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1

Exposure Measurement Action Level and Occupational Environmental Variability.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The proposed Occupational Safety and Health Administration Health Standards define an exposure measurement action level as one half of the current permissible exposure limits. The action level is the point at which certain provisions of the proposed stand...

N. A. Leidel K. A. Busch W. E. Crouse

1975-01-01

2

Occupational radiation exposures associated with alternative methods of low-level waste disposal  

SciTech Connect

The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments (LLRWPA) Act of 1985 assigns the responsibility for disposal of low-level radioactive wastes to individual states. The Act also mandates that the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), in consultation with states and other interested parties, identify disposal methods other than shallow land burial (SLB), the method currently used at the three low-level waste (LLW) disposal sites operating in the United States. The NRC contracted with Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to compare projected occupational exposures associated with the SLB method and five alternative disposal methods, including below ground vaults (BGV), above ground vaults (AGV), earth mounded concrete bunkers (EMCB), augured holes (AH) and minded cavities (MC). This report is intended to inform state and local governments about these projected exposures in anticipation of their participation in siting new low-level waste disposal facilities. The results of this study suggest that, with the design and operation assumptions made in this study, occupational dose equivalents for the five methods examined in detail would be highest for the EMCB method (1.81 person-mrem/m/sup 3/ of waste disposed). The lowest occupational dose equivalents would occur for the AH method (1.29 person-mrem/m/sup 3/). Projected occupational dose equivalents for SLB, BGV, and AGV disposal methods are 1.38, 1.47, and 1.61 person-mrem/m/sup 3/, respectively. Based on simularities between the reference BGV and MC facilities, it was projected that the occupational dose equivalents for a MC facility would be 40% higher than for the reference BGV facility. 17 refs., 15 figs., 13 tabs.

Herrington, W.N.; Harty, R.; Merwin, S.E.

1987-05-01

3

Occupational exposure of dentists to electromagnetic fields produced by magnetostrictive cavitrons alters the serum cortisol level  

PubMed Central

Objectives: Some studies indicate that dentistry is one of the job categories with high potential exposure to elevated levels of extremely low frequency magnetic fields. In spite of this, information on occupational exposure of dentists to these fields is scarce. Studies on other common sources of electromagnetic fields (EMFs) such as mobile base stations have shown alterations in the cortisol level following exposure of humans to these sources. The aim of this study is to compare the level of cortisol among dentists and dentistry students who are being occupationally exposed to EMFs emitted by magnetostrictive cavitrons (case group) and among their counterparts who are not being exposed to these fields (control group). Materials and Methods: In this case–control study, blood samples were collected from 41 dentists and dentistry students, 21 of whom were exposed to EMFs emitted by cavitrons as the case group and 20 who were not exposed as the control group, twice; i.e. before work (at 8:30–9:30 a.m.) and after work (11:30–12:30 a.m.). The samples were coded and the serum cortisol level was investigated using the ELISA method (Cortisol AccuBind ELISA Kits). Results: The serum cortisol level of dentists and dental students in the morning (before starting the work) in the control group was 189.15 ± 110.70 (mean ± SD) whereas it was 157.77 ± 112.03 in those who were occupationally exposed to EMFs produced by the use of cavitrons. This difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.373). In contrast, the serum cortisol level of the participants in the noon (after stopping the work) in the control group was 136.25 ± 67.91 (mean ± SD) while it was 88.58 ± 52.83 in those who were occupationally exposed to EMFs produced by the use of cavitrons. This time, the observed difference was statistically significant (P = 0.016). In this light, while the difference between serum cortisol levels of dentists and dental students in the morning and after stopping the work was not statistically significant (P = 0.06), in the EMF-exposed group the cortisol level decreased significantly from 157.77 ± 112.03 in the morning to 88.58 ± 52.83 in the noon (P = 0.001). Conclusions: As far as we know, this is the first study that evaluated the effect of occupational exposure of dentists to EMFs on their serum cortisol level. The EMFs produced by magnetostrictive cavitrons can decrease the serum cortisol level in dentists. As cortisol plays an important role in blood pressure regulation, cardiovascular, and immune system function, a low cortisol level may threaten health. More studies are needed to clearly understand the effects of EMFs emitted by magnetostrictive cavitron on the level of stress hormones. As some studies have shown that exposure to EMFs has no effect on the cortisol level, whereas other studies reported either an increase or a decrease in the cortisol level, it can be concluded that the effects of exposure to EMFs may occur only at specific absorbed energies or energy absorption rates (usually known as window) similar to that exists in the case of exposure to the low doses of ionizing radiations.

Mortazavi, S. M. J.; Vazife-Doost, S.; Yaghooti, M.; Mehdizadeh, S.; Rajaie-Far, A.

2012-01-01

4

Occupational exposure in MRI  

PubMed Central

This article reviews occupational exposure in clinical MRI; it specifically considers units of exposure, basic physical interactions, health effects, guideline limits, dosimetry, results of exposure surveys, calculation of induced fields and the status of the European Physical Agents Directive. Electromagnetic field exposure in MRI from the static field B0, imaging gradients and radiofrequency transmission fields induces electric fields and currents in tissue, which are responsible for various acute sensory effects. The underlying theory and its application to the formulation of incident and induced field limits are presented. The recent International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) Bundesministerium für Arbeit und Soziales and Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers limits for incident field exposure are interpreted in a manner applicable to MRI. Field measurements show that exposure from movement within the B0 fringe field can exceed ICNIRP reference levels within 0.5 m of the bore entrance. Rate of change of field dB/dt from the imaging gradients is unlikely to exceed the new limits, although incident field limits can be exceeded for radiofrequency (RF) exposure within 0.2–0.5 m of the bore entrance. Dosimetric surveys of routine clinical practice show that staff are exposed to peak values of 42±24% of B0, with time-averaged exposures of 5.2±2.8 mT for magnets in the range 0.6–4 T. Exposure to time-varying fields arising from movement within the B0 fringe resulted in peak dB/dt of approximately 2 T s?1. Modelling of induced electric fields from the imaging gradients shows that ICNIRP-induced field limits are unlikely to be exceeded in most situations; however, movement through the static field may still present a problem. The likely application of the limits is discussed with respect to the reformulation of the European Union (EU) directive and its possible implications for MRI.

Mcrobbie, D W

2012-01-01

5

[Assessment of occupational exposure to aromatic polycyclic hydrocarbons determining urinary levels of 1-pyrenol].  

PubMed

In conformity with Italian law 626/94, occupational exposure to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH) in several types of work environments was assessed by analysing urinary levels of 1-pyrenol. A total of 231 non-smokers exposed to PAH (82 workers, employed in two different thermoelectric power plants using combustible oil (30 subjects from plant A and 52 from plant B), 18 subjects working for a company recovering exhausted oils, 12 working on rubber production, 10 on road surface asphalting operations, 22 working in the anodizing section of an aluminium plant, 27 chimney-sweeps, and 60 coke-oven workers (30 topside workers, and 30 doing other jobs)) were enrolled. There were also 53 non-smoker control subjects, not occupationally exposed to PAH. Current smokers were excluded, since smoking is an important confounding factor when occupational exposure to low PAH concentrations are monitored. Confounding factors, i.e., diet and passive smoking, were checked by means of a questionnaire which, in addition to personal data and habits, also requested specific details about the type of diet followed and possible exposure to passive smoking during the 24-hour period preceding urine collection. In controls, exposure to PAH in the diet significantly increased 1-pyrenol levels in urine: in subjects introducing > or = 1 microgram of pyrene with the diet, the mean urinary level of 1-pyrenol was significantly higher than that introduced with < 1 microgram (high versus low dietary intake, mean +/- SD, 0.08 +/- 0.13 and 0.04 +/- 0.06 1-pyrenol mumoles/mole of creatinine, respectively; Mann-Whitney U-test Z = 2.67, p < 0.01). Conversely, passive smoking did not influence 1-pyrenol levels. In the overall population (controls and exposed), multiple linear regression analysis showed that levels of urinary 1-pyrenol were significantly influenced by occupational exposure to PAH in asphalt workers, anodizing plant workers, chimney-sweeps, and coke-oven workers, both those working at the top side of the oven and those doing other jobs (t = 2.19, p = 0.02; t = 2.56, p = 0.01; t = 5.25, p = 0.001; t = 3.34, p = 0.001; t = 7.82, p = 0.001, respectively; F = 9.7, p < 0.01), but not in power plant workers in contact with combustible oils, workers recovering exhausted oils, or rubber production workers. Diet and passive smoking did not influence urinary 1-pyrenol levels in the entire sample population. This biomarker also allowed an assessment of exposure levels among certainly exposed subjects. The percentage of subjects with urinary 1-pyrenol values higher than the 99th percentile of the reference population (0.67 mumoles 1-pyrenol/mole of creatinine) was significantly higher than that of controls in asphalt workers (20%), anodizing plant workers (14%), chimney-sweeps (13%) and coke-oven workers (33%) (chi-square test: asphalt workers = 6.1, p = 0.01; anodizing plant workers = 4.3, p = 0.04; chimney-sweeps = 7.1, p = 0.008; coke-oven workers with other duties = 4.4, p = 0.04; top side workers = 16.5, p < 0.001). In chimney sweeps and top side workers, respectively 2 and 4 subjects (7% and 13%) exceeded the precautionary level of 1.4 mumoles 1-pyrenol/mole of creatinine; of these, 1 chimney sweep and 3 top side workers (4% and 10%) exceeded the recommended biological threshold of 2.3 mumoles 1-pyrenol/mole of creatinine. PMID:10965668

Pavanello, S; Genova, A; Foà, V; Clonfero, E

2000-01-01

6

Assessing risks from occupational exposure to low-level radiation: The statistician's role  

SciTech Connect

Currently, several epidemiological studies of workers who have been exposed occupationally to radiation are being conducted. These include workers in the United States, Great Britain, and Canada, involved in the production of both defense materials and nuclear power. A major reason for conducting these studies is to evaluate possible adverse health effects that may have resulted because of the radiation exposure received. The general subject of health effects resulting from low levels of radiation, including these worker studies, has attracted the attention of various news media, and has been the subject of considerable controversy. These studies provide a good illustration of certain other aspects of the statistician's role; namely, communication and adequate subject matter knowledge. A competent technical job is not sufficient if these other aspects are not fulfilled.

Gilbert, E.S.

1989-06-01

7

Evolution of occupational exposure to environmental levels of aromatic hydrocarbons in service stations.  

PubMed

During refuelling, people may easily be exposed to extremely high levels of gasoline vapour for a short time, although such exposure takes on more importance in the case of service station attendants. The volume of gasoline sold in refuelling operations and the ambient temperature can significantly increase the environmental level of benzene, toluene and xylene (BTX) vapours and, subsequently, the occupational risk of service station attendants. This is especially true in the case of benzene, the most important component of gasoline vapours from a toxicological point of view. The European Directive 98/70/EC, limiting the benzene composition of gasoline, and 94/63/EC, concerning the use of vapour recovery systems in the delivery of gasoline to services stations, were applied in Spain from January 2000 and 2002, respectively. In addition, a new limit value for occupational exposure of 3.25 mg/m(3) was fixed for benzene in Directive 97/42/EC, applied from June 2003. However, recent years have seen the growing use of diesel as well as of unleaded and reformulated gasoline. In this study, we analyse the differences found between air concentration levels of BTXs in 2000 and 2003, analysing samples taken from the personal breathing-zone of occupationally exposed workers in service stations. The results are compared with those obtained in a similar study carried out in 1995 (before the new regulations came into force). The study was carried out in two phases. The first phase was carried out in 2000, after application of the new legal regulation limiting the benzene concentration in gasoline. In this case, an occupationally exposed population of 28 service station attendants was sampled in July, with a mean ambient temperature of 30-31 degrees C. In the second phase, 19 exposed subjects were sampled in July 2003, one of the warmest months in recent years with mean temperatures of 35-36 degrees C during the time of exposure monitoring. The results were then compared with those obtained in 1995, for similar summer weather conditions (environmental temperature between 28 and 30 degrees C). A significant relationship between the volume of gasoline sold and the ambient concentration of aromatic hydrocarbons was found for each worker sampled in all three of the years. Furthermore, a significant decrease in the environmental levels of BTXs was observed after January 2000, especially in the case of benzene, with mean time-weighted average concentrations for 8 h of 736 microg/m(3) (range 272-1603) in 1995, 241 microg/m(3) (range 115-453) in 2000 and 163 microg/m(3) (range 36-564) in 2003, despite the high temperatures reached in the last mentioned year. PMID:15650017

Periago, J F; Prado, C

2005-04-01

8

Occupational exposure to manganese.  

PubMed Central

The relationship between the degree of exposure and biological effects of manganese was studied in a group of 369 workers employed in the production of ferroalloys. Two other groups of workers, from an electrode plant and from an aluminium rolling mill, served as controls. Mean manganese concentrations at work places where ferroalloys were produced varied from 0-301 to 20-442 mg/m3. The exposure level of the two control groups was from 2 to 30 microgram/m3 and from 0-05 to 0-07 microgram/m3, in the electrode plant and rolling mill respectively. Sixty-two (16-8%) manganese alloy workers showed some signs of neurological impairment. These signs were noticeably less in the two control groups (5-8% and 0%) than in the occupationally exposed group. Subjective symptoms, which are nonspecific but may be symptoms of subclinical manganism, were not markedly different in the three groups. However, in the manganese alloy workers some of the subjective symptoms occurred more frequently in heavier smokers than in light smokers or nonsmokers. Heavier smokers engaged in manganese alloy production showed some of the subjective symptoms more often than heavier smokers from the control groups.

Saric, M; Markicevic, A; Hrustic, O

1977-01-01

9

The effect of occupational lead exposure on blood levels of zinc, iron, copper, selenium and related proteins.  

PubMed

The study objective was to evaluate the effect of occupational lead exposure on blood concentrations of zinc, iron, copper, selenium and proteins related to them, such as transferrin, caeruloplasmin and haptoglobin. The examined group consisted of 192 healthy male employees of zinc-lead works. By the degree of lead exposure, the exposed group was subdivided into three subgroups. The control group was composed of 73 healthy male administrative workers. The markers of lead exposure (blood levels of lead and zinc protoporphyrin) were significantly elevated in the exposed group compared with the control group. Additionally, concentrations of copper and caeruloplasmin were raised. The significant increase in haptoglobin level was observed only in the low exposure group. Selenium levels were significantly decreased, whereas iron, zinc and transferrin levels were unchanged in the exposed group compared with the control group. There were positive correlations between the lead toxicity parameters and the copper and caeruloplasmin levels. In conclusion, the effect of occupational exposure to lead on the metabolism of trace metals appears to be limited. However, significant associations between lead exposure and levels of copper and selenium were shown. Changed levels of positive acute-phase proteins, such as caeruloplasmin and haptoglobin, were also observed. PMID:22923205

Kasperczyk, Aleksandra; Prokopowicz, Adam; Dobrakowski, Micha?; Pawlas, Natalia; Kasperczyk, S?awomir

2012-12-01

10

Blood nickel and chromium levels in association with smoking and occupational exposure among head and neck cancer patients in Tunisia.  

PubMed

Chronic exposure to chromium (Cr) and nickel (Ni) has long been recognized as being capable to increase head and neck cancer (HNC) incidence among exposed human populations. This study represents the first biomonitoring of Cr and Ni exposure in Tunisia and focuses on a possible association with HNC risk. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the concentrations of Cr and Ni in the blood of HNC patients and controls. Metals blood levels of 169 HNC patients and 351 controls were determined using a Perkin-Elmer Analyst 800 Atomic Absorption Spectrometer. Mean blood levels of Cr and Ni in HNC cases (52.15 and 111.60 ?g/L, respectively) were significantly higher than those of controls (37.04 and 30.50 ?g/L, respectively). Cases' blood levels of Cr and Ni were significantly higher than those of controls after controlling for the other risk factors of HNC, including smoking, shisha consumption, occupational exposure, and nearby environment (P<0.05). Among these risk factors, smoking and occupational exposure presented the most significant association with HNC (odds ratio (OR)=6.54 and 7.66, respectively, P<0.001). Cr and Ni levels in blood sample of cases and controls that are smoker/occupationally exposed were higher than that of non-smoker/non-occupationally exposed (P<0.05). Smokers who are occupationally exposed present the most significant association with HNC (OR=25.08, P<0.0001). High levels of blood Cr (OR=2.09) and high levels of blood Ni (OR=8.87) were strongly associated with HNC after other potential confounders were controlled (P=0.004 and P<0.0001, respectively). This study suggested a potential role of Cr and Ni in the mechanism of HNC development. PMID:23625117

Khlifi, Rim; Olmedo, Pablo; Gil, Fernando; Feki-Tounsi, Molka; Chakroun, Amine; Rebai, Ahmed; Hamza-Chaffai, Amel

2013-11-01

11

Occupational exposure to antineoplastic agents induces a high level of chromosome damage. Lack of an effect of GST polymorphisms  

SciTech Connect

The aim of our study was to investigate whether occupational exposure to antineoplastic drugs (AND) resulted in genetic damage, possibly indicative of adverse health effects in the long term. We performed a chromosomal aberrations (CA) analysis in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) of a group of 76 trained nurses occupationally exposed to AND. Furthermore, we analysed whether genetic polymorphisms in four metabolic genes of the glutathione S-transferase (GST) family involved in antineoplastic drugs detoxification (GSTM1, GSTT1, GSTP1, GSTA1) had any effect on the yield of chromosomal aberrations in nurses exposed to antineoplastic agents. The exposed group showed a very significant increase of genetic damage (p < 0.0001) potentially indicative of an increased risk of cancer. Unexpectedly, besides the elevated level of chromatid-type aberrations usually related to exposure to chemical agents, we found also severe chromosome damages such as chromosome deletions and dicentric chromosomes, usually related to radiation exposure. No significant association was detected between all GSTs genotypes and chromosome damage. In conclusion, our data show how the occupational exposure to AND is associated to a potential cancer risk, suggesting that current prevention methods do not completely eliminate opportunities for exposure and supporting the need to improve the actual safety practices.

Testa, Antonella [Section of Toxicology and Biomedical Sciences, ENEA Research Center, Casaccia, Via Anguillarese 301, 00060, Rome (Italy)], E-mail: antonella.testa@casaccia.enea.it; Giachelia, Manuela; Palma, Selena; Appolloni, Massimo [Section of Toxicology and Biomedical Sciences, ENEA Research Center, Casaccia, Via Anguillarese 301, 00060, Rome (Italy); Padua, Luca [Fondazione Don Carlo Gnocchi, Via Maresciallo Caviglia 30, 00194, Rome (Italy); Tranfo, Giovanna; Spagnoli, Mariangela [Occupational Hygiene Department, Institute for Occupational Health and Safety, Rome (Italy); Tirindelli, Donatella [Section of Toxicology and Biomedical Sciences, ENEA Research Center, Casaccia, Via Anguillarese 301, 00060, Rome (Italy); Cozzi, Renata [Department of Biology, University of Rome 'Roma Tre', Viale Marconi 446, 00146, Rome (Italy)

2007-08-15

12

NATIONAL OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE SURVEY (NOES)  

EPA Science Inventory

From 1981 to 1983, NIOSH conducted the National Occupational Exposure Survey (NOES) that collected data on potential occupational exposures to chemical, physical, and biological agents. The survey involved on-site visits to 4,490 establishments in 522 industry types [OMB 1972] em...

13

Occupational exposures associated with petroleum-derived products containing trace levels of benzene.  

PubMed

Benzene may be present as a trace impurity or residual component of mixed petroleum products due to refining processes. In this article, the authors review the historical benzene content of various petroleum-derived products and characterize the airborne concentrations of benzene associated with the typical handling or use of these products in the United States, based on indoor exposure modeling and industrial hygiene air monitoring data collected since the late 1970s. Analysis showed that products that normally contained less than 0.1% v/v benzene, such as paints and paint solvents, printing solvents and inks, cutting and honing oils, adhesives, mineral spirits and degreasers, and jet fuel typically have yielded time-weighted average (TWA) airborne concentrations of benzene in the breathing zone and surrounding air ranging on average from <0.01 to 0.3 ppm. Except for a limited number of studies where the benzene content of the product was not confirmed to be <0.1% v/v, airborne benzene concentrations were also less than current occupational exposure limits (e.g., threshold limit value of 0.5 ppm and permissible exposure limit of 1.0 ppm) based on exceedance fraction calculations. Exposure modeling using Monte Carlo techniques also predicted 8-hr TWA near field airborne benzene concentrations ranging from 0.002 to 0.4 ppm under three hypothetical solvent use scenarios involving mineral spirits. The overall weight-of-evidence indicates that the vast majority of products manufactured in the United States after about 1978 contained <0.1% v/v benzene, and 8-hr TWA airborne concentrations of benzene in the workplace during the use of these products would not have been expected to exceed 0.5 ppm under most product use scenarios. [Supplementary materials are available for this article. Go to the publisher's online edition of Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene for the following free supplemental resource: a document containing exposure modeling scenarios and results, historical benzene content of petroleum-derived products, and air monitoring results.]. PMID:18615290

Williams, Pamela R D; Panko, Julie M; Unice, Ken; Brown, Jay L; Paustenbach, Dennis J

2008-09-01

14

Occupational exposure and lung cancer  

PubMed Central

Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death for male and the second most usual cancer for women after breast cancer. Currently there are available several non-specific cytotoxic agents and several targeted agents for lung cancer therapy. However; early stage diagnosis is still unavailable and several efforts are being made towards this direction. Novel biomarkers are being investigated along with new biopsy techniques. The occupational and environmental exposure to carcinogenic agents is an everyday phenomenon. Therefore until efficient early diagnosis is available, avoidance of exposure to carcinogenic agents is necessary. In the current mini-review occupational and environmental carcinogenic agents will be presented.

Spyratos, Dionysios; Porpodis, Konstantinos; Tsakiridis, Kosmas; Machairiotis, Nikolaos; Katsikogiannis, Nikolaos; Kougioumtzi, Ioanna; Dryllis, Georgios; Kallianos, Anastasios; Rapti, Aggeliki; Li, Chen; Zarogoulidis, Konstantinos

2013-01-01

15

Occupational cancer in Britain. Exposure assessment methodology.  

PubMed

To estimate the current occupational cancer burden due to past exposures in Britain, estimates of the number of exposed workers at different levels are required, as well as risk estimates of cancer due to the exposures. This paper describes the methods and results for estimating the historical exposures. All occupational carcinogens or exposure circumstances classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer as definite or probable human carcinogens and potentially to be found in British workplaces over the past 20-40 years were included in this study. Estimates of the number of people exposed by industrial sector were based predominantly on two sources of data, the CARcinogen EXposure (CAREX) database and the UK Labour Force Survey. Where possible, multiple and overlapping exposures were taken into account. Dose-response risk estimates were generally not available in the epidemiological literature for the cancer-exposure pairs in this study, and none of the sources available for obtaining the numbers exposed provided data by different levels of exposure. Industrial sectors were therefore assigned using expert judgement to 'higher'- and 'lower'-exposure groups based on the similarity of exposure to the population in the key epidemiological studies from which risk estimates had been selected. Estimates of historical exposure prevalence were obtained for 41 carcinogens or occupational circumstances. These include exposures to chemicals and metals, combustion products, other mixtures or groups of chemicals, mineral and biological dusts, physical agents and work patterns, as well as occupations and industries that have been associated with increased risk of cancer, but for which the causative agents are unknown. There were more than half a million workers exposed to each of six carcinogens (radon, solar radiation, crystalline silica, mineral oils, non-arsenical insecticides and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin); other agents to which a large number of workers are exposed included benzene, diesel engine exhaust and environmental tobacco smoke. The study has highlighted several industrial sectors with large proportions of workers potentially exposed to multiple carcinogens. The relevant available data have been used to generate estimates of the prevalence of past exposure to occupational carcinogens to enable the occupational cancer burden in Britain to be estimated. These data are considered adequate for the present purpose, but new data on the prevalence and intensity of current occupational exposure to carcinogens should be collected to ensure that future policy decisions be based on reliable evidence. PMID:22710674

Van Tongeren, Martie; Jimenez, Araceli S; Hutchings, Sally J; MacCalman, Laura; Rushton, Lesley; Cherrie, John W

2012-06-19

16

Occupational Surveillance for Spaceflight Exposures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This slide presentation reviews the importance of longterm occupational health surveillance of astronauts after exposure to the possible hazards of spaceflight. Because there is not much information about long term effects of spaceflight on human health, it is important to identify some of the possible results of exposure to the many possible factors that can influence longterm health impacts. This surveillance also allows for NASA to meet the obligation to care for the astronauts for their lifetime.

Tarver, William J.

2010-01-01

17

Occupational exposure and malignant lymphoma.  

PubMed

The incidence of malignant lymphoma, especially non-Hodgkin's lymphoma has increased over the last few decades. This statement is true despite the fact that methods for diagnosing malignant lymphoma have changed and misclassification has become a problem. The present review is mainly concerned with occupational aspects of malignant lymphoma. Several subsequent studies have dealt with malignant lymphoma among woodworkers and pulp and paper mill workers pointing to increased risks. Exposure to phenoxy herbicides have provided reasonable evidence to be connected with an increased risk of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, whereas there is limited information regarding Hodgkin's disease. The relationship between solvent exposure and malignant lymphoma has been observed in a great number of studies. It is, however, still hard to identify specific solvent compounds responsible for the increased risk. Other occupational exposures i.e. wood preservatives, welding, asbestos, hair dyes and exposure to animal viruses among meatworkers and veterinarians have also been studied in relation to malignant lymphoma. This review shows that occupational factors, especially exposure to solvents and phenoxy herbicides and also to wood, play a role in the epidemiology of malignant lymphoma. PMID:9117190

Persson, B

1996-01-01

18

Occupational Exposure to Acrylamide in Closed System Production Plants: Air Levels and Biomonitoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to evaluate biomarkers of acrylamide exposure, including hemoglobin adducts and urinary metabolites in acrylamide production workers. Biomarkers are integrated measures of the internal dose, and it is total acrylamide dose from all routes and sources that may present health risks. Workers from three companies were studied. Workers potentially exposed to acrylamide monomer wore personal

William J. Moorman; Susan S. Reutman; Peter B. Shaw; Leo Michael Blade; David Marlow; Hubert Vesper; John C. Clark; Steven M. Schrader

2012-01-01

19

Proposal for single and mixture biological exposure limits for sevoflurane and nitrous oxide at low occupational exposure levels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. Assessment of individual exposures to sevoflurane plus nitrous oxide (N2O) by biological monitoring of unmodified analytes in post-shift urine of exposed personnel. Methods. Anaesthetics in urine and breathing area were monitored in 124 subjects in 11 operating theatres. Passive samplers were collected after 2.5-7 h of exposure, at the same time as post-shift urinary samples, to evaluate the individual

Antonio Accorsi; Simona Valenti; Anna Barbieri; Giovanni Battista Raffi; Francesco Saverio Violante

2003-01-01

20

Non-occupational exposure to silica dust  

PubMed Central

Occupational exposure to silica occurs at workplaces in factories like quartz crushing facilities (silica flour milling), agate, ceramic, slate pencil, glass, stone quarries and mines, etc., Non-occupational exposure to silica dust can be from industrial sources in the vicinity of the industry as well as non-industrial sources. Recently, public concern regarding non-occupational or ambient exposure to crystalline silica has emerged making it important to gather information available on non-occupational exposures to silica dust and non-occupational silicosis. This paper reviews various non-occupational exposures reported in literature including some studies by the author. Methodology used in assessment of non-occupational exposures, standards for non-occupational exposures to silica dust and indirect estimation of cumulative risk % are also discussed.

Bhagia, L. J.

2012-01-01

21

[The influence of occupational exposure to manganese on levels of serum lysozyme].  

PubMed

The serum lysozyme level of workers engaged in the production of iron-manganese alloys was observed. The lysozyme level was statistically significantly increased compared with the control group. There was no evidence with age and years of work. PMID:8834628

Misiewicz, A; Jele?, B; Radwan, K; Karmoli?ski, M; Dziewit, T

1995-01-01

22

Pancreatic cancer and occupational exposures.  

PubMed

We conducted a nationwide case-control study in Finland to identify occupational risk factors for pancreatic cancer. We constructed the occupational exposure histories for 595 incident cases of primary exocrinic cancer of the pancreas and of 1,622 cancer controls, using three different methods. We found elevated odds ratios (OR) for ionizing radiation [OR = 4.3; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.6-11.4], nonchlorinated solvents (OR = 1.6-1.8), and pesticides (OR = 1.7; 95% CI = 0.8-3.4). Asbestos, chromates, cleaning agents, waxes, polishes, and most other exposures were not meaningfully associated with pancreatic cancer. Inorganic dust containing crystalline silica (OR = 2.0; 95% CI = 1.2-3.5), heat stress (OR = 2.2; 95% CI = 0.8-6.6), and rubber chemicals including acrylonitrile (OR = 2.1; 95% CI = 0.9-4.7) emerged as previously unsuspected risk factors. Occupational exposure probably has a small role in the etiology of pancreatic cancer in the present-day industrialized or postindustrial work environment. PMID:8562625

Kauppinen, T; Partanen, T; Degerth, R; Ojajärvi, A

1995-09-01

23

[Isocyanates: occupational exposures and disorders].  

PubMed

Isocyanates are extensively used for the production of different foams and elastomers. They also serve as glues, lacquer hardeners, inks, adhesives, fillers, finishes, sealants, coating and insulation materials. Usually, their application results in inhalative, partly also in cutaneous uptake. This review describes occupational exposures to isocyanates as well as hazardous effects. Isocyanates are used in the automotive/mechanical engineering/building and construction/mining/casting/electricity and electronic/plastics/printing/timber and furniture/white goods and textile industry, partly also in medicine. Hazardous exposures to thermal degradation products of isocyanate-based polyurethanes and other materials have also be taken into consideration. Obstructive airway diseases are the major disorder caused by isocyanates. Rare cases suffer from extrinsic allergic alveolitis or eczema. In addition to regulation-based primary prevention qualitative medical surveillance mostly prevents disorders. There is also a need for the establishment of a validated biomonitoring of endangered employees. PMID:13680473

Baur, X

2003-09-01

24

Olfactory impairment after chronic occupational cadmium exposure.  

PubMed

Disorders of olfaction affect millions of Americans, but the extent to which occupational and environmental exposures contribute to these disorders is unknown. We examined 55 workers with chronic occupational exposure to cadmium fumes in a brazing operation. We estimated cadmium body burden using urinary cadmium levels and assessed cadmium-induced renal damage by urinary beta 2-microglobulin levels. We quantified olfactory function using a standardized test that measured two components of olfaction, butanol detection threshold and odor identification, and compared workers with a reference group. Forty-four percent of the cadmium-exposed workers were mildly hyposmic, and 13% were either moderately or severely hyposmic. In the reference group, 31% were mildly hyposmic, and the rest were normosmic. The workers with both high urinary cadmium levels and tubular proteinuria had the most significant olfactory dysfunction, with a selective defect in odor detection threshold. Our findings suggest that chronic occupational cadmium exposure sufficient to cause renal damage also is associated with impairment in olfactory function. PMID:1619490

Rose, C S; Heywood, P G; Costanzo, R M

1992-06-01

25

Methyl isobutyl ketone and methyl ethyl ketone in urine as biological markers of occupational exposure to these solvents at low levels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. To examine whether unmetabolized methyl isobutyl ketone in urine is a useful marker of low-level occupational exposure to this ketone solvent, as is the case for methyl ethyl ketone. Methods. The study was conducted in the second half of a working week. In total, 27 furniture-making workers (19 men and eight women) and 11 non-exposed controls (six men and

T. Kawai; Z.-W. Zhang; A. Takeuchi; Y. Miyama; K. Sakamoto; K. Higashikawa; M. Ikeda

2003-01-01

26

DOE 2012 Occupational Radiation Exposure October 2013  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Analysis within the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report to provide an overview of the status of radiation protection practices at DOE (including the National Nuclear Security Administration [NNSA]). The DOE 2012 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report provides an evaluation of DOE-wide performance regarding compliance with Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations (C.F.R.), Part 835, Occupational Radiation Protection dose limits and as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) process requirements. In addition, the report provides data to DOE organizations responsible for developing policies for protection of individuals from the adverse health effects of radiation. The report provides a summary and an analysis of occupational radiation exposure information from the monitoring of individuals involved in DOE activities. Over the past 5-year period, the occupational radiation exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site. As an indicator of the overall amount of radiation dose received during the conduct of operations at DOE, the report includes information on collective total effective dose (TED). The TED is comprised of the effective dose (ED) from external sources, which includes neutron and photon radiation, and the internal committed effective dose (CED), which results from the intake of radioactive material into the body. The collective ED from photon exposure decreased by 23% between 2011 and 2012, while the neutron dose increased by 5%. The internal dose components of the collective TED decreased by 7%. Over the past 5-year period, 99.99% of the individuals receiving measurable TED have received doses below the 2 roentgen equivalent in man (rems) (20 millisievert [mSv]) TED administrative control level (ACL), which is well below the DOE regulatory limit of 5 rems (50 mSv) TED annually. The occupational radiation exposure records show that in 2012, DOE facilities continued to comply with DOE dose limits and ACLs and worked to minimize exposure to individuals. The DOE collective TED decreased 17.1% from 2011 to 2012. The collective TED decreased at three of the five sites with the largest collective TED. u Idaho Site – Collective dose reductions were achieved as a result of continuing improvements at the Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Project (AMWTP) through the planning of drum movements that reduced the number of times a container is handled; placement of waste containers that created highradiation areas in a centralized location; and increased worker awareness of high-dose rate areas. In addition, Idaho had the largest decrease in the total number of workers with measurable TED (1,143 fewer workers). u Hanford Site (Hanford) – An overall reduction of decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) activities at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) and Transuranic (TRU) retrieval activities resulted in collective dose reductions. u Savannah River Site (SRS) – Reductions were achieved through ALARA initiatives employed site wide. The Solid Waste Management Facility used extended specialty tools, cameras and lead shield walls to facilitate removal of drums. These tools and techniques reduce exposure time through improved efficiency, increase distance from the source of radiation by remote monitoring, shield the workers to lower the dose rate, and reduce the potential for contamination and release of material through repacking of waste. Overall, from 2011 to 2012, there was a 19% decrease in the number of workers with measurable dose. Furthermore, due to a slight decrease in both the DOE workforce (7%) and monitored workers (10%), the ratio of workers with measurable doses to monitored workers decreased to 13%. Another primary indicator of the level of radiation exposure covered in this report is the average measurable dose, which normalizes the collective dose over the population of workers who actually received a measurable dose. The average measurable TED in

none,

2012-02-02

27

Chronic Electromagnetic Exposure at Occupational Safety Level Does Not Affect the Metabolic Profile nor Cornea Healing after LASIK Surgery  

PubMed Central

LASIK eye surgery has become a very common practice for myopic people, especially those in the military. Sometimes undertaken by people who need to keep a specific medical aptitude, this surgery could be performed in secret from the hierarchy and from the institute medical staff. However, even though the eyes have been previously described as one of the most sensitive organs to electromagnetic fields in the human body, no data exist on the potential deleterious effects of electromagnetic fields on the healing eye. The consequences of chronic long-lasting radar exposures at power density, in accordance with the occupational safety standards (9.71?GHz, 50?W/m2), were investigated on cornea healing. The metabolic and clinical statuses after experimental LASIK keratotomy were assessed on the different eye segments in a New Zealand rabbit model. The analysis methods were performed after 5 months of exposure (1?hour/day, 3 times/week). Neither clinical or histological examinations, nor experimental data, such as light scattering, 1H-NMR HRMAS metabolomics, 13C-NMR spectra of lipidic extracts, and antioxidant status, evidenced significant modifications. It was concluded that withdrawing the medical aptitude of people working in electromagnetic field environments (i.e., radar operators in the navy) after eye surgery was not justified.

Dabouis, Vincent; Gentilhomme, Edgar; Vignal, Rodolphe; Bourbon, Frederic; Fauvelle, Florence; Debouzy, Jean-Claude

2014-01-01

28

Chronic Electromagnetic Exposure at Occupational Safety Level Does Not Affect the Metabolic Profile nor Cornea Healing after LASIK Surgery.  

PubMed

LASIK eye surgery has become a very common practice for myopic people, especially those in the military. Sometimes undertaken by people who need to keep a specific medical aptitude, this surgery could be performed in secret from the hierarchy and from the institute medical staff. However, even though the eyes have been previously described as one of the most sensitive organs to electromagnetic fields in the human body, no data exist on the potential deleterious effects of electromagnetic fields on the healing eye. The consequences of chronic long-lasting radar exposures at power density, in accordance with the occupational safety standards (9.71?GHz, 50?W/m(2)), were investigated on cornea healing. The metabolic and clinical statuses after experimental LASIK keratotomy were assessed on the different eye segments in a New Zealand rabbit model. The analysis methods were performed after 5 months of exposure (1?hour/day, 3 times/week). Neither clinical or histological examinations, nor experimental data, such as light scattering, (1)H-NMR HRMAS metabolomics, (13)C-NMR spectra of lipidic extracts, and antioxidant status, evidenced significant modifications. It was concluded that withdrawing the medical aptitude of people working in electromagnetic field environments (i.e., radar operators in the navy) after eye surgery was not justified. PMID:24757560

Crouzier, David; Dabouis, Vincent; Gentilhomme, Edgar; Vignal, Rodolphe; Bourbon, Fréderic; Fauvelle, Florence; Debouzy, Jean-Claude

2014-01-01

29

DOE 2008 Occupational Radiation Exposure October 2009  

SciTech Connect

A major priority of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is to ensure the health, safety, and security of DOE employees, contractors, and subcontractors. The Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) provides the corporate-level leadership and strategic vision necessary to better coordinate and integrate health, safety, environment, security, enforcement, and independent oversight programs. One function that supports this mission is the DOE Corporate Operating Experience Program that provides collection, analysis, and dissemination of performance indicators, such as occupational radiation exposure information. This analysis supports corporate decision-making and synthesizes operational information to support continuous environment, safety, and health improvement across the DOE complex.

U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security

2009-10-01

30

Occupational Pesticide Exposures and Respiratory Health  

PubMed Central

Pesticides have been widely used to control pest and pest-related diseases in agriculture, fishery, forestry and the food industry. In this review, we identify a number of respiratory symptoms and diseases that have been associated with occupational pesticide exposures. Impaired lung function has also been observed among people occupationally exposed to pesticides. There was strong evidence for an association between occupational pesticide exposure and asthma, especially in agricultural occupations. In addition, we found suggestive evidence for a link between occupational pesticide exposure and chronic bronchitis or COPD. There was inconclusive evidence for the association between occupational pesticide exposure and lung cancer. Better control of pesticide uses and enforcement of safety behaviors, such as using personal protection equipment (PPE) in the workplace, are critical for reducing the risk of developing pesticide-related symptoms and diseases. Educational training programs focusing on basic safety precautions and proper uses of personal protection equipment (PPE) are possible interventions that could be used to control the respiratory diseases associated with pesticide exposure in occupational setting.

Ye, Ming; Beach, Jeremy; Martin, Jonathan W.; Senthilselvan, Ambikaipakan

2013-01-01

31

Measurements of Pilots' Occupational Solar UV Exposure.  

PubMed

It is known that ultraviolet radiation (UVR) increases by 10-12% every 1000 m altitude; UVR at the 10 000 m of typical cruise altitude for commercial aircraft may be 2-3 times higher than at ground level. Information on the levels of solar UV exposures is essential for the assessment of the occupational risk of pilots developing sun-related eye disorders and skin cancers. The aim of the study was to investigate how UV hazard exposures can be measured during flights so that the occupational dose can be ascertained and compared with international guidance. This article describes the development of instrumentation for automated time-stamped spectral measurements which were collected using bespoke automation software. The software enables the advanced acquisition techniques of automated dark signal capture and multiband integration control optimizing the dynamic performance of the spectrometer over the full spectral range. The equipment was successfully tested in a number of aircraft and helicopter flights during 2012-2013 and illustrated in this article on an example of a Gatwick-Alicante flight. PMID:24617948

Chorley, Adrian; Higlett, Michael; Baczynska, Katarzyna; Hunter, Robert; Khazova, Marina

2014-07-01

32

Therapeutic associated with occupational exposure to silica.  

PubMed

Occupational exposure to silica dust has been increasing the possible risk of varieties of pathologies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the protective activity of ethanolic extract of Glycyrrhiza glabra roots at doses of 500 and 1000 mg/kg, p.o., given for 7 days against the toxicity of SiO(2) nanoparticles (50mg/kg intraperitoneal for 6 weeks) in rats. Exposure to silica altered various respiratory and biochemical variables, including ALT, AST, albumin, urea, uric acid, creatinine, catalase, LPO and GSH. Treatments with G. glabra extract significantly improved antioxidant status towards control. Stone workers in the Gwalior region exposed to silica dust had higher prevalence of cough, wheezing and shortness of breath. Increased serum ACE level was noted in the silica exposed group. It is of immense need to monitor this problem for betterment of worker's health. PMID:22575538

Raghuvanshi, Suchita; Shrivastava, Sadhana; Johri, Sonia; Shukla, Sangeeta

2012-06-01

33

DOE occupational radiation exposure. Report 1992--1994  

SciTech Connect

The DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report, 1992-1994 reports occupational radiation exposures incurred by individuals at US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities from 1992 through 1994. This report includes occupational radiation exposure information for all DOE employees, contractors, subcontractors, and visitors. This information is analyzed and trended over time to provide a measure of the DOE`s performance in protecting its workers from radiation. Occupational radiation exposure at DOE has been decreasing over the past 5 years. In particular, doses in the higher dose ranges are decreasing, including the number of doses in excess of the DOE limits and doses in excess of the 2 rem Administrative Control Level (ACL). This is an indication of greater attention being given to protecting these individuals from radiation in the workplace.

NONE

1997-05-01

34

Total mercury levels in hair, toenail, and urine among women free from occupational exposure and their relations to renal tubular function  

SciTech Connect

To investigate the relations among total mercury levels in hair, toenail, and urine, together with potential effects of methylmercury intake on renal tubular function, we determined their levels, and urinary N-acetyl-{beta}-d-glucosaminidase activity (NAG) and {alpha}{sub 1}-microglobulin (AMG) in 59 women free from occupational exposures, and estimated daily mercury intakes from fish and other seafood using a food frequency questionnaire. Mercury levels (mean+/-SD) in the women were 1.51+/-0.91{mu}g/g in hair, 0.59+/-0.32{mu}g/g in toenail, and 0.86+/-0.66{mu}g/g creatinine in urine; and, there were positive correlations among them (P<0.001). The daily mercury intake of 9.15+/-7.84{mu}g/day was significantly correlated with total mercury levels in hair, toenail, and urine (r=0.551, 0.537, and 0.604, P<0.001). Among the women, the NAG and AMG were positively correlated with both the daily mercury intake and mercury levels in hair, toenail, and urine (P<0.01); and, these relations were almost similar when using multiple regression analysis to adjust for possible confounders such as urinary cadmium (0.47+/-0.28{mu}g/g creatinine) and smoking status. In conclusion, mercury resulting from fish consumption can explain total mercury levels in hair, toenail, and urine to some degree (about 30%), partly through the degradation into the inorganic form, and it may confound the renal tubular effect of other nephrotoxic agents. Also, the following equation may be applicable to the population neither with dental amalgam fillings nor with occupational exposures: [hair mercury ({mu}g/g)]=2.44x[toenail mercury ({mu}g/g)].

Ohno, Tomoko [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Akita University School of Medicine, 1-1-1 Hondo, Akita 010-8543 (Japan); Sakamoto, Mineshi [Department of Epidemiology, National Institute for Minamata Disease, Minamata 867-0008 (Japan); Kurosawa, Tomoko [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Akita University School of Medicine, 1-1-1 Hondo, Akita 010-8543 (Japan); Dakeishi, Miwako [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Akita University School of Medicine, 1-1-1 Hondo, Akita 010-8543 (Japan); Iwata, Toyoto [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Akita University School of Medicine, 1-1-1 Hondo, Akita 010-8543 (Japan); Murata, Katsuyuki [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Akita University School of Medicine, 1-1-1 Hondo, Akita 010-8543 (Japan)]. E-mail: winestem@med.akita-u.ac.jp

2007-02-15

35

Effects of occupational lead exposure.  

PubMed

Fifty-three workers in a battery factory, 52 solderers in a television factory, and 50 embroidery workers (a reference group) were studied. The average air lead levels of the three workplaces were 0.578 mg/m3, 0.002 mg/m3, and 0.001 mg/m3, respectively. Adverse effects in terms of clinical manifestations and biochemical criteria were evident among the battery factory workers. A significant dose-response relationship existed between the toxic effects and the air lead levels. The solderers showed no apparent abnormalities in comparison with the embroidery workers. The early clinical manifestations were dysfunction of the central nervous system, indigestion, arthralgia, and myalgia in the extremities. A positive association was observed between the prevalence of fatigue, mild abdominal pain, and arthralgia and the blood lead (PbB), urinary lead (PbU), and zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) levels. The symptomatic threshold values of PbB, PbU, and ZPP were 30 micrograms/dl (1.5 mumol/l), 0.045 mg/l (0.2 mumol/l), and 40 micrograms/dl (0.7 mumol/l), respectively. The PbB, PbU, free erythrocyte protoporphyrin, and ZPP levels and the blood aminolevulinic dehydratase ratio could be used as indicators of lead exposure, although ZPP is preferred for a preventive monitoring program. The motor and sensory conduction velocities of the median nerve were slower in the exposed groups than in the reference group. No effects on behavioral function were observed among the solderers. PMID:3832431

Wang, Y L; Lu, P K; Chen, Z Q; Liang, Y X; Lu, Q M; Pan, Z Q; Shao, M

1985-01-01

36

Occupational exposures and the risk of COPD: dusty trades revisited  

PubMed Central

Background The contribution of occupational exposures to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and, in particular, their potential interaction with cigarette smoking remains underappreciated. Methods We used data from the FLOW study of 1,202 subjects with COPD (of which 742 had disease classified as Stage II or above by Global Obstructive Lung Disease [GOLD] criteria) and 302 referent subjects matched by age, sex, and race, recruited from a large managed care organization. Occupational exposures were assessed using two methods: self-reported exposure to vapors, gas, dust, or fumes on the longest held job (VGDF) and a job exposure matrix (JEM) for probability of exposure based on occupation. Multivariate analysis was used to control for age, sex, race, and smoking history. The odds ratio (OR) and the adjusted population attributable fraction (PAF) associated with occupational exposure were calculated. Results VGDF exposure was associated with an increased risk of COPD (OR 2.11; 95% CI 1.59-2.82) and a PAF of 31% (95% CI 22-39%). The risk associated with high probability of workplace exposure by JEM was similar (OR 2.27; 95% CI 1.46-3.52), although the PAF was lower (13%; 95% CI 8 to 18%). These estimates were not substantively different when the analysis was limited to COPD GOLD Stage II or above. Joint exposure to both smoking and occupational factors markedly increased the risk of COPD (OR 14.1; 95% CI 9.33-21.2). Conclusions Workplace exposures are strongly associated with an increased risk of COPD. On a population level, prevention of both smoking and occupational exposures, and especially both together, is needed to prevent the global burden of disease.

Blanc, Paul D.; Iribarren, Carlos; Trupin, Laura; Earnest, Gillian; Katz, Patricia P.; Balmes, John; Sidney, Stephen; Eisner, Mark D.

2009-01-01

37

Occupational exposures and risk of acoustic neuroma  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesAcoustic neuroma is a benign tumour accounting for approximately 6–10% of all intracranial tumours and occurs mainly in patients aged ?50 years. Our aim was to investigate a wide range of occupational exposures, individual occupational titles and socioeconomic status (SES) as potential risk factors for acoustic neuroma.MethodsWe conducted a population-based case–control study of 793 acoustic neuroma cases identified through the

Michaela Prochazka; Maria Feychting; Anders Ahlbom; Colin G Edwards; Gun Nise; Nils Plato; Judith A Schwartzbaum; Ulla M Forssén

2010-01-01

38

Occupational Exposure to Extremely Low Frequency Magnetic Fields and Mortality from Cardiovascular Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors evaluated the relation between occupational exposure to extremely low frequency (ELF) magnetic fields and mortality from cardiovascular diseases. The study was based on 27,790 subjects from the Swedish Twin Registry. Exposure to ELF magnetic fields was assessed by linking occupation reported in 1967 or 1973 to a job exposure matrix. Four levels of exposure were related to cause-specific

Niclas Håkansson; Per Gustavsson; Antonio Sastre; Birgitta Floderus

2003-01-01

39

Exposure-response relationships of occupational inhalative allergens.  

PubMed

Only a few threshold limit values exist at present for allergens in the workplace known to cause bronchial asthma. This contrasts with the great number of occupational asthma cases observed in industrialized countries. Recently published studies provide clear evidence for exposure intensity response relationships of occupational allergens of plant, microbiological, animal or man-made origin. If allergen exposure levels fall short of determined limit values, they are not associated with an increased risk of occupational asthma. Corresponding data are available for wheat flour (1-2.4 mg/m3), fungal alpha-amylase (0.25 ng/m3), natural rubber latex (0.6 ng/m3), western red cedar (0.4 mg/m3) and rat allergens (0.7 microg/m3). It is suggested to stipulate legally binding threshold limit values (TLV/TWA) on this basis in order to induce more effective primary preventive measures. If no reliable data on the health risk of an occupational airborne noxa exist, the lowest reasonably practicable exposure level has to be achieved. Appropriate secondary preventive measures have to be initiated in all workplaces contaminated with airborne allergens. Verified exposure-response relationships provide the basis for risk assessment and for targeted interventions to reduce the incidence of occupational asthma also in consideration of cost benefit aspects. 'Occupational asthma is a disease characterized by variable airflow limitation and/or airway hyperresponsiveness due to causes in a working environment. These causes can give rise to asthma through immunological or non-immunological mechanisms. Up to 15% of all asthma cases are of occupational origin or have at least a significant causal occupational factor. According to the New Zealand part of the European Respiratory Health Survey, an increased risk of asthma prevalence was found for several occupations such as laboratory technicians, food producers, chemical workers, plastic and rubber workers. The Spain part of this study comprising 2646 Spanish subjects showed an asthma risk to be attributed to occupational exposures between 5 and 6.7%. Main asthma-inducing agents in the workplace are flour, grain and feed dust, animal dander/urinary proteins and isocyanates. Further, several inhalative irritants such as chlorine, acid or alkaline aerosols play a pivotal role. Many low molecular weight chemicals have irritative as well as allergenic effects on the airways, e. g. isocyanates and acid anhydrides. In addition to chronic or repetitive exposures, also singular accidental exposure to high concentrations of irritative or toxic airborne substances can cause occupational asthma. This condition is frequently called reactive airways dysfunction. PMID:9645589

Baur, X; Chen, Z; Liebers, V

1998-05-01

40

Occupational exposure in dentistry and miscarriage  

PubMed Central

Background Information on the reproductive effects of chemical exposures in dental work is sparse or inconsistent. Aim To investigate whether dental workers exposed to acrylate compounds, mercury amalgam, solvents or disinfectants are at an increased risk of miscarriage. Methods The study was conducted among women dental workers and a comparison group of workers occupationally unexposed to dental restorative materials. Information on pregnancies was obtained from national registers and outpatient units of hospitals. Data on occupational exposure were obtained using postal questionnaires. The final study population included 222 cases of miscarriage and 498 controls (births). An occupational hygienist assessed exposure to acrylate compounds, disinfectants and solvents. Exposure to other agents was assessed on the basis of the questionnaire data. Odds ratios (ORs) and confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using conditional logistic regression. Results The ORs adjusted for confounding factors were increased for moderate?exposure and high?exposure categories of mercury amalgam (OR 2.0, 95% CI 1.0 to 4.1 and OR 1.3, 95% CI 0.6 to 2.5, respectively). The risk was slightly increased for the highest?exposure category of 2?hydroxyethylmethacrylate (OR 1.4, 95% CI 0.7 to 2.6) and polymethylmethacrylate dust (OR 1.4, 95% CI 0.8 to 2.4). A slightly increased risk was also detected for likely exposure to organic solvents (OR 1.4, 95% CI 0.8 to 2.3) and disinfectants (OR 1.5, 95% CI 0.9 to 2.7). Conclusions No strong association or consistent dose–response relationship was observed between exposure to chemical agents in dental work and the risk of miscarriage. A slightly increased risk was found for exposure to mercury amalgam, some acrylate compounds, solvents and disinfectants. These findings indicate that the possibility of a weak association between exposure to these agents and an increased risk of miscarriage cannot be excluded.

