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1

Occupational exposure to formaldehyde and wood dust and nasopharyngeal carcinoma  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES—To investigate whether occupational exposures to formaldehyde and wood dust increase the risk of nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC).?METHODS—A multicentred, population based case-control study was carried out at five cancer registries in the United States participating in the National Cancer Institute's SEER program. Cases (n=196) with a newly diagnosed NPC between 1987 and 1993, and controls (n=244) selected over the same period from the general population through random digit dialing participated in structured telephone interviews which inquired about suspected risk factors for the disease, including a lifetime history of occupational and chemical exposure. Histological type of cancer was abstracted from clinical records of the registries. Potential exposure to formaldehyde and wood dust was assessed on a job by job basis by experienced industrial hygienists who were blinded as to case or control status.?RESULTS—For formaldehyde, after adjusting for cigarette use, race, and other risk factors, a trend of increasing risk of squamous and unspecified epithelial carcinomas was found for increasing duration (p=0.014) and cumulative exposure (p=0.033) but not for maximum exposure concentration. The odds ratio (OR) for people cumulatively exposed to >1.10 ppm-years was 3.0 (95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.3 to 6.6) compared with those considered unexposed. In analyses limited to jobs considered definitely exposed, these trends became stronger. The associations were most evident among cigarette smokers. By contrast, there was no association between potential exposure to formaldehyde and undifferentiated and non-keratinising carcinomas. There was little evidence that exposure to wood dust increased risk of NPC, as modest crude associations essentially disappeared after control for potential exposure to formaldehyde.?CONCLUSIONS—These results support the hypothesis that occupational exposure to formaldehyde, but not wood dust, increases risk of NPC. This association seems to be specific to squamous cell carcinomas. Established cohorts of workers exposed to formaldehyde and wood dust should continue to be monitored for NPC and other respiratory cancers. Future studies of NPC should take into account histological type in assessing risk from environmental and host factors.???Keywords: occupational exposure; formaldehyde; wood dust

Vaughan, T.; Stewart, P.; Teschke, K.; Lynch, C.; Swanson, G; Lyon, J.; Berwick, M.

2000-01-01

2

Occupational Formaldehyde Exposure and Cancer Risk  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource is part of the AAA Education and Teaching Session. In particular this resource is a pdf of the presentation from the AAA 2012 Refresher Course - The Facts about Formaldehyde:What Every Anatomist Should Know.

PhD Laura Freeman (National Cancer Institute)

2012-04-21

3

Malignant melanomas of the nasal cavity after occupational exposure to formaldehyde.  

PubMed Central

Formaldehyde is a well known nasal carcinogen in rodents, but so far there has been no convincing evidence that workers occupationally exposed to formaldehyde have an increased risk of nasal cancer. In this study three cases of malignant melanoma of the nasal mucosa in persons occupationally exposed to formaldehyde for a long time are presented. The occurrence of such a rare tumour in patients with significant exposure to a known carcinogen warrants further investigation. Images

Holmstrom, M; Lund, V J

1991-01-01

4

A Formaldehyde Exposure Assessment Tool for Occupants of FEMA Temporary Housing Units  

SciTech Connect

The report outlines the methodology used to develop a web-based tool to assess the formaldehyde exposure of the occupants of Federal Emergency Management Administration (FEMA) temporary housing units (THUs) after Hurricanes Katrina and Rita in 2005. Linear regression models were built using available data to retrospectively estimate the indoor temperature and relative humidity, formaldehyde emission factors and concentration, and hence the formaldehyde exposures. The interactive web-tool allows the user to define the inputs to the model to evaluate formaldehyde exposures for different scenarios.

Parthasarathy, Srinandini; Spears, Michael; Maddalena, Randy L.; Russell, Marion L; Apte, Michael G.

2010-10-01

5

Occupational exposure to formaldehyde, hematotoxicity and leukemia-specific chromosome changes in cultured myeloid progenitor cells  

PubMed Central

There are concerns about the health effects of formaldehyde exposure, including carcinogenicity, in light of elevated indoor air levels in new homes and occupational exposures experienced by workers in health care, embalming, manufacturing and other industries. Epidemiological studies suggest that formaldehyde exposure is associated with an increased risk of leukemia. However, the biological plausibility of these findings has been questioned because limited information is available on formaldehyde’s ability to disrupt hematopoietic function. Our objective was to determine if formaldehyde exposure disrupts hematopoietic function and produces leukemia-related chromosome changes in exposed humans. We examined the ability of formaldehyde to disrupt hematopoiesis in a study of 94 workers in China (43 exposed to formaldehyde and 51 frequency-matched controls) by measuring complete blood counts and peripheral stem/progenitor cell colony formation. Further, myeloid progenitor cells, the target for leukemogenesis, were cultured from the workers to quantify the level of leukemia-specific chromosome changes, including monosomy 7 and trisomy 8, in metaphase spreads of these cells. Among exposed workers, peripheral blood cell counts were significantly lowered in a manner consistent with toxic effects on the bone marrow and leukemia-specific chromosome changes were significantly elevated in myeloid blood progenitor cells. These findings suggest that formaldehyde exposure can have an adverse impact on the hematopoietic system and that leukemia induction by formaldehyde is biologically plausible, which heightens concerns about its leukemogenic potential from occupational and environmental exposures.

Zhang, Luoping; Tang, Xiaojiang; Rothman, Nathaniel; Vermeulen, Roel; Ji, Zhiying; Shen, Min; Qiu, Chuangyi; Guo, Weihong; Liu, Songwang; Reiss, Boris; Laura Beane, Freeman; Ge, Yichen; Hubbard, Alan E.; Hua, Ming; Blair, Aaron; Galvan, Noe; Ruan, Xiaolin; Alter, Blanche P.; Xin, Kerry X.; Li, Senhua; Moore, Lee E.; Kim, Sungkyoon; Xie, Yuxuan; Hayes, Richard B.; Azuma, Mariko; Hauptmann, Michael; Xiong, Jun; Stewart, Patricia; Li, Laiyu; Rappaport, Stephen M.; Huang, Hanlin; Fraumeni, Joseph F.; Smith, Martyn T.; Lan, Qing

2010-01-01

6

Genotoxic effects in occupational exposure to formaldehyde: A study in anatomy and pathology laboratories and formaldehyde-resins production  

PubMed Central

Background According to the Report on Carcinogens, formaldehyde ranks 25th in the overall U.S. chemical production, with more than 5 million tons produced each year. Given its economic importance and widespread use, many people are exposed to formaldehyde environmentally and/or occupationally. Presently, the International Agency for Research on Cancer classifies formaldehyde as carcinogenic to humans (Group 1), based on sufficient evidence in humans and in experimental animals. Manyfold in vitro studies clearly indicated that formaldehyde can induce genotoxic effects in proliferating cultured mammalian cells. Furthermore, some in vivo studies have found changes in epithelial cells and in peripheral blood lymphocytes related to formaldehyde exposure. Methods A study was carried out in Portugal, using 80 workers occupationally exposed to formaldehyde vapours: 30 workers from formaldehyde and formaldehyde-based resins production factory and 50 from 10 pathology and anatomy laboratories. A control group of 85 non-exposed subjects was considered. Exposure assessment was performed by applying simultaneously two techniques of air monitoring: NIOSH Method 2541 and Photo Ionization Detection equipment with simultaneously video recording. Evaluation of genotoxic effects was performed by application of micronucleus test in exfoliated epithelial cells from buccal mucosa and peripheral blood lymphocytes. Results Time-weighted average concentrations not exceeded the reference value (0.75 ppm) in the two occupational settings studied. Ceiling concentrations, on the other hand, were higher than reference value (0.3 ppm) in both. The frequency of micronucleus in peripheral blood lymphocytes and in epithelial cells was significantly higher in both exposed groups than in the control group (p < 0.001). Moreover, the frequency of micronucleus in peripheral blood lymphocytes was significantly higher in the laboratories group than in the factory workers (p < 0.05). A moderate positive correlation was found between duration of occupational exposure to formaldehyde (years of exposure) and micronucleus frequency in peripheral blood lymphocytes (r = 0.401; p < 0.001) and in epithelial cells (r = 0.209; p < 0.01). Conclusions The population studied is exposed to high peak concentrations of formaldehyde with a long-term exposure. These two aspects, cumulatively, can be the cause of the observed genotoxic endpoint effects. The association of these cytogenetic effects with formaldehyde exposure gives important information to risk assessment process and may also be used to assess health risks for exposed workers.

2010-01-01

7

Occupational asthma due to formaldehyde.  

PubMed Central

Bronchial provocation studies on 15 workers occupationally exposed to formaldehyde are described. The results show that formaldehyde exposure can cause asthmatic reactions, and suggest that these are sometimes due to hypersensitivity and sometimes to a direct irritant effect. Three workers had classical occupational asthma caused by formaldehyde fumes, which was likely to be due to hypersensitivity, with late asthmatic reactions following formaldehyde exposure. Six workers developed immediate asthmatic reactions, which were likely to be due to a direct irritant effect as the reactions were shorter in duration than those seen after soluble allergen exposure and were closely related to histamine reactivity. The breathing zone concentrations of formaldehyde required to elicit these irritant reactions (mean 4.8 mg/m3) were higher than those encountered in buildings recently insulated with urea formaldehyde foam, but within levels sometimes found in industry. Images

Burge, P S; Harries, M G; Lam, W K; O'Brien, I M; Patchett, P A

1985-01-01

8

Occupational exposure to wood dust and formaldehyde and risk of nasal, nasopharyngeal, and lung cancer among Finnish men  

PubMed Central

Controversy exists over whether or not occupational inhalation exposure to wood dust and/or formaldehyde increases risk for respiratory cancers. The objective of this study was to examine the risk of nasal, nasopharyngeal, and lung cancer in relation to occupational exposure to wood dust and formaldehyde among Finnish men. The cohort of all Finnish men born between the years 1906 and 1945 and in employment during 1970 was followed up through the Finnish Cancer Registry for cases of cancers of the nose (n = 292), nasopharynx (n = 149), and lung (n = 30,137) during the period 1971–1995. The subjects’ occupations, as recorded in the population census in 1970, were converted to estimates of exposure to wood dust, formaldehyde, asbestos, and silica dust through the Finnish job-exposure matrix. Cumulative exposure (CE) was calculated based on the prevalence, average level, and estimated duration of exposure. The relative risk (RR) estimates for the CE categories of wood dust and formaldehyde were defined by Poisson regression, with adjustments made for smoking, socioeconomic status, and exposure to asbestos and/or silica dust. Men exposed to wood dust had a significant excess risk of nasal cancer overall (RR, 1.59; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.06–2.38), and specifically nasal squamous cell carcinoma (RR, 1.98; 95% CI, 1.19–3.31). Workers exposed to formaldehyde had an RR of 1.18 (95% CI, 1.12–1.25) for lung cancer. There was no indication that CE to wood dust or formaldehyde would increase the risk of nasopharyngeal cancer. Occupational exposure to wood dust appeared to increase the risk of nasal cancer but not of nasopharyngeal or lung cancer. The slight excess risk of lung cancer observed for exposure to formaldehyde may be the result of residual confounding from smoking. In summary, this study provides further evidence that exposure to wood dust in a variety of occupations may increase the risk of nasal cancer.

Siew, Sie Sie; Kauppinen, Timo; Kyyronen, Pentti; Heikkila, Pirjo; Pukkala, Eero

2012-01-01

9

DNA-protein crosslinks and p53 protein expression in relation to occupational exposure to formaldehyde  

PubMed Central

Background: Formaldehyde (FA) is classified as a probable human carcinogen. Aims: To examine DNA protein crosslinks (DPC) and p53, which are generally known to be involved in carcinogenesis, in peripheral blood lymphocytes of workers exposed to FA. Methods: DPC and p53 ("wild type" and mutant) were examined in peripheral blood lymphocytes of 186 workers exposed to FA (mean years of exposure = 16) and 213 unexposed workers. Every worker completed a questionnaire on demographic data, occupational and medical history, smoking, and hygiene. Results: The adjusted mean level of DPC in the exposed and the unexposed workers differed significantly. Adjustment was made for age, sex, years of education, smoking, and origin. Exposure to FA increased the risk of having a higher level of pantropic p53 above 150 pg/ml (OR 1.6, 95% CI 0.8 to 3.1). A significant positive correlation was found between the increase of pantropic p53 protein and mutant p53 protein, as well as between pantropic p53 >150 pg/ml and mutant p53 protein. In the exposed group a significantly higher proportion of p53 >150 pg/ml was found among workers with DPC >0.187 (55.7%) (0.187 = median level of DPC) than among workers with DPC ?0.187 (33.3%). The risk of having pantropic p53 protein >150 pg/ml was determined mainly by levels of DPC. Workers with DPC above the median level had a significantly higher risk of having pantropic p53 >150 pg/ml (adjusted OR 2.5, 95% CI 1.2 to 5.4). Conclusions: Results suggest that DPC and mutation in p53 may represent steps in FA carcinogenesis and a possible causal relation between DPC and mutation in p53. These biomarkers can be applied in the assessment of the development of cancer due to FA exposure.

Shaham, J; Bomstein, Y; Gurvich, R; Rashkovsky, M; Kaufman, Z

2003-01-01

10

Assessing Formaldehyde Exposure in Your Gross Lab: Occupational Exposure Limits and Best Practices  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource is part of the AAA Education and Teaching Session. In particular this resource is a pdf of the presentation from the AAA 2012 Refresher Course - The Facts about Formaldehyde:What Every Anatomist Should Know.

Julia Rosen (University of Arizona)

2012-04-21

11

Laryngeal and hypopharyngeal cancers and occupational exposure to formaldehyde and various dusts: a case-control study in France  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVESA case-control study was conducted in France to assess possible associations between occupational exposures and squamous cell carcinomas of the larynx and hypopharynx.METHODSThe study was restricted to men, and included 201 hypopharyngeal cancers, 296 laryngeal cancers, and 296 controls (patients with other tumour sites). Detailed information on smoking, alcohol consumption, and lifetime occupational history was collected. Occupational exposure to seven

Laurent Laforest; Danièle Luce; Paquerette Goldberg; Denis Bégin; Michel Gérin; Paul A Demers; Jacques Brugère; Annette Leclerc

2000-01-01

12

Formaldehyde: Toxicity and occupational exposure. April 1978-July 1989 (Citations from the Life Sciences Collection data base). Report for April 1978-July 1989  

SciTech Connect

This bibliography contains citations concerning the toxicology of formaldehyde exposure. Articles include studies on formaldehyde exposure through inhalation, ingestion, in water, and by external physical contact. Mutagenic and carcinogenic characteristics of formaldehyde are discussed as well as clinical aspects of exposure. The biochemistry of formaldehyde toxicity is examined for animals and humans. Articles on formaldehyde as an industrial hazard, in building materials, and in fabrics are referenced in related published bibliographies. (Contains 193 citations fully indexed and including a title list.)

Not Available

1990-01-01

13

Respiratory effects due to occupational exposure to formaldehyde: Systematic review with meta-analysis  

PubMed Central

Subjects exposed to organic solvents frequently complain of respiratory symptoms. Epidemiological studies conducted in these exposed subjects with special reference to respiratory effects are very few and that too are on very small number of subjects. This paper critically reviews most of the epidemiological studies in formaldehyde induced respiratory effects and combines them through meta analysis to get global precise estimates of the respiratory risks. A computerized bibliographic search revealed 16 epidemiological studies out of which 12 studies were considered for meta analysis. The symptoms of upper respiratory tract were more prevalent as the combined odds of exposed was 5.04 compared to controls. The pooled odds ratio for acute lower respiratory symptoms ranged between 1.85 and 2.91. The mean fall of FVC, FEV1 and FEV1/FVC was only 3.4%, 3.6% and 0.6% respectively, which was not statistically or physiologically considered significant.

Mathur, Neeraj; Rastogi, S. K.

2007-01-01

14

Formaldehyde Exposures in a University Anatomy Laboratory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Air sampling studies were conducted within a university anatomical laboratory during the embalmment of a cadaver in order to determine if dangerous concentrations of formaldehyde existed. Three air sampling studies were conducted in the anatomical laboratory on three separate days that a cadaver was being embalmed. Samples were collected and analyzed using the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Sampling and Analytical Methods: Method 52. Each air sampling study sampled for short term exposure limit (STEL) and time weighted mean (TWA) breathing zone formaldehyde concentrations as well as area TWA formaldehyde concentrations. A personal aldehyde monitor was also used in each air sampling study to sample for breathing zone formaldehyde concentrations. Measured TWA mean exposures to formaldehyde ranged from 0.15--1.3 parts per million (ppm), STEL formaldehyde exposures ranged from 0.019--0.64 ppm, and eight-hour TWAs ranged from 0.03 to 3.6 ppm. All 8-hour TWA formaldehyde concentrations sampled in the anatomy laboratory during an embalmment were less than the permissible exposure limit (PEL) required by OSHA.

Winkler, Kyle William

15

Formaldehyde Exposure in U.S. Industries from OSHA Air Sampling Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

National occupational exposure databanks have been cited as sources of exposure data for exposure surveillance and exposure assessment for occupational epidemiology. Formaldehyde exposure data recorded in the U.S Integrated Management Information System (IMIS) between 1979 and 2001 were collected to elaborate a multi-industry retrospective picture of formaldehyde exposures and to identify exposure determinants. Due to the database design, only detected

Jérôme Lavoué; Raymond Vincent; Michel Gérin

2008-01-01

16

Formaldehyde exposures from tobacco smoke: A review  

SciTech Connect

Reports of formaldehyde levels in mainstream, sidestream, and environmental tobacco smoke from nine studies are reviewed. Considerable disparity exists between formaldehyde production rates determined from mainstream-sidestream studies and those reporting levels in environmental tobacco smoke. Tobacco smoke does not appear to increase vapor-phase formaldehyde levels significantly in indoor environments, but formaldehyde exposure in mainstream smoke may pose a risk of upper respiratory system cancer and increase the risk of cancer in smokers. 18 references.

Godish, T.

1989-08-01

17

Commentary: mechanistic considerations for associations between formaldehyde exposure and nasopharyngeal carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Occupational exposure to formaldehyde has been linked to nasopharyngeal carcinoma. To date, mechanistic explanations for this association have primarily focused on formaldehyde-induced cytotoxicity, regenerative hyperplasia and DNA damage. However, recent studies broaden the potential mechanisms as it is now well established that formaldehyde dehydrogenase, identical to S-nitrosoglutathione reductase, is an important mediator of cGMP-independent nitric oxide signaling pathways. We have

Chad M Thompson; Roland C Grafström

2009-01-01

18

Development of Methods for Measuring Biological Markers of Formaldehyde Exposure.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Formaldehyde, a widely used industrial chemical that is also present in automobile exhaust, causes nasal tumors in rats and mice after prolonged inhalation exposure to high concentrations. This carcinogenicity may result from formaldehyde's ability to ind...

