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1

Dose level of occupational exposure in China.  

PubMed

This paper discusses the dose level of Chinese occupational exposures during 1986-2000. Data on occupational exposures from the main categories in nuclear fuel cycle (uranium enrichment and conversion, fuel fabrication, reactor operation, waste management and research activity, except for uranium mining and milling because of the lack of data), medical uses of radiation (diagnostic radiation, nuclear medicine and radiotherapy) and industrial uses of radiation (industrial radiography and radioisotope production) are presented and summarised in detail. These are the main components of occupational exposures in China. In general, the average annual effective doses show a steady decreasing trend over periods: from 2.16 to 1.16 mSv in medical uses of radiation during 1990-2000; from 1.92 to 1.18 mSv in industrial radiography during 1990-2000; from 8.79 to 2.05 mSv in radioisotope production during the period 1980-2000. Almost all the average annual effective doses in discussed occupations were lower than 5 mSv in recent years (except for well-logging: 6.86 mSv in 1999) and no monitored workers were found to have received the occupational exposure exceeding 50 mSv in a single year or 100 mSv in a five-year period. So the Chinese protection status of occupation exposure has been improved in recent years. However, the average annual effective doses in some occupations, such as diagnostic radiology and coal mining, were still much higher than that of the whole world. There are still needs for further improvement and careful monitoring of occupational exposure to protect every worker from excessive occupational exposure, especially for the workers who were neglected before. PMID:17878147

Tian, Yuan; Zhang, Liang'an; Ju, Yongjian

2008-01-01

2

Occupational exposure to mercury. What is a safe level?  

PubMed Central

QUESTION: One of my pregnant patients, a dental hygienist, uses mercury in her workplace, but appears to have no symptoms of mercury toxicity. She has heard that mercury might affect her fetus. What should I recommend to her? What is a safe level of mercury in the air for pregnant women? ANSWER: Testing for levels of mercury in whole blood and, preferably, urine is useful for confirming exposure. Currently, mercury vapour concentrations greater than 0.01 mg/m3 are considered unsafe. Also, women of childbearing age should avoid contact with mercury salts in the workplace. PMID:10889853

Moienafshari, R.; Bar-Oz, B.; Koren, G.

1999-01-01

3

Occupational exposure in MRI  

PubMed Central

This article reviews occupational exposure in clinical MRI; it specifically considers units of exposure, basic physical interactions, health effects, guideline limits, dosimetry, results of exposure surveys, calculation of induced fields and the status of the European Physical Agents Directive. Electromagnetic field exposure in MRI from the static field B0, imaging gradients and radiofrequency transmission fields induces electric fields and currents in tissue, which are responsible for various acute sensory effects. The underlying theory and its application to the formulation of incident and induced field limits are presented. The recent International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) Bundesministerium für Arbeit und Soziales and Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers limits for incident field exposure are interpreted in a manner applicable to MRI. Field measurements show that exposure from movement within the B0 fringe field can exceed ICNIRP reference levels within 0.5 m of the bore entrance. Rate of change of field dB/dt from the imaging gradients is unlikely to exceed the new limits, although incident field limits can be exceeded for radiofrequency (RF) exposure within 0.2–0.5 m of the bore entrance. Dosimetric surveys of routine clinical practice show that staff are exposed to peak values of 42±24% of B0, with time-averaged exposures of 5.2±2.8 mT for magnets in the range 0.6–4 T. Exposure to time-varying fields arising from movement within the B0 fringe resulted in peak dB/dt of approximately 2 T s?1. Modelling of induced electric fields from the imaging gradients shows that ICNIRP-induced field limits are unlikely to be exceeded in most situations; however, movement through the static field may still present a problem. The likely application of the limits is discussed with respect to the reformulation of the European Union (EU) directive and its possible implications for MRI. PMID:22457400

Mcrobbie, D W

2012-01-01

4

[Assessment of occupational exposure to aromatic polycyclic hydrocarbons determining urinary levels of 1-pyrenol].  

PubMed

In conformity with Italian law 626/94, occupational exposure to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH) in several types of work environments was assessed by analysing urinary levels of 1-pyrenol. A total of 231 non-smokers exposed to PAH (82 workers, employed in two different thermoelectric power plants using combustible oil (30 subjects from plant A and 52 from plant B), 18 subjects working for a company recovering exhausted oils, 12 working on rubber production, 10 on road surface asphalting operations, 22 working in the anodizing section of an aluminium plant, 27 chimney-sweeps, and 60 coke-oven workers (30 topside workers, and 30 doing other jobs)) were enrolled. There were also 53 non-smoker control subjects, not occupationally exposed to PAH. Current smokers were excluded, since smoking is an important confounding factor when occupational exposure to low PAH concentrations are monitored. Confounding factors, i.e., diet and passive smoking, were checked by means of a questionnaire which, in addition to personal data and habits, also requested specific details about the type of diet followed and possible exposure to passive smoking during the 24-hour period preceding urine collection. In controls, exposure to PAH in the diet significantly increased 1-pyrenol levels in urine: in subjects introducing > or = 1 microgram of pyrene with the diet, the mean urinary level of 1-pyrenol was significantly higher than that introduced with < 1 microgram (high versus low dietary intake, mean +/- SD, 0.08 +/- 0.13 and 0.04 +/- 0.06 1-pyrenol mumoles/mole of creatinine, respectively; Mann-Whitney U-test Z = 2.67, p < 0.01). Conversely, passive smoking did not influence 1-pyrenol levels. In the overall population (controls and exposed), multiple linear regression analysis showed that levels of urinary 1-pyrenol were significantly influenced by occupational exposure to PAH in asphalt workers, anodizing plant workers, chimney-sweeps, and coke-oven workers, both those working at the top side of the oven and those doing other jobs (t = 2.19, p = 0.02; t = 2.56, p = 0.01; t = 5.25, p = 0.001; t = 3.34, p = 0.001; t = 7.82, p = 0.001, respectively; F = 9.7, p < 0.01), but not in power plant workers in contact with combustible oils, workers recovering exhausted oils, or rubber production workers. Diet and passive smoking did not influence urinary 1-pyrenol levels in the entire sample population. This biomarker also allowed an assessment of exposure levels among certainly exposed subjects. The percentage of subjects with urinary 1-pyrenol values higher than the 99th percentile of the reference population (0.67 mumoles 1-pyrenol/mole of creatinine) was significantly higher than that of controls in asphalt workers (20%), anodizing plant workers (14%), chimney-sweeps (13%) and coke-oven workers (33%) (chi-square test: asphalt workers = 6.1, p = 0.01; anodizing plant workers = 4.3, p = 0.04; chimney-sweeps = 7.1, p = 0.008; coke-oven workers with other duties = 4.4, p = 0.04; top side workers = 16.5, p < 0.001). In chimney sweeps and top side workers, respectively 2 and 4 subjects (7% and 13%) exceeded the precautionary level of 1.4 mumoles 1-pyrenol/mole of creatinine; of these, 1 chimney sweep and 3 top side workers (4% and 10%) exceeded the recommended biological threshold of 2.3 mumoles 1-pyrenol/mole of creatinine. PMID:10965668

Pavanello, S; Genova, A; Foà, V; Clonfero, E

2000-01-01

5

Interruption of chronic chlordane exposure and plasma residue levels in occupational workers  

SciTech Connect

Chlordane, which had been exclusively used for termite control, was completely prohibited in September 1986 in Japan, not only with respect to use but also with respect to import and manufacture. Some findings were reported previously regarding the accumulative characteristics of transnonachlor and oxychlordane in the plasma of spraymen following chlordane exposure. However, there has been no report on the residual disposition of these chlordane-related compounds in humans. Therefore, the levels of these residual compounds in the plasma of occupational workers were monitored after they ceased use of the insecticide. The present paper describes the time course of the changes in the levels of these lipophilic organochloride compounds after termination of the use of chlordane.

Takamiya, Koji (Chiba Univ. (Japan))

1990-06-01

6

Assessing risks from occupational exposure to low-level radiation: The statistician's role  

SciTech Connect

Currently, several epidemiological studies of workers who have been exposed occupationally to radiation are being conducted. These include workers in the United States, Great Britain, and Canada, involved in the production of both defense materials and nuclear power. A major reason for conducting these studies is to evaluate possible adverse health effects that may have resulted because of the radiation exposure received. The general subject of health effects resulting from low levels of radiation, including these worker studies, has attracted the attention of various news media, and has been the subject of considerable controversy. These studies provide a good illustration of certain other aspects of the statistician's role; namely, communication and adequate subject matter knowledge. A competent technical job is not sufficient if these other aspects are not fulfilled.

Gilbert, E.S.

1989-06-01

7

Occupational exposure to manganese.  

PubMed Central

The relationship between the degree of exposure and biological effects of manganese was studied in a group of 369 workers employed in the production of ferroalloys. Two other groups of workers, from an electrode plant and from an aluminium rolling mill, served as controls. Mean manganese concentrations at work places where ferroalloys were produced varied from 0-301 to 20-442 mg/m3. The exposure level of the two control groups was from 2 to 30 microgram/m3 and from 0-05 to 0-07 microgram/m3, in the electrode plant and rolling mill respectively. Sixty-two (16-8%) manganese alloy workers showed some signs of neurological impairment. These signs were noticeably less in the two control groups (5-8% and 0%) than in the occupationally exposed group. Subjective symptoms, which are nonspecific but may be symptoms of subclinical manganism, were not markedly different in the three groups. However, in the manganese alloy workers some of the subjective symptoms occurred more frequently in heavier smokers than in light smokers or nonsmokers. Heavier smokers engaged in manganese alloy production showed some of the subjective symptoms more often than heavier smokers from the control groups. PMID:871441

Sari?, M; Marki?evi?, A; Hrusti?, O

1977-01-01

8

Effects of Low-Level Occupational Exposure to Styrene on Color Vision: Dose Relation with a Urinary Metabolite  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate the threshold effects of chronic low-level occupational exposure to styrene on color vision, we examined color discrimination in 105 male workers exposed to styrene (mean age 37.7 years; mean length of exposure 6.2 years; mean urinary concentration of mandelic acid 0.21 g\\/L) and in 117 referents (mean age 37.7 years). We also assessed the effects of styrene by

Reiko Kishi; Teruko Eguchi; Junko Yuasa; Yoko Katakura; Yoshihiko Arata; Izumi Harabuchi; Toshio Kawai; Ayumi Masuchi

2001-01-01

9

Occupational Noise Exposure  

MedlinePLUS

... reduce worker exposure to noise in a workplace. Engineering controls that reduce sound exposure levels are available and technologically feasible for most noise sources. Engineering controls involve modifying or replacing equipment, or making ...

10

The effect of occupational lead exposure on blood levels of zinc, iron, copper, selenium and related proteins.  

PubMed

The study objective was to evaluate the effect of occupational lead exposure on blood concentrations of zinc, iron, copper, selenium and proteins related to them, such as transferrin, caeruloplasmin and haptoglobin. The examined group consisted of 192 healthy male employees of zinc-lead works. By the degree of lead exposure, the exposed group was subdivided into three subgroups. The control group was composed of 73 healthy male administrative workers. The markers of lead exposure (blood levels of lead and zinc protoporphyrin) were significantly elevated in the exposed group compared with the control group. Additionally, concentrations of copper and caeruloplasmin were raised. The significant increase in haptoglobin level was observed only in the low exposure group. Selenium levels were significantly decreased, whereas iron, zinc and transferrin levels were unchanged in the exposed group compared with the control group. There were positive correlations between the lead toxicity parameters and the copper and caeruloplasmin levels. In conclusion, the effect of occupational exposure to lead on the metabolism of trace metals appears to be limited. However, significant associations between lead exposure and levels of copper and selenium were shown. Changed levels of positive acute-phase proteins, such as caeruloplasmin and haptoglobin, were also observed. PMID:22923205

Kasperczyk, Aleksandra; Prokopowicz, Adam; Dobrakowski, Micha?; Pawlas, Natalia; Kasperczyk, S?awomir

2012-12-01

11

Occupational exposure to antineoplastic agents induces a high level of chromosome damage. Lack of an effect of GST polymorphisms  

SciTech Connect

The aim of our study was to investigate whether occupational exposure to antineoplastic drugs (AND) resulted in genetic damage, possibly indicative of adverse health effects in the long term. We performed a chromosomal aberrations (CA) analysis in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) of a group of 76 trained nurses occupationally exposed to AND. Furthermore, we analysed whether genetic polymorphisms in four metabolic genes of the glutathione S-transferase (GST) family involved in antineoplastic drugs detoxification (GSTM1, GSTT1, GSTP1, GSTA1) had any effect on the yield of chromosomal aberrations in nurses exposed to antineoplastic agents. The exposed group showed a very significant increase of genetic damage (p < 0.0001) potentially indicative of an increased risk of cancer. Unexpectedly, besides the elevated level of chromatid-type aberrations usually related to exposure to chemical agents, we found also severe chromosome damages such as chromosome deletions and dicentric chromosomes, usually related to radiation exposure. No significant association was detected between all GSTs genotypes and chromosome damage. In conclusion, our data show how the occupational exposure to AND is associated to a potential cancer risk, suggesting that current prevention methods do not completely eliminate opportunities for exposure and supporting the need to improve the actual safety practices.

Testa, Antonella [Section of Toxicology and Biomedical Sciences, ENEA Research Center, Casaccia, Via Anguillarese 301, 00060, Rome (Italy)], E-mail: antonella.testa@casaccia.enea.it; Giachelia, Manuela; Palma, Selena; Appolloni, Massimo [Section of Toxicology and Biomedical Sciences, ENEA Research Center, Casaccia, Via Anguillarese 301, 00060, Rome (Italy); Padua, Luca [Fondazione Don Carlo Gnocchi, Via Maresciallo Caviglia 30, 00194, Rome (Italy); Tranfo, Giovanna; Spagnoli, Mariangela [Occupational Hygiene Department, Institute for Occupational Health and Safety, Rome (Italy); Tirindelli, Donatella [Section of Toxicology and Biomedical Sciences, ENEA Research Center, Casaccia, Via Anguillarese 301, 00060, Rome (Italy); Cozzi, Renata [Department of Biology, University of Rome 'Roma Tre', Viale Marconi 446, 00146, Rome (Italy)

2007-08-15

12

Trichloroethylene: environmental and occupational exposure  

SciTech Connect

Trichloroethylene is used in paint strippers, rug cleaners, spot removers, typewriter correction fluid and industrial cleaners. It is a common environmental contaminant, detected in over one-third of hazardous waste sites and in 10 percent of groundwater sources. Acute workplace exposure above acceptable levels can cause neurologic, respiratory and hepatic problems. The health effects of prolonged occupational and environmental low-level exposure are probably minimal, but whether such exposure poses a risk remains controversial. Although trichloroethylene has been shown to cause cancer in some animals, it has not been proven to be a human carcinogen. Trichloroethylene has been involved in several well-publicized cases of contamination of community water supplies, and family physicians are likely to receive questions about this chemical.22 references.

Campos-Outcalt, D. (University of Arizona College of Medicine, Tucson (United States))

1992-08-01

13

NATIONAL OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE SURVEY (NOES)  

EPA Science Inventory

From 1981 to 1983, NIOSH conducted the National Occupational Exposure Survey (NOES) that collected data on potential occupational exposures to chemical, physical, and biological agents. The survey involved on-site visits to 4,490 establishments in 522 industry types [OMB 1972] em...

14

The association between occupational lead exposure and serum cholesterol and lipoprotein levels.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: This study sought to clarify the possible associations between blood lead level and serum cholesterol and lipoprotein levels in subjects occupationally exposed to lead. METHODS: Levels of blood lead, serum total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides in 56 male industrial employees who were exposed to lead were compared with those in 87 unexposed employees. RESULTS: Mean blood lead levels were 42.3 (+/- 14.9) micrograms/dL in the exposed group and 2.7 (+/- 3.6) micrograms/dL in the nonexposed group. The exposed subjects had higher mean levels of total cholesterol and HDL cholesterol. CONCLUSIONS: Blood lead levels are positively associated with total and HDL cholesterol. PMID:10394320

Kristal-Boneh, E; Coller, D; Froom, P; Harari, G; Ribak, J

1999-01-01

15

Occupational exposure to formaldehyde in dialysis units  

SciTech Connect

A company in Illinois that operates three dialysis centers became concerned about the occupational exposure of its employees to formaldehyde. The company requested an investigation by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) to determine the extent of employee exposure to formaldehyde. Investigators from NIOSH conducted an initial environmental survey of the facilities in April 1982 and a follow-up environmental survey in June 1982. In the areas used to reprocess dialyzers, they collected air samples to analyze for formaldehyde in the personal breathing zones of workers. The results showed that workers at two of the three facilities involved were exposed to formaldehyde concentrations of 0.50 and 0.57 parts per million (ppm), respectively, as a time-weighted average (TWA). The current Occupational Safety and Health Administration standard establishes a permissible exposure of 3 ppm, 8-hour TWA; NIOSH recommends minimizing workplace exposure levels and limiting exposure levels and limiting exposure to the lowest feasible level.

Not Available

1986-08-08

16

Occupational Noise Exposure Facts  

MedlinePLUS

... noise to end it. Occupational Noise Facts Noise + Music Facts Recreational Noise Facts Airport Noise Facts Noise ... noise to end it. Occupational Noise Facts Noise + Music Facts Recreational Noise Facts Airport Noise Facts Noise ...

17

Occupational Radiation Exposures  

Cancer.gov

DCEG researchers are studying cancer risks among populations who are occupationally exposed to radiation. Chernobyl Clean-up Workers Mayak Nuclear Facility Workers U.S. Radiologic Technologists Interventional Fluoroscopists Print This Page Occupational

18

Systematic literature review of uses and levels of occupational exposure to tetrachloroethylene.  

PubMed

Tetrachloroethylene has been one of the most widely used chlorinated solvents in the United States. This review provides a basis for tetrachloroethylene exposure assessment in population-based case-control studies. We performed literature searches in MEDLINE, TOXLINE, NIOSHTIC, and the NIOSH Health Hazard Evaluation databases using relevant search terms. We calculated weighted arithmetic means from the measurement data and compiled these into three summary tables by type of operation: (1) dry cleaning, (2) degreasing, and (3) other operations. We identified 258 relevant documents, of which 179 (69%) contained useful descriptive information. Within the dry cleaning industry, the overall arithmetic mean (AM) for personal tetrachloroethylene exposures was 59 ppm (range: 0-4636, n = 1395). Machine operators who transferred wet garments to a dryer had the highest levels (AM = 150 ppm [range: 0-1000, n = 441]) of the jobs in this industry. The AM for personal measurements associated with degreasing was 95 ppm (range: 0-1800, n = 206). In addition, we identified several other sources of substantial tetrachloroethylene exposure, including cleaning mining equipment, testing coal, cleaning animal coats in taxidermy, and cleaning and duplicating film. Exposure assessment in population-based, case-control studies is a complex process requiring substantial resources. Researchers conducting these types of studies will be able to use results of the measurements to quantify tetrachloroethylene exposure levels for various jobs. PMID:18949603

Gold, Laura S; De Roos, Anneclaire J; Waters, Martha; Stewart, Patricia

2008-12-01

19

Occupational Chemical Exposures Among Cosmetologists  

PubMed Central

More research is needed to understand possible occupational reproductive risks for cosmetologists, specifically hairdressers and nail technicians, two occupations that often share workspace and exposure to hair dyes and nail polish. Cosmetologists are predominantly females of reproductive age; thus, they may be at higher risk for the effects of exposure to reproductive toxins. The purpose of this article is to inform nurses and public health professionals about occupational exposures for cosmetologists and discuss interventions to reduce the risks of reproductive disorders among susceptible worker populations. PMID:24328919

Pak, Victoria M.; Powers, Martha; Liu, Jianghong

2014-01-01

20

Influence of occupational low-level lead exposure on renal parameters  

SciTech Connect

The influence of lead exposure on renal function was examined. In 155 lead workers and 126 control workers, lead in blood (PbB) and zinc protoporphyrin in blood (ZPP) were measured as indicators of exposure to lead; various proteins in urine were measured as parameters of renal functions. Regression and matched-pair analyses suggest that tubular parameters may be more influenced by lead exposure than glomerular parameters. Changes in renal function parameters may already occur at PbB levels below 3 mumol/liter (600 micrograms/liter). The excretion of N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase appears to be the most consistent and sensitive parameter of an early effect on the tubular function.

Verschoor, M.; Wibowo, A.; Herber, R.; van Hemmen, J.; Zielhuis, R.

1987-01-01

21

Critical exposure level of cadmium for elevated urinary metallothionein-An occupational population study in China  

SciTech Connect

Cadmium is a well-known nephrotoxic agent with extremely long biological half-time of 15-30 years in humans. To prevent nephrotoxicity induced by cadmium, it is necessary to identify specific and sensitive biomarkers of cadmium exposure and renal damage, and to define critical exposure levels related to minimal nephrotoxicity in humans. In this study, urinary cadmium (UCd) and blood cadmium (BCd) were used as cadmium exposure indicators, urinary {beta}{sub 2}-microglobulin (UB2M), N-acetyl-{beta}-D-glucosaminidase (UNAG) and albumin (UALB) were applied as the effect biomarkers of tubular and glomerular dysfunction. The relationship between urinary metallothionein (UMT) and cadmium exposure biomarkers as well as effect biomarkers was examined. Significant correlations were found between the UMT and BCd, and UCd. At the same time, UB2M, UALB and UNAG showed positive correlation with UMT as well. According to this result, cadmium-exposed individuals with renal dysfunction excreted more metallothionein than those without. Dose-response relationships between UCd and urinary indicators of renal dysfunction were studied. The critical concentration of UCd was quantitatively estimated by the benchmark dose (BMD) method. The lower confidence limit of the BMD-10 (BMDL) of UCd (3.1 {mu}g/g Cr) related to increased excretion of urinary metallothionein was slightly higher than that for UNAG (2.7 {mu}g/g Cr), but lower than those of UB2M (3.4 {mu}g/g Cr) and UALB (4.2 {mu}g/g Cr). The results demonstrate that UMT may be used as a sensitive biomarker of renal tubular dysfunction in cadmium-exposed populations.

Chen Liang [Department of Occupational Health, School of Public Health, Fudan University, Shanghai, 200032 (China); Jin Taiyi [Department of Occupational Health, School of Public Health, Fudan University, Shanghai, 200032 (China) and Environmental Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Umeaa University, SE-90187 Umeaa (Sweden)]. E-mail: tyjin@shmu.edu.cn; Huang, Bo [Department of Occupational Health, School of Public Health, Fudan University, Shanghai, 200032 (China); Nordberg, Gunnar [Environmental Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Umeaa University, SE-90187 Umeaa (Sweden); Nordberg, Monica [Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, SE-171 77, Stockholm (Sweden)

2006-08-15

22

Malignant lymphomas and occupational exposures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of potential risk factors for Hodgkin's disease (HD) and for non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHL) were evaluated in a case-referent study encompassing 54 cases of HD, 106 cases of NHL, and 275 referents, all alive. Exposure information was obtained by questionnaires posted to the subjects. Crude rate ratios were increased for various occupational exposures including solvents, welding, wood preservatives, phenoxy

B Persson; A M Dahlander; M Fredriksson; H N Brage; C G Ohlson; O Axelson

1989-01-01

23

Occupational exposure and lung cancer  

PubMed Central

Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death for male and the second most usual cancer for women after breast cancer. Currently there are available several non-specific cytotoxic agents and several targeted agents for lung cancer therapy. However; early stage diagnosis is still unavailable and several efforts are being made towards this direction. Novel biomarkers are being investigated along with new biopsy techniques. The occupational and environmental exposure to carcinogenic agents is an everyday phenomenon. Therefore until efficient early diagnosis is available, avoidance of exposure to carcinogenic agents is necessary. In the current mini-review occupational and environmental carcinogenic agents will be presented. PMID:24102018

Spyratos, Dionysios; Porpodis, Konstantinos; Tsakiridis, Kosmas; Machairiotis, Nikolaos; Katsikogiannis, Nikolaos; Kougioumtzi, Ioanna; Dryllis, Georgios; Kallianos, Anastasios; Rapti, Aggeliki; Li, Chen; Zarogoulidis, Konstantinos

2013-01-01

24

Occupational Surveillance for Spaceflight Exposures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This slide presentation reviews the importance of longterm occupational health surveillance of astronauts after exposure to the possible hazards of spaceflight. Because there is not much information about long term effects of spaceflight on human health, it is important to identify some of the possible results of exposure to the many possible factors that can influence longterm health impacts. This surveillance also allows for NASA to meet the obligation to care for the astronauts for their lifetime.

Tarver, William J.

2010-01-01

25

Genetic susceptibility to occupational exposures  

PubMed Central

Because of their high prevalence in the general population, genetic variants that determine susceptibility to environmental exposures may contribute greatly to the development of occupational diseases in the setting of specific exposures occurring in the workplace. Studies investigating genetic susceptibilities in the workplace may: (1) provide mechanistic insight into the aetiology of disease, in particular the determination of environmentally responsive genes; (2) identify susceptible subpopulations with respect to exposure; and (3) provide valuable input in setting occupational exposure limits by taking genetic susceptibility into account. Polymorphisms in the NAT2 and the HLA-DPB1Glu69 genes provide classic examples of how genetic susceptibility markers have a clear role in identifying disease risk in bladder cancer and chronic beryllium disease, respectively. For diseases with more complex and multifactorial aetiology such as occupational asthma and chronic airways disease, susceptibility studies for selected genetic polymorphisms provide additional insight into the biological mechanisms of disease. Even when polymorphisms for genetic susceptibility have a clear role in identifying disease risk, the value of wide scale genetic screening in occupational settings remains limited due to primarily ethical and social concerns. Thus, large scale genetic screening in the workplace is not currently recommended. PMID:18487431

Christiani, D C; Mehta, A J; Yu, C-L

2013-01-01

26

Genetic susceptibility to occupational exposures.  

PubMed

Because of their high prevalence in the general population, genetic variants that determine susceptibility to environmental exposures may contribute greatly to the development of occupational diseases in the setting of specific exposures occurring in the workplace. Studies investigating genetic susceptibilities in the workplace may: (1) provide mechanistic insight into the aetiology of disease, in particular the determination of environmentally responsive genes; (2) identify susceptible subpopulations with respect to exposure; and (3) provide valuable input in setting occupational exposure limits by taking genetic susceptibility into account. Polymorphisms in the NAT2 and the HLA-DPB1(G)(lu69) genes provide classic examples of how genetic susceptibility markers have a clear role in identifying disease risk in bladder cancer and chronic beryllium disease, respectively. For diseases with more complex and multifactorial aetiology such as occupational asthma and chronic airways disease, susceptibility studies for selected genetic polymorphisms provide additional insight into the biological mechanisms of disease. Even when polymorphisms for genetic susceptibility have a clear role in identifying disease risk, the value of wide scale genetic screening in occupational settings remains limited due to primarily ethical and social concerns. Thus, large scale genetic screening in the workplace is not currently recommended. PMID:18487431

Christiani, D C; Mehta, A J; Yu, C-L

2008-06-01

27

Safety standards for occupational exposure to dichloromethane  

SciTech Connect

The toxic effects of dichloromethane (DCM) are reviewed. Human dose-response data, tolerance levels, and the effects of physical exercise and smoking on DCM toxicity are reported. Finally, occupational exposure, current NIOSH (1976) recommendations, and the consequences of ill-health as they pertain to DCM in the workplace are discussed.

Skrabalak, D.S.; Babish, J.G.

1983-06-01

28

Systematic Literature Review of Uses and Levels of Occupational Exposure to Tetrachloroethylene  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tetrachloroethylene has been one of the most widely used chlorinated solvents in the United States. This review provides a basis for tetrachloroethylene exposure assessment in population-based case-control studies. We performed literature searches in MEDLINE, TOXLINE, NIOSHTIC, and the NIOSH Health Hazard Evaluation databases using relevant search terms. We calculated weighted arithmetic means from the measurement data and compiled these into

Laura S. Gold; Anneclaire J. De Roos; Martha Waters; Patricia Stewart

2008-01-01

29

Occupational Exposures Associated with Petroleum-Derived Products Containing Trace Levels of Benzene  

Microsoft Academic Search

Benzene may be present as a trace impurity or residual component of mixed petroleum products due to refining processes. In this article, the authors review the historical benzene content of various petroleum-derived products and characterize the airborne concentrations of benzene associated with the typical handling or use of these products in the United States, based on indoor exposure modeling and

Pamela R. D. Williams; Julie M. Panko; Ken Unice; Jay L. Brown; Dennis J. Paustenbach

2008-01-01

30

Biological Monitoring of Blood Naphthalene Levels as a Marker of Occupational Exposure to PAHs among Auto-Mechanics and Spray Painters in Rawalpindi  

PubMed Central

Background Routine exposure to chemical contaminants in workplace is a cause for concern over potential health risks to workers. In Pakistan, reports on occupational exposure and related health risks are almost non-existent, which reflects the scarce availability of survey data and criteria for determining whether an unsafe exposure has occurred. The current study was designed to evaluate blood naphthalene (NAPH) levels as an indicator of exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) among automobile workshop mechanics (MCs) and car-spray painters (PNs). We further determined the relationship between blood NAPH levels and personal behavioural, job related parameters and various environmental factors that may further be associated with elevated risks of occupational exposures to PAHs. Methods Sixty blood samples (n = 20 for each group i.e. MC, PN and control group) were collected to compare their blood NAPH levels among exposed (MCs and PNs) and un-exposed (control) groups. Samples were analyzed using high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). Data regarding demographic aspects of the subjects and their socioeconomic features were collected using a questionnaire. Subjects were also asked to report environmental hygiene conditions of their occupational environment. Results We identified automobile work areas as potential sites for PAHs exposure, which was reflected by higher blood NAPH levels among MCs. Blood NAPH levels ranged from 53.7 to 1980.6 ?gL-1 and 54.1 to 892.9 ?gL-1 among MCs and PNs respectively. Comparison within each group showed that smoking enhanced exposure risks several fold and both active and passive smoking were among personal parameters that were significantly correlated with log-transformed blood NAPH levels. For exposed groups, work hours and work experience were job related parameters that showed strong associations with the increase in blood NAPH levels. Poor workplace hygiene and ventilation were recognized as most significant predictors related to differences among workplaces that may enhance the extent of exposure to chemical contaminants. Conclusions It appeared that chemical exposure at the workplace may be influenced by multiple environmental factors, but poor workplace hygiene and duration of exposure (long work hours) were the most important factors. Smoking and negligence of workers regarding self protection were among some of the important personal behaviours than can be addressed with better training. There is also a need to improve workplaces hygiene and to rationalize work hours to minimize health risks. Since smoking was an important confounding factor that supplemented most of the actual occupational exposure, a study based on non-smoker subjects is needed to separate out the effects of smoking and other confounding factors that may obscure measurements of actual extent of occupational exposure. PMID:21668991

2011-01-01

31

Evaluation of occupational exposure to benzene by urinalysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urinary phenol determinations have traditionally been used to monitor high levels of occupational benzene exposure. However, urinary phenol cannot be used to monitor low-level exposures. New biological indexes for exposure to low levels of benzene are thus needed. The aim of this study was to investigate the relations between exposure to benzene (Abenzene, ppm), as measured by personal air sampling,

Sergio Ghittori; Luciano Maestri; Maria Lorena Fiorentino; Marcello Imbriani

1995-01-01

32

Soft tissue sarcoma and occupational exposures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The associations between soft tissue sarcoma (STS) and occupational exposures were studied in a case-referent study in the southeast of Sweden. Exposure information was obtained through mailed questionnaires to 96 cases, 450 randomly selected population referents, and 200 cancer referents. Odds ratios (OR), were calculated for various occupational groups, and particularly, for occupations with potential exposure to chlorinated phenoxy herbicides

G. Wingren; M. Fredrikson; H. Noorlind Brage; B. A. Nordenskjoeld; O. Axelson

1990-01-01

33

Non-occupational exposure to silica dust.  

PubMed

Occupational exposure to silica occurs at workplaces in factories like quartz crushing facilities (silica flour milling), agate, ceramic, slate pencil, glass, stone quarries and mines, etc., Non-occupational exposure to silica dust can be from industrial sources in the vicinity of the industry as well as non-industrial sources. Recently, public concern regarding non-occupational or ambient exposure to crystalline silica has emerged making it important to gather information available on non-occupational exposures to silica dust and non-occupational silicosis. This paper reviews various non-occupational exposures reported in literature including some studies by the author. Methodology used in assessment of non-occupational exposures, standards for non-occupational exposures to silica dust and indirect estimation of cumulative risk % are also discussed. PMID:23776316

Bhagia, L J

2012-09-01

34

DOE occupational radiation exposure 1996 report  

SciTech Connect

The goal of the US Department of Energy (DOE) is to conduct its radiological operations to ensure the health and safety of all DOE employees including contractors and subcontractors. The DOE strives to maintain radiation exposures to its workers below administrative control levels and DOE limits and to further reduce these exposures and releases to levels that are ``As Low As Reasonably Achievable`` (ALARA). The DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report, 1996 provides summary and analysis of the occupational radiation exposure received by individuals associated with DOE activities. The DOE mission includes stewardship of the nuclear weapons stockpile and the associated facilities, environmental restoration of DOE and precursor agency sites, and energy research. Collective exposure at DOE has declined by 80% over the past decade due to a cessation in opportunities for exposure during the transition in DOE mission from weapons production to cleanup, deactivation and decommissioning, and changes in reporting requirements and dose calculation methodology. In 1996, the collective dose decreased by 10% from the 1995 value due to decreased doses at five of the seven highest-dose DOE sites. For 1996, these sites attributed the reduction in collective dose to the completion of several decontamination and decommissioning projects, reduced spent fuel storage activities, and effective ALARA practices. This report is intended to be a valuable tool for managers in their management of radiological safety programs and commitment of resources.

NONE

1996-12-31

35

Ubiquitin Carboxy-Terminal Hydrolase-L1 as a Serum Neurotrauma Biomarker for Exposure to Occupational Low-Level Blast  

PubMed Central

Repeated exposure to low-level blast is a characteristic of a few select occupations and there is concern that such occupational exposures present risk for traumatic brain injury. These occupations include specialized military and law enforcement units that employ controlled detonation of explosive charges for the purpose of tactical entry into secured structures. The concern for negative effects from blast exposure is based on rates of operator self-reported headache, sleep disturbance, working memory impairment, and other concussion-like symptoms. A challenge in research on this topic has been the need for improved assessment tools to empirically evaluate the risk associated with repeated exposure to blast overpressure levels commonly considered to be too low in magnitude to cause acute injury. Evaluation of serum-based neurotrauma biomarkers provides an objective measure that is logistically feasible for use in field training environments. Among candidate biomarkers, ubiquitin carboxy-terminal hydrolase-L1 (UCH-L1) has some empirical support and was evaluated in this study. We used daily blood draws to examine acute change in UCH-L1 among 108 healthy military personnel who were exposed to repeated low-level blast across a 2-week period. These research volunteers also wore pressure sensors to record blast exposures, wrist actigraphs to monitor sleep patterns, and completed daily behavioral assessments of symptomology, postural stability, and neurocognitive function. UCH-L1 levels were elevated as a function of participating in the 2-week training with explosives, but the correlation of UCH-L1 elevation and blast magnitude was weak and inconsistent. Also, UCH-L1 elevations did not correlate with deficits in behavioral measures. These results provide some support for including UCH-L1 as a measure of central nervous system effects from exposure to low-level blast. However, the weak relation observed suggests that additional indicators of blast effect are needed.

Carr, Walter; Yarnell, Angela M.; Ong, Ricardo; Walilko, Timothy; Kamimori, Gary H.; da Silva, Uade; McCarron, Richard M.; LoPresti, Matthew L.

2015-01-01

36

Methyl isobutyl ketone and methyl ethyl ketone in urine as biological markers of occupational exposure to these solvents at low levels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. To examine whether unmetabolized methyl isobutyl ketone in urine is a useful marker of low-level occupational exposure to this ketone solvent, as is the case for methyl ethyl ketone. Methods. The study was conducted in the second half of a working week. In total, 27 furniture-making workers (19 men and eight women) and 11 non-exposed controls (six men and

T. Kawai; Z.-W. Zhang; A. Takeuchi; Y. Miyama; K. Sakamoto; K. Higashikawa; M. Ikeda

2003-01-01

37

[On the problem of permissible levels of emergency and subsequent occupational radiation exposure for people of reproductive age].  

PubMed

The results of studies of indices of reproductive function in 3 groups of males examined accordingly to an unified method: Group 1 - The staff of the Kalinin Nuclear Power Plant (KNPP) and the Smolensk Nuclear Power Plant (SNPP), who worked for liquidation of consequences of the accident (LCA) in 1986-87 at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP), group 2 - the staff of the KNPP and the SNPP who did not work for LCA in ChNPP and the group 3 - the liquidators of the accident at ChNPP who were not included in the staff but are registered in the register of LPA participants in the Ryazan region are presented. The occurrence of congenital malformations (CM) and intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) in infants, indices of unfavourable outcomes of pregnancy (UOP) in the families of males, describing the possible radiation-induced genetic effects in male germ cells was evaluated It was made a conclusion that the given in NRB-99/2009 constraints for emergency and subsequent occupational radiation exposures of males fail to provide protection from genetic effects in the offspring. The necessity to increase the duration of the protected reproductive period in males, on which there are extended restrictions for occupational and emergency radiation exposures from 30 years of age, as it is now accepted to the age of 35 years is demonstrated. PMID:24340580

Ermalitski?, A P; Liaginskaia, A M; Osipov, V A; Kuptsov, V V

2013-01-01

38

CAREX Canada: an enhanced model for assessing occupational carcinogen exposure  

PubMed Central

Objectives To estimate the numbers of workers exposed to known and suspected occupational carcinogens in Canada, building on the methods of CARcinogen EXposure (CAREX) projects in the European Union (EU). Methods CAREX Canada consists of estimates of the prevalence and level of exposure to occupational carcinogens. CAREX Canada includes occupational agents evaluated by the International Agency for Research on Cancer as known, probable or possible human carcinogens that were present and feasible to assess in Canadian workplaces. A Canadian Workplace Exposure Database was established to identify the potential for exposure in particular industries and occupations, and to create exposure level estimates among priority agents, where possible. CAREX EU data were reviewed for relevance to the Canadian context and the proportion of workers likely to be exposed by industry and occupation in Canada was assigned using expert assessment and agreement by a minimum of two occupational hygienists. These proportions were used to generate prevalence estimates by linkage with the Census of Population for 2006, and these estimates are available by industry, occupation, sex and province. Results CAREX Canada estimated the number of workers exposed to 44 known, probable and suspected carcinogens. Estimates of levels of exposure were further developed for 18 priority agents. Common exposures included night shift work (1.9 million exposed), solar ultraviolet radiation exposure (1.5 million exposed) and diesel engine exhaust (781?000 exposed). Conclusions A substantial proportion of Canadian workers are exposed to known and suspected carcinogens at work. PMID:24969047

Peters, Cheryl E; Ge, Calvin B; Hall, Amy L; Davies, Hugh W; Demers, Paul A

2015-01-01

39

DOE 2012 Occupational Radiation Exposure October 2013  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Analysis within the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report to provide an overview of the status of radiation protection practices at DOE (including the National Nuclear Security Administration [NNSA]). The DOE 2012 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report provides an evaluation of DOE-wide performance regarding compliance with Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations (C.F.R.), Part 835, Occupational Radiation Protection dose limits and as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) process requirements. In addition, the report provides data to DOE organizations responsible for developing policies for protection of individuals from the adverse health effects of radiation. The report provides a summary and an analysis of occupational radiation exposure information from the monitoring of individuals involved in DOE activities. Over the past 5-year period, the occupational radiation exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site. As an indicator of the overall amount of radiation dose received during the conduct of operations at DOE, the report includes information on collective total effective dose (TED). The TED is comprised of the effective dose (ED) from external sources, which includes neutron and photon radiation, and the internal committed effective dose (CED), which results from the intake of radioactive material into the body. The collective ED from photon exposure decreased by 23% between 2011 and 2012, while the neutron dose increased by 5%. The internal dose components of the collective TED decreased by 7%. Over the past 5-year period, 99.99% of the individuals receiving measurable TED have received doses below the 2 roentgen equivalent in man (rems) (20 millisievert [mSv]) TED administrative control level (ACL), which is well below the DOE regulatory limit of 5 rems (50 mSv) TED annually. The occupational radiation exposure records show that in 2012, DOE facilities continued to comply with DOE dose limits and ACLs and worked to minimize exposure to individuals. The DOE collective TED decreased 17.1% from 2011 to 2012. The collective TED decreased at three of the five sites with the largest collective TED. u Idaho Site – Collective dose reductions were achieved as a result of continuing improvements at the Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Project (AMWTP) through the planning of drum movements that reduced the number of times a container is handled; placement of waste containers that created highradiation areas in a centralized location; and increased worker awareness of high-dose rate areas. In addition, Idaho had the largest decrease in the total number of workers with measurable TED (1,143 fewer workers). u Hanford Site (Hanford) – An overall reduction of decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) activities at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) and Transuranic (TRU) retrieval activities resulted in collective dose reductions. u Savannah River Site (SRS) – Reductions were achieved through ALARA initiatives employed site wide. The Solid Waste Management Facility used extended specialty tools, cameras and lead shield walls to facilitate removal of drums. These tools and techniques reduce exposure time through improved efficiency, increase distance from the source of radiation by remote monitoring, shield the workers to lower the dose rate, and reduce the potential for contamination and release of material through repacking of waste. Overall, from 2011 to 2012, there was a 19% decrease in the number of workers with measurable dose. Furthermore, due to a slight decrease in both the DOE workforce (7%) and monitored workers (10%), the ratio of workers with measurable doses to monitored workers decreased to 13%. Another primary indicator of the level of radiation exposure covered in this report is the average measurable dose, which normalizes the collective dose over the population of workers who actually received a measurable dose. The average measurable TED in

none,

2012-02-02

40

[Titanium dioxide nanoparticles: occupational exposure limits].  

PubMed

Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is produced in Poland as a high production volume chemical (HPVC). It is used mainly as a pigment for paints and coatings, plastics, paper, and also as additives to food and pharmaceuticals. Titanium dioxide nanoparticles are increasingly applied in cosmetics, textiles and plastics as the ultraviolet light blocker. This contributes to a growing occupational exposure to TiO2 nanoparticles. Nanoparticles are potentially responsible for the most adverse effects of titanium dioxide. Due to the absence of separate fraction of nanoobjects and appropriate measurement methods the maximum admissible concentrations (MAC) for particles < 100 nm and nano-TiO2 cannot be established. In the world there are 2 proposals of occupational exposure levels for titanium dioxide nanoparticles: 0.3 mg/m3, proposed by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), and 0.6 mg/m3, proposed by experts of the New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO). The authors of this article, based on the available data and existing methods for hygiene standards binding in Poland, concluded that the MAC value of 0.3 mg/m3 for nanoparticles TiO2 in the workplace air can be accepted. PMID:25230569

Swidwi?ska-Gajewska, Anna Maria; Czerczak, S?awomir

2014-01-01

41

Occupational lead exposure and hearing loss.  

PubMed

Studies of adults, children, and laboratory animals suggest an association between lead exposure and hearing loss. A causal relationship might direct mandated medical surveillance of lead-exposed workers to include audiometric testing. A cross-sectional, computerized dataset was obtained from a private occupational health screening company to examine the relationship between blood lead level and hearing loss. Audiometry and blood lead results were available for 183 workers. A statistically significant correlation was found between blood lead level and an elevated hearing threshold at 400 Hz (P = 0.03); no other frequencies showed such a correlation. This finding suggests either an interaction between nose exposure and lead, interaction of other exposure factors (such as cigarette smoking), or that factors other than biomechanical ones render the organ of Corti more susceptible at 4000 Hz. Further evaluation of these questions should be undertaken. Computerized databases created for worker surveillance may be a source for data useful for examining other causal connections in occupational settings. PMID:9253727

Forst, L S; Freels, S; Persky, V

1997-07-01

42

Chronic Electromagnetic Exposure at Occupational Safety Level Does Not Affect the Metabolic Profile nor Cornea Healing after LASIK Surgery.  

PubMed

LASIK eye surgery has become a very common practice for myopic people, especially those in the military. Sometimes undertaken by people who need to keep a specific medical aptitude, this surgery could be performed in secret from the hierarchy and from the institute medical staff. However, even though the eyes have been previously described as one of the most sensitive organs to electromagnetic fields in the human body, no data exist on the potential deleterious effects of electromagnetic fields on the healing eye. The consequences of chronic long-lasting radar exposures at power density, in accordance with the occupational safety standards (9.71?GHz, 50?W/m(2)), were investigated on cornea healing. The metabolic and clinical statuses after experimental LASIK keratotomy were assessed on the different eye segments in a New Zealand rabbit model. The analysis methods were performed after 5 months of exposure (1?hour/day, 3 times/week). Neither clinical or histological examinations, nor experimental data, such as light scattering, (1)H-NMR HRMAS metabolomics, (13)C-NMR spectra of lipidic extracts, and antioxidant status, evidenced significant modifications. It was concluded that withdrawing the medical aptitude of people working in electromagnetic field environments (i.e., radar operators in the navy) after eye surgery was not justified. PMID:24757560

Crouzier, David; Dabouis, Vincent; Gentilhomme, Edgar; Vignal, Rodolphe; Bourbon, Fréderic; Fauvelle, Florence; Debouzy, Jean-Claude

2014-01-01

43

Chronic Electromagnetic Exposure at Occupational Safety Level Does Not Affect the Metabolic Profile nor Cornea Healing after LASIK Surgery  

PubMed Central

LASIK eye surgery has become a very common practice for myopic people, especially those in the military. Sometimes undertaken by people who need to keep a specific medical aptitude, this surgery could be performed in secret from the hierarchy and from the institute medical staff. However, even though the eyes have been previously described as one of the most sensitive organs to electromagnetic fields in the human body, no data exist on the potential deleterious effects of electromagnetic fields on the healing eye. The consequences of chronic long-lasting radar exposures at power density, in accordance with the occupational safety standards (9.71?GHz, 50?W/m2), were investigated on cornea healing. The metabolic and clinical statuses after experimental LASIK keratotomy were assessed on the different eye segments in a New Zealand rabbit model. The analysis methods were performed after 5 months of exposure (1?hour/day, 3 times/week). Neither clinical or histological examinations, nor experimental data, such as light scattering, 1H-NMR HRMAS metabolomics, 13C-NMR spectra of lipidic extracts, and antioxidant status, evidenced significant modifications. It was concluded that withdrawing the medical aptitude of people working in electromagnetic field environments (i.e., radar operators in the navy) after eye surgery was not justified. PMID:24757560

Dabouis, Vincent; Gentilhomme, Edgar; Vignal, Rodolphe; Bourbon, Fréderic; Fauvelle, Florence; Debouzy, Jean-Claude

2014-01-01

44

DOE 2008 Occupational Radiation Exposure October 2009  

SciTech Connect

A major priority of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is to ensure the health, safety, and security of DOE employees, contractors, and subcontractors. The Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) provides the corporate-level leadership and strategic vision necessary to better coordinate and integrate health, safety, environment, security, enforcement, and independent oversight programs. One function that supports this mission is the DOE Corporate Operating Experience Program that provides collection, analysis, and dissemination of performance indicators, such as occupational radiation exposure information. This analysis supports corporate decision-making and synthesizes operational information to support continuous environment, safety, and health improvement across the DOE complex.

U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security

2009-10-01

45

A comparison of occupational and nonoccupational noise exposures in Sweden.  

PubMed

This study was conducted to evaluate noise exposures and the contributions of occupational and nonoccupational activities among three groups of Swedish workers (office workers, day care workers, and military flight technicians), and to evaluate risk factors for elevated hearing threshold levels. Forty-five subjects were recruited across the three groups. Each subject completed a risk factor questionnaire along with Békésy audiometry at frequencies between 125 and 8000 Hz. Subjects also wore a noise dosimeter continuously for 1 week, and documented their occupational and nonoccupational activities using a time-activity log. Subjects in all groups completed >7400 h of dosimetry, and had weekly exposures between 76 and 81 dBA. Day care workers had the highest daily exposures, and flight technicians had the highest weekly exposures. Most daily and weekly exposures exceeded the 70 dBA exposure limit recommended for prevention of any hearing loss. Subjects' perceptions of their exposures generally agreed well with measured noise levels. Among office workers, exposures were predominately nonoccupational, while among flight technicians nonoccupational and occupational activities contributed roughly equally, and among day care workers occupational exposures were dominant. Extreme exposures and cumulative noise exposure were associated with an increased risk of hearing threshold levels >10 dB hearing level. Effective hearing loss prevention programs may be needed in occupations not historically considered to be at high risk of noise-induced hearing loss (e.g., day care workers). Prevention efforts need to address nonoccupational exposures as well as occupational exposures, as nonoccupational activities may present the dominant risk of noise-induced hearing loss for some workers. PMID:25209036

Neitzel, Richard L; Svensson, Eva B; Sayler, Stephanie K; Ann-Christin, Johnson

2014-01-01

46

Occupational exposure to benzene in South Korea.  

PubMed

Benzene has been used in various industries as glues or solvents in Korea. Since 1981, a preparation containing more than 1% benzene is not allowed to be manufactured, used or dealt with in the workplace, except in laboratories and in those situations benzene must be used in a completely sealed process as specified in Industrial Safety and Health Act (ISHA). Claims for compensation of hematopoietic diseases related to benzene have been rising even though the work environment has been improved. This study was conducted to assess the status of benzene exposure in different industries in Korea. We reviewed the claimed cases investigated by the Korea Occupational Safety and Health Agency (KOSHA) between 1992 and 2000. The Survey of National Work Environment Status in 1998 was analyzed to assume the number of workers and factories exposed to benzene. In 2000, six factories were investigated to evaluate benzene exposure. Personal air monitoring was performed in 61 workers and urine samples were collected from 57 workers to measure trans,trans-muconic acid (t,t-MA). Hematologic examination has performed. Thirty-four cases of hematopoietic diseases were investigated by KOSHA including eight cases of myelodysplastic syndrome and eight cases of acute myelocytic leukemia. Eight cases were accepted as related to benzene exposure. The number of workers possibly exposed to benzene can be estimated to be 196,182 workers from 6219 factories based on the database. The geometric mean of benzene in air was 0.094 (0.005-5.311) ppm. Seven samples were higher than 1 ppm but they did not go over the 10 ppm occupational exposure limit (OEL) value in Korea. The geometric mean of trans,trans-muconic acid in urine was 0.966 (0.24-2.74) mg/g creatinine. The benzene exposure level was low except in a factory where benzene was used to polymerize other chemicals. The ambient benzene from 0.1 to 1 ppm was significantly correlated with urine t,t-MA concentration (r=0.733, p<0.01). Hematologic parameters did not show significant difference among groups divided into the level of exposure. Korean workers were not highly exposed to benzene and the level of exposure was mostly less than 1 ppm. However, there might be an excessive risk of hematopoietic disorders due to relatively high past exposure. The OEL value of benzene was amended to 1 ppm from 10 ppm in 2002 and was effective since July 2003. PMID:15935801

Kang, Seong-Kyu; Lee, Mi-Young; Kim, Tae-Kyun; Lee, Jeong-Oh; Ahn, Yeon Soon

2005-05-30

47

Biologic interactions between smoking and occupational exposures  

SciTech Connect

Cigarette smoking is a major cause of cancer and lung disease in the U.S. population. The biological processes that underlie the response of the lung to cigarette smoke are important considerations for designing analyses of the effects of occupational exposures. Interactions between cigarette smoking and occupational exposures may occur through a combined effect on the mechanism of disease production, through an effect on the dose of the toxic substances that reach the target issue, or through an effect on the response of the lung to the toxic agents. Disease due to occupational exposures can occur in a similar pattern in both smokers and nonsmokers; however, as more complex interactions are examined, different responses to the same occupational exposure may be identified for smokers and nonsmokers. It is only through the successful intermingling of biologic information with epidemiologic data that these interactions can be fully examined. 66 references.

Burns, D.M.; Froines, J.R.; Jarvik, M.E.

1988-01-01

48

Occupational Pesticide Exposures and Respiratory Health  

PubMed Central

Pesticides have been widely used to control pest and pest-related diseases in agriculture, fishery, forestry and the food industry. In this review, we identify a number of respiratory symptoms and diseases that have been associated with occupational pesticide exposures. Impaired lung function has also been observed among people occupationally exposed to pesticides. There was strong evidence for an association between occupational pesticide exposure and asthma, especially in agricultural occupations. In addition, we found suggestive evidence for a link between occupational pesticide exposure and chronic bronchitis or COPD. There was inconclusive evidence for the association between occupational pesticide exposure and lung cancer. Better control of pesticide uses and enforcement of safety behaviors, such as using personal protection equipment (PPE) in the workplace, are critical for reducing the risk of developing pesticide-related symptoms and diseases. Educational training programs focusing on basic safety precautions and proper uses of personal protection equipment (PPE) are possible interventions that could be used to control the respiratory diseases associated with pesticide exposure in occupational setting. PMID:24287863

Ye, Ming; Beach, Jeremy; Martin, Jonathan W.; Senthilselvan, Ambikaipakan

2013-01-01

49

A Comparison of REACH-Derived No-Effect Levels for Workers With EU Indicative Occupational Exposure Limit Values and National Limit Values in Finland.  