Lindbohm, Marja-Liisa; Ylostalo, Pekka; Sallmen, Markku; Henriks-Eckerman, Maj-Len; Nurminen, Tuula; Forss, Helena; Taskinen, Helena

2007-01-01

41

70 FR 22828 - Occupational Exposure to Ionizing Radiation  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...exposure, such as exposure assessment and...address worker exposure to occupational...OSHA Office of Communications, Room N-3647...ionizing radiation exposure 1. Natural sources...products D. Health effects II. Regulatory...responsible for worker exposures to ionizing...

2005-05-03

42

MINIMIZING OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE TO PESTICIDES: PERSONNEL MONITORING  

EPA Science Inventory

This communication is presented with two objectives in mind. The first objective is to provide an introduction to personnel monitoring of occupational exposure to pesticides for those who are not familiar with this field of investigation. The second objective is to stimulate disc...

43

Paternal Occupational Exposures and Childhood Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the study described here was to test the hypothesis that paternal occupational exposure near conception increases the risk of cancer in the offspring. We conducted a cohort study based on a population of 235,635 children born shortly after two different censuses in Sweden. The children were followed from birth to 14 years, and cases of cancer were

Maria Feychting; Nils Plato; Gun Nise; Anders Ahlbom

2001-01-01

44

Laryngeal cancer and occupational exposure to asbestos  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The risk of laryngeal cancer associated with occupational exposure to asbestos was evaluated by a review of published reports. In only two of 13 cohort studies was the standardized mortality ratio (SMR) significantly increased. Smoking (a risk factor for laryngeal cancer) may have been more prevalent among asbestos workers than among the comparison populations. This was not taken into

David A. Edelman

1989-01-01

45

Parental Occupational Exposures and Autism Spectrum Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Both self-report and industrial hygienist (IH) assessed parental occupational information were used in this pilot study in which 174 families (93 children with ASD and 81 unaffected children) enrolled in the Childhood Autism Risks from Genetics and Environment study participated. IH results indicated exposures to lacquer, varnish, and xylene…

McCanlies, Erin C.; Fekedulegn, Desta; Mnatsakanova, Anna; Burchfiel, Cecil M.; Sanderson, Wayne T.; Charles, Luenda E.; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva

2012-01-01

46

Associations between hazard indices of di-n-butylphthalate and di-2-ethylhexylphthalate exposure and serum reproductive hormone levels among occupationally exposed and unexposed Chinese men.  

PubMed

The knowledge on the dose-response relationships between cumulative phthalate exposure and reproductive hormones in human are lacking. To assess the characteristics of the associations between hazard index (HI) of cumulative di-n-butylphthalate (DBP) and di-2-ethylhexylphthalate (DEHP) exposures and serum concentrations of free testosterone (fT), estradiol, luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), we used restricted cubic spline function to characterize the dose-response curves between the HI values and reproductive hormones for 74 male workers occupationally exposed to high levels of DBP and DEHP, and 63 male construction workers as comparison group matched for age and smoking status. The median of HI value was 5.30 for exposed workers, 53.0-fold that of unexposed workers (0.10). 89.2% of exposed workers and 1.6% of unexposed workers have HI over 1.00. We observed a borderline significantly negative association between HI and fT in exposed workers (r=-0.195, p=0.096), but not in unexposed workers. The exposed workers showed inverted long-tailed J-shaped fT and FSH curves, and small changes in the LH curve, whereas unexposed workers had inverted and flattened-S-shaped fT and mirror-S-shaped LH and FSH curves. Both T production and hypothalamo-pituitary-testis (HPT) axis function were damaged in workers with high HI of phthalate exposures. HPT feedback function was activated in workers with both high and low HI, and plays an important role in preventing fT level from further decreasing with a rise in HI. PMID:21790659

Pan, G; Hanaoka, T; Yu, L; Na, J; Yamano, Y; Hara, K; Ichiba, M; Nakadate, T; Kishi, R; Wang, P; Yin, H; Zhang, S; Feng, Y

2011-10-01

47

Organic brain damage and occupational solvent exposure.  

PubMed Central

Three hundred and nine men with organic dementia, cerebral atrophy, or psycho-organic syndrome admitted for five nights or more to one of 18 Quebec hospitals were individually matched with patients admitted (1) with some other psychiatric diagnosis and (2) to a general hospital. Lifetime occupational histories were obtained by telephone. Occupational exposure to solvents was assessed blind to type of case by (1) individual ratings and (2) a job exposure matrix; men who worked in moderate or high solvent concentrations for at least 10 years were considered exposed. With the psychiatric referent series, an odds ratio of 1.4 (90% CI 1.0-2.0) was calculated by individual exposure ratings and 1.4 (90% CI 0.9-2.2) by job matrix. Increased risk was mainly in those with organic dementia or cerebral atrophy and an alcohol related diagnosis. The same pattern of risk was found against the general hospital referents. Adjustment for possible confounders did not alter the risk estimates appreciably. Also, lifetime job histories, compared in selected case-referent pairs, gave similar evidence of increased risk (odds ratio 2.3; 90% CI 1.0-5.5). It is concluded that the combined effect of occupational solvent exposure and alcohol intake is probably an important cause of organic brain damage.

Cherry, N M; Labreche, F P; McDonald, J C

1992-01-01

48

Exposure and dose modelling in occupational epidemiology  

PubMed Central

Complex and dynamic physiologic processes underlie the exposure?response relations that occupational and environmental epidemiologists study. Simple summary measures of exposure such as the average, cumulative exposure, or duration of exposure, can be applied suitably in exposure?response analyses in many instances. However, there are situations where these metrics may not be directly proportional to risk, in which case their use will result in misclassification and biased estimates of exposure?response associations. We outline methods for developing exposure or dose metrics which may reduce misclassification, as illustrated with some recent examples. Selecting better exposure or dose metrics can be thought of as a problem of choosing appropriate weights on the exposure history of each cohort member. Dosimetric modeling involves choosing exposure weights based on formal hypotheses about underlying physiologic or pathogenetic processes. Dosimetric modeling is still not widely used in epidemiology, and so the forms of mathematical models and the criteria for choosing one model over another are not yet standardized. We hope to stimulate further applications through this presentation.

Kriebel, David; Checkoway, Harvey; Pearce, Neil

2007-01-01

49

Exposure and dose modelling in occupational epidemiology.  

PubMed

Complex and dynamic physiologic processes underlie the exposure-response relations that occupational and environmental epidemiologists study. Simple summary measures of exposure such as the average, cumulative exposure, or duration of exposure, can be applied suitably in exposure-response analyses in many instances. However, there are situations where these metrics may not be directly proportional to risk, in which case their use will result in misclassification and biased estimates of exposure-response associations. We outline methods for developing exposure or dose metrics which may reduce misclassification, as illustrated with some recent examples. Selecting better exposure or dose metrics can be thought of as a problem of choosing appropriate weights on the exposure history of each cohort member. Dosimetric modeling involves choosing exposure weights based on formal hypotheses about underlying physiologic or pathogenetic processes. Dosimetric modeling is still not widely used in epidemiology, and so the forms of mathematical models and the criteria for choosing one model over another are not yet standardized. We hope to stimulate further applications through this presentation. PMID:17582090

Kriebel, David; Checkoway, Harvey; Pearce, Neil

2007-07-01

50

Overview of occupational exposure to electric and magnetic fields and cancer: Advancements in exposure assessment  

SciTech Connect

For over ten years, there has been concern with the potential for increased risk of cancer among {open_quotes}electrical workers.{close_quotes} In contrast to studies of residential exposure to magnetic fields, occupational studies include electric and magnetic field exposures and have much greater variability in field intensity, frequency, and temporal patterns. Studies of leukemia in electrical workers show a moderate consistency, with elevated risk ratios of 1.2 to 2.0 commonly observed. Brain tumors are similarly elevated with some consistency, and three recent studies have suggested increased risk of male breast cancer. Retrospective exposure assessment methods were advanced in recent studies of diverse occupations in a study in central Sweden, which yielded evidence of increased risk of chronic lymphocytic leukemia among men in more highly exposed occupations. A study of telephone workers in New York State incorporated measurements and found some indication of increased leukemia risk only when exposures were based on historical technology. Utility workers in southern California were studied and found not to have increased risks of leukemia and brain cancer based on exposures estimated with measurements. An ongoing study of electric utility workers at five companies in the United States incorporates an extensive measurement protocol. Randomly selected workers within occupational categories wore a time integrating magnetic-field meter to provide estimates of exposure for the occupational category. We were able to estimate and partition the variance into between-day (the largest contributor), within occupational categories, and between occupational categories. Principal research needs concern optimal levels of worker aggregation for exposure assignment, historical extrapolation, study of diverse work environments, and integration of residential and occupational exposure in the same study. 19 refs., 1 tab.

Savitz, D.A. [Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States)

1995-03-01

51

Overview of occupational exposure to electric and magnetic fields and cancer: advancements in exposure assessment.  

PubMed Central

For over ten years, there has been concern with the potential for increased risk of cancer among "electrical workers." In contrast to studies of residential exposure to magnetic fields, occupational studies include electric and magnetic field exposures and have much greater variability in field intensity, frequency, and temporal patterns. Studies of leukemia in electrical workers show a moderate consistency, with elevated risk ratios of 1.2 to 2.0 commonly observed. Brain tumors are similarly elevated with some consistency, and three recent studies have suggested increased risk of male breast cancer. Retrospective exposure assessment methods were advanced in recent studies of diverse occupations in a study in central Sweden, which yielded evidence of increased risk of chronic lymphocytic leukemia among men in more highly exposed occupations. A study of telephone workers in New York State incorporated measurements and found some indication of increased leukemia risk only when exposures were based on historical technology. Utility workers in southern California were studied and found not to have increased risks of leukemia and brain cancer based on exposures estimated with measurements. An ongoing study of electric utility workers at five companies in the United States incorporates an extensive measurement protocol. Randomly selected workers within occupational categories wore a time-integrating magnetic-field meter to provide estimates of exposure for the occupational category. We were able to estimate and partition the variance into between-day (the largest contributor), within occupational categories, and between occupational categories. Principal research needs concern optimal levels of worker aggregation for exposure assignment, historical extrapolation, study of diverse work environments, and integration of residential and occupational exposure in the same study.

Savitz, D A

1995-01-01

52

Dementia and occupational exposure to organic solvents  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether occupational exposure to organic solvents increases the risk of dementia. METHODS: Cases of dementia were identified from the computed tomography records of eight neuroradiology centres in England and Wales, and were compared with two sets of controls investigated at the same centres. The first set of controls were patients with brain cancer and the second set were patients with other disorders that were not chronically disabling. Lifetime occupational histories were obtained through a postal questionnaire completed by the subjects or their next of kin. Associations between dementia and occupation were examined by logistic regression. RESULTS: Usable questionnaires were returned for 204 (61%) of the cases, 225 (51%) of the controls with brain cancer, and 441 (61%) of the other controls. The findings with each of the two sets of controls were similar. In comparison with all controls combined, cases had less often worked ever as a painter or printer (odds ratio (OR) 0.6, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.3 to 1.2), and were less likely to have worked for > 1 year as a printer, painter, or launderer or dry cleaner (OR 0.6, 95% CI 0.3 to 1.4). CONCLUSIONS: These findings provide no support for the hypothesis that occupational exposure to solvents is a cause of dementia. An excess risk in subsets of workers with extremes of exposure cannot be discounted, but the data indicate that any influence of exposure to solvents on the overall incidence of severe dementia in the general population of England and Wales is small.  

Palmer, K.; Inskip, H.; Martyn, C.; Coggon, D.

1998-01-01

53

[Subacute hypersensitivity pneumonitis after occupational mold exposure].  

PubMed

Mold-induced hypersensitivity pneumonitis is a rare and usually slowly progressing disorder. Therefore, the diagnosis and etiological investigations may be challenging and may often cause delay, despite the fact that early diagnosis and avoidance of the disease inducing agent are essential for the management of the disease. When appropriately treated, hypersensitivity pneumonitis is usually a relatively benign disorder. Irreversible pulmonary fibrosis may develop in cases of prolonged exposure. The disorder is considered as an occupational disease if the sufficient exposure occurs at workplace. PMID:23786111

Eerikäinen, Johanna; Nynäs, Pia; Uitti, Jukka

2013-01-01

54

Lead exposure among five distinct occupational groups: a comparative study.  

PubMed

This study was conducted to evaluate blood lead concentration among five selected occupational groups. The five groups were: hospital health workers, shop workers, taxi drivers, automobiles mechanics, and wood workers. The groups did not significantly differ among each other in the average of age and work years. ANOVA test revealed significantly higher mean lead blood concentration in taxi drivers, automechanics, and wood workers compared to other groups. Additionally, workers with lead concentration >0.483 umol/L (10?g/dL) were more likely to have frequent muscle pain compared to those with lower concentrations. No association between other symptoms of lead exposure/toxicity and blood lead concentration was detected. In conclusion, special attention must be directed toward lead blood levels and lead poisoning symptoms when examining patients from certain occupational groups such as taxi drivers, automechanics, and wood workers. Special safety precautions and educational programs are also needed to limit the lead exposure in these occupational groups. PMID:24374433

Gharaibeh, Mohammad Younis; Alzoubi, Karem Hasan; Khabour, Omar Falah; Khader, Yousef Saleh; Gharaibeh, Mamoun Abdallah; Matarneh, Sulaiman Khalid

2014-01-01

55

Hypothesis-based weight-of-evidence evaluation of methyl methacrylate olfactory effects in humans and derivation of an occupational exposure level.  

PubMed

Over 40 years of scientific evidence indicates that methyl methacrylate (MMA) causes olfactory effects in rodents that are relevant to humans. More recent scientific studies have focused on understanding the apparent lack of species concordance between the rodent and human studies. Toxicokinetic studies and a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model describing inhalation dosimetry of MMA in the upper respiratory tract (URT) of rats and humans point to differences in nasal morphology and biochemistry that could explain and reconcile these differences as species-specific manifestations of a common toxicological process. We have applied the hypothesis-based weight-of-evidence (HBWoE) approach to evaluate the concordance of the available data and the hypothesis that the observed difference in sensitivity between rats and humans may be the expected result of physiological and biochemical differences. Our WoE analysis indicates that when the several lines of evidence (i.e., animal, human, mode-of-action, and toxicokinetics data) are integrated, they inform interpretation of one another and, overall, support use of the human data for derivation of an MMA occupational exposure level (OEL) of 50 ppm. PMID:23583434

Pemberton, Mark; Bailey, Lisa A; Rhomberg, Lorenz R

2013-07-01

56

Analysis of the Asbestos Permissible Exposure Level Threshold Standard.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This thesis examines the reasoning of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration's (OSHA) decision to set stringent exposure levels for airborne asbestos in the work place. Technical recommendations from the National Institute for Occupational Safe...

M. W. Peterson

1991-01-01

57

Evaluation of the protective effectiveness of gloves from occupational exposure to 2-methoxyethanol using the biomarkers of 2-methoxyacetic acid levels in the urine and plasma  

PubMed Central

Aims: To evaluate the protective effectiveness of gloves from occupational exposure to 2-methoxyethanol (2-ME); and to examine the association of 2-methoxyacetic acid (MAA) in urine and plasma collected simultaneously from low 2-ME exposure and high 2-ME exposure workers in a semiconductor copper laminate circuit board manufacturing plant. Methods: Eight hour time weighted breathing zone monitoring was performed to verify the 2-ME exposure classification between workers in regular and special operations. Urine and plasma samples were simultaneously collected from 74 exposed and 80 non-exposed workers. MAA concentrations in the urine (UMAA) and plasma (PMAA) were measured using previously published methods. Three types of gloves worn by workers (cotton, rubber, and no gloves) were recorded by direct observations in the workplace and validated by person-to-person interview. Protective effectiveness indices (PEI) were used to evaluate the glove effectiveness. Results: There was no detectable 2-ME/MAA in the air, or in urine and plasma samples in non-exposed workers. The average UMAA and PMAA in special operations were 72.63 mg/g Cr. and 29.72 mg/l, significantly higher than values in regular operations (5.44 mg/g Cr. and 2.58 mg/l, respectively). PMAA showed satisfactory correlation to UMAA in all participants from both regular and special operations. The rubber gloves provided significant reduction in 2-ME uptake, whereas cotton gloves provided little protection with fluctuating effectiveness, based on PEI estimates. Conclusions: PMAA, similar to UMAA, could serve as a specific biomarker for 2-ME exposure. Wearing impermeable rubber gloves during high risk tasks can reduce major 2-ME exposure. Other improvements, including engineering control, should be provided to diminish worker exposure to 2-ME in occupational environments.

Chang, H; Lin, C; Shih, T; Chan, H; Chou, J; Huang, Y

2004-01-01

58

Occupational diesel exhaust exposure as a risk factor for COPD  

PubMed Central

Purpose of Review Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a major source of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Although cigarette smoking is the major cause of COPD, occupational exposures have emerged as an important risk factor, especially in nonsmokers. In this review we assess the state of the literature on the association of COPD with a specific occupational exposure, diesel exhaust. Recent Findings A large body of literature links general occupational exposures to dust and fumes with an increased risk of COPD, particularly in nonsmokers. Few studies, however, have explicitly examined the role of occupational diesel exhaust exposures to COPD risk. Suggestive recent findings link occupational diesel exposures to an increased risk of COPD, Summary The available literature directly examining the effects of occupational diesel exhaust on risk of COPD is quite small, but does suggest that increasing exposures are associated with increasing risk. Additional research, with more advanced exposure metrics is needed to fully elucidate this association.

Hart, Jaime E; Eisen, Ellen A; Laden, Francine

2013-01-01

59

Occupational Exposure to Nanoparticles and Medical Safety  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The problem of occupational exposure to nanoparticles (NP) has raised many questions which remain unanswered today: When airborne NPs, either dissociated or more commonly in the form of aggregates, are inhaled by humans, will they produce a biological and/or tissular response where they are deposited, i.e., in the respiratory tract, or at some distance from the deposition area, i.e., an indirect effect secondary to the inflammatory response of the respiratory tract or a direct effect due to translocation of nanoparticles through the biological membranes?

Brochard, Patrick; Bloch, Daniel; Pairon, Jean-Claude

60

Occupational exposure of nonsmoking nightclub musicians to environmental tobacco smoke.  

PubMed

This study assessed environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposures of nonsmoking musicians in nightclub environments using total suspended particulate (TSP), the ultraviolet absorbing fraction of TSP (UVPM), gaseous nicotine, saliva nicotine, saliva cotinine, and perceived smokiness as exposure/dose indicators. Measured exposures were as high or higher than those of other occupational groups studied. TSP ranged from 110 to 1714 micrograms/m3 (mean 502, SD 390 micrograms/m3). UVPM (mean 221, SD 95 micrograms/m3) was associated with gaseous and saliva nicotine concentrations. Paired-sample variation was much higher for TSP than for UVPM. Correlation of TSP with UVPM, gaseous nicotine, and saliva nicotine was poor. Paired-sample gaseous nicotine results were similar, with exposures of 28.0 to 50.0 micrograms/m3 (mean 37.1, SD 6.9 micrograms/m3), and were high compared with previous studies. These results suggested that nightclub musicians may be exposed to higher concentrations of ETS than some other occupational groups. Saliva nicotine results were consistent with those previously reported with regard to the range of values, large variation observed, and increase in saliva nicotine levels observable after only a few hours of exposure. Saliva nicotine results could not be correlated with other measures of exposure and did not appear to be a reliable biological indicator of absorbed dose. Saliva cotinine levels were comparable to other occupational groups studied, but were lower than previous findings for bartenders and waitresses. Levels ranged from 1.7 to 5.0 ng/mL (mean 3.4, SD 0.9 ng/mL), and increased with number of exposures during the workweek, but did not correlate with other ETS indicators. PMID:8765204

Bergman, T A; Johnson, D L; Boatright, D T; Smallwood, K G; Rando, R J

1996-08-01

61

Metallothionein and occupational exposure to cadmium.  

PubMed Central

The relationship between metallothionein (MT), chronic exposure to cadmium (Cd), and renal function was investigated in 53 men who were occupationally exposed to Cd. The aim was to determine if MT is a potential biological monitor for chronic exposure to Cd which would be useful for preventing Cd nephropathy. In this study MT excretion, serum MT, and serum creatinine concentrations were significantly higher in subjects with abnormal renal function who had been exposed to Cd. MT excretion was also linearly related on an individual basis to protein excretion, beta 2-microglobulin (beta 2-M) excretion, and cumulative time weighted exposure (dose). MT excretion was also a better predictor of dose than either beta 2-M excretion or Cd excretion. The findings suggest that MT is a potential biological monitor for chronic Cd exposure that would be useful for preventing Cd-induced nephropathy. Further studies of non-specific nephropathies and MT are needed to determine if MT is a specific indicator of proximal tubule function secondary to chronic exposure to Cd.

Falck, F Y; Fine, L J; Smith, R G; Garvey, J; Schork, A; England, B; McClatchey, K D; Linton, J

1983-01-01

62

Occupational exposure to cadmium and lung function.  

PubMed

A total of 69 male subjects occupationally exposed to cadmium fumes in a factory producing silver-cadmium-copper alloys for brazing, were subjected to lung function tests, including ventilation (FVC and FEV1), residual volume (RV) and alveolar-capillary diffusion capacity (TLCO and KCO). For each subject, the cumulative exposure to cadmium was calculated as the product of the number of years in the job and the average atmospheric concentration of cadmium (expressed in micrograms/m3) encountered each year. Cadmium-exposed subjects had moderately higher mean values of RV (+ 8%) as compared with the control group; the increase was greater (+ 10%) in the subgroup of workers with greater cumulative exposure to cadmium. No significant differences were observed in FVC, FEV1, TLCO and KCO. PMID:1303942

Cortona, G; Apostoli, P; Toffoletto, F; Baldasseroni, A; Ghezzi, I; Goggi, E; Fornari, S; Alessio, L

1992-01-01

63

Occupational exposure to dust: inflammation and ischaemic heart disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES: To review the possible association between occupational exposure to dust and ischaemic heart disease (IHD). METHODS: A literature search was performed of relevant studies regarding IHD in specific exposures to dust. The chosen exposures were arsenic, asbestos, beryllium, lead, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and quartz. The chosen occupations were farmers, paper and paper pulp workers, sawyers, and welders. DISCUSSION: A

B Sjögren

1997-01-01

64

41 CFR 50-204.10 - Occupational noise exposure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Occupational noise exposure. 50-204.10 Section 50-204...Standards § 50-204.10 Occupational noise exposure. (a) Protection against the effects of noise exposure shall be provided when the...

2013-07-01

65

Occupational Exposure to Metalworking Fluid Mist and Sump Fluid Contaminants  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper summarizes the analytical and occupational hygiene findings from a recent survey of occupational exposure to metalworking fluids (MWFs) in the engineering industry. The aim of the survey was to link MWF mist exposure measurements with particular engineering processes and controls, and utilize the data obtained to develop exposure standards. At the same time the opportunity was taken to

A. T. SIMPSON; M. STEAR; J. A. GROVES; M. PINEY; S. D. BRADLEY; S. STAGG; B. CROOK

2003-01-01

66

Environmental and Occupational Exposures in Immigrant Health  

PubMed Central

Immigrants comprise vulnerable populations that are frequently exposed to a multitude of environmental and occupational hazards. The historical context behind state and federal legislation has helped to foster an environment that is particularly hostile toward caring for immigrant health. Current hazards include toxic exposures, air and noise pollution, motor vehicle accidents, crowded living and work environments with inadequate ventilation, poor sanitation, mechanical injury, among many others. Immigrants lack the appropriate training, materials, health care access, and other resources to reduce their exposure to preventable environmental and occupational health risks. This dilemma is exacerbated by current anti-immigrant sentiments, miscommunication between native and immigrant populations, and legislation denying immigrants access to publicly funded medical care. Given that current health policy has failed to address immigrant health appropriately and political impetus is lacking, efforts should also focus on alternative solutions, including organized labor. Labor unions that serve to educate workers, survey work environments, and defend worker rights will greatly alleviate and prevent the burden of disease incurred by immigrants. The nation’s health will benefit from improved regulation of living and workplace environments to improve the health of immigrants, regardless of legal status.

Eamranond, Pracha P.; Hu, Howard

2008-01-01

67

The interntional system on occupational exposure, ISOE  

SciTech Connect

The Information System on Occupational Exposure (ISOE) was initiated by the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) in 1992 to facilitate the global exchange of dose information. The goal of the program is to provide timely benchmarking of dose performance at nuclear power plants and promote effective dose reduction practices. Currently, over 300 nuclear power plants (70% of the world`s operating plants), representing 17 countries, participate in ISOE making it one of the largest occupational exposure data bases in the world. National regulatory authorities from 11 countries also participate. The recent developments in the ISOE data base and software enhancement will be discussed in this paper. Also, global trends will be presented comparing dose by plant, country, type of reactor, age of reactor, total annual dose, outage dose, dose per outage task and historical dose. Results of software development committee`s work on ACCESS applications for the ISOE data base will be presented. Finally, highlights of technical reports from regional ISOE centers including Illinois, Paris, Tokyo, and Vienna will be summarized.

Lazo, T. [OECD Nuclear Energy Agency, Issy-les-Moulineaux (France); Miller, D.W. [Illinois Power Co., Clinton, IL (United States)

1996-06-01

68

Biological monitoring for mutagenic effects of occupational exposure to butadiene.  

PubMed

The use of biological markers in the evaluation of human exposure to hazardous agents has increased rapidly in recent years. Because 1,3-butadiene is a mutagenic carcinogen, existing occupational levels of exposure may be appropriately evaluated using somatic cell mutation as a biomarker. Previously, we have described a biomarker study of workers in a butadiene monomer plant (Ward et al., 1994). We now report results from a second study of the same group of workers, conducted after plant modernization, and present preliminary results from a study of exposures in a styrene butadiene rubber (SBR) plant. Air levels of butadiene were determined using either charcoal tubes with air pumps or passive badge dosimeters. The quantity of a butadiene metabolite in the urine was used as a biomarker of exposure and the mutagenic effects of exposure were measured using the autoradiographic hprt mutant lymphocyte assay. In all three studies, the frequencies of hprt mutants were significantly elevated in workers from the areas of highest exposure when compared to workers from lower exposure areas or non-exposed subjects. The concentration of the urinary metabolite was significantly increased in high-exposed workers in the first study of monomer plant workers but not in the second. In the first monomer plant study, historical air concentrations of butadiene were higher in the production units than in the central control unit. While concurrent determined air concentrations were not elevated in the second monomer plant study, they were elevated in high exposure areas in the SBR plant study. Mutant frequencies in the lower-exposure and the non-exposed groups were consistent with historical values for non-smoking individuals who were not exposed to known mutagens. The use of biomarkers, including the hprt mutant lymphocyte assay, may be of great value in determining an appropriate occupational exposure limit for butadiene. PMID:8901886

Ward, J B; Ammenheuser, M M; Whorton, E B; Bechtold, W E; Kelsey, K T; Legator, M S

1996-10-28

69

Psychiatric disorders and occupational exposure to solvents.  

PubMed Central

Three hundred and eighty one men admitted to hospital for the first time with any psychiatric diagnosis were individually matched for age and year to patients admitted to general hospitals. An occupational history was obtained from 90% of this study group by telephone interview or mail. Exposure to solvents was assessed by three methods, individual rating of each job recorded, application of an exposure matrix based on job title, and assessment of lifetime job histories of selected case-referent pairs. A sample of individual ratings used in the analysis was compared with ratings made by five experts. The panel values tended to be lower but all six sets of ratings correlated well. There was no increased risk of psychiatric illness among subjects exposed to moderate or greater solvent concentrations for at least 10 years (odds ratio (OR) 1.0, 90% confidence interval (90% CI) 0.7-1.4, individual rating; OR 1.1, 90% CI 0.6-2.0, job title matrix; OR 0.9, 90% CI 0.5-1.7, lifetime assessments). At higher exposures the risk was increased--although not to a statistically significant degree--especially for cases with non-psychotic diagnoses (ICD-9 codes 300-316). This negative result, by all three methods of assessment of exposure, contrasted with that from a parallel investigation of cases of organic psychoses and cerebral degeneration.

Labreche, F P; Cherry, N M; McDonald, J C

1992-01-01

70

Contributions of non-occupational activities to total noise exposure of construction workers.  

PubMed

This paper describes how exposures received during routine and episodic non-occupational activities contribute to total noise exposure in a group of occupationally exposed workers. Two-hundred and sixty-six construction apprentices enrolled in a longitudinal hearing loss study and completed questionnaires at 1 yr of follow-up to determine their episodic activities (e.g. concert attendance, power tool use, firearms exposure). Noise exposure levels for these episodic exposures were determined from the published literature. Routine activities were assessed using activity cards filled out over 530 subject-days, along with noise dosimetry measurements made over 124 subject-days of measurement. Equivalent Leq exposure levels were then calculated for specific activities. These activity-specific Leq values were combined into estimated individual annual Leq exposure levels for the 6760 nominal annual non-occupational hours in a year (LAeq6760h), which were then transformed into equivalent levels for a 2000 h exposure period (LA2000hn) for comparison with occupational noise exposure risk criteria. The mean non-occupational LAeq6760h exposure values for the cohort ranged from 56 to 87 dBA (equivalent LA2000hn 62-93 dBA). At the mid range of the routine and episodic activity exposure level distribution, the mean LAeq6760h was 73 dBA (LA2000hn 78 dBA). Nineteen percent of the LA2000hn non-occupational exposures exceeded 85 dBA, the generally recommended occupational limit for a 2000 h workyear, at the mid-range of exposure levels. Due to a lack of available data, firearms use could not be incorporated into the total noise exposure estimates. However, firearms users reported more exposure to other noisy non-occupational activities and had statistically significantly higher estimated exposure levels even without including their firearms exposure than did non-shooters. When compared with the high levels of occupational noise found in construction, non-occupational noise exposures generally present little additional exposure for most workers. However, they may contribute significantly to overall exposure in the subset of workers who frequently participate in selected noisy activities. PMID:15242844

Neitzel, Richard; Seixas, Noah; Goldman, Bryan; Daniell, William

2004-07-01

71

Occupational exposure to vinyl chloride and risk of hepatocellular carcinoma.  

PubMed

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a common form of cancer that arises from hepatocytes and whose risk may be affected by several known factors, including viruses, alcohol, cigarette smoking, and several genetic conditions. Liver angiosarcoma is a rare cancer that develops from endothelial cells and whose most relevant known risk factor is occupational exposure to vinyl chloride (VC). Since occupational exposure to high levels of VC may still occur, we reviewed the epidemiological and experimental evidence supporting the notion that inhalation exposure to VC is a risk factor for HCC. We find that available epidemiological evidence is based on a dose-risk study with 10 HCC cases and on a partially overlapping study reporting similar results: neither study provided controls for known non-occupational confounders for HCC. Carcinogenesis bioassays of VC inhalation in rodents indicate that angiosarcomas account for nearly all liver tumors induced. Thus, the role of inhalation exposure to VC in HCC risk remains unclear, awaiting further studies and the integration of results from epidemiological studies and animal models. PMID:18560983

Dragani, Tommaso A; Zocchetti, Carlo

2008-12-01

72

Neuropsychological symptoms and occupational exposure to anaesthetics.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE--To analyse the relation between symptoms regularly reported by hospital personnel and exposure to anaesthetics. SETTING--Personnel of 18 hospitals in Paris from 1987 to 1989. DESIGN--An exposed group that included all operating theatre members except for doctors, and which was divided into three subgroups depending on the degree of exposure--exposure was measured by the frequency of the use of the scavenging system--and a control group that included other hospital personnel matched by hospital, sex, occupation, age, and duration of service. SUBJECTS--557 exposed workers and 566 unexposed workers. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--The groups were compared according to the crude rates of regular symptoms. Adjusted odds ratios were calculated to estimate the risks associated with exposure to anaesthetic gas. Liver transaminase activities (alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase (s-ASAT, and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase) were measured and compared between groups of exposure. RESULTS--After controlling for working conditions and matching factors, neuropsychological symptoms and tiredness were reported more by workers in less often scavenged theatres than by controls. No difference was found between workers of the well scavenged theatres and controls. Among the exposed workers, the members of paediatric surgical staffs reported a higher rate of neurological complaints (tingling, numbness, cramps) and tiredness than the members of the other surgical staffs. They had a high value of s-ASAT more frequently than the other exposed workers. CONCLUSION--These results strengthen the hypothesis of a causal relation between exposure to anaesthetics and neuropsychological symptoms, and show a dose-response effect. They suggest that the use of ventilating systems in operating rooms is an effective means of prevention.

Saurel-Cubizolles, M J; Estryn-Behar, M; Maillard, M F; Mugnier, N; Masson, A; Monod, G

1992-01-01

73

61 FR 9380 - Occupational Exposure to 1,3-Butadiene  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...BD-induced health effects. The proposed...occupational exposure to BD to 2...less frequent exposures for employees...to reduce exposures below the...protection, communication of hazards...data shows exposure could exceed...required if all exposures are at or...feasible or effective. a. A...

1996-03-08

74

Cardiac Autonomic Dysfunction from Occupational Exposure to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons  

PubMed Central

Objectives Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) exposures have been associated with cardiopulmonary mortality and cardiovascular events. This study investigated the association between a biological marker of PAHs exposure, assessed by urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP), and heart rate variability (HRV) in an occupational cohort of boilermakers. Methods Continuous 24-hour monitoring of the ambulatory electrocardiogram (ECG) and pre and post shift urinary 1-OHP were repeated over extended periods of the work week. Mixed effects models were fit for the 5-minute standard deviation of normal-to-normal intervals (SDNN) in relation to urinary 1-OHP levels pre and post workshift on the day they wore the monitor, controlling for potential confounders. Results We found a significant decrease in 5-min SDNN during work of ?13.6% (95% confidence interval, ?17.2% to ?9.8%) for every standard deviation (0.53 microgram/gram [?g/g] creatinine) increase in the next-morning pre-shift 1-OHP levels. The magnitude of reduction in 5-min SDNN were largest during the late night period after work and increased with every standard deviation (0.46 ?g/g creatinine) increase in post-shift 1-OHP levels. Conclusion This is the first report providing evidence that occupational exposure to PAHs is associated with altered cardiac autonomic function. Acute exposure to PAHs may be an important predictor of cardiovascular disease risk in the work environment.

Lee, Mi-Sun; Magari, Shannon; Christiani, David C.

2013-01-01

75

125I Measurements for Occupational Exposure Assessment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Whenever there is a risk of occupational exposure to dispersible radioactive material, it is necessary to have a monitoring program to assess the effective dose arising from the intake of radionuclides by workers. In this paper we present our experience in bioassay measurements of 125I in urine samples of workers using high resolution gamma spectrometry. For a 24-hour excretion period, we found activity values of the order of one Bq and estimated the committed effective doses to be less than one ?Sv. Although very small, these values led to a re-evaluation and improvement of the laboratory safety conditions. We discuss the calibration procedure followed for the activity measurements, the estimation of the uncertainty in the excreted activity, the calculation of detection and quantification limits and estimation of performance indicators. Aspects regarding the spectral analysis, true coincidence summing and matrix effects are also considered.

Silva, L.; Pinha~O, N. R.

2008-08-01

76

OCCUPATIONAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL PESTICIDE EXPOSURE STUDY IN SOUTH FLORIDA  

EPA Science Inventory

The investigation was designed to assess the occupational and environmental exposure to pesticides in South Florida, an area where pesticides are widely used. In addition to the conventional approach for measuring exposure to organophosphates and carbamates by means of cholineste...

77

Health effects of occupational exposures to vehicle emissions in Shanghai.  

PubMed

The authors investigated the health effects of occupational exposures to vehicle emissions in 745 bus drivers, conductors, and taxi drivers, compared with 532 unexposed controls, in Shanghai. Logistic regression and general linear models were used to examine the relationship between exposure and respiratory illness. Results showed that the prevalences of some respiratory symptoms and chronic respiratory diseases were significantly higher (p < 0.05) in the exposed group than in the controls. The adjusted odds ratios for throat pain, phlegm, chronic rhinitis, and chronic pharyngitis were 1.95 (95% CI 1.55-2.46), 3.90 (95% CI 2.61-5.81), 1.96 (95% CI 1.11-3.46), and 4.19 (95% CI 2.49-7.06), respectively. Also, there were exposure time response relationships for the prevalences of phlegm and chronic respiratory disease. Pulmonary function and blood lead levels were not significantly correlated with exposure status. The results suggest that occupational exposure to vehicle emissions may induce detectable adverse health effects. PMID:11210009

Zhou, W; Yuan, D; Ye, S; Qi, P; Fu, C; Christiani, D C

2001-01-01

78

Electric and magnetic field exposure, chemical exposure, and leukemia risk in electrical'' occupations  

SciTech Connect

This project was conducted to address what are the extremely low frequency (ELF) magnetic and electric field exposures of workers in electrical'' occupations and do they exceed exposures encountered in non-electrical'' occupations and what are the chemical and physical exposures in the electrical'' occupations and do they exceed exposures encountered in non-electrical'' occupations Two subsidiary issues were does characterization and quantification of ELF magnetic field exposure in the electrical'' occupations provide data to support a dose response relationship between leukemia risk and electric or magnetic field exposure and do dffferences in chemical exposure between the occupations help explain the previously observed leukemia risk associated with these electrical'' occupations Data were collected in 3 regions in which electrical workers had been reported to have an excess of leukemia - New Zealand, Los Angeles and Seattle Measurements of magnetic fields were made on 493 electrical workers and 163 non-electrical workers.

Bowman, J.D.; Sobel, E.; London, S.J.; Thomas, D.C.; Garabrant, D.H.; Pearce, N.; Peters, J.M. (University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Preventive Medicine)

1992-12-01

79

Lung function: occupational exposure to wood dust  

PubMed Central

Objectives Occupational exposure to wood dust has been shown to cause several respiratory disorders, such as allergic rhinitis, chronic bronchitis, asthma, sino-nasal adenocarcinoma, and impairment of lung function. The aim of the study was to estimate lung function (in the woodworking industry) among workers employed by wood processing, who run the risk of being expose to wood dust. Methods The study concerns a group of 70 workers aged 24-55. All the workers underwent general and laryngological examination. A group of 20 workers, working at the positions where dustiness exceeded TLV (threshold limit value) took X-ray of the chest and spirometry. The following parameters were measured: VC, IC, ERV, TV, BF, FEV1, FVC, PEF, MEF25-75, FEV1%FVC, FEV1%VC. The data are presented as means ± SD and the authors applied references values according to ERS guidelines. Results The results show that there was no decline in FEV1 (3.7 ± 0.7) and FVC (4.5 ± 0.8). Normal lung function was defined as FEV1/VC ratio ?0.7. None of the tested workers had obstructive pattern in spirometry. The mean FEV1%VC was 77.1 ± 10.2. These results suggest that wood dust exposure might not lead to significant pulmonary damage. Conclusions These data do not corroborate that wood dust plays significant role in lung function impairment. Future studies of respiratory health among workers exposed to wood dust are needed.

2009-01-01

80

Occupational exposure to ethylene oxide of hospital staff.  

PubMed

Occupational exposure to ethylene oxide was assessed among the workers remaining in direct contact with ethylene oxide or with ethylene oxide-sterilized instruments in 13 hospitals located in the city of Lód? and its suburbs. Individual dosimetry and stationary sampling methods were employed. The samples collected from the occupational environment were analysed by gas chromatography with mass detection. The analytical method enabled determination of low ethylene oxide concentrations in the presence of the accompanying chemicals, such as ethyl alcohol, isopropyl alcohol, ethyl ether and isoflurene. In total, 227 determinations were made, and ethylene oxide at concentrations above 0.01 mg/m3 (which was the detection limit of the method) was found to be present in 164 samples. The ethylene oxide levels were found to vary widely, from lower than 0.01 TLV to several hundred times the TLV value. PMID:10360085

Weso?owski, W; Sitarek, K

1999-01-01

81

Effects of occupational exposure - is there a link between exposure based on an occupational questionnaire and semen quality?  

PubMed

Abstract Several studies have suggested that human semen quality has declined over past decades and some have associated decline with occupational exposures. Many studies have been conducted in occupational settings, where exposure to occupational pollutants is intense. Our objective was to examine the association between exposure to occupational factors based on an occupational exposure questionnaire, and semen quality parameters (sperm concentration, motility, sperm morphology) and sperm chromatin structure. The study population consisted of 336 men who were attending an infertility clinic for diagnostic purposes and who had a normal semen concentration of ?15?mln/ml according to WHO criteria. All participants were interviewed and provided a semen sample. Additionally, a detailed questionnaire about the exposure to occupational factors was performed among the study participants. The results of the study suggest that occupational factors may affect semen quality. The exposure to noise during work was associated with decreased motility and increased DNA damage (p?=?0.005 and p?=?0.02, respectively). Exposure to polyvinyl chloride (PVC) decreased sperm concentration and motility (p?=?0.02 and p?=?0.03, respectively). Whereas exposure to high temperatures and sitting for more than 6 hours during work was positively associated with DNA fragmentation index (DFI) (p?=?0.03 and p?=?0.001, respectively). After applying the correction for multiple comparisons only the exposure to noise and sitting ?6 hours during work was associated with poorer semen quality (decreased motility and increased DFI, respectively). This study showed associations between self-reported occupational exposures and impaired semen parameters. The occupational exposure questionnaire may be useful in clinical practice for patients and physicians to identify the work factors associated with poorer semen quality. PMID:24702586

Jurewicz, Joanna; Radwan, Micha?; Sobala, Wojciech; Radwan, Pawe?; Bochenek, Micha?; Hanke, Wojciech

2014-08-01

82

Occupational exposure to woodsmoke and oxidative stress in wildland firefighters.  

PubMed

Experimental studies indicate that exposure to woodsmoke could induce oxidative stress. However studies have not been conducted among the general population and specialized occupational groups despite the existence of elevated woodsmoke exposure situations. Therefore, we investigated whether there were across workshift changes in oxidative stress biomarkers among wildland firefighters who are occupationally exposed to elevated levels of woodsmoke. We collected pre- and post-workshift urine samples from 19 wildland firefighters before and after prescribed burns. We measured malondialdehyde (MDA) and 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxo-dG) in the samples, and analyzed whether there were cross-shift changes in their levels, and the relationships between the changes and the length of firefighting career, age of firefighter, and quantified workshift exposure to particulate matter. Overall no significant cross-shift change was observed for 8-oxodG or MDA in the urine samples of the firefighters. Changes in both biomarkers were also not associated with PM2.5, which was used as a marker of exposure. However, overall unadjusted geometric mean 8-oxo-dG levels in the samples (31 ?g/g creatinine) was relatively higher compared to those measured in healthy individuals in many occupational or general population studies. Additionally, cross-shift changes in 8-oxo-dG excretion were dependent on the length of firefighting career (p=0.01) or age of the subject (p=0.01). Significant increases in 8-oxo-dG level from pre-shift to post-shift were observed for those who had been firefighters for 2 years or less. The results indicate that oxidative stress response measured as cross-shift changes in 8-oxo-dG may depend on age or the length of a firefighter's career. These results suggest the need to investigate the longer term health effects of cumulative exposure of woodsmoke exposure among wildland firefighters, because increased body burden of oxidative stress is a risk factor for many diseases and is theorized to be involved in aging. PMID:23434577

Adetona, Olorunfemi; Zhang, Jim Junfeng; Hall, Daniel B; Wang, Jia-Sheng; Vena, John E; Naeher, Luke P

2013-04-01

83

Health and safety implications of occupational exposure to engineered nanomaterials.  

PubMed

The rapid growth and commercialization of nanotechnology are currently outpacing health and safety recommendations for engineered nanomaterials. As the production and use of nanomaterials increase, so does the possibility that there will be exposure of workers and the public to these materials. This review provides a summary of current research and regulatory efforts related to occupational exposure and medical surveillance for the nanotechnology workforce, focusing on the most prevalent industrial nanomaterials currently moving through the research, development, and manufacturing pipelines. Their applications and usage precedes a discussion of occupational health and safety efforts, including exposure assessment, occupational health surveillance, and regulatory considerations for these nanomaterials. PMID:22131295

Stebounova, Larissa V; Morgan, Hallie; Grassian, Vicki H; Brenner, Sara

2012-01-01

84

Occupational exposure to dusts and risk of renal cell carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Background: Occupational exposures to dusts have generally been examined in relation to cancers of the respiratory system and have rarely been examined in relation to other cancers, such as renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Although previous epidemiological studies, though few, have shown certain dusts, such as asbestos, to increase renal cancer risk, the potential for other occupational dust exposures to cause kidney damage and/or cancer may exist. We investigated whether asbestos, as well as 20 other occupational dust exposures, were associated with RCC risk in a large European, multi-center, hospital-based renal case–control study. Methods: General occupational histories and job-specific questionnaires were reviewed by occupational hygienists for subject-specific information. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) between RCC risk and exposures were calculated using unconditional logistic regression. Results: Among participants ever exposed to dusts, significant associations were observed for glass fibres (OR: 2.1; 95% CI: 1.1–3.9), mineral wool fibres (OR: 2.5; 95% CI: 1.2–5.1), and brick dust (OR: 1.5; 95% CI: 1.0–2.4). Significant trends were also observed with exposure duration and cumulative exposure. No association between RCC risk and asbestos exposure was observed. Conclusion: Results suggest that increased RCC risk may be associated with occupational exposure to specific types of dusts. Additional studies are needed to replicate and extend findings.

Karami, S; Boffetta, P; Stewart, P S; Brennan, P; Zaridze, D; Matveev, V; Janout, V; Kollarova, H; Bencko, V; Navratilova, M; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, N; Mates, D; Gromiec, J; Slamova, A; Chow, W-H; Rothman, N; Moore, L E

2011-01-01

85

Occupational exposure to organic solvents and breast cancer in women  

PubMed Central

Background Although studies in rodents suggest possible associations between exposure to organic solvents and breast cancer, the evidence in humans is limited. Methods We evaluated job histories of 2383 incident breast cancer cases diagnosed during 2000–2003, and 2502 controls who participated in a large population-based case-control study in Poland. Industrial hygienists reviewed occupational histories and developed exposure metrics for total organic solvents and benzene. Unconditional logistic regression analyses estimated odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) as the measure of association with breast cancer, controlling for breast cancer risk factors. Stratified analyses examined the potential modification by known breast cancer risk factors. Associations were also evaluated by estrogen (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) status and by other clinical characteristics of the tumours using polytomous regression analyses. Results Women who ever worked at jobs with organic solvents exposure had a small, non-significant increase in breast cancer risk (OR=1.16; 95%CI 0.99 to 1.4). A significant association was present for ER and PR negative tumors (OR 1.40; 95% CI 1.1 to 1.8), but there was no association with tumors with both positive receptors (OR 0.97; 95% CI 0.8 to 1.2 (p-heterogeneity: 0.008)). We did not observe trends with increasing level of exposure. Known breast cancer risk factors did not modify the association with organic solvents and breast cancer risk. No association with breast cancer was found for benzene exposure (OR 1.00; 95% CI 0.8 to 1.3). Conclusion Our study provides weak evidence for a possible association between occupational exposure to organic solvents as a class and breast cancer risk. The association might be limited to hormone receptor negative tumors.

Peplonska, Beata; Stewart, Patricia; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonila; Lissowska, Jolanta; Brinton, Louise A.; Gromiec, Jan Piotr; Brzeznicki, Slawomir; Yang, Rose; Sherman, Mark; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Blair, Aaron

2009-01-01

86

Effective biological dose from occupational exposure during nanoparticle synthesis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanomaterial and nanotechnology safety require the characterization of occupational exposure levels for completing a risk assessment. However, equally important is the estimation of the effective internal dose via lung deposition, transport and clearance mechanisms. An integrated source-to-biological dose assessment study is presented using real monitoring data collected during nanoparticle synthesis. Experimental monitoring data of airborne exposure levels during nanoparticle synthesis of CaSO4 and BiPO4 nanoparticles in a research laboratory is coupled with a human lung transport and deposition model, which solves in an Eulerian framework the general dynamic equation for polydisperse aerosols using particle specific physical-chemical properties. Subsequently, the lung deposition model is coupled with a mathematical particle clearance model providing the effective biological dose as well as the time course of the biological dose build-up after exposure. The results for the example of BiPO4 demonstrate that even short exposures throughout the day can lead to particle doses of 1.10·E+08#/(kg-bw·8h-shift), with the majority accumulating in the pulmonary region. Clearance of particles is slow and is not completed within a working shift following a 1 hour exposure. It mostly occurs via macrophage activity in the alveolar region, with small amounts transported to the interstitium and less to the lymph nodes.

Demou, Evangelia; Tran, Lang; Housiadas, Christos

2009-02-01

87

Occupational exposure to airborne lead in Brazilian police officers.  

PubMed

Shooting with lead-containing ammunition in indoor firing ranges is a known source of lead exposure in adults. Police officers may be at risk of lead intoxication when regular training shooting exercises are yearly mandatory to law enforcement officers. Effects on health must be documented, even when low-level elemental (inorganic) lead exposure is detected. Forty police officers (nineteen cadets and twenty-one instructors) responded to a questionnaire about health, shooting habits, and potential lead exposure before a training curse. Blood samples were collected and analyzed for blood lead level (BLL) before and after a three days training curse. The mean BLL for the instructors' group was 5.5?g/dL±0.6. The mean BLL for the cadets' group before the training was 3.3?g/dL±0.15 and after the training the main BLL was 18.2?g/dL±1.5. Samples were analyzed by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (ICP-MS). All the participants in the training curse had significantly increased BLL (mean increment about 15?g/dL) after the three days indoor shooting season. In conclusion, occupational lead exposure in indoor firing ranges is a source of lead exposure in Brazilian police officers, and appears to be a health risk, especially when heavy weapons with lead-containing ammunition are used in indoor environments during the firing training seasons. PMID:24411572

Rocha, Ernesto Díaz; Sarkis, Jorge E Souza; Carvalho, Maria de Fátima H; Santos, Gerson Vechio Dos; Canesso, Claudemir

2014-07-01

88

Psychological Effects of Occupational Exposure to Electromagnetic Fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: In psychological studies, exposure to electromagnetic field is one of the hazardous factors, which has adverse effects on mental health. Exposure to electromagnetic field due to daily use of electricity makes this study so important. The goal of this study was to determine the relationship between psychologi- cal symptoms and occupational exposure to electromagnetic field among workers at High

Yousefi HA; Nasiri P

89

Renal effects of environmental and occupational lead exposure.  

PubMed Central

Environmental and industrial lead exposures continue to pose major public health problems in children and in adults. Acute exposure to high concentrations of lead can result in proximal tubular damage with characteristic histologic features and manifested by glycosuria and aminoaciduria. Chronic occupational exposure to lead, or consumption of illicit alcohol adulterated with lead, has also been linked to a high incidence of renal dysfunction, which is characterized by glomerular and tubulointerstitial changes resulting in chronic renal failure, hypertension, hyperuricemia, and gout. A high incidence of nephropathy was reported during the early part of this century from Queensland, Australia, in persons with a history of childhood lead poisoning. No such sequela has been found in studies of three cohorts of lead-poisoned children from the United States. Studies in individuals with low-level lead exposure have shown a correlation between blood lead levels and serum creatinine or creatinine clearance. Chronic low-level exposure to lead is also associated with increased urinary excretion of low molecular weight proteins and lysosomal enzymes. The relationship between renal dysfunction detected by these sensitive tests and the future development of chronic renal disease remains uncertain. Epidemiologic studies have shown an association between blood lead levels and blood pressure, and hypertension is a cardinal feature of lead nephropathy. Evidence for increased body lead burden is a prerequisite for the diagnosis of lead nephropathy. Blood lead levels are a poor indicator of body lead burden and reflect recent exposure. The EDTA lead mobilization test has been used extensively in the past to assess body lead burden. It is now replaced by the less invasive in vivo X-ray fluorescence for determination of bone lead content. Images p928-a Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 2. Figure 3.