T. R. Fennell

1994-01-01

19

Occupational exposure in MRI  

PubMed Central

This article reviews occupational exposure in clinical MRI; it specifically considers units of exposure, basic physical interactions, health effects, guideline limits, dosimetry, results of exposure surveys, calculation of induced fields and the status of the European Physical Agents Directive. Electromagnetic field exposure in MRI from the static field B0, imaging gradients and radiofrequency transmission fields induces electric fields and currents in tissue, which are responsible for various acute sensory effects. The underlying theory and its application to the formulation of incident and induced field limits are presented. The recent International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) Bundesministerium für Arbeit und Soziales and Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers limits for incident field exposure are interpreted in a manner applicable to MRI. Field measurements show that exposure from movement within the B0 fringe field can exceed ICNIRP reference levels within 0.5 m of the bore entrance. Rate of change of field dB/dt from the imaging gradients is unlikely to exceed the new limits, although incident field limits can be exceeded for radiofrequency (RF) exposure within 0.2–0.5 m of the bore entrance. Dosimetric surveys of routine clinical practice show that staff are exposed to peak values of 42±24% of B0, with time-averaged exposures of 5.2±2.8 mT for magnets in the range 0.6–4 T. Exposure to time-varying fields arising from movement within the B0 fringe resulted in peak dB/dt of approximately 2 T s?1. Modelling of induced electric fields from the imaging gradients shows that ICNIRP-induced field limits are unlikely to be exceeded in most situations; however, movement through the static field may still present a problem. The likely application of the limits is discussed with respect to the reformulation of the European Union (EU) directive and its possible implications for MRI.

Mcrobbie, D W

2012-01-01

20

NATIONAL OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE SURVEY (NOES)  

EPA Science Inventory

From 1981 to 1983, NIOSH conducted the National Occupational Exposure Survey (NOES) that collected data on potential occupational exposures to chemical, physical, and biological agents. The survey involved on-site visits to 4,490 establishments in 522 industry types [OMB 1972] em...

21

Occupational exposure to manganese.  

PubMed Central

The relationship between the degree of exposure and biological effects of manganese was studied in a group of 369 workers employed in the production of ferroalloys. Two other groups of workers, from an electrode plant and from an aluminium rolling mill, served as controls. Mean manganese concentrations at work places where ferroalloys were produced varied from 0-301 to 20-442 mg/m3. The exposure level of the two control groups was from 2 to 30 microgram/m3 and from 0-05 to 0-07 microgram/m3, in the electrode plant and rolling mill respectively. Sixty-two (16-8%) manganese alloy workers showed some signs of neurological impairment. These signs were noticeably less in the two control groups (5-8% and 0%) than in the occupationally exposed group. Subjective symptoms, which are nonspecific but may be symptoms of subclinical manganism, were not markedly different in the three groups. However, in the manganese alloy workers some of the subjective symptoms occurred more frequently in heavier smokers than in light smokers or nonsmokers. Heavier smokers engaged in manganese alloy production showed some of the subjective symptoms more often than heavier smokers from the control groups.

Saric, M; Markicevic, A; Hrustic, O

1977-01-01

22

Chronic respiratory effects of indoor formaldehyde exposure  

SciTech Connect

The relation of chronic respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function to formaldehyde (HCHO) in homes was studied in a sample of 298 children (6-15 years of age) and 613 adults. HCHO measurements were made with passive samplers two one-week periods. Data on chronic cough and phlegm, wheeze, attacks of breathlessness, and doctor diagnoses of chronic bronchitis and asthma were collected with self-completed questionnaires. Peak expiratory flow rates (PEFR) were obtained during the evenings and mornings for up to 14 consecutive days for each individual. Significantly greater prevalence rates of asthma and chronic bronchitis were found in children from houses with HCHO levels 60-120 ppb than in those less exposed, especially in children also exposed to environmental tobacco smoke. In children, levels of PEFR linearly decreased with HCHO exposure, with estimated decrease due to 60 ppb of HCHO equivalent to 22% of PEFR level in nonexposed children.

Krzyzanowski, M.; Quackenboss, J.J.; Lebowitz, M.D.

1990-01-01

23

Chronic respiratory effects of indoor formaldehyde exposure  

SciTech Connect

The relation of chronic respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function to formaldehyde (HCHO) in homes was studied in a sample of 298 children (6-15 years of age) and 613 adults. HCHO measurements were made with passive samplers during two 1-week periods. Data on chronic cough and phlegm, wheeze, attacks of breathlessness, and doctor diagnoses of chronic bronchitis and asthma were collected with self-completed questionnaires. Peak expiratory flow rates (PEFR) were obtained during the evenings and mornings for up to 14 consecutive days for each individual. Significantly greater prevalence rates of asthma and chronic bronchitis were found in children from houses with HCHO levels 60-120 ppb than in those less exposed, especially in children also exposed to environmental tobacco smoke. In children, levels of PEFR decreased linearly with HCHO exposure, with the estimated decrease due to 60 ppb of HCHO equivalent to 22% of PEFR level in nonexposed children. The effects in asthmatic children exposed to HCHO below 50 ppb were greater than in healthy ones. The effects in adults were less evident: decrements in PEFR due to HCHO over 40 ppb were seen only in the morning, and mainly in smokers.

Krzyzanowski, M.; Quackenboss, J.J.; Lebowitz, M.D. (Univ. of Arizona Health Sciences Center, Tucson (USA))

1990-08-01

24

Occupational exposure and lung cancer  

PubMed Central

Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death for male and the second most usual cancer for women after breast cancer. Currently there are available several non-specific cytotoxic agents and several targeted agents for lung cancer therapy. However; early stage diagnosis is still unavailable and several efforts are being made towards this direction. Novel biomarkers are being investigated along with new biopsy techniques. The occupational and environmental exposure to carcinogenic agents is an everyday phenomenon. Therefore until efficient early diagnosis is available, avoidance of exposure to carcinogenic agents is necessary. In the current mini-review occupational and environmental carcinogenic agents will be presented.

Spyratos, Dionysios; Porpodis, Konstantinos; Tsakiridis, Kosmas; Machairiotis, Nikolaos; Katsikogiannis, Nikolaos; Kougioumtzi, Ioanna; Dryllis, Georgios; Kallianos, Anastasios; Rapti, Aggeliki; Li, Chen; Zarogoulidis, Konstantinos

2013-01-01

25

Development of methods for measuring biological markers of formaldehyde exposure.  

PubMed

Formaldehyde, a widely used industrial chemical that is also present in automobile exhaust, causes nasal tumors in rats and mice after prolonged inhalation exposure to high concentrations. The induction of squamous cell carcinomas in rats by formaldehyde displayed a highly nonlinear dose response with a disproportionately large number of tumors at higher exposure concentrations. A sufficient amount of formaldehyde reaching target cells, and the saturation of formaldehyde metabolism to formate can increase the covalent binding of formaldehyde to DNA. The carcinogenicity of formaldehyde may result from its ability to induce DNA-protein cross-links and/or hydroxymethyl adducts in DNA. Measuring these products can indicate the dose of this carcinogen at a critical target site, and such assessment has been conducted for formaldehyde by measuring DNA-protein cross-links. The objective of this study was to develop methods for measuring hydroxymethyl adducts in DNA that do not require the use of radiolabeled formaldehyde. The detection of N6-hydroxymethyldeoxyadenosine and N2-hydroxymethyldeoxyguanosine, the major adducts formed by the reaction of formaldehyde with DNA in vitro, is complicated by their instability. The stabilization of hydroxymethyl adducts by reaction with sodium bisulfite in aqueous solution at 4 degrees C before isolating DNA from homogenates was investigated. On treatment of calf thymus DNA or isolated rat liver nuclei with [14C]formaldehyde, followed by reaction with bisulfite and isolation of DNA, radioactive peaks corresponding in retention time to N6-sulfomethyldeoxyadenosine and N2-sulfomethyldeoxy-guanosine were detected by high-performance liquid chromatography of nucleoside digests. However, on treatment of cultured lymphoblasts with [14C]formaldehyde, extensive metabolic incorporation of radioactivity into normal nucleosides precluded the detection of the derivatives. Methods for detecting these derivatives that do not involve the use of radiolabeled formaldehyde, such as 32P-postlabeling and electrophore postlabeling, were investigated. For electrophore postlabeling, several reactions for preparing a derivative suitable for analysis by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry were investigated unsuccessfully. For 32P-postlabeling, a method was developed for detecting sulfomethyldeoxyadenosine 3',5'-diphosphate that involved separating sulfomethyldeoxyadenosine 3'-monophosphate from normal nucleotides by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography using two columns with column switching. The purified adduct fractions were subjected to 32P-postlabeling, and the labeled adduct was separated by two-dimensional thin-layer chromatography on polyethyleneimine-cellulose plates. The adduct spots were quantitated by comparing them with standards labeled directly or mixed with normal nucleotide 3'-monophosphates and separated by high-performance liquid chromatography.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:7917119

Fennell, T R

1994-06-01

26

Occupational Surveillance for Spaceflight Exposures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This slide presentation reviews the importance of longterm occupational health surveillance of astronauts after exposure to the possible hazards of spaceflight. Because there is not much information about long term effects of spaceflight on human health, it is important to identify some of the possible results of exposure to the many possible factors that can influence longterm health impacts. This surveillance also allows for NASA to meet the obligation to care for the astronauts for their lifetime.

Tarver, William J.

2010-01-01

27

Health risks from indoor formaldehyde exposures in northwest weatherized residences  

SciTech Connect

Conflicting opinions on the potential hazards associated with formaldehyde exposure triggered a national workshop to address the toxicological questions concerning the health effects of formaldehyde. Since quantitative human data are not available to derive a dose-response curve for formaldehyde risk assessment, nonhuman data are used. In the case of formaldehyde, data from animals exposed to high concentrations are used to estimate human risk at much lower concentrations. This study presents the several steps that make up a risk assessment and examines any additional data that might alter significantly the risk estimates presented in the 1984 EIS. Rat inhalation chronic bioassay data from a study sponsored by the Chemical Industry Institute of Toxicology (CIIT) have been used to develop a risk equation that was subsequently used by BPA in its EIS. The CIIT data base remains the only acceptable animal data that can support the estimation of a dose-response curve. The development of mathematical models continues with a great deal of energy, and the use of different models is largely responsible for the great variability of the formaldehyde risk estimates. While one can calculate different values for carcinogenic risk associated with formaldehyde exposure than were presented earlier in the BPA EIS, they are not likely to be any better.

Mellinger, P.J.; Sever, L.E.

1986-10-01

28

Occupational exposure and malignant lymphoma.  

PubMed

The incidence of malignant lymphoma, especially non-Hodgkin's lymphoma has increased over the last few decades. This statement is true despite the fact that methods for diagnosing malignant lymphoma have changed and misclassification has become a problem. The present review is mainly concerned with occupational aspects of malignant lymphoma. Several subsequent studies have dealt with malignant lymphoma among woodworkers and pulp and paper mill workers pointing to increased risks. Exposure to phenoxy herbicides have provided reasonable evidence to be connected with an increased risk of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, whereas there is limited information regarding Hodgkin's disease. The relationship between solvent exposure and malignant lymphoma has been observed in a great number of studies. It is, however, still hard to identify specific solvent compounds responsible for the increased risk. Other occupational exposures i.e. wood preservatives, welding, asbestos, hair dyes and exposure to animal viruses among meatworkers and veterinarians have also been studied in relation to malignant lymphoma. This review shows that occupational factors, especially exposure to solvents and phenoxy herbicides and also to wood, play a role in the epidemiology of malignant lymphoma. PMID:9117190

Persson, B

1996-01-01

29

Controlling formaldehyde exposures in an academic gross anatomy laboratory.  

PubMed

This report describes efforts over a more than a 15-year period to improve air quality and reduce exposures to formaldehyde during anatomical dissections at the Yale University School of Medicine, including first-year medical student gross anatomy classes. During this time, a number of steps were taken to improve general ventilation system efficiency and work practices in the original facility. Subsequently, during the design phase for a new research and teaching building, a new anatomical laboratory was planned to incorporate 42 individually ventilated dissection tables. The tables were customized from a commercially available design to operate at lower volumetric airflow rates while still providing a high degree of formaldehyde containment. Air monitoring performed throughout this time period showed progressive reductions in formaldehyde exposure as ventilation modifications were made. However, significant reductions only occurred after the installation of the ventilated tables. Personal and area exposure monitoring during thoracic and abdominal dissections now show a five- to tenfold reduction in formaldehyde exposure compared to previous operations, with exposures consistently below 0.1 ppm. PMID:24521062

Klein, Robert C; King, Cathleen; Castagna, Paula

2014-03-01

30

Health effects of low-level exposure to formaldehyde  

SciTech Connect

Twenty-one subjects exposed to formaldehyde (at levels between 0.12 and 1.6 parts per million (ppm)) in two mobile trailers and the remaining 18 unexposed workers of the same workforce were examined by questionnaire and spirometry. Symptoms of eye and throat irritation and increased headache and fatigue were significantly more common among the exposed group than the comparison group. Irritation of the nose, chest tightness, and shortness of breath were also more common among the exposed. Spirometry revealed no decrease in ventilatory function among the exposed workers. The significant increase in frequency of individuals with symptoms indicated an adverse health effect from exposure to formaldehyde at levels between 0.12 and 1.6 ppm. This may have implications regarding the adequacy of the US permissable exposure limit value and suggest the need for further examination of the health effects of formaldehyde in the nonoccupational environment.

Main, D.M.; Hogan, T.J.

1983-12-01

31

Non-occupational exposure to silica dust  

PubMed Central

Occupational exposure to silica occurs at workplaces in factories like quartz crushing facilities (silica flour milling), agate, ceramic, slate pencil, glass, stone quarries and mines, etc., Non-occupational exposure to silica dust can be from industrial sources in the vicinity of the industry as well as non-industrial sources. Recently, public concern regarding non-occupational or ambient exposure to crystalline silica has emerged making it important to gather information available on non-occupational exposures to silica dust and non-occupational silicosis. This paper reviews various non-occupational exposures reported in literature including some studies by the author. Methodology used in assessment of non-occupational exposures, standards for non-occupational exposures to silica dust and indirect estimation of cumulative risk % are also discussed.

Bhagia, L. J.

2012-01-01

32

Characterization of formaldehyde exposure resulting from the use of four professional hair straightening products.  

PubMed

An exposure simulation study was conducted to characterize potential formaldehyde exposures of salon workers and clients during keratin hair smoothing treatments. Four different hair treatment brands (Brazilian Blowout, Coppola, Global Keratin, and La Brasiliana) were applied to separate human hair wigs mounted on mannequin heads. Short-term (6-16 min) and long-term (41-371 min) personal and area samples (at distances of 0.5 to 3.0 m from the source) were collected during each treatment for the 1-day simulation. A total of 88 personal, area, and clearance samples were collected. Results were analyzed based on task sampling (blow-dry, flat-iron), treatment sampling (per hair product), and time-weighted averages (per hair treatment, four consecutive treatments). Real-time monitoring of tracer gas levels, for determining the air exchange rate, and formaldehyde levels were logged throughout the simulation. Bulk samples of each hair treatment were collected to identify and quantify formaldehyde and other chemical components that may degrade to formaldehyde under excessive heat. Mean airborne concentrations of formaldehyde ranged from 0.08-3.47 ppm during blow-dry and 0.08-1.05 ppm during flat-iron. During each treatment, the mean airborne concentrations ranged from 0.02-1.19 ppm throughout different zones of the salon. Estimated 8-hr time-weighted averages for one treatment per day ranged from 0.02 ppm for La Brasiliana to 0.08-0.16 ppm for Brazilian Blowout. For four treatments per day, means ranged from 0.04-0.05 ppm for La Brasiliana to 0.44-0.75 ppm for Brazilian Blowout. Using all four products in one day resulted in estimated 8-hr time-weighted averages ranging from 0.17-0.29 ppm. Results from bulk sampling reported formaldehyde concentrations of 11.5% in Brazilian Blowout, 8.3% in Global Keratin, 3% in Coppola, and 0% in La Brasiliana. Other products that degrade into formaldehyde were detected in Global Keratin, Coppola, and La Brasiliana. The results of this study show that professional hair smoothing treatments--even those labeled "formaldehyde-free"--have the potential to produce formaldehyde concentrations that meet or exceed current occupational exposure limits. PMID:22035353

Pierce, J S; Abelmann, A; Spicer, L J; Adams, R E; Glynn, M E; Neier, K; Finley, B L; Gaffney, S H

2011-11-01

33

Formaldehyde  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Formaldehyde, as an aqueous solution ranging from 37 to 50 wt%, continues to be the preferred aldehyde for reaction with phenol for the preparation of phenolic resins. Over 30 million metric tons of formaldehyde represent the global worldwide consumption of formaldehyde for an array of products, besides phenolic resins. These include urea formaldehyde resins, melamine formaldehyde resins, polyacetal resins, methylenebis (4-phenyl isocyanate), butanediol, pentaerythritol, and others.

Kowatsch, Stefan

34

Pancreatic cancer and occupational exposures.  

PubMed

We conducted a nationwide case-control study in Finland to identify occupational risk factors for pancreatic cancer. We constructed the occupational exposure histories for 595 incident cases of primary exocrinic cancer of the pancreas and of 1,622 cancer controls, using three different methods. We found elevated odds ratios (OR) for ionizing radiation [OR = 4.3; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.6-11.4], nonchlorinated solvents (OR = 1.6-1.8), and pesticides (OR = 1.7; 95% CI = 0.8-3.4). Asbestos, chromates, cleaning agents, waxes, polishes, and most other exposures were not meaningfully associated with pancreatic cancer. Inorganic dust containing crystalline silica (OR = 2.0; 95% CI = 1.2-3.5), heat stress (OR = 2.2; 95% CI = 0.8-6.6), and rubber chemicals including acrylonitrile (OR = 2.1; 95% CI = 0.9-4.7) emerged as previously unsuspected risk factors. Occupational exposure probably has a small role in the etiology of pancreatic cancer in the present-day industrialized or postindustrial work environment. PMID:8562625

Kauppinen, T; Partanen, T; Degerth, R; Ojajärvi, A

1995-09-01

35

Formaldehyde in pathology departments.  

PubMed Central

Toxic effects of formaldehyde in humans are discussed in relation to occupational exposure and tolerance to this agent. Carcinogenic and mutagenic properties of formaldehyde have been reported in animals and this has led to concern about a possible role in human cancer. The current state of affairs is reviewed in the light of a lack of direct evidence linking formaldehyde with cancer in man and in relation to recommended exposure levels. It is important to employ effective means of containment and practical methods for reducing exposure to formaldehyde in pathology departments and post-mortem rooms are described. Images

Clark, R P

1983-01-01

36

[Isocyanates: occupational exposures and disorders].  

PubMed

Isocyanates are extensively used for the production of different foams and elastomers. They also serve as glues, lacquer hardeners, inks, adhesives, fillers, finishes, sealants, coating and insulation materials. Usually, their application results in inhalative, partly also in cutaneous uptake. This review describes occupational exposures to isocyanates as well as hazardous effects. Isocyanates are used in the automotive/mechanical engineering/building and construction/mining/casting/electricity and electronic/plastics/printing/timber and furniture/white goods and textile industry, partly also in medicine. Hazardous exposures to thermal degradation products of isocyanate-based polyurethanes and other materials have also be taken into consideration. Obstructive airway diseases are the major disorder caused by isocyanates. Rare cases suffer from extrinsic allergic alveolitis or eczema. In addition to regulation-based primary prevention qualitative medical surveillance mostly prevents disorders. There is also a need for the establishment of a validated biomonitoring of endangered employees. PMID:13680473

Baur, X

2003-09-01

37

Formaldehyde personal exposure measurements and time weighted exposure estimates in children.  

