational exposure to another. PMID:7093148

  17. Heart Rate, Stress, and Occupational Noise Exposure among Electronic Waste Recycling Workers.

    PubMed

    Burns, Katrina N; Sun, Kan; Fobil, Julius N; Neitzel, Richard L

    2016-01-01

    Electronic waste (e-waste) is a growing occupational and environmental health issue around the globe. E-waste recycling is a green industry of emerging importance, especially in low-and middle-income countries where much of this recycling work is performed, and where many people's livelihoods depend on this work. The occupational health hazards of e-waste recycling have not been adequately explored. We performed a cross-sectional study of noise exposures, heart rate, and perceived stress among e-waste recycling workers at a large e-waste site in Accra, Ghana. We interviewed 57 workers and continuously monitored their individual noise exposures and heart rates for up to 24 h. More than 40% of workers had noise exposures that exceeded recommended occupational (85 dBA) and community (70 dBA) noise exposure limits, and self-reported hearing difficulties were common. Workers also had moderate to high levels of perceived stress as measured via Cohen's Perceived Stress Scale, and reported a variety of symptoms that could indicate cardiovascular disease. Noise exposures were moderately and significantly correlated with heart rate (Spearman's ρ 0.46, p < 0.001). A mixed effects linear regression model indicated that a 1 dB increase in noise exposure was associated with a 0.17 increase in heart rate (p-value = 0.01) even after controlling for work activities, age, smoking, perceived stress, and unfavorable physical working conditions. These findings suggest that occupational and non-occupational noise exposure is associated with elevations in average heart rate, which may in turn predict potential cardiovascular damage. PMID:26797626

  18. Heart Rate, Stress, and Occupational Noise Exposure among Electronic Waste Recycling Workers

    PubMed Central

    Burns, Katrina N.; Sun, Kan; Fobil, Julius N.; Neitzel, Richard L.

    2016-01-01

    Electronic waste (e-waste) is a growing occupational and environmental health issue around the globe. E-waste recycling is a green industry of emerging importance, especially in low-and middle-income countries where much of this recycling work is performed, and where many people’s livelihoods depend on this work. The occupational health hazards of e-waste recycling have not been adequately explored. We performed a cross-sectional study of noise exposures, heart rate, and perceived stress among e-waste recycling workers at a large e-waste site in Accra, Ghana. We interviewed 57 workers and continuously monitored their individual noise exposures and heart rates for up to 24 h. More than 40% of workers had noise exposures that exceeded recommended occupational (85 dBA) and community (70 dBA) noise exposure limits, and self-reported hearing difficulties were common. Workers also had moderate to high levels of perceived stress as measured via Cohen’s Perceived Stress Scale, and reported a variety of symptoms that could indicate cardiovascular disease. Noise exposures were moderately and significantly correlated with heart rate (Spearman’s ρ 0.46, p < 0.001). A mixed effects linear regression model indicated that a 1 dB increase in noise exposure was associated with a 0.17 increase in heart rate (p-value = 0.01) even after controlling for work activities, age, smoking, perceived stress, and unfavorable physical working conditions. These findings suggest that occupational and non-occupational noise exposure is associated with elevations in average heart rate, which may in turn predict potential cardiovascular damage. PMID:26797626

  19. Childhood leukemia and parents' occupational and home exposures.

    PubMed

    Lowengart, R A; Peters, J M; Cicioni, C; Buckley, J; Bernstein, L; Preston-Martin, S; Rappaport, E

    1987-07-01

    A case-control study of children of ages 10 years and under in Los Angeles County was conducted to investigate the causes of leukemia. The mothers and fathers of acute leukemia cases and their individually matched controls were interviewed regarding specific occupational and home exposures as well as other potential risk factors associated with leukemia. Analysis of the information from the 123 matched pairs showed an increased risk of leukemia for children whose fathers had occupational exposure after the birth of the child to chlorinated solvents [odds ratio (OR) = 3.5, P = .01], spray paint (OR = 2.0, P = .02), dyes or pigments (OR = 4.5, P = .03), methyl ethyl ketone (CAS: 78-93-3; OR = 3.0, P = .05), and cutting oil (OR = 1.7, P = .05) or whose fathers were exposed during the mother's pregnancy with the child to spray paint (OR = 2.2, P = .03). For all of these, the risk associated with frequent use was greater than for infrequent use. There was an increased risk of leukemia for the child if the father worked in industries manufacturing transportation equipment (mostly aircraft) (OR = 2.5, P = .03) or machinery (OR = 3.0, P = .02). An increased risk was found for children whose parents used pesticides in the home (OR = 3.8, P = .004) or garden (OR = 6.5, P = .007) or who burned incense in the home (OR = 2.7, P = .007). The risk was greater for frequent use. Risk of leukemia was related to mothers' employment in personal service industries (OR = 2.7, P = .04) but not to specified occupational exposures. Risk related to fathers' exposure to chlorinated solvents, employment in the transportation equipment-manufacturing industry, and parents' exposure to household or garden pesticides and incense remains statistically significant after adjusting for the other significant findings. PMID:3474448

  20. Permissible exposure levels and emergency exposure guidance levels for selected airborne contaminants. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    The U.S. Navy requested that the National Research Council's Committee on Toxicology recommend permissible exposure levels (PELs) for zinc dimethyldithiocarbamate (ziram) and ethylhexyl nitrate. No exposure levels for these compounds have been recommended either by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration or by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists. The U.S. Army's Surgeon General's office also requested the 2-min emergency exposure guidance levels (EEGLs) for hydrogen chloride because of the Army's concern for the short-term high-level exposure of soldiers to hydrogen chloride vapors released during firing of various rocket motors and missiles. In response to these requests, the Committee on Toxicology set up the Subcommittee on Permissible Exposure Levels. The subcommittee, whose expertise is in toxicology, inhalation toxicology, genetics, biostatistics, medicine, and pathology, evaluated the toxicity data on ziram, ethylhexyl nitrate, and hydrogen chloride. In addition to the recommendations for PELs for ziram and ethylhexyl nitrate and EEGLs for hydrogen chloride, the subcommittee has identified deficiencies in the data and made recommendations for additional research. The subcommittee believes that the recommended exposure levels will provide adequate protection for workers and soldiers from these chemicals.

  1. Leukemia and occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields: An incident case-control study

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Boji.

    1993-01-01

    The existence of an association between leukemia and electromagnetic fields (EMF) is still controversial. The results of epidemiologic studies of leukemia in occupational groups with exposure to EMF are inconsistent. Weak associations have been seen in a few studies. EMF assessment is lacking in precision. Reported dose-response relationships have been based on qualitative levels of exposure to EMF without regard to duration of employment or EMF intensity on the jobs. Furthermore, potential confounding factors in the associations were not often well controlled. The current study is an analysis of the data collected from an incident case-control study. The primary objective was to test the hypothesis that occupational exposure to EMF is associated with leukemia, including total leukemia (TL), myelogenous leukemia (MYELOG) and acute non-lymphoid leukemia (ANLL). Potential confounding factors: occupational exposure to benzene, age, smoking, alcohol consumption, and previous medical radiation exposures were controlled in multivariate logistic regression models. Dose-response relationships were estimated by cumulative occupational exposure to EMF, taking into account duration of employment and EMF intensity on the jobs. In order to overcome weaknesses of most previous studies, special efforts were made to improve the precision of EMF assessment. Two definitions of EMF were used and result discrepancies using the two definitions were observed. These difference raised a question as to whether the workers at jobs with low EMf exposure should be considered as non-exposed in future studies. In additions, the current study suggested use of lifetime cumulative EMF exposure estimates to determine dose-response relationship. The analyses of the current study suggest an association between ANLL and employment at selected jobs with high EMF exposure.

  2. Occupational Health and Safety. Numeracy. Level 1. Level 2. Level 3. Support Materials for Agricultural Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batman, Kangan; Tully, Chris

    This publication contains the three numeracy units of the three levels of Support Materials for Agricultural Training (SMAT) in the area of occupational health and safety: Level 1 (starting), 2 (continuing), and 3 (completing). The units are designed to help the learner improve his or her numeracy skills needed to deal with occupational safety and…

  3. Evidence for unapparent Brucella canis infections among adults with occupational exposure to dogs.

    PubMed

    Krueger, W S; Lucero, N E; Brower, A; Heil, G L; Gray, G C

    2014-11-01

    Human serological assays designed to detect brucellosis will miss infections caused by Brucella canis, and low levels of periodic bacteremia limit diagnosis by blood culture. Recent B. canis outbreaks in dogs and concomitant illnesses in caretakers suggest that unapparent human infections may be occurring. With more than a quarter of a million persons in occupations involving dogs, and nearly 80 million dog owners in the United States, this pathogen is an under-recognized human health threat. To investigate occupational exposure to B. canis, we adapted a commercial canine serological assay and present the first controlled seroepidemiological study of human B. canis infections in recent years. 306 adults with occupational exposure to dogs and 101 non-matched, non-canine-exposed subjects were enrolled. Antibodies were detected using the canine D-Tec() CB rapid slide agglutination test (RSAT) kit with a secondary 2-mercaptoethanol (ME)-RSAT. Results were validated on a blinded subset of sera with an additional RSAT and indirect enzyme-linked immunoassay at the National Administration of Laboratories and Health Institutes (ANLIS) in Argentina. Seroprevalence ranged from 10.8% (RSAT) to 3.6% (ME-RSAT) among canine-exposed subjects. Kennel employees were more likely to test RSAT seropositive compared with other canine exposures (OR = 2.7; 95% CI, 1.3-5.8); however, low seroprevalence limited meaningful occupational risk factor analyses. Two seropositive participants reported experiencing symptoms consistent with brucellosis and having exposure to B. canis-infected dogs; however, temporality of symptom onset with reported exposure could not be determined. D-Tec() CB results had substantial agreement with ANLIS assays (Cohen's kappa = 0.60-0.68). These data add to a growing body of literature suggesting that people occupationally exposed to dogs may be at risk of unapparent B. canis infection. It seems prudent to consider B. canis as an occupational public health concern and encourage the development of serological assays to detect human B. canis infections. PMID:24751191

  4. Occupational exposure assessment: Practices in Malaysian nuclear agency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarowi, S. Muhd; Ramli, S. A.; Kontol, K. Mohamad; Rahman, N. A. H. Abd.

    2016-01-01

    Malaysian Nuclear Agency (Nuclear Malaysia) is the leading agency in introducing and promoting the application of nuclear science technology in Malaysia. The agency provides major nuclear facilities purposely for research and commercialisation such as reactor, irradiation plants and radioisotope production laboratory. When dealing with ionizing radiation, there is an obligatory requirement to monitor and assess the radiation exposure to the workers. The personal dose of radiation workers were monitored monthly by assessing their Thermoluminescence Dosimeter (TLD) dose reading. This paper will discuss the current practice in managing, assessing, record keeping and reporting of the occupational exposure in Nuclear Malaysia including the Health Physic Group roles and challenges. The statistics on occupational radiation exposure of monitored workers working in different fields in Nuclear Malaysia from 2011 - 2013 will also be presented. The results show that the null hypothesis (H₀) was accepted which the means of every populations are all equal or not differ significantly. This hypothesis states that the dose exposure received by the radiation workers in Nuclear Malaysia is similar and there were no significant changes from 2011 to 2013. The radiation monitoring programme correlate with the requirement of our national law, the Atomic Energy Licensing Act 1984 (Act 304).

  5. Risk Factors for Breast Cancer, Including Occupational Exposures

    PubMed Central

    Meo, Margrethe; Vainio, Harri

    2011-01-01

    The knowledge on the etiology of breast cancer has advanced substantially in recent years, and several etiological factors are now firmly established. However, very few new discoveries have been made in relation to occupational risk factors. The International Agency for Research on Cancer has evaluated over 900 different exposures or agents to-date to determine whether they are carcinogenic to humans. These evaluations are published as a series of Monographs (www.iarc.fr). For breast cancer the following substances have been classified as "carcinogenic to humans" (Group 1): alcoholic beverages, exposure to diethylstilbestrol, estrogen-progestogen contraceptives, estrogen-progestogen hormone replacement therapy and exposure to X-radiation and gamma-radiation (in special populations such as atomic bomb survivors, medical patients, and in-utero exposure). Ethylene oxide is also classified as a Group 1 carcinogen, although the evidence for carcinogenicity in epidemiologic studies, and specifically for the human breast, is limited. The classification "probably carcinogenic to humans" (Group 2A) includes estrogen hormone replacement therapy, tobacco smoking, and shift work involving circadian disruption, including work as a flight attendant. If the association between shift work and breast cancer, the most common female cancer, is confirmed, shift work could become the leading cause of occupational cancer in women. PMID:22953181

  6. Monitoring of Occupational Exposure of Mild Steel Welders to Ozone and Nitrogen Oxides

    PubMed Central

    Esmaeilzadeh, Morteza; Mehrabi, Yadollah; Salehpour, Sousan

    2011-01-01

    Background Metal Inert Gas (MIG) welding and Tungsten Inert Gas (TIG) welding are widely used for mild steel segments in basic metal industries. Pulmonary problems such as asthma, pulmonary inflammation, hyper-responsiveness of airways and higher susceptibility to infections are reported as the result of occupational exposure of welders to ozone and nitrogen oxides. Potent oxidizing agents like ozone and nitrogen oxides are also reported to be a precursor for respiratory problems and cause lipid peroxidation of membranes. Materials and Methods A total of 43 nonsmoking MIG and TIG welders and 41 nonsmoking workers without appreciable exposure to any chemicals as the control population were chosen to participate in this study. Occupational exposure to ozone was monitored according to the validated methods. Malondialdehyde (MDA) of blood serum as a biomarker for lipid peroxidation was analyzed using Reverse Phase High Performance Liquid Chromatography. Data obtained from this study were analyzed using t-test, Pearson's correlation coefficient and multiple regression analysis. Results A total of 88.4% and 74.4% of welders had exposure to ozone and nitrogen dioxide higher than the permissible limit of occupational exposure, respectively. Generally, exposure of MIG welders to ozone was significantly higher than TIG welders (P = 0.006). However, exposure to nitrogen dioxide gas was comparable in both groups. Serum MDA of welders was significantly higher than that of the control group (P = 0.001). A significant correlation was detected between ozone exposure and level of serum malondialdehyde. Such correlation was not observed for nitrogen dioxide exposure. Conclusion Considering the high exposure of welders to ozone and nitrogen dioxide, and higher level of serum malondialdehyde in them compared to controls, risk management is recommended for this group of workers. PMID:25191389

  7. Occupational exposure to solvent mixtures: effects on health and metabolism.

    PubMed Central

    Ukai, H; Takada, S; Inui, S; Imai, Y; Kawai, T; Shimbo, S; Ikeda, M

    1994-01-01

    Exposure monitoring by personal diffusive samplers, biological monitoring of toluene exposure by urinary hippuric acid determination, haematology, serum biochemistry for liver function, and a subjective symptom survey by questionnaire were conducted on 303 male solvent workers. They were exposed to a mixture of solvents including toluene (geometric mean 18 ppm), methyl ethyl ketone (MEK; 16 ppm), isopropyl alcohol (IPA; 7 ppm), and ethyl acetate (9 ppm). The intensity was mostly below unity using the additiveness formula based on current Japanese occupational exposure limits, but more than eight times unity at the maximum. The results were compared with the findings in 135 non-exposed male workers of similar ages. Haematology and liver function tests did not show any exposure related abnormality, and subjective symptoms were mostly related to central nervous system depression and local irritation. Further analysis suggested that the irritation effects were not related to exposure to MEK. Analysis of the relation between toluene exposure and hippuric acid excretion in urine showed that there was no metabolic interaction between MEK and toluene, or between IPA and toluene. Overall, therefore, it is concluded that there was no sign or symptom detected to suggest anything other than toluene toxicity, that there was no evidence to indicate any modification of toluene toxicity or metabolism due to coexposure, and that the additiveness assumption is reasonable for risk assessment for the combination of solvents under these exposure conditions. PMID:7951776

  8. Carbofuran occupational dermal toxicity, exposure and risk assessment

    PubMed Central

    Gammon, Derek W; Liu, Zhiwei; Becker, John M

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Carbofuran is a carbamate insecticide that inhibits AChE. Although toxic by ingestion in mammals, it has low dermal toxicity, with relatively few confirmed worker illnesses. This risk assessment describes its time of onset, time to peak effect and time to recovery in rats using brain AChE inhibition in acute and 21 day dermal studies; in vitro rat/human relative dermal absorption for granular (5G) and liquid (4F) formulations; occupational exposure estimates using the Pesticide Handlers' Exposure Database and Agricultural Handlers' Exposure Database (PHED/AHED). RESULTS The point of departure for acute risk calculation (BMDL10) was 6.7 mg kg?1 day?1 for brain AChE inhibition after 6 h exposure. In a 21 day study, the BMDL10 was 6.8 mg kg?1 day?1, indicating reversibility. At 75 mg kg?1 day?1, time of onset was ?30 min and time to peak effect was 612 h. Rat skin had ca tenfold greater dermal absorption of carbofuran (Furadan 5G or 4F) than human skin. Exposure estimates for 5G in rice and 4F in ten crops had adequate margins of exposure (>100). CONCLUSION Rat dermal carbofuran toxicity was assessed in terms of dose and time-related inhibition of AChE. Comparative dermal absorption in rats was greater than in humans. Worker exposure estimates indicated acceptable risk for granular and liquid formulations of carbofuran. Copyright 2011 Society of Chemical Industry PMID:21834090

  9. Occupational Noise Exposure among Toll Tellers at Toll Plaza in Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azmi, Sharifah Nadya Syed; Dawal, Siti Zawiah Md; Ya, Tuan Mohammad Yusoff Shah Tuan; Saidin, Hamidi

    2010-10-01

    Toll tellers working at toll plaza have potential of exposure to high noise from the vehicles especially for the peak level of sound emitted by the heavy vehicles. However, occupational exposures in this workplace have not been adequately characterized and identified. Occupational noise exposure among toll tellers at toll plaza was assessed using Sound Level Meter, Noise Dosimeter and through questionnaire survey. These data were combined to estimate the work shift exposure level and health impacts to the toll tellers by using statistical analysis. Noise Dosimeter microphone was located at the hearing zone of the toll teller which working inside the toll booth and full-period measurements were collected for each work shift. The measurements were taken at 20 toll booths from 6.00 am to 2.00 pm for 5 days. 71 respondents participated in the survey to identify the symptoms of noise induced hearing loss and other health related problems among toll tellers. Results of this study indicated that occupational noise exposure among toll tellers for Mean Continuous Equivalent Level, Leq was 79.2±1.4 dB(A), Mean Maximum Level, Lmax was 107.8±3.6 dB(A) and Mean Peak Level, Lpeak was 136.6±9.9 dB. The Peak Level reported statistically significantly at 140 dB, the level of TLV recommended by ACGIH. The research findings indicated that the primary risk exposure to toll tellers comes from noise that emitted from heavy vehicles. Most of the toll tellers show symptoms of noise induced hearing loss and annoyed by the sources of noise at the toll plaza.

  10. Surveillance of occupational lead exposure in New Jersey: 1986 to 1989.

    PubMed Central

    Tepper, A

    1992-01-01

    Between January 1986 and June 1989, 1916 New Jersey workers were identified through a surveillance system for occupational lead exposure. The average annual proportion of workers with a blood lead level above 2.42 mumol/L was 12%. Industries with the highest proportion of workers with blood lead levels above 2.42 mumol/L were special trade construction (35%) and industries dealing with scrap and waste materials (27%). PMID:1739164

  11. Reduction of Endogenous Melatonin Accelerates Cognitive Decline in Mice in a Simulated Occupational Formaldehyde Exposure Environment.

    PubMed

    Mei, Yufei; Duan, Chunli; Li, Xiaoxiao; Zhao, Yun; Cao, Fenghua; Shang, Shuai; Ding, Shumao; Yue, Xiangpei; Gao, Ge; Yang, Hui; Shen, Luxi; Feng, Xueyan; Jia, Jianping; Tong, Zhiqian; Yang, Xu

    2016-01-01

    Individuals afflicted with occupational formaldehyde (FA) exposure often suffer from abnormal behaviors such as aggression, depression, anxiety, sleep disorders, and in particular, cognitive impairments. Coincidentally, clinical patients with melatonin (MT) deficiency also complain of cognitive problems associated with the above mental disorders. Whether and how FA affects endogenous MT metabolism and induces cognitive decline need to be elucidated. To mimic occupational FA exposure environment, 16 healthy adult male mice were exposed to gaseous FA (3 mg/m³) for 7 consecutive days. Results showed that FA exposure impaired spatial memory associated with hippocampal neuronal death. Biochemical analysis revealed that FA exposure elicited an intensive oxidative stress by reducing systemic glutathione levels, in particular, decreasing brain MT concentrations. Inversely, intraperitoneal injection of MT markedly attenuated FA-induced hippocampal neuronal death, restored brain MT levels, and reversed memory decline. At tissue levels, injection of FA into the hippocampus distinctly reduced brain MT concentrations. Furthermore, at cellular and molecular levels, we found that FA directly inactivated MT in vitro and in vivo. These findings suggest that MT supplementation contributes to the rescue of cognitive decline, and may alleviate mental disorders in the occupational FA-exposed human populations. PMID:26938543

  12. Occupational Exposure to Solvents and Risk of Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma in Connecticut Women

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Rong; Zhang, Yawei; Lan, Qing; Holford, Theodore R.; Leaderer, Brian; Hoar Zahm, Shelia; Boyle, Peter; Dosemeci, Mustafa; Rothman, Nathaniel; Zhu, Yong; Qin, Qin

    2009-01-01

    A population-based case-control study involving 601 incident cases of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) and 717 controls was conducted in 19962000 among Connecticut women to examine associations with exposure to organic solvents. A job-exposure matrix was used to assess occupational exposures. Increased risk of NHL was associated with occupational exposure to chlorinated solvents (odds ratio (OR)?=?1.4, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.1, 1.8) and carbon tetrachloride (OR?=?2.3, 95% CI: 1.3, 4.0). Those ever exposed to any organic solvent in work settings had a borderline increased risk of NHL (OR?=?1.3, 95% CI: 1.0, 1.6); moreover, a significantly increased risk was observed for those with average probability of exposure to any organic solvent at medium-high level (OR?=?1.5, 95% CI: 1.1, 1.9). A borderline increased risk was also found for ever exposure to formaldehyde (OR?=?1.3, 95% CI: 1.0, 1.7) in work settings. Risk of NHL increased with increasing average intensity (P?=?0.01), average probability (P?level of organic solvent and with average probability level (P?=?0.02) and cumulative intensity level of chlorinated solvent (P?=?0.02). Analyses by NHL subtype showed a risk pattern for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma similar to that for overall NHL, with stronger evidence of an association with benzene exposure. Results suggest an increased risk of NHL associated with occupational exposure to organic solvents for women. PMID:19056833

  13. Urinary naphthalene and phenanthrene as biomarkers of occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    PubMed Central

    Sobus, Jon R.; Waidyanatha, Suramya; McClean, Michael D.; Herrick, Robert F.; Smith, Thomas J.; Garshick, Eric; Laden, Francine; Hart, Jaime E.; Zheng, Yuxin; Rappaport, Stephen M.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives We investigated the utility of unmetabolized naphthalene (Nap) and phenanthrene (Phe) in urine as surrogates for exposures to mixtures of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Methods Our study included workers exposed to diesel exhausts (low PAH exposure level, n = 39) as well as those exposed to emissions from asphalt (medium PAH exposure level, n = 26) and coke ovens (high PAH exposure level, n = 28). Levels of Nap and Phe were measured in urine from each subject using head space-solid phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Published levels of airborne Nap, Phe, and other PAHs in the coke-producing and aluminum industries were also investigated. Results In post-shift urine, the highest estimated geometric mean concentrations of Nap and Phe were observed in coke-oven workers (Nap: 2,490 ng/l; Phe: 975 ng/l), followed by asphalt workers (Nap: 71.5 ng/l; Phe: 54.3 ng/l), and by diesel-exposed workers (Nap: 17.7 ng/l; Phe: 3.60 ng/l). After subtracting logged background levels of Nap and Phe from the logged post-shift levels of these PAHs in urine, the resulting values [referred to as ln(adjNap) and ln(adjPhe), respectively] were significantly correlated in each group of workers (0.71 ? Pearson r ? 0.89), suggesting a common exposure source in each case. Surprisingly, multiple linear regression analysis of ln(adjNap) on ln(adjPhe) showed no significant effect of the source of exposure (coke ovens, asphalt, and diesel exhaust) and further suggested that the ratio of urinary Nap/Phe (in natural scale) decreased with increasing exposure levels. These results were corroborated with published data for airborne Nap and Phe in the coke-producing and aluminum industries. The published air measurements also indicated that Nap and Phe levels were proportional to the levels of all combined PAHs in those industries. Conclusion Levels of Nap and Phe in urine reflect airborne exposures to these compounds and are promising surrogates for occupational exposures to PAH mixtures. Main Messages Urinary naphthalene and phenanthrene are promising surrogates for occupational exposures to PAHs. Policy Implications Measurement of urinary naphthalene and phenanthrene could simplify the assessment of occupational exposures to PAHs. PMID:19017700

  14. The Scientific Basis of Uncertainty Factors Used in Setting Occupational Exposure Limits

    PubMed Central

    Dankovic, D. A.; Naumann, B. D.; Maier, A.; Dourson, M. L.; Levy, L. S.

    2015-01-01

    The uncertainty factor concept is integrated into health risk assessments for all aspects of public health practice, including by most organizations that derive occupational exposure limits. The use of uncertainty factors is predicated on the assumption that a sufficient reduction in exposure from those at the boundary for the onset of adverse effects will yield a safe exposure level for at least the great majority of the exposed population, including vulnerable subgroups. There are differences in the application of the uncertainty factor approach among groups that conduct occupational assessments; however, there are common areas of uncertainty which are considered by all or nearly all occupational exposure limit-setting organizations. Five key uncertainties that are often examined include interspecies variability in response when extrapolating from animal studies to humans, response variability in humans, uncertainty in estimating a no-effect level from a dose where effects were observed, extrapolation from shorter duration studies to a full life-time exposure, and other insufficiencies in the overall health effects database indicating that the most sensitive adverse effect may not have been evaluated. In addition, a modifying factor is used by some organizations to account for other remaining uncertainties—typically related to exposure scenarios or accounting for the interplay among the five areas noted above. Consideration of uncertainties in occupational exposure limit derivation is a systematic process whereby the factors applied are not arbitrary, although they are mathematically imprecise. As the scientific basis for uncertainty factor application has improved, default uncertainty factors are now used only in the absence of chemical-specific data, and the trend is to replace them with chemical-specific adjustment factors whenever possible. The increased application of scientific data in the development of uncertainty factors for individual chemicals also has the benefit of increasing the transparency of occupational exposure limit derivation. Improved characterization of the scientific basis for uncertainty factors has led to increasing rigor and transparency in their application as part of the overall occupational exposure limit derivation process. PMID:26097979

  15. Lead exposure: Occupational health hazards. (Latest citations from the Life Sciences Collection database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-02-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning occupational exposure to lead and its health consequences. Foundry workers, orchard workers, mechanics, industrial workers, and lumbermen are among the workers studied. The citations explore chronic effects of lead exposure on adults and present assay methods for determining blood lead levels. Mortality studies of workers exposed to lead and other synergistic toxins such as cadmium and nickel are also cited. Lead exposure in infants and children is discussed in a separate bibliography. (Contains a minimum of 199 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  16. Short-term variation in occupational exposure to air contaminants.

    PubMed

    Gummesson, Karl; Andersson, Ing-Marie; Rosn, Gunnar

    2015-01-01

    Many industrial workers are exposed to air contaminants. A significant proportion of this exposure is found to occur as short peaks, a fact that has received limited attention in the literature. The present study focuses on short-term variation in air contaminant exposure measured at the level of seconds, linking exposure peaks to typical work situations in selected Swedish industries. The video exposure monitoring method was used to characterize this variation. Ten different videos were analyzed, from recordings varying in length between 15 and 34 minutes. Cumulative exposure for sampling intervals ranked from high to low, relative to the total exposure was calculated as a function of time. Measures of exposure variation included geometric standard deviation and maximum exposure divided by arithmetic mean. The results show that the characteristics of the variation differ between industrial situations. Samples from the stone, wood, and pharmaceutical industries generated the highest variation, implying that exposure peaks of short duration explain a large proportion of the total exposure. It can be concluded that video monitoring of exposure, combined with calculation of exposure variation as percentage of time accounting for given percentages of exposure, can help to reduce exposure to air contaminants in industrial situations by introducing more targeted control measures. PMID:25830662

  17. Occupational exposure and cancer of the pancreas: a review.

    PubMed Central

    Pietri, F; Clavel, F

    1991-01-01

    Many hypotheses have been proposed about the aetiology of cancer of the pancreas, especially concerning the effects of tobacco, coffee, alcohol, diet, and pancreatic pathology. Results of numerous epidemiological studies are, however, inconsistent. Chemical carcinogens have been implicated as possible risk factors. Animal studies have been carried out to determine the role of these chemical factors but, except for nitrosamines and their derivatives (components of tobacco), chemicals have not been proved carcinogenic for the pancreas. Many studies have also been conducted among occupational groups. Several of them showed an excess risk of cancer of the pancreas, especially in the chemical and petroleum industries. The lack of accuracy about the nature of products used, however, does not permit a definitive conclusion as to their carcinogenic role. This paper is a review of publications about occupational exposures and cancer of the pancreas. PMID:1911399

  18. Occupational Exposure to Ultrafine Particles among Airport Employees - Combining Personal Monitoring and Global Positioning System

    PubMed Central

    Mller, Karina Lauenborg; Thygesen, Lau Caspar; Schipperijn, Jasper; Loft, Steffen; Bonde, Jens Peter; Mikkelsen, Sigurd; Brauer, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    Background Exposure to ultrafine particles (UFP) has been linked to cardiovascular and lung diseases. Combustion of jet fuel and diesel powered handling equipment emit UFP resulting in potentially high exposure levels among employees working at airports. High levels of UFP have been reported at several airports, especially on the apron, but knowledge on individual exposure profiles among different occupational groups working at an airport is lacking. Purpose The aim of this study was to compare personal exposure to UFP among five different occupational groups working at Copenhagen Airport (CPH). Method 30 employees from five different occupational groups (baggage handlers, catering drivers, cleaning staff and airside and landside security) at CPH were instructed to wear a personal monitor of particle number concentration in real time and a GPS device. The measurements were carried out on 8 days distributed over two weeks in October 2012. The overall differences between the groups were assessed using linear mixed model. Results Data showed significant differences in exposure levels among the groups when adjusted for variation within individuals and for effect of time and date (p<0.01). Baggage handlers were exposed to 7 times higher average concentrations (geometric mean, GM: 37103 UFP/cm3, 95% CI: 2555103 UFP/cm3) than employees mainly working indoors (GM: 5103 UFP/cm3, 95% CI: 211103 UFP/cm3). Furthermore, catering drivers, cleaning staff and airside security were exposed to intermediate concentrations (GM: 12 to 20103 UFP/cm3). Conclusion The study demonstrates a strong gradient of exposure to UFP in ambient air across occupational groups of airport employees. PMID:25203510

  19. [Occupational diseases caused by exposure to sensitizing metals].

    PubMed

    Kusaka, Y

    1993-03-01

    Diseases caused by occupational exposure to sensitizing metals including platinum (Pt), rhodium (Rh), nickel (Ni), chromium (Cr), cobalt (Co), gold (Au), mercury (Hg), zirconium (Zr) and beryllium (Be) are reviewed. Allergic reactions induced by the metals are described according to the classification by Coombs and Gell. Metals with unproven sensitizing potential are not discussed if reports on these are either very rare or devoid of convincing evidence for allergic involvement. The sensitizing metals are haptens which are not themselves able to act as antigens. There is evidence that combination of the metals with circulating or tissue protein gives rise to new antigens. An alternative hypothesis is that these metals interfere with the antigen recognition step of the immune response. Immunomodulatory effects or immunotoxicity of the metals may be also involved in metal-induced hypersensitivity. Occupational exposure to Pt, Rh, Ni, Cr, and Co causes allergic asthma via type I allergic reaction in which serum from affected individuals shows specific IgE antibodies against mental-human serum albumin conjugates. Some rheumatoid arthritis patients treated with gold salt therapy develop glomerulonephritis, thrombocytopenia, or agranulocytosis, which arise from type II and/or type III allergic reactions. Occupational exposure to mercury causes glomerulonephritis in which involvement of type III reaction is suggested. Type IV hypersensitivity reaction of the skin also takes place following exposure to the metals: allergic contact dermatitis is evoked by exposure to Ni, Cr, Co, Rh, and Hg; cutaneous granuloma is formed by contact with Zr and Be. Be is also a sensitizer of the lungs, resulting in granulomatous disease. Diagnosis of metal-induced allergic diseases is made on the basis of allergological tests with metal antigens including skin tests, radioallergosorbent test for specific antibody, lymphocyte transformation test, macrophage migration inhibition test, and provocation test. Atopy is a predisposing factor and smoking is a risk factor for developing metal-induced asthma. Evidence for genetic factors in the development of metal contact dermatitis is conflicting, although animal models implicate genetic factors in skin sensitization with some metals and respiratory sensitization with Be. Skin irritation, forearm injury, complication with atopic dermatitis and concomitant sensitization to other agents are determinants for prognosis of the dermatitis. Epidemiological reports of occupational diseases from allergic reactions to metals in industries are reviewed with respect to prevalence and allergic manifestations. There is a report on a clinical trial of hyposensitization with Pt in a platinum asthma patient. Predictive methods for evaluating sensitization potential of metals have been developed and new methods, which quantify potential more objectively, are sought. PMID:8510347

  20. Occupational and public field exposure from communication, navigation, and radar systems used for air traffic control.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Wout; Goeminne, Francis; Vermeeren, Günter; Verloock, Leen; Martens, Luc

    2012-12-01

    Electromagnetic exposure (occupational and general public) to 14 types of air traffic control (ATC) systems is assessed. Measurement methods are proposed for in situ exposure assessment of these ATC systems. In total, 50 sites are investigated at 1,073 locations in the frequency range of 255 kHz to 24 GHz. For all installations, typical and maximal exposure values for workers and the general public are provided. Two of the 14 types of systems, Non-Directional Beacons (NDB) (up to 881.6 V m) and Doppler Very High Frequency (VHF) Omni-directional Range (DVOR) (up to 92.3 V m), exhibited levels requiring recommended minimum distances such that the ICNIRP reference levels are not exceeded. Cumulative exposure of all present radiofrequency (RF) sources is investigated, and it is concluded that the ATC source dominates the total exposure in its neighborhood. PMID:23111522

  1. Environmental and Occupational Pesticide Exposure and Human Sperm Parameters: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Martenies, Sheena E.; Perry, Melissa J.