PubMed

The purpose of occupational exposure limits values (OELs) is to regulate exposure to chemicals and minimize the risk of health effects at work. National authorities are responsible for the setting and updating of national OELs. In addition, the EU sets indicative occupational exposure limit values (IOELVs), which have to be considered by the Member States. Under the new European legislation on chemicals (REACH), manufacturers and importers are obliged to establish derived no-effect levels (DNELs) for chemicals that are manufactured or imported in quantities >10 tonnes per year. Chemical safety data sheets must report both OELs and the DNEL values, if such have been set. This may cause confusion at workplaces, especially if the values differ from each other. In this study, we explored how EU IOELVs and Finnish national OELs [Haitallisiksi tunnetut pitoisuudet (HTP) values] correlate with worker inhalation DNELs for substances registered under REACH. The long-term DNEL value for workers (inhalation) was identical to the corresponding IOELV for the majority of the substances (64/87 cases). Comparison of DNELs with HTP values revealed that the values were identical or close to each other in 159 cases (49%), whereas the DNEL was considerably higher in 69 cases, and considerably lower in 87 cases. Examples of cases with high differences between Finnish national OELs and DNELs are given. However, as the DNELs were not systematically lower than the OELs, the default assessment factors suggested by REACH technical guidance had obviously not been used in many of the REACH registrations. PMID:25638729

Tynkkynen, Sallamari; Santonen, Tiina; Stockmann-Juvala, Helene

2015-05-01

50

DOE occupational radiation exposure. Report 1992--1994  

SciTech Connect

The DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report, 1992-1994 reports occupational radiation exposures incurred by individuals at US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities from 1992 through 1994. This report includes occupational radiation exposure information for all DOE employees, contractors, subcontractors, and visitors. This information is analyzed and trended over time to provide a measure of the DOE`s performance in protecting its workers from radiation. Occupational radiation exposure at DOE has been decreasing over the past 5 years. In particular, doses in the higher dose ranges are decreasing, including the number of doses in excess of the DOE limits and doses in excess of the 2 rem Administrative Control Level (ACL). This is an indication of greater attention being given to protecting these individuals from radiation in the workplace.

NONE

1997-05-01

51

[Biological monitoring of occupational exposure to aluminum].  

PubMed

The meaning and usefulness of biological indicators in the study of occupational exposure to aluminium (Al) was assessed on the basis of the most recently acquired knowledge on the toxicokinetics of aluminium absorbed by inhalation, results of environmental and biological investigations recently carried out in industrial sectors with low risk of aluminium absorption (refining, casting and pressure moulding covering a total of 8 plants and 119 workers) and the results of investigations on a group of welders exposed to Al concentrations between 5 and 10 mg/m3. It was confirmed that not only the environmental Al concentrations but also certain chemical and physical characteristics (particle size, allotropic state, solubility), simultaneous exposure to other dusts, and mode of exposure (existence of exposure peaks) play a significant role in lung absorption of Al. Urinary Al (AlU) may be considered as an indicator of "recent" exposure with biphase excretion kinetics influenced also by duration of exposure, whereas Al in serum (AlS) can probably furnish indications both on overall exposure and on body burden. In low-level Al exposure (below 0.5 mg/m3), these indicators (especially AlU) permit differentiation of the exposed groups from the general population without, however, any clear relationship with the various environmental Al concentrations. It was also seen that AlU increased with increasing work seniority and was more marked in certain processes, such as casting, and in the first few months or years of work.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1297061

Apostoli, P; Lucchini, R; Maccarrone, R; Alessio, L

1992-01-01

52

Nucleoplasmic bridges and acrocentric chromosome associations as early markers of exposure to low levels of ionising radiation in occupationally exposed hospital workers.  

PubMed

Ionising radiation, with the contribution of telomere shortening, induces DNA double-strand breaks that result in chromosome end fusion, nucleoplasmic bridges (NPBs) and chromosome aberrations (ChAbs) as well as dicentric chromosomes. In order to investigate the chromosomal damage induced by occupational ionising radiation at low exposure levels, and to find early markers of health hazard, peripheral lymphocytes of occupationally exposed hospital workers were cytogenetically analysed. Results showed a significant difference in the frequency of ChAbs in exposed subjects relative to controls. A significant number of NPBs between nuclei of binucleated cultured lymphocytes from exposed subjects were also observed, as well as a consistent amount of acrocentric chromosomes with associations of their short arms. Excluding confounding factors, the frequencies of all these three biological endpoints differed significantly in exposed subjects from those in controls. Because the absence of telomeres and/or their short length could be a common root for both the findings, we utilised fluorescence in situ hybridisation technique with telomeric repeat as probe to demonstrate that, in exposed subjects, chromatin of short arms of involved acrocentric chromosomes did not exhibit a telomeric shortening but appeared strongly decondensed. This finding suggests that NPBs and telomeric acrocentric association should be regarded as early markers of exposure to low levels of ionising radiation and their increase should be seen as an early warning for the health of the involved workers. PMID:25381312

Caradonna, Fabio

2015-03-01

53

Modeling Human Metabolism of Benzene Following Occupational and Environmental Exposures  

E-print Network

Modeling Human Metabolism of Benzene Following Occupational and Environmental Exposures Sungkyoon) models to investigate nonlinear relationships between levels of benzene metabolites (E,E- muconic acid, S-phenylmercapturic acid, phenol, hydroqui- none, and catechol) and benzene exposure among 386 exposed and control workers

California at Berkeley, University of

54

Unusual Non-Occupational Exposure to Metals  

PubMed Central

Exposure to metals at workplaces is well known and in many cases occupational studies led to an adoption of limit values. For airborne concentrations of substances as metals refer to the “Maximaleo Arbeitsplatz-Konzentration” (MAK) in Germany or the “Threshold Limit Value” (TLV) in USA. Biological monitoring consists of an assessment of overall exposure to chemicals at the workplace and in the environment. The “Biologischer Arbeitsstoff Toleranzwert” (BAT) in Germany and the “Biological Exposure Index” in the USA serve as reference values. Besides these occupational limit values, reference values exist in Germany for the background exposure of the non occupationally exposed general population. In some cases the reference values are exceeded without any occupational exposure. Several cases of unusual environmental exposure to cobalt, mercury and manganese are reported. In such cases, it is often difficult to evaluate the measured concentration. In Germany, therefore, the “Human-Biomonitoring-Werte” (HBMValues) have been adopted in order to evaluate such high background exposures. The HBM-concept is presented. Environmental exposure to metals is usual within some limits. Reference values are helpful for an assessment. Unusual exposure occurs and the physician should be alert to symptoms of poisoning. PMID:18365042

Wrbitzky, Renate

2003-01-01

55

Total mercury levels in hair, toenail, and urine among women free from occupational exposure and their relations to renal tubular function  

SciTech Connect

To investigate the relations among total mercury levels in hair, toenail, and urine, together with potential effects of methylmercury intake on renal tubular function, we determined their levels, and urinary N-acetyl-{beta}-d-glucosaminidase activity (NAG) and {alpha}{sub 1}-microglobulin (AMG) in 59 women free from occupational exposures, and estimated daily mercury intakes from fish and other seafood using a food frequency questionnaire. Mercury levels (mean+/-SD) in the women were 1.51+/-0.91{mu}g/g in hair, 0.59+/-0.32{mu}g/g in toenail, and 0.86+/-0.66{mu}g/g creatinine in urine; and, there were positive correlations among them (P<0.001). The daily mercury intake of 9.15+/-7.84{mu}g/day was significantly correlated with total mercury levels in hair, toenail, and urine (r=0.551, 0.537, and 0.604, P<0.001). Among the women, the NAG and AMG were positively correlated with both the daily mercury intake and mercury levels in hair, toenail, and urine (P<0.01); and, these relations were almost similar when using multiple regression analysis to adjust for possible confounders such as urinary cadmium (0.47+/-0.28{mu}g/g creatinine) and smoking status. In conclusion, mercury resulting from fish consumption can explain total mercury levels in hair, toenail, and urine to some degree (about 30%), partly through the degradation into the inorganic form, and it may confound the renal tubular effect of other nephrotoxic agents. Also, the following equation may be applicable to the population neither with dental amalgam fillings nor with occupational exposures: [hair mercury ({mu}g/g)]=2.44x[toenail mercury ({mu}g/g)].

Ohno, Tomoko [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Akita University School of Medicine, 1-1-1 Hondo, Akita 010-8543 (Japan); Sakamoto, Mineshi [Department of Epidemiology, National Institute for Minamata Disease, Minamata 867-0008 (Japan); Kurosawa, Tomoko [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Akita University School of Medicine, 1-1-1 Hondo, Akita 010-8543 (Japan); Dakeishi, Miwako [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Akita University School of Medicine, 1-1-1 Hondo, Akita 010-8543 (Japan); Iwata, Toyoto [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Akita University School of Medicine, 1-1-1 Hondo, Akita 010-8543 (Japan); Murata, Katsuyuki [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Akita University School of Medicine, 1-1-1 Hondo, Akita 010-8543 (Japan)]. E-mail: winestem@med.akita-u.ac.jp

2007-02-15

56

Effects of occupational lead exposure.  

PubMed

Fifty-three workers in a battery factory, 52 solderers in a television factory, and 50 embroidery workers (a reference group) were studied. The average air lead levels of the three workplaces were 0.578 mg/m3, 0.002 mg/m3, and 0.001 mg/m3, respectively. Adverse effects in terms of clinical manifestations and biochemical criteria were evident among the battery factory workers. A significant dose-response relationship existed between the toxic effects and the air lead levels. The solderers showed no apparent abnormalities in comparison with the embroidery workers. The early clinical manifestations were dysfunction of the central nervous system, indigestion, arthralgia, and myalgia in the extremities. A positive association was observed between the prevalence of fatigue, mild abdominal pain, and arthralgia and the blood lead (PbB), urinary lead (PbU), and zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) levels. The symptomatic threshold values of PbB, PbU, and ZPP were 30 micrograms/dl (1.5 mumol/l), 0.045 mg/l (0.2 mumol/l), and 40 micrograms/dl (0.7 mumol/l), respectively. The PbB, PbU, free erythrocyte protoporphyrin, and ZPP levels and the blood aminolevulinic dehydratase ratio could be used as indicators of lead exposure, although ZPP is preferred for a preventive monitoring program. The motor and sensory conduction velocities of the median nerve were slower in the exposed groups than in the reference group. No effects on behavioral function were observed among the solderers. PMID:3832431

Wang, Y L; Lu, P K; Chen, Z Q; Liang, Y X; Lu, Q M; Pan, Z Q; Shao, M

1985-01-01

57

Occupational exposures and lung cancer in New Caledonia  

PubMed Central

Aims: To study the associations between occupational exposures and the risk of lung cancer in New Caledonia. Methods: All cases diagnosed between January 1993 and December 1995 (228 lung cancers) and 305 population controls were included. Detailed information on lifetime job history, smoking, and other potential risk factors was collected by interview. Occupational exposures were assessed from the questionnaires by an industrial hygienist, without knowledge of case-control status. Results: No significant association was found with exposures related to nickel mining and refining, the main industrial activity in the territory. Among men, an excess risk of lung cancer was found for bus and truck drivers. Increased risks were also observed in men with the highest level of cumulative exposure to cleaning products and inorganic fertilisers. Exposure to field dust was associated with lung cancer risk in both sexes, and risk increased with cumulative exposure level. In some areas tremolite asbestos derived from local outcroppings was used as a whitewash. The association between exposure to field dust and lung cancer was limited to men and women exposed to this whitewash—that is, living in areas where the soil may contain tremolite. Conclusion: This study shows several associations between occupational exposures and lung cancer. The findings suggest that exposure to tremolite fibres from cultivated fields may increase the risk of lung cancer in New Caledonia. PMID:12883019

Menvielle, G; Luce, D; Fevotte, J; Bugel, I; Salomon, C; Goldberg, P; Billon-Galland, M; Goldberg, M

2003-01-01

58

Paternal Occupational Exposures and Childhood Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the study described here was to test the hypothesis that paternal occupational exposure near conception increases the risk of cancer in the offspring. We conducted a cohort study based on a population of 235,635 children born shortly after two different censuses in Sweden. The children were followed from birth to 14 years, and cases of cancer were

Maria Feychting; Nils Plato; Gun Nise; Anders Ahlbom

2001-01-01

59

Parental Occupational Exposures and Autism Spectrum Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Both self-report and industrial hygienist (IH) assessed parental occupational information were used in this pilot study in which 174 families (93 children with ASD and 81 unaffected children) enrolled in the Childhood Autism Risks from Genetics and Environment study participated. IH results indicated exposures to lacquer, varnish, and xylene…

McCanlies, Erin C.; Fekedulegn, Desta; Mnatsakanova, Anna; Burchfiel, Cecil M.; Sanderson, Wayne T.; Charles, Luenda E.; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva

2012-01-01

60

Congenital malformation and maternal occupational exposure to glycol ethers. Occupational Exposure and Congenital Malformations Working Group.  

PubMed

Glycol ethers are found in a wide range of domestic and industrial products, many of which are used in women's work environments. Motivated by concern about their potential reproductive toxicity, we have evaluated the risk of congenital malformations related to glycol ether exposure during pregnancy as part of a multicenter case-control study, conducted in six regions in Europe. The study comprised 984 cases of major congenital malformations and 1,134 controls matched for place and date of birth. Interviews of the mothers provided information about occupation during pregnancy, sociodemographic variables, and other potential risk factors (medical history, tobacco, alcohol, drugs). A chemist specializing in glycol ethers evaluated exposure during pregnancy, using the job description given by the mother, without knowledge of case or control status. We classified malformations into 22 subgroups. The overall odds ratio (OR) of congenital malformation associated with glycol ether exposure was 1.44 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.10-1.90], after adjustment for several potential confounders. The association with exposure to glycol ethers appeared particularly strong in three subgroups: neural tube defects (OR = 1.94; 95% CI = 1.16-3.24), multiple anomalies (OR = 2.00; 95% CI = 1.24-3.23), and cleft lip (OR = 2.03; 95% CI = 1.11-3.73). In this last subgroup, risk, especially of an isolated defect, tended to increase with level of exposure. PMID:9209847

Cordier, S; Bergeret, A; Goujard, J; Ha, M C; Aymé, S; Bianchi, F; Calzolari, E; De Walle, H E; Knill-Jones, R; Candela, S; Dale, I; Dananché, B; de Vigan, C; Fevotte, J; Kiel, G; Mandereau, L

1997-07-01

61

Occupational exposure and analysis of microcrystalline cristobalite in mullite operations.  

PubMed

Three analytical methods currently used for crystalline free silica determination in occupational exposure samples were evaluated for their applicability to ceramic materials containing synthetic mullite. X-ray powder diffraction is the only method that can be used with sufficient precision and potentially adequate accuracy for occupational exposure monitoring. Personal respirable dust exposure samples were collected in two foundries. The results of exposure evaluations in Plant A showed overexposure to the dust, particularly in the shakeout area. The cristobalite concentration in the respirable dust exceeded that in the original material for this particular area. This may be related to the preheating of molds to more than 1100 degrees C for the pouring of stainless steel castings, causing conversion of some of the colloidal silica binder to cristobalite, and related to high vibration fracture of the material during removal of castings from molds. In Plant B, quartz was sometimes present along with cristobalite in personal samples. Respirable dust levels exceeded the Occupational Safety and Health Administration's (OSHA) permissible exposure limit (PEL) and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health's (NIOSH) recommended time-weighted average (TWA) for crystalline free silica, indicating a need for better engineering controls to reduce dust levels. The inadequacy of reference standards currently available for cristobalite analysis in these types of materials is cited. The need for more toxicological research is emphasized. PMID:2552786

Janko, M; McCrae, R E; O'Donnell, J F; Austria, R J

1989-09-01

62

Adenocarcinoma of the stomach and exposure to occupational dust  

SciTech Connect

The authors studied 1342 cases of adenocarcinoma of the stomach identified by a population-based cancer registry in Los Angeles County, California. The cases were males aged 20-64 years first diagnosed between 1972 and 1982. To determine whether exposure to occupational dust increased the risk of developing stomach cancer, occupational titles were rated for the likelihood of exposure to various kinds of dust. Men who worked in dusty jobs had a risk for developing stomach cancer 1.3 times that of unexposed men. The association of exposure to dust with stomach cancer was stronger at higher levels of exposure. The risk was not uniform throughout the stomach: the highest risk (1.8 times that of unexposed men) was found for the antrum/pylorus. At that site, exposure to mineral dust carried the greatest risk for cancer (3.7 times the risk for unexposed men). The highest risks from dust exposure were observed in blacks. Risk was related to race, socioeconomic status, and immigrant status, but these factors did not entirely explain the association with dust exposure. The observed relation between dust exposure and stomach cancer is consistent with results of previous mortality and case-control studies of cancer in men who worked in dusty occupations. Ingested dust may be one factor in the etiology of adenocarcinoma of the stomach.

Wright, W.E.; Bernstein, L.; Peters, J.M.; Garabrant, D.H.; Mack, T.M.

1988-07-01

63

Soft tissue sarcoma and occupational exposures  

SciTech Connect

The associations between soft tissue sarcoma (STS) and occupational exposures were studied in a case-referent study in the southeast of Sweden. Exposure information was obtained through mailed questionnaires to 96 cases, 450 randomly selected population referents, and 200 cancer referents. Odds ratios (OR), were calculated for various occupational groups, and particularly, for occupations with potential exposure to chlorinated phenoxy herbicides and chlorophenols. In the analyses based on population referents, increased risks for soft tissue sarcoma were seen for especially gardeners (OR = 4.1), but also railroad workers (OR = 3.1); construction workers with exposure to impregnating agents (OR = 2.3), asbestos (OR = 1.8), or pressure impregnating agents (OR = 1.7); and unspecified chemical workers with potential exposure to phenoxy herbicides and/or chlorophenols (OR = 1.6). A similar pattern appeared when cancer referents were used although the numerical values of the odds ratios became different. A grouping of jobs resulted in Mantel-Haensel OR from 1.5 to 1.9 for farmers and forestry workers, dependent on referents used and even more increased OR for railroad workers and unspecified chemical workers with potential exposure to phenoxy herbicides and chlorophenols. The results of the study confirm rather than refute that phenoxy herbicides and chlorophenols could be of etiologic importance for STS; the high risk for gardeners, although based on a small number of individuals, was unexpected and remains unclear. Also, since other cancers were used as referents, no definite problems of recall bias should obtain in this material. None of the exposed groups had a higher proportion of smokers than the unexposed group.

Wingren, G.; Fredrikson, M.; Brage, H.N.; Nordenskjoeld, B.A.; Axelson, O. (University Hospital, Linkoeping (Sweden))

1990-08-15

64

Lead exposure among five distinct occupational groups: a comparative study.  

PubMed

This study was conducted to evaluate blood lead concentration among five selected occupational groups. The five groups were: hospital health workers, shop workers, taxi drivers, automobiles mechanics, and wood workers. The groups did not significantly differ among each other in the average of age and work years. ANOVA test revealed significantly higher mean lead blood concentration in taxi drivers, automechanics, and wood workers compared to other groups. Additionally, workers with lead concentration >0.483 umol/L (10?g/dL) were more likely to have frequent muscle pain compared to those with lower concentrations. No association between other symptoms of lead exposure/toxicity and blood lead concentration was detected. In conclusion, special attention must be directed toward lead blood levels and lead poisoning symptoms when examining patients from certain occupational groups such as taxi drivers, automechanics, and wood workers. Special safety precautions and educational programs are also needed to limit the lead exposure in these occupational groups. PMID:24374433

Gharaibeh, Mohammad Younis; Alzoubi, Karem Hasan; Khabour, Omar Falah; Khader, Yousef Saleh; Gharaibeh, Mamoun Abdallah; Matarneh, Sulaiman Khalid

2014-01-01

65

Monitoring occupational exposure to cancer chemotherapy drugs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Reports of the health effects of handling cytotoxic drugs and compliance with guidelines for handling these agents are briefly reviewed, and studies using analytical and biological methods of detecting exposure are evaluated. There is little conclusive evidence of detrimental health effects from occupational exposure to cytotoxic drugs. Work practices have improved since the issuance of guidelines for handling these drugs, but compliance with the recommended practices is still inadequate. Of 64 reports published since 1979 on studies of workers' exposure to these drugs, 53 involved studies of changes in cellular or molecular endpoints (biological markers) and 12 described chemical analyses of drugs or their metabolites in urine (2 involved both, and 2 reported the same study). The primary biological markers used were urine mutagenicity, sister chromatid exchange, and chromosomal aberrations; other studies involved formation of micronuclei and measurements of urinary thioethers. The studies had small sample sizes, and the methods were qualitative, nonspecific, subject to many confounders, and possibly not sensitive enough to detect most occupational exposures. Since none of the currently available biological and analytical methods is sufficiently reliable or reproducible for routine monitoring of exposure in the workplace, further studies using these methods are not recommended; efforts should focus instead on wide-spread implementation of improved practices for handling cytotoxic drugs.

Baker, E. S.; Connor, T. H.

1996-01-01

66

Occupational exposure to crystalline silica and autoimmune disease.  

PubMed Central

Occupational exposure to silica dust has been examined as a possible risk factor with respect to several systemic autoimmune diseases, including scleroderma, rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and some of the small vessel vasculitidies with renal involvement (e.g., Wegener granulomatosis). Crystalline silica, or quartz, is an abundant mineral found in sand, rock, and soil. High-level exposure to respirable silica dust can cause chronic inflammation and fibrosis in the lung and other organs. Studies of specific occupational groups with high-level silica exposure (e.g., miners) have shown increased rates of autoimmune diseases compared to the expected rates in the general population. However, some clinic- and population-based studies have not demonstrated an association between silica exposure and risk of autoimmune diseases. This lack of effect may be due to the limited statistical power of these studies to examine this association or because the lower- or moderate-level exposures that may be more common in the general population were not considered. Experimental studies demonstrate that silica can act as an adjuvant to nonspecifically enhance the immune response. This is one mechanism by which silica might be involved in the development of autoimmune diseases. Given that several different autoimmune diseases may be associated with silica dust exposure, silica dust may act to promote or accelerate disease development, requiring some other factor to break immune tolerance or initiate autoimmunity. The specific manifestation of this effect may depend on underlying differences in genetic susceptibility or other environmental exposures. PMID:10970168

Parks, C G; Conrad, K; Cooper, G S

1999-01-01

67

Occupational and recreational noise exposure from indoor arena hockey games.  

PubMed

Occupational and recreational noise exposures were evaluated at two sporting arenas hosting collegiate hockey games (Venue 1) and semi-professional hockey (Venue 2). A total of 54 personal noise dosimetry samples were taken over the course of seven home hockey games: 15 workers and 9 fans at Venue 1, and 19 workers and 11 fans at Venue 2. None of the sampled workers were overexposed to noise based on Occupational Safety and Health Administration criteria. However, 40% and 57% of workers at Venue 1 and 33% and 91% of fans at Venue 2 were overexposed based on ACGIH noise exposure criteria. Noise exposures for fans were significantly different between venues, but worker noise exposures between venues were not significantly different. In addition, extensive area noise monitoring was conducted at each venue to further characterize the stadium noise on a location-by-location basis. Mean equivalent sound pressure levels ranged from 81 to 96 dBA at Venue 1 and from 85 to 97 dBA at Venue 2. Mean noise peak levels ranged from 105 to 124 dBA at Venue 1, and from 110 to 117 dBA at Venue 2. These data reflect the potential for overexposure at indoor hockey events and are useful in characterizing occupational noise exposure of indoor arena support staff and may also provide a foundation for future noise control research in indoor sports arenas. PMID:23145529

Cranston, Cory J; Brazile, William J; Sandfort, Delvin R; Gotshall, Robert W

2013-01-01

68

Occupational exposure to diesel engine exhaust: A literature review  

PubMed Central

Background Diesel exhaust (DE) is classified as a probable human carcinogen. Aims were to describe the major occupational uses of diesel engines and give an overview of personal DE exposure levels and determinants of exposure as reported in the published literature. Methods Measurements representative of personal DE exposure were abstracted from the literature for the following agents: elemental carbon (EC), particulate matter (PM), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxide (NO), and nitrogen dioxide (NO2). Information on determinants of exposure was abstracted. Results In total, 3528 EC, 4166 PM, 581 CO, 322 NO, and 1404 NO2 measurements were abstracted. From the 10,001 measurements, 32% represented exposure from on-road vehicles, and 68% from off-road vehicles (30% mining, 15% railroad, and 22% other). Highest levels were reported for enclosed underground work sites where heavy equipment is used: mining, mine maintenance, and construction, (EC: 27-658 ?g/m3). Intermediate exposure levels were generally reported for above ground (semi-)enclosed areas where smaller equipment was run: mechanics in a shop, emergency workers in fire stations, distribution workers at a dock, and workers loading/unloading inside a ferry (generally: EC< 50 ?g/m3). Lowest levels were reported for enclosed areas separated from the source such as drivers and train crew, or outside such as surface mining, parking attendants, vehicle testers, utility service workers, surface construction and airline ground personnel (EC<25 ?g/m3). The other agents showed a similar pattern. Determinants of exposure reported for enclosed situations were ventilation and exhaust after treatment devices. Conclusions Reported DE exposure levels were highest for underground mining and construction, intermediate for working in above ground (semi-)enclosed areas and lowest for working outside or separated from the source. The presented data can be used as a basis for assessing occupational exposure in population-based epidemiological studies and guide future exposure assessment efforts for industrial hygiene and epidemiological studies. PMID:19277070

Pronk, Anjoeka; Coble, Joseph; Stewart, Patricia

2010-01-01

69

RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access Diet, occupational exposure and early asthma  

E-print Network

RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access Diet, occupational exposure and early asthma incidence among bakers,2 and Denis Zmirou-Navier1,2,3 Abstract Background: The natural history of occupational asthma (OA settings. Keywords: Occupational asthma, Epidemiology, Atopy, Vitamins Background Occupational asthma (OA

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

70

Evaluation of the protective effectiveness of gloves from occupational exposure to 2-methoxyethanol using the biomarkers of 2-methoxyacetic acid levels in the urine and plasma  

PubMed Central

Aims: To evaluate the protective effectiveness of gloves from occupational exposure to 2-methoxyethanol (2-ME); and to examine the association of 2-methoxyacetic acid (MAA) in urine and plasma collected simultaneously from low 2-ME exposure and high 2-ME exposure workers in a semiconductor copper laminate circuit board manufacturing plant. Methods: Eight hour time weighted breathing zone monitoring was performed to verify the 2-ME exposure classification between workers in regular and special operations. Urine and plasma samples were simultaneously collected from 74 exposed and 80 non-exposed workers. MAA concentrations in the urine (UMAA) and plasma (PMAA) were measured using previously published methods. Three types of gloves worn by workers (cotton, rubber, and no gloves) were recorded by direct observations in the workplace and validated by person-to-person interview. Protective effectiveness indices (PEI) were used to evaluate the glove effectiveness. Results: There was no detectable 2-ME/MAA in the air, or in urine and plasma samples in non-exposed workers. The average UMAA and PMAA in special operations were 72.63 mg/g Cr. and 29.72 mg/l, significantly higher than values in regular operations (5.44 mg/g Cr. and 2.58 mg/l, respectively). PMAA showed satisfactory correlation to UMAA in all participants from both regular and special operations. The rubber gloves provided significant reduction in 2-ME uptake, whereas cotton gloves provided little protection with fluctuating effectiveness, based on PEI estimates. Conclusions: PMAA, similar to UMAA, could serve as a specific biomarker for 2-ME exposure. Wearing impermeable rubber gloves during high risk tasks can reduce major 2-ME exposure. Other improvements, including engineering control, should be provided to diminish worker exposure to 2-ME in occupational environments. PMID:15258277

Chang, H; Lin, C; Shih, T; Chan, H; Chou, J; Huang, Y

2004-01-01

71

Gene-environment interaction and biological monitoring of occupational exposures  

SciTech Connect

Biological monitoring methods and biological limit values applied in occupational and environmental medicine have been traditionally developed on the assumption that individuals do not differ significantly in their biotransformation capacities. It has become clear, however, that this is not the case, but wide inter-individual differences exist in the metabolism of chemicals. Integration of the data on individual metabolic capacity in biological monitoring studies is therefore anticipated to represent a significant refinement of the currently used methods. We have recently conducted several biological monitoring studies on occupationally exposed subjects, which have included the determination of the workers' genotypes for the metabolic genes of potential importance for a given chemical exposure. The exposure levels have been measured by urine metabolites, adducts in blood macromolecules, and cytogenetic alterations in lymphocytes. Our studies indicate that genetic polymorphisms in metabolic genes may indeed be important modifiers of individual biological monitoring results of, e.g., carbon disulphide and styrene. The information is anticipated to be useful in insuring that the workplace is safe for everyone, including the most sensitive individuals. This knowledge could also be useful to occupational physicians, industrial hygienists, and regulatory bodies in charge of defining acceptable exposure limits for environmental and/or occupational pollutants.

Hirvonen, Ari [Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Topeliuksenkatu 41 a A, 00250 Helsinki (Finland)]. E-mail: Ari.Hirvonen@ttl.fi

2005-09-01

72

Surveillance for occupational lead exposure--United States, 1987  

SciTech Connect

Since 1981, four states (California, New Jersey, New York, and Texas) have implemented surveillance systems for occupational lead exposure. Although the details of these systems vary, each state requires any laboratory that performs blood-lead assays to report all elevated blood-lead levels (BLLs) to the state health department (SHD). This report summarizes 1987 surveillance data from these states on adults with BLL greater than or equal to 40 ug/dL of whole blood.

Not Available

1989-11-03

73

Occupational Exposure to Metalworking Fluid Mist and Sump Fluid Contaminants  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper summarizes the analytical and occupational hygiene findings from a recent survey of occupational exposure to metalworking fluids (MWFs) in the engineering industry. The aim of the survey was to link MWF mist exposure measurements with particular engineering processes and controls, and utilize the data obtained to develop exposure standards. At the same time the opportunity was taken to

A. T. SIMPSON; M. STEAR; J. A. GROVES; M. PINEY; S. D. BRADLEY; S. STAGG; B. CROOK

2003-01-01

74

Environmental and Occupational Exposures in Immigrant Health  

PubMed Central

Immigrants comprise vulnerable populations that are frequently exposed to a multitude of environmental and occupational hazards. The historical context behind state and federal legislation has helped to foster an environment that is particularly hostile toward caring for immigrant health. Current hazards include toxic exposures, air and noise pollution, motor vehicle accidents, crowded living and work environments with inadequate ventilation, poor sanitation, mechanical injury, among many others. Immigrants lack the appropriate training, materials, health care access, and other resources to reduce their exposure to preventable environmental and occupational health risks. This dilemma is exacerbated by current anti-immigrant sentiments, miscommunication between native and immigrant populations, and legislation denying immigrants access to publicly funded medical care. Given that current health policy has failed to address immigrant health appropriately and political impetus is lacking, efforts should also focus on alternative solutions, including organized labor. Labor unions that serve to educate workers, survey work environments, and defend worker rights will greatly alleviate and prevent the burden of disease incurred by immigrants. The nation’s health will benefit from improved regulation of living and workplace environments to improve the health of immigrants, regardless of legal status. PMID:21572847

Eamranond, Pracha P.; Hu, Howard

2008-01-01

75

Cardiovascular disease and occupational exposure to environmental tobacco smoke.  

PubMed

Results of chemical analysis, animal experiments, and human studies are reviewed, criticized, and found not to support claims of an association between workers exposed to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and occupational coronary heart disease. This review also recommends refinement of the use of dose surrogates, as presently practiced by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), for regulating indoor emissions from combustion engines, coal furnaces, tobacco leaf processing, rayon viscose manufacturing, and rubber curing. The work standards OSHA uses for regulation of these complex mixtures could also be used in evaluating ETS and relate to the following constituents of ETS: nicotine, carbon monoxide, benzo[a]pyrene, and carbon disulfide. The data indicate that the levels of these substances potentially arising from ETS are many orders of magnitude below their respective PELs. Thus, based on the standards for exposure surrogates for other complex mixtures, the potential worker exposure from ETS does not require further regulation by OSHA, based on cardiovascular disease. PMID:8776200

Aviado, D M

1996-03-01

76

Parental occupational exposure and spontaneous abortions in Finland  

SciTech Connect

Spontaneous abortions were analyzed by the occupational exposure of women and their husbands, with data from the Finnish hospital discharge register and the national census. The occupations were grouped according to presumed exposure into seven categories: exposure to solvent; automobile exhaust fumes; polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; other chemicals; metals; textile dust; and animal microorganisms. The relative risks of spontaneous abortion were estimated with logistic regression analysis to adjust for potentially confounding factors. The broad exposure categories appeared, at most, to be weak risk factors of spontaneous abortion, because the relative risks of abortion were not significantly increased in any of the parental exposure groups. The analysis of detailed occupational categories showed some female and male occupations with an increased risk. The observations of increased risk related to laboratory work supported earlier findings. The high number of textile occupations with increased risk is also worth noting, and further investigations are necessary to confirm whether this is due to occupational hazards or other factors.

Lindbohm, M.L.; Hemminki, K.; Kyyroenen, P.

1984-09-01

77

Airborne mineral fibre levels in the non-occupational environment.  

PubMed

Numerous sources of asbestos exist that may contribute to non-occupational exposures, among the important ones being building surfacing materials that have been damaged or allowed to deteriorate. Even more important is the potential exposure from improperly controlled maintenance activities in buildings. Evidence exists suggesting that vehicle braking makes a significant contribution to ambient asbestos levels, but more data are required to establish its extent. Many asbestos materials are present in homes, and fibres may be released during home renovations or repairs. Little information exists on the levels of other mineral fibres in the non-occupational environment or on the relative contributions from potential sources. PMID:2663713

Nicholson, W J

1989-01-01

78

Exposure assessment in occupational epidemiology: measuring present exposures with an example of a study of occupational asthma  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the present paper is to present a comprehensive review of the issues involved in exposure assessment for occupational\\u000a epidemiology studies and to provide an example. Exposure assessment for occupational epidemiology studies is becoming more\\u000a quantitatively refined. This paper discusses important issues that need to be taken into account for exposure assessment,\\u000a with particular reference to occupational asthma.

Mark J. Nieuwenhuijsen

1997-01-01

79

Cardiac Autonomic Dysfunction from Occupational Exposure to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons  

PubMed Central

Objectives Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) exposures have been associated with cardiopulmonary mortality and cardiovascular events. This study investigated the association between a biological marker of PAHs exposure, assessed by urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP), and heart rate variability (HRV) in an occupational cohort of boilermakers. Methods Continuous 24-hour monitoring of the ambulatory electrocardiogram (ECG) and pre and post shift urinary 1-OHP were repeated over extended periods of the work week. Mixed effects models were fit for the 5-minute standard deviation of normal-to-normal intervals (SDNN) in relation to urinary 1-OHP levels pre and post workshift on the day they wore the monitor, controlling for potential confounders. Results We found a significant decrease in 5-min SDNN during work of ?13.6% (95% confidence interval, ?17.2% to ?9.8%) for every standard deviation (0.53 microgram/gram [?g/g] creatinine) increase in the next-morning pre-shift 1-OHP levels. The magnitude of reduction in 5-min SDNN were largest during the late night period after work and increased with every standard deviation (0.46 ?g/g creatinine) increase in post-shift 1-OHP levels. Conclusion This is the first report providing evidence that occupational exposure to PAHs is associated with altered cardiac autonomic function. Acute exposure to PAHs may be an important predictor of cardiovascular disease risk in the work environment. PMID:21172795

Lee, Mi-Sun; Magari, Shannon; Christiani, David C.

2013-01-01

80

Preconception Brief: Occupational/Environmental Exposures  

PubMed Central

In the last decade, more than half of U.S. children were born to working mothers and 65% of working men and women were of reproductive age. In 2004 more than 28 million women age 18–44 were employed full time. This implies the need for clinicians to possess an awareness about the impact of work on the health of their patients and their future offspring. Most chemicals in the workplace have not been evaluated for reproductive toxicity, and where exposure limits do exist, they were generally not designed to mitigate reproductive risk. Therefore, many toxicants with unambiguous reproductive and developmental effects are still in regular commercial or therapeutic use and thus present exposure potential to workers. Examples of these include heavy metals, (lead, cadmium), organic solvents (glycol ethers, percholoroethylene), pesticides and herbicides (ethylene dibromide) and sterilants, anesthetic gases and anti-cancer drugs used in healthcare. Surprisingly, many of these reproductive toxicants are well represented in traditional employment sectors of women, such as healthcare and cosmetology. Environmental exposures also figure prominently in evaluating a woman’s health risk and that to a pregnancy. Food and water quality and pesticide and solvent usage are increasingly topics raised by women and men contemplating pregnancy. The microenvironment of a woman, such as her choices of hobbies and leisure time activities also come into play. Caregivers must be aware of their patients’ potential environmental and workplace exposures and weigh any risk of exposure in the context of the time-dependent window of reproductive susceptibility. This will allow informed decision-making about the need for changes in behavior, diet, hobbies or the need for added protections on the job or alternative duty assignment. Examples of such environmental and occupational history elements will be presented together with counseling strategies for the clinician. PMID:16897370

Gehle, Kim

2006-01-01

81

OCCUPATIONAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL PESTICIDE EXPOSURE STUDY IN SOUTH FLORIDA  

EPA Science Inventory

The investigation was designed to assess the occupational and environmental exposure to pesticides in South Florida, an area where pesticides are widely used. In addition to the conventional approach for measuring exposure to organophosphates and carbamates by means of cholineste...

82

[New data on occupational exposure to isocyanates].  

PubMed

During recent decades the industrial use of isocyanates has expanded enormously due to the huge product palette with a variety of different properties. As opposed to the fast technical development, there is a delay in the formulation of respective occupational health and safety regulations. Adverse health effects of isocyanates are mainly due to inhalative exposure. In addition, cutaneous contact causes toxic as well as allergic reactions. Oligomeric and polymeric isocyanates that are mostly used in the industry are only regulated in the Technical Rules for Hazardous Substances 430 (TRGS 430), but not by the mandatory occupational medical surveillance directive (Arbeitsmedizinische Vorsorgeverordnung). Although the TRGS 430 facilitates risk assessment (e. g., the aerosol penetration factor is related to the size of aerosols; only the acute irritative effect of oligomeric and polymeric isocyanates as shown in animal studies is taken into consideration in the case of defining a so-called evaluation factor), so far this new regulation has not yet been implemented in practice according to our own findings. PMID:19768665

Baur, X; Budnik, L T

2009-11-01

83

Occupational exposure to hydrazine and subsequent risk of cancer.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES--The aim was to examine the cause specific mortality of men exposed to hydrazine. METHODS--Hydrazine was produced at a factory in the east midlands between 1945 and 1971. The cohort of all 427 men who were employed there for at least six months with varying degrees of occupational exposure to hydrazine were followed up until the end of January 1992. RESULTS--By the end of July 1982 49 deaths had occurred and the observed mortality was found to be close to that expected at each level of exposure. By the end of January 1992 a further 37 deaths had occurred. Again the observed mortality was close to that expected for all causes and also for lung cancer, cancers of the digestive system, other cancers, and all other causes, irrespective of the level of exposure. CONCLUSIONS--The results weigh against there having been any material hazard of occupational exposure to hydrazine. The small number of men studied means, however, that a relative risk as high as 3.5 for lung cancer cannot confidently be excluded. PMID:7697139

Morris, J; Densem, J W; Wald, N J; Doll, R

1995-01-01

84

Electric and magnetic field exposure, chemical exposure, and leukemia risk in electrical'' occupations  

SciTech Connect

This project was conducted to address what are the extremely low frequency (ELF) magnetic and electric field exposures of workers in electrical'' occupations and do they exceed exposures encountered in non-electrical'' occupations and what are the chemical and physical exposures in the electrical'' occupations and do they exceed exposures encountered in non-electrical'' occupations Two subsidiary issues were does characterization and quantification of ELF magnetic field exposure in the electrical'' occupations provide data to support a dose response relationship between leukemia risk and electric or magnetic field exposure and do dffferences in chemical exposure between the occupations help explain the previously observed leukemia risk associated with these electrical'' occupations Data were collected in 3 regions in which electrical workers had been reported to have an excess of leukemia - New Zealand, Los Angeles and Seattle Measurements of magnetic fields were made on 493 electrical workers and 163 non-electrical workers.

Bowman, J.D.; Sobel, E.; London, S.J.; Thomas, D.C.; Garabrant, D.H.; Pearce, N.; Peters, J.M. (University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Preventive Medicine)

1992-12-01

85

Dose - response relationship between noise exposure and the risk of occupational injury.  

PubMed

Many workers worldwide experience fatality and disability caused by occupational injuries. This study examined the relationship between noise exposure and occupational injuries at factories in Korea. A total of 1790 factories located in northern Gyeonggi Province, Korea was evaluated. The time-weighted average levels of dust and noise exposure were taken from Workplace Exposure Assessment data. Apart occupational injuries, sports events, traffic accidents, and other accidents occurring outside workplaces were excluded. The incidences of occupational injury in each factory were calculated by data from the Korea Workers' Compensation and Welfare Services. Workplaces were classified according to the incidence of any occupational injuries (incident or nonincident workplaces, respectively). Workplace dust exposure was classified as <1 or ? 1 mg/m³ , and noise exposure as <80, 80-89, or >90 dB. Workplaces with high noise exposure were significantly associated with being incident workplaces, whereas workplaces with high dust exposure were not. The odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) derived from a logistic regression model were 1.68 (1.27-2.24) and 3.42 (2.26-5.17) at 80-89 dB and ? 90 dB versus <80 dB. These associations remained significant when in a separate analysis according to high or low dust exposure level. Noise exposure increases the risk of occupational injury in the workplace. Furthermore, the risk of occupational injury increases with noise exposure level in a dose-response relationship. Therefore, strategies for reducing noise exposure level are required to decrease the risk of occupational injury. PMID:25599757

Yoon, Jin-Ha; Hong, Jeong-Suk; Roh, Jaehoon; Kim, Chi-Nyon; Won, Jong-Uk

2015-01-01

86

Lung function: occupational exposure to wood dust  

PubMed Central

Objectives Occupational exposure to wood dust has been shown to cause several respiratory disorders, such as allergic rhinitis, chronic bronchitis, asthma, sino-nasal adenocarcinoma, and impairment of lung function. The aim of the study was to estimate lung function (in the woodworking industry) among workers employed by wood processing, who run the risk of being expose to wood dust. Methods The study concerns a group of 70 workers aged 24-55. All the workers underwent general and laryngological examination. A group of 20 workers, working at the positions where dustiness exceeded TLV (threshold limit value) took X-ray of the chest and spirometry. The following parameters were measured: VC, IC, ERV, TV, BF, FEV1, FVC, PEF, MEF25-75, FEV1%FVC, FEV1%VC. The data are presented as means ± SD and the authors applied references values according to ERS guidelines. Results The results show that there was no decline in FEV1 (3.7 ± 0.7) and FVC (4.5 ± 0.8). Normal lung function was defined as FEV1/VC ratio ?0.7. None of the tested workers had obstructive pattern in spirometry. The mean FEV1%VC was 77.1 ± 10.2. These results suggest that wood dust exposure might not lead to significant pulmonary damage. Conclusions These data do not corroborate that wood dust plays significant role in lung function impairment. Future studies of respiratory health among workers exposed to wood dust are needed. PMID:20156717

2009-01-01

87

Occupational exposure to lead: effects on renal function  

SciTech Connect

Although nephrotoxicity is common following exposure to lead, the dose-response relationship in adults with occupational exposure is not well understood because information is lacking on early nephrotoxic effects. By the time serum urea nitrogen and creatinine levels are elevated, renal damage may be advanced and not fully reversible. Detailed investigations of renal glomerular and tubular function were performed in six adults with occupational exposure to lead. In all patients, the serum creatinine and urea nitrogen concentrations were within the normal range. GFR was decreased in all but two. Glucose reabsorptive capacity (TmG) was decreased in all, and this decrease was disproportionately greater than expected from the reduced GFR in all but one. Normal values for renal plasma flow (RFP) were observed in four of the six, and for rho-aminohippurate (PAH) secretory capacity (TmPAh) in all but one. Bicarbonate reabsorptive capacity (TmHCO3) and urinary excretion of beta2-microglobulin were normal in all. Routine clinical laboratory tests are insensitive for the detection of early renal effects of heavy metal exposure. Measurements of renal tubular reabsorptive capacity for glucose appears to be a sensitive method for the early detection of renal effect of lead.

Hong, C.D.; Hanenson, I.B.; Lerner, S.; Hammond, P.B.; Pesce, A.J.; Pollak, V.E.

1980-10-01

88

78 FR 65242 - Occupational Exposure to Crystalline Silica; Extension of Comment Period; Extension of Period To...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...1218-AB70 Occupational Exposure to Crystalline Silica; Extension of Comment Period...NPRM) on Occupational Exposure to Crystalline Silica for an additional 47 days and...occupational exposure to respirable crystalline silica (78 FR 56274). This...

2013-10-31

89

78 FR 78962 - Criteria for a Recommended Standard; Occupational Exposure to Heat and Hot Environments; Draft...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Standard; Occupational Exposure to Heat and Hot Environments; Draft Criteria Document Availability...Standard: Occupational Exposure to Heat and Hot Environments for public comment. To view...Standard: Occupational Exposure to Heat and Hot Environments''. Special emphasis...

2013-12-27

90

Occupational exposure to radio-frequency electromagnetic fields  

SciTech Connect

The paper considers occupational exposure to radio-frequency (RF) electromagnetic (EM) fields in industrial processes in near-field situations where electric and magnetic field strengths are monitored to assess the health hazard. Plastic materials are joined by an RF machine whose electrodes are not shielded and which may produce high level RF fields in the immediate vicinity, exceeding the ANSI standard. A physiotherapist may be exposed to high E and H fields using RF shortwave therapy, the maintenance personnel in FM/TV broadcast towers are subject to intense RF fields, and induction heating equipment used for forging, annealing and brazing can expose operators' hands to magnetic fields.

Mild, K.H.

1980-01-01

91

Occupational health risk to nanoparticulate exposure.  

PubMed

The evolution of nanotechnology from laboratory research to full-scale production has led to the need to understand the health risk to workers in that industry from the dispersion of nanoparticles escaping from various aspects of the production process. Risk is a function of both the hazard imposed by a compound or material and the expected exposure level. Therefore, research to evaluate proper exposure assessment methods specific to nanoparticles in a workplace atmosphere, as well as research on the toxicological properties of nanoparticles, has been conducted to better understand methods for protecting the health of workers in this burgeoning industry. From an assessment standpoint, researchers are evaluating both the accuracy and validity of currently available instruments and the merits of each of the three metrics – mass, surface area, and count – as indicators of exposure that provide the most relevant indication of worker health risk. Likewise, toxicologists are employing both in vitro and in vivo methods to understand the potential hazard to workers who may inhale aerosolized nanoparticles. This review provides an overview of current research efforts in nanoparticle exposure assessment and toxicology with an emphasis on how information from both fields of study combine to provide guidance to minimize the health risk posed by nanoparticulate exposure in the workplace. PMID:24592427

O'Shaughnessy, Patrick T

2013-01-01

92

Occupational exposure of electrical utility linemen to pentachlorophenol.  

PubMed

Occupational exposure to pentachlorophenol (PCP) for a crew of electrical utility linemen was monitored over a 6-month period by using total PCP in urine per gram of creatinine as a biological monitoring parameter. Urine samples were collected from three groups: A, B, and control, at a 4-week frequency during 1989. Group A was required to use new gloves after each 4-week work period; Group B changed gloves on a need basis as per normal operating procedure. The control group consisted of members of the administrative office staff who were not occupationally exposed. The used gloves returned by Group A were monitored for contamination. On the basis of analysis of the collected data the following conclusions were noted. (1) The linemen experienced a seasonal exposure pattern with exposures peaking in July and August. This seasonal effect was also observed with glove contamination data. (2) The glove contamination levels were significantly associated with urine PCP concentrations when both these variables were expressed as geometric means for the individuals in Group A. Inclusion of work experience as an additional variable enhances this association. Less experienced linemen tended to perform more activities with higher current exposure and had higher urine and glove PCP measurements and higher correlations between these variables than more experienced linemen. (3) Over the study period, the difference in long-term exposures of Group A and Group B linemen was not statistically significant. (4) The long-term individual exposures, calculated as the geometric mean of each individual's sequential sample readings, were all below the biological monitoring guideline value of 1000 micrograms PCP/g creatinine. PMID:1781434

Thind, K S; Karmali, S; House, R A

1991-12-01

93

[Toxic nephrophaty secondary to occupational exposure to metallic mercury].  

PubMed

Toxic nephrophaties secondary to occupational exposure to metals have been widely studied, including membranous nephropathy by mercury, which is rare. Occupational poisoning by mercury is frequent, neurological symptoms are the main form of clinical presentation. Secondary renal involvement in chronic exposure to metallic mercury can cause glomerular disease by deposit of immune-complexes. Membranous glomerulopathy and minimal change disease are the most frequently reported forms. Here we describe the case of a patient with occupational exposure to metallic mercury, where nephrotic syndrome due to membranous glomerulonephritis responded favorably to both chelation and immunosuppressive therapy. PMID:25347904

Voitzuk, Ana; Greco, Vanina; Caputo, Daniel; Alvarez, Estela

2014-01-01

94

Occupational exposure to dusts and risk of renal cell carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Background: Occupational exposures to dusts have generally been examined in relation to cancers of the respiratory system and have rarely been examined in relation to other cancers, such as renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Although previous epidemiological studies, though few, have shown certain dusts, such as asbestos, to increase renal cancer risk, the potential for other occupational dust exposures to cause kidney damage and/or cancer may exist. We investigated whether asbestos, as well as 20 other occupational dust exposures, were associated with RCC risk in a large European, multi-center, hospital-based renal case–control study. Methods: General occupational histories and job-specific questionnaires were reviewed by occupational hygienists for subject-specific information. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) between RCC risk and exposures were calculated using unconditional logistic regression. Results: Among participants ever exposed to dusts, significant associations were observed for glass fibres (OR: 2.1; 95% CI: 1.1–3.9), mineral wool fibres (OR: 2.5; 95% CI: 1.2–5.1), and brick dust (OR: 1.5; 95% CI: 1.0–2.4). Significant trends were also observed with exposure duration and cumulative exposure. No association between RCC risk and asbestos exposure was observed. Conclusion: Results suggest that increased RCC risk may be associated with occupational exposure to specific types of dusts. Additional studies are needed to replicate and extend findings. PMID:21540858

Karami, S; Boffetta, P; Stewart, P S; Brennan, P; Zaridze, D; Matveev, V; Janout, V; Kollarova, H; Bencko, V; Navratilova, M; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, N; Mates, D; Gromiec, J; Slamova, A; Chow, W-H; Rothman, N; Moore, L E

2011-01-01

95

Occupational exposure to airborne lead in Brazilian police officers.  

PubMed

Shooting with lead-containing ammunition in indoor firing ranges is a known source of lead exposure in adults. Police officers may be at risk of lead intoxication when regular training shooting exercises are yearly mandatory to law enforcement officers. Effects on health must be documented, even when low-level elemental (inorganic) lead exposure is detected. Forty police officers (nineteen cadets and twenty-one instructors) responded to a questionnaire about health, shooting habits, and potential lead exposure before a training curse. Blood samples were collected and analyzed for blood lead level (BLL) before and after a three days training curse. The mean BLL for the instructors' group was 5.5 ?g/dL ± 0.6. The mean BLL for the cadets' group before the training was 3.3 ?g/dL ± 0.15 and after the training the main BLL was 18.2 ?g/d L± 1.5. Samples were analyzed by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (ICP-MS). All the participants in the training curse had significantly increased BLL (mean increment about 15 ?g/dL) after the three days indoor shooting season. In conclusion, occupational lead exposure in indoor firing ranges is a source of lead exposure in Brazilian police officers, and appears to be a health risk, especially when heavy weapons with lead-containing ammunition are used in indoor environments during the firing training seasons. PMID:24411572

Rocha, Ernesto Díaz; Sarkis, Jorge E Souza; Carvalho, Maria de Fátima H; Santos, Gerson Vechio Dos; Canesso, Claudemir

2014-07-01

96

Interaction between tobacco smoking and occupational exposures in the causation of lung cancer  

SciTech Connect

The nature of the interaction between smoking and occupational exposure is controversial, in part because of lack of agreement on the definition of interaction and in part because of the scarcity of adequate epidemiologic data. Occupational investigators have assessed interaction primarily as a departure from an additive rather than from a multiplicative model of relative risks (or rate ratios). To determine whether smoking modifies the effect of occupational lung carcinogens, the literature was reviewed for the only four established occupational lung carcinogens for which there are data on smoking: radon daughters, asbestos, arsenic, and chloromethyl ethers. Where possible, departure was assessed from both an additive (synergism) and a multiplicative model (effect modification). Only nine studies were considered to have sufficient sample size and to provide sufficient information on tobacco use and occupational exposure to evaluate interaction. The existing data were contradictory for three of the agents studied: asbestos, radon daughters, and arsenic. Inconclusive or contradictory findings may result from small sample size or lack of comparability of the level of occupational or tobacco exposure. It is noteworthy that, for these four agents, whenever smoking did modify the effect of occupational exposure, the lung cancer rate ratio was greater for nonsmokers (compared to nonexposed nonsmokers) than smokers (compared to nonexposed smokers). However, with the exception of chloromethyl ethers, absolute lung cancer rates were higher for smokers than nonsmokers, regardless of occupational exposure.37 references.

Steenland, K.; Thun, M.