PubMed

Residential concentrations of formaldehyde have been associated with poor respiratory health in children, where formaldehyde has been measured using stationary monitors inside homes. Although children spend most of their time indoors at home, there are few studies of children's personal exposure to formaldehyde. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between personal exposure formaldehyde concentrations, microenvironmental concentrations and time weighted exposure estimates in children. Forty-one primary school children (aged between 9 and 12 years) wore a personal passive sampler over two 24h periods in two seasons and completed 24h daily activity diaries and a questionnaire about lifestyle and behaviour. Samplers were co located indoors at home, outdoors at centralised locations and indoors at school for the corresponding period. Personal exposure formaldehyde concentrations in this group of children were generally low with a geometric mean concentration of 9.1 ppb (range exposure concentrations and both domestic indoor (r(s)=.779, p<0.001) and time weighted estimated (r(s)=.802, p<0.001) concentrations. The time weighted model did not improve the estimate of personal exposure compared with stationary indoor concentrations. Indoor air concentration measured with a single stationary monitor was a suitable surrogate for personal exposure. PMID:22516208

Lazenby, Victoria; Hinwood, Andrea; Callan, Anna; Franklin, Peter

2012-08-01

38

Detailed industrial hygiene survey formaldehyde production, Celanese Chemical Company, Inc. , Bishop, Texas  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey to assess techniques to control occupational exposure to formaldehyde (50000) and methanol (67561) was conducted at the Celanese Chemical Company (SIC-2819) formaldehyde production unit at Bishop, Texas, in October 1982. Occupational exposure to formaldehyde was expected to be low since the production process was isolated and enclosed, except for the process sample, and the loading and discharge points.

D. W. Dunn; M. L. Johnson; L. Holmes; W. H. Hedley; G. J. Barrett

1983-01-01

39

Occupational Pesticide Exposures and Respiratory Health  

PubMed Central

Pesticides have been widely used to control pest and pest-related diseases in agriculture, fishery, forestry and the food industry. In this review, we identify a number of respiratory symptoms and diseases that have been associated with occupational pesticide exposures. Impaired lung function has also been observed among people occupationally exposed to pesticides. There was strong evidence for an association between occupational pesticide exposure and asthma, especially in agricultural occupations. In addition, we found suggestive evidence for a link between occupational pesticide exposure and chronic bronchitis or COPD. There was inconclusive evidence for the association between occupational pesticide exposure and lung cancer. Better control of pesticide uses and enforcement of safety behaviors, such as using personal protection equipment (PPE) in the workplace, are critical for reducing the risk of developing pesticide-related symptoms and diseases. Educational training programs focusing on basic safety precautions and proper uses of personal protection equipment (PPE) are possible interventions that could be used to control the respiratory diseases associated with pesticide exposure in occupational setting.

Ye, Ming; Beach, Jeremy; Martin, Jonathan W.; Senthilselvan, Ambikaipakan

2013-01-01

40

Identification of Gene Markers for Formaldehyde Exposure in Humans  

PubMed Central

Background Formaldehyde (FA) is classified as a human carcinogen and has been linked to increased leukemia rates in some epidemiologic studies. Inhalation of FA induces sensory irritation at relatively low concentrations. However, little is known concerning the cellular alterations observed after FA exposure in humans. Objectives Our aim was to profile global gene expression in Hs 680.Tr human tracheal fibroblasts exposed to FA and to develop biomarkers for the evaluation of FA exposure in humans. Methods and Results We used gene expression analysis, and identified 54 genes designated as FA responsive. On the basis of these data, we conducted an exploratory analysis of the expression of these genes in human subjects exposed to high or low levels of FA. We monitored FA exposure by measuring the urinary concentration of thiazolidine-4-carboxylate (TZCA), a stable and quantitative cysteinyl adduct of FA. Nine genes were selected for real-time PCR analysis; of these, BHLHB2, CCNL1, SE20-4, C8FW, PLK2, and SGK showed elevated expression in subjects with high concentrations of TZCA. Conclusion The identification of gene marker candidates in vitro using microarray analysis and their validation using human samples obtained from exposed subjects is a good tool for discovering genes of potential mechanistic interest and biomarkers of exposure. Thus, these genes are differentially expressed in response to FA and are potential effect biomarkers of FA exposure.

Li, Guang-Yong; Lee, Hye-Young; Shin, Ho-Sang; Kim, Hyeon-Young; Lim, Cheol-Hong; Lee, Byung-Hoon

2007-01-01

41

Malondialdehyde-Deoxyguanosine Adduct Formation in Workers of Pathology Wards. The Role of Air Formaldehyde Exposure  

PubMed Central

Background Formaldehyde is a ubiquitous pollutant to which humans are exposed. Pathologists can experience high formaldehyde exposure levels. Formaldehyde – among other properties – induce oxidative stress and free radicals, which react with DNA and lipids, leading to oxidative damage and lipid peroxidation, respectively. We measured the levels of air-formaldehyde exposure in a group of Italian pathologists and controls. We analyzed the effect of formaldehyde exposure on leukocyte malondialdehyde-deoxyguanosine adducts (M1-dG), a biomarker of oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation. We studied the relationship between air-formaldehyde and M1-dG adducts. Methods Air-formaldehyde levels were measured by personal air samplers. M1-dG adducts were analyzed by 32P-postlabelling assay. Results Reduction rooms pathologists were significantly exposed to air-formaldehyde in respect to controls and to the pathologists working in other laboratory areas (p<0.001). A significant difference for M1-dG adducts between exposed pathologists and controls was found (p=0.045). The effect becomes stronger when the evaluation of air-formaldehyde exposure was based on personal samplers (p=0.018). Increased M1dG adduct levels were only found in individuals exposed to air-formaldehyde concentrations higher than 66 ?g/m3. When the exposed workers and controls were subgrouped according to smoking, M1-dG tended to increase in all the subjects but a significant association between M1-dG and air-formaldehyde was only found in not smokers (p= 0.009). Air formaldehyde played a role positive but not significant (r = 0.355, p = 0.075, Pearson correlation) in the formation of M1-dG, only in not smokers. Conclusions Working in the reduction rooms and to be exposed to air-formaldehyde concentrations higher than 66 ?g/m3 is associated with increased levels of M1-dG adducts.

Romanazzi, Valeria; Munnia, Armelle; Piro, Sara; Allione, Alessandra; Ricceri, Fulvio; Guarrera, Simonetta; Pignata, Cristina; Matullo, Giuseppe; Wang, Poguang; Giese, Roger W.; Peluso, Marco

2010-01-01

42

Exposure to Formaldehyde and Its Potential Human Health Hazards  

Microsoft Academic Search

A widely used chemical, formaldehyde is normally present in both indoor and outdoor air. The rapid growth of formaldehyde-related industries in the past two decades reflects the result of its increased use in building materials and other commercial sectors. Consequently, formaldehyde is encountered almost every day from large segments of society due to its various sources. Many governments and agencies

Ki-Hyun Kim; Shamin Ara Jahan; Jong-Tae Lee

2011-01-01

43

Occupational cancer in Britain. Exposure assessment methodology.  

PubMed

To estimate the current occupational cancer burden due to past exposures in Britain, estimates of the number of exposed workers at different levels are required, as well as risk estimates of cancer due to the exposures. This paper describes the methods and results for estimating the historical exposures. All occupational carcinogens or exposure circumstances classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer as definite or probable human carcinogens and potentially to be found in British workplaces over the past 20-40 years were included in this study. Estimates of the number of people exposed by industrial sector were based predominantly on two sources of data, the CARcinogen EXposure (CAREX) database and the UK Labour Force Survey. Where possible, multiple and overlapping exposures were taken into account. Dose-response risk estimates were generally not available in the epidemiological literature for the cancer-exposure pairs in this study, and none of the sources available for obtaining the numbers exposed provided data by different levels of exposure. Industrial sectors were therefore assigned using expert judgement to 'higher'- and 'lower'-exposure groups based on the similarity of exposure to the population in the key epidemiological studies from which risk estimates had been selected. Estimates of historical exposure prevalence were obtained for 41 carcinogens or occupational circumstances. These include exposures to chemicals and metals, combustion products, other mixtures or groups of chemicals, mineral and biological dusts, physical agents and work patterns, as well as occupations and industries that have been associated with increased risk of cancer, but for which the causative agents are unknown. There were more than half a million workers exposed to each of six carcinogens (radon, solar radiation, crystalline silica, mineral oils, non-arsenical insecticides and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin); other agents to which a large number of workers are exposed included benzene, diesel engine exhaust and environmental tobacco smoke. The study has highlighted several industrial sectors with large proportions of workers potentially exposed to multiple carcinogens. The relevant available data have been used to generate estimates of the prevalence of past exposure to occupational carcinogens to enable the occupational cancer burden in Britain to be estimated. These data are considered adequate for the present purpose, but new data on the prevalence and intensity of current occupational exposure to carcinogens should be collected to ensure that future policy decisions be based on reliable evidence. PMID:22710674

Van Tongeren, Martie; Jimenez, Araceli S; Hutchings, Sally J; MacCalman, Laura; Rushton, Lesley; Cherrie, John W

2012-06-19

44

75 FR 17163 - Formaldehyde Standard; Extension of the Office of Management and Budget's (OMB) Approval of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...occupational exposure to formaldehyde, including an itchy, runny, and stuffy nose; a dry or sore throat; eye irritation, headaches, and cancer of the lung, buccal cavity, and pharynyx. Formaldehyde solutions can damage the skin and burn the...

2010-04-05

45

Occupational exposures and risk of acoustic neuroma  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesAcoustic neuroma is a benign tumour accounting for approximately 6–10% of all intracranial tumours and occurs mainly in patients aged ?50 years. Our aim was to investigate a wide range of occupational exposures, individual occupational titles and socioeconomic status (SES) as potential risk factors for acoustic neuroma.MethodsWe conducted a population-based case–control study of 793 acoustic neuroma cases identified through the

Michaela Prochazka; Maria Feychting; Anders Ahlbom; Colin G Edwards; Gun Nise; Nils Plato; Judith A Schwartzbaum; Ulla M Forssén

2010-01-01

46

Occupational exposure in dentistry and miscarriage  

PubMed Central

Background Information on the reproductive effects of chemical exposures in dental work is sparse or inconsistent. Aim To investigate whether dental workers exposed to acrylate compounds, mercury amalgam, solvents or disinfectants are at an increased risk of miscarriage. Methods The study was conducted among women dental workers and a comparison group of workers occupationally unexposed to dental restorative materials. Information on pregnancies was obtained from national registers and outpatient units of hospitals. Data on occupational exposure were obtained using postal questionnaires. The final study population included 222 cases of miscarriage and 498 controls (births). An occupational hygienist assessed exposure to acrylate compounds, disinfectants and solvents. Exposure to other agents was assessed on the basis of the questionnaire data. Odds ratios (ORs) and confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using conditional logistic regression. Results The ORs adjusted for confounding factors were increased for moderate?exposure and high?exposure categories of mercury amalgam (OR 2.0, 95% CI 1.0 to 4.1 and OR 1.3, 95% CI 0.6 to 2.5, respectively). The risk was slightly increased for the highest?exposure category of 2?hydroxyethylmethacrylate (OR 1.4, 95% CI 0.7 to 2.6) and polymethylmethacrylate dust (OR 1.4, 95% CI 0.8 to 2.4). A slightly increased risk was also detected for likely exposure to organic solvents (OR 1.4, 95% CI 0.8 to 2.3) and disinfectants (OR 1.5, 95% CI 0.9 to 2.7). Conclusions No strong association or consistent dose–response relationship was observed between exposure to chemical agents in dental work and the risk of miscarriage. A slightly increased risk was found for exposure to mercury amalgam, some acrylate compounds, solvents and disinfectants. These findings indicate that the possibility of a weak association between exposure to these agents and an increased risk of miscarriage cannot be excluded.

Lindbohm, Marja-Liisa; Ylostalo, Pekka; Sallmen, Markku; Henriks-Eckerman, Maj-Len; Nurminen, Tuula; Forss, Helena; Taskinen, Helena

2007-01-01

47

70 FR 22828 - Occupational Exposure to Ionizing Radiation  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...exposure, such as exposure assessment and...address worker exposure to occupational...OSHA Office of Communications, Room N-3647...ionizing radiation exposure 1. Natural sources...products D. Health effects II. Regulatory...responsible for worker exposures to ionizing...

2005-05-03

48

MINIMIZING OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE TO PESTICIDES: PERSONNEL MONITORING  

EPA Science Inventory

This communication is presented with two objectives in mind. The first objective is to provide an introduction to personnel monitoring of occupational exposure to pesticides for those who are not familiar with this field of investigation. The second objective is to stimulate disc...

49

Paternal Occupational Exposures and Childhood Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the study described here was to test the hypothesis that paternal occupational exposure near conception increases the risk of cancer in the offspring. We conducted a cohort study based on a population of 235,635 children born shortly after two different censuses in Sweden. The children were followed from birth to 14 years, and cases of cancer were

Maria Feychting; Nils Plato; Gun Nise; Anders Ahlbom

2001-01-01

50

Laryngeal cancer and occupational exposure to asbestos  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The risk of laryngeal cancer associated with occupational exposure to asbestos was evaluated by a review of published reports. In only two of 13 cohort studies was the standardized mortality ratio (SMR) significantly increased. Smoking (a risk factor for laryngeal cancer) may have been more prevalent among asbestos workers than among the comparison populations. This was not taken into

David A. Edelman

1989-01-01

51

Parental Occupational Exposures and Autism Spectrum Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Both self-report and industrial hygienist (IH) assessed parental occupational information were used in this pilot study in which 174 families (93 children with ASD and 81 unaffected children) enrolled in the Childhood Autism Risks from Genetics and Environment study participated. IH results indicated exposures to lacquer, varnish, and xylene…

McCanlies, Erin C.; Fekedulegn, Desta; Mnatsakanova, Anna; Burchfiel, Cecil M.; Sanderson, Wayne T.; Charles, Luenda E.; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva

2012-01-01

52

Domestic exposure to formaldehyde significantly increases the risk of asthma in young children  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT: Concern has arisen in recent years about indoor air pollution as a risk factor for asthma. Formaldehyde,exposure,was examined,in relation to asthma,among,young children (between 6 months,and 3 yrs old) in a population-based control study carried out in Perth, Western Australia, between 1997–1999. An association between exposure to formaldehyde and asthma in young children has been suggested. Cases (n=88), whose parents

K. B. Rumchev; J. T. Spickett; M. K. Bulsara; M. R. Phillips; S. M. Stick

2002-01-01

53

Occupational exposures in rare cancers: A critical review of the literature.  

PubMed

The contribution of occupational exposures to rare cancers, which represent 22% of all cancers diagnosed annually in Europe, remains insufficiently considered. We conducted a comprehensive review of occupational risk factors in 67 rare cancers (annual incidence <6/100,000). An examination of relevant articles in PubMed (1960-2012) and the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) monographs revealed that 26 cancer sites, such as mesothelioma, nasal, larynx, liver, ovarian cancer, bone sarcoma, and hematopoietic malignancies were consistently linked to occupational factors. Main exposures included asbestos, wood dust, metals/metalloids, formaldehyde, benzene, vinyl chloride, and radiation. There was inconsistent evidence regarding 22 rare malignancies. We did not identify relevant data for 19 rare cancers. Despite limitations of published evidence, our review provides useful information that can facilitate the identification of work-related factors that contribute to rare cancers. International collaborations, development of improved exposure assessment methods, and molecular approaches can improve future studies. PMID:24387944

Charbotel, B; Fervers, B; Droz, J P

2014-05-01

54

Recent trend in risk assessment of formaldehyde exposures from indoor air.  

PubMed

Studies about formaldehyde (FA) published since the guideline of 0.1 mg/m(3) by the World Health Organization (WHO) in 2010 have been evaluated; critical effects were eye and nasal (portal-of-entry) irritation. Also, it was considered to prevent long-term effects, including all types of cancer. The majority of the recent toxicokinetic studies showed no exposure-dependent FA-DNA adducts outside the portal-of-entry area and FA-DNA adducts at distant sites were due to endogenously generated FA. The no-observed-adverse-effect level for sensory irritation was 0.5 ppm and recently reconfirmed in hypo- and hypersensitive individuals. Investigation of the relationship between FA exposure and asthma or other airway effects in children showed no convincing association. In rats, repeated exposures showed no point mutation in the p53 and K-Ras genes at ?15 ppm neither increased cell proliferation, histopathological changes and changes in gene expression at 0.7 ppm. Repeated controlled exposures (0.5 ppm with peaks at 1 ppm) did not increase micronucleus formation in human buccal cells or nasal tissue (0.7 ppm) or in vivo genotoxicity in peripheral blood lymphocytes (0.7 ppm), but higher occupational exposures were associated with genotoxicity in buccal cells and cultivated peripheral blood lymphocytes. It is still valid that exposures not inducing nasal squamous cell carcinoma in rats will not induce nasopharyngeal cancer or lymphohematopoietic malignancies in humans. Reproductive and developmental toxicity are not considered relevant in the absence of sensory irritation. In conclusion, the WHO guideline has been strengthened. PMID:23179754

Nielsen, Gunnar Damgård; Larsen, Søren Thor; Wolkoff, Peder

2013-01-01

55

Organic brain damage and occupational solvent exposure.  

PubMed Central

Three hundred and nine men with organic dementia, cerebral atrophy, or psycho-organic syndrome admitted for five nights or more to one of 18 Quebec hospitals were individually matched with patients admitted (1) with some other psychiatric diagnosis and (2) to a general hospital. Lifetime occupational histories were obtained by telephone. Occupational exposure to solvents was assessed blind to type of case by (1) individual ratings and (2) a job exposure matrix; men who worked in moderate or high solvent concentrations for at least 10 years were considered exposed. With the psychiatric referent series, an odds ratio of 1.4 (90% CI 1.0-2.0) was calculated by individual exposure ratings and 1.4 (90% CI 0.9-2.2) by job matrix. Increased risk was mainly in those with organic dementia or cerebral atrophy and an alcohol related diagnosis. The same pattern of risk was found against the general hospital referents. Adjustment for possible confounders did not alter the risk estimates appreciably. Also, lifetime job histories, compared in selected case-referent pairs, gave similar evidence of increased risk (odds ratio 2.3; 90% CI 1.0-5.5). It is concluded that the combined effect of occupational solvent exposure and alcohol intake is probably an important cause of organic brain damage.

Cherry, N M; Labreche, F P; McDonald, J C

1992-01-01

56

Exposure of farm laborers and dairy cattle to formaldehyde from footbath use at a dairy farm in New York State.  

PubMed

Formalin footbaths are commonly used in the dairy industry to prevent cattle hoof diseases. Although formalin is a well-documented disinfectant, it is also a carcinogen and irritant. The aim of this study was to estimate the exposure of farm workers and dairy cattle to formaldehyde from footbaths located in a milking facility and a heifer facility at a dairy farm in western New York, USA. The dairy farm included approximately 3900 dairy cattle including young stock; of these, 1670 cows were milked three times per day in a 60-stall carousel milking parlor, and approximately 800 heifers were located at the heifer facility where footbaths with formalin were in use. The formaldehyde concentration of the air was measured using a Formaldemeter™ htV approximately 50cm above the 3% formalin footbaths in the milking (one footbath location) and heifer (three footbath locations) facilities on three consecutive days. The measured formaldehyde concentrations varied between 0.00 and 2.28ppm, falling within the safety guidelines established by the Occupation Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) of the United States. Significant differences were found in the formaldehyde concentrations at the different footbath locations in the heifer facility, potentially due to the varying levels of ventilation at each location. Changes in the ambient temperature during the 3-day sampling period did not significantly affect the concentrations. We believe that the substantial ventilation at both the heifer and milking facilities ensured that the formaldehyde concentrations did not exceed OSHA guidelines, thus permitting the safe use of formalin footbaths in this farm. PMID:24768913

Doane, M; Sarenbo, S

2014-07-15

57

Effects of occupational lead exposure.  