    2013-01-01

    Of continuing concern are the associations between environmental or occupational exposures to pesticides and semen quality parameters. Prior research has indicated that there may be associations between exposure to pesticides of a variety of classes and decreased sperm health. The intent of this review was to summarize the most recent evidence related to pesticide exposures and commonly used semen quality parameters, including concentration, motility and morphology. The recent literature was searched for studies published between January, 2007 and August, 2012 that focused on environmental or occupational pesticide exposures. Included in the review are 17 studies, 15 of which reported significant associations between exposure to pesticides and semen quality indicators. Two studies also investigated the roles genetic polymorphisms may play in the strength or directions of these associations. Specific pesticides targeted for study included dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), and abamectin. Pyrethroids and organophosphates were analyzed as classes of pesticides rather than as individual compounds, primarily due to the limitations of exposure assessment techniques. Overall, a majority of the studies reported significant associations between pesticide exposure and sperm parameters. A decrease in sperm concentration was the most commonly reported finding among all of the pesticide classes investigated. Decreased motility was also associated with exposures to each of the pesticide classes, although these findings were less frequent across studies. An association between pesticide exposure and sperm morphology was less clear, with only two studies reporting an association. The evidence presented in this review continues to support the hypothesis that exposures to pesticides at environmentally or occupationally relevant levels may be associated with decreased sperm health. Future work in this area should focus on associations between specific pesticides or metabolic products and sperm quality parameters. Analysis of effects of varying genetic characteristics, especially in genes related to pesticide metabolism, also needs further attention. PMID:23438386

  2. [Occupational and environmental exposure to anilide and dicarboximide pesticides].

    PubMed

    Vitelli, N; Chiodini, A; Colosio, C; De Paschale, G; Somaruga, C; Turci, R; Minoia, C; Brambilla, G; Colombi, A

    2007-01-01

    Dicarboximide fungicides (DF) such as vinclozolin, iprodione, procymidone are widely used on vines, fruit and vegetables, and anilide herbicides (AH) such as diuron, linuron, propanil are used to control weeds on hard surfaces, such as, roads, railway tracks, paths, and in crops, forestry. Italian reports on food safety found many samples contaminated by pesticides belonging to these categories, even though only few exceeding L.M.R. Since adverse effects on human health, such as endocrine disruption, have been reported, biological monitoring is essential for exposure assessment both of occupationally exposed subjects and of the general population. Common metabolites of DF and AH are dichloroanilinines such as 3,4-DCA and 3,5-DCA, urine samples from 153 subjects living in Novafeltria, central Italy, were collected for analysis of 3,4- and 3,5-DCAs, each participant was invited to complete a very detailed questionnaire. A total of 151 out of 153 samples were found to be positive for 3,5-DCA, and 81.7% were positive for 3,4-DCA. Also 33 workers, engaged in application of propanil on rice in northern Italy, were involved in the study and 3,4-DCA was determined as marker of exposure. 3,4 and 3,5 dichloroaniline are useful and promising biological indicators for monitoring occupational and environmental exposure to these classes of pesticides. PMID:18409684

  3. Occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields and the occurrence of brain tumors. An analysis of possible associations

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, R.S.; Dischinger, P.C.; Conde, J.; Farrell, K.P.

    1985-06-01

    To explore the association between occupation and the occurrence of brain tumor, an epidemiologic study was conducted using data from the death certificates of 951 adult white male Maryland residents who died of brain tumor during the period 1969 through 1982. Compared with the controls, men employed in electricity-related occupations, such as electrician, electric or electronic engineer, and utility company serviceman, were found to experience a significantly higher proportion of primary brain tumors. An increase in the odds ratio for brain tumor was found to be positively related to electromagnetic (EM) field exposure levels. Furthermore, the mean age at death was found to be significantly younger among cases in the presumed high EM-exposure group. These findings suggest that EM exposure may be associated with the pathogenesis of brain tumors, particularly in the promoting stage.

  4. Parental occupational exposures to endocrine disruptors and the risk of simple isolated congenital heart defects.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chuan; Zhan, Yalan; Wang, Fang; Li, Huaying; Xie, Liang; Liu, Bin; Li, Yifei; Mu, Dezhi; Zheng, Hong; Zhou, Kaiyu; Hua, Yimin

    2015-06-01

    This study aims to explore the associations between parental occupational exposures to endocrine disruptors (EDs) and simple isolated congenital heart defects (CHDs). A case-control study with standardized data collection involving 761 children with isolated CHDs and 609 children without any congenital malformations was conducted in Sichuan Province of China from March in 2012 to August in 2013. An adjusted job exposure matrix was used for occupational EDs exposure assessment. Logistic regression analysis was performed to assess the associations between parental occupational EDs exposures and CHDs. Maternal age at births, maternal education level, gravity, parity, induced abortion, folic acid use, medication use, drinking capacity and area of residence periconceptionally were selected as confounding factors for mothers. For fathers, we selected the following confounding factors: paternal education level, smoking, drinking frequencies and drinking capacity periconceptionally. Maternal occupational exposures to phthalates are associated with perimembranous ventricular septal defect (PmVSD) (P = 0.001, adjusted OR 3.7, 95 % CI 1.7-8.0), patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) (P = 0.002, adjusted OR 3.8, 95 % CI 1.6-8.9), secundum atrial septal defect (s-ASD) (P = 0.008, adjusted OR 3.5, 95 % CI 1.4-8.7) and pulmonary valve stenosis (PS) (P = 0.035, adjusted OR 4.2, 95 % CI 1.1-16.0), to alkylphenolic compounds and PmVSD (P = 0.003, adjusted OR 2.2, 95 % CI 1.3-3.6), PDA (P = 0.005, adjusted OR 2.0, 95 % CI 1.1-3.5) and PS (P = 0.004, adjusted OR 3.8, 95 % CI 1.5-9.4), to heavy metals with PmVSD (P = 0.003, adjusted OR 7.3, 95 % CI 2.0-27.6) and s-ASD (P = 0.034, adjusted OR 6.5, 95 % CI 1.1-36.7). Paternal occupational exposures to phthalates are associated with PmVSD (P = 0.035, adjusted OR 1.6, 95 % CI 1.0-2.4) and PS (P = 0.026, adjusted OR 2.4, 95 % CI 1.1-5.2), to alkylphenolic compounds (P = 0.027, adjusted OR 1.5, 95 % CI 1.0-2.2) with PmVSD. In conclusion, parental occupational exposures to some specific EDs, in particular phthalates and alkylphenolic compounds, are associated with an increased risk of some CHD phenotypes. However, the findings need to be considered more circumspectly regarding a crude measure of exposure probabilities and small numbers. PMID:25628158

  5. Occupational Component. 26-Level Courses. Teacher Resource Manual. Integrated Occupational Program. Interim-1991: Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton. Curriculum Branch.

    This planning and instructional manual is designed to assist teachers in implementing the 20 10-credit-hour courses that make up the 26-level occupational component of the Integrated Occupational Program (IOP) in Alberta, Canada. (The IOP was developed to assist students who experience difficulties in secondary education and to help students make

  6. Occupational Component. 26-Level Courses. Teacher Resource Manual. Integrated Occupational Program. Interim-1991: Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton. Curriculum Branch.

    This planning and instructional manual is designed to assist teachers in implementing the 20 10-credit-hour courses that make up the 26-level occupational component of the Integrated Occupational Program (IOP) in Alberta, Canada. (The IOP was developed to assist students who experience difficulties in secondary education and to help students make…

  7. Occupational Exposure to Chromium of Assembly Workers in Aviation Industries.

    PubMed

    Genovese, G; Castiglia, L; Pieri, M; Novi, C; d'Angelo, R; Sannolo, N; Lamberti, M; Miraglia, N

    2015-01-01

    Aircraft are constructed by modules that are covered by a "primer" layer, which can often contain hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)], known carcinogen to humans. While the occupational exposure to Cr(VI) during aircraft painting is ascertained, the exposure assessment of assembly workers (assemblers) requires investigations. Three biological monitoring campaigns (BM-I,II,III) were performed in an aviation industry, on homogeneous groups of assemblers (N = 43) and controls (N = 23), by measuring chromium concentrations in end-shift urine collected at the end of the working week and the chromium concentration difference between end- and before-shift urines. BM-I was conducted on full-time workers, BM-II was performed on workers after a 3-4 day absence from work, BM-III on workers using ecoprimers with lower Cr(VI) content. Samples were analyzed by atomic absorption spectroscopy and mean values were compared by T-test. Even if Cr concentrations measured during BM-I were lower than Biological Exposure Indices by ACGIH, statistically significant differences were found between urinary Cr concentrations of workers and controls. Despite 3-4 days of absence from work, urinary chromium concentrations measured during BM-II were still higher than references from nonoccupationally exposed populations. In the BM-III campaign, the obtained preliminary results suggested the efficacy of using ecoprimers. The healthcare of workers exposed to carcinogenic agents follows the principle of limiting the exposure to "the minimum technically possible". The obtained results evidence that assemblers of aviation industries, whose task does not involve the direct use of primers containing Cr(VI), show an albeit slight occupational exposure to Cr(VI), that must be carefully taken into consideration in planning suitable prevention measures during risk assessment and management processes. PMID:25793365

  8. Parental occupational lead exposure and lead concentration of newborn cord blood

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, J.D.; Shy, W.Y.; Chen, J.S.; Yang, K.H.; Hwang, Y.H.

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of parental occupational lead exposure on the lead levels of newborn cord blood in the Taipei area. From September 1984 to June 1985, 5,000 pregnant women voluntarily participated in the study at the Taipei Municipal Maternal and Child Hospital. Each woman was interviewed regarding her and her husband's occupational exposures; 2,948 successfully delivered healthy newborns, and cord blood samples were obtained using Terumo Venoject, and 242 samples were analyzed by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry using an Instrumentation Laboratory 251 instrument. Nine cord blood samples were from newborns with both parents exposed, 26 samples had maternal exposure only, 105 samples had paternal exposure only, and 102 were nonexposed. The results showed that the average lead level of cord blood with both parents exposed was 8.9 +/- 2.9 micrograms%, maternal exposure 9.0 +/- 3.8 micrograms%, paternal exposure 8.3 +/- 3.4 micrograms%, and 6.9 +/- 3.2 micrograms% in the nonexposed group. There were significant differences between the nonexposed and the maternal exposure groups, and also between the nonexposed and paternal exposure groups. All 26 maternal exposures were from lead soldering operations. Multivariate analysis revealed that, after control of father's exposure status, newborn cord blood lead level increased 0.27 micrograms% for each hour the mother spent on lead soldering during a normal working day, thus suggesting that soldering during pregnancy may be hazardous to newborns. Paternal contribution to the cord blood lead levels seemed to be through either working at home with the pregnant mother also at home or bringing work clothes home for laundering.

  9. Commentary on the contributions and future role of occupational exposure science in a vision and strategy for the discipline of exposure science

    PubMed Central

    Harper, Martin; Weis, Christopher; Pleil, Joachim D.; Blount, Benjamin C.; Miller, Aubrey; Hoover, Mark D.; Jahn, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Exposure science is a holistic concept without prejudice to exposure source. Traditionally, measurements aimed at mitigating environmental exposures have not included exposures in the workplace, instead considering such exposures to be an internal affair between workers and their employers. Similarly, occupational (or industrial) hygiene has not typically accounted for environmental contributions to poor health at work. Many persons spend a significant amount of their lifetime in the workplace, where they maybe exposed to more numerous chemicals at higher levels than elsewhere in their environment. In addition, workplace chemical exposures and other exogenous stressors may increase epigenetic and germline modifications that are passed on to future generations. We provide a brief history of the development of exposure science from its roots in the assessment of workplace exposures, including an appendix where we detail current resources for education and training in exposure science offered through occupational hygiene organizations. We describe existing successful collaborations between occupational and environmental practitioners in the field of exposure science, which may serve as a model for future interactions. Finally, we provide an integrated vision for the field of exposure science, emphasizing interagency collaboration, the need for complete exposure information in epidemiological studies, and the importance of integrating occupational, environmental, and residential assessments. Our goal is to encourage communication and spur additional collaboration between the fields of occupational and environmental exposure assessment. Providing a more comprehensive approach to exposure science is critical to the study of the “exposome”, which conceptualizes the totality of exposures throughout a person’s life, not only chemical, but also from diet, stress, drugs, infection, and so on, and the individual response. PMID:25670022

  10. Lead exposure: Public and occupational health hazards. (Latest citations from Pollution abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the effects of chronic lead exposure in humans and animals. The citations explore lead exposure resulting from occupational hazards, automobile emissions, and air pollution. Lead absorption in children is discussed. The clinical features of lead toxicity are noted, and biochemical assays for the quantification of blood and tissue lead levels are discussed. D-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase and its relation to blood lead levels are cited.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  11. [Predictive models for the assessment of occupational exposure to chemicals: a new challenge for employers].

    PubMed

    Gromiec, Jan Piotr; Kupczewska-Dobecka, Ma?gorzata; Jankowska, Agnieszka; Czerczak, S?awomir

    2013-01-01

    Employers are obliged to carry out and document the risk associated with the use of chemical substances. The best but the most expensive method is to measure workplace concentrations of chemicals. At present no "measureless" method for risk assessment is available in Poland, but predictive models for such assessments have been developed in some countries. The purpose of this work is to review and evaluate the applicability of selected predictive methods for assessing occupational inhalation exposure and related risk to check the compliance with Occupational Exposure Limits (OELs), as well as the compliance with REACH obligations. Based on the literature data HSE COSHH Essentials, EASE, ECETOC TRA, Stoffenmanager, and EMKG-Expo-Tool were evaluated. The data on validation of predictive models were also examined. It seems that predictive models may be used as a useful method for Tier 1 assessment of occupational exposure by inhalation. Since the levels of exposure are frequently overestimated, they should be considered as "rational worst cases" for selection of proper control measures. Bearing in mind that the number of available exposure scenarios and PROC categories is limited, further validation by field surveys is highly recommended. Predictive models may serve as a good tool for preliminary risk assessment and selection of the most appropriate risk control measures in Polish small and medium size enterprises (SMEs) providing that they are available in the Polish language. This also requires an extensive training of their future users. PMID:24502133

  12. The electromagnetic environment of Magnetic Resonance Imaging systems. Occupational exposure assessment reveals RF harmonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gourzoulidis, G.; Karabetsos, E.; Skamnakis, N.; Kappas, C.; Theodorou, K.; Tsougos, I.; Maris, T. G.

    2015-09-01

    Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) systems played a crucial role in the postponement of the former occupational electromagnetic fields (EMF) European Directive (2004/40/EC) and in the formation of the latest exposure limits adopted in the new one (2013/35/EU). Moreover, the complex MRI environment will be finally excluded from the implementation of the new occupational limits, leading to an increased demand for Occupational Health and Safety (OHS) surveillance. The gradient function of MRI systems and the application of the RF excitation frequency result in low and high frequency exposures, respectively. This electromagnetic field exposure, in combination with the increased static magnetic field exposure, makes the MRI environment a unique case of combined EMF exposure. The electromagnetic field levels in close proximity of different MRI systems have been assessed at various frequencies. Quality Assurance (QA) & safety issues were also faced. Preliminary results show initial compliance with the forthcoming limits in each different frequency band, but also revealed peculiar RF harmonic components, of no safety concern, to the whole range detected (20-1000MHz). Further work is needed in order to clarify their origin and characteristics.

  13. [Remote effects of occupational and non-occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields of power-line frequency. Epidemiological studies].

    PubMed

    Tikhonova, G I; Rubtsova, N B; Novokhatskaia, E A; Tikhonov, A V

    2003-01-01

    A retrospective cohort study of mortality in the personnel of power-supply plants in the European regions of Russia was carried out. The exposure of the personnel to electromagnetic fields of power-line frequency (PF) was taken into account. Statistically non-significant raise of mortality from leukemia was found, compared to low mortality rates due to all other causes including cancer of any type. Standardized mortality ratio (SMR) was equal to 2.03 (95% CI = 0.23-7.31). In the retrospective case-control study the haemoblastosis development risk under occupational PF EMF exposure was evaluated. The data of 571 "cases" and 1208 "controls" interview showed that odd ratio (OR) was 1.64 (95% CI = 0.8-3.1). In another retrospective case-control study the risk of the haemoblastosis development in children due to parents PF EMF occupational exposure was evaluated. The data of 208 "cases" and 319 "controls" interview showed that the odd ratio (OR) was 1.69 (95% CI = 0.7-3.3). A retrospective cohort study of mortality in a settlement situated near a high-voltage (500 kV) substation, which took into account PF EMF levels in residential areas, revealed low mortality rates, except leukemia mortality (SMR 1.3; 95% CI = 0.2-7.0). The obtained data do not allow excluding a possibility of PF EMF leukogenic effect. PMID:14658290

  14. Urinary excretion of tetrachloroethylene (perchloroethylene) in experimental and occupational exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Imbriani, M.; Ghittori, S.; Pezzagno, G.; Capodaglio, E.

    1988-07-01

    Fifteen human volunteers were exposed to tetrachloroethylene (perchloroethylene, tetrachloroethene) vapor at 3.6-316 mg/m3 for 2-4 hr at rest (10 cases) and during light physical exercise (5 cases). Subsequently, 55 workers who were occupationally exposed to tetrachloroethylene in eight commercial dry cleaning facilities were studied (median value, 66 mg/m3; geometric standard deviation, 3.15 mg/m3). In both the experimentally exposed subjects and occupationally exposed workers the urinary concentration of tetrachloroethylene showed a linear relationship to the corresponding environmental time-weighted average concentration. The findings indicate that the urinary concentration of tetrachloroethylene can be used as an appropriate biological exposure indicator. In occupationally exposed subjects performing moderate work, the urinary tetrachloroethylene concentration corresponding to the time-weighted average of the threshold limit value proved to be 120 mcg/L and its 95% lower confidence limit (biological threshold) 100 mcg/L. The effects of workload on the tetrachloroethylene urinary elimination are also accounted for.

  15. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and occupational exposures

    PubMed Central

    Boschetto, Piera; Quintavalle, Sonia; Miotto, Deborah; Lo Cascio, Natalina; Zeni, Elena; Mapp, Cristina E

    2006-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in both industrialized and developing countries. Cigarette smoking is the major risk factor for COPD. However, relevant information from the literature published within the last years, either on general population samples or on workplaces, indicate that about 15% of all cases of COPD is work-related. Specific settings and agents are quoted which have been indicated or confirmed as linked to COPD. Coal miners, hard-rock miners, tunnel workers, concrete-manufacturing workers, nonmining industrial workers have been shown to be at highest risk for developing COPD. Further evidence that occupational agents are capable of inducing COPD comes from experimental studies, particularly in animal models. In conclusion, occupational exposure to dusts, chemicals, gases should be considered an established, or supported by good evidence, risk factor for developing COPD. The implications of this substantial occupational contribution to COPD must be considered in research planning, in public policy decision-making, and in clinical practice. PMID:16756686

  16. Occupational exposure to chrome VI compounds in French companies: results of a national campaign to measure exposure (2010-2013).

    PubMed

    Vincent, Raymond; Gillet, Martine; Goutet, Pierre; Guichard, Christine; Hdouin-Langlet, Catherine; Frocaut, Anne Marie; Lambert, Pierre; Leray, Fabrice; Mardelle, Patricia; Dorotte, Michel; Rousset, Davy

    2015-01-01

    A campaign to measure exposure to hexavalent chromium compounds was carried out in France by the seven CARSAT chemistry laboratories, CRAMIF laboratory, and INRS over the 2010-2013 period. The survey included 99 companies involved in various activity sectors. The inhalable fraction of airborne particles was sampled, and exposure levels were determined using ion chromatography analysis combined with post-column derivatization and UV detection. The quality of the measurement results was guaranteed by an inter-laboratory comparison system involving all the laboratories participating in this study. Exposure levels frequently exceeded the French occupational exposure limit value (OELV) of 1 g m(-3), in activities such as thermal metallization and manufacturing and application of paint in the aeronautics sector. The results also reveal a general trend for a greater proportion of soluble Chromium VI (Cr VI) compounds compared with insoluble compounds. Qualitative and quantitative information relating to the presence of other metallic compounds in the air of workplaces is also provided, for example for Cr III, Ni, Fe, etc. The sampling strategy used and the measurement method are easy to implement, making it possible to check occupational exposure with a view to comparing it to an 8 h-OELV of 1 g m(-3). PMID:25381441

  17. Comprehensive evaluation of long-term trends in occupational exposure: Part 1. Description of the database

    PubMed Central

    Symanski, E.; Kupper, L. L.; Rappaport, S. M.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To conduct a comprehensive evaluation of long term changes in occupational exposure among a broad cross section of industries worldwide. METHODS: A review of the scientific literature identified studies that reported historical changes in exposure. About 700 sets of data from 119 published and several unpublished sources were compiled. Data were published over a 30 year period in 25 journals that spanned a range of disciplines. For each data set, the average exposure level was compiled for each period and details on the contaminant, the industry and location, changes in the threshold limit value (TLV), as well as the type of sampling method were recorded. Spearman rank correlation coefficients were used to identify monotonic changes in exposure over time and simple linear regression analyses were used to characterise trends in exposure. RESULTS: About 78% of the natural log transformed data showed linear trends towards lower exposure levels whereas 22% indicated increasing trends. (The Spearman rank correlation analyses produced a similar breakdown between exposures monotonically increasing or decreasing over time.) Although the rates of reduction for the data showing downward trends ranged from -1% to -62% per year, most exposures declined at rates between -4% and -14% per year (the interquartile range), with a median value of -8% per year. Exposures seemed to increase at rates that were slightly lower than those of exposures which have declined over time. Data sets that showed downward (versus upward) trends were influenced by several factors including type and carcinogenicity of the contaminant, type of monitoring, historical changes in the threshold limit values (TLVs), and period of sampling. CONCLUSIONS: This review supports the notion that occupational exposures are generally lower today than they were years or decades ago. However, such trends seem to have been affected by factors related to the contaminant, as well as to the period and type of sampling. PMID:9764107

  18. Paternal occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields and neuroblastoma in offspring

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkins, J.R. 3d.; Hundley, V.D. )

    1990-06-01

    Investigators in Texas have reported an association between paternal employment in jobs linked with exposure to electromagnetic fields and risk of neuroblastoma in offspring. In an attempt to replicate this finding, the authors conducted a case-control study in Ohio. A total of 101 incident cases of neuroblastoma were identified through the Columbus (Ohio) Children's Hospital Tumor Registry. All cases were born sometime during the period 1942-1967. From a statewide roster of birth certificates, four controls were selected for each case, with individual matching on the case's year of birth, race, and sex, and the mother's county of residence at the time of the (index) child's birth. Multiple definitions were employed to infer the potential for paternal occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields from the industry/occupation statements on the birth certificates. Case-control comparisons revealed adjusted odds ratios ranging in magnitude from 0.5 to 1.9. For two of the exposure definitions employed--both of which are similar to one used by the Texas investigators--the corresponding odds ratios were modestly elevated (odds ratios = 1.6 and 1.9). Notably, the magnitude of these odds ratios is not inconsistent with the Texas findings, where the exposure definition referred to yielded an odds ratio of 2.1. Because the point estimates in this study are imprecise, and because the biologic plausibility of the association is uncertain, the results reported here must be interpreted cautiously. However, the apparent consistency between two independent studies suggests that future evaluation of the association is warranted.

  19. Occupational exposure and respiratory morbidity among asbestos workers in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chen, C R; Chang, H Y; Suo, J; Wang, J D

    1992-12-01

    To determine the prevalence of asbestos-related lung disease and the impairment of lung function among asbestos workers, we conducted a cross-sectional health survey of 459 workers in 33 asbestos-related factories in Taiwan. Each worker was asked about his medical and occupational history and was given a medical examination, chest roentgenogram and pulmonary function test. Manufacturing processes included production of asbestos cements, textiles, friction materials and insulation products. Exposure assessments were based on asbestos sampling and counting using a phase contrast microscope. The average age of the participants in the study was 41.6 years. They had an average of 8.1 years of dust exposure, with a range of one to 42 years. The majority had a cumulative asbestos exposure of less than 20 fiber years/mL. No case of asbestos-related lung disease was found during our investigation. No roentgenogram showed unequivocal changes of asbestosis. However, a multiple linear regression analysis of the pulmonary function test showed that both FVC and FEV1 decreased significantly with an increasing cumulative dose of exposure after controlling for age, height and smoking effects during analysis. FEV1/FVC and FEF25-75% were not affected by exposure dose. The absence of asbestosis and other asbestos-related lung diseases may be due to an inadequate induction time of asbestos exposure and a possible healthy selection of workers. We conclude that among workers in Taiwan, there is a significant effect on the respiratory system, especially pulmonary function, due to asbestos exposure. PMID:1363633

  20. Wilms' tumor and exposures to residential and occupational hazardous chemicals.

    PubMed

    Tsai, James; Kaye, Wendy E; Bove, Frank J

    2006-01-01

    This case-control study examines the association between residential and occupational exposures to hazardous chemicals and the risk of Wilms' tumor. The study included 303 cases recruited from six state cancer registries, who were diagnosed between January 1, 1992 and December 31, 1995. A total of 575 controls selected through random digit dialing were frequency matched to the cases. A standard questionnaire was administered to participants during a telephone interview. Parental residential addresses and locations of US Environmental Protection Agency National Priority List (NPL) sites were geocoded and analyzed, along with occupational exposure information. There were no cases of Wilms' tumor found in individuals living within one-half mile distance of a hazardous waste site. However, elevated odds ratios were found for using hairdressing chemicals, motor oil, paint, paint stripper, and pesticides during the pregnancy term and during the 2-year period prior to birth. The findings do not support the hypothesis that Wilms' tumor is associated with residing near an NPL site. PMID:16373202

  1. [Lipid pneumopathy caused by occupational exposure to cutting oil].

    PubMed

    Perol, M; Vallon, C; Vallon, J J; Gurin, J C

    1989-01-01

    This is a case report of a diffuse interstitial pneumonia which developed rapidly in a 45-year-old patient who was occupationally exposed to regular inhalations of motor oil spray. The diagnosis of lipid pneumonia was based on a lung biopsy carried out by thoracoscopy. The biochemical analysis of the lipid extracted from the alveolar lavage and of the pleural liquid showed the presence of hydrocarbons, which were analogous to those found in motor oil and the strippings that were used. The subsequent progress without treatment after removal from the risk showed a partial regression of the radiological abnormalities. The incidence of occupational pneumonia to mineral oils is relatively low when the frequency of exposure is taken into account: objective data on the extent and the nature of exposure are often incomplete in published observations. The occurrence of respiratory symptoms or radiological changes in exposed subjects requires, nevertheless, a search for a possible lipid pneumonia. The diagnosis rests on a biochemical and cytological analysis of the alveolar liquid and on a lung biopsy. PMID:2740595

  2. Biomarkers of occupational exposure to air pollution, inflammation and oxidative damage in taxi drivers.

    PubMed

    Brucker, Natália; Moro, Angela M; Charão, Mariele F; Durgante, Juliano; Freitas, Fernando; Baierle, Marília; Nascimento, Sabrina; Gauer, Bruna; Bulcão, Rachel P; Bubols, Guilherme B; Ferrari, Pedro D; Thiesen, Flávia V; Gioda, Adriana; Duarte, Marta M M F; de Castro, Iran; Saldiva, Paulo H; Garcia, Solange C

    2013-10-01

    Exposure to environmental pollutants has been recognised as a risk factor for cardiovascular events. 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP) is a biomarker of exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from traffic-related air pollution. Experimental studies indicate that PAH exposure could be associated with inflammation and atherogenesis. Thus, the purpose of this study was to evaluate whether the biomarker of PAH exposure is associated with biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress and if these effects modulate the risk of developing cardiovascular diseases in workers exposed to air pollution. This study included 60 subjects, comprising 39 taxi drivers and 21 non-occupationally exposed persons. Environmental PM2.5 and benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) levels, in addition to biomarkers of exposure and oxidative damage, were determined. Inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α, IFN-γ and hs-CRP) and serum levels of oxidised LDL (ox-LDL), auto-antibodies (ox-LDL-Ab) and homocysteine (Hcy) were also evaluated. PM2.5 and BaP exhibited averages of 12.4±6.9 μg m(-3) and 1.0±0.6 ng m(-3), respectively. Urinary 1-OHP levels were increased in taxi drivers compared to the non-occupationally exposed subjects (p<0.05) and were positively correlated with pro-inflammatory cytokines and negatively correlated with antioxidants. Furthermore, taxi drivers had elevated pro-inflammatory cytokines, biomarkers of oxidative damage, and ox-LDL, ox-LDL-Ab and Hcy levels, although antioxidant enzymes were decreased compared to the non-occupationally exposed subjects (p<0.05). In summary, our findings indicate that taxi drivers showed major exposure to pollutants, such as PAHs, in relation to non-occupationally exposed subjects. This finding was associated with higher inflammatory biomarkers and Hcy, which represent important predictors for cardiovascular events. These data suggest a contribution of PAHs to cardiovascular diseases upon occupational exposure. PMID:23872245

  3. Occupational exposure assessment of highway toll station workers to vehicle engine exhaust.

    PubMed

    Belloc-Santaliestra, Miriam; van der Haar, Rudolf; Molinero-Ruiz, Emilia

    2015-01-01

    Toll station workers are occupationally exposed to vehicle engine exhaust, a complex mixture of different chemical substances, including carcinogenic compounds. Therefore, a study was carried out on attendants of two highway toll stations to describe their occupational exposure to vehicle engine exhaust, based on a worst-case scenario approach. Personal sampling was conducted during the day shift for all attendants, testing for three groups of chemical substances: polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and aldehydes (formaldehyde and acrolein). Concentrations of total PAH, BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes) and formaldehyde content varied between 97.60-336.08 ng/m3, 5.01-40.52 ?g/m3, and 0.06-19.13 ?g/m3, respectively. No clear relationships could be established between exposure levels and the number of vehicles. Furthermore, no differences were found between truck versus car lanes, or inside versus outside the tollbooth. Not all the detected VOCs were related to vehicle exhaust; some were consistent with the use of cleaning products. The measured concentrations were far below the established occupational exposure limits, but tended to be higher than values reported for outdoor urban environments. There are very few international studies assessing occupational exposures among toll station workers, and this is the first such study to be conducted in Spain. The results suggest that further, more detailed studies are necessary to characterize exposure properly, and ones which include other airborne pollutants, such as ultrafine particles. The comparison of the results to other similar studies was difficult, since no data related to some important exposure determinants have been provided. Therefore, it is recommended that these determinants be considered in future studies. PMID:25411914

  4. Occupational exposure to formaldehyde, hematotoxicity and leukemia-specific chromosome changes in cultured myeloid progenitor cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Luoping; Tang, Xiaojiang; Rothman, Nathaniel; Vermeulen, Roel; Ji, Zhiying; Shen, Min; Qiu, Chuangyi; Guo, Weihong; Liu, Songwang; Reiss, Boris; Laura Beane, Freeman; Ge, Yichen; Hubbard, Alan E.; Hua, Ming; Blair, Aaron; Galvan, Noe; Ruan, Xiaolin; Alter, Blanche P.; Xin, Kerry X.; Li, Senhua; Moore, Lee E.; Kim, Sungkyoon; Xie, Yuxuan; Hayes, Richard B.; Azuma, Mariko; Hauptmann, Michael; Xiong, Jun; Stewart, Patricia; Li, Laiyu; Rappaport, Stephen M.; Huang, Hanlin; Fraumeni, Joseph F.; Smith, Martyn T.; Lan, Qing

    2010-01-01

    There are concerns about the health effects of formaldehyde exposure, including carcinogenicity, in light of elevated indoor air levels in new homes and occupational exposures experienced by workers in health care, embalming, manufacturing and other industries. Epidemiological studies suggest that formaldehyde exposure is associated with an increased risk of leukemia. However, the biological plausibility of these findings has been questioned because limited information is available on formaldehydes ability to disrupt hematopoietic function. Our objective was to determine if formaldehyde exposure disrupts hematopoietic function and produces leukemia-related chromosome changes in exposed humans. We examined the ability of formaldehyde to disrupt hematopoiesis in a study of 94 workers in China (43 exposed to formaldehyde and 51 frequency-matched controls) by measuring complete blood counts and peripheral stem/progenitor cell colony formation. Further, myeloid progenitor cells, the target for leukemogenesis, were cultured from the workers to quantify the level of leukemia-specific chromosome changes, including monosomy 7 and trisomy 8, in metaphase spreads of these cells. Among exposed workers, peripheral blood cell counts were significantly lowered in a manner consistent with toxic effects on the bone marrow and leukemia-specific chromosome changes were significantly elevated in myeloid blood progenitor cells. These findings suggest that formaldehyde exposure can have an adverse impact on the hematopoietic system and that leukemia induction by formaldehyde is biologically plausible, which heightens concerns about its leukemogenic potential from occupational and environmental exposures. PMID:20056626

  5. Occupational radiation Exposure at Agreement State-Licensed Materials Facilities, 1997-2010

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research

    2012-07-07

    The purpose of this report is to examine occupational radiation exposures received under Agreement State licensees. As such, this report reflects the occupational radiation exposure data contained in the Radiation Exposure Information and Reporting System (REIRS) database, for 1997 through 2010, from Agreement State-licensed materials facilities.