1986-02-01

97

Evaluation of an Artificial Intelligence Program for Estimating Occupational Exposures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Estimation and Assessment of Substance Exposure (EASE) is an artificial intelligence program developed by UK's Health and Safety Executive to assess exposure. EASE computes estimated airborne concentrations based on a substance's vapor pressure and the types of controls in the work area. Though EASE is intended only to make broad predictions of exposure from occupa- tional environments, some occupational hygienists

KAREN L. JOHNSTON; MARGARET L. PHILLIPS; NURTAN A. ESMEN; THOMAS A. HALL

2005-01-01

98

Psychological Effects of Occupational Exposure to Electromagnetic Fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: In psychological studies, exposure to electromagnetic field is one of the hazardous factors, which has adverse effects on mental health. Exposure to electromagnetic field due to daily use of electricity makes this study so important. The goal of this study was to determine the relationship between psychologi- cal symptoms and occupational exposure to electromagnetic field among workers at High

Yousefi HA; Nasiri P

99

Occupational exposures to potentially hazardous agents in the petroleum industry.  

PubMed

This chapter has been created to acquaint the reader with occupational exposures that are more common in, and somewhat unique to, the petroleum industry. Both highly toxic materials capable of causing acute illness or even death following short-term exposure, and chemical and physical agents that pose risk of chronic and irreversible damage to health during prolonged exposure are addressed. PMID:3043733

Runion, H E

1988-01-01

100

Occupational exposures to potentially hazardous agents in the petroleum industry  

SciTech Connect

This chapter has been created to acquaint the reader with occupational exposures that are more common in, and somewhat unique to, the petroleum industry. Both highly toxic materials capable of causing acute illness or even death following short-term exposure, and chemical and physical agents that pose risk of chronic and irreversible damage to health during prolonged exposure are addressed.

Runion, H.E.

1988-07-01

101

Occup Environ Med. Author manuscript Occupational exposure to pesticides and lymphoid neoplasms among  

E-print Network

associations between HL and occupational exposure to triazole fungicides and urea herbicides were observed (OR 8.4 2.2= [ ­ 32.4 , 10.8 2.4 48.1 respectively). Exposure to insecticides, fungicides and herbicides= [ ­ ] [ ­ ] [ ­ ] for exposure to organochlorine insecticides, phenoxy herbicides and triazine herbicides (OR 4.9 1.1 21.2 , 4

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

102

TEXAS: a Tool for EXposure ASsessment-Statistical Models for Estimating Occupational Exposure to Chemical Agents.  

PubMed

Measurements of occupational exposure to chemical agents are performed by sampling and analyzing workplace atmospheres. In France, this is done by the industrial hygienists of the prevention network of the Social Security Service, who collect and then enter the data in the COLCHIC database. More than 900000 measurements performed in French companies over the past 25 years have been collected. Using this amount of data is major challenge for obtaining knowledge and predicting occupational exposures. This study presents the way in which statistical models are built and used on the basis of almost 19000 recent measurements of 26 frequent chemical substances. For a given substance, the models use 13 exposure determinants as inputs, such as the task performed, the occupation of the operator or the type of process employed. The models permit to estimate two parameters: the geometric mean and geometric standard deviation. These parameters are used to build an exposure profile. By combining them with the limit value, an exposure index is estimated using a Bayesian network. A decision rule based on the interpretation of this probability is proposed to qualify the predicted situation as 'well-controlled situation', 'controlled situation', and 'poorly controlled situation'. On the basis of this decision rule, 62% of predictions are true for all substances confounded, an average of 36% of predictions are approximate and only 2% of them are wrong. The result of this study led to the development of a pragmatic software tool named TEXAS, tool for exposure assessment, which enables industrial hygienists to obtain a rapid estimation of the level of exposure control as a function of simple determinants of work situations. PMID:25433001

Clerc, Frédéric; Bertrand, Nicolas; Vincent, Raymond

2015-04-01

103

Occupational Component. 36-Level Courses. Teacher Resource Manual. Integrated Occupational Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This 36-level occupational component of Integrated Occupational Program (IOP) consists of 8 occupational clusters composed of 20 occupational courses. Each course contains learning activities so that students in Alberta (Canada) may develop occupational concepts, skills, and attitudes. This teacher's manual consists of the following sections:…

Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton. Curriculum Branch.

104

DOE 2010 Occupational Radiation Exposure November 2011  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses radiation protection and dose reporting requirements, presents the 2010 occupational radiation dose data trended over the past 5 years, and includes instructions to submit successful ALARA projects.

U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Analysis

2011-11-11

105

Occupational Exposure to Carbon Nanotubes and Nanofibers  

MedlinePLUS

... information about occupational hazards. A CIB may draw attention to a formerly unrecognized hazard, report new data ... How do I view different file formats (PDF, DOC, PPT, MPEG) on this site? Print Updates Subscribe ...

106

Occupational exposures during routine activities in coal-fueled power plants  

SciTech Connect

Limited information is available on occupational exposures during routine, nonoutage work activities in coal-fueled power plants. This study evaluated occupational exposures to the principal contaminants in the facilities, including respirable dust (coal dust), arsenic, noise, asbestos, and heat stress. The data were collected over a 3-month period, during the summer of 2001. Each of the 5 facilities was divided into 5 similar exposure groups based on previous exposure assessments and job tasks performed. Of the nearly 400 air samples collected, only 1 exceeded the allowable occupational exposure value. For the noise samples, 55 (about 18%) were equal to or greater than the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) 8-hour hearing conservation program level of 85 dBA, and 12 (about 4%) were equal to or greater than the OSHA 8-hour permissible exposure level of 90 dBA. Heat stress monitoring at the facilities indicates that 26% of the 1-hour TWAs were exceeded for one or all of the recommended heat stress limits. The data also concluded that some work sites were above the heat stress ceiling values recommended by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). Four of the 20 employees personally monitored exceeded the recommended limits for heart rate or body core temperature. This suggests there is a potential for heat strain if signs and symptoms are ignored. Recommendations are made to better control the heat stress exposure.

Bird, M.J.; MacIntosh, D.L.; Williams, P.L. [University of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States). Dept. of Environmental Health Science

2004-06-15

107

Prevalence and pattern of occupational exposure to whole body vibration in Great Britain: findings from a national survey  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES—To estimate the number of workers in Great Britain with significant occupational exposure to whole body vibration (WBV) and to identify the common sources of exposure and the occupations and industries where such exposures arise.?METHODS—A postal questionnaire was posted to a random community sample of 22 194 men and women of working age. Among other things, the questionnaire asked about exposure to WBV in the past week, including occupational and common non-occupational sources. Responses were assessed by occupation and industry, and national prevalence estimates were derived from census information. Estimates were also made of the average estimated daily personal dose of vibration (eVDV).?RESULTS—From the 12 907 responses it was estimated that 7.2 million men and 1.8 million women in Great Britain are exposed to WBV at work in a 1 week period if the occupational use of cars, vans, buses, trains, and motor cycles is included within the definition of exposure. The eVDV of >374 000 men and 9000 women was estimated to exceed a proposed British Standard action level of 15 ms-1.75. Occupations in which the estimated exposures most often exceeded 15 ms-1.75 included forklift truck and mechanical truck drivers, farm owners and managers, farm workers, and drivers of road goods vehicles. These occupations also contributed the largest estimated numbers of workers in Great Britain with such levels of exposure. The highest estimated median occupational eVDVs were found in forklift truck drivers, drivers of road goods vehicles, bus and coach drivers, and technical and wholesale sales representatives, among whom a greater contribution to total dose was received from occupational exposures than from non-occupational ones; but in many other occupations the reverse applied. The most common sources of occupational exposure to WBV are cars, vans, forklift trucks, lorries, tractors, buses, and loaders.?CONCLUSIONS—Exposure to whole body vibration is common, but only a small proportion of exposures exceed the action level proposed in British standards, and in many occupations, non-occupational sources are more important than those at work. The commonest occupational sources of WBV and occupations with particularly high exposures have been identified, providing a basis for targeting future control activities.???Keywords: whole body vibration; population; prevalence; exposure PMID:10810108

Palmer, K.; Griffin, M.; Bendall, H.; Pannett, B.; Coggon, D.

2000-01-01

108

Strategies for setting occupational exposure limits for particles.  

PubMed Central

To set occupational exposure limits (OELs) for aerosol particles, dusts, or chemicals, one has to evaluate whether mechanistic considerations permit identification of a no observed effect level (NOEL). In the case of carcinogenic effects, this can be assumed if no genotoxicity is involved, and exposure is considered safe if it does not exceed the NOEL. If tumor induction is associated with genotoxicity, any exposure is considered to be of risk, although a NOEL may be identified in the animal or human exposure studies. This must also be assumed when no information on the carcinogenic mechanism, including genotoxicity, is available. Aerosol particles, especially fibrous dusts, which include man-made mineral fiber(s) (MMMF), present a challenge for toxicological evaluation. Many MMMF that have been investigated have induced tumors in animals and genotoxicity in vitro. Since these effects have been associated with long-thin fiber geometry and high durability in vivo, all fibers meeting such criteria are considered carcinogenic unless the opposite has been demonstrated. This approach is practicable. Investigations on fiber tumorigenicity/genotoxicity should include information on dose response, pathobiochemistry, particle clearance, and persistence of the material in the target organ. Such information will introduce quantitative aspects into the qualitative approach that has so far been used to classify fibrous dusts as carcinogens. The rationales for classifying the potential carcinogenicity of MMMF and for setting OELs used by the different European committees and regulatory agencies are described. PMID:9400750

Greim, H A; Ziegler-Skylakakis, K

1997-01-01

109

[Genetic aspects of occupational chronic obstructive lung disease under exposure to various risk factors].  

PubMed

The article deals with data on association of SNP rs1828591 of HHIP gene with COLD development under exposure to dust and chemical factors. SNP rs1800470 of TGFbeta1 gene is associated with occupational COLD under exposure to dust and did not show connection with COLD under exposure to chemical aerosols. No association was seen between SNP rs4129267 of IL-6R gene and SNP rs1051730 of CHRNA3 gene with occupational COLD under exposure to the studied factors. SNP rs1828591 of HHIP gene is associated with occupational COLD development under exposure to dust and chemical factors. Study of association of genotype and phenotypic features of COLD revealed the following trends: "dust" COLD patients with genotype AA SNP rs1800470 of TGFbeta1 gene show lower level of C-reactive protein and TNF-alpha, if compared with other genotypes. PMID:25073350

Shpagina, L A; Voevoda, Mm I; Kotova, O S; Maksimov, V N; Orlov, P S; Shpagin, I S

2014-01-01

110

Occupational exposures to respirable crystalline silica during hydraulic fracturing.  

PubMed

This report describes a previously uncharacterized occupational health hazard: work crew exposures to respirable crystalline silica during hydraulic fracturing. Hydraulic fracturing involves high pressure injection of large volumes of water and sand, and smaller quantities of well treatment chemicals, into a gas or oil well to fracture shale or other rock formations, allowing more efficient recovery of hydrocarbons from a petroleum-bearing reservoir. Crystalline silica ("frac sand") is commonly used as a proppant to hold open cracks and fissures created by hydraulic pressure. Each stage of the process requires hundreds of thousands of pounds of quartz-containing sand; millions of pounds may be needed for all zones of a well. Mechanical handling of frac sand creates respirable crystalline silica dust, a potential exposure hazard for workers. Researchers at the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health collected 111 personal breathing zone samples at 11 sites in five states to evaluate worker exposures to respirable crystalline silica during hydraulic fracturing. At each of the 11 sites, full-shift samples exceeded occupational health criteria (e.g., the Occupational Safety and Health Administration calculated permissible exposure limit, the NIOSH recommended exposure limit, or the ACGIH threshold limit value), in some cases, by 10 or more times the occupational health criteria. Based on these evaluations, an occupational health hazard was determined to exist for workplace exposures to crystalline silica. Seven points of dust generation were identified, including sand handling machinery and dust generated from the work site itself. Recommendations to control exposures include product substitution (when feasible), engineering controls or modifications to sand handling machinery, administrative controls, and use of personal protective equipment. To our knowledge, this represents the first systematic study of work crew exposures to crystalline silica during hydraulic fracturing. Companies that conduct hydraulic fracturing using silica sand should evaluate their operations to determine the potential for worker exposure to respirable crystalline silica and implement controls as necessary to protect workers. PMID:23679563

Esswein, Eric J; Breitenstein, Michael; Snawder, John; Kiefer, Max; Sieber, W Karl

2013-01-01

111

Federal government regulation of occupational skin exposure in the USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are at least 14 federal regulations and three agencies that are involved in the regulation of occupational skin exposures in the USA. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requires the reporting of health effects information on chemicals, and such information is used to assess the risks of human and environmental exposure. The health effects information and any resulting risk assessments

Mark F. Boeniger; Heinz W. Ahlers

2003-01-01

112

RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access Occupational exposure to asbestos and lung  

E-print Network

RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access Occupational exposure to asbestos and lung cancer in men: evidence consistently demonstrated that workplace exposure to it increases the risk of developing lung cancer. Few of lung cancer, and 2,053 controls recruited from 8 Canadian provinces between 1994 and 1997. Self

Boyer, Edmond

113

Occupational lead exposure effect on liver functions and biochemical parameters.  

PubMed

The effect of occupational lead exposure on the liver function and on the blood biochemical parameters among the battery workers and the muffler repair workers was studied. The study included 22 battery and 38 muffler repair workers. Whole blood lead levels were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometers. Total protein, albumin, globulin, cholesterol, triglyceride, total bilirubin, aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), gamma glutamyltransferase (GGT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) levels were determined in the serum by spectrophotometry. The blood lead levels of the battery workers, muffler repair workers, and the controls were found to be 36.83 +/- 8.13 microg/dL, 26.99 +/- 9.42 microg/dL, and 14.81 +/- 3.01 microg/dL, respectively. Blood lead levels of the workers were significantly higher than those of controls (p < 0.001). The lead level of the battery workers was also significantly higher than that of muffler repair workers (p < 0.001). Although, statisticly significant, higher blood lead levels are not related to toxicity for battery and muffler repair workers. Total protein, globulin, cholesterol, LDH, and ALP levels were within normal levels, however, they were slightly higher than the control levels. Increased LDH among the workers seems to be related rather to other causes than to the liver injury. PMID:19009914

Can, S; Ba?ci, C; Ozaslan, M; Bozkurt, Ai; Cengiz, B; Cakmak, E A; Kocaba?, R; Karada?, E; Tarakçio?lu, M

2008-12-01

114

Occupational exposure to dust: inflammation and ischaemic heart disease.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: To review the possible association between occupational exposure to dust and ischaemic heart disease (IHD). METHODS: A literature search was performed of relevant studies regarding IHD in specific exposures to dust. The chosen exposures were arsenic, asbestos, beryllium, lead, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and quartz. The chosen occupations were farmers, paper and paper pulp workers, sawyers, and welders. DISCUSSION: A theory was launched in 1995 that urban particulate air pollution may provoke alveolar inflammation, with release of mediators capable of increasing blood coagulability in susceptible people and cause cardiovascular deaths. The present review expands this hypothesis and links occupational exposure to inhaled particles with the occurrence of ischaemic heart disease. CONCLUSION: This hypothesis should be tested by comparing the concentrations of fibrinogen in workers exposed and nonexposed to particles with control for other possible confounders such as smoking habits. PMID:9282121

Sjögren, B

1997-01-01

115

Occupational Component. 36-Level Courses. Program of Studies/Curriculum Guide. Integrated Occupational Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Integrated Occupational Program (IOP) enables students in Alberta (Canada) who have experienced difficulty in learning to develop essential concepts, skills, and attitudes in the context of one or more occupational clusters. The IOP has four levels: occupational awareness (grades 8-9), career exploration (level 16), occupational orientation…

Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton. Curriculum Branch.

116

DOE Basic Overview of Occupational Radiation Exposure_2011 pamphlet  

SciTech Connect

This pamphlet focusses on two HSS activities that help ensure radiation exposures are accurately assessed and recorded, namely: 1) the quality and accuracy of occupational radiation exposure monitoring, and 2) the recording, reporting, analysis, and dissemination of the monitoring results. It is intended to provide a short summary of two specific HSS programs that aid in the oversight of radiation protection activities at DOE. The Department of Energy Laboratory Accreditation Program (DOELAP) is in place to ensure that radiation exposure monitoring at all DOE sites is precise and accurate, and conforms to national and international performance and quality assurance standards. The DOE Radiation Exposure Monitoring Systems (REMS) program provides for the collection, analysis, and dissemination of occupational radiation exposure information. The annual REMS report is a valuable tool for managing radiological safety programs and for developing policies to protect individuals from occupational exposure to radiation. In tandem, these programs provide DOE management and workers an assurance that occupational radiation exposures are accurately measured, analyzed, and reported.

ORAU

2012-08-08

117

Exposure to Stress: Occupational Hazards in Hospitals  

MedlinePLUS

... of a participative intervention to improve the psychosocial work environment and mental health in an acute care hospital. Occup Environ Med ... DC: National Institutes of Health, National Institute of Mental Health. Available at: ... [1999]. Stress...at work. Cincinnati OH: U.S. Department of Health and Human ...

118

Occupational Exposures and Mycosis Fungoides. A European Multicentre Case–control Study (Europe)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: Mycosis Fungoides (MF) is a rare disease with an occurrence indicating that occupational exposures may play a role. To estimate the association between MF and occupational exposures as measured by means of an job-exposure matrix (JEM).

Maria M. Morales-Suárez-Varela; Jorn Olsen; Preben Johansen; Linda Kaerlev; Pascal Guénel; Patrick Arveux; Gun Wingren; Lennart Hardell; Wolfgang Ahrens; Andreas Stang; Agustin Llopis; Franco Merletti; Juan Jose Aurrekoetxea; Giovanna Masala

2005-01-01

119

77 FR 16865 - Proposed Extension of Existing Information Collection; Occupational Noise Exposure  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Existing Information Collection; Occupational Noise Exposure AGENCY: Mine Safety and Health...Control Number 1219-0120, Occupational Noise Exposure. OMB last approved this information...information collection was originally titled ``Noise exposure assessment; audiometric...

2012-03-22

120

Impact of Daily Noise Exposure Monitoring on Occupational Noise Exposures in Manufacturing Workers  

PubMed Central

Objective Despite the use of hearing protective devices (HPDs), noise induced hearing loss (NIHL) remains one of the most prevalent occupational conditions. A new technology allows for daily monitoring of noise exposures under HPDs. We report on an intervention employing the voluntary use of this technology in a worksite setting. Design Volunteers were fitted with a device allowing them to monitor noise exposure under their hearing protection on a daily basis. The trends in noise exposures for individuals who completed at least six months of the intervention were analyzed. Study Sample Recruitment occurred at three manufacturing facilities, with 127 workers enrolling and 66 workers actively using the device during their work shifts. Results Among volunteers downloading regularly, the percentage of daily exposures in excess of the OSHA action level (85dBA) decreased from 14% to 8%, while the percentage of daily exposures in excess of 90dBA decreased from 4% to less than 2%. Conclusion Initial results from this longitudinal study indicate that volunteers find daily noise exposure monitoring to be feasible, and that workers who monitor daily are able to reduce exposures. The results of subject adherence shed light on the challenges and possibilities of worksite interventions for health and safety. PMID:23373740

McTague, Michael F.; Galusha, Deron; Dixon-Ernst, Christine; Kirsche, Sharon R.; Slade, Martin D.; Cullen, Mark R.; Rabinowitz, Peter M.

2013-01-01

121

Management of occupational hazards in healthcare: exposure to diphencyprone  

PubMed Central

Diphencyprone is a chemical agent used most commonly in the treatment of alopecia areata. Its mechanism of action is through the sensitisation (type IV immune reaction) of affected areas to stimulate hair follicle growth. The consequences of accidental occupational exposure, however, have not been widely recognised. This report describes the clinical presentation and management of two pharmacy technicians that presented to Sheffield Occupational Health Service (SOHS) centre in 2012. Exposure sources were identified through a workplace visit arranged between the SOHS centre and the hospital's pharmacy; a chemical analysis revealed concentrations of the chemical sufficient to induce sensitisation at several points during the manufacturing process. The case highlights the role of close liaison between specialist services (dermatology and occupational medicine) in managing individual patient cases and mitigating risk within relevant occupational groups. PMID:23417940

Basu, Subhashis; Adisesh, Anil

2013-01-01

122

Current employment status, occupational category, occupational hazard exposure, and job stress in relation to telomere length: The Multiethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA)  

PubMed Central

Objective Telomere length has been proposed as a biomarker of cell senescence, which is associated with a wide array of adverse health outcomes. While work is a major determinant of health, few studies have investigated the association of telomere length with various dimensions of occupation. Accelerated cellular aging could be a common pathway linking occupational exposure to several health outcomes. Methods Leukocyte telomere length was assessed using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (Q-PCR) in a community-based sample of 981 individuals (age: 45–84 years old). Questionnaires were used to collect information on current employment status, current or main occupation before retirement, and job strain. The O*NET (Occupational Resource Network) database was linked to the questionnaire data to create 5 exposure measures: physical activity on the job, physical hazard exposure, interpersonal stressors, job control, and job demands. Linear regression was used to estimate associations of occupational characteristics with telomere lengths after adjustment for age, sex, race, socioeconomic position, and several behavioral risk factors. Results There were no mean differences in telomere lengths across current employment status, occupational category, job strain categories or levels of most O*NET exposure measures. There was also no evidence that being in lower status occupational categories or being exposed to higher levels of adverse physical or psychosocial exposures accelerated the association between age and telomere shortening. Conclusions Cellular aging as reflected by shorter telomeres does not appear to be an important pathway linking occupation to various health outcomes. PMID:23686115

Fujishiro, Kaori; Diez-Roux, Ana V; Landsbergis, Paul; Jenny, Nancy Swords; Seeman, Teresa

2014-01-01

123

Childhood cancer and occupational radiation exposure in parents  

SciTech Connect

To test the hypothesis that a parent's job exposure to radiation affeOR). its his or her child's risk of cancer, the authors compared this exposure during the year before the child's birth for parents of children with and without cancer. Parents of children with cancer were no more likely to have worked in occupations, industries, or combined occupations and industries with potential ionizing radiation exposure. Bone cancer and Wilms' tumor occurred more frequently among children of fathers in all industries with moderate potential ionizing radiation exposure. Children with cancer more often had fathers who were aircraft mechanics (odds ratio (OR)) . infinity, one-sided 95% lower limit . 1.5; P . 0.04). Although four of these six were military aircraft mechanics, only children whose fathers had military jobs with potential ionizing radiation exposure had an increased cancer risk (OR . 2.73; P . 0.01). Four cancer types occurred more often among children of fathers in specific radiation-related occupations: rhabdomyosarcoma among children whose fathers were petroleum industry foremen; retinoblastoma among children whose fathers were radio and television repairmen; central nervous system cancers and other lymphatic cancers among children of Air Force fathers. Because numbers of case fathers are small and confidence limits are broad, the associations identified by this study need to be confirmed in other studies. Better identification and gradation of occupational exposure to radiation would increase the sensitivity to detect associations.

Hicks, N.; Zack, M.; Caldwell, G.G.; Fernbach, D.J.; Falletta, J.M.

1984-04-15

124

Occupational exposure to elemental constituents in fingerprint powders.  

PubMed

Fingerprint detection is an essential component of any crime detection agency. Little information is available regarding the elemental constituents of powders that are available currently. One recent case of lead poisoning coupled with many complaints from the Vancouver identification Squad members initiated a study regarding the elemental composition of, and the occupational exposure to, these powders. Multi-elemental analysis of the powders investigated showed that all contained varying amounts of aluminum, calcium, zinc, iron, magnesium, manganese, and nickel. One powder, however, contained 41% lead. The time spent at the scene of crime during a normal working shift averaged 95.5 min. Assessment of inhalation exposure during this period by personal air sampling pumps never exceeded the occupational exposure standards for these elements. Secondary exposure from dust-contaminated police vehicles and clothing can be an important contributor to overall exposure. PMID:2334234

Van Netten, C; Souter, F; Teschke, K E

1990-01-01

125

Occupational exposure to hazardous chemicals in laboratories. -1910.1450 Page 1 of 14 Occupational Safety & Health Administration  

E-print Network

Occupational exposure to hazardous chemicals in laboratories. - 1910.1450 Page 1 of 14 Occupational chemicals in laboratories. - 1910.1450 Regulations (Standards - 29 CFR) - Table of Contents · Part Number and Hazardous Substances · Standard Number: 1910.1450 · Title: Occupational exposure to hazardous chemicals

Baker, Chris I.

126

Occupational PAH Exposures during Prescribed Pile Burns  

PubMed Central

Wildland firefighters are exposed to particulate matter and gases containing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), many of which are known carcinogens. Our objective was to evaluate the extent of firefighter exposure to particulate and PAHs during prescribed pile burns of mainly ponderosa pine slash and determine whether these exposures were correlated with changes in urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-HP), a PAH metabolite. Personal and area sampling for particulate and PAH exposures were conducted on the White Mountain Apache Tribe reservation, working with 21 Bureau of Indian Affairs/Fort Apache Agency wildland firefighters during the fall of 2006. Urine samples were collected pre- and post-exposure and pulmonary function was measured. Personal PAH exposures were detectable for only 3 of 16 PAHs analyzed: naphthalene, phenanthrene, and fluorene, all of which were identified only in vapor-phase samples. Condensed-phase PAHs were detected in PM2.5 area samples (20 of 21 PAHs analyzed were detected, all but naphthalene) at concentrations below 1 ?g m?3. The total PAH/PM2.5 mass fractions were roughly a factor of two higher during smoldering (1.06 ± 0.15) than ignition (0.55 ± 0.04 ?g mg?1). There were no significant changes in urinary 1-HP or pulmonary function following exposure to pile burning. In summary, PAH exposures were low in pile burns, and urinary testing for a PAH metabolite failed to show a significant difference between baseline and post-exposure measurements. PMID:18515848

Robinson, M. S.; Anthony, T. R.; Littau, S. R.; Herckes, P.; Nelson, X.; Poplin, G. S.; Burgess, J. L.

2008-01-01

127

Developing regulations for occupational exposures to health hazards in Malaysia.  

PubMed

In Malaysia exposures in the workplace are regulated under the Factories and Machinery Act (FMA), 1967 and also under the more comprehensive Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA) enacted in 1994. With OSHA 1994 the philosophy of legislating safety and health in the workplace changed from one that was very prescriptive and containing detailed technical provisions under FMA, 1967 to one that is more flexible and encourages self-regulation under OSHA 1994. OSHA 1994 is supported by regulations, codes of practices and guidelines to further clarify the provisions in the Act. Under the FMA 1967 emphasis was on safety while with OSHA 1994 there has been equal emphasis on addressing health hazards in the workplace. Regulations for occupational exposures are developed by the Department of Occupational Safety and Health with tripartite and stakeholder consultation. When developing these regulations International Labor Organization Conventions, laws of other countries and occupational exposure standards adopted internationally are reviewed. The government also conducts surveys to collect information on both exposures and health effects in workplaces to have better understanding on specific occupational health problems. Effective law enforcement is crucial in ensuring compliance to safety and health law. The challenge at the moment is to ensure all employers and employees, particularly those in the small and medium enterprises, understand and comply with the provisions stipulated in the legislation. PMID:16899331

Rampal, Krishna Gopal; Mohd Nizam, J

2006-11-01

128

Feasibility of a cohort study on health risks caused by occupational exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields  

PubMed Central

Background The aim of this study was to examine the feasibility of performing a cohort study on health risks from occupational exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) in Germany. Methods A set of criteria was developed to evaluate the feasibility of such a cohort study. The criteria aimed at conditions of exposure and exposure assessment (level, duration, preferably on an individual basis), the possibility to assemble a cohort and the feasibility of ascertaining various disease endpoints. Results Twenty occupational settings with workers potentially exposed to RF-EMF and, in addition, a cohort of amateur radio operators were considered. Based on expert ratings, literature reviews and our set of predefined criteria, three of the cohorts were identified as promising for further evaluation: the personnel (technicians) of medium/short wave broadcasting stations, amateur radio operators, and workers on dielectric heat sealers. After further analyses, the cohort of workers on dielectric heat sealers seems not to be feasible due to the small number of exposed workers available and to the difficulty of assessing exposure (exposure depends heavily on the respective working process and mixture of exposures, e.g. plastic vapours), although exposure was highest in this occupational setting. The advantage of the cohort of amateur radio operators was the large number of persons it includes, while the advantage of the cohort of personnel working at broadcasting stations was the quality of retrospective exposure assessment. However, in the cohort of amateur radio operators the exposure assessment was limited, and the cohort of technicians was hampered by the small number of persons working in this profession. Conclusion The majority of occupational groups exposed to RF-EMF are not practicable for setting up an occupational cohort study due to the small numbers of exposed subjects or due to exposure levels being only marginally higher than those of the general public. PMID:19480652

2009-01-01

129

Chromosome aberrations as a means to determine occupational exposure: an alternative  

SciTech Connect

The methodology developed to study chromosome aberrations in vitro, and the results gained in application of the method in in vivo studies of individuals receiving ionizing radiation, may provide a basis to more definitively assess occupational exposure in radiographers and radiation therapy technologists. The need for more definitive methods in measuring occupational exposure is given impetus by the fact that there is now a large group of individuals in whom a significant duration of occupational exposure may be measured. Further, increased knowledge of the effects of radiation has resulted in lower and lower levels of maximum permissible dose. And there is the undeniable, albeit relatively unproven, claim of radiation hazard in occupations not previously considered. As a group, technologists are now better organized and more aware of occupational hazards than in the past. It behooves us as professionals to act in our own behalf to improve the state of knowledge and methods of evaluation of occupational hazards that we have endured for several decades. There is no longer any more time to waste in the light of what we now know. In the author's opinion, the method described herein has the potential to determine occupational dose more accurately and definitively than has been possible heretofore and, therefore, should be tested as an alternative to present methods of personnel monitoring. History, rationale, and method are presented, and a protocol for a research study is described.

Sullivan, C.A.

1980-09-01

130

Characteristics of Occupational Exposure to Benzene during Turnaround in the Petrochemical Industries  

PubMed Central

Objectives The level of benzene exposure in the petrochemical industry during regular operation has been well established, but not in turnaround (TA), where high exposure may occur. In this study, the characteristics of occupational exposure to benzene during TA in the petrochemical companies were investigated in order to determine the best management strategies and improve the working environment. This was accomplished by evaluating the exposure level for the workers working in environments where benzene was being produced or used as an ingredient during the unit process. Methods From 2003 to 2008, a total of 705 workers in three petrochemical companies in Korea were studied. Long- and short-term (< 1 hr) samples were taken during TAs. TA was classified into three stages: shut-down, maintenance and start-up. All works were classified into 12 occupation categories. Results The long-term geometric mean (GM) benzene exposure level was 0.025 (5.82) ppm (0.005-42.120 ppm) and the short-term exposure concentration during TA was 0.020 (17.42) ppm (0.005-61.855 ppm). The proportions of TA samples exceeding the time-weighted average, occupational exposure level (TWA-OEL in Korea, 1 ppm) and the short-term exposure limit (STEL-OEL, 5 ppm) were 4.1% (20 samples of 488) and 6.0% (13 samples of 217), respectively. The results for the benzene exposure levels and the rates of exceeding the OEL were both statistically significant (p < 0.05). Among the 12 job categories of petrochemical workers, mechanical engineers, plumbers, welders, fieldman and scaffolding workers exhibited long-term samples that exceeded the OEL of benzene, and the rate of exceeding the OEL was statistically significant for the first two occupations (p < 0.05). Conclusion These findings suggest that the periodic work environment must be assessed during non-routine works such as TA. PMID:22953163

Shin, Jung-Ah; Lee, Byung-Kyu; Kwon, Jiwoon; Lee, Naroo; Chung, Kwang-Jae; Lee, Jong-Han; Lee, In-Seop; Kang, Seong-Kyu; Jang, Jae-Kil

2010-01-01

131

Occupational exposures in the oil and gas extraction industry: State of the science and research recommendations.  

PubMed

The oil and gas extraction industry is rapidly growing due to horizontal drilling and high volume hydraulic fracturing (HVHF). This growth has provided new jobs and economic stimulus. The industry occupational fatality rate is 2.5 times higher than the construction industry and 7 times higher than general industry; however injury rates are lower than the construction industry, suggesting injuries are not being reported. Some workers are exposed to crystalline silica at hazardous levels, above occupational health standards. Other hazards (particulate, benzene, noise, radiation) exist. In this article, we review occupational fatality and injury rate data; discuss research looking at root causes of fatal injuries and hazardous exposures; review interventions aimed at improving occupational health and safety; and discuss information gaps and areas of needed research. We also describe Wyoming efforts to improve occupational safety in this industry, as a case example. PMID:24634090

Witter, Roxana Z; Tenney, Liliana; Clark, Suzanne; Newman, Lee S

2014-07-01

132

Association of expired nitric oxide with occupational particulate exposure.  

PubMed Central

Particulate air pollution has been associated with adverse respiratory health effects. This study assessed the utility of expired nitric oxide to detect acute airway responses to metal-containing fine particulates. Using a repeated-measures study design, we investigated the association between the fractional concentration of expired nitric oxide (F(E)NO) and exposure to particulate matter with an aerodynamic mass median diameter of less than or equal to 2.5 micro m (PM(2.5)) in boilermakers exposed to residual oil fly ash and metal fumes. Subjects were monitored for 5 days during boiler repair overhauls in 1999 (n = 20) or 2000 (n = 14). The Wilcoxon median baseline F(E)NO was 10.6 ppb [95% confidence interval (CI): 9.1, 12.7] in 1999 and 7.4 ppb (95% CI: 6.7, 8.0) in 2000. The Wilcoxon median PM(2.5) 8-hr time-weighted average was 0.56 mg/m(3) (95% CI: 0.37, 0.93) in 1999 and 0.86 mg/m(3) (95% CI: 0.65, 1.07) in 2000. F(E)NO levels during the work week were significantly lower than baseline F(E)NO in 1999 (p < 0.001). A significant inverse exposure-response relationship between log-transformed F(E)NO and the previous workday's PM(2.5) concentration was found in 1999, after adjusting for smoking status, age, and sampling year. With each 1 mg/m(3) incremental increase in PM(2.5) exposure, log F(E)NO decreased by 0.24 (95% CI: -0.38, -0.10) in 1999. The lack of an exposure-response relationship between PM(2.5) exposure and F(E)NO in 2000 could be attributable to exposure misclassification resulting from the use of respirators. In conclusion, occupational exposure to metal-containing fine particulates was associated with significant decreases in F(E)NO in a survey of workers with limited respirator usage. PMID:12727593

Kim, Jee Young; Wand, Matthew P; Hauser, Russ; Mukherjee, Sutapa; Herrick, Robert F; Christiani, David C

2003-01-01

133

Use of birth certificates to examine maternal occupational exposures and autism spectrum disorders in offspring.  

PubMed

The continuing rise in the prevalence of autism spectrum disorders has led to heightened interest in the role of nongenetic factors, including exogenous exposures, but little research has been conducted. To explore a possible role in autism etiology, we used data available from our prior studies to examine potential occupational exposures, as these may occur at higher levels than environmental exposures. Parental occupation was obtained from birth certificates for 284 children with autism and 659 controls, born in 1994 in the San Francisco Bay Area. Self-reported occupation and industry were coded into eight exposure/chemical groups based on potential neurotoxicity or reprotoxicity by a board-certified physician in occupational medicine and an industrial hygienist blinded to case-control status. Mothers of autistic children were twice as likely to work in occupations considered exposed (14.4%) as mothers of controls (7.2%) (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 2.3 [95% confidence interval {CI} 1.3-4.2]). The exposure categories of the greatest frequency among case mothers were exhaust and combustion products (AOR = 12.0 [95% CI 1.4-104.6]) and disinfectants (AOR = 4.0 [95% CI 1.4-12.0]). Paternal occupational exposure was not associated with autism, potentially consistent with a direct in-utero exposure effect. There are several limitations of this hypothesis-generating study, including lack of detail on workplace and job duties, leading to possible misclassification and low proportion exposed. However, this misclassification would not be biased by case-control status and is unlikely to explain the associations we did find, suggesting that further research on exogenous exposures may yield useful etiologic clues. PMID:23361991

Windham, Gayle C; Sumner, Austin; Li, Sherian X; Anderson, Meredith; Katz, Elizabeth; Croen, Lisa A; Grether, Judith K

2013-02-01

134

Occupational 50 Hz magnetic field exposure measurements among female sewing machine operators in Hungary.  

PubMed

Occupational magnetic field (MF) exposure is less thoroughly characterized in occupations typically held by women. Our objective was to characterize occupational 50 Hz MF personal exposure (PE) among female sewing machine operators. We measured the full shift PE of 51 seamstresses, who worked in two shifts (6-14 and 14-22 h) according to their normal work routine. Measurements were conducted using EMDEX PAL meters at chest level. The average duration of the measurement periods was 449 min (range 420-470). The average arithmetic mean exposure for all women was 0.76 microT (range 0.06-4.27). The average of maximum values was 4.30 microT (range 0.55-14.80). Women working with older sewing machines experienced higher exposure than women working on newer sewing machines. For women (n = 10) who operated sewing machines produced in 1990 or earlier, the average arithmetic mean exposure was 2.09 microT, and for women (n = 41) who operated sewing machines produced after 1990, the average arithmetic mean was 0.43 microT. We conclude that women working as sewing machine operators experience higher than average occupational MF exposure compared to other working women. Most important determinant of the women's personal MF exposure was the age of the sewing machine the women operated. PMID:16622866

Szabó, J; Mezei, K; Thuróczy, G; Mezei, G

2006-09-01

135

Assessing Occupational Exposure to Perchloroethylene in Dry Cleaning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Occupational exposure to perchloroethylene (PERC) in dry cleaning is analyzed by calculating airborne concentrations for a large set of possible exposure scenarios. Different generations of dry-cleaning machines ranging from vented machines used until the 1980s to nonvented closed-loop machines used since the 1990s are investigated; the geographical scope of the study is Germany. Concentrations are calculated for diffuse emissions, release

Julia von Grote; Christian Hürlimann; Martin Scheringer; Konrad Hungerbühler

2006-01-01

136

Cardiac autonomic dysfunction from occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesExposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) has been associated with cardiopulmonary mortality and cardiovascular events. This study investigated the association between a biological marker of PAH exposure, assessed by urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP), and heart-rate variability in an occupational cohort of boilermakers.MethodsContinuous 24 h monitoring of the ambulatory electrocardiogram (ECG) and pre- and postshift urinary 1-OHP were repeated over extended periods

Mi-Sun Lee; Shannon Magari; David C Christiani

2010-01-01

137

Occupational Exposure to Diagnostic Radiology in Workers without Training in Radiation Safety  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The physicians, technicians, nurses, and others involved in radiation areas constitute the largest group of workers occupationally exposed to man-made sources of radiation. Personnel radiation exposure must be monitored for safety and regulatory considerations, this assessment may need to be made over a period of one month or several months. The purpose of this study was to carry out an exploratory survey of occupational exposures associated with diagnostic radiology. The personnel dosimeters used in this study were thermoluminiscent dosimeters (TLDs). The reported number of monitored workers was 110 of different departments of radiology of the Mexican Republic without education in radiation safety, included general fluoscopic/radiographic imaging, computed tomography and mammography procedures. Physicians and X-ray technologist in diagnostic radiology receive an average annual effective dose of 2.9 mSv with range from 0.18 to 5.64 mSv. The average level of occupational exposures is generally similar to the global average level of natural radiation exposure. The annual global per capita effective dose due to natural radiation sources is 2.4 mSv (UNSCEAR 2000 Report). There is not significant difference between average occupational exposures and natural radiation exposure for p < 0.05.

Gaona, Enrique; Enríquez, Jesús G. Franco

2004-09-01

138

Antimyeloperoxidase antibodies in individuals with occupational exposure to silica.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of autoantibodies to myeloperoxidase (MPO) in a series of patients exposed to silica. METHODS: The study included 52 patients with occupational exposure to silica (mean exposure time seven years) and a control group comprising seven patients with progressive systemic sclerosis (PSS), six patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), and 15 healthy individuals. Antibodies to MPO were detected using commercial enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) plates coated with MPO. Indirect immunoflurescence studies for antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies were performed using ethanol and formol fixed neutrophils. Clinical and biological data of individuals exposed to silica were recorded (published previously). RESULTS: Antibodies to MPO were detected in 14 individuals exposed to silica (27%). There was a statistically significant difference in anti-MPO ELISA units between the healthy subjects and patients (SLE, PSS, silica exposed individuals) (p < 0.01), but no difference between the different disease groups. CONCLUSIONS: Individuals chronically exposed to silica, whether or not they have a connective tissue disease, have levels of antibodies to MPO (as detected by ELISA) that are greater than those found in the normal population, but similar to those in patients with systemic diseases not induced by silica (SLE/PSS). PMID:8712888

Wichmann, I; Sanchez-Roman, J; Morales, J; Castillo, M J; Ocaña, C; Nuñez-Roldan, A

1996-01-01

139

Assessing the reproductive health of men with occupational exposures  

PubMed Central

The earliest report linking environmental (occupational) exposure to adverse human male reproductive effects dates back to1775 when an English physician, Percival Pott, reported a high incidence of scrotal cancer in chimney sweeps. This observation led to safety regulations in the form of bathing requirements for these workers. The fact that male-mediated reproductive harm in humans may be a result of toxicant exposures did not become firmly established until relatively recently, when Lancranjan studied lead-exposed workers in Romania in 1975, and later in 1977, when Whorton examined the effects of dibromochloropropane (DBCP) on male workers in California. Since these discoveries, several additional human reproductive toxicants have been identified through the convergence of laboratory and observational findings. Many research gaps remain, as the pool of potential human exposures with undetermined effects on male reproduction is vast. This review provides an overview of methods used to study the effects of exposures on male reproduction and their reproductive health, with a primary emphasis on the implementation and interpretation of human studies. Emphasis will be on occupational exposures, although much of the information is also useful in assessing environmental studies, occupational exposures are usually much higher and better defined. PMID:24369130

Schrader, Steven M; Marlow, Katherine L

2014-01-01

140

Association between occupational exposure and the clinical characteristics of COPD  

PubMed Central

Background The contribution of occupational exposures to COPD and their interaction with cigarette smoking on clinical pattern of COPD remain underappreciated. The aim of this study was to explore the contribution of occupational exposures on clinical pattern of COPD. Methods Cross-sectional data from a multicenter tertiary care cohort of 591 smokers or ex-smokers with COPD (median FEV1 49%) were analyzed. Self-reported exposure to vapor, dust, gas or fumes (VDGF) at any time during the entire career was recorded. Results VDGF exposure was reported in 209 (35%) subjects aged 31 to 88 years. Several features were significantly associated with VDGF exposure: age (median 68 versus 64 years, p?occupational exposures are associated with distinct patients characteristics. PMID:22537093

2012-01-01

141

Occupational exposure to fluorinated hydrocarbons during refrigeration repair work.  

PubMed

This study describes refrigeration repair workers' occupational exposures to halogenated refrigerants, focusing on difluorochloromethane (HCFC 22), tetrafluoroethane (HFC 134a) and a mixture of tri-, tetra- and pentafluoroethane (R404A) in 30 work operations. Unlike earlier reported studies, the present study includes working procedures involving welding in order to measure possible occupational exposure to decomposition products. The measurements included hydrogen fluoride (HF), hydrogen chloride (HCl), phosgene (COCl2) and volatile organic compounds (VOC). The exposures were assessed during work operations on small-scale cooling installations like refrigerators and freezers. The repair workers' occupational exposures to refrigerants were moderate, and the major part of the exposures were associated with specific working procedures lasting for relatively short periods of time (<20 min). During these exposure events the concentrations were occasionally high (up to 42434 mg m(-3)). Although welding operations lasted only for short periods of time, HF was detected in 9 out of 15 samples when HCFC 22, HFC 134a or R404A had been used. Hydrogen chloride was detected in 3 out of 5 samples in air polluted with HCFC 22. Phosgene was not detected. A large number of VOCs in various concentrations were found during welding. Except for the applied refrigerants, halogenated compounds were only found in one sample. PMID:12729261

Gjølstad, Merete; Ellingsen, Dag G; Espeland, Oscar; Nordby, Karl-Christian; Evenseth, Harald; Thorud, Syvert; Skaugset, Nils Petter; Thomassen, Yngvar

2003-04-01

142

Assessing the reproductive health of men with occupational exposures.  

PubMed

The earliest report linking environmental (occupational) exposure to adverse human male reproductive effects dates back to1775 when an English physician, Percival Pott, reported a high incidence of scrotal cancer in chimney sweeps. This observation led to safety regulations in the form of bathing requirements for these workers. The fact that male-mediated reproductive harm in humans may be a result of toxicant exposures did not become firmly established until relatively recently, when Lancranjan studied lead-exposed workers in Romania in 1975, and later in 1977, when Whorton examined the effects of dibromochloropropane (DBCP) on male workers in California. Since these discoveries, several additional human reproductive toxicants have been identified through the convergence of laboratory and observational findings. Many research gaps remain, as the pool of potential human exposures with undetermined effects on male reproduction is vast. This review provides an overview of methods used to study the effects of exposures on male reproduction and their reproductive health, with a primary emphasis on the implementation and interpretation of human studies. Emphasis will be on occupational exposures, although much of the information is also useful in assessing environmental studies, occupational exposures are usually much higher and better defined. PMID:24369130

Schrader, Steven M; Marlow, Katherine L

2014-01-01

143

Indoor Air Quality and Occupational Exposures at a Bus Terminal  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents an assessment of indoor air quality at a bus terminal. For this purpose, field surveys were conducted, and air samples were collected and analyzed for the presence of selected indoor air quality indicators. Mathematical modeling was performed to simulate bus emission rates, occupational exposure, and ventilation requirements to maintain acceptable indoor air quality. A sensitivity analysis based

Mutasem El-Fadel; Nisrine El-Hougeiri

2003-01-01

144

OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE OF ELECTRICAL UTILITY LINEMEN TO PENTACHLOROPHENOL  

Microsoft Academic Search

Occupational exposure to pentachlorophenol (PCP) for a crew of electrical utility linemen was monitored over a 6-month period by using total PCP in urine per gram of creatinine as a biological monitoring parameter. Urine samples were collected from three groups: A, B, and control, at a 4-week frequency during 1989. Group A was required to use new gloves after each

K. S. Thind; S. Karmali; R. A. House

1991-01-01

145

Investing in Prospective Cohorts for Etiologic Study of Occupational Exposures  

EPA Science Inventory

Prospective cohorts have played a major role in understanding the role of diet, physical activity, medical conditions, and genes in the development of many diseases, but have not been widely used in the study of occupational exposures. Studies in agriculture are an exception. W...

146

Ceruloplasmin as a marker of occupational copper exposure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Estimation of serum copper to indicate copper status in the human system in the context of moderate chronic occupational copper exposure requires a sophisticated and expensive method. Hence, a search for a suitable marker has been made and few studies have found potential in serum ceruloplasmin. In this context, the present study was initiated to explore whether ceruloplasmin could serve

Asim Saha; Anil Karnik; Natubhai Sathawara; Pradip Kulkarni; Vedprakash Singh

2008-01-01

147

Occupational Exposure to Natural Sources of Ionising Radiation in Ireland  

SciTech Connect

The Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland (RPII) has recently completed a detailed evaluation of all radiation exposure pathways from sources of both natural and artificial radiation in the Irish environment. This paper presents a compilation of the occupational doses received by Irish workers exposed to natural sources of ionising radiation.

Organo, Catherine; Colgan, Tony; Fenton, David; Synnott, Hugh; Currivan, Lorraine [Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland, 3 Clonskeagh Square, Dublin 14 (Ireland)

2008-08-07

148

LINKING DATA TO STUDY REPRODUCTIVE EFFECTS OF OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURES  

EPA Science Inventory

Many existing data systems or registers can be used to study occupational exposures and reproduction. Use of these data systems, especially those already computerized, results in great savings in time and resources. The report describes existing record systems on reproductive out...

149

Occupational Exposure to Elemental Constituents in Fingerprint Powders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fingerprint detection is an essential component of any crime detection agency. Little information is available regarding the elemental constituents of powders that are available currently. One recent case of lead poisoning coupled with many complaints from the Vancouver identification Squad members initiated a study regarding the elemental composition of, and the occupational exposure to, these powders. Multi-elemental analysis of the

C. Van Netten; K. E. Teschke; F. Souter

1990-01-01

150

Biomarkers of occupational exposure to air pollution, inflammation and oxidative damage in taxi drivers.  

PubMed

Exposure to environmental pollutants has been recognised as a risk factor for cardiovascular events. 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP) is a biomarker of exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from traffic-related air pollution. Experimental studies indicate that PAH exposure could be associated with inflammation and atherogenesis. Thus, the purpose of this study was to evaluate whether the biomarker of PAH exposure is associated with biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress and if these effects modulate the risk of developing cardiovascular diseases in workers exposed to air pollution. This study included 60 subjects, comprising 39 taxi drivers and 21 non-occupationally exposed persons. Environmental PM2.5 and benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) levels, in addition to biomarkers of exposure and oxidative damage, were determined. Inflammatory cytokines (IL-1?, IL-6, IL-10, TNF-?, IFN-? and hs-CRP) and serum levels of oxidised LDL (ox-LDL), auto-antibodies (ox-LDL-Ab) and homocysteine (Hcy) were also evaluated. PM2.5 and BaP exhibited averages of 12.4±6.9 ?g m(-3) and 1.0±0.6 ng m(-3), respectively. Urinary 1-OHP levels were increased in taxi drivers compared to the non-occupationally exposed subjects (p<0.05) and were positively correlated with pro-inflammatory cytokines and negatively correlated with antioxidants. Furthermore, taxi drivers had elevated pro-inflammatory cytokines, biomarkers of oxidative damage, and ox-LDL, ox-LDL-Ab and Hcy levels, although antioxidant enzymes were decreased compared to the non-occupationally exposed subjects (p<0.05). In summary, our findings indicate that taxi drivers showed major exposure to pollutants, such as PAHs, in relation to non-occupationally exposed subjects. This finding was associated with higher inflammatory biomarkers and Hcy, which represent important predictors for cardiovascular events. These data suggest a contribution of PAHs to cardiovascular diseases upon occupational exposure. PMID:23872245

Brucker, Natália; Moro, Angela M; Charão, Mariele F; Durgante, Juliano; Freitas, Fernando; Baierle, Marília; Nascimento, Sabrina; Gauer, Bruna; Bulcão, Rachel P; Bubols, Guilherme B; Ferrari, Pedro D; Thiesen, Flávia V; Gioda, Adriana; Duarte, Marta M M F; de Castro, Iran; Saldiva, Paulo H; Garcia, Solange C

2013-10-01

151

Occupational exposures during routine activities in coal-fueled power plants  

SciTech Connect

Limited information is available on occupational exposures during routine, nonoutage work activities in coal-fueled power plants. This study evaluated occupational exposures to the principal contaminants in the facilities, including respirable dust (coal dust), arsenic, noise, asbestos, and heat stress. The data were collected over a 3-month period, during the summer of 2001, in 5 representative power plants of a large southeastern power-generating company. From 4 of the 5 facilities, 392 air samples and 302 noise samples were collected with approximately 50 respirable coal dust, 32 arsenic, 15 asbestos, and 70 noise samples from each of the 4 plants. One of the previously surveyed facilities was also evaluated for heat stress, and 1 additional coal-fueled power plant was surveyed for a total of 20 personal heat stress samples. Of the nearly 400 air samples collected, only 1 exceeded the allowable occupational exposure value. For the noise samples, 55 were equal to or greater than the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) 8-hour hearing conservation program level of 85 dBA, and 12 were equal to or greater than the OSHA 8-hour permissible exposure level of 90 dBA. The data concluded that some work sites were above the heat stress ceiling values recommended by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). Four of the 20 employees personally monitored exceeded the recommended limits for heart rate or body core temperature.

Mona J. Bird; David L. MacIntosh; Phillip L. Williams [University of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States). Dept. of Environmental Health Science

2004-06-15

152

Occupational paraquat exposure of agricultural workers in large Costa Rican farms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  Paraquat is an herbicide widely used worldwide. This study determined the extent of occupational exposure to paraquat among\\u000a farm workers in Costa Rica and identified determinants of occupational exposure.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Twenty-four hour urine samples were collected from 119 paraquat handlers and 54 non-handlers from banana, coffee and palm\\u000a oil farms. Information about herbicide handling operations was also collected. The urinary paraquat levels

Kiyoung Lee; Eun-Kee Park; Maria Stoecklin-Marois; Marja E. Koivunen; Shirley J. Gee; Bruce D. Hammock; Laurel A. Beckett; Marc B. Schenker

2009-01-01

153

Toxic hepatitis in occupational exposure to solvents  

PubMed Central

The liver is the main organ responsible for the metabolism of drugs and toxic chemicals, and so is the primary target organ for many organic solvents. Work activities with hepatotoxins exposures are numerous and, moreover, organic solvents are used in various industrial processes. Organic solvents used in different industrial processes may be associated with hepatotoxicity. Several factors contribute to liver toxicity; among these are: species differences, nutritional condition, genetic factors, interaction with medications in use, alcohol abuse and interaction, and age. This review addresses the mechanisms of hepatotoxicity. The main pathogenic mechanisms responsible for functional and organic damage caused by solvents are: inflammation, dysfunction of cytochrome P450, mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress. The health impact of exposure to solvents in the workplace remains an interesting and worrying question for professional health work. PMID:22719183

Malaguarnera, Giulia; Cataudella, Emanuela; Giordano, Maria; Nunnari, Giuseppe; Chisari, Giuseppe; Malaguarnera, Mariano

2012-01-01

154

Occupational exposure through spraying remedial pesticides.  