Loghman-Adham, M

1997-01-01

90

Occupational Pesticide Exposures and Cancer Risk: A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

A review of the epidemiological literature linking pesticides to cancers in occupational studies worldwide was conducted, with particular focus on those articles published after the release of IARC Monograph 53 (1991): Occupational Exposures in Insecticide Applications and Some Pesticides. Important new data are now available. Chemicals in every major functional class of pesticides including insecticides, herbicide, fungicides, and fumigants have

Michael C. R. Alavanja; Matthew R. Bonner

2012-01-01

91

Criteria for a Recommended Standard. Occupational Exposure to Trichloroethylene.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report presents the criteria and the recommended standard based thereon which were prepared to meet the need for preventing occupational diseases arising from exposure to trichloroethylene. The proposed standard applies only to the processing, manufac...

1973-01-01

92

Criteria for a Recommended Standard... Occupational Exposure to Inorganic Lead.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report presents the criteria and the recommended standard based thereon which were prepared to meet the need for preventing occupational diseases arising from exposure to inorganic lead (lead oxides, metallic lead, and lead salts, including organic sa...

1972-01-01

93

Occupational Component. 36-Level Courses. Teacher Resource Manual. Integrated Occupational Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This 36-level occupational component of Integrated Occupational Program (IOP) consists of 8 occupational clusters composed of 20 occupational courses. Each course contains learning activities so that students in Alberta (Canada) may develop occupational concepts, skills, and attitudes. This teacher's manual consists of the following sections:…

Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton. Curriculum Branch.

94

Urinary hippuric acid concentration after occupational exposure to toluene.  

PubMed Central

The results of industrial investigations have shown a correlation between the rate of hippuric acid excretion in a single urine sample collected after daily occupational exposure and the amount of toluene absorbed. The rate of hippuric acid excretion and the average concentration of toluene vapour during exposure time were also related. The quantitative range of the test has been limited to amounts exceeding 425 mg of toluene and concentrations exceeding 69 ppm of toluene in the air because of the physiological presence of hippuric acid in urine. The rate of hippuric acid excretion in urine depends on diuresis and is constant for urinary fractions with diuresis of 30 ml/h. The physiological excretion rate was 20 mg/h with a standard deviation +/- 4.3 mg/h, maximal physiological level 33 mg/h.

Wilczok, T; Bieniek, G

1978-01-01

95

Occupational paternal exposure to benzene and risk of spontaneous abortion.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE--The purpose of this study was to evaluate the risk of spontaneous abortion among the wives of male workers occupationally exposed to benzene. METHODS--The wives of 823 men working in two chemical plants at the time of the study were asked to complete a questionnaire describing their pregnancies. The analysis of the 1739 pregnancies that ended in a spontaneous abortion or a birth is presented. The firms' payroll records provided all workers' employment history, including dates. Benzene exposure, graded at two levels (< 5, > or = 5 ppm), was determined for every job, so that benzene exposure for each worker's entire professional life (at these companies) could be assessed. This information was linked to the dates of the pregnancies reported in the questionnaires to enable the exposure status of each pregnancy to be defined (1270 non-exposed and 274 exposed). The frequency of spontaneous abortion, defined as the number of spontaneous abortions divided by the total of spontaneous abortions and births was evaluated. RESULTS--When adjusted for tobacco consumption, mother's age and pregnancy order, the odds ratio of the association between paternal exposure to approximately 5 ppm of benzene and the risk of spontaneous abortion was close to and statistically not different from unity (OR = 1.1; 95% CI (0.7-1.8). CONCLUSION--In this study paternal exposure to benzene did not increase the risk of spontaneous abortion.

Strucker, I; Mandereau, L; Aubert-Berleur, M P; Deplan, F; Paris, A; Richard, A; Hemon, D

1994-01-01

96

66 FR 5318 - Occupational Exposure to Bloodborne Pathogens; Needlestick and Other Sharps Injuries; Final Rule  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...occupational exposure to bloodborne...occupational exposure to bloodborne...agenda to more effectively address sharps...bloodborne pathogen exposures from sharps...associated with exposure incidents...revolves around communication, education...selecting targeted devices...

2001-01-18

97

DOE 2010 Occupational Radiation Exposure November 2011  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses radiation protection and dose reporting requirements, presents the 2010 occupational radiation dose data trended over the past 5 years, and includes instructions to submit successful ALARA projects.

U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Analysis

2011-11-11

98

Occupational Sunlight Exposure and Risk of Renal Cell Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Background Recent findings indicate that vitamin D obtained from ultraviolet (UV) exposure may reduce the risk of a number of different cancers. Vitamin D is metabolized to its active form within the kidney, the major organ for vitamin D metabolism and activity. Since both the incidence of renal cell cancer and prevalence of vitamin D deficiency have increased over the past few decades, this study sought to explore whether occupational UV exposure was associated with renal cell carcinoma (RCC) risk. Methods A hospital-based case-control study of 1,097 RCC cases and 1,476 controls was conducted in four Central and Eastern European countries. Demographic and occupational information was collected to examine the association between occupational UV exposure and RCC risk. Results A significant (24%-38%) reduction in RCC risk was observed with increasing occupational UV exposure among male participants. No association between UV exposure and RCC risk was observed among female participants. When analyses were stratified by latitude as another estimate of sunlight intensity, a stronger (71%-73%) reduction in RCC risk was observed between UV exposure and cancer risk among males residing at the highest latitudes. Conclusion The results of this study suggest that among males there is an inverse association between occupational UV exposure and renal cancer risk. Replication studies are warranted to confirm these results.

Karami, Sara; Boffetta, Paolo; Stewart, Patricia; Rothman, Nathaniel; Hunting, Katherine L.; Dosemeci, Mustafa; Berndt, Sonja I.; Brennan, Paul; Chow, Wong-Ho; Moore, Lee E.; Zaridze, David; Mukeria, Anush; Janout, Vladimir; Kollarova, Helena; Bencko, Vladimir; Holcatova, Ivana; Navritalova, Marie; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonila; Mates, Dana; Gromiec, Jan P.

2010-01-01

99

Occupational exposure in the fluorescent lamp recycling sector in France.  

PubMed

The fluorescent lamp recycling sector is growing considerably in Europe due to increasingly strict regulations aimed at inciting the consumption of low energy light bulbs and their end-of-life management. Chemical risks were assessed in fluorescent lamp recycling facilities by field measurement surveys in France, highlighting that occupational exposure and pollutant levels in the working environment were correlated with the main recycling steps and processes. The mean levels of worker exposure are 4.4mg/m(3), 15.4?g/m(3), 14.0?g/m(3), 247.6?g/m(3), respectively, for total inhalable dust, mercury, lead and yttrium. The mean levels of airborne pollutants are 3.1mg/m(3), 9.0?g/m(3), 9.0?g/m(3), 219.2?g/m(3), respectively, for total inhalable dust, mercury, lead and yttrium. The ranges are very wide. Surface samples from employees' skin and granulometric analysis were also carried out. The overview shows that all the stages and processes involved in lamp recycling are concerned by the risk of hazardous substances penetrating into the bodies of employees, although exposure of the latter varies depending on the processes and tasks they perform. The conclusion of this study strongly recommends the development of a new generation of processes in parallel with more information sharing and regulatory measures. PMID:24768515

Zimmermann, François; Lecler, Marie-Thérèse; Clerc, Frédéric; Chollot, Alain; Silvente, Eric; Grosjean, Jérome

2014-07-01

100

Electromagnetic field occupational exposure: non-thermal vs. thermal effects.  

PubMed

There are a variety of definitions for "non-thermal effects" included in different international standards. They start by the simple description that they are "effects of electromagnetic energy on a body that are not heat-related effects", passing through the very general definition related to low-level effects: "biological effects ascribed to exposure to low-level electric, magnetic and electromagnetic fields, i.e. at or below the corresponding dosimetric reference levels in the frequency range covered in this standard (0 Hz-300 GHz)", and going to the concrete definition of "the stimulation of muscles, nerves, or sensory organs, vertigo or phosfenes". Here, we discuss what kind of effect does the non-thermal one has on human body and give data of measurements in different occupations with low-frequency sources of electromagnetic field such as electric power distribution systems, transformers, MRI systems and : video display units (VDUs), whereas thermal effects should not be expected. In some of these workplaces, values above the exposure limits could be found, nevertheless that they are in the term "non-thermal effects" on human body. Examples are workplaces in MRI, also in some power plants. Here, we will not comment on non-thermal effects as a result of RF or microwave exposure because there are not proven evidence about the existance of such effects and mechanisms for them are not clear. PMID:23675617

Israel, M; Zaryabova, V; Ivanova, M

2013-06-01

101

Occupational Component. 36-Level Courses. Program of Studies/Curriculum Guide. Integrated Occupational Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Integrated Occupational Program (IOP) enables students in Alberta (Canada) who have experienced difficulty in learning to develop essential concepts, skills, and attitudes in the context of one or more occupational clusters. The IOP has four levels: occupational awareness (grades 8-9), career exploration (level 16), occupational orientation…

Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton. Curriculum Branch.

102

Determination of Occupational Exposure to Depleted Uranium Based on Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We used a simple method based on inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) to determine the isotopic composition of uranium in urine at levels that indicate occupational exposure to depleted uranium (DU). DU exposure is indicated by a range fo...

P. R. Boyd, R. W. Tardiff, J. W. Ejnik, A. J. Carmichael, M. M. Hamiliton

2000-01-01

103

Occupational exposures to respirable crystalline silica during hydraulic fracturing.  

PubMed

This report describes a previously uncharacterized occupational health hazard: work crew exposures to respirable crystalline silica during hydraulic fracturing. Hydraulic fracturing involves high pressure injection of large volumes of water and sand, and smaller quantities of well treatment chemicals, into a gas or oil well to fracture shale or other rock formations, allowing more efficient recovery of hydrocarbons from a petroleum-bearing reservoir. Crystalline silica ("frac sand") is commonly used as a proppant to hold open cracks and fissures created by hydraulic pressure. Each stage of the process requires hundreds of thousands of pounds of quartz-containing sand; millions of pounds may be needed for all zones of a well. Mechanical handling of frac sand creates respirable crystalline silica dust, a potential exposure hazard for workers. Researchers at the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health collected 111 personal breathing zone samples at 11 sites in five states to evaluate worker exposures to respirable crystalline silica during hydraulic fracturing. At each of the 11 sites, full-shift samples exceeded occupational health criteria (e.g., the Occupational Safety and Health Administration calculated permissible exposure limit, the NIOSH recommended exposure limit, or the ACGIH threshold limit value), in some cases, by 10 or more times the occupational health criteria. Based on these evaluations, an occupational health hazard was determined to exist for workplace exposures to crystalline silica. Seven points of dust generation were identified, including sand handling machinery and dust generated from the work site itself. Recommendations to control exposures include product substitution (when feasible), engineering controls or modifications to sand handling machinery, administrative controls, and use of personal protective equipment. To our knowledge, this represents the first systematic study of work crew exposures to crystalline silica during hydraulic fracturing. Companies that conduct hydraulic fracturing using silica sand should evaluate their operations to determine the potential for worker exposure to respirable crystalline silica and implement controls as necessary to protect workers. PMID:23679563

Esswein, Eric J; Breitenstein, Michael; Snawder, John; Kiefer, Max; Sieber, W Karl

2013-01-01

104

Application of Oligonucleotide Microarray Technology to Toxic Occupational Exposures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microarray technology has advanced toward analysis of toxic occupational exposures in biological systems. Microarray analysis is an ideal way to search for biomarkers of exposure, even if no specific gene or pathway has been identified. Analysis may now be performed on thousands of genes simultaneously, as opposed to small numbers of genes as in the past. This ability has been

Maureen R. Gwinn; Ainsley Weston

2008-01-01

105

Occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields and acute leukaemia: analysis of a case-control study  

PubMed Central

Aims: To investigate whether the risk of acute leukaemia among adults is associated with occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields. Methods: Probable occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields at higher than typical residential levels was investigated among 764 patients diagnosed with acute leukaemia during 1991–96 and 1510 sex and age matched controls. A job exposure matrix was applied to the self reported employment histories to determine whether or not a subject was exposed to electromagnetic fields. Risks were assessed using conditional logistic regression for a matched analysis. Results: Study subjects considered probably ever exposed to electromagnetic fields at work were not at increased risk of acute leukaemia compared to those considered never exposed. Generally, no associations were observed on stratification by sex, leukaemia subtype, number of years since exposure stopped, or occupation; there was no evidence of a dose-response effect using increasing number of years exposed. However, relative to women considered never exposed, a significant excess of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia was observed among women probably exposed to electromagnetic fields at work that remained increased irrespective of time prior to diagnosis or job ever held. Conclusion: This large population based case-control study found little evidence to support an association between occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields and acute leukaemia. While an excess of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia among women was observed, it is unlikely that occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields was responsible, given that increased risks remained during periods when exposure above background levels was improbable.

Willett, E; McKinney, P; Fear, N; Cartwright, R; Roman, E

2003-01-01

106

Occupational exposures during routine activities in coal-fueled power plants  

SciTech Connect

Limited information is available on occupational exposures during routine, nonoutage work activities in coal-fueled power plants. This study evaluated occupational exposures to the principal contaminants in the facilities, including respirable dust (coal dust), arsenic, noise, asbestos, and heat stress. The data were collected over a 3-month period, during the summer of 2001. Each of the 5 facilities was divided into 5 similar exposure groups based on previous exposure assessments and job tasks performed. Of the nearly 400 air samples collected, only 1 exceeded the allowable occupational exposure value. For the noise samples, 55 (about 18%) were equal to or greater than the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) 8-hour hearing conservation program level of 85 dBA, and 12 (about 4%) were equal to or greater than the OSHA 8-hour permissible exposure level of 90 dBA. Heat stress monitoring at the facilities indicates that 26% of the 1-hour TWAs were exceeded for one or all of the recommended heat stress limits. The data also concluded that some work sites were above the heat stress ceiling values recommended by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). Four of the 20 employees personally monitored exceeded the recommended limits for heart rate or body core temperature. This suggests there is a potential for heat strain if signs and symptoms are ignored. Recommendations are made to better control the heat stress exposure.

Bird, M.J.; MacIntosh, D.L.; Williams, P.L. [University of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States). Dept. of Environmental Health Science

2004-06-15

107

68 FR 75768 - Occupational Exposure to Tuberculosis  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...programs to control exposure, including early...necessary for an effective early identification...assistance. CDC's targeted guidelines already...believes that the most effective approaches are likely...ways to reduce that exposure is to reduce...

2003-12-31

108

Prevalence and pattern of occupational exposure to whole body vibration in Great Britain: findings from a national survey  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES—To estimate the number of workers in Great Britain with significant occupational exposure to whole body vibration (WBV) and to identify the common sources of exposure and the occupations and industries where such exposures arise.?METHODS—A postal questionnaire was posted to a random community sample of 22 194 men and women of working age. Among other things, the questionnaire asked about exposure to WBV in the past week, including occupational and common non-occupational sources. Responses were assessed by occupation and industry, and national prevalence estimates were derived from census information. Estimates were also made of the average estimated daily personal dose of vibration (eVDV).?RESULTS—From the 12 907 responses it was estimated that 7.2 million men and 1.8 million women in Great Britain are exposed to WBV at work in a 1 week period if the occupational use of cars, vans, buses, trains, and motor cycles is included within the definition of exposure. The eVDV of >374 000 men and 9000 women was estimated to exceed a proposed British Standard action level of 15 ms-1.75. Occupations in which the estimated exposures most often exceeded 15 ms-1.75 included forklift truck and mechanical truck drivers, farm owners and managers, farm workers, and drivers of road goods vehicles. These occupations also contributed the largest estimated numbers of workers in Great Britain with such levels of exposure. The highest estimated median occupational eVDVs were found in forklift truck drivers, drivers of road goods vehicles, bus and coach drivers, and technical and wholesale sales representatives, among whom a greater contribution to total dose was received from occupational exposures than from non-occupational ones; but in many other occupations the reverse applied. The most common sources of occupational exposure to WBV are cars, vans, forklift trucks, lorries, tractors, buses, and loaders.?CONCLUSIONS—Exposure to whole body vibration is common, but only a small proportion of exposures exceed the action level proposed in British standards, and in many occupations, non-occupational sources are more important than those at work. The commonest occupational sources of WBV and occupations with particularly high exposures have been identified, providing a basis for targeting future control activities.???Keywords: whole body vibration; population; prevalence; exposure

Palmer, K.; Griffin, M.; Bendall, H.; Pannett, B.; Coggon, D.

2000-01-01

109

Exposure of the US population from occupational radiation  

SciTech Connect

The National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) has reviewed the literature on the subject of occupational exposure to ionizing radiation to assemble, in a single document, the effective dose equivalents and the collective effective dose equivalents for the work force. Although achieving this goal involved the difficulties, the current Report provides evidence that occupational exposures are responsible for only a small fraction of the total collective effective dose equivalent for the entire US population. The current Report is intended primarily for the information of the radiation protection community, but it should also be of interest to the layperson for the perspective it provides on the contribution of occupational exposures to the total population exposure.

Not Available

1989-06-01

110

62 FR 54160 - Occupational Exposure to Tuberculosis  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...would be effective in controlling...would be effective for verifying...protected against exposures to M. tuberculosis...hamper pilot communication. Have other...employee exposure in these...essential to an effective overall hazard communication program and...presented and are aware of the actions...minimize exposure. OSHA...

1997-10-17

111

Occupational exposure of grain farmers to carbofuran  

Microsoft Academic Search

Six prairie grain farmers were monitored for pesticide exposure and related adverse effects while they mixed and\\/or sprayed carbofuran (Furadan® 480F) with ground rig application equipment to control grasshoppers in southern Alberta, Canada. Dermal exposure was estimated with Tegaderm patches placed at seventeen locations on the skin beneath the work clothes. Hand and wrist exposure was determined by the amount

Moe Hussain; Ken Yoshida; Martin Atiemo; Don Johnston

1990-01-01

112

Exposure to Stress: Occupational Hazards in Hospitals.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Occupational stress has been a long-standing concern of the health care industry. Studies indicate that health care workers have higher rates of substance abuse and suicide than other professions and elevated rates of depression and anxiety linked to job ...

2008-01-01

113

Occupational exposure to alkoxysilanes in a fibreglass manufacturing plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To assess the exposure of workers to alkoxysilanes and to determine the main route of exposure during the manufacture of\\u000a fibreglass. Methods: Occupational hygiene samples were taken from workers and their environment in a fibreglass factory during filament forming\\u000a and the handling of coated fibres. The total exposure of workers to silanes was assessed by the collection of air

J. Mäittälä; S. Pennanen; M. Puputti; K. Haapa; J. Liesivuori

1999-01-01

114

Evaluation of mutagenicity and other adverse effects of occupational exposure to sodium azide  

SciTech Connect

The ubiquitous use of sodium azide has resulted in widespread occupational exposure to it in both laboratory and industrial settings, despite a lack of knowledge of the risks which may be involved. Explosive, toxic, and mutagenic hazards have been shown at even low-dose exposures. These effects occur in many species, from cellular damage through pathology of whole systems, and human fatalities have been reported. The advantages to its availability for applicable uses precludes reaching a ''no exposure'' level, but efforts to decrease unnecessary exposure can reduce its risk; therefore a quantitative procedure for determining human exposure is necessary. However, for various reasons present methods for this type of evaluation of azide are unsatisfactory, and minimizing hazard is dependent upon good laboratory hygiene and motivated personnel. The increasing use of azide and proportionally increasing occupational and accidental exposure in the future warrants the undertaking of chronic exposure studies, which hopefully will result in more explicit guidelines for human protection.

Frederick, K.A.; Babish, J.G.

1982-12-01

115

Behavioral technology for reducing occupational exposures to styrene.  

PubMed Central

We conducted a test of the usefulness of behavioral methods to control occupational health problems by reducing workers' exposures to toxic chemicals. Four plastics workers were trained in nine behaviors selected for potential to reduce their exposures to styrene, a common chemical with multiple toxic effects. Behavioral measures indicated that the workers quickly came to emit most of the behaviors. Measures of air samples indicated that large decreases in exposures to styrene accompanied the changes in behaviors for the three workers who had been selected because they most needed relief from their exposures and because they had opportunities to control their exposures by the ways they behaved.

Hopkins, B L; Conard, R J; Dangel, R F; Fitch, H G; Smith, M J; Anger, W K

1986-01-01

116

Current employment status, occupational category, occupational hazard exposure, and job stress in relation to telomere length: The Multiethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA)  

PubMed Central

Objective Telomere length has been proposed as a biomarker of cell senescence, which is associated with a wide array of adverse health outcomes. While work is a major determinant of health, few studies have investigated the association of telomere length with various dimensions of occupation. Accelerated cellular aging could be a common pathway linking occupational exposure to several health outcomes. Methods Leukocyte telomere length was assessed using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (Q-PCR) in a community-based sample of 981 individuals (age: 45–84 years old). Questionnaires were used to collect information on current employment status, current or main occupation before retirement, and job strain. The O*NET (Occupational Resource Network) database was linked to the questionnaire data to create 5 exposure measures: physical activity on the job, physical hazard exposure, interpersonal stressors, job control, and job demands. Linear regression was used to estimate associations of occupational characteristics with telomere lengths after adjustment for age, sex, race, socioeconomic position, and several behavioral risk factors. Results There were no mean differences in telomere lengths across current employment status, occupational category, job strain categories or levels of most O*NET exposure measures. There was also no evidence that being in lower status occupational categories or being exposed to higher levels of adverse physical or psychosocial exposures accelerated the association between age and telomere shortening. Conclusions Cellular aging as reflected by shorter telomeres does not appear to be an important pathway linking occupation to various health outcomes.

Fujishiro, Kaori; Diez-Roux, Ana V; Landsbergis, Paul; Jenny, Nancy Swords; Seeman, Teresa

2014-01-01

117

Occupational PAH Exposures during Prescribed Pile Burns  

PubMed Central

Wildland firefighters are exposed to particulate matter and gases containing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), many of which are known carcinogens. Our objective was to evaluate the extent of firefighter exposure to particulate and PAHs during prescribed pile burns of mainly ponderosa pine slash and determine whether these exposures were correlated with changes in urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-HP), a PAH metabolite. Personal and area sampling for particulate and PAH exposures were conducted on the White Mountain Apache Tribe reservation, working with 21 Bureau of Indian Affairs/Fort Apache Agency wildland firefighters during the fall of 2006. Urine samples were collected pre- and post-exposure and pulmonary function was measured. Personal PAH exposures were detectable for only 3 of 16 PAHs analyzed: naphthalene, phenanthrene, and fluorene, all of which were identified only in vapor-phase samples. Condensed-phase PAHs were detected in PM2.5 area samples (20 of 21 PAHs analyzed were detected, all but naphthalene) at concentrations below 1 ?g m?3. The total PAH/PM2.5 mass fractions were roughly a factor of two higher during smoldering (1.06 ± 0.15) than ignition (0.55 ± 0.04 ?g mg?1). There were no significant changes in urinary 1-HP or pulmonary function following exposure to pile burning. In summary, PAH exposures were low in pile burns, and urinary testing for a PAH metabolite failed to show a significant difference between baseline and post-exposure measurements.

Robinson, M. S.; Anthony, T. R.; Littau, S. R.; Herckes, P.; Nelson, X.; Poplin, G. S.; Burgess, J. L.

2008-01-01

118

Occupational Bloodborne Exposure Incident Survey & Management of Exposure Incidents in a Dental Teaching Environment  

PubMed Central

Objectives The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of occupational exposure incidents among undergraduate dental students and the factors associated with it in the educational dental clinics at Pharos University in Alexandria – Egypt, and to measure the commitment with applying infection control policy in the form of compliance with post-exposure management protocol and reporting exposure incidents. Materials and Methods An anonymous self-administered questionnaire consisting of thirteen multiple-choice questions was distributed among 350 undergraduate dental students in mid-senior and senior levels during lectures at the end of the second semester of 2011, with a response rate of 90.00%. Results About 62.00% of the senior students reported that exposures occurred outside the patient’s mouth. A high percentage of both the mid-senior and senior students (74.70% and 70.70%, respectively) reported that they were exposed to multiple sources of incidents. The vast majority of studied groups stated that they didn’t follow Infection Control Protocol after Incident Exposure. Conclusion The findings of this study confirm that dental students experience exposure incidents but are not likely to report them, thus it is important that the principles of infection control training and reporting of all exposure incidents continue to be emphasized throughout undergraduate dental education.

Sedky, Nabila A.

2013-01-01

119

Ischaemic heart disease mortality study among workers with occupational exposure to ammonium perfluorooctanoate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives:Ammonium perfluorooctanoate (APFO) is a biopersistent surfactant used in the manufacture of several types of fluoropolymers. Based on previous findings of increased serum lipid levels associated with exposure to APFO, we evaluated ischaemic heart disease (IHD) mortality in a cohort of occupationally exposed workers.Methods:Relative risks (RR) were estimated from exposure–response analyses of cumulative exposure measures using proportional hazards regression models.Results:239

C J Sakr; J M Symons; K H Kreckmann; R C Leonard

2009-01-01

120

67 FR 70707 - Occupational Exposure to Beryllium; Request for Information  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...description of how the exposure takes place within...the potential for exposure, in each job category...levels of employee exposures to beryllium in...for determining exposure levels. OSHA requests...exposure. B. Health Effects OSHA is aware of a number...

2002-11-26

121

Developing regulations for occupational exposures to health hazards in Malaysia.  

PubMed

In Malaysia exposures in the workplace are regulated under the Factories and Machinery Act (FMA), 1967 and also under the more comprehensive Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA) enacted in 1994. With OSHA 1994 the philosophy of legislating safety and health in the workplace changed from one that was very prescriptive and containing detailed technical provisions under FMA, 1967 to one that is more flexible and encourages self-regulation under OSHA 1994. OSHA 1994 is supported by regulations, codes of practices and guidelines to further clarify the provisions in the Act. Under the FMA 1967 emphasis was on safety while with OSHA 1994 there has been equal emphasis on addressing health hazards in the workplace. Regulations for occupational exposures are developed by the Department of Occupational Safety and Health with tripartite and stakeholder consultation. When developing these regulations International Labor Organization Conventions, laws of other countries and occupational exposure standards adopted internationally are reviewed. The government also conducts surveys to collect information on both exposures and health effects in workplaces to have better understanding on specific occupational health problems. Effective law enforcement is crucial in ensuring compliance to safety and health law. The challenge at the moment is to ensure all employers and employees, particularly those in the small and medium enterprises, understand and comply with the provisions stipulated in the legislation. PMID:16899331

Rampal, Krishna Gopal; Mohd Nizam, J

2006-11-01

122

Dose levels of the occupational radiation exposures in Poland based on results from the accredited dosimetry service at the IFJ PAN, Krakow.  

PubMed

Individual dosimetry service based on thermoluminescence (TLD) detectors has started its activity at the Institute of Nuclear Physics (IFJ) in Krakow in 1965. In 2002, the new Laboratory of Individual and Environment Dosimetry (Polish acronym LADIS) was established and underwent the accreditation according to the EN-PN-ISO/IEC 17025 standard. Nowadays, the service is based on the worldwide known standard thermoluminescent detectors MTS-N (LiF:Mg,Ti) and MCP-N (LiF:Mg,Cu,P), developed at IFJ, processed in automatic thermoluminescent DOSACUS or RE2000 (Rados Oy, Finland) readers. Laboratory provides individual monitoring in terms of personal dose equivalent H(p)(10) and H(p)(0.07) in photon and neutron fields, over the range from 0.1 mSv to 1 Sv, and environmental dosimetry in terms of air kerma K(a) over the range from 30 ?Gy to 1 Gy and also ambient dose equivalent H*(10) over the range from 30 ?Sv to 1 Sv. Dosimetric service is currently performed for ca. 3200 institutions from Poland and abroad, monitored on quarterly and monthly basis. The goal of this paper is to identify the main activities leading to the highest radiation exposures in Poland. The paper presents the results of statistical evaluation of ? 100,000 quarterly H(p)(10) and K(a) measurements performed between 2002 and 2009. Sixty-five per cent up to 90 % of all individual doses in Poland are on the level of natural radiation background. The dose levels between 0.1 and 5 mSv per quarter are the most frequent in nuclear medicine, veterinary and industrial radiography sectors. PMID:21183549

Budzanowski, Maciej; Kope?, Renata; Obryk, Barbara; Olko, Pawe?

2011-03-01

123

Immunotoxic and hematotoxic effects of occupational exposures.  

PubMed

The toxic effects of environmental factors at work places on the hematopoietic and immune systems are of basic importance due to the time of exposure, lasting on average 8 hours daily during one week. Porphyrinurias and porphyrias have been observed after exposure to hexachlorobenzene, chlorinated dibenzodioxins, polychlorinated biphenyls, polybrominated biphenyls, vinyl chloride and lead. Aplastic anemia may occur after exposure to benzene, pesticides, arsenic, cadmium and copper compounds. Megaloblastic anemia has been noted in subjects exposed to arsenic, chlordane, benzene and nitrous oxide. Methemoglobinemia is induced by aromatic nitro and amino compounds. Hemolytic reactions caused by arsenic, methyl chloride, naphthalene, lead, cadmium and mercury compounds represent a separate problem. Immunodeficiencies resulting in decreased antitumor and antiinfectious immunity have been reported in subjects exposed to asbestos, ozone, dimethylsulphoxide, vinilidene chloride, and benzene homologues. Lymphocytopenia may be induced by manganese, lead, toluene and industrial noise. Neutropenia was marked after exposure to carbon disulphide, arsenic compounds, benzene and electromagnetic fields. Only a few reports concern the lymphocyte T3, T4 and T8 subpopulations. Electromagnetic fields (microwaves) cause an imbalance of that subpopulation, consisting of a decrease in the T8 cell count. The neutrophil enzymes, such as myeloperoxidase and alkaline phosphatase, decrease in their activity after exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls, carbon disulphide, chlorobenzene and DDT. A majority of agents cited include genotoxic effects reflected in chromosome aberrations and increased sister chromatid exchange and abnormal unscheduled DNA synthesis. Leukemia or lymphoma risk is increased after exposure to pesticides, electromagnetic fields, benzene and irradiation. PMID:8175062

Lisiewicz, J

1993-01-01

124

Chromosome aberrations as a means to determine occupational exposure: an alternative  

SciTech Connect

The methodology developed to study chromosome aberrations in vitro, and the results gained in application of the method in in vivo studies of individuals receiving ionizing radiation, may provide a basis to more definitively assess occupational exposure in radiographers and radiation therapy technologists. The need for more definitive methods in measuring occupational exposure is given impetus by the fact that there is now a large group of individuals in whom a significant duration of occupational exposure may be measured. Further, increased knowledge of the effects of radiation has resulted in lower and lower levels of maximum permissible dose. And there is the undeniable, albeit relatively unproven, claim of radiation hazard in occupations not previously considered. As a group, technologists are now better organized and more aware of occupational hazards than in the past. It behooves us as professionals to act in our own behalf to improve the state of knowledge and methods of evaluation of occupational hazards that we have endured for several decades. There is no longer any more time to waste in the light of what we now know. In the author's opinion, the method described herein has the potential to determine occupational dose more accurately and definitively than has been possible heretofore and, therefore, should be tested as an alternative to present methods of personnel monitoring. History, rationale, and method are presented, and a protocol for a research study is described.

Sullivan, C.A.

1980-09-01

125

28 CFR 544.52 - Levels of Occupational Education Programs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Levels of Occupational Education Programs. 544.52 Section 544.52 ...PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT EDUCATION Occupational Education Programs § 544.52 Levels of...

2010-07-01

126

28 CFR 544.52 - Levels of Occupational Education Programs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-07-01 false Levels of Occupational Education Programs. 544.52 Section 544.52 ...PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT EDUCATION Occupational Education Programs § 544.52 Levels of...

2009-07-01

127

1-hydroxypyrene as a biomarker of occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in boilermakers.  

PubMed

A repeated measures short-term prospective study was performed in boilermakers to determine occupational polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposure using the biomarker, 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP). Two work sites were studied; an apprentice school (metal fume exposure) and a boiler overhaul (residual oil fly ash [ROFA] and metal fume exposure). Pre- and postshift urine samples (n = 241; 41 male subjects) were analyzed for cotinine and 1-OHP. Descriptive statistics and generalized estimating equations were calculated. At the apprentice school cross-shift 1-OHP levels did not significantly differ. At the overhaul 1-OHP levels increased during the week in smokers and nonsmokers; in nonsmokers the 1-OHP level increased significantly postshift compared to preshift. In conclusion this study suggests that boilermakers exposed to occupational particulates are exposed to PAH. The urinary 1-OHP level may be a useful biomarker of PAH exposure in boilermakers exposed to ROFA, particularly in nonsmokers. PMID:12500453

Mukherjee, Sutapa; Rodrigues, Ema; Weker, Robert; Palmer, Lyle J; Christiani, David C

2002-12-01

128

Occupational Exposure and the Risk of Barrett's Esophagus: A Case-Control Study  

PubMed Central

Background Case–control studies in the United States and Europe have linked occupational exposure to volatile sulfur compounds, solvents, and pesticide to increased risk of esophageal adenocarcinoma. However, the association between occupational exposures and the risk of Barrett’s esophagus (BE) is unclear given the absence of studies in this area. Methods This is a case–control study in patients undergoing endoscopy who were either referred directly or were eligible for screening colonoscopy and recruited from primary care clinics. All participants completed a survey on (1) self-reported occupational exposures to asbestos, metal dust, organic solvents, and pesticides, and (2) self reported longest held job and job-related activities. The latter were assigned by an industrial hygienist who was blinded to the case and control status into one of 99 standard occupational categories used by the US Department of Labor. Each occupational category was then assigned an expected level of exposure to the same four classes of agents in addition to radiation. We compared the self-reported exposure and the expected occupational exposure based on the self-reported occupation between cases with definitive BE and controls without BE. We examined the associations adjusting for age, sex, race, and patient recruitment source in a multivariable logistic regression analysis. Results We examined 226 cases of definitive BE and 1,424 controls without BE. There was a greater proportion of patients with self-reported asbestos exposure in cases than controls (16.2 % vs. 12.0 %; p = 0.08) but no significant differences in metal dust, organic solvents, or pesticides. The multivariate model did not show an independent association between self-reported asbestos exposure and BE. For the calculated occupational exposure, there were no significant differences between cases and controls for asbestos (29.6 % vs. 27.5 %; p = 0.5), metal dust, organic solvents, pesticides, or radiation exposure. Among commonly reported occupation, there were significantly greater proportion of retail sales workers in BE cases than controls (10.8 % vs. 4.9 %; p = 0.01). Conclusions Exposure to asbestos and sedentary jobs may be risk factors for Barrett’s esophagus. Further studies are needed to confirm this finding.

Qureshi, Zeeshan; Ramsey, David; Kramer, Jennifer R.; Whitehead, Lawrence

2014-01-01

129

Risks of occupational exposure to optical radiation.  

PubMed

During the past 40 years a wide body of biomedical research has been conducted to understand the factors which influence injury to optical radiation-particularly with respect to the eye. A primary motivation for much of this research has been the advent of lasers, since focal damage of the retina from a collimated beam exposure is possible at some distance. A wide range of research studies provided the basis for establishing human exposure limits for ultraviolet and infrared radiation as well as for intense visible light. The International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) has published guidelines for human exposure, and these are available at no cost from the ICNIRP website (http://www. icnirp.org). Laser Maximum Permissible Exposure (MPE) limits used in international safety standards, such as those of the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) are based upon ICNIRP guidelines. Practical laser safety standards and regulations have evolved to promote the safe design and use of laser products. As a result of newer laser applications and increased knowledge of the biological effects, MPEs have been revised a number of times. Despite the existence of safety standards and regulations, accidental eye injuries from lasers still occur. Accidental exposure to welding arcs and intense lights occur more fequently, but the consequential loss of vision is much less, with permanent effects rare. Accidental human exposure information also adds to our understanding of ultraviolet, blue-light and laser induced retinal injury. Accidents are most frequently attributed to the lack of understanding of hazards and a failure to follow established safe work practices. PMID:17017352

Sliney, D H

2006-01-01

130

[Effect of occupational lead exposure on various elements in the human blood. Effects on calcium, cadmium, iron, copper, magnesium, manganese and zinc levels in the human blood, erythrocytes and plasma in vivo].  

PubMed

The influence of occupational lead-exposure on calcium, magnesium and trace elements concentration in blood was investigated. We examined 96 lead-exposed persons and for comparison 46 persons without occupational lead exposure. The levels of lead, cadmium, calcium, iron, copper, magnesium, manganese and zinc were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) in whole-blood, erythrocytes, as well as in plasma. The median of the lead-concentration in whole blood of the exposed group was 646 micrograms/l (+/- 66.6%-range: 449-814 micrograms/l). For the normal persons a median of 148 micrograms Pb/l (+/- 66.6%-range: 107-235 micrograms Pb/l) was calculated. In whole-blood, erythrocytes and plasma all element-concentrations of the non-exposed persons were in the normal ranges. The lead-exposed workers showed a higher manganese level. The other elements were found in normal values for this group. Increasing lead-concentrations in blood correlated with elevated levels of manganese and zinc in whole-blood, erythrocytes and plasma. The lead workers showed for the whole-blood manganese concentration a median of 14.2 micrograms/l (+/- 66.6%-range: 8.5-22.3 micrograms/l), for zinc a median of 6.3 mg/l (+/- 66.6%-range: 5.2-8.2 mg/l). Those levels were significantly higher than the levels of the non-exposed persons. For this group the median concentration of manganese was 4.8 micrograms/l (+/- 66.6%-range: 2.7-8.6 micrograms/l) and 5.7 mg/l (+/- 66.6%-range: 5.1-6.3 mg/l) for zinc respectively. For zinc positive correlation between blood lead levels and the levels of manganese and zinc in the three blood-compartments was found. An essential change of the element concentrations between erythrocytes and plasma, in the sense of a displacement from one blood-compartment to the other could not be detected. PMID:6475377

Truckenbrodt, R; Winter, L; Schaller, K H

1984-06-01

131

Role of occupational asbestos exposure in Hungarian lung cancer patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: What is the frequency of occupational asbestos exposure among patients suffering from malignant respiratory tumours and how\\u000a many of these tumours are associated with asbestos in Hungary? Methods: An internationally established questionnaire with 29 questions, covering the most characteristic activities of asbestos exposure\\u000a at the workplace was completed for 300 patients with respiratory malignancies, i.e. 297 patients with lung

A. Mándi; M. Posgay; P. Vadász; K. Major; K. Rödelsperger; A. Tossavainen; G. Ungváry; H.-J. Woitowitz; É. Galambos; L. Németh; I. Soltész; M. Egerváry; G. Böszörményi Nagy

2000-01-01

132

Occupational exposures in the oil and gas extraction industry: State of the science and research recommendations.  

PubMed

The oil and gas extraction industry is rapidly growing due to horizontal drilling and high volume hydraulic fracturing (HVHF). This growth has provided new jobs and economic stimulus. The industry occupational fatality rate is 2.5 times higher than the construction industry and 7 times higher than general industry; however injury rates are lower than the construction industry, suggesting injuries are not being reported. Some workers are exposed to crystalline silica at hazardous levels, above occupational health standards. Other hazards (particulate, benzene, noise, radiation) exist. In this article, we review occupational fatality and injury rate data; discuss research looking at root causes of fatal injuries and hazardous exposures; review interventions aimed at improving occupational health and safety; and discuss information gaps and areas of needed research. We also describe Wyoming efforts to improve occupational safety in this industry, as a case example. Am. J. Ind. Med. 57:847-856, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24634090

Witter, Roxana Z; Tenney, Liliana; Clark, Suzanne; Newman, Lee S

2014-07-01

133

OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURES IN CALIFORNIA WILDLAND FIRE FIGHTING  

Microsoft Academic Search

Industrial hygiene measurement of exposures to wildland fire fighters was conducted in northern California during three consecutive fire seasons (1986–1989) in conjunction with three separate health effects studies. Chemicals that were monitored included carbon monoxide, total and respirable particulates, polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), crystalline silica, aldehydes, and benzene. Measurements were taken at both wildland fires and prescribed (planned) burns. A variety

Barbara L. Materna; Jeffrey R. Jones; Patrice M. Sutton; Nathaniel Rothman; Robert J. Harrison

1992-01-01

134

Occupational exposures estimated by means of job exposure matrices in relation to lung function in the PAARC survey.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES--The aim of this analysis of the French Cooperative PAARC (Pollution Atmosphérique et Affections Respiratoires Chroniques) survey, was to test whether occupational exposures to dusts, gases, or chemical fumes or to specific hazards, estimated by job exposure matrices, were related to a decrease in forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1). METHODS--The most recent occupation was recorded in adults, aged 25-59, from non-manual worker households. Analysis was restricted to 10,046 subjects whose occupation was encountered at least 10 times in the study and who performed good FEV1 tracings. From occupational title, exposures to dusts, gases, and chemical fumes, and to specific hazards were classified in three categories (no, low, and high) with a British, a French, and an Italian job exposure matrix. Specific hazards were analysed for the British and French job exposure matrices for the same 42 specific dusts, gases, and chemical fumes. To limit spurious associations, a selection of seven hazard groups and 12 specific hazards was set before the start of the analysis. Based on the consistency of the relations according to sex and the British and French job exposure matrices, associations of age, height, city, and smoking adjusted FEV1 score with occupational exposures were classified as very likely, possible, or unlikely. RESULTS--For the three job exposure matrices and both sexes clear exposure-response relations between the level of exposure to dusts, gases, and chemical fumes, and a decrease in FEV1 were found. Associations with FEV1 were classified as very likely for known hazards such as organic dusts and textile dusts, and not previously recognised hazards such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and detergents, and as possible for solvents, waxes and polishes, and diesel fumes. Associations found for PAHs and solvents were confirmed by the Italian job exposure matrix. Associations remained significant in women, but not in men, after adjustment for educational level. CONCLUSIONS--Hypotheses have been generated for exposure to detergents, PAHs, and solvents, but they need to be interpreted with caution before replication. Significant associations found for known risk factors with a decrease in FEV1 are arguments for the validity of the matrices. Despite the expected limitations of job exposure matrices, these results encourage further work to improve exposure assessment by job exposure matrices.

Le Moual, N; Orlowski, E; Schenker, M B; Avignon, M; Brochard, P; Kauffmann, F

1995-01-01

135

Respiratory effects of occupational exposure to tobacco dust  

Microsoft Academic Search

Few investigations of the respiratory effects of occupational exposure to tobacco dust have been carried out and the threshold limit value has not well been established. A cross sectional survey on a sample of 223 male and female workers at a cigar and cigarette factory in Lucca (Tuscany) showed a significantly higher prevalence of wheezing, attacks of shortness of breath

G Viegi; P L Paggiaro; E Begliomini; E Vaghetti; P Paoletti; C Giuntini

1986-01-01

136

Occupational Exposure to Natural Sources of Ionising Radiation in Ireland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland (RPII) has recently completed a detailed evaluation of all radiation exposure pathways from sources of both natural and artificial radiation in the Irish environment. This paper presents a compilation of the occupational doses received by Irish workers exposed to natural sources of ionising radiation.

Organo, Catherine; Colgan, Tony; Fenton, David; Synnott, Hugh; Currivan, Lorraine

2008-08-01

137

Wilms’ tumor and exposures to residential and occupational hazardous chemicals  

Microsoft Academic Search

This case-control study examines the association between residential and occupational exposures to hazardous chemicals and the risk of Wilms’ tumor. The study included 303 cases recruited from six state cancer registries, who were diagnosed between January 1, 1992 and December 31, 1995. A total of 575 controls selected through random digit dialing were frequency matched to the cases. A standard

James Tsai; Wendy E. Kaye; Frank J. Bove

2006-01-01

138

Criteria for a Recommended Standard -- Occupational Exposure to Asbestos.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report presents the criteria and the standard which were prepared to meet the need for preventing occupational diseases arising from exposure to asbestos dust. These criteria for a standard for asbestos dust are the first of the criteria developed by ...

1972-01-01

139

Tumours Linked to Para-Occupational Exposure to Airborne Asbestos  

Microsoft Academic Search

Members of the households of former asbestos workers are at a higher risk of dying from mesothelioma resulting from asbestos exposure from cleaning asbestos-contaminated working clothes of their relatives at home. The lung fibre burdens of some of those who develop mesothelioma are similar even to those of former asbestos workers. Such people are said to be para-occupation- ally exposed.

Joachim Schneider; Hans-Joachim Woitowitz

1996-01-01

140

Screening of autopsy populations for previous occupational exposure to asbestos  

Microsoft Academic Search

A screening procedure to select, in autopsy populations, subjects having a major likelihood of previous occupational exposure to asbestos is described. To test the necropsy population the authors searched for pleural plaques (PPs); the optical count of both lung asbestos bodies (ABs) and uncoated mineral fibers (UMFs) at least 10 ..mu..m in length was recorded. In the adult autopsy population

F. Mollo; A. Andrion; D. Bellis; E. Bertoldo; A. Colombo

2009-01-01

141

Screening of Autopsy Populations for Previous Occupational Exposure to Asbestos  

Microsoft Academic Search

A screening procedure to select, in autopsy populations, subjects having a major likelihood of previous occupational exposure to asbestos is described. To test our necropsy population we searched for pleural plaques (PPs); the optical count of both lung asbestos bodies (ABs) and uncoated mineral fibers (UMFs) at least 10 ?m in length was recorded. In the adult autopsy population studied

Franco Mollo; Alberto Andrion; Donata Bellis; Emiliana Bertoldo; Alessandro Colombo

1987-01-01

142

Airborne occupational exposure, ABO phenotype, and risk of obesity  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND:We have previously found a quite strong interplay between occupational airborne pollutants, ABO phenotypes, and risk of ischaemic heart disease (IHD), with long-term exposure being associated with a significantly increased risk among men with phenotype O, and not among men with other ABO phenotypes. We suggested that the biological pathway could be a stronger systemic inflammatory response in men with

P Suadicani; H O Hein; F Gyntelberg

2005-01-01

143

LINKING DATA TO STUDY REPRODUCTIVE EFFECTS OF OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURES  

EPA Science Inventory

Many existing data systems or registers can be used to study occupational exposures and reproduction. Use of these data systems, especially those already computerized, results in great savings in time and resources. The report describes existing record systems on reproductive out...

144

Biological monitoring of occupational exposure to inorganic arsenic  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES: This study was undertaken to assess reliable biological indicators for monitoring the occupational exposure to inorganic arsenic (iAs), taking into account the possible confounding role of arsenicals present in food and of the element present in drinking water. METHODS: 51 Glass workers exposed to As trioxide were monitored by measuring dust in the breathing zone, with personal air samplers.

P. Apostoli; D. Bartoli; L. Alessio; J. P. Buchet

1999-01-01

145

Personal Air Samplers for Measuring Occupational Exposures to Biological Hazards  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microbiological air samplers, designed to be worn as personal samplers, were evaluated for studying occupational exposures to aerosols of infectious and allergenic materials. Gelatin filter media, an impinger sampler, and spiral and cascade impactors were tested for collection efficiency for small (?2?µm) latex spheres and for recovery of bacterial aerosols. Only 20% of an aerosol of 0.8?µm latex particles passed

J. M. MACHER; M. W. FIRST

1984-01-01

146

Occupational Exposures to Uranium: Processes, Hazards, and Regulations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The United States Uranium Registry (USUR) was formed in 1978 to investigate potential hazards from occupational exposure to uranium and to assess the need for special health-related studies of uranium workers. This report provides a summary of Registry wo...

D. R. Fisher G. A. Stoetzel G. R. Hoenes S. Marks W. D. McCormack

1981-01-01

147

Indoor Air Quality and Occupational Exposures at a Bus Terminal  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents an assessment of indoor air quality at a bus terminal. For this purpose, field surveys were conducted, and air samples were collected and analyzed for the presence of selected indoor air quality indicators. Mathematical modeling was performed to simulate bus emission rates, occupational exposure, and ventilation requirements to maintain acceptable indoor air quality. A sensitivity analysis based

Mutasem El-Fadel; Nisrine El-Hougeiri

2003-01-01

148

Occupational Exposure to Natural Sources of Ionising Radiation in Ireland  

SciTech Connect

The Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland (RPII) has recently completed a detailed evaluation of all radiation exposure pathways from sources of both natural and artificial radiation in the Irish environment. This paper presents a compilation of the occupational doses received by Irish workers exposed to natural sources of ionising radiation.

Organo, Catherine; Colgan, Tony; Fenton, David; Synnott, Hugh; Currivan, Lorraine [Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland, 3 Clonskeagh Square, Dublin 14 (Ireland)

2008-08-07

149

Genetic damage induced by occupationally low mercury exposure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lymphocytes from whole blood cultures from 28 subjects occupationally exposed to different mercury compounds and from seven control subjects were studied cytogenetically. Differences between aneuploidy of exposed and nonexposed subjects were found statistically significant for all analyzed mercury compounds. No statistically significant difference however (except for ethylmercury exposure) was observed for the frequency of cells with structural chromosome aberrations although

L. Verschaeve; M. Kirsch-Volders; C. Susanne; C. Groetenbriel; R. Haustermans; A. Lecomte; D. Roossels

1976-01-01

150

Effects upon health of occupational exposure to microwave radiation (radar).  

PubMed

The effects of occupational experience with microwave radiation (radar) on the health of US enlisted Naval personnel were studied in cohorts of approximately 20,000 men with maximum opportunity for exposure (electronic equipment repair) and 208000 with minimum potential for exposure (equipment operation) who served during the Korean War period. Potential exposure was assessed in terms of occupational duties, length of time in occupation and power of equipment at the time of exposure. Actual exposure to members of each cohort could not be established. Mortality by cause of death, hospitalization during military service, later hospitalization in Veterans Administration (VA) facilities, and VA disability compensation were the health indexes studied, largely through the use of automated record systems. No adverse effects were detected in these indexes that could be attributed to potential microwave radiation exposures during the period 1950-1954. Functional and behavioral changes and ill-defined conditions, such as have been reported as microwave effects, could not be investigated in this study but subgroups of the living study population can be identified for expanded follow-up. PMID:7395854

Robinette, C D; Silverman, C; Jablon, S

1980-07-01

151

Occupational exposure to fluorinated hydrocarbons during refrigeration repair work.  