  6. Validation of a self-administered questionnaire for assessing occupational and environmental exposures of pregnant women

    SciTech Connect

    Eskenazi, B.; Pearson, K.

    1988-11-01

    The present investigation sought to determine whether a self-administered questionnaire could be used to obtain occupational information from pregnant women attending the obstetrical clinics at the University of California, San Francisco from July to November 1986. The authors compared the accuracy of responses of 57 women on the self-administered questionnaire with those obtained on a detailed clinical interview by an occupational health professional. The self-administered questionnaire and the clinical interview included information on the woman's job title, the type of company she worked for, the level of physical activity, her exposures on the job and at home, and her partner's occupation. The authors also examined whether the validity of the self-administered questionnaire could be improved on review by an industrial hygienist. The questionnaire took less than 20 minutes to complete, with over 90% of the women answering three-quarters of it. It was substantially accurate in obtaining information on number of hours worked during pregnancy, type of shift worked, and stress level in the workplace; exposure to radiation, video display terminals, fumes, gases, and cigarette smoke in the workplace; and exposure to pesticides, paint, and cigarette smoke at home. On those variables for which the responses on the self-administered questionnaire were less accurate, review by the industrial hygienist improved the level of accuracy considerably. These findings suggest that a self-administered questionnaire can be used to obtain valid information from pregnant women attending a prenatal clinic.

  7. The Relationship between the Occupational Exposure of Trichloroethylene and Kidney Cancer

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Trichloroethylene (TCE) has been widely used as a degreasing agent in many manufacturing industries. Recently, the International Agency for Research on Cancer presented “sufficient evidence” for the causal relationship between TCE and kidney cancer. The aim of this study was to review the epidemiologic evidences regarding the relationship between TCE exposure and kidney cancer in Korean work environments. The results from the cohort studies were inconsistent, but according to the meta-analysis and case–control studies, an increased risk for kidney cancer was present in the exposure group and the dose–response relationship could be identified using various measures of exposure. In Korea, TCE is a commonly used chemical for cleaning or degreasing processes by various manufacturers; average exposure levels of TCE vary widely. When occupational physicians evaluate work-relatedness kidney cancers, they must consider past exposure levels, which could be very high (>100 ppm in some cases) and associated with jobs, such as plating, cleaning, or degreasing. The exposure levels at a manual job could be higher than an automated job. The peak level of TCE could also be considered an important exposure-related variable due to the possibility of carcinogenesis associated with high TCE doses. This review could be a comprehensive reference for assessing work-related TCE exposure and kidney cancer in Korea. PMID:24955246

  8. Occupational exposures to uranium: processes, hazards, and regulations

    SciTech Connect

    Stoetzel, G.A.; Fisher, D.R.; McCormack, W.D.; Hoenes, G.R.; Marks, S.; Moore, R.H.; Quilici, D.G.; Breitenstein, B.D.

    1981-04-01

    The United States Uranium Registry (USUR) was formed in 1978 to investigate potential hazards from occupational exposure to uranium and to assess the need for special health-related studies of uranium workers. This report provides a summary of Registry work done to date. The history of the uranium industry is outlined first, and the current commercial uranium industry (mining, milling, conversion, enrichment, and fuel fabrication) is described. This description includes information on basic processes and areas of greatest potential radiological exposure. In addition, inactive commercial facilities and other uranium operations are discussed. Regulation of the commercial production industry for uranium fuel is reported, including the historic development of regulations and the current regulatory agencies and procedures for each phase of the industry. A review of radiological health practices in the industry - facility monitoring, exposure control, exposure evaluation, and record-keeping - is presented. A discussion of the nonradiological hazards of the industry is provided, and the final section describes the tissue program developed as part of the Registry.

  9. Occupational radon exposure and lung cancer mortality: estimating intervention effects using the parametric G formula

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Jessie K.; McGrath, Leah J.; Buckley, Jessie P.; Schubauer-Berigan, Mary K.; Cole, Stephen R.; Richardson, David B.

    2015-01-01

    Background Traditional regression analysis techniques used to estimate associations between occupational radon exposure and lung cancer focus on estimating the effect of cumulative radon exposure on lung cancer, while public health interventions are typically based on regulating radon concentration rather than workers’ cumulative exposure. Moreover, estimating the direct effect of cumulative occupational exposure on lung cancer may be difficult in situations vulnerable to the healthy worker survivor bias. Methods Workers in the Colorado Plateau Uranium Miners cohort (N=4,134) entered the study between 1950 and 1964 and were followed for lung cancer mortality through 2005. We use the parametric g-formula to compare the observed lung cancer mortality to the potential lung cancer mortality had each of 3 policies to limit monthly radon exposure been in place throughout follow-up. Results There were 617 lung cancer deaths over 135,275 person-years of follow-up. With no intervention on radon exposure, estimated lung cancer mortality by age 90 was 16%. Lung cancer mortality was reduced for all interventions considered, and larger reductions in lung cancer mortality were seen for interventions with lower monthly radon exposure limits. The most stringent guideline, the Mine Safety and Health Administration standard of 0.33 working level months, reduced lung cancer mortality from 16% to 10% (risk ratio 0.67; 95% confidence interval 0.61, 0.73). Conclusions This work illustrates the utility of the parametric g-formula for estimating the effects of policies regarding occupational exposures, particularly in situations vulnerable to the healthy worker survivor bias. PMID:25192403

  10. The effect of occupational lead exposure on lipid peroxidation, protein carbonylation, and plasma viscosity.

    PubMed

    Kasperczyk, S?awomir; S?owi?ska-?o?y?ska, Ludmi?a; Kasperczyk, Aleksandra; Wielkoszy?ski, Tomasz; Birkner, Ewa

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of occupational lead (Pb) exposure on lipid peroxidation, protein carbonylation, and plasma viscosity in workers. The examined group included 283 healthy male employees of manufacturing facilities using zinc and Pb. The mean blood concentrations of Pb and zinc protoporphyrin as well as the mean urine ?-aminolevulinic acid levels were used as markers of exposure for the examined group. Taking into account the obtained mean values of blood lead level, the examined group was divided into three subgroups. When comparing the control group with the subgroups, Pb exposure markers were significantly elevated in all the three subgroups. Concentrations of conjugated dienes (CD), lipid hydroperoxides, malondialdehyde (MDA), and protein carbonyl groups were also significantly increased. Conversely, the levels of total protein and protein sulfhydryls were significantly decreased in the subgroups compared with the controls. The plasma viscosity was significantly elevated in the subgroups. A dose-response between Pb levels and plasma viscosity was not observed. Pb supposedly elevates MDA and CD in a dose-dependent manner. In conclusion, occupational Pb exposure induces oxidative stress that results in lipid and protein damage. Moreover, Pb-induced oxidative stress is likely the primary factor that elevates plasma viscosity, despite decreased protein levels. PMID:23709227

  11. Health risk of occupational exposure in welding processes I. Genotoxic risk.

    PubMed

    Borsk, Lenka; Fiala, Zden?k; Smejkalov, Jindra; Tejral, Jaroslav

    2003-01-01

    The welding processes belong among the important sources of occupational pollutions. The welding fumes are ranked, according to the classification of IARC (International Agency for Research on Cancer), into the group of 2B. In our study we have performed the investigation of twenty men (exposed group) working in the stainless steel welding industrial processes (11 welders and 9 grinders, average age was 31 years, 55% of smokers, average time period of welding occupational exposure was 8 years). The concentrations of chromium (0.557-16.343 mg/m3) and nickel (0.340-10.129 mg/m3) in occupational atmosphere highly exceeded established values of maximum permitted concentrations (0.1 and 1.0 mg/m3, respectively). The concentrations of manganese did not exceed its permitted values. Total concentrations of 12 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in occupational atmosphere varied from 300.9 to 961.2 ng/m3. For purposes of biological monitoring, the levels of chromosomal aberrations were determined in the exposed and control group. Healthy blood donors servedas a control group. People from that group were not occupationally exposed to harmful chemical compounds (20 men, average age was 36 years, 40% of smokers). Increased level of chromosomal aberrations of exposed group brought the evidence about higher genotoxic risk of investigated welding processes. PMID:12747536

  12. 007. Occupational exposure to chemical agents and its impact on the respiratory system

    PubMed Central

    Filippidou, Elisabeth-Christina; Tsacheva, Nevena

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess the respiratory effects of occupational exposure to dust and irritant gases in hospitalized patients at the Occupational Disease Clinic at the University Hospital of Sofia in Bulgaria in 2008, 2009 and 2011. Materials and methods In a retrospective study, the medical records of the patients admitted to the hospital in 2008, 2009 and 2011 were studied. Detailed data were collected regarding age, sex, occupational status and experience, duration of employment, as well as exposure to harmful chemicals. Results 500 patients were hospitalized, 282 men and 218 women. The majority of them (59%) were over 55 years old, while 24% belonged to the group of 45-55 years old. The occupational history revealed that 24.4% of them were unemployed at that time, 13.6% were premature retirees due to some form of disability, 6.2% retired due to old age, 7.2% were drivers, 16.6% were office clerks, 5% worked in the manufacturing business and 4.6% were previous employees who had recently lost their jobs. 38.6% of the patients were exposed to dust and 17.2% to toxic aerosols. The duration of employment, especially the occupational exposure to hazardous materials, was especially important. The occupational history revealed that 4.6% were employed for up to 5 years, 7.4% for 5-10 years and 84.4% for more than 10 years. Consequently, the majority (84.4%) of the patients had an experience of at least 10 years of employment (84.4%) which correlates well with the following results: 73.6% of the patients were diagnosed with chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD), 9.8% with bronchial asthma and 6.6% with lung cancer. Conclusions Exposure to dust and aerosols in the workplace is associated with an increased incidence of occupational respiratory diseases. This is also confirmed by the official results of the National Institute of Statistics. There is an urgent need for development of effective preventive measures by employers to protect the health of workers exposed to hazardous agents in the workplace and their occupational risk assessment. A joint effort between employers, workers and their organizations is important for the efficient management and control of hazardous chemicals and materials at national and global levels.

  13. Virus occupational exposure in solid waste processing facilities.

    PubMed

    Carducci, Annalaura; Federigi, Ileana; Verani, Marco

    2013-11-01

    It is well known that workers involved in the management of solid waste are at risk of exposure to bioaerosol, which is generally studied in relation to bacteria, fungi, and endotoxins. However, to date, there have been no reports on the incidence of work-related infectious diseases. To determine if occupational exposure to viruses occurs upon exposure to waste-related activities, monitoring was carried out in a landfill, a waste recycling plant, an incineration plant, and a waste collection vehicles. Air and surfaces were sampled and analyzed for torque teno virus (TTV), human adenovirus (HAdV), norovirus, rotavirus, and enterovirus using polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based techniques. Positivity was confirmed by sequencing and quantification with real-time PCR; infectivity was also tested for culturable viruses. Samples were analyzed in parallel for mean total bacterial and fungi counts in both the summer and winter. In total, 30% (12/40) of air and 13.5% (5/37) of surface samples collected in plants were positive for HAdV and TTV. Among the eight HAdV-positive samples, six (75%), revealed in landfill and recycling plant air and in incinerator and waste vehicles surfaces, were able to replicate in cell culture and were subsequently confirmed as infective. The frequency of detection of virus-positive samples was similar in both seasons, but with evident differences in the type of virus detected: TTV and HAdV were more frequently detected in the summer and winter, respectively. The area of highest viral contamination was the paper selection landfill. Fungi and bacterial contamination did not correlate with viral presence or concentration. In conclusion, we evidence that working with solid and liquid waste can lead to infectious viruses, included in Group 2 of the European Directive 90/679/CEE pathogens list; thus, further investigation on the sources and routes of contamination is needed in order to assess the occupational risk. PMID:23917836

  14. Occupational exposure to inhalable wood dust in the member states of the European Union.

    PubMed

    Kauppinen, Timo; Vincent, Raymond; Liukkonen, Tuula; Grzebyk, Michel; Kauppinen, Antti; Welling, Irma; Arezes, Pedro; Black, Nigel; Bochmann, Frank; Campelo, Filipe; Costa, Manuel; Elsigan, Gerhard; Goerens, Robert; Kikemenis, Anastasia; Kromhout, Hans; Miguel, Srgio; Mirabelli, Dario; McEneany, Roisin; Pesch, Beate; Plato, Nils; Schlnssen, Vivi; Schulze, Johannes; Sonntag, Roland; Verougstraete, Violaine; De Vicente, Maria Angeles; Wolf, Joachim; Zimmermann, Marta; Husgafvel-Pursiainen, Kirsti; Savolainen, Kai

    2006-08-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate occupational exposure to inhalable wood dust by country, industry, the level of exposure and type of wood dust in 25 member states of the European Union (EU-25) for the purposes of hazard control, exposure surveillance and assessment of health risks. National labour force statistics, a country questionnaire (in 15 member states, EU-15), a company survey (in Finland, France, Germany and Spain), exposure measurements (from Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, The Netherlands and the United Kingdom) and expert judgements were used to generate preliminary estimates of exposure to different types of wood dust. The estimates were generated according to industrial class (six wood industries, four other sectors) and level of exposure (five classes). These estimates were reviewed and finalized by national experts from 15 member states. Crude estimates were generated also for 10 new member states (EU-10). The basic data and final estimates were included in the WOODEX database. In 2000-2003, about 3.6 million workers (2.0% of the employed EU-25 population) were occupationally exposed to inhalable wood dust. Of those, construction employed 1.2 million exposed workers (33%), mostly construction carpenters. The numbers of exposed workers were 700,000 (20%) in the furniture industry, 300,000 (9%) in the manufacture of builders' carpentry, 200,000 (5%) in sawmilling, 150,000 (4%) in forestry and <100,000 in other wood industries. In addition, there were 700,000 exposed workers (20%) in miscellaneous industries employing carpenters, joiners and other woodworkers. The numbers of exposed workers varied by country ranging from <3,000 in Luxembourg and Malta to 700,000 in Germany. The highest exposure levels were estimated to occur in the construction sector and furniture industry. Due to limited exposure data there was considerable uncertainty in the estimates concerning construction woodworkers. About 560,000 workers (16% of the exposed) may be exposed to a level exceeding 5 mg m(-3). Mixed exposure to more than one species of wood and dust from wooden boards was very common, but reliable data on exposure to different species of wood could not be retrieved. This kind of assessment procedure integrating measurement data, company data, country-specific data and expert judgement could also serve as one model for the assessment of other occupational exposures. PMID:16571638

  15. 76 FR 25376 - Occupational Exposure to Hazardous Chemicals in Laboratories Standard; Extension of the Office of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-04

    ...OSHA solicits public comments concerning its proposal to extend OMB approval of the information collection requirements specified in the Standard on Occupational Exposure to Hazardous Chemicals in...

  16. Occupational exposure of phosphate mine workers: airborne radioactivity measurements and dose assessment.

    PubMed

    Khater, Ashraf E; Hussein, M A; Hussein, Mohamed I

    2004-01-01

    Under the Egyptian program for radiation safety and control, airborne radioactivity measurements and radiological dose assessment were conducted in some phosphate and uranium mines. Abu-Tartor mine is one of the biggest underground phosphate mines in Egypt. Airborne radioactivity, radon ((222)Rn) and its short-lived decay products (progenies) and thoron ((220)Rn), were measured in selected locations along the mine. The environmental gamma and workers dose equivalent rate (mSv/y) were measured inside and outside the mine using thermo-luminescence dosimeters (TLD). The results were presented and discussed. The calculated annual effective dose due to airborne radioactivity is the main source of occupational exposure and exceeding the maximum recommended level by ICRP-60 inside the mine tunnels. A number of recommendations are suggested to control the occupational exposures. PMID:15149761

  17. Occupational exposures and pancreatic cancer: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ojajarvi, I; Partanen, T.; Ahlbom, A.; Boffetta, P.; Hakulinen, T.; Jourenkova, N.; Kauppinen, T.; Kogevinas, M.; Porta, M.; Vainio, H.; Weiderpass, E.; Wesseling, C.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVESConsolidation of epidemiological data on pancreatic cancer and worksite exposures.?METHODSPublications during 1969-98 were surveyed. Studies without verified exposures were excluded. Meta-analyses were conducted on data from 92studies covering 161populations, with results for 23agents or groups of agents. With a standard format, five epidemiologists extracted risk estimates and variables of the structure and quality of each study. The extracted data were centrally checked. Random meta-models were applied.?RESULTSBased on 20populations, exposure to chlorinated hydrocarbon (CHC) solvents and related compounds was associated with a meta-risk ratio (MRR) of 1.4(95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.0to 1.8). Nickel and nickel compounds were considered in four populations (1.9; 1.2to 3.2). Excesses were found also for chromium and chromium compounds (1.4; 0.9to 2.3), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) (1.5; 0.9to 2.5), organochlorine insecticides (1.5; 0.6to 3.7), silica dust (1.4; 0.9to 2.0), and aliphatic and alicyclic hydrocarbon solvents (1.3; 0.8to 2.8). Evidence on pancreatic carcinogenicity was weak or non-positive for the following agents: acrylonitrile (1.1; 0.0to 6.2); arsenic (1.0; 0.6to 1.5); asbestos (1.1; 0.9to 1.5); diesel engine exhaust (1.0; 0.9to 1.3); electromagnetic fields (1.1; 0.8to 1.4); formaldehyde (0.8; 0.5to 1.0); flour dust (1.1; 0.3to 3.2); cadmium and cadmium compounds (0.7; 0.4to 1.4); gasoline (1.0; 0.8to 1.2); herbicides (1.0; 0.8to 1.3); iron and iron compounds (1.3; 0.7to 2.5); lead and lead compounds (1.1; 0.8to 1.5); man-made vitreous fibres (1.0; 0.6to 1.6); oil mist (0.9; 0.8to 1.0); and wood dust (1.1; 0.9to 2.5). The occupational aetiological fraction of pancreatic cancer was estimated at 12%. In a subpopulation exposed to CHC solvents and related compounds, it was 29%; to chromium and chromium compounds, 23%; to nickel and nickel compounds, 47%; to insecticides, 33%; and to PAHs, 33%.?CONCLUSIONOccupational exposures may increase risk of pancreatic cancer. High quality studies are called for on interactions between occupational, environmental, and lifestyle factors as well as interactions between genes and the environment.???Keywords: pancreatic cancer; occupational exposure; meta-analysis PMID:10769297

  18. Dose related acute irritant symptom responses to occupational exposure to sodium borate dusts.

    PubMed Central

    Hu, X; Wegman, D H; Eisen, E A; Woskie, S R; Smith, R G

    1992-01-01

    A repeated measurement design was employed in the study of acute symptoms of eye and respiratory tract irritation resulting from occupational exposure to sodium borate dusts. The symptom assessment of the 79 exposed and 27 unexposed subjects comprised interviews before the shift began and then at regular hourly intervals for the next six hours of the shift, four days in a row. Exposures were monitored concurrently with a personal real time aerosol monitor. Two different exposure profiles, a daily average and short term (15 minute) average, were used in the analysis. Exposure-response relations were evaluated by linking incidence rates for each symptom with categories of exposure. Acute incidence rates for nasal, eye, and throat irritation, and coughing and breathlessness were found to be associated with increased exposure levels of both exposure indices. Steeper exposure-response slopes were seen when short term exposure concentrations were used. Results from multivariate logistic regression analysis suggest that current smokers tended to be less sensitive to the exposure to airborne sodium borate dust. There was no indication that anhydrous sodium borate was more potent than the other sodium borates in this work environment. PMID:1419859

  19. Defining occupational and consumer exposure limits for enzyme protein respiratory allergens under REACH.

    PubMed

    Basketter, D A; Broekhuizen, C; Fieldsend, M; Kirkwood, S; Mascarenhas, R; Maurer, K; Pedersen, C; Rodriguez, C; Schiff, H-E

    2010-02-01

    A wide range of substances have been recognized as sensitizing, either to the skin and/or to the respiratory tract. Many of these are useful materials, so to ensure that they can be used safely it is necessary to characterize the hazards and establish appropriate exposure limits. Under new EU legislation (REACH), there is a requirement to define a derived no effect level (DNEL). Where a DNEL cannot be established, e.g. for sensitizing substances, then a derived minimal effect level (DMEL) is recommended. For the bacterial and fungal enzymes which are well recognized respiratory sensitizers and have widespread use industrially as well as in a range of consumer products, a DMEL can be established by thorough retrospective review of occupational and consumer experience. In particular, setting the validated employee medical surveillance data against exposure records generated over an extended period of time is vital in informing the occupational DMEL. This experience shows that a long established limit of 60 ng/m(3) for pure enzyme protein has been a successful starting point for the definition of occupational health limits for sensitization in the detergent industry. Application to this of adjustment factors has limited sensitization induction, avoided any meaningful risk of the elicitation of symptoms with known enzymes and provided an appropriate level of security for new enzymes whose potency has not been fully characterized. For example, in the detergent industry, this has led to general use of occupational exposure limits 3-10 times lower than the 60 ng/m(3) starting point. In contrast, consumer exposure limits vary because the types of exposure themselves cover a wide range. The highest levels shown to be safe in use, 15 ng/m(3), are associated with laundry trigger sprays, but very much lower levels (e.g. 0.01 ng/m(3)) are commonly associated with other types of safe exposure. Consumer limits typically will lie between these values and depend on the actual exposure associated with product use. PMID:20026217

  20. 75 FR 24746 - Occupational Exposure to Noise Standard; Extension of the Office of Management and Budget's (OMB...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-05

    ... Occupational Safety and Health Administration Occupational Exposure to Noise Standard; Extension of the Office... requirements specified in the Occupational Exposure to Noise Standard. The information collection requirements.... Title: Occupational Exposure to Noise Standard (29 CFR 1910.95). OMB Number: 1218-0048. Affected......

  1. 78 FR 45981 - Occupational Exposure to Noise Standard; Extension of the Office of Management and Budget's (OMB...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-30

    ... Occupational Safety and Health Administration Occupational Exposure to Noise Standard; Extension of the Office... requirements specified in the Occupational Exposure to Noise Standard (29 CFR 1910.95). The information...: Occupational Exposure to Noise (29 CFR 1910.95). OMB Control Number: 1218-0048. Affected Public:......

  2. Radiation exposure levels within timber industries in Calabar, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Inyang, S. O.; Inyang, I. S.; Egbe, N. O.

    2009-01-01

    The UNSCEAR (2000) observed that there could be some exposure at work which would require regulatory control but is not really considered. This study was, therefore, set up to evaluate the effective dose in timber industries in Calabar, Nigeria to determine if the evaluated dose levels could lead to any radiological health effect in the workers, and also determine if the industries require regulatory control. The gamma ray exposure at four timber industries measured using an exposure meter were converted to effective dose and compared with the public and occupational values. The evaluated effective dose values in the timber industries were below public and occupational exposure limits and may not necessarily result in any radiological health hazard. Therefore, they may not require regulatory control. PMID:20098544

  3. Application of statistical models for secondary data usage of the US Navy's Occupational Exposure Database (NOED).

    PubMed

    Formisano, J A; Still, K; Alexander, W; Lippmann, M

    2001-02-01

    Many organizations around the world have collected data related to individual worker exposures that are used to determine compliance with workplace standards. These data are often warehoused and thereafter rarely used as an information resource. Using appropriate groupings and analysis of OSHA data, Gmez showed that such stored data can provide additional insight on factors affecting occupational exposures. Using data from the Occupational Exposure Database of the United States Navy, the usefulness of statistical models for defining probabilities of exposure above permissible limits for observed work conditions is examined. Analyses have highlighted worker Similar Exposure Groups (SEGs) with potential for overexposure to asbestos and lead. In terms of grouping data, Rappaport et al. defined the Within-Between Lognormal Model, a scale-independent measure for quantifying between-worker variability within a selected worker group: (B)R.95 = exp[3.92s(sB)], representing the ratio of arithmetic mean exposures received by workers in the 97.5th and 2.5th percentiles. To help search for groups, the Proportional Odds Model, a generalization of the logistic model to ordinal data, can predict probabilities for group exposure above the Occupational Exposure Limit (OEL), or the Action Level (AL), which is one-half of the OEL. Worker SEGs have been identified for asbestos workers removing friable asbestos ((B)R.95 = 11.0) and nonfriable asbestos ((B)R.95 = 6.5); metal cleaning workers sandingspecialized equipment ((B)R.95 = 11.3), and workers at target shooting ranges cleaning up lead debris ((B)R.95 = 10). Estimated probabilities for the categories OEL support current understanding of work processes examined. Differences in probability noted between tasks and levels of ventilation validate this method for evaluating other available workplace exposure determinants, and for predicting probability of membership in categories that may help further define worker exposure groups, and determinants of excessive exposures. Thus, analyses of retrospective exposure data can help identify work site and work practice factors for efficient targeting of remediation resources. PMID:11217712

  4. Potential Occupational Exposures and Health Risks Associated with Biomass-Based Power Generation.

    PubMed

    Rohr, Annette C; Campleman, Sharan L; Long, Christopher M; Peterson, Michael K; Weatherstone, Susan; Quick, Will; Lewis, Ari

    2015-07-01

    Biomass is increasingly being used for power generation; however, assessment of potential occupational health and safety (OH&S) concerns related to usage of biomass fuels in combustion-based generation remains limited. We reviewed the available literature on known and potential OH&S issues associated with biomass-based fuel usage for electricity generation at the utility scale. We considered three potential exposure scenarios--pre-combustion exposure to material associated with the fuel, exposure to combustion products, and post-combustion exposure to ash and residues. Testing of dust, fungal and bacterial levels at two power stations was also undertaken. Results indicated that dust concentrations within biomass plants can be extremely variable, with peak levels in some areas exceeding occupational exposure limits for wood dust and general inhalable dust. Fungal spore types, identified as common environmental species, were higher than in outdoor air. Our review suggests that pre-combustion risks, including bioaerosols and biogenic organics, should be considered further. Combustion and post-combustion risks appear similar to current fossil-based combustion. In light of limited available information, additional studies at power plants utilizing a variety of technologies and biomass fuels are recommended. PMID:26206568

  5. Potential Occupational Exposures and Health Risks Associated with Biomass-Based Power Generation

    PubMed Central

    Rohr, Annette C.; Campleman, Sharan L.; Long, Christopher M.; Peterson, Michael K.; Weatherstone, Susan; Quick, Will; Lewis, Ari

    2015-01-01

    Biomass is increasingly being used for power generation; however, assessment of potential occupational health and safety (OH&S) concerns related to usage of biomass fuels in combustion-based generation remains limited. We reviewed the available literature on known and potential OH&S issues associated with biomass-based fuel usage for electricity generation at the utility scale. We considered three potential exposure scenarios—pre-combustion exposure to material associated with the fuel, exposure to combustion products, and post-combustion exposure to ash and residues. Testing of dust, fungal and bacterial levels at two power stations was also undertaken. Results indicated that dust concentrations within biomass plants can be extremely variable, with peak levels in some areas exceeding occupational exposure limits for wood dust and general inhalable dust. Fungal spore types, identified as common environmental species, were higher than in outdoor air. Our review suggests that pre-combustion risks, including bioaerosols and biogenic organics, should be considered further. Combustion and post-combustion risks appear similar to current fossil-based combustion. In light of limited available information, additional studies at power plants utilizing a variety of technologies and biomass fuels are recommended. PMID:26206568

  6. [Occupational risk after repeated skin exposure to styrene].

    PubMed

    Burkova, T; Ba?nova, A; Kapurdov, V

    1982-01-01

    The use of styrene in the production and processing of polymers, varnishes and paints is a prerequisite for a broad skin contact with the solvent, hence conditions for occupational effect on the workers, manifested with frequent contact toxic dermatitis. That determined the scope of this work, aiming at the specifying of the occupational risk in case of repeated dermal contact with styrene. The experiment was carried out in the course of 28 days on 70 albino male rats, treated daily, dermally with 4 ml/kg and 8 ml/kg from the substance and on groups with a following 14--day rehabilitation. The following methods were used in the investigation: histological (H.E.), histochemical (Sudan III, Sudan schwartz and PAS-reactions under the control of alpha-amilase), enzyme-histochemical (activity of alkaline phosphatase, acid phosphatases, ATP, SDH, LDH and G16PDH) and electron microscopic. The repeated skin application of styrene was established to induce changes in the organism of the experimental animals, localized mainly in the liver and carrying the character of fatty dystrophia. The latter is directly proportional to the dose applied and the exposure duration. After a 14-day rehabilitation period, the dystrophia abates and the processes of proliferation and regeneration predominate in the organ, regardless of the enzyme disorders established in the oxidation-reduction processes of liver, with the higher styrene dose (8 ml/kg). The authors presume that the dynamic follow up of the adaptation mechanisms in liver, in case of repeated dermal contact with styrene, determines reversible tissue deviations in organism of the experimental animals, being dose-effect dependent. The authors are in the opinion that the occupational risk in production and processing of polystyrene is minimum when observing the sanitary instructions for safe contact. PMID:7178069

  7. Occupational exposure to dial painters and assemblers of radioluminous timepieces.

    PubMed

    Simpson, R E; Shuman, F G; Moghissi, A A; Blackburn, J A; Bailey, E D

    1983-05-01

    An evaluation of available personnel monitoring data and radium body burden records of dial painters handling an annual average of 1.5 Ci of radium indicates that they received an average of about 2 rem/person whole body exposure, 3 rem to the lungs from radon inhalation and 0.2 rad to the bone from radium body burdens. Among groups of similar workers handling tritium in Texas plants, the highest occupational exposures were about 160 mrem annually per person received by refinishers of tritium dial timepieces and back-lit watch assemblers. Based upon scenarios of exposures to 147Pm, repairers of timepieces containing 147Pm receive about 4.4 X 10(-4) mrem/person/yr whole body dose equivalent. The amounts that they process are in the microcurie range. Although the trend is away from the use of radium as a luminizing activator, there are indications that it is still used in timepieces even as tritium and 147Pm are increasingly being used for this purpose. PMID:6853170

  8. Reproductive effects of occupational DDT exposure among male malaria control workers.

    PubMed Central

    Salazar-Garca, Flix; Gallardo-Daz, Esperanza; Cern-Mireles, Prudencia; Loomis, Dana; Borja-Aburto, Victor H

    2004-01-01

    To assess potential effects of human DDT [1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane] exposure, we evaluated the reproductive history of 2,033 workers in the antimalaria campaign of Mexico. Data on occupational exposure to DDT and reproductive outcomes were gathered through a questionnaire, and workers provided information about 9,187 pregnancies. We estimated paternal exposure to DDT before each pregnancy using three approaches: a) a dichotomous indicator for pregnancies before and after exposure began, b) a qualitative index of four exposure categories, and c) an estimation of the DDT metabolite DDE [1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene] accumulated in fat. To assess associations, we used logistic regression models that accounted for correlated observations and adjusted for parents' age at each child's birth, exposure to other pesticides, exposure to chemical substances in other employment, smoking, and alcohol consumption. The odds ratio for birth defects comparing pregnancies after and before the first exposure was 3.77 [95% confidence interval (95% CI), 1.19-9.52]. Compared with the lowest quartile of estimated DDE in fat, the ORs were 2.48 (95% CI, 0.75-8.11), 4.15 (95% CI, 1.38-12.46), and 3.76 (95% CI, 1.23-11.44) for quartiles 2, 3, and 4, equivalent to p,p -DDE in fat of 50, 82, and 298 microg/g fat, respectively. No significant association was found for spontaneous abortion or sex ratio. We found an increased risk of birth defects associated with high occupational exposure to DDT in this group of workers. The significance of this association at lower exposure levels found in the general population remains uncertain. PMID:15064158

  9. NIOSH testimony to DOL on the Occupational Safety and Health Administration's proposed rule on occupational exposure to cadmium by R. A. Lemen, July 17, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-07-17

    The testimony summarizes the position of NIOSH in support of the proposed rule on cadmium (7440439). NIOSH supports the position of OSHA that exposure to cadmium is associated with increased incidence of lung cancer, emphysema, and kidney dysfunction. Because cadmium is a potential occupational carcinogen, occupational exposures to cadmium should be reduced to the lowest feasible level. NIOSH strongly recommends the use of engineering controls and work practices instead of personal protective equipment, including respiratory protection, for controlling exposures to cadmium. NIOSH responds in this testimony to specific areas covered in the proposed rule including respiratory protection, medical surveillance, medical screening requirements, and exposure monitoring frequency. Use of specific control methods is considered for cadmium plating operations, stabilizer production, and pigment production.