PubMed

A total of 20 surveys at 15 sites of remedial in-situ timber and masonry treatment took place in the latter half of 1996. Two of these surveys concerned wall washes (biocides), the remainder were non-agricultural pesticides. The purpose was to measure the surface deposition and inhalation exposure of the operatives to the pesticide spray fluids used. The diluted spray fluids were found to have significantly different concentrations from those intended by the sprayer. The pesticides were applied at pressures between 320 and 1050 kPa. Deposition rates for spray fluid on coveralls covered a wide range, with more than 30 fold difference between the median and the highest results (median 209 mg/minute; range 27.4 to 6550 mg/min). Contamination of coveralls occurred in all surveys, with the pesticide getting beneath the coveralls in 95% of surveys, with a median 5% contamination beneath the overall. The averaged and normalised deposition pattern was 75% legs, 11% arms, 12% torso and 2% head. Exposure of hands to pesticide (expressed as spray fluid) beneath protective gloves occurred in 89% of surveys (median 5.78 mg/minute; range 0.23 to 358 mg/min) and contamination of socks by spray fluid in 78% of surveys (median 2.08 mg/minute; range 0.12 to 260 mg/min). Exposure by inhalation to spray fluid was measurable in 72% of surveys (median 53.5 mg/m3 TWA; range 4.33 to 1320 mg/m3; 2 data excluded). Inhalation exposure and deposition on coveralls rose markedly at spray pressures above 700 kPa (100 psi). PMID:9684556

Garrod, A N; Rimmer, D A; Robertshaw, L; Jones, T

1998-04-01

155

Postmenopausal breast cancer and occupational exposures  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveTo determine whether exposures in the workplace to organic solvents and to other agents, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, are associated with increased risks of developing postmenopausal breast cancer.MethodsBetween 1996 and 1997 a case–control study was conducted in Montreal, Quebec. Cases comprised 556 women, aged 50–75 years, with incident malignant breast cancer, and their controls were 613 women with other

Mark S Goldberg; Marie-France Valois; Louise Nadon

2010-01-01

156

Occupational exposure to crystalline silica and the risk of lung cancer in Canadian men.  

PubMed

Crystalline silica is a recognized carcinogen, but the association with lung cancer at lower levels of exposure has not been well characterized. This study investigated the relationship between occupational silica exposure and lung cancer and the combined effects of cigarette smoking and silica exposure on lung cancer risk. A population-based case-control study was conducted in eight Canadian provinces between 1994 and 1997. Self-reported questionnaires were used to obtain a lifetime occupational history and information on other risk factors. Occupational hygienists assigned silica exposures to each job based on concentration, frequency and reliability. Data from 1681 incident lung cancer cases and 2053 controls were analyzed using logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (OR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI). Models included adjustments for cigarette smoking, lifetime residential second-hand smoke and occupational exposure to diesel and gasoline engine emissions. Relative to the unexposed, increasing duration of silica exposure at any concentration was associated with a significant trend in lung cancer risk (OR???30 years: 1.67, 1.21-2.24; ptrend ?=?0.002). The highest tertile of cumulative silica exposure was associated with lung cancer (OR?=?1.81, 1.34-2.42; ptrend ?=?0.004) relative to the lowest. Men exposed to silica for ?30 years with ?40 cigarette pack-years had the highest risk relative to those unexposed with <10 pack-years (OR?=?42.53, 23.54-76.83). The joint relationship with smoking was consistent with a multiplicative model. Our findings suggest that occupational exposure to silica is a risk factor for lung cancer, independently from active and passive smoking, as well as from exposure to other lung carcinogens. PMID:24272527

Kachuri, Linda; Villeneuve, Paul J; Parent, Marie-Élise; Johnson, Kenneth C; Harris, Shelley A

2014-07-01

157

75 FR 80819 - Draft Current Intelligence Bulletin “Occupational Exposure to Carbon Nanotubes and Nanofibers”  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Bulletin ``Occupational Exposure to Carbon Nanotubes and Nanofibers'' AGENCY: National...evaluate the scientific data on carbon nanotubes and to issue its findings on the potential...entitled ``Occupational Exposure to Carbon Nanotubes and Nanofibers'' has been...

2010-12-23

158

78 FR 4324 - Occupational Exposure to Hazardous Chemicals in Laboratories (Non-Mandatory Appendix); Technical...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...1910 Occupational Exposure to Hazardous Chemicals in Laboratories (Non-Mandatory Appendix...OSHA's Occupational Exposure to Hazardous Chemicals in Laboratories Standard. The non-mandatory...Laboratory: Handling and Management of Chemical Hazards,'' 2011 edition. All...

2013-01-22

159

48 CFR 952.223-75 - Preservation of individual occupational radiation exposure records.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Preservation of individual occupational radiation exposure records. 952.223-75...Preservation of individual occupational radiation exposure records. As prescribed...planning and execution, or 952.223-72, Radiation protection and nuclear...

2012-10-01

160

48 CFR 952.223-75 - Preservation of individual occupational radiation exposure records.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Preservation of individual occupational radiation exposure records. 952.223-75...Preservation of individual occupational radiation exposure records. As prescribed...planning and execution, or 952.223-72, Radiation protection and nuclear...

2011-10-01

161

48 CFR 952.223-75 - Preservation of individual occupational radiation exposure records.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Preservation of individual occupational radiation exposure records. 952.223-75...Preservation of individual occupational radiation exposure records. As prescribed...planning and execution, or 952.223-72, Radiation protection and nuclear...

2010-10-01

162

48 CFR 952.223-75 - Preservation of individual occupational radiation exposure records.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Preservation of individual occupational radiation exposure records. 952.223-75...Preservation of individual occupational radiation exposure records. Link to an amendment...planning and execution, or 952.223-72, Radiation protection and nuclear...

2014-10-01

163

48 CFR 952.223-75 - Preservation of individual occupational radiation exposure records.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Preservation of individual occupational radiation exposure records. 952.223-75...Preservation of individual occupational radiation exposure records. As prescribed...planning and execution, or 952.223-72, Radiation protection and nuclear...

2013-10-01

164

Application of statistical modeling to occupational exposure assessment  

SciTech Connect

This dissertation applies statistical modeling to two problems: (1) describing a single worker's exposure distribution and estimating its associated arithemetic mean; and (2) describing the distribution of inhalation exposure levels among a population of respirator wearers while accounting for variability in ambient exposure and respirator penetration values within and between wearers. A task-based statistical construct for a single worker's exposure levels for a single agent is developed; the model accounts for variability in short-term time weighted average (TWA) exposure values within a task, and for variability in arithmetic mean exposure levels between tasks. Five sample survey designs for estimating a worker's arithmetic mean exposure level are examined. Stratified random sampling designs, in which short-term TWAs are measured for time periods selected on a task basis, can provide a more precise estimate of the arithmetic mean exposure level than the traditional survey design for the same fixed cost. For describing inhalation exposure levels (C{sub i}) among a population of air-purifying respirator wearers, a synthesis of lognormal one-way analysis of variance models for ambient exposure levels (C.) and respirator penetration (P) values provides the most tractable construct. The model is applied to assessing the risk of toxicant overexposure for a respirator wearer population. Overexposure to a chronic toxicant is equated with an arithmetic mean exposure level above the permissible exposure limit (PEL) value, while overexposure to an acute toxicant is equated with a 95th percentile exposure level above the PEL value.

Nicas, M.

1991-01-01

165

Validity of self reported occupational exposures to hand transmitted and whole body vibration  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES—To assess the accuracy with which workers report their exposure to occupational sources of hand transmitted (HTV) and whole body vibration (WBV).?METHODS—179 Workers from various jobs involving exposure to HTV or WBV completed a self administered questionnaire about sources of occupational exposure to vibration in the past week. They were then observed at work over 1 hour, after which they completed a second questionnaire concerning their exposures during this observation period. The feasibility of reported sources of exposure during the past week was examined by questioning managers and by inspection of tools and machines in the workplace. The accuracy of reported sources and durations of exposure in the 1 hour period were assessed relative to what had been observed.?RESULTS—The feasibility of exposure in the previous week was confirmed for 97% of subjects who reported exposure to HTV, and for 93% of subjects who reported exposure to WBV. The individual sources of exposure reported were generally plausible, but occupational use of cars was substantially overreported, possibly because of confusion with their use in travel to and from work. The accuracy of exposures reported during the observation period was generally high, but some sources of HTV were confused—for example, nailing and stapling guns reported as riveting hammers, and hammer drills not distinguished from other sorts of drill. Workers overestimated their duration of exposure to HTV by a median factor of 2.5 (interquartile range (IQR) 1.6-5.9), but estimated durations of exposure were more accurate when the exposure was relatively continuous rather than for intermittent short periods. Reported durations of exposure to WBV were generally accurate (median ratio of reported to observed time 1.1, IQR 1.0-1.2).?CONCLUSIONS—Sources of recent occupational exposure to vibration seem to be reported with reasonable accuracy, but durations of exposure to HTV are systematically overestimated, particularly when the exposure is intermittent and for short periods. This raises the possibility that dose-response relations may have been biased in some of the studies on which exposure standards might be based, and that the levels in currently proposed standards may be too high. Future studies should pay attention to this source of error during data collection.???Keywords: vibration; exposure; assessment; validity PMID:10810109

Palmer, K.; Haward, B.; Griffin, M.; Bendall, H.; Coggon, D.

2000-01-01

166

Variability and consistency of electric and magnetic field occupational exposure measurements.  

PubMed

There is widespread scientific and public interest in possible health effects from exposure to electric and magnetic fields at frequencies associated with electricity use. Electric and magnetic field exposure assessment presents specific problems, among which are the inherent variability in exposure, the lack of robust statistical summary measures, and the lack of an accepted metric based on biological response. These pose challenges in defining distinct exposure groups, a basic goal for exposure assessments used in epidemiological studies. This paper explores the extent to which distinct electric and magnetic field exposure groups can be defined, by examining the variability and consistency of occupational electric and magnetic field exposure measurements among studies and within individual studies. Principal analyses are made by job titles because they are the most frequently used descriptors for stratifying occupational exposures to electric and magnetic fields. Methodological issues affecting the degree of consistency in measured electric and magnetic field exposures among occupational environments are also examined. Exposures by job title reported from electric and magnetic field measurement studies are summarized by general job category and industry. Analyses are performed both within and between job categories. Distributions of daily measured exposures for job categories taken from three large studies in the U.S. electric utility industry are compared to investigate consistency of exposures at a more detailed level. Analyses of reported personal exposure measurements from many studies and countries are consistent with less rigorous observations made heretofore on the basis of individual studies. In these studies, significantly elevated electric and magnetic field exposures are found in the electrician, lineworker, and substation worker categories; significantly elevated magnetic field exposures are also noted in the generation worker category; and magnetic field exposures in these groups are consistent across countries. Analyses within and among the elevated exposure job categories indicate that there are no significant differences between them. Among the studies, it is not possible to distinguish between exposures for well-defined groups within the categories, such as between transmission lineworkers and distribution lineworkers in the lineworker category; between generation operators and generation mechanics; or between substation operators and substation maintenance workers. This information provides a context for past studies and will help future efforts to define distinct occupational exposure groups exposed to electric and magnetic fields. Compilations of measured personal exposure data by industry and job title have been prepared as appendices (available from the author upon request). PMID:8889954

Bracken, T D; Patterson, R M

1996-01-01

167

Occupational exposure to dioxins at UK worksites.  

PubMed

Following a request from a Governmental Interdepartmental Group, the Health and Safety Executive undertook a polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (PCDD) and polychorinated dibenzofuran (PCDF) sampling exercise at several work sites in the UK. An initial survey suggested potential PCDD/F production at metal recycling sites, during cement manufacture, at municipal waste incinerators and landfill sites and during the use of thermal oxygen lances. PCDD/F sampling, using static and personal air samplers, revealed that the highest PCDD/F exposures were found at metal recycling sites, particularly aluminium recycling sites. The reasons for these results and the possible consequential intakes are discussed. PMID:15148051

Sweetman, Andy; Keen, Chris; Healy, John; Ball, Elanor; Davy, Colin

2004-07-01

168

Advanced REACH Tool: a Bayesian model for occupational exposure assessment.  

PubMed

This paper describes a Bayesian model for the assessment of inhalation exposures in an occupational setting; the methodology underpins a freely available web-based application for exposure assessment, the Advanced REACH Tool (ART). The ART is a higher tier exposure tool that combines disparate sources of information within a Bayesian statistical framework. The information is obtained from expert knowledge expressed in a calibrated mechanistic model of exposure assessment, data on inter- and intra-individual variability in exposures from the literature, and context-specific exposure measurements. The ART provides central estimates and credible intervals for different percentiles of the exposure distribution, for full-shift and long-term average exposures. The ART can produce exposure estimates in the absence of measurements, but the precision of the estimates improves as more data become available. The methodology presented in this paper is able to utilize partially analogous data, a novel approach designed to make efficient use of a sparsely populated measurement database although some additional research is still required before practical implementation. The methodology is demonstrated using two worked examples: an exposure to copper pyrithione in the spraying of antifouling paints and an exposure to ethyl acetate in shoe repair. PMID:24665110

McNally, Kevin; Warren, Nicholas; Fransman, Wouter; Entink, Rinke Klein; Schinkel, Jody; van Tongeren, Martie; Cherrie, John W; Kromhout, Hans; Schneider, Thomas; Tielemans, Erik

2014-06-01

169

Exploring the Usefulness of Occupational Exposure Registries for Surveillance  

PubMed Central

Objective: The ongoing presence of asbestos in products used across workplaces in Canada reinforces the importance of occupational exposure surveillance. This study evaluates the usefulness of the Ontario Asbestos Workers Registry. Methods: The study includes 30,829 workers aged 15 to 80 years. Researchers reported on the data quality and analyzed the proportions of workers exposed by industry, and standardized rates by geographic areas and over time. Results: The incidence of exposure started to decrease around 1990; but about 2000 workers were still exposed annually until 2006. Results showed large geographical disparities. Unexpectedly, workers from industries other than construction reported exposure. Conclusions: The Ontario Asbestos Workers Registry is a useful but challenging source of information for the surveillance of asbestos exposure in Ontario. The registry could benefit from well-defined surveillance objectives, a clear exposure definition, systematic enforcement, regular data analyses, and results dissemination. PMID:25162835

Genesove, Leon; Moore, Kris; Del Bianco, Ann; Kramer, Desre

2014-01-01

170

Potential Health Effects Associated with Dermal Exposure to Occupational Chemicals  

PubMed Central

There are a large number of workers in the United States, spanning a variety of occupational industries and sectors, who are potentially exposed to chemicals that can be absorbed through the skin. Occupational skin exposures can result in numerous diseases that can adversely affect an individual’s health and capacity to perform at work. In general, there are three types of chemical–skin interactions of concern: direct skin effects, immune-mediated skin effects, and systemic effects. While hundreds of chemicals (metals, epoxy and acrylic resins, rubber additives, and chemical intermediates) present in virtually every industry have been identified to cause direct and immune-mediated effects such as contact dermatitis or urticaria, less is known about the number and types of chemicals contributing to systemic effects. In an attempt to raise awareness, skin notation assignments communicate the potential for dermal absorption; however, there is a need for standardization among agencies to communicate an accurate description of occupational hazards. Studies have suggested that exposure to complex mixtures, excessive hand washing, use of hand sanitizers, high frequency of wet work, and environmental or other factors may enhance penetration and stimulate other biological responses altering the outcomes of dermal chemical exposure. Understanding the hazards of dermal exposure is essential for the proper implementation of protective measures to ensure worker safety and health. PMID:25574139

Anderson, Stacey E; Meade, B Jean

2014-01-01

171

Occupational Exposure to Crystalline Silica Dust in the United States, 1988–2003  

PubMed Central

The purposes of this study were a) to summarize measurements of airborne (respirable) crystalline silica dust exposure levels among U.S. workers, b) to provide an update of the 1990 Stewart and Rice report on airborne silica exposure levels in high-risk industries and occupations with data for the time period 1988–2003, c) to estimate the number of workers potentially exposed to silica in industries that the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) inspected for high exposure levels, and d) to conduct time trend analyses on airborne silica dust exposure levels for time-weighted average (TWA) measurements. Compliance inspection data that were taken from the OSHA Integrated Management Information System (IMIS) for 1988–2003 (n = 7,209) were used to measure the airborne crystalline silica dust exposure levels among U.S. workers. A second-order autoregressive model was applied to assess the change in the mean silica exposure measurements over time. The overall geometric mean of silica exposure levels for 8-hr personal TWA samples collected during programmed inspections was 0.077 mg/m3, well above the applicable American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists threshold limit value of 0.05 mg/m3. Surgical appliances supplies industry [Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) 3842] had the lowest geometric mean silica exposure level of 0.017 mg/m3, compared with the highest level, 0.166 mg/m3, for the metal valves and pipe fitting industry (SIC 3494), for an 8-hr TWA measurement. Although a downward trend in the airborne silica exposure levels was observed during 1988–2003, the results showed that 3.6% of the sampled workers were exposed above the OSHA-calculated permissible exposure limit. PMID:15743711

Yassin, Abdiaziz; Yebesi, Francis; Tingle, Rex

2005-01-01

172

Occupational exposure of workers to 1,3-butadiene.  

PubMed Central

Researchers from the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) conducted an extent-of-exposure study of the 1,3-butadiene monomer, polymer, and end-user industries to determine the size of the exposed workforce, evaluate control technologies and personal protective equipment programs, and assess occupational exposure to 1,3-butadiene. A new analytical method was developed for 1,3-butadiene that increased the sensitivity and selectivity of the previous NIOSH method. The new method is sensitive to 0.2 microgram per 1,3-butadiene sample. Walk-through surveys were conducted in 11 monomer, 17 polymer, and 2 end-user plants. In-depth industrial hygiene surveys were conducted at 4 monomer, 5 polymer, and 2 end-user plants. Airborne exposure concentrations of 1,3-butadiene were determined using personal sampling for each job category. A total of 692 full shift and short-term personnel and 259 area air samples were examined for the presence of 1,3-butadiene. Sample results indicated that all worker exposures were well below the current OSHA PEL of 1000 ppm. Exposures ranged from less than 0.006 ppm to 374 ppm. The average exposure for all samples was less than 2 ppm. The present American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) threshold limit value for 1,3-butadiene is 10 ppm. To reduce the potential for occupational exposure, it is recommended that quality control sampling be conducted using a closed loop system. Also all process pumps should be retrofitted with dual mechanical seals, magnetic gauges should be used in loading and unloading rail cars, and engineering controls should be designed for safely voiding quality control cylinders. PMID:2401251

Fajen, J M; Roberts, D R; Ungers, L J; Krishnan, E R

1990-01-01

173

Occupational exposure of workers to 1,3-butadiene.  

PubMed

Researchers from the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) conducted an extent-of-exposure study of the 1,3-butadiene monomer, polymer, and end-user industries to determine the size of the exposed workforce, evaluate control technologies and personal protective equipment programs, and assess occupational exposure to 1,3-butadiene. A new analytical method was developed for 1,3-butadiene that increased the sensitivity and selectivity of the previous NIOSH method. The new method is sensitive to 0.2 microgram per 1,3-butadiene sample. Walk-through surveys were conducted in 11 monomer, 17 polymer, and 2 end-user plants. In-depth industrial hygiene surveys were conducted at 4 monomer, 5 polymer, and 2 end-user plants. Airborne exposure concentrations of 1,3-butadiene were determined using personal sampling for each job category. A total of 692 full shift and short-term personnel and 259 area air samples were examined for the presence of 1,3-butadiene. Sample results indicated that all worker exposures were well below the current OSHA PEL of 1000 ppm. Exposures ranged from less than 0.006 ppm to 374 ppm. The average exposure for all samples was less than 2 ppm. The present American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) threshold limit value for 1,3-butadiene is 10 ppm. To reduce the potential for occupational exposure, it is recommended that quality control sampling be conducted using a closed loop system. Also all process pumps should be retrofitted with dual mechanical seals, magnetic gauges should be used in loading and unloading rail cars, and engineering controls should be designed for safely voiding quality control cylinders. PMID:2401251

Fajen, J M; Roberts, D R; Ungers, L J; Krishnan, E R

1990-06-01

174

[Bronchial asthma caused by occupational sulfite exposure].  

PubMed

A case is reported of a patient with episodes of bronchospasm requiring hospital admission after handling sodium bisulfite on the job. The patient had a 15-year history of bronchial asthma and concomitant rhinoconjunctivitis and a 6-year history of asthma induced by moderate exercise. His family history included a father with sensitization to mites. Skin tests, measurement of specific IgI, and nasal provocation were positive for domestic dust mites and grass pollen. Skin tests for sodium metasulfite at a concentration of 10 mg/ml were negative. A simple blind oral provocation test of sodium metasulfite (1, 5, 20, and 50 mg) in acid medium was positive at the 50-mg dose, eliciting bronchial and nasal symptoms, and a decrease in CVF, FEV1, and PEF of more than 20% over baseline values. The episode of bronchospasm has not recurred in the workplace since exposure to sodium bisulfite was eliminated. Oral provocation with metasulfite in acid medium is considered a good technique for confirming the diagnosis of these cases. PMID:8160569

Valero, A L; Bescos, M; Amat, P; Malet, A

1993-01-01

175

Inhalable dust measurements as a first approach to assessing occupational exposure in the pharmaceutical industry.  

PubMed

Occupational exposure to active ingredients in the pharmaceutical industry has been the subject of very few published studies. Nevertheless, operations involving active powdered drugs or dusty operations potentially lead to operator exposure. The aim of this study was to collect occupational exposure data in the pharmaceutical industry for production processes involving powdered active ingredients. While the possibility of assessing drug exposure from dust level is examined, this article focuses on inhalable dust exposure, without taking chemical risk into account. A total of 377 atmospheric (ambient and personal) samples were collected in nine drug production sites (pharmaceutical companies and contract manufacturing organizations) and the dust levels were assessed. For each sample, relevant contextual information was collected. A wide range of results was observed, both site- and operation-dependent. Exposure to inhalable dust levels varied from 0.01 mg/m(3)to 135 mg/m(3). Though restricted to dust exposure, the study highlighted some potentially critical situations or operations, in particular manual tasks (loading, unloading, mechanical actions) performed in open systems. Simple preventive measures such as ventilation, containment, and minimization of manual handling should reduce dust emissions and workers' exposure to inhalable dust. PMID:24369930

Champmartin, C; Clerc, F

2014-01-01

176

Ethyl benzene should be considered ototoxic at occupationally relevant exposure concentrations.  

PubMed

Organic solvents can produce ototoxic effects in both man and experimental animals. The objective of this study was to review the literature on the effects of low-level exposure to ethyl benzene on the auditory system and consider its relevance for the occupational settings. Both human and animal investigations were evaluated only for realistic exposure concentrations based on the permissible exposure limits. In Quebec, the Time-Weighed Average Exposure Value for 8A h (TWAEV) is 100A ppm (434A mg/m(3)) and the Short-Term Exposure Value for 15A min (STEV) is 125A ppm (543A mg/m(3)). In humans, the upper limit for considering ototoxicity data relevant to the occupational exposure situation was set at STEV. Animal data were evaluated only for exposure concentrations up to 100 times the TWAEV. In workers, there is no evidence of either ethyl benzene-induced hearing losses or ototoxic interaction after combined exposure to ethyl benzene and noise. In rats, ethyl benzene affects the auditory function mainly in the cochlear mid-frequency range and ototoxic interaction was observed after combined exposure to noise and ethyl benzene. Further studies with sufficient data on the ethyl benzene exposure of workers are necessary to make a definitive conclusion. Given the current evidence from animal studies, we recommend considering ethyl benzene as an ototoxic agent. PMID:19022877

Vyskocil, A; Leroux, T; Truchon, G; Lemay, F; Gendron, M; Gagnon, F; El Majidi, N; Viau, C

2008-05-01

177

Development of a respiratory sensitization/elicitation protocol of toluene diisocyanate (TDI) in Brown Norway rats to derive an elicitation-based occupational exposure level.  

PubMed

Toluene diisocyanate (TDI), a known human asthmagen, was investigated in skin-sensitized Brown Norway rats for its concentration×time (C×t)-response relationship on elicitation-based endpoints. The major goal of study was to determine the elicitation inhalation threshold dose in sensitized, re-challenged Brown Norway rats, including the associated variables affecting the dosimetry of inhaled TDI-vapor in rats and as to how these differences can be translated to humans. Attempts were made to duplicate at least some traits of human asthma by using skin-sensitized rats which were subjected to single or multiple inhalation-escalation challenge exposures. Two types of dose-escalation protocols were used to determine the elicitation-threshold C×t; one used a variable C (Cvar) and constant t (tconst), the other a constant C (Cconst) and variable t (tvar). The selection of the "minimal irritant" C was based an ancillary pre-studies. Neutrophilic granulocytes (PMNs) in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BAL) were considered as the endpoint of choice to integrate the allergic pulmonary inflammation. These were supplemented by physiological measurements characterizing nocturnal asthma-like responses and increased nitric oxide in exhaled breath (eNO). The Cconst×tvar regimen yielded the most conclusive dose-response relationship as long C was high enough to overcome the scrubbing capacity of the upper airways. Based on ancillary pre-studies in naïve rats, the related human-equivalent respiratory tract irritant threshold concentration was estimated to be 0.09ppm. The respective 8-h time-adjusted asthma-related human-equivalent threshold C×t-product (dose), in 'asthmatic' rats, was estimated to be 0.003ppm. Both thresholds are in agreement of the current ACGIH TLV(®) of TDI and published human evidence. In summary, the findings from this animal model suggest that TDI-induced respiratory allergy is likely to be contingent on two interlinked, sequentially occurring mechanisms: first, dermal sensitizing encounters high enough to cause systemic sensitization. Second, when followed by inhalation exposure(s) high enough to initiate and amplify an allergic airway inflammation, then a progression into asthma may occur. This bioassay requires an in-depth knowledge on respiratory tract dosimetry and irritation of the involved test substance to clearly understand the dosimetry causing C- and/or C×t-dependent respiratory tract irritation and eventually asthma. PMID:24572447

Pauluhn, Jürgen

2014-05-01

178

Occupational exposure and 12-year spirometric changes among Paris area workers.  

PubMed Central

A follow-up study over 12 years was conducted among 556 men aged 30 to 54 in 1960 and working at that time in factories around Paris (France). Various occupational exposures were recorded at the time of the 1960 survey after a technical study of each workplace. The annual rate of decline of FEV1 during 12 years was estimated for each subject from the measurements in 1960 and 1972. This rate (the FEV1 slope) was related independently of FEV1 level (which reflects the loss since the beginning of adult life) and of smoking habits to occupational exposure to dust, gases, and heat. FEV1 slope was significantly related to inhalation of mineral dust (even in the absence of silica) as well as to grain dust, and the slope was steeper with increased intensity of exposure to dust. Analysis of job changes showed that among heavily exposed subjects, those who changed jobs had a less steep slope than those who did not. Our results support the hypothesis of a causal role of exposure to dust in the development of chronic airflow obstruction and of a benefit when exposure to dust ceases. Exposure to dust, gas, and heat usually occurred together so data on gas and heat were analysed after taking account of exposure to dust. The influence of heat on FEV1 decline showed a clear trend. Results suggest that exposure to gases associated with exposure to dust or heat or both had a deleterious effect. After adjusting for age, smoking, and FEV1 level (ASLA) the following average slopes were obtained: 44 ml/a (for exposure to none or to only a slight amount of dust, or to gases alone), 51 ml/a (heat), 53 ml/a (noticeable dust), 55 ml/a (noticeable dust and heat), 60 ml/a (noticeable dust, heat, and high concentration of gases). Independently of the occupational exposures, ASLA FEV1 slopes among manual workers were related to skill, being 44 ml/a for skilled and 51 ml/a for unskilled men. Independently of social class and occupational exposures recorded, there were differences in FEV1 slopes by factory, suggesting that one should not rely on using one factory as the control of studies of occupational exposure to another. PMID:7093148

Kauffmann, F; Drouet, D; Lellouch, J; Brille, D

1982-01-01

179

A computer software application for managing occupational exposure data.  

PubMed

The Health Hazard Information Module is the U.S. Army's computer software application for managing occupational exposure data. The project mission is to utilize automated information systems technology to improve the overall effectiveness of industrial hygiene programs. Field industrial hygiene professionals document their survey methods, findings, conclusions, and recommendations with a portable, pen-based computer. Back at the office, the data are electronically transferred to a desktop workstation. Users can generate standard or customized reports in hard copy or electronic formats. Annually, users transfer their data to a corporate mainframe computer. The software incorporates appropriate information and represents an excellent template worth examining during the ongoing international effort to standardize occupational exposure data. Planned refinements include distributing the software to other Department of Defense agencies and making it commercially available for a nominal fee through the National Technical Information Service in the near future. PMID:9794070

Morgan, D A; Wolbert, B J; Owens, P G; Opheim, G S

1998-10-01

180

Bronchial hyperresponsiveness and level of exposure in occupational asthma due to western red cedar (Thuja plicata). Serial observations before and after development of symptoms.  

PubMed

Four workers from a cedar sawmill who developed red cedar asthma are described. They had serial measurements of lung function and nonspecific bronchial hyperresponsiveness (NSBH) several years before and after the development of chest symptoms. Measurements of dust concentration and specific IgE antibodies to plicatic acid-human serum albumin (PA-HSA) conjugate were also carried out before the onset of disease. NSBH developed in parallel with the development of asthma and was not present in any of the workers beforehand, indicating that it is not a predisposing host factor. Nasal symptoms preceded chest symptoms in three workers, suggesting that this may be an early marker of the disease. Although dust concentrations for jobs located both inside and outside the sawmill were low, jobs associated with somewhat higher exposures were associated with the initiation of asthma symptoms. PMID:1456584

Chan-Yeung, M; Desjardins, A

1992-12-01

181

Evaluation of biomarkers for occupational exposure to benzene.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE--To evaluate the relations between environmental benzene concentrations and various biomarkers of exposure to benzene. METHODS--Analyses were carried out on environmental air, unmetabolised benzene in urine, trans, trans-muconic acid (ttMA), and three major phenolic metabolites of benzene; catechol, hydroquinone, and phenol, in two field studies on 64 workers exposed to benzene concentrations from 0.12 to 68 ppm, the time weighted average (TWA). Forty nonexposed subjects were also investigated. RESULTS--Among the five urinary biomarkers studied, ttMA correlated best with environmental benzene concentration (correlation coefficient, r = 0.87). When urinary phenolic metabolites were compared with environmental benzene, hydroquinone correlated best with benzene in air. No correlation was found between unmetabolised benzene in urine and environmental benzene concentrations. The correlation coefficients for environmental benzene and end of shift catechol, hydroquinone, and phenol were 0.30, 0.70, and 0.66, respectively. Detailed analysis, however, suggests that urinary phenol was not a specific biomarker for exposure below 5 ppm. In contrast, ttMA and hydroquinone seemed to be specific and sensitive even at concentrations of below 1 ppm. Although unmetabolised benzene in urine showed good correlation with atmospheric benzene (r = 0.50, P < 0.05), data were insufficient to suggest that it is a useful biomarker for exposure to low concentrations of benzene. The results from the present study also showed that both ttMA and hydroquinone were able to differentiate the background level found in subjects not occupationally exposed and those exposed to less than 1 ppm of benzene. This suggests that these two biomarkers are useful indices for monitoring low concentrations of benzene. Furthermore, these two metabolites are known to be involved in bone marrow leukaemogenesis, their applications in biological monitoring could thus be important in risk assessment. CONCLUSION--The good correlations between ttMA, hydroquinone, and atmospheric benzene, even at concentrations of less than 1 ppm, suggest that they are sensitive and specific biomarkers for benzene exposure. PMID:7663638

Ong, C N; Kok, P W; Lee, B L; Shi, C Y; Ong, H Y; Chia, K S; Lee, C S; Luo, X W

1995-01-01

182

Occupational lead exposure in Denmark: screening with the haematofluorometer.  

PubMed

The zinc protoporphyrin/haemoglobin (ZPP/Hb) ratio was measured in the field with a haematofluorometer. A significant increase in ZPP/Hb ratio with advancing age was found in 1295 men who denied any excess exposure to lead. Ninety-seven per cent of the results were below 110 mumol ZPP/mol Hb(Fe) (4.4 microgram ZPP/g Hb). The ZPP/Hb ratio was determined in a lead-exposed population of 2275 men, and in 305 a blood lead analysis was also performed. A blood lead limit of 2.9 mumol/l (60 microgram/100 ml) corresponds to about 500 mumol ZPP/mol Hb(Fe) (20 microgram/g). This limit was exceeded in workers engaged in secondary lead smelting, storage battery manufacture, car radiator repair, crystal glass manufacture, storage battery repair, ship breaking, metal foundries, the ceramic industry, scrap metal handling, and PVC plastic manufacture. Other occupations caused lower lead exposures with ZPP/Hb ratios between 110 and 500 mumol ZPP/mol Hb(Fe): such ratios were found in men from shooting ranges, in leaded pane manufacturers, gunsmiths, car paint sprayers, type setters, steel rolling mill workers, shipbuilders and welders, car mechanics, lead pigment handlers, and solderers. Increased ZPP/Hb ratios and blood lead levels in 210 workers were associated with a decrease in haemoglobin concentration in the blood. Thus, the haematofluorometer has proved to be very useful for screening purposes. A blood lead determination should be performed if the ZPP/Hb ratio exceeds 300 microgram ZPP/mol Hb(Fe) (12 microgram/g). PMID:444441

Grandjean, P

1979-02-01

183

Occupational and environmental human lead exposure in Brazil  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this paper is to present a review of data on assessment of exposure and adverse effects due to environmental and occupational lead exposure in Brazil. Epidemiological investigations on children lead exposure around industrial and mining areas have shown that lead contamination is an actual source of concern. Lead in gasoline has been phasing out since the 1980s, and it is now completely discontinued. The last lead mining and lead refining plant was closed in 1995, leaving residual environmental lead contamination which has recently been investigated using a multidisciplinary approach. Moreover, there are hundreds of small battery recycling plants and secondary smelting facilities all over the country, which produce focal urban areas of lead contamination. Current regulatory limits for workplace lead exposure have shown to be inadequate as safety limits according to a few studies carried out lately.

Paoliello, M.M.B. [Departamento de Patologia, Analises Clinicas e Toxicologicas, Centro de Ciencias da Saude, Universidade Estadual de Londrina, Avenida Robert Koch 60, 86038-440 Londrina, Parana (Brazil)]. E-mail: monibas@sercomtel.com.br; De Capitani, E.M. [Centro de Controle de Intoxicacoes, Hospital Universitario da UNICAMP, Faculdade de Ciencias Medicas, Universidade Estadual de Campinas (Brazil)

2007-02-15

184

Monitoring of Occupational Exposure of Mild Steel Welders to Ozone and Nitrogen Oxides  

PubMed Central

Background Metal Inert Gas (MIG) welding and Tungsten Inert Gas (TIG) welding are widely used for mild steel segments in basic metal industries. Pulmonary problems such as asthma, pulmonary inflammation, hyper-responsiveness of airways and higher susceptibility to infections are reported as the result of occupational exposure of welders to ozone and nitrogen oxides. Potent oxidizing agents like ozone and nitrogen oxides are also reported to be a precursor for respiratory problems and cause lipid peroxidation of membranes. Materials and Methods A total of 43 nonsmoking MIG and TIG welders and 41 nonsmoking workers without appreciable exposure to any chemicals as the control population were chosen to participate in this study. Occupational exposure to ozone was monitored according to the validated methods. Malondialdehyde (MDA) of blood serum as a biomarker for lipid peroxidation was analyzed using Reverse Phase High Performance Liquid Chromatography. Data obtained from this study were analyzed using t-test, Pearson's correlation coefficient and multiple regression analysis. Results A total of 88.4% and 74.4% of welders had exposure to ozone and nitrogen dioxide higher than the permissible limit of occupational exposure, respectively. Generally, exposure of MIG welders to ozone was significantly higher than TIG welders (P = 0.006). However, exposure to nitrogen dioxide gas was comparable in both groups. Serum MDA of welders was significantly higher than that of the control group (P = 0.001). A significant correlation was detected between ozone exposure and level of serum malondialdehyde. Such correlation was not observed for nitrogen dioxide exposure. Conclusion Considering the high exposure of welders to ozone and nitrogen dioxide, and higher level of serum malondialdehyde in them compared to controls, risk management is recommended for this group of workers. PMID:25191389

Esmaeilzadeh, Morteza; Mehrabi, Yadollah; Salehpour, Sousan

2011-01-01

185

Permissible exposure levels and emergency exposure guidance levels for selected airborne contaminants. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Navy requested that the National Research Council's Committee on Toxicology recommend permissible exposure levels (PELs) for zinc dimethyldithiocarbamate (ziram) and ethylhexyl nitrate. No exposure levels for these compounds have been recommended either by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration or by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists. The U.S. Army's Surgeon General's office also requested the 2-min emergency exposure guidance levels (EEGLs) for hydrogen chloride because of the Army's concern for the short-term high-level exposure of soldiers to hydrogen chloride vapors released during firing of various rocket motors and missiles. In response to these requests, the Committee on Toxicology set up the Subcommittee on Permissible Exposure Levels. The subcommittee, whose expertise is in toxicology, inhalation toxicology, genetics, biostatistics, medicine, and pathology, evaluated the toxicity data on ziram, ethylhexyl nitrate, and hydrogen chloride. In addition to the recommendations for PELs for ziram and ethylhexyl nitrate and EEGLs for hydrogen chloride, the subcommittee has identified deficiencies in the data and made recommendations for additional research. The subcommittee believes that the recommended exposure levels will provide adequate protection for workers and soldiers from these chemicals.

Not Available

1991-01-01

186

Occupational Noise Exposure among Toll Tellers at Toll Plaza in Malaysia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Toll tellers working at toll plaza have potential of exposure to high noise from the vehicles especially for the peak level of sound emitted by the heavy vehicles. However, occupational exposures in this workplace have not been adequately characterized and identified. Occupational noise exposure among toll tellers at toll plaza was assessed using Sound Level Meter, Noise Dosimeter and through questionnaire survey. These data were combined to estimate the work shift exposure level and health impacts to the toll tellers by using statistical analysis. Noise Dosimeter microphone was located at the hearing zone of the toll teller which working inside the toll booth and full-period measurements were collected for each work shift. The measurements were taken at 20 toll booths from 6.00 am to 2.00 pm for 5 days. 71 respondents participated in the survey to identify the symptoms of noise induced hearing loss and other health related problems among toll tellers. Results of this study indicated that occupational noise exposure among toll tellers for Mean Continuous Equivalent Level, Leq was 79.2±1.4 dB(A), Mean Maximum Level, Lmax was 107.8±3.6 dB(A) and Mean Peak Level, Lpeak was 136.6±9.9 dB. The Peak Level reported statistically significantly at 140 dB, the level of TLV recommended by ACGIH. The research findings indicated that the primary risk exposure to toll tellers comes from noise that emitted from heavy vehicles. Most of the toll tellers show symptoms of noise induced hearing loss and annoyed by the sources of noise at the toll plaza.

Azmi, Sharifah Nadya Syed; Dawal, Siti Zawiah Md; Ya, Tuan Mohammad Yusoff Shah Tuan; Saidin, Hamidi

2010-10-01

187

Occupational exposure to pesticides and risk of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.  

PubMed

Pesticide exposure may be a risk factor for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, but it is not certain which types of pesticides are involved. A population-based case-control study was undertaken in 2000-2001 using detailed methods of assessing occupational pesticide exposure. Cases with incident non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in two Australian states (n = 694) and controls (n = 694) were chosen from Australian electoral rolls. Logistic regression was used to estimate the risks of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma associated with exposure to subgroups of pesticides after adjustment for age, sex, ethnic origin, and residence. Approximately 10% of cases and controls had incurred pesticide exposure. Substantial exposure to any pesticide was associated with a trebling of the risk of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (odds ratio = 3.09, 95% confidence interval: 1.42, 6.70). Subjects with substantial exposure to organochlorines, organophosphates, and "other pesticides" (all other pesticides excluding herbicides) and herbicides other than phenoxy herbicides had similarly increased risks, although the increase was statistically significant only for "other pesticides." None of the exposure metrics (probability, level, frequency, duration, or years of exposure) were associated with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Analyses of the major World Health Organization subtypes of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma suggested a stronger effect for follicular lymphoma. These increases in risk of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma with substantial occupational pesticide exposure are consistent with previous work. PMID:16177143

Fritschi, L; Benke, G; Hughes, A M; Kricker, A; Turner, J; Vajdic, C M; Grulich, A; Milliken, S; Kaldor, J; Armstrong, B K

2005-11-01

188

Surveillance of occupational lead exposure in New Jersey: 1986 to 1989.  

PubMed Central

Between January 1986 and June 1989, 1916 New Jersey workers were identified through a surveillance system for occupational lead exposure. The average annual proportion of workers with a blood lead level above 2.42 mumol/L was 12%. Industries with the highest proportion of workers with blood lead levels above 2.42 mumol/L were special trade construction (35%) and industries dealing with scrap and waste materials (27%). PMID:1739164

Tepper, A

1992-01-01

189

Occupational and environmental exposures and lung cancer in an industrialised area in Italy  

PubMed Central

Aims: To investigate the effects of occupational exposures and residence near to industrial sites on lung cancer mortality in an area in Italy. Methods: 234 cases of lung cancer and 729 controls matched by sex, age, and date of death were enrolled. Environmental exposure was evaluated using historical residence data. A geographical information system was used to compute distances from residence to pollution source (cement factory, power plants, harbour) and an average distance was computed for each subject. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) in a logistic regression model were used to estimate the relative risk of lung cancer associated with the risk factors (smoking habits and occupational exposure) collected by questionnaire; ORs for distances from pollution sources and from city centre were computed, adjusting for smoking habits, education, and occupation. Results: Smoking habits (?10 cigarettes/day, OR = 2.28; 11–20, OR = 4.64; >20, OR = 6.61) and occupational exposure to asbestos (OR = 3.50) were significantly associated with lung cancer risk. Reported traffic level of area of residence and residence near the four sources were not associated with increased risk of lung cancer. There was a significantly increased risk for those residing outside the city centre, in the southern outskirts (OR = 1.51). Conclusions: The increased lung cancer risk observed in the area can partly be explained by occupational exposures. The increased risk in the outskirts of the city is consistent with the results of dispersion models that indicate high levels of pollutant deposition in the same area. PMID:15317916

Fano, V; Michelozzi, P; Ancona, C; Capon, A; Forastiere, F; Perucci, C

2004-01-01

190

Occupational Exposure to Ultrafine Particles among Airport Employees - Combining Personal Monitoring and Global Positioning System  

PubMed Central

Background Exposure to ultrafine particles (UFP) has been linked to cardiovascular and lung diseases. Combustion of jet fuel and diesel powered handling equipment emit UFP resulting in potentially high exposure levels among employees working at airports. High levels of UFP have been reported at several airports, especially on the apron, but knowledge on individual exposure profiles among different occupational groups working at an airport is lacking. Purpose The aim of this study was to compare personal exposure to UFP among five different occupational groups working at Copenhagen Airport (CPH). Method 30 employees from five different occupational groups (baggage handlers, catering drivers, cleaning staff and airside and landside security) at CPH were instructed to wear a personal monitor of particle number concentration in real time and a GPS device. The measurements were carried out on 8 days distributed over two weeks in October 2012. The overall differences between the groups were assessed using linear mixed model. Results Data showed significant differences in exposure levels among the groups when adjusted for variation within individuals and for effect of time and date (p<0.01). Baggage handlers were exposed to 7 times higher average concentrations (geometric mean, GM: 37×103 UFP/cm3, 95% CI: 25–55×103 UFP/cm3) than employees mainly working indoors (GM: 5×103 UFP/cm3, 95% CI: 2–11×103 UFP/cm3). Furthermore, catering drivers, cleaning staff and airside security were exposed to intermediate concentrations (GM: 12 to 20×103 UFP/cm3). Conclusion The study demonstrates a strong gradient of exposure to UFP in ambient air across occupational groups of airport employees. PMID:25203510

Møller, Karina Lauenborg; Thygesen, Lau Caspar; Schipperijn, Jasper; Loft, Steffen; Bonde, Jens Peter; Mikkelsen, Sigurd; Brauer, Charlotte

2014-01-01

191

Effects of occupational exposure to tobacco smoke: is there a link between environmental exposure and disease?  

PubMed

In a previous study, evidence was provided that indoor secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS) air pollution remains high in Lisbon restaurants where smoking is allowed, regardless of the protective measures used. The aim of this study was to determine in these locations the levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) associated with the particulate phase of SHS (PPAH), a fraction that contains recognized carginogens, such as benzo[a]pyrene (BaP). Data showed that restaurant smoking areas might contain PPAH levels as high as 110 ng/m(3), a value significantly higher than that estimated for nonsmoking areas (30 ng/m(3)) or smoke-free restaurants (22 ng/m(3)). The effective exposure to SHS components in restaurant smoking rooms was confirmed as cotinine levels found in workers' urine. Considering that all workers exhibited normal lung function, eventual molecular changes in blood that might be associated with occupational exposure to SHS and SHS-associated PPAH were investigated by measurement of two oxidative markers, total antioxidant status (TAS) and 8-hydroxyguanosine (8-OHdG) in plasma and serum, respectively. SHS-exposed workers exhibited higher mean levels of serum 8-OHdG than nonexposed workers, regardless of smoking status. By using a proteomics approach based on 2D-DIGE-MS, it was possible to identify nine differentially expressed proteins in the plasma of SHS-exposed nonsmoker workers. Two acute-phase inflammation proteins, ceruloplasmin and inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor heavy chain 4 (ITIH4), were predominant. These two proteins presented a high number of isoforms modulated by SHS exposure with the high-molecular-weight (high-MW) isoforms decreased in abundance while low-MW isoforms were increased in abundance. Whether these expression profiles are due to (1) a specific proteolytic cleavage, (2) a change on protein stability, or (3) alterations on post-translational modification pattern of these proteins remains to be investigated. Considering that these events seem to precede the first symptoms of tobacco-related diseases, our findings might contribute to elucidation of early SHS-induced pathogenic mechanisms and constitute a useful tool for monitoring the effects of SHS on occupationally exposed individuals such as those working in the hospitality industry. PMID:23514073

Pacheco, Solange A; Torres, Vukosava M; Louro, Henriqueta; Gomes, Filomena; Lopes, Carlos; Marçal, Nelson; Fragoso, Elsa; Martins, Carla; Oliveira, Cátia L; Hagenfeldt, Manuela; Bugalho-Almeida, António; Penque, Deborah; Simões, Tânia

2013-01-01

192

Throwing the baby out with the bath water? Occupational hygienists' views on the revised dutch system for occupational exposure limits.  

PubMed

In 2007, the Dutch Working Conditions Act was revised with the goal to decrease the regulatory burden, and to open up for company-specific solutions of establishing a safe and healthy work environment. One tool geared towards company-specific solutions is the compilation of the Arbocatalogs, which are company or sector-level collections of safe working methods and guidelines developed both by employers and employees. The revision also introduced a new occupational exposure limit (OEL) system in the Netherlands. This system encompasses two kinds of OELs: private and public. Private OELs are to be derived by the industry, while public OELs are issued by the Ministry of Social Affairs and Employment. With this change, the majority of the previously set Dutch OELs were removed, as the substances in question now are falling under the private realm. The motivations, expectations, and practical impacts of these revisions have been investigated through interviews with stakeholder organizations and a questionnaire study targeted at occupational hygienists. The questionnaire results show that although the Arbocatalogs seem to be relatively well received, a majority of the Dutch occupational hygienists are still relatively negative to the changes. There is a fear that private OELs will be less scientifically robust than public OELs and that the lack of robustness will have a negative impact on the field of occupational hygiene as a whole. PMID:23253359

Schenk, Linda; Palmen, Nicole Gm

2013-06-01

193

Carbofuran occupational dermal toxicity, exposure and risk assessment†  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Carbofuran is a carbamate insecticide that inhibits AChE. Although toxic by ingestion in mammals, it has low dermal toxicity, with relatively few confirmed worker illnesses. This risk assessment describes its time of onset, time to peak effect and time to recovery in rats using brain AChE inhibition in acute and 21 day dermal studies; in vitro rat/human relative dermal absorption for granular (5G) and liquid (4F) formulations; occupational exposure estimates using the Pesticide Handlers' Exposure Database and Agricultural Handlers' Exposure Database (PHED/AHED). RESULTS The point of departure for acute risk calculation (BMDL10) was 6.7 mg kg?1 day?1 for brain AChE inhibition after 6 h exposure. In a 21 day study, the BMDL10 was 6.8 mg kg?1 day?1, indicating reversibility. At 75 mg kg?1 day?1, time of onset was ?30 min and time to peak effect was 6–12 h. Rat skin had ca tenfold greater dermal absorption of carbofuran (Furadan® 5G or 4F) than human skin. Exposure estimates for 5G in rice and 4F in ten crops had adequate margins of exposure (>100). CONCLUSION Rat dermal carbofuran toxicity was assessed in terms of dose and time-related inhibition of AChE. Comparative dermal absorption in rats was greater than in humans. Worker exposure estimates indicated acceptable risk for granular and liquid formulations of carbofuran. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry PMID:21834090

Gammon, Derek W; Liu, Zhiwei; Becker, John M

2012-01-01

194

Occupational pesticide exposures and cancer risk: a review.  

PubMed

A review of the epidemiological literature linking pesticides to cancers in occupational studies worldwide was conducted, with particular focus on those articles published after the release of IARC Monograph 53 (1991): Occupational Exposures in Insecticide Applications and Some Pesticides. Important new data are now available. Chemicals in every major functional class of pesticides including insecticides, herbicide, fungicides, and fumigants have been observed to have significant associations with an array of cancer sites. Moreover, associations were observed with specific chemicals in many chemical classes of pesticides such as chlorinated, organophosphate, and carbamate insecticides and phenoxy acid and triazine herbicides. However, not every chemical in these classes was found to be carcinogenic in humans. Twenty-one pesticides identified subsequent to the last IARC review showed significant exposure-response associations in studies of specific cancers while controlling for major potential confounders. This list is not an exhaustive review and many of these observations need to be evaluated in other epidemiological studies and in conjunction with data from toxicology and cancer biology. Nonetheless, it is reasonable and timely for the scientific community to provide a multidisciplinary expert review and evaluation of these pesticides and their potential to produce cancer in occupational settings. PMID:22571220

Alavanja, Michael C R; Bonner, Matthew R

2012-01-01

195

Airborne occupational exposures and risk of oesophageal and cardia adenocarcinoma  

PubMed Central

Background The reasons for the increasing incidence of and strong male predominance in patients with oesophageal and cardia adenocarcinoma remain unclear. The authors hypothesised that airborne occupational exposures in male dominated industries might contribute. Methods In a nationwide Swedish population based case control study, 189 and 262 cases of oesophageal and cardia adenocarcinoma respectively, 167 cases of oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma, and 820 frequency matched controls underwent personal interviews. Based on each study participant's lifetime occupational history the authors assessed cumulative airborne occupational exposure for 10 agents, analysed individually and combined, by a deterministic additive model including probability, frequency, and intensity. Furthermore, occupations and industries of longest duration were analysed. Relative risks were estimated by odds ratios (OR), with 95% confidence intervals (CI), using conditional logistic regression, adjusted for potential confounders. Results Tendencies of positive associations were found between high exposure to pesticides and risk of oesophageal (OR 2.3 (95% CI 0.9 to 5.7)) and cardia adenocarcinoma (OR 2.1 (95% CI 1.0 to 4.6)). Among workers highly exposed to particular agents, a tendency of an increased risk of oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma was found. There was a twofold increased risk of oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma among concrete and construction workers (OR 2.2 (95% CI 1.1 to 4.2)) and a nearly fourfold increased risk of cardia adenocarcinoma among workers within the motor vehicle industry (OR 3.9 (95% CI 1.5 to 10.4)). An increased risk of oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (OR 3.9 (95% CI 1.2 to 12.5)), and a tendency of an increased risk of cardia adenocarcinoma (OR 2.8 (95% CI 0.9 to 8.5)), were identified among hotel and restaurant workers. Conclusions Specific airborne occupational exposures do not seem to be of major importance in the aetiology of oesophageal or cardia adenocarcinoma and are unlikely to contribute to the increasing incidence or the male predominance. PMID:16421388

Jansson, C; Plato, N; Johansson, A L V; Nyrén, O; Lagergren, J

2006-01-01

196

Short-term Variation in Occupational Exposure to Air Contaminants.  

PubMed

Many industrial workers are exposed to air contaminants. A significant proportion of this exposure is found to occur as short peaks, a fact that has received limited attention in the literature. The present study focuses on short-term variation in air contaminant exposure measured at the level of seconds, linking exposure peaks to typical work situations in selected Swedish industries. The video exposure monitoring method was used to characterize this variation. Ten different videos were analyzed, from recordings varying in length between 15 and 34 minutes. Cumulative exposure for sampling intervals ranked from high to low, relative to the total exposure was calculated as a function of time. Measures of exposure variation included geometric standard deviation and maximum exposure divided by arithmetic mean. The results show that the characteristics of the variation differ between industrial situations. Samples from the stone, wood, and pharmaceutical industries generated the highest variation, implying that exposure peaks of short duration explain a large proportion of the total exposure. It can be concluded that video monitoring of exposure, combined with calculation of exposure variation as percentage of time accounting for given percentages of exposure, can help to reduce exposure to air contaminants in industrial situations by introducing more targeted control measures. PMID:25830662

Gummesson, Karl; Andersson, Ing-Marie; Rosén, Gunnar

2015-05-01

197

Occupational exposure to carcinogens in the European Union  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES—To construct a computer assisted information system for the estimation of the numbers of workers exposed to established and suspected human carcinogens in the member states of the European Union (EU).?METHODS—A database called CAREX (carcinogen exposure) was designed to provide selected exposure data and documented estimates of the number of workers exposed to carcinogens by country, carcinogen, and industry. CAREX includes data on agents evaluated by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) (all agents in groups 1 and 2A as of February 1995, and selected agents in group 2B) and on ionising radiation, displayed across the 55 industrial classes. The 1990-3 occupational exposure was estimated in two phases. Firstly, estimates were generated by the CAREX system on the basis of national labour force data and exposure prevalence estimates from two reference countries (Finland and the United States) which had the most comprehensive data available on exposures to these agents. For selected countries, these estimates were then refined by national experts in view of the perceived exposure patterns in their own countries compared with those of the reference countries.?RESULTS—About 32 million workers (23% of those employed) in the EU were exposed to agents covered by CAREX. At least 22 million workers were exposed to IARC group 1 carcinogens. The exposed workers had altogether 42 million exposures (1.3 mean exposures for each exposed worker). The most common exposures were solar radiation (9.1 million workers exposed at least 75% of working time), environmental tobacco smoke (7.5 million workers exposed at least 75% of working time), crystalline silica (3.2 million exposed), diesel exhaust (3.0 million), radon (2.7 million), and wood dust (2.6 million).?CONCLUSION—These preliminary estimates indicate that in the early 1990s, a substantial proportion of workers in the EU were exposed to carcinogens.???Keywords: exposure; carcinogen; Europe PMID:10711264

Kauppinen, T.; Toikkanen, J.; Pedersen, D.; Young, R.; Ahrens, W.; Boffetta, P.; Hansen, J.; Kromhout, H.; Blasco, J. M.; Mirabelli, D.; de la Orden-River..., V.; Pannett, B.; Plato, N.; Savela, A.; Vincent, R.; Kogevinas, M.