PubMed

This study describes refrigeration repair workers' occupational exposures to halogenated refrigerants, focusing on difluorochloromethane (HCFC 22), tetrafluoroethane (HFC 134a) and a mixture of tri-, tetra- and pentafluoroethane (R404A) in 30 work operations. Unlike earlier reported studies, the present study includes working procedures involving welding in order to measure possible occupational exposure to decomposition products. The measurements included hydrogen fluoride (HF), hydrogen chloride (HCl), phosgene (COCl2) and volatile organic compounds (VOC). The exposures were assessed during work operations on small-scale cooling installations like refrigerators and freezers. The repair workers' occupational exposures to refrigerants were moderate, and the major part of the exposures were associated with specific working procedures lasting for relatively short periods of time (<20 min). During these exposure events the concentrations were occasionally high (up to 42434 mg m(-3)). Although welding operations lasted only for short periods of time, HF was detected in 9 out of 15 samples when HCFC 22, HFC 134a or R404A had been used. Hydrogen chloride was detected in 3 out of 5 samples in air polluted with HCFC 22. Phosgene was not detected. A large number of VOCs in various concentrations were found during welding. Except for the applied refrigerants, halogenated compounds were only found in one sample. PMID:12729261

Gjølstad, Merete; Ellingsen, Dag G; Espeland, Oscar; Nordby, Karl-Christian; Evenseth, Harald; Thorud, Syvert; Skaugset, Nils Petter; Thomassen, Yngvar

2003-04-01

152

Assessing Occupational Exposure to Chemicals in an International Epidemiological Study of Brain Tumours  

PubMed Central

The INTEROCC project is a multi-centre case–control study investigating the risk of developing brain cancer due to occupational chemical and electromagnetic field exposures. To estimate chemical exposures, the Finnish Job Exposure Matrix (FINJEM) was modified to improve its performance in the INTEROCC study and to address some of its limitations, resulting in the development of the INTEROCC JEM. An international team of occupational hygienists developed a crosswalk between the Finnish occupational codes used in FINJEM and the International Standard Classification of Occupations 1968 (ISCO68). For ISCO68 codes linked to multiple Finnish codes, weighted means of the exposure estimates were calculated. Similarly, multiple ISCO68 codes linked to a single Finnish code with evidence of heterogeneous exposure were refined. One of the key time periods in FINJEM (1960–1984) was split into two periods (1960–1974 and 1975–1984). Benzene exposure estimates in early periods were modified upwards. The internal consistency of hydrocarbon exposures and exposures to engine exhaust fumes was improved. Finally, exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon and benzo(a)pyrene was modified to include the contribution from second-hand smoke. The crosswalk ensured that the FINJEM exposure estimates could be applied to the INTEROCC study subjects. The modifications generally resulted in an increased prevalence of exposure to chemical agents. This increased prevalence of exposure was not restricted to the lowest categories of cumulative exposure, but was seen across all levels for some agents. Although this work has produced a JEM with important improvements compared to FINJEM, further improvements are possible with the expansion of agents and additional external data.

van Tongeren, Martie

2013-01-01

153

Incidence of digestive cancers and occupational exposure to asbestos.  

PubMed

While the role of exposure to asbestos in the development of several cancers such as mesotheliomas and bronchopulmonary cancers is now well established, the possible relationship between digestive cancers, other than peritoneal mesotheliomas, and occupational exposure to asbestos is still controversial. The great majority of the studies are based on mortality data. The aim of the study was to analyse the relationship between digestive cancer incidence and occupational exposure to asbestos in a population of subjects for whom precise occupational exposure data and precise incidence data were available. The population consisted of salaried and retired workers from a company using asbestos to manufacture fireproof textiles and friction materials. There were 1454 men (79.9%) and 366 women (20.1%). A cumulative exposure index and a mean exposure concentration in fibres/ml for each subject were calculated with the aid of an in-house job-exposure matrix. The number of cases of digestive cancer observed was compared with the expected and Standardized Incidence Ratio (SIR) was estimated. Precise occupational exposure data allowed us to study the dose-response relationship between asbestos exposure and risk of digestive cancer using Cox model. Fifty-six digestive cancers occurred in the study population over the 18-year follow-up period for 48.4 expected (SIR = 1.16 [0.87-1.50]). Comparing with incidence in the county, SIR was not significant for any of the digestive localization, but for peritoneum. However, even after taking into account the potential confounders via the Cox model, there was a significant dose-response relationship between the occurrence of digestive cancers and the mean exposure concentration, even after exclusion of peritoneum cancers. Our study provides initial evidence suggesting a relationship between occupational exposure to asbestos and the risk of digestive cancer: first, it is a study of incidence although the risk evidenced is not significant; secondly, a dose-effect relationship is demonstrated in the whole population. However, these preliminary results require confirmation by more powerful studies focusing on larger series. PMID:12457103

de La Provôté, S; Desoubeaux, N; Paris, C; Letourneux, M; Raffaelli, C; Galateau-Salle, F; Gignoux, M; Launoy, G

2002-12-01

154

Toxic hepatitis in occupational exposure to solvents  

PubMed Central

The liver is the main organ responsible for the metabolism of drugs and toxic chemicals, and so is the primary target organ for many organic solvents. Work activities with hepatotoxins exposures are numerous and, moreover, organic solvents are used in various industrial processes. Organic solvents used in different industrial processes may be associated with hepatotoxicity. Several factors contribute to liver toxicity; among these are: species differences, nutritional condition, genetic factors, interaction with medications in use, alcohol abuse and interaction, and age. This review addresses the mechanisms of hepatotoxicity. The main pathogenic mechanisms responsible for functional and organic damage caused by solvents are: inflammation, dysfunction of cytochrome P450, mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress. The health impact of exposure to solvents in the workplace remains an interesting and worrying question for professional health work.

Malaguarnera, Giulia; Cataudella, Emanuela; Giordano, Maria; Nunnari, Giuseppe; Chisari, Giuseppe; Malaguarnera, Mariano

2012-01-01

155

Renal cell carcinoma and occupational exposure to chemicals in Canada.  

PubMed

This study assesses the effect of occupational exposure to specific chemicals on the risk of renal cell carcinoma in Canada. Mailed questionnaires were used to obtain data on 1279 (691 male and 588 female) newly diagnosed, histologically confirmed renal cell carcinoma cases and 5370 population controls in eight Canadian provinces, between 1994 and 1997. Data were collected on socio-economic status, smoking habit, alcohol use, diet, residential and occupational histories, and years of exposure to any of 17 chemicals. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were derived using unconditional logistic regression. The study found an increased risk of renal cell carcinoma in males only, which was associated with occupational exposure to benzene; benzidine; coal tar, soot, pitch, creosote or asphalt; herbicides; mineral, cutting or lubricating oil; mustard gas; pesticides; and vinyl chloride. Compared with no exposure to the specific chemical, the adjusted ORs were 1.8 (95% CI = 1.2-2.6), 2.1 (1.3-3.6), 1.4 (1.1-1.8), 1.6 (1.3-2.0), 1.3 (1.1-1.7), 4.6 (1.7-12.5), 1.8 (1.4-2.3) and 2.0 (1.2-3.3), respectively; an elevated risk was also associated with exposure to cadmium salts and isopropyl oil. The risk of renal cell carcinoma increased with duration of exposure to benzene, benzidine, cadmium, herbicides and vinyl chloride. Very few females were exposed to specific chemicals in this study; further research is needed to clarify the association between occupational exposure to chemicals and renal cell carcinoma in females. PMID:12063361

Hu, J; Mao, Y; White, K

2002-05-01

156

Occupational exposures during routine activities in coal-fueled power plants  

SciTech Connect

Limited information is available on occupational exposures during routine, nonoutage work activities in coal-fueled power plants. This study evaluated occupational exposures to the principal contaminants in the facilities, including respirable dust (coal dust), arsenic, noise, asbestos, and heat stress. The data were collected over a 3-month period, during the summer of 2001, in 5 representative power plants of a large southeastern power-generating company. From 4 of the 5 facilities, 392 air samples and 302 noise samples were collected with approximately 50 respirable coal dust, 32 arsenic, 15 asbestos, and 70 noise samples from each of the 4 plants. One of the previously surveyed facilities was also evaluated for heat stress, and 1 additional coal-fueled power plant was surveyed for a total of 20 personal heat stress samples. Of the nearly 400 air samples collected, only 1 exceeded the allowable occupational exposure value. For the noise samples, 55 were equal to or greater than the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) 8-hour hearing conservation program level of 85 dBA, and 12 were equal to or greater than the OSHA 8-hour permissible exposure level of 90 dBA. The data concluded that some work sites were above the heat stress ceiling values recommended by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). Four of the 20 employees personally monitored exceeded the recommended limits for heart rate or body core temperature.

Mona J. Bird; David L. MacIntosh; Phillip L. Williams [University of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States). Dept. of Environmental Health Science

2004-06-15

157

Biomarkers of occupational exposure to air pollution, inflammation and oxidative damage in taxi drivers.  

PubMed

Exposure to environmental pollutants has been recognised as a risk factor for cardiovascular events. 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP) is a biomarker of exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from traffic-related air pollution. Experimental studies indicate that PAH exposure could be associated with inflammation and atherogenesis. Thus, the purpose of this study was to evaluate whether the biomarker of PAH exposure is associated with biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress and if these effects modulate the risk of developing cardiovascular diseases in workers exposed to air pollution. This study included 60 subjects, comprising 39 taxi drivers and 21 non-occupationally exposed persons. Environmental PM2.5 and benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) levels, in addition to biomarkers of exposure and oxidative damage, were determined. Inflammatory cytokines (IL-1?, IL-6, IL-10, TNF-?, IFN-? and hs-CRP) and serum levels of oxidised LDL (ox-LDL), auto-antibodies (ox-LDL-Ab) and homocysteine (Hcy) were also evaluated. PM2.5 and BaP exhibited averages of 12.4±6.9 ?g m(-3) and 1.0±0.6 ng m(-3), respectively. Urinary 1-OHP levels were increased in taxi drivers compared to the non-occupationally exposed subjects (p<0.05) and were positively correlated with pro-inflammatory cytokines and negatively correlated with antioxidants. Furthermore, taxi drivers had elevated pro-inflammatory cytokines, biomarkers of oxidative damage, and ox-LDL, ox-LDL-Ab and Hcy levels, although antioxidant enzymes were decreased compared to the non-occupationally exposed subjects (p<0.05). In summary, our findings indicate that taxi drivers showed major exposure to pollutants, such as PAHs, in relation to non-occupationally exposed subjects. This finding was associated with higher inflammatory biomarkers and Hcy, which represent important predictors for cardiovascular events. These data suggest a contribution of PAHs to cardiovascular diseases upon occupational exposure. PMID:23872245

Brucker, Natália; Moro, Angela M; Charão, Mariele F; Durgante, Juliano; Freitas, Fernando; Baierle, Marília; Nascimento, Sabrina; Gauer, Bruna; Bulcão, Rachel P; Bubols, Guilherme B; Ferrari, Pedro D; Thiesen, Flávia V; Gioda, Adriana; Duarte, Marta M M F; de Castro, Iran; Saldiva, Paulo H; Garcia, Solange C

2013-10-01

158

Occupational exposures and practices in nuclear power plants  

SciTech Connect

As the first generation of commercial nuclear power comes to a close, it is timely to consider the status of occupational exposure in the power generation industry, that is, the collective occupational radiation doses received by workers in nuclear power plants. The picture is surprising. One might have thought that as newer, larger, and more modern plants came on line, there would be a significant decrease in exposure per unit of electricity generated. There is some indication that this is now happening. One might also have thought that the United States, being a leader in the development of nuclear power, and in the knowledge, experience and technology of nuclear radiation protection, would have the greatest success in controlling exposure. This expectation has not been fulfilled. 32 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

Baum, J.W.

1989-01-01

159

Occupational exposure to crystalline silica and the risk of lung cancer in Canadian men.  

PubMed

Crystalline silica is a recognized carcinogen, but the association with lung cancer at lower levels of exposure has not been well characterized. This study investigated the relationship between occupational silica exposure and lung cancer and the combined effects of cigarette smoking and silica exposure on lung cancer risk. A population-based case-control study was conducted in eight Canadian provinces between 1994 and 1997. Self-reported questionnaires were used to obtain a lifetime occupational history and information on other risk factors. Occupational hygienists assigned silica exposures to each job based on concentration, frequency and reliability. Data from 1681 incident lung cancer cases and 2053 controls were analyzed using logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (OR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI). Models included adjustments for cigarette smoking, lifetime residential second-hand smoke and occupational exposure to diesel and gasoline engine emissions. Relative to the unexposed, increasing duration of silica exposure at any concentration was associated with a significant trend in lung cancer risk (OR???30 years: 1.67, 1.21-2.24; ptrend ?=?0.002). The highest tertile of cumulative silica exposure was associated with lung cancer (OR?=?1.81, 1.34-2.42; ptrend ?=?0.004) relative to the lowest. Men exposed to silica for ?30 years with ?40 cigarette pack-years had the highest risk relative to those unexposed with <10 pack-years (OR?=?42.53, 23.54-76.83). The joint relationship with smoking was consistent with a multiplicative model. Our findings suggest that occupational exposure to silica is a risk factor for lung cancer, independently from active and passive smoking, as well as from exposure to other lung carcinogens. PMID:24272527

Kachuri, Linda; Villeneuve, Paul J; Parent, Marie-Élise; Johnson, Kenneth C; Harris, Shelley A

2014-07-01

160

OCCUPATIONAL NOISE EXPOSURE AND HEARING LOSS IN FIRE FIGHTERS ASSIGNED TO AIRPORT FIRE STATIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) was requested to conduct a health hazard evaluation (HHE) at a large metropolitan fire department. The request concerned the hearing levels and noise exposures of fire fighters who were assigned to two fire stations serving the international airport. There was concern that these fire fighters were at a greater risk of

Randy L. Tubbs

1991-01-01

161

Occupational exposure to carbon black in its manufacture.  

PubMed

Carbon black is manufactured by the vapour phase pyrolysis of heavy aromatic hydrocarbon feedstocks. Its manufacture is worldwide and the majority of its production is for use in the rubber industry especially tyre manufacture. Its carbonaceous nature has led many to investigate the occurrence of exposure-related medical conditions. To quantify any such relationships, it is necessary to assess exposure accurately. As part of such an epidemiological investigation survey involving the measurement both of respirable and of total inhalable carbon black was undertaken in 18 plants in seven European countries between mid-1987 and mid-1989. A total of 1298 respirable samples (SIMPEDS cyclone) and 1317 total inhalable samples (IOM head) were taken and deemed of sufficient quality for inclusion in the study. The distributions of the time-weighted average values were assessed and found to be best described by a log-normal distribution, and so exposure is characterized by geometric means and standard deviations. The data are presented in terms of 13 separate job titles for both dust fractions and shows a wide variation between job titles, with the highest mean exposure experienced by the site cleaners, and 30% of the samples taken from the warehouse packers being in excess of the relevant countries' occupational exposure limits for total inhalable dust. The quality and extent of this data allows both for comparison with exposure standards and for generation of occupational exposure indices, which will be presented in another paper (Gardiner et al., in preparation). PMID:1444068

Gardiner, K; Trethowan, W N; Harrington, J M; Calvert, I A; Glass, D C

1992-10-01

162

Corporate occupational exposure limits: the current state of affairs  

SciTech Connect

It has been claimed that the implementation of occupational exposure limits has been instrumental for the near elimination of serious occupational disease in the Western world. Although exposure limits or guides for most large volume chemicals have been established, the majority of the 10,000 chemicals which are routinely used in industry do not have them. As a result, many firms have chosen to establish internal limits to protect their employees as well as the persons who purchase those chemicals. This paper reviews the most important issues discussed in a 2-day symposium on corporate exposure limits which was sponsored by the AIHA Workplace Environment Exposure Limits Committee (WEEL). Thirteen representatives of industry and professional organizations presented papers which addressed various aspects of the process for setting internal exposure limits. The various policies and methodologies used by large American companies which have set limits for many years and their benefits were discussed. The history and function of Threshold Limit Values (TLVs) Maximum Allowable Concentrations (MACs), Permissible Exposure Limits (PELs) and Workplace Environment Exposure Limits (WEELs) also were reviewed. Some of the legal aspects of setting corporate limits and their role in the Product Safety arena were discussed.

Paustenback, D.; Langner, R.

1986-12-01

163

Mass, surface area and number metrics in diesel occupational exposure assessment.  

PubMed

While diesel aerosol exposure assessment has traditionally been based on the mass concentration metric, recent studies have suggested that particle number and surface area concentrations may be more health-relevant. In this study, we evaluated the exposures of three occupational groups-bus drivers, parking garage attendants, and bus mechanics-using the mass concentration of elemental carbon (EC) as well as surface area and number concentrations. These occupational groups are exposed to mixtures of diesel and gasoline exhaust on a regular basis in various ratios. The three groups had significantly different exposures to workshift TWA EC with the highest levels observed in the bus garage mechanics and the lowest levels in the parking ramp booth attendants. In terms of surface area, parking ramp attendants had significantly greater exposures than bus garage mechanics, who in turn had significantly greater exposures than bus drivers. In terms of number concentrations, the exposures of garage mechanics exceeded those of ramp booth attendants by a factor of 5-6. Depending on the exposure metric chosen, the three occupational groups had quite different exposure rankings. This illustrates the importance of the choice of exposure metric in epidemiological studies. If these three occupational groups were part of an epidemiological study, depending on the metric used, they may or may not be part of the same similarly exposed group (SEG). The exposure rankings (e.g., low, medium, or high) of the three groups also changes with the metric used. If the incorrect metric is used, significant misclassification errors may occur. PMID:15986054

Ramachandran, Gurumurthy; Paulsen, Dwane; Watts, Winthrop; Kittelson, David

2005-07-01

164

A Case-Control Study of Occupational Exposure to Trichloroethylene and Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma  

PubMed Central

Background Previous epidemiologic findings suggest an association between exposure to trichloroethylene (TCE), a chlorinated solvent primarily used for vapor degreasing of metal parts, and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). Objectives We investigated the association between occupational TCE exposure and NHL within a population-based case–control study using detailed exposure assessment methods. Methods Cases (n = 1,189; 76% participation rate) and controls (n = 982; 52% participation rate) provided information on their occupational histories and, for selected occupations, on possible workplace exposure to TCE using job-specific interview modules. An industrial hygienist assessed potential TCE exposure based on this information and a review of the TCE industrial hygiene literature. We computed odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) relating NHL and different metrics of estimated TCE exposure, categorized using tertiles among exposed controls, with unexposed subjects as the reference group. Results We observed associations with NHL for the highest tertiles of estimated average weekly exposure (23 exposed cases; OR = 2.5; 95% CI, 1.1–6.1) and cumulative exposure (24 exposed cases; OR = 2.3; 95% CI, 1.0–5.0) to TCE. Tests for trend with these metrics surpassed or approached statistical significance (p-value for trend = 0.02 and 0.08, respectively); however, we did not observe dose–response relationships across the exposure levels. Overall, neither duration nor intensity of exposure was associated with NHL, although we observed an association with the lowest tertile of exposure duration (OR = 2.1; 95% CI, 1.0–4.7). Conclusions Our findings offer additional support for an association between high levels of exposure to TCE and increased risk of NHL. However, we cannot rule out the possibility of confounding from other chlorinated solvents used for vapor degreasing and note that our exposure assessment methods have not been validated.

Purdue, Mark P.; Bakke, Berit; Stewart, Patricia; De Roos, Anneclaire J.; Schenk, Maryjean; Lynch, Charles F.; Bernstein, Leslie; Morton, Lindsay M.; Cerhan, James R.; Severson, Richard K.; Cozen, Wendy; Davis, Scott; Rothman, Nathaniel; Hartge, Patricia; Colt, Joanne S.

2011-01-01

165

Advanced REACH Tool: A Bayesian Model for Occupational Exposure Assessment.  

PubMed

This paper describes a Bayesian model for the assessment of inhalation exposures in an occupational setting; the methodology underpins a freely available web-based application for exposure assessment, the Advanced REACH Tool (ART). The ART is a higher tier exposure tool that combines disparate sources of information within a Bayesian statistical framework. The information is obtained from expert knowledge expressed in a calibrated mechanistic model of exposure assessment, data on inter- and intra-individual variability in exposures from the literature, and context-specific exposure measurements. The ART provides central estimates and credible intervals for different percentiles of the exposure distribution, for full-shift and long-term average exposures. The ART can produce exposure estimates in the absence of measurements, but the precision of the estimates improves as more data become available. The methodology presented in this paper is able to utilize partially analogous data, a novel approach designed to make efficient use of a sparsely populated measurement database although some additional research is still required before practical implementation. The methodology is demonstrated using two worked examples: an exposure to copper pyrithione in the spraying of antifouling paints and an exposure to ethyl acetate in shoe repair. PMID:24665110

McNally, Kevin; Warren, Nicholas; Fransman, Wouter; Entink, Rinke Klein; Schinkel, Jody; van Tongeren, Martie; Cherrie, John W; Kromhout, Hans; Schneider, Thomas; Tielemans, Erik

2014-06-01

166

Advanced REACH Tool: A Bayesian Model for Occupational Exposure Assessment  

PubMed Central

This paper describes a Bayesian model for the assessment of inhalation exposures in an occupational setting; the methodology underpins a freely available web-based application for exposure assessment, the Advanced REACH Tool (ART). The ART is a higher tier exposure tool that combines disparate sources of information within a Bayesian statistical framework. The information is obtained from expert knowledge expressed in a calibrated mechanistic model of exposure assessment, data on inter- and intra-individual variability in exposures from the literature, and context-specific exposure measurements. The ART provides central estimates and credible intervals for different percentiles of the exposure distribution, for full-shift and long-term average exposures. The ART can produce exposure estimates in the absence of measurements, but the precision of the estimates improves as more data become available. The methodology presented in this paper is able to utilize partially analogous data, a novel approach designed to make efficient use of a sparsely populated measurement database although some additional research is still required before practical implementation. The methodology is demonstrated using two worked examples: an exposure to copper pyrithione in the spraying of antifouling paints and an exposure to ethyl acetate in shoe repair.

McNally, Kevin; Warren, Nicholas; Fransman, Wouter; Entink, Rinke Klein; Schinkel, Jody; van Tongeren, Martie; Cherrie, John W.; Kromhout, Hans; Schneider, Thomas; Tielemans, Erik

2014-01-01

167

Occupational exposures worldwide and revision of international standards for protection.  

PubMed

United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) has become the world authority on the levels and effects of ionising radiation. Since 1975, UNSCEAR has evaluated inter alia the level of occupational exposure worldwide. Based on revised questionnaires, more detailed information is now available. The results of the last evaluation (1995-2002) will be shown in the paper. Lessons learned from the responses by UN Member States will be given, as well as an outline of plans for data collection in future cycles. The requirements for protection against exposure to ionising radiation of workers, the public and patients are established in the International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionising Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources (BSS), published in 1996. As a result of a review of the BSS in 2006, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) started a process for the revision of these standards in 2007. International organisations including the joint sponsoring organisations of the BSS-IAEA, FAO, ILO, OECD/NEA, PAHO and WHO--as well as potential new joint sponsoring organisations of the revised BSS--the European Commission and UNEP-were involved from the beginning in the revision process. The paper also provides a summary of the status of the Draft Revised BSS and describes the new format. The paper focuses, in particular, on requirements for the protection of workers as well as recordkeeping requirements, which provide the legal basis for the collection of specific data; these data are of the type that can be used by UNSCEAR. PMID:21148586

Czarwinski, R; Crick, M J

2011-03-01

168

Relationship between the lead concentration in hair and occupational exposure.  

PubMed Central

The lead content of hair in workers occupationally exposed was correlated with the blood lead concentration. Determinations of lead in blood and hair were performed by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrophotometry in two exposed groups and a control group. A significant correlation was observed between the blood lead and hair lead concentrations, and a regression analysis showed an exponential accumulation of the lead content in hair, simultaneously with the increase of the values in blood. The colour of the hair and the age of the subject did not influence the lead accumulation in hair in the occupationally exposed subjects. The assessment of lead in hair is considered a useful screening test in estimating occupational exposure. Images

Niculescu, T; Dumitru, R; Botha, V; Alexandrescu, R; Manolescu, N

1983-01-01

169

Complex chlorinated hydrocarbons: occupational exposure in the sawmill industry.  

PubMed

Exposure to chlorophenols occurs in the vicinity of the lumber treatment area in sawmills and in subsequent work phases where treated lumber is handled. Measurements from several countries indicate that the concentration of chlorophenols in the workroom air is generally below 0.5 mg/m3, the occupational exposure limit of chlorophenols in many countries. Inhalation usually leads to relatively low concentrations of chlorophenols in urine of exposed workers. Frequent skin contact with chlorophenol solution or with freshly treated lumber can produce urine concentrations 10-100 times higher than among those with inhalatory exposure only. In addition to chlorophenols, exposure to toxic polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans may occur in some tasks carried out in sawmills. Jobs with potentially heavy exposure include the treatment of dipping-vat sludge and processes involving heating of chlorophenols, such as burning of treated waste wood and welding of metal structures contaminated by chlorophenols. PMID:2228138

Kalliokoski, P; Kauppinen, T

1990-01-01

170

Occupational exposure to formaldehyde and wood dust and nasopharyngeal carcinoma  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES—To investigate whether occupational exposures to formaldehyde and wood dust increase the risk of nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC).?METHODS—A multicentred, population based case-control study was carried out at five cancer registries in the United States participating in the National Cancer Institute's SEER program. Cases (n=196) with a newly diagnosed NPC between 1987 and 1993, and controls (n=244) selected over the same period from the general population through random digit dialing participated in structured telephone interviews which inquired about suspected risk factors for the disease, including a lifetime history of occupational and chemical exposure. Histological type of cancer was abstracted from clinical records of the registries. Potential exposure to formaldehyde and wood dust was assessed on a job by job basis by experienced industrial hygienists who were blinded as to case or control status.?RESULTS—For formaldehyde, after adjusting for cigarette use, race, and other risk factors, a trend of increasing risk of squamous and unspecified epithelial carcinomas was found for increasing duration (p=0.014) and cumulative exposure (p=0.033) but not for maximum exposure concentration. The odds ratio (OR) for people cumulatively exposed to >1.10 ppm-years was 3.0 (95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.3 to 6.6) compared with those considered unexposed. In analyses limited to jobs considered definitely exposed, these trends became stronger. The associations were most evident among cigarette smokers. By contrast, there was no association between potential exposure to formaldehyde and undifferentiated and non-keratinising carcinomas. There was little evidence that exposure to wood dust increased risk of NPC, as modest crude associations essentially disappeared after control for potential exposure to formaldehyde.?CONCLUSIONS—These results support the hypothesis that occupational exposure to formaldehyde, but not wood dust, increases risk of NPC. This association seems to be specific to squamous cell carcinomas. Established cohorts of workers exposed to formaldehyde and wood dust should continue to be monitored for NPC and other respiratory cancers. Future studies of NPC should take into account histological type in assessing risk from environmental and host factors.???Keywords: occupational exposure; formaldehyde; wood dust

Vaughan, T.; Stewart, P.; Teschke, K.; Lynch, C.; Swanson, G; Lyon, J.; Berwick, M.

2000-01-01

171

Occupational exposure of workers to 1,3-butadiene.  

PubMed Central

Researchers from the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) conducted an extent-of-exposure study of the 1,3-butadiene monomer, polymer, and end-user industries to determine the size of the exposed workforce, evaluate control technologies and personal protective equipment programs, and assess occupational exposure to 1,3-butadiene. A new analytical method was developed for 1,3-butadiene that increased the sensitivity and selectivity of the previous NIOSH method. The new method is sensitive to 0.2 microgram per 1,3-butadiene sample. Walk-through surveys were conducted in 11 monomer, 17 polymer, and 2 end-user plants. In-depth industrial hygiene surveys were conducted at 4 monomer, 5 polymer, and 2 end-user plants. Airborne exposure concentrations of 1,3-butadiene were determined using personal sampling for each job category. A total of 692 full shift and short-term personnel and 259 area air samples were examined for the presence of 1,3-butadiene. Sample results indicated that all worker exposures were well below the current OSHA PEL of 1000 ppm. Exposures ranged from less than 0.006 ppm to 374 ppm. The average exposure for all samples was less than 2 ppm. The present American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) threshold limit value for 1,3-butadiene is 10 ppm. To reduce the potential for occupational exposure, it is recommended that quality control sampling be conducted using a closed loop system. Also all process pumps should be retrofitted with dual mechanical seals, magnetic gauges should be used in loading and unloading rail cars, and engineering controls should be designed for safely voiding quality control cylinders.

Fajen, J M; Roberts, D R; Ungers, L J; Krishnan, E R

1990-01-01

172

Development of a respiratory sensitization/elicitation protocol of toluene diisocyanate (TDI) in Brown Norway rats to derive an elicitation-based occupational exposure level.  

PubMed

Toluene diisocyanate (TDI), a known human asthmagen, was investigated in skin-sensitized Brown Norway rats for its concentration×time (C×t)-response relationship on elicitation-based endpoints. The major goal of study was to determine the elicitation inhalation threshold dose in sensitized, re-challenged Brown Norway rats, including the associated variables affecting the dosimetry of inhaled TDI-vapor in rats and as to how these differences can be translated to humans. Attempts were made to duplicate at least some traits of human asthma by using skin-sensitized rats which were subjected to single or multiple inhalation-escalation challenge exposures. Two types of dose-escalation protocols were used to determine the elicitation-threshold C×t; one used a variable C (Cvar) and constant t (tconst), the other a constant C (Cconst) and variable t (tvar). The selection of the "minimal irritant" C was based an ancillary pre-studies. Neutrophilic granulocytes (PMNs) in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BAL) were considered as the endpoint of choice to integrate the allergic pulmonary inflammation. These were supplemented by physiological measurements characterizing nocturnal asthma-like responses and increased nitric oxide in exhaled breath (eNO). The Cconst×tvar regimen yielded the most conclusive dose-response relationship as long C was high enough to overcome the scrubbing capacity of the upper airways. Based on ancillary pre-studies in naïve rats, the related human-equivalent respiratory tract irritant threshold concentration was estimated to be 0.09ppm. The respective 8-h time-adjusted asthma-related human-equivalent threshold C×t-product (dose), in 'asthmatic' rats, was estimated to be 0.003ppm. Both thresholds are in agreement of the current ACGIH TLV(®) of TDI and published human evidence. In summary, the findings from this animal model suggest that TDI-induced respiratory allergy is likely to be contingent on two interlinked, sequentially occurring mechanisms: first, dermal sensitizing encounters high enough to cause systemic sensitization. Second, when followed by inhalation exposure(s) high enough to initiate and amplify an allergic airway inflammation, then a progression into asthma may occur. This bioassay requires an in-depth knowledge on respiratory tract dosimetry and irritation of the involved test substance to clearly understand the dosimetry causing C- and/or C×t-dependent respiratory tract irritation and eventually asthma. PMID:24572447

Pauluhn, Jürgen

2014-05-01

173

Exposure-response analysis of risk of respiratory disease associated with occupational exposure to chrysotile asbestos  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate alternative models and estimate risk of mortality from lung cancer and asbestosis after occupational exposure to chrysotile asbestos. METHODS: Data were used from a recent update of a cohort mortality study of workers in a South Carolina textile factory. Alternative exposure-response models were evaluated with Poisson regression. A model designed to evaluate evidence of a threshold response

L Stayner; R Smith; J Bailer; S Gilbert; K Steenland; J Dement; D Brown; R Lemen

1997-01-01

174

74 FR 3938 - Occupational Exposure to Diacetyl and Food Flavorings Containing Diacetyl  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...occupational exposure to diacetyl...OSHA's Hazard Communication Standard...employee exposure in the affected...possible health effects of diacetyl...inhalation exposures during the...Health Effects Studies of Exposure to Butter...not become aware of...

2009-01-21

175

Urinary metallothionein as a biological indicator of occupational cadmium exposure  

SciTech Connect

Radioimmunoassay and neutron activation data indicate that the urinary metallothionein concentration is related to the liver Cd concentration in occupational Cd exposure. It is also related to the kidney Cd content - but only before the onset of renal dysfunction. Further epidemiological studies are needed to establish a dose-response relationship, which may be useful in minimizing the hazard of Cd-induced renal dysfunction.

Tohyama, C.; Shaikh, Z.A.; Ellis, K.J.; Cohn, S.H.

1981-01-01

176

Occupational noise exposure and hearing loss among pulse processing workers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Occupational noise exposure and noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) has been recognised as a problem among workers in Indian\\u000a industries. The major industries in India are based on the processing of agricultural products. There are appreciable numbers\\u000a of pulse processing units spread throughout the country. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of hearing\\u000a loss among pulse processing

V. S. Patel; S. T. Ingle

2008-01-01

177

Current issues in the epidemiology and toxicology of occupational exposure to lead.  

PubMed Central

Occupational exposure to lead is widespread in the United States. Clinically evident lead poisoning as well as subclinical toxicity occur in populations with occupational lead exposure. The focus of current research on lead toxicity in industrial populations is in the definition of dose-response relationships, particularly at low levels of exposure. Major interest surrounds the development of biochemical and physiologic markers of subclinical toxicity. Need exists to better delineate the toxicity of lead on the peripheral and central nervous system, the kidneys, the cardiovascular system, and the reproductive organs using newly developed markers. To obtain more accurate information on cumulative individual exposure to lead, future research on lead toxicity will increasingly use X-ray fluorescence analysis for determination of the lead content in home.

Landrigan, P J

1990-01-01

178

Evaluation of several methods for assessing the effects of occupational exposure to radiation  

SciTech Connect

The evaluation of health effects in populations occupationally exposed to low-level ionizing radiation is a matter of considerable current controversy. The analysis of data on such exposures presents a variety of problems resulting from the time dependent nature of the exposure data, certain selective biases found in working populations, and particularly limits imposed by the size of the populations, and the magnitudes of exposures received. In this paper, several methods of analysis are presented and evaluated using data from the Hanford plant for illustration. Questions of interest include whether or not to utilize an external control, and how to handle the highly skewed exposure data most effectively. Expressions for the power of various procedures are used not only to compare methods but also to evaluate the potential for detecting effects in occupationally exposed populations.

Gilbert, E.S.

1980-05-01

179

Occupational lead exposure in Denmark: screening with the haematofluorometer.  

PubMed Central

The zinc protoporphyrin/haemoglobin (ZPP/Hb) ratio was measured in the field with a haematofluorometer. A significant increase in ZPP/Hb ratio with advancing age was found in 1295 men who denied any excess exposure to lead. Ninety-seven per cent of the results were below 110 mumol ZPP/mol Hb(Fe) (4.4 microgram ZPP/g Hb). The ZPP/Hb ratio was determined in a lead-exposed population of 2275 men, and in 305 a blood lead analysis was also performed. A blood lead limit of 2.9 mumol/l (60 microgram/100 ml) corresponds to about 500 mumol ZPP/mol Hb(Fe) (20 microgram/g). This limit was exceeded in workers engaged in secondary lead smelting, storage battery manufacture, car radiator repair, crystal glass manufacture, storage battery repair, ship breaking, metal foundries, the ceramic industry, scrap metal handling, and PVC plastic manufacture. Other occupations caused lower lead exposures with ZPP/Hb ratios between 110 and 500 mumol ZPP/mol Hb(Fe): such ratios were found in men from shooting ranges, in leaded pane manufacturers, gunsmiths, car paint sprayers, type setters, steel rolling mill workers, shipbuilders and welders, car mechanics, lead pigment handlers, and solderers. Increased ZPP/Hb ratios and blood lead levels in 210 workers were associated with a decrease in haemoglobin concentration in the blood. Thus, the haematofluorometer has proved to be very useful for screening purposes. A blood lead determination should be performed if the ZPP/Hb ratio exceeds 300 microgram ZPP/mol Hb(Fe) (12 microgram/g).

Grandjean, P

1979-01-01

180

Evaluation of biomarkers for occupational exposure to benzene.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE--To evaluate the relations between environmental benzene concentrations and various biomarkers of exposure to benzene. METHODS--Analyses were carried out on environmental air, unmetabolised benzene in urine, trans, trans-muconic acid (ttMA), and three major phenolic metabolites of benzene; catechol, hydroquinone, and phenol, in two field studies on 64 workers exposed to benzene concentrations from 0.12 to 68 ppm, the time weighted average (TWA). Forty nonexposed subjects were also investigated. RESULTS--Among the five urinary biomarkers studied, ttMA correlated best with environmental benzene concentration (correlation coefficient, r = 0.87). When urinary phenolic metabolites were compared with environmental benzene, hydroquinone correlated best with benzene in air. No correlation was found between unmetabolised benzene in urine and environmental benzene concentrations. The correlation coefficients for environmental benzene and end of shift catechol, hydroquinone, and phenol were 0.30, 0.70, and 0.66, respectively. Detailed analysis, however, suggests that urinary phenol was not a specific biomarker for exposure below 5 ppm. In contrast, ttMA and hydroquinone seemed to be specific and sensitive even at concentrations of below 1 ppm. Although unmetabolised benzene in urine showed good correlation with atmospheric benzene (r = 0.50, P < 0.05), data were insufficient to suggest that it is a useful biomarker for exposure to low concentrations of benzene. The results from the present study also showed that both ttMA and hydroquinone were able to differentiate the background level found in subjects not occupationally exposed and those exposed to less than 1 ppm of benzene. This suggests that these two biomarkers are useful indices for monitoring low concentrations of benzene. Furthermore, these two metabolites are known to be involved in bone marrow leukaemogenesis, their applications in biological monitoring could thus be important in risk assessment. CONCLUSION--The good correlations between ttMA, hydroquinone, and atmospheric benzene, even at concentrations of less than 1 ppm, suggest that they are sensitive and specific biomarkers for benzene exposure.

Ong, C N; Kok, P W; Lee, B L; Shi, C Y; Ong, H Y; Chia, K S; Lee, C S; Luo, X W

1995-01-01

181

Occupational exposure to crystalline silica at alberta work sites.  

PubMed

Although crystalline silica has been recognized as a health hazard for many years, it is still encountered in many work environments. Numerous studies have revealed an association between exposure to respirable crystalline silica and the development of silicosis and other lung diseases including lung cancer. Alberta Jobs, Skills, Training and Labour conducted a project to evaluate exposure to crystalline silica at a total of 40 work sites across 13 industries. Total airborne respirable dust and respirable crystalline silica concentrations were quite variable, but there was a potential to exceed the Alberta Occupational Exposure Limit (OEL) of 0.025 mg/m(3) for respirable crystalline silica at many of the work sites evaluated. The industries with the highest potentials for overexposure occurred in sand and mineral processing (GM 0.090 mg/m(3)), followed by new commercial building construction (GM 0.055 mg/m(3)), aggregate mining and crushing (GM 0.048 mg/m(3)), abrasive blasting (GM 0.027 mg/m(3)), and demolition (GM 0.027 mg/m(3)). For worker occupations, geometric mean exposure ranged from 0.105 mg/m(3) (brick layer/mason/concrete cutting) to 0.008 mg/m(3) (dispatcher/shipping, administration). Potential for GM exposure exceeding the OEL was identified in a number of occupations where it was not expected, such as electricians, carpenters and painters. These exposures were generally related to the specific task the worker was doing, or arose from incidental exposure from other activities at the work site. The results indicate that where there is a potential for activities producing airborne respirable crystalline silica, it is critical that the employer include all worker occupations at the work site in their hazard assessment. There appears to be a relationship between airborne total respirable dust concentration and total respirable dust concentrations, but further study is require to fully characterize this relationship. If this relationship holds true, it may provide a useful hazard assessment tool for employers by which the potential for exposure to airborne respirable silica at the work site can be more easily estimated. PMID:24479465

Radnoff, Diane; Todor, Maria S; Beach, Jeremy

2014-09-01

182

Inhalable dust measurements as a first approach to assessing occupational exposure in the pharmaceutical industry.  

PubMed

Occupational exposure to active ingredients in the pharmaceutical industry has been the subject of very few published studies. Nevertheless, operations involving active powdered drugs or dusty operations potentially lead to operator exposure. The aim of this study was to collect occupational exposure data in the pharmaceutical industry for production processes involving powdered active ingredients. While the possibility of assessing drug exposure from dust level is examined, this article focuses on inhalable dust exposure, without taking chemical risk into account. A total of 377 atmospheric (ambient and personal) samples were collected in nine drug production sites (pharmaceutical companies and contract manufacturing organizations) and the dust levels were assessed. For each sample, relevant contextual information was collected. A wide range of results was observed, both site- and operation-dependent. Exposure to inhalable dust levels varied from 0.01 mg/m(3)to 135 mg/m(3). Though restricted to dust exposure, the study highlighted some potentially critical situations or operations, in particular manual tasks (loading, unloading, mechanical actions) performed in open systems. Simple preventive measures such as ventilation, containment, and minimization of manual handling should reduce dust emissions and workers' exposure to inhalable dust. PMID:24369930

Champmartin, C; Clerc, F

2014-01-01

183

Urinary biomarkers of occupational N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) exposure attributed to the dermal exposure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To evaluate whether the dermal exposure to N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) exerts significant effects and to determine the unit increment of dermal exposure on the total body burden of two biomarkers in urine: metabolism-required N-methylformamide (U-NMF) and non-metabolized DMF (U-DMF) in actual occupational environments. Methods: Exposure via respiratory and dermal routes was assessed on an individual basis for 75 workers from

Ho-Yuan Chang; Ching-Yi Tsai; Yu-Qun Lin; Tung-Sheng Shih; Yun-Chin Lin

2004-01-01

184

Leukemia and occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields: An incident case-control study  

SciTech Connect

The existence of an association between leukemia and electromagnetic fields (EMF) is still controversial. The results of epidemiologic studies of leukemia in occupational groups with exposure to EMF are inconsistent. Weak associations have been seen in a few studies. EMF assessment is lacking in precision. Reported dose-response relationships have been based on qualitative levels of exposure to EMF without regard to duration of employment or EMF intensity on the jobs. Furthermore, potential confounding factors in the associations were not often well controlled. The current study is an analysis of the data collected from an incident case-control study. The primary objective was to test the hypothesis that occupational exposure to EMF is associated with leukemia, including total leukemia (TL), myelogenous leukemia (MYELOG) and acute non-lymphoid leukemia (ANLL). Potential confounding factors: occupational exposure to benzene, age, smoking, alcohol consumption, and previous medical radiation exposures were controlled in multivariate logistic regression models. Dose-response relationships were estimated by cumulative occupational exposure to EMF, taking into account duration of employment and EMF intensity on the jobs. In order to overcome weaknesses of most previous studies, special efforts were made to improve the precision of EMF assessment. Two definitions of EMF were used and result discrepancies using the two definitions were observed. These difference raised a question as to whether the workers at jobs with low EMf exposure should be considered as non-exposed in future studies. In additions, the current study suggested use of lifetime cumulative EMF exposure estimates to determine dose-response relationship. The analyses of the current study suggest an association between ANLL and employment at selected jobs with high EMF exposure.

Huang, Boji.

1993-01-01

185

Cytogenetic damage and occupational exposure. 1. Exposure to stone dust  

SciTech Connect

Cytogenetic investigations were carried out on 50 workers exposed to stone dust in a stone crusher industry and on 25 control subjects never exposed to such dust. The frequency of chromosomal aberrations and sister chromatid exchanges in exposed individuals was significantly higher than that in controls. The cytogenetic indices demonstrated a clear dependence on the working environment. The effect of smoking and/or alcoholic habits coupled with exposure to stone dust has also been investigated. The results indicate that the mutagenic risk in the working environment is probably associated with silica dust in the area.

Sobti, R.C.; Bhardwaj, D.K. (Panjab Univ., Chandigarh (India))

1991-10-01

186

Association of occupational pesticide exposure with accelerated longitudinal decline in lung function.  

PubMed

Cross-sectional studies have shown that occupational exposure to vapors, gases, dusts, and fumes (VGDF) and pesticides is associated with a lower level of lung function. These associations seem to be stronger in ever smokers. In the current study, we aimed to assess whether occupational exposure to VGDF and pesticides is associated with longitudinal decline in lung function. We used 12,772 observations from 2,527 participants in the Vlagtwedde-Vlaardingen Study, a general-population-based cohort study that followed subjects for 25 years, from 1965 to the last survey in 1989/1990. Job-specific exposure was estimated with the ALOHA+ job exposure matrix. Associations between exposures and annual changes in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) and FEV1 as a percentage of inspiratory vital capacity (FEV1%VC) were assessed with linear mixed-effect models including sex, age, and level of lung function at the first measurement and pack-years of smoking at the last measurement. We tested for interaction between smoking and occupational exposure and assessed associations separately for never smokers and ever smokers. Exposure to VGDF was not associated with accelerated lung function decline after adjustment for co-exposure to pesticides. Exposure to pesticides, both in the last-held job and as a cumulative measure, was associated with accelerated decline in FEV1 and FEV1%VC, especially among ever smokers, where we found an excess change in FEV1 of -6.9 mL/year (95% confidence interval: -10.2, -3.7) associated with high pesticide exposure. PMID:24780843

de Jong, Kim; Boezen, H Marike; Kromhout, Hans; Vermeulen, Roel; Postma, Dirkje S; Vonk, Judith M

2014-06-01

187

Occupational UV Exposure of Environmental Agents in Valencia, Spain.  

PubMed

Excessive exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UVR) is considered the most important environmental risk factor in the development of melanoma and skin cancer. Outdoor workers are among those with the highest risk from exposure to solar UVR, as their daily activities constantly expose them to this radiation source. A study was carried out in Valencia, Spain, in summer 2012 and involved a group of 11 workers for a period of six 2-day recordings. Sensitive spore-film filter-type personal dosimeters (VioSpor) were used to measure erythemal UVR received by environmental agents in the course of their daily work. Median 2-day UV exposure was 6.2 standard erythema dose (SED), with 1 SED defined as effective 100 J m(-2) when weighted with the Commission Internationale de L'Eclairage's (CIE) erythemal response function. These workers were found to receive a median of 8.3% total daily ambient ultraviolet erythemal radiation. Comparison with the occupational UV exposure limit showed that the subjects had received an erythemal UV dose in excess of occupational guidelines, indicating that protective measures against this risk are highly advisable. PMID:24494834

Serrano, María-Antonia; Cañada, Javier; Moreno, Juan Carlos; Gurrea, Gonzalo

2014-07-01

188

Risk Factors for Breast Cancer, Including Occupational Exposures  

PubMed Central

The knowledge on the etiology of breast cancer has advanced substantially in recent years, and several etiological factors are now firmly established. However, very few new discoveries have been made in relation to occupational risk factors. The International Agency for Research on Cancer has evaluated over 900 different exposures or agents to-date to determine whether they are carcinogenic to humans. These evaluations are published as a series of Monographs (www.iarc.fr). For breast cancer the following substances have been classified as "carcinogenic to humans" (Group 1): alcoholic beverages, exposure to diethylstilbestrol, estrogen-progestogen contraceptives, estrogen-progestogen hormone replacement therapy and exposure to X-radiation and gamma-radiation (in special populations such as atomic bomb survivors, medical patients, and in-utero exposure). Ethylene oxide is also classified as a Group 1 carcinogen, although the evidence for carcinogenicity in epidemiologic studies, and specifically for the human breast, is limited. The classification "probably carcinogenic to humans" (Group 2A) includes estrogen hormone replacement therapy, tobacco smoking, and shift work involving circadian disruption, including work as a flight attendant. If the association between shift work and breast cancer, the most common female cancer, is confirmed, shift work could become the leading cause of occupational cancer in women.

Meo, Margrethe; Vainio, Harri

2011-01-01

189

Occupational Noise Exposure among Toll Tellers at Toll Plaza in Malaysia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Toll tellers working at toll plaza have potential of exposure to high noise from the vehicles especially for the peak level of sound emitted by the heavy vehicles. However, occupational exposures in this workplace have not been adequately characterized and identified. Occupational noise exposure among toll tellers at toll plaza was assessed using Sound Level Meter, Noise Dosimeter and through questionnaire survey. These data were combined to estimate the work shift exposure level and health impacts to the toll tellers by using statistical analysis. Noise Dosimeter microphone was located at the hearing zone of the toll teller which working inside the toll booth and full-period measurements were collected for each work shift. The measurements were taken at 20 toll booths from 6.00 am to 2.00 pm for 5 days. 71 respondents participated in the survey to identify the symptoms of noise induced hearing loss and other health related problems among toll tellers. Results of this study indicated that occupational noise exposure among toll tellers for Mean Continuous Equivalent Level, Leq was 79.2+/-1.4 dB(A), Mean Maximum Level, Lmax was 107.8+/-3.6 dB(A) and Mean Peak Level, Lpeak was 136.6+/-9.9 dB. The Peak Level reported statistically significantly at 140 dB, the level of TLV recommended by ACGIH. The research findings indicated that the primary risk exposure to toll tellers comes from noise that emitted from heavy vehicles. Most of the toll tellers show symptoms of noise induced hearing loss and annoyed by the sources of noise at the toll plaza.

Azmi, Sharifah Nadya Syed; Dawal, Siti Zawiah Md; Ya, Tuan Mohammad Yusoff Shah Tuan; Saidin, Hamidi

2010-10-01

190

The role of environmental and occupational exposures in Turkish immigrants with fibre-related disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of environmental and occupational exposures in Turkish immigrants with fibre- related disease. P. Dumortier, A.Gocmen, K. Laurent, A. Manco, P. De Vuyst. #ERS Journals Ltd 2001. ABSTRACT: Environmental exposure to tremolite and erionite causes endemic diseases of the lung and pleura in Turkey. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of these exposures and further occupational exposures on

P. Dumortier; A. Göcmen; K. Laurent; A. Manço; P. de Vuyst

2001-01-01

191

Awareness and understanding of occupational exposure limits in Sweden.  

PubMed

The efficiency of a risk management tool, such as occupational exposure limits (OELs), partly depends on the responsible parties' awareness and understanding of it. The aim of this study was to measure the awareness and understanding of OELs at Swedish workplaces and to collect opinions on their use and function. Through a web-based questionnaire targeting workers that are exposed to air pollutants or chemicals, and persons working with occupational health and safety or in management at workplaces where workers are exposed to air pollutants or chemicals 1017 responses were collected. The results show that awareness and understanding of Swedish OELs is low among workers, as well as managers and occupational health and safety employees. Statistically significant, but small, differences were found depending on the size of the company and the position in the company. Based on the results, it is recommended that authorities and the social partners target this lack of awareness and understanding regarding OELs. Also, other tools to ascertain a safe working environment with regards to chemicals exposure might be useful for Swedish workplaces. PMID:23376473

Schenk, Linda

2013-04-01

192

Occupational and environmental exposures and lung cancer in an industrialised area in Italy  

PubMed Central

Aims: To investigate the effects of occupational exposures and residence near to industrial sites on lung cancer mortality in an area in Italy. Methods: 234 cases of lung cancer and 729 controls matched by sex, age, and date of death were enrolled. Environmental exposure was evaluated using historical residence data. A geographical information system was used to compute distances from residence to pollution source (cement factory, power plants, harbour) and an average distance was computed for each subject. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) in a logistic regression model were used to estimate the relative risk of lung cancer associated with the risk factors (smoking habits and occupational exposure) collected by questionnaire; ORs for distances from pollution sources and from city centre were computed, adjusting for smoking habits, education, and occupation. Results: Smoking habits (?10 cigarettes/day, OR = 2.28; 11–20, OR = 4.64; >20, OR = 6.61) and occupational exposure to asbestos (OR = 3.50) were significantly associated with lung cancer risk. Reported traffic level of area of residence and residence near the four sources were not associated with increased risk of lung cancer. There was a significantly increased risk for those residing outside the city centre, in the southern outskirts (OR = 1.51). Conclusions: The increased lung cancer risk observed in the area can partly be explained by occupational exposures. The increased risk in the outskirts of the city is consistent with the results of dispersion models that indicate high levels of pollutant deposition in the same area.