  10. Paternal occupational exposures and the risk of Down syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Olshan, A F; Baird, P A; Teschke, K

    1989-01-01

    An exploratory case-control study of paternal occupation as a risk factor for Down syndrome was conducted. With the use of the British Columbia Health Surveillance Registry, 1,008 cases of live-born Down syndrome were identified for the period 1952-73. Two controls were matched to each case by using the birth files of British Columbia. Paternal occupation was obtained from the birth notice. Elevated maternal age-adjusted relative risks of Down syndrome were found for fathers employed as janitors (odds ratio [OR] = 3.26; 95% confidence interval [C.I.] = 1.02-10.44); mechanics (OR = 3.27; C.I. = 1.57-6.80); farm managers/workers (OR = 2.03; C.I. = 1.25-3.03); material-moving equipment operators (OR = 1.88; C.I. = 0.93-3.82); food processors (OR = 1.79; C.I. = 0.96-3.31); sheet-metal workers, iron workers, and other metalworkers (OR = 1.57; C.I. = 0.92-2.69); and sawmill workers (OR = 1.43; C.I. = 0.90-2.66). This large study provides new leads for further evaluation of the role of paternal exposures in the etiology of Down syndrome. PMID:2523192

  11. Reproductive Health Risks Associated with Occupational Exposures to Antineoplastic Drugs in Health Care Settings: A Review of the Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Connor, Thomas H.; Lawson, Christina C.; Polovich, Martha; McDiarmid, Melissa A.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Antineoplastic drugs are known reproductive and developmental toxicants. Our objective was to review the existing literature of reproductive health risks to workers who handle antineoplastic drugs. Methods A structured literature review of 18 peer-reviewed, English language publications of occupational exposure and reproductive outcomes was performed. Results While effect sizes varied with study size and population, occupational exposure to antineoplastic drugs appears to raise the risk of both congenital malformations and miscarriage. Studies of infertility and time-to-pregnancy also suggested an increased risk for sub-fertility. Conclusions Antineoplastic drugs are highly toxic in patients receiving treatment and adverse reproductive effects have been well documented in these patients. Healthcare workers with chronic, low level occupational exposure to these drugs also appear to have an increased risk of adverse reproductive outcomes. Additional precautions to prevent exposure should be considered. PMID:25153300

  12. Role of American Nuclear Insurers in reducing occupational radiation exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Forbes, J.L.

    1980-01-01

    Since 1957 the nuclear insurance pools have provided liability and property insurance for the nation's nuclear power generating stations as mandated by the Price-Anderson Act. Although the insurance was originally structured to give financial protection to the insured in the event of a major accident, the potential for third-party claims arising from routine occupational exposure is becoming a more realistic pathway for a loss to the pools. In order to give maximum protection to the pools' assets, the Liability Engineering Department of American Nuclear Insurers (ANI) performs periodic inspections of the power plants. By concentrating on programs and management areas, ANI inspections complement regulatory inspections so that all major areas of common interest are reviewed. This paper presents the nature, results, and findings of those periodic inspections particularly in the general area of plant radiation protection.

  13. {sup 125}I Measurements for Occupational Exposure Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Silva, L.; Pinhao, N. R.

    2008-08-14

    Whenever there is a risk of occupational exposure to dispersible radioactive material, it is necessary to have a monitoring program to assess the effective dose arising from the intake of radionuclides by workers. In this paper we present our experience in bioassay measurements of {sup 125}I in urine samples of workers using high resolution gamma spectrometry. For a 24-hour excretion period, we found activity values of the order of one Bq and estimated the committed effective doses to be less than one {mu}Sv. Although very small, these values led to a re-evaluation and improvement of the laboratory safety conditions. We discuss the calibration procedure followed for the activity measurements, the estimation of the uncertainty in the excreted activity, the calculation of detection and quantification limits and estimation of performance indicators. Aspects regarding the spectral analysis, true coincidence summing and matrix effects are also considered.

  14. Occupational Radiation Exposure Analysis of US ITER DCLL TBM

    SciTech Connect

    Merrill, Brad J; Cadwallader, Lee C; Dagher, Mohamad

    2007-08-01

    This report documents an Occupational Radiation Exposure (ORE) analysis that was performed for the US International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) Dual Coolant Lead Lithium (DCLL) Test Blanket Module (TBM). This analysis was performed with the QADMOD dose code for anticipated maintenance activities for this TBM concept and its ancillary systems. The QADMOD code was used to model the PbLi cooling loop of this TBM concept by specifying gamma ray source terms that simulated radioactive material within the piping, valves, heat exchanger, permeator, pump, drain tank, and cold trap of this cooling system. Estimates of the maintenance tasks that will have to be performed and the time required to perform these tasks where developed based on either expert opinion or on industrial maintenance experience for similar technologies. This report details the modeling activity and the calculated doses for the maintenance activities envisioned for the US DCLL TBM.

  15. 29 CFR 1915.1450 - Occupational exposure to hazardous chemicals in laboratories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Occupational exposure to hazardous chemicals in laboratories. 1915.1450 Section 1915.1450 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS FOR SHIPYARD EMPLOYMENT Toxic and...

  16. 29 CFR 1915.1450 - Occupational exposure to hazardous chemicals in laboratories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Occupational exposure to hazardous chemicals in laboratories. 1915.1450 Section 1915.1450 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS FOR SHIPYARD EMPLOYMENT Toxic and...

  17. 29 CFR 1915.1450 - Occupational exposure to hazardous chemicals in laboratories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Occupational exposure to hazardous chemicals in laboratories. 1915.1450 Section 1915.1450 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS FOR SHIPYARD EMPLOYMENT Toxic and...

  18. 29 CFR 1915.1450 - Occupational exposure to hazardous chemicals in laboratories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Occupational exposure to hazardous chemicals in laboratories. 1915.1450 Section 1915.1450 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS FOR SHIPYARD EMPLOYMENT Toxic and...

  19. 29 CFR 1910.1450 - Occupational exposure to hazardous chemicals in laboratories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Occupational exposure to hazardous chemicals in laboratories. 1910.1450 Section 1910.1450 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS (CONTINUED) Toxic and Hazardous Substances...

  20. Occupational Exposure to Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes During Commercial Production Synthesis and Handling.

    PubMed

    Kuijpers, Eelco; Bekker, Cindy; Fransman, Wouter; Brouwer, Derk; Tromp, Peter; Vlaanderen, Jelle; Godderis, Lode; Hoet, Peter; Lan, Qing; Silverman, Debra; Vermeulen, Roel; Pronk, Anjoeka

    2016-04-01

    The world-wide production of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) has increased substantially in the last decade, leading to occupational exposures. There is a paucity of exposure data of workers involved in the commercial production of CNTs. The goals of this study were to assess personal exposure to multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) during the synthesis and handling of MWCNTs in a commercial production facility and to link these exposure levels to specific activities. Personal full-shift filter-based samples were collected, during commercial production and handling of MWCNTs, R&D activities, and office work. The concentrations of MWCNT were evaluated on the basis of EC concentrations. Associations were studied between observed MWCNT exposure levels and location and activities. SEM analyses showed MWCNTs, present as agglomerates ranging between 200nm and 100 µm. Exposure levels of MWCNTs observed in the production area during the full scale synthesis of MWCNTs (N = 23) were comparable to levels observed during further handling of MWCNTs (N = 19): (GM (95% lower confidence limit-95% upper confidence limit)) 41 μg m(-3) (20-88) versus 43 μg m(-3) (22-86), respectively. In the R&D area (N = 11) and the office (N = 5), exposure levels of MWCNTs were significantly (P < 0.05) lower: 5 μg m(-3) (2-11) and 7 μg m(-3) (2-28), respectively. Bagging, maintenance of the reactor, and powder conditioning were associated with higher exposure levels in the production area, whereas increased exposure levels in the R&D area were related to handling of MWCNTs powder. PMID:26613611

  1. A review of current and proposed standards for occupational exposures to radio-frequency energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Odland, L. T.

    1975-01-01

    The essential aspects of an acceptable r-f occupational exposure program are presented. They include exposure limits, surveillance of work environment, medical attention, investigation of accidental overexposures, and documentation of overexposures. Each aspect is briefly discussed.

  2. Interpretation of Urinary and Blood Benzene biomarkers of Exposure for Non-Occupationally Exposed Individuals

    EPA Science Inventory

    Non-occupational exposure to benzene occurs primarily through inhalation ofair impacted by motor vehicle exhaust, fuel sources, and cigarette smoke. This study relates published measurements ofbenzene biomarkers to air exposure concentrations. Benzene has three reliable biomar...

  3. The occupational role of women in military service: validation of occupation and prevalence of exposures in the Millennium Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Smith, Tyler C; Jacobson, Isabel G; Smith, Besa; Hooper, Tomoko I; Ryan, Margaret A K

    2007-08-01

    To better understand the US military's global peacekeeping and combat operations, which may expose a growing population of American service women to challenging occupations and environments. Concordance between self-reported and electronic occupation codes for female participants in the Millennium Cohort was measured using kappa statistics. Multivariable logistic regression modeling was used to assess the odds of five self-reported potentially toxic environmental exposures or disturbing experiences among different occupational categories, while adjusting for demographic and military characteristics, including deployment. Self-reported occupations were moderately to highly reliable when compared with electronic occupation data. Active-duty and Reserve/Guard females differentially reported witnessing death or trauma and exposure to chemical or biological warfare, depleted uranium, or pesticides. Findings suggest that self-reported occupation can be used with a high degree of confidence. Occupational groups with higher odds of reporting military exposures of concern will be followed longitudinally through 2022 and prospectively compared using baseline and follow-up evaluations. PMID:17613091

  4. A description of an occupational reproductive health nurse consultant practice and women's occupational exposures during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Hewitt, J B; Tellier, L

    1996-10-01

    It is estimated that each year 20 million workers in the United States are potentially exposed to a variety of reproductive hazards. In 1986, Wisconsin implemented an advanced practice public health nurse role to serve as the occupational reproductive health consultant to employees, employers, health care professionals, unions, and others. This article describes this advanced practice role in public health nursing and the women who sought reproductive health consultation. Data on the types of workplace exposures that these consultees had during pregnancy are used to illustrate the occupational history and its importance for pre-conceptional and early-pregnancy counseling. The sample for analysis was limited to the 118 women, aged 19-43 years, who received consultation services between 1990 and 1993 and whose pregnancies resulted in live births. Data were abstracted from the consultant's records of telephone and written consultations and linked to birth certificate records to provide information on smoking and alcohol use during pregnancy. The findings are summarized using descriptive statistics. Implications of the findings for public health nursing are discussed. PMID:8918177

  5. Development of Occupational Exposure Limits for the Hanford Tank Farms

    SciTech Connect

    Still, Kenneth; Gardner, Donald; Snyder, Robert; Anderson, Thomas; Honeyman, James; Timchalk, Charles

    2010-04-01

    Production of plutonium for the United States nuclear weapons program from the 1940s to the 1980s generated 53 million gallons of radioactive chemical waste, which is storedin 177 underground tanks at the Hanford Site in southeastern W 18 ashington State. Recent 19 attempts to begin the retrieval and treatment of these wastes require moving the waste to 20 more modern tanks results in potential exposure of the workers to unfamiliar odors 21 emanating from headspace in the tanks. Given the unknown risks involved, workers 22 were placed on supplied air respiratory protection. CH2M HILL, the managers of the 23 Hanford Site Tank Farms, asked an Independent Toxicology Panel (ITP) to assist them in issues relating to an Industrial Hygiene and risk assessment problem. The ITP was called upon to help determine the risk of exposure to vapors from the tanks, and in general develop a strategy for solution of the problem. This paper presents the methods used to determine the chemicals of potential concern (COPC) and the resultant development of screening values and Acceptable Occupational Exposure Limits (AOELs) for these COPCs. A total of 1,826 chemicals were inventoried and evaluated. Over 1,500 chemicals were identified in the waste tanks headspaces and more than 600 of these were assigned screening values; 72 of these compounds were recommended for AOEL development. Included in this list of 72 were 57 COPCs identified by the ITP and of these 47 were subsequently assigned AOELs. An exhaustive exposure assessment strategy was developed by the CH2M HILL industrial hygiene department to evaluate these COPCs.

  6. An evaluation of several methods for assessing the effects of occupational exposure to radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Gilbert, E.S.

    1983-03-01

    Several methods for the analysis of occupational radiation exposure data, including procedures based on Cox's proportional hazards model, are presented and evaluated. Issues of interest include the contribution of an external control, the effective handling of highly skewed exposure data, and the potential for detecting effects in populations occupationally exposed to radiation. Expressions for evaluating the power of various procedures are derived and applied to data from the Hanford population in order to determine power curves for detecting leukemia effects, with both additive and multiplicative linear models being used. It is found that the introduction of an external control can increase power, although not when an overall adjustment factor must be estimated from the data or when death rates for the study population are substantially lower than those for the control population. It is also found that very little power is lost if exposures are grouped. Finally, the power calculations indicate, as expected, that in analyses of occupationally exposed populations, such as the Hanford workers, there is very little chance of detecting radiation effects at the levels of our current estimates. However, power is reasonably good for detecting effects that are 10 to 15 times larger.

  7. Occupational Radiation Exposure at Commercial Nuclear Power Reactors and Other Facilities 2008

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research

    2009-12-01

    This report summarizes the occupational exposure data that are maintained in the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Radiation Exposure Information and Reporting System (REIRS). The bulk of the information contained in the report was compiled from the 2008 annual reports submitted by five of the seven categories1 of NRC licensees subject to the reporting requirements of 10 CFR 20.2206. The annual reports submitted by these licensees consist of radiation exposure records for each monitored individual. These records are analyzed for trends and presented in this report in terms of collective dose and the distribution of dose among the monitored individuals. Because there are no geologic repositories for high-level waste currently licensed and no low-level waste disposal facilities in operation, only five categories will be considered in this report.

  8. Lead exposure in US worksites: A literature review and development of an occupational lead exposure database from the published literature

    PubMed Central

    Koh, Dong-Hee; Locke, Sarah J.; Chen, Yu-Cheng; Purdue, Mark P.; Friesen, Melissa C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Retrospective exposure assessment of occupational lead exposure in population-based studies requires historical exposure information from many occupations and industries. Methods We reviewed published US exposure monitoring studies to identify lead exposure measurement data. We developed an occupational lead exposure database from the 175 identified papers containing 1,111 sets of lead concentration summary statistics (21% area air, 47% personal air, 32% blood). We also extracted ancillary exposure-related information, including job, industry, task/location, year collected, sampling strategy, control measures in place, and sampling and analytical methods. Results Measurements were published between 1940 and 2010 and represented 27 2-digit standardized industry classification codes. The majority of the measurements were related to lead-based paint work, joining or cutting metal using heat, primary and secondary metal manufacturing, and lead acid battery manufacturing. Conclusions This database can be used in future statistical analyses to characterize differences in lead exposure across time, jobs, and industries. PMID:25968240

  9. The three most common occupational exposures reported by pregnant women: A update

    SciTech Connect

    Bentur, Y.; Koren, G. )

    1991-08-01

    Many uncertainties exist in regard to counseling women with occupational exposures during pregnancy. This is due to limited knowledge of the reproductive toxicologic effects of industrial agents, lack of safety standards aimed at protecting the fetus, and limitations in assessing the extent of exposure. The approach to this subject taken by the Motherisk Program and a review of the three most common occupational exposures are presented. Epidemiologic studies and measurements of radiation do not suggest a reproductive hazard for video display terminals. Exposure to organic solvents is hard to quantitate, and information is sparse and sometimes contradictory, and therapeutic decisions are difficult to reach. To date there is no convincing evidence that working with organic solvents within safety regulations would harm a fetus, in contradistinction to detrimental fetal effects of solvent abuse. The reproductive risks of lead are well documented, fetal exposure can be assessed, and effective treatment exists, but its effects on the pregnancy have not been fully established. However, new evidence suggests that maternal levels that are much lower than the accepted adult limits may be damaging to the fetus. 107 references.

  10. Acute and chronic respiratory effects of occupational exposure to ammonia.

    PubMed

    Holness, D L; Purdham, J T; Nethercott, J R

    1989-12-01

    In a soda ash plant, 58 workers exposed to mean airborne ammonia levels of 9.2 +/- 1.4 ppm were compared with 31 control workers with a mean exposure of 0.3 +/- 0.1 ppm. There were no differences between the groups in the reporting of respiratory or cutaneous symptoms, sense of smell, baseline lung function, or change in lung function over a work shift at the beginning and end of a workweek. No relationships between level or length of ammonia exposure and lung function results were demonstrated. PMID:2596404

  11. 48 CFR 952.223-75 - Preservation of individual occupational radiation exposure records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... occupational radiation exposure records. 952.223-75 Section 952.223-75 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Clauses 952.223-75 Preservation of individual occupational radiation exposure records. As prescribed at..., and health into work planning and execution, or 952.223-72, Radiation protection and...

  12. 48 CFR 952.223-75 - Preservation of individual occupational radiation exposure records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... occupational radiation exposure records. 952.223-75 Section 952.223-75 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Clauses 952.223-75 Preservation of individual occupational radiation exposure records. As prescribed at..., and health into work planning and execution, or 952.223-72, Radiation protection and...

  13. 48 CFR 952.223-75 - Preservation of individual occupational radiation exposure records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... occupational radiation exposure records. 952.223-75 Section 952.223-75 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Clauses 952.223-75 Preservation of individual occupational radiation exposure records. As prescribed at..., and health into work planning and execution, or 952.223-72, Radiation protection and...

  14. 48 CFR 952.223-75 - Preservation of individual occupational radiation exposure records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... occupational radiation exposure records. 952.223-75 Section 952.223-75 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Clauses 952.223-75 Preservation of individual occupational radiation exposure records. As prescribed at..., and health into work planning and execution, or 952.223-72, Radiation protection and...

  15. 48 CFR 952.223-75 - Preservation of individual occupational radiation exposure records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 36 CFR Chapter XII, Subchapter B, Records Management, the National Archives and Records... occupational radiation exposure records. 952.223-75 Section 952.223-75 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Clauses 952.223-75 Preservation of individual occupational radiation exposure records. Link to...

  16. 78 FR 78962 - Criteria for a Recommended Standard; Occupational Exposure to Heat and Hot Environments; Draft...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-27

    ...; Occupational Exposure to Heat and Hot Environments; Draft Criteria Document Availability AGENCY: National... Recommended Standard: Occupational Exposure to Heat and Hot Environments for public comment. To view the... Environments''. Special emphasis will be placed on discussion of the following: Overall Questions (1) Is...

  17. Occupational Health and Safety. Level 1. Level 2. Level 3. Support Materials for Agricultural Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batman, Kangan; Gadd, Nick; Lucas, Michele

    This publication contains the three communication skills units of the three levels of Support Materials for Agricultural Training (SMAT) in the area of occupational health and safety: Level 1 (starting), 2 (continuing), and 3 (completing). The units are designed to help the learner improve his or her written and spoken communication skills needed…

  18. Occupational Exposure of a Medical School Staff to Formaldehyde in Tehran

    PubMed Central

    Asadi, Parisa; Jafari, Mohammad Javad; Soori, Hamid; Hosseini, Vajihe

    2012-01-01

    Background Cadavers are preserved in a fixing solution containing formalin. Formaldehyde (FA) released from formalin is inhaled by the personnel in the anatomy laboratory. Exposed personnel have reported respiratory problems and various symptoms. Due to the toxicity of FA as a strong irritant and carcinogen and also lack of a national study assessing occupational exposure to FA in gross anatomy labs in Iran, the present study aimed at occupational monitoring of personnel exposed to FA and evaluating relevant symptoms in them. Materials and Methods A total of 20 subjects (all the staff) working in a gross anatomy lab and 20 library personnel were considered for occupational monitoring of exposure to FA during three months with various climatic conditions. They were also monitored for respiratory symptoms. Air sampling and analysis of its FA content were conducted according to the NIOSH method No.2016. Symptoms of cases and controls (library personnel) with active and passive exposure to formaldehyde were also studied by a self-report questionnaire. Results In the first stage of monitoring with ventilation (supply-exhaust) system on, the exposure of personnel (Mean SE) was 306 21ppb. In the second stage of monitoring the personnel's exposure was 317 26ppb with only the ventilation supply system on and in the final monitoring stage this rate was 698 34ppb with the ventilation system (supply and exhaust) off. In this study, personal's exposure level to FA was higher than the indoor concentration, and the individual exposure levels of instructors were higher than those of the students. Exposure of library personnel in the adjacent department (central library) was about 50ppb. Most important complaints reported by actively exposed staff members and library personnel were the unpleasant odor (68%), cough (64%), throat irritation and runny nose (56%), burning and itching of nose (52%) and irritating eyes (48%). Conclusion Considering the level of exposure of all subjects in this study and existence of clinical symptoms, better control of the exhaust system in the gross anatomy lab and use of a more efficient ventilation system are recommended to protect the staff and instructors of the Anatomy Department. PMID:25191427

  19. Occupational exposure to eight organic dusts and respiratory cancer among Finns

    PubMed Central

    Laakkonen, A; Kyyrönen, P; Kauppinen, T; Pukkala, E I

    2006-01-01

    Background There is inconclusive evidence concerning cancer risks of organic dusts. Aim The carcinogenic exposures are mainly inhalatory and the authors therefore studied associations between occupational exposure to eight different organic dusts and respiratory cancers in Finland. Methods The authors followed up a cohort of all economically active Finns born between 1906 and 1945 for 30 million person‐years during 1971–95. Incident cases of nasal, laryngeal, and lung cancer and mesotheliomas were identified through a record linkage with the Finnish Cancer Registry. Occupations from the population census in 1970 were converted to exposures to eight organic dusts with a job‐exposure matrix (FINJEM). Cumulative exposure (CE) was calculated as a product of prevalence, level, and estimated duration of exposure. Standardised incidence ratios (SIR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) adjusted for age, period, and social class were calculated for each organic dust using the economically active population as the reference. Results A total of 20 426 incident cases of respiratory cancer were observed. Slightly increased risk was observed among men exposed to wood dust for nasal cancer (SIR 1.42, 95% CI 0.79 to 2.44). For laryngeal cancer, men exposed to plant dust (mainly grain millers) had a raised SIR in the high exposure class (SIR 3.55, 95% CI 1.30 to 7.72). Men exposed to wood dust had a raised SIR for lung cancer, but only in the low exposure class (SIR 1.11, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.18). Women exposed to wood dust showed an increased SIR for mesotheliomas in the low exposure class (SIR 4.57, 95% CI 1.25 to 11.7) and some excess in the medium exposure category. Conclusions Exposure to organic dusts is unlikely to be a major risk factor of respiratory cancer. Even exposure to wood dust which is a major exposure in Finland seems to have minor effect for nasal cancer. The authors found suggestive evidence that exposure to grain dust may increase the risk of laryngeal cancer, and some support to the hypothesis that exposure to textile dust, and to plant and animal dust (agricultural dusts) may decrease the risk of lung cancer. PMID:16601013

  20. A Retrospective Assessment of Occupational Exposure to Elemental Carbon in the U.S. Trucking Industry

    PubMed Central

    Hart, Jaime E.; Laden, Francine; Garshick, Eric; Smith, Thomas J.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Despite considerable epidemiologic evidence about the health effects of chronic exposure to vehicle exhaust, efforts at defining the extent of risk have been limited by the lack of historical exposure measurements suitable for use in epidemiologic studies and for risk assessment. Objectives: We sought to reconstruct exposure to elemental carbon (EC), a marker of diesel and other vehicle exhaust exposure, in a large national cohort of U.S. trucking industry workers. Methods: We identified the predictors of measured exposures based on a statistical model and used this information to extrapolate exposures across the cohort nationally. These estimates were adjusted for changes in work-related conditions over time based on a previous exposure assessment of this industry, and for changes in background levels based on a trend analysis of historical air pollution data, to derive monthly estimates of EC exposure for each job and trucking terminal combination between 1971 and 2000. Results: Occupational exposure to EC declined substantially over time, and we found significant variability in estimated exposures both within and across job groups, trucking terminals, and regions of the United States. Average estimated EC exposures during a typical work shift ranged from < 1 ?g/m3 in the lowest exposed category in the 1990s to > 40 ?g/m3 for workers in the highest exposed jobs in the 1970s. Conclusions: Our results provide a framework for understanding changes over time in exposure to EC in the U.S. trucking industry. Our assessment should minimize exposure misclassification by capturing variation among terminals and across U.S. regions, and changes over time. PMID:21447452

  1. Statistical Methods and Software for the Analysis of Occupational Exposure Data with Non-detectable Values

    SciTech Connect

    Frome, EL

    2005-09-20

    Environmental exposure measurements are, in general, positive and may be subject to left censoring; i.e,. the measured value is less than a ''detection limit''. In occupational monitoring, strategies for assessing workplace exposures typically focus on the mean exposure level or the probability that any measurement exceeds a limit. Parametric methods used to determine acceptable levels of exposure, are often based on a two parameter lognormal distribution. The mean exposure level, an upper percentile, and the exceedance fraction are used to characterize exposure levels, and confidence limits are used to describe the uncertainty in these estimates. Statistical methods for random samples (without non-detects) from the lognormal distribution are well known for each of these situations. In this report, methods for estimating these quantities based on the maximum likelihood method for randomly left censored lognormal data are described and graphical methods are used to evaluate the lognormal assumption. If the lognormal model is in doubt and an alternative distribution for the exposure profile of a similar exposure group is not available, then nonparametric methods for left censored data are used. The mean exposure level, along with the upper confidence limit, is obtained using the product limit estimate, and the upper confidence limit on an upper percentile (i.e., the upper tolerance limit) is obtained using a nonparametric approach. All of these methods are well known but computational complexity has limited their use in routine data analysis with left censored data. The recent development of the R environment for statistical data analysis and graphics has greatly enhanced the availability of high-quality nonproprietary (open source) software that serves as the basis for implementing the methods in this paper.

  2. Prostate cancer risk from occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons interacting with the GSTP1 Ile105Val polymorphism

    PubMed Central

    Rybicki, Benjamin A.; Neslund-Dudas, Christine; Nock, Nora L.; Schultz, Lonni R.; Eklund, Ludmila; Rosbolt, James; Bock, Cathryn H.; Monaghan, Kristin G.

    2006-01-01

    Condensed Abstract Men who carry the GSTP1 Val105 variant who are exposed at high levels to occupational PAH are at increased risk for prostate cancer. This increased risk is more pronounced in men under age 60 or with a family history of prostate cancer. Background Variation in the glutathione S-transferase (GSTP1) gene and occupational polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) exposure are putative prostate cancer risk factors. An Ile/Val polymorphism in codon 105 of GSTP1 affects its enzymatic activity toward PAH detoxification, a possible mechanism in prostate carcinogenesis. Methods To determine whether the GSTP1 Ile105Val polymorphism modifies prostate cancer risk associated with occupational PAH exposure, we studied 637 prostate cancer cases and 244 controls of White and African-American race from the Henry Ford Health System in Detroit, Michigan. Occupational exposure to PAH from wood, petroleum, coal or other sources through respiratory and cutaneous routes was retrospectively assessed by expert review of job histories. The association of occupational PAH exposure and GSTP1 Ile105Val polymorphism with prostate cancer was tested in multiple logistic regression models adjusting for potential confounders. Cases were over sampled compared with controls to evaluate gene-environment interaction with the statistically efficient case-only analytic approach. Results Neither carriage of the GSTP1 Val105 variant allele nor occupational PAH exposure was significantly associated with prostate cancer. However, case-only analyses revealed that carriage of the GSTP1 Val105 variant allele was associated with increasing levels of occupational respiratory PAH exposures from any source and from petroleum (trend test p-value = 0.01 for both). The GSTP1 Val105 allele was observed most frequently in cases in the highest quartile of occupational respiratory PAH exposures from petroleum (OR=1.74; 95% CI = 1.11–2.72) or from any source (OR=1.85; 95% CI = 1.19–2.89). The gene-environment risk estimate in the highest PAH petroleum exposure quartile was greatest in men under age 60 (OR=4.52; 95% CI = 1.96–10.41) or with a positive family history of prostate cancer (OR=3.02; 95% CI = 1.15–7.92). Conclusions Our results suggest men who carry the GSTP1 Val105 variant and are exposed at high levels to occupational PAH have increased risk for prostate cancer. This increased risk is more pronounced in men under age 60 or with a family history of prostate cancer. PMID:17067754

  3. Occupational exposure doses in interventional procedures in Bosnia and Herzegovina.

    PubMed

    Bašić, B; Beganović, A; Skopljak-Beganović, A; Samek, D

    2011-03-01

    Monitoring of occupationally exposed workers in Bosnia and Herzegovina started in 1960s and it was interrupted in 1992. Dosimetry service resumed in 1999 when the International Atomic Energy Agency provided Radiation Protection Centre with Harshaw 4500 Thermoluminescence dosemeter (TLD)-reader and the first set of TLDs. The highest doses are received by professionals working in interventional procedures (radiology, cardiology, gastroenterohepatology etc.). Number of these procedures is increasing each year (just in cardiology this increase is 24 % per year). Results from two TLDs are used to estimate effective dose. One is worn under the apron (chest level), and the other above (neck level). Calculation is performed using Niklason's methodology. Total number of occupationally exposed persons in interventional radiology is 90. The collective dose they receive is 67 person mSv, while the mean dose is 0.77 mSv (based on 12-month period). Highest doses are received by physicians (3.7 mSv), while radiographers and nurses receive 2.1 and 1.9 mSv respectively. This occurs due to the fact that physicians stand closer to the source (patient). The lead apron is proven to be the most efficient radiation protection equipment, but, also, lead thyroid shield and glasses can significantly lower doses received by professionals. The use of this equipment is highly recommended. PMID:21138927

  4. "Quasi nonparametric" upper tolerance limits for occupational exposure evaluations.