2000-01-01

198

Occupational exposure to inhalable and total aerosol in the primary nickel production industry.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES--This paper describes a study that was carried out in the primary nickel production industry to investigate the levels of personal exposure to aerosols containing nickel and the impact on exposure assessment of introducing new personal sampling techniques with performance consistent with the latest particle size-selective criteria. METHODS--Experiments were carried out at workplaces in mining, milling, smelting, and refining works to investigate the effect of changing from the current method of total aerosol (with the widely used 37 mm filter holder) to the new method of measuring inhalable aerosol (with the Institute of Occupational Medicine (IOM) inhalable aerosol sampler). RESULTS--The results show that inhalable aerosol exposure concentrations--for both overall aerosol and for total nickel--were consistently and significantly higher than the corresponding total aerosol concentrations. Weighted least squares linear regression yielded IOM/37 mm factors ranging from about 1.2 to 4.0. The exposure data for each company process were found to be log-normally distributed. CONCLUSIONS--The results suggest the possibility of generating a single pragmatic factor for each company process for converting current total aerosol exposures to new exposures based on the inhalability concept contained in the latest particle size-selective criteria for aerosol exposure assessment. Such data may be important in determining new occupational exposure limits for nickel. PMID:8563841

Tsai, P J; Vincent, J H; Wahl, G; Maldonado, G

1995-01-01

199

Cardiac arrhythmias during occupational exposure to fluorinated hydrocarbons.  

PubMed Central

The effects of occupational exposure to chlorodifluoromethane (FC 22) and dichlorodifluoromethane (FC 12) on cardiac rhythm were examined. The subjects were six men who repaired refrigerators (age 31-56, mean 46 years) and a control group of six plumbers (age 29-54, mean 45 years). Ambulatory electrocardiograms (ECG) were recorded for 24 hours on the day of exposure and on a control day. The ECG tapes were automatically analysed with a Reynolds pathfinder 3 apparatus and all aberrant complexes recorded by the machine were checked. One person read all the tapes without knowing whether or not they were recorded during exposure. The number of ventricular ectopic beats were compared between the day of exposure and the control day and with the tape of the control. In addition, the number of ventricular ectopic beats during exposure was compared with the number occurring during the rest of the day. The concentrations of fluorocarbons were measured in four instances. High peak concentrations of fluorocarbons (1300-10,000 cm3/m3) were measured during refrigerator repair work. No clear connection between fluorocarbons and cardiac arrhythmia was found, although one subject had several ventricular ectopic beats which may have been connected with exposure. PMID:2310718

Antti-Poika, M; Heikkilä, J; Saarinen, L

1990-01-01

200

[Predictive models for the assessment of occupational exposure to chemicals: a new challenge for employers].  

PubMed

Employers are obliged to carry out and document the risk associated with the use of chemical substances. The best but the most expensive method is to measure workplace concentrations of chemicals. At present no "measureless" method for risk assessment is available in Poland, but predictive models for such assessments have been developed in some countries. The purpose of this work is to review and evaluate the applicability of selected predictive methods for assessing occupational inhalation exposure and related risk to check the compliance with Occupational Exposure Limits (OELs), as well as the compliance with REACH obligations. Based on the literature data HSE COSHH Essentials, EASE, ECETOC TRA, Stoffenmanager, and EMKG-Expo-Tool were evaluated. The data on validation of predictive models were also examined. It seems that predictive models may be used as a useful method for Tier 1 assessment of occupational exposure by inhalation. Since the levels of exposure are frequently overestimated, they should be considered as "rational worst cases" for selection of proper control measures. Bearing in mind that the number of available exposure scenarios and PROC categories is limited, further validation by field surveys is highly recommended. Predictive models may serve as a good tool for preliminary risk assessment and selection of the most appropriate risk control measures in Polish small and medium size enterprises (SMEs) providing that they are available in the Polish language. This also requires an extensive training of their future users. PMID:24502133

Gromiec, Jan Piotr; Kupczewska-Dobecka, Ma?gorzata; Jankowska, Agnieszka; Czerczak, S?awomir

2013-01-01

201

Occupational exposure to chrome VI compounds in French companies: results of a national campaign to measure exposure (2010-2013).  

PubMed

A campaign to measure exposure to hexavalent chromium compounds was carried out in France by the seven CARSAT chemistry laboratories, CRAMIF laboratory, and INRS over the 2010-2013 period. The survey included 99 companies involved in various activity sectors. The inhalable fraction of airborne particles was sampled, and exposure levels were determined using ion chromatography analysis combined with post-column derivatization and UV detection. The quality of the measurement results was guaranteed by an inter-laboratory comparison system involving all the laboratories participating in this study. Exposure levels frequently exceeded the French occupational exposure limit value (OELV) of 1 µg m(-3), in activities such as thermal metallization and manufacturing and application of paint in the aeronautics sector. The results also reveal a general trend for a greater proportion of soluble Chromium VI (Cr VI) compounds compared with insoluble compounds. Qualitative and quantitative information relating to the presence of other metallic compounds in the air of workplaces is also provided, for example for Cr III, Ni, Fe, etc. The sampling strategy used and the measurement method are easy to implement, making it possible to check occupational exposure with a view to comparing it to an 8 h-OELV of 1 µg m(-3). PMID:25381441

Vincent, Raymond; Gillet, Martine; Goutet, Pierre; Guichard, Christine; Hédouin-Langlet, Catherine; Frocaut, Anne Marie; Lambert, Pierre; Leray, Fabrice; Mardelle, Patricia; Dorotte, Michel; Rousset, Davy

2015-01-01

202

[Occupational and environmental exposure to anilide and dicarboximide pesticides].  

PubMed

Dicarboximide fungicides (DF) such as vinclozolin, iprodione, procymidone are widely used on vines, fruit and vegetables, and anilide herbicides (AH) such as diuron, linuron, propanil are used to control weeds on hard surfaces, such as, roads, railway tracks, paths, and in crops, forestry. Italian reports on food safety found many samples contaminated by pesticides belonging to these categories, even though only few exceeding L.M.R. Since adverse effects on human health, such as endocrine disruption, have been reported, biological monitoring is essential for exposure assessment both of occupationally exposed subjects and of the general population. Common metabolites of DF and AH are dichloroanilinines such as 3,4-DCA and 3,5-DCA, urine samples from 153 subjects living in Novafeltria, central Italy, were collected for analysis of 3,4- and 3,5-DCAs, each participant was invited to complete a very detailed questionnaire. A total of 151 out of 153 samples were found to be positive for 3,5-DCA, and 81.7% were positive for 3,4-DCA. Also 33 workers, engaged in application of propanil on rice in northern Italy, were involved in the study and 3,4-DCA was determined as marker of exposure. 3,4 and 3,5 dichloroaniline are useful and promising biological indicators for monitoring occupational and environmental exposure to these classes of pesticides. PMID:18409684

Vitelli, N; Chiodini, A; Colosio, C; De Paschale, G; Somaruga, C; Turci, R; Minoia, C; Brambilla, G; Colombi, A

2007-01-01

203

Comprehensive evaluation of long-term trends in occupational exposure: Part 1. Description of the database  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: To conduct a comprehensive evaluation of long term changes in occupational exposure among a broad cross section of industries worldwide. METHODS: A review of the scientific literature identified studies that reported historical changes in exposure. About 700 sets of data from 119 published and several unpublished sources were compiled. Data were published over a 30 year period in 25 journals that spanned a range of disciplines. For each data set, the average exposure level was compiled for each period and details on the contaminant, the industry and location, changes in the threshold limit value (TLV), as well as the type of sampling method were recorded. Spearman rank correlation coefficients were used to identify monotonic changes in exposure over time and simple linear regression analyses were used to characterise trends in exposure. RESULTS: About 78% of the natural log transformed data showed linear trends towards lower exposure levels whereas 22% indicated increasing trends. (The Spearman rank correlation analyses produced a similar breakdown between exposures monotonically increasing or decreasing over time.) Although the rates of reduction for the data showing downward trends ranged from -1% to -62% per year, most exposures declined at rates between -4% and -14% per year (the interquartile range), with a median value of -8% per year. Exposures seemed to increase at rates that were slightly lower than those of exposures which have declined over time. Data sets that showed downward (versus upward) trends were influenced by several factors including type and carcinogenicity of the contaminant, type of monitoring, historical changes in the threshold limit values (TLVs), and period of sampling. CONCLUSIONS: This review supports the notion that occupational exposures are generally lower today than they were years or decades ago. However, such trends seem to have been affected by factors related to the contaminant, as well as to the period and type of sampling.   PMID:9764107

Symanski, E.; Kupper, L. L.; Rappaport, S. M.

1998-01-01

204

Occupational Exposure to HDI: Progress and Challenges in Biomarker Analysis  

PubMed Central

1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI) is extensively used in the automotive repair industry and is a commonly reported cause of occupational asthma in industrialized populations. However, the exact pathological mechanism remains uncertain. Characterization and quantification of biomarkers resulting from HDI exposure can fill important knowledge gaps between exposure, susceptibility, and the rise of immunological reactions and sensitization leading to asthma. Here, we discuss existing challenges in HDI biomarker analysis including the quantification of N-acetyl-1,6-hexamethylene diamine (monoacetyl-HDA) and N,N?-diacetyl-1,6-hexamethylene diamine (diacetyl-HDA) in urine samples based on previously established methods for HDA analysis. In addition, we describe the optimization of reaction conditions for the synthesis of monoacetyl-HDA and diacetyl-HDA, and utilize these standards for the quantification of these metabolites in the urine of three occupationally exposed workers. Diacetyl-HDA was present in untreated urine at 0.015 – 0.060 ?g/l. Using base hydrolysis, the concentration range of monoacetyl-HDA in urine was 0.19 – 2.2 ?g/l, 60-fold higher than in the untreated samples on average. HDA was detected only in one sample after base hydrolysis (0.026 ?g/l). In contrast, acid hydrolysis yielded HDA concentrations ranging from 0.36 to 10.1 ?g/l in these three samples. These findings demonstrate HDI metabolism via N-acetylation metabolic pathway and protein adduct formation resulting from occupational exposure to HDI. PMID:20176515

Flack, Sheila L.; Ball, Louise M.; Nylander-French, Leena A.

2010-01-01

205

[Remote effects of occupational and non-occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields of power-line frequency. Epidemiological studies].  

PubMed

A retrospective cohort study of mortality in the personnel of power-supply plants in the European regions of Russia was carried out. The exposure of the personnel to electromagnetic fields of power-line frequency (PF) was taken into account. Statistically non-significant raise of mortality from leukemia was found, compared to low mortality rates due to all other causes including cancer of any type. Standardized mortality ratio (SMR) was equal to 2.03 (95% CI = 0.23-7.31). In the retrospective case-control study the haemoblastosis development risk under occupational PF EMF exposure was evaluated. The data of 571 "cases" and 1208 "controls" interview showed that odd ratio (OR) was 1.64 (95% CI = 0.8-3.1). In another retrospective case-control study the risk of the haemoblastosis development in children due to parents PF EMF occupational exposure was evaluated. The data of 208 "cases" and 319 "controls" interview showed that the odd ratio (OR) was 1.69 (95% CI = 0.7-3.3). A retrospective cohort study of mortality in a settlement situated near a high-voltage (500 kV) substation, which took into account PF EMF levels in residential areas, revealed low mortality rates, except leukemia mortality (SMR 1.3; 95% CI = 0.2-7.0). The obtained data do not allow excluding a possibility of PF EMF leukogenic effect. PMID:14658290

Tikhonova, G I; Rubtsova, N B; Novokhatskaia, E A; Tikhonov, A V

2003-01-01

206

Prevention of occupational cyanide exposure in autopsy prosectors.  

PubMed

Autopsy prosectors examining individuals with cyanide poisoning are at risk for occupational cyanide exposure. No protective autopsy precautions to mitigate this risk have been published. We report an autopsy on an individual with cyanide poisoning where the procedure was performed in a negatively pressured isolation room and the stomach was opened under a biosafety cabinet hood. None of the three autopsy prosectors had measurable cyanide in pre or post procedure blood specimens. We recommend that similar precautions be taken in all autopsies where cyanide is suspected as a possible cause of death. PMID:8934715

Nolte, K B; Dasgupta, A

1996-01-01

207

Health, occupational exposure, and thoracic magnetic moment of shipyard welders  

SciTech Connect

Magnetopneumography (MPG), a sensitive technique for the non-invasive detection of trace amounts of magnetic substances in the lungs, may be useful to help demonstrate either causality for welding induced disease or the absence thereof by establishing the extent of occupational exposures, and identifying individuals and cohorts at high risk. In order to further examine the potential utility of MPG techniques, pilot studies were performed on a cohorts of intermediate-high exposed non-smoking shipyard welders and unexposed non shipyard electricians participating in a study of the effects of welding on health using a pilot model of a MPG instrument incorporating an AC susceptibility bridge.

Stern, R.M.; Drenck, K.; Lyngenbo, O.; Dirksen, H.; Groth, S.

1985-01-01

208

A systematic review of myeloid leukemias and occupational pesticide exposure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  To conduct a systematic review and meta-analyses of published studies examining the association between myeloid leukemias\\u000a (ML) and occupational pesticide exposure.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Studies were identified from a MEDLINE search through 31 May 2006 and from the reference lists of identified publications.\\u000a Studies were summarized and evaluated for publication bias. Relative risk estimates for ML were extracted from 17 cohort and\\u000a 16

Geneviève Van Maele-Fabry; Sophie Duhayon; Dominique Lison

2007-01-01

209

Occupational and environmental exposure to extremely low frequency-magnetic fields: a personal monitoring study in a large group of workers in Italy.  

PubMed

An inaccurate evaluation of exposure is considered a possible cause for the inadequate conclusiveness of epidemiological research on adverse effects of extremely low frequency-magnetic fields (ELF-MF). The objective of this study is to provide an evaluation of current ELF-MF exposure in workers, the specific contribution of occupational exposure to overall 24-h exposure, and the representativeness of a job exposure matrix (JEM). ELF-MF exposure was monitored in 543 workers for 2 days using personal meters. Time-weighted average (TWA) levels at work, at home and outside the home were calculated. A JEM based on the 1988 International Standard Classification of Occupations (ISCO 88) was created. Median exposure at work, at home and outside the home were 0.14, 0.03 and 0.05 ?T, respectively. Occupational exposure accounted for about 60% of 24-h exposure. In the JEM, about 50% of the classified occupations included significantly different individual TWAs. Occupational exposure to ELF-MF appeared low. Median exposure levels at home and outside were 20-28% of the occupational level, giving a minor contribution to overall day-to-day exposure. The frequent occurrence of workers with different TWA included under the same job title highlights the risk of misclassification in epidemiological studies on ELF-MF effects based on JEM. PMID:21468121

Gobba, Fabriziomaria; Bravo, Giulia; Rossi, Paolo; Contessa, Gian Marco; Scaringi, Meri

2011-01-01

210

Occupational exposure to formaldehyde, hematotoxicity and leukemia-specific chromosome changes in cultured myeloid progenitor cells  

PubMed Central

There are concerns about the health effects of formaldehyde exposure, including carcinogenicity, in light of elevated indoor air levels in new homes and occupational exposures experienced by workers in health care, embalming, manufacturing and other industries. Epidemiological studies suggest that formaldehyde exposure is associated with an increased risk of leukemia. However, the biological plausibility of these findings has been questioned because limited information is available on formaldehyde’s ability to disrupt hematopoietic function. Our objective was to determine if formaldehyde exposure disrupts hematopoietic function and produces leukemia-related chromosome changes in exposed humans. We examined the ability of formaldehyde to disrupt hematopoiesis in a study of 94 workers in China (43 exposed to formaldehyde and 51 frequency-matched controls) by measuring complete blood counts and peripheral stem/progenitor cell colony formation. Further, myeloid progenitor cells, the target for leukemogenesis, were cultured from the workers to quantify the level of leukemia-specific chromosome changes, including monosomy 7 and trisomy 8, in metaphase spreads of these cells. Among exposed workers, peripheral blood cell counts were significantly lowered in a manner consistent with toxic effects on the bone marrow and leukemia-specific chromosome changes were significantly elevated in myeloid blood progenitor cells. These findings suggest that formaldehyde exposure can have an adverse impact on the hematopoietic system and that leukemia induction by formaldehyde is biologically plausible, which heightens concerns about its leukemogenic potential from occupational and environmental exposures. PMID:20056626

Zhang, Luoping; Tang, Xiaojiang; Rothman, Nathaniel; Vermeulen, Roel; Ji, Zhiying; Shen, Min; Qiu, Chuangyi; Guo, Weihong; Liu, Songwang; Reiss, Boris; Laura Beane, Freeman; Ge, Yichen; Hubbard, Alan E.; Hua, Ming; Blair, Aaron; Galvan, Noe; Ruan, Xiaolin; Alter, Blanche P.; Xin, Kerry X.; Li, Senhua; Moore, Lee E.; Kim, Sungkyoon; Xie, Yuxuan; Hayes, Richard B.; Azuma, Mariko; Hauptmann, Michael; Xiong, Jun; Stewart, Patricia; Li, Laiyu; Rappaport, Stephen M.; Huang, Hanlin; Fraumeni, Joseph F.; Smith, Martyn T.; Lan, Qing

2010-01-01

211

29 CFR 1926.52 - Occupational noise exposure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Protection against the effects of noise exposure shall be provided when the sound levels exceed those...In all cases where the sound levels exceed the values...Duration per day, hours Sound level dBA slow response...levels, their combined effect should be...

2010-07-01

212

29 CFR 1926.52 - Occupational noise exposure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Protection against the effects of noise exposure shall be provided when the sound levels exceed those...In all cases where the sound levels exceed the values...Duration per day, hours Sound level dBA slow response...levels, their combined effect should be...

2011-07-01

213

29 CFR 1926.52 - Occupational noise exposure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Protection against the effects of noise exposure shall be provided when the sound levels exceed those...In all cases where the sound levels exceed the values...Duration per day, hours Sound level dBA slow response...levels, their combined effect should be...

2012-07-01

214

29 CFR 1926.52 - Occupational noise exposure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Protection against the effects of noise exposure shall be provided when the sound levels exceed those...In all cases where the sound levels exceed the values...Duration per day, hours Sound level dBA slow response...levels, their combined effect should be...

2013-07-01

215

29 CFR 1926.52 - Occupational noise exposure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Protection against the effects of noise exposure shall be provided when the sound levels exceed those...In all cases where the sound levels exceed the values...Duration per day, hours Sound level dBA slow response...levels, their combined effect should be...

2014-07-01

216

Occupational exposure assessment of highway toll station workers to vehicle engine exhaust.  

PubMed

Toll station workers are occupationally exposed to vehicle engine exhaust, a complex mixture of different chemical substances, including carcinogenic compounds. Therefore, a study was carried out on attendants of two highway toll stations to describe their occupational exposure to vehicle engine exhaust, based on a worst-case scenario approach. Personal sampling was conducted during the day shift for all attendants, testing for three groups of chemical substances: polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and aldehydes (formaldehyde and acrolein). Concentrations of total PAH, BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes) and formaldehyde content varied between 97.60-336.08 ng/m3, 5.01-40.52 ?g/m3, and 0.06-19.13 ?g/m3, respectively. No clear relationships could be established between exposure levels and the number of vehicles. Furthermore, no differences were found between truck versus car lanes, or inside versus outside the tollbooth. Not all the detected VOCs were related to vehicle exhaust; some were consistent with the use of cleaning products. The measured concentrations were far below the established occupational exposure limits, but tended to be higher than values reported for outdoor urban environments. There are very few international studies assessing occupational exposures among toll station workers, and this is the first such study to be conducted in Spain. The results suggest that further, more detailed studies are necessary to characterize exposure properly, and ones which include other airborne pollutants, such as ultrafine particles. The comparison of the results to other similar studies was difficult, since no data related to some important exposure determinants have been provided. Therefore, it is recommended that these determinants be considered in future studies. PMID:25411914

Belloc-Santaliestra, Miriam; van der Haar, Rudolf; Molinero-Ruiz, Emilia

2015-01-01

217

The Relationship between the Occupational Exposure of Trichloroethylene and Kidney Cancer  

PubMed Central

Trichloroethylene (TCE) has been widely used as a degreasing agent in many manufacturing industries. Recently, the International Agency for Research on Cancer presented “sufficient evidence” for the causal relationship between TCE and kidney cancer. The aim of this study was to review the epidemiologic evidences regarding the relationship between TCE exposure and kidney cancer in Korean work environments. The results from the cohort studies were inconsistent, but according to the meta-analysis and case–control studies, an increased risk for kidney cancer was present in the exposure group and the dose–response relationship could be identified using various measures of exposure. In Korea, TCE is a commonly used chemical for cleaning or degreasing processes by various manufacturers; average exposure levels of TCE vary widely. When occupational physicians evaluate work-relatedness kidney cancers, they must consider past exposure levels, which could be very high (>100 ppm in some cases) and associated with jobs, such as plating, cleaning, or degreasing. The exposure levels at a manual job could be higher than an automated job. The peak level of TCE could also be considered an important exposure-related variable due to the possibility of carcinogenesis associated with high TCE doses. This review could be a comprehensive reference for assessing work-related TCE exposure and kidney cancer in Korea. PMID:24955246

2014-01-01

218

Occupational radiation Exposure at Agreement State-Licensed Materials Facilities, 1997-2010  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this report is to examine occupational radiation exposures received under Agreement State licensees. As such, this report reflects the occupational radiation exposure data contained in the Radiation Exposure Information and Reporting System (REIRS) database, for 1997 through 2010, from Agreement State-licensed materials facilities.

U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research

2012-07-07

219

Occupational versus environmental and lifestyle exposures of children and adolescents in the European Union  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is recent international concern about specific exposures of children and adolescents to toxicants. In general, the situation within the European Union appears as follows. (i) Occupational exposure: Due to regulatory measures, there are almost no toxicologically significant occupational exposure situations of children to chemical toxicants. This contrasts to the situation in developing countries. There is also strict regulation of

Hermann M. Bolt

2002-01-01

220

Models of unexplained symptoms associated with occupational and environmental exposures.  

PubMed Central

Unexplained illnesses characterized by nonspecific, multisystem complaints are often attributed to occupational or environmental chemical exposures. This raises difficulties for the regulatory authorities, who are frequently unable to agree on the existence, nature, or source of such illnesses. It is proposed that many of these difficulties derive from an adherence to a traditional medical model of disease and that the application of a biopsychosocial approach would be more effective for both research and individual case management. A number of models derived from the field of health psychology are discussed in terms of their application to occupational and environmental syndromes. A specific example is described that relates to the health problems experienced by sheep farmers in the United Kingdom who are exposed to organophosphate-based pesticides. The source of their complaints and the responses of the health professionals and the regulatory authorities are discussed within the context of a biopsychosocial approach that focuses on illness rather than on organic disease as the unit of study and explores the interaction between the various physical and psychosocial variables involved. It is proposed that this approach, which is already well established in the fields of human and social sciences, should be adopted more readily by those concerned with occupational and environmental epidemiology. PMID:12194893

Spurgeon, Anne

2002-01-01

221

Occupational exposure to formaldehyde--OSHA. Response to Court remand; final rule.  

PubMed

By this action, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) hereby amends its existing regulation for occupational exposure to formaldehyde, 29 CFR 1910.1048, in response primarily to a remand by the U.S. Court of Appeals for the D.C. Circuit in UAW v. Pendergrass, 878 F.2d 389 (D.C. Cir. 1989). The final amendments lower the permissible exposure level for formaldehyde from 1 ppm (part per million) as an 8-hour time-weighted average (TWA) to an 8-hour time-weighted average of 0.75 ppm. The amendments also add medical removal protection provisions to supplement the existing medical surveillance requirements for those employees suffering significant eye, nose or throat irritation and for those suffering from dermal irritation or sensitization from occupational exposure to formaldehyde. In addition, certain changes have been made to the standard's hazard communication and employee training requirements. These amendments establish specific hazard labeling requirements for all forms of formaldehyde, including mixtures and solutions composed of 0.1% or greater of formaldehyde in excess of 0.1 ppm. Additional hazard labeling, including a warning that formaldehyde presents a potential cancer hazard, is required where formaldehyde levels, under reasonably foreseeable conditions of use, may potentially exceed 0.5 ppm. The final amendments also provide for annual training of all employees exposed to formaldehyde at levels of 0.1 ppm or higher. PMID:10119140

1992-05-27

222

Validation of a self-administered questionnaire for assessing occupational and environmental exposures of pregnant women  

SciTech Connect

The present investigation sought to determine whether a self-administered questionnaire could be used to obtain occupational information from pregnant women attending the obstetrical clinics at the University of California, San Francisco from July to November 1986. The authors compared the accuracy of responses of 57 women on the self-administered questionnaire with those obtained on a detailed clinical interview by an occupational health professional. The self-administered questionnaire and the clinical interview included information on the woman's job title, the type of company she worked for, the level of physical activity, her exposures on the job and at home, and her partner's occupation. The authors also examined whether the validity of the self-administered questionnaire could be improved on review by an industrial hygienist. The questionnaire took less than 20 minutes to complete, with over 90% of the women answering three-quarters of it. It was substantially accurate in obtaining information on number of hours worked during pregnancy, type of shift worked, and stress level in the workplace; exposure to radiation, video display terminals, fumes, gases, and cigarette smoke in the workplace; and exposure to pesticides, paint, and cigarette smoke at home. On those variables for which the responses on the self-administered questionnaire were less accurate, review by the industrial hygienist improved the level of accuracy considerably. These findings suggest that a self-administered questionnaire can be used to obtain valid information from pregnant women attending a prenatal clinic.

Eskenazi, B.; Pearson, K.

1988-11-01

223

Hazardous health effects of occupational exposure to wood dust.  

PubMed

Because of the world-wide increase in the use of wood, diseases due to exposure to wood dust and substances connected with the wood-processing industry are also likely to increase. Many authors have written about disorders of this kind, ranging from irritative and allergic reactions to cancerogenic effects. There exist a great deal of widely disseminated publications on this subject. Moreover, the various existing synonyms, especially for tropical woods, render more difficult the valuation of published results. The purpose of this review of publications issued in recent years is to represent all known symptoms and disorders due to occupational wood-dust exposure. Furthermore, points that remain unclarified should be shown in order to stimulate further investigations. Recommendations for safety restrictions are also given. PMID:2283318

Flechsig, R; Nedo, G

1990-01-01

224

Case studies of hydrogen sulphide occupational exposure incidents in the UK.  

PubMed

The UK Health and Safety Executive has investigated several incidents of workplace accidents involving hydrogen sulphide exposure in recent years. Biological monitoring has been used in some incidents to determine the cause of unconsciousness resulting from these incidents and as a supporting evidence in regulatory enforcement. This paper reports on three case incidents and discusses the use of biological monitoring in such cases. Biological monitoring has a role in identifying hydrogen sulphide exposure in incidents, whether these are occupational or in the wider environment. Sample type, time of collection and sample storage are important factors in the applicability of this technique. For non-fatal incidents, multiple urine samples are recommended at two or more time points between the incident and 15 h post-exposure. For routine occupational monitoring, post-shift samples should be adequate. Due to endogenous levels of urinary thiosulphate, it is likely that exposures in excess of 12 ppm for 30 min (or 360 ppm/min equivalent) would be detectable using biological monitoring. This is within the Acute Exposure Guideline Level 2 (the level of the chemical in air at or above which there may be irreversible or other serious long-lasting effects or impaired ability to escape) for hydrogen sulphide. PMID:25111189

Jones, Kate

2014-12-15

225

Cardiopulmonary toxicity of pulmonary exposure to occupationally relevant zinc oxide nanoparticles.  

PubMed

Exposure to zinc oxide (ZnO) metal fumes is linked to adverse human health effects; however, the hazards of ZnO nanoparticles (ZnONPs) remain unclear. To determine pulmonary exposure to occupationally relevant ZnONPs cause cardiopulmonary injury, Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to ZnONPs via intratracheal (IT) instillation and inhalation. The relationship between intrapulmonary zinc levels and pulmonary oxidative-inflammatory responses 72 h after ZnONP instillation was determined in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). Instilled ZnONPs altered zinc balance and increased the levels of total cells, neutrophils, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and total protein in BALF and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) in blood after 72 h. The ZnONPs accumulated predominantly in the lungs over 24 h, and trivial amounts of zinc were determined in the heart, liver, kidneys and blood. Furthermore, the inflammatory-oxidative responses induced by occupationally relevant levels of 1.1 and 4.9 mg/m(3) of ZnONP inhalation for 2 weeks were determined in BALF and blood at 1, 7 and 30 days post-exposure. Histopathological examinations of the rat lungs and hearts were performed. Inhalation of ZnONP caused an inflammatory cytological profile. The total cell, neutrophil, LDH and total protein levels were acutely increased in the BALF, and there was an inflammatory pathology in the lungs. There were subchronic levels of white blood cells, granulocytes and 8-OHdG in the blood. Cardiac inflammation and the development of fibrosis were detected 7 days after exposure. Degeneration and necrosis of the myocardium were detected 30 days after exposure. The results demonstrate that ZnONPs cause cardiopulmonary impairments. These findings highlight the occupational health effects for ZnONP-exposed workers. PMID:23738974

Chuang, Hsiao-Chi; Juan, Hung-Tzu; Chang, Chun-Nung; Yan, Yuan-Horng; Yuan, Tzu-Hsuen; Wang, Jyh-Seng; Chen, Hao-Cheng; Hwang, Yaw-Huei; Lee, Chii-Hong; Cheng, Tsun-Jen

2014-09-01

226

Occupational exposure to environmental tobacco smoke: a study in Lisbon restaurants.  

PubMed

Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), also referred to as secondhand smoke (SHS), is a major threat to public health and is increasingly recognized as an occupational hazard to workers in the hospitality industry. Therefore, several countries have implemented smoke-free regulations at hospitality industry sites. In Portugal, since 2008, legislation partially banned smoking in restaurants and bars but until now no data have been made available on levels of indoor ETS pollution/exposure at these locations. The aim of this study was to examine the occupational exposure to ETS/SHS in several restaurants in Lisbon, measured by indoor fine particles (PM(2.5)) and urinary cotinine concentration in workers, after the partial smoking ban in Portugal. Results showed that the PM(2.5) median level in smoking designated areas was 253 ?g/m³, eightfold higher than levels recorded in canteens or outdoor. The nonsmoking rooms of mixed restaurants exhibited PM(2.5) median level of 88 ?g/m³, which is higher than all smoke-free locations studied, approximately threefold greater than those found in canteens. Importantly, urinary cotinine concentrations were significantly higher in nonsmoker employees working in those smoking designated areas, confirming exposure to ETS. The proportion of smokers in those rooms was found to be significantly positively correlated with nonsmoker urinary cotinine and indoor PM(2.5) levels, establishing that both markers were occupational-ETS derived. The use of reinforced ventilation systems seemed not to be sufficient to decrease the observed ETS pollution/exposure in those smoking locations. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that the partial restrictions on smoking in Portuguese venues failed to provide adequate protection to their employees, irrespective of protective measures used. Therefore, a smoke-free legislation protecting individuals from exposure to ETS/SHS in all public places and workplaces is urgently needed in Portugal. PMID:22788372

Pacheco, Solange A; Aguiar, Fátima; Ruivo, Patrícia; Proença, Maria Carmo; Sekera, Michael; Penque, Deborah; Simões, Tânia

2012-01-01

227

Paternal occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields and neuroblastoma in offspring  

SciTech Connect

Investigators in Texas have reported an association between paternal employment in jobs linked with exposure to electromagnetic fields and risk of neuroblastoma in offspring. In an attempt to replicate this finding, the authors conducted a case-control study in Ohio. A total of 101 incident cases of neuroblastoma were identified through the Columbus (Ohio) Children's Hospital Tumor Registry. All cases were born sometime during the period 1942-1967. From a statewide roster of birth certificates, four controls were selected for each case, with individual matching on the case's year of birth, race, and sex, and the mother's county of residence at the time of the (index) child's birth. Multiple definitions were employed to infer the potential for paternal occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields from the industry/occupation statements on the birth certificates. Case-control comparisons revealed adjusted odds ratios ranging in magnitude from 0.5 to 1.9. For two of the exposure definitions employed--both of which are similar to one used by the Texas investigators--the corresponding odds ratios were modestly elevated (odds ratios = 1.6 and 1.9). Notably, the magnitude of these odds ratios is not inconsistent with the Texas findings, where the exposure definition referred to yielded an odds ratio of 2.1. Because the point estimates in this study are imprecise, and because the biologic plausibility of the association is uncertain, the results reported here must be interpreted cautiously. However, the apparent consistency between two independent studies suggests that future evaluation of the association is warranted.

Wilkins, J.R. 3d.; Hundley, V.D. (Ohio State Univ., Columbus (USA))

1990-06-01

228

Exposure information in European industry: implications for future occupational research.  

PubMed

A survey has been carried out among European industry to investigate the collection and retention of records which might be used for epidemiological research. Exposure information results are reported. Approximately 1,000 questionnaires focusing on exposure information were sent to seven countries, with a 42 percent response rate. Eighty-two percent of companies reported that exposure measurements were taken to comply with legal requirements. Measurements were most often made for noise (84%), with 48% of companies measuring chemicals, 48 percent particulates but only 10 percent vibration. Measurements were most often taken for specific locations (73%), rather than for particular jobs (54%) or individual workers (50%). Eighty percent recorded location, sampling date, agents measured, and units of measurement, with about 70 percent recording job being sampled, sampling method, and duration and plant process, but less than 60 percent recording environmental conditions or worker details. Overall, only 10 percent of companies kept their exposure information forever, and 71 percent kept it for 10 years or less. Legislative requirements were most often cited as the reason for retention of records. The variation in the quantity and quality of measurements and the early destruction of records poses considerable problems for European research. Inaccuracy and misclassification of exposure limits the ability to establish causal relationships between effect and disease. Records should uniquely identify an individual worker and facilitate linkage to exposure and health effects information. Their format should be accessible, linkable, and secure. Data should be kept by an identifiable organization and there should be a secure chain of custody if a company goes out of business. Unless industry can be motivated to follow these guidelines the future of research into occupational causes of ill health, and in particular, the evaluation of exposure, will be limited. PMID:11217708

Rushton, L; Betts, D S

2001-02-01

229

007. Occupational exposure to chemical agents and its impact on the respiratory system  

PubMed Central

Objective To assess the respiratory effects of occupational exposure to dust and irritant gases in hospitalized patients at the Occupational Disease Clinic at the University Hospital of Sofia in Bulgaria in 2008, 2009 and 2011. Materials and methods In a retrospective study, the medical records of the patients admitted to the hospital in 2008, 2009 and 2011 were studied. Detailed data were collected regarding age, sex, occupational status and experience, duration of employment, as well as exposure to harmful chemicals. Results 500 patients were hospitalized, 282 men and 218 women. The majority of them (59%) were over 55 years old, while 24% belonged to the group of 45-55 years old. The occupational history revealed that 24.4% of them were unemployed at that time, 13.6% were premature retirees due to some form of disability, 6.2% retired due to old age, 7.2% were drivers, 16.6% were office clerks, 5% worked in the manufacturing business and 4.6% were previous employees who had recently lost their jobs. 38.6% of the patients were exposed to dust and 17.2% to toxic aerosols. The duration of employment, especially the occupational exposure to hazardous materials, was especially important. The occupational history revealed that 4.6% were employed for up to 5 years, 7.4% for 5-10 years and 84.4% for more than 10 years. Consequently, the majority (84.4%) of the patients had an experience of at least 10 years of employment (84.4%) which correlates well with the following results: 73.6% of the patients were diagnosed with chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD), 9.8% with bronchial asthma and 6.6% with lung cancer. Conclusions Exposure to dust and aerosols in the workplace is associated with an increased incidence of occupational respiratory diseases. This is also confirmed by the official results of the National Institute of Statistics. There is an urgent need for development of effective preventive measures by employers to protect the health of workers exposed to hazardous agents in the workplace and their occupational risk assessment. A joint effort between employers, workers and their organizations is important for the efficient management and control of hazardous chemicals and materials at national and global levels.

Filippidou, Elisabeth-Christina; Tsacheva, Nevena

2015-01-01

230

Occupational noise exposure and incident hypertension in men: a prospective cohort study.  

PubMed

The associations between occupational noise exposure and hypertension remain controversial because of the differences in study designs, exposure assessments, and confounding controls. This prospective study investigated the relationship between noise exposure and the 10-year risk of hypertension. A cohort of 578 male workers in Taiwan was followed from 1998 to 2008. All subjects were divided into high-, intermediate-, and low-exposure groups on the basis of noise exposure assessment. Cox regression models were used to estimate the relative risks of hypertension after adjustment for potential confounders. During the 7,805 person-years of follow-up, 141 hypertension cases were identified. Significant increases of 3.2 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.2, 6.2) mm Hg in systolic blood pressure and 2.5 (95% CI: 0.1, 4.8) mm Hg in diastolic blood pressure between the baseline and follow-up measurements were observed in the high-exposure group. Participants exposed to ?85 A-weighted decibels (dBA) had a 1.93-fold (95% CI: 1.15, 3.22) risk of hypertension compared with those exposed to <80 dBA. There was a significant exposure-response pattern (P = 0.016) between the risk of hypertension and the stratum of noise exposure. Prolonged exposure to noise levels ?85 dBA may increase males' systolic and diastolic blood pressure levels. This association may translate into a higher incidence of hypertension. PMID:23470795

Chang, Ta-Yuan; Hwang, Bing-Fang; Liu, Chiu-Shong; Chen, Ren-Yin; Wang, Ven-Shing; Bao, Bo-Ying; Lai, Jim-Shoung

2013-04-15

231

Occupational exposures to uranium: processes, hazards, and regulations  

SciTech Connect

The United States Uranium Registry (USUR) was formed in 1978 to investigate potential hazards from occupational exposure to uranium and to assess the need for special health-related studies of uranium workers. This report provides a summary of Registry work done to date. The history of the uranium industry is outlined first, and the current commercial uranium industry (mining, milling, conversion, enrichment, and fuel fabrication) is described. This description includes information on basic processes and areas of greatest potential radiological exposure. In addition, inactive commercial facilities and other uranium operations are discussed. Regulation of the commercial production industry for uranium fuel is reported, including the historic development of regulations and the current regulatory agencies and procedures for each phase of the industry. A review of radiological health practices in the industry - facility monitoring, exposure control, exposure evaluation, and record-keeping - is presented. A discussion of the nonradiological hazards of the industry is provided, and the final section describes the tissue program developed as part of the Registry.

Stoetzel, G.A.; Fisher, D.R.; McCormack, W.D.; Hoenes, G.R.; Marks, S.; Moore, R.H.; Quilici, D.G.; Breitenstein, B.D.

1981-04-01

232

Defining occupational and consumer exposure limits for enzyme protein respiratory allergens under REACH.  

PubMed

A wide range of substances have been recognized as sensitizing, either to the skin and/or to the respiratory tract. Many of these are useful materials, so to ensure that they can be used safely it is necessary to characterize the hazards and establish appropriate exposure limits. Under new EU legislation (REACH), there is a requirement to define a derived no effect level (DNEL). Where a DNEL cannot be established, e.g. for sensitizing substances, then a derived minimal effect level (DMEL) is recommended. For the bacterial and fungal enzymes which are well recognized respiratory sensitizers and have widespread use industrially as well as in a range of consumer products, a DMEL can be established by thorough retrospective review of occupational and consumer experience. In particular, setting the validated employee medical surveillance data against exposure records generated over an extended period of time is vital in informing the occupational DMEL. This experience shows that a long established limit of 60 ng/m(3) for pure enzyme protein has been a successful starting point for the definition of occupational health limits for sensitization in the detergent industry. Application to this of adjustment factors has limited sensitization induction, avoided any meaningful risk of the elicitation of symptoms with known enzymes and provided an appropriate level of security for new enzymes whose potency has not been fully characterized. For example, in the detergent industry, this has led to general use of occupational exposure limits 3-10 times lower than the 60 ng/m(3) starting point. In contrast, consumer exposure limits vary because the types of exposure themselves cover a wide range. The highest levels shown to be safe in use, 15 ng/m(3), are associated with laundry trigger sprays, but very much lower levels (e.g. 0.01 ng/m(3)) are commonly associated with other types of safe exposure. Consumer limits typically will lie between these values and depend on the actual exposure associated with product use. PMID:20026217

Basketter, D A; Broekhuizen, C; Fieldsend, M; Kirkwood, S; Mascarenhas, R; Maurer, K; Pedersen, C; Rodriguez, C; Schiff, H-E

2010-02-01

233

Application of statistical models for secondary data usage of the US Navy's Occupational Exposure Database (NOED).  

PubMed

Many organizations around the world have collected data related to individual worker exposures that are used to determine compliance with workplace standards. These data are often warehoused and thereafter rarely used as an information resource. Using appropriate groupings and analysis of OSHA data, Gómez showed that such stored data can provide additional insight on factors affecting occupational exposures. Using data from the Occupational Exposure Database of the United States Navy, the usefulness of statistical models for defining probabilities of exposure above permissible limits for observed work conditions is examined. Analyses have highlighted worker Similar Exposure Groups (SEGs) with potential for overexposure to asbestos and lead. In terms of grouping data, Rappaport et al. defined the Within-Between Lognormal Model, a scale-independent measure for quantifying between-worker variability within a selected worker group: (B)R.95 = exp[3.92s(sB)], representing the ratio of arithmetic mean exposures received by workers in the 97.5th and 2.5th percentiles. To help search for groups, the Proportional Odds Model, a generalization of the logistic model to ordinal data, can predict probabilities for group exposure above the Occupational Exposure Limit (OEL), or the Action Level (AL), which is one-half of the OEL. Worker SEGs have been identified for asbestos workers removing friable asbestos ((B)R.95 = 11.0) and nonfriable asbestos ((B)R.95 = 6.5); metal cleaning workers sandingspecialized equipment ((B)R.95 = 11.3), and workers at target shooting ranges cleaning up lead debris ((B)R.95 = 10). Estimated probabilities for the categories OEL support current understanding of work processes examined. Differences in probability noted between tasks and levels of ventilation validate this method for evaluating other available workplace exposure determinants, and for predicting probability of membership in categories that may help further define worker exposure groups, and determinants of excessive exposures. Thus, analyses of retrospective exposure data can help identify work site and work practice factors for efficient targeting of remediation resources. PMID:11217712

Formisano, J A; Still, K; Alexander, W; Lippmann, M

2001-02-01

234

Virus occupational exposure in solid waste processing facilities.  

PubMed

It is well known that workers involved in the management of solid waste are at risk of exposure to bioaerosol, which is generally studied in relation to bacteria, fungi, and endotoxins. However, to date, there have been no reports on the incidence of work-related infectious diseases. To determine if occupational exposure to viruses occurs upon exposure to waste-related activities, monitoring was carried out in a landfill, a waste recycling plant, an incineration plant, and a waste collection vehicles. Air and surfaces were sampled and analyzed for torque teno virus (TTV), human adenovirus (HAdV), norovirus, rotavirus, and enterovirus using polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based techniques. Positivity was confirmed by sequencing and quantification with real-time PCR; infectivity was also tested for culturable viruses. Samples were analyzed in parallel for mean total bacterial and fungi counts in both the summer and winter. In total, 30% (12/40) of air and 13.5% (5/37) of surface samples collected in plants were positive for HAdV and TTV. Among the eight HAdV-positive samples, six (75%), revealed in landfill and recycling plant air and in incinerator and waste vehicles surfaces, were able to replicate in cell culture and were subsequently confirmed as infective. The frequency of detection of virus-positive samples was similar in both seasons, but with evident differences in the type of virus detected: TTV and HAdV were more frequently detected in the summer and winter, respectively. The area of highest viral contamination was the paper selection landfill. Fungi and bacterial contamination did not correlate with viral presence or concentration. In conclusion, we evidence that working with solid and liquid waste can lead to infectious viruses, included in Group 2 of the European Directive 90/679/CEE pathogens list; thus, further investigation on the sources and routes of contamination is needed in order to assess the occupational risk. PMID:23917836

Carducci, Annalaura; Federigi, Ileana; Verani, Marco

2013-11-01

235

NIOSH testimony to DOL on the Occupational Safety and Health Administration's proposed rule on occupational exposure to cadmium by R. A. Lemen, July 17, 1990  

SciTech Connect

The testimony summarizes the position of NIOSH in support of the proposed rule on cadmium (7440439). NIOSH supports the position of OSHA that exposure to cadmium is associated with increased incidence of lung cancer, emphysema, and kidney dysfunction. Because cadmium is a potential occupational carcinogen, occupational exposures to cadmium should be reduced to the lowest feasible level. NIOSH strongly recommends the use of engineering controls and work practices instead of personal protective equipment, including respiratory protection, for controlling exposures to cadmium. NIOSH responds in this testimony to specific areas covered in the proposed rule including respiratory protection, medical surveillance, medical screening requirements, and exposure monitoring frequency. Use of specific control methods is considered for cadmium plating operations, stabilizer production, and pigment production.

Not Available

1990-07-17

236

Illinois Occupational Skill Standards: Entry-Level Truck Driver.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document, which is intended to serve as a guide for workforce preparation program providers, details the Illinois Occupational Skill Standards for programs preparing students for employment as entry-level truck drivers. The document begins with a brief overview of the Illinois perspective on occupational skill standards and credentialing, the…

Illinois Occupational Skill Standards and Credentialing Council, Carbondale.

237

Interpretation of Urinary and Blood Benzene biomarkers of Exposure for Non-Occupationally Exposed Individuals  

EPA Science Inventory

Non-occupational exposure to benzene occurs primarily through inhalation ofair impacted by motor vehicle exhaust, fuel sources, and cigarette smoke. This study relates published measurements ofbenzene biomarkers to air exposure concentrations. Benzene has three reliable biomar...

238

41 CFR 50-204.10 - Occupational noise exposure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Protection against the effects of noise exposure...provided when the sound levels exceed those...per day, hours Sound level dBA slow response...their combined effect should be considered...than the individual effect of each. If...exceed 140 dB peak sound pressure...

2012-07-01

239

41 CFR 50-204.10 - Occupational noise exposure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Protection against the effects of noise exposure...provided when the sound levels exceed those...per day, hours Sound level dBA slow response...their combined effect should be considered...than the individual effect of each. If...exceed 140 dB peak sound pressure...

2013-07-01

240

41 CFR 50-204.10 - Occupational noise exposure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Protection against the effects of noise exposure...provided when the sound levels exceed those...per day, hours Sound level dBA slow response...their combined effect should be considered...than the individual effect of each. If...exceed 140 dB peak sound pressure...

2011-07-01

241

29 CFR 1910.95 - Occupational noise exposure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Protection against the effects of noise exposure...provided when the sound levels exceed those...per day, hours Sound level dBA slow response...their combined effect should be considered...than the individual effect of each. If the...exceed 140 dB peak sound pressure...

2010-07-01

242

41 CFR 50-204.10 - Occupational noise exposure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Protection against the effects of noise exposure...provided when the sound levels exceed those...per day, hours Sound level dBA slow response...their combined effect should be considered...than the individual effect of each. If...exceed 140 dB peak sound pressure...

2014-07-01

243

29 CFR 1910.95 - Occupational noise exposure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Protection against the effects of noise exposure...provided when the sound levels exceed those...per day, hours Sound level dBA slow response...their combined effect should be considered...than the individual effect of each. If the...exceed 140 dB peak sound pressure...

2011-07-01

244

41 CFR 50-204.10 - Occupational noise exposure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Protection against the effects of noise exposure...provided when the sound levels exceed those...per day, hours Sound level dBA slow response...their combined effect should be considered...than the individual effect of each. If...exceed 140 dB peak sound pressure...

2010-07-01

245

29 CFR 1910.95 - Occupational noise exposure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Protection against the effects of noise exposure...provided when the sound levels exceed those...per day, hours Sound level dBA slow response...their combined effect should be considered...than the individual effect of each. If the...exceed 140 dB peak sound pressure...

2014-07-01

246

29 CFR 1910.95 - Occupational noise exposure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Protection against the effects of noise exposure...provided when the sound levels exceed those...per day, hours Sound level dBA slow response...their combined effect should be considered...than the individual effect of each. If the...exceed 140 dB peak sound pressure...

2012-07-01

247

Occupational Radiation Exposure at Commercial Nuclear Power Reactors and Other Facilities 2008  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the occupational exposure data that are maintained in the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Radiation Exposure Information and Reporting System (REIRS). The bulk of the information contained in the report was compiled from the 2008 annual reports submitted by five of the seven categories1 of NRC licensees subject to the reporting requirements of 10 CFR 20.2206. The annual reports submitted by these licensees consist of radiation exposure records for each monitored individual. These records are analyzed for trends and presented in this report in terms of collective dose and the distribution of dose among the monitored individuals. Because there are no geologic repositories for high-level waste currently licensed and no low-level waste disposal facilities in operation, only five categories will be considered in this report.

U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research

2009-12-01

248

Biomarkers of occupational exposure do anticancer agents: a minireview.  

PubMed

The majority of anticancer agents has in common DNA-damaging properties and affects not only target-cells but also non-tumour cells. Its genotoxicity has been demonstrated in experimental models and in cancer patients treated with chemotherapy. Health care personnel involved in the preparation and administration of chemotherapy is therefore at risk for adverse health effects, since most environmental sampling studies demonstrated that there is widespread contamination of work surfaces and equipments with anticancer drugs. Adherence to safety guidelines and proper use of personal protective equipment are insufficient to prevent significant absorption, as evidenced by the presence of detectable amounts of drugs in urine samples and increased frequency of genotoxicity biomarkers. In this minireview, a critical appraisal of the most important biomarkers used for the evaluation of occupational exposure to anticancer agents as well as a summary of the key findings from several studies published in this field is performed. PMID:21911042

Suspiro, A; Prista, J

2011-11-10

249

Occupational Radiation Exposure Analysis of US ITER DCLL TBM  

SciTech Connect

This report documents an Occupational Radiation Exposure (ORE) analysis that was performed for the US International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) Dual Coolant Lead Lithium (DCLL) Test Blanket Module (TBM). This analysis was performed with the QADMOD dose code for anticipated maintenance activities for this TBM concept and its ancillary systems. The QADMOD code was used to model the PbLi cooling loop of this TBM concept by specifying gamma ray source terms that simulated radioactive material within the piping, valves, heat exchanger, permeator, pump, drain tank, and cold trap of this cooling system. Estimates of the maintenance tasks that will have to be performed and the time required to perform these tasks where developed based on either expert opinion or on industrial maintenance experience for similar technologies. This report details the modeling activity and the calculated doses for the maintenance activities envisioned for the US DCLL TBM.

Merrill, Brad J; Cadwallader, Lee C; Dagher, Mohamad

2007-08-01

250

A Retrospective Assessment of Occupational Exposure to Elemental Carbon in the U.S. Trucking Industry  

PubMed Central

Background: Despite considerable epidemiologic evidence about the health effects of chronic exposure to vehicle exhaust, efforts at defining the extent of risk have been limited by the lack of historical exposure measurements suitable for use in epidemiologic studies and for risk assessment. Objectives: We sought to reconstruct exposure to elemental carbon (EC), a marker of diesel and other vehicle exhaust exposure, in a large national cohort of U.S. trucking industry workers. Methods: We identified the predictors of measured exposures based on a statistical model and used this information to extrapolate exposures across the cohort nationally. These estimates were adjusted for changes in work-related conditions over time based on a previous exposure assessment of this industry, and for changes in background levels based on a trend analysis of historical air pollution data, to derive monthly estimates of EC exposure for each job and trucking terminal combination between 1971 and 2000. Results: Occupational exposure to EC declined substantially over time, and we found significant variability in estimated exposures both within and across job groups, trucking terminals, and regions of the United States. Average estimated EC exposures during a typical work shift ranged from < 1 ?g/m3 in the lowest exposed category in the 1990s to > 40 ?g/m3 for workers in the highest exposed jobs in the 1970s. Conclusions: Our results provide a framework for understanding changes over time in exposure to EC in the U.S. trucking industry. Our assessment should minimize exposure misclassification by capturing variation among terminals and across U.S. regions, and changes over time. PMID:21447452

Hart, Jaime E.; Laden, Francine; Garshick, Eric; Smith, Thomas J.