Fano, V; Michelozzi, P; Ancona, C; Capon, A; Forastiere, F; Perucci, C

2004-01-01

193

Urinary naphthalene and phenanthrene as biomarkers of occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons  

PubMed Central

Objectives We investigated the utility of unmetabolized naphthalene (Nap) and phenanthrene (Phe) in urine as surrogates for exposures to mixtures of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Methods Our study included workers exposed to diesel exhausts (low PAH exposure level, n = 39) as well as those exposed to emissions from asphalt (medium PAH exposure level, n = 26) and coke ovens (high PAH exposure level, n = 28). Levels of Nap and Phe were measured in urine from each subject using head space-solid phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Published levels of airborne Nap, Phe, and other PAHs in the coke-producing and aluminum industries were also investigated. Results In post-shift urine, the highest estimated geometric mean concentrations of Nap and Phe were observed in coke-oven workers (Nap: 2,490 ng/l; Phe: 975 ng/l), followed by asphalt workers (Nap: 71.5 ng/l; Phe: 54.3 ng/l), and by diesel-exposed workers (Nap: 17.7 ng/l; Phe: 3.60 ng/l). After subtracting logged background levels of Nap and Phe from the logged post-shift levels of these PAHs in urine, the resulting values [referred to as ln(adjNap) and ln(adjPhe), respectively] were significantly correlated in each group of workers (0.71 ? Pearson r ? 0.89), suggesting a common exposure source in each case. Surprisingly, multiple linear regression analysis of ln(adjNap) on ln(adjPhe) showed no significant effect of the source of exposure (coke ovens, asphalt, and diesel exhaust) and further suggested that the ratio of urinary Nap/Phe (in natural scale) decreased with increasing exposure levels. These results were corroborated with published data for airborne Nap and Phe in the coke-producing and aluminum industries. The published air measurements also indicated that Nap and Phe levels were proportional to the levels of all combined PAHs in those industries. Conclusion Levels of Nap and Phe in urine reflect airborne exposures to these compounds and are promising surrogates for occupational exposures to PAH mixtures. Main Messages Urinary naphthalene and phenanthrene are promising surrogates for occupational exposures to PAHs. Policy Implications Measurement of urinary naphthalene and phenanthrene could simplify the assessment of occupational exposures to PAHs.

Sobus, Jon R.; Waidyanatha, Suramya; McClean, Michael D.; Herrick, Robert F.; Smith, Thomas J.; Garshick, Eric; Laden, Francine; Hart, Jaime E.; Zheng, Yuxin; Rappaport, Stephen M.

2009-01-01

194

Facial solar UV exposure of Austrian farmers during occupation.  

PubMed

Optoelectronic personal UV-meters were used to monitor the occupational facial solar erythemally effective exposure of 12 Austrian full-time farmers with high temporal resolution. To ensure high quality measurements several quality assurance procedures were applied, like calibration with respect to solar elevation and total ozone column. From April to October the test persons carried the UV-meters on the forehead during working hours. A digital diary (activity, location, weather, photoprotective measures) was completed on an hourly basis. Our field test produced 1427 complete daily records (measurement and diary). The total exposures showed high variability (77-757 standard erythema dose [SED]) which correlates with the number of working days and even stronger with the little numbers of days with high exposure (>10?SED). Risk factors for high exposures were: mixed-culture farms with aggravated working conditions, low degree of automation of working processes, inadequate operating logistics (summarized as manual work outdoor), driving machines without cabins, and female gender. UV exposure of female farmers was approximately twice as high as that of men: Women received 15% of ambient radiation while men got 8%. Avoiding daily exposure >10?SED could reduce exposure down to 40% and the risk in developing skin cancer by a factor of 40. PMID:21039574

Schmalwieser, Alois W; Cabaj, Alexander; Schauberger, Günther; Rohn, Herbert; Maier, Bernhard; Maier, Harald

2010-01-01

195

Occupational exposure to solvent mixtures: effects on health and metabolism.  

PubMed

Exposure monitoring by personal diffusive samplers, biological monitoring of toluene exposure by urinary hippuric acid determination, haematology, serum biochemistry for liver function, and a subjective symptom survey by questionnaire were conducted on 303 male solvent workers. They were exposed to a mixture of solvents including toluene (geometric mean 18 ppm), methyl ethyl ketone (MEK; 16 ppm), isopropyl alcohol (IPA; 7 ppm), and ethyl acetate (9 ppm). The intensity was mostly below unity using the additiveness formula based on current Japanese occupational exposure limits, but more than eight times unity at the maximum. The results were compared with the findings in 135 non-exposed male workers of similar ages. Haematology and liver function tests did not show any exposure related abnormality, and subjective symptoms were mostly related to central nervous system depression and local irritation. Further analysis suggested that the irritation effects were not related to exposure to MEK. Analysis of the relation between toluene exposure and hippuric acid excretion in urine showed that there was no metabolic interaction between MEK and toluene, or between IPA and toluene. Overall, therefore, it is concluded that there was no sign or symptom detected to suggest anything other than toluene toxicity, that there was no evidence to indicate any modification of toluene toxicity or metabolism due to coexposure, and that the additiveness assumption is reasonable for risk assessment for the combination of solvents under these exposure conditions. PMID:7951776

Ukai, H; Takada, S; Inui, S; Imai, Y; Kawai, T; Shimbo, S; Ikeda, M

1994-08-01

196

Carbofuran occupational dermal toxicity, exposure and risk assessment†  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Carbofuran is a carbamate insecticide that inhibits AChE. Although toxic by ingestion in mammals, it has low dermal toxicity, with relatively few confirmed worker illnesses. This risk assessment describes its time of onset, time to peak effect and time to recovery in rats using brain AChE inhibition in acute and 21 day dermal studies; in vitro rat/human relative dermal absorption for granular (5G) and liquid (4F) formulations; occupational exposure estimates using the Pesticide Handlers' Exposure Database and Agricultural Handlers' Exposure Database (PHED/AHED). RESULTS The point of departure for acute risk calculation (BMDL10) was 6.7 mg kg?1 day?1 for brain AChE inhibition after 6 h exposure. In a 21 day study, the BMDL10 was 6.8 mg kg?1 day?1, indicating reversibility. At 75 mg kg?1 day?1, time of onset was ?30 min and time to peak effect was 6–12 h. Rat skin had ca tenfold greater dermal absorption of carbofuran (Furadan® 5G or 4F) than human skin. Exposure estimates for 5G in rice and 4F in ten crops had adequate margins of exposure (>100). CONCLUSION Rat dermal carbofuran toxicity was assessed in terms of dose and time-related inhibition of AChE. Comparative dermal absorption in rats was greater than in humans. Worker exposure estimates indicated acceptable risk for granular and liquid formulations of carbofuran. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry

Gammon, Derek W; Liu, Zhiwei; Becker, John M

2012-01-01

197

Occupational exposure to asbestos in the drywall taping process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies of airborne asbestos fiber concentrations associated with various operations of the drywall taping process have been undertaken in the province of Alberta, Canada. The results show that mixing, sanding and sweeping created high levels of airborne asbestos dust. The measured concentrations were frequently in excess of occupational health standards. Sanding in particular was assessed the most hazardous operation. The

DAVE K. VERMA; CHARLES G. MIDDLETON

1980-01-01

198

Out of hours management of occupational exposures to blood and body fluids in healthcare staff  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims: To assess and compare the out of hours and in hours management of occupational blood and body fluid exposures in a London teaching hospital.Methods: The occupational health and accident and emergency records of individuals presenting with occupational body fluid exposures over a six month period at a London teaching hospital were analysed retrospectively. Main outcome measures were the completeness

D Patel; M Gawthrop; D Snashall; I Madan

2002-01-01

199

Occupational exposure to carcinogens in the European Union  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES—To construct a computer assisted information system for the estimation of the numbers of workers exposed to established and suspected human carcinogens in the member states of the European Union (EU).?METHODS—A database called CAREX (carcinogen exposure) was designed to provide selected exposure data and documented estimates of the number of workers exposed to carcinogens by country, carcinogen, and industry. CAREX includes data on agents evaluated by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) (all agents in groups 1 and 2A as of February 1995, and selected agents in group 2B) and on ionising radiation, displayed across the 55 industrial classes. The 1990-3 occupational exposure was estimated in two phases. Firstly, estimates were generated by the CAREX system on the basis of national labour force data and exposure prevalence estimates from two reference countries (Finland and the United States) which had the most comprehensive data available on exposures to these agents. For selected countries, these estimates were then refined by national experts in view of the perceived exposure patterns in their own countries compared with those of the reference countries.?RESULTS—About 32 million workers (23% of those employed) in the EU were exposed to agents covered by CAREX. At least 22 million workers were exposed to IARC group 1 carcinogens. The exposed workers had altogether 42 million exposures (1.3 mean exposures for each exposed worker). The most common exposures were solar radiation (9.1 million workers exposed at least 75% of working time), environmental tobacco smoke (7.5 million workers exposed at least 75% of working time), crystalline silica (3.2 million exposed), diesel exhaust (3.0 million), radon (2.7 million), and wood dust (2.6 million).?CONCLUSION—These preliminary estimates indicate that in the early 1990s, a substantial proportion of workers in the EU were exposed to carcinogens.???Keywords: exposure; carcinogen; Europe

Kauppinen, T.; Toikkanen, J.; Pedersen, D.; Young, R.; Ahrens, W.; Boffetta, P.; Hansen, J.; Kromhout, H.; Blasco, J. M.; Mirabelli, D.; de la Orden-River..., V.; Pannett, B.; Plato, N.; Savela, A.; Vincent, R.; Kogevinas, M.

2000-01-01

200

Comparison of methods for obtaining occupational exposure information in a case-control interview study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Comparison of methods for obtaining occupational exposure information in a case-control interview study. Two indirect methods for linking occupation and industry of employment with specific exposures and directly reported occupational exposure information were compared using data from a population-based case-control interview study of chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Exposures suspected of being associated with increased risk of chronic lymphocytic leukemia were examined

M. S. Linet; W. F. Stewart; M. L. Van Natta; L. D. McCaffrey; M. Szklo

1986-01-01

201

Occupational Health and Safety. Numeracy. Level 1. Level 2. Level 3. Support Materials for Agricultural Training.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication contains the three numeracy units of the three levels of Support Materials for Agricultural Training (SMAT) in the area of occupational health and safety: Level 1 (starting), 2 (continuing), and 3 (completing). The units are designed to help the learner improve his or her numeracy skills needed to deal with occupational safety and…

Batman, Kangan; Tully, Chris

202

Styrene-oxide N-terminal valine haemoglobin adducts as biomarkers of occupational exposure to styrene.  

PubMed

Styrene is widely used in the production of various plastics, synthetic rubber and resins. Occupational exposure occurs mainly via inhalation and relatively high exposure occurs due to its use in manual application techniques. The aim of this study was to evaluate if SO-Hb adducts are a suitable biomarker for assessing occupational exposure to styrene. Seventy-five reinforced plastic workers and 77 control subjects were studied. In the selected population the main urinary styrene metabolites and the styrene oxide N-terminal valine (SO-Hb) adducts in human globin were quantified. The levels of SO-Hb adducts were significantly higher (p<0.01) in the exposed subjects (5.98pmol/g globin) when compared with controls (2.59pmol/g globin) and a significant difference was found in levels of SO-Hb adducts between non-smokers and smokers among the control group. From our data we conclude that SO-Hb adduct measurement is a sensitive and specific means of assessing exposure to styrene at the occupational and environmental level. PMID:17572151

Teixeira, J P; Silva, S; Torres, J; Gaspar, J; Roach, J; Farmer, P B; Rueff, J; Mayan, O

2008-03-01

203

Occupational exposure to laser surgery generated air contaminants.  

PubMed

The objective of the review is to show that scientific evidence is lacking on the safety of laser-generated air contaminants. Further research and data collection are necessary to characterize the potential dangers associated with exposures of health care professionals to laser generated air contaminants. The article is a review of existing scientific evidence in the area of exposure risks to health care professionals. A careful search of the scientific literature both in medicine and engineering was performed, as well as contact with experts from laser standards advisory sources. These sources include: International Laser Safety Conference, National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health, American National Standard Institute, Laser Safety Institute and Rockwell Laser Industries. The review includes articles in the literature documenting cases of over-exposures to contaminants while using a class IV laser, the same class laser used in surgery. Several studies of case reports of laser-generated air contaminants from cutting on human and animal tissues are included. Articles and guidelines on this subject of laser-generated contaminants from the above listed sources were used in writing this review. The review indicates that lasers used in surgery are potential occupational health risks. PMID:9584689

Blustein, D; Blustein, J

1998-04-01

204

Parental occupational lead exposure and lead concentration of newborn cord blood  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of parental occupational lead exposure on the lead levels of newborn cord blood in the Taipei area. From September 1984 to June 1985, 5,000 pregnant women voluntarily participated in the study at the Taipei Municipal Maternal and Child Hospital. Each woman was interviewed regarding her and her husband's occupational exposures; 2,948 successfully delivered healthy newborns, and cord blood samples were obtained using Terumo Venoject, and 242 samples were analyzed by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry using an Instrumentation Laboratory 251 instrument. Nine cord blood samples were from newborns with both parents exposed, 26 samples had maternal exposure only, 105 samples had paternal exposure only, and 102 were nonexposed. The results showed that the average lead level of cord blood with both parents exposed was 8.9 +/- 2.9 micrograms%, maternal exposure 9.0 +/- 3.8 micrograms%, paternal exposure 8.3 +/- 3.4 micrograms%, and 6.9 +/- 3.2 micrograms% in the nonexposed group. There were significant differences between the nonexposed and the maternal exposure groups, and also between the nonexposed and paternal exposure groups. All 26 maternal exposures were from lead soldering operations. Multivariate analysis revealed that, after control of father's exposure status, newborn cord blood lead level increased 0.27 micrograms% for each hour the mother spent on lead soldering during a normal working day, thus suggesting that soldering during pregnancy may be hazardous to newborns. Paternal contribution to the cord blood lead levels seemed to be through either working at home with the pregnant mother also at home or bringing work clothes home for laundering.

Wang, J.D.; Shy, W.Y.; Chen, J.S.; Yang, K.H.; Hwang, Y.H.

1989-01-01

205

Lung Cancer Mortality and Occupational Exposure to Asbestos Among Telephone Linemen: A Historical Cohort Study in France  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The authors studied the mortality by lung cancer in telephone linemen exposed to asbestos at low levels during installation of telephone cables. Methods: Three hundred eight lung cancers deaths were identified in the cohort. Exposure to asbestos and to other occupational carcinogens was assessed using a job-exposure matrix. Results: The relative risk for lung cancer death associated with an

Djamila Meguellati-Hakkas; Isabelle Stucker; Joelle Fevotte; Daniele Luce; Pascal Guenel

2006-01-01

206

Occupational Exposure to HDI: Progress and Challenges in Biomarker Analysis  

PubMed Central

1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI) is extensively used in the automotive repair industry and is a commonly reported cause of occupational asthma in industrialized populations. However, the exact pathological mechanism remains uncertain. Characterization and quantification of biomarkers resulting from HDI exposure can fill important knowledge gaps between exposure, susceptibility, and the rise of immunological reactions and sensitization leading to asthma. Here, we discuss existing challenges in HDI biomarker analysis including the quantification of N-acetyl-1,6-hexamethylene diamine (monoacetyl-HDA) and N,N?-diacetyl-1,6-hexamethylene diamine (diacetyl-HDA) in urine samples based on previously established methods for HDA analysis. In addition, we describe the optimization of reaction conditions for the synthesis of monoacetyl-HDA and diacetyl-HDA, and utilize these standards for the quantification of these metabolites in the urine of three occupationally exposed workers. Diacetyl-HDA was present in untreated urine at 0.015 – 0.060 ?g/l. Using base hydrolysis, the concentration range of monoacetyl-HDA in urine was 0.19 – 2.2 ?g/l, 60-fold higher than in the untreated samples on average. HDA was detected only in one sample after base hydrolysis (0.026 ?g/l). In contrast, acid hydrolysis yielded HDA concentrations ranging from 0.36 to 10.1 ?g/l in these three samples. These findings demonstrate HDI metabolism via N-acetylation metabolic pathway and protein adduct formation resulting from occupational exposure to HDI.

Flack, Sheila L.; Ball, Louise M.; Nylander-French, Leena A.

2010-01-01

207

Occupational exposures to solar ultraviolet radiation of vineyard workers in Tuscany (Italy).  

PubMed

A study to quantify the UV exposure of vineyard workers was carried out using polysulphone dosimetry. The study took place in Tuscany (Italy) involving 32 vineyard workers, covering three different stages of the vine's growth. The level of personal exposure expressed as a function on the available ambient UV radiation was determined. We also assessed skin reflectance parameters, pre and post exposure. It was found that during spring backs received between 53% and 87% of ambient exposure and arms between 30% and 60%. During summer, the workers received on the back between 36% and 77% of ambient exposure and between 19% and 43% of ambient exposure on the arm. The comparison with the occupational UV exposure limit showed that all subjects received UV exposures in excess of the limit. The exposure of back of neck exceeded 10 SED (assumed as a threshold level of sun-adapted skin for Mediterranean subjects) in spring, which means that in the case of non sun-adapted skin and without sun protection, erythema can be induced in this targeted population. The cumulative exposure was also estimated under specific assumptions of UV exposure giving values in some cases higher than previous studies. PMID:21496028

Siani, Anna Maria; Casale, Giuseppe R; Sisto, Renata; Colosimo, Alfredo; Lang, Carolyn A; Kimlin, Michael G

2011-01-01

208

What You Need to Know About Occupational Exposure to Metalworking Fluids.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document summarizes the findings of the recently released NISOH Criteria for a Recommend Standard Occupational Exposure to Metalworking Fluids. According to the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 (Public Law 95-164), the National Institute fo...

1998-01-01

209

Lead exposure: Public and occupational health hazards. (Latest citations from Pollution abstracts). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the effects of chronic lead exposure in humans and animals. The citations explore lead exposure resulting from occupational hazards, automobile emissions, and air pollution. Lead absorption in children is discussed. The clinical features of lead toxicity are noted, and biochemical assays for the quantification of blood and tissue lead levels are discussed. D-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase and its relation to blood lead levels are cited.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

NONE

1995-12-01

210

Prediction of toxic substances emission for occupational exposure assessment.  

PubMed

Methods for predicting organic solvents, chromic acid, mineral oil, styrene, and sulphuric acid emissions in painting, metal degreasing, wood preservation, chromium electroplating, turning, grinding, making glass fortified polyester laminates and lead batteries charging, injection moulding of polystyrene plastics, and making polyurethane foam processes are described. Experimentally introduced equations are based on the essential parameters of these processes. Knowing the emission and the total flow rate of ventilation, it is possible to calculate toxic agent concentration, which is the basis of occupational exposure assessment. PMID:10828151

Benczek, K M; Gaweda, E; Kurpiewska, J

2000-01-01

211

[Pleural mesothelioma in barman with probable occupational exposure to asbestos].  

PubMed

The case of a barman who suffer from Malignant Mesothelioma (MM) has been signaled. For this case it has been documented a possible source of occupational exposure to asbestos caused by the presence of asbestos components in the professional espressos coffee machines. In some gaskets which are part of these coffee machines, we verified the presence of chrysotile fibers. Italian National Mesothelioma Register have reported a MM case with a professional origin arised in a barman with a certain diagnosis in 1999 (Tuscany Region). PMID:18409882

Luisi, V; Marinaccio, A; Mera, E S; Dario, R; Licchelli, B; Molinini, R

2007-01-01

212

[Predictive models for the assessment of occupational exposure to chemicals: a new challenge for employers].  

PubMed

Employers are obliged to carry out and document the risk associated with the use of chemical substances. The best but the most expensive method is to measure workplace concentrations of chemicals. At present no "measureless" method for risk assessment is available in Poland, but predictive models for such assessments have been developed in some countries. The purpose of this work is to review and evaluate the applicability of selected predictive methods for assessing occupational inhalation exposure and related risk to check the compliance with Occupational Exposure Limits (OELs), as well as the compliance with REACH obligations. Based on the literature data HSE COSHH Essentials, EASE, ECETOC TRA, Stoffenmanager, and EMKG-Expo-Tool were evaluated. The data on validation of predictive models were also examined. It seems that predictive models may be used as a useful method for Tier 1 assessment of occupational exposure by inhalation. Since the levels of exposure are frequently overestimated, they should be considered as "rational worst cases" for selection of proper control measures. Bearing in mind that the number of available exposure scenarios and PROC categories is limited, further validation by field surveys is highly recommended. Predictive models may serve as a good tool for preliminary risk assessment and selection of the most appropriate risk control measures in Polish small and medium size enterprises (SMEs) providing that they are available in the Polish language. This also requires an extensive training of their future users. PMID:24502133

Gromiec, Jan Piotr; Kupczewska-Dobecka, Ma?gorzata; Jankowska, Agnieszka; Czerczak, S?awomir

2013-01-01

213

Naphthalene and its biomarkers as measures of occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.  

PubMed

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) include compounds with two or more fused benzene rings, many of which are carcinogens. Industrial sources produce hundreds of PAH, notably in the coke- and aluminium-producing industries. Because PAH are distributed at varying levels between gaseous and particulate phases, exposure assessment has been problematic. Here, we recommend that occupational exposures to naphthalene be considered as a potential surrogate for occupational PAH exposure for three reasons. Naphthalene is usually the most abundant PAH in a given workplace; naphthalene is present almost entirely in the gaseous phase and is, therefore, easily measured; and naphthalene offers several useful biomarkers, including the urinary metabolites 1- and 2-hydroxynaphthalene. These biomarkers can be used to evaluate total-body exposure to PAH, in much the same way that 1-hydroxypyrene has been applied. Using data from published sources, we show that log-transformed airborne levels of naphthalene are highly correlated with those of total PAH (minus naphthalene) in several industries (creosote impregnation: Pearson r= 0.815, coke production: r= 0.917, iron foundry: r= 0.854, aluminium production: r= 0.933). Furthermore, the slopes of the log-log regressions are close to one indicating that naphthalene levels are proportional to those of total PAH in those industries. We also demonstrate that log-transformed urinary levels of the hydroxynaphthalenes are highly correlated with those of 1-hydroxypyrene among coke oven workers and controls (r= 0.857 and 0.876), again with slopes of log-log regressions close to one. These results support the conjecture that naphthalene is a useful metric for occupational PAH exposure. Since naphthalene has also been shown to be a respiratory carcinogen in several animal studies, it is also argued that naphthalene exposures should be monitored per se in industries with high levels of PAH. PMID:15152308

Rappaport, Stephen M; Waidyanatha, Suramya; Serdar, Berrin

2004-05-01

214

Comprehensive evaluation of long-term trends in occupational exposure: Part 1. Description of the database  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: To conduct a comprehensive evaluation of long term changes in occupational exposure among a broad cross section of industries worldwide. METHODS: A review of the scientific literature identified studies that reported historical changes in exposure. About 700 sets of data from 119 published and several unpublished sources were compiled. Data were published over a 30 year period in 25 journals that spanned a range of disciplines. For each data set, the average exposure level was compiled for each period and details on the contaminant, the industry and location, changes in the threshold limit value (TLV), as well as the type of sampling method were recorded. Spearman rank correlation coefficients were used to identify monotonic changes in exposure over time and simple linear regression analyses were used to characterise trends in exposure. RESULTS: About 78% of the natural log transformed data showed linear trends towards lower exposure levels whereas 22% indicated increasing trends. (The Spearman rank correlation analyses produced a similar breakdown between exposures monotonically increasing or decreasing over time.) Although the rates of reduction for the data showing downward trends ranged from -1% to -62% per year, most exposures declined at rates between -4% and -14% per year (the interquartile range), with a median value of -8% per year. Exposures seemed to increase at rates that were slightly lower than those of exposures which have declined over time. Data sets that showed downward (versus upward) trends were influenced by several factors including type and carcinogenicity of the contaminant, type of monitoring, historical changes in the threshold limit values (TLVs), and period of sampling. CONCLUSIONS: This review supports the notion that occupational exposures are generally lower today than they were years or decades ago. However, such trends seem to have been affected by factors related to the contaminant, as well as to the period and type of sampling.  

Symanski, E.; Kupper, L. L.; Rappaport, S. M.

1998-01-01

215

Does occupational exposure to dust prevent colorectal cancer?  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES--To explore the impression that occupational epidemiologists tend to focus on associations suggestive of increased risk and tend to ignore those associations in which risk is not increased. To examine the risk of colorectal cancer in cohorts exposed to dust, cohorts in which it has been suggested that occupational exposure is a cause of increased risk of stomach cancer. METHODS--A review of the publications in the English language on mortality among hard rock miners, granite, and quarry workers identified from a MEDLINE search and the index of the library of the Ontario Ministry of Labour. RESULTS--When all of the studies were combined, there were significant excesses of lung and stomach cancers, but a significant deficit of colorectal cancer (standardised mortality ratio (SMR) = 83.9; 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 76-91). Overall mortality from gastrointestinal cancer was close to expectation (SMR = 105; 95% CI 99-111). Among those cohorts with increased risk of stomach cancer, rates of colorectal cancer were significantly decreased (SMR = 80; 95% CI 72-88). Among cohorts without increased risk of stomach cancer, the SMR for colorectal cancer was not significantly different from 100 (SMR = 98; 95% CI 81-115). CONCLUSIONS--This review supports the impression that occupational epidemiologists tend to focus on associations suggestive of increased risk and tend to ignore those associations in which risk is not increased. The explanation for the inverse association between risk of stomach and colorectal cancer is uncertain and deserves further study.

Finkelstein, M M

1995-01-01

216

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and occupational exposures  

PubMed Central

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in both industrialized and developing countries. Cigarette smoking is the major risk factor for COPD. However, relevant information from the literature published within the last years, either on general population samples or on workplaces, indicate that about 15% of all cases of COPD is work-related. Specific settings and agents are quoted which have been indicated or confirmed as linked to COPD. Coal miners, hard-rock miners, tunnel workers, concrete-manufacturing workers, nonmining industrial workers have been shown to be at highest risk for developing COPD. Further evidence that occupational agents are capable of inducing COPD comes from experimental studies, particularly in animal models. In conclusion, occupational exposure to dusts, chemicals, gases should be considered an established, or supported by good evidence, risk factor for developing COPD. The implications of this substantial occupational contribution to COPD must be considered in research planning, in public policy decision-making, and in clinical practice.

Boschetto, Piera; Quintavalle, Sonia; Miotto, Deborah; Lo Cascio, Natalina; Zeni, Elena; Mapp, Cristina E

2006-01-01

217

Occupational Component. 26-Level Courses. Teacher Resource Manual. Integrated Occupational Program. Interim-1991: Curriculum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This planning and instructional manual is designed to assist teachers in implementing the 20 10-credit-hour courses that make up the 26-level occupational component of the Integrated Occupational Program (IOP) in Alberta, Canada. (The IOP was developed to assist students who experience difficulties in secondary education and to help students make…

Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton. Curriculum Branch.

218

Hazardous health effects of occupational exposure to wood dust.  

PubMed

Because of the world-wide increase in the use of wood, diseases due to exposure to wood dust and substances connected with the wood-processing industry are also likely to increase. Many authors have written about disorders of this kind, ranging from irritative and allergic reactions to cancerogenic effects. There exist a great deal of widely disseminated publications on this subject. Moreover, the various existing synonyms, especially for tropical woods, render more difficult the valuation of published results. The purpose of this review of publications issued in recent years is to represent all known symptoms and disorders due to occupational wood-dust exposure. Furthermore, points that remain unclarified should be shown in order to stimulate further investigations. Recommendations for safety restrictions are also given. PMID:2283318

Flechsig, R; Nedo, G

1990-01-01

219

Paternal occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields and neuroblastoma in offspring  

SciTech Connect

Investigators in Texas have reported an association between paternal employment in jobs linked with exposure to electromagnetic fields and risk of neuroblastoma in offspring. In an attempt to replicate this finding, the authors conducted a case-control study in Ohio. A total of 101 incident cases of neuroblastoma were identified through the Columbus (Ohio) Children's Hospital Tumor Registry. All cases were born sometime during the period 1942-1967. From a statewide roster of birth certificates, four controls were selected for each case, with individual matching on the case's year of birth, race, and sex, and the mother's county of residence at the time of the (index) child's birth. Multiple definitions were employed to infer the potential for paternal occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields from the industry/occupation statements on the birth certificates. Case-control comparisons revealed adjusted odds ratios ranging in magnitude from 0.5 to 1.9. For two of the exposure definitions employed--both of which are similar to one used by the Texas investigators--the corresponding odds ratios were modestly elevated (odds ratios = 1.6 and 1.9). Notably, the magnitude of these odds ratios is not inconsistent with the Texas findings, where the exposure definition referred to yielded an odds ratio of 2.1. Because the point estimates in this study are imprecise, and because the biologic plausibility of the association is uncertain, the results reported here must be interpreted cautiously. However, the apparent consistency between two independent studies suggests that future evaluation of the association is warranted.

Wilkins, J.R. 3d.; Hundley, V.D. (Ohio State Univ., Columbus (USA))

1990-06-01

220

Occupational versus environmental and lifestyle exposures of children and adolescents in the European Union  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is recent international concern about specific exposures of children and adolescents to toxicants. In general, the situation within the European Union appears as follows. (i) Occupational exposure: Due to regulatory measures, there are almost no toxicologically significant occupational exposure situations of children to chemical toxicants. This contrasts to the situation in developing countries. There is also strict regulation of

Hermann M. Bolt

2002-01-01

221

Occupational radiation Exposure at Agreement State-Licensed Materials Facilities, 1997-2010  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this report is to examine occupational radiation exposures received under Agreement State licensees. As such, this report reflects the occupational radiation exposure data contained in the Radiation Exposure Information and Reporting System (REIRS) database, for 1997 through 2010, from Agreement State-licensed materials facilities.

U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research

2012-07-07

222

Occupational exposure to formaldehyde, hematotoxicity and leukemia-specific chromosome changes in cultured myeloid progenitor cells  

PubMed Central

There are concerns about the health effects of formaldehyde exposure, including carcinogenicity, in light of elevated indoor air levels in new homes and occupational exposures experienced by workers in health care, embalming, manufacturing and other industries. Epidemiological studies suggest that formaldehyde exposure is associated with an increased risk of leukemia. However, the biological plausibility of these findings has been questioned because limited information is available on formaldehyde’s ability to disrupt hematopoietic function. Our objective was to determine if formaldehyde exposure disrupts hematopoietic function and produces leukemia-related chromosome changes in exposed humans. We examined the ability of formaldehyde to disrupt hematopoiesis in a study of 94 workers in China (43 exposed to formaldehyde and 51 frequency-matched controls) by measuring complete blood counts and peripheral stem/progenitor cell colony formation. Further, myeloid progenitor cells, the target for leukemogenesis, were cultured from the workers to quantify the level of leukemia-specific chromosome changes, including monosomy 7 and trisomy 8, in metaphase spreads of these cells. Among exposed workers, peripheral blood cell counts were significantly lowered in a manner consistent with toxic effects on the bone marrow and leukemia-specific chromosome changes were significantly elevated in myeloid blood progenitor cells. These findings suggest that formaldehyde exposure can have an adverse impact on the hematopoietic system and that leukemia induction by formaldehyde is biologically plausible, which heightens concerns about its leukemogenic potential from occupational and environmental exposures.

Zhang, Luoping; Tang, Xiaojiang; Rothman, Nathaniel; Vermeulen, Roel; Ji, Zhiying; Shen, Min; Qiu, Chuangyi; Guo, Weihong; Liu, Songwang; Reiss, Boris; Laura Beane, Freeman; Ge, Yichen; Hubbard, Alan E.; Hua, Ming; Blair, Aaron; Galvan, Noe; Ruan, Xiaolin; Alter, Blanche P.; Xin, Kerry X.; Li, Senhua; Moore, Lee E.; Kim, Sungkyoon; Xie, Yuxuan; Hayes, Richard B.; Azuma, Mariko; Hauptmann, Michael; Xiong, Jun; Stewart, Patricia; Li, Laiyu; Rappaport, Stephen M.; Huang, Hanlin; Fraumeni, Joseph F.; Smith, Martyn T.; Lan, Qing

2010-01-01

223

Wilms' tumor and exposures to residential and occupational hazardous chemicals.  

PubMed

This case-control study examines the association between residential and occupational exposures to hazardous chemicals and the risk of Wilms' tumor. The study included 303 cases recruited from six state cancer registries, who were diagnosed between January 1, 1992 and December 31, 1995. A total of 575 controls selected through random digit dialing were frequency matched to the cases. A standard questionnaire was administered to participants during a telephone interview. Parental residential addresses and locations of US Environmental Protection Agency National Priority List (NPL) sites were geocoded and analyzed, along with occupational exposure information. There were no cases of Wilms' tumor found in individuals living within one-half mile distance of a hazardous waste site. However, elevated odds ratios were found for using hairdressing chemicals, motor oil, paint, paint stripper, and pesticides during the pregnancy term and during the 2-year period prior to birth. The findings do not support the hypothesis that Wilms' tumor is associated with residing near an NPL site. PMID:16373202

Tsai, James; Kaye, Wendy E; Bove, Frank J

2006-01-01

224

Validation of a self-administered questionnaire for assessing occupational and environmental exposures of pregnant women  

SciTech Connect

The present investigation sought to determine whether a self-administered questionnaire could be used to obtain occupational information from pregnant women attending the obstetrical clinics at the University of California, San Francisco from July to November 1986. The authors compared the accuracy of responses of 57 women on the self-administered questionnaire with those obtained on a detailed clinical interview by an occupational health professional. The self-administered questionnaire and the clinical interview included information on the woman's job title, the type of company she worked for, the level of physical activity, her exposures on the job and at home, and her partner's occupation. The authors also examined whether the validity of the self-administered questionnaire could be improved on review by an industrial hygienist. The questionnaire took less than 20 minutes to complete, with over 90% of the women answering three-quarters of it. It was substantially accurate in obtaining information on number of hours worked during pregnancy, type of shift worked, and stress level in the workplace; exposure to radiation, video display terminals, fumes, gases, and cigarette smoke in the workplace; and exposure to pesticides, paint, and cigarette smoke at home. On those variables for which the responses on the self-administered questionnaire were less accurate, review by the industrial hygienist improved the level of accuracy considerably. These findings suggest that a self-administered questionnaire can be used to obtain valid information from pregnant women attending a prenatal clinic.

Eskenazi, B.; Pearson, K.

1988-11-01

225

The Relationship between the Occupational Exposure of Trichloroethylene and Kidney Cancer  

PubMed Central

Trichloroethylene (TCE) has been widely used as a degreasing agent in many manufacturing industries. Recently, the International Agency for Research on Cancer presented “sufficient evidence” for the causal relationship between TCE and kidney cancer. The aim of this study was to review the epidemiologic evidences regarding the relationship between TCE exposure and kidney cancer in Korean work environments. The results from the cohort studies were inconsistent, but according to the meta-analysis and case–control studies, an increased risk for kidney cancer was present in the exposure group and the dose–response relationship could be identified using various measures of exposure. In Korea, TCE is a commonly used chemical for cleaning or degreasing processes by various manufacturers; average exposure levels of TCE vary widely. When occupational physicians evaluate work-relatedness kidney cancers, they must consider past exposure levels, which could be very high (>100 ppm in some cases) and associated with jobs, such as plating, cleaning, or degreasing. The exposure levels at a manual job could be higher than an automated job. The peak level of TCE could also be considered an important exposure-related variable due to the possibility of carcinogenesis associated with high TCE doses. This review could be a comprehensive reference for assessing work-related TCE exposure and kidney cancer in Korea.

2014-01-01

226

Cardiopulmonary toxicity of pulmonary exposure to occupationally relevant zinc oxide nanoparticles.  

PubMed

Exposure to zinc oxide (ZnO) metal fumes is linked to adverse human health effects; however, the hazards of ZnO nanoparticles (ZnONPs) remain unclear. To determine pulmonary exposure to occupationally relevant ZnONPs cause cardiopulmonary injury, Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to ZnONPs via intratracheal (IT) instillation and inhalation. The relationship between intrapulmonary zinc levels and pulmonary oxidative-inflammatory responses 72 h after ZnONP instillation was determined in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). Instilled ZnONPs altered zinc balance and increased the levels of total cells, neutrophils, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and total protein in BALF and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) in blood after 72 h. The ZnONPs accumulated predominantly in the lungs over 24 h, and trivial amounts of zinc were determined in the heart, liver, kidneys and blood. Furthermore, the inflammatory-oxidative responses induced by occupationally relevant levels of 1.1 and 4.9 mg/m(3) of ZnONP inhalation for 2 weeks were determined in BALF and blood at 1, 7 and 30 days post-exposure. Histopathological examinations of the rat lungs and hearts were performed. Inhalation of ZnONP caused an inflammatory cytological profile. The total cell, neutrophil, LDH and total protein levels were acutely increased in the BALF, and there was an inflammatory pathology in the lungs. There were subchronic levels of white blood cells, granulocytes and 8-OHdG in the blood. Cardiac inflammation and the development of fibrosis were detected 7 days after exposure. Degeneration and necrosis of the myocardium were detected 30 days after exposure. The results demonstrate that ZnONPs cause cardiopulmonary impairments. These findings highlight the occupational health effects for ZnONP-exposed workers. PMID:23738974

Chuang, Hsiao-Chi; Juan, Hung-Tzu; Chang, Chun-Nung; Yan, Yuan-Horng; Yuan, Tzu-Hsuen; Wang, Jyh-Seng; Chen, Hao-Cheng; Hwang, Yaw-Huei; Lee, Chii-Hong; Cheng, Tsun-Jen

2014-09-01

227

Occupational exposures to uranium: processes, hazards, and regulations  

SciTech Connect

The United States Uranium Registry (USUR) was formed in 1978 to investigate potential hazards from occupational exposure to uranium and to assess the need for special health-related studies of uranium workers. This report provides a summary of Registry work done to date. The history of the uranium industry is outlined first, and the current commercial uranium industry (mining, milling, conversion, enrichment, and fuel fabrication) is described. This description includes information on basic processes and areas of greatest potential radiological exposure. In addition, inactive commercial facilities and other uranium operations are discussed. Regulation of the commercial production industry for uranium fuel is reported, including the historic development of regulations and the current regulatory agencies and procedures for each phase of the industry. A review of radiological health practices in the industry - facility monitoring, exposure control, exposure evaluation, and record-keeping - is presented. A discussion of the nonradiological hazards of the industry is provided, and the final section describes the tissue program developed as part of the Registry.

Stoetzel, G.A.; Fisher, D.R.; McCormack, W.D.; Hoenes, G.R.; Marks, S.; Moore, R.H.; Quilici, D.G.; Breitenstein, B.D.

1981-04-01

228

Occupational exposure to aflatoxin B1 in swine production and possible contamination sources.  

PubMed

Although the adverse health consequences of ingestion of food contaminated with aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) are known, relatively few studies are available on the adverse effects of exposure in occupational settings. Taking this into consideration, our study was developed aiming to elucidate the possible effects of occupational exposure to AFB1 in Portuguese swine production facilities using a specific biomarker to assess exposure to AFB1. In total, 28 workers participated in this study, providing blood samples, and a control group (n?=?30) was composed of subjects without any type of agricultural activity. Fungal contamination was also studied by conventional methods through air, surfaces, and new and used floor coverage. Twenty-one workers (75%) showed detectable levels of AFB1 with values ranging from <1 ng/ml to 8.94 ng/ml and with a mean value of 1.91 ± 1.68 ng/ml. In the control group, the AFB1 values were all below 1 ng/ml. Twelve different Aspergillus species were identified. Aspergillus versicolor presented the highest airborne spore counts (3210 CFU/m3) and was also detected in higher values in surfaces (>300 CFU/cm2). Data indicate that exposure to AFB1 occurs in swine barns, and this site serves as a contamination source in an occupational setting. PMID:24156697

Viegas, Susana; Veiga, Luísa; Figueredo, Paula; Almeida, Ana; Carolino, Elisabete; Sabino, Raquel; Veríssimo, Cristina; Viegas, Carla

2013-01-01

229

Illinois Occupational Skill Standards: Entry-Level Truck Driver.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document, which is intended to serve as a guide for workforce preparation program providers, details the Illinois Occupational Skill Standards for programs preparing students for employment as entry-level truck drivers. The document begins with a brief overview of the Illinois perspective on occupational skill standards and credentialing, the…

Illinois Occupational Skill Standards and Credentialing Council, Carbondale.

230

Non-occupational lead exposure and hypertension in Pakistani adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hypertension is one of the most prevalent diseases in the developed and developing countries. Based on the long historical\\u000a association and the provocative findings of blood pressure effects at low level of lead exposure a study was carried out to\\u000a determine if an association existed between low blood lead concentration and hypertension. In this study the effects of low-level\\u000a exposure

Sohaila Rahman; Nasir Khalid; Jamshed Hussian Zaidi; Shujaat Ahmad; Mohammad Zafar Iqbal

2006-01-01

231

Occupational exposure in patients with the antisynthetase syndrome.  

PubMed

Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is common in patients with myositis and is related with the presence of antisynthetase autoantibodies (aSA). Together with other manifestations, the resulting condition is known as the antisynthetase syndrome (ASS). Contact with certain environmental and occupational agents is also associated with the development of ILD. The objective of this study was to analyze occupational exposure and associated clinical manifestations in a cohort of patients with ASS. aSA had been identified by line immunoassay and confirmed by immunoprecipitation. Serial pulmonary function tests had been carried out to assess lung function. Thirty-two ASS patients and a control group of 32 myositis patients without aSA underwent a specific questionnaire interview to evaluate their cumulative exposure to biological dust, mineral dust, and gases/fumes up to disease onset. Comparisons were done with the Fisher exact test and Mann-Whitney test. Out from 32 ASS patients (median age, 42.7 yeras; IQR 32.2-52.5), twenty-six patients had anti-Jo-1, three anti-PL-12, and three anti-PL-7. Nine had polymyositis, 15 dermatomyositis, one amyopathic dermatomyositis, and seven pure ILD without myositis. Sixteen ASS patients (50 %) and seven (22 %) myositis patients without aSA had ever been highly exposed to dust, gases, or fumes (p?exposure (p?=?0.06) over the observation period. In conclusion, a high percentage of patients with ASS had been exposed to dusts, gases, or fumes. PMID:24384826

Labirua-Iturburu, Ane; Selva-O'Callaghan, Albert; Zock, Jan-Paul; Orriols, Ramon; Martínez-Gómez, Xavier; Vilardell-Tarrés, Miquel

2014-02-01

232

Father's occupational exposure to carcinogenic agents and childhood acute leukemia: a new method to assess exposure (a case-control study)  

PubMed Central

Background Medical research has not been able to establish whether a father's occupational exposures are associated with the development of acute leukemia (AL) in their offspring. The studies conducted have weaknesses that have generated a misclassification of such exposure. Occupations and exposures to substances associated with childhood cancer are not very frequently encountered in the general population; thus, the reported risks are both inconsistent and inaccurate. In this study, to assess exposure we used a new method, an exposure index, which took into consideration the industrial branch, specific position, use of protective equipment, substances at work, degree of contact with such substances, and time of exposure. This index allowed us to obtain a grade, which permitted the identification of individuals according to their level of exposure to known or potentially carcinogenic agents that are not necessarily specifically identified as risk factors for leukemia. The aim of this study was to determine the association between a father's occupational exposure to carcinogenic agents and the presence of AL in their offspring. Methods From 1999 to 2000, a case-control study was performed with 193 children who reside in Mexico City and had been diagnosed with AL. The initial sample-size calculation was 150 children per group, assessed with an expected odds ratio (OR) of three and a minimum exposure frequency of 15.8%. These children were matched by age, sex, and institution with 193 pediatric surgical patients at secondary-care hospitals. A questionnaire was used to determine each child's background and the characteristics of the father's occupation(s). In order to determine the level of exposure to carcinogenic agents, a previously validated exposure index (occupational exposure index, OEI) was used. The consistency and validity of the index were assessed by a questionnaire comparison, the sensory recognition of the work area, and an expert's opinion. Results The adjusted ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were 1.69 (0.98, 2.92) during the preconception period; 1.98 (1.13, 3.45) during the index pregnancy; 2.11 (1.17, 3.78) during breastfeeding period; 2.17 (1.28, 3.66) after birth; and 2.06 (1.24, 3.42) for global exposure. Conclusion This is the first study in which an OEI was used to assess a father's occupational exposure to carcinogenic agents as a risk factor for the development of childhood AL in his offspring. From our results, we conclude that children whose fathers have been exposed to a high level of carcinogenic agents seem to have a greater risk of developing acute leukemia. However, confounding factors cannot be disregarded due to an incomplete control for confounding.

Perez-Saldivar, Maria Luisa; Ortega-Alvarez, Manuel Carlos; Fajardo-Gutierrez, Arturo; Bernaldez-Rios, Roberto; del Campo-Martinez, Maria de los Angeles; Medina-Sanson, Aurora; Palomo-Colli, Miguel Angel; Paredes-Aguilera, Rogelio; Martinez-Avalos, Armando; Borja-Aburto, Victor Hugo; Rodriguez-Rivera, Maria de Jesus; Vargas-Garcia, Victor Manuel; Zarco-Contreras, Jesus; Flores-Lujano, Janet; Mejia-Arangure, Juan Manuel

2008-01-01

233

Occupational exposure of phosphate mine workers: airborne radioactivity measurements and dose assessment.  

PubMed

Under the Egyptian program for radiation safety and control, airborne radioactivity measurements and radiological dose assessment were conducted in some phosphate and uranium mines. Abu-Tartor mine is one of the biggest underground phosphate mines in Egypt. Airborne radioactivity, radon ((222)Rn) and its short-lived decay products (progenies) and thoron ((220)Rn), were measured in selected locations along the mine. The environmental gamma and workers dose equivalent rate (mSv/y) were measured inside and outside the mine using thermo-luminescence dosimeters (TLD). The results were presented and discussed. The calculated annual effective dose due to airborne radioactivity is the main source of occupational exposure and exceeding the maximum recommended level by ICRP-60 inside the mine tunnels. A number of recommendations are suggested to control the occupational exposures. PMID:15149761

Khater, Ashraf E; Hussein, M A; Hussein, Mohamed I

2004-01-01

234

29 CFR 1926.52 - Occupational noise exposure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Occupational Health and Environmental Controls §...

2013-07-01

235

An assessment of potential cancer risk following occupational exposure to ethanol.  

PubMed

Recognition of the carcinogenic properties of ethanol has resulted from comprehensive evidence regarding the effect of consumption of alcohol; indeed, ethanol in alcoholic beverages is now considered a Group 1 carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. However, there is little information on the effects of ethanol following exposure via the occupationally relevant routes of inhalation and dermal exposure. This review therefore focuses on these exposure routes, to assess potential carcinogenic risk associated with occupational exposure to ethanol. Inhalatory exposure at the current occupational exposure limit (OEL) for the United Kingdom (1000 ppm ethanol over an 8-h shift) was estimated to be equivalent to ingestion of 10 g ethanol (approximately 1 glass of alcohol) per day. However, in the occupational setting the dose-rate delivery of this amount of ethanol is low, allowing for its rapid and effective elimination, for the majority of individuals. Similarly, while dermal absorption in an occupational setting could potentially add to overall body ethanol burden, additional carcinogenic risk of such exposure is considered negligible. Thus, on balance, there appears little cause to suppose occupational exposure at or below the current OEL associates with any appreciable increase in risk of cancer. However, available occupational exposure data to confirm this view are currently limited. It is also suggested that adoption of a more flexible classification regime, considering risk in the context of hazard and exposure (such as that adopted by the German MAK commission), would represent an improvement over traditional occupational risk assessment practices. PMID:19466672

Bevan, Ruth J; Slack, Rebecca J; Holmes, Philip; Levy, Leonard S

2009-03-01

236

Occupational exposures and pancreatic cancer: a meta-analysis  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES—Consolidation of epidemiological data on pancreatic cancer and worksite exposures.?METHODS—Publications during 1969-98 were surveyed. Studies without verified exposures were excluded. Meta-analyses were conducted on data from 92 studies covering 161 populations, with results for 23 agents or groups of agents. With a standard format, five epidemiologists extracted risk estimates and variables of the structure and quality of each study. The extracted data were centrally checked. Random meta-models were applied.?RESULTS—Based on 20 populations, exposure to chlorinated hydrocarbon (CHC) solvents and related compounds was associated with a meta-risk ratio (MRR) of 1.4 (95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.0 to 1.8). Nickel and nickel compounds were considered in four populations (1.9; 1.2 to 3.2). Excesses were found also for chromium and chromium compounds (1.4; 0.9 to 2.3), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) (1.5; 0.9 to 2.5), organochlorine insecticides (1.5; 0.6 to 3.7), silica dust (1.4; 0.9 to 2.0), and aliphatic and alicyclic hydrocarbon solvents (1.3; 0.8 to 2.8). Evidence on pancreatic carcinogenicity was weak or non-positive for the following agents: acrylonitrile (1.1; 0.0 to 6.2); arsenic (1.0; 0.6 to 1.5); asbestos (1.1; 0.9 to 1.5); diesel engine exhaust (1.0; 0.9 to 1.3); electromagnetic fields (1.1; 0.8 to 1.4); formaldehyde (0.8; 0.5 to 1.0); flour dust (1.1; 0.3 to 3.2); cadmium and cadmium compounds (0.7; 0.4 to 1.4); gasoline (1.0; 0.8 to 1.2); herbicides (1.0; 0.8 to 1.3); iron and iron compounds (1.3; 0.7 to 2.5); lead and lead compounds (1.1; 0.8 to 1.5); man-made vitreous fibres (1.0; 0.6 to 1.6); oil mist (0.9; 0.8 to 1.0); and wood dust (1.1; 0.9 to 2.5). The occupational aetiological fraction of pancreatic cancer was estimated at 12%. In a subpopulation exposed to CHC solvents and related compounds, it was 29%; to chromium and chromium compounds, 23%; to nickel and nickel compounds, 47%; to insecticides, 33%; and to PAHs, 33%.?CONCLUSION—Occupational exposures may increase risk of pancreatic cancer. High quality studies are called for on interactions between occupational, environmental, and lifestyle factors as well as interactions between genes and the environment.???Keywords: pancreatic cancer; occupational exposure; meta-analysis

Ojajarvi, I; Partanen, T.; Ahlbom, A.; Boffetta, P.; Hakulinen, T.; Jourenkova, N.; Kauppinen, T.; Kogevinas, M.; Porta, M.; Vainio, H.; Weiderpass, E.; Wesseling, C.

2000-01-01

237

Respiratory effects of occupational exposure to tobacco dust.  

PubMed Central

Few investigations of the respiratory effects of occupational exposure to tobacco dust have been carried out and the threshold limit value has not well been established. A cross sectional survey on a sample of 223 male and female workers at a cigar and cigarette factory in Lucca (Tuscany) showed a significantly higher prevalence of wheezing, attacks of shortness of breath with wheezing, dyspnoea, and rhinitis than in a reference population. A trend towards a decrease in forced end expiratory flows according to smoking habit and work duration was evident. Positive skin prick tests were observed in 26% of men and 23% of women and were positively associated with duration of work and negatively with cigarette smoking. Thin interstitial space involvement was observed on chest x ray examination in almost half the female workers with more than 35 years exposure. These findings suggest that prolonged exposure to tobacco dust may have negative health effects and that it is advisable to establish a threshold limit value for tobacco dust different from that of inert dust.

Viegi, G; Paggiaro, P L; Begliomini, E; Vaghetti, E; Paoletti, P; Giuntini, C

1986-01-01

238

Paternal occupational exposures and the risk of Down syndrome.  

PubMed Central

An exploratory case-control study of paternal occupation as a risk factor for Down syndrome was conducted. With the use of the British Columbia Health Surveillance Registry, 1,008 cases of live-born Down syndrome were identified for the period 1952-73. Two controls were matched to each case by using the birth files of British Columbia. Paternal occupation was obtained from the birth notice. Elevated maternal age-adjusted relative risks of Down syndrome were found for fathers employed as janitors (odds ratio [OR] = 3.26; 95% confidence interval [C.I.] = 1.02-10.44); mechanics (OR = 3.27; C.I. = 1.57-6.80); farm managers/workers (OR = 2.03; C.I. = 1.25-3.03); material-moving equipment operators (OR = 1.88; C.I. = 0.93-3.82); food processors (OR = 1.79; C.I. = 0.96-3.31); sheet-metal workers, iron workers, and other metalworkers (OR = 1.57; C.I. = 0.92-2.69); and sawmill workers (OR = 1.43; C.I. = 0.90-2.66). This large study provides new leads for further evaluation of the role of paternal exposures in the etiology of Down syndrome.