    PubMed

    Davis, Charles B; Wambach, Paul F

    2015-01-01

    Upper tolerance limits (UTLs) are often used in comparing exposure data sets with an occupational exposure limit (OEL) or other regulatory criterion (RC): if the 95%-95% UTL does not exceed the OEL, one is 95% confident that at most 5% of exposures exceed the OEL, and the comparison "passes." The largest of 59 observations is a nonparametric (distribution-free) 95%-95% UTL (NPUTL); the chance that this largest value equals or exceeds the actual 95th percentile is at least 95%, regardless of the underlying data distribution. That many observations may seem excessive in clean environments or small studies, though, and one would like to "pass" using UTLs based on fewer observations sufficiently far below the OEL or RC. "Quasi-nonparametric" UTLs (QNP UTLs) accomplish this. QNP UTLs assign a "pass" so long as one has "59 [values] less than the RC" (the NPUTL itself), "30 less than 1/2 [of the RC]," "21 less than 1/3," and on down to "8 less than 1/10," the last matching a rule-of-thumb given in 2006 American Industrial Hygiene Association (AIHA) guidance. They are derived using the conservative, experience-based assumption that the data distribution is lognormal with log-scale standard deviation ? at most 2.0 (geometric standard deviation at most 7.39). Although based on this assumption, their statistical performance is reasonably unaffected or conservative when data come from other distributions often assumed for contaminant concentrations; moreover, their performance is insensitive to analytical variation. This conservative robustness merits the description "quasi-nonparametric." QNP UTLs are very easy to use. Reporting Limit (RL) issues do not arise. QNP UTLs reduce the numbers of observations needed to support conservative risk management decisions when sampling from compliant working conditions. PMID:25647534

  5. Fungi, ?-glucan, and bacteria in nasal lavage of greenhouse workers and their relation to occupational exposure.

    PubMed

    Madsen, Anne Mette; Tendal, Kira; Thilsing, Trine; Frederiksen, Margit W; Baelum, Jesper; Hansen, Jrgen V

    2013-10-01

    The nose and mouth are the first regions of the respiratory tract in contact with airborne microorganisms. Occupational exposures to airborne microorganisms are associated with inflammation and different symptoms of the airways. The purpose of this study is to investigate the relation between occupational exposure to fungi, ?-glucan, and bacteria and contents of fungi, ?-glucan, and bacteria in nasal lavage (NAL) of greenhouse workers. We also studied whether contents of microorganisms in NAL were related to gender, time of the work week, and runny nose. NAL samples (n = 135) were taken Monday morning and Thursday at noon and personal exposure to inhalable bioaerosols was measured during a working day. The content of fungi and ?-glucan in NAL of men was affected by their exposure to fungi and ?-glucan. The content of fungi, ?-glucan, and bacteria in NAL was higher Thursday at noon than Monday morning. The ratios of fungi in NAL between Thursday at noon and Monday morning were 14 (median value) for men and 3.5 for women. Gender had no effect on the exposure level but had a significant effect on the content of fungi, ?-glucan, and bacteria in NAL, with the highest contents in NAL of men. On Thursdays, the median content of fungi in NAL samples of men without runny noses was 9408 cfu per NAL sample, whereas the same content for women was 595 cfu per NAL sample. Workers with runny noses had fewer fungi in NAL than workers without runny noses. A higher content of ?-glucan per fungal spore was found in NAL than in the air. This indicates that mainly the larger fungal spores or pollen grains deposit in the nose. The difference between genders and the fact that the content of fungi in NAL was significantly affected by the exposure indicate that the two genders are affected by the same exposure level differently. PMID:23749501

  6. Occupational exposure to wood dust and formaldehyde and risk of nasal, nasopharyngeal, and lung cancer among Finnish men

    PubMed Central

    Siew, Sie Sie; Kauppinen, Timo; Kyyrnen, Pentti; Heikkil, Pirjo; Pukkala, Eero

    2012-01-01

    Controversy exists over whether or not occupational inhalation exposure to wood dust and/or formaldehyde increases risk for respiratory cancers. The objective of this study was to examine the risk of nasal, nasopharyngeal, and lung cancer in relation to occupational exposure to wood dust and formaldehyde among Finnish men. The cohort of all Finnish men born between the years 1906 and 1945 and in employment during 1970 was followed up through the Finnish Cancer Registry for cases of cancers of the nose (n = 292), nasopharynx (n = 149), and lung (n = 30,137) during the period 19711995. The subjects occupations, as recorded in the population census in 1970, were converted to estimates of exposure to wood dust, formaldehyde, asbestos, and silica dust through the Finnish job-exposure matrix. Cumulative exposure (CE) was calculated based on the prevalence, average level, and estimated duration of exposure. The relative risk (RR) estimates for the CE categories of wood dust and formaldehyde were defined by Poisson regression, with adjustments made for smoking, socioeconomic status, and exposure to asbestos and/or silica dust. Men exposed to wood dust had a significant excess risk of nasal cancer overall (RR, 1.59; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.062.38), and specifically nasal squamous cell carcinoma (RR, 1.98; 95% CI, 1.193.31). Workers exposed to formaldehyde had an RR of 1.18 (95% CI, 1.121.25) for lung cancer. There was no indication that CE to wood dust or formaldehyde would increase the risk of nasopharyngeal cancer. Occupational exposure to wood dust appeared to increase the risk of nasal cancer but not of nasopharyngeal or lung cancer. The slight excess risk of lung cancer observed for exposure to formaldehyde may be the result of residual confounding from smoking. In summary, this study provides further evidence that exposure to wood dust in a variety of occupations may increase the risk of nasal cancer. PMID:22904644

  7. Occupational exposures to influenza among healthcare workers in the United States.

    PubMed

    Jones, Rachael M; Xia, Yulin

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this study is to estimate the annual number of occupational exposures to influenza among healthcare workers that result from providing direct and supportive care to influenza patients in acute care, home care and long-term care settings. Literature review was used to identify healthcare utilization for influenza, and worker activity patterns. This information was used, with Monte Carlo simulation, to tabulate the mean annual number of occupational exposures. Given a medium-sized epidemic with a 6% annual symptomatic influenza incidence proportion, the mean number of occupational exposures was estimated to be 81.8million annually. Among the approximately 14million healthcare workers, this corresponds to 5.8 exposures per worker annually, on average. Exposures, however, are likely concentrated among subsets of healthcare workers. Occupational exposures were most numerous in ambulatory care settings (38%), followed by long-term care facilities (30%) and home care settings (21%). The annual number of occupational exposures to influenza is high, but not every occupational exposure will result in infection. Some infection control activities, like patient isolation, can reduce the number of occupational exposures. PMID:26556672

  8. Urinary biomarkers of occupational jet fuel exposure among Air Force personnel.

    PubMed

    Smith, Kristen W; Proctor, Susan P; Ozonoff, A L; McClean, Michael D

    2012-01-01

    There is a potential for widespread occupational exposure to jet fuel among military and civilian personnel. Urinary metabolites of naphthalene have been suggested for use as short-term biomarkers of exposure to jet fuel (jet propulsion fuel 8 (JP8)). In this study, urinary biomarkers of JP8 were evaluated among US Air Force personnel. Personnel (n=24) were divided a priori into high, moderate, and low exposure groups. Pre- and post-shift urine samples were collected from each worker over three workdays and analyzed for metabolites of naphthalene (1- and 2-naphthol). Questionnaires and breathing-zone naphthalene samples were collected from each worker during the same workdays. Linear mixed-effects models were used to evaluate the exposure data. Post-shift levels of 1- and 2-naphthol varied significantly by a priori exposure group (levels in high group>moderate group>low group), and breathing-zone naphthalene was a significant predictor of post-shift levels of 1- and 2-naphthol, indicating that for every unit increase in breathing-zone naphthalene, there was an increase in naphthol levels. These results indicate that post-shift levels of urinary 1- and 2-naphthol reflect JP8 exposure during the work-shift and may be useful surrogates of JP8 exposure. Among the high exposed workers, significant job-related predictors of post-shift levels of 1- and 2-naphthol included entering the fuel tank, repairing leaks, direct skin contact with JP8, and not wearing gloves during the work-shift. The job-related predictors of 1- and 2-naphthol emphasize the importance of reducing inhalation and dermal exposure through the use of personal protective equipment while working in an environment with JP8. PMID:22044926

  9. Occupational Exposure to Asbestos; Criteria for a Recommended Standard.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. for Occupational Safety and Health (DHEW/PHS), Rockville, MD.

    Recommended standards for control of exposure to asbestos dust in the workplace are set out from the following standpoints: environmental, medical, labeling, personal protective equipment and clothing, apprisal of employees, work practices, and monitoring and recordkeeping requirements. The goal is maintenance of a low level of concentration to…

  10. Occupational exposure to aluminum and its biomonitoring in perspective.

    PubMed

    Riihimki, Vesa; Aitio, Antero

    2012-11-01

    Exposure to aluminum at work is widespread, and people are exposed to several species of aluminum, which differ markedly as to the kinetics and toxicity. Especially welding of aluminum is widely applied and continuously expanding. Inhalation of fine particles of sparsely soluble aluminum results in the retention of deposited particles in the lungs. From the lungs, aluminum is released to the blood and distributed to bones and the brain, and excreted to urine. Soluble aluminum compounds are not accumulated in the lungs. Neurotoxicity is the critical effect of exposure to sparsely soluble aluminum compounds. Studies on workers exposed to aluminum welding fumes have revealed disturbances of cognitive processes, memory and concentration, and changes in mood and EEG. Early pulmonary effects have been observed among aluminum powder-production workers using high-resolution computed tomography. The primary objective of aluminum biomonitoring (BM) is to help prevent the formation of aluminum burden in the lungs and thereby to prevent harmful accumulation of aluminum in target organs. BM of aluminum can be effectively used for this purpose in the production/use of aluminum powders, aluminum welding, as well as plasma cutting, grinding, polishing and thermal spraying of aluminum. BM of aluminum may also be similarly useful in the smelting of aluminum and probably in the production of corundum. BM can help identify exposed individuals and roughly quantitate transient exposure but cannot predict health effects in the production/use of soluble aluminum salts. For urinary aluminum (U-Al) we propose an action limit of 3 mol/L, corrected to a relative density of 1.021, in a sample collected preshift after two days without occupational exposure, and without use of aluminum-containing drugs. This value corresponds roughly to 2.3 mol/g creatinine. Compliance with this limit is expected to protect the worker against the critical effect of aluminum in exposure to sparsely soluble aluminum dusts, the cognitive function of the central nervous system. For serum aluminum (S-Al), we do not propose an action limit because S-Al is less sensitive as an indicator of aluminum load. PMID:23013241

  11. Occupational exposure to carbon black: a particulate sampling study.

    PubMed

    Smith, R G; Musch, D C

    1982-12-01

    In order to determine the particulate exposure levels within carbon black production plants, a sampling survey involving workers from seven carbon black producers was initiated in late 1979. A total of 1,951 acceptable samples (1,564 total dust and 387 respirable dust) were collected from closed-face filter cassettes worn by carbon black workers performing normal work operations. A one-centimeter cyclone separator was employed for respirable dust sampling. Overall sampling distributions of the time-weighted average values generated from the survey were best described by the log-normal distribution. Characterization of the particulate exposures to workers is provided for the various areas of employment and specific jobs within these areas. Summary geometric mean time-weighted average values by area of employment and by job category are well within the carbon black permissible exposure limit (PEL) of 3.5 mg/m3. Identification of those job categories subject to relatively higher particulate exposures, and quantification of these exposures, is essential to the effective industrial hygiene monitoring and control of worker exposures. PMID:7158607

  12. [A retrospective study analysis of urinary hippuric acid levels in occupational toxicology exams].

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Kelly Cristina; Sagebin, Fernando Rodrigues; Oliveira, Paola Garcia; Glock, Luiz; Thiesen, Flavia Vallado

    2010-06-01

    Hippuric acid is the primary metabolite of toluene, a solvent widely used in industrial processes with considerable toxic effects, a fact which justifies regularly monitoring individuals with occupational exposure to this solvent. This work aims at evaluating urinary hippuric acid levels found in workers subject to biological monitoring. A retrospective study was carried out with data referring from 2002 to 2005, in which exams results and employment status were analyzed (periodic, post-employment, and pre-employment exams). Results indicate a significant reduction in hippuric acid levels for 2005. Periodic exams presented higher results than pre-employment and post-employment exams. No significant difference was found in individuals grouped according to their status in each of the established intervals, their reference numbers, and maximum biological levels allowed. Hippuric acid levels detected indicate low risk of toluene exposure for the population under evaluation, probably due to a growing concern with the deployment of measures regarding occupational hygiene. PMID:20640325

  13. Occupational exposure to airborne asbestos from coatings, mastics, and adhesives.

    PubMed

    Paustenbach, Dennis J; Sage, Amy; Bono, Michael; Mowat, Fionna

    2004-05-01

    Over the past few years, a question has arisen about the degree of exposure to airborne asbestos associated with the application, cleanup, and tear-out of glues and mastics used between 1940 and the present. These liquid products were used either to adhere insulation to pipes and boilers or to cover the insulation so as to protect it. In this study, four asbestos-containing products, a coating, two mastics, and an adhesive, which were representative of the various classes of products that have been used historically, were tested to determine the airborne concentration of asbestos fibers released during five different activities (application, spill cleanup, sanding, removal, and sweep cleaning). Each activity was performed for 30 min (often in triplicate). Personal (n=172) and area (n=280) air samples were collected during the tests, and each was analyzed for total fiber concentrations using phase contrast microscopy (PCM), and for asbestos fiber count using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). A measurable concentration of asbestos fibers was detected in six of the 452 samples collected (0.0017-0.0184 fibers/ml). The observed asbestos fibers counts for each product were similar to background. Only one asbestos fiber was detected in an indoor background sample; no asbestos fibers were identified in any of the outdoor background samples. The (raw) PCM-total fiber concentrations were adjusted based on TEM analyses that reported fraction of asbestos fibers (to derive a PCM-asbestos concentration) and by the fraction of the 8-h workday that a worker spends performing the activity (to derive a calculated TWA). For the coatings, mastics, and adhesives evaluated in the present study, the calculated TWAs using hypothetical work scenarios were well below the current Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL) of 0.1 fibers/ml. The calculated TWAs ranged from 0.03 to 0.009 fibers/ml. The actual concentration of airborne asbestos due to these products is almost certainly much less than the TWAs, and may be so low as to not be measurable. These results support the historical view that these products, over the past 50 years, did not pose an occupational health hazard under foreseeable uses. PMID:15141152

  14. Lack of association between Toxoplasma gondii infection and occupational exposure to animals

    PubMed Central

    Pacheco-Vega, Sandy Janet; Hernández-Tinoco, Jesús; Saldaña-Simental, Diana Elizabeth; Sánchez-Anguiano, Luis Francisco; Salcedo-Jáquez, Misael; Ramos-Nevárez, Agar; Liesenfeld, Oliver; Márquez-Conde, José Ángel; Cerrillo-Soto, Sandra Margarita; Martínez-Ramírez, Lucio; Guido-Arreola, Carlos Alberto

    2014-01-01

    The association of infection with Toxoplasma gondii and occupational exposure to animals has been scantly determined. We performed a case-control study with 200 subjects from Durango Province, Mexico, occupationally exposed to animals and 200 age- and gender-matched subjects without this occupation. Sera from all participants were analyzed for anti-T. gondii IgG and IgM antibodies using enzyme-linked immunoassays. The association of seroprevalence with sociodemographic, work, clinical, and behavioral characteristics in cases was determined. Cases and controls had similar frequencies of anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies (12/200: 6.0% and 11/200: 5.5%, respectively) (OR = 3.0; 95% CI: 0.12–73.64; P = 1.0). The frequency of sera with high (>150 IU/ml) levels of anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies was comparable among cases and controls (P = 0.61). Seroprevalence of anti-T. gondii IgM antibodies was similar in cases (4, 2.0%) than in controls (4, 2.0%) (P = 1.0). Multivariate analysis showed that seropositivity was associated with eating while working (OR = 7.14; 95% CI: 1.91–26.72; P = 0.003) and consumption of duck meat (OR = 5.43; 95% CI: 1.43–20.54; P = 0.01). No association between seropositivity to T. gondii and occupational exposure to animals was found. However, risk factors for infection found should be taken into account to reduce the exposure to T. gondii. PMID:25544890

  15. Occupational Exposure to Swine, Poultry, and Cattle and Antibody Biomarkers of Campylobacter jejuni Exposure and Autoimmune Peripheral Neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Vegosen, Leora; Breysse, Patrick N.; Agnew, Jacqueline; Gray, Gregory C.; Nachamkin, Irving; Sheikh, Kazim; Kamel, Freya; Silbergeld, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Foodborne Campylobacter jejuni infection has been associated with an increased risk of autoimmune peripheral neuropathy, but risks of occupational exposure to C. jejuni have received less attention. This study compared anti-C. jejuni IgA, IgG, and IgM antibody levels, as well as the likelihood of testing positive for any of five anti-ganglioside autoantibodies, between animal farmers and non-farmers. Anti-C. jejuni antibody levels were also compared between farmers with different animal herd or flock sizes. The relationship between anti-C. jejuni antibody levels and detection of anti-ganglioside autoantibodies was also assessed. Methods Serum samples from 129 Agricultural Health Study swine farmers (some of whom also worked with other animals) and 46 non-farmers, all from Iowa, were analyzed for anti-C. jejuni antibodies and anti-ganglioside autoantibodies using ELISA. Information on animal exposures was assessed using questionnaire data. Anti-C. jejuni antibody levels were compared using Mann-Whitney tests and linear regression on log-transformed outcomes. Fisher’s Exact Tests and logistic regression were used to compare likelihood of positivity for anti-ganglioside autoantibodies. Results Farmers had significantly higher levels of anti-C. jejuni IgA (p < 0.0001) and IgG (p = 0.02) antibodies compared to non-farmers. There was no consistent pattern of anti-C. jejuni antibody levels based on animal herd or flock size. A higher percentage of farmers (21%) tested positive for anti-ganglioside autoantibodies compared to non-farmers (9%), but this difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.11). There was no significant association between anti-C. jejuni antibody levels and anti-ganglioside autoantibodies. Conclusions The findings provide evidence that farmers who work with animals may be at increased risk of exposure to C. jejuni. Future research should include longitudinal studies of exposures and outcomes, as well as studies of interventions to reduce exposure. Policies to reduce occupational exposure to C. jejuni should be considered. PMID:26636679

  16. Progressive supranuclear palsy-like parkinsonism resulting from occupational exposure to lead sulphate batteries.

    PubMed

    Sanz, P; Nogué, S; Vilchez, D; Vilchez, J; Casal, A; Logroscino, G

    2007-01-01

    A 53-year-old man who had worked for 17 years manufacturing car batteries, with overt exposure to lead, developed a clinical picture initially characterized by signs of parkinsonism, followed by atypical signs such as loss of memory, reduction of eye movement, dysarthria, chorea-like dyskinesia and sexual impotence. The diagnosis of atypical parkinsonism was eventually changed to progressive supranuclear palsy-like parkinsonism. The patient was treated with various anti-Parkinson's disease drugs, including levodopa, with modest improvement. The symptoms deteriorated progressively, leading to permanent occupational disability with noticeable limitation of daily activities. Toxicological studies revealed abnormally high blood levels of lead. Discontinuation of lead exposure was followed first by clinical stabilization and then steady improvement. This case confirms recent reports that link exposure to lead and its compounds with degenerative diseases of the central nervous system, such as Parkinson's disease. PMID:17408069

  17. BIOMarkers for occupational diesel exhaust exposure monitoring (BIOMODEM)--a study in underground mining.

    PubMed

    Scheepers, P T J; Coggon, D; Knudsen, L E; Anzion, R; Autrup, H; Bogovski, S; Bos, R P; Dahmann, D; Farmer, P; Martin, E A; Micka, V; Muzyka, V; Neumann, H G; Poole, J; Schmidt-Ott, A; Seiler, F; Volf, J; Zwirner-Baier, I

    2002-08-01

    Methods for the assessment of exposures to diesel exhaust were evaluated, including various biomarkers of internal exposure and early biological effects. The impact of possible biomarkers of susceptibility was also explored. Underground workers (drivers of diesel-powered excavators) at an oil shale mine in Estonia were compared with surface workers. Personal exposures to particle-associated 1-nitropyrene (NP) were some eight times higher underground than on the surface. Underground miners were also occupationally exposed to benzene and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, as indicated by excretion of urinary metabolites of benzene and pyrene. In addition, increased O(6)-alkylguanine DNA adducts were detected in the white blood cells of underground workers, suggesting higher exposure to nitroso-compounds. However, no differences between underground and surface workers were observed in the levels of other bulky DNA adducts determined by 32P-postlabelling, or in DNA damage. The study indicated that smoking, diet and residential indoor air pollution are important non-occupational factors to consider when interpreting biomonitoring results. PMID:12191893

  18. Skin disease after occupational dermal exposure to coal tar: a review of the scientific literature.

    PubMed

    Moustafa, Giannis-Aimant; Xanthopoulou, Eleni; Riza, Elena; Linos, Athena

    2015-08-01

    For about a century, coal tar has been used in industry and has been applied in the therapeutic management of several skin diseases. However, in the last decades the benefits of coal tar exploitation for humans could not outweigh its harmful effects on health. The aim of this study is to present the main adverse effects of coal tar on skin, with the emphasis on occupational exposure. The scientific literature indicates that dermal exposure to coal tar and coal tar pitches can be the cause of phototoxic reactions, irritation and burn, allergic dermatitis, folliculitis, occupational acne, atrophy of the epidermis, and hyperpigmentation. Moreover coal tar has been implicated in tumorigenesis, a relationship shown in numerous studies but not confirmed yet as the mechanism has not been fully clarified. A common finding in most studies is that exposure over a long period is the main risk factor for malignancy development, even in low exposure levels. Additional prospective, well-designed studies need to be performed to confirm the validity of the carcinogenic, mutagenic, and cytotoxic potential of coal tar on skin. PMID:26183242

  19. A proposed occupational exposure limit for 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin.

    PubMed

    Leung, H W; Murray, F J; Paustenbach, D J

    1988-09-01

    One contaminant produced unintentionally during the manufacture of chlorophenols and phenoxy herbicides is 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). The resulting TCDD-containing wastes have been detected at many hazardous waste sites which in recent years have been in the process of remediation. Concerns about worker exposure to TCDD-contaminated soil (dust) during remediation of hazardous waste sites have produced a need for an occupational exposure limit (OEL) for TCDD. The animal toxicology data and human experience with TCDD are reviewed, and an occupational exposure limit for TCDD is proposed. The animal data support risk estimations which are based on TCDD as a nongenotoxic carcinogen. Studies on human populations have failed to demonstrate clearly any significant long-term health effects at levels to which humans have been exposed. The data indicate that an 8-hr time-weighted average limit of 2 ng/m3 is appropriate, and the associated risk would be consistent with other carcinogens at their corresponding OELs. A preliminary OEL of 0.2 ng/m3 (200 pg/m3) is recommended, however, in light of other sources of exposure because of TCDD's ubiquitousness in the environment, its unclear mechanism of action, and its rather long biological half-life in humans. This limit provides an ample margin of safety to prevent chloracne following repeated, acute exposure, and it addresses those chronic effects of TCDD observed in animal studies as well as those observed after accidental human exposure. The resulting body burden caused by chronic exposure to TCDD at the proposed OEL is examined. Its toxicological significance is compared with human tissue data and with other similarly persistent chemicals.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2972183

  20. Proposed occupational exposure limit for 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin

    SciTech Connect

    Leung, H.W.; Murray, F.J.; Paustenbach, D.J.

    1988-09-01

    One contaminant produced unintentionally during the manufacture of chlorophenols and phenoxy herbicides is 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). The resulting TCDD-containing wastes have been detected at many hazardous waste sites which in recent years have been in the process of remediation. Concerns about worker exposure to TCDD-contaminated soil (dust) during remediation of hazardous waste sites have produced a need for an occupational exposure limit (OEL) for TCDD. The animal toxicology data and human experience with TCDD are reviewed, and an occupational exposure limit for TCDD is proposed. The animal data support risk estimations which are based on TCDD as a nongenotoxic carcinogen. Studies on human populations have failed to demonstrate clearly any significant long-term health effects at levels to which humans have been exposed. The data indicate that an 8-hr time-weighted average limit of 2 ng/m3 is appropriate, and the associated risk would be consistent with other carcinogens at their corresponding OELs. A preliminary OEL of 0.2 ng/m3 (200 pg/m3) is recommended, however, in light of other sources of exposure because of TCDD's ubiquitousness in the environment, its unclear mechanism of action, and its rather long biological half-life in humans. This limit provides an ample margin of safety to prevent chloracne following repeated, acute exposure, and it addresses those chronic effects of TCDD observed in animal studies as well as those observed after accidental human exposure. The resulting body burden caused by chronic exposure to TCDD at the proposed OEL is examined. Its toxicological significance is compared with human tissue data and with other similarly persistent chemicals. 74 references.

  1. Clinical and pathological characteristics of hepatotoxicity associated with occupational exposure to dimethylformamide

    SciTech Connect

    Redlich, C.A.; West, A.B.; Fleming, L.; True, L.D.; Cullen, M.R.; Riely, C.A. )

    1990-09-01

    The clinical characteristics, laboratory results, and liver biopsy findings of seven workers with toxic liver injury associated with exposure to several solvents, including substantial levels of the widely used solvent dimethylformamide, are presented. Three patients had short exposure (less than 3 months), four long exposure (greater than 1 year). Among those with brief exposure, symptoms included anorexia, abdominal pain, and disulfiram-type reaction. Aminotransferases were markedly elevated with the ratio of alanine aminotransferase to aspartate aminotransferase always greater than 1. Liver biopsy showed focal hepatocellular necrosis and microvesicular steatosis with prominence of smooth endoplasmic reticulum, complex lysosomes, and pleomorphic mitochondria with crystalline inclusions. Among workers with long exposure, symptoms were minimal and enzyme elevations modest. Biopsies showed macrovesicular steatosis, pleomorphic mitochondria without crystalloids, and prominent smooth endoplasmic reticulum, but no evidence of persisting acute injury or fibrosis. Abnormal aminotransferases in both groups may persist for months after removal from exposure, but progression to cirrhosis in continually exposed workers was not observed. We conclude that exposure of these workers to solvents, chiefly dimethylformamide, may result in two variants of toxic liver injury with subtle clinical, laboratory, and morphological features. This may be readily overlooked if occupational history and biopsy histology are not carefully evaluated.

  2. Occupational exposure to toluene: neurotoxic effects with special emphasis on drinking habits.

    PubMed

    Antti-Poika, M; Juntunen, J; Matikainen, E; Suoranta, H; Hnninen, H; Sepplinen, A M; Liira, J

    1985-01-01

    Neurotoxic effects of toluene were examined in 43 male rotogravure printers exposed to toluene (age 27-63, mean 41 years; duration of exposure 11-40, mean 22 years) and 31 male offset printers of the same age with slight exposure to aliphatic hydrocarbons. A neurological examination, tests for autonomic nervous function, electroencephalography, psychological tests and computerized tomography of the brain were carried out in addition to a standardized interview. Exposure levels were evaluated for each person separately on the basis of his work history and the results of an earlier study on exposure levels at the same printing shops. Besides a thorough history of alcohol consumption, information about the printers' drinking habits was obtained from the occupational health care centers of the printing shops. The examinations found only slight abnormalities, and there were no statistically significant group differences in the prevalences of abnormalities. No correlations between the abnormalities and the exposure indices were found either. One of the retired workers, however, who had been exposed to high toluene concentrations for over 40 years, had been diagnosed as having chronic organic solvent intoxication. Heavy drinkers of alcohol were clearly more common in the toluene-exposed group. This study detected no clinically significant abnormalities attributable to toluene alone among workers exposed to 68-185 ppm (mean 117) of toluene for over 10 years. The connection between alcohol consumption and toluene exposure is interesting and deserves further study. PMID:4030116

  3. Experiences from Occupational Exposure Limits Set on Aerosols Containing Allergenic Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Gunnar D.

    2012-01-01

    Occupational exposure limits (OELs) together with determined airborne exposures are used in risk assessment based managements of occupational exposures to prevent occupational diseases. In most countries, OELs have only been set for few protein-containing aerosols causing IgE-mediated allergies. They comprise aerosols of flour dust, grain dust, wood dust, natural rubber latex, and the subtilisins, which are proteolytic enzymes. These aerosols show dose-dependent effects and levels have been established, where nearly all workers may be exposed without adverse health effects, which are required for setting OELs. Our aim is to analyse prerequisites for setting OELs for the allergenic protein-containing aerosols. Opposite to the key effect of toxicological reactions, two thresholds, one for the sensitization phase and one for elicitation of IgE-mediated symptoms in sensitized individuals, are used in the OEL settings. For example, this was the case for flour dust, where OELs were based on dust levels due to linearity between flour dust and its allergen levels. The critical effects for flour and grain dust OELs were different, which indicates that conclusion by analogy (read-across) must be scientifically well founded. Except for subtilisins, no OEL have been set for other industrial enzymes, where many of which are high volume chemicals. For several of these, OELs have been proposed in the scientific literature during the last two decades. It is apparent that the scientific methodology is available for setting OELs for proteins and protein-containing aerosols where the critical effect is IgE sensitization and IgE-mediated airway diseases. PMID:22843406

  4. Occupational noise exposure and hearing loss characteristics of a blue-collar population

    SciTech Connect

    Helmkamp, J.C.; Talbott, E.O.; Margolis, H.

    1984-12-01

    Recent studies of health effects from chronic exposure to noise in the workplace have not consistently addressed nonoccupational variables. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 197 randomly selected male hourly workers from a noisy plant ( greater than or equal to 89 dBA) in Pittsburgh to fully assess noise exposure and hearing loss, incorporating information on duration of exposure, noise level, occupational and medical histories, audiometric evaluation, and external noise sources. Population audiometric profiles are characteristic of noise-induced hearing loss; mean hearing thresholds for press room men were significantly higher at 2, 3, and 6 kHz (p less than or equal to .05). Only 40% of the men consistently wore hearing protection. Recent use of ototoxic drugs, noisy hobbies/second jobs, military service, family history of hearing loss, and ear-related problems were not found to have a significant effect on hearing levels at high frequencies, suggesting that observed hearing losses were of an occupational origin. 31 references, 3 figures, 3 tables.

  5. Myocardial infarction and occupational exposure to motor exhaust: a population-based case-control study in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Ilar, Anna; Lewn, Marie; Plato, Nils; Hallqvist, Johan; Alderling, Magnus; Bigert, Carolina; Hogstedt, Christer; Gustavsson, Per

    2014-07-01

    There is a well-established association between particulate urban air pollution and cardiovascular disease, but few studies have investigated the risk associated with occupational exposure to particles from motor exhaust. This study investigated the risk of myocardial infarction (MI) after occupational exposure to motor exhaust, using elemental carbon (EC) as a marker of exposure. A population-based case-control study of first-time non-lethal MI was conducted among Swedish citizens in ages 45-70 living in Stockholm County 1992-1994, including 1,643 cases and 2,235 controls. Working histories and data on potential confounders were collected by questionnaire and medical examination. The exposure to EC was assessed through a job-exposure matrix. Odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated by unconditional logistic regression. We investigated various exposure metrics: intensity, cumulative exposure and years since exposure. There was an exposure-response relation between the highest average exposure intensity during the work history and the risk of MI when adjusting for smoking and alcohol drinking (p for trend 0.034), with an OR of 1.30 (95% CI 0.99-1.71) in the highest tertile of exposure compared to the unexposed. An exposure-response pattern was observed in the analysis of years since exposure cessation among formerly exposed. Additional adjustments for markers of the metabolic syndrome reduced ORs and trends to non-significant levels, although this might be an over-adjustment since the metabolic syndrome may be part of the causal pathway. Occupational exposure to motor exhaust was associated with a moderately increased risk of MI. PMID:24981789

  6. Asthma caused by occupational exposures is common A systematic analysis of estimates of the population-attributable fraction

    PubMed Central

    Torn, Kjell; Blanc, Paul D

    2009-01-01

    Background The aim of this paper is to highlight emerging data on occupational attributable risk in asthma. Despite well documented outbreaks of disease and the recognition of numerous specific causal agents, occupational exposures previously had been relegated a fairly minor role relative to other causes of adult onset asthma. In recent years there has been a growing recognition of the potential importance of asthma induced by work-related exposures Methods We searched Pub Med from June 1999 through December 2007. We identified six longitudinal general population-based studies; three case-control studies and eight cross-sectional analyses from seven general population-based samples. For an integrated analysis we added ten estimates prior to 1999 included in a previous review. Results The longitudinal studies indicate that 16.3% of all adult-onset asthma is caused by occupational exposures. In an overall synthesis of all included studies the overall median PAR value was 17.6%. Conclusion Clinicians should consider the occupational history when evaluating patients in working age who have asthma. At a societal level, these findings underscore the need for further preventive action to reduce the occupational exposures to asthma-causing agents. PMID:19178702

  7. Plasma fluorescent oxidation products and short-term occupational particulate exposures

    PubMed Central

    Hart, Jaime E; Wu, Tianying; Laden, Francine; Garshick, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Background Evidence suggests that fine particulate air pollution results in oxidative induced tissue damage. Methods A global fluorescent oxidation products (FLOx) assay (fluorescent intensity (FI) units per milliliter of plasma) was measured in blood samples collected from 236 nonsmoking, Caucasian, male trucking industry workers either prior to, during, or after their work shifts. Occupational exposures to PM2.5 were based on job-specific area-level sampling. Generalized linear models were used to determine associations between FLOx levels and PM2.5, adjusted for age, time since last meal, alcohol consumption, aspirin, and cholesterol medications. Results The mean (standard deviation) level of FLOx was 265.9 FI/ml (96.0). Levels of FLOx were higher among older individuals and lower among those who had consumed alcohol in the past 24 hours. However, no associations were observed between FLOx and PM2.5. Conclusions Our results indicate no association between occupational PM2.5 exposure and this marker of global oxidative stress. PMID:22618714

  8. Occupational Exposures Are Associated with Worse Morbidity in Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    PubMed Central

    Paulin, Laura M.; Diette, Gregory B.; Blanc, Paul D.; Putcha, Nirupama; Eisner, Mark D.; Kanner, Richard E.; Belli, Andrew J.; Christenson, Stephanie; Tashkin, Donald P.; Han, MeiLan; Barr, R. Graham

    2015-01-01

    Rationale: Links between occupational exposures and morbidity in individuals with established chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) remain unclear. Objectives: To determine the impact of occupational exposures on COPD morbidity. Methods: A job exposure matrix (JEM) determined occupational exposure likelihood based on longest job in current/former smokers (n?=?1,075) recruited as part of the Subpopulations and Intermediate Outcomes in COPD Study, of whom 721 had established COPD. Bivariate and multivariate linear regression models estimated the association of occupational exposure with COPD, and among those with established disease, the occupational exposure associations with 6-minute-walk distance (6MWD), the Modified Medical Research Council Dyspnea Scale (mMRC), the COPD Assessment Test (CAT), St. Georges Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ), 12-item Short-Form Physical Component (SF-12), and COPD exacerbations requiring health care utilization, adjusting for demographics, current smoking status, and cumulative pack-years. Measurements and Main Results: An intermediate/high risk of occupational exposure by JEM was found in 38% of participants. In multivariate analysis, those with job exposures had higher odds of COPD (odds ratio, 1.44; 95% confidence interval, 1.041.97). Among those with COPD, job exposures were associated with shorter 6MWDs (?26.0 m; P?=?0.006); worse scores for mMRC (0.23; P?=?0.004), CAT (1.8; P?=?0.003), SGRQ (4.5; P?=?0.003), and SF-12 Physical (?3.3; P?occupational exposure was associated with COPD risk and, for those with established disease, shorter walk distance, greater breathlessness, worse quality of life, and increased exacerbation risk. Clinicians should obtain occupational histories from patients with COPD because work-related exposures may influence disease burden. PMID:25562375

  9. Cardiac damage secondary to occupational exposure to tin vapor.

    PubMed

    Gunay, Nurullah; Aksoy, Mehmet; Davutoglu, Vedat; Yildirim, Cuma; Ege, Ibrahim

    2006-01-01

    Tin is commonly used as a coating on copper kitchen appliances, and "tinsmithing" as a trade is common in many non-Western countries, where cooking utensils are re-tinned when the cooking surface wears thin. Tinsmiths, or "tinkers," are commonly exposed to the following fumes during their work: stannic [tin(IV)] oxide, ammonium chloride, and hydrochloric acid. In this study we assessed workers from tinsmith workshops of our province for signs, symptoms, and laboratory evidence of cardiac end-organ damage. Between June 2002 and March 2003, researchers went to the main tinsmith workshop area of our province to interview tinsmiths in their workplaces and to gather addresses of their "traveling tinker" colleagues, who work with portable equipment. All workers were interviewed and underwent a complete physical examination, blood testing for lipid parameters, and echocardiography. Twenty-six tin workers (mean age 49+/- 10 y) and 25 control patients (convenience sample of hospital employees) were included in the study. Tobacco use, incidence of hypertension, and serum lipid parameters were not significantly different between the two groups (p < .05). The differences in myocardial performance index, systolic function, and mitral flow A velocity were also nonsignificant. However, the mitral inflow E velocity in the tinsmiths was significantly less than in controls (0.71+/- 0.1 vs. 0.95+/- 0.1 m/s, p < .001). The mitral deceleration time was also much longer in the tinsmith group (216+/- 71 ms vs. 143+/- 14 ms, p < .001). Eleven of the tinkers (23%) were found to have aortic valve sclerosis (severe in one, moderate in another, mild in the other nine), but aortic valve sclerosis was found in none of the control subjects. One tinsmith was found to have three-vessel coronary disease on angiogram. Another tinker with "myocarditis" in the past, and slow flow on angiography, had normalization of his cardiac tests after refraining from tin exposure for 6 mo. Thus, occupational exposure to heavy tin fumes is associated with left ventricle diastolic dysfunction and sclerosis of the aortic valve. Tin workers should minimize their exposure to tin fumes, and physicians should monitor tinsmiths closely for signs of heart disease. PMID:16326401

  10. Socioeconomic status and lung cancer incidence in men in The Netherlands: is there a role for occupational exposure?

    PubMed Central

    van Loon, A J; Goldbohm, R A; Kant, I J; Swaen, G M; Kremer, A M; van den Brandt, P A

    1997-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the influence of occupational exposure to carcinogens in explaining the association between socioeconomic status and lung cancer. DESIGN: A prospective cohort study. Data on diet, other lifestyle factors, sociodemographic characteristics and job history were collected by means of a self administered questionnaire. Follow up for incident cancer was established by record linkage with a national pathology register and with regional cancer registries. SETTING: Population originating from 204 municipalities in The Netherlands. PARTICIPANTS: These comprised 58 279 men aged 55-69 years in September 1986. After 4.3 years of follow up there were 470 microscopically confirmed incident lung cancer cases with complete data on dietary habits and job history. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Estimation of occupational exposure to asbestos, paint dust, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and welding fumes was carried out by two experts, using information on job history from the baseline questionnaire. Socioeconomic status was measured by means of highest attained level of education and two indicators based on occupation. In the initial multivariate analyses of socioeconomic status and lung cancer, adjustment was made for age, smoking habits, intake of vitamin C, beta-carotene and retinol, and history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or asthma. Additional adjustment for occupational exposure to the four carcinogens mentioned above did not change the inverse association between the level of education and lung cancer risk (initial model: RR highest/lowest level of education = 0.53; 95% CI 0.34, 0.82; additional model: RR highest/lowest level of education = 0.53; 95% CI 0.34, 0.84). Nor was the association between the two occupation based indicators of socioeconomic status and lung cancer risk influenced by occupational exposure to carcinogens. The effect of occupational exposure on the association between the level of education and lung cancer risk did not differ between ex-smokers and current smokers. CONCLUSIONS: Occupational exposure to asbestos, paint dust, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and welding fumes could not explain the inverse association between socioeconomic status and lung cancer risk. More research which explicitly addresses possible explanations for the association between socioeconomic status and lung cancer risk is needed. PMID:9135784

  11. Exposure-response analysis of risk of respiratory disease associated with occupational exposure to chrysotile asbestos.