2011-01-01

251

Occupational Exposure of a Medical School Staff to Formaldehyde in Tehran  

PubMed Central

Background Cadavers are preserved in a fixing solution containing formalin. Formaldehyde (FA) released from formalin is inhaled by the personnel in the anatomy laboratory. Exposed personnel have reported respiratory problems and various symptoms. Due to the toxicity of FA as a strong irritant and carcinogen and also lack of a national study assessing occupational exposure to FA in gross anatomy labs in Iran, the present study aimed at occupational monitoring of personnel exposed to FA and evaluating relevant symptoms in them. Materials and Methods A total of 20 subjects (all the staff) working in a gross anatomy lab and 20 library personnel were considered for occupational monitoring of exposure to FA during three months with various climatic conditions. They were also monitored for respiratory symptoms. Air sampling and analysis of its FA content were conducted according to the NIOSH method No.2016. Symptoms of cases and controls (library personnel) with active and passive exposure to formaldehyde were also studied by a self-report questionnaire. Results In the first stage of monitoring with ventilation (supply-exhaust) system on, the exposure of personnel (Mean± SE) was 306 ± 21ppb. In the second stage of monitoring the personnel's exposure was 317 ± 26ppb with only the ventilation supply system on and in the final monitoring stage this rate was 698 ± 34ppb with the ventilation system (supply and exhaust) off. In this study, personal's exposure level to FA was higher than the indoor concentration, and the individual exposure levels of instructors were higher than those of the students. Exposure of library personnel in the adjacent department (central library) was about 50ppb. Most important complaints reported by actively exposed staff members and library personnel were the unpleasant odor (68%), cough (64%), throat irritation and runny nose (56%), burning and itching of nose (52%) and irritating eyes (48%). Conclusion Considering the level of exposure of all subjects in this study and existence of clinical symptoms, better control of the exhaust system in the gross anatomy lab and use of a more efficient ventilation system are recommended to protect the staff and instructors of the Anatomy Department. PMID:25191427

Asadi, Parisa; Jafari, Mohammad Javad; Soori, Hamid; Hosseini, Vajihe

2012-01-01

252

Statistical Methods and Software for the Analysis of Occupational Exposure Data with Non-detectable Values  

SciTech Connect

Environmental exposure measurements are, in general, positive and may be subject to left censoring; i.e,. the measured value is less than a ''detection limit''. In occupational monitoring, strategies for assessing workplace exposures typically focus on the mean exposure level or the probability that any measurement exceeds a limit. Parametric methods used to determine acceptable levels of exposure, are often based on a two parameter lognormal distribution. The mean exposure level, an upper percentile, and the exceedance fraction are used to characterize exposure levels, and confidence limits are used to describe the uncertainty in these estimates. Statistical methods for random samples (without non-detects) from the lognormal distribution are well known for each of these situations. In this report, methods for estimating these quantities based on the maximum likelihood method for randomly left censored lognormal data are described and graphical methods are used to evaluate the lognormal assumption. If the lognormal model is in doubt and an alternative distribution for the exposure profile of a similar exposure group is not available, then nonparametric methods for left censored data are used. The mean exposure level, along with the upper confidence limit, is obtained using the product limit estimate, and the upper confidence limit on an upper percentile (i.e., the upper tolerance limit) is obtained using a nonparametric approach. All of these methods are well known but computational complexity has limited their use in routine data analysis with left censored data. The recent development of the R environment for statistical data analysis and graphics has greatly enhanced the availability of high-quality nonproprietary (open source) software that serves as the basis for implementing the methods in this paper.

Frome, EL

2005-09-20

253

Occupational exposure to chromium and nickel in the 1980s in Finland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two large data bases accumulated from the 1980s at the Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, one with results on urinary chromium and nickel analyses and the other with results on total and hexavalent chromium and nickel, were compiled and analysed in order to clarify the occupational exposure during the 1980s, and to reveal possible trends in the exposure of workers

Mirja Kiilunen

1997-01-01

254

Environmental and Biological Monitoring of Exposure to Pesticides in Occupationally Exposed Subjects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exposure to pesticides affects much of the population, including persons who are occupationally exposed as well as the general population, which may have contact with pesticides through domestic use, consumption of contaminated food and drink or by living in agricultural areas or areas treated for reasons of public health. From the occupational viewpoint, exposure to pesticides regards the industrial, agricultural,

Cristina Aprea

255

Occupational exposure to wood dust and formaldehyde and risk of nasal, nasopharyngeal, and lung cancer among Finnish men  

PubMed Central

Controversy exists over whether or not occupational inhalation exposure to wood dust and/or formaldehyde increases risk for respiratory cancers. The objective of this study was to examine the risk of nasal, nasopharyngeal, and lung cancer in relation to occupational exposure to wood dust and formaldehyde among Finnish men. The cohort of all Finnish men born between the years 1906 and 1945 and in employment during 1970 was followed up through the Finnish Cancer Registry for cases of cancers of the nose (n = 292), nasopharynx (n = 149), and lung (n = 30,137) during the period 1971–1995. The subjects’ occupations, as recorded in the population census in 1970, were converted to estimates of exposure to wood dust, formaldehyde, asbestos, and silica dust through the Finnish job-exposure matrix. Cumulative exposure (CE) was calculated based on the prevalence, average level, and estimated duration of exposure. The relative risk (RR) estimates for the CE categories of wood dust and formaldehyde were defined by Poisson regression, with adjustments made for smoking, socioeconomic status, and exposure to asbestos and/or silica dust. Men exposed to wood dust had a significant excess risk of nasal cancer overall (RR, 1.59; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.06–2.38), and specifically nasal squamous cell carcinoma (RR, 1.98; 95% CI, 1.19–3.31). Workers exposed to formaldehyde had an RR of 1.18 (95% CI, 1.12–1.25) for lung cancer. There was no indication that CE to wood dust or formaldehyde would increase the risk of nasopharyngeal cancer. Occupational exposure to wood dust appeared to increase the risk of nasal cancer but not of nasopharyngeal or lung cancer. The slight excess risk of lung cancer observed for exposure to formaldehyde may be the result of residual confounding from smoking. In summary, this study provides further evidence that exposure to wood dust in a variety of occupations may increase the risk of nasal cancer. PMID:22904644

Siew, Sie Sie; Kauppinen, Timo; Kyyrönen, Pentti; Heikkilä, Pirjo; Pukkala, Eero

2012-01-01

256

Monitoring and analysis of occupational exposure to chain saw exhausts.  

PubMed

The extent of inhalation exposure to loggers from two-stroke chain saws was measured and evaluated under various conditions. Carbon monoxide, measured by personal air monitoring and determination of carboxyhemoglobin levels of the loggers, was used as an indicator of exhaust exposure. Video recordings were made to analyze the influence of varying working conditions and the individual handling of the chain saw on the amount of pollutants inhaled. The American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists biological exposure index (BEI) for carboxyhemoglobin (3.5%) was exceeded during logging in heavy timber stands. When workers were paid on a piecework basis, carboxyhemoglobinemia increased to its maximum level in the first 2-3 hours of the shift and then declined. After 8 hours carboxyhemoglobin levels were 20-30% lower compared with the maximum. Increased exhaust inhalation with short-term exposures to carbon monoxide up to 400 ppm was observed in the following conditions: (1) felling operations, (2) other operations performed in a leaning of squatting position, (3) limbing in thick tops of coniferous trees, (4) working at low wind velocity, and (5) working in thick forest stands. Maximum allowable blood concentrations for carboxyhemoglobin are exceeded in chain saw operators in logging operations. Blood sampling at the end of the workday is not always suitable for determining the highest carboxyhemoglobin levels in loggers during the shift. The exposure of chain saw operators to exhaust increases under certain conditions. PMID:9342836

Bünger, J; Bombosch, F; Mesecke, U; Hallier, E

1997-10-01

257

Occupational cocaine exposure of crime laboratory personnel preparing training aids for a military working dog program.  

PubMed

The potential for passive cocaine exposure was evaluated in crime laboratory employees preparing training aids for a military working dog program (MWD). The primary goal of the study was to elucidate the routes of exposure and implement procedural changes that would minimize this risk. Several work environments and laboratory procedures were examined by monitoring personal breathing zones (PBZ), ambient airborne cocaine levels in the laboratory spaces, and urinary levels of the primary cocaine metabolite, benzoylecgonine. The study was performed initially using current laboratory procedures to establish a baseline and to identify potential sources of exposure. A subsequent study was performed to determine the effectiveness of the follow-up procedure in reducing exposure. As a result of the changes, the 8-h time weighted averages (TWAs) were 40 to 80% lower in the follow-up study as compared to the baseline assessment. Dermal absorption and PBZ inhalation of cocaine during manufacture were likely the most significant source of cocaine exposure. Ambient airborne cocaine may have also contributed to the total exposure, but for most observations, the concentrations were significantly less than those determined from PBZ monitoring. The maximum ambient cocaine concentration was 0.0144 mg/m(3) compared to a maximum of 0.4004 mg/m(3) observed during PBZ monitoring. Occupational exposure decreased in the follow-up study because of the proper use of personal protective equipment and improvements in engineering controls. PMID:14606999

Gehlhausen, Jay M; Klette, Kevin L; Stout, Peter R; Given, JoAnn

2003-10-01

258

Development of occupational exposure limits for the Hanford tank farms.  

PubMed

Production of plutonium for the United States' nuclear weapons program from the 1940s to the 1980s generated 53 million gallons of radioactive chemical waste, which is stored in 177 underground tanks at the Hanford site in southeastern Washington State. Recent attempts to begin the retrieval and treatment of these wastes require moving the waste to more modern tanks and result in potential exposure of the workers to unfamiliar odors emanating from headspace in the tanks. Given the unknown risks involved, workers were placed on supplied air respiratory protection. CH2MHILL, the managers of the Hanford site tank farms, asked an Independent Toxicology Panel (ITP) to assist them in issues relating to an industrial hygiene and risk assessment problem. The ITP was called upon to help determine the risk of exposure to vapors from the tanks, and in general develop a strategy for solution of the problem. This paper presents the methods used to determine the chemicals of potential concern (COPCs) and the resultant development of screening values and Acceptable Occupational Exposure Limits (AOELs) for these COPCs. A total of 1826 chemicals were inventoried and evaluated. Over 1500 chemicals were identified in the waste tanks headspaces and more than 600 of these were assigned screening values; 72 of these compounds were recommended for AOEL development. Included in this list of 72 were 57 COPCs identified by the ITP and of these 47 were subsequently assigned AOELs. An exhaustive exposure assessment strategy was developed by the CH2MHILL industrial hygiene department to evaluate these COPCs. PMID:20180654

Still, Kenneth R; Gardner, Donald E; Snyder, Robert; Anderson, Thomas J; Honeyman, James O; Timchalk, Charles

2010-04-01

259

The Dose Response Relationship between In Ear Occupational Noise Exposure and Hearing Loss  

PubMed Central

Objectives Current understanding of the dose-response relationship between occupational noise and hearing loss is based on cross-sectional studies prior to the widespread use hearing protection and with limited data regarding noise exposures below 85dBA. We report on the hearing loss experience of a unique cohort of industrial workers with daily monitoring of noise inside of hearing protection devices. Methods At an industrial facility, workers exhibiting accelerated hearing loss were enrolled in a mandatory program to monitor daily noise exposures inside of hearing protection. We compared these noise measurements (as time-weighted LAVG) to interval rates of high frequency hearing loss over a six year period using a mixed effects model, adjusting for potential confounders. Results Workers’ high frequency hearing levels at study inception averaged more than 40 dB hearing threshold level (HTL). Most noise exposures were less than 85dBA (mean LAVG 76 dBA, interquartile range 74 to 80 dBA). We found no statistical relationship between LAvg and high frequency hearing loss (p = 0.53). Using a metric for monthly maximum noise exposure did not improve model fit. Conclusion At-ear noise exposures below 85dBA did not show an association with risk of high frequency hearing loss among workers with substantial past noise exposure and hearing loss at baseline. Therefore, effective noise control to below 85dBA may lead to significant reduction in occupational hearing loss risk in such individuals. Further research is needed on the dose response relationship of noise and hearing loss in individuals with normal hearing and little prior noise exposure. PMID:23825197

Rabinowitz, Peter M.; Galusha, Deron; Dixon-Ernst, Christine; Clougherty, Jane E.; Neitzel, Richard L.

2014-01-01

260

Extensive changes to occupational exposure limits in Korea.  

PubMed

Occupational exposure limits (OELs) are used as an important tool to protect workers from adverse chemical exposures and its detrimental effects on their health. The Ministry of Labor (MOL) can establish and publish OELs based on the Industrial Safety and Health Act in Korea. The first set of OELs was announced by the MOL in 1986. At that time, it was identical to the Threshold Limit Values of the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists. Until 2006, none the first OELs except for those of three chemicals (asbestos, benzene, and 2-bromopropane) were updated during the last twenty years. The Hazardous Agents Review Committee established under the MOL selected 126 chemicals from 698 chemicals covered by OELs using several criteria. From 2005 to 2006, the MOL provided research funds for academic institutions and toxicological laboratories to gather the evidence documenting the need to revise the outdated OELs. Finally, the MOL notified the revised OELs for 126 chemicals from 2007 to 2008. The revised OELs of 58 substances from among these chemicals were lowered to equal or less than half the value of the original OELs. This is the most substantial change in the history of OEL revisions in Korea. PMID:20709131

Jeong, Jee Yeon; Choi, Sangjun; Kho, Young Lim; Kim, Pan Gyi

2010-11-01

261

Evaluation of Quantification Methods of Occupational Endotoxin Exposure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Endotoxin has been identified as important component of organic-dust exposure and is suspected as main cause of work-related adverse health effects in dusty areas. Although the determination of endotoxin levels by using the Limulus amoebocyte lysate (LAL) assay is internationally accepted, reliability and variation of values measured with this test remain a point of discussion. Therefore, the purpose of the

V. Liebers; M. Raulf-Heimsoth; G. Linsel; N. Goldscheid; M. Düser; H. Stubel; Th. Brüning

2007-01-01

262

Occupational Exposure to Asbestos; Criteria for a Recommended Standard.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recommended standards for control of exposure to asbestos dust in the workplace are set out from the following standpoints: environmental, medical, labeling, personal protective equipment and clothing, apprisal of employees, work practices, and monitoring and recordkeeping requirements. The goal is maintenance of a low level of concentration to…

National Inst. for Occupational Safety and Health (DHEW/PHS), Rockville, MD.

263

75 FR 24746 - Occupational Exposure to Noise Standard; Extension of the Office of Management and Budget's (OMB...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...OSHA-2010-0017] Occupational Exposure to Noise Standard; Extension of the Office of...specified in the Occupational Exposure to Noise Standard. The information collection requirements specified in the Noise Standard protect workers from...

2010-05-05

264

Lack of association between Toxoplasma gondii infection and occupational exposure to animals  

PubMed Central

The association of infection with Toxoplasma gondii and occupational exposure to animals has been scantly determined. We performed a case-control study with 200 subjects from Durango Province, Mexico, occupationally exposed to animals and 200 age- and gender-matched subjects without this occupation. Sera from all participants were analyzed for anti-T. gondii IgG and IgM antibodies using enzyme-linked immunoassays. The association of seroprevalence with sociodemographic, work, clinical, and behavioral characteristics in cases was determined. Cases and controls had similar frequencies of anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies (12/200: 6.0% and 11/200: 5.5%, respectively) (OR = 3.0; 95% CI: 0.12–73.64; P = 1.0). The frequency of sera with high (>150 IU/ml) levels of anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies was comparable among cases and controls (P = 0.61). Seroprevalence of anti-T. gondii IgM antibodies was similar in cases (4, 2.0%) than in controls (4, 2.0%) (P = 1.0). Multivariate analysis showed that seropositivity was associated with eating while working (OR = 7.14; 95% CI: 1.91–26.72; P = 0.003) and consumption of duck meat (OR = 5.43; 95% CI: 1.43–20.54; P = 0.01). No association between seropositivity to T. gondii and occupational exposure to animals was found. However, risk factors for infection found should be taken into account to reduce the exposure to T. gondii. PMID:25544890

Pacheco-Vega, Sandy Janet; Hernández-Tinoco, Jesús; Saldaña-Simental, Diana Elizabeth; Sánchez-Anguiano, Luis Francisco; Salcedo-Jáquez, Misael; Ramos-Nevárez, Agar; Liesenfeld, Oliver; Márquez-Conde, José Ángel; Cerrillo-Soto, Sandra Margarita; Martínez-Ramírez, Lucio; Guido-Arreola, Carlos Alberto

2014-01-01

265

BIOMarkers for occupational diesel exhaust exposure monitoring (BIOMODEM)--a study in underground mining.  

PubMed

Methods for the assessment of exposures to diesel exhaust were evaluated, including various biomarkers of internal exposure and early biological effects. The impact of possible biomarkers of susceptibility was also explored. Underground workers (drivers of diesel-powered excavators) at an oil shale mine in Estonia were compared with surface workers. Personal exposures to particle-associated 1-nitropyrene (NP) were some eight times higher underground than on the surface. Underground miners were also occupationally exposed to benzene and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, as indicated by excretion of urinary metabolites of benzene and pyrene. In addition, increased O(6)-alkylguanine DNA adducts were detected in the white blood cells of underground workers, suggesting higher exposure to nitroso-compounds. However, no differences between underground and surface workers were observed in the levels of other bulky DNA adducts determined by 32P-postlabelling, or in DNA damage. The study indicated that smoking, diet and residential indoor air pollution are important non-occupational factors to consider when interpreting biomonitoring results. PMID:12191893

Scheepers, P T J; Coggon, D; Knudsen, L E; Anzion, R; Autrup, H; Bogovski, S; Bos, R P; Dahmann, D; Farmer, P; Martin, E A; Micka, V; Muzyka, V; Neumann, H G; Poole, J; Schmidt-Ott, A; Seiler, F; Volf, J; Zwirner-Baier, I

2002-08-01

266

Exposure-Response Estimates for Diesel Engine Exhaust and Lung Cancer Mortality Based on Data from Three Occupational Cohorts  

PubMed Central

Background: Diesel engine exhaust (DEE) has recently been classified as a known human carcinogen. Objective: We derived a meta-exposure–response curve (ERC) for DEE and lung cancer mortality and estimated lifetime excess risks (ELRs) of lung cancer mortality based on assumed occupational and environmental exposure scenarios. Methods: We conducted a meta-regression of lung cancer mortality and cumulative exposure to elemental carbon (EC), a proxy measure of DEE, based on relative risk (RR) estimates reported by three large occupational cohort studies (including two studies of workers in the trucking industry and one study of miners). Based on the derived risk function, we calculated ELRs for several lifetime occupational and environmental exposure scenarios and also calculated the fractions of annual lung cancer deaths attributable to DEE. Results: We estimated a lnRR of 0.00098 (95% CI: 0.00055, 0.0014) for lung cancer mortality with each 1-?g/m3-year increase in cumulative EC based on a linear meta-regression model. Corresponding lnRRs for the individual studies ranged from 0.00061 to 0.0012. Estimated numbers of excess lung cancer deaths through 80 years of age for lifetime occupational exposures of 1, 10, and 25 ?g/m3 EC were 17, 200, and 689 per 10,000, respectively. For lifetime environmental exposure to 0.8 ?g/m3 EC, we estimated 21 excess lung cancer deaths per 10,000. Based on broad assumptions regarding past occupational and environmental exposures, we estimated that approximately 6% of annual lung cancer deaths may be due to DEE exposure. Conclusions: Combined data from three U.S. occupational cohort studies suggest that DEE at levels common in the workplace and in outdoor air appear to pose substantial excess lifetime risks of lung cancer, above the usually acceptable limits in the United States and Europe, which are generally set at 1/1,000 and 1/100,000 based on lifetime exposure for the occupational and general population, respectively. Citation: Vermeulen R, Silverman DT, Garshick E, Vlaanderen J, Portengen L, Steenland K. 2014. Exposure-response estimates for diesel engine exhaust and lung cancer mortality based on data from three occupational cohorts. Environ Health Perspect 122:172–177;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1306880 PMID:24273233

Silverman, Debra T.; Garshick, Eric; Vlaanderen, Jelle; Portengen, Lützen; Steenland, Kyle

2013-01-01

267

Experimental PVC Material Challenge in Subjects with Occupational PVC Exposure  

PubMed Central

Background Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) materials have been linked to asthma in several epidemiologic studies, but the possible causal factors remain unknown. Participants We challenged 10 subjects experimentally to degraded PVC products under controlled conditions. All of the subjects had previously experienced respiratory symptoms suspected to be caused by this kind of exposure in their work place. Five subjects had doctor-diagnosed asthma. Methods The subjects were exposed to degraded PVC material in an exposure chamber; a challenge with ceramic tile was used as the control test. We followed exhaled nitric oxide, nasal NO, lung functions, cytokines [tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), interleukin-4 (IL-4), IL-6, and IL-12] and NO in nasal lavage fluid (NAL) during and after the exposures. We also measured 2-ethylhexanol in exhaled breath samples and NAL. Results On the morning after the PVC exposure, subjects reported respiratory tract symptoms significantly more often than they did after the control test (50% vs. 0%, respectively; p = 0.029; n = 10). We did not detect any changes in lung functions or levels of exhaled NO, nasal NO, or NO in NAL after PVC challenge compared with the control test. Cytokine levels increased after both exposures, with no statistically significant difference between situations. All of the exhaled breath samples collected during the PVC exposure contained 2-ethylhexanol. Conclusions PVC flooring challenge can evoke respiratory tract symptoms in exposed subjects. Our results do not support the hypothesis that PVC materials themselves evoke immediate asthmatic reactions. The chamber test used is well suited to this type of exposure study. PMID:16966097

Tuomainen, Anneli; Stark, Harri; Seuri, Markku; Hirvonen, Maija-Riitta; Linnainmaa, Markku; Sieppi, Anne; Tukiainen, Hannu

2006-01-01

268

Maternal occupational exposure during pregnancy and the risk of spina bifida.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: A case-control study was carried out to explore associations between spina bifida and occupational exposure of the mother. METHODS: The cases were children with spina bifida aperta born between 1980 and 1992 from nine hospitals in the Netherlands. The controls were children born healthy in the same period as the cases, from hospitals and from the general population. Data collection was carried out in two steps. Firstly, postal questionnaires were sent to all the parents of cases and controls to gather information on occupations and potential confounders. In the second phase of the study, information on specific exposures was collected by means of job and task specific personal interviews. Interviews were performed with 55 case mothers and 66 control mothers who had occupations with a potential for chemical or physical exposure. Those exposures were assumed to be negligible for--for example, teachers and secretaries, so personal interviews were not indicated for these women. Information was collected on specific tasks in the period just after conception, and on the associated use of chemical or physical agents, frequency of exposure, and use of protective equipment. RESULTS: The analyses of occupation showed an increased risk for women working in agricultural occupations (OR = 3.4, CI:1.3-9.0), and, although less distinct, for cleaning women (OR = 1.7, CI:0.9-3.4). Only a few women seemed to be occupationally exposed to chemical or physical agents. No differences in occurrence of specific exposures could be detected between cases and controls. Besides, no differences were seen in pesticide or disinfectant exposure among case and control mothers in agricultural occupations. CONCLUSIONS: Occupational exposures of the mother during pregnancy were infrequent and did not seem to play an important part in the aetiology of spina bifida in this study. The association found between spina bifida and maternal agricultural occupations could not be explained by the use of pesticides by the mother or by any other occupational exposure. PMID:8777455

Blatter, B M; Roeleveld, N; Zielhuis, G A; Gabreëls, F J; Verbeek, A L

1996-01-01

269

Clinical and pathological characteristics of hepatotoxicity associated with occupational exposure to dimethylformamide  

SciTech Connect

The clinical characteristics, laboratory results, and liver biopsy findings of seven workers with toxic liver injury associated with exposure to several solvents, including substantial levels of the widely used solvent dimethylformamide, are presented. Three patients had short exposure (less than 3 months), four long exposure (greater than 1 year). Among those with brief exposure, symptoms included anorexia, abdominal pain, and disulfiram-type reaction. Aminotransferases were markedly elevated with the ratio of alanine aminotransferase to aspartate aminotransferase always greater than 1. Liver biopsy showed focal hepatocellular necrosis and microvesicular steatosis with prominence of smooth endoplasmic reticulum, complex lysosomes, and pleomorphic mitochondria with crystalline inclusions. Among workers with long exposure, symptoms were minimal and enzyme elevations modest. Biopsies showed macrovesicular steatosis, pleomorphic mitochondria without crystalloids, and prominent smooth endoplasmic reticulum, but no evidence of persisting acute injury or fibrosis. Abnormal aminotransferases in both groups may persist for months after removal from exposure, but progression to cirrhosis in continually exposed workers was not observed. We conclude that exposure of these workers to solvents, chiefly dimethylformamide, may result in two variants of toxic liver injury with subtle clinical, laboratory, and morphological features. This may be readily overlooked if occupational history and biopsy histology are not carefully evaluated.

Redlich, C.A.; West, A.B.; Fleming, L.; True, L.D.; Cullen, M.R.; Riely, C.A. (Yale Univ. School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (USA))

1990-09-01

270

Myocardial infarction and occupational exposure to motor exhaust: a population-based case-control study in Sweden.  

PubMed

There is a well-established association between particulate urban air pollution and cardiovascular disease, but few studies have investigated the risk associated with occupational exposure to particles from motor exhaust. This study investigated the risk of myocardial infarction (MI) after occupational exposure to motor exhaust, using elemental carbon (EC) as a marker of exposure. A population-based case-control study of first-time non-lethal MI was conducted among Swedish citizens in ages 45-70 living in Stockholm County 1992-1994, including 1,643 cases and 2,235 controls. Working histories and data on potential confounders were collected by questionnaire and medical examination. The exposure to EC was assessed through a job-exposure matrix. Odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated by unconditional logistic regression. We investigated various exposure metrics: intensity, cumulative exposure and years since exposure. There was an exposure-response relation between the highest average exposure intensity during the work history and the risk of MI when adjusting for smoking and alcohol drinking (p for trend 0.034), with an OR of 1.30 (95% CI 0.99-1.71) in the highest tertile of exposure compared to the unexposed. An exposure-response pattern was observed in the analysis of years since exposure cessation among formerly exposed. Additional adjustments for markers of the metabolic syndrome reduced ORs and trends to non-significant levels, although this might be an over-adjustment since the metabolic syndrome may be part of the causal pathway. Occupational exposure to motor exhaust was associated with a moderately increased risk of MI. PMID:24981789

Ilar, Anna; Lewné, Marie; Plato, Nils; Hallqvist, Johan; Alderling, Magnus; Bigert, Carolina; Hogstedt, Christer; Gustavsson, Per

2014-07-01

271

An overview of the characterization of occupational exposure to nanoaerosols in workplaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Currently, there is a lack of standardized sampling and metric methods that can be applied to measure the level of exposure to nanosized aerosols. Therefore, any attempt to characterize exposure to nanoparticles (NP) in a workplace must involve a multifaceted approach characterized by different sampling and analytical techniques to measure all relevant characteristics of NP exposure. Furthermore, as NP aerosols are always complex mixtures of multiple origins, sampling and analytical methods need to be improved to selectively evaluate the apportionment from specific sources to the final nanomaterials. An open question at the world's level is how to relate specific toxic effects of NP with one or more among several different parameters (such as particle size, mass, composition, surface area, number concentration, aggregation or agglomeration state, water solubility and surface chemistry). As the evaluation of occupational exposure to NP in workplaces needs dimensional and chemical characterization, the main problem is the choice of the sampling and dimensional separation techniques. Therefore a convenient approach to allow a satisfactory risk assessment could be the contemporary use of different sampling and measuring techniques for particles with known toxicity in selected workplaces. Despite the lack of specific NP exposure limit values, exposure metrics, appropriate to nanoaerosols, are discussed in the Technical Report ISO/TR 27628:2007 with the aim to enable occupational hygienists to characterize and monitor nanoaerosols in workplaces. Moreover, NIOSH has developed the Document Approaches to Safe Nanotechnology (intended to be an information exchange with NIOSH) in order to address current and future research needs to understanding the potential risks that nanotechnology may have to workers.

Castellano, Paola; Ferrante, Riccardo; Curini, Roberta; Canepari, Silvia

2009-05-01

272

Occupational exposure to volatile organic compounds and aldehydes in the U.S. trucking industry.  

PubMed

Diesel exhaust is a complex chemical mixture that has been linked to lung cancer mortality in a number of epidemiologic studies. However, the dose-response relationship remains largely undefined, and the specific components responsible for carcinogenicity have not been identified. Although previous focus has been on the particulate phase, diesel exhaust includes a vapor phase of numerous volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and aldehydes that are either known or suspected carcinogens, such as 1,3-butadiene, benzene, and formaldehyde. However, there are relatively few studies that quantify exposure to VOCs and aldehydes in diesel-heavy and other exhaust-related microenvironments. As part of a nationwide assessment of exposure to diesel exhaust in the trucking industry, we collected measurements of VOCs and aldehydes at 15 different U.S. trucking terminals and in city truck drivers (with 6 repeat site visits), observing average shift concentrations in truck cabs and at multiple background and work area locations within each terminal. In this paper, we characterize occupational exposure to 18 different VOCs and aldehydes, as well as relationships with particulate mass (elemental carbon in PM < 1 microm and PM2.5) across locations to determine source characteristics. Our results show that occupational exposure to VOCs and aldehydes varies significantly across the different sampling locations within each terminal, with significantly higher exposures noted in the work environments over background levels (p < 0.01). A structural equation model performed well in predicting terminal exposures to VOCs and aldehydes as a function of job, background levels, weather conditions, proximity to a major road, and geographic location (R2 = 0.2-0.4 work area; R2 = 0.5-0.9 background). PMID:17993162

Davis, M E; Blicharz, A P; Hart, J E; Laden, F; Garshick, E; Smith, T J

2007-10-15

273

Occupational Exposure to Volatile Organic Compounds and Aldehydes in the U.S. Trucking Industry  

PubMed Central

Diesel exhaust is a complex chemical mixture that has been linked to lung cancer mortality in a number of epidemiologic studies. However, the dose–response relationship remains largely undefined, and the specific components responsible for carcinogenicity have not been identified. Although previous focus has been on the particulate phase, diesel exhaust includes a vapor phase of numerous volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and aldehydes that are either known or suspected carcinogens, such as 1,3-butadiene, benzene, and formaldehyde. However, there are relatively few studies that quantify exposure to VOCs and aldehydes in diesel-heavy and other exhaust-related microenvironments. As part of a nationwide assessment of exposure to diesel exhaust in the trucking industry, we collected measurements of VOCs and aldehydes at 15 different U.S. trucking terminals and in city truck drivers (with 6 repeat site visits), observing average shift concentrations in truck cabs and at multiple background and work area locations within each terminal. In this paper, we characterize occupational exposure to 18 different VOCs and aldehydes, as well as relationships with particulate mass (elemental carbon in PM < 1 ? m and PM2.5) across locations to determine source characteristics. Our results show that occupational exposure to VOCs and aldehydes varies significantly across the different sampling locations within each terminal, with significantly higher exposures noted in the work environments over background levels (p < 0.01). A structural equation model performed well in predicting terminal exposures to VOCs and aldehydes as a function of job, background levels, weather conditions, proximity to a major road, and geographic location (R2 = 0.2–0.4 work area; R2 = 0.5–0.9 background). PMID:17993162

DAVIS, M. E.; BLICHARZ, A. P.; HART, J. E.; LADEN, F.; GARSHICK, E.; SMITH, T. J.

2008-01-01

274

Laryngeal and hypopharyngeal cancers and occupational exposure to formaldehyde and various dusts: a case-control study in France  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES—A case-control study was conducted in France to assess possible associations between occupational exposures and squamous cell carcinomas of the larynx and hypopharynx.?METHODS—The study was restricted to men, and included 201 hypopharyngeal cancers, 296 laryngeal cancers, and 296 controls (patients with other tumour sites). Detailed information on smoking, alcohol consumption, and lifetime occupational history was collected. Occupational exposure to seven substances (formaldehyde, leather dust, wood dust, flour dust, coal dust, silica dust, and textile dust) was assessed with a job exposure matrix. Exposure variables used in the analysis were probability, duration, and cumulative level of exposure. Odds ratios (ORs) with their 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were estimated by unconditional logistic regression, and were adjusted for major confounding factors (age, smoking, alcohol, and when relevant other occupational exposures).?RESULTS—Hypopharyngeal cancer was found to be associated with exposure to coal dust (OR 2.31, 95% CI 1.21 to 4.40), with a significant rise in risk with probability (p<0.005 for trend) and level (p<0.007 for trend) of exposure. Exposure to coal dust was also associated with an increased risk of laryngeal cancer (OR 1.67, 95% CI 0.92 to 3.02), but no dose-response pattern was found. A significant relation, limited to hypopharyngeal cancer, was found with the probability of exposure to formaldehyde (p<0.005 for trend), with a fourfold risk for the highest category (OR 3.78 , 95% CI 1.50 to 9.49). When subjects exposed to formaldehyde with a low probability were excluded, the risk also increased with duration (p<0.04) and cumulative level of exposure (p<0.14). No significant association was found for any other substance.?CONCLUSION—These results indicate that exposure to formaldehyde and coal dust may increase the risk of hypopharyngeal cancer.???Keywords: laryngeal cancer; hypopharyngeal cancer; occupational exposure; job exposure matrix; formaldehyde; coal dust PMID:11024201

Laforest, L.; Luce, D.; Goldberg, P.; Begin, D.; Gerin, M.; Demers, P.; Brugere, J.; Leclerc, A.

2000-01-01

275

Levels of empathy in undergraduate occupational therapy students.  

PubMed

Empathy is an important attribute for occupational therapists in establishing rapport and in better understanding their clients. However, empathy can be compromised by high workloads, personal stressors and pressures to demonstrate efficacy. Occupational therapists also work with patients from a variety of diagnostic groups. The objective of this study was to determine the extent of empathy and attitudes towards clients amongst undergraduate occupational therapy students at one Australian University. A cross-sectional study was undertaken using a written survey of the Jefferson Scale of Physician Empathy (JSPE) and the Medical Condition Regard Scale. Overall, a strong level of empathy was reported amongst students. Four medical conditions that occupational therapists work with (stroke, cerebral palsy, traumatic brain injury and depression) were held in high regard. Substance abuse, however, was held in comparatively low regard. Overall, the year of study appeared to have no significant impact on the students' empathy. Despite having a lower reported empathy level than found in health professions from other studies using the JSPE, occupational therapy students were found to have a good level of empathy. Of concern, however, was the bias reported against the medical condition of substance abuse, highlighting that the there may be a need to reinforce that patients from this diagnostic group are equally deserving of quality care irrespective of their clinical condition. Recommendations for future research include completing a longitudinal study of occupational therapy students' empathy levels and investigating the empathy levels of occupational therapists working with different client groups. Limitations of the study include the convenience sampling of occupational therapy students enrolled at one university which limits the generalizability of the results to groups of participants with similar characteristics. PMID:20623554

Brown, Ted; Williams, Brett; Boyle, Malcolm; Molloy, Andrew; McKenna, Lisa; Molloy, Liz; Lewis, Belinda

2010-09-01

276

Fostering expertise in occupational health nursing: levels of skill development.  

PubMed

1. Levels of nursing expertise described by Benner--novice, advanced beginner, competent, proficient, and expert--hold potential for fostering improved practice among occupational health nurses. 2. Lacking a clear understanding of the full potential of the role of the occupational health nurse, employers may not reward the development of clinical expertise that incorporates employee advocacy within the context of written standards and guidelines. 3. Expertise in occupational health nursing can be fostered by job descriptions that incorporate a broader view of nursing (one that stresses judgment and advocacy), retention and longevity, innovative strategies for consultation and collegial interaction to foster mentoring, and distance learning strategies. PMID:8694977

Rees, P G; Hays, B J

1996-02-01

277

Experiences from occupational exposure limits set on aerosols containing allergenic proteins.  

PubMed

Occupational exposure limits (OELs) together with determined airborne exposures are used in risk assessment based managements of occupational exposures to prevent occupational diseases. In most countries, OELs have only been set for few protein-containing aerosols causing IgE-mediated allergies. They comprise aerosols of flour dust, grain dust, wood dust, natural rubber latex, and the subtilisins, which are proteolytic enzymes. These aerosols show dose-dependent effects and levels have been established, where nearly all workers may be exposed without adverse health effects, which are required for setting OELs. Our aim is to analyse prerequisites for setting OELs for the allergenic protein-containing aerosols. Opposite to the key effect of toxicological reactions, two thresholds, one for the sensitization phase and one for elicitation of IgE-mediated symptoms in sensitized individuals, are used in the OEL settings. For example, this was the case for flour dust, where OELs were based on dust levels due to linearity between flour dust and its allergen levels. The critical effects for flour and grain dust OELs were different, which indicates that conclusion by analogy (read-across) must be scientifically well founded. Except for subtilisins, no OEL have been set for other industrial enzymes, where many of which are high volume chemicals. For several of these, OELs have been proposed in the scientific literature during the last two decades. It is apparent that the scientific methodology is available for setting OELs for proteins and protein-containing aerosols where the critical effect is IgE sensitization and IgE-mediated airway diseases. PMID:22843406

Nielsen, Gunnar D; Larsen, Søren T; Hansen, Jitka S; Poulsen, Lars K

2012-10-01

278

Experiences from Occupational Exposure Limits Set on Aerosols Containing Allergenic Proteins  

PubMed Central

Occupational exposure limits (OELs) together with determined airborne exposures are used in risk assessment based managements of occupational exposures to prevent occupational diseases. In most countries, OELs have only been set for few protein-containing aerosols causing IgE-mediated allergies. They comprise aerosols of flour dust, grain dust, wood dust, natural rubber latex, and the subtilisins, which are proteolytic enzymes. These aerosols show dose-dependent effects and levels have been established, where nearly all workers may be exposed without adverse health effects, which are required for setting OELs. Our aim is to analyse prerequisites for setting OELs for the allergenic protein-containing aerosols. Opposite to the key effect of toxicological reactions, two thresholds, one for the sensitization phase and one for elicitation of IgE-mediated symptoms in sensitized individuals, are used in the OEL settings. For example, this was the case for flour dust, where OELs were based on dust levels due to linearity between flour dust and its allergen levels. The critical effects for flour and grain dust OELs were different, which indicates that conclusion by analogy (read-across) must be scientifically well founded. Except for subtilisins, no OEL have been set for other industrial enzymes, where many of which are high volume chemicals. For several of these, OELs have been proposed in the scientific literature during the last two decades. It is apparent that the scientific methodology is available for setting OELs for proteins and protein-containing aerosols where the critical effect is IgE sensitization and IgE-mediated airway diseases. PMID:22843406

Nielsen, Gunnar D.

2012-01-01

279

Plasma fluorescent oxidation products and short-term occupational particulate exposures  

PubMed Central

Background Evidence suggests that fine particulate air pollution results in oxidative induced tissue damage. Methods A global fluorescent oxidation products (FLOx) assay (fluorescent intensity (FI) units per milliliter of plasma) was measured in blood samples collected from 236 nonsmoking, Caucasian, male trucking industry workers either prior to, during, or after their work shifts. Occupational exposures to PM2.5 were based on job-specific area-level sampling. Generalized linear models were used to determine associations between FLOx levels and PM2.5, adjusted for age, time since last meal, alcohol consumption, aspirin, and cholesterol medications. Results The mean (standard deviation) level of FLOx was 265.9 FI/ml (96.0). Levels of FLOx were higher among older individuals and lower among those who had consumed alcohol in the past 24 hours. However, no associations were observed between FLOx and PM2.5. Conclusions Our results indicate no association between occupational PM2.5 exposure and this marker of global oxidative stress. PMID:22618714

Hart, Jaime E; Wu, Tianying; Laden, Francine; Garshick, Eric

2012-01-01

280

Interaction of atopy and smoking on respiratory effects of occupational dust exposure: a general population-based study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: For individual exposures, effect modification by atopy or smoking has been reported on the occurrence of occupational airway disease. It is unclear if effect modification can be studied in a general population by an aggregated exposure measure. Assess relationship between airway obstruction and occupational exposure using a job-exposure-matrix (JEM) classifying jobs into 3 broad types of exposure, and test

Gea de Meer; Marjan Kerkhof; Hans Kromhout; Jan P Schouten; Dick Heederik

2004-01-01

281

[Nanomaterials--proposals of occupational exposure limits in the world and hygiene standards in Poland].  

PubMed

Currently, there are no legally binding workplace exposure limits for substances in the form of nanoobjects. There are different ap proaches to risk assessment and determination of occupational exposure limits. The purpose of this article is to compare exposure levels in the work environment proposed by international organizations and world experts, as well as the assumptions and methods used for their estimation. This paper presents the proposals of the National Institute for Public Health and the Environment in the Netherlands (RIVM), the New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization in Japan (NEDO) and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health in the USA (NIOSH). The authors also discuss the reports on the levels for carbon nanotubes (Baytubes and Nanocyl) proposed by Pauluhn and Luizi, the derived no-effect levels (DNEL) complying with the REACH Regulation, proposed by experts under the 7th Framework Programme of the European Commission, coordinated by Professor Vicki Stone (ENRHES), and alternative estimation levels for poorly soluble particles by Pauluhn. The issue was also raised whether the method of determining maximum admissible concentrations in the work environment, currently used in Poland, is adequate for nanoobjects. Moreover, the introduction of nanoreference values, as proposed by RIVM, the definition of a new fraction for particles of 1-100 nm, taking into account the surface area and activity of the particles, and an adequate estimation of uncertainty factors seem to be worth considering. Other important, if not key issues are the appropriate measurement (numerical concentration, surface concentration, particle size distribution), as well as the methodology and equipment accessibility to all employers responsible for a reliable risk assessment of exposure to nanoparticles in the work environment. PMID:24645568

Swidwi?ska-Gajewska, Anna Maria; Czerczak, S?awomir

2013-01-01

282

Aggregation of exposure level and probability into a single metric in job-exposure matrices creates bias.  

PubMed

Job-exposure matrices (JEMs) are often used in occupational epidemiological studies to provide an exposure estimate for a typical person in a 'job' during a particular time period. A JEM can produce exposure estimates on a variety of scales, such as (but not limited to) binary assessments of presence or absence of exposure, ordinal ranking of exposure level and frequency, and quantitative exposure estimates of exposure intensity and frequency. Specifically, one popular approach to construct a JEM, engendered in a Finnish job exposure matrix (FINJEM), provides a probability that a worker within an occupational group is exposed and an estimate of intensity of exposure among the exposed workers within this occupation. Often the product of the probability and intensity (aka level) is used to obtain the estimate of exposure for the epidemiological analyses. This procedure aggregates exposure across exposed and non-exposed individuals and the effect of this particular procedure on epidemiological analyses has never been studied. We developed a theoretical framework for understanding how these aggregate exposure estimates relate to true exposure (either unexposed or log-normally distributed for 'exposed'), assuming that there is no uncertainty about estimates of level and probability of exposure. Theoretical derivations show that multiplying occupation-specific exposure level and probability of non-zero exposure results in both systematic and differential measurement errors. Simulations demonstrated that under certain conditions bias in odds ratios in a cohort study away from the null are possible and that this bias is smaller when (a) arithmetic rather than geometric mean is used to assess exposure level and (b) exposure level and prevalence are positively correlated. We illustrate the potential impact of using the specified JEM in a simulation based on a case-control study of non-Hodgkin lymphoma and exposure to ionizing and non-ionizing radiation. Inflation of standard errors in the log-odds was observed as well as bias away from null for two out of three specific exposures/data structures. Overall, it is clear that influence of the phenomenon we studied on epidemiological results is complex and difficult to predict, being influenced a great deal by the structure of data. We recommend exploring the influence of JEMs that use the product of exposure level and probability in epidemiological analyses through simulations during planning of such studies to assess both the expected extent of the potential bias in risk estimates and impact on power. The SAS and R code required to implement such simulations are provided. All our calculations are either theoretical or based on simulated data. PMID:22986426

Burstyn, Igor; Lavoué, Jérôme; Van Tongeren, Martie

2012-11-01

283

Occupational Styrene Exposure Induces Stress-Responsive Genes Involved in Cytoprotective and Cytotoxic Activities  

PubMed Central

Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the expression of a panel of genes involved in toxicology in response to styrene exposure at levels below the occupational standard setting. Methods Workers in a fiber glass boat industry were evaluated for a panel of stress- and toxicity-related genes and associated with biochemical parameters related to hepatic injury. Urinary styrene metabolites (MA+PGA) of subjects and environmental sampling data collected for air at workplace were used to estimate styrene exposure. Results Expression array analysis revealed massive upregulation of genes encoding stress-responsive proteins (HSPA1L, EGR1, IL-6, IL-1?, TNSF10 and TNF?) in the styrene-exposed group; the levels of cytokines released were further confirmed in serum. The exposed workers were then stratified by styrene exposure levels. EGR1 gene upregulation paralleled the expression and transcriptional protein levels of IL-6, TNSF10 and TNF? in styrene exposed workers, even at low level. The activation of the EGR1 pathway observed at low-styrene exposure was associated with a slight increase of hepatic markers found in highly exposed subjects, even though they were within normal range. The ALT and AST levels were not affected by alcohol consumption, and positively correlated with urinary styrene metabolites as evaluated by multiple regression analysis. Conclusion The pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNF? are the primary mediators of processes involved in the hepatic injury response and regeneration. Here, we show that styrene induced stress responsive genes involved in cytoprotection and cytotoxicity at low-exposure, that proceed to a mild subclinical hepatic toxicity at high-styrene exposure. PMID:24086524

Strafella, Elisabetta; Bracci, Massimo; Staffolani, Sara; Manzella, Nicola; Giantomasi, Daniele; Valentino, Matteo; Amati, Monica; Tomasetti, Marco; Santarelli, Lory

2013-01-01

284

Toxic encephalopathy caused by occupational exposure to 1, 2-Dichloroethane.  

PubMed

This study describes the clinical and neuroimaging features of five patients with 1, 2-Dichloroethane (DCE) toxic encephalopathy. From January 1st 1998 to June 30th 2009, five patients who were subsequently diagnosed with DCE toxic encephalopathy were admitted to our hospital. All were female workers who had been in contact with DCE and subsequently had had seizures or symptoms of intracranial hypertension, including headache, nausea, and vomiting. The cranial MRI showed extensive brain edema in either the subcortical white matter, bilateral globus pallidus, and cerebellar nucleus dendatus, or the cortices. Of the five patients in the study, three had vasogenic edema, one had cytotoxic edema, and one had both types of edema. Following treatment with steroids and mannitol for 3 to 10 weeks, all patients made either a partial or complete recovery. The imaging findings were resolved on a follow-up MRI. It is clear that occupational exposure to DCE can cause severe toxic encephalopathy. Moreover, extensive brain edema, secondary to blood-brain barrier damage or neuronal injury, is the major neuroimaging feature and the cause of clinical manifestations. Early diagnosis and prompt treatment leads to a good outcome. PMID:20163807

Liu, Jian-Ren; Fang, Shan; Ding, Mei-Ping; Chen, Zhi-Cai; Zhou, Jia-Jun; Sun, Fen; Jiang, Biao; Huang, Jian

2010-05-15

285

Occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields of uninterruptible power supply industry workers.  

PubMed

There is an increasing concern that exposure to extremely low-frequency (ELF) electromagnetic fields (EMFs) may cause or contribute to adverse health effects. To assess exposure to ELF EMFs, electric and magnetic field spot measurements were performed extensively at the workplace of a worldwide uninterruptible power supply (UPS) factory. The measurements were carried out in order to get the electric and magnetic field exposure results in real working situations in test areas, production lines and power substations. The electric and magnetic fields reached up to 992.0 V m(-1) and 215.6 ?T in the test areas, respectively. The fields existed up to 26.7 V m(-1) and 7.6 ?T in the production lines. The field levels in the vicinity of the power substations did not exceed 165.5 V m(-1) and 65 ?T. The data presented are useful in determining the occupational exposure levels of UPS industry workers. The measurements are below the reference levels recommended by the guideline published in 2010 by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection and action levels of the directive adopted in 2013 by European Parliament and Council. PMID:24366245

Te?neli, N Berna; Te?neli, Ahmet Y

2014-12-01

286

Exposure-response analysis of risk of respiratory disease associated with occupational exposure to chrysotile asbestos.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate alternative models and estimate risk of mortality from lung cancer and asbestosis after occupational exposure to chrysotile asbestos. METHODS: Data were used from a recent update of a cohort mortality study of workers in a South Carolina textile factory. Alternative exposure-response models were evaluated with Poisson regression. A model designed to evaluate evidence of a threshold response was also fitted. Lifetime risks of lung cancer and asbestosis were estimated with an actuarial approach that accounts for competing causes of death. RESULTS: A highly significant exposure-response relation was found for both lung cancer and asbestosis. The exposure-response relation for lung cancer seemed to be linear on a multiplicative scale, which is consistent with previous analyses of lung cancer and exposure to asbestos. In contrast, the exposure-response relation for asbestosis seemed to be nonlinear on a multiplicative scale in this analysis. There was no significant evidence for a threshold in models of either the lung cancer or asbestosis. The excess lifetime risk for white men exposed for 45 years at the recently revised OSHA standard of 0.1 fibre/ml was predicted to be about 5/1000 for lung cancer, and 2/1000 for asbestosis. CONCLUSIONS: This study confirms the findings from previous investigations of a strong exposure-response relation between exposure to chrysotile asbestos and mortality from lung cancer, and asbestosis. The risk estimates for lung cancer derived from this analysis are higher than those derived from other populations exposed to chrysotile asbestos. Possible reasons for this discrepancy are discussed. PMID:9423577

Stayner, L; Smith, R; Bailer, J; Gilbert, S; Steenland, K; Dement, J; Brown, D; Lemen, R

1997-01-01

287

Renal cancer risk and occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and plastics  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate whether occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and certain plastic monomers increased renal cell carcinomas (RCC) risk. Methods Unconditional logistic regression was used to calculate RCC risk in relation to exposure. Results No association between RCC risk and having ever been occupationally exposed to any polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons or plastics was observed. Duration of exposure and average exposure also showed no association with risk. Suggestive positive associations between RCC risk and cumulative exposure to styrene (P-trend = 0.02) and acrylonitrile (P-trend = 0.06) were found. Cumulative exposure to petroleum/gasoline engine emissions was inversely associated with risk (P-trend = 0.02). Conclusions Results indicate a possible association between occupational styrene and acrylonitrile exposure and RCC risk. Additional studies are needed to replicate findings, as this is the first time these associations have been reported and they may be due to chance. PMID:21270648

Karami, Sara; Boffetta, Paolo; Brennan, Paul; Stewart, Patricia A.; Zaridze, David; Matveev, Vsevolod; Janout, Vladimir; Kollarova, Helena; Bencko, Vladimir; Navratilova, Marie; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonila; Mates, Dana; Gromiec, Jan P.; Sobotka, Roman; Chow, Wong-Ho; Rothman, Nathaniel; Moore, Lee E.

2011-01-01

288

Childhood nervous system tumors--an evaluation of the association with paternal occupational exposure to hydrocarbons  

SciTech Connect

Paternal occupational exposures to hydrocarbons have been associated with childhood nervous system cancer, but study results have not been consistent. This population-based case-control study was designed to examine this association using a large sample size to increase the precision of risk estimates. The birth certificates of 499 children who died in Texas from intracranial and spinal cord tumors were compared with 998 control certificates randomly selected from all Texas live births. Information on parental job title and industry at the time of birth was obtained from the birth certificates. No significant associations were identified for the dichotomized variable of all hydrocarbon-related occupations combined, as variously defined in previous studies, or for most of the specific jobs affiliated with exposures to hydrocarbons. Significant, relatively stable odds ratios (OR) were found for printers and graphics arts workers (OR = 4.5; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.4-14.7) and chemical and petroleum workers with high exposure levels (OR = 3.0; CI = 1.1-8.5). A discussion of the biases involved in this type of study design is presented.

Johnson, C.C.; Annegers, J.F.; Frankowski, R.F.; Spitz, M.R.; Buffler, P.A.

1987-10-01

289

An occupational exposure assessment of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofurans in firefighters.  

PubMed

Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) are unintentional byproducts of combustion and industrial processes. Firefighters face the risk of occupational exposure to PCDD/Fs. Congener-specific analyses of 17 PCDD/Fs were performed on 20 serum samples collected from firefighters and fire scene investigators, and four soot samples that had deposited on the surfaces of the fire helmets and were collected after the firefighters had fought fires. The PCDD/F concentrations on the helmets that were contaminated by being worn at the fire scenes were 63-285 times higher than those on a clean helmet. The median serum PCDD/F concentration of the 16 firefighters (12 pg WHO(2005)-TEQ g(-1)lipid) was not different from those of the males from the general Taiwanese population (9.4 pg WHO(2005)-TEQ g(-1) lipid). However, the median PCDD/F level in the four fire scene investigators (15 pg WHO(2005)-TEQ g(-1) lipid) was higher than those in the male from the general Taiwanese population (Mann-Whitney U test, p<0.01). Furthermore, the serum samples from the firefighters and fire scene investigators, and the soot samples from the fire scenes presented similarly distinctive PCDD/F profiles that had elevated proportions for 10 PCDF congeners. Limited data indicated that the fire scene investigators were occupationally exposed to PCDD/Fs at the fire scenes. We suggested that the firefighters were not occupationally exposed to PCDD/Fs at the fire scenes due to appropriate protection. However, the fire scene investigators may have had more occupational exposure to PCDD/Fs due to poor protection, and further research must be performed to confirm this. PMID:21458022

Hsu, Jing-Fang; Guo, How-Ran; Wang, Hsueh Wen; Liao, Chin-Kun; Liao, Pao-Chi

2011-05-01

290

Assessment of occupational exposures in a general population: comparison of different methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the relative merits of job specific questionnaires and various alternative assessment methods of occupational exposures often used in general population studies. METHODS: Subjects were participants in a hospital based case-control study of risk factors for male infertility. Estimates of exposure to organic solvents and chromium, based on job specific questionnaires, generic questionnaires, self reports of exposure, an

E. Tielemans; D. Heederik; A. Burdorf; R. vermeulen; H. Veulemans; H. Kromhout; K. Hartog

1999-01-01

291

Benzene and lead exposure assessment among occupational bus drivers in Bangkok traffic.  