PubMed

Fifty-three workers in a battery factory, 52 solderers in a television factory, and 50 embroidery workers (a reference group) were studied. The average air lead levels of the three workplaces were 0.578 mg/m3, 0.002 mg/m3, and 0.001 mg/m3, respectively. Adverse effects in terms of clinical manifestations and biochemical criteria were evident among the battery factory workers. A significant dose-response relationship existed between the toxic effects and the air lead levels. The solderers showed no apparent abnormalities in comparison with the embroidery workers. The early clinical manifestations were dysfunction of the central nervous system, indigestion, arthralgia, and myalgia in the extremities. A positive association was observed between the prevalence of fatigue, mild abdominal pain, and arthralgia and the blood lead (PbB), urinary lead (PbU), and zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) levels. The symptomatic threshold values of PbB, PbU, and ZPP were 30 micrograms/dl (1.5 mumol/l), 0.045 mg/l (0.2 mumol/l), and 40 micrograms/dl (0.7 mumol/l), respectively. The PbB, PbU, free erythrocyte protoporphyrin, and ZPP levels and the blood aminolevulinic dehydratase ratio could be used as indicators of lead exposure, although ZPP is preferred for a preventive monitoring program. The motor and sensory conduction velocities of the median nerve were slower in the exposed groups than in the reference group. No effects on behavioral function were observed among the solderers. PMID:3832431

Wang, Y L; Lu, P K; Chen, Z Q; Liang, Y X; Lu, Q M; Pan, Z Q; Shao, M

1985-01-01

58

Exposure and dose modelling in occupational epidemiology  

PubMed Central

Complex and dynamic physiologic processes underlie the exposure?response relations that occupational and environmental epidemiologists study. Simple summary measures of exposure such as the average, cumulative exposure, or duration of exposure, can be applied suitably in exposure?response analyses in many instances. However, there are situations where these metrics may not be directly proportional to risk, in which case their use will result in misclassification and biased estimates of exposure?response associations. We outline methods for developing exposure or dose metrics which may reduce misclassification, as illustrated with some recent examples. Selecting better exposure or dose metrics can be thought of as a problem of choosing appropriate weights on the exposure history of each cohort member. Dosimetric modeling involves choosing exposure weights based on formal hypotheses about underlying physiologic or pathogenetic processes. Dosimetric modeling is still not widely used in epidemiology, and so the forms of mathematical models and the criteria for choosing one model over another are not yet standardized. We hope to stimulate further applications through this presentation.

Kriebel, David; Checkoway, Harvey; Pearce, Neil

2007-01-01

59

Exposure and dose modelling in occupational epidemiology.  

PubMed

Complex and dynamic physiologic processes underlie the exposure-response relations that occupational and environmental epidemiologists study. Simple summary measures of exposure such as the average, cumulative exposure, or duration of exposure, can be applied suitably in exposure-response analyses in many instances. However, there are situations where these metrics may not be directly proportional to risk, in which case their use will result in misclassification and biased estimates of exposure-response associations. We outline methods for developing exposure or dose metrics which may reduce misclassification, as illustrated with some recent examples. Selecting better exposure or dose metrics can be thought of as a problem of choosing appropriate weights on the exposure history of each cohort member. Dosimetric modeling involves choosing exposure weights based on formal hypotheses about underlying physiologic or pathogenetic processes. Dosimetric modeling is still not widely used in epidemiology, and so the forms of mathematical models and the criteria for choosing one model over another are not yet standardized. We hope to stimulate further applications through this presentation. PMID:17582090

Kriebel, David; Checkoway, Harvey; Pearce, Neil

2007-07-01

60

Dementia and occupational exposure to organic solvents  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether occupational exposure to organic solvents increases the risk of dementia. METHODS: Cases of dementia were identified from the computed tomography records of eight neuroradiology centres in England and Wales, and were compared with two sets of controls investigated at the same centres. The first set of controls were patients with brain cancer and the second set were patients with other disorders that were not chronically disabling. Lifetime occupational histories were obtained through a postal questionnaire completed by the subjects or their next of kin. Associations between dementia and occupation were examined by logistic regression. RESULTS: Usable questionnaires were returned for 204 (61%) of the cases, 225 (51%) of the controls with brain cancer, and 441 (61%) of the other controls. The findings with each of the two sets of controls were similar. In comparison with all controls combined, cases had less often worked ever as a painter or printer (odds ratio (OR) 0.6, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.3 to 1.2), and were less likely to have worked for > 1 year as a printer, painter, or launderer or dry cleaner (OR 0.6, 95% CI 0.3 to 1.4). CONCLUSIONS: These findings provide no support for the hypothesis that occupational exposure to solvents is a cause of dementia. An excess risk in subsets of workers with extremes of exposure cannot be discounted, but the data indicate that any influence of exposure to solvents on the overall incidence of severe dementia in the general population of England and Wales is small.  

Palmer, K.; Inskip, H.; Martyn, C.; Coggon, D.

1998-01-01

61

Nasal mucosa in workers exposed to formaldehyde: a pilot study.  

PubMed Central

This study evaluates the histological changes, especially the presence of possible precancerous lesions, in the nasal mucosa of workers exposed to formaldehyde. Nasal biopsies of 37 workers occupationally exposed to formaldehyde for more than five years and 37 age matched referents showed a higher degree of metaplastic alterations in the former group. In addition, three cases of epithelial dysplasia were observed among the exposed. These results indicate that formaldehyde may be potentially carcinogenic to man. Combination of this finding with the inconclusive epidemiological studies suggests that formaldehyde is a weak carcinogen and that occupational exposure to formaldehyde alone is insufficient to induce nasal cancer. Images

Boysen, M; Zadig, E; Digernes, V; Abeler, V; Reith, A

1990-01-01

62

Olfactory impairment after chronic occupational cadmium exposure.  

PubMed

Disorders of olfaction affect millions of Americans, but the extent to which occupational and environmental exposures contribute to these disorders is unknown. We examined 55 workers with chronic occupational exposure to cadmium fumes in a brazing operation. We estimated cadmium body burden using urinary cadmium levels and assessed cadmium-induced renal damage by urinary beta 2-microglobulin levels. We quantified olfactory function using a standardized test that measured two components of olfaction, butanol detection threshold and odor identification, and compared workers with a reference group. Forty-four percent of the cadmium-exposed workers were mildly hyposmic, and 13% were either moderately or severely hyposmic. In the reference group, 31% were mildly hyposmic, and the rest were normosmic. The workers with both high urinary cadmium levels and tubular proteinuria had the most significant olfactory dysfunction, with a selective defect in odor detection threshold. Our findings suggest that chronic occupational cadmium exposure sufficient to cause renal damage also is associated with impairment in olfactory function. PMID:1619490

Rose, C S; Heywood, P G; Costanzo, R M

1992-06-01

63

[Subacute hypersensitivity pneumonitis after occupational mold exposure].  

PubMed

Mold-induced hypersensitivity pneumonitis is a rare and usually slowly progressing disorder. Therefore, the diagnosis and etiological investigations may be challenging and may often cause delay, despite the fact that early diagnosis and avoidance of the disease inducing agent are essential for the management of the disease. When appropriately treated, hypersensitivity pneumonitis is usually a relatively benign disorder. Irreversible pulmonary fibrosis may develop in cases of prolonged exposure. The disorder is considered as an occupational disease if the sufficient exposure occurs at workplace. PMID:23786111

Eerikäinen, Johanna; Nynäs, Pia; Uitti, Jukka

2013-01-01

64

Formaldehyde concentrations in biology department teaching facilities  

SciTech Connect

As students and faculty in the biological sciences can attest, low grade exposure to formaldehyde by skin contact and inhalation during dissection is quite irritating. Health effects noted upon exposure to formaldehyde at concentrations of 0.1 to 5 ppm are burning of the eyes, lacrimation, and general irritation to the upper respiratory passages. Symptoms reported for higher exposures, 10 to 20 ppm, include coughing, tightening of the chest, headache and palpitation of the heart. Long exposures at 50 to 100 ppm or more might result in pulmonary edema, pneumonitis, and even death. There is also concern with regard to potential long term detrimental effects. Formaldehyde has been cited as a possible carcinogen in animals. It is a known mutagen in laboratory experimental systems involving Drosophilia, grasshoppers, flowering plants, fungi and bacteria. Animal testing has led investigators to postulate that the primary damage resulting from formaldehyde exposure may involve DNA synthesis and ribosomal RNA transcription. The National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health Administration (NIOSH) investigators have been studying occupational exposure to formaldehyde for over a decade in a variety of industries. This study was undertaken to assess formaldehyde concentrations in biology department dissecting facilities in the 1982-1983 academic year in order if routine dissection produces levels of formaldehyde which were unsafe according to NIOSH and OSHA standards. Chronic formaldehyde exposure is cause for greater concern than incidental exposure.

Korky, J.K.; Schwarz, S.R.; Lustigman, B.K.

1987-05-01

65

DOE 2012 Occupational Radiation Exposure October 2013  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Analysis within the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report to provide an overview of the status of radiation protection practices at DOE (including the National Nuclear Security Administration [NNSA]). The DOE 2012 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report provides an evaluation of DOE-wide performance regarding compliance with Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations (C.F.R.), Part 835, Occupational Radiation Protection dose limits and as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) process requirements. In addition, the report provides data to DOE organizations responsible for developing policies for protection of individuals from the adverse health effects of radiation. The report provides a summary and an analysis of occupational radiation exposure information from the monitoring of individuals involved in DOE activities. Over the past 5-year period, the occupational radiation exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site. As an indicator of the overall amount of radiation dose received during the conduct of operations at DOE, the report includes information on collective total effective dose (TED). The TED is comprised of the effective dose (ED) from external sources, which includes neutron and photon radiation, and the internal committed effective dose (CED), which results from the intake of radioactive material into the body. The collective ED from photon exposure decreased by 23% between 2011 and 2012, while the neutron dose increased by 5%. The internal dose components of the collective TED decreased by 7%. Over the past 5-year period, 99.99% of the individuals receiving measurable TED have received doses below the 2 roentgen equivalent in man (rems) (20 millisievert [mSv]) TED administrative control level (ACL), which is well below the DOE regulatory limit of 5 rems (50 mSv) TED annually. The occupational radiation exposure records show that in 2012, DOE facilities continued to comply with DOE dose limits and ACLs and worked to minimize exposure to individuals. The DOE collective TED decreased 17.1% from 2011 to 2012. The collective TED decreased at three of the five sites with the largest collective TED. u Idaho Site – Collective dose reductions were achieved as a result of continuing improvements at the Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Project (AMWTP) through the planning of drum movements that reduced the number of times a container is handled; placement of waste containers that created highradiation areas in a centralized location; and increased worker awareness of high-dose rate areas. In addition, Idaho had the largest decrease in the total number of workers with measurable TED (1,143 fewer workers). u Hanford Site (Hanford) – An overall reduction of decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) activities at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) and Transuranic (TRU) retrieval activities resulted in collective dose reductions. u Savannah River Site (SRS) – Reductions were achieved through ALARA initiatives employed site wide. The Solid Waste Management Facility used extended specialty tools, cameras and lead shield walls to facilitate removal of drums. These tools and techniques reduce exposure time through improved efficiency, increase distance from the source of radiation by remote monitoring, shield the workers to lower the dose rate, and reduce the potential for contamination and release of material through repacking of waste. Overall, from 2011 to 2012, there was a 19% decrease in the number of workers with measurable dose. Furthermore, due to a slight decrease in both the DOE workforce (7%) and monitored workers (10%), the ratio of workers with measurable doses to monitored workers decreased to 13%. Another primary indicator of the level of radiation exposure covered in this report is the average measurable dose, which normalizes the collective dose over the population of workers who actually received a measurable dose. The average measurable TED in

none,

2012-02-02

66

Investigation of Exposure to Formaldehyde from Preserved Biological Specimens. Status Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This investigation of formaldehyde exposure in school laboratories, where its principal source is from preserved biological specimens, was undertaken because of concern over exposure levels reported in the literature. Information was obtained in two ways. A limited survey of schools was conducted to determine extent of students' use of preserved…

Consumer Product Safety Commission, Washington, DC.

67

Occupational diesel exhaust exposure as a risk factor for COPD  

PubMed Central

Purpose of Review Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a major source of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Although cigarette smoking is the major cause of COPD, occupational exposures have emerged as an important risk factor, especially in nonsmokers. In this review we assess the state of the literature on the association of COPD with a specific occupational exposure, diesel exhaust. Recent Findings A large body of literature links general occupational exposures to dust and fumes with an increased risk of COPD, particularly in nonsmokers. Few studies, however, have explicitly examined the role of occupational diesel exhaust exposures to COPD risk. Suggestive recent findings link occupational diesel exposures to an increased risk of COPD, Summary The available literature directly examining the effects of occupational diesel exhaust on risk of COPD is quite small, but does suggest that increasing exposures are associated with increasing risk. Additional research, with more advanced exposure metrics is needed to fully elucidate this association.

Hart, Jaime E; Eisen, Ellen A; Laden, Francine

2013-01-01

68

Occupational Exposure to Nanoparticles and Medical Safety  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The problem of occupational exposure to nanoparticles (NP) has raised many questions which remain unanswered today: When airborne NPs, either dissociated or more commonly in the form of aggregates, are inhaled by humans, will they produce a biological and/or tissular response where they are deposited, i.e., in the respiratory tract, or at some distance from the deposition area, i.e., an indirect effect secondary to the inflammatory response of the respiratory tract or a direct effect due to translocation of nanoparticles through the biological membranes?

Brochard, Patrick; Bloch, Daniel; Pairon, Jean-Claude

69

DOE 2008 Occupational Radiation Exposure October 2009  

SciTech Connect

A major priority of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is to ensure the health, safety, and security of DOE employees, contractors, and subcontractors. The Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) provides the corporate-level leadership and strategic vision necessary to better coordinate and integrate health, safety, environment, security, enforcement, and independent oversight programs. One function that supports this mission is the DOE Corporate Operating Experience Program that provides collection, analysis, and dissemination of performance indicators, such as occupational radiation exposure information. This analysis supports corporate decision-making and synthesizes operational information to support continuous environment, safety, and health improvement across the DOE complex.

U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security

2009-10-01

70

Metallothionein and occupational exposure to cadmium.  

PubMed Central

The relationship between metallothionein (MT), chronic exposure to cadmium (Cd), and renal function was investigated in 53 men who were occupationally exposed to Cd. The aim was to determine if MT is a potential biological monitor for chronic exposure to Cd which would be useful for preventing Cd nephropathy. In this study MT excretion, serum MT, and serum creatinine concentrations were significantly higher in subjects with abnormal renal function who had been exposed to Cd. MT excretion was also linearly related on an individual basis to protein excretion, beta 2-microglobulin (beta 2-M) excretion, and cumulative time weighted exposure (dose). MT excretion was also a better predictor of dose than either beta 2-M excretion or Cd excretion. The findings suggest that MT is a potential biological monitor for chronic Cd exposure that would be useful for preventing Cd-induced nephropathy. Further studies of non-specific nephropathies and MT are needed to determine if MT is a specific indicator of proximal tubule function secondary to chronic exposure to Cd.

Falck, F Y; Fine, L J; Smith, R G; Garvey, J; Schork, A; England, B; McClatchey, K D; Linton, J

1983-01-01

71

Therapeutic associated with occupational exposure to silica.  

PubMed

Occupational exposure to silica dust has been increasing the possible risk of varieties of pathologies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the protective activity of ethanolic extract of Glycyrrhiza glabra roots at doses of 500 and 1000 mg/kg, p.o., given for 7 days against the toxicity of SiO(2) nanoparticles (50mg/kg intraperitoneal for 6 weeks) in rats. Exposure to silica altered various respiratory and biochemical variables, including ALT, AST, albumin, urea, uric acid, creatinine, catalase, LPO and GSH. Treatments with G. glabra extract significantly improved antioxidant status towards control. Stone workers in the Gwalior region exposed to silica dust had higher prevalence of cough, wheezing and shortness of breath. Increased serum ACE level was noted in the silica exposed group. It is of immense need to monitor this problem for betterment of worker's health. PMID:22575538

Raghuvanshi, Suchita; Shrivastava, Sadhana; Johri, Sonia; Shukla, Sangeeta

2012-06-01

72

Occupational exposure to cadmium and lung function.  

PubMed

A total of 69 male subjects occupationally exposed to cadmium fumes in a factory producing silver-cadmium-copper alloys for brazing, were subjected to lung function tests, including ventilation (FVC and FEV1), residual volume (RV) and alveolar-capillary diffusion capacity (TLCO and KCO). For each subject, the cumulative exposure to cadmium was calculated as the product of the number of years in the job and the average atmospheric concentration of cadmium (expressed in micrograms/m3) encountered each year. Cadmium-exposed subjects had moderately higher mean values of RV (+ 8%) as compared with the control group; the increase was greater (+ 10%) in the subgroup of workers with greater cumulative exposure to cadmium. No significant differences were observed in FVC, FEV1, TLCO and KCO. PMID:1303942

Cortona, G; Apostoli, P; Toffoletto, F; Baldasseroni, A; Ghezzi, I; Goggi, E; Fornari, S; Alessio, L

1992-01-01

73

Occupational exposure to dust: inflammation and ischaemic heart disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES: To review the possible association between occupational exposure to dust and ischaemic heart disease (IHD). METHODS: A literature search was performed of relevant studies regarding IHD in specific exposures to dust. The chosen exposures were arsenic, asbestos, beryllium, lead, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and quartz. The chosen occupations were farmers, paper and paper pulp workers, sawyers, and welders. DISCUSSION: A

B Sjögren

1997-01-01

74

41 CFR 50-204.10 - Occupational noise exposure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Occupational noise exposure. 50-204.10 Section 50-204...Standards § 50-204.10 Occupational noise exposure. (a) Protection against the effects of noise exposure shall be provided when the...

2013-07-01

75

Occupational Exposure to Metalworking Fluid Mist and Sump Fluid Contaminants  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper summarizes the analytical and occupational hygiene findings from a recent survey of occupational exposure to metalworking fluids (MWFs) in the engineering industry. The aim of the survey was to link MWF mist exposure measurements with particular engineering processes and controls, and utilize the data obtained to develop exposure standards. At the same time the opportunity was taken to

A. T. SIMPSON; M. STEAR; J. A. GROVES; M. PINEY; S. D. BRADLEY; S. STAGG; B. CROOK

2003-01-01

76

Environmental and Occupational Exposures in Immigrant Health  

PubMed Central

Immigrants comprise vulnerable populations that are frequently exposed to a multitude of environmental and occupational hazards. The historical context behind state and federal legislation has helped to foster an environment that is particularly hostile toward caring for immigrant health. Current hazards include toxic exposures, air and noise pollution, motor vehicle accidents, crowded living and work environments with inadequate ventilation, poor sanitation, mechanical injury, among many others. Immigrants lack the appropriate training, materials, health care access, and other resources to reduce their exposure to preventable environmental and occupational health risks. This dilemma is exacerbated by current anti-immigrant sentiments, miscommunication between native and immigrant populations, and legislation denying immigrants access to publicly funded medical care. Given that current health policy has failed to address immigrant health appropriately and political impetus is lacking, efforts should also focus on alternative solutions, including organized labor. Labor unions that serve to educate workers, survey work environments, and defend worker rights will greatly alleviate and prevent the burden of disease incurred by immigrants. The nation’s health will benefit from improved regulation of living and workplace environments to improve the health of immigrants, regardless of legal status.