Olshan, A F; Baird, P A; Teschke, K

1989-01-01

239

Prevention of psychological disability after occupational respiratory exposures.  

PubMed

"Psychological injury" in the workplace constitutes the fastest-growing sector of workers' compensation disability claims in several states. Most such claims pertain to effects of "occupational stress," including interpersonal conflicts with supervisors or co-workers, adaptation to changing work practices, and job insecurity. Of equal interest are the psychological consequences of chemical insults on the job. In the case of occupational respiratory exposures, psychological co-morbidity may occur along with a variety of acute, chronic, and latent illness states. Both predictable responses (such as adjustment reactions to disabling physical conditions) and idiopathic patterns (such as the development of odor-conditioned panic attacks or panic disorder) have been described. Physicians who evaluate and treat such patients need to be alert to the potential interaction of physiological and psychological stressors. Effective prevention and treatment requires not only an appreciation of the patient's view of the disease process, but also a recognition of the role of prognostic uncertainty in the subsequent development of anxiety symptoms. In some cases, exclusive attention to physical signs and symptoms may actually lead to a worsening of impairment and disability. PMID:2008632

Shusterman, D J; Dager, S R

1991-01-01

240

Association of years of occupational quartz exposure with spirometric airflow limitation in Norwegian men aged 30-46 years  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND—The association between occupational quartz exposure and ventilatory function was investigated in men in a general population after adjusting for other potential determinants of outcome.?METHODS—All eligible men aged 30-46 years living in western Norway (n = 45 380) were invited to a cross sectional community survey. This included a self administered questionnaire (with respiratory symptoms, smoking habits and occupational exposures), spirometric recordings (using dry wedge bellow spirometers), and a chest radiograph (65% attendance). Measurements of forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC) were obtained in 91% (n = 26 803) of those who participated, 26 106 of whom performed successful spirometric tests and had normal chest radiographs and remained for further analysis. Age, body mass index, and technician standardised residuals ((observed minus predicted value)/residual standard error) of maximum FEV1/height2 and FVC/height2 were used as outcome variables for adjusted lung function levels, respectively.?RESULTS—Occupational quartz exposure was reported by 13% (n = 3445) of those who participated in the survey, with a mean duration of seven years. Among those exposed to quartz, significant inverse linear relationships were observed between years of exposure and FEV1 level and the ratio of FEV1/FVC, independent of host characteristics. Multiple linear regression analyses showed that the difference in FEV1 associated with each year of quartz exposure was -4.3 ml (95% Cl -1.1 to -7.5 ml; p = 0.01) compared with -6.9 ml (95% Cl -4.7 to -9.1 ml; p<0.01) from smoking 20 cigarettes/day for one year after adjusting for age, atopy, asthma, wheezing, marital status, and other occupational exposures.?CONCLUSION—In men aged 30-46 years with occupational quartz exposure and normal chest radiographs the duration of occupational quartz exposure was an independent predictor for spirometric airflow limitation.??

Humerfelt, S.; Eide, G.; Gulsvik, A.

1998-01-01

241

Occupational exposure to asbestos and urinary bladder cancer.  

PubMed

By the use of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy dispersion spectrometry the amount (mean value mean = 191 +/- 94 fibers/mg of tissue) and the type (chrysotile and tremolite) of asbestos fibers have been determined in tissue samples of four bladder cancer patients affected by pulmonary asbestosis, working in the same plant producing asbestos-cement pipes and boards. Similar measurements were carried out on samples of bladder cancers of eight control patients not professionally exposed to asbestos. Only five of them also revealed chrysotile fibers (mean = 151 +/- 196 fibers/mg of tissue). The paucity of the study and control cases and the small quantitative difference between them regarding the presence of infraneoplastic asbestos fibers does not consent us to hypothesize a causal relationship between tumor and occupational exposure. PMID:1324833

Molinini, R; Paoletti, L; Albrizio, M; Pennella, A; Nardulli, F; Caruso, G

1992-08-01

242

Interpretation of Urinary and Blood Benzene biomarkers of Exposure for Non-Occupationally Exposed Individuals  

EPA Science Inventory

Non-occupational exposure to benzene occurs primarily through inhalation ofair impacted by motor vehicle exhaust, fuel sources, and cigarette smoke. This study relates published measurements ofbenzene biomarkers to air exposure concentrations. Benzene has three reliable biomar...

243

A review of current and proposed standards for occupational exposures to radio-frequency energy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The essential aspects of an acceptable r-f occupational exposure program are presented. They include exposure limits, surveillance of work environment, medical attention, investigation of accidental overexposures, and documentation of overexposures. Each aspect is briefly discussed.

Odland, L. T.

1975-01-01

244

Analysis of BPA (Bonneville Power Administration) Occupational Electric Field Exposure Data. Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents analyses of data collected during a Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) pilot study to quantify occupational exposures to 60-Hz electric fields. The objectives were: (1) to provide estimates of 60-Hz electric field exposures of BPA ...

T. D. Bracken

1986-01-01

245

Revisiting the NIOSH Criteria for a Recommended Standard: Occupational Noise Exposure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 1998, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) revised the Criteria for a Recommended Standard: Occupational Noise Exposure [DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 98-126]. NIOSH reevaluated the recommended exposure limit (REL) for occupational noise exposure and reaffirms support for 85-dBA REL. Based upon scientific evidence, NIOSH recommends a 3-dB exchange rate. NIOSH recommends that significant threshold shift be identified as an increase of 15 dB in the hearing threshold level at 500, 1000, 2000, 3000, 4000, or 6000 Hz in either ear, with two consecutive audiometric tests. The new criterion has the advantages of a high identification rate and a low false-positive rate. In contrast with the former 1972 criterion, NIOSH no longer recommends age correction on individual audiograms. NIOSH has revisited its recommendations on the using of single-number laboratory-derived Noise Reduction Rating (NRR) required by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for labeling of hearing protectors sold within the United States. In 1972, NIOSH recommended the use of the full NRR value; however, the new criterion recommends derating the NRR by 25%, 50%, and 70% for earmuffs, formable earplugs, and all other earplugs, respectively. This presentation will compare and contrast current regulations against the NIOSH recommendations.

Murphy, William J.; Franks, John R.

2002-05-01

246

An evaluation of several methods for assessing the effects of occupational exposure to radiation  

SciTech Connect

Several methods for the analysis of occupational radiation exposure data, including procedures based on Cox's proportional hazards model, are presented and evaluated. Issues of interest include the contribution of an external control, the effective handling of highly skewed exposure data, and the potential for detecting effects in populations occupationally exposed to radiation. Expressions for evaluating the power of various procedures are derived and applied to data from the Hanford population in order to determine power curves for detecting leukemia effects, with both additive and multiplicative linear models being used. It is found that the introduction of an external control can increase power, although not when an overall adjustment factor must be estimated from the data or when death rates for the study population are substantially lower than those for the control population. It is also found that very little power is lost if exposures are grouped. Finally, the power calculations indicate, as expected, that in analyses of occupationally exposed populations, such as the Hanford workers, there is very little chance of detecting radiation effects at the levels of our current estimates. However, power is reasonably good for detecting effects that are 10 to 15 times larger.

Gilbert, E.S.

1983-03-01

247

Occupational exposure and lung cancer risk in a coastal area of Northeastern Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

A case-control study of lung cancer and occupational exposure was conducted in a coastal area of Northeastern Italy where metallurgical and mechanical industries, docks and shipyards are located. Cases comprised 756 men who died of primary lung cancer in a 5-year period. Controls comprised 756 male subjects dying from other causes during the same period. Occupational exposures to lung carcinogens

Massimo Bovenzi; Giorgio Stanta; Gianluigi Antiga; Paolo Peruzzo; Furio Cavallieri

1993-01-01

248

Occupational exposure to carcinogens and risk of lung cancer: results from The Netherlands cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES: To investigate risk of lung cancers associated with common established carcinogenic occupational exposures (asbestos, paint dust, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and welding fumes) in a prospective cohort study among the general population, and to estimate the proportion of lung cancer cases attributable to these occupational exposures. METHODS: A prospective cohort study on diet, other lifestyle factors, job history, and cancer

A J van Loon; I. J. Kant; G. M. H. Swaen; R. A. Goldbohm; A M Kremer; P A van den Brandt

1997-01-01

249

Information about occupational exposure to asbestos given to cases in an etiological study: Ethical aspects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the study is to consider some ethical aspects of the provision of information, to the cases or their families, about the assessment of occupational asbestos exposure obtained in a case–control study of malignant mesothelioma of the pleura. An informative letter with the result of the evaluation of their occupational exposure to asbestos was sent to the participating

A. Escolar Pujolar; C. González; A. Agudo; A. Calleja; M. Beltrán; J. González-Moya; S. Hernandez; R. Panades; J. Ramirez; D. Turuguet

2001-01-01

250

NON-OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURES TO PESTICIDES FOR RESIDENTS OF TWO U.S. CITIES  

EPA Science Inventory

The Non-Occupational Pesticide Exposure Study, funded by the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency, was designed to assess total human exposures to 32 pesticides and pesticide degradation products in the non-occupational environment; however, the study focused primarily on inhala...

251

Ototoxic occupational exposures for a stock car racing team: I. Noise surveys.  

PubMed

The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) surveyed noise exposure for a professional stock car team at their race shop and during two races at one racetrack. At the team's shop, area sound pressure levels (SPLs) were measured for various work tasks. Equivalent levels (Leqs) ranged from 58 to 104 decibels, A-weighted (dBA). Personal noise dosimetry was conducted for at least one employee for each job description in race car assembly (n = 9). The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) permissible exposure limit (PEL) of 90 dBA for an 8-hour, 5-dB exchange rate time-weighted average (TWA) was never exceeded, but in two instances values exceeded OSHA's action level of 85 dBA for hearing conservation implementation. The NIOSH recommended exposure limit (REL) of 85 dBA for a 3-dB exchange rate Leq was exceeded for five of the measured jobs. During the races, SPLs averaged above 100 dBA in the pit area where cars undergo adjustments/refueling, both before and during the race. Peak levels reached 140 dB SPL. NIOSH REL was exceeded for every personal noise dosimetry measurement. Recommendations for hearing protection and communication are presented. PMID:16080260

Van Campen, Luann E; Morata, Thais; Kardous, Chucri A; Gwin, Kristin; Wallingford, Kenneth M; Dallaire, Jacques; Alvarez, Frank J

2005-08-01

252

Occupational exposure to eight organic dusts and respiratory cancer among Finns  

PubMed Central

Background There is inconclusive evidence concerning cancer risks of organic dusts. Aim The carcinogenic exposures are mainly inhalatory and the authors therefore studied associations between occupational exposure to eight different organic dusts and respiratory cancers in Finland. Methods The authors followed up a cohort of all economically active Finns born between 1906 and 1945 for 30 million person?years during 1971–95. Incident cases of nasal, laryngeal, and lung cancer and mesotheliomas were identified through a record linkage with the Finnish Cancer Registry. Occupations from the population census in 1970 were converted to exposures to eight organic dusts with a job?exposure matrix (FINJEM). Cumulative exposure (CE) was calculated as a product of prevalence, level, and estimated duration of exposure. Standardised incidence ratios (SIR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) adjusted for age, period, and social class were calculated for each organic dust using the economically active population as the reference. Results A total of 20?426 incident cases of respiratory cancer were observed. Slightly increased risk was observed among men exposed to wood dust for nasal cancer (SIR 1.42, 95% CI 0.79 to 2.44). For laryngeal cancer, men exposed to plant dust (mainly grain millers) had a raised SIR in the high exposure class (SIR 3.55, 95% CI 1.30 to 7.72). Men exposed to wood dust had a raised SIR for lung cancer, but only in the low exposure class (SIR 1.11, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.18). Women exposed to wood dust showed an increased SIR for mesotheliomas in the low exposure class (SIR 4.57, 95% CI 1.25 to 11.7) and some excess in the medium exposure category. Conclusions Exposure to organic dusts is unlikely to be a major risk factor of respiratory cancer. Even exposure to wood dust which is a major exposure in Finland seems to have minor effect for nasal cancer. The authors found suggestive evidence that exposure to grain dust may increase the risk of laryngeal cancer, and some support to the hypothesis that exposure to textile dust, and to plant and animal dust (agricultural dusts) may decrease the risk of lung cancer.

Laakkonen, A; Kyyronen, P; Kauppinen, T; Pukkala, E I

2006-01-01

253

Chronic occupational exposure to hexavalent chromium causes DNA damage in electroplating workers  

PubMed Central

Background Occupational exposure to chromium compounds may result in adverse health effects. This study aims to investigate whether low-level hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) exposure can cause DNA damage in electroplating workers. Methods 157 electroplating workers and 93 control subjects with no history of occupational exposure to chromium were recruited in Hangzhou, China. Chromium levels in erythrocytes were determined by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometer. DNA damage in peripheral lymphocytes was evaluated with the alkaline comet assay by three parameters: Olive tail moment, tail length and percent of DNA in the comet tail (tail DNA%). Urinary 8-OHdG levels were measured by ELISA. Results Chromium concentration in erythrocytes was about two times higher in electroplating workers (median: 4.41 ?g/L) than that in control subjects (1.54 ?g/L, P < 0.001). The medians (range) of Olive tail moment, tail length and tail DNA% in exposed workers were 1.13 (0.14-6.77), 11.17 (3.46-52.19) and 3.69 (0.65-16.20), and were significantly higher than those in control subjects (0.14 (0.01-0.39), 3.26 (3.00-4.00) and 0.69 (0.04-2.74), P < 0.001). Urinary 8-OHdG concentration was 13.65 (3.08-66.30) ?g/g creatinine in exposed workers and 8.31 (2.94-30.83) ?g/g creatinine in control subjects (P < 0.001). The differences of urinary 8-OHdG levels, Olive tail moment, tail length and tail DNA% between these two groups remained significant (P < 0.001) even after stratification by potential confounding factors such as age, gender, and smoking status. Chromium exposure was found to be positively associated with chromium levels in erythrocytes, urinary 8-OHdG levels, Olive tail moment, tail length and tail DNA%. Positive dose-response associations were also found between chromium levels in erythrocytes and Olive tail moment, tail length and tail DNA%. Conclusion The findings in this study indicated that there was detectable chromium exposure in electroplating workers. Low-level occupational chromium exposure induced DNA damage.

2011-01-01

254

Occupational exposure to wood dust and formaldehyde and risk of nasal, nasopharyngeal, and lung cancer among Finnish men  

PubMed Central

Controversy exists over whether or not occupational inhalation exposure to wood dust and/or formaldehyde increases risk for respiratory cancers. The objective of this study was to examine the risk of nasal, nasopharyngeal, and lung cancer in relation to occupational exposure to wood dust and formaldehyde among Finnish men. The cohort of all Finnish men born between the years 1906 and 1945 and in employment during 1970 was followed up through the Finnish Cancer Registry for cases of cancers of the nose (n = 292), nasopharynx (n = 149), and lung (n = 30,137) during the period 1971–1995. The subjects’ occupations, as recorded in the population census in 1970, were converted to estimates of exposure to wood dust, formaldehyde, asbestos, and silica dust through the Finnish job-exposure matrix. Cumulative exposure (CE) was calculated based on the prevalence, average level, and estimated duration of exposure. The relative risk (RR) estimates for the CE categories of wood dust and formaldehyde were defined by Poisson regression, with adjustments made for smoking, socioeconomic status, and exposure to asbestos and/or silica dust. Men exposed to wood dust had a significant excess risk of nasal cancer overall (RR, 1.59; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.06–2.38), and specifically nasal squamous cell carcinoma (RR, 1.98; 95% CI, 1.19–3.31). Workers exposed to formaldehyde had an RR of 1.18 (95% CI, 1.12–1.25) for lung cancer. There was no indication that CE to wood dust or formaldehyde would increase the risk of nasopharyngeal cancer. Occupational exposure to wood dust appeared to increase the risk of nasal cancer but not of nasopharyngeal or lung cancer. The slight excess risk of lung cancer observed for exposure to formaldehyde may be the result of residual confounding from smoking. In summary, this study provides further evidence that exposure to wood dust in a variety of occupations may increase the risk of nasal cancer.

Siew, Sie Sie; Kauppinen, Timo; Kyyronen, Pentti; Heikkila, Pirjo; Pukkala, Eero

2012-01-01

255

The Dose Response Relationship between In Ear Occupational Noise Exposure and Hearing Loss  

PubMed Central

Objectives Current understanding of the dose-response relationship between occupational noise and hearing loss is based on cross-sectional studies prior to the widespread use hearing protection and with limited data regarding noise exposures below 85dBA. We report on the hearing loss experience of a unique cohort of industrial workers with daily monitoring of noise inside of hearing protection devices. Methods At an industrial facility, workers exhibiting accelerated hearing loss were enrolled in a mandatory program to monitor daily noise exposures inside of hearing protection. We compared these noise measurements (as time-weighted LAVG) to interval rates of high frequency hearing loss over a six year period using a mixed effects model, adjusting for potential confounders. Results Workers’ high frequency hearing levels at study inception averaged more than 40 dB hearing threshold level (HTL). Most noise exposures were less than 85dBA (mean LAVG 76 dBA, interquartile range 74 to 80 dBA). We found no statistical relationship between LAvg and high frequency hearing loss (p = 0.53). Using a metric for monthly maximum noise exposure did not improve model fit. Conclusion At-ear noise exposures below 85dBA did not show an association with risk of high frequency hearing loss among workers with substantial past noise exposure and hearing loss at baseline. Therefore, effective noise control to below 85dBA may lead to significant reduction in occupational hearing loss risk in such individuals. Further research is needed on the dose response relationship of noise and hearing loss in individuals with normal hearing and little prior noise exposure.

Rabinowitz, Peter M.; Galusha, Deron; Dixon-Ernst, Christine; Clougherty, Jane E.; Neitzel, Richard L.

2014-01-01

256

Fungi, ?-glucan, and bacteria in nasal lavage of greenhouse workers and their relation to occupational exposure.  

PubMed

The nose and mouth are the first regions of the respiratory tract in contact with airborne microorganisms. Occupational exposures to airborne microorganisms are associated with inflammation and different symptoms of the airways. The purpose of this study is to investigate the relation between occupational exposure to fungi, ?-glucan, and bacteria and contents of fungi, ?-glucan, and bacteria in nasal lavage (NAL) of greenhouse workers. We also studied whether contents of microorganisms in NAL were related to gender, time of the work week, and runny nose. NAL samples (n = 135) were taken Monday morning and Thursday at noon and personal exposure to inhalable bioaerosols was measured during a working day. The content of fungi and ?-glucan in NAL of men was affected by their exposure to fungi and ?-glucan. The content of fungi, ?-glucan, and bacteria in NAL was higher Thursday at noon than Monday morning. The ratios of fungi in NAL between Thursday at noon and Monday morning were 14 (median value) for men and 3.5 for women. Gender had no effect on the exposure level but had a significant effect on the content of fungi, ?-glucan, and bacteria in NAL, with the highest contents in NAL of men. On Thursdays, the median content of fungi in NAL samples of men without runny noses was 9408 cfu per NAL sample, whereas the same content for women was 595 cfu per NAL sample. Workers with runny noses had fewer fungi in NAL than workers without runny noses. A higher content of ?-glucan per fungal spore was found in NAL than in the air. This indicates that mainly the larger fungal spores or pollen grains deposit in the nose. The difference between genders and the fact that the content of fungi in NAL was significantly affected by the exposure indicate that the two genders are affected by the same exposure level differently. PMID:23749501

Madsen, Anne Mette; Tendal, Kira; Thilsing, Trine; Frederiksen, Margit W; Baelum, Jesper; Hansen, Jørgen V

2013-10-01

257

67 FR 54389 - Occupational Exposure to Hexavalent Chromium (CrVI)  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...occupational exposures to CrVI presents...usage of and exposure to CrVI...of health effects data...OSHA is aware of a number...CrVI health effects data? In...to assess exposure when evaluating the health effects data contained...evaluate CrVI exposures in individual...Assessment OSHA is aware of the...

2002-08-22

258

FINAL REPORT OF THE NON-OCCUPATIONAL PESTICIDE EXPOSURE STUDY (NOPES)  

EPA Science Inventory

The Non-occupational pesticide Exposure Study was the first attempt to develop a methodology for measuring the potential exposure of specified populations to pesticides. n this study, as in other studies utilizing the Tota1 Exposure Asessment Methodology (TEAM), the exposures wer...

259

Occupational noise exposure and hearing protector use in Canadian lumber mills.  

PubMed

Noise exposure is probably the most ubiquitous of all occupational hazards, and there is evidence for causal links between noise and both auditory and nonauditory health effects. Noise control at source is rarely considered, resulting in reliance on hearing protection devices to reduce exposure. A comprehensive noise survey of four lumber mills using a randomized sampling strategy was undertaken, resulting in 350 full-shift personal dosimetry measurements. Sound frequency spectrum data and information on hearing protector usage was collected. A determinants-of-exposure regression model for noise was developed. Mean (L(eq,8hr)) exposure level was 91.7 dBA, well above the exposure British Columbia (BC) limit of 85 dBA. Of 52 jobs for which more than a single observation was made, only 4 were below the exposure limit. Twenty-eight jobs had means over 90 dBA, and four jobs had means over 100 dBA. The sawmill and by-products departments of the lumber mills had the highest exposure to low frequency noise, while the planing and saw filing areas had the highest exposure to high frequency noise. Hearing protector use was greatest among those exposed above 95 dBA, and among those exposed between 85 and 95 dBA, self-reported use was 84% for 73% of the time. The determinants of exposure model had an R(2) of 0.52, and the within-participant correlation was 0.07. Key predictors in the final model were mill; enclosure and enclosure construction material; and certain departments, jobs, and noise sources. The study showed that workers in lumber mills are highly exposed to noise, and although the prevalence of the use of hearing protection is high, their use is unlikely to provide complete protection again noise-induced hearing loss at the observed exposures. Determinants of noise exposure modeling offers a good method for the quantitative estimation of noise exposure. PMID:18989837

Davies, Hugh W; Teschke, Kay; Kennedy, Susan M; Hodgson, Murray R; Demers, Paul A

2009-01-01

260

Headphone Noise: Occupational Noise Exposure Assessment for Communication Personnel  

Microsoft Academic Search

For communication personnel exposed to noise emitted by headphones, the sound pressure level measured at the position of the exposed person (but the person absent) does not adequately represent the sound exposure. The first section of this paper reports comments concerning the legislation, the relevant international standards and the state- of-the-art of researches in this field. Then, the second section

A. Perettia; F. Pedriellic; F. Maulid; A. Farinae

261

Occupational Exposure to Asbestos; Criteria for a Recommended Standard.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recommended standards for control of exposure to asbestos dust in the workplace are set out from the following standpoints: environmental, medical, labeling, personal protective equipment and clothing, apprisal of employees, work practices, and monitoring and recordkeeping requirements. The goal is maintenance of a low level of concentration to…

National Inst. for Occupational Safety and Health (DHEW/PHS), Rockville, MD.

262

Interleukin-1? gene polymorphism and hearing loss related to the history of occupational noise exposure in Brazilian elderly.  

PubMed

Hearing loss is the most common sensory impairment in older people, and may have social and psychological consequences, such as social isolation, frustration and depression. Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) is an interaction of both genetic and environmental factors. Some studies have led to the identification of possible NIHL susceptibility genes. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the polymorphism of the interleukin (IL)-1? gene at position + 3954 was associated with complaints of hearing loss due to occupational exposure. The sample was composed of elderly people with hearing loss (age ? 60 years) divided into two groups: 99 with occupational exposure to noise and 193 without exposure. Information on occupational exposure to noise was obtained through interviews using a semi-structured questionnaire. Hearing acuity was measured from 500 to 6000 Hz and the IL-1? genotype was obtained by the polymerase chain reaction- restriction fragment length polymorphism technique. Differences in allelic and genotypic frequencies, and the association between genotypic frequencies and complaints of hearing loss due to occupational exposure, were analyzed by the Chi-square test at the 5% significance level. Fifty-one percent of the elderly were homozygous for the ancestral allele (C), 17.2% were homozygous for the polymorphic allele (T) and 31.8% were heterozygous. The frequency was found to be 67-33% C to allele T. There was no significant association between polymorphism in gene IL-1? and hearing loss associated with occupational exposure (?2 = 0.538; P = 0.676). No association was found with the polymorphism of the IL-1? +3954 C/T gene and hearing loss associated with the occupational noise exposure history. PMID:23689297

Carvalho, Luiz C L; Marchiori, Luciana L M; Melo, Juliana J; Maciel, Sandra M; Poli-Frederico, Regina C

2013-01-01

263

BIOMarkers for occupational diesel exhaust exposure monitoring (BIOMODEM)--a study in underground mining.  

PubMed

Methods for the assessment of exposures to diesel exhaust were evaluated, including various biomarkers of internal exposure and early biological effects. The impact of possible biomarkers of susceptibility was also explored. Underground workers (drivers of diesel-powered excavators) at an oil shale mine in Estonia were compared with surface workers. Personal exposures to particle-associated 1-nitropyrene (NP) were some eight times higher underground than on the surface. Underground miners were also occupationally exposed to benzene and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, as indicated by excretion of urinary metabolites of benzene and pyrene. In addition, increased O(6)-alkylguanine DNA adducts were detected in the white blood cells of underground workers, suggesting higher exposure to nitroso-compounds. However, no differences between underground and surface workers were observed in the levels of other bulky DNA adducts determined by 32P-postlabelling, or in DNA damage. The study indicated that smoking, diet and residential indoor air pollution are important non-occupational factors to consider when interpreting biomonitoring results. PMID:12191893

Scheepers, P T J; Coggon, D; Knudsen, L E; Anzion, R; Autrup, H; Bogovski, S; Bos, R P; Dahmann, D; Farmer, P; Martin, E A; Micka, V; Muzyka, V; Neumann, H G; Poole, J; Schmidt-Ott, A; Seiler, F; Volf, J; Zwirner-Baier, I

2002-08-01

264

Neutron exposure at civil flight levels  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper gives a review on the current knowledge of neutron exposure to men at civil flight altitudes due to neutrons, and presents recent experimental and calculation data of the authors. The ICRP proposed in 1991 to consider air crews and other frequently flying persons as occupationally exposed people. As neutrons contribute the major part to the radiologically relevant dose

Hans Schraube; Wolfgang Heinrich

1997-01-01

265

Biological monitoring of occupational exposure to inorganic arsenic  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: This study was undertaken to assess reliable biological indicators for monitoring the occupational exposure to inorganic arsenic (iAs), taking into account the possible confounding role of arsenicals present in food and of the element present in drinking water. METHODS: 51 Glass workers exposed to As trioxide were monitored by measuring dust in the breathing zone, with personal air samplers. Urine samples at the end of work shift were analysed for biological monitoring. A control group of 39 subjects not exposed to As, and eight volunteers who drank water containing about 45 micrograms/l iAs for a week were also considered. Plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was used for the analysis of total As in air and urine samples, whereas the urinary As species (trivalent, As3; pentavalent, As5; monomethyl arsonic acid, MMA; dimethyl arsinic acid, DMA; arsenobetaine, AsB) were measured by liquid chromatography coupled with plasma mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) RESULTS: Environmental concentrations of As in air varied widely (mean 84 micrograms/m3, SD 61, median 40) and also the sum of urinary iAs MMA and DMA, varied among the groups of exposed subjects (mean 106 micrograms/l, SD 84, median 65). AsB was the most excreted species (34% of total As) followed by DMA (28%), MMA (26%), and As3 + As5 (12%). In the volunteers who drank As in the water the excretion of MMA and DMA increased (from a median of 0.5 to 5 micrograms/day for MMA and from 4 to 13 micrograms/day for DMA). The best correlations between As in air and its urinary species were found for total iAs and As3 + As5. CONCLUSIONS: To avoid the effect of As from sources other than occupation on urinary species of the element, in particular on DMA, it is proposed that urinary As3 + As5 may an indicator for monitoring the exposure to iAs. For concentrations of 10 micrograms/m3 the current environmental limit for iAs, the limit for urinary As3 + As5 was calculated to be around 5 micrograms/l, even if the wide variation of values needs critical evaluation and application of data. The choice of this indicator might be relevant also from a toxicological point of view. Trivalent arsenic is in fact the most active species and its measure in urine could be the best indicator of some critical effects of the element, such as cancer.  

Apostoli, P.; Bartoli, D.; Alessio, L.; Buchet, J. P.

1999-01-01

266

Exposure-Response Estimates for Diesel Engine Exhaust and Lung Cancer Mortality Based on Data from Three Occupational Cohorts  

PubMed Central

Background: Diesel engine exhaust (DEE) has recently been classified as a known human carcinogen. Objective: We derived a meta-exposure–response curve (ERC) for DEE and lung cancer mortality and estimated lifetime excess risks (ELRs) of lung cancer mortality based on assumed occupational and environmental exposure scenarios. Methods: We conducted a meta-regression of lung cancer mortality and cumulative exposure to elemental carbon (EC), a proxy measure of DEE, based on relative risk (RR) estimates reported by three large occupational cohort studies (including two studies of workers in the trucking industry and one study of miners). Based on the derived risk function, we calculated ELRs for several lifetime occupational and environmental exposure scenarios and also calculated the fractions of annual lung cancer deaths attributable to DEE. Results: We estimated a lnRR of 0.00098 (95% CI: 0.00055, 0.0014) for lung cancer mortality with each 1-?g/m3-year increase in cumulative EC based on a linear meta-regression model. Corresponding lnRRs for the individual studies ranged from 0.00061 to 0.0012. Estimated numbers of excess lung cancer deaths through 80 years of age for lifetime occupational exposures of 1, 10, and 25 ?g/m3 EC were 17, 200, and 689 per 10,000, respectively. For lifetime environmental exposure to 0.8 ?g/m3 EC, we estimated 21 excess lung cancer deaths per 10,000. Based on broad assumptions regarding past occupational and environmental exposures, we estimated that approximately 6% of annual lung cancer deaths may be due to DEE exposure. Conclusions: Combined data from three U.S. occupational cohort studies suggest that DEE at levels common in the workplace and in outdoor air appear to pose substantial excess lifetime risks of lung cancer, above the usually acceptable limits in the United States and Europe, which are generally set at 1/1,000 and 1/100,000 based on lifetime exposure for the occupational and general population, respectively. Citation: Vermeulen R, Silverman DT, Garshick E, Vlaanderen J, Portengen L, Steenland K. 2014. Exposure-response estimates for diesel engine exhaust and lung cancer mortality based on data from three occupational cohorts. Environ Health Perspect 122:172–177;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1306880

Silverman, Debra T.; Garshick, Eric; Vlaanderen, Jelle; Portengen, Lutzen; Steenland, Kyle

2013-01-01

267

[A retrospective study analysis of urinary hippuric acid levels in occupational toxicology exams].  

PubMed

Hippuric acid is the primary metabolite of toluene, a solvent widely used in industrial processes with considerable toxic effects, a fact which justifies regularly monitoring individuals with occupational exposure to this solvent. This work aims at evaluating urinary hippuric acid levels found in workers subject to biological monitoring. A retrospective study was carried out with data referring from 2002 to 2005, in which exams results and employment status were analyzed (periodic, post-employment, and pre-employment exams). Results indicate a significant reduction in hippuric acid levels for 2005. Periodic exams presented higher results than pre-employment and post-employment exams. No significant difference was found in individuals grouped according to their status in each of the established intervals, their reference numbers, and maximum biological levels allowed. Hippuric acid levels detected indicate low risk of toluene exposure for the population under evaluation, probably due to a growing concern with the deployment of measures regarding occupational hygiene. PMID:20640325

Gonzalez, Kelly Cristina; Sagebin, Fernando Rodrigues; Oliveira, Paola Garcia; Glock, Luiz; Thiesen, Flavia Valladão

2010-06-01

268

Occupational Health and Safety. Level 1. Level 2. Level 3. Support Materials for Agricultural Training.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication contains the three communication skills units of the three levels of Support Materials for Agricultural Training (SMAT) in the area of occupational health and safety: Level 1 (starting), 2 (continuing), and 3 (completing). The units are designed to help the learner improve his or her written and spoken communication skills needed…

Batman, Kangan; Gadd, Nick; Lucas, Michele

269

Non-occupational exposure to asbestos and malignant mesothelioma in the Italian National Registry of Mesotheliomas  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundMalignant mesotheliomas are strictly related to asbestos, but in a proportion of cases no exposure can be recalled. Published estimates of this proportion have important variations. Historical and geographical differences in the fraction of cancer due to any given exposure are to be expected, but incomplete identification of non-occupational exposures may have played a role.MethodsTo assess the role of non-occupational

Dario Mirabelli; Domenica Cavone; Enzo Merler; Valerio Gennaro; Antonio Romanelli; Carolina Mensi; Elisabetta Chellini; Carmela Nicita; Alessandro Marinaccio; Corrado Magnani; Marina Musti

2010-01-01

270

An overview of the characterization of occupational exposure to nanoaerosols in workplaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Currently, there is a lack of standardized sampling and metric methods that can be applied to measure the level of exposure to nanosized aerosols. Therefore, any attempt to characterize exposure to nanoparticles (NP) in a workplace must involve a multifaceted approach characterized by different sampling and analytical techniques to measure all relevant characteristics of NP exposure. Furthermore, as NP aerosols are always complex mixtures of multiple origins, sampling and analytical methods need to be improved to selectively evaluate the apportionment from specific sources to the final nanomaterials. An open question at the world's level is how to relate specific toxic effects of NP with one or more among several different parameters (such as particle size, mass, composition, surface area, number concentration, aggregation or agglomeration state, water solubility and surface chemistry). As the evaluation of occupational exposure to NP in workplaces needs dimensional and chemical characterization, the main problem is the choice of the sampling and dimensional separation techniques. Therefore a convenient approach to allow a satisfactory risk assessment could be the contemporary use of different sampling and measuring techniques for particles with known toxicity in selected workplaces. Despite the lack of specific NP exposure limit values, exposure metrics, appropriate to nanoaerosols, are discussed in the Technical Report ISO/TR 27628:2007 with the aim to enable occupational hygienists to characterize and monitor nanoaerosols in workplaces. Moreover, NIOSH has developed the Document Approaches to Safe Nanotechnology (intended to be an information exchange with NIOSH) in order to address current and future research needs to understanding the potential risks that nanotechnology may have to workers.

Castellano, Paola; Ferrante, Riccardo; Curini, Roberta; Canepari, Silvia

2009-05-01

271

DDA Excretion Levels, Studies in Persons with Different Degrees of Exposure to DDT.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The excretion of DDA in urine by people in various dietary, environmental, and occupational exposure groups with regard to DDT contact was determined. The DDA excretion levels for the general population ranged from below the experimental limit of the anal...

W. F. Durham J. F. Armstrong G. E. Quinby

1965-01-01

272

Clinical and pathological characteristics of hepatotoxicity associated with occupational exposure to dimethylformamide  

SciTech Connect

The clinical characteristics, laboratory results, and liver biopsy findings of seven workers with toxic liver injury associated with exposure to several solvents, including substantial levels of the widely used solvent dimethylformamide, are presented. Three patients had short exposure (less than 3 months), four long exposure (greater than 1 year). Among those with brief exposure, symptoms included anorexia, abdominal pain, and disulfiram-type reaction. Aminotransferases were markedly elevated with the ratio of alanine aminotransferase to aspartate aminotransferase always greater than 1. Liver biopsy showed focal hepatocellular necrosis and microvesicular steatosis with prominence of smooth endoplasmic reticulum, complex lysosomes, and pleomorphic mitochondria with crystalline inclusions. Among workers with long exposure, symptoms were minimal and enzyme elevations modest. Biopsies showed macrovesicular steatosis, pleomorphic mitochondria without crystalloids, and prominent smooth endoplasmic reticulum, but no evidence of persisting acute injury or fibrosis. Abnormal aminotransferases in both groups may persist for months after removal from exposure, but progression to cirrhosis in continually exposed workers was not observed. We conclude that exposure of these workers to solvents, chiefly dimethylformamide, may result in two variants of toxic liver injury with subtle clinical, laboratory, and morphological features. This may be readily overlooked if occupational history and biopsy histology are not carefully evaluated.

Redlich, C.A.; West, A.B.; Fleming, L.; True, L.D.; Cullen, M.R.; Riely, C.A. (Yale Univ. School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (USA))

1990-09-01

273

Experiences from Occupational Exposure Limits Set on Aerosols Containing Allergenic Proteins  

PubMed Central

Occupational exposure limits (OELs) together with determined airborne exposures are used in risk assessment based managements of occupational exposures to prevent occupational diseases. In most countries, OELs have only been set for few protein-containing aerosols causing IgE-mediated allergies. They comprise aerosols of flour dust, grain dust, wood dust, natural rubber latex, and the subtilisins, which are proteolytic enzymes. These aerosols show dose-dependent effects and levels have been established, where nearly all workers may be exposed without adverse health effects, which are required for setting OELs. Our aim is to analyse prerequisites for setting OELs for the allergenic protein-containing aerosols. Opposite to the key effect of toxicological reactions, two thresholds, one for the sensitization phase and one for elicitation of IgE-mediated symptoms in sensitized individuals, are used in the OEL settings. For example, this was the case for flour dust, where OELs were based on dust levels due to linearity between flour dust and its allergen levels. The critical effects for flour and grain dust OELs were different, which indicates that conclusion by analogy (read-across) must be scientifically well founded. Except for subtilisins, no OEL have been set for other industrial enzymes, where many of which are high volume chemicals. For several of these, OELs have been proposed in the scientific literature during the last two decades. It is apparent that the scientific methodology is available for setting OELs for proteins and protein-containing aerosols where the critical effect is IgE sensitization and IgE-mediated airway diseases.

Nielsen, Gunnar D.

2012-01-01

274

Experiences from occupational exposure limits set on aerosols containing allergenic proteins.  

PubMed

Occupational exposure limits (OELs) together with determined airborne exposures are used in risk assessment based managements of occupational exposures to prevent occupational diseases. In most countries, OELs have only been set for few protein-containing aerosols causing IgE-mediated allergies. They comprise aerosols of flour dust, grain dust, wood dust, natural rubber latex, and the subtilisins, which are proteolytic enzymes. These aerosols show dose-dependent effects and levels have been established, where nearly all workers may be exposed without adverse health effects, which are required for setting OELs. Our aim is to analyse prerequisites for setting OELs for the allergenic protein-containing aerosols. Opposite to the key effect of toxicological reactions, two thresholds, one for the sensitization phase and one for elicitation of IgE-mediated symptoms in sensitized individuals, are used in the OEL settings. For example, this was the case for flour dust, where OELs were based on dust levels due to linearity between flour dust and its allergen levels. The critical effects for flour and grain dust OELs were different, which indicates that conclusion by analogy (read-across) must be scientifically well founded. Except for subtilisins, no OEL have been set for other industrial enzymes, where many of which are high volume chemicals. For several of these, OELs have been proposed in the scientific literature during the last two decades. It is apparent that the scientific methodology is available for setting OELs for proteins and protein-containing aerosols where the critical effect is IgE sensitization and IgE-mediated airway diseases. PMID:22843406

Nielsen, Gunnar D; Larsen, Søren T; Hansen, Jitka S; Poulsen, Lars K

2012-10-01

275

Myocardial infarction and occupational exposure to motor exhaust: a population-based case-control study in Sweden.  

PubMed

There is a well-established association between particulate urban air pollution and cardiovascular disease, but few studies have investigated the risk associated with occupational exposure to particles from motor exhaust. This study investigated the risk of myocardial infarction (MI) after occupational exposure to motor exhaust, using elemental carbon (EC) as a marker of exposure. A population-based case-control study of first-time non-lethal MI was conducted among Swedish citizens in ages 45-70 living in Stockholm County 1992-1994, including 1,643 cases and 2,235 controls. Working histories and data on potential confounders were collected by questionnaire and medical examination. The exposure to EC was assessed through a job-exposure matrix. Odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated by unconditional logistic regression. We investigated various exposure metrics: intensity, cumulative exposure and years since exposure. There was an exposure-response relation between the highest average exposure intensity during the work history and the risk of MI when adjusting for smoking and alcohol drinking (p for trend 0.034), with an OR of 1.30 (95 % CI 0.99-1.71) in the highest tertile of exposure compared to the unexposed. An exposure-response pattern was observed in the analysis of years since exposure cessation among formerly exposed. Additional adjustments for markers of the metabolic syndrome reduced ORs and trends to non-significant levels, although this might be an over-adjustment since the metabolic syndrome may be part of the causal pathway. Occupational exposure to motor exhaust was associated with a moderately increased risk of MI. PMID:24981789

Ilar, Anna; Lewné, Marie; Plato, Nils; Hallqvist, Johan; Alderling, Magnus; Bigert, Carolina; Hogstedt, Christer; Gustavsson, Per

2014-07-01

276

[Reduced thymulin production during occupational exposure to lead].  

PubMed

Thymulin is a thymic hormone that being activated by binding a zinc ion promotes differentiation and several functions of T lymphocytes. It has been demonstrated only in experimental animals that metallic lead (Pb) is able to cause adverse effects on thymocyte number and function. The objective of this study is to evaluate the plasmatic level of active thymulin of 58 male workers being exposed for more than one year to low lead doses with respect to 59 male never exposed workers. All these were subjected to anamnesis collection, medical examination and determination of blood lead (PbB), plasmatic lead (PbPl), plasmatic thymulin, urinary lead (PbU) and urinary zinc (ZnU) levels. The mean plasma concentration of active thymulin was significantly lower in lead exposed than in non exposed workers. Active thymulin was also significantly and negatively correlated to PbB, PbPl and PbU level and resulted to be significantly and negatively influenced by PbB. Lead exposed workers had slightly higher zinc concentration in urine than non exposed workers, increasing ZnU levels by class of PbB. It is the first time that a toxic effect of lead on plasmatic active thymulin levels is demonstrated in humans, particularly in occupationally exposed workers. This study opens perspectives for further research that would both confirm the results and verify the mechanisms of action of lead on thymulin either direct or indirect and the possible role of zinc. PMID:15915658

Santarelli, L; Di Lorenzo, L; Valentino, M; Bracci, M; Rapisarda, V; Cassano, F; Elia, G; Martino, M G; Neri, G; Apostoli, P; Soleo, L

2005-01-01

277

Comparison of methods for obtaining occupational exposure information in a case-control interview study  

SciTech Connect

Comparison of methods for obtaining occupational exposure information in a case-control interview study. Two indirect methods for linking occupation and industry of employment with specific exposures and directly reported occupational exposure information were compared using data from a population-based case-control interview study of chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Exposures suspected of being associated with increased risk of chronic lymphocytic leukemia were examined using a job-exposure matrix developed by Hoar et al. and a linkage system based on data collected in the National Occupational Hazard Survey conducted in 1972-1974 by the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health. Concordance of exposure determination for the two occupation-exposure linkage methods was quite variable. In general, correlation was fairly low, although it was better for some of the exposures studied (butadiene and asbestos, for which most kappas were 0.40 to 0.60) than for others. Correlation between the two approaches was particularly poor for carbon tetrachloride and benzene (kappas ranged from 0.01 to 0.12). Higher proportions of cases and controls directly reported exposure to benzene and asbestos than was determined using the two more indirect methods, neither of which showed consistently greater correlation with direct reporting.

Linet, M.S.; Stewart, W.F.; Van Natta, M.L.; McCaffrey, L.D.; Szklo, M.

1986-09-01

278

Industry's perception and use of occupational exposure limits.  

PubMed

Market research was carried out to determine industry's perception of occupational exposure limits (OELs) and the extent to which they influence the selection of measures to control exposure. Telephone interviews were carried out with 1000 randomly selected users of chemicals, 400 from establishments with some use of chemicals and 600 from establishments with chemicals in daily use. 150 interviews were also carried out with Trade Union Health and Safety Representatives. The interviews covered basic information on chemicals used, sources of information, risk reduction measures used and understanding of COSHH and OELs. Most respondents came from firms with 10 employees or less (75%, all user group; 57%, heavy user group), closely reflecting the profile of British industry. In contrast, most (77%) Trade Union Health and Safety Representatives came from firms with at least 100 employees. Respondents in the all user group were drawn from across the whole range of industrial activity, whereas the heavy users were concentrated in manufacturing. The results showed that in making decisions on what control measures to use most users rely heavily on information from suppliers and personal experience and rather less on information from sources such as Trade Associations and HSE. Most respondents reported that steps were taken to protect employees. The use of personal protective equipment featured highly, followed by process controls. Little consideration was given to the possibility of substitution. Awareness of COSHH was limited with 65% of the all user group and 53% of the heavy user group being unaware of any legal requirements for establishments which manufacture or work with chemicals. Awareness of OELs was similarly limited with 19% of the all user group and 32% of the heavy user group having any real understanding. The results from Trade Union Representatives showed that overall they are somewhat better informed than chemical users in the small firms surveyed. PMID:9738433

Topping, M D; Williams, C R; Devine, J M

1998-08-01

279

Plasma fluorescent oxidation products and short-term occupational particulate exposures  

PubMed Central

Background Evidence suggests that fine particulate air pollution results in oxidative induced tissue damage. Methods A global fluorescent oxidation products (FLOx) assay (fluorescent intensity (FI) units per milliliter of plasma) was measured in blood samples collected from 236 nonsmoking, Caucasian, male trucking industry workers either prior to, during, or after their work shifts. Occupational exposures to PM2.5 were based on job-specific area-level sampling. Generalized linear models were used to determine associations between FLOx levels and PM2.5, adjusted for age, time since last meal, alcohol consumption, aspirin, and cholesterol medications. Results The mean (standard deviation) level of FLOx was 265.9 FI/ml (96.0). Levels of FLOx were higher among older individuals and lower among those who had consumed alcohol in the past 24 hours. However, no associations were observed between FLOx and PM2.5. Conclusions Our results indicate no association between occupational PM2.5 exposure and this marker of global oxidative stress.

Hart, Jaime E; Wu, Tianying; Laden, Francine; Garshick, Eric

2012-01-01

280

Possible genotoxicity in low level benzene exposure.  

PubMed

Structural chromosome aberrations and sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) in peripheral blood were studied in female workers employed in the shoe-making industry in two periods: 1987 (group I; N = 38) and 1992 (group II; N = 45). Only 11 of the workers were present in both groups and their results are presented both together and separately. Occupational exposure to benzene and toluene was confirmed through their determination in the working area, blood, and phenol in pre- and post-shift urine. The results were compared with those from the control group (N = 35). Benzene in the working atmosphere was significantly higher in 1987 compared to 1992, but was always lower than the current Croatian permissible concentration of 50 mg m-3 (in the near future this value will be changed to 15 mg m-3). A statistically significant difference was also found in biological markers of benzene exposure between the two periods of the investigation. Increased absorption in the first period occurred because of intensified production in 1987, and this decreased significantly in 1992 because of the war in Croatia. The cytogenetic study showed a significant increase in dicentric chromosomes in exposed groups I and II when compared to the control group. Statistically significant higher SCE frequencies were found in group I compared to the control group and also compared to group II. Between exposed group II and the controls no statistically significant difference in SCEs was found. Comparing the same 11 workers present in both periods the results showed no difference in chromosome aberrations between the two periods of examination. SCE frequencies were significantly higher in 1987 when greater benzene absorption occurred, confirmed by biomarkers of benzene exposure. The presented results indicate that genotoxicity may occur in workers exposed to low levels of benzene in the shoe industry. PMID:7747744

Karaci?, V; Skender, L; Bosner-Cucanci?, B; Bogadi-Sare, A

1995-03-01

281

Cardiac damage secondary to occupational exposure to tin vapor.  

PubMed

Tin is commonly used as a coating on copper kitchen appliances, and "tinsmithing" as a trade is common in many non-Western countries, where cooking utensils are re-tinned when the cooking surface wears thin. Tinsmiths, or "tinkers," are commonly exposed to the following fumes during their work: stannic [tin(IV)] oxide, ammonium chloride, and hydrochloric acid. In this study we assessed workers from tinsmith workshops of our province for signs, symptoms, and laboratory evidence of cardiac end-organ damage. Between June 2002 and March 2003, researchers went to the main tinsmith workshop area of our province to interview tinsmiths in their workplaces and to gather addresses of their "traveling tinker" colleagues, who work with portable equipment. All workers were interviewed and underwent a complete physical examination, blood testing for lipid parameters, and echocardiography. Twenty-six tin workers (mean age 49+/- 10 y) and 25 control patients (convenience sample of hospital employees) were included in the study. Tobacco use, incidence of hypertension, and serum lipid parameters were not significantly different between the two groups (p < .05). The differences in myocardial performance index, systolic function, and mitral flow A velocity were also nonsignificant. However, the mitral inflow E velocity in the tinsmiths was significantly less than in controls (0.71+/- 0.1 vs. 0.95+/- 0.1 m/s, p < .001). The mitral deceleration time was also much longer in the tinsmith group (216+/- 71 ms vs. 143+/- 14 ms, p < .001). Eleven of the tinkers (23%) were found to have aortic valve sclerosis (severe in one, moderate in another, mild in the other nine), but aortic valve sclerosis was found in none of the control subjects. One tinsmith was found to have three-vessel coronary disease on angiogram. Another tinker with "myocarditis" in the past, and slow flow on angiography, had normalization of his cardiac tests after refraining from tin exposure for 6 mo. Thus, occupational exposure to heavy tin fumes is associated with left ventricle diastolic dysfunction and sclerosis of the aortic valve. Tin workers should minimize their exposure to tin fumes, and physicians should monitor tinsmiths closely for signs of heart disease. PMID:16326401

Gunay, Nurullah; Aksoy, Mehmet; Davutoglu, Vedat; Yildirim, Cuma; Ege, Ibrahim

2006-01-01

282

Occupational noise exposure and hearing loss in fire fighters assigned to airport fire stations.  

PubMed

The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) was requested to conduct a health hazard evaluation (HHE) at a large metropolitan fire department. The request concerned the hearing levels and noise exposures of fire fighters who were assigned to two fire stations serving the international airport. There was concern that these fire fighters were at a greater risk of accruing hearing loss than fire fighters located at other fire stations because of the addition of aircraft noise to their occupational noise exposures. The city also requested that NIOSH investigate other fire stations, not influenced by the airport, for noise exposures and hearing ability among a larger population of the fire fighters. NIOSH investigators conducted noise surveys at five fire stations and examined the hearing ability of 197 fire fighters. The noise surveys consisted of personal noise dosimetry on fire fighters assigned to the fire station for the entire 24-hr tour of duty over 2 consecutive days at each of the five stations. A NIOSH investigator accompanied the fire fighters on their vehicle to log response times and activities. The audiometric examinations were pure-tone, air conduction tests administered according to the Occupational Safety and Health Administration's (OSHA's) hearing conservation amendment. The noise dosimetry results revealed time-weighted averages (TWAs) that ranged from 60 to 82 dBA. However, the levels encountered during Code 3 responses (warning lights, sirens, and air horns) reached 109 dBA for a 1-min time period. The audiometric results showed that the average fire fighter exhibited a characteristic noise-induced permanent threshold shift.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1781442

Tubbs, R L

1991-09-01

283

Environmental and occupational exposure to manganese: a multimedia assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl (MMT) is an organic additive used in Canada since 1976 as an anti-knock agent in unleaded gasoline. Its combustion leads to the emission of Mn oxides, especially Mn3O4. Since no study has assessed the potential risk of chronic exposure to low concentrations resulting from these emissions, the present investigation was undertaken to assess the level of environmental

Sylvain Loranger; Joseph Zayed

1995-01-01

284

Neuropsychological Effects of Low-Level Manganese Exposure in Welders  

PubMed Central

While the neuropsychological effects of high manganese (Mn) exposure in occupational settings are well known, the effects of lower levels of exposure are less understood. In this study, we investigated the neuropsychological effects of lower level occupational Mn exposure in 46 male welders (mean age = 37.4, sd = 11.7 years). Each welders’ cumulative Mn exposure indices (Mn-CEI) for the past 12 months and total work history Mn exposure were constructed based on air Mn measurements and work histories. The association between these exposure indices and performance on cognitive, motor control, and psychological tests was examined. In addition, among a subset of welders (n=24) who completed the tests both before and after a work shift, we examined the association between cross-shift Mn exposure assessed from personal monitoring and acute changes in test scores. Mn exposures in this study (median = 12.9 ?g/m3) were much lower, as compared to those observed in other similar studies. Increasing total Mn-CEI was significantly associated with slower reaction time on the continuous performance test (CPT; p<0.01), as well as worse mood for several scales on the Profile of Mood States (POMS; confused, tired, and a composite of tired and energetic, all p?0.03). Increasing Mn-CEI over the previous 12 months was significantly associated with worse mood on the sad, tense, and confused POMS scales (all p?0.03) and the association with worse CPT performance approached significance (p=0.10). Higher Mn exposure over the course of a workday was associated with worse performance on the CPT test across the day (p=0.06) as well as declines in fine motor control over the work-shift (p=0.04), adjusting for age and time between the 2 tests. Our study suggests that even at relatively low Mn exposure levels neuropsychological effects may manifest particularly with respect to attention, mood, and fine motor control.