    PubMed Central

    Stayner, L; Smith, R; Bailer, J; Gilbert, S; Steenland, K; Dement, J; Brown, D; Lemen, R

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate alternative models and estimate risk of mortality from lung cancer and asbestosis after occupational exposure to chrysotile asbestos. METHODS: Data were used from a recent update of a cohort mortality study of workers in a South Carolina textile factory. Alternative exposure-response models were evaluated with Poisson regression. A model designed to evaluate evidence of a threshold response was also fitted. Lifetime risks of lung cancer and asbestosis were estimated with an actuarial approach that accounts for competing causes of death. RESULTS: A highly significant exposure-response relation was found for both lung cancer and asbestosis. The exposure-response relation for lung cancer seemed to be linear on a multiplicative scale, which is consistent with previous analyses of lung cancer and exposure to asbestos. In contrast, the exposure-response relation for asbestosis seemed to be nonlinear on a multiplicative scale in this analysis. There was no significant evidence for a threshold in models of either the lung cancer or asbestosis. The excess lifetime risk for white men exposed for 45 years at the recently revised OSHA standard of 0.1 fibre/ml was predicted to be about 5/1000 for lung cancer, and 2/1000 for asbestosis. CONCLUSIONS: This study confirms the findings from previous investigations of a strong exposure-response relation between exposure to chrysotile asbestos and mortality from lung cancer, and asbestosis. The risk estimates for lung cancer derived from this analysis are higher than those derived from other populations exposed to chrysotile asbestos. Possible reasons for this discrepancy are discussed. PMID:9423577

  12. Retrospective Exposure Assessment for Occupational Disease of an Individual Worker Using an Exposure Database and Trend Analysis.

    PubMed

    Chung, Derrick A; Yang, Rui Rain; Verma, Dave K; Luo, Jun

    2015-01-01

    This article outlines a hierarchy of data required for retrospective exposure assessment for occupational disease of an individual worker. It then outlines in a step-wise manner how trend analysis using a relatively large exposure database can be used to estimate such exposure. The process of how a large database containing exposure measurements can be prepared for estimating historic occupational exposures of individual workers in relation to their illnesses is described. The asbestos subset from a large government collected air monitoring database called Medical Surveillance (MESU) was selected to illustrate the cleaning and analysis processes. After unidentifiable values were removed, the cleaned dataset was examined for possible sources of variability such as changes to sampling protocol. Limit of detection (LOD) values were substituted for all non-detectable values prior to the calculation of descriptive statistic using left censored analysis methods (i.e., maximum likelihood estimation (MLE), Kaplan Meier (KM), and simple substitution). The JoinPoint Regression Program was used to perform trend analysis and calculate an annual percentage change (APC) value for the available sampling period. An asbestos case study is presented to illustrate how the APC can then be combined with more recent job and/or process specific exposure data to estimate historic levels. The MESU asbestos dataset contained 1,610 samples from 1984-1995. An average of 17% of this data was left censored. The asbestos air sampling methods in Ontario changed around 1990. LOD values of 0.06 f/cc and 0.02 f/cc were substituted for LOD values pre- and post-1990, respectively. The annual mean fiber levels for the MLE method were an average of 44% lower than KM and substitution methods. The corresponding APC for MLE method was -6.5% and -7.7% for KM and simple substitution. The findings of this paper illustrate how the temporal trend of an exposure databases can be used to efficiently estimate historic contaminant levels in the presence of limited historical information. PMID:26252188

  13. Exposure-Response Estimates for Diesel Engine Exhaust and Lung Cancer Mortality Based on Data from Three Occupational Cohorts

    PubMed Central

    Silverman, Debra T.; Garshick, Eric; Vlaanderen, Jelle; Portengen, Lützen; Steenland, Kyle

    2013-01-01

    Background: Diesel engine exhaust (DEE) has recently been classified as a known human carcinogen. Objective: We derived a meta-exposure–response curve (ERC) for DEE and lung cancer mortality and estimated lifetime excess risks (ELRs) of lung cancer mortality based on assumed occupational and environmental exposure scenarios. Methods: We conducted a meta-regression of lung cancer mortality and cumulative exposure to elemental carbon (EC), a proxy measure of DEE, based on relative risk (RR) estimates reported by three large occupational cohort studies (including two studies of workers in the trucking industry and one study of miners). Based on the derived risk function, we calculated ELRs for several lifetime occupational and environmental exposure scenarios and also calculated the fractions of annual lung cancer deaths attributable to DEE. Results: We estimated a lnRR of 0.00098 (95% CI: 0.00055, 0.0014) for lung cancer mortality with each 1-μg/m3-year increase in cumulative EC based on a linear meta-regression model. Corresponding lnRRs for the individual studies ranged from 0.00061 to 0.0012. Estimated numbers of excess lung cancer deaths through 80 years of age for lifetime occupational exposures of 1, 10, and 25 μg/m3 EC were 17, 200, and 689 per 10,000, respectively. For lifetime environmental exposure to 0.8 μg/m3 EC, we estimated 21 excess lung cancer deaths per 10,000. Based on broad assumptions regarding past occupational and environmental exposures, we estimated that approximately 6% of annual lung cancer deaths may be due to DEE exposure. Conclusions: Combined data from three U.S. occupational cohort studies suggest that DEE at levels common in the workplace and in outdoor air appear to pose substantial excess lifetime risks of lung cancer, above the usually acceptable limits in the United States and Europe, which are generally set at 1/1,000 and 1/100,000 based on lifetime exposure for the occupational and general population, respectively. Citation: Vermeulen R, Silverman DT, Garshick E, Vlaanderen J, Portengen L, Steenland K. 2014. Exposure-response estimates for diesel engine exhaust and lung cancer mortality based on data from three occupational cohorts. Environ Health Perspect 122:172–177; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1306880 PMID:24273233

  14. [Occupational exposure to hexavalent chromium during aircraft painting].

    PubMed

    Gherardi, M; Gatto, M P; Gordiani, A; Paci, E; Proietto, A

    2007-01-01

    Hygienists are interested in hexavalent chromium due to its genotoxic and carcinogenic effect on humans. The use of products containing hexavalent chromium is decreasing in many industrial fields because of the substitution with less-toxic compounds. In the aeronautical industry, however, the chromate are added to primer paint as a corrosion inhibitor of aircrafts surfaces: so hexavalent chromium compounds are available in many primers with a composition ranging from 10% to 13%. The application of these primers by using electrostatic guns potentially exposes painting and coating workers at high concentrations of aerosols containing Cr(VI). The aim of the present study is the evaluation of professional exposure to hexavalent chromium during aircraft painting, by adopting both environmental personal sampling and biological monitoring. To valuate workers exposure levels the personal measurements results have been compared with the exposure limit values (TLV-TWA) and the urinary chromium contents with the biological exposure indices (IBE). Moreover the strategy of coupling environmental sampling with biological monitoring seems to be a useful instrument to measure the validity of the individual protection devices. PMID:18409827

  15. Renal cancer risk and occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and plastics

    PubMed Central

    Karami, Sara; Boffetta, Paolo; Brennan, Paul; Stewart, Patricia A.; Zaridze, David; Matveev, Vsevolod; Janout, Vladimir; Kollarova, Helena; Bencko, Vladimir; Navratilova, Marie; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonila; Mates, Dana; Gromiec, Jan P.; Sobotka, Roman; Chow, Wong-Ho; Rothman, Nathaniel; Moore, Lee E.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and certain plastic monomers increased renal cell carcinomas (RCC) risk. Methods Unconditional logistic regression was used to calculate RCC risk in relation to exposure. Results No association between RCC risk and having ever been occupationally exposed to any polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons or plastics was observed. Duration of exposure and average exposure also showed no association with risk. Suggestive positive associations between RCC risk and cumulative exposure to styrene (P-trend = 0.02) and acrylonitrile (P-trend = 0.06) were found. Cumulative exposure to petroleum/gasoline engine emissions was inversely associated with risk (P-trend = 0.02). Conclusions Results indicate a possible association between occupational styrene and acrylonitrile exposure and RCC risk. Additional studies are needed to replicate findings, as this is the first time these associations have been reported and they may be due to chance. PMID:21270648

  16. Occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields of uninterruptible power supply industry workers.

    PubMed

    Teşneli, N Berna; Teşneli, Ahmet Y

    2014-12-01

    There is an increasing concern that exposure to extremely low-frequency (ELF) electromagnetic fields (EMFs) may cause or contribute to adverse health effects. To assess exposure to ELF EMFs, electric and magnetic field spot measurements were performed extensively at the workplace of a worldwide uninterruptible power supply (UPS) factory. The measurements were carried out in order to get the electric and magnetic field exposure results in real working situations in test areas, production lines and power substations. The electric and magnetic fields reached up to 992.0 V m(-1) and 215.6 μT in the test areas, respectively. The fields existed up to 26.7 V m(-1) and 7.6 μT in the production lines. The field levels in the vicinity of the power substations did not exceed 165.5 V m(-1) and 65 μT. The data presented are useful in determining the occupational exposure levels of UPS industry workers. The measurements are below the reference levels recommended by the guideline published in 2010 by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection and action levels of the directive adopted in 2013 by European Parliament and Council. PMID:24366245

  17. Examining Occupational Anxiety Level of Mathematics Teachers for Some Variables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tasdemir, Cahit

    2015-01-01

    The research aims to examine the occupational anxiety level of Mathematics teacher candidates according to some variables. The research sample included a total of 132 prospective teachers studying in Mathematics Teaching at Siirt University, Faculty of Education in the spring term of 2104-2015 academic year. The "Teacher Concern

  18. Examining Occupational Anxiety Level of Mathematics Teachers for Some Variables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tasdemir, Cahit

    2015-01-01

    The research aims to examine the occupational anxiety level of Mathematics teacher candidates according to some variables. The research sample included a total of 132 prospective teachers studying in Mathematics Teaching at Siirt University, Faculty of Education in the spring term of 2104-2015 academic year. The "Teacher Concern…

  19. Occupational radiation exposure during removal of radioactive reactor components from GRR-1 pool.

    PubMed

    Kontogeorgakos, D; Tzika, F; Valakis, S; Stamatelatos, I E

    2011-03-01

    The aim of the study was to control occupational exposure during the removal of radioactive reactor components from a Greek research reactor pool. The method comprised the prediction of the radiation levels, the design of special shielding structures and the occupational dose assessment. Activation calculations were performed using the FISPACT code to predict the source term. Monte Carlo simulations using MCNP code were utilized to estimate the ambient dose equivalent rates. The results of the calculations were verified by measurements and were found to be in good agreement. Thermoluminescence dosemeter (TLD) and electronic personal dosemeter (EPD) were implemented to measure the radiation exposure of the workers. The total collective dose of 14 participating workers was 0.15 man mSv. The maximum individual effective dose was 0.02 mSv, and the maximum extremity equivalent dose was 0.09 mSv. The discussed method provides a useful tool enabling work planning during reactor decommissioning and renovation activities ensuring that exposures will be maintained ALARA. PMID:21051436

  20. Childhood nervous system tumors--an evaluation of the association with paternal occupational exposure to hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, C.C.; Annegers, J.F.; Frankowski, R.F.; Spitz, M.R.; Buffler, P.A.

    1987-10-01

    Paternal occupational exposures to hydrocarbons have been associated with childhood nervous system cancer, but study results have not been consistent. This population-based case-control study was designed to examine this association using a large sample size to increase the precision of risk estimates. The birth certificates of 499 children who died in Texas from intracranial and spinal cord tumors were compared with 998 control certificates randomly selected from all Texas live births. Information on parental job title and industry at the time of birth was obtained from the birth certificates. No significant associations were identified for the dichotomized variable of all hydrocarbon-related occupations combined, as variously defined in previous studies, or for most of the specific jobs affiliated with exposures to hydrocarbons. Significant, relatively stable odds ratios (OR) were found for printers and graphics arts workers (OR = 4.5; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.4-14.7) and chemical and petroleum workers with high exposure levels (OR = 3.0; CI = 1.1-8.5). A discussion of the biases involved in this type of study design is presented.

  1. Occupational exposure of workers at gas station to inorganic lead.

    PubMed

    Cabaravdic, Mirsad; Mijanovic, Mirjana; Kusturica, Jasna; Cabaravdic, Amra

    2010-01-01

    Exposure to the lead is public health problem and threat to environment with proven harmful impact on human, including industrial workers and general population. Harmful impacts of exposition to nervous, endocrine, hematological, cardiovascular, immune and reproductive system to the lead are well known. This article addresses the results of retrospective research carried out with attendants at gas station and those who are professionally exposed to inorganic lead (n=73; n=81), during the course of two periodic reviews performed in 2003 and 2008. All subjects underwent physical examination, ECG, were measured blood pressure and laboratory tests encompassing basic hematological parameters, including measuring of blood lead level (BLL), as bioindicators of exposure and biomarkers of toxic impact of the lead, by the means of determining concentration of 6-aminolevulinic acid in urine (ALA).Valued obtained included (arithmetic mean +/- standard deviation): for BLL 42.5 +/- 26.2 microg/L(-1), for ALA 35.2 +/- 10.6 micromol/L(-1). Quoted values are within normal values for general population. Correlation test established positive correlation between BLL and hematological parameters, number of erythrocytes, concentration of hemoglobin and MCV, and the same correlation ratio was established between BLL and years of age, years of service and exposition years of service as well as BLL and GGT. There was not established correlation between ALA and observed hematological parameters, BLL and systole pressure. Data from our research indicate unification between professional exposure to lead and duration of exposure and increase of concentration of BLL, which are far bellow marginalvalue, but do exceed average values of BLL for people of industrial countries with possible generation of harmful impact of lead. Likewise, the results suggest the increase of overall lead load in the body does not have to be necessarily only the result of professional exposure, but of the intake through other channels as well. PMID:20514778

  2. Cancer risk and occupational exposure to aflatoxins in Denmark.

    PubMed Central

    Olsen, J. H.; Dragsted, L.; Autrup, H.

    1988-01-01

    A study of cancer risk among male employees at 241 livestock feed processing companies in Denmark was conducted on the basis of a data linkage system for detailed investigation of occupational cancer providing employment histories back until 1964, established at the Danish Cancer Registry. Crops imported for feed production have often been contaminated with highly variable concentrations of aflatoxins; an estimated average concentration of at least 140 micrograms aflatoxin B1 kg-1 prepared mixed cattle feed prevailed in the past, yielding a daily intake for workers via the respiratory route of approximately 170 ng. Risk was established on the basis of cancer cases among male workers, whose employment in one of the companies was the job they had held for the longest time since 1964. Elevated risks for liver cancer and for cancers of the biliary tract were observed, which increased by two- to three-fold significance after a 10-year latency. Exposure to aflatoxins in the imported crops was judged to be the most probable explanation for these findings, although the influence of lifestyle factors, e.g. alcohol consumption on the results cannot be fully disregarded. Increased risks for salivary gland tumours and multiple myeloma were also detected. However, due to multiple comparisons carried out in this study these new associations must await further confirmation. A decreased risk for lung cancer was observed; despite possible negative confounding due to the smoking habits of the employees, the lung does not seem to be a target organ for the carcinogenic effect of inhaled aflatoxins in humans. PMID:3179193

  3. Occupational noise exposure in small scale hand tools manufacturing (forging) industry (SSI) in Northern India.

    PubMed

    Singh, Lakhwinder Pal; Bhardwaj, Arvind; Deepak, K K; Bedi, Raman

    2009-08-01

    Occupational noise has been recognized as hazardous for the human beings. A high noise level in forging shops is considered to lower the labour productivity and cause illness however occupational noise is being accepted as an integral part of the job. The present study has been carried out in 5 small scale hand tool forging units (SSI) of different sizes in Northern India in Punjab. Noise levels at various sections were measured. OSHA norms for hearing conservation has been incorporated which includes an exchange rate of 5 dB (A), criterion level at 90 dB (A), criterion time of 8 h, threshold level=80 dB (A), upper limit=140 dB (A) and with F/S response rate. Equivalent sound pressure level (L(eq)) has been measured in various sections of these plants. Noise at various sections like hammer section, cutting presses, punching, grinding and barrelling process was found to be >90 dB (A), which is greater than OSHA norms. A cross-sectional study on the basis of questionnaire has been carried out. The results of which revealed that 68% of the workers are not wearing ear protective equipments out of these 50% were not provided with PPE by the company. About 95% of the workers were suffering speech interference though high noise annoyance was reported by only 20%. It has been established that the maximum noise exposure is being taken by the workers as they are working more than 8h a day for six days per week. More than 90% workers are working 12 to 24 h over time per week which lead to very high noise exposure i.e. 50 to 80% per week higher than exposure time/week in USA or European countries(15, 16)). PMID:19672017

  4. Occupational exposure to pesticides and prostate cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Lewis-Mikhael, Anne-Mary; Bueno-Cavanillas, Aurora; Ofir Guiron, Talia; Olmedo-Requena, Roco; Delgado-Rodrguez, Miguel; Jimnez-Molen, Jos Juan

    2016-02-01

    Epidemiological studies on exposure to pesticides and risk of prostate cancer (PC) provide inconsistent results. We aimed to explore various potential sources of heterogeneity not previously assessed and to derive updated risk estimates from homogenous studies. We searched PubMed, Web of Science and Scopus databases for case-control and cohort studies published from 1985 to April 2014. We assessed the quality of the articles using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Pooled estimates were calculated using random-effects models. Heterogeneity was explored using subset analyses and metaregression. Fifty-two studies were included in the review and 25 in the meta-analysis. No association was found between low exposure to pesticides and PC, but association was significant for high exposure, pooled OR 1.33 (1.02 to 1.63), I(2)=44.8%, p=0.024. Heterogeneity was explained by a number of variables including method used to assess exposure. Pooled OR was weak and non-significant for studies measuring serum pesticide level, 1.12 (0.74 to 1.50), I(2)=0.00%, p=0.966. For studies applying self-reporting of exposure, pooled estimate was 1.34 (0.91 to 1.77), I(2)=0.00%, p=0.493, while a high significant association was detected for grouped exposure assessment, 2.24 (1.36 to 3.11), I(2)=0.00%, p=0.955. In spite of a weak significant association detected when pooling ORs for high occupational exposure to pesticides, the magnitude of the association was related to the method of exposure assessment used by the original studies. A family history-pesticide exposure interaction was also observed for a number of pesticides. PMID:26644457

  5. Lifelong occupational exposures and hearing loss among elderly Latino Americans aged 65–75 years

    PubMed Central

    Hong, OiSaeng; Chin, Dal Lae; Kerr, Madeleine J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study is to determine the relationship between occupational exposures and hearing among elderly Latino Americans. Design A descriptive, correlational design used for this secondary analysis with the data from the Sacramento Area Latino Study of Aging (SALSA). Study sample A total of 547 older adults were included. Results A majority of participants (58%) reported occupational exposures to loud noise and/or ototoxic chemicals. About 65% and over 90% showed hearing loss at low and high frequencies, respectively. Participants with occupational exposure to loud noise and/or ototoxic chemicals were, significantly, two times more likely to have hearing loss at high frequencies compared to those without exposure (OR = 2.29; 95% CI: 1.17 – 4.51, p = .016), after controlling for other risk factors of hearing loss such as age, gender, household income, current smoking, and diabetes. However, lifelong occupational exposure was not significantly associated with hearing loss at low frequencies (OR = 1.43; 95% CI: 0.94 – 2.18, p = .094). Conclusion Lifelong occupational exposure to loud noise and/or ototoxic chemicals was significantly associated with hearing loss among elderly Latino Americans. Healthy work life through protection from harmful auditory effects of occupational exposures to noise and chemicals will have a positive impact on better hearing in later life. PMID:25549170

  6. 29 CFR 1915.1450 - Occupational exposure to hazardous chemicals in laboratories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Occupational exposure to hazardous chemicals in laboratories. 1915.1450 Section 1915.1450 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY... chemicals in laboratories. Note: The requirements applicable to shipyard employment under this section...

  7. Environmental and Occupational Lead Exposure Among Children in Cairo, Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Moawad, Eman Mohamed Ibraheim; Badawy, Nashwa Mostafa; Manawill, Marie

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to assess childhood lead exposure in a representative sample of Cairo, and to investigate the possible risk factors and sources of exposure. This cross-sectional study was conducted from November 2014 through April 2015. The target population was children aged 6 to 18 years, recruited into 4 groups, garbage city, moderate-living standard area, urban and suburban schools, and workshops in the city of Cairo. Blood lead levels (BLLs) and hemoglobin (Hb) concentrations were measured. Also, potential local environmental sources were assessed for hazardous lead contamination. Analysis on 400 participants has been carried out. A total of 113 children had BLLs in the range 10 to 20 μg/dL. Smoking fathers, housing conditions, playing outdoors, and exposure to lead in residential areas were significantly correlated with high BLLs. The mean values of hemoglobin were inversely correlated with BLLs. Children involved in pottery workshops had the highest BLLs and the lowest Hb values with a mean of (43.3 μg/dL and 8.6 g/dL, respectively). The mean value of environmental lead in workshop areas exceeded the recommended levels. Also, those values measured in dust and paint samples of garbage city were significantly high. Moreover, the mean lead levels in the soil samples were significantly higher in urban schools (P = 0.03) than the suburban ones. Childhood lead poisoning accounts for a substantial burden in Egypt, which could be preventable. Development of national prevention programs including universal screening program should be designed to reduce incidence of lead toxicity among children. PMID:26945415

  8. Non-occupational lead exposure and hypertension in Pakistani adults

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Sohaila; Khalid, Nasir; Zaidi, Jamshed Hussain; Ahmad, Shujaat; Iqbal, Mohammad Zafar

    2006-01-01

    Hypertension is one of the most prevalent diseases in the developed and developing countries. Based on the long historical association and the provocative findings of blood pressure effects at low level of lead exposure a study was carried out to determine if an association existed between low blood lead concentration and hypertension. In this study the effects of low-level exposure to lead on blood pressure were examined among 244 adults using atomic absorption spectrometer. For quality assurance purpose certified reference materials i.e., Animal blood A-13, Bovine liver 1577 and cotton cellulose V-9 from IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency) and NIST (National Institute of Standard Technology) were analyzed under identical experimental conditions. The mean age of hypertensive adults was 52 years (range 43~66). The mean values of systolic and diastolic blood pressure were (209±11.7) (range 170~250) and (117±3.9) (range 105~140) mmHg respectively. Blood lead concentration ranged from 78~201 µg/L with a mean of 139 µg/L and 165~497 µg/L with a mean of 255 µg/L in normal and hypertensive adults respectively. Increase in systolic blood pressure was significantly predictive with increase in blood lead levels. Body mass index (BMI) and lipid profile including total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride correlated with blood pressure. PMID:16909475

  9. Airborne Isocyanate Exposures in the Collision Repair Industry and a Comparison to Occupational Exposure Limits

    PubMed Central

    Reeb-Whitaker, Carolyn; Whittaker, Stephen G.; Ceballos, Diana M.; Weiland, Elisa C.; Flack, Sheila L.; Fent, Kenneth W.; Thomasen, Jennifer M.; Gaines, Linda G. Trelles; Nylander-French, Leena A.

    2014-01-01

    Isocyanate exposure was evaluated in 33 spray painters from 25 Washington State autobody shops. Personal breathing zone samples (n = 228) were analyzed for isophorone diisocyanate (IPDI) monomer, 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI) monomer, IPDI polyisocyanate, and three polyisocyanate forms of HDI. The objective was to describe exposures to isocyanates while spray painting, compare them with short-term exposure limits (STELs), and describe the isocyanate composition in the samples. The composition of polyisocyanates (IPDI and HDI) in the samples varied greatly, with maximum amounts ranging from up to 58% for HDI biuret to 96% for HDI isocyanurate. There was a significant inverse relationship between the percentage composition of HDI isocyanurate to IPDI and to HDI uretdione. Two 15-min STELs were compared: (1) Oregon's Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OR-OSHA) STEL of 1000 ?g/m3 for HDI polyisocyanate, and (2) the United Kingdom's Health and Safety Executive (UK-HSE) STEL of 70 ?g NCO/m3 for all isocyanates. Eighty percent of samples containing HDI polyisocyanate exceeded the OR-OSHA STEL while 98% of samples exceeded the UKHSE STEL. The majority of painters (67%) wore half-face air-purifying respirators while spray painting. Using the OROSHA and the UK-HSE STELs as benchmarks, 21% and 67% of painters, respectively, had at least one exposure that exceeded the respirator's OSHA-assigned protection factor. A critical review of the STELs revealed the following limitations: (1) the OR-OSHA STEL does not include all polyisocyanates, and (2) the UK-HSE STEL is derived from monomeric isocyanates, whereas the species present in typical spray coatings are polyisocyanates. In conclusion, the variable mixtures of isocyanates used by autobody painters suggest that an occupational exposure limit is required that includes all polyisocyanates. Despite the limitations of the STELs, we determined that a respirator with an assigned protection factor of 25 or greater is required to protect against isocyanate exposures during spray painting. Consequently, half-face air-purifying respirators, which are most commonly used and have an assigned protection factor of 10, do not afford adequate respiratory protection. PMID:22500941

  10. 75 FR 80819 - Draft Current Intelligence Bulletin “Occupational Exposure to Carbon Nanotubes and Nanofibers”

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Draft Current Intelligence Bulletin... risks. A draft Current Intelligence Bulletin entitled ``Occupational Exposure to Carbon Nanotubes...

  11. OCCUPATIONAL STYRENE EXPOSURE FOR TWELVE PRODUCT CATEGORIES IN THE REINFORCED-PLASTICS INDUSTRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Approximately 1500 occupational styrene exposure values from 28 reinforced-plastic manufacturers were collected retrospectively from companies and state and federal agencies. The report describes the major types of manufacturing processes within the reinforced-plastics industry a...

  12. 76 FR 72216 - Occupational Exposure to Hazardous Chemicals in Laboratories Standard; Extension of the Office of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-22

    ...OSHA solicits public comments concerning its proposal to extend OMB approval of the information collection requirements specified in the Standard on Occupational Exposure to Hazardous Chemicals in Laboratories (29 CFR...

  13. USE OF PHARMACOKINETIC MODELS TO ASSESS OCCUPATIONAL AND RESIDENTIAL PESTICIDE EXPOSURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Urinary biomarker measurements were analyzed using a dynamic pharmacokinetic model. The dynamic model provided the structure to link spot urine samples with corresponding exposure and absorbed dose. Data from both occupational and residential studies were analyzed. In the Agri...

  14. Determination of occupational exposure to fabric brightener chemicals by HPLC.

    PubMed

    Hammond, S K; Smith, T J; Ellenbecker, M J

    1987-02-01

    Paired-ion reversed-phase liquid chromatography was applied to the problem of determining the exposure of chemical workers to aerosols of chemical intermediates in the production of fabric brighteners, specifically: 4,4'-diaminostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid, disodium salt (DAS), 4,4'-dinitrostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid, disodium salt (DNS), and paranitrotoluene sulfonic acid, sodium salt (PNTSA), which are all light-sensitive ionic compounds. Personal samples were collected on Teflon-coated glass fiber filters through which air was drawn at 1.7 Lpm. DAS, DNS and PNTSA were desorbed quantitatively in water from the filters. Tetrabutylammonium phosphate served as the ion-pairing reagent to these anions and was added to the eluent solutions. The samples were separated on an octadecylsilyl column with a methanol/water gradient. These three compounds eluted with good separation in 15 min. Monitoring absorbance of light at 254 nm, one can easily obtain detection limits of 2 micrograms/mL or less. Air concentrations of 0.02 mg/m3 were measured readily by personal sampling. Airborne exposures in this facility were found to range from nondetectable levels up to 60 micrograms/m3 DAS. A fixed high volume sampler collected between 0.2 and 2 micrograms/m3 each of DAS, DNS and PNTSA. The enclosure of the reactors and transport of materials in solution or as a slurry minimize exposure. PMID:3565265

  15. Occupational exposure to PCBs reduces striatal dopamine transporter densities only in women: A ?-CIT imaging study

    PubMed Central

    Seegal, Richard F.; Marek, Kenneth L.; Seibyl, John P.; Jennings, Danna L.; Molho, Eric S.; Higgins, Donald S.; Factor, Stewart A.; Fitzgerald, Edward F.; Hills, Elaine A.; Korrick, Susan A.; Wolff, Mary S.; Haase, Richard F.; Todd, Andrew C.; Parsons, Patrick; McCaffrey, Robert F.

    2010-01-01

    We hypothesize that occupational exposure to PCBs is associated with a reduction in central dopamine (DA) similar to changes previously seen in PCB exposed adult non-human primates. To test that hypothesis we used [123I]?-CIT SPECT imaging to estimate basal ganglia DA transporter density in former capacitor workers. Women, but not men, showed an inverse relationship between lipid-adjusted total serum PCB concentrations and DA transporter densities in the absence of differences in serum PCB concentrations. These sex differences may reflect age-related reductions in the levels of gonadal hormones since these hormones have been shown experimentally to alter response to DA neurotoxicants. These findings may aid in better understanding the roles that sex and age play in modifying central DA function following exposure, not only to PCBs, but also to other DA neurotoxicants as well as further elucidating the role of gonadal hormones in influencing the initiation and/or progression of neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:20096358

  16. Occupational exposure to pesticides and consequences on male semen and fertility: a review.

    PubMed

    Mehrpour, Omid; Karrari, Parissa; Zamani, Nasim; Tsatsakis, Aristides M; Abdollahi, Mohammad

    2014-10-15

    Exposure to pesticides affects many body organs including reproductive system. Disorder of the reproductive system leads to infertility and therefore has been in the center of attention within the recent decades. Pesticides are one of the compounds that might reduce the semen quality in the exposed workers according to current knowledge. Although many underlying mechanisms have been proposed, the mechanisms of action are not clarified yet. The object of the present review was to criticize all the results of studies which evaluated the pesticide effects on male reproductive system. Results indicate that semen changes are multifactorial in the workers exposed to pesticides as there are numerous factors affecting sperm quality in occupational exposures. Majority of pesticides including organophosphoruses affect the male reproductive system by mechanisms such as reduction of sperm density and motility, inhibition of spermatogenesis, reduction of testis weights, reduction of sperm counts, motility, viability and density, and inducing sperm DNA damage, and increasing abnormal sperm morphology. Reduced weight of testes, epididymis, seminal vesicle, and ventral prostate, seminiferous tubule degeneration, change in plasma levels of testosterone, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and luteinizing hormone (LH), decreased level and activity of the antioxidant enzymes in testes, and inhibited testicular steroidogenesis are other possible mechanisms. Moreover, DDT and its metabolites have estrogenic effects on males. Although effect of pesticides on sperm quality is undeniable, well-designed long-term studies are needed to elucidate all the possible affecting variables such as socioeconomic, cultural, nutritional, occupational, physical, and clinical characteristics alongside pesticides. PMID:24487096

  17. Occupational sun exposure and risk of melanoma according to anatomical site.

    PubMed

    Vuong, Kylie; McGeechan, Kevin; Armstrong, Bruce K; Cust, Anne E

    2014-06-01

    Although sunburn and intermittent sun exposures are associated with increased melanoma risk, most studies have found null or inverse associations between occupational (more continuous pattern) sun exposure and melanoma risk. The association of melanoma with occupational sun exposure may differ according to anatomical site, with some studies finding a positive association with melanoma on the head and neck. We examined the association between occupational sun exposure (self-reported weekday sun exposure) and melanoma risk according to anatomical site, using data from two multicentre population-based case-control studies: the Australian Melanoma Family Study (588 cases, 472 controls) and the Genes, Environment and Melanoma study (GEM; 1079 cases, 2,181 controls). Unconditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and their 95% confidence intervals, adjusting for potential confounders. Occupational sun exposure was not positively associated with melanoma risk overall or at different body sites in both studies. The GEM study found inverse associations between occupational sun exposure and melanoma on the head and neck [OR for highest vs. lowest quartile: 0.56, 95% confidence intervals (CI) 0.36-0.86, ptrend 0.02], and between the proportion of total sun exposure occurring on weekdays and melanoma on the upper limbs (OR for highest vs. lowest quartile: 0.66, 95% CI 0.42-1.02, ptrend 0.03). Our results suggest that occupational sun exposure does not increase risk of melanoma, even of melanomas situated on the head and neck. This finding seemed not to be due to negative confounding of occupational sun exposure by weekend sun. PMID:24288300

  18. Occupational exposure to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in wood dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huynh, C. K.; Schpfer, P.; Boiteux, P.