PubMed

Four environmental and biological monitoring sites were strategically established to evaluate benzene and lead exposure assessment at various traffic zones of Bangkok Metropolitan Region(BMR). Biological measurement of 48 non air-conditioned, male bus drivers was carried to study the relationship between individual exposure levels and exposure biomarkers. The study group was further subdivided into four age groups(16-25, 26-35, 36-45 and 46-55 years old) to monitor the age-related exposure effects. A total of 12 unexposed persons were deliberately chosen as the control group. Measurement of unmetobolized benzene in blood and analysis of urinary tt-Muconic acid urine and urinary creatinine are recommended as biomarkers of benzene exposure. Measurement of lead in blood and urine is also recommended for the biological monitoring of lead exposure. During the monitoring period, benzene and lead levels at Yaowarat Road was C6H6: 42.46 +/- 3.88 microg/m3 , Pb: 0.29 +/- 0.03 microg/m3 and decreased to C6H6: 33.5 +/- 1.35 microg/m3, Pb: 0.13 +/- 0.01 microg/m3 at Phahonyothin Road. Significant difference was established between the nonsmoking exposed group and nonsmoking control group for blood benzene concentrations (P < 0.001, two-tailed, Mann-Whiteney U test). Strong correlations were also found between trans-trans-Muconic acid concentrations in post shift samples and atmospheric benzene concentrations. Similarly, good correlation between all of biomarkers and lead level in air is established from automobile emissions. The analysis revealed that among the occupational population in the urban sites, the driver groups were found to have the highest risk of benzene and lead exposures derived from automobile emission. PMID:14971454

Muttamara, S; Leong, Shing Tet; Arayasiri, M

2004-01-01

292

Risk of lymphatic or haematopoietic cancer mortality with occupational exposure to animals or the public  

PubMed Central

Background: Occupational exposure to animals or the public could result in exposure to infectious agents, which may play a role in the aetiology of lymphohaematopoietic (LH) cancers. Aims: To conduct a population based, case-control study of death certificate data from 1984 to 1998 in 24 US states in order to evaluate the risk of mortality from LH neoplasms associated with occupational exposure to animals or the public. Methods: Cases were selected as those with an underlying cause of death of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL, n = 72 589), Hodgkin's disease (HD, n = 5479), multiple myeloma (n = 35 857), or leukaemia (n = 68 598); 912 615 controls were randomly selected from all remaining deaths, frequency matched on age, sex, race, and geographic region. Results: Occupational exposure to animals was associated with modest increased risks of mortality from all four LH cancers; these associations varied by region. Occupational exposure to the public was associated with only negligible increased risk with LH cancer outcomes. Occupations involving animal exposure were predominantly agricultural, and the risks associated with employment in the livestock industry exceeded the corresponding risks associated with the crop industry for all outcomes except HD. Conclusions: Increased risks of NHL, HD, multiple myeloma, and leukaemia were associated with occupations that involved animal exposure. Regional differences in risk imply that the risks may be associated with exposure to specific livestock or farming practices. However, these associations may be confounded by other farming related exposures, such as pesticides. Because the use of death certificates to classify occupation may result in misclassification during aetiologically relevant time periods, these hypotheses should be further explored in studies with detailed information on lifetime occupation. PMID:16169919

Svec, M; Ward, M; Dosemeci, M; Checkoway, H; De Roos, A J

2005-01-01

293

Occupational exposure to cocaine involving crime lab personnel.  

PubMed

The possibility of exposure to cocaine as a result of analyzing it or handling material contaminated by it has been a major concern of laboratory personnel. Several different work environments and simulated situations were examined to assess the likelihood of this type of exposure occurring. Urine specimens were collected and evaluated for cocaine and benzoylecgonine using the Syva ETS System (EMIT). Each specimen was analyzed for the two substances using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Urine specimens of laboratory-management personnel not working with drug samples showed no trace of cocaine or benzoylecgonine. A urinary benzoylecgonine level of 227 ng/mL was found in the specimen from one narcotics criminalist who was working on a routine case of 2 kilos of cocaine hydrochloride in the Narcotics Laboratory. A maximal urinary benzoylecgonine concentration of 1570 ng/mL was determined in the urine specimen from one narcotics criminalist who was sampling a case containing 50 kilos of cocaine hydrochloride over a period of 3 h. Decreasing the levels of airborne cocaine dust appears to minimize the amount of cocaine absorbed by the criminalists. Gloves, face masks, and goggles prove to be effective in minimizing exposure. PMID:1506838

Le, S D; Taylor, R W; Vidal, D; Lovas, J J; Ting, E

1992-07-01

294

Occupational exposure to cytotoxic drugs in two UK oncology wards  

PubMed Central

Aims: To investigate the potential exposure to cytotoxic drugs of staff on two oncology wards in a large district, UK hospital under normal working conditions. Methods: Cytotoxic drug exposure was monitored in urine samples, surface wipes, and on disposable gloves by using a number of commonly used marker drugs, namely cyclophosphamide, ifosfamide, methotrexate, and the platino coordinated drugs. Questionnaire data on their work practices, potential exposure, use of protective personal equipment, and relevant training were collected from nursing, domestic, and clerical staff on two oncology wards. Results: The majority of staff were female with a mean age of 31 years. Roughly half of the staff studied were specifically trained nurses with an average of 3.5 years experience of administering cytotoxic drugs. No cytotoxic drug preparation or reconstitution was carried out on the wards. Disposable gloves, plastic armlets and aprons, but not eye protection, were invariably worn where there was potential exposure to cytotoxics. No cytotoxic drug was detected in any of the staff's urine samples. Isolated disposable latex gloves from nurses administering drugs showed some contamination, as did some surfaces within the wards' sluice rooms, but not in the ward areas where the drugs were stored and checked prior to administration. Conclusions: The risk management strategies in place, including use of personal protective equipment, staff training, and other organisational measures, have ensured that internal exposure is lower than the detection limits for the current biological monitoring methods. Levels of contamination appear significantly lower than earlier, non-UK published studies where different risk management strategies were in place and, in particular, ward staff may have been involved in some degree of cytotoxic drug reconstitution. PMID:12205233

Ziegler, E; Mason, H; Baxter, P

2002-01-01

295

Non-Occupational Exposure to Asbestos in Buildings: A Practical Risk Management Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current federal regulations do not address non-occupational exposure to asbestos. In the absence of such regulations, if asbestos-containing materials are present in a building, it is advisable to develop a management program to ensure that the inhalation risk to building occupants does not increase with time and that appropriate steps are taken during activities which have the potential to release

JEFFREY MARK PAULL; MORTON CORN; PETER S. J. LEES; PATRICK N. BREYSSE

1986-01-01

296

Interaction between tobacco smoking and occupational exposures in the causation of lung cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nature of the interaction between smoking and occupational exposure is controversial, in part because of lack of agreement on the definition of interaction and in part because of the scarcity of adequate epidemiologic data. Occupational investigators have assessed interaction primarily as a departure from an additive rather than from a multiplicative model of relative risks (or rate ratios). To

K. Steenland; M. Thun

1986-01-01

297

Cancer risk from occupational and environmental exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epidemiologic evidence on the relationship between polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and cancer is reviewed. High occupational exposure to PAHs occurs in several industries and occupations. Covered here are aluminum production, coal gasification, coke production, iron and steel foundries, tar distillation, shale oil extraction, wood impregnation, roofing, road paving, carbon black production, carbon electrode production, chimney sweeping, and calcium carbide production.

Paolo Boffetta; Nadia Jourenkova; Per Gustavsson

1997-01-01

298

Occupational exposure to pesticides and consequences on male semen and fertility: a review.  

PubMed

Exposure to pesticides affects many body organs including reproductive system. Disorder of the reproductive system leads to infertility and therefore has been in the center of attention within the recent decades. Pesticides are one of the compounds that might reduce the semen quality in the exposed workers according to current knowledge. Although many underlying mechanisms have been proposed, the mechanisms of action are not clarified yet. The object of the present review was to criticize all the results of studies which evaluated the pesticide effects on male reproductive system. Results indicate that semen changes are multifactorial in the workers exposed to pesticides as there are numerous factors affecting sperm quality in occupational exposures. Majority of pesticides including organophosphoruses affect the male reproductive system by mechanisms such as reduction of sperm density and motility, inhibition of spermatogenesis, reduction of testis weights, reduction of sperm counts, motility, viability and density, and inducing sperm DNA damage, and increasing abnormal sperm morphology. Reduced weight of testes, epididymis, seminal vesicle, and ventral prostate, seminiferous tubule degeneration, change in plasma levels of testosterone, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and luteinizing hormone (LH), decreased level and activity of the antioxidant enzymes in testes, and inhibited testicular steroidogenesis are other possible mechanisms. Moreover, DDT and its metabolites have estrogenic effects on males. Although effect of pesticides on sperm quality is undeniable, well-designed long-term studies are needed to elucidate all the possible affecting variables such as socioeconomic, cultural, nutritional, occupational, physical, and clinical characteristics alongside pesticides. PMID:24487096

Mehrpour, Omid; Karrari, Parissa; Zamani, Nasim; Tsatsakis, Aristides M; Abdollahi, Mohammad

2014-10-15

299

USE OF PHARMACOKINETIC MODELS TO ASSESS OCCUPATIONAL AND RESIDENTIAL PESTICIDE EXPOSURE  

EPA Science Inventory

Urinary biomarker measurements were analyzed using a dynamic pharmacokinetic model. The dynamic model provided the structure to link spot urine samples with corresponding exposure and absorbed dose. Data from both occupational and residential studies were analyzed. In the Agri...

300

Airborne isocyanate exposures in the collision repair industry and a comparison to occupational exposure limits.  

PubMed

Isocyanate exposure was evaluated in 33 spray painters from 25 Washington State autobody shops. Personal breathing zone samples (n = 228) were analyzed for isophorone diisocyanate (IPDI) monomer, 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI) monomer, IPDI polyisocyanate, and three polyisocyanate forms of HDI. The objective was to describe exposures to isocyanates while spray painting, compare them with short-term exposure limits (STELs), and describe the isocyanate composition in the samples. The composition of polyisocyanates (IPDI and HDI) in the samples varied greatly, with maximum amounts ranging from up to 58% for HDI biuret to 96% for HDI isocyanurate. There was a significant inverse relationship between the percentage composition of HDI isocyanurate to IPDI and to HDI uretdione. Two 15-min STELs were compared: (1) Oregon's Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OR-OSHA) STEL of 1000 ?g/m(3) for HDI polyisocyanate, and (2) the United Kingdom's Health and Safety Executive (UK-HSE) STEL of 70 ?g NCO/m(3) for all isocyanates. Eighty percent of samples containing HDI polyisocyanate exceeded the OR-OSHA STEL while 98% of samples exceeded the UK-HSE STEL. The majority of painters (67%) wore half-face air-purifying respirators while spray painting. Using the OR-OSHA and the UK-HSE STELs as benchmarks, 21% and 67% of painters, respectively, had at least one exposure that exceeded the respirator's OSHA-assigned protection factor. A critical review of the STELs revealed the following limitations: (1) the OR-OSHA STEL does not include all polyisocyanates, and (2) the UK-HSE STEL is derived from monomeric isocyanates, whereas the species present in typical spray coatings are polyisocyanates. In conclusion, the variable mixtures of isocyanates used by autobody painters suggest that an occupational exposure limit is required that includes all polyisocyanates. Despite the limitations of the STELs, we determined that a respirator with an assigned protection factor of 25 or greater is required to protect against isocyanate exposures during spray painting. Consequently, half-face air-purifying respirators, which are most commonly used and have an assigned protection factor of 10, do not afford adequate respiratory protection. PMID:22500941

Reeb-Whitaker, Carolyn; Whittaker, Stephen G; Ceballos, Diana M; Weiland, Elisa C; Flack, Sheila L; Fent, Kenneth W; Thomasen, Jennifer M; Trelles Gaines, Linda G; Nylander-French, Leena A

2012-01-01

301

Airborne Isocyanate Exposures in the Collision Repair Industry and a Comparison to Occupational Exposure Limits  

PubMed Central

Isocyanate exposure was evaluated in 33 spray painters from 25 Washington State autobody shops. Personal breathing zone samples (n = 228) were analyzed for isophorone diisocyanate (IPDI) monomer, 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI) monomer, IPDI polyisocyanate, and three polyisocyanate forms of HDI. The objective was to describe exposures to isocyanates while spray painting, compare them with short-term exposure limits (STELs), and describe the isocyanate composition in the samples. The composition of polyisocyanates (IPDI and HDI) in the samples varied greatly, with maximum amounts ranging from up to 58% for HDI biuret to 96% for HDI isocyanurate. There was a significant inverse relationship between the percentage composition of HDI isocyanurate to IPDI and to HDI uretdione. Two 15-min STELs were compared: (1) Oregon's Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OR-OSHA) STEL of 1000 ?g/m3 for HDI polyisocyanate, and (2) the United Kingdom's Health and Safety Executive (UK-HSE) STEL of 70 ?g NCO/m3 for all isocyanates. Eighty percent of samples containing HDI polyisocyanate exceeded the OR-OSHA STEL while 98% of samples exceeded the UKHSE STEL. The majority of painters (67%) wore half-face air-purifying respirators while spray painting. Using the OROSHA and the UK-HSE STELs as benchmarks, 21% and 67% of painters, respectively, had at least one exposure that exceeded the respirator's OSHA-assigned protection factor. A critical review of the STELs revealed the following limitations: (1) the OR-OSHA STEL does not include all polyisocyanates, and (2) the UK-HSE STEL is derived from monomeric isocyanates, whereas the species present in typical spray coatings are polyisocyanates. In conclusion, the variable mixtures of isocyanates used by autobody painters suggest that an occupational exposure limit is required that includes all polyisocyanates. Despite the limitations of the STELs, we determined that a respirator with an assigned protection factor of 25 or greater is required to protect against isocyanate exposures during spray painting. Consequently, half-face air-purifying respirators, which are most commonly used and have an assigned protection factor of 10, do not afford adequate respiratory protection. PMID:22500941

Reeb-Whitaker, Carolyn; Whittaker, Stephen G.; Ceballos, Diana M.; Weiland, Elisa C.; Flack, Sheila L.; Fent, Kenneth W.; Thomasen, Jennifer M.; Gaines, Linda G. Trelles; Nylander-French, Leena A.

2014-01-01

302

Determination of the accuracy of noise dosimeters used for the evaluation of occupational noise exposure  

E-print Network

DETERMINATION OF THE ACCURACY OF NOISE DOSIMETERS USED FOR THE EVALUATION OF OCCUPATIONAL NOISE EXPOSURE A Thesis by ROBF. RT DALTON ABEL, JR. Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM University in oartial fulfillment of...' the requirement for the degree of. MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1977 Ma. jor Subject: Industrial Hygiene DETERMINATION OF THE ACCURACY OF NOISE DOSIMETERS USED FOR THE EVALUATION OF OCCUPATIONAL NOISE EXPOSURE A Thesis by ROBERT DALTON ABEL, JR. Approved...

Abel, Robert Dalton

1977-01-01

303

Occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and lung cancer risk: a multicenter study in Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundLung cancer incidence in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) is among the highest in the world, and the role of occupational exposures has not been adequately studied in these countries.ObjectivesTo investigate the contribution of occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) to lung cancer in CEE.MethodsA case–control study was conducted in the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Romania, Russia and Slovakia,

Ann C Olsson; Joelle Fevotte; Tony Fletcher; Adrian Cassidy; Andrea t Mannetje; David Zaridze; Neonila Szeszenia-Dabrowska; Peter Rudnai; Jolanta Lissowska; Eleonora Fabianova; Dana Mates; Vladimir Bencko; Lenka Foretova; Vladimir Janout; Paul Brennan; Paolo Boffetta

2009-01-01

304

Beyond crosswalks: reliability of exposure assessment following automated coding of free-text job descriptions for occupational epidemiology.  

PubMed

Epidemiologists typically collect narrative descriptions of occupational histories because these are less prone than self-reported exposures to recall bias of exposure to a specific hazard. However, the task of coding these narratives can be daunting and prohibitively time-consuming in some settings. The aim of this manuscript is to evaluate the performance of a computer algorithm to translate the narrative description of occupational codes into standard classification of jobs (2010 Standard Occupational Classification) in an epidemiological context. The fundamental question we address is whether exposure assignment resulting from manual (presumed gold standard) coding of the narratives is materially different from that arising from the application of automated coding. We pursued our work through three motivating examples: assessment of physical demands in Women's Health Initiative observational study, evaluation of predictors of exposure to coal tar pitch volatiles in the US Occupational Safety and Health Administration's (OSHA) Integrated Management Information System, and assessment of exposure to agents known to cause occupational asthma in a pregnancy cohort. In these diverse settings, we demonstrate that automated coding of occupations results in assignment of exposures that are in reasonable agreement with results that can be obtained through manual coding. The correlation between physical demand scores based on manual and automated job classification schemes was reasonable (r = 0.5). The agreement between predictive probability of exceeding the OSHA's permissible exposure level for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, using coal tar pitch volatiles as a surrogate, based on manual and automated coding of jobs was modest (Kendall rank correlation = 0.29). In the case of binary assignment of exposure to asthmagens, we observed that fair to excellent agreement in classifications can be reached, depending on presence of ambiguity in assigned job classification (? = 0.5-0.8). Thus, the success of automated coding appears to depend on the setting and type of exposure that is being assessed. Our overall recommendation is that automated translation of short narrative descriptions of jobs for exposure assessment is feasible in some settings and essential for large cohorts, especially if combined with manual coding to both assess reliability of coding and to further refine the coding algorithm. PMID:24504175

Burstyn, Igor; Slutsky, Anton; Lee, Derrick G; Singer, Alison B; An, Yuan; Michael, Yvonne L

2014-05-01

305

Occupational exposures and asthma in 14,000 adults from the general population. Nicole Le Moual1  

E-print Network

Occupational exposures and asthma in 14,000 adults from the general population. Nicole Le Moual1 69 E-mail : lemoual@vjf.inserm.fr Keywords: asthma, occupational diseases, occupations, occupational study on the Genetics and Environment of Asthma; ECRHS, European Community Respiratory Health Survey

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

306

Occupation and occupational exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals in male breast cancer: a case-control study in Europe  

PubMed Central

Objectives Male breast cancer is a rare disease of largely unknown etiology. Besides genetic or hormone-related risk factors, a large number of environmental chemicals are suspected to play a role in breast cancer. The identification of occupations or occupational exposures associated with an increased incidence of breast cancer in men may help to identify mammary carcinogens in the environment. Methods Occupational risk factors of male breast cancer were investigated in a multi-centre case-control study conducted in 8 European countries, including 104 cases and 1901 controls. Lifetime work history was obtained during in-person interviews. Occupational exposures to endocrine disrupting chemicals (alkylphenolic compounds, phthalates, PCBs and dioxins) were assessed on a case-by-case basis from expert judgment. Results Male breast cancer incidence was more particularly increased in motor vehicle mechanics (OR=2.1, CI 1.0–4.4) with a dose-effect relationship with duration employment. It was also increased in paper makers and painters, and in workers in forestry and logging, health and social work, and manufacture of furniture. The odds ratio for exposure to alkylphenolic compounds above median was 3.8 (CI 1.5–9.5). This association persisted after adjustment for occupational exposures to other environmental estrogens. Conclusion These findings suggest that some environmental chemicals are possible mammary carcinogens. Gasoline, organic petroleum solvents or PAH can be suspected from the consistent elevated risk of male breast cancer observed in motor vehicle mechanics. Endocrine disruptors such as alkylphenolic compounds may play a role in breast cancer. PMID:20798010

Villeneuve, Sara; Cyr, Diane; Lynge, Elsebeth; Orsi, Laurent; Sabroe, Svend; Merletti, Franco; Gorini, Giuseppe; Morales-Suarez-Varela, Maria; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Baumgardt-Elms, Cornelia; Kaerlev, Linda; Eriksson, Mikael; Hardell, Lennart; Févotte, Joëlle; Guénel, Pascal

2010-01-01

307

Identifying pesticide use patterns among flower growers to assess occupational exposure to mixtures  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesExposure assessment to a single pesticide does not capture the complexity of the occupational exposure. Recently, pesticide use patterns analysis has emerged as an alternative to study these exposures. The aim of this study is to identify the pesticide use pattern among flower growers in Mexico participating in the study on the endocrine and reproductive effects associated with pesticide exposure.MethodsA

Astrid Schilmann; Marina Lacasaña; Julia Blanco-Muñoz; Clemente Aguilar-Garduño; Aarón Salinas-Rodríguez; Mario Flores-Aldana; Mariano E Cebrián

2009-01-01

308

Occupational exposure to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in wood dust  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sino-nasal cancer (SNC) represents approximately 3% of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology (ORL) cancers. Adenocarcinoma SNC is an acknowledged occupational disease affecting certain specialized workers such as joiners and cabinetmakers. The high proportion of woodworkers contracting a SNC, subjected to an estimated risk 50 to 100 times higher than that affecting the general population, has suggested various study paths to possible causes such as tannin in hardwood, formaldehyde in plywood and benzo(a)pyrene produced by wood when overheated by cutting tools. It is acknowledged that tannin does not cause cancer to workers exposed to tea dust. Apart from being an irritant, formaldehyde is also classified as carcinogenic. The path involving carcinogenic Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) emitted by overheated wood is attractive. In this study, we measured the particle size and PAHs content in dust emitted by the processing of wood in an experimental chamber, and in field situation. Quantification of 16 PAHs is carried out by capillary GC-ion trap Mass Spectrometric analysis (GC-MS). The materials tested are rough fir tree, oak, impregnated polyurethane (PU) oak. The wood dust contains carcinogenic PAHs at the level of ?g.g-1 or ppm. During sanding operations, the PU varnish-impregnated wood produces 100 times more PAHs in dust than the unfinished wood.

Huynh, C. K.; Schüpfer, P.; Boiteux, P.

2009-02-01

309

Conducting organizational-level occupational health interventions: What works?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in how organizational-level occupational health interventions aimed at improving psychosocial working conditions and employee health and well-being may be planned, implemented and evaluated. It has been claimed that such interventions have the best chance of achieving a significant impact if they follow an intervention process that is structured and also includes

Karina Nielsen; Raymond Randall; Ann-Louise Holten; Eusebio Rial González

2010-01-01

310

Screening values for Non-Carcinogenic Hanford Waste Tank Vapor Chemicals that Lack Established Occupational Exposure Limits  

SciTech Connect

Over 1,500 different volatile chemicals have been reported in the headspaces of tanks used to store high-level radioactive waste at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site. Concern about potential exposure of tank farm workers to these chemicals has prompted efforts to evaluate their toxicity, identify chemicals that pose the greatest risk, and incorporate that information into the tank farms industrial hygiene worker protection program. Established occupation exposure limits for individual chemicals and petroleum hydrocarbon mixtures have been used elsewhere to evaluate about 900 of the chemicals. In this report headspace concentration screening values were established for the remaining 600 chemicals using available industrial hygiene and toxicological data. Screening values were intended to be more than an order of magnitude below concentrations that may cause adverse health effects in workers, assuming a 40-hour/week occupational exposure. Screening values were compared to the maximum reported headspace concentrations.

Poet, Torka S.; Mast, Terryl J.; Huckaby, James L.

2006-02-06

311

OSHA reduces permissible worker exposure level to formaldehyde  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Labor announced on November 20 that it is reducing permissible worker exposure to formaldehyde by two-thirds in a new final rule that will be published shortly. Health studies indicate that workers exposed to formaldehyde are at increased risk of contracting occupational illnesses. This new standard will eliminate significant risks of these decreases among workers through its sharp reduction of permissible exposure levels (PELs). The new standard lowers the PEL for formaldehyde at all work places covered by the OSH Act to one part per million parts of air (1 ppm) averaged over an eight hour workday from the current 3 ppm and establishes a short term exposure level (STEL) (i.e. exposure during any 15-minute period) of 2 ppm. OSHA also has adopted an action level of 0.5 ppm measured over eight hours. If work place exposures are maintained below the STEL and the action level, employers may discontinue required exposure monitoring, certain employee training, and parts of medical surveillance.

Not Available

1988-01-01

312

Occupational cancers with chemical exposure and their prevention in Korea: a literature review.  

PubMed

The usage and types of chemicals being developed, with diversified new exposure of workers, are of natural concern to occupational disease. In Korea, with industrialization, application of many chemicals has increased. A large proportion of mortality and disease is due to cancer, and the causal hazardous agents include chemical agents, like heavy metals and so on. Due to the long latency period with malignancies and the fact they are usually found after workers' retirement, it is suggested that management policies must be established to prevent occupational cancers occurring among workers in Korea. To give a general description about the efforts to prevent the occupational cancer with exposure to chemicals, articles on the trends of occupational cancers were reviewed and summarized with related research and efforts for prevention in Korea. It is important to improve the understanding of occupational cancer and help to maintain sustainable and appropriate measures to guarantee workers safety and health. PMID:23886117

Rim, Kyung-Taek

2013-01-01

313

UW Occupational Health Program Requisition Form for Pre-Exposure Services This form confirms the eligibility for the employee listed below to receive all preventive services checked.  

E-print Network

____________________________________ Employee Occupational Risks and Exposures Animal Contact exposure to vertebrate animals, animal tissues Police Department Noise (Work in Area of Excessive Noise) noise level defined by OSHA Patient Contact having physical or face-to-face contact with a patient, or having contact with potentially contaminated

Wisconsin at Madison, University of

314

UW Occupational Health Program Requisition Form for Pre-Exposure Services This form confirms the eligibility for the employee listed below to receive all preventive services checked.  

E-print Network

Occupational Risks and Exposures Animal Contact exposure to vertebrate animals, animal tissues, body fluids with the University Police Department Noise (Work in Area of Excessive Noise) noise level defined by OSHA Patient Contact having physical or face-to-face contact with a patient, or having contact with potentially

Wisconsin at Madison, University of

315

Father's occupational exposure to carcinogenic agents and childhood acute leukemia: a new method to assess exposure (a case-control study)  

PubMed Central

Background Medical research has not been able to establish whether a father's occupational exposures are associated with the development of acute leukemia (AL) in their offspring. The studies conducted have weaknesses that have generated a misclassification of such exposure. Occupations and exposures to substances associated with childhood cancer are not very frequently encountered in the general population; thus, the reported risks are both inconsistent and inaccurate. In this study, to assess exposure we used a new method, an exposure index, which took into consideration the industrial branch, specific position, use of protective equipment, substances at work, degree of contact with such substances, and time of exposure. This index allowed us to obtain a grade, which permitted the identification of individuals according to their level of exposure to known or potentially carcinogenic agents that are not necessarily specifically identified as risk factors for leukemia. The aim of this study was to determine the association between a father's occupational exposure to carcinogenic agents and the presence of AL in their offspring. Methods From 1999 to 2000, a case-control study was performed with 193 children who reside in Mexico City and had been diagnosed with AL. The initial sample-size calculation was 150 children per group, assessed with an expected odds ratio (OR) of three and a minimum exposure frequency of 15.8%. These children were matched by age, sex, and institution with 193 pediatric surgical patients at secondary-care hospitals. A questionnaire was used to determine each child's background and the characteristics of the father's occupation(s). In order to determine the level of exposure to carcinogenic agents, a previously validated exposure index (occupational exposure index, OEI) was used. The consistency and validity of the index were assessed by a questionnaire comparison, the sensory recognition of the work area, and an expert's opinion. Results The adjusted ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were 1.69 (0.98, 2.92) during the preconception period; 1.98 (1.13, 3.45) during the index pregnancy; 2.11 (1.17, 3.78) during breastfeeding period; 2.17 (1.28, 3.66) after birth; and 2.06 (1.24, 3.42) for global exposure. Conclusion This is the first study in which an OEI was used to assess a father's occupational exposure to carcinogenic agents as a risk factor for the development of childhood AL in his offspring. From our results, we conclude that children whose fathers have been exposed to a high level of carcinogenic agents seem to have a greater risk of developing acute leukemia. However, confounding factors cannot be disregarded due to an incomplete control for confounding. PMID:18194546

Perez-Saldivar, Maria Luisa; Ortega-Alvarez, Manuel Carlos; Fajardo-Gutierrez, Arturo; Bernaldez-Rios, Roberto; del Campo-Martinez, Maria de los Angeles; Medina-Sanson, Aurora; Palomo-Colli, Miguel Angel; Paredes-Aguilera, Rogelio; Martínez-Avalos, Armando; Borja-Aburto, Victor Hugo; Rodriguez-Rivera, Maria de Jesus; Vargas-Garcia, Victor Manuel; Zarco-Contreras, Jesus; Flores-Lujano, Janet; Mejia-Arangure, Juan Manuel

2008-01-01

316

Risk of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia following parental occupational exposure to extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields  

PubMed Central

Background: Earlier studies have reported moderate increases in the risk of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) among children whose mothers have been occupationally exposed to extremely low frequency (ELF) electromagnetic fields. Other studies examining parental occupational exposure to ELF and ALL have reported mixed results. Methods: In an Australian case–control study of ALL in children aged <15 years, parents were asked about tasks they undertook in each job. Exposure variables were created for any occupational exposure before the birth of the child, in jobs 2 years before birth, in jobs 1 year before birth and up to 1 year after birth. Results: In all, 379 case and 854 control mothers and 328 case and 748 control fathers completed an occupational history. Exposure to ELF in all time periods was similar in case and control mothers. There was no difference in exposure between case and control fathers. There was no association between maternal (odds ratio (OR)=0.96; 95% CI=0.74–1.25) or paternal (OR=0.78; 95% CI=0.56–1.09) exposure to ELF any time before the birth and risk of childhood ALL. Conclusion: We did not find an increased risk of ALL in offspring of parents with occupational exposure to ELF. PMID:21915123

Reid, A; Glass, D C; Bailey, H D; Milne, E; de Klerk, N H; Downie, P; Fritschi, L

2011-01-01

317

Exposure levels and determinants of inhalable dust exposure in bakeries.  

PubMed

The study's objectives were to measure full-shift exposure to inhalable dust in bakeries and define the determinants of full-shift exposure. Inhalable dust was measured gravimetrically. Ninety-six bakery workers, employed in seven different bakeries, participated in the study. Two side-by-side full-shift inhalable dust samples were obtained from each study participant on a single occasion. Samples were collected on 18 days selected at random. During the entire sampling period, bakers were observed and information on 14 different tasks was recorded at 15 min intervals. Other production characteristics were also recorded for each sampling day. These task and production variables were used in statistical modelling to identify significant predictors of exposure. The mean full-shift inhalable dust exposure was 8.2 mg/m3 (range: 0.1-110 mg/m3). A regression model explained 79% of the variability in exposure. The model indicated that tasks such as weighing, pouring and operating dough-brakers and reversible sheeters increased the exposure, while packing, catching and decorating decreased the exposure. Bread and bun production lines were associated with increased full-shift inhalable dust exposure, while cake production and substitution of dusting with the use of divider oil were associated with decreased exposure. Production tasks and characteristics are strong predictors of personal full-shift exposures to flour dust among bakers; these can be altered to reduce exposure levels. PMID:9375522

Burstyn, I; Teschke, K; Kennedy, S M

1997-12-01

318

Asthma following occupational exposure to Lycopodium clavatum in condom manufacturers.  

PubMed

Occupational asthma in two women employed in the manufacture of condoms is reported. The spores of Lycopodium clavatum, used as a rubber dusting agent, were identified as the causative agent. PMID:8153931

Cullinan, P; Cannon, J; Sheril, D; Newman Taylor, A

1993-07-01

319

Asthma following occupational exposure to Lycopodium clavatum in condom manufacturers.  

PubMed Central

Occupational asthma in two women employed in the manufacture of condoms is reported. The spores of Lycopodium clavatum, used as a rubber dusting agent, were identified as the causative agent. PMID:8153931

Cullinan, P; Cannon, J; Sheril, D; Newman Taylor, A

1993-01-01

320

Exploring lifetime occupational exposure and SLE flare: a patient-focussed pilot study  

PubMed Central

Introduction Environmental effectors, such as ultraviolet radiation exposure, infection and stress, have been established as having a role in exacerbating lupus symptoms. However, unpredictable patterns of flare events still remain a mystery. Occupational effectors have also been suggested as having a contributing role; however, they are not widely researched. In this paper we report a pilot study designed to generate focus areas for future research regarding occupational exposures and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Methods The study explored potential links between exposures and the occurrence of patient-reported flare events in 80 Australian women with SLE (American College of Rheumatology (ACR) criteria classified). Specifically, the study assessed the hypothesis that occupational exposure is associated with significant changes in the likelihood of lupus flares. Lifetime employment history was analysed with the Finnish Job Exposure Matrix (FINJEM), 40 different semiquantified exposure class estimates for a wide number of occupations based on probability of exposure (p?5%=exposed) were analysed with the construction of negative binomial regression models to test relationships between occupational agents and flare days. A backward stepwise elimination was used to generate a parsimonious model. Results Significant associations were noted for exposure classes of manual handling burden, (p=0.02, incidence rate ratio (IRR) 1.01), Iron (p=0.00, IRR 1.37), wood dust (p=0.00, IRR 3.34) and asbestos (p=0.03, IRR 2.48). Conclusion Exposure assessment results indicated that occupations, such as nursing, with a high manual handling burden, posed increased risk to patients with SLE, however, the greatest risk was associated with wood dust and iron exposure with teachers and specialist labourers. PMID:25379190

Squance, Marline L; Guest, Maya; Reeves, Glenn; Attia, John; Bridgman, Howard

2014-01-01

321

Cancer of the mouth and pharynx, occupation and exposure to chemical agents in Finland [in 1971-95].  

PubMed

The objective of this article was to find associations between cancer of the mouth and pharynx, occupation and chemical exposure. A cohort of Finns born between 1906 and 1945 was followed-up for 46.8 (21.5 in males and 25.3 in females) million person-years during 1971-95. Incident cases of cancer of the mouth and pharynx (n = 2,708) were identified in a record linkage with the Finnish Cancer Registry. The Census occupations in 1970 were converted to chemical exposures with a job-exposure matrix (FINJEM). Cumulative exposure (CE) was calculated as the product of prevalence, level and duration of the exposure. Standardized incidence ratio (SIR) was calculated for each of the 393 occupations, and for CE categories of the 43 chemical agents, using total Finnish population as reference. Relative risks (RR) comparing various CE-categories with unexposed ones were defined for selected agents by Poisson regression analysis. Elevated SIRs were observed among lawyers, authors, journalists, performing artists, musicians, electronics and telefitters, painters (building), building hands, dockers, unskilled labourers and hotel porters in males and private secretaries, dressmakers, shoemakers and cobblers, waiters, pursers and stewardesses in females. The multivariate analyses showed high RRs for high exposure to aliphatic and alicyclic hydrocarbons, pesticides and alcohol. In conclusion, occupations with high SIRs were mostly the ones with high consumption of alcohol. Exposure to solvents and possibly to pesticides, engine exhaust, textile dust and leather dust may increase the risk of cancer of mouth and pharynx. PMID:18470913

Tarvainen, Laura; Kyyrönen, Pentti; Kauppinen, Timo; Pukkala, Eero

2008-08-01

322

Prevalence and pattern of occupational exposure to hand transmitted vibration in Great Britain: findings from a national survey  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES—To estimate the number of workers in Great Britain with significant occupational exposure to hand transmitted vibration (HTV). Also, to identify the occupations and industries where such exposures arise, and the main sources of exposure.?METHODS—A questionnaire was posted to 22 194 men and women aged 16-64, comprising 21 201 subjects selected at random from the age-sex registers of 34 general practices in England, Scotland, and Wales, and a further 993 subjects selected at random from the central pay registers of the three armed services. Among other things, the questionnaire asked about exposure to sources of HTV in current and earlier employment. Responses were assessed by occupation and industry, and prevalence estimates for the country as a whole were derived from census information on occupational and industrial populations nationally. Estimates were also made in exposed workers of the average daily dose of vibration (A(8) root mean squared (rms) for the past week, based on their reported sources and durations of exposure.?RESULTS—Usable questionnaires were returned by 12 907 subjects (overall response rate 58%). From these it was estimated that some 4.2 million men and 667 000 women in Great Britain are exposed to HTV at work in a 1 week period, and that personal daily exposures to vibration exceed a suggested action level equivalent to 2.8 ms-2 for 8 hours (A(8) >2.8 ms-2 rms) in at least 1.2 million men and 44 000 women. High estimated doses (A(8) >5 ms-2 rms) arose most often in bricklayers and masons, gardeners and groundsmen, carpenters and joiners, electricians and electrical maintenance fitters, and builders and building contractors. The industries where high A(8) values most often arose were construction, motor vehicle repair and maintenance, manufacture of basic metals, and agriculture. The most common sources of exposure were hammer drills, hand held portable grinders, and jigsaws.?CONCLUSIONS—Exposure to HTV is surprisingly prevalent, and preventive measures and health surveillance may be warranted for many men in Britain. Control strategies should focus on prevention at source, with priority accorded to the common sources of exposure and the occupations in which significant exposures tend to arise. Many vibratory tools that are common in Britain have been overlooked in previous surveys, highlighting an important focus for future research.???Keywords: hand transmitted vibration; population; prevalence; exposure PMID:10810107

Palmer, K.; Griffin, M.; Bendall, H.; Pannett, B.; Coggon, D.

2000-01-01

323

Lung-Retained Dose Following Occupational Exposure to Silica  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forty-two men with cancer at varying sites were rated prospectively from interviews for lifetime exposures to crystalline free silica. Information was obtained on concentration, frequency, and reliability of exposure information, as well as smoking, duration of exposure, and clearance time. Fifteen men had silica exposure; all were smokers. Other subjects served as smoking (N = 16) and nonsmoking (N =

Bruce W. Case; André Dufresne; Lesley Richardson; Jack Siemiatycki; Ken Takahashi

1995-01-01

324

Short latency visual evoked potentials in occupational exposure to organic solvents * 1 * Supported by the Israeli Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs, Committee for Preventative Action in Work Safety and Health  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. Short latency visual evoked potentials (SVEP), in response to high-intensity flashes from light emitting diodes (LED), were used to detect subclinical effects along the visual pathway in four groups of subjects with different levels of exposure to gasoline, all within legally acceptable limits. Methods. Potentials and exposure levels were obtained from 31 subjects with different occupational exposure levels to

H Pratt; N Karim; N Bleich; N Mittelman

2000-01-01

325

The effect of censoring on cancer risk estimates based on the Canadian National Dose Registry of occupational radiation exposure.  

PubMed

Cohort studies represent an important epidemiological tool for exploring the potential adverse health effects of low-dose exposure to ionizing radiation in the workplace. Analyses of data from the National Dose Registry of Canada have suggested that occupational radiation exposure leads to increased risk of several specific types of cancer, as well as increased overall risk of cancer. An important aspect of such studies is the censoring in recorded exposures induced by dosimetry detection limits. Such a censoring effect can lead to significant underestimation of cumulative doses which, in turn, can result in overestimation of the excess cancer risk associated with occupational radiation exposure. In this article, we present analytic results, supported by a simulation study, on the magnitude of overestimation of risk based on the additive relative risk model used in the analysis of the NDR data that can occur due to censoring. Our results indicate that overestimation of risk is modest, being less than 20% in all situations considered here. Because censoring also results in ovestimation of the precision of the risk estimates, the significance levels of Wald-type statistical tests for increased risk based on the ratio of the estimate to its standard error are virtually unaffected by censoring. These results suggest that although the application of the additive excess relative risk model in the presence of censoring may lead to some overestimation of risk, the model does not lead to invalid conclusions regarding the association between occupational radiation exposure and cancer risk based on data from the NDR. PMID:15592443

Shin, Hwashin; Ramsay, Timothy; Krewski, Daniel; Zielinski, Jan M

2005-09-01

326

Parental occupational pesticide exposure and the risk of childhood leukemia in the offspring: findings from the childhood leukemia international consortium.  

PubMed

Maternal occupational pesticide exposure during pregnancy and/or paternal occupational pesticide exposure around conception have been suggested to increase risk of leukemia in the offspring. With a view to providing insight in this area we pooled individual level data from 13 case-control studies participating in the Childhood Leukemia International Consortium (CLIC). Occupational data were harmonized to a compatible format. Pooled individual analyses were undertaken using unconditional logistic regression. Using exposure data from mothers of 8,236 cases, and 14,850 controls, and from fathers of 8,169 cases and 14,201 controls the odds ratio (OR) for maternal exposure during pregnancy and the risk of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) was 1.01 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.78, 1.30] and for paternal exposure around conception 1.20 (95% 1.06, 1.38). For acute myeloid leukemia (AML), the OR for maternal exposure during pregnancy was 1.94 (CI 1.19, 3.18) and for paternal exposure around conception 0.91 (CI 0.66, 1.24.) based on data from 1,329 case and 12,141 control mothers, and 1,231 case and 11,383 control fathers. Our finding of a significantly increased risk of AML in the offspring with maternal exposure to pesticides during pregnancy is consistent with previous reports. We also found a slight increase in risk of ALL with paternal exposure around conception which appeared to be more evident in children diagnosed at the age of 5 years or more and those with T cell ALL which raises interesting questions on possible mechanisms. PMID:24700406

Bailey, Helen D; Fritschi, Lin; Infante-Rivard, Claire; Glass, Deborah C; Miligi, Lucia; Dockerty, John D; Lightfoot, Tracy; Clavel, Jacqueline; Roman, Eve; Spector, Logan G; Kaatsch, Peter; Metayer, Catherine; Magnani, Corrado; Milne, Elizabeth; Polychronopoulou, Sophia; Simpson, Jill; Rudant, Jérémie; Sidi, Vasiliki; Rondelli, Roberto; Orsi, Laurent; Kang, Alice Y; Petridou, Eleni; Schüz, Joachim

2014-11-01

327

Occupational exposure and defects of the central nervous system in offspring: review.  

PubMed Central

A study of published work was carried out in a search for evidence of a causal role for parental occupational exposure in the origin of structural and functional defects of the central nervous system (CNS) in children. Studies that consider this topic are scarce and mostly refer to broad categories of exposures and effects. Non-occupational studies referring to environmental exposure of humans and studies on experimental animals were also reviewed. The studies on animals provided straightforward evidence about morphological and behavioural abnormalities resulting from some agents used occupationally. The studies on humans yielded a scala of defects that could be ascribed to exposure to high doses of various agents in the environment. Evidence for a causal role of occupational exposure has not been found, but a highly probable influence on the developing CNS is hypothesised for lead, methyl mercury, and ionising radiation. Parental occupational exposure to cadmium, organic solvents, anaesthetics, and pesticides may also play a part in causing defects of the CNS. Well designed future research is needed to test the above hypotheses. PMID:2207028

Roeleveld, N; Zielhuis, G A; Gabreëls, F

1990-01-01

328

Occupational Electromagnetic Field Exposures Associated with Sleep Quality: A Cross-Sectional Study  

PubMed Central

Background Exposure to electromagnetic field (EMF) emitted by mobile phone and other machineries concerns half the world’s population and raises the problem of their impact on human health. The present study aims to explore the effects of electromagnetic field exposures on sleep quality and sleep duration among workers from electric power plant. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in an electric power plant of Zhejiang Province, China. A total of 854 participants were included in the final analysis. The detailed information of participants was obtained by trained investigators using a structured questionnaire, which including socio-demographic characteristics, lifestyle variables, sleep variables and electromagnetic exposures. Physical examination and venous blood collection were also carried out for every study subject. Results After grouping daily occupational electromagnetic exposure into three categories, subjects with long daily exposure time had a significantly higher risk of poor sleep quality in comparison to those with short daily exposure time. The adjusted odds ratios were 1.68 (95%CI: 1.18, 2.39) and 1.57 (95%CI: 1.10, 2.24) across tertiles. Additionally, among the subjects with long-term occupational exposure, the longer daily occupational exposure time apparently increased the risk of poor sleep quality (OR (95%CI): 2.12 (1.23?3.66) in the second tertile; 1.83 (1.07?3.15) in the third tertile). There was no significant association of long-term occupational exposure duration, monthly electric fee or years of mobile-phone use with sleep quality or sleep duration. Conclusions The findings showed that daily occupational EMF exposure was positively associated with poor sleep quality. It implies EMF exposure may damage human sleep quality rather than sleep duration. PMID:25340654

Liu, Hui; Chen, Guangdi; Pan, Yifeng; Chen, Zexin; Jin, Wen; Sun, Chuan; Chen, Chunjing; Dong, Xuanjun; Chen, Kun; Xu, Zhengping; Zhang, Shanchun; Yu, Yunxian

2014-01-01

329

Elemental Carbon-Based Method for Monitoring Occupational Exposures to Particulate Diesel Exhaust  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diesel exhaust has been classified a probable human carcinogen, and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) has recommended that employers reduce workers' exposures. Because diesel exhaust is a chemically complex mixture containing thousands of compounds, some measure of exposure must be selected. Previously used methods involving gravimetry or analysis of the soluble organic fraction of diesel soot

M. E. Birch; R. A. Cary

1996-01-01

330

A Synthetic Vitreous Fiber (SVF) Occupational Exposure Database: Implementing the SVF Health and Safety Partnership Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Health and Safety Partnership Program is a voluntary workplace safety program for workers involved in the manufacture, fabrication, installation, and removal of glass wool and mineral wool products. This article describes one element of this Partnership Program, the development of an occupational exposure database that characterizes exposures by fiber type, industry sector, product type, and job description. Approximately 6000

Gary E. Marchant; Michael A. Amen; Christopher H. Bullock; Charles M. Carter; Kathleen A. Johnson; Janis W. Reynolds; Francis R. Connelly; Angus E. Crane

2002-01-01

331

Workshop report: strategies for setting occupational exposure limits for engineered nanomaterials.  

PubMed

Occupational exposure limits (OELs) are important tools for managing worker exposures to chemicals; however, hazard data for many engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) are insufficient for deriving OELs by traditional methods. Technical challenges and questions about how best to measure worker exposures to ENMs also pose barriers to implementing OELs. New varieties of ENMs are being developed and introduced into commerce at a rapid pace, further compounding the issue of OEL development for ENMs. A Workshop on Strategies for Setting Occupational Exposure Limits for Engineered Nanomaterials, held in September 2012, provided an opportunity for occupational health experts from various stakeholder groups to discuss possible alternative approaches for setting OELs for ENMs and issues related to their implementation. This report summarizes the workshop proceedings and findings, identifies areas for additional research, and suggests potential avenues for further progress on this important topic. PMID:24462629

Gordon, Steven C; Butala, John H; Carter, Janet M; Elder, Alison; Gordon, Terry; Gray, George; Sayre, Philip G; Schulte, Paul A; Tsai, Candace S; West, Jay

2014-04-01

332

Smoking and degree of occupational exposure: are internal analyses in cohort studies likely to be confounded by smoking status  

SciTech Connect

Occupational cohort studies are usually carried out without the benefit of information on smoking habits of cohort members. One common approach to avoid confounding bias related to smoking habits is to carry out an internal analysis, comparing workers with different degrees of occupational exposure. The premise behind this approach is that within a cohort there is unlikely to be correlation between degree of exposure and smoking habits. If this were untrue, smoking could confound the disease-exposure relationships. Our purpose was to verify the premise. The study sample consisted of 857 French-Canadian men born between 1910 and 1930, with 11 or fewer years of education, and interviewed around 1980 in the context of an occupational cancer case-control study. For each man we had information on smoking habits, job history, and a history of the chemicals he was exposed to in each of his jobs. We computed two indices of the dirtiness of workers' job histories: one based on the job titles held by the man and a second based on the degree of exposures to workplace substances. There was no correlation between these indices of job dirtiness and smoking history. We also examined the smoking-exposure relationship among the subsets of men who had been occupationally exposed to ten especially noticeable substances. Within the subsets, there was no indication of a consistent difference among the smoking subgroups in level or duration of exposure to these index substances. These findings do not support the view that nonsmokers sought out cleaner job environments than smokers; they imply that internal analyses of dose-response in cohort studies are unlikely to be seriously confounded by smoking habits.

Siemiatycki, J.; Wacholder, S.; Dewar, R.; Wald, L.; Begin, D.; Richardson, L.; Rosenman, K.; Gerin, M.

1988-01-01

333

Low level exposure to chemicals and immune system  

SciTech Connect

Industrialized countries are facing an increase of diseases attributable to an alteration of the immune system function, and concern is growing that this trend could be at least partially attributable to new and modified patterns of exposure to chemicals. Among chemicals matter of concern, pesticides can be included. The Authors have reviewed the existing evidence of pesticide immunotoxicity in humans, showing that existing data are inadequate to raise conclusions on the immunotoxic risk related to these compounds. The limits of existing studies are: poor knowledge on exposure levels, heterogeneity of the approach, and difficulty in giving a prognostic significance to the slight changes often observed. To overcome these limits, the Authors have proposed a tier approach, based on three steps: the first, addressed at pointing out a possible immunomodulation; the second, at refining the results and the third one, when needed, to finalize the study and to point out concordance with previous results. Studies should preferably be carried out through comparison of pre- and post-exposure findings in the same groups of subjects to be examined immediately after the end of the exposure. A simplification of the first step approach can be used by the occupational health physician and the occupational toxicologist. Conclusions on the prognostic significance of the slight changes often observed will be reached only by validating the hypothesis generated by field studies with an epidemiological approach. In this field, the most useful option is represented by longitudinal perspective studies.

Colosio, C. [International Centre for Pesticides and Health Risk Prevention of the Azienda Ospedaliera Luigi Sacco, Polo Universitario, Via Magenta 25, 20020 Busto Garolfo, Milan (Italy)]. E-mail: claudio.colosio@icps.it; Birindelli, S. [International Centre for Pesticides and Health Risk Prevention of the Azienda Ospedaliera Luigi Sacco, Polo Universitario, Via Magenta 25, 20020 Busto Garolfo, Milan (Italy); Corsini, E. [Laboratory of Toxicology, Department of Pharmacological Sciences, University of Milan, Milan (Italy); Galli, C.L. [Laboratory of Toxicology, Department of Pharmacological Sciences, University of Milan, Milan (Italy); Maroni, M. [International Centre for Pesticides and Health Risk Prevention of the Azienda Ospedaliera Luigi Sacco, Polo Universitario, Via Magenta 25, 20020 Busto Garolfo, Milan (Italy)

2005-09-01

334

Tinnitus and Other Auditory Problems – Occupational Noise Exposure below Risk Limits May Cause Inner Ear Dysfunction  

PubMed Central

The aim of the investigation was to study if dysfunctions associated to the cochlea or its regulatory system can be found, and possibly explain hearing problems in subjects with normal or near-normal audiograms. The design was a prospective study of subjects recruited from the general population. The included subjects were persons with auditory problems who had normal, or near-normal, pure tone hearing thresholds, who could be included in one of three subgroups: teachers, Education; people working with music, Music; and people with moderate or negligible noise exposure, Other. A fourth group included people with poorer pure tone hearing thresholds and a history of severe occupational noise, Industry. Ntotal?=?193. The following hearing tests were used: ? pure tone audiometry with Békésy technique, ? transient evoked otoacoustic emissions and distortion product otoacoustic emissions, without and with contralateral noise; ? psychoacoustical modulation transfer function, ? forward masking, ? speech recognition in noise, ? tinnitus matching. A questionnaire about occupations, noise exposure, stress/anxiety, muscular problems, medication, and heredity, was addressed to the participants. Forward masking results were significantly worse for Education and Industry than for the other groups, possibly associated to the inner hair cell area. Forward masking results were significantly correlated to louder matched tinnitus. For many subjects speech recognition in noise, left ear, did not increase in a normal way when the listening level was increased. Subjects hypersensitive to loud sound had significantly better speech recognition in noise at the lower test level than subjects not hypersensitive. Self-reported stress/anxiety was similar for all groups. In conclusion, hearing dysfunctions were found in subjects with tinnitus and other auditory problems, combined with normal or near-normal pure tone thresholds. The teachers, mostly regarded as a group exposed to noise below risk levels, had dysfunctions almost identical to those of the more exposed Industry group. PMID:24827149

Lindblad, Ann-Cathrine; Rosenhall, Ulf; Olofsson, Åke; Hagerman, Björn

2014-01-01

335

Assessment of occupational exposure in a population based case-control study: comparing postal questionnaires with personal interviews  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: In case-control studies, data collection on occupational exposures by means of personal interviews is usually costly and time consuming. As detailed semiquantitative information on exposure from these interviews often has to be dichotomised in the analyses due to the small numbers of exposed subjects, the question is raised whether simple postal questionnaires yield the same results for occupational exposure

B M Blatter; N Roeleveld; G A Zielhuis; A L Verbeek

1997-01-01

336

Assessment of Occupational Symptoms and Chemical Exposures for Nail Salon Technicians in Daegu City, Korea  

PubMed Central

Objectives This study aimed to evaluate occupational symptoms and chemical exposures of nail salon technicians. Methods Work-related symptoms of nail salon technicians in Daegu City were surveyed using a researcher-administered questionnaire, and responses were compared to those of non-exposed office workers as controls. Personal exposure level of airborne volatile organic compounds was also monitored using passive samplers. Results A total of 159 subjects in 120 salons were interviewed. Average work-shift concentrations of 13 chemicals were measured for 50 workers from 30 salons using personal passive samplers. The most frequently reported respiratory or neurologic symptoms by nail shop technicians compared to controls were nose irritation (odds ratio [OR], 54.0; confidence interval [CI], 21.6 to 134.8), followed by headache (OR, 9.3; CI, 4.7 to 18), and throat irritation (OR, 4.3; CI, 2.2 to 8.5). For eyes and skin, 92% of respondents complained eye irritation (OR, 13.1; CI, 5.7 to 30.1). In musculoskeletal symptoms, workers reported pain or discomfort in shoulders (OR, 20.3; CI, 7.7 to 54) and neck (OR, 19.7; CI, 8.9 to 43.6). From personal measurements, the proportion of exceeding the Korean Occupational Exposure Limit was the highest for acetone with 64%, followed by toluene (50%), butyl acetate (46%), and methyl methacrylate (12%). However, the service was being provided without a proper ventilation system in most surveyed shops. Conclusions Based on these findings, it is warranted to have appropriate local exhaust ventilation place to ensure adequate health protection of nail shop technicians as well as customers. At the same time, greater policy interests are warranted in nail care business to protect health of both workers and customers. PMID:24921020

Park, Sung-Ae; Gwak, Sugyeong

2014-01-01

337

Occupational exposure to beryllium in primary aluminium production.  