Laohaudomchok, Wisanti; Lin, Xihong; Herrick, Robert F.; Fang, Shona C.; Cavallari, Jennifer M.; Shrairman, Ruth; Landau, Alexander; Christiani, David C.; Weisskopf, Marc G.

2011-01-01

285

Renal cancer risk and occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and plastics  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate whether occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and certain plastic monomers increased renal cell carcinomas (RCC) risk. Methods Unconditional logistic regression was used to calculate RCC risk in relation to exposure. Results No association between RCC risk and having ever been occupationally exposed to any polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons or plastics was observed. Duration of exposure and average exposure also showed no association with risk. Suggestive positive associations between RCC risk and cumulative exposure to styrene (P-trend = 0.02) and acrylonitrile (P-trend = 0.06) were found. Cumulative exposure to petroleum/gasoline engine emissions was inversely associated with risk (P-trend = 0.02). Conclusions Results indicate a possible association between occupational styrene and acrylonitrile exposure and RCC risk. Additional studies are needed to replicate findings, as this is the first time these associations have been reported and they may be due to chance.

Karami, Sara; Boffetta, Paolo; Brennan, Paul; Stewart, Patricia A.; Zaridze, David; Matveev, Vsevolod; Janout, Vladimir; Kollarova, Helena; Bencko, Vladimir; Navratilova, Marie; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonila; Mates, Dana; Gromiec, Jan P.; Sobotka, Roman; Chow, Wong-Ho; Rothman, Nathaniel; Moore, Lee E.

2011-01-01

286

Occupational exposure to chemicals and risk of thyroid cancer in Sweden  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  To explore thyroid cancer (TC) risk in the Swedish population, associated with occupational exposure to certain chemicals.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  National cancer and death registries were used to follow-up (1971–1989) all Swedish workers employed in the 1970 census. Each\\u000a combination of occupation and industry was linked to a Swedish job-exposure matrix (JEM), with exposure to 13 chemicals classified\\u000a as “possible exposure”, “probable exposure

Virginia Lope; Beatriz Pérez-Gómez; Nuria Aragonés; Gonzalo López-Abente; Per Gustavsson; Nils Plato; Agustín Silva-Mato; Marina Pollán

2009-01-01

287

An occupational exposure assessment of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofurans in firefighters.  

PubMed

Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) are unintentional byproducts of combustion and industrial processes. Firefighters face the risk of occupational exposure to PCDD/Fs. Congener-specific analyses of 17 PCDD/Fs were performed on 20 serum samples collected from firefighters and fire scene investigators, and four soot samples that had deposited on the surfaces of the fire helmets and were collected after the firefighters had fought fires. The PCDD/F concentrations on the helmets that were contaminated by being worn at the fire scenes were 63-285 times higher than those on a clean helmet. The median serum PCDD/F concentration of the 16 firefighters (12 pg WHO(2005)-TEQ g(-1)lipid) was not different from those of the males from the general Taiwanese population (9.4 pg WHO(2005)-TEQ g(-1) lipid). However, the median PCDD/F level in the four fire scene investigators (15 pg WHO(2005)-TEQ g(-1) lipid) was higher than those in the male from the general Taiwanese population (Mann-Whitney U test, p<0.01). Furthermore, the serum samples from the firefighters and fire scene investigators, and the soot samples from the fire scenes presented similarly distinctive PCDD/F profiles that had elevated proportions for 10 PCDF congeners. Limited data indicated that the fire scene investigators were occupationally exposed to PCDD/Fs at the fire scenes. We suggested that the firefighters were not occupationally exposed to PCDD/Fs at the fire scenes due to appropriate protection. However, the fire scene investigators may have had more occupational exposure to PCDD/Fs due to poor protection, and further research must be performed to confirm this. PMID:21458022

Hsu, Jing-Fang; Guo, How-Ran; Wang, Hsueh Wen; Liao, Chin-Kun; Liao, Pao-Chi

2011-05-01

288

Childhood nervous system tumors--an evaluation of the association with paternal occupational exposure to hydrocarbons  

SciTech Connect

Paternal occupational exposures to hydrocarbons have been associated with childhood nervous system cancer, but study results have not been consistent. This population-based case-control study was designed to examine this association using a large sample size to increase the precision of risk estimates. The birth certificates of 499 children who died in Texas from intracranial and spinal cord tumors were compared with 998 control certificates randomly selected from all Texas live births. Information on parental job title and industry at the time of birth was obtained from the birth certificates. No significant associations were identified for the dichotomized variable of all hydrocarbon-related occupations combined, as variously defined in previous studies, or for most of the specific jobs affiliated with exposures to hydrocarbons. Significant, relatively stable odds ratios (OR) were found for printers and graphics arts workers (OR = 4.5; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.4-14.7) and chemical and petroleum workers with high exposure levels (OR = 3.0; CI = 1.1-8.5). A discussion of the biases involved in this type of study design is presented.

Johnson, C.C.; Annegers, J.F.; Frankowski, R.F.; Spitz, M.R.; Buffler, P.A.

1987-10-01

289

Biological monitoring of occupational exposure to isopropyl alcohol vapor by urinalysis for acetone.  

PubMed

The relationship of the intensity of occupational vapor exposure to isopropyl alcohol (IPA) with urinary excretion of acetone and unmetabolized IPA was studied in 99 printers of both sexes, who were exposed to up to 66 ppm IPA (as time-weighted average), together with toluene, xylenes, methyl ethyl ketone and/or ethyl acetate. Acetone and IPA concentrations in urine were studied also in 34 non-exposed subjects. Acetone was detectable in the urine of most of the non-exposed, and the urinary acetone concentration increased in proportion to the IPA exposure intensity (r = 0.84 for observed, non-corrected values), whereas the correction for creatinine concentration or specific gravity of urine did not give a larger correlation coefficient. IPA itself was not found in the urine of the non-exposed, and was detectable in urine of only those who were exposed to IPA above a certain level, e.g. 5 ppm. The present study results suggest that urinary acetone is a valuable index for biological monitoring of occupational exposure to IPA as low as 70 ppm. PMID:2228263

Kawai, T; Yasugi, T; Horiguchi, S; Uchida, Y; Iwami, O; Iguchi, H; Inoue, O; Watanabe, T; Nakatsuka, H; Ikeda, M

1990-01-01

290

[Occupational exposure to hexavalent chromium during aircraft painting].  

PubMed

Hygienists are interested in hexavalent chromium due to its genotoxic and carcinogenic effect on humans. The use of products containing hexavalent chromium is decreasing in many industrial fields because of the substitution with less-toxic compounds. In the aeronautical industry, however, the chromate are added to primer paint as a corrosion inhibitor of aircrafts surfaces: so hexavalent chromium compounds are available in many primers with a composition ranging from 10% to 13%. The application of these primers by using electrostatic guns potentially exposes painting and coating workers at high concentrations of aerosols containing Cr(VI). The aim of the present study is the evaluation of professional exposure to hexavalent chromium during aircraft painting, by adopting both environmental personal sampling and biological monitoring. To valuate workers exposure levels the personal measurements results have been compared with the exposure limit values (TLV-TWA) and the urinary chromium contents with the biological exposure indices (IBE). Moreover the strategy of coupling environmental sampling with biological monitoring seems to be a useful instrument to measure the validity of the individual protection devices. PMID:18409827

Gherardi, M; Gatto, M P; Gordiani, A; Paci, E; Proietto, A

2007-01-01

291

Occupational Exposure in the Transport, Handling and Storage of Hazardous Liquid Waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

In NSW, many hazardous wastes are also classified as Dangerous Goods and Hazardous Substances. Occupational exposure assessment may be used to differentiate between acceptable and unacceptable exposures, to control unacceptable exposures, demonstrate compliance with legal or other guidelines or all three (AIHA 1991). One major challenge when dealing with hazardous waste is that its composition is not always known, making

Michael Weller

292

Occupational hydrocarbon exposure and nephrotoxicity: a cohort study and literature review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrocarbon exposure has been shown to play an important role in the development of renal dysfunction in several occupational settings. In this study, renal screening was performed in a group of paint sprayers with exposure to hydrocarbon-based paints, recruited from a car manufacturing plant where personal protective equipment was widely used. The hydrocarbon exposure scores and various markers of renal

P. Pai; A. Stevenson; H. Mason; G. M. Bell

1998-01-01

293

Occupational exposures as risk factors for gastric cancer in Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Occupational associations with gastric cancer were investigated in a multicenter case-control study in Italy involving interviews with 640 histologically confirmed male cases and 959 controls, randomly selected from the resident populations of the study areas. From information on the three jobs each person held the longest, risks were evaluated according to employment in 35 occupations (ever or 21+ years) and

Pierluigi Cocco; Domenico Palli; Eva Buiatti; Francesco Cipriani; Adriano DeCarli; Pierina Manca; Mary H. Ward; William J. Blot; Joseph F. Fraumeni

1994-01-01

294

Risk of lymphatic or haematopoietic cancer mortality with occupational exposure to animals or the public  

PubMed Central

Background: Occupational exposure to animals or the public could result in exposure to infectious agents, which may play a role in the aetiology of lymphohaematopoietic (LH) cancers. Aims: To conduct a population based, case-control study of death certificate data from 1984 to 1998 in 24 US states in order to evaluate the risk of mortality from LH neoplasms associated with occupational exposure to animals or the public. Methods: Cases were selected as those with an underlying cause of death of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL, n = 72 589), Hodgkin's disease (HD, n = 5479), multiple myeloma (n = 35 857), or leukaemia (n = 68 598); 912 615 controls were randomly selected from all remaining deaths, frequency matched on age, sex, race, and geographic region. Results: Occupational exposure to animals was associated with modest increased risks of mortality from all four LH cancers; these associations varied by region. Occupational exposure to the public was associated with only negligible increased risk with LH cancer outcomes. Occupations involving animal exposure were predominantly agricultural, and the risks associated with employment in the livestock industry exceeded the corresponding risks associated with the crop industry for all outcomes except HD. Conclusions: Increased risks of NHL, HD, multiple myeloma, and leukaemia were associated with occupations that involved animal exposure. Regional differences in risk imply that the risks may be associated with exposure to specific livestock or farming practices. However, these associations may be confounded by other farming related exposures, such as pesticides. Because the use of death certificates to classify occupation may result in misclassification during aetiologically relevant time periods, these hypotheses should be further explored in studies with detailed information on lifetime occupation.

Svec, M; Ward, M; Dosemeci, M; Checkoway, H; De Roos, A J

2005-01-01

295

Non-Occupational Exposure to Asbestos in Buildings: A Practical Risk Management Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current federal regulations do not address non-occupational exposure to asbestos. In the absence of such regulations, if asbestos-containing materials are present in a building, it is advisable to develop a management program to ensure that the inhalation risk to building occupants does not increase with time and that appropriate steps are taken during activities which have the potential to release

JEFFREY MARK PAULL; MORTON CORN; PETER S. J. LEES; PATRICK N. BREYSSE

1986-01-01

296

Occupational exposure to talc containing asbestos. Morbidity, mortality, and environmental studies of miners and millers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) conducted studies of mortality and morbidity patterns and occupational exposures among talc miners and millers in upper New York. The mortality study was based on 398 white male workers who began employment between January 1, 1947 and December 31, 1959 and whose vital status was determined as of June 30, 1975.

J. M. Dement; R. D. Zumwalde; J. F. Gamble; W. Fellner; M. J. DeMeo

1980-01-01

297

Cancer risk from occupational and environmental exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epidemiologic evidence on the relationship between polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and cancer is reviewed. High occupational exposure to PAHs occurs in several industries and occupations. Covered here are aluminum production, coal gasification, coke production, iron and steel foundries, tar distillation, shale oil extraction, wood impregnation, roofing, road paving, carbon black production, carbon electrode production, chimney sweeping, and calcium carbide production.

Paolo Boffetta; Nadia Jourenkova; Per Gustavsson

1997-01-01

298

Mortality rates in the Federal Republic of Germany following previous occupational exposure to asbestos dust  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1972, a procedure was introduced by the Industrial Injuries Insurance Institutes (Berufsgenossenschaften) of the Federal Republic of Germany, which is to be used by the special occupational health service for employees exposed to asbestos dust. Since 1 January 1972, occupational health examinations are performed when exposure to asbestos dust has been of at least 3 years' duration.

H.-J. Woitowitz; H.-J. Lange; L. Beierl; M. Rathgeb; K. Schmidt; K. Ulm; T. Giesen; R. H. Wohowitz; L. Pache; K. Rödelsperger

1986-01-01

299

Occupational aluminum exposure: evidence in support of its neurobehavioral impact.  

PubMed

Aluminum is a metal with known neurotoxic properties which are linked to encephalopathy and neurodegenerative diseases. The objectives of the current meta-analysis study were: (1) to summarize neurobehavioral data obtained by epidemiological studies in occupational settings and (2) to analyze confounding within these data. The meta-analysis was based on estimates of effect sizes. Overall effect sizes were obtained by application of a random effects model. The final sample consisted of nine studies examining 449 exposed and 315 control subjects. The mean urinary aluminum concentrations in the exposed groups ranged from 13 to 133 microg/l. Six neuropsychological tests, which yielded 10 performance variables, were analyzed. Nine overall effect sizes indicated an inferior performance for the exposed group. A significant overall effect size (d(RE)=-0.43) was obtained for the digit symbol test measuring speed-related components of cognitive and motor performance. Moreover, the individual effect sizes obtained for this test suggested an exposure-response relationship. Results obtained from either raw or adjusted mean scores revealed that confounding in the data could not be excluded. The results were compared to studies not included here due to a shortage of required data. Similarities were discussed in terms of sensitivity of the tests for detecting aluminum-related changes in brain function. There was concurring evidence from different studies that urinary Al concentrations below 135 microg/l have an impact on cognitive performance. The significant effect for the digit symbol might be related to its multifaceted character which requires functioning in different components of cognitive and motor performance. This feature could possibly turn the test into a screening instrument for neurobehavioral effects. However, additional studies are necessary to verify and to differentiate the effect of aluminum on cognitive performance. From a neuropsychological perspective, implicit and explicit memory, visuo-spatial and central odor processing should be examined. A measure of verbal intelligence should be included in order to address the influence of confounding. Internationally standardized exposure measures would enhance the comparability of studies. PMID:17692380

Meyer-Baron, Monika; Schäper, Michael; Knapp, Guido; van Thriel, Christoph

2007-11-01

300

Occupational and environmental health guidelines for the evaluation and control of asbestos exposure. Technical guide  

SciTech Connect

This publication provides preventive-medicine information and guidance about controlling asbestos exposure. It applies to military and civilian personnel and on-post dependents worldwide who are occupationally or nonoccupationally exposed to asbestos.

Tuggle

1986-07-01

301

Criteria for a Recommended Standard - Occupational Exposure to Alkanes (C5-C8).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report presents the criteria and the recommended standard based thereon which were prepared to meet the need for preventing occupational disease and injury arising from workplace exposure to pentane, hexane, heptane, or octane. The standard is based o...

1977-01-01

302

Occupational sun exposure and risk of melanoma according to anatomical site.  

PubMed

Although sunburn and intermittent sun exposures are associated with increased melanoma risk, most studies have found null or inverse associations between occupational (more continuous pattern) sun exposure and melanoma risk. The association of melanoma with occupational sun exposure may differ according to anatomical site, with some studies finding a positive association with melanoma on the head and neck. We examined the association between occupational sun exposure (self-reported weekday sun exposure) and melanoma risk according to anatomical site, using data from two multicentre population-based case-control studies: the Australian Melanoma Family Study (588 cases, 472 controls) and the Genes, Environment and Melanoma study (GEM; 1079 cases, 2,181 controls). Unconditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and their 95% confidence intervals, adjusting for potential confounders. Occupational sun exposure was not positively associated with melanoma risk overall or at different body sites in both studies. The GEM study found inverse associations between occupational sun exposure and melanoma on the head and neck [OR for highest vs. lowest quartile: 0.56, 95% confidence intervals (CI) 0.36-0.86, ptrend 0.02], and between the proportion of total sun exposure occurring on weekdays and melanoma on the upper limbs (OR for highest vs. lowest quartile: 0.66, 95% CI 0.42-1.02, ptrend 0.03). Our results suggest that occupational sun exposure does not increase risk of melanoma, even of melanomas situated on the head and neck. This finding seemed not to be due to negative confounding of occupational sun exposure by weekend sun. PMID:24288300

Vuong, Kylie; McGeechan, Kevin; Armstrong, Bruce K; Cust, Anne E

2014-06-01

303

Past occupational exposure to airborne manganese in a manganese alloy plant.  

PubMed

A retrospective exposure assessment of a group of manganese (Mn) alloy workers was performed in conjunction with a 2004 follow-up study, 14 years after cessation of exposure, to evaluate the long-term effects of occupational Mn exposure on neurobehavioral functions. The ferro- and silico-Mn alloy plant opened in 1973 and closed in 1991. The airborne total Mn (TMn) exposures for job groupings were established using personal sampling data from a 1991 industrial hygiene survey. Historical short-term total dust (TDust) data were used to estimate past TDust exposure for job groupings and plant areas. Relationships between Mn content and TDust from the 1991 survey, supported by sparse historical data, were used to estimate TMn content in the historical TDust data. Results showed past personal TDust exposure levels much higher than those found in 1991. Changes in TDust levels and corresponding TMn levels were a function of changes in ventilation, work practices, and operations, not of product (ferro- or silico-Mn). Relationships between TMn and respirable Mn (RMn) from area sampling in 1991 were used to estimate RMn exposure for the job groups. Work histories for 112 workers were developed from payroll records, questionnaires, and interviews and combined with Mn exposure estimates to develop cumulative exposure indices (CEIs). The TMn CEI ranged from 0.27 mg/m(3)x years to 100.24 mg/m(3)x years, with an AM of 24.40 mg/m(3)x years and a GM of 14.06 mg/m(3)x years. The RMn CEI had an AM of 2.95 mg/m(3)x years and a GM of 1.78 mg/m(3)x years with a range of 0.05-12.03 mg/m(3)x years. Overall average TMn exposure intensity, the TMn CEI divided by time worked in years for each worker, had an AM of 1.6 mg Mn/m(3), a GM of 1.0 mg Mn/m(3), range 0.02-6.2 6 mg Mn/m(3). The results of the 2004 follow-up study showed several concentration-response relationships between TMn CEI and neurobehavioral outcomes, which suggest that increase in cumulative TMn exposure level has long-term consequences on the nervous system. PMID:18464096

Baldwin, Mary; Bouchard, Maryse; Larribe, Fabrice; Mergler, Donna

2008-07-01

304

Airborne Isocyanate Exposures in the Collision Repair Industry and a Comparison to Occupational Exposure Limits  

PubMed Central

Isocyanate exposure was evaluated in 33 spray painters from 25 Washington State autobody shops. Personal breathing zone samples (n = 228) were analyzed for isophorone diisocyanate (IPDI) monomer, 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI) monomer, IPDI polyisocyanate, and three polyisocyanate forms of HDI. The objective was to describe exposures to isocyanates while spray painting, compare them with short-term exposure limits (STELs), and describe the isocyanate composition in the samples. The composition of polyisocyanates (IPDI and HDI) in the samples varied greatly, with maximum amounts ranging from up to 58% for HDI biuret to 96% for HDI isocyanurate. There was a significant inverse relationship between the percentage composition of HDI isocyanurate to IPDI and to HDI uretdione. Two 15-min STELs were compared: (1) Oregon's Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OR-OSHA) STEL of 1000 ?g/m3 for HDI polyisocyanate, and (2) the United Kingdom's Health and Safety Executive (UK-HSE) STEL of 70 ?g NCO/m3 for all isocyanates. Eighty percent of samples containing HDI polyisocyanate exceeded the OR-OSHA STEL while 98% of samples exceeded the UKHSE STEL. The majority of painters (67%) wore half-face air-purifying respirators while spray painting. Using the OROSHA and the UK-HSE STELs as benchmarks, 21% and 67% of painters, respectively, had at least one exposure that exceeded the respirator's OSHA-assigned protection factor. A critical review of the STELs revealed the following limitations: (1) the OR-OSHA STEL does not include all polyisocyanates, and (2) the UK-HSE STEL is derived from monomeric isocyanates, whereas the species present in typical spray coatings are polyisocyanates. In conclusion, the variable mixtures of isocyanates used by autobody painters suggest that an occupational exposure limit is required that includes all polyisocyanates. Despite the limitations of the STELs, we determined that a respirator with an assigned protection factor of 25 or greater is required to protect against isocyanate exposures during spray painting. Consequently, half-face air-purifying respirators, which are most commonly used and have an assigned protection factor of 10, do not afford adequate respiratory protection.

Reeb-Whitaker, Carolyn; Whittaker, Stephen G.; Ceballos, Diana M.; Weiland, Elisa C.; Flack, Sheila L.; Fent, Kenneth W.; Thomasen, Jennifer M.; Gaines, Linda G. Trelles; Nylander-French, Leena A.

2014-01-01

305

Multicentric study on malignant pleural mesothelioma and non-occupational exposure to asbestos  

Microsoft Academic Search

Insufficient evidence exists on the risk of pleural mesothelioma from non-occupational exposure to asbestos. A population-based case–control study was carried out in six areas from Italy, Spain and Switzerland. Information was collected for 215 new histologically confirmed cases and 448 controls. A panel of industrial hygienists assessed asbestos exposure separately for occupational, domestic and environmental sources. Classification of domestic and

C Magnani; A Agudo; C A González; A Andrion; A Calleja; E Chellini; P Dalmasso; A Escolar; S Hernandez; C Ivaldi; D Mirabelli; J Ramirez; D Turuguet; M Usel; B Terracini

2000-01-01

306

A new carbon monoxide occupational dosimeter: results from a worker exposure assessment survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

The LBNL\\/QGI occupational carbon monoxide (CO) dosimeter (LOCD), a new, inexpensive CO passive sampler, was field-validated in an occupational exposure assessment study in the Moscone Convention Center (MCC) in San Francisco, CA in January, 1997. The LOCD measures time-weighed-average (TWA) CO exposures from 10 to 800 parts per million hours (ppm h; accuracy ±20%; precision 10 ppm h). This device

MICHAEL G APTE; DANIEL D COX; S KATHARINE HAMMOND; LARA A GUNDEL

1999-01-01

307

71 FR 63238 - Occupational Exposure to Hexavalent Chromium  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Employees with exposures for which respirators...programs in effect on May 30...an initial exposure determination...characterize employee exposures). Thereafter...wishing to adhere to the standard...Agreement will be effective upon execution...reduce employee exposure to or below...employees whose exposures to...

2006-10-30

308

Non-occupational lead exposure and hypertension in Pakistani adults  

PubMed Central

Hypertension is one of the most prevalent diseases in the developed and developing countries. Based on the long historical association and the provocative findings of blood pressure effects at low level of lead exposure a study was carried out to determine if an association existed between low blood lead concentration and hypertension. In this study the effects of low-level exposure to lead on blood pressure were examined among 244 adults using atomic absorption spectrometer. For quality assurance purpose certified reference materials i.e., Animal blood A-13, Bovine liver 1577 and cotton cellulose V-9 from IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency) and NIST (National Institute of Standard Technology) were analyzed under identical experimental conditions. The mean age of hypertensive adults was 52 years (range 43~66). The mean values of systolic and diastolic blood pressure were (209±11.7) (range 170~250) and (117±3.9) (range 105~140) mmHg respectively. Blood lead concentration ranged from 78~201 µg/L with a mean of 139 µg/L and 165~497 µg/L with a mean of 255 µg/L in normal and hypertensive adults respectively. Increase in systolic blood pressure was significantly predictive with increase in blood lead levels. Body mass index (BMI) and lipid profile including total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride correlated with blood pressure.

Rahman, Sohaila; Khalid, Nasir; Zaidi, Jamshed Hussain; Ahmad, Shujaat; Iqbal, Mohammad Zafar

2006-01-01

309

Occupational exposure in small and medium scale industry with specific reference to heat and noise.  

PubMed

This study was undertaken to assess heat and noise exposure and occupational safety practices in small and medium scale casting and forging units (SMEs) of Northern India. We conducted personal interviews of 350 male workers of these units through a comprehensive questionnaire and collected information on heat and noise exposure, use of protective equipment, sweat loss and water intake, working hour. The ambient wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT index) was measured using quest temp 34/36o area heat stress monitor. A-weighted Leq ambient noise was measured using a quest sound level meter "ANSI SI. 43-1997 (R 2002) type-1 model SOUNDPRO SE/DL". We also incorporated OSHA norms for hearing conservation which include - an exchange rate of 5dB(A), criterion level at 90dB(A), criterion time of eight hours, threshold level is equal to 80dB(A), upper limit is equal to 140dB(A) and with F/S response rate. Results of the study revealed that occupational heat exposure in melting, casting, forging and punching sections is high compared to ACGIH/NIOSH norms. Ambience noise in various sections like casting / molding, drop forging, cutting presses, punching, grinding and barreling process was found to be more than 90dB(A). About 95% of the workers suffered speech interference where as high noise annoyance was reported by only 20%. Overall, 68% workers were not using any personal protective equipment (PPE). The study concluded that the proportion of SME workers exposed to high level heat stress and noise (60 - 72 hrs/week) is high. The workers engaged in forging and grinding sections are more prone to noise induced hearing loss (NIHL) at higher frequencies as compared to workers of other sections. It is recommended that there is a strong need to implement the standard of working hours as well as heat stress and noise control measures. PMID:20160389

Singh, Lakhwinder Pal; Bhardwaj, Arvind; Deepak, Kishore Kumar

2010-01-01

310

Occupational exposure measurements of static and pulsed gradient magnetic fields in the vicinity of MRI scanners.  

PubMed

Recent advances in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have increased occupational exposure to magnetic fields. In this study, we examined the assessment of occupational exposure to gradient magnetic fields and time-varying magnetic fields generated by motion in non-homogeneous static magnetic fields of MRI scanners. These magnetic field components can be measured simultaneously with an induction coil setup that detects the time rate of change of magnetic flux density (dB/dt). The setup developed was used to measure the field components around two MRI units (1 T open and 3 T conventional). The measured values can be compared with dB/dt reference levels derived from magnetic flux density reference levels given by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP). The measured motion-induced dB/dt values were above the dB/dt reference levels for both MRI units. The measured values for the gradient fields (echo planar imaging (EPI) and fast field echo (FFE) sequences) also exceeded the dB/dt reference levels in positions where the medical staff may have access during interventional procedures. The highest motion-induced dB/dt values were 0.7 T s(-1) for the 1 T scanner and 3 T s(-1) for the 3 T scanner when only the static field was present. Even higher values (6.5 T s(-1)) were measured for simultaneous exposure to motion-induced and gradient fields in the vicinity of the 3 T scanner. PMID:19293469

Kännälä, Sami; Toivo, Tim; Alanko, Tommi; Jokela, Kari

2009-04-01

311

[Analysis of occupational exposure to asbestos in cases of mesothelioma registered in Romagna (1986-1998)].  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and major correlates of occupational exposure to asbestos among the 125 cases of mesothelioma of the pleura, peritoneum, and pericardium registered in the Romagna Region of Italy between 1986 and 1998. Adequate occupational information was obtained for 122 (98%) cases. Among these, the male:female ratio was 81:41 (2.0), the median age was 68 years (range, 25-92), and the pleural location accounted for 96 (79%) cases. According to job history, 61 (50%) cases had had definite (23), probable (12), and possible (26) occupational exposure to asbestos. The probability (multiple logistic regression estimate) was greater for males (odds ratio, 10.8) but decreased for cases with mesothelioma of the peritoneum and pericardium (0.21) as well as those above the median age (0.38). Time period, residence, mode of diagnosis (histology, cytology, other), source of information (patient, wife/husband, others), and smoking habits exerted no independent effect. For 35 (57%) cases, occupational exposure was related to asbestos pollution of the workplace and not to the specific work task. Cases with definite, probable, and possible occupational exposure showed no significant difference in the distribution (Kruskal-Wallis test) by year of initial employment at risk, duration of exposure, and latency (median, 36 years). Occupational exposure occurred in a total of 22 workplaces. Three of these accounted for 21 (34%) cases. Multiple (> or = 2) cases (total 27 or 44%) were observed in six workplaces. PMID:11233577

2000-01-01

312

NIOSH (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health) Testimony on the Occupational Safety and Health Administration Proposed Rule: Occupational Exposure to Benzene, Part 1, to DOL (Department of Labor), by J. Donald Millar, March 1986.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The testimony concerned the proposed rule from the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) regarding occupational exposure to benzene (71432). The possibility that the proposed 1 part per million (ppm) benzene standard did not substantially r...

1986-01-01

313

Occupational exposure to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in wood dust  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sino-nasal cancer (SNC) represents approximately 3% of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology (ORL) cancers. Adenocarcinoma SNC is an acknowledged occupational disease affecting certain specialized workers such as joiners and cabinetmakers. The high proportion of woodworkers contracting a SNC, subjected to an estimated risk 50 to 100 times higher than that affecting the general population, has suggested various study paths to possible causes such as tannin in hardwood, formaldehyde in plywood and benzo(a)pyrene produced by wood when overheated by cutting tools. It is acknowledged that tannin does not cause cancer to workers exposed to tea dust. Apart from being an irritant, formaldehyde is also classified as carcinogenic. The path involving carcinogenic Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) emitted by overheated wood is attractive. In this study, we measured the particle size and PAHs content in dust emitted by the processing of wood in an experimental chamber, and in field situation. Quantification of 16 PAHs is carried out by capillary GC-ion trap Mass Spectrometric analysis (GC-MS). The materials tested are rough fir tree, oak, impregnated polyurethane (PU) oak. The wood dust contains carcinogenic PAHs at the level of ?g.g-1 or ppm. During sanding operations, the PU varnish-impregnated wood produces 100 times more PAHs in dust than the unfinished wood.

Huynh, C. K.; Schüpfer, P.; Boiteux, P.

2009-02-01

314

Grand Rounds: Could Occupational Exposure to n-Hexane and Other Solvents Precipitate Visual Failure in Leber Hereditary Optic Neuropathy?  

PubMed Central

Context Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) is a maternally inherited loss of central vision related to pathogenic mutations in the mitochondrial genome, which are a necessary but not sufficient condition to develop the disease. Investigation of precipitating environmental/occupational (and additional genetic) factors could be relevant for prevention. Case presentation After a 6-month period of occupational exposure to n-hexane and other organic solvents, a 27-year-old man (a moderate smoker) developed an optic neuropathy. The patient had a full ophthalmologic and neurologic investigation, including standardized cycloergometer test for serum lactic acid levels and a skeletal muscle biopsy. His exposure history was also detailed, and he underwent genetic testing for LHON mitochondrial DNA mutations. The patient suffered a sequential optic neuropathy with the hallmarks of LHON and tested positive for the homoplasmic 11778G ? A/ND4 mutation. Routine laboratory monitoring revealed increased concentrations of urinary 2.5 hexandione (n-hexane metabolite) and hippuric acid (toluene metabolite) in the period immediately preceding the visual loss. Discussion In a subject carrying an LHON mutation, the strict temporal sequence of prolonged appreciable occupational exposure followed by sudden onset of visual loss must raise a suspicion of causality (with a possible further interaction with tobacco smoke). Relevance In this article, we add to the candidate occupational/environmental triggers of LHON and highlight the need for appropriate case–control (and laboratory) studies to validate the causal effect of mixed toxic exposures.

Carelli, Valerio; Franceschini, Flavia; Venturi, Silvia; Barboni, Piero; Savini, Giacomo; Barbieri, Giuseppe; Pirro, Ettore; La Morgia, Chiara; Valentino, Maria L.; Zanardi, Francesca; Violante, Francesco S.; Mattioli, Stefano

2007-01-01

315

High-frequency hearing loss, occupational noise exposure and hypertension: a cross-sectional study in male workers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  The association between occupational noise exposure and hypertension is inconsistent because of an exposure bias caused by\\u000a outer-ear measurements of noise levels among workers. This study used hearing loss values (HLVs) measured at 4 kHz and 6 kHz\\u000a in both ears as a biomarker to investigate the chronic effects of noise exposure on hypertension in 790 aircraft-manufacturing\\u000a workers.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Participants were

Ta-Yuan Chang; Chiu-Shong Liu; Kuei-Hung Huang; Ren-Yin Chen; Jim-Shoung Lai; Bo-Ying Bao

2011-01-01

316

Criteria for a Recommended Standard: Occupational Exposure to Hexavalent Chromium.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this criteria document, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) reviews the critical health effects studies of hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) compounds in order to update its assessment of the potential health effects of occupat...

2013-01-01

317

Laryngeal and hypopharyngeal cancers and occupational exposure to formaldehyde and various dusts: a case-control study in France  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVESA case-control study was conducted in France to assess possible associations between occupational exposures and squamous cell carcinomas of the larynx and hypopharynx.METHODSThe study was restricted to men, and included 201 hypopharyngeal cancers, 296 laryngeal cancers, and 296 controls (patients with other tumour sites). Detailed information on smoking, alcohol consumption, and lifetime occupational history was collected. Occupational exposure to seven

Laurent Laforest; Danièle Luce; Paquerette Goldberg; Denis Bégin; Michel Gérin; Paul A Demers; Jacques Brugère; Annette Leclerc

2000-01-01

318

occupational exposure to aromatic hydrocarbons at a coke plant: Part II. Exposure assessment of volatile organic compounds.  

PubMed

The objective of the study is to assess the external and internal exposures to aromatic hydrocarbons in the tar and oil naphthalene distillation processes at a coke plant. 69 workers engaged as operators in tar and oil naphthalene distillation processes and 25 non-exposed subjects were examined. Personal analyses of the benzene, toluene, xylene isomers, ethylbenzene, naphthalene, indan, indene and acenaphthene in the breathing zone air allowed us to determine the time weighted average exposure levels to the aromatic hydrocarbons listed above. The internal exposure was investigated by measurement of the urinary excretion of naphthols, 2-methylphenol and dimethylphenol isomers by means of gas chromatography with a flame ionization detection (GC/FID). Urine metabolites were extracted after enzymatic hydrolysis by solid-phase extraction with styrene-divinylbenzene resin. The time-weighted average concentrations of the hydrocarbons detected in the breathing zone air shows that the exposure levels of the workers are relatively low in comparison to the exposure limits. Statistically significant differences between average concentrations of aromatic hydrocarbons (benzene, toluene, xylene isomers) determined at the workplaces in the tar distillation department have been found. Concentrations of the naphthalene and acenaphthene detected in workers from the oil distillation department are higher that those from the tar distillation department. Concentrations of naphthols, 2-methoxyphenol and dimethylphenol isomers in the urine of occupationally exposed workers were significantly higher than those of non-exposed subjects. Concentrations of the 2-methoxyphenol and dimethylphenol isomers in urine were significantly higher for the tar distillation workers, whereas concentrations of naphthols were higher for the oil naphthalene distillation workers. Operators at the tar and naphthalene oil distillation processes are simultaneously exposed to a mixture of different hydrocarbons, mainly benzene and naphthalene homologues. PMID:15215658

Bieniek, Grazyna; Kurkiewicz, Slawomir; Wilczok, Tadeusz; Klimek, Katarzyna; Swiatkowska, Longina; Lusiak, Agnieszka

2004-05-01

319

Liver disease associated with occupational exposure to the solvent dimethylformamide  

SciTech Connect

An attempt is made to characterize an outbreak of liver disease among workers in a fabric coating factory; and to determine the outbreak's cause and natural history and strategies for clinical recognition, treatment, and prevention. Fifty-eight of sixty-six workers participated in the study. All had standard liver function tests at least once. Forty-six workers completed a questionnaire; 27 had more extensive clinical evaluation for recognized liver abnormalities. A plant-wide outbreak of liver disease was recognized after a new employee presented with signs and symptoms of hepatitis. Evaluation of the worksite showed that dimethylformamide, a widely used industrial solvent and known hepatotoxin, was being used to coat fabric in poorly ventilated areas without appropriate skin protection. No other major hepatotoxic exposure was identified. Overall, 36 of 58 (62%) workers tested had elevations of either aspartate aminotransferase (AST) or alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels. Enzyme abnormalities occurred almost exclusively in production workers (35 of 46 were abnormal), whereas only 1 of 12 nonproduction workers showed any elevations in enzyme levels (P less than 0.0001). Serologic tests excluded known infectious causes of hepatitis in all but 2 workers and changes characteristic of toxic liver injury were confirmed by histologic examinations of biopsy specimens from 4 workers. The ratio of AST to ALT levels was one or less in all but 1 worker. After modification of work practices and removal of workers most severely affected from exposure, improvement in liver enzyme abnormalities and symptoms in most patients were seen, although some patients showed persistent elevations of enzyme levels.

Redlich, C.A.; Beckett, W.S.; Sparer, J.; Barwick, K.W.; Riely, C.A.; Miller, H.; Sigal, S.L.; Shalat, S.L.; Cullen, M.R.

1988-05-01

320

Occupational exposure to diesel and gasoline emissions and lung cancer in Canadian men.  

PubMed

The International Agency for Research on Cancer classifies diesel exhaust as a probable human carcinogen; this decision is based largely from lung cancer evidence. Gasoline exhaust is classified as a possible carcinogen. Epidemiological studies are needed that improve upon some of the limitations of previous research with respect to the characterization of exposure, and the control for the potential confounding influence of smoking and other occupational exposures. Our objective was to investigate associations between occupational exposure to diesel and gasoline engine emissions and lung cancer. We used a case-control study design that involved men 40 years of age and older at the time of interview. Analyses are based on 1681 incident cases of lung cancer and 2,053 population controls. A self-reported questionnaire elicited a lifetime occupational history, including general tasks, and information on other potential risk factors. Occupational exposures to diesel and gasoline emissions, crystalline silica, and asbestos were assigned to each job held by study subjects by industrial hygienists who were blind to case-control status. Exposure metrics for diesel and gasoline emissions that were modeled included: ever exposure, cumulative exposure, and concentration of exposure. We found a dose-response relationship between cumulative occupational exposure to diesel engine emissions and lung cancer. This association was more pronounced for the squamous and large cell subtypes with adjusted odds ratios across the three increasing tertiles of cumulative lifetime exposure relative to those with no exposure of 0.99, 1.25, and 1.32 (p=0.04) for squamous cell carcinoma, and 1.06, 1.19, 1.68 (p=0.02) for large cell carcinoma. While the association with cumulative exposure to gasoline was weakly positive, it was not statistically significant. Our findings suggest that exposure to diesel engine emissions increases the risk of lung cancer particularly for squamous and large cell carcinoma subtypes. PMID:21536265

Villeneuve, Paul J; Parent, Marie-Élise; Sahni, Vanita; Johnson, Kenneth C

2011-07-01

321

Linking expert judgement and trends in occupational exposure into a job-exposure matrix for historical exposure to asbestos in The Netherlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this article was to describe the structure and content of a job-exposure matrix (JEM) for historical asbestos exposure in The Netherlands. The JEM contained 309 occupational job title groups in 70 branches of industry during 10 periods of 5 years during 1945-1994, resulting in 3090 evaluations. Dutch sources on asbestos exposure measurements provided quantitative guidance for 69

PAUL SWUSTE; MOHSSINE DAHHAN; ALEX BURDORF

2008-01-01

322

Past Occupational Exposure to Airborne Manganese in a Manganese Alloy Plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

A retrospective exposure assessment of a group of manganese (Mn) alloy workers was performed in conjunction with a 2004 follow-up study, 14 years after cessation of exposure, to evaluate the long-term effects of occupational Mn exposure on neurobehavioral functions. The ferro- and silico-Mn alloy plant opened in 1973 and closed in 1991. The airborne total Mn (TMn) exposures for job

Mary Baldwin; Maryse Bouchard; Fabrice Larribe; Donna Mergler

2008-01-01

323

Alterations in serum immunoglobulin levels in workers occupationally exposed to trichloroethylene  

PubMed Central

Trichloroethylene (TCE) has been associated with a variety of immunotoxic effects and may be associated with an increased risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). Altered serum immunoglobulin (Ig) levels have been reported in NHL patients and in animals exposed to TCE. Recently, we reported that occupational exposure to TCE is associated with immunosuppressive effects and immune dysfunction, including suppression of B-cell counts and activation, even at relatively low levels. We hypothesized that TCE exposure would also affect Ig levels in humans. We measured serum levels of IgG, IgM and IgE, by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, in TCE-exposed workers (n = 80) and unexposed controls (n = 45), matched by age and gender, in a cross-sectional, molecular epidemiology study of occupational exposure to TCE in Guangdong, China. Exposed workers had about a 17.5% decline in serum levels of IgG compared with unexposed controls (P = 0.0002). Similarly, serum levels of IgM were reduced by about 38% in workers exposed to TCE compared with unexposed controls (P < 0.0001). Serum levels of both IgG and IgM were significantly decreased in workers exposed to TCE levels below 12 p.p.m., the median exposure level. Adjustment for B-cell counts had minimal impact on our findings. IgE levels were not significantly different between exposed and control subjects. These results provide further evidence that TCE is immunotoxic at relatively low exposure levels and provide additional biologic plausibility for the reported association of TCE with NHL.

Zhang, Luoping; Bassig, Bryan A.; Huang, Hanlin; Tang, Xiaojiang; Rothman, Nathaniel; Lan, Qing

2013-01-01

324

64 FR 49548 - Health Standards for Occupational Noise Exposure  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...of noise exposure above 115...occasional exposures above this...MSHA is not persuaded by these...has been in effect at metal...all noise exposures.'' Other...daily noise exposure, variations...preference, communication needs, hearing...its actual effectiveness is greatly...remove, effective, and hygienic...less with......

1999-09-13

325

62 FR 1494 - Occupational Exposure to Methylene Chloride  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...short duration exposures to MC. Thus...reduce the exposure- related risks of acute CNS effects, episodes...it focuses attention on sources of MC exposure in the workplace...Measurement of STEL exposures can indicate...the employer target those...

1997-01-10

326

69 FR 35146 - Occupational Noise Exposure for Railroad Operating Employees  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...whether the exposures exceeded...that noise exposure was within...reduce the effects of noise...impaired communication. FRA also...decreasing vigilance. FRA then...reduce the exposure of operating...help ensure effective radio communications, and to...for crew communication. Noise can...of noise exposure varies......

2004-06-23

327

71 FR 63065 - Occupational Noise Exposure for Railroad Operating Employees  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...recognized the effectiveness of this redesign...for crew communication. Noise can...of noise exposure varies greatly...addressing noise exposures in the locomotive...implement effective training...since few exposures are reduced...truly that effective (as evidenced...reducing noise exposure in cab environments...FRA is not aware of......

2006-10-27

328

61 FR 56746 - Occupational Exposure to 1,3-Butadiene  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...employee exposures, training...hazard communication, regulated...DATES: The effective date of these...and for the exposure goal program...mixing of effects. More specifically...measure of the effect of an exposure on risk...factors that influence the outcome...confounding exposures from...

1996-11-04

329

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease due to occupational exposure to silica dust: a review of epidemiological and pathological evidence  

PubMed Central

Occupational exposure is an important risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and silica dust is one of the most important occupational respiratory toxins. Epidemiological and pathological studies suggest that silica dust exposure can lead to COPD, even in the absence of radiological signs of silicosis, and that the association between cumulative silica dust exposure and airflow obstruction is independent of silicosis. Recent clinicopathological and experimental studies have contributed further towards explaining the potential mechanism through which silica can cause pathological changes that may lead to the development of COPD. In this paper we review the epidemiological and pathological evidence relevant to the development of COPD in silica dust exposed workers within the context of recent findings. The evidence surveyed suggests that chronic levels of silica dust that do not cause disabling silicosis may cause the development of chronic bronchitis, emphysema, and/or small airways disease that can lead to airflow obstruction, even in the absence of radiological silicosis.

Hnizdo, E; Vallyathan, V

2003-01-01

330

Lead exposure and its adverse health effects among occupational worker's children.  

PubMed

Lead exposure is an important environmental health problem particularly affecting the children of occupational workers living in the lead-contaminated environment. The objectives of the study were to find out the frequency, potential sources and adverse health effects of elevated blood lead level (BLL) in the children of lead-related occupational workers. It was a comparative cross-sectional study. A total of two hundred forty six children aged 1-6 years, comprising an equal number (n = 123) from lead smelters/battery recycle plant workers living close to the industries at Wah/Gujranwala, Pakistan (lead-exposed group) and those living 30 km away from the industrial area (controls) were included. Demographic and clinical data of each subject was collected. Blood lead analysis was carried out by using kits on the lead analyzer (3010 B ESA, USA). Biochemical tests of renal and hepatic profile were analyzed on Selectra E auto analyzer. The median age of children was 4 years; comprising of 69 boys and 54 girls. The lead-exposed children had significantly high BLLs median (range) 8.1 (1-20.9) microg/dL as compared to controls 6.7 (1-13.3) microg/dL (p occupational workers had elevated BLL (>10 microg/dL) in 38 (31%) as compared with 14 (11%) in controls. Hematopoietic, renal, and hepatic functions were significantly impaired in the lead-exposed children. In conclusion, the children of lead-related occupational workers have significantly increased frequency (31%) of lead poisoning. The potential source of lead overexposure in these children may be indirect through father's clothes and contaminated environment at home. Increased lead accumulation adversely affects health of these children. PMID:20538706

Khan, Dilshad Ahmed; Qayyum, Shazia; Saleem, Shahid; Ansari, Wafa Munir; Khan, Farooq Ahmad

2010-09-01

331

Evaluation of Job Changes within the Refractory Ceramic Fiber Industry and How They Effect an Employee's Occupational Exposures.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Knowing the comprehensive history of a job or an employee's occupational exposure is important for determining worker exposures. Changes associated with jobs or job tasks can impact these exposures significantly. Often job descriptions are too general or ...

L. L. Borland

1998-01-01

332

OSHA's approach to risk assessment for setting a revised occupational exposure standard for 1,3-butadiene.  

PubMed Central

In its 1980 benzene decision [Industrial Union Department, ALF-CIO v. American Petroleum Institute, 448 U.S. 607 (1980)], the Supreme Court ruled that "before he can promulgate any permanent health or safety standard, the Secretary [of Labor] is required to make a threshold finding that a place of employment is unsafe--in the sense that significant risks are present and can be lessened by a change in practices" (448 U.S. at 642). The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) has interpreted this to mean that whenever possible, it must quantify the risk associated with occupational exposure to a toxic substance at the current permissible exposure limit (PEL). If OSHA determines that there is significant risk to workers' health at its current standard, then it must quantify the risk associated with a variety of alternative standards to determine at what level, if any, occupational exposure to a substance no longer poses a significant risk. For rulemaking on occupational exposure to 1,3-butadiene, there are two studies that are suitable for quantitative risk assessment. One is a mouse inhalation bioassay conducted by the National Toxicology Program (NTP), and the other is a rat inhalation bioassay conducted by Hazelton Laboratories Europe. Of the four risk assessments that have been submitted to OSHA, all four have used the mouse and/or rat data with a variety of models to quantify the risk associated with occupational exposure to 1,3-butadiene. In addition, OSHA has performed its own risk assessment using the female mouse and female rat data and the one-hit and multistage models.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

Grossman, E A; Martonik, J

1990-01-01

333

Prevalence and pattern of occupational exposure to hand transmitted vibration in Great Britain: findings from a national survey  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES—To estimate the number of workers in Great Britain with significant occupational exposure to hand transmitted vibration (HTV). Also, to identify the occupations and industries where such exposures arise, and the main sources of exposure.?METHODS—A questionnaire was posted to 22 194 men and women aged 16-64, comprising 21 201 subjects selected at random from the age-sex registers of 34 general practices in England, Scotland, and Wales, and a further 993 subjects selected at random from the central pay registers of the three armed services. Among other things, the questionnaire asked about exposure to sources of HTV in current and earlier employment. Responses were assessed by occupation and industry, and prevalence estimates for the country as a whole were derived from census information on occupational and industrial populations nationally. Estimates were also made in exposed workers of the average daily dose of vibration (A(8) root mean squared (rms) for the past week, based on their reported sources and durations of exposure.?RESULTS—Usable questionnaires were returned by 12 907 subjects (overall response rate 58%). From these it was estimated that some 4.2 million men and 667 000 women in Great Britain are exposed to HTV at work in a 1 week period, and that personal daily exposures to vibration exceed a suggested action level equivalent to 2.8 ms-2 for 8 hours (A(8) >2.8 ms-2 rms) in at least 1.2 million men and 44 000 women. High estimated doses (A(8) >5 ms-2 rms) arose most often in bricklayers and masons, gardeners and groundsmen, carpenters and joiners, electricians and electrical maintenance fitters, and builders and building contractors. The industries where high A(8) values most often arose were construction, motor vehicle repair and maintenance, manufacture of basic metals, and agriculture. The most common sources of exposure were hammer drills, hand held portable grinders, and jigsaws.?CONCLUSIONS—Exposure to HTV is surprisingly prevalent, and preventive measures and health surveillance may be warranted for many men in Britain. Control strategies should focus on prevention at source, with priority accorded to the common sources of exposure and the occupations in which significant exposures tend to arise. Many vibratory tools that are common in Britain have been overlooked in previous surveys, highlighting an important focus for future research.???Keywords: hand transmitted vibration; population; prevalence; exposure

Palmer, K.; Griffin, M.; Bendall, H.; Pannett, B.; Coggon, D.

2000-01-01

334

Development of a health risk-based surface contamination cleanup standard for occupational exposure to beryllium.  

PubMed

A health risk-based surface contamination cleanup standard (SCS) for beryllium (BE) was developed to facilitate the safe transfer of property (equipment and buildings) previously used in BE-related processes. Previous SCSs for BE were primarily based on Department of Energy (DOE) housekeeping criteria rather than health risks. Quantitative health risk assessment methods were used to develop an occupational SCS that explicitly considers the relevant exposure pathways and toxicity endpoints, including both cancer and non-cancer endpoints. For the cancer endpoint at the 1E-06 risk level, the analysis resulted in an SCS of 17 ?g/100 cm(2) based on resuspension of settled dust and subsequent inhalation exposure only (BE is regulated as a carcinogen by the inhalation route only). For the non-cancer endpoint, the analysis resulted in an SCS of 0.07 ?g/100 cm(2) based on dermal absorption, incidental ingestion following dermal contact, and inhalation. The non-cancer SCS was determined virtually entirely by the dermal absorption exposure pathway, with negligible contributions from the incidental ingestion and inhalation pathways. This analysis shows that application of the non-cancer SCS in BE monitoring and control programs will adequately protect workers from both the cancer and non-cancer health effects of BE when surface contamination is the primary source of BE exposure. PMID:20649413

Damian, Paul

2011-02-01

335

Occupational exposure and defects of the central nervous system in offspring: review.  