    2009-02-01

    Sino-nasal cancer (SNC) represents approximately 3% of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology (ORL) cancers. Adenocarcinoma SNC is an acknowledged occupational disease affecting certain specialized workers such as joiners and cabinetmakers. The high proportion of woodworkers contracting a SNC, subjected to an estimated risk 50 to 100 times higher than that affecting the general population, has suggested various study paths to possible causes such as tannin in hardwood, formaldehyde in plywood and benzo(a)pyrene produced by wood when overheated by cutting tools. It is acknowledged that tannin does not cause cancer to workers exposed to tea dust. Apart from being an irritant, formaldehyde is also classified as carcinogenic. The path involving carcinogenic Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) emitted by overheated wood is attractive. In this study, we measured the particle size and PAHs content in dust emitted by the processing of wood in an experimental chamber, and in field situation. Quantification of 16 PAHs is carried out by capillary GC-ion trap Mass Spectrometric analysis (GC-MS). The materials tested are rough fir tree, oak, impregnated polyurethane (PU) oak. The wood dust contains carcinogenic PAHs at the level of ?g.g-1 or ppm. During sanding operations, the PU varnish-impregnated wood produces 100 times more PAHs in dust than the unfinished wood.

  19. Alterations in serum immunoglobulin levels in workers occupationally exposed to trichloroethylene.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Luoping; Bassig, Bryan A; Mora, Joseph L; Vermeulen, Roel; Ge, Yichen; Curry, John D; Hu, Wei; Shen, Min; Qiu, Chuangyi; Ji, Zhiying; Reiss, Boris; McHale, Cliona M; Liu, Songwang; Guo, Weihong; Purdue, Mark P; Yue, Fei; Li, Laiyu; Smith, Martyn T; Huang, Hanlin; Tang, Xiaojiang; Rothman, Nathaniel; Lan, Qing

    2013-04-01

    Trichloroethylene (TCE) has been associated with a variety of immunotoxic effects and may be associated with an increased risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). Altered serum immunoglobulin (Ig) levels have been reported in NHL patients and in animals exposed to TCE. Recently, we reported that occupational exposure to TCE is associated with immunosuppressive effects and immune dysfunction, including suppression of B-cell counts and activation, even at relatively low levels. We hypothesized that TCE exposure would also affect Ig levels in humans. We measured serum levels of IgG, IgM and IgE, by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, in TCE-exposed workers (n = 80) and unexposed controls (n = 45), matched by age and gender, in a cross-sectional, molecular epidemiology study of occupational exposure to TCE in Guangdong, China. Exposed workers had about a 17.5% decline in serum levels of IgG compared with unexposed controls (P = 0.0002). Similarly, serum levels of IgM were reduced by about 38% in workers exposed to TCE compared with unexposed controls (P < 0.0001). Serum levels of both IgG and IgM were significantly decreased in workers exposed to TCE levels below 12 p.p.m., the median exposure level. Adjustment for B-cell counts had minimal impact on our findings. IgE levels were not significantly different between exposed and control subjects. These results provide further evidence that TCE is immunotoxic at relatively low exposure levels and provide additional biologic plausibility for the reported association of TCE with NHL. PMID:23276795

  20. Occupation and occupational exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals in male breast cancer: a case-control study in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Villeneuve, Sara; Cyr, Diane; Lynge, Elsebeth; Orsi, Laurent; Sabroe, Svend; Merletti, Franco; Gorini, Giuseppe; Morales-Suarez-Varela, Maria; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Baumgardt-Elms, Cornelia; Kaerlev, Linda; Eriksson, Mikael; Hardell, Lennart; Fvotte, Jolle; Gunel, Pascal

    2010-01-01

    Objectives Male breast cancer is a rare disease of largely unknown etiology. Besides genetic or hormone-related risk factors, a large number of environmental chemicals are suspected to play a role in breast cancer. The identification of occupations or occupational exposures associated with an increased incidence of breast cancer in men may help to identify mammary carcinogens in the environment. Methods Occupational risk factors of male breast cancer were investigated in a multi-centre case-control study conducted in 8 European countries, including 104 cases and 1901 controls. Lifetime work history was obtained during in-person interviews. Occupational exposures to endocrine disrupting chemicals (alkylphenolic compounds, phthalates, PCBs and dioxins) were assessed on a case-by-case basis from expert judgment. Results Male breast cancer incidence was more particularly increased in motor vehicle mechanics (OR=2.1, CI 1.04.4) with a dose-effect relationship with duration employment. It was also increased in paper makers and painters, and in workers in forestry and logging, health and social work, and manufacture of furniture. The odds ratio for exposure to alkylphenolic compounds above median was 3.8 (CI 1.59.5). This association persisted after adjustment for occupational exposures to other environmental estrogens. Conclusion These findings suggest that some environmental chemicals are possible mammary carcinogens. Gasoline, organic petroleum solvents or PAH can be suspected from the consistent elevated risk of male breast cancer observed in motor vehicle mechanics. Endocrine disruptors such as alkylphenolic compounds may play a role in breast cancer. PMID:20798010

  1. An assessment of occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the UK.

    PubMed

    Unwin, John; Cocker, John; Scobbie, Emma; Chambers, Helen

    2006-06-01

    A cross-industry occupational hygiene survey was commissioned by the Health and Safety Executive (HSE) to determine the levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposure in UK industry and to determine if one or more target analytes were suitable as markers for assessing total exposure to PAHs. There were no broadly applicable UK exposure standards for assessing total exposure to PAHs. Until 1993 a guidance value for assessing exposure in coke ovens only, where PAH exposure is known to be the highest, was based on gravimetric analysis of cyclohexane-soluble material. Biological monitoring based on urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP) is widely reported to be an effective indicator of exposure by both dermal and inhalation routes but there was no UK guidance value. The survey involved an occupational hygiene study of 25 sites using both airborne monitoring of a total of 17 individual PAHs and biological monitoring. The results showed 8 h TWA levels of total PAH in air ranged from 0.4 to 1912.6 microg m(-3) with a GM of 15.8 microg m(-3). The profile of PAHs was dominated by naphthalene, the most volatile 2-ring PAH. Airborne benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) correlated well (r(2) = 0.971) with levels of carcinogenic 4-6 ring PAHs and was an effective marker of exposure for all industries where significant particle bound PAH levels were found and, in particular, for CTPV exposure. The 8 h TWA levels of BaP ranged from <0.01 to 6.21 microg m(-3) with a GM of 0.036 microg m(-3); 90% were <0.75 microg m(-3) and 95% were <2.0 microg m(-3). Two hundred and eighteen urine samples collected from different workers at the end of shift and 213 samples collected pre-shift next day were analysed for 1-OHP. Levels of 1-OHP in end-of-shift samples were generally higher than those in pre-shift-next-day samples and showed a good correlation (r(2) = 0.768) to airborne BaP levels if samples from workers using respiratory protection or with significant dermal exposure were excluded. Urinary 1-OHP in end-of-shift samples ranged from the limit of detection (0.5 micromol mol(-1) creatinine) to 60 micromol mol(-1) creatinine with a mean of 2.49 micromol mol(-1) and a 90th percentile value of 6.7 micromol mol(-1) creatinine. The highest 1-OHP levels were found in samples from workers impregnating timber with creosote where exposure was dominated by naphthalene. If the 11 samples from these workers were excluded from the dataset, the 90% value for end-of-shift urine samples was 4 micromol mol(-1) creatinine (n = 207) and this value has since been adopted by the HSE as a biological monitoring benchmark value. PMID:16551675

  2. Prevalence of tinnitus in elderly individuals with and without history of occupational noise exposure

    PubMed Central

    Melo, Juliana Jandre; Meneses, Caroline Luiz; Marchiori, Luciana Lozza de Moraes

    2012-01-01

    Summary Introduction:?The various metabolic and circulatory alterations that are related to noise exposure may cause the onset of several symptoms, including tinnitus. Objective:?The purpose of the study was to assess the prevalence of tinnitus complaints in elderly individuals with and without history of occupational noise exposure. Method:?This prospective study was conducted in a sample population consisting of 502 individuals aged over 60 years, by anamnesis and audiological evaluation. The variables that were studied were the frequency of tinnitus and the history of occupational noise. Logistic regression was used to control for potential confusion or modifications caused by the effects of the other variables on the associations of interest. Results and Discussion:?Tinnitus was reported in 50% of the cases, with tinnitus reported in 40% of the elderly individuals with history of occupational noise exposure, and in 43% of controls (elderly individuals without history of occupational noise exposure). A high frequency of tinnitus was detected in the population under investigation, but there were no statistically significant associations between the presence of tinnitus and history of occupational noise exposure. Conclusion:?The results of this study may have occurred due to other factors such as the age of the individuals without history of occupational noise exposure. PMID:25991939

  3. Design and Evaluation of a Breath Analysis System for Occupational Exposure Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Soldat, Kelvin L.; Thrall, Karla D.

    2001-06-01

    Exposure assessment is an integral part of industrial hygiene and occupational health. To ensure the health and safety of workers, integrated industrial hygiene methodologies often include biological monitoring strategies. Exhaled breath is an ideal matrix for measuring volatile biomarkers, particularly since the non-invasive collection of breath may improve volunteer participation. A real-time, field-portable system was developed to analyze undiluted exhaled air from experimental animals and humans. The system combines (1) an ion-trap mass spectrometer capable of atmospheric sampling; (2) a breath interface for continual analysis of the exhaled breath stream; (3) chemical dosimeters that are analyzed in the field/workplace; and (4) physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models to estimate total exposure and internal target tissue dosimetry. The intent of this development was to provide new instrumentation to evaluate volatile chemical exposures as part of a daily monitoring pro gram. For example, the system was designed to monitor a worker every time they enter and leave a work environment - a vast improvement over current 8-hr integrated monitoring strategies. To evaluate the system in actual work environments, field tests were conducted using volunteers providing exhaled breath samples before and after each specific job task. In these field studies, several volunteers had post-task breath levels higher than pre-task levels. Compared to the breath analysis findings, chemical dosimeters underpredicted exposures, particularly for longer sampling intervals where the volume of air sampled may have diluted exposures. The results of these field studies illustrate the utility of monitoring workers for exposures at numerous times throughout the day, particularly when job-specific tasks may indicate a potential for exposure.

  4. A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Childhood Leukemia and Parental Occupational Pesticide Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Wigle, Donald T.; Turner, Michelle C.; Krewski, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    Objectives We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of childhood leukemia and parental occupational pesticide exposure. Data sources Searches of MEDLINE (19502009) and other electronic databases yielded 31 included studies. Data extraction Two authors independently abstracted data and assessed the quality of each study. Data synthesis Random effects models were used to obtain summary odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). There was no overall association between childhood leukemia and any paternal occupational pesticide exposure (OR = 1.09; 95% CI, 0.881.34); there were slightly elevated risks in subgroups of studies with low total-quality scores (OR = 1.39; 95% CI, 0.991.95), ill-defined exposure time windows (OR = 1.36; 95% CI, 1.001.85), and exposure information collected after offspring leukemia diagnosis (OR = 1.34; 95% CI, 1.051.70). Childhood leukemia was associated with prenatal maternal occupational pesticide exposure (OR = 2.09; 95% CI, 1.512.88); this association was slightly stronger for studies with high exposure-measurement-quality scores (OR = 2.45; 95% CI, 1.683.58), higher confounder control scores (OR = 2.38; 95% CI, 1.563.62), and farm-related exposures (OR = 2.44; 95% CI, 1.533.89). Childhood leukemia risk was also elevated for prenatal maternal occupational exposure to insecticides (OR = 2.72; 95% CI, 1.475.04) and herbicides (OR = 3.62; 95% CI, 1.2810.3). Conclusions Childhood leukemia was associated with prenatal maternal occupational pesticide exposure in analyses of all studies combined and in several subgroups. Associations with paternal occupational pesticide exposure were weaker and less consistent. Research needs include improved pesticide exposure indices, continued follow-up of existing cohorts, genetic susceptibility assessment, and basic research on childhood leukemia initiation and progression. PMID:20019898

  5. Assessment of Health Consequences of Steel Industry Welders’ Occupational Exposure to Ultraviolet Radiation

    PubMed Central

    Zamanian, Zahra; Mortazavi, Saied Mohammad Javad; Asmand, Ebrahim; Nikeghbal, Kiana

    2015-01-01

    Background: Welding is among the most important frequently used processes in the industry with a wide range of applications from the food industry to aerospace and from precision tools to shipbuilding. The aim of this study was to assess the level of steel industry welders’ exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation and to investigate the health impacts of these exposures. Methods: In this case–control study, we measured the intensity of UV at the workers’ wrist in Fars Steel Company through manufacture of different types of heavy metal structures, using UV-meter model 666230 made by Leybold Co., from Germany. Results: The population under the study comprised 400 people including 200 welders as the exposed group and 200 nonwelders as the unexposed group. The results of the questionnaire were analyzed using SPSS software, version 19. The average, standard deviation, maximum and minimum of the UV at the welders’ wrist were 0.362, 0.346, 1.27, and 0.01 μW/cm2, respectively. There was a significantly (P < 0.01) higher incidence of cataracts, keratoconjunctivitis, dermatitis and erythema in welders than in their nonwelders. Conclusions: This study showed that the time period of UV exposure in welders is higher than the permissible contact threshold level. Therefore, considering the outbreak of the eye and skin disorders in the welders, decreasing exposure time, reducing UV radiation level, and using personal protective equipment seem indispensable. As exposure to UV radiation can be linked to different types of skin cancer, skin aging, and cataract, welders should be advised to decrease their occupational exposures. PMID:26900437

  6. Statistical modeling of occupational chlorinated solvent exposures for casecontrol studies using a literature-based database

    PubMed Central

    Hein, Misty J.; Waters, Martha A.; Ruder, Avima M.; Stenzel, Mark R.; Blair, Aaron; Stewart, Patricia A.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: Occupational exposure assessment for population-based casecontrol studies is challenging due to the wide variety of industries and occupations encountered by study participants. We developed and evaluated statistical models to estimate the intensity of exposure to three chlorinated solventsmethylene chloride, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, and trichloroethyleneusing a database of air measurement data and associated exposure determinants. Methods: A measurement database was developed after an extensive review of the published industrial hygiene literature. The database of nearly 3000 measurements or summary measurements included sample size, measurement characteristics (year, duration, and type), and several potential exposure determinants associated with the measurements: mechanism of release (e.g. evaporation), process condition, temperature, usage rate, type of ventilation, location, presence of a confined space, and proximity to the source. The natural log-transformed measurement levels in the exposure database were modeled as a function of the measurement characteristics and exposure determinants using maximum likelihood methods. Assuming a single lognormal distribution of the measurements, an arithmetic mean exposure intensity level was estimated for each unique combination of exposure determinants and decade. Results: The proportions of variability in the measurement data explained by the modeled measurement characteristics and exposure determinants were 36, 38, and 54% for methylene chloride, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, and trichloroethylene, respectively. Model parameter estimates for the exposure determinants were in the anticipated direction. Exposure intensity estimates were plausible and exhibited internal consistency, but the ability to evaluate validity was limited. Conclusions: These prediction models can be used to estimate chlorinated solvent exposure intensity for jobs reported by population-based casecontrol study participants that have sufficiently detailed information regarding the exposure determinants. PMID:20418277

  7. OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE TO FORMALDEHYDE IN A MEDICAL CENTER AUTOPSY SERVICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The formaldehyde exposure occurring in the autopsy service of a medical complex were evaluated as part of a study to detect genetically harmful effects of chemical exposures. Determination of time-weighted average (TWA) exposures and characterization of the patterns of exposure e...

  8. Beyond crosswalks: reliability of exposure assessment following automated coding of free-text job descriptions for occupational epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Burstyn, Igor; Slutsky, Anton; Lee, Derrick G; Singer, Alison B; An, Yuan; Michael, Yvonne L

    2014-05-01

    Epidemiologists typically collect narrative descriptions of occupational histories because these are less prone than self-reported exposures to recall bias of exposure to a specific hazard. However, the task of coding these narratives can be daunting and prohibitively time-consuming in some settings. The aim of this manuscript is to evaluate the performance of a computer algorithm to translate the narrative description of occupational codes into standard classification of jobs (2010 Standard Occupational Classification) in an epidemiological context. The fundamental question we address is whether exposure assignment resulting from manual (presumed gold standard) coding of the narratives is materially different from that arising from the application of automated coding. We pursued our work through three motivating examples: assessment of physical demands in Women's Health Initiative observational study, evaluation of predictors of exposure to coal tar pitch volatiles in the US Occupational Safety and Health Administration's (OSHA) Integrated Management Information System, and assessment of exposure to agents known to cause occupational asthma in a pregnancy cohort. In these diverse settings, we demonstrate that automated coding of occupations results in assignment of exposures that are in reasonable agreement with results that can be obtained through manual coding. The correlation between physical demand scores based on manual and automated job classification schemes was reasonable (r = 0.5). The agreement between predictive probability of exceeding the OSHA's permissible exposure level for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, using coal tar pitch volatiles as a surrogate, based on manual and automated coding of jobs was modest (Kendall rank correlation = 0.29). In the case of binary assignment of exposure to asthmagens, we observed that fair to excellent agreement in classifications can be reached, depending on presence of ambiguity in assigned job classification (? = 0.5-0.8). Thus, the success of automated coding appears to depend on the setting and type of exposure that is being assessed. Our overall recommendation is that automated translation of short narrative descriptions of jobs for exposure assessment is feasible in some settings and essential for large cohorts, especially if combined with manual coding to both assess reliability of coding and to further refine the coding algorithm. PMID:24504175

  9. HPLC-ICP-MS speciation analysis of arsenic in urine of Japanese subjects without occupational exposure.

    PubMed

    Hata, Akihisa; Endo, Yoko; Nakajima, Yoshiaki; Ikebe, Maiko; Ogawa, Masanori; Fujitani, Noboru; Endo, Ginji

    2007-05-01

    The toxicity and carcinogenicity of arsenic depend on its species. Individuals living in Japan consume much seafood that contains high levels of organoarsenics. Speciation analysis of urinary arsenic is required to clarify the health risks of arsenic intake. There has been no report of urinary arsenic analysis in Japan using high performance liquid chromatography with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HPLC-ICP-MS). We performed speciation analysis of urinary arsenic for 210 Japanese male subjects without occupational exposure using HPLC-ICP-MS. The median values of urinary arsenics were as follows: sodium arsenite (AsIII), 3.5; sodium arsenate (AsV), 0.1; monomethylarsonic acid (MMA), 3.1; dimethylarsinic acid (DMA), 42.6; arsenobetaine (AsBe), 61.3; arsenocholine, trimethylarsine oxide, and unidentified arsenics (others), 5.2; and total arsenic (total As), 141.3 microgAs/l. The median creatinine-adjusted values were as follows: AsIII, 3.0; AsV, 0.1; MMA, 2.6; DMA, 35.9; AsBe, 52.1; others 3.5; and total As, 114.9 microgAs/g creatinine. Our findings indicate that DMA and AsBe levels in Japan are much higher than those found in Italian and American studies. It appears that the high levels of DMA and AsBe observed in Japan may be due in part to seafood intake. ACGIH and DFG set the BEI and BAT values for occupational arsenic exposure as 35 microgAs/l and 50 microgAs/l, respectively, using the sum of inorganic arsenic (iAs), MMA, and DMA. In the general Japanese population, the sums of these were above 50 microgAs/l in 115 (55%) samples. We therefore recommend excluding DMA concentration in monitoring of iAs exposure. PMID:17575402

  10. [Occupational exposure to airborne fungi and bacteria in a household recycled container sorting plant ].

    PubMed

    Solans, Xavier; Alonso, Rosa Mara; Constans, Angelina; Mansilla, Alfonso

    2007-06-01

    Several studies have showed an association between the work in waste treatment plants and occupational health problems such as irritation of skin, eyes and mucous membranes, pulmonary diseases, gastrointestinal problems and symptoms of organic dust toxic syndrome (ODTS). These symptoms have been related to bioaerosol exposure. The aim of this study was to investigate the occupational exposure to biological agents in a plant sorting source-separated packages (plastics materials, ferric and non-ferric metals) household waste. Airborne samples were collected with M Air T Millipore sampler. The concentration of total fungi and bacteria and gram-negative bacteria were determined and the most abundant genera were identified. The results shown that the predominant airborne microorganisms were fungi, with counts greater than 12,000 cfu/m(3) and gram-negative bacteria, with a environmental concentration between 1,395 and 5,280 cfu/m(3). In both cases, these concentrations were higher than levels obtained outside of the sorting plant. Among the fungi, the predominant genera were Penicillium and Cladosporium, whereas the predominant genera of gram-negative bacteria were Escherichia, Enterobacter, Klebsiella and Serratia. The present study shows that the workers at sorting source-separated packages (plastics materials, ferric and non-ferric metals) domestic waste plant may be exposed to airborne biological agents, especially fungi and gram-negative bacteria. PMID:17604432

  11. [Biological monitoring of occupational exposure in welders of stainless steel. Immunologic methods].

    PubMed

    Borsk, L; Andrs, C; Fiala, Z; Tejral, J; Bencko, V; Kucera, J; Smejkalov, J

    1999-01-01

    Biological monitoring of occupational exposure to toxic compounds enables an early detection of adverse health effects. Apart from the standard biological monitoring methods of occupational exposure represented by metabolites and enzymes activities analysis also immunological detection methods seem to be promising. The changes of immunological system are demonstrable extraordinary sensitive markers of load of organism. The process of welding belongs between important sources of pollution of working environment with heavy metals and other harmful compounds including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. According to IARC classification the welding fumes are included into group 2B and are supposed as possible human carcinogens. Numbers of different epidemiological studies have proved relationship between welding and serious health disorders namely malignancies. We recorded a number of changes in immunological parameters when compared with those in control group in our study. The results of analysis were statistically evaluated. The statistically significant reduction of number of phagocytosis capable cells was found in the group of welders when compared with the control group. The levels of neopterin, beta-2-microglobulin and IL-1 beta have indirectly monitored cell component of immunological response. In the case of these markers a statistically significant increases were found in the group of welders. We found statistically significant IgM decrease and statistically significant IgA increase in humoral responses with the same group when compared with control group. PMID:10836078

  12. Is occupationally induced exposure to radiation a risk factor for thyroid nodule formation?

    SciTech Connect

    Antonelli, A.; Silvano, G.; Gambuzza, C.; Bianchi, F.; Tana, L.; Baschieri, L.

    1996-05-01

    The prevalance of thyroid nodules was studied with ultrasonography in a group of male hospital workers (n = 44) who had been exposed occupationally to x-rays. This group was compared with a group of nonexposed workers (n = 88) who were age- and sex-matched with the exposed workers. Thyroid nodules were detected in 18 (41%) of the exposed workers, compared with 11 (13%) of the nonexposed controls. Both groups were subdivided with respect to age (i.e., 30-39 y, 40-49 y, 50-59 y), and there was a higher and significant relative risk for thyroid nodule formation in the exposed group. We also divided the groups into subgroups according to levels of exposure (i.e., nonexposed, exposed for {le} 20 y, and exposed for {ge} 20 y), and a significant result was obtained with the linear-trend chi-square test. The preliminary results of our study suggest that occupationally induced exposure to radiation may be a risk factor for thyroid nodule formation. 9 refs., 2 tabs.

  13. Occupational exposure to nanoparticles at commercial photocopy centers.

    PubMed

    Martin, John; Bello, Dhimiter; Bunker, Kristin; Shafer, Martin; Christiani, David; Woskie, Susan; Demokritou, Philip

    2015-11-15

    Photocopiers emit high levels of nanoparticles (PM0.1). To-date little is known of physicochemical composition of PM0.1 in real workplace settings. Here we perform a comprehensive physicochemical and morphological characterization of PM0.1 and raw materials (toners and paper) at eight commercial photocopy centers that use color and monochrome photocopiers over the course of a full week. We document high PM0.1 exposures with complex composition and several ENM in toners and PM0.1. Daily geometric mean PM0.1 concentrations ranged from 3700 to 34000 particles/cubic-centimeter (particles/cm(3)) (GSD 1.4-3.3), up to 12 times greater than background, with transient peaks >1.4 million particles/cm(3). PM0.1 contained 6-63% organic carbon, <1% elemental carbon, and 2-8% metals, including iron, zinc, titania, chromium, nickel and manganese, typically in the <0.01-1% range, and in agreement with toner composition. These findings document widespread ENM in toner formulations and high nanoparticle exposures are an industry-wide phenomenon. It further calls attention to the need to substantially redesign the interface of this technology with workers and consumers. PMID:26148960

  14. Exploring lifetime occupational exposure and SLE flare: a patient-focussed pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Squance, Marline L; Guest, Maya; Reeves, Glenn; Attia, John; Bridgman, Howard

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Environmental effectors, such as ultraviolet radiation exposure, infection and stress, have been established as having a role in exacerbating lupus symptoms. However, unpredictable patterns of flare events still remain a mystery. Occupational effectors have also been suggested as having a contributing role; however, they are not widely researched. In this paper we report a pilot study designed to generate focus areas for future research regarding occupational exposures and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Methods The study explored potential links between exposures and the occurrence of patient-reported flare events in 80 Australian women with SLE (American College of Rheumatology (ACR) criteria classified). Specifically, the study assessed the hypothesis that occupational exposure is associated with significant changes in the likelihood of lupus flares. Lifetime employment history was analysed with the Finnish Job Exposure Matrix (FINJEM), 40 different semiquantified exposure class estimates for a wide number of occupations based on probability of exposure (p?5%=exposed) were analysed with the construction of negative binomial regression models to test relationships between occupational agents and flare days. A backward stepwise elimination was used to generate a parsimonious model. Results Significant associations were noted for exposure classes of manual handling burden, (p=0.02, incidence rate ratio (IRR) 1.01), Iron (p=0.00, IRR 1.37), wood dust (p=0.00, IRR 3.34) and asbestos (p=0.03, IRR 2.48). Conclusion Exposure assessment results indicated that occupations, such as nursing, with a high manual handling burden, posed increased risk to patients with SLE, however, the greatest risk was associated with wood dust and iron exposure with teachers and specialist labourers. PMID:25379190

  15. EPRI EMF exposure database: EMDEX occupational study data set. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Senior, R.S.; Bracken, T.D.; Rankin, R.F.

    1996-10-01

    This document describes the EMDEX Occupational Study (EOS) Data Set containing the measurement data collected during the EPRI-sponsored study, Electric and Magnetic Field Measurement Study for Utilities - The EMDEX Project (RP2966-01). The data were supplied to the EPRI EMF Exposure Database by the original researchers at T. Dan Bracken, Inc. Electric and magnetic field exposure data were collected by volunteer employees at 55 utility sites. Volunteers were placed in one of sixteen job classifications depending on their job title and work environment. They maintained a simple logbook while wearing an EMDEX meter, allowing the measurement data to be identified with one of eight work environments or one of three non-work environments. The fourteen data products in the EMDEX Occupational Study Data Set contain the electric and magnetic field personal exposure measurements collected during the study and summaries of those measurements along with associated descriptive information. The exposure measurement data products consist of time-series and summary files. The former are the binary and ASCII time-series files of individual field measurements that contain both electric and magnetic field data. These time-series files represent over 28,800,000 individual field measurements. Separate summary files for electric and magnetic field measurements represent six levels of aggregation of the data. The documentation contains a project synopsis, full descriptions of all data elements, and the format and size of each data product. The final report for the project and other references are cited as sources of detailed information about study design, protocols, and results.

  16. Screening values for Non-Carcinogenic Hanford Waste Tank Vapor Chemicals that Lack Established Occupational Exposure Limits

    SciTech Connect

    Poet, Torka S.; Mast, Terryl J.; Huckaby, James L.

    2006-02-06

    Over 1,500 different volatile chemicals have been reported in the headspaces of tanks used to store high-level radioactive waste at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site. Concern about potential exposure of tank farm workers to these chemicals has prompted efforts to evaluate their toxicity, identify chemicals that pose the greatest risk, and incorporate that information into the tank farms industrial hygiene worker protection program. Established occupation exposure limits for individual chemicals and petroleum hydrocarbon mixtures have been used elsewhere to evaluate about 900 of the chemicals. In this report headspace concentration screening values were established for the remaining 600 chemicals using available industrial hygiene and toxicological data. Screening values were intended to be more than an order of magnitude below concentrations that may cause adverse health effects in workers, assuming a 40-hour/week occupational exposure. Screening values were compared to the maximum reported headspace concentrations.