PubMed

Alumina used in the production of primary aluminium contains Be which partly vaporises from the cryolite bath into the workroom atmosphere. Since Be may be toxic at lower exposure levels than previously thought, the personal exposure to Be among workers in 7 Norwegian primary smelters has been assessed. In total, 480 personal Respicon® virtual impactor full shift air samples have been collected during 2 sampling campaigns and analysed for water soluble Be, Al and Na using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. In addition, water soluble F(-) has been measured by ion chromatography. The Be air concentrations in the inhalable, thoracic and respirable aerosol fractions have been calculated. The Be concentrations in the inhalable aerosol fraction vary between the different smelters. The highest GM concentration of Be in the inhalable fraction (122 ng m(-3), n = 30) was measured in the prebake pot room of a smelter using predominantly Jamaican alumina where also the highest individual air concentration of 270 ng m(-3) of Be was identified. The relative distribution of Be in the different aerosol fractions was fairly constant with the mean Be amount for the two sampling campaigns between 44-49% in the thoracic fraction expressed as % of the inhalable amount. Linear regression analysis shows a high correlation between water soluble Be, Al, F and Na describing an average measured chemical bulk composition of the water soluble thoracic fraction as Na(5.7)Al(3.1)F(18). Be is likely to be present as traces in this particulate matter by replacing Al atoms in the condensed fluorides and/or as a major element in a nanoparticle sized fluoride. Thus, the major amount of Be present in the work room atmosphere of Al smelter pot rooms will predominantly be present in combination with substantial amounts of water soluble Al, F and Na. PMID:21993554

Skaugset, Nils Petter; Ellingsen, Dag G; Dahl, Kari; Martinsen, Ivar; Jordbekken, Lars; Drabløs, Per Arne; Thomassen, Yngvar

2012-02-01

338

Criteria for a recommended standard. Occupational exposure to respirable coal mine dust  

SciTech Connect

Information regarding adverse health effects resulting from exposure to respirable coal mine dust was reviewed as a basis for the development of new occupational safety and health standards. Evidence indicated that coal mine dust exposures over a working lifetime may result in the development of simple coal workers` pneumonocoiosis, progressive massive fibrosis, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Recommendations are provided concerning respirable coal mine dust sampling to monitor worker exposure, the proper use of personal protective equipment, and medical screening and surveillance examinations.

NONE

1995-09-01

339

61 FR 66348 - Health Standards for Occupational Noise Exposure  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...the report, ``Preventing Illness and Injury in the Workplace...Assessment (1985) found that health professionals rank engineering...by an applicable mandatory health or safety standard promulgated...being thus exposed of the corrective action being taken. Many...Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA...Assessment, ``Preventing Illness and......

1996-12-17

340

Neuropsychological Effects of Low-Level Manganese Exposure in Welders  

PubMed Central

While the neuropsychological effects of high manganese (Mn) exposure in occupational settings are well known, the effects of lower levels of exposure are less understood. In this study, we investigated the neuropsychological effects of lower level occupational Mn exposure in 46 male welders (mean age = 37.4, sd = 11.7 years). Each welders’ cumulative Mn exposure indices (Mn-CEI) for the past 12 months and total work history Mn exposure were constructed based on air Mn measurements and work histories. The association between these exposure indices and performance on cognitive, motor control, and psychological tests was examined. In addition, among a subset of welders (n=24) who completed the tests both before and after a work shift, we examined the association between cross-shift Mn exposure assessed from personal monitoring and acute changes in test scores. Mn exposures in this study (median = 12.9 ?g/m3) were much lower, as compared to those observed in other similar studies. Increasing total Mn-CEI was significantly associated with slower reaction time on the continuous performance test (CPT; p<0.01), as well as worse mood for several scales on the Profile of Mood States (POMS; confused, tired, and a composite of tired and energetic, all p?0.03). Increasing Mn-CEI over the previous 12 months was significantly associated with worse mood on the sad, tense, and confused POMS scales (all p?0.03) and the association with worse CPT performance approached significance (p=0.10). Higher Mn exposure over the course of a workday was associated with worse performance on the CPT test across the day (p=0.06) as well as declines in fine motor control over the work-shift (p=0.04), adjusting for age and time between the 2 tests. Our study suggests that even at relatively low Mn exposure levels neuropsychological effects may manifest particularly with respect to attention, mood, and fine motor control. PMID:21192973

Laohaudomchok, Wisanti; Lin, Xihong; Herrick, Robert F.; Fang, Shona C.; Cavallari, Jennifer M.; Shrairman, Ruth; Landau, Alexander; Christiani, David C.; Weisskopf, Marc G.

2011-01-01

341

Gene expression analysis in Mayak workers with prolonged occupational radiation exposure.  

PubMed

The authors evaluated gene expression in the peripheral blood in relation to occupational exposure in Mayak workers to find out about the existence of a permanent post exposure signature. Workers were exposed to combined incorporated ²³?Pu and external gamma rays (n = 82) or to external gamma rays only (n = 18), and 50 unexposed individuals served as controls. Peripheral blood was taken from workers older than 70 y. RNA was isolated, converted into cDNA, and stored at -20°C. A two-stage study design was performed focusing on examinations on the transcriptional (mRNA) and post-transcriptional level (microRNA). In the first stage, 40 samples were identified for screening purposes and selection of candidate genes. For examinations on the transcriptional level, whole genome microarrays and qRT-PCR were employed on the post-transcriptional level (667 microRNAs). Candidate genes were assessed by (1) introducing a twofold difference in gene expression over the reference group and (2) showing a significant p-value using the Kruskal-Wallis test. From 42,545 transcripts of the whole genome microarray, 376 candidate genes (80 up-regulated and 296 down-regulated relative to the reference group) were selected. Expression of almost all of these genes (70-98%) appeared significantly associated with internal ²³?Pu and to a lesser extent were associated with external gamma-ray exposure (2-30%). Associations in the same direction were found for 45 microRNAs. Although both exposures led to modulations of different gene sets in different directions, the authors could detect no differences in gene set enrichment analysis. PMID:24776898

Abend, Michael; Azizova, Tamara; Müller, Kerstin; Dörr, Harald; Senf, Sven; Kreppel, Helmut; Rusinova, Galina; Glazkova, Irina; Vyazovskaya, Natalia; Schmidl, Daniel; Unger, Kristian; Meineke, Viktor

2014-06-01

342

Lead exposure: occupational health hazards. January 1978-February 1989 (Citations from the Life Sciences Collection data base). Report for January 1978-February 1989  

SciTech Connect

This bibliography contains citations concerning occupational exposure to lead and its health consequences. Foundry workers, orchard workers, mechanics, blue collar workers, and lumbermen are among the workers studied. Chronic effects of lead exposure on adults are presented along with assay methods for determining blood lead levels. Mortality studies of workers exposed to lead and other synergistic toxins are also cited. Lead exposure in infants and children is discussed in a separate bibliography. (Contains 187 citations fully indexed and including a title list.)

Not Available

1989-03-01

343

Creatinine and specific gravity normalization in biological monitoring of occupational exposures.  

PubMed

Reference values for the biological monitoring of occupational exposures are generally normalized on the basis of creatinine (CR) concentration or specific gravity (SG) to account for fluctuations in urine dilution. For instance, the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH(®)) uses a reference value of 1g/L for CR. The comparison of urinary concentrations of biomarkers between studies requires the adjustment of results based on a reference CR and/or SG value, although studies have suggested that age, sex, muscle mass, and time of the day can exert non-negligible influences on CR excretion, while SG appears to be less affected. The objective of this study was to propose reference values for urinary CR and SG based on the results of samples sent for analysis by occupational health practitioners to the laboratory of the Occupational Health and Safety Research Institute of Québec (IRSST). We analyzed a database containing 20,395 urinary sample results collected between 1985 and 2010. Linear mixed-effects models with worker as a random effect were used to estimate the influence of sex and collection period on urinary CR and SG. Median CR concentrations were 25-30% higher in men (1.6 g/L or 14.4 mmol/L) than in women (1.2 g/L or 10.2 mmol/L). Four percent of the samples for men and 12% for women were below the acceptable threshold for CR (4.4 mmol/L). For SG, 5% of samples for men and 12% for women were below the threshold of 1.010. The difference in SG levels between sexes was lower than for CR, with a median of 1.024 for men compared to 1.020 for women. Our results suggest that the normalization of reference values based on a standard CR value of 1 g/L as proposed by the ACGIH is a conservative approach. According to the literature, CR excretion is more influenced by physiological parameters than SG. We therefore suggest that correction based on SG should be favored in future studies involving the proposal of reference values for the biological monitoring of occupational exposures. PMID:25192246

Sauvé, Jean-François; Lévesque, Martine; Huard, Mélanie; Drolet, Daniel; Lavoué, Jérôme; Tardif, Robert; Truchon, Ginette

2015-01-01

344

Occupational exposures and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma: Canadian case-control study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The objective was to study the association between Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma (NHL) and occupational exposures related to long held occupations among males in six provinces of Canada. METHODS: A population based case-control study was conducted from 1991 to 1994. Males with newly diagnosed NHL (ICD-10) were stratified by province of residence and age group. A total of 513 incident cases

Chandima P Karunanayake; Helen H McDuffie; James A Dosman; John J Spinelli; Punam Pahwa

2008-01-01

345

Management of Occupational Exposure to Engineered Nanoparticles Through a Chance-Constrained Nonlinear Programming Approach  

PubMed Central

Critical environmental and human health concerns are associated with the rapidly growing fields of nanotechnology and manufactured nanomaterials (MNMs). The main risk arises from occupational exposure via chronic inhalation of nanoparticles. This research presents a chance-constrained nonlinear programming (CCNLP) optimization approach, which is developed to maximize the nanaomaterial production and minimize the risks of workplace exposure to MNMs. The CCNLP method integrates nonlinear programming (NLP) and chance-constrained programming (CCP), and handles uncertainties associated with both the nanomaterial production and workplace exposure control. The CCNLP method was examined through a single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) manufacturing process. The study results provide optimal production strategies and alternatives. It reveal that a high control measure guarantees that environmental health and safety (EHS) standards regulations are met, while a lower control level leads to increased risk of violating EHS regulations. The CCNLP optimization approach is a decision support tool for the optimization of the increasing MNMS manufacturing with workplace safety constraints under uncertainties. PMID:23531490

Chen, Zhi; Yuan, Yuan; Zhang, Shu-Shen; Chen, Yu; Yang, Feng-Lin

2013-01-01

346

Management of occupational exposure to engineered nanoparticles through a chance-constrained nonlinear programming approach.  

PubMed

Critical environmental and human health concerns are associated with the rapidly growing fields of nanotechnology and manufactured nanomaterials (MNMs). The main risk arises from occupational exposure via chronic inhalation of nanoparticles. This research presents a chance-constrained nonlinear programming (CCNLP) optimization approach, which is developed to maximize the nanaomaterial production and minimize the risks of workplace exposure to MNMs. The CCNLP method integrates nonlinear programming (NLP) and chance-constrained programming (CCP), and handles uncertainties associated with both the nanomaterial production and workplace exposure control. The CCNLP method was examined through a single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) manufacturing process. The study results provide optimal production strategies and alternatives. It reveal that a high control measure guarantees that environmental health and safety (EHS) standards regulations are met, while a lower control level leads to increased risk of violating EHS regulations. The CCNLP optimization approach is a decision support tool for the optimization of the increasing MNMS manufacturing with workplace safety constraints under uncertainties. PMID:23531490

Chen, Zhi; Yuan, Yuan; Zhang, Shu-Shen; Chen, Yu; Yang, Feng-Lin

2013-04-01

347

Simulating long-term occupational exposure to decabrominated diphenyl ether using C57BL/6 mice: Biodistribution and pathology.  

PubMed

Decabrominated biphenyl ether (BDE-209) is a fully brominated diphenyl ether compound used widely as an additive brominated flame retardant in a variety of consumer products. In recent years, BDE-209 has been reported to be abundant and persistent in the environment, and comparatively high burdens have been found in occupational environmental compartments and exposed individuals. In the present study, an animal model for simulating long-term occupational exposure to BDE-209 was set up. Female C57BL/6 mice (n=10) were intragastrically administered BDE-209 at a dose of 800mgkg(-1)bw at 2-d intervals for 2years with an internal blood level of approximately 200ngmL(-1), which was comparable to the high level of BDE-209 detected in the occupational population, and the biodistribution and biological effects were evaluated systematically. The results showed that large amounts of the chemical accumulated in most tissues, and the preferential organs were the ovary and uterus, liver and lung. Decreased survival was observed in the exposed mice. The subsequent pathological analysis revealed hepatomegaly in the exposed mice, accompanied by obvious histopathological changes in the liver, lung, brain, spleen, kidney and ovary. No neoplastic lesions were observed in this lifetime exposure study. Although the number of experimental mice was limited, our observations offer a comprehensive understanding of the chronic toxicology of BDE-209 after continuous high-dose exposure. PMID:25687576

Feng, Yan; Hu, Qingliang; Meng, Ge; Wu, Xiaomeng; Zeng, Weihong; Zhang, Xing; Yu, Yingxin; Wang, Yan

2015-06-01

348

Mental retardation and parental occupation: a study on the applicability of job exposure matrices.  

PubMed Central

In a case-referent study on mental retardation and parental occupation, the applicability of job exposure matrices for the identification of risk factors was evaluated. The parents of 306 mentally retarded children (cases) and 322 referents were interviewed about their occupational activities in the pregnancy period. Detailed occupational histories were obtained that were compared with exposures generated by two different job exposure matrices. The agreement between interview and matrices was low: the sensitivity ranged from 17.9% to 32.4% and the percentages of false positive exposures from 66.7% to 96.0%. By means of the interview, significantly increased odds ratios (ORs) were found for exposure of the mother in late pregnancy to radiation (OR = 9.3), mercury (OR = 8.7), organic solvents (OR = 1.7), hair cosmetics and dyes (OR = 3.7), paint (OR = 2.7), hexachlorophene/phenylphenol (OR = 3.1), antibiotics (OR = 2.9), and dust (OR = 2.2) and for working with copying machines (OR = 3.0) or in occupations with poor climatological circumstances and permanent contact with people. The last was confirmed by the British matrix (OR = 1.7). Otherwise, most of the mentioned associations were missed by the job exposure matrices. Therefore, these matrices were not considered to be applicable in this particular study, nor in most other reproductive epidemiological studies in view of their general properties and limitations. PMID:8217856

Roeleveld, N; Zielhuis, G A; Gabreëls, F

1993-01-01

349

Feasibility of determining Pu-239 environmental and occupational levels in urinary excretion by fission track analysis  

SciTech Connect

The results of bioassay programs for detecting human exposure to plutonium are currently playing a role that they were never intended or prepared to fulfill. With little resistance or support from the scientific community, the regulatory community established exposure limits for plutonium burdens based largely on imprecise inference of causes and effects; thus, to an extent, incomplete data and analysis formed the basis for most existing bioassay programs. At the time these early programs were developed, they were used only to determine the occupational exposure to radiation workers and populations unintentionally exposed to occupational levels during open air testing. The results from these programs are now used in litigation to determine cause, negligence and responsibility for health problems associated with the populations surrounding facilities that store, handle and process nuclear materials. As this role is beyond the scope of most bioassay programs` designs, concern for the use of existing bioassay programs in this manner is rising. It is imperative that defendable, scientifically-based, more sensitive techniques be researched and developed to measure the presence of Plutonium (Pu), which in turn can be used to establish and predict the health effects of a minimal Pu exposure. Currently, estimates to predict systemic deposition using urinalysis data are several times greater than the exposure levels measured by autopsy. The scientific research conducted in this study can serve to narrow this discrepancy and provide the regulatory community with a more reliable basis for establishing regulatory exposure limits and accurately predicting systemic deposition. Furthermore, this research and the continued development of more sophisticated detection techniques can serve to dispel general public concern over the possibility of radiation exposure from ongoing site remediation and closure efforts.

Krahenbuhl, M.P.; Seiger-Webster, C.M.; Henderson, C.L.; Smith, R.B. [and others

1997-03-01

350

High Pressure Air Jet in the Endoscopic Preparation Room: Risk of Noise Exposure on Occupational Health  

PubMed Central

After high-level disinfection of gastrointestinal endoscopes, they are hung to dry in order to prevent residual water droplets impact on patient health. To allow for quick drying and clinical reuse, some endoscopic units use a high pressure air jet (HPAJ) to remove the water droplets on the endoscopes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the excessive noise exposure with the use of HPAJ in endoscopic preparation room and to investigate the risk to occupational health. Noise assessment was taken during 7 automatic endoscopic reprocessors (AERs) and combined with/without HPAJ use over an 8-hour time-weighted average (TWA). Analytical procedures of the NIOSH and the ISO for noise-induced hearing loss were estimated to develop analytic models. The peak of the noise spectrum of combined HPAJ and 7 AERs was significantly higher than that of the 7 AERs alone (108.3 ± 1.36 versus 69.3 ± 3.93?dBA, P < 0.0001). The risk of hearing loss (HL?>?2.5?dB) was 2.15% at 90?dBA, 11.6% at 95?dBA, and 51.3% at 100?dBA. The odds ratio was 49.1 (95% CI: 11.9 to 203.6). The noise generated by the HPAJ to work over TWA seriously affected the occupational health and safety of those working in an endoscopic preparation room. PMID:25710009

Lu, Lung-Sheng; Wu, Cheng-Kun

2015-01-01

351

Occupational Exposure to High Molecular Weight Allergens and Lymphoma Risk Among Italian Adults  

PubMed Central

Objectives Exposure to high molecular weight (HMW) allergens that provoke immune reactivity through an immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated pathway has been associated with a decreased risk of B-cell lymphoma. The present analysis was conducted to assess the associations between occupational exposure to specific HMW allergens and the risk of B-cell, T-cell, and Hodgkin's lymphomas. Methods We analyzed data from 2290 incident lymphoma cases and 1771 population-based controls enrolled in a multi-center study of hematolymphopoietic malignancies conducted in Italy between 1991 and 1993. All cases were histologically or cytologically confirmed. Controls were frequency-matched to cases based on age, sex, and study center. An industrial hygienist evaluated HMW occupational exposure classifications after an asthma-specific job exposure matrix was applied to participants' job histories. Unconditional logistic regression was used to assess associations between occupational exposures that occurred ?10 years before the date of lymphoma diagnosis and B-cell, T-cell, and Hodgkin's lymphomas. Results Ten percent of cases and 11 percent of controls were occupationally exposed to HMW allergens. Exposed individuals had a decreased risk for all lymphomas combined (odds ratio (OR): 0.78, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.63, 0.97), particularly for B-cell lymphomas (OR: 0.75, 95% CI: 0.59, 0.94). The decreased risks for all lymphomas were also observed when HMW allergen exposure was limited to animal and latex allergens. Conclusions These findings support the hypothesis that occupational exposure to immunologically active HMW allergens is inversely associated with the risk for lymphoma. The effect of exposure to specific allergens warrants further assessment. PMID:19755650

Mirabelli, Maria C.; Zock, Jan-Paul; D'Errico, Angelo; Kogevinas, Manolis; de Sanjosé, Silvia; Miligi, Lucia; Costantini, Adele Seniori; Vineis, Paolo

2009-01-01

352

78 FR 56273 - Occupational Exposure to Respirable Crystalline Silica  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...constant exposure. Risk models employed in the quantitative assessment are based on a cumulative...predict the same risk for a given cumulative...reflecting a worker's long-term average exposure...the results of its risk assessment are broadly...

2013-09-12

353

Occupational exposure to carcinogens in the European Union  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVESTo construct a computer assisted information system for the estimation of the numbers of workers exposed to established and suspected human carcinogens in the member states of the European Union (EU).METHODSA database called CAREX (carcinogen exposure) was designed to provide selected exposure data and documented estimates of the number of workers exposed to carcinogens by country, carcinogen, and industry. CAREX

Timo Kauppinen; Jouni Toikkanen; David Pedersen; Randy Young; Wolfgang Ahrens; Paolo Boffetta; Johnni Hansen; Hans Kromhout; Jeronimo Maqueda Blasco; Dario Mirabelli; Victoria de la Orden-Rivera; Brian Pannett; Nils Plato; Anja Savela; Raymond Vincent; Manolis Kogevinas

2000-01-01

354

Analysis of Occupational Asbestos Exposure and Lung Cancer Mortality Using the G Formula  

PubMed Central

We employed the parametric G formula to analyze lung cancer mortality in a cohort of textile manufacturing workers who were occupationally exposed to asbestos in South Carolina. A total of 3,002 adults with a median age of 24 years at enrollment (58% male, 81% Caucasian) were followed for 117,471 person-years between 1940 and 2001, and 195 lung cancer deaths were observed. Chrysotile asbestos exposure was measured in fiber-years per milliliter of air, and annual occupational exposures were estimated on the basis of detailed work histories. Sixteen percent of person-years involved exposure to asbestos, with a median exposure of 3.30 fiber-years/mL among those exposed. Lung cancer mortality by age 90 years under the observed asbestos exposure was 9.44%. In comparison with observed asbestos exposure, if the facility had operated under the current Occupational Safety and Health Administration asbestos exposure standard of <0.1 fibers/mL, we estimate that the cohort would have experienced 24% less lung cancer mortality by age 90 years (mortality ratio = 0.76, 95% confidence interval: 0.62, 0.94). A further reduction in asbestos exposure to a standard of <0.05 fibers/mL was estimated to have resulted in a minimal additional reduction in lung cancer mortality by age 90 years (mortality ratio = 0.75, 95% confidence interval: 0.61, 0.92). PMID:23558355

Cole, Stephen R.; Richardson, David B.; Chu, Haitao; Naimi, Ashley I.

2013-01-01

355

Skeletal fluorosis from the point of view of an occupational exposure to fluorides in former Czechoslovakia  

PubMed Central

Electrolytic production of aluminium in former Czechoslovakia started in the year 1953 in the Žiar valley in the central Slovakia. However, till 1995 the hygienic conditions for health protection were not met in the factory. It underwent a reconstruction afterwards. The authors demonstrate cases of occupational skeletal fluorosis (currently rare in Europe) in 14 metallurgists which were all disclosed in foundry workers in Žiar nad Hronom as to the year 2005. The occupational disease was diagnosed after 17.7 ± 7.67 years (x±SD) of exposure in the foundry. The authors describe the clinical conditions, haematological and biochemical tests (decreased level of ionising calcium was found in serum). The content of fluorides in urine was increased (254.4±130.95 µmol/l). The average age of patients at the time of recognition of the professional etiology of the disease was 57.93±7.95 years. Eight patients were older than 60 years. Skeletal abnormalities were evaluated by using X-ray skiagraphy, estimating the Stage I–III of the skeletal fluorosis. Typically an increase of bone density was found, the compact part of long bones was coarsed, there were calcifications of the interosseous membrane between radius and ulna and some ossifications of the sacrospinal and sacrotuberous ligaments. Twelve patients suffered sensorimotor polyneuropathy of extremities, chronic bronchitis was found in 6 patients (two of them were smokers). The last occupational case was registered in the year 2001. The authors assume that aluminium production with modern technology of better safety and protection of health of workers is the key which will make the skeletal fluorosis the history in the Czech and Slovak Republic. PMID:21218112

Buchancová, Jana; Polá?ek, Hubert; Hude?ková, Henrieta; Murajda, Lukáš; Osina, Oto; Valachová, Jela

2008-01-01

356

Liver angiosarcoma and hemangiopericytoma after occupational exposure to vinyl chloride monomer.  

PubMed Central

Various malignant tumors of the liver, especially liver angiosarcoma, have been described after occupational exposure to vinyl chloride monomer. We present the case records and pathologic findings of two plastic industry workers who had been exposed to high concentrations of vinyl chloride. These workers developed hepatic neoplasms, angiosarcoma, or hemangiopericytoma. We discuss the histogenesis of these tumors; the common vascular origin and the mutual transformation of these two tumors suggest that the hemangiopericytoma may also have developed during occupational exposure to high concentrations of vinyl chloride monomer. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:10964802

Hozo, I; Miric, D; Bojic, L; Giunio, L; Lusic, I; Culic, V; Simunic, M

2000-01-01

357

Occupational exposure to asbestos during renovation of oil-shale fuelled power plants in Estonia.  

PubMed

Many thousands of tonnes of asbestos were used in buildings in the past, especially for thermal insulation of pipes and boilers in power plants. Occupational exposure to asbestos dust now mainly occurs during demolition, renovation and routine maintenance activities. The objective of this study was to evaluate occupational exposure to airborne asbestos during renovation of solid oil-shale fuelled power plants carried out in 2001-2003. Air monitoring inside and outside of the renovation area was performed. The concentration of airborne fibres in the working environment increased during renovation but the valid limit value (0.1 fibres/cm(3)) was not exceeded. PMID:17888242

Kangur, Maie

2007-01-01

358

A meta-analysis of occupational trichloroethylene exposure and liver cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  Findings from epidemiologic studies of trichloroethylene (TCE) exposure and liver cancer have been inconsistent. To quantitatively\\u000a evaluate this association and to examine sources of heterogeneity, we conducted a meta-analysis of occupational studies of\\u000a TCE exposure and liver\\/biliary tract cancer.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  We identified 14 occupational cohort studies of TCE exposed workers and one case-control study that met our inclusion criteria.\\u000a Nine studies

Dominik D. Alexander; Michael A. Kelsh; Pamela J. Mink; Jeffrey H. Mandel; Rupa Basu; Michal Weingart

2007-01-01

359

59 FR- Occupational Exposure to Asbestos; Final Rule DEPARTMENT OF LABOR  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...level of safety and health provided in market transactions...occupational safety and health, however, society...premature death, excess sickness, and disability. Individuals...occupationally related illness are cared for and compensated...means maintenance and custodial activities during which...ACM and PACM. Clean room means an......

1994-08-10

360

Occupational exposures and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma: Canadian case-control study  

PubMed Central

Background The objective was to study the association between Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma (NHL) and occupational exposures related to long held occupations among males in six provinces of Canada. Methods A population based case-control study was conducted from 1991 to 1994. Males with newly diagnosed NHL (ICD-10) were stratified by province of residence and age group. A total of 513 incident cases and 1506 population based controls were included in the analysis. Conditional logistic regression was conducted to fit statistical models. Results Based on conditional logistic regression modeling, the following factors independently increased the risk of NHL: farmer and machinist as long held occupations; constant exposure to diesel exhaust fumes; constant exposure to ionizing radiation (radium); and personal history of another cancer. Men who had worked for 20 years or more as farmer and machinist were the most likely to develop NHL. Conclusion An increased risk of developing NHL is associated with the following: long held occupations of faer and machinist; exposure to diesel fumes; and exposure to ionizing radiation (radium). The risk of NHL increased with the duration of employment as a farmer or machinist. PMID:18687133

Karunanayake, Chandima P; McDuffie, Helen H; Dosman, James A; Spinelli, John J; Pahwa, Punam

2008-01-01

361

An exploratory study of the effects of occupational exposure to physical demands on biomarkers of cartilage and muscle damage.  

PubMed

Biomarkers of tissue damage, derived from tissues commonly injured as a result of occupational physical demands, may be of use for future prediction of work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs). This exploratory study assessed whether selected biomarkers are likely to be sensitive to the level of occupational physical demands. Twenty-four participants were recruited to form two groups, with relatively high and low levels of WMSD risk. Serum levels of Cartilage Oligomeric Matrix Protein (COMP), Interleukin-6 (IL6), and Creatine Kinase (CK)--which respectively indicate cartilage damage, muscle use, and muscle damage--were obtained,. Six blood samples were obtained before and after work on Monday, Wednesday, and Friday of one working week. Additionally, a self-report measure of risk factor exposure, the Hollmann Index, was used to, and did, confirm group differences in WMSD risk. COMP levels varied significantly over time, but not between groups. IL6 levels were greater in the high-risk group at all time points and varied significantly over time and between groups. CK levels did not vary significantly over time or between groups. IL6 successfully differentiated between the high and low risk groups, suggesting potential use in the occupational domain. Prospective studies are needed, though, to associate biomarker levels/changes with WMSD risk. PMID:25559147

Christian, Marc; Nussbaum, Maury A

2015-01-01

362

Use of a job-exposure matrix to evaluate parental occupation and childhood cancer.  

PubMed

We examined the association between parental occupation and childhood cancer among 252 incident cases of childhood cancer (ages 0-14, diagnosed 1976-83) and 222 controls selected by random digit dialing in Denver, Colorado (USA). A job-exposure matrix was used to assign parental exposures based on job titles, emphasizing chemicals that were implicated in previous studies. All cancers, acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL), and brain cancer were examined in relation to parental occupation during the year prior to the birth of the child. Elevated odds ratios (OR), all with confidence intervals extending below the null, were found for maternal exposure to benzene (OR = 1.9), petroleum/coke pitch/tar (OR = 2.2), and soot (OR = 3.3) in relation to total cancers. The ORs for total cancer and paternal exposure to all hydrocarbons combined was 1.0. Results for individual hydrocarbons and ALL showed larger odds ratios, including aniline (OR = 2.1), benzene (OR = 1.6), and petroleum/coke pitch/tar (OR = 1.6). Potential exposure to creosote was strongly associated with brain cancer (OR = 3.7) based on five exposed cases (95 percent confidence interval = 0.8-16.6). Control for other potential childhood cancer risk factors did not alter the results substantially. In spite of uncertainties due to small numbers and errors in exposure classification, results tend to corroborate past research that suggests an association between specific parental occupational exposures and childhood cancer. PMID:1562706

Feingold, L; Savitz, D A; John, E M

1992-03-01

363

Occupational exposure of Sri Lankan tea plantation workers to paraquat.  

PubMed Central

Absorption of the herbicide paraquat (1,1'-dimethyl-4,4'-bipyridinium) by mixer-loaders and spray operators on a Sri Lankan tea plantation was assessed over five consecutive days of spraying. Beginning on the day before spraying started and continuing for each of the five spraying days and for seven days after the last day of spraying, 24-hour urine samples were collected from each of the workers. Potential dermal exposure was assessed during further applications of paraquat on the day after the last day of urine collection. For this purpose two spraying replicates were conducted that involved the handling or spraying of an amount of paraquat equivalent to the maximum used per day in the assessment of absorption. The mixer-loaders and spray operators incurred, on average, approximately equivalent amounts of potential dermal exposure (66 mg and 74 mg paraquat ion, resp.); however, the distribution of the exposure differed. About 86% of the total exposure experienced by the mixer-loaders was to the hands, whereas about 90% of the exposure of the spray operators involved their hands, legs, and feet, in approximately equal proportions. In both cases, 90% or more of the total potential exposure involved parts of the body that were normally uncovered. Despite the evidence of dermal exposure, no paraquat was detected in the workers' urine. This probably was due to the very low concentration of paraquat in the solutions used for spot spraying on tea plantations (0.3-0.4 g paraquat ion per litre), the high standard of personal hygiene exercised by the workers, and the low permeability of human skin to paraquat. PMID:8261566

Chester, G.; Gurunathan, G.; Jones, N.; Woollen, B. H.

1993-01-01

364

Issues in neurological risk assessment for occupational exposures: the Bay Bridge welders.  

PubMed

The goal of occupational risk assessment is often to estimate excess lifetime risk for some disabling or fatal health outcome in relation to a fixed workplace exposure lasting a working lifetime. For sub-chronic or sub-clinical health effects measured as continuous variables, the benchmark dose method can be applied, but poses issues in defining impairment and in specifying acceptable levels of excess risk. Such risks may also exhibit a dose-rate effect and partial reversibility such that effects depend on how the dose is distributed over time. Neurological deficits as measured by a variety of increasingly sensitive neurobehavioral tests represent one such outcome, and the development of a parkinsonian syndrome among welders exposed to manganese fume presents a specific instance. Welders employed in the construction of piers for a new San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge in San Francisco were previously evaluated using a broad spectrum of tests. Results for four of those tests (Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test, Working Memory Index, Stroop Color Word Test and Auditory Consonant Trigrams Test) were used in the benchmark dose procedure. Across the four outcomes analyzed, benchmark dose estimates were generally within a factor of 2.0, and decreased as the percentile of normal performance defining impairment increased. Estimated excess prevalence of impairment, defined as performance below the 5th percentile of normal, after 2 years of exposure at the current California standard (0.2 mg/m3, 8 h TWA), ranged 15-32% for the outcomes studied. Because these exposures occurred over a 1-2-year period, generalization to lifetime excess risk requires further consideration of the form of the exposure response and whether short-term responses can be generalized to equivalent 45-year period. These results indicate unacceptable risks at the current OSHA PEL for manganese (5.0 mg/m3, 15 min) and likely at the Cal OSHA PEL as well. PMID:16332392

Park, Robert M; Bowler, Rosemarie M; Eggerth, Donald E; Diamond, Emily; Spencer, Katie J; Smith, Donald; Gwiazda, Roberto

2006-05-01

365

Toward developing a new occupational exposure metric approach for characterization of diesel aerosols  

Microsoft Academic Search

The extensive use of diesel-powered equipment in mines makes the exposure to diesel aerosols a serious occupational issue. The exposure metric currently used in U.S. underground non-coal mines is based on the measurement of total carbon (TC) and elemental carbon (EC) mass concentration in the air. Recent toxicological evidence suggests that the measurement of mass concentration is not sufficient to

Emanuele G. Cauda; Bon Ki Ku; Arthur L. Miller; Teresa L. Barone

2012-01-01

366

Occupational Exposure to Pesticides and Risk of Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pesticide exposure may be a risk factor for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, but it is not certain which types of pesticides are involved. A population-based case-control study was undertaken in 2000-2001 using detailed methods of assessing occupational pesticide exposure. Cases with incident non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in two Australian states (n ¼ 694) and controls (n ¼ 694) were chosen from Australian electoral rolls.

L. Fritschi; G. Benke; A. M. Hughes; A. Kricker; J. Turner; C. M. Vajdic; A. Grulich; S. Milliken; J. Kaldor; B. K. Armstrong

2005-01-01

367

Physical occupational exposures during working life and quality of life after labour market exit: results from the GAZEL study  

E-print Network

Physical occupational exposures during working life and quality of life after labour market exit;Physical occupational exposures during working life and quality of life after labour market exit: results from the GAZEL study Objective: To investigatevariations in quality of life at older ages we take

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

368

Different types of malignancies due to occupational exposure to benzene: A review of recent observations in Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the first description of a case of leukemia due to occupational exposure to benzene, several types of malignancies following the use of this chemical agent have been reported: leukemia, malignant lymphoma, lung cancer, myeloid metaplasia, paroxysmal noctural hemoglobinuria, and multiple myeloma. The evidence suggesting a causal relationship between occupational exposure to benzene and development of the various types of

M. Aksoy

1980-01-01

369

Characterization of occupational exposures to cleaning products used for common cleaning tasks-a pilot study of hospital cleaners  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: In recent years, cleaning has been identified as an occupational risk because of an increased incidence of reported respiratory effects, such as asthma and asthma-like symptoms among cleaning workers. Due to the lack of systematic occupational hygiene analyses and workplace exposure data, it is not clear which cleaning-related exposures induce or aggravate asthma and other respiratory effects. Currently, there

Anila Bello; Margaret M Quinn; Melissa J Perry; Donald K Milton

2009-01-01

370

78 FR 45981 - Occupational Exposure to Noise Standard; Extension of the Office of Management and Budget's (OMB...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...OSHA-2010-0017] Occupational Exposure to Noise Standard; Extension of the Office of Management...specified in the Occupational Exposure to Noise Standard (29 CFR 1910.95). The information...collection requirements specified in the Noise Standard protect workers from...

2013-07-30

371

Occupational exposure to magnetic fields and electric shocks and risk of ALS: The Swiss National Cohort.  

PubMed

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) has been associated with exposures in so-called 'electrical occupations'. It is unclear if this possible link may be explained by exposure to extremely low-frequency magnetic fields (ELF-MF) or by electrical shocks. We evaluated ALS mortality in 2000-2008 and exposure to ELF-MF and electrical shocks in the Swiss National Cohort, using job exposure matrices for occupations at censuses 1990 and 2000. We compared 2.2 million workers with high or medium vs. low exposure to ELF-MF and electrical shocks using Cox proportional hazard models. Results showed that mortality from ALS was higher in people who had medium or high ELF-MF exposure in both censuses (HR 1.55 (95% CI 1.11-2.15)), but closer to unity for electrical shocks (HR 1.17 (95% CI 0.83-1.65)). When both exposures were included in the same model, the HR for ELF-MF changed little (HR 1.56), but the HR for electric shocks was attenuated to 0.97. In conclusion, there was an association between exposure to ELF-MF and mortality from ALS among workers with a higher likelihood of long-term exposure. PMID:25229273

Huss, Anke; Spoerri, Adrian; Egger, Matthias; Kromhout, Hans; Vermeulen, Roel

2015-03-01

372

Occupational Therapy (M.O.T.) Master's level: MOT, M.S., or M.A.  

E-print Network

Occupational Therapy (M.O.T.) Degree Master's level: MOT, M.S., or M.A. Doctoral level: OTD or Dr You will find links to all the occupational therapy schools in the United States, with their specific requirements and other valuable information, at the American Occupational Therapy Association website. You can

Pilyugin, Sergei S.

373

Mineral fiber content of lung tissue in patients with environmental exposures: household contacts vs building occupants  

SciTech Connect

Analysis of tissue mineral fiber content in patients with environmental exposures has seldom been reported in the past. Our studies of six household contacts of asbestos workers indicate that these individuals often have pulmonary asbestos concentrations similar to some occupationally exposed individuals. In contrast, our studies of four occupants of buildings with asbestos-containing materials indicate that these individuals often have pulmonary asbestos burdens indistinguishable from the general nonoccupationally exposed population. However, one such building occupant exposed for many years and who later developed pleural mesothelioma was studied in detail, and it was concluded that her exposure as a teacher's aide in a school building containing acoustical plaster was the likely cause of her mesothelioma.

Roggli, V.L.; Longo, W.E. (Department of Pathology, Durham Veterans Administration, NC (United States))

1991-12-31

374

Dermal Exposure Associated with Occupational End Use of Pesticides and the Role of Protective Measures  

PubMed Central

Background Occupational end users of pesticides may experience bodily absorption of the pesticide products they use, risking possible health effects. The purpose of this paper is to provide a guide for researchers, practitioners, and policy makers working in the field of agricultural health or other areas where occupational end use of pesticides and exposure issues are of interest. Methods This paper characterizes the health effects of pesticide exposure, jobs associated with pesticide use, pesticide-related tasks, absorption of pesticides through the skin, and the use of personal protective equipment (PPE) for reducing exposure. Conclusions Although international and national efforts to reduce pesticide exposure through regulatory means should continue, it is difficult in the agricultural sector to implement engineering or system controls. It is clear that use of PPE does reduce dermal pesticide exposure but compliance among the majority of occupationally exposed pesticide end users appears to be poor. More research is needed on higher-order controls to reduce pesticide exposure and to understand the reasons for poor compliance with PPE and identify effective training methods. PMID:24106643

MacFarlane, Ewan; Carey, Renee; Keegel, Tessa; El-Zaemay, Sonia; Fritschi, Lin

2013-01-01

375

Occupational Exposure to Solvents and Cognitive Performance in the GAZEL Cohort: Preliminary Results  

PubMed Central

Background The impact of occupational exposure to solvents on cognitive ageing remains unclear. We examined whether long-term occupational exposure is associated with poor cognitive performance in late midlife. Methods Participants in the GAZEL cohort, set up in 1989, are employees of the French national electricity and gas company. Data on the working environment were used to create measures of cumulative exposures to solvents using a job-exposure matrix. In 2002–2004, cognitive performance was assessed using the Digit Symbol Substitution Test (DSST) and the Mini Mental State Examination in 5,242 participants (aged 55–65 years). Results In cross-sectional analysis using multiple logistic regression, there was a greater risk of poor cognitive performance (DSST score <25th percentile) among those with high exposure to benzene (OR = 1.58; 95% CI 1.31–1.90) and the grouped categories of chlorinated (OR = 1.39; 95% CI 1.3–2.3), aromatic (OR = 1.76; 95% CI 1.08–2.87), and petroleum solvents (OR = 1.50; 95% CI 1.23–1.81). Conclusions These results suggest that occupational exposures to solvents may be associated later in life with cognitive impairment, even after taking into account the effects of education, employment grade, and numerous health factors. PMID:20606440

Berr, C.; Vercambre, M.N.; Bonenfant, S.; Singh Manoux, A.; Zins, M.; Goldberg, M.

2010-01-01

376

An Assessment of Potential Cancer Risk Following Occupational Exposure to Ethanol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recognition of the carcinogenic properties of ethanol has resulted from comprehensive evidence regarding the effect of consumption of alcohol; indeed, ethanol in alcoholic beverages is now considered a Group 1 carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. However, there is little information on the effects of ethanol following exposure via the occupationally relevant routes of inhalation and dermal

Ruth J. Bevan; Rebecca J. Slack; Philip Holmes; Leonard S. Levy

2009-01-01

377

Exposures to Extremely Low Frequency (ELF) Electromagnetic Fields in Occupations with Elevated Leukemia Rates  

Microsoft Academic Search

In previous epidemiological studies, elevated leukemia rates have been found in a collection of occupational categories of “electrical workers.” In this study, spot measurements were taken of the Extremely Low Frequency (below 100 Hz) electric and magnetic field exposures of “electrical workers” at 114 work sites at an electric utility, an aerospace firm, a municipal government, motion picture theaters, and

Joseph D. Bowman; David H. Garabrant; Eugene Sobel; John M. Peters

1988-01-01

378

Toxic responses of different organs following occupational exposure of employees of a plant to ethylene oxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was carried out to assess possible toxic response(s) associated with occupational exposure to ethylene oxide (EO) in a local plant, producing disposable syringes, where the chemical was used as a sterilant. A total of 40 exposed and 47 unexposed employees were interviewed and standard respiratory symptom questionnaire as well as a questionnaire pertaining to symptoms of intoxication with

Masoud Neghab; Esmaeel Soleimani; J. Hassanzadeh

2012-01-01

379

Evaluation of Occupational Exposure to Toxic Metals Released in the Process of Aluminum Welding  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to evaluate occupational exposure to welding fumes and its elements on aluminum welders in Polish industry. The study included 52 MIG\\/Al fume samples and 18 TIG\\/Al samples in 3 plants. Air samples were collected in the breathing zone of welders (total and respirable dust). Dust concentration was determined gravimetrically, and the elements in the

Wanda Matczak; Jan Gromiec

2002-01-01

380

Urinary benzylmercapturic acid as a marker of occupational exposure to toluene  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To examine if benzylmercapturic acid (or N-acetyl-S-benzyl cysteine) in urine can be used as a marker of occupational exposure to toluene. Methods: A factory survey was conducted in the latter half of a working week. A group of 46 men, who volunteered for the study, was engaged in ink preparation, surface coating or printing work. Diffusive samplers were used

Osamu Inoue; Etsuko Kanno; Toshiharu Yusa; Masaei Kakizaki; Hirohiko Ukai; Satoru Okamoto; Kae Higashikawa; Masayuki Ikeda

2002-01-01

381

Occupational and Environmental Exposures Associated with Testicular Germ Cell Tumours: Systematic Review of Prenatal and Life-Long Exposures  

PubMed Central

Background Testicular germ cell tumours (TGCT) are the most common cancers in men aged between 15 and 44 years and the incidence has increased steeply over the past 30 years. The rapid increase in the incidence, the spatial variation and the evolution of incidence in migrants suggest that environmental risk factors play a role in TGCT aetiology. The purpose of our review is to summarise the current state of knowledge on occupational and environmental factors thought to be associated with TGCT. Methods A systematic literature search of PubMed. All selected articles were quality appraised by two independent researchers using the ‘Newcastle-Ottawa Quality Assessment Scale’. Results After exclusion of duplicate reports, 72 relevant articles were selected; 65 assessed exposure in adulthood, 7 assessed parental exposures and 2 assessed both. Associations with occupation was reported for agricultural workers, construction workers, firemen, policemen, military personnel, as well as workers in paper, plastic or metal industries. Electromagnetic fields, PCBs and pesticides were also suggested. However, results were inconsistent and studies showing positive associations tended to had lower quality ranking using the assessment scale (p=0.02). Discussion Current evidence does not allow concluding on existence of any clear association between TGCT and adulthood occupational or environmental exposure. The limitations of the studies may partly explain the inconsistencies observed. The lack of association with adulthood exposure is in line with current hypotheses supporting the prenatal origin of TGCT. Future research should focus on prenatal or early life exposure, as well as combined effect of prenatal and later life exposure. National and international collaborative studies should allow for more adequately powered epidemiological studies. More sophisticated methods for assessing exposure as well as evaluating gene–environment interactions will be necessary to establish clear conclusion. PMID:24155923

Béranger, Rémi; Le Cornet, Charlotte; Schüz, Joachim; Fervers, Béatrice

2013-01-01

382

Influence of occupational styrene exposure on memory and attention  

SciTech Connect

Short-term memory, perceptual speed, attention and psychomotor function were studied in 55 workers professionally exposed to styrene. The subjects were grouped according to their urinary styrene metabolites. Those with higher styrene exposure showed a significant impairment of short-term memory only.

Schoenhuber, R.; Gentilini, M. (Universita degli Studi, Modena (Italy))

1989-11-01

383

Laryngeal cancer and occupational exposure to sulfuric acid  

SciTech Connect

Workers on an ethanol unit which used sulfuric acid in strong concentrations at a large refinery and chemical plant in Baton Rouge, Louisiana were reported in 1979, at excess risk for upper respiratory cancer. The carcinogen implicated by indirect evidence was diethyl sulfate. However, with the continued use of sulfuric acid in the same plant, and with additional cases not attributable to the ethanol process, the hypothesis of an association between sulfuric acid exposure and upper respiratory cancer was tested. Each of 50 confirmed cases of upper respiratory cancer diagnosed between 1944 and 1980, was matched to at least three controls on sex, race, age, date of initial employment, and duration of employment. Thrity-four of the 50 cases were laryngeal cancers. Data were obtained from existing plant records. Retrospective estimates of exposure were made without regard to case or control status. Findings from conditional logistic regression techniques were supported by other statistical methods. Among workers classified as potentially highly exposed, four-fold relative risks for all upper respiratory cancer sites combined were exceeded by the relative risk for laryngeal cancer specifically. Exposure-response and consistency across various comparisons after controlling statistically for tobacco-use, alcoholism and other previously implicated risk factors, suggest increased cancer risk with higher exposure.

Soskolne, C.L.; Zeighami, E.A.; Hanis, N.M.; Kupper, L.L.; Herrmann, N.; Amsel, J.; Mausner, J.S.; Stellman, J.M.

1984-09-01

384

Occupational Exposure to Perchloroethylene in the Dry Cleaning Industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Field surveys were conducted of 67 dry cleaning establishments to assess working conditions and potential for exposure to perchloroethylene, a solvent of choice in this industry. Evaluation of ventilation controls showed that 28% of cleaning machines (transfer type) did not have functioning local exhaust systems, and an additional 32% had inadequately maintained systems providing less than the recommended face velocity

BARBARA L. MATERNA

1985-01-01

385

Occupational exposure of air crews to tricresyl phosphate isomers and organophosphate flame retardants after fume events.  

PubMed

Aircraft cabin air can possibly be contaminated by tricresyl phosphates (TCP) from jet engine oils during fume events. o-TCP, a known neurotoxin, has been addressed to be an agent that might cause the symptoms reported by cabin crews after fume events. A total of 332 urine samples of pilots and cabin crew members in common passenger airplanes, who reported fume/odour during their last flight, were analysed for three isomers of tricresyl phosphate metabolites as well as dialkyl and diaryl phosphate metabolites of four flame retardants. None of the samples contained o-TCP metabolites above the limit of detection (LOD 0.5 ?g/l). Only one sample contained metabolites of m- and p-tricresyl phosphates with levels near the LOD. Median metabolite levels of tributyl phosphate (TBP), tris-(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP) and triphenyl phosphate (TPP) (DBP 0.28 ?g/l; BCEP 0.33 ?g/l; DPP 1.1 ?g/l) were found to be significantly higher than in unexposed persons from the general population. Median tris-(2-chloropropyl) phosphate (TCPP) metabolite levels were significantly not higher in air crews than in controls. Health complaints reported by air crews can hardly be addressed to o-TCP exposure in cabin air. Elevated metabolite levels for TBP, TCEP and TPP in air crews might occur due to traces of hydraulic fluid in cabin air (TBP, TPP) or due to release of commonly used flame retardants from the highly flame protected environment in the airplane. A slight occupational exposure of air crews to organophosphates was shown. PMID:23179756

Schindler, Birgit Karin; Weiss, Tobias; Schütze, Andre; Koslitz, Stephan; Broding, Horst Christoph; Bünger, Jürgen; Brüning, Thomas

2013-04-01

386

INTEROCC case–control study: lack of association between glioma tumors and occupational exposure to selected combustion products, dusts and other chemical agents  

PubMed Central

Background The aim was to investigate possible associations between glioma (an aggressive type of brain cancer) and occupational exposure to selected agents: combustion products (diesel and gasoline exhaust emissions, benzo(a)pyrene), dusts (animal dust, asbestos, crystalline silica, wood dust) and some other chemical agents (formaldehyde, oil mist, sulphur dioxide). Methods The INTEROCC study included cases diagnosed with glioma during 2000–2004 in sub-regions of seven countries. Population controls, selected from various sampling frames in different centers, were frequency or individually matched to cases by sex, age and center. Face-to-face interviews with the subject or a proxy respondent were conducted by trained interviewers. Detailed information was collected on socio-economic and lifestyle characteristics, medical history and work history. Occupational exposure to the 10 selected agents was assessed by a job exposure matrix (JEM) which provides estimates of the probability and level of exposure for different occupations. Using a 25% probability of exposure in a given occupation in the JEM as the threshold for considering a worker exposed, the lifetime prevalence of exposure varied from about 1% to about 15% for the different agents. Associations between glioma and each of the 10 agents were estimated by conditional logistic regression, and using three separate exposure indices: i) ever vs. never; ii) lifetime cumulative exposure; iii) total duration of exposure. Results The study sample consisted of 1,800 glioma cases and 5,160 controls. Most odds ratio estimates were close to the null value. None of the ten agents displayed a significantly increased odds ratio nor any indication of dose–response relationships with cumulative exposure or with duration of exposure. Conclusion Thus, there was no evidence that these exposures influence risk of glioma. PMID:23587105

2013-01-01

387

Chemical markers of occupational exposure to teak wood dust.  

PubMed

A novel high-performance liquid chromatographic/ultraviolet method was developed to detect lapachol (LP) and deoxylapachol (DLP) in wood dust as chemical markers of teak wood (a suspected human carcinogen). The specificity of this analysis was determined by noting the absence of LP and DLP in 12 other specimens of different woods belonging to the angiosperm family. The consistency was examined by analyzing teak from three different sources, where the percentages (wt/wt) of the chemicals ranged from 0.006 to 0.261 for LP and from 0.038 to 0.497 for DLP, respectively. Although the LP and DLP components of teak varied according to source, a very high correlation coefficient (r (2) > 0.98 always) was found between the content of the two markers in the bulk specimens and in bulk dust derived from them. The method was then applied to teak dust collected on polyvinylchloride filters from aerosol in an exposure chamber in the range of mass loadings between 0.03 and 3.65 mg, which corresponds to a dust exposure between 0.124 and 8.703 mg m(-3) for a sampling time of 2h. A field test was also carried out in a small factory where teak was used. A good correlation was confirmed between LP and DLP versus the dust collected on the filter in both cases. LP and DLP can be markers to estimate the true quantities of teak dust inhaled in a workplace with mixed wood dust, provided the results are matched to the content of LP and DLP in the bulk wood. LP and DLP have also been proposed as the agents responsible for allergic reaction to teak dust. Therefore, it would be useful to evaluate the exposure to these two substances even without a relationship to teak dust exposure. PMID:24671613

Carrieri, Mariella; Bartolucci, Giovanni Battista; Lee, Taekhee; Barbero, Ana; Harper, Martin

2014-06-01

388

Occupational Exposure to Organic Solvents during Bridge Painting  

PubMed Central

Exposure to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from bridge painting was measured in New York City and New Jersey during the summer and fall seasons from 2005 to 2007. The effect of painting activities (paint coating layer, confinement setup, and application method) and meteorological conditions (temperature, humidity, and wind speed) on solvent exposure to aromatic, ketone, ester, and alk