Eamranond, Pracha P.; Hu, Howard

2008-01-01

77

Measurements of Pilots' Occupational Solar UV Exposure.  

PubMed

It is known that ultraviolet radiation (UVR) increases by 10-12% every 1000 m altitude; UVR at the 10 000 m of typical cruise altitude for commercial aircraft may be 2-3 times higher than at ground level. Information on the levels of solar UV exposures is essential for the assessment of the occupational risk of pilots developing sun-related eye disorders and skin cancers. The aim of the study was to investigate how UV hazard exposures can be measured during flights so that the occupational dose can be ascertained and compared with international guidance. This article describes the development of instrumentation for automated time-stamped spectral measurements which were collected using bespoke automation software. The software enables the advanced acquisition techniques of automated dark signal capture and multiband integration control optimizing the dynamic performance of the spectrometer over the full spectral range. The equipment was successfully tested in a number of aircraft and helicopter flights during 2012-2013 and illustrated in this article on an example of a Gatwick-Alicante flight. PMID:24617948

Chorley, Adrian; Higlett, Michael; Baczynska, Katarzyna; Hunter, Robert; Khazova, Marina

2014-07-01

78

The interntional system on occupational exposure, ISOE  

SciTech Connect

The Information System on Occupational Exposure (ISOE) was initiated by the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) in 1992 to facilitate the global exchange of dose information. The goal of the program is to provide timely benchmarking of dose performance at nuclear power plants and promote effective dose reduction practices. Currently, over 300 nuclear power plants (70% of the world`s operating plants), representing 17 countries, participate in ISOE making it one of the largest occupational exposure data bases in the world. National regulatory authorities from 11 countries also participate. The recent developments in the ISOE data base and software enhancement will be discussed in this paper. Also, global trends will be presented comparing dose by plant, country, type of reactor, age of reactor, total annual dose, outage dose, dose per outage task and historical dose. Results of software development committee`s work on ACCESS applications for the ISOE data base will be presented. Finally, highlights of technical reports from regional ISOE centers including Illinois, Paris, Tokyo, and Vienna will be summarized.

Lazo, T. [OECD Nuclear Energy Agency, Issy-les-Moulineaux (France); Miller, D.W. [Illinois Power Co., Clinton, IL (United States)

1996-06-01

79

Psychiatric disorders and occupational exposure to solvents.  

PubMed Central

Three hundred and eighty one men admitted to hospital for the first time with any psychiatric diagnosis were individually matched for age and year to patients admitted to general hospitals. An occupational history was obtained from 90% of this study group by telephone interview or mail. Exposure to solvents was assessed by three methods, individual rating of each job recorded, application of an exposure matrix based on job title, and assessment of lifetime job histories of selected case-referent pairs. A sample of individual ratings used in the analysis was compared with ratings made by five experts. The panel values tended to be lower but all six sets of ratings correlated well. There was no increased risk of psychiatric illness among subjects exposed to moderate or greater solvent concentrations for at least 10 years (odds ratio (OR) 1.0, 90% confidence interval (90% CI) 0.7-1.4, individual rating; OR 1.1, 90% CI 0.6-2.0, job title matrix; OR 0.9, 90% CI 0.5-1.7, lifetime assessments). At higher exposures the risk was increased--although not to a statistically significant degree--especially for cases with non-psychotic diagnoses (ICD-9 codes 300-316). This negative result, by all three methods of assessment of exposure, contrasted with that from a parallel investigation of cases of organic psychoses and cerebral degeneration.

Labreche, F P; Cherry, N M; McDonald, J C

1992-01-01

80

Neuropsychological symptoms and occupational exposure to anaesthetics.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE--To analyse the relation between symptoms regularly reported by hospital personnel and exposure to anaesthetics. SETTING--Personnel of 18 hospitals in Paris from 1987 to 1989. DESIGN--An exposed group that included all operating theatre members except for doctors, and which was divided into three subgroups depending on the degree of exposure--exposure was measured by the frequency of the use of the scavenging system--and a control group that included other hospital personnel matched by hospital, sex, occupation, age, and duration of service. SUBJECTS--557 exposed workers and 566 unexposed workers. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--The groups were compared according to the crude rates of regular symptoms. Adjusted odds ratios were calculated to estimate the risks associated with exposure to anaesthetic gas. Liver transaminase activities (alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase (s-ASAT, and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase) were measured and compared between groups of exposure. RESULTS--After controlling for working conditions and matching factors, neuropsychological symptoms and tiredness were reported more by workers in less often scavenged theatres than by controls. No difference was found between workers of the well scavenged theatres and controls. Among the exposed workers, the members of paediatric surgical staffs reported a higher rate of neurological complaints (tingling, numbness, cramps) and tiredness than the members of the other surgical staffs. They had a high value of s-ASAT more frequently than the other exposed workers. CONCLUSION--These results strengthen the hypothesis of a causal relation between exposure to anaesthetics and neuropsychological symptoms, and show a dose-response effect. They suggest that the use of ventilating systems in operating rooms is an effective means of prevention.

Saurel-Cubizolles, M J; Estryn-Behar, M; Maillard, M F; Mugnier, N; Masson, A; Monod, G

1992-01-01

81

Occupational exposures and pancreatic cancer: a meta-analysis  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES—Consolidation of epidemiological data on pancreatic cancer and worksite exposures.?METHODS—Publications during 1969-98 were surveyed. Studies without verified exposures were excluded. Meta-analyses were conducted on data from 92 studies covering 161 populations, with results for 23 agents or groups of agents. With a standard format, five epidemiologists extracted risk estimates and variables of the structure and quality of each study. The extracted data were centrally checked. Random meta-models were applied.?RESULTS—Based on 20 populations, exposure to chlorinated hydrocarbon (CHC) solvents and related compounds was associated with a meta-risk ratio (MRR) of 1.4 (95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.0 to 1.8). Nickel and nickel compounds were considered in four populations (1.9; 1.2 to 3.2). Excesses were found also for chromium and chromium compounds (1.4; 0.9 to 2.3), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) (1.5; 0.9 to 2.5), organochlorine insecticides (1.5; 0.6 to 3.7), silica dust (1.4; 0.9 to 2.0), and aliphatic and alicyclic hydrocarbon solvents (1.3; 0.8 to 2.8). Evidence on pancreatic carcinogenicity was weak or non-positive for the following agents: acrylonitrile (1.1; 0.0 to 6.2); arsenic (1.0; 0.6 to 1.5); asbestos (1.1; 0.9 to 1.5); diesel engine exhaust (1.0; 0.9 to 1.3); electromagnetic fields (1.1; 0.8 to 1.4); formaldehyde (0.8; 0.5 to 1.0); flour dust (1.1; 0.3 to 3.2); cadmium and cadmium compounds (0.7; 0.4 to 1.4); gasoline (1.0; 0.8 to 1.2); herbicides (1.0; 0.8 to 1.3); iron and iron compounds (1.3; 0.7 to 2.5); lead and lead compounds (1.1; 0.8 to 1.5); man-made vitreous fibres (1.0; 0.6 to 1.6); oil mist (0.9; 0.8 to 1.0); and wood dust (1.1; 0.9 to 2.5). The occupational aetiological fraction of pancreatic cancer was estimated at 12%. In a subpopulation exposed to CHC solvents and related compounds, it was 29%; to chromium and chromium compounds, 23%; to nickel and nickel compounds, 47%; to insecticides, 33%; and to PAHs, 33%.?CONCLUSION—Occupational exposures may increase risk of pancreatic cancer. High quality studies are called for on interactions between occupational, environmental, and lifestyle factors as well as interactions between genes and the environment.???Keywords: pancreatic cancer; occupational exposure; meta-analysis

Ojajarvi, I; Partanen, T.; Ahlbom, A.; Boffetta, P.; Hakulinen, T.; Jourenkova, N.; Kauppinen, T.; Kogevinas, M.; Porta, M.; Vainio, H.; Weiderpass, E.; Wesseling, C.

2000-01-01

82

61 FR 9380 - Occupational Exposure to 1,3-Butadiene  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...BD-induced health effects. The proposed...occupational exposure to BD to 2...less frequent exposures for employees...to reduce exposures below the...protection, communication of hazards...data shows exposure could exceed...required if all exposures are at or...feasible or effective. a. A...

1996-03-08

83

125I Measurements for Occupational Exposure Assessment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Whenever there is a risk of occupational exposure to dispersible radioactive material, it is necessary to have a monitoring program to assess the effective dose arising from the intake of radionuclides by workers. In this paper we present our experience in bioassay measurements of 125I in urine samples of workers using high resolution gamma spectrometry. For a 24-hour excretion period, we found activity values of the order of one Bq and estimated the committed effective doses to be less than one ?Sv. Although very small, these values led to a re-evaluation and improvement of the laboratory safety conditions. We discuss the calibration procedure followed for the activity measurements, the estimation of the uncertainty in the excreted activity, the calculation of detection and quantification limits and estimation of performance indicators. Aspects regarding the spectral analysis, true coincidence summing and matrix effects are also considered.

Silva, L.; Pinha~O, N. R.

2008-08-01

84

Exposure Measurement Action Level and Occupational Environmental Variability.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The proposed Occupational Safety and Health Administration Health Standards define an exposure measurement action level as one half of the current permissible exposure limits. The action level is the point at which certain provisions of the proposed stand...

N. A. Leidel K. A. Busch W. E. Crouse

1975-01-01

85

OCCUPATIONAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL PESTICIDE EXPOSURE STUDY IN SOUTH FLORIDA  

EPA Science Inventory

The investigation was designed to assess the occupational and environmental exposure to pesticides in South Florida, an area where pesticides are widely used. In addition to the conventional approach for measuring exposure to organophosphates and carbamates by means of cholineste...

86

Occupational exposure and laryngeal and hypopharyngeal cancer risk in central and eastern Europe  

SciTech Connect

A multicenter case-control study was conducted during 1999-2002 in four European countries (Poland, Romania, Russia, and Slovakia) to evaluate the role of occupational exposures in risk of laryngeal/hypopharyngeal cancer. Male cancer cases (34 hypopharyngeal, 316 laryngeal) with full data on occupational history and nonoccupational factors were compared with 728 hospital controls for occupational exposure to 73 suspected carcinogens. Occupational history was evaluated by industrial hygienists blinded to case/control status. Elevated risks for over exposure to coal dust were found for both hypopharyngeal (odds ratio (OR) = 4.19, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.18, 14.89) and laryngeal (OR = 1.81, 95% CI: 0.94, 3.47) cancer, with clear dose-response patterns. Inclusion of a 20-year lag in the analysis strengthened these associations. Hypopharyngeal cancer risk was also significantly associated with exposure to mild steel dust (OR = 3.04, 95% CI: 1.39, 6.64) and iron compounds and fumes (OR = 2.74, 95% CI: 1.29, 5.84), without clear dose-response relations. Laryngeal cancer was significantly associated with exposure to hard-alloys dust (OR = 2.23, 95% CI: 1.08, 4.57) and chlorinated solvents (OR = 2.18, 95% CI: 1.03, 4.61), without dose-response relations. A possible link between high formaldehyde exposure and laryngeal cancer was suggested. These data indicate that occupational exposure to coal dust may play a role in laryngeal and hypopharyngeal cancer. Other possible relations need further evaluation.

Shangina, O.; Brennan, P.; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, N.; Mates, D.; Fabianova, E.; Fletcher, T.; Mannetje, A.; Boffetta, P.; Zaridze, D. [International Agency for Research Center, Lyon (France)

2006-08-15

87

Characterization of Formaldehyde Exposure Resulting from the Use of Four Professional Hair Straightening Products  

Microsoft Academic Search

An exposure simulation study was conducted to characterize potential formaldehyde exposures of salon workers and clients during keratin hair smoothing treatments. Four different hair treatment brands (Brazilian Blowout, Coppola, Global Keratin, and La Brasiliana) were applied to separate human hair wigs mounted on mannequin heads. Short-term (6–16 min) and long-term (41–371 min) personal and area samples (at distances of 0.5

J. S. Pierce; A. Abelmann; L. J. Spicer; R. E. Adams; M. E. Glynn; K. Neier; B. L. Finley; S. H. Gaffney

2011-01-01

88

Electric and magnetic field exposure, chemical exposure, and leukemia risk in electrical'' occupations  

SciTech Connect

This project was conducted to address what are the extremely low frequency (ELF) magnetic and electric field exposures of workers in electrical'' occupations and do they exceed exposures encountered in non-electrical'' occupations and what are the chemical and physical exposures in the electrical'' occupations and do they exceed exposures encountered in non-electrical'' occupations Two subsidiary issues were does characterization and quantification of ELF magnetic field exposure in the electrical'' occupations provide data to support a dose response relationship between leukemia risk and electric or magnetic field exposure and do dffferences in chemical exposure between the occupations help explain the previously observed leukemia risk associated with these electrical'' occupations Data were collected in 3 regions in which electrical workers had been reported to have an excess of leukemia - New Zealand, Los Angeles and Seattle Measurements of magnetic fields were made on 493 electrical workers and 163 non-electrical workers.

Bowman, J.D.; Sobel, E.; London, S.J.; Thomas, D.C.; Garabrant, D.H.; Pearce, N.; Peters, J.M. (University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Preventive Medicine)

1992-12-01

89

Lung function: occupational exposure to wood dust  

PubMed Central

Objectives Occupational exposure to wood dust has been shown to cause several respiratory disorders, such as allergic rhinitis, chronic bronchitis, asthma, sino-nasal adenocarcinoma, and impairment of lung function. The aim of the study was to estimate lung function (in the woodworking industry) among workers employed by wood processing, who run the risk of being expose to wood dust. Methods The study concerns a group of 70 workers aged 24-55. All the workers underwent general and laryngological examination. A group of 20 workers, working at the positions where dustiness exceeded TLV (threshold limit value) took X-ray of the chest and spirometry. The following parameters were measured: VC, IC, ERV, TV, BF, FEV1, FVC, PEF, MEF25-75, FEV1%FVC, FEV1%VC. The data are presented as means ± SD and the authors applied references values according to ERS guidelines. Results The results show that there was no decline in FEV1 (3.7 ± 0.7) and FVC (4.5 ± 0.8). Normal lung function was defined as FEV1/VC ratio ?0.7. None of the tested workers had obstructive pattern in spirometry. The mean FEV1%VC was 77.1 ± 10.2. These results suggest that wood dust exposure might not lead to significant pulmonary damage. Conclusions These data do not corroborate that wood dust plays significant role in lung function impairment. Future studies of respiratory health among workers exposed to wood dust are needed.

2009-01-01

90

Exposure to repeated low-level formaldehyde in rats increases basal corticosterone levels and enhances the corticosterone response to subsequent formaldehyde  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low-level exposure to volatile organic compounds may produce symptoms in humans reporting multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) through altered hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis functioning. We determined whether repeated formaldehyde (Form) exposure would alter corticosterone (CORT) levels in a rat model of MCS. Male Sprague–Dawley rats were given acute chamber exposures to Air or Form (0.7 or 2.4 ppm), and trunk blood was

Barbara A Sorg; Tiffany M Bailie; Matthew L Tschirgi; Na Li; Wei-Ran Wu

2001-01-01

91

Use of Physical Chemistry and In vivo Exposure to Investigate the Toxicity of Formaldehyde Bound to Carbonaceous Particles in the Murine Lung.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The research investigated whether exposure to formaldehyde decreases resistance to respiratory infections through dysfunctions of the alveolar macrophage phagocytic system. The study also explored whether interactions between formaldehyde and respirable c...

G. J. Jakab T. H. Risby D. R. Hemenway

1992-01-01

92

Effects of occupational exposure - is there a link between exposure based on an occupational questionnaire and semen quality?  

PubMed

Abstract Several studies have suggested that human semen quality has declined over past decades and some have associated decline with occupational exposures. Many studies have been conducted in occupational settings, where exposure to occupational pollutants is intense. Our objective was to examine the association between exposure to occupational factors based on an occupational exposure questionnaire, and semen quality parameters (sperm concentration, motility, sperm morphology) and sperm chromatin structure. The study population consisted of 336 men who were attending an infertility clinic for diagnostic purposes and who had a normal semen concentration of ?15?mln/ml according to WHO criteria. All participants were interviewed and provided a semen sample. Additionally, a detailed questionnaire about the exposure to occupational factors was performed among the study participants. The results of the study suggest that occupational factors may affect semen quality. The exposure to noise during work was associated with decreased motility and increased DNA damage (p?=?0.005 and p?=?0.02, respectively). Exposure to polyvinyl chloride (PVC) decreased sperm concentration and motility (p?=?0.02 and p?=?0.03, respectively). Whereas exposure to high temperatures and sitting for more than 6 hours during work was positively associated with DNA fragmentation index (DFI) (p?=?0.03 and p?=?0.001, respectively). After applying the correction for multiple comparisons only the exposure to noise and sitting ?6 hours during work was associated with poorer semen quality (decreased motility and increased DFI, respectively). This study showed associations between self-reported occupational exposures and impaired semen parameters. The occupational exposure questionnaire may be useful in clinical practice for patients and physicians to identify the work factors associated with poorer semen quality. PMID:24702586

Jurewicz, Joanna; Radwan, Micha?; Sobala, Wojciech; Radwan, Pawe?; Bochenek, Micha?; Hanke, Wojciech

2014-08-01

93

Health and safety implications of occupational exposure to engineered nanomaterials.  

PubMed

The rapid growth and commercialization of nanotechnology are currently outpacing health and safety recommendations for engineered nanomaterials. As the production and use of nanomaterials increase, so does the possibility that there will be exposure of workers and the public to these materials. This review provides a summary of current research and regulatory efforts related to occupational exposure and medical surveillance for the nanotechnology workforce, focusing on the most prevalent industrial nanomaterials currently moving through the research, development, and manufacturing pipelines. Their applications and usage precedes a discussion of occupational health and safety efforts, including exposure assessment, occupational health surveillance, and regulatory considerations for these nanomaterials. PMID:22131295

Stebounova, Larissa V; Morgan, Hallie; Grassian, Vicki H; Brenner, Sara

2012-01-01

94

Occupational exposure to dusts and risk of renal cell carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Background: Occupational exposures to dusts have generally been examined in relation to cancers of the respiratory system and have rarely been examined in relation to other cancers, such as renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Although previous epidemiological studies, though few, have shown certain dusts, such as asbestos, to increase renal cancer risk, the potential for other occupational dust exposures to cause kidney damage and/or cancer may exist. We investigated whether asbestos, as well as 20 other occupational dust exposures, were associated with RCC risk in a large European, multi-center, hospital-based renal case–control study. Methods: General occupational histories and job-specific questionnaires were reviewed by occupational hygienists for subject-specific information. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) between RCC risk and exposures were calculated using unconditional logistic regression. Results: Among participants ever exposed to dusts, significant associations were observed for glass fibres (OR: 2.1; 95% CI: 1.1–3.9), mineral wool fibres (OR: 2.5; 95% CI: 1.2–5.1), and brick dust (OR: 1.5; 95% CI: 1.0–2.4). Significant trends were also observed with exposure duration and cumulative exposure. No association between RCC risk and asbestos exposure was observed. Conclusion: Results suggest that increased RCC risk may be associated with occupational exposure to specific types of dusts. Additional studies are needed to replicate and extend findings.