  17. Nitrous oxide and occupational exposure: it's time to stop laughing.

    PubMed

    Kugel, G; Norris, L H; Zive, M A

    1989-01-01

    Although nitrous oxide (N(2)O) has been widely used since 1844, in recent years it has been implicated in a number of serious health hazards such as reproductive, nerve, liver, and kidney disorders. The National Institute of Safety and Health (NIOSH) recommends a limit of 25 ppm for chronic exposure to N(2)O in the dental office. Our study monitored ambient N(2)O levels in the dental office. N(2)O levels were compared for procedures performed in open clinics and private operatories as well as with and without a gas-scavenging system. Measurements were taken in the Dental Breathing Zone (DBZ) and Dental Chair Foot (DCF) at regular intervals. A four- to eightfold increase in average N(2)O levels was noted in the DBZ for unscavenged versus scavenged procedures. A three- to fourfold increase for unscavenged versus scavenged procedures was similarly noted in the DCF. N(2)O were significantly higher in private operatories than in open clinics, due to limited room volumes and in the DBZ over the DCF, due to mask leakage and increased oral exhalation. Scavenged N(2)O levels for both operatory types did not meet NIOSH guidelines. In contrast to previous studies using any form of gas removal, our study shows a significant decrease in N(2)O level achieved with an adequate scavenger system. With only four states regulating the use of N(2)O, and with concern over its deleterious effects growing, additional states and the federal government are expected to enact legislation regulating the use of N(2)O in the near future. PMID:2490056

  18. Father's occupational exposure to carcinogenic agents and childhood acute leukemia: a new method to assess exposure (a case-control study)

    PubMed Central

    Perez-Saldivar, Maria Luisa; Ortega-Alvarez, Manuel Carlos; Fajardo-Gutierrez, Arturo; Bernaldez-Rios, Roberto; del Campo-Martinez, Maria de los Angeles; Medina-Sanson, Aurora; Palomo-Colli, Miguel Angel; Paredes-Aguilera, Rogelio; Martínez-Avalos, Armando; Borja-Aburto, Victor Hugo; Rodriguez-Rivera, Maria de Jesus; Vargas-Garcia, Victor Manuel; Zarco-Contreras, Jesus; Flores-Lujano, Janet; Mejia-Arangure, Juan Manuel

    2008-01-01

    Background Medical research has not been able to establish whether a father's occupational exposures are associated with the development of acute leukemia (AL) in their offspring. The studies conducted have weaknesses that have generated a misclassification of such exposure. Occupations and exposures to substances associated with childhood cancer are not very frequently encountered in the general population; thus, the reported risks are both inconsistent and inaccurate. In this study, to assess exposure we used a new method, an exposure index, which took into consideration the industrial branch, specific position, use of protective equipment, substances at work, degree of contact with such substances, and time of exposure. This index allowed us to obtain a grade, which permitted the identification of individuals according to their level of exposure to known or potentially carcinogenic agents that are not necessarily specifically identified as risk factors for leukemia. The aim of this study was to determine the association between a father's occupational exposure to carcinogenic agents and the presence of AL in their offspring. Methods From 1999 to 2000, a case-control study was performed with 193 children who reside in Mexico City and had been diagnosed with AL. The initial sample-size calculation was 150 children per group, assessed with an expected odds ratio (OR) of three and a minimum exposure frequency of 15.8%. These children were matched by age, sex, and institution with 193 pediatric surgical patients at secondary-care hospitals. A questionnaire was used to determine each child's background and the characteristics of the father's occupation(s). In order to determine the level of exposure to carcinogenic agents, a previously validated exposure index (occupational exposure index, OEI) was used. The consistency and validity of the index were assessed by a questionnaire comparison, the sensory recognition of the work area, and an expert's opinion. Results The adjusted ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were 1.69 (0.98, 2.92) during the preconception period; 1.98 (1.13, 3.45) during the index pregnancy; 2.11 (1.17, 3.78) during breastfeeding period; 2.17 (1.28, 3.66) after birth; and 2.06 (1.24, 3.42) for global exposure. Conclusion This is the first study in which an OEI was used to assess a father's occupational exposure to carcinogenic agents as a risk factor for the development of childhood AL in his offspring. From our results, we conclude that children whose fathers have been exposed to a high level of carcinogenic agents seem to have a greater risk of developing acute leukemia. However, confounding factors cannot be disregarded due to an incomplete control for confounding. PMID:18194546

  19. Development of a health risk-based surface contamination cleanup standard for occupational exposure to beryllium.

    PubMed

    Damian, Paul

    2011-02-01

    A health risk-based surface contamination cleanup standard (SCS) for beryllium (BE) was developed to facilitate the safe transfer of property (equipment and buildings) previously used in BE-related processes. Previous SCSs for BE were primarily based on Department of Energy (DOE) housekeeping criteria rather than health risks. Quantitative health risk assessment methods were used to develop an occupational SCS that explicitly considers the relevant exposure pathways and toxicity endpoints, including both cancer and non-cancer endpoints. For the cancer endpoint at the 1E-06 risk level, the analysis resulted in an SCS of 17 ?g/100 cm(2) based on resuspension of settled dust and subsequent inhalation exposure only (BE is regulated as a carcinogen by the inhalation route only). For the non-cancer endpoint, the analysis resulted in an SCS of 0.07 ?g/100 cm(2) based on dermal absorption, incidental ingestion following dermal contact, and inhalation. The non-cancer SCS was determined virtually entirely by the dermal absorption exposure pathway, with negligible contributions from the incidental ingestion and inhalation pathways. This analysis shows that application of the non-cancer SCS in BE monitoring and control programs will adequately protect workers from both the cancer and non-cancer health effects of BE when surface contamination is the primary source of BE exposure. PMID:20649413

  20. A National Study on Nurses’ Exposure to Occupational Violence in Lebanon: Prevalence, Consequences and Associated Factors

    PubMed Central

    Alameddine, Mohamad; Mourad, Yara; Dimassi, Hani

    2015-01-01

    Background Healthcare institutions have commonly reported exposure of employees, particularly nurses, to high levels of occupational violence. Despite such evidence in the Middle East Region, there is a dearth of national studies that have systematically investigated this phenomenon. This study investigates the prevalence, characteristics, consequences and factors associated with nurses’ exposure to occupational violence in Lebanon. Methods A cross-sectional design was utilized to survey a nationally representative sample of 915 nurses registered with the Order of Nurses in Lebanon. Stratified random sampling by governorate was utilized. Individually-mailed questionnaires collected information on exposure to violence, degree of burnout and demographic/professional background. The main outcome variables were exposure to verbal abuse (never, 1–3, 4–9 and 10+ times) and physical violence (never, ever) over the past 12-months. Descriptive statistics were used to estimate prevalence of violence. Multivariable, binomial and multinomial regression models were carried out to investigate the correlates of exposure to verbal abuse and physical violence, respectively. Results Response rate was 64.8%. Over the last year, prevalence of nurses’ exposure to verbal abuse was 62%, (CI: 58–65%) and physical violence was 10%, (CI: 8–13%). Among respondents, 31.7% of nurses indicated likelihood to quit their jobs and 22.3% were undetermined. Furthermore, 54.1% reported high levels of emotional exhaustion and 28.8% reported high levels of depersonalization. Compared to nurses with no exposure to verbal abuse, nurses reporting high exposure had high levels of emotional exhaustion (OR:6.4; CI:1.76–23.32), depersonalization (OR:6.8; CI: 3–15) and intention to quit job (OR:3.9; CI: 1.8–8.3). They further reported absence of anti-violence policies at their institutions (OR: 3; CI: 1.5–6.3). Nurses that were ever exposed to physical violence were more likely to be males (OR: 2.2; CI: 1.1–4.3), working day and night shifts (OR: 2.8; CI: 1.4–5.5) and subject to ten or more incidents of verbal abuse per year (OR: 46.7; CI: 10.1–214). Conclusions An alarming two-thirds of respondents reported exposure to verbal abuse which was found to be a significant predictor of the three subscales of burnout, intention to quit and exposure to physical violence. The prevalence of exposure to physical violence is disconcerting due to its severe consequences. Policy and decision-makers are urged to use study findings for policy and practice interventions to create safe work environments conducive to nurses’ productivity and retention. PMID:26355686

  1. A Systematic Review of Occupational Exposure to Particulate Matter and Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Shona C.; Cassidy, Adrian; Christiani, David C.

    2010-01-01

    Exposure to ambient particulate air pollution is a recognized risk factor for cardiovascular disease; however the link between occupational particulate exposures and adverse cardiovascular events is less clear. We conducted a systematic review, including meta-analysis where appropriate, of the epidemiologic association between occupational exposure to particulate matter and cardiovascular disease. Out of 697 articles meeting our initial criteria, 37 articles published from January 1990 to April 2009 (12 mortality; 5 morbidity; and 20 intermediate cardiovascular endpoints) were included. Results suggest a possible association between occupational particulate exposures and ischemic heart disease (IHD) mortality as well as non-fatal myocardial infarction (MI), and stronger evidence of associations with heart rate variability and systemic inflammation, potential intermediates between occupational PM exposure and IHD. In meta-analysis of mortality studies, a significant increase in IHD was observed (meta-IRR = 1.16; 95% CI: 1.061.26), however these data were limited by lack of adequate control for smoking and other potential confounders. Further research is needed to better clarify the magnitude of the potential risk of the development and aggravation of IHD associated with short and long-term occupational particulate exposures and to clarify the clinical significance of acute and chronic changes in intermediate cardiovascular outcomes. PMID:20617059

  2. Occupational exposures and chronic respiratory symptoms: a population-based study

    SciTech Connect

    Korn, R.J.; Dockery, D.W.; Speizer, F.E.; Ware, J.H.; Ferris, B.G.

    1987-01-01

    Data from a random sample of 8515 white adults residing in six cities in the eastern and midwestern United States were used to examine the relationships between occupational exposures to dust or to gases and fumes and chronic respiratory symptoms. 31% of the population had a history of occupational dust exposure and 30% reported exposure to gas or to fumes. After adjusting for smoking habits, age, gender, and city of residence, subjects with either occupational exposure had significantly elevated prevalence of chronic cough, chronic phlegm, persistent wheeze, and breathlessness. The adjusted relative odds of chronic respiratory symptoms for subjects exposed to dust ranged from 1.32 to 1.60. Subjects with gas or fume exposure had relative odds of symptoms between 1.27 and 1.43 when compared to unexposed subjects. Occupational dust exposure was associated with a higher prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) as defined by an FEV1/FVC ratio of less than 0.6, when comparing exposed and unexposed participants (OR=1.53, 95% CI=1.17-2.08). Gas or fume exposure was associated with a small, but not significant, increase in COPD prevalence. Significant trends were noted for wheeze and phlegm with increasing duration of dust exposure. Although 36% of exposed subjects reported exposure to both dust and fumes, there was no evidence of a multiplicative interaction between the effects of the individual exposures. Smoking was a significant independent predictor of symptoms, but did not appear to modify the effect of dust or fumes on symptom reporting. These data, obtained in random samples of general populations, demonstrate that chronic respiratory disease can be independently associated with occupational exposures.

  3. Occupational exposures and chronic respiratory symptoms. A population-based study

    SciTech Connect

    Korn, R.J.; Dockery, D.W.; Speizer, F.E.; Ware, J.H.; Ferris, B.G. Jr.

    1987-08-01

    Data from a random sample of 8515 white adults residing in 6 cities in the eastern and midwestern United States were used to examine the relationships between occupational exposures to dust or to gases and fumes and chronic respiratory symptoms; 31% of the population had a history of occupational dust exposure and 30% reported exposure to gas or fumes. After adjusting for smoking habits, age, gender, and city of residence, subjects with either occupational exposure had significantly elevated prevalences of chronic cough, chronic phlegm, persistent wheeze, and breathlessness. The adjusted relative odds of chronic respiratory symptoms for subjects exposed to dust ranged from 1.32 to 1.60. Subjects with gas or fume exposure had relative odds of symptoms between 1.27 and 1.43 when compared with unexposed subjects. Occupational dust exposure was associated with a higher prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease as defined by an FEV1/FVC ratio of less than 0.6, when comparing exposed and unexposed participants (OR = 1.53, 95% Cl = 1.17-2.08). Gas or fume exposure was associated with a small, but not significant, increase in COPD prevalence. Significant trends were noted for wheeze and phlegm with increasing duration of dust exposure. Although 36% of exposed subjects reported exposure to both dust and fumes, there was no evidence of a multiplicative interaction between the effects of the individual exposures. Smoking was a significant independent predictor of symptoms, but did not appear to modify the effect of dust or fumes on symptom reporting. These data, obtained in random samples of general populations, demonstrate that chronic respiratory symptoms and disease can be independently associated with occupational exposures.

  4. Occupational Electromagnetic Field Exposures Associated with Sleep Quality: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hui; Chen, Guangdi; Pan, Yifeng; Chen, Zexin; Jin, Wen; Sun, Chuan; Chen, Chunjing; Dong, Xuanjun; Chen, Kun; Xu, Zhengping; Zhang, Shanchun; Yu, Yunxian

    2014-01-01

    Background Exposure to electromagnetic field (EMF) emitted by mobile phone and other machineries concerns half the worlds population and raises the problem of their impact on human health. The present study aims to explore the effects of electromagnetic field exposures on sleep quality and sleep duration among workers from electric power plant. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in an electric power plant of Zhejiang Province, China. A total of 854 participants were included in the final analysis. The detailed information of participants was obtained by trained investigators using a structured questionnaire, which including socio-demographic characteristics, lifestyle variables, sleep variables and electromagnetic exposures. Physical examination and venous blood collection were also carried out for every study subject. Results After grouping daily occupational electromagnetic exposure into three categories, subjects with long daily exposure time had a significantly higher risk of poor sleep quality in comparison to those with short daily exposure time. The adjusted odds ratios were 1.68 (95%CI: 1.18, 2.39) and 1.57 (95%CI: 1.10, 2.24) across tertiles. Additionally, among the subjects with long-term occupational exposure, the longer daily occupational exposure time apparently increased the risk of poor sleep quality (OR (95%CI): 2.12 (1.23?3.66) in the second tertile; 1.83 (1.07?3.15) in the third tertile). There was no significant association of long-term occupational exposure duration, monthly electric fee or years of mobile-phone use with sleep quality or sleep duration. Conclusions The findings showed that daily occupational EMF exposure was positively associated with poor sleep quality. It implies EMF exposure may damage human sleep quality rather than sleep duration. PMID:25340654

  5. Will the Occupational Safety and Health Administration's Proposed Standards for Occupational Exposure to Respirable Crystalline Silica Reduce Workplace Risk?

    PubMed

    Dudley, Susan E; Morriss, Andrew P

    2015-07-01

    The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) is developing regulations to amend existing standards for occupational exposure to respirable crystalline silica by establishing a new permissible exposure limit as well as a series of ancillary provisions for controlling exposure. This article briefly reviews OSHA's proposed regulatory approach and the statutory authority on which it is based. It then evaluates OSHA's preliminary determination of significant risk and its analysis of the risk reduction achievable by its proposed controls. It recognizes that OSHA faces multiple challenges in devising a regulatory approach that reduces exposures and health risks and meets its statutory goal. However, the greatest challenge to reducing risks associated with silica exposure is not the lack of incentives (for either employers or employees) but rather lack of information, particularly information on the relative toxicity of different forms of silica. The article finds that OSHA's proposed rule would contribute little in the way of new information, particularly since it is largely based on information that is at least a decade old--a significant deficiency, given the rapidly changing conditions observed over the last 45 years. The article concludes with recommendations for alternative approaches that would be more likely to generate information needed to improve worker health outcomes. PMID:25808427

  6. Occupational exposure to synthetic musks in barbershops, compared with the common exposure in the dormitories and households.

    PubMed

    Liu, Nannan; Shi, Yali; Xu, Lin; Li, Wenhui; Cai, Yaqi

    2013-11-01

    Synthetic musks (SMs) have been widely used as fragrance ingredients in personal care and sanitary commodities. Due to their high volatility and particle-binding affinity, the indoor dust is a major reservoir of SMs, and dust ingestion could be an important exposure way to special populations, such as hairdressers. In spite of the known toxicity of SMs, there is no information regarding the occurrence of SMs in barbershop dusts and the exposure of hairdressers through indoor dust ingestion. In the present study, the levels of two nitro musks and five polycyclic musks were measured from indoor dust samples collected from barbershops, and some other indoor dust samples were also collected from dormitories, bathhouses and households for comparison. The concentrations of ?SMs in barbershop dusts were 10-100 times higher than those from the other three indoor microenvironments. Polycyclic musks accounted for 89.4% of ?SMs on average in all samples, of which two compounds, HHCB and AHTN jointly dominated 97.9% of polycyclic musks. The levels of HHCB and AHTN varied from 12.2 to 8.3910(5) and from 13.2 to 3.4910(5) ng g(-1), respectively. The daily intakes (DIs) of ?SMs through house dust ingestion were estimated using the model of high dust ingestion and worst-case exposure (P95), and the corresponding exposure rates were 2791, 135 and 727 ng d(-1) for the hairdressers, general population and toddlers. SMs were also detected in blood samples collected from the hairdressers and normal adults (n=50 and 10, respectively). There was no significant difference between these two groups. Despite the absence of higher SM concentrations in hairdresser's blood, we should not overlook the potential occupational health risks due to their high SMs ingestion rate. PMID:23849834

  7. Occupational exposure to carcinogens and risk of lung cancer: results from The Netherlands cohort study.

    PubMed Central

    van Loon, A J; Kant, I J; Swaen, G M; Goldbohm, R A; Kremer, A M; van den Brandt, P A

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate risk of lung cancers associated with common established carcinogenic occupational exposures (asbestos, paint dust, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and welding fumes) in a prospective cohort study among the general population, and to estimate the proportion of lung cancer cases attributable to these occupational exposures. METHODS: A prospective cohort study on diet, other lifestyle factors, job history, and cancer risk that started in 1986 in The Netherlands on 58,279 men, aged 55-69 years. Based on information about job history obtained from a self-administered questionnaire, case by case expert assessment was carried out to assign to each study subject a cumulative probability of occupational exposure for each carcinogenic exposure. For analysis, a case-cohort approach was used, in which the person-years at risk were estimated from a randomly selected subcohort (n = 1688). After 4.3 years of follow up, 524 lung cancer cases with complete job history were available. RESULTS: After adjustment for age, each of the other occupational exposures, and for smoking habits and intake of vitamin C, beta-carotene, and retinol, significant associations were found between risk of lung cancer and cumulative probability of occupational exposure to asbestos (relative risk (RR) highest/no exposure = 3.49, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.69 to 7.18, trend P < 0.01 or paint dust (RR highest/no exposure = 2.48, 95% CI 0.88 to 6.97, trend P < 0.01). The population attributable risks (PARs) for the four exposures based on the multivariately adjusted RRs for ever exposed versus never exposed workers were calculated. The PAR of lifetime occupational exposure to asbestos was calculated to be 11.6%. CONCLUSIONS: This prospective cohort study among the general population showed that occupational exposure to asbestos or paint dust is associated with higher RRs for lung cancer. This study shows that after adjustment for smoking and diet about 11.6% of the cases of lung cancer in men is attributable to lifetime occupational exposure to asbestos. PMID:9538355

  8. Workshop report: strategies for setting occupational exposure limits for engineered nanomaterials.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Steven C; Butala, John H; Carter, Janet M; Elder, Alison; Gordon, Terry; Gray, George; Sayre, Philip G; Schulte, Paul A; Tsai, Candace S; West, Jay

    2014-04-01

    Occupational exposure limits (OELs) are important tools for managing worker exposures to chemicals; however, hazard data for many engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) are insufficient for deriving OELs by traditional methods. Technical challenges and questions about how best to measure worker exposures to ENMs also pose barriers to implementing OELs. New varieties of ENMs are being developed and introduced into commerce at a rapid pace, further compounding the issue of OEL development for ENMs. A Workshop on Strategies for Setting Occupational Exposure Limits for Engineered Nanomaterials, held in September 2012, provided an opportunity for occupational health experts from various stakeholder groups to discuss possible alternative approaches for setting OELs for ENMs and issues related to their implementation. This report summarizes the workshop proceedings and findings, identifies areas for additional research, and suggests potential avenues for further progress on this important topic. PMID:24462629

  9. Metalworking fluid mist occupational exposure limits: a discussion of alternative methods.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Howard; White, Eugene M

    2006-09-01

    NIOSH published a recommended exposure limit (REL) for metalworking fluids (MWF) in 1998 that was designed to prevent respiratory disorders associated with these industrial lubricants. The REL of 0.4 mg/m(3) (as a time-weighted average for up to 10 hours) was for the fraction of aerosol corresponding to deposition in the thoracic region of the lungs. This nonregulatory occupational exposure limit (OEL) corresponded to approximately 0.5 mg/m(3) for total particulate mass. Although this REL was designed to prevent respiratory disorders from MWF exposures, NIOSH acknowledged that exposures below the REL may still result in occupational asthma and hypersensitivity pneumonitis--two of the most significant respiratory illnesses associated with MWF. In the 8 years since the publication of the NIOSH MWF REL, neither the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) nor the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) has recommended an exposure limit for water-soluble MWF specifically, other than their previous exposure limits for mineral oil. An informal effort to benchmark companies involved in the manufacture of automobiles and automotive parts in North America indicated that most companies are using the NIOSH MWF REL as a guide for the purchase of new equipment. Furthermore, most companies have adopted a goal to limit exposures to below 1.0 mg/m3. We failed to find any company that has strictly enforced an OEL of 1.0 mg/m(3) through the use of either administrative controls or personal protective equipment, when engineering controls failed to bring the exposures to below this limit. We also found that most companies have failed to implement specific medical surveillance programs for those employees exposed to MWF mist above 1.0 mg/m(3). Organization Resources Counselors (ORC) published in 1999 (on their website) a "best practices" manual for maintaining MWF systems and reducing the likelihood of MWF-related illnesses. The emphasis of this approach was on control techniques, and there was no assignment of a specific OEL for MWF due to the wide variety of fluids that exist. The ORC did suggest that maintaining exposure levels to below 2.0 mg/m(3) would assist in minimizing upper respiratory complaints associated with MWF. Although the ORC manual indicated that MWF vary in composition and no single OEL is likely to be appropriate for all such fluids, it adopted a very similar concept to control banding, placing all MWF operations into a single band using similar (if not identical) controls. OSHA, in lieu of adopting a 6B health standard for MWF, has also published a voluntary "best practices" manual on their website. Their document drew heavily from the work of ORC and also incorporated information from the 1998 NIOSH MWF criteria document. Industrial users of MWF need to have guidance, such as an OEL, to determine when either engineering, administrative controls, or personal protective equipment must be implemented to protect their employees. The purpose of this article is to explore various approaches that might be taken to result in a single or multiple limits for exposures to MWF and its components. Approaches such as control banding are discussed in terms of an alternative to the use of an OEL. PMID:16857649

  10. Low level exposure to chemicals and immune system

    SciTech Connect

    Colosio, C. . E-mail: claudio.colosio@icps.it; Birindelli, S.; Corsini, E.; Galli, C.L.; Maroni, M.

    2005-09-01

    Industrialized countries are facing an increase of diseases attributable to an alteration of the immune system function, and concern is growing that this trend could be at least partially attributable to new and modified patterns of exposure to chemicals. Among chemicals matter of concern, pesticides can be included. The Authors have reviewed the existing evidence of pesticide immunotoxicity in humans, showing that existing data are inadequate to raise conclusions on the immunotoxic risk related to these compounds. The limits of existing studies are: poor knowledge on exposure levels, heterogeneity of the approach, and difficulty in giving a prognostic significance to the slight changes often observed. To overcome these limits, the Authors have proposed a tier approach, based on three steps: the first, addressed at pointing out a possible immunomodulation; the second, at refining the results and the third one, when needed, to finalize the study and to point out concordance with previous results. Studies should preferably be carried out through comparison of pre- and post-exposure findings in the same groups of subjects to be examined immediately after the end of the exposure. A simplification of the first step approach can be used by the occupational health physician and the occupational toxicologist. Conclusions on the prognostic significance of the slight changes often observed will be reached only by validating the hypothesis generated by field studies with an epidemiological approach. In this field, the most useful option is represented by longitudinal perspective studies.

  11. Tinnitus and Other Auditory Problems Occupational Noise Exposure below Risk Limits May Cause Inner Ear Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Lindblad, Ann-Cathrine; Rosenhall, Ulf; Olofsson, ke; Hagerman, Bjrn

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the investigation was to study if dysfunctions associated to the cochlea or its regulatory system can be found, and possibly explain hearing problems in subjects with normal or near-normal audiograms. The design was a prospective study of subjects recruited from the general population. The included subjects were persons with auditory problems who had normal, or near-normal, pure tone hearing thresholds, who could be included in one of three subgroups: teachers, Education; people working with music, Music; and people with moderate or negligible noise exposure, Other. A fourth group included people with poorer pure tone hearing thresholds and a history of severe occupational noise, Industry. Ntotal?=?193. The following hearing tests were used: ? pure tone audiometry with Bksy technique, ? transient evoked otoacoustic emissions and distortion product otoacoustic emissions, without and with contralateral noise; ? psychoacoustical modulation transfer function, ? forward masking, ? speech recognition in noise, ? tinnitus matching. A questionnaire about occupations, noise exposure, stress/anxiety, muscular problems, medication, and heredity, was addressed to the participants. Forward masking results were significantly worse for Education and Industry than for the other groups, possibly associated to the inner hair cell area. Forward masking results were significantly correlated to louder matched tinnitus. For many subjects speech recognition in noise, left ear, did not increase in a normal way when the listening level was increased. Subjects hypersensitive to loud sound had significantly better speech recognition in noise at the lower test level than subjects not hypersensitive. Self-reported stress/anxiety was similar for all groups. In conclusion, hearing dysfunctions were found in subjects with tinnitus and other auditory problems, combined with normal or near-normal pure tone thresholds. The teachers, mostly regarded as a group exposed to noise below risk levels, had dysfunctions almost identical to those of the more exposed Industry group. PMID:24827149

  12. Benchmark guideline for urinary 1-hydroxypyrene as biomarker of occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Jongeneelen, F J

    2001-01-01

    Many individual polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are genotoxic carcinogens. One of the parent PAH, pyrene, undergoes simple metabolism to 1-hydroxypyrene. 1-Hydroxypyrene and its glucuronide are excreted in urine. Biological monitoring of exposure to PAH has rapidly been expanded since urinary 1-hydroxypyrene was suggested as a biological index of dose of pyrene. Since pyrene is always present in PAH mixtures, the biological indicator is not only an indicator of uptake of pyrene, but also an indirect indicator of all PAH. At present, several hundreds of papers reporting on urinary concentrations of 1-hydroxypyrene in workers' urine are available. It appeared that urinary 1-hydroxypyrene is a sound biomarker and that the analytical method is robust and non-laborious. Since epidemiological studies of cancer mortality related to long-term average urinary 1-hydroxypyrene concentration are lacking, a sound health-based limit value of 1-hydroxypyrene in urine cannot be set as yet. Since PAH exposure is widespread and the dermal uptake is substantial among exposed workers, an attempt was made to propose a three-level benchmark guideline for urinary 1-hydroxypyrene. The reference value as a 95th percentile in non-occupational exposed controls is 0.24 micromol mol(-1) creatinine and 0.76 micromol mol(-1) creatinine for non-smokers and smokers, respectively. This is the first level of the benchmark guideline. A no-biological-effect-level of 1-hydroxypyrene in urine of exposed workers was found at 1.4 micromol mol(-1) creatinine. It is the lowest reported level at which no genotoxic effects were found and therefore the estimate for the second level of the benchmark guideline. In two types of industry, coke ovens and primary aluminium production, the regression of airborne PAH concentrations and urinary 1-hydroxypyrene concentrations in exposed workers has been studied. The correlation of airborne concentrations and urinary 1-hydroxypyrene in urine of workers from coke ovens and in the primary aluminium industry was used to estimate the level of urinary 1-hydroxypyrene equal to the present occupational exposure limit (OEL) of PAH. The concentration of 1-hydroxypyrene in urine equal to the OEL is 2.3 micromol mol(-1) creatinine and 4.9 micromol mol(-1) creatinine, respectively, in these two industries. These latter values present the third level of the benchmark guideline. PMID:11137694

  13. Assessment of Occupational Symptoms and Chemical Exposures for Nail Salon Technicians in Daegu City, Korea

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sung-Ae; Gwak, Sugyeong

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to evaluate occupational symptoms and chemical exposures of nail salon technicians. Methods Work-related symptoms of nail salon technicians in Daegu City were surveyed using a researcher-administered questionnaire, and responses were compared to those of non-exposed office workers as controls. Personal exposure level of airborne volatile organic compounds was also monitored using passive samplers. Results A total of 159 subjects in 120 salons were interviewed. Average work-shift concentrations of 13 chemicals were measured for 50 workers from 30 salons using personal passive samplers. The most frequently reported respiratory or neurologic symptoms by nail shop technicians compared to controls were nose irritation (odds ratio [OR], 54.0; confidence interval [CI], 21.6 to 134.8), followed by headache (OR, 9.3; CI, 4.7 to 18), and throat irritation (OR, 4.3; CI, 2.2 to 8.5). For eyes and skin, 92% of respondents complained eye irritation (OR, 13.1; CI, 5.7 to 30.1). In musculoskeletal symptoms, workers reported pain or discomfort in shoulders (OR, 20.3; CI, 7.7 to 54) and neck (OR, 19.7; CI, 8.9 to 43.6). From personal measurements, the proportion of exceeding the Korean Occupational Exposure Limit was the highest for acetone with 64%, followed by toluene (50%), butyl acetate (46%), and methyl methacrylate (12%). However, the service was being provided without a proper ventilation system in most surveyed shops. Conclusions Based on these findings, it is warranted to have appropriate local exhaust ventilation place to ensure adequate health protection of nail shop technicians as well as customers. At the same time, greater policy interests are warranted in nail care business to protect health of both workers and customers. PMID:24921020

  14. [Occupational exposure-associated hematological and immunologic manifestations to the benzene-toluene-xylene (Btx) mixture].

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Haro-Garca LC; Gonzlez-Bonilla CR; Chacn-Salinas R; Prez-Lucio C; Jurez-Prez CA; Borja-Aburto VH

    2008-11-01

    Despite, the idea promoted to study occupational exposure to benzene and its mixture with toluene and xylene (BTX) because it appears to determine its toxicity and probably the production of additive effects, it persists interest to recognizing its hematological and immunotoxic effects. The fact that exposure to a sole substance in the occupational field is infrequent. Available contributions that analyze these implications are scarce, with contradictory results, and in their majority are limited to the fraction of benzene. Epidemiologic studies that have evaluated occupational exposure to any of the BTX fractions have been based on personal monitoring, while others have characterized this heterogeneously and are accompanied by weaker proposals. The conformation of specific methods to stimulate occupational exposure to the BTX mixture would contribute to its homogenization and allow for a more integral view in terms of determining BTX exposure. On the other hand, the application of BTX exposure biomarkers has been questioned in studies contemplating the specific biological effects of reference-associated chronic exposure. Analysis of the hematological and immunologic manifestations associated BTX mixture is based on information that is unclear, controversial, or even speculative to date.

  15. Neuropsychological effects of low-level manganese exposure in welders.

    PubMed

    Laohaudomchok, Wisanti; Lin, Xihong; Herrick, Robert F; Fang, Shona C; Cavallari, Jennifer M; Shrairman, Ruth; Landau, Alexander; Christiani, David C; Weisskopf, Marc G

    2011-03-01

    While the neuropsychological effects of high manganese (Mn) exposure in occupational settings are well known, the effects of lower levels of exposure are less understood. In this study, we investigated the neuropsychological effects of lower level occupational Mn exposure in 46 male welders (mean age=37.4, S.D.=11.7 years). Each welders' cumulative Mn exposure indices (Mn-CEI) for the past 12 months and total work history Mn exposure were constructed based on air Mn measurements and work histories. The association between these exposure indices and performance on cognitive, motor control, and psychological tests was examined. In addition, among a subset of welders (n=24) who completed the tests both before and after a work shift, we examined the association between cross-shift Mn exposure assessed from personal monitoring and acute changes in test scores. Mn exposures in this study (median=12.9 ?g/m) were much lower, as compared to those observed in other similar studies. Increasing total Mn-CEI was significantly associated with slower reaction time on the continuous performance test (CPT; p<0.01), as well as worse mood for several scales on the Profile of Mood States (POMS; confused, tired, and a composite of tired and energetic, all p ? 0.03). Increasing Mn-CEI over the previous 12 months was significantly associated with worse mood on the sad, tense, and confused POMS scales (all p ? 0.03) and the association with worse CPT performance approached significance (p=0.10). Higher Mn exposure over the course of a workday was associated with worse performance on the CPT test across the day (p=0.06) as well as declines in fine motor control over the work-shift (p=0.04), adjusting for age and time between the 2 tests. Our study suggests that even at relatively low Mn exposure levels neuropsychological effects may manifest particularly with respect to attention, mood, and fine motor control. PMID:21192973

  16. Neuropsychological Effects of Low-Level Manganese Exposure in Welders

    PubMed Central

    Laohaudomchok, Wisanti; Lin, Xihong; Herrick, Robert F.; Fang, Shona C.; Cavallari, Jennifer M.; Shrairman, Ruth; Landau, Alexander; Christiani, David C.; Weisskopf, Marc G.

    2011-01-01

    While the neuropsychological effects of high manganese (Mn) exposure in occupational settings are well known, the effects of lower levels of exposure are less understood. In this study, we investigated the neuropsychological effects of lower level occupational Mn exposure in 46 male welders (mean age = 37.4, sd = 11.7 years). Each welders’ cumulative Mn exposure indices (Mn-CEI) for the past 12 months and total work history Mn exposure were constructed based on air Mn measurements and work histories. The association between these exposure indices and performance on cognitive, motor control, and psychological tests was examined. In addition, among a subset of welders (n=24) who completed the tests both before and after a work shift, we examined the association between cross-shift Mn exposure assessed from personal monitoring and acute changes in test scores. Mn exposures in this study (median = 12.9 μg/m3) were much lower, as compared to those observed in other similar studies. Increasing total Mn-CEI was significantly associated with slower reaction time on the continuous performance test (CPT; p<0.01), as well as worse mood for several scales on the Profile of Mood States (POMS; confused, tired, and a composite of tired and energetic, all p≤0.03). Increasing Mn-CEI over the previous 12 months was significantly associated with worse mood on the sad, tense, and confused POMS scales (all p≤0.03) and the association with worse CPT performance approached significance (p=0.10). Higher Mn exposure over the course of a workday was associated with worse performance on the CPT test across the day (p=0.06) as well as declines in fine motor control over the work-shift (p=0.04), adjusting for age and time between the 2 tests. Our study suggests that even at relatively low Mn exposure levels neuropsychological effects may manifest particularly with respect to attention, mood, and fine motor control. PMID:21192973

  17. Smoking and degree of occupational exposure: are internal analyses in cohort studies likely to be confounded by smoking status

    SciTech Connect

    Siemiatycki, J.; Wacholder, S.; Dewar, R.; Wald, L.; Begin, D.; Richardson, L.; Rosenman, K.; Gerin, M.

    1988-01-01

    Occupational cohort studies are usually carried out without the benefit of information on smoking habits of cohort members. One common approach to avoid confounding bias related to smoking habits is to carry out an internal analysis, comparing workers with different degrees of occupational exposure. The premise behind this approach is that within a cohort there is unlikely to be correlation between degree of exposure and smoking habits. If this were untrue, smoking could confound the disease-exposure relationships. Our purpose was to verify the premise. The study sample consisted of 857 French-Canadian men born between 1910 and 1930, with 11 or fewer years of education, and interviewed around 1980 in the context of an occupational cancer case-control study. For each man we had information on smoking habits, job history, and a history of the chemicals he was exposed to in each of his jobs. We computed two indices of the dirtiness of workers' job histories: one based on the job titles held by the man and a second based on the degree of exposures to workplace substances. There was no correlation between these indices of job dirtiness and smoking history. We also examined the smoking-exposure relationship among the subsets of men who had been occupationally exposed to ten especially noticeable substances. Within the subsets, there was no indication of a consistent difference among the smoking subgroups in level or duration of exposure to these index substances. These findings do not support the view that nonsmokers sought out cleaner job environments than smokers; they imply that internal analyses of dose-response in cohort studies are unlikely to be seriously confounded by smoking habits.

  18. Feasibility of determining Pu-239 environmental and occupational levels in urinary excretion by fission track analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Krahenbuhl, M.P.; Seiger-Webster, C.M.; Henderson, C.L.; Smith, R.B.

    1997-03-01

    The results of bioassay programs for detecting human exposure to plutonium are currently playing a role that they were never intended or prepared to fulfill. With little resistance or support from the scientific community, the regulatory community established exposure limits for plutonium burdens based largely on imprecise inference of causes and effects; thus, to an extent, incomplete data and analysis formed the basis for most existing bioassay programs. At the