PubMed Central

A study of published work was carried out in a search for evidence of a causal role for parental occupational exposure in the origin of structural and functional defects of the central nervous system (CNS) in children. Studies that consider this topic are scarce and mostly refer to broad categories of exposures and effects. Non-occupational studies referring to environmental exposure of humans and studies on experimental animals were also reviewed. The studies on animals provided straightforward evidence about morphological and behavioural abnormalities resulting from some agents used occupationally. The studies on humans yielded a scala of defects that could be ascribed to exposure to high doses of various agents in the environment. Evidence for a causal role of occupational exposure has not been found, but a highly probable influence on the developing CNS is hypothesised for lead, methyl mercury, and ionising radiation. Parental occupational exposure to cadmium, organic solvents, anaesthetics, and pesticides may also play a part in causing defects of the CNS. Well designed future research is needed to test the above hypotheses.

Roeleveld, N; Zielhuis, G A; Gabreels, F

1990-01-01

336

A Systematic Review of Occupational Exposure to Particulate Matter and Cardiovascular Disease  

PubMed Central

Exposure to ambient particulate air pollution is a recognized risk factor for cardiovascular disease; however the link between occupational particulate exposures and adverse cardiovascular events is less clear. We conducted a systematic review, including meta-analysis where appropriate, of the epidemiologic association between occupational exposure to particulate matter and cardiovascular disease. Out of 697 articles meeting our initial criteria, 37 articles published from January 1990 to April 2009 (12 mortality; 5 morbidity; and 20 intermediate cardiovascular endpoints) were included. Results suggest a possible association between occupational particulate exposures and ischemic heart disease (IHD) mortality as well as non-fatal myocardial infarction (MI), and stronger evidence of associations with heart rate variability and systemic inflammation, potential intermediates between occupational PM exposure and IHD. In meta-analysis of mortality studies, a significant increase in IHD was observed (meta-IRR = 1.16; 95% CI: 1.06–1.26), however these data were limited by lack of adequate control for smoking and other potential confounders. Further research is needed to better clarify the magnitude of the potential risk of the development and aggravation of IHD associated with short and long-term occupational particulate exposures and to clarify the clinical significance of acute and chronic changes in intermediate cardiovascular outcomes.

Fang, Shona C.; Cassidy, Adrian; Christiani, David C.

2010-01-01

337

Occupational exposures and chronic respiratory symptoms: a population-based study  

SciTech Connect

Data from a random sample of 8515 white adults residing in six cities in the eastern and midwestern United States were used to examine the relationships between occupational exposures to dust or to gases and fumes and chronic respiratory symptoms. 31% of the population had a history of occupational dust exposure and 30% reported exposure to gas or to fumes. After adjusting for smoking habits, age, gender, and city of residence, subjects with either occupational exposure had significantly elevated prevalence of chronic cough, chronic phlegm, persistent wheeze, and breathlessness. The adjusted relative odds of chronic respiratory symptoms for subjects exposed to dust ranged from 1.32 to 1.60. Subjects with gas or fume exposure had relative odds of symptoms between 1.27 and 1.43 when compared to unexposed subjects. Occupational dust exposure was associated with a higher prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) as defined by an FEV1/FVC ratio of less than 0.6, when comparing exposed and unexposed participants (OR=1.53, 95% CI=1.17-2.08). Gas or fume exposure was associated with a small, but not significant, increase in COPD prevalence. Significant trends were noted for wheeze and phlegm with increasing duration of dust exposure. Although 36% of exposed subjects reported exposure to both dust and fumes, there was no evidence of a multiplicative interaction between the effects of the individual exposures. Smoking was a significant independent predictor of symptoms, but did not appear to modify the effect of dust or fumes on symptom reporting. These data, obtained in random samples of general populations, demonstrate that chronic respiratory disease can be independently associated with occupational exposures.

Korn, R.J.; Dockery, D.W.; Speizer, F.E.; Ware, J.H.; Ferris, B.G.

1987-01-01

338

Occupational exposures and chronic respiratory symptoms. A population-based study  

SciTech Connect

Data from a random sample of 8515 white adults residing in 6 cities in the eastern and midwestern United States were used to examine the relationships between occupational exposures to dust or to gases and fumes and chronic respiratory symptoms; 31% of the population had a history of occupational dust exposure and 30% reported exposure to gas or fumes. After adjusting for smoking habits, age, gender, and city of residence, subjects with either occupational exposure had significantly elevated prevalences of chronic cough, chronic phlegm, persistent wheeze, and breathlessness. The adjusted relative odds of chronic respiratory symptoms for subjects exposed to dust ranged from 1.32 to 1.60. Subjects with gas or fume exposure had relative odds of symptoms between 1.27 and 1.43 when compared with unexposed subjects. Occupational dust exposure was associated with a higher prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease as defined by an FEV1/FVC ratio of less than 0.6, when comparing exposed and unexposed participants (OR = 1.53, 95% Cl = 1.17-2.08). Gas or fume exposure was associated with a small, but not significant, increase in COPD prevalence. Significant trends were noted for wheeze and phlegm with increasing duration of dust exposure. Although 36% of exposed subjects reported exposure to both dust and fumes, there was no evidence of a multiplicative interaction between the effects of the individual exposures. Smoking was a significant independent predictor of symptoms, but did not appear to modify the effect of dust or fumes on symptom reporting. These data, obtained in random samples of general populations, demonstrate that chronic respiratory symptoms and disease can be independently associated with occupational exposures.

Korn, R.J.; Dockery, D.W.; Speizer, F.E.; Ware, J.H.; Ferris, B.G. Jr.

1987-08-01

339

Effects of long-term occupational solvent exposure on contrast sensitivity and performance in visual search  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sensitive and easily applicable screening tests are greatly needed for the early detection of nervous system dysfunction in people working with neurotoxic substances. Previous studies have shown that long-term solvent exposure may cause deficits in visual perception. We, therefore, studied the effects of long-term occupational solvent exposure and chronic encephalopathy on performance in three vision tests novel in the present

Risto Näsänen; Ari Kaukiainen; Ville Hero; Juha Päällysaho; Kiti Müller; Riitta Hari; Ritva Akila; Markku Sainio

2005-01-01

340

Elemental Carbon-Based Method for Monitoring Occupational Exposures to Particulate Diesel Exhaust  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diesel exhaust has been classified a probable human carcinogen, and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) has recommended that employers reduce workers' exposures. Because diesel exhaust is a chemically complex mixture containing thousands of compounds, some measure of exposure must be selected. Previously used methods involving gravimetry or analysis of the soluble organic fraction of diesel soot

M. E. Birch; R. A. Cary

1996-01-01

341

A Method for Assessing Occupational Dermal Exposure to Permanent Hair Dyes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hairdressers have an increased risk of developing occupational skin diseases due to exposure to skin irritants and sensitizers. In the present work a method of assessing dermal exposure to permanent hair dyes was developed. The sampling performance characteristics of hand wash sampling with bag rinsing were studied for five hair dye compounds. The effect of residence time, sample load and

MARIE-LOUISE LIND; ANDERS BOMAN; JOUNI SURAKKA; JAN SOLLENBERG; BIRGITTA MEDING

2004-01-01

342

Biological monitoring of occupational exposure to methyl ethyl ketone in Japanese workers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between occupational exposure to methyl ethyl ketone (MEK) and its concentration in urine and blood was studied in a group of 72 workers in a printing factory. Personal exposure monitoring was carried out with passive samplers during the workshifts. The time weighted average (TWA) concentration of MEK ranged from 1.3 to 223.7 ppm, with a mean concentration of

M. Yoshikawa; T. Kawamoto; K. Murata; K. Arashidani; T. Katoh; Y. Kodama

1995-01-01

343

Comparison of tanker drivers' occupational exposures before and after the installation of a vapour recovery system.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to compare tanker drivers' occupational exposure level before and after the installation of vapour recovery facilities at 14 service stations. Road tanker drivers are exposed when handling volatile petrol liquid in bulk in the distribution chain. The drivers' exposure was studied during the unloading operation as the bulk petrol flowed into underground storage tanks, displacing vapours in the tank space and causing emission to the environment and the drivers' work area. The exposures were measured again when the dual point Stage I vapour recovery systems were installed for recycling vapours. Short-term measurements were carried out in the drivers' breathing zones by drawing polluted air through a charcoal tube during unloading. The samples were analysed in the laboratory by gas chromatography for C3-C11 aliphatic hydrocarbons, tert-butyl methyl ether (MTBE), tert-amyl methyl ether (MTAE), benzene, toluene and xylene. The road tanker loads delivered consisted of oxygenated and reformulated petrol (E95 and E98 brands), which contained on average 13% oxygenates. Before the installation of the vapour recovery system, the geometric mean (GM) concentration of aliphatic hydrocarbons was 65 mg m-3 (range 6-645 mg m-3) in the drivers' breathing zones. After the installation at the same service stations, the corresponding exposure level was 8.3 mg m-3 (range < 1-79 mg m-3). The GM of the MTBE concentrations was 8.6 mg m-3 (range 1-67 mg m-3) without vapour recovery and 1.5 mg m-3 (range < 0.1-10 mg m-3) with vapour recovery. The differences between the aliphatic hydrocarbons and the MTBE exposure levels during the unloading of the road tankers without and with vapour recovery were statistically significant (p < 0.05). PMID:11296758

Saarinen, L; Hakkola, M; Kangas, J

2000-12-01

344

Nitrous oxide and occupational exposure: it's time to stop laughing.  

PubMed

Although nitrous oxide (N(2)O) has been widely used since 1844, in recent years it has been implicated in a number of serious health hazards such as reproductive, nerve, liver, and kidney disorders. The National Institute of Safety and Health (NIOSH) recommends a limit of 25 ppm for chronic exposure to N(2)O in the dental office. Our study monitored ambient N(2)O levels in the dental office. N(2)O levels were compared for procedures performed in open clinics and private operatories as well as with and without a gas-scavenging system. Measurements were taken in the Dental Breathing Zone (DBZ) and Dental Chair Foot (DCF) at regular intervals. A four- to eightfold increase in average N(2)O levels was noted in the DBZ for unscavenged versus scavenged procedures. A three- to fourfold increase for unscavenged versus scavenged procedures was similarly noted in the DCF. N(2)O were significantly higher in private operatories than in open clinics, due to limited room volumes and in the DBZ over the DCF, due to mask leakage and increased oral exhalation. Scavenged N(2)O levels for both operatory types did not meet NIOSH guidelines. In contrast to previous studies using any form of gas removal, our study shows a significant decrease in N(2)O level achieved with an adequate scavenger system. With only four states regulating the use of N(2)O, and with concern over its deleterious effects growing, additional states and the federal government are expected to enact legislation regulating the use of N(2)O in the near future. PMID:2490056

Kugel, G; Norris, L H; Zive, M A

1989-01-01

345

Nitrous Oxide and Occupational Exposure: It's Time to Stop Laughing  

PubMed Central

Although nitrous oxide (N2O) has been widely used since 1844, in recent years it has been implicated in a number of serious health hazards such as reproductive, nerve, liver, and kidney disorders. The National Institute of Safety and Health (NIOSH) recommends a limit of 25 ppm for chronic exposure to N2O in the dental office. Our study monitored ambient N2O levels in the dental office. N2O levels were compared for procedures performed in open clinics and private operatories as well as with and without a gas-scavenging system. Measurements were taken in the Dental Breathing Zone (DBZ) and Dental Chair Foot (DCF) at regular intervals. A four- to eightfold increase in average N2O levels was noted in the DBZ for unscavenged versus scavenged procedures. A three- to fourfold increase for unscavenged versus scavenged procedures was similarly noted in the DCF. N2O were significantly higher in private operatories than in open clinics, due to limited room volumes and in the DBZ over the DCF, due to mask leakage and increased oral exhalation. Scavenged N2O levels for both operatory types did not meet NIOSH guidelines. In contrast to previous studies using any form of gas removal, our study shows a significant decrease in N2O level achieved with an adequate scavenger system. With only four states regulating the use of N2O, and with concern over its deleterious effects growing, additional states and the federal government are expected to enact legislation regulating the use of N2O in the near future.

Kugel, Gerard; Norris, Lonnie H.; Zive, Marc A.

1989-01-01

346

Assessment of time to pregnancy and spontaneous abortion status following occupational exposure to organic solvents mixture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  Due to increasing usage of chemicals in various industries, occupational exposure of women with these materials is unavoidable.\\u000a Nowadays, some studies indicate adverse effects of exposure to these chemicals, especially organic solvents on the reproductive\\u000a system of females. This study aimed to assess the relationship between spontaneous abortion and occupational exposure to organic\\u000a solvents mixture in pharmaceutical industry.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  This study

Mir Saeed Attarchi; Monir Ashouri; Yasser Labbafinejad; Saber Mohammadi

347

Survey of occupational exposure of waste industry workers to infectious waste in Washington State.  

PubMed Central

We surveyed 940 Washington state waste industry workers to evaluate occupational exposure to potentially infectious materials (response rate 47 percent). Only 26 percent were trained specifically to deal with safety hazards associated with medical waste. For the year preceding the survey, 50 percent of respondents reported having received cuts and scratches on the job, 22 percent reported direct contact with waste blood on their clothing or shoes, 8 percent had blood exposure on their skin, 3 percent blood exposure on their face or eyes, and 6 percent occupational hypodermic needlestick injuries (10 percent among waste collectors.

Turnberg, W L; Frost, F

1990-01-01

348

Workshop report: strategies for setting occupational exposure limits for engineered nanomaterials.  

PubMed

Occupational exposure limits (OELs) are important tools for managing worker exposures to chemicals; however, hazard data for many engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) are insufficient for deriving OELs by traditional methods. Technical challenges and questions about how best to measure worker exposures to ENMs also pose barriers to implementing OELs. New varieties of ENMs are being developed and introduced into commerce at a rapid pace, further compounding the issue of OEL development for ENMs. A Workshop on Strategies for Setting Occupational Exposure Limits for Engineered Nanomaterials, held in September 2012, provided an opportunity for occupational health experts from various stakeholder groups to discuss possible alternative approaches for setting OELs for ENMs and issues related to their implementation. This report summarizes the workshop proceedings and findings, identifies areas for additional research, and suggests potential avenues for further progress on this important topic. PMID:24462629

Gordon, Steven C; Butala, John H; Carter, Janet M; Elder, Alison; Gordon, Terry; Gray, George; Sayre, Philip G; Schulte, Paul A; Tsai, Candace S; West, Jay

2014-04-01

349

Occupational exposure to synthetic musks in barbershops, compared with the common exposure in the dormitories and households.  

PubMed

Synthetic musks (SMs) have been widely used as fragrance ingredients in personal care and sanitary commodities. Due to their high volatility and particle-binding affinity, the indoor dust is a major reservoir of SMs, and dust ingestion could be an important exposure way to special populations, such as hairdressers. In spite of the known toxicity of SMs, there is no information regarding the occurrence of SMs in barbershop dusts and the exposure of hairdressers through indoor dust ingestion. In the present study, the levels of two nitro musks and five polycyclic musks were measured from indoor dust samples collected from barbershops, and some other indoor dust samples were also collected from dormitories, bathhouses and households for comparison. The concentrations of ?SMs in barbershop dusts were 10-100 times higher than those from the other three indoor microenvironments. Polycyclic musks accounted for 89.4% of ?SMs on average in all samples, of which two compounds, HHCB and AHTN jointly dominated 97.9% of polycyclic musks. The levels of HHCB and AHTN varied from 12.2 to 8.39×10(5) and from 13.2 to 3.49×10(5) ng g(-1), respectively. The daily intakes (DIs) of ?SMs through house dust ingestion were estimated using the model of high dust ingestion and worst-case exposure (P95), and the corresponding exposure rates were 2791, 135 and 727 ng d(-1) for the hairdressers, general population and toddlers. SMs were also detected in blood samples collected from the hairdressers and normal adults (n=50 and 10, respectively). There was no significant difference between these two groups. Despite the absence of higher SM concentrations in hairdresser's blood, we should not overlook the potential occupational health risks due to their high SMs ingestion rate. PMID:23849834

Liu, Nannan; Shi, Yali; Xu, Lin; Li, Wenhui; Cai, Yaqi

2013-11-01

350

Health effects of low-level exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls  

SciTech Connect

A polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) spill resulting from a transformer explosion in Syracuse, New York, with no subsequent fire, provided an opportunity for the examination of the effects of low-level PCB exposure without the confounding presence of furans and dioxins. The incident provided 52 individuals exposed to PCB among building personnel, police, firemen, and public utility employees. Sixty-eight nonexposed were matched to the exposed group by sex, age, employer, and job description. Data were collected on the exposed relative to their activities at the spill site, their location, possible routes of exposure duration of exposure, and subsequent health effects. Exposed and nonexposed were interviewed for past medical history and relevant symptoms. Blood chemistries were studied inclusive of SGOT, SGPT, total protein, CBC, cholesterol, and triglyceride levels, as well as a fasting blood PCB level measurement. Six weeks after the spill, exposed and nonexposed were re-interviewed and had their blood work repeated except for the CBC and PCB levels. Exposed and nonexposed laboratory results were unremarkable. Some transient skin irritation believed to be associated with PCBs was noted. There were significant PCBs in blood level trends for occupation, age, duration of exposure, and level of alcohol consumption. Triglyceride level was highly correlated with PCB level. This relationship held when age and alcohol consumption were controlled for.

Stark, A.D.; Costas, K.; Chang, H.G.; Vallet, H.L.

1986-10-01

351

Elemental carbon-based method for occupational monitoring of particulate diesel exhaust: methodology and exposure issues.  

PubMed

Diesel exhaust has been classified a probable human carcinogen, and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) has recommended that employers reduce workers' exposures. Because diesel exhaust is a chemically complex mixture containing thousands of compounds, some measure of exposure must be selected. Previously used methods involving gravimetry or analysis of the soluble organic fraction of diesel soot lack adequate sensitivity and selectivity for low-level determination of particulate diesel exhaust; a new analytical approach was therefore needed. In this paper, results of investigation of a thermal-optical technique for the analysis of the carbonaceous fraction of particulate diesel exhaust are discussed. With this technique, speciation of organic and elemental carbon is accomplished through temperature and atmosphere control and by an optical feature that corrects for pyrolytically generated carbon, or "char,' which is formed during the analysis of some materials. The thermal-optical method was selected because the instrument has desirable design features not present in other carbon analysers. Although various carbon types are determined by the method, elemental carbon is the superior marker of diesel particulate matter because elemental carbon constitutes a large fraction of the particulate mass, it can be quantified at low levels and its only significant source in most workplaces is the diesel engine. Exposure-related issues and sampling methods for particulate diesel exhaust also are discussed. PMID:8831275

Birch, M E; Cary, R A

1996-09-01

352

Father's occupational exposure to carcinogenic agents and childhood acute leukemia: a new method to assess exposure (a case-control study)  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Medical research has not been able to establish whether a father's occupational exposures are associated with the development of acute leukemia (AL) in their offspring. The studies conducted have weaknesses that have generated a misclassification of such exposure. Occupations and exposures to substances associated with childhood cancer are not very frequently encountered in the general population; thus, the reported

Maria Luisa Perez-Saldivar; Manuel Carlos Ortega-Alvarez; Arturo Fajardo-Gutierrez; Roberto Bernaldez-Rios; Aurora Medina-Sanson; Miguel Angel Palomo-Colli; Rogelio Paredes-Aguilera; Armando Martínez-Avalos; Victor Hugo Borja-Aburto; Maria Rodriguez-Rivera; Victor Manuel Vargas-Garcia; Jesus Zarco-Contreras; Janet Flores-Lujano; Juan Manuel Mejia-Arangure

2008-01-01

353

Human exposure to airborne aniline and formation of methemoglobin: a contribution to occupational exposure limits.  

PubMed

Aniline is an important starting material in the manufacture of polyurethane-based plastic materials. Aniline-derived methemoglobinemia (Met-Hb) is well described in exposed workers although information on the dose-response association is limited. We used an experimental design to study the association between aniline in air with the formation of Met-Hb in blood and the elimination of aniline in urine. A 6-h exposure of 2 ppm aniline in 19 non-smoking volunteers resulted in a time-dependent increase in Met-Hb in blood and aniline in urine. The maximum Met-Hb level in blood (mean 1.21 ± 0.29 %, range 0.80-2.07 %) and aniline excretion in urine (mean 168.0 ± 51.8 µg/L, range 79.5-418.3 µg/L) were observed at the end of exposure, with both parameters rapidly decreasing after the end of exposure. After 24 h, the mean level of Met-Hb (0.65 ± 0.18 %) returned to the basal level observed prior to the exposure (0.72 ± 0.19 %); whereas, slightly elevated levels of aniline were still present in urine (means 17.0 ± 17.1 vs. 5.7 ± 3.8 µg/L). No differences between males and females as well as between slow and fast acetylators were found. The results obtained after 6-h exposure were also comparable to those observed in four non-smoking volunteers after 8-h exposure. Maximum levels of Met-Hb and aniline in urine were 1.57 % and 305.6 µg/L, respectively. Overall, our results contribute to the risk assessment of aniline and as a result, the protection of workers from aniline-derived adverse health effects at the workplace. PMID:24899222

Käfferlein, Heiko Udo; Broding, Horst Christoph; Bünger, Jürgen; Jettkant, Birger; Koslitz, Stephan; Lehnert, Martin; Marek, Eike Maximilian; Blaszkewicz, Meinolf; Monsé, Christian; Weiss, Tobias; Brüning, Thomas

2014-07-01

354

Determination of arsenic in urine by atomic absorption spectrophotometry for biological monitoring of occupational exposure to arsenic  

Microsoft Academic Search

An atomic absorption spectrophotometric (AAS) method was successfully applied to analysis of urine for arsenic (As) as a measure of biological monitoring of occupational exposure to As in Vietnam. The application of the method to urine samples from 75 non-exposed control urbanites (after 2-day abstinence from sea foods) gave a reference level of 62.4±11.6 ?g\\/l (as mean±S.D.), from which the

T. M. N Dang; Q. T Tran; K. V Vu

1999-01-01

355

Chest Imaging and Lung Function Impairment After Long-Term Occupational Exposure to Low Concentrations of Chrysotile  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the present study was the investigation of radiographic findings in relation to lung function after occupational exposure to permissible levels of relatively pure chrysotile (0.5–3% amphiboles). We studied 266 out of the total 317 employees who have worked in an asbestos cement factory during the period 1968–2004 with chest x-ray, high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) and lung function

Dionisios Spyratos; Diamantis Chloros; Bettina Haidich; Loukas Dagdilelis; Stamatia Markou; Lazaros Sichletidis

2012-01-01

356

Occupational exposure to beryllium in primary aluminium production.  

PubMed

Alumina used in the production of primary aluminium contains Be which partly vaporises from the cryolite bath into the workroom atmosphere. Since Be may be toxic at lower exposure levels than previously thought, the personal exposure to Be among workers in 7 Norwegian primary smelters has been assessed. In total, 480 personal Respicon® virtual impactor full shift air samples have been collected during 2 sampling campaigns and analysed for water soluble Be, Al and Na using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. In addition, water soluble F(-) has been measured by ion chromatography. The Be air concentrations in the inhalable, thoracic and respirable aerosol fractions have been calculated. The Be concentrations in the inhalable aerosol fraction vary between the different smelters. The highest GM concentration of Be in the inhalable fraction (122 ng m(-3), n = 30) was measured in the prebake pot room of a smelter using predominantly Jamaican alumina where also the highest individual air concentration of 270 ng m(-3) of Be was identified. The relative distribution of Be in the different aerosol fractions was fairly constant with the mean Be amount for the two sampling campaigns between 44-49% in the thoracic fraction expressed as % of the inhalable amount. Linear regression analysis shows a high correlation between water soluble Be, Al, F and Na describing an average measured chemical bulk composition of the water soluble thoracic fraction as Na(5.7)Al(3.1)F(18). Be is likely to be present as traces in this particulate matter by replacing Al atoms in the condensed fluorides and/or as a major element in a nanoparticle sized fluoride. Thus, the major amount of Be present in the work room atmosphere of Al smelter pot rooms will predominantly be present in combination with substantial amounts of water soluble Al, F and Na. PMID:21993554

Skaugset, Nils Petter; Ellingsen, Dag G; Dahl, Kari; Martinsen, Ivar; Jordbekken, Lars; Drabløs, Per Arne; Thomassen, Yngvar

2012-02-01

357

Tinnitus and Other Auditory Problems - Occupational Noise Exposure below Risk Limits May Cause Inner Ear Dysfunction  

PubMed Central

The aim of the investigation was to study if dysfunctions associated to the cochlea or its regulatory system can be found, and possibly explain hearing problems in subjects with normal or near-normal audiograms. The design was a prospective study of subjects recruited from the general population. The included subjects were persons with auditory problems who had normal, or near-normal, pure tone hearing thresholds, who could be included in one of three subgroups: teachers, Education; people working with music, Music; and people with moderate or negligible noise exposure, Other. A fourth group included people with poorer pure tone hearing thresholds and a history of severe occupational noise, Industry. Ntotal?=?193. The following hearing tests were used: ? pure tone audiometry with Békésy technique, ? transient evoked otoacoustic emissions and distortion product otoacoustic emissions, without and with contralateral noise; ? psychoacoustical modulation transfer function, ? forward masking, ? speech recognition in noise, ? tinnitus matching. A questionnaire about occupations, noise exposure, stress/anxiety, muscular problems, medication, and heredity, was addressed to the participants. Forward masking results were significantly worse for Education and Industry than for the other groups, possibly associated to the inner hair cell area. Forward masking results were significantly correlated to louder matched tinnitus. For many subjects speech recognition in noise, left ear, did not increase in a normal way when the listening level was increased. Subjects hypersensitive to loud sound had significantly better speech recognition in noise at the lower test level than subjects not hypersensitive. Self-reported stress/anxiety was similar for all groups. In conclusion, hearing dysfunctions were found in subjects with tinnitus and other auditory problems, combined with normal or near-normal pure tone thresholds. The teachers, mostly regarded as a group exposed to noise below risk levels, had dysfunctions almost identical to those of the more exposed Industry group.

Lindblad, Ann-Cathrine; Rosenhall, Ulf; Olofsson, Ake; Hagerman, Bjorn

2014-01-01

358

Tinnitus and other auditory problems - occupational noise exposure below risk limits may cause inner ear dysfunction.  

PubMed

The aim of the investigation was to study if dysfunctions associated to the cochlea or its regulatory system can be found, and possibly explain hearing problems in subjects with normal or near-normal audiograms. The design was a prospective study of subjects recruited from the general population. The included subjects were persons with auditory problems who had normal, or near-normal, pure tone hearing thresholds, who could be included in one of three subgroups: teachers, Education; people working with music, Music; and people with moderate or negligible noise exposure, Other. A fourth group included people with poorer pure tone hearing thresholds and a history of severe occupational noise, Industry. Ntotal?=?193. The following hearing tests were used: - pure tone audiometry with Békésy technique, - transient evoked otoacoustic emissions and distortion product otoacoustic emissions, without and with contralateral noise; - psychoacoustical modulation transfer function, - forward masking, - speech recognition in noise, - tinnitus matching. A questionnaire about occupations, noise exposure, stress/anxiety, muscular problems, medication, and heredity, was addressed to the participants. Forward masking results were significantly worse for Education and Industry than for the other groups, possibly associated to the inner hair cell area. Forward masking results were significantly correlated to louder matched tinnitus. For many subjects speech recognition in noise, left ear, did not increase in a normal way when the listening level was increased. Subjects hypersensitive to loud sound had significantly better speech recognition in noise at the lower test level than subjects not hypersensitive. Self-reported stress/anxiety was similar for all groups. In conclusion, hearing dysfunctions were found in subjects with tinnitus and other auditory problems, combined with normal or near-normal pure tone thresholds. The teachers, mostly regarded as a group exposed to noise below risk levels, had dysfunctions almost identical to those of the more exposed Industry group. PMID:24827149

Lindblad, Ann-Cathrine; Rosenhall, Ulf; Olofsson, Åke; Hagerman, Björn

2014-01-01

359

Levels of Complexity in Patterns of Daily Occupations: Relationship to Women's Well?Being  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study builds on a previous study of the everyday occupations of 100 women who worked at home and in the paid workforce. Their pattern of daily occupations was depicted using time?occupation graphs inspired by the time geography method, whereby the women's pattern of occupations were categorised and clustered according to complexity. For each woman, the level of complexity was

Mona Eklund

2006-01-01

360

The History of OSHA's Asbestos Rulemakings and Some Distinctive Approaches that They Introduced for Regulating Occupational Exposure to Toxic Substances  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) has regulated occupational exposure to asbestos since 1971. Since issuing its first asbestos standard, OSHA has modified it several times in response to new information about the health risk of exposure and concern expressed by workers and public health groups. As each modification has reduced worker exposure and disease risk, each also has

John F. Martonik; Edith Nash; Elizabeth Grossman

2001-01-01

361

Assessment of Occupational Symptoms and Chemical Exposures for Nail Salon Technicians in Daegu City, Korea  

PubMed Central

Objectives This study aimed to evaluate occupational symptoms and chemical exposures of nail salon technicians. Methods Work-related symptoms of nail salon technicians in Daegu City were surveyed using a researcher-administered questionnaire, and responses were compared to those of non-exposed office workers as controls. Personal exposure level of airborne volatile organic compounds was also monitored using passive samplers. Results A total of 159 subjects in 120 salons were interviewed. Average work-shift concentrations of 13 chemicals were measured for 50 workers from 30 salons using personal passive samplers. The most frequently reported respiratory or neurologic symptoms by nail shop technicians compared to controls were nose irritation (odds ratio [OR], 54.0; confidence interval [CI], 21.6 to 134.8), followed by headache (OR, 9.3; CI, 4.7 to 18), and throat irritation (OR, 4.3; CI, 2.2 to 8.5). For eyes and skin, 92% of respondents complained eye irritation (OR, 13.1; CI, 5.7 to 30.1). In musculoskeletal symptoms, workers reported pain or discomfort in shoulders (OR, 20.3; CI, 7.7 to 54) and neck (OR, 19.7; CI, 8.9 to 43.6). From personal measurements, the proportion of exceeding the Korean Occupational Exposure Limit was the highest for acetone with 64%, followed by toluene (50%), butyl acetate (46%), and methyl methacrylate (12%). However, the service was being provided without a proper ventilation system in most surveyed shops. Conclusions Based on these findings, it is warranted to have appropriate local exhaust ventilation place to ensure adequate health protection of nail shop technicians as well as customers. At the same time, greater policy interests are warranted in nail care business to protect health of both workers and customers.

Park, Sung-Ae; Gwak, Sugyeong

2014-01-01

362

The effects of occupational exposure to chlorpyrifos on the peripheral nervous system: a prospective cohort study  

PubMed Central

Aims: To determine whether chronic occupational exposure to chlorpyrifos at levels associated with various aspects of manufacturing produced a clinically evident or subclinical peripheral neuropathy. Methods: Clinical and quantitative nerve conduction study (NCS) examinations were performed on two occasions on chlorpyrifos manufacturing workers who had measurable chlorpyrifos exposure and a referent group. Baseline evaluations were performed on 53 of 66 eligible chlorpyrifos subjects and on 60 of 74 eligible referent subjects; one-year evaluations were completed on 111 of the 113 subjects evaluated at baseline. Results: Chlorpyrifos and referent groups differed significantly in measures of 3,5,6 trichloro-2-pyridinol excretion and plasma butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) activity, indicating substantially higher exposures among chlorpyrifos subjects. Few subjects had clinically important neurological symptoms or signs. NCS results were comparable to control values, and there were no significant group differences in NCS results at baseline, one year, or change over one year. No chlorpyrifos subject fulfilled conventional criteria for confirmed peripheral neuropathy at baseline or one-year examinations. The odds ratios for developing any diagnosable level of peripheral neuropathy among the chlorpyrifos subjects was not increased at baseline or at one year compared to referents at baseline. Mixed regression models used to evaluate subclinical group-by-time interactions showed numerous significant NCS differences attributable to near-nerve temperature differences among all subjects between the baseline and one-year examinations, but only a few disparate effects related to group. Conclusions: Chronic chlorpyrifos exposure during the manufacturing process sufficient to produce biological effects on BuChE activity was not associated with clinically evident or subclinical peripheral neuropathy at baseline or with measurable deterioration among chlorpyrifos subjects compared to referents after one year of additional exposure.

Albers, J; Garabrant, D; Schweitzer, S; Garrison, R; Richardson, R; Berent, S

2004-01-01

363

Population-Based Case-Control Study of Occupational Exposure to Electromagnetic Fields and Breast Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE: This population-based case-control study examined occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields in relation to female breast cancer incidence among 843 breast cancer cases and 773 controls.METHODS: Exposure was classified based on work in the two longest-held jobs, and indices of cumulative exposure to magnetic fields based on a measurement survey.RESULTS: Female breast cancer was not associated with employment as an

Edwin Van Wijngaarden; Leena A Nylander-French; Robert C Millikan; David A Savitz; Dana Loomis

2001-01-01

364

Criteria for a recommended standard. Occupational exposure to respirable coal mine dust  

SciTech Connect

Information regarding adverse health effects resulting from exposure to respirable coal mine dust was reviewed as a basis for the development of new occupational safety and health standards. Evidence indicated that coal mine dust exposures over a working lifetime may result in the development of simple coal workers` pneumonocoiosis, progressive massive fibrosis, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Recommendations are provided concerning respirable coal mine dust sampling to monitor worker exposure, the proper use of personal protective equipment, and medical screening and surveillance examinations.

NONE

1995-09-01

365

Occupational exposures and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma: Canadian case-control study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The objective was to study the association between Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma (NHL) and occupational exposures related to long held occupations among males in six provinces of Canada. METHODS: A population based case-control study was conducted from 1991 to 1994. Males with newly diagnosed NHL (ICD-10) were stratified by province of residence and age group. A total of 513 incident cases

Chandima P Karunanayake; Helen H McDuffie; James A Dosman; John J Spinelli; Punam Pahwa

2008-01-01

366

Malignant melanomas of the nasal cavity after occupational exposure to formaldehyde.  

PubMed Central

Formaldehyde is a well known nasal carcinogen in rodents, but so far there has been no convincing evidence that workers occupationally exposed to formaldehyde have an increased risk of nasal cancer. In this study three cases of malignant melanoma of the nasal mucosa in persons occupationally exposed to formaldehyde for a long time are presented. The occurrence of such a rare tumour in patients with significant exposure to a known carcinogen warrants further investigation. Images

Holmstrom, M; Lund, V J

1991-01-01

367

Low level exposure to chemicals and immune system  

SciTech Connect

Industrialized countries are facing an increase of diseases attributable to an alteration of the immune system function, and concern is growing that this trend could be at least partially attributable to new and modified patterns of exposure to chemicals. Among chemicals matter of concern, pesticides can be included. The Authors have reviewed the existing evidence of pesticide immunotoxicity in humans, showing that existing data are inadequate to raise conclusions on the immunotoxic risk related to these compounds. The limits of existing studies are: poor knowledge on exposure levels, heterogeneity of the approach, and difficulty in giving a prognostic significance to the slight changes often observed. To overcome these limits, the Authors have proposed a tier approach, based on three steps: the first, addressed at pointing out a possible immunomodulation; the second, at refining the results and the third one, when needed, to finalize the study and to point out concordance with previous results. Studies should preferably be carried out through comparison of pre- and post-exposure findings in the same groups of subjects to be examined immediately after the end of the exposure. A simplification of the first step approach can be used by the occupational health physician and the occupational toxicologist. Conclusions on the prognostic significance of the slight changes often observed will be reached only by validating the hypothesis generated by field studies with an epidemiological approach. In this field, the most useful option is represented by longitudinal perspective studies.

Colosio, C. [International Centre for Pesticides and Health Risk Prevention of the Azienda Ospedaliera Luigi Sacco, Polo Universitario, Via Magenta 25, 20020 Busto Garolfo, Milan (Italy)]. E-mail: claudio.colosio@icps.it; Birindelli, S. [International Centre for Pesticides and Health Risk Prevention of the Azienda Ospedaliera Luigi Sacco, Polo Universitario, Via Magenta 25, 20020 Busto Garolfo, Milan (Italy); Corsini, E. [Laboratory of Toxicology, Department of Pharmacological Sciences, University of Milan, Milan (Italy); Galli, C.L. [Laboratory of Toxicology, Department of Pharmacological Sciences, University of Milan, Milan (Italy); Maroni, M. [International Centre for Pesticides and Health Risk Prevention of the Azienda Ospedaliera Luigi Sacco, Polo Universitario, Via Magenta 25, 20020 Busto Garolfo, Milan (Italy)

2005-09-01

368

Gene expression analysis in mayak workers with prolonged occupational radiation exposure.  

PubMed

The authors evaluated gene expression in the peripheral blood in relation to occupational exposure in Mayak workers to find out about the existence of a permanent post exposure signature. Workers were exposed to combined incorporated Pu and external gamma rays (n = 82) or to external gamma rays only (n = 18), and 50 unexposed individuals served as controls. Peripheral blood was taken from workers older than 70 y. RNA was isolated, converted into cDNA, and stored at -20°C. A two-stage study design was performed focusing on examinations on the transcriptional (mRNA) and post-transcriptional level (microRNA). In the first stage, 40 samples were identified for screening purposes and selection of candidate genes. For examinations on the transcriptional level, whole genome microarrays and qRT-PCR were employed on the post-transcriptional level (667 microRNAs). Candidate genes were assessed by (1) introducing a twofold difference in gene expression over the reference group and (2) showing a significant p-value using the Kruskal-Wallis test. From 42,545 transcripts of the whole genome microarray, 376 candidate genes (80 up-regulated and 296 down-regulated relative to the reference group) were selected. Expression of almost all of these genes (70-98%) appeared significantly associated with internal Pu and to a lesser extent were associated with external gamma-ray exposure (2-30%). Associations in the same direction were found for 45 microRNAs. Although both exposures led to modulations of different gene sets in different directions, the authors could detect no differences in gene set enrichment analysis. PMID:24776898

Abend, Michael; Azizova, Tamara; Müller, Kerstin; Dörr, Harald; Senf, Sven; Kreppel, Helmut; Rusinova, Galina; Glazkova, Irina; Vyazovskaya, Natalia; Schmidl, Daniel; Unger, Kristian; Meineke, Viktor

2014-06-01

369

Metabolic and health consequences of occupational exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls  

Microsoft Academic Search

In surveys of three groups of workers occupationally exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) serum PCB concentrations were quantitated as lower chlorinated biphenyls (L-PCBs) and higher chlorinated biphenyls (H-PCBs). Serum L-PCB and H-PCB concentrations were many times greater among workers employed in power capacitor manufacturing than exposed areas. Statistically significant positive correlations of symptoms suggestive of mucous membrane and skin irritation,

A B Smith; J Schloemer; L K Lowry; A W Smallwood; R N Ligo; S Tanaka; W Stringer; M Jones; R Hervin; C J Glueck

1982-01-01

370

Occupational aluminum exposure: Evidence in support of its neurobehavioral impact  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aluminum is a metal with known neurotoxic properties which are linked to encephalopathy and neurodegenerative diseases. The objectives of the current meta-analysis study were: (1) to summarize neurobehavioral data obtained by epidemiological studies in occupational settings and (2) to analyze confounding within these data.The meta-analysis was based on estimates of effect sizes. Overall effect sizes were obtained by application of

Monika Meyer-Baron; Michael Schäper; Guido Knapp; Christoph van Thriel

2007-01-01

371

[Ackerman's tumor of the larynx and occupational exposure to asbestos].  

PubMed

The so-called "Ackerman's tumor" is a neoplasm of uncertain dignity. Aim of this paper is to clarify, whether this is an asbestos-induced tumor of the larynx in accordance with German regulations for occupational diseases. A 43-year old male presented the clinical picture of a stenosing laryngeal tumor. A verrucous neoplasm without a proven malignity in the sense of an Ackerman's tumor was diagnosed through several sequential biopsies. Approximately 2 years later a total laryngectomy was performed, because of a squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx. An occupational disease in accordance with 4104 BKV was claimed in connection with an asbestos exposition of 28,3 fibre years (fibres/m3 x years). An Ackerman's tumor is--in accordance with its definition in the German-speaking area--not conclusively malignant, there is no indication of a relation between asbestos and such a tumor in literature, there is no specific benign disorder of the larynx caused by asbestos. This brings us to the conclusion that the Ackerman's tumor of the larynx is no asbestos-induced laryngeal tumor as per German occupational disease regulations. PMID:17806001

Scheuermann, K; Delank, K-W

2007-08-01

372

Occupational and environmental exposures among Alaska Native and American Indian people living in Alaska and the Southwest United States.  

PubMed

Most occupational and environmental research describes associations between specific occupational and environmental hazards and health outcomes, with little information available on population-level exposure, especially among unique subpopulations. The authors describe the prevalence of self-reported lifetime exposure to nine occupational and environmental hazards among 11,326 American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) adults enrolled in the Education and Research Towards Health (EARTH) Study in the Southwest U.S. and Alaska. The top three hazards experienced by AI/AN people in Alaska were petroleum products, military chemicals, and asbestos. The top three hazards experienced by AI/AN living in the Southwest U.S. were pesticides, petroleum, and welding/silversmithing. The study described here found that male sex, lower educational attainment, AI/AN language use, and living in the Southwest U.S. (vs. Alaska) were all associated with an increased likelihood of hazard exposure. The authors' study provides baseline data to facilitate future exposure-response analyses. Future studies should measure dose and duration as well as environmental hazards that occur in community settings. PMID:22590848

Redwood, Diana; Lanier, Anne P; Brubaker, Michael; Orell, Laurie; Tom-Orme, Lillian; George, Carmen; Edwards, Sandra; Slattery, Martha

2012-05-01

373

State and County Exposure Levels to I-131  

Cancer.gov

State and County Exposure Levels Per capita thyroid doses resulting from all exposure routes from all tests State and County Exposure Levels Per capita thyroid doses resulting from all exposure routes from all tests Next Section > State and County Exposure

374

DNA-protein crosslinks and p53 protein expression in relation to occupational exposure to formaldehyde  

PubMed Central

Background: Formaldehyde (FA) is classified as a probable human carcinogen. Aims: To examine DNA protein crosslinks (DPC) and p53, which are generally known to be involved in carcinogenesis, in peripheral blood lymphocytes of workers exposed to FA. Methods: DPC and p53 ("wild type" and mutant) were examined in peripheral blood lymphocytes of 186 workers exposed to FA (mean years of exposure = 16) and 213 unexposed workers. Every worker completed a questionnaire on demographic data, occupational and medical history, smoking, and hygiene. Results: The adjusted mean level of DPC in the exposed and the unexposed workers differed significantly. Adjustment was made for age, sex, years of education, smoking, and origin. Exposure to FA increased the risk of having a higher level of pantropic p53 above 150 pg/ml (OR 1.6, 95% CI 0.8 to 3.1). A significant positive correlation was found between the increase of pantropic p53 protein and mutant p53 protein, as well as between pantropic p53 >150 pg/ml and mutant p53 protein. In the exposed group a significantly higher proportion of p53 >150 pg/ml was found among workers with DPC >0.187 (55.7%) (0.187 = median level of DPC) than among workers with DPC ?0.187 (33.3%). The risk of having pantropic p53 protein >150 pg/ml was determined mainly by levels of DPC. Workers with DPC above the median level had a significantly higher risk of having pantropic p53 >150 pg/ml (adjusted OR 2.5, 95% CI 1.2 to 5.4). Conclusions: Results suggest that DPC and mutation in p53 may represent steps in FA carcinogenesis and a possible causal relation between DPC and mutation in p53. These biomarkers can be applied in the assessment of the development of cancer due to FA exposure.

Shaham, J; Bomstein, Y; Gurvich, R; Rashkovsky, M; Kaufman, Z

2003-01-01

375

Cancer risk from occupational and environmental exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.  

PubMed

Epidemiologic evidence on the relationship between polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and cancer is reviewed. High occupational exposure to PAHs occurs in several industries and occupations. Covered here are aluminum production, coal gasification, coke production, iron and steel foundries, tar distillation, shale oil extraction, wood impregnation, roofing, road paving, carbon black production, carbon electrode production, chimney sweeping, and calcium carbide production. In addition, workers exposed to diesel engine exhaust in the transport industry and in related occupations are exposed to PAHs and nitro-PAHs. Heavy exposure to PAHs entails a substantial risk of lung, skin, and bladder cancer, which is not likely to be due to other carcinogenic exposures present in the same industries. The lung seems to be the major target organ of PAH carcinogenicity and increased risk is present in most of the industries and occupations listed above. An increased risk of skin cancer follows high dermal exposure. An increase in bladder cancer risk is found mainly in industries with high exposure to PAHs from coal tars and pitches. Increased risks have been reported for other organs, namely the larynx and the kidney; the available evidence, however, is inconclusive. The results of studies addressing environmental PAH exposure are consistent with these conclusions. PMID:9498904

Boffetta, P; Jourenkova, N; Gustavsson, P

1997-05-01

376

61 FR 66348 - Health Standards for Occupational Noise Exposure  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...produce potential communication difficulties...population. This effect has been demonstrated...counter the effect. Michael...important aural communications. To accomplish...to the noise exposure spectra as close...substantially influenced by the spectra...The noise exposures ranged...

1996-12-17

377

Tools for regulatory assessment of occupational exposure: development and challenges  

Microsoft Academic Search

REACH (Registration, Evaluation and Authorization of CHemicals) requires improved exposure models that can be incorporated into screening tools and refined assessment tools. These are referred to as tier 1 and 2 models, respectively. There are a number of candidate in tier 1 models that could be used with REACH. Tier 2 models, producing robust and realistic exposure assessments, are currently

Erik Tielemans; Nick Warren; Thomas Schneider; Martin Tischer; Peter Ritchie; Henk Goede; Hans Kromhout; Joop Van Hemmen; John W Cherrie

2007-01-01

378

Occupational exposure to solvent mixtures: effects on health and metabolism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exposure monitoring by personal diffusive samplers, biological monitoring of toluene exposure by urinary hippuric acid determination, haematology, serum biochemistry for liver function, and a subjective symptom survey by questionnaire were conducted on 303 male solvent workers. They were exposed to a mixture of solvents including toluene (geometric mean 18 ppm), methyl ethyl ketone (MEK; 16 ppm), isopropyl alcohol (IPA; 7

H Ukai; S Takada; S Inui; Y Imai; T Kawai; S Shimbo; M Ikeda

1994-01-01

379

Management of Occupational Exposure to Engineered Nanoparticles Through a Chance-Constrained Nonlinear Programming Approach  

PubMed Central

Critical environmental and human health concerns are associated with the rapidly growing fields of nanotechnology and manufactured nanomaterials (MNMs). The main risk arises from occupational exposure via chronic inhalation of nanoparticles. This research presents a chance-constrained nonlinear programming (CCNLP) optimization approach, which is developed to maximize the nanaomaterial production and minimize the risks of workplace exposure to MNMs. The CCNLP method integrates nonlinear programming (NLP) and chance-constrained programming (CCP), and handles uncertainties associated with both the nanomaterial production and workplace exposure control. The CCNLP method was examined through a single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) manufacturing process. The study results provide optimal production strategies and alternatives. It reveal that a high control measure guarantees that environmental health and safety (EHS) standards regulations are met, while a lower control level leads to increased risk of violating EHS regulations. The CCNLP optimization approach is a decision support tool for the optimization of the increasing MNMS manufacturing with workplace safety constraints under uncertainties.

Chen, Zhi; Yuan, Yuan; Zhang, Shu-Shen; Chen, Yu; Yang, Feng-Lin

2013-01-01

380

Occupational exposures in rare cancers: A critical review of the literature.  

PubMed

The contribution of occupational exposures to rare cancers, which represent 22% of all cancers diagnosed annually in Europe, remains insufficiently considered. We conducted a comprehensive review of occupational risk factors in 67 rare cancers (annual incidence <6/100,000). An examination of relevant articles in PubMed (1960-2012) and the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) monographs revealed that 26 cancer sites, such as mesothelioma, nasal, larynx, liver, ovarian cancer, bone sarcoma, and hematopoietic malignancies were consistently linked to occupational factors. Main exposures included asbestos, wood dust, metals/metalloids, formaldehyde, benzene, vinyl chloride, and radiation. There was inconsistent evidence regarding 22 rare malignancies. We did not identify relevant data for 19 rare cancers. Despite limitations of published evidence, our review provides useful information that can facilitate the identification of work-related factors that contribute to rare cancers. International collaborations, development of improved exposure assessment methods, and molecular approaches can improve future studies. PMID:24387944

Charbotel, B; Fervers, B; Droz, J P

2014-05-01

381

Feasibility of determining Pu-239 environmental and occupational levels in urinary excretion by fission track analysis  

SciTech Connect

The results of bioassay programs for detecting human exposure to plutonium are currently playing a role that they were never intended or prepared to fulfill. With little resistance or support from the scientific community, the regulatory community established exposure limits for plutonium burdens based largely on imprecise inference of causes and effects; thus, to an extent, incomplete data and analysis formed the basis for most existing bioassay programs. At the time these early programs were developed, they were used only to determine the occupational exposure to radiation workers and populations unintentionally exposed to occupational levels during open air testing. The results from these programs are now used in litigation to determine cause, negligence and responsibility for health problems associated with the populations surrounding facilities that store, handle and process nuclear materials. As this role is beyond the scope of most bioassay programs` designs, concern for the use of existing bioassay programs in this manner is rising. It is imperative that defendable, scientifically-based, more sensitive techniques be researched and developed to measure the presence of Plutonium (Pu), which in turn can be used to establish and predict the health effects of a minimal Pu exposure. Currently, estimates to predict systemic deposition using urinalysis data are several times greater than the exposure levels measured by autopsy. The scientific research conducted in this study can serve to narrow this discrepancy and provide the regulatory community with a more reliable basis for establishing regulatory exposure limits and accurately predicting systemic deposition. Furthermore, this research and the continued development of more sophisticated detection techniques can serve to dispel general public concern over the possibility of radiation exposure from ongoing site remediation and closure efforts.

Krahenbuhl, M.P.; Seiger-Webster, C.M.; Henderson, C.L.; Smith, R.B. [and others

1997-03-01

382

Occupational exposures to noise resulting from the workplace use of personal media players at a manufacturing facility.  

PubMed

This study examined the contribution of noise exposures from personal media player (PMP) use in the workplace to overall employee noise exposures at a Colorado manufacturing facility. A total of 24 workers' PMP and background noise exposures were measured. Twelve PMP users worked in high-background-noise exposure (HBNE) areas, and 12 worked in low-background-noise exposure (LBNE) areas. The self-selected PMP listening level of each worker was measured using an ear simulator, and the background noise of each employee workstation was measured using a sound level meter. Workers' self-reported PMP duration of use, PMP listening exposure levels, and background noise levels were used to estimate the daily occupational noise exposures. Measured background noise levels averaged 81 dBA for HBNE workers and 59 dBA for LBNE workers. Measured, free-field equivalent listening exposure levels were significantly greater for HBNE workers (85 dBA) compared with LBNE workers (75 dBA) (p = 0.0006). Estimated mean daily noise exposures for both groups were below the ACGIH threshold limit value for noise of 85 dBA8-hr time weighted average (TWA), specifically 84 dBA TWA for HBNE workers and 72 dBA TWA for LBNE workers. Three of 12 (25%) HBNE workers had estimated exposures greater than 85 dBA TWA when only background noise was considered, yet when PMP use was also considered, 6 of 12 (50%) had estimated exposures greater than 85 dBA TWA, suggesting that PMP use doubled the number of overexposed workers. None of the LBNE workers had estimated exposures greater than 85 dBA TWA. The contribution of PMP use to overall noise exposures was substantially less among HBNE workers than LBNE workers due to the disproportionate selection of noise-attenuating headsets among HBNE workers compared with LBNE workers. It is recommended that the facility management either restrict workplace PMP use among HBNE workers or require output-limiting technology to prevent occupational noise-induced hearing loss. PMID:22937995

Autenrieth, Daniel A; Sandfort, Delvin R; Lipsey, Tiffany; Brazile, William J

2012-01-01

383