Karami, S; Boffetta, P; Stewart, P S; Brennan, P; Zaridze, D; Matveev, V; Janout, V; Kollarova, H; Bencko, V; Navratilova, M; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, N; Mates, D; Gromiec, J; Slamova, A; Chow, W-H; Rothman, N; Moore, L E

2011-01-01

95

Outdoor Formaldehyde and NO2 Exposures and Markers of Genotoxicity in Children Living Near Chipboard Industries  

PubMed Central

Background: Industrial air pollution is a public health hazard. Previous evidence documented increased respiratory symptoms and hospitalizations in children who live near the factories in the largest chipboard manufacturing district in Italy (Viadana). Objectives: We evaluated the association of outdoor exposure to formaldehyde and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) with markers of early genotoxic damage in oral mucosa cells of randomly selected children (6–12 years of age) living in Viadana. Methods: In 2010–2011, DNA strand breaks and nuclear abnormalities were evaluated in exfoliated buccal cells by the comet and micronucleus assays, respectively, and formaldehyde and NO2 were monitored by passive sampling. Annual exposure estimates to pollutants were assigned to children’s houses by spatial interpolation. Results: Of 656 children, 413 (63%) participated. Children living near (< 2 km) the chipboard industries had the highest average exposure to formaldehyde and NO2 (p < 0.001). A 1-SD increase in formaldehyde (0.20 ?g/m3) was associated with a 0.13% (95% CI: 0.03, 0.22%) higher comet tail intensity, a 0.007 (95% CI: 0.001, 0.012) higher tail moment, and a 12% relative increase [relative risk (RR) = 1.12; 95% CI: 1.02, 1.23] in nuclear buds. A 1-SD NO2 increase (2.13 ?g/m3) was associated with a 0.13% (95% CI: 0.07, 0.19%) increase in binucleated cells and a 16% relative increase (RR = 1.16; 95% CI: 1.06, 1.26) in nuclear buds. Conclusions: Exposure to pollutants was associated with markers of genotoxicity in exfoliated buccal cells of children living in a region with chipboard industries. These findings, combined with previously reported associations between chipboard industrial activities and respiratory outcomes in children, add to concerns about potential adverse effects of industry-related exposures in the Viadana district. Citation: Marcon A, Fracasso ME, Marchetti P, Doria D, Girardi P, Guarda L, Pesce G, Pironi V, Ricci P, de Marco R. 2014. Outdoor formaldehyde and NO2 exposures and markers of genotoxicity in children living near chipboard industries. Environ Health Perspect 122:639–645;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307259

Fracasso, Maria Enrica; Marchetti, Pierpaolo; Doria, Denise; Girardi, Paolo; Guarda, Linda; Pesce, Giancarlo; Pironi, Vanda; Ricci, Paolo; de Marco, Roberto

2014-01-01

96

Psychological Effects of Occupational Exposure to Electromagnetic Fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: In psychological studies, exposure to electromagnetic field is one of the hazardous factors, which has adverse effects on mental health. Exposure to electromagnetic field due to daily use of electricity makes this study so important. The goal of this study was to determine the relationship between psychologi- cal symptoms and occupational exposure to electromagnetic field among workers at High

Yousefi HA; Nasiri P

97

Occupational Pesticide Exposures and Cancer Risk: A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

A review of the epidemiological literature linking pesticides to cancers in occupational studies worldwide was conducted, with particular focus on those articles published after the release of IARC Monograph 53 (1991): Occupational Exposures in Insecticide Applications and Some Pesticides. Important new data are now available. Chemicals in every major functional class of pesticides including insecticides, herbicide, fungicides, and fumigants have

Michael C. R. Alavanja; Matthew R. Bonner

2012-01-01

98

Criteria for a Recommended Standard. Occupational Exposure to Trichloroethylene.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report presents the criteria and the recommended standard based thereon which were prepared to meet the need for preventing occupational diseases arising from exposure to trichloroethylene. The proposed standard applies only to the processing, manufac...

1973-01-01

99

DOE occupational radiation exposure. Report 1992--1994  

SciTech Connect

The DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report, 1992-1994 reports occupational radiation exposures incurred by individuals at US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities from 1992 through 1994. This report includes occupational radiation exposure information for all DOE employees, contractors, subcontractors, and visitors. This information is analyzed and trended over time to provide a measure of the DOE`s performance in protecting its workers from radiation. Occupational radiation exposure at DOE has been decreasing over the past 5 years. In particular, doses in the higher dose ranges are decreasing, including the number of doses in excess of the DOE limits and doses in excess of the 2 rem Administrative Control Level (ACL). This is an indication of greater attention being given to protecting these individuals from radiation in the workplace.

NONE

1997-05-01

100

Criteria for a Recommended Standard... Occupational Exposure to Inorganic Lead.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report presents the criteria and the recommended standard based thereon which were prepared to meet the need for preventing occupational diseases arising from exposure to inorganic lead (lead oxides, metallic lead, and lead salts, including organic sa...

1972-01-01

101

66 FR 5318 - Occupational Exposure to Bloodborne Pathogens; Needlestick and Other Sharps Injuries; Final Rule  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...occupational exposure to bloodborne...occupational exposure to bloodborne...agenda to more effectively address sharps...bloodborne pathogen exposures from sharps...associated with exposure incidents...revolves around communication, education...selecting targeted devices...

2001-01-18

102

DOE 2010 Occupational Radiation Exposure November 2011  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses radiation protection and dose reporting requirements, presents the 2010 occupational radiation dose data trended over the past 5 years, and includes instructions to submit successful ALARA projects.

U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Analysis

2011-11-11

103

Occupational exposures and the risk of COPD: dusty trades revisited  

PubMed Central

Background The contribution of occupational exposures to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and, in particular, their potential interaction with cigarette smoking remains underappreciated. Methods We used data from the FLOW study of 1,202 subjects with COPD (of which 742 had disease classified as Stage II or above by Global Obstructive Lung Disease [GOLD] criteria) and 302 referent subjects matched by age, sex, and race, recruited from a large managed care organization. Occupational exposures were assessed using two methods: self-reported exposure to vapors, gas, dust, or fumes on the longest held job (VGDF) and a job exposure matrix (JEM) for probability of exposure based on occupation. Multivariate analysis was used to control for age, sex, race, and smoking history. The odds ratio (OR) and the adjusted population attributable fraction (PAF) associated with occupational exposure were calculated. Results VGDF exposure was associated with an increased risk of COPD (OR 2.11; 95% CI 1.59-2.82) and a PAF of 31% (95% CI 22-39%). The risk associated with high probability of workplace exposure by JEM was similar (OR 2.27; 95% CI 1.46-3.52), although the PAF was lower (13%; 95% CI 8 to 18%). These estimates were not substantively different when the analysis was limited to COPD GOLD Stage II or above. Joint exposure to both smoking and occupational factors markedly increased the risk of COPD (OR 14.1; 95% CI 9.33-21.2). Conclusions Workplace exposures are strongly associated with an increased risk of COPD. On a population level, prevention of both smoking and occupational exposures, and especially both together, is needed to prevent the global burden of disease.

Blanc, Paul D.; Iribarren, Carlos; Trupin, Laura; Earnest, Gillian; Katz, Patricia P.; Balmes, John; Sidney, Stephen; Eisner, Mark D.

2009-01-01

104

Occupational Sunlight Exposure and Risk of Renal Cell Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Background Recent findings indicate that vitamin D obtained from ultraviolet (UV) exposure may reduce the risk of a number of different cancers. Vitamin D is metabolized to its active form within the kidney, the major organ for vitamin D metabolism and activity. Since both the incidence of renal cell cancer and prevalence of vitamin D deficiency have increased over the past few decades, this study sought to explore whether occupational UV exposure was associated with renal cell carcinoma (RCC) risk. Methods A hospital-based case-control study of 1,097 RCC cases and 1,476 controls was conducted in four Central and Eastern European countries. Demographic and occupational information was collected to examine the association between occupational UV exposure and RCC risk. Results A significant (24%-38%) reduction in RCC risk was observed with increasing occupational UV exposure among male participants. No association between UV exposure and RCC risk was observed among female participants. When analyses were stratified by latitude as another estimate of sunlight intensity, a stronger (71%-73%) reduction in RCC risk was observed between UV exposure and cancer risk among males residing at the highest latitudes. Conclusion The results of this study suggest that among males there is an inverse association between occupational UV exposure and renal cancer risk. Replication studies are warranted to confirm these results.

Karami, Sara; Boffetta, Paolo; Stewart, Patricia; Rothman, Nathaniel; Hunting, Katherine L.; Dosemeci, Mustafa; Berndt, Sonja I.; Brennan, Paul; Chow, Wong-Ho; Moore, Lee E.; Zaridze, David; Mukeria, Anush; Janout, Vladimir; Kollarova, Helena; Bencko, Vladimir; Holcatova, Ivana; Navritalova, Marie; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonila; Mates, Dana; Gromiec, Jan P.

2010-01-01

105

Occupational exposures to respirable crystalline silica during hydraulic fracturing.  

PubMed

This report describes a previously uncharacterized occupational health hazard: work crew exposures to respirable crystalline silica during hydraulic fracturing. Hydraulic fracturing involves high pressure injection of large volumes of water and sand, and smaller quantities of well treatment chemicals, into a gas or oil well to fracture shale or other rock formations, allowing more efficient recovery of hydrocarbons from a petroleum-bearing reservoir. Crystalline silica ("frac sand") is commonly used as a proppant to hold open cracks and fissures created by hydraulic pressure. Each stage of the process requires hundreds of thousands of pounds of quartz-containing sand; millions of pounds may be needed for all zones of a well. Mechanical handling of frac sand creates respirable crystalline silica dust, a potential exposure hazard for workers. Researchers at the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health collected 111 personal breathing zone samples at 11 sites in five states to evaluate worker exposures to respirable crystalline silica during hydraulic fracturing. At each of the 11 sites, full-shift samples exceeded occupational health criteria (e.g., the Occupational Safety and Health Administration calculated permissible exposure limit, the NIOSH recommended exposure limit, or the ACGIH threshold limit value), in some cases, by 10 or more times the occupational health criteria. Based on these evaluations, an occupational health hazard was determined to exist for workplace exposures to crystalline silica. Seven points of dust generation were identified, including sand handling machinery and dust generated from the work site itself. Recommendations to control exposures include product substitution (when feasible), engineering controls or modifications to sand handling machinery, administrative controls, and use of personal protective equipment. To our knowledge, this represents the first systematic study of work crew exposures to crystalline silica during hydraulic fracturing. Companies that conduct hydraulic fracturing using silica sand should evaluate their operations to determine the potential for worker exposure to respirable crystalline silica and implement controls as necessary to protect workers. PMID:23679563

Esswein, Eric J; Breitenstein, Michael; Snawder, John; Kiefer, Max; Sieber, W Karl

2013-01-01

106

Application of Oligonucleotide Microarray Technology to Toxic Occupational Exposures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microarray technology has advanced toward analysis of toxic occupational exposures in biological systems. Microarray analysis is an ideal way to search for biomarkers of exposure, even if no specific gene or pathway has been identified. Analysis may now be performed on thousands of genes simultaneously, as opposed to small numbers of genes as in the past. This ability has been

Maureen R. Gwinn; Ainsley Weston

2008-01-01

107

Exposure-response relationships of occupational inhalative allergens.  

PubMed

Only a few threshold limit values exist at present for allergens in the workplace known to cause bronchial asthma. This contrasts with the great number of occupational asthma cases observed in industrialized countries. Recently published studies provide clear evidence for exposure intensity response relationships of occupational allergens of plant, microbiological, animal or man-made origin. If allergen exposure levels fall short of determined limit values, they are not associated with an increased risk of occupational asthma. Corresponding data are available for wheat flour (1-2.4 mg/m3), fungal alpha-amylase (0.25 ng/m3), natural rubber latex (0.6 ng/m3), western red cedar (0.4 mg/m3) and rat allergens (0.7 microg/m3). It is suggested to stipulate legally binding threshold limit values (TLV/TWA) on this basis in order to induce more effective primary preventive measures. If no reliable data on the health risk of an occupational airborne noxa exist, the lowest reasonably practicable exposure level has to be achieved. Appropriate secondary preventive measures have to be initiated in all workplaces contaminated with airborne allergens. Verified exposure-response relationships provide the basis for risk assessment and for targeted interventions to reduce the incidence of occupational asthma also in consideration of cost benefit aspects. 'Occupational asthma is a disease characterized by variable airflow limitation and/or airway hyperresponsiveness due to causes in a working environment. These causes can give rise to asthma through immunological or non-immunological mechanisms. Up to 15% of all asthma cases are of occupational origin or have at least a significant causal occupational factor. According to the New Zealand part of the European Respiratory Health Survey, an increased risk of asthma prevalence was found for several occupations such as laboratory technicians, food producers, chemical workers, plastic and rubber workers. The Spain part of this study comprising 2646 Spanish subjects showed an asthma risk to be attributed to occupational exposures between 5 and 6.7%. Main asthma-inducing agents in the workplace are flour, grain and feed dust, animal dander/urinary proteins and isocyanates. Further, several inhalative irritants such as chlorine, acid or alkaline aerosols play a pivotal role. Many low molecular weight chemicals have irritative as well as allergenic effects on the airways, e. g. isocyanates and acid anhydrides. In addition to chronic or repetitive exposures, also singular accidental exposure to high concentrations of irritative or toxic airborne substances can cause occupational asthma. This condition is frequently called reactive airways dysfunction. PMID:9645589

Baur, X; Chen, Z; Liebers, V

1998-05-01

108

68 FR 75768 - Occupational Exposure to Tuberculosis  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...programs to control exposure, including early...necessary for an effective early identification...assistance. CDC's targeted guidelines already...believes that the most effective approaches are likely...ways to reduce that exposure is to reduce...

2003-12-31

109

Exposure of the US population from occupational radiation  

SciTech Connect

The National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) has reviewed the literature on the subject of occupational exposure to ionizing radiation to assemble, in a single document, the effective dose equivalents and the collective effective dose equivalents for the work force. Although achieving this goal involved the difficulties, the current Report provides evidence that occupational exposures are responsible for only a small fraction of the total collective effective dose equivalent for the entire US population. The current Report is intended primarily for the information of the radiation protection community, but it should also be of interest to the layperson for the perspective it provides on the contribution of occupational exposures to the total population exposure.

Not Available

1989-06-01

110

62 FR 54160 - Occupational Exposure to Tuberculosis  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...would be effective in controlling...would be effective for verifying...protected against exposures to M. tuberculosis...hamper pilot communication. Have other...employee exposure in these...essential to an effective overall hazard communication program and...presented and are aware of the actions...minimize exposure. OSHA...

1997-10-17

111

Occupational exposure of grain farmers to carbofuran  

Microsoft Academic Search

Six prairie grain farmers were monitored for pesticide exposure and related adverse effects while they mixed and\\/or sprayed carbofuran (Furadan® 480F) with ground rig application equipment to control grasshoppers in southern Alberta, Canada. Dermal exposure was estimated with Tegaderm patches placed at seventeen locations on the skin beneath the work clothes. Hand and wrist exposure was determined by the amount

Moe Hussain; Ken Yoshida; Martin Atiemo; Don Johnston

1990-01-01

112

Exposure to Stress: Occupational Hazards in Hospitals.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Occupational stress has been a long-standing concern of the health care industry. Studies indicate that health care workers have higher rates of substance abuse and suicide than other professions and elevated rates of depression and anxiety linked to job ...

2008-01-01

113

Sperm Count, Morphology and Fluorescent Body Frequency in Autopsy Service Workers Exposed to Formaldehyde.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The ability of a battery of genetic monitoring tests to detect occupational formaldehyde exposure in a population of a hospital autopsy service workers was investigated. Eleven exposed individuals and 11 matched controls were evaluated for sperm count, ab...

J. B. Ward, J. A. Hokanson, E. R. Smith, L. W. Chang, M. A. Pereira

1984-01-01

114

Visits to physicians before and after exposure to urea formaldehyde foam insulation.  

PubMed Central

The average number of visits to a physician made by a sample of 351 residents of homes insulated with urea formaldehyde foam insulation in Montreal in the one year period before exposure was 5.25, and in the year following 5.62, an increase of 7 per cent (odds ratio 1.07, 95% CI = 1.00, 1.15). The increase in visits in the post insulation year was limited to subjects who had the product installed in the winter (OR = 1.48, 95% CI = 1.18,1.85), and was not seen for study subjects who insulated their homes during other seasons of the year.

L'Abbe, K A; Hoey, J R; Hanley, J; Wacholder, S; Nantel, A

1988-01-01

115

Occupational exposure to alkoxysilanes in a fibreglass manufacturing plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To assess the exposure of workers to alkoxysilanes and to determine the main route of exposure during the manufacture of\\u000a fibreglass. Methods: Occupational hygiene samples were taken from workers and their environment in a fibreglass factory during filament forming\\u000a and the handling of coated fibres. The total exposure of workers to silanes was assessed by the collection of air

J. Mäittälä; S. Pennanen; M. Puputti; K. Haapa; J. Liesivuori

1999-01-01

116

Behavioral technology for reducing occupational exposures to styrene.  

PubMed Central

We conducted a test of the usefulness of behavioral methods to control occupational health problems by reducing workers' exposures to toxic chemicals. Four plastics workers were trained in nine behaviors selected for potential to reduce their exposures to styrene, a common chemical with multiple toxic effects. Behavioral measures indicated that the workers quickly came to emit most of the behaviors. Measures of air samples indicated that large decreases in exposures to styrene accompanied the changes in behaviors for the three workers who had been selected because they most needed relief from their exposures and because they had opportunities to control their exposures by the ways they behaved.

Hopkins, B L; Conard, R J; Dangel, R F; Fitch, H G; Smith, M J; Anger, W K

1986-01-01

117

Occupational PAH Exposures during Prescribed Pile Burns  

PubMed Central

Wildland firefighters are exposed to particulate matter and gases containing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), many of which are known carcinogens. Our objective was to evaluate the extent of firefighter exposure to particulate and PAHs during prescribed pile burns of mainly ponderosa pine slash and determine whether these exposures were correlated with changes in urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-HP), a PAH metabolite. Personal and area sampling for particulate and PAH exposures were conducted on the White Mountain Apache Tribe reservation, working with 21 Bureau of Indian Affairs/Fort Apache Agency wildland firefighters during the fall of 2006. Urine samples were collected pre- and post-exposure and pulmonary function was measured. Personal PAH exposures were detectable for only 3 of 16 PAHs analyzed: naphthalene, phenanthrene, and fluorene, all of which were identified only in vapor-phase samples. Condensed-phase PAHs were detected in PM2.5 area samples (20 of 21 PAHs analyzed were detected, all but naphthalene) at concentrations below 1 ?g m?3. The total PAH/PM2.5 mass fractions were roughly a factor of two higher during smoldering (1.06 ± 0.15) than ignition (0.55 ± 0.04 ?g mg?1). There were no significant changes in urinary 1-HP or pulmonary function following exposure to pile burning. In summary, PAH exposures were low in pile burns, and urinary testing for a PAH metabolite failed to show a significant difference between baseline and post-exposure measurements.

Robinson, M. S.; Anthony, T. R.; Littau, S. R.; Herckes, P.; Nelson, X.; Poplin, G. S.; Burgess, J. L.

2008-01-01

118

Ocular Injury by Transient Formaldehyde Exposure in a Rabbit Eye Model  

PubMed Central

Formaldehyde (FA) is frequently used in sterilizing surgical instruments and materials. Exposure to FA is highly concerned for eye tissues. Rabbit corneal epithelial cells were examined for changes after FA exposure. Our results showed that cell survival decreased 7 days after transient 3 min exposure to more than 100 ppm FA by trypan blue staining while MTT assay detected significant decrease at 20 ppm at 24 hours observation. The decrease of cell survival rate was concentration (up to 600 ppm)- and observation time (1–7 day)- dependent. The cell number decreased after 100 ppm FA exposure for more than 10 min at 7-day observation. The FA treated cells showed increased apoptosis/necrosis and cell cycle accumulation at sub G1 phase as well as mitochondria clustering around nucleus. The in vivo rabbit eye exposure for tear production by Schirmer’s test revealed that the FA-induced overproduction of tear also exhibited observation time (1–10 day)- and FA concentration (20–300 ppm for 5 min exposure)-dependent. Activated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (pERK2) in cornea explants by western blotting was reduced and increased c-Jun amino - terminal kinase (JNK) activation (pJNK) in cornea and conjunctiva was evident at 2 month after exposure to 50–200 ppm FA for 5 min. In conclusion, injury to the eye with transient exposure of up to 100 ppm FA for 3 min decreased corneal cell survival while a more sensitive MTT test detected the cell decrease at 20 ppm FA exposure. Morphology changes can be observed even at 5 ppm FA exposure for 3 min at 7 days after. The FA exposure also increased apoptotic/necrotic cells and sub-G1 phase in cell cycle. Long term effect (2 months after exposure) on the eye tissues even after the removal of FA can be observed with persistent JNK activation in cornea and conjunctiva.

Lai, Li-Ju; Hsu, Wei-Hsiu; Wu, Albert M.; Wu, June H.

2013-01-01

119

Developing regulations for occupational exposures to health hazards in Malaysia.  

PubMed

In Malaysia exposures in the workplace are regulated under the Factories and Machinery Act (FMA), 1967 and also under the more comprehensive Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA) enacted in 1994. With OSHA 1994 the philosophy of legislating safety and health in the workplace changed from one that was very prescriptive and containing detailed technical provisions under FMA, 1967 to one that is more flexible and encourages self-regulation under OSHA 1994. OSHA 1994 is supported by regulations, codes of practices and guidelines to further clarify the provisions in the Act. Under the FMA 1967 emphasis was on safety while with OSHA 1994 there has been equal emphasis on addressing health hazards in the workplace. Regulations for occupational exposures are developed by the Department of Occupational Safety and Health with tripartite and stakeholder consultation. When developing these regulations International Labor Organization Conventions, laws of other countries and occupational exposure standards adopted internationally are reviewed. The government also conducts surveys to collect information on both exposures and health effects in workplaces to have better understanding on specific occupational health problems. Effective law enforcement is crucial in ensuring compliance to safety and health law. The challenge at the moment is to ensure all employers and employees, particularly those in the small and medium enterprises, understand and comply with the provisions stipulated in the legislation. PMID:16899331

Rampal, Krishna Gopal; Mohd Nizam, J

2006-11-01

120

Exposure to low doses of formaldehyde during pregnancy suppresses the development of allergic lung inflammation in offspring.  

PubMed

Formaldehyde (FA) is an environmental and occupational pollutant, and its toxic effects on the immune system have been shown. Nevertheless, no data are available regarding the programming mechanisms after FA exposure and its repercussions for the immune systems of offspring. In this study, our objective was to investigate the effects of low-dose exposure of FA on pregnant rats and its repercussion for the development of allergic lung inflammation in offspring. Pregnant Wistar rats were assigned in 3 groups: P (rats exposed to FA (0.75ppm, 1h/day, 5days/week, for 21days)), C (rats exposed to vehicle of FA (distillated water)) and B (rats non-manipulated). After 30days of age, the offspring was sensitised with ovalbumin (OVA)-alum and challenged with aerosolized OVA (1%, 15min, 3days). After 24h the OVA challenge the parameters were evaluated. Our data showed that low-dose exposure to FA during pregnancy induced low birth weight and suppressed the development of allergic lung inflammation and tracheal hyperresponsiveness in offspring by mechanisms mediated by reduced anaphylactic antibodies synthesis, IL-6 and TNF-alpha secretion. Elevated levels of IL-10 were found. Any systemic alteration was detected in the exposed pregnant rats, although oxidative stress in the uterine environment was evident at the moment of the delivery based on elevated COX-1 expression and reduced cNOS and SOD-2 in the uterus. Therefore, we show the putative programming mechanisms induced by FA on the immune system for the first time and the mechanisms involved may be related to oxidative stress in the foetal microenvironment. PMID:24844129

Maiellaro, Marília; Correa-Costa, Matheus; Vitoretti, Luana Beatriz; Gimenes Júnior, João Antônio; Câmara, Niels Olsen Saraiva; Tavares-de-Lima, Wothan; Farsky, Sandra Helena Poliselli; Lino-Dos-Santos-Franco, Adriana

2014-08-01

121

Occupational exposure to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in wood dust  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sino-nasal cancer (SNC) represents approximately 3% of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology (ORL) cancers. Adenocarcinoma SNC is an acknowledged occupational disease affecting certain specialized workers such as joiners and cabinetmakers. The high proportion of woodworkers contracting a SNC, subjected to an estimated risk 50 to 100 times higher than that affecting the general population, has suggested various study paths to possible causes such as tannin in hardwood, formaldehyde in plywood and benzo(a)pyrene produced by wood when overheated by cutting tools. It is acknowledged that tannin does not cause cancer to workers exposed to tea dust. Apart from being an irritant, formaldehyde is also classified as carcinogenic. The path involving carcinogenic Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) emitted by overheated wood is attractive. In this study, we measured the particle size and PAHs content in dust emitted by the processing of wood in an experimental chamber, and in field situation. Quantification of 16 PAHs is carried out by capillary GC-ion trap Mass Spectrometric analysis (GC-MS). The materials tested are rough fir tree, oak, impregnated polyurethane (PU) oak. The wood dust contains carcinogenic PAHs at the level of ?g.g-1 or ppm. During sanding operations, the PU varnish-impregnated wood produces 100 times more PAHs in dust than the unfinished wood.

Huynh, C. K.; Schüpfer, P.; Boiteux, P.

2009-02-01

122

Immunotoxic and hematotoxic effects of occupational exposures.  

PubMed

The toxic effects of environmental factors at work places on the hematopoietic and immune systems are of basic importance due to the time of exposure, lasting on average 8 hours daily during one week. Porphyrinurias and porphyrias have been observed after exposure to hexachlorobenzene, chlorinated dibenzodioxins, polychlorinated biphenyls, polybrominated biphenyls, vinyl chloride and lead. Aplastic anemia may occur after exposure to benzene, pesticides, arsenic, cadmium and copper compounds. Megaloblastic anemia has been noted in subjects exposed to arsenic, chlordane, benzene and nitrous oxide. Methemoglobinemia is induced by aromatic nitro and amino compounds. Hemolytic reactions caused by arsenic, methyl chloride, naphthalene, lead, cadmium and mercury compounds represent a separate problem. Immunodeficiencies resulting in decreased antitumor and antiinfectious immunity have been reported in subjects exposed to asbestos, ozone, dimethylsulphoxide, vinilidene chloride, and benzene homologues. Lymphocytopenia may be induced by manganese, lead, toluene and industrial noise. Neutropenia was marked after exposure to carbon disulphide, arsenic compounds, benzene and electromagnetic fields. Only a few reports concern the lymphocyte T3, T4 and T8 subpopulations. Electromagnetic fields (microwaves) cause an imbalance of that subpopulation, consisting of a decrease in the T8 cell count. The neutrophil enzymes, such as myeloperoxidase and alkaline phosphatase, decrease in their activity after exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls, carbon disulphide, chlorobenzene and DDT. A majority of agents cited include genotoxic effects reflected in chromosome aberrations and increased sister chromatid exchange and abnormal unscheduled DNA synthesis. Leukemia or lymphoma risk is increased after exposure to pesticides, electromagnetic fields, benzene and irradiation. PMID:8175062

Lisiewicz, J

1993-01-01

123

Indoor Air in Beauty Salons and Occupational Health Exposure of Cosmetologists to Chemical Substances  

PubMed Central

The indoor environment in four beauty salons located in Athens (Greece) was examined in order to investigate the occupational health exposure of cosmetologists to various chemical products typically used in their work. Chemical substances chosen for investigation were volatile organic compounds (VOCs), formaldehyde, ozone and carbon dioxide. Total VOCs levels measured showed significant variation (100–1,450 ?g m?3) depending on the products used and the number of treatments carried out, as well as ventilation. The main VOCs found in the salons were aromatics (toluene, xylene), esters and ketones (ethyl acetate, acetone, etc.) which are used as solvents in various beauty products; terpenes (pinene, limonene, camphor, menthenol) which have a particular odor and others like camphor which have specific properties. Ozone concentrations measured in all salons were quite low (0.1 and 13.3 ?g m?3) and formaldehyde concentrations detected were lower than the detection limit of the method in all salons (<0.05 ppm). Carbon dioxide levels ranged between 402 and 1,268 ppm, depending on the number of people present in the salons during measurements and ventilation. Cosmetologists may be exposed to high concentrations of a mixture of volatile organic compounds although these levels could be decreased significantly by following certain practices such as good ventilation of the areas, closing the packages of the beauty products when not in use and finally selecting safer beauty products without strong odor.

Tsigonia, Alexandra; Lagoudi, Argyro; Chandrinou, Stavroula; Linos, Athena; Evlogias, Nikos; Alexopoulos, Evangelos C.

2010-01-01

124

Setting an indoor air exposure limit for formaldehyde: factors of concern.  

PubMed

The paper aims to evaluate the indoor air limit of 1 microg/m(3) (0.8 ppb) formaldehyde as advised by the European Commission [the INDEX project; Kotzias, D., Koistinen, K., Kephalopoulos, S., Schlitt, C., Carrer, P., Maroni, M., Jantunen, M., Cochet, C., Kirchner, S., Lindvall, T., McLaughlin, J., Mølhave, L., de Oliveira Fernandes, E., Seifert, B., 2005. Critical appraisal of the setting and implementation of indoor exposure limits in the EU. European Commission, Institute for Health and Consumer Protection, Physical and Chemical Exposure Unit, Ispra, Italy, pp. 1-50]. The limit has been based on a nose and throat irritation threshold of 0.1mg/m(3) (0.08 ppm; LOAEL), a NOAEL of 0.03 mg/m(3) (0.025 ppm) and an assessment factor of 30, including a factor of 3 for the higher sensitivity of children. Nose and throat irritation, at concentrations below which hyperplasia/metaplasia occurs, are most likely the manifestation of trigeminal nerve stimulation (sensory irritation). The threshold for sensory irritation in human volunteers is 1 ppm, much higher than the 0.1mg/m(3) indicated above. Eye irritation is the most sensitive effect reported in human volunteers but has been mentioned only occasionally in the studies used by the European Commission. Moreover, sensory irritation is a local reaction that requires a low assessment factor, if any. It is difficult to judge the sensitivity for sensory irritation in children because of the potential confounding factors in the evaluated studies. It is concluded that an indoor air level of 0.1 ppm (0.12 mg/m(3)) formaldehyde, as indicated by Appel et al. (2006) [Appel, K.E., Bernauer, U., Herbst, U., Madle, S., Schulte, A., Richter-Reichhelm, H.B., Gundert-Remy, U. 2006. Kann für Formaldehyd eine "sichere" Konzentration abgeleitet werden?--Analyse der Daten zur krebserzeugenden Wirkung (Can a "safe" concentration be established for formaldehyde?--Analysis of carcinogenicity data)? Umweltmed. Forsch. Prax. 11, 347-361], can be considered a safe and appropriate level. PMID:18786592

Arts, Josje H E; Muijser, Hans; Kuper, C Frieke; Woutersen, Ruud A

2008-11-01

125

Risks of occupational exposure to optical radiation.  

PubMed

During the past 40 years a wide body of biomedical research has been conducted to understand the factors which influence injury to optical radiation-particularly with respect to the eye. A primary motivation for much of this research has been the advent of lasers, since focal damage of the retina from a collimated beam exposure is possible at some distance. A wide range of research studies provided the basis for establishing human exposure limits for ultraviolet and infrared radiation as well as for intense visible light. The International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) has published guidelines for human exposure, and these are available at no cost from the ICNIRP website (http://www. icnirp.org). Laser Maximum Permissible Exposure (MPE) limits used in international safety standards, such as those of the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) are based upon ICNIRP guidelines. Practical laser safety standards and regulations have evolved to promote the safe design and use of laser products. As a result of newer laser applications and increased knowledge of the biological effects, MPEs have been revised a number of times. Despite the existence of safety standards and regulations, accidental eye injuries from lasers still occur. Accidental exposure to welding arcs and intense lights occur more fequently, but the consequential loss of vision is much less, with permanent effects rare. Accidental human exposure information also adds to our understanding of ultraviolet, blue-light and laser induced retinal injury. Accidents are most frequently attributed to the lack of understanding of hazards and a failure to follow established safe work practices. PMID:17017352

Sliney, D H

2006-01-01

126

Role of occupational asbestos exposure in Hungarian lung cancer patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: What is the frequency of occupational asbestos exposure among patients suffering from malignant respiratory tumours and how\\u000a many of these tumours are associated with asbestos in Hungary? Methods: An internationally established questionnaire with 29 questions, covering the most characteristic activities of asbestos exposure\\u000a at the workplace was completed for 300 patients with respiratory malignancies, i.e. 297 patients with lung

A. Mándi; M. Posgay; P. Vadász; K. Major; K. Rödelsperger; A. Tossavainen; G. Ungváry; H.-J. Woitowitz; É. Galambos; L. Németh; I. Soltész; M. Egerváry; G. Böszörményi Nagy

2000-01-01

127

Lead exposure among five distinct occupational groups: a comparative study.  

PubMed

This study was conducted to evaluate blood lead concentration among five selected occupational groups. The five groups were: hospital health workers, shop workers, taxi drivers, automobiles mechanics, and wood workers. The groups did not significantly differ among each other in the average of age and work years. ANOVA test revealed significantly higher mean lead blood concentration in taxi drivers, automechanics, and wood workers compared to other groups. Additionally, workers with lead concentration >0.483 umol/L (10?g/dL) were more likely to have frequent muscle pain compared to those with lower concentrations. No association between other symptoms of lead exposure/toxicity and blood lead concentration was detected. In conclusion, special attention must be directed toward lead blood levels and lead poisoning symptoms when examining patients from certain occupational groups such as taxi drivers, automechanics, and wood workers. Special safety precautions and educational programs are also needed to limit the lead exposure in these occupational groups. PMID:24374433

Gharaibeh, Mohammad Younis; Alzoubi, Karem Hasan; Khabour, Omar Falah; Khader, Yousef Saleh; Gharaibeh, Mamoun Abdallah; Matarneh, Sulaiman Khalid

2014-01-01

128

OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURES IN CALIFORNIA WILDLAND FIRE FIGHTING  

Microsoft Academic Search

Industrial hygiene measurement of exposures to wildland fire fighters was conducted in northern California during three consecutive fire seasons (1986–1989) in conjunction with three separate health effects studies. Chemicals that were monitored included carbon monoxide, total and respirable particulates, polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), crystalline silica, aldehydes, and benzene. Measurements were taken at both wildland fires and prescribed (planned) burns. A variety

Barbara L. Materna; Jeffrey R. Jones; Patrice M. Sutton; Nathaniel Rothman; Robert J. Harrison

1992-01-01

129

Respiratory effects of occupational exposure to tobacco dust  

Microsoft Academic Search

Few investigations of the respiratory effects of occupational exposure to tobacco dust have been carried out and the threshold limit value has not well been established. A cross sectional survey on a sample of 223 male and female workers at a cigar and cigarette factory in Lucca (Tuscany) showed a significantly higher prevalence of wheezing, attacks of shortness of breath

G Viegi; P L Paggiaro; E Begliomini; E Vaghetti; P Paoletti; C Giuntini

1986-01-01

130

Occupational Exposure to Natural Sources of Ionising Radiation in Ireland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland (RPII) has recently completed a detailed evaluation of all radiation exposure pathways from sources of both natural and artificial radiation in the Irish environment. This paper presents a compilation of the occupational doses received by Irish workers exposed to natural sources of ionising radiation.

Organo, Catherine; Colgan, Tony; Fenton, David; Synnott, Hugh; Currivan, Lorraine

2008-08-01

131

Wilms’ tumor and exposures to residential and occupational hazardous chemicals  

Microsoft Academic Search

This case-control study examines the association between residential and occupational exposures to hazardous chemicals and the risk of Wilms’ tumor. The study included 303 cases recruited from six state cancer registries, who were diagnosed between January 1, 1992 and December 31, 1995. A total of 575 controls selected through random digit dialing were frequency matched to the cases. A standard

James Tsai; Wendy E. Kaye; Frank J. Bove

2006-01-01

132

Criteria for a Recommended Standard -- Occupational Exposure to Asbestos.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report presents the criteria and the standard which were prepared to meet the need for preventing occupational diseases arising from exposure to asbestos dust. These criteria for a standard for asbestos dust are the first of the criteria developed by ...

1972-01-01

133

Tumours Linked to Para-Occupational Exposure to Airborne Asbestos  

Microsoft Academic Search

Members of the households of former asbestos workers are at a higher risk of dying from mesothelioma resulting from asbestos exposure from cleaning asbestos-contaminated working clothes of their relatives at home. The lung fibre burdens of some of those who develop mesothelioma are similar even to those of former asbestos workers. Such people are said to be para-occupation- ally exposed.

Joachim Schneider; Hans-Joachim Woitowitz

1996-01-01

134

Screening of autopsy populations for previous occupational exposure to asbestos  

Microsoft Academic Search

A screening procedure to select, in autopsy populations, subjects having a major likelihood of previous occupational exposure to asbestos is described. To test the necropsy population the authors searched for pleural plaques (PPs); the optical count of both lung asbestos bodies (ABs) and uncoated mineral fibers (UMFs) at least 10 ..mu..m in length was recorded. In the adult autopsy population

F. Mollo; A. Andrion; D. Bellis; E. Bertoldo; A. Colombo

2009-01-01

135

Screening of Autopsy Populations for Previous Occupational Exposure to Asbestos  

Microsoft Academic Search

A screening procedure to select, in autopsy populations, subjects having a major likelihood of previous occupational exposure to asbestos is described. To test our necropsy population we searched for pleural plaques (PPs); the optical count of both lung asbestos bodies (ABs) and uncoated mineral fibers (UMFs) at least 10 ?m in length was recorded. In the adult autopsy population studied

Franco Mollo; Alberto Andrion; Donata Bellis; Emiliana Bertoldo; Alessandro Colombo

1987-01-01

136

Airborne occupational exposure, ABO phenotype, and risk of obesity  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND:We have previously found a quite strong interplay between occupational airborne pollutants, ABO phenotypes, and risk of ischaemic heart disease (IHD), with long-term exposure being associated with a significantly increased risk among men with phenotype O, and not among men with other ABO phenotypes. We suggested that the biological pathway could be a stronger systemic inflammatory response in men with

P Suadicani; H O Hein; F Gyntelberg

2005-01-01

137

LINKING DATA TO STUDY REPRODUCTIVE EFFECTS OF OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURES  

EPA Science Inventory

Many existing data systems or registers can be used to study occupational exposures and reproduction. Use of these data systems, especially those already computerized, results in great savings in time and resources. The report describes existing record systems on reproductive out...

138

Biological monitoring of occupational exposure to inorganic arsenic  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES: This study was undertaken to assess reliable biological indicators for monitoring the occupational exposure to inorganic arsenic (iAs), taking into account the possible confounding role of arsenicals present in food and of the element present in drinking water. METHODS: 51 Glass workers exposed to As trioxide were monitored by measuring dust in the breathing zone, with personal air samplers.

P. Apostoli; D. Bartoli; L. Alessio; J. P. Buchet

1999-01-01

139

Personal Air Samplers for Measuring Occupational Exposures to Biological Hazards  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microbiological air samplers, designed to be worn as personal samplers, were evaluated for studying occupational exposures to aerosols of infectious and allergenic materials. Gelatin filter media, an impinger sampler, and spiral and cascade impactors were tested for collection efficiency for small (?2?µm) latex spheres and for recovery of bacterial aerosols. Only 20% of an aerosol of 0.8?µm latex particles passed

J. M. MACHER; M. W. FIRST

1984-01-01

140

Occupational Exposures to Uranium: Processes, Hazards, and Regulations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The United States Uranium Registry (USUR) was formed in 1978 to investigate potential hazards from occupational exposure to uranium and to assess the need for special health-related studies of uranium workers. This report provides a summary of Registry wo...

D. R. Fisher G. A. Stoetzel G. R. Hoenes S. Marks W. D. McCormack

1981-01-01

141

Indoor Air Quality and Occupational Exposures at a Bus Terminal  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents an assessment of indoor air quality at a bus terminal. For this purpose, field surveys were conducted, and air samples were collected and analyzed for the presence of selected indoor air quality indicators. Mathematical modeling was performed to simulate bus emission rates, occupational exposure, and ventilation requirements to maintain acceptable indoor air quality. A sensitivity analysis based

Mutasem El-Fadel; Nisrine El-Hougeiri

2003-01-01

142

Occupational Exposure to Natural Sources of Ionising Radiation in Ireland  

SciTech Connect

The Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland (RPII) has recently completed a detailed evaluation of all radiation exposure pathways from sources of both natural and artificial radiation in the Irish environment. This paper presents a compilation of the occupational doses received by Irish workers exposed to natural sources of ionising radiation.

Organo, Catherine; Colgan, Tony; Fenton, David; Synnott, Hugh; Currivan, Lorraine [Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland, 3 Clonskeagh Square, Dublin 14 (Ireland)

2008-08-07

143

Genetic damage induced by occupationally low mercury exposure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lymphocytes from whole blood cultures from 28 subjects occupationally exposed to different mercury compounds and from seven control subjects were studied cytogenetically. Differences between aneuploidy of exposed and nonexposed subjects were found statistically significant for all analyzed mercury compounds. No statistically significant difference however (except for ethylmercury exposure) was observed for the frequency of cells with structural chromosome aberrations although

L. Verschaeve; M. Kirsch-Volders; C. Susanne; C. Groetenbriel; R. Haustermans; A. Lecomte; D. Roossels

1976-01-01

144

Effects upon health of occupational exposure to microwave radiation (radar).  

PubMed

The effects of occupational experience with microwave radiation (radar) on the health of US enlisted Naval personnel were studied in cohorts of approximately 20,000 men with maximum opportunity for exposure (electronic equipment repair) and 208000 with minimum potential for exposure (equipment operation) who served during the Korean War period. Potential exposure was assessed in terms of occupational duties, length of time in occupation and power of equipment at the time of exposure. Actual exposure to members of each cohort could not be established. Mortality by cause of death, hospitalization during military service, later hospitalization in Veterans Administration (VA) facilities, and VA disability compensation were the health indexes studied, largely through the use of automated record systems. No adverse effects were detected in these indexes that could be attributed to potential microwave radiation exposures during the period 1950-1954. Functional and behavioral changes and ill-defined conditions, such as have been reported as microwave effects, could not be investigated in this study but subgroups of the living study population can be identified for expanded follow-up. PMID:7395854

Robinette, C D; Silverman, C; Jablon, S

1980-07-01

145

Occupational exposure to fluorinated hydrocarbons during refrigeration repair work.  

PubMed

This study describes refrigeration repair workers' occupational exposures to halogenated refrigerants, focusing on difluorochloromethane (HCFC 22), tetrafluoroethane (HFC 134a) and a mixture of tri-, tetra- and pentafluoroethane (R404A) in 30 work operations. Unlike earlier reported studies, the present study includes working procedures involving welding in order to measure possible occupational exposure to decomposition products. The measurements included hydrogen fluoride (HF), hydrogen chloride (HCl), phosgene (COCl2) and volatile organic compounds (VOC). The exposures were assessed during work operations on small-scale cooling installations like refrigerators and freezers. The repair workers' occupational exposures to refrigerants were moderate, and the major part of the exposures were associated with specific working procedures lasting for relatively short periods of time (<20 min). During these exposure events the concentrations were occasionally high (up to 42434 mg m(-3)). Although welding operations lasted only for short periods of time, HF was detected in 9 out of 15 samples when HCFC 22, HFC 134a or R404A had been used. Hydrogen chloride was detected in 3 out of 5 samples in air polluted with HCFC 22. Phosgene was not detected. A large number of VOCs in various concentrations were found during welding. Except for the applied refrigerants, halogenated compounds were only found in one sample. PMID:12729261

Gjølstad, Merete; Ellingsen, Dag G; Espeland, Oscar; Nordby, Karl-Christian; Evenseth, Harald; Thorud, Syvert; Skaugset, Nils Petter; Thomassen, Yngvar

2003-04-01

146

Cytokinesis blocked micronucleus assay of peripheral lymphocytes revealing the genotoxic effect of formaldehyde exposure.  

PubMed

Formaldehyde (FA), which is said to be a carcinogenic agent, is commonly used in anatomy laboratories. This study used the cytokinesis blocked micronucleus assay (CBMN) to assess DNA damage due to FA exposure by measuring the frequency of micronuclei (MN) in lymphocytes. The extent of DNA damage was assessed with respect to the duration of exposure. Thirty male anatomy laboratory workers from various medical colleges involved with storing specimens and embalming were included in the study. Thirty males who were not exposed to FA were included as a comparison group. Blood samples were collected after informed consent was given. Information regarding age, duration of FA exposure and smoking habits was obtained by a questionnaire. The CBMN assay was conducted on cultured isolated lymphocytes stained with Giemsa. MN were counted in a total of 1000 binucleated lymphocytes. The effect of smoking was assessed using appropriate statistical tests. The frequency of MN in lymphocytes was significantly higher in the exposed group (P < 0.001). The duration of exposure correlated positively with the frequency of MN (r = 0.5, P = 0.02). Neither aging nor smoking correlated significantly with the formation of MN. The present study highlights significant DNA damage in people exposed to FA. The extent of damage was directly proportional to the duration of exposure. PMID:23893659

Souza, Anne D; Devi, Rema

2014-04-01

147

Incidence of digestive cancers and occupational exposure to asbestos.  

PubMed

While the role of exposure to asbestos in the development of several cancers such as mesotheliomas and bronchopulmonary cancers is now well established, the possible relationship between digestive cancers, other than peritoneal mesotheliomas, and occupational exposure to asbestos is still controversial. The great majority of the studies are based on mortality data. The aim of the study was to analyse the relationship between digestive cancer incidence and occupational exposure to asbestos in a population of subjects for whom precise occupational exposure data and precise incidence data were available. The population consisted of salaried and retired workers from a company using asbestos to manufacture fireproof textiles and friction materials. There were 1454 men (79.9%) and 366 women (20.1%). A cumulative exposure index and a mean exposure concentration in fibres/ml for each subject were calculated with the aid of an in-house job-exposure matrix. The number of cases of digestive cancer observed was compared with the expected and Standardized Incidence Ratio (SIR) was estimated. Precise occupational exposure data allowed us to study the dose-response relationship between asbestos exposure and risk of digestive cancer using Cox model. Fifty-six digestive cancers occurred in the study population over the 18-year follow-up period for 48.4 expected (SIR = 1.16 [0.87-1.50]). Comparing with incidence in the county, SIR was not significant for any of the digestive localization, but for peritoneum. However, even after taking into account the potential confounders via the Cox model, there was a significant dose-response relationship between the occurrence of digestive cancers and the mean exposure concentration, even after exclusion of peritoneum cancers. Our study provides initial evidence suggesting a relationship between occupational exposure to asbestos and the risk of digestive cancer: first, it is a study of incidence although the risk evidenced is not significant; secondly, a dose-effect relationship is demonstrated in the whole population. However, these preliminary results require confirmation by more powerful studies focusing on larger series. PMID:12457103

de La Provôté, S; Desoubeaux, N; Paris, C; Letourneux, M; Raffaelli, C; Galateau-Salle, F; Gignoux, M; Launoy, G

2002-12-01

148

Toxic hepatitis in occupational exposure to solvents  

PubMed Central

The liver is the main organ responsible for the metabolism of drugs and toxic chemicals, and so is the primary target organ for many organic solvents. Work activities with hepatotoxins exposures are numerous and, moreover, organic solvents are used in various industrial processes. Organic solvents used in different industrial processes may be associated with hepatotoxicity. Several factors contribute to liver toxicity; among these are: species differences, nutritional condition, genetic factors, interaction with medications in use, alcohol abuse and interaction, and age. This review addresses the mechanisms of hepatotoxicity. The main pathogenic mechanisms responsible for functional and organic damage caused by solvents are: inflammation, dysfunction of cytochrome P450, mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress. The health impact of exposure to solvents in the workplace remains an interesting and worrying question for professional health work.

Malaguarnera, Giulia; Cataudella, Emanuela; Giordano, Maria; Nunnari, Giuseppe; Chisari, Giuseppe; Malaguarnera, Mariano

2012-01-01

149

Overview of occupational exposure to electric and magnetic fields and cancer: Advancements in exposure assessment  

SciTech Connect

For over ten years, there has been concern with the potential for increased risk of cancer among {open_quotes}electrical workers.{close_quotes} In contrast to studies of residential exposure to magnetic fields, occupational studies include electric and magnetic field exposures and have much greater variability in field intensity, frequency, and temporal patterns. Studies of leukemia in electrical workers show a moderate consistency, with elevated risk ratios of 1.2 to 2.0 commonly observed. Brain tumors are similarly elevated with some consistency, and three recent studies have suggested increased risk of male breast cancer. Retrospective exposure assessment methods were advanced in recent studies of diverse occupations in a study in central Sweden, which yielded evidence of increased risk of chronic lymphocytic leukemia among men in more highly exposed occupations. A study of telephone workers in New York State incorporated measurements and found some indication of increased leukemia risk only when exposures were based on historical technology. Utility workers in southern California were studied and found not to have increased risks of leukemia and brain cancer based on exposures estimated with measurements. An ongoing study of electric utility workers at five companies in the United States incorporates an extensive measurement protocol. Randomly selected workers within occupational categories wore a time integrating magnetic-field meter to provide estimates of exposure for the occupational category. We were able to estimate and partition the variance into between-day (the largest contributor), within occupational categories, and between occupational categories. Principal research needs concern optimal levels of worker aggregation for exposure assignment, historical extrapolation, study of diverse work environments, and integration of residential and occupational exposure in the same study. 19 refs., 1 tab.

Savitz, D.A. [Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States)

1995-03-01

150

Overview of occupational exposure to electric and magnetic fields and cancer: advancements in exposure assessment.  

PubMed Central

For over ten years, there has been concern with the potential for increased risk of cancer among "electrical workers." In contrast to studies of residential exposure to magnetic fields, occupational studies include electric and magnetic field exposures and have much greater variability in field intensity, frequency, and temporal patterns. Studies of leukemia in electrical workers show a moderate consistency, with elevated risk ratios of 1.2 to 2.0 commonly observed. Brain tumors are similarly elevated with some consistency, and three recent studies have suggested increased risk of male breast cancer. Retrospective exposure assessment methods were advanced in recent studies of diverse occupations in a study in central Sweden, which yielded evidence of increased risk of chronic lymphocytic leukemia among men in more highly exposed occupations. A study of telephone workers in New York State incorporated measurements and found some indication of increased leukemia risk only when exposures were based on historical technology. Utility workers in southern California were studied and found not to have increased risks of leukemia and brain cancer based on exposures estimated with measurements. An ongoing study of electric utility workers at five companies in the United States incorporates an extensive measurement protocol. Randomly selected workers within occupational categories wore a time-integrating magnetic-field meter to provide estimates of exposure for the occupational category. We were able to estimate and partition the variance into between-day (the largest contributor), within occupational categories, and between occupational categories. Principal research needs concern optimal levels of worker aggregation for exposure assignment, historical extrapolation, study of diverse work environments, and integration of residential and occupational exposure in the same study.

Savitz, D A

1995-01-01

151

Renal cell carcinoma and occupational exposure to chemicals in Canada.  

PubMed

This study assesses the effect of occupational exposure to specific chemicals on the risk of renal cell carcinoma in Canada. Mailed questionnaires were used to obtain data on 1279 (691 male and 588 female) newly diagnosed, histologically confirmed renal cell carcinoma cases and 5370 population controls in eight Canadian provinces, between 1994 and 1997. Data were collected on socio-economic status, smoking habit, alcohol use, diet, residential and occupational histories, and years of exposure to any of 17 chemicals. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were derived using unconditional logistic regression. The study found an increased risk of renal cell carcinoma in males only, which was associated with occupational exposure to benzene; benzidine; coal tar, soot, pitch, creosote or asphalt; herbicides; mineral, cutting or lubricating oil; mustard gas; pesticides; and vinyl chloride. Compared with no exposure to the specific chemical, the adjusted ORs were 1.8 (95% CI = 1.2-2.6), 2.1 (1.3-3.6), 1.4 (1.1-1.8), 1.6 (1.3-2.0), 1.3 (1.1-1.7), 4.6 (1.7-12.5), 1.8 (1.4-2.3) and 2.0 (1.2-3.3), respectively; an elevated risk was also associated with exposure to cadmium salts and isopropyl oil. The risk of renal cell carcinoma increased with duration of exposure to benzene, benzidine, cadmium, herbicides and vinyl chloride. Very few females were exposed to specific chemicals in this study; further research is needed to clarify the association between occupational exposure to chemicals and renal cell carcinoma in females. PMID:12063361

Hu, J; Mao, Y; White, K

2002-05-01

152

Occupational exposures and practices in nuclear power plants  

SciTech Connect

As the first generation of commercial nuclear power comes to a close, it is timely to consider the status of occupational exposure in the power generation industry, that is, the collective occupational radiation doses received by workers in nuclear power plants. The picture is surprising. One might have thought that as newer, larger, and more modern plants came on line, there would be a significant decrease in exposure per unit of electricity generated. There is some indication that this is now happening. One might also have thought that the United States, being a leader in the development of nuclear power, and in the knowledge, experience and technology of nuclear radiation protection, would have the greatest success in controlling exposure. This expectation has not been fulfilled. 32 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

Baum, J.W.

1989-01-01

153

Occupational exposure to carbon black in its manufacture.  

PubMed

Carbon black is manufactured by the vapour phase pyrolysis of heavy aromatic hydrocarbon feedstocks. Its manufacture is worldwide and the majority of its production is for use in the rubber industry especially tyre manufacture. Its carbonaceous nature has led many to investigate the occurrence of exposure-related medical conditions. To quantify any such relationships, it is necessary to assess exposure accurately. As part of such an epidemiological investigation survey involving the measurement both of respirable and of total inhalable carbon black was undertaken in 18 plants in seven European countries between mid-1987 and mid-1989. A total of 1298 respirable samples (SIMPEDS cyclone) and 1317 total inhalable samples (IOM head) were taken and deemed of sufficient quality for inclusion in the study. The distributions of the time-weighted average values were assessed and found to be best described by a log-normal distribution, and so exposure is characterized by geometric means and standard deviations. The data are presented in terms of 13 separate job titles for both dust fractions and shows a wide variation between job titles, with the highest mean exposure experienced by the site cleaners, and 30% of the samples taken from the warehouse packers being in excess of the relevant countries' occupational exposure limits for total inhalable dust. The quality and extent of this data allows both for comparison with exposure standards and for generation of occupational exposure indices, which will be presented in another paper (Gardiner et al., in preparation). PMID:1444068

Gardiner, K; Trethowan, W N; Harrington, J M; Calvert, I A; Glass, D C

1992-10-01

154

Corporate occupational exposure limits: the current state of affairs  

SciTech Connect

It has been claimed that the implementation of occupational exposure limits has been instrumental for the near elimination of serious occupational disease in the Western world. Although exposure limits or guides for most large volume chemicals have been established, the majority of the 10,000 chemicals which are routinely used in industry do not have them. As a result, many firms have chosen to establish internal limits to protect their employees as well as the persons who purchase those chemicals. This paper reviews the most important issues discussed in a 2-day symposium on corporate exposure limits which was sponsored by the AIHA Workplace Environment Exposure Limits Committee (WEEL). Thirteen representatives of industry and professional organizations presented papers which addressed various aspects of the process for setting internal exposure limits. The various policies and methodologies used by large American companies which have set limits for many years and their benefits were discussed. The history and function of Threshold Limit Values (TLVs) Maximum Allowable Concentrations (MACs), Permissible Exposure Limits (PELs) and Workplace Environment Exposure Limits (WEELs) also were reviewed. Some of the legal aspects of setting corporate limits and their role in the Product Safety arena were discussed.

Paustenback, D.; Langner, R.

1986-12-01

155

Advanced REACH Tool: A Bayesian Model for Occupational Exposure Assessment.  

PubMed

This paper describes a Bayesian model for the assessment of inhalation exposures in an occupational setting; the methodology underpins a freely available web-based application for exposure assessment, the Advanced REACH Tool (ART). The ART is a higher tier exposure tool that combines disparate sources of information within a Bayesian statistical framework. The information is obtained from expert knowledge expressed in a calibrated mechanistic model of exposure assessment, data on inter- and intra-individual variability in exposures from the literature, and context-specific exposure measurements. The ART provides central estimates and credible intervals for different percentiles of the exposure distribution, for full-shift and long-term average exposures. The ART can produce exposure estimates in the absence of measurements, but the precision of the estimates improves as more data become available. The methodology presented in this paper is able to utilize partially analogous data, a novel approach designed to make efficient use of a sparsely populated measurement database although some additional research is still required before practical implementation. The methodology is demonstrated using two worked examples: an exposure to copper pyrithione in the spraying of antifouling paints and an exposure to ethyl acetate in shoe repair. PMID:24665110

McNally, Kevin; Warren, Nicholas; Fransman, Wouter; Entink, Rinke Klein; Schinkel, Jody; van Tongeren, Martie; Cherrie, John W; Kromhout, Hans; Schneider, Thomas; Tielemans, Erik

2014-06-01

156

Advanced REACH Tool: A Bayesian Model for Occupational Exposure Assessment  

PubMed Central

This paper describes a Bayesian model for the assessment of inhalation exposures in an occupational setting; the methodology underpins a freely available web-based application for exposure assessment, the Advanced REACH Tool (ART). The ART is a higher tier exposure tool that combines disparate sources of information within a Bayesian statistical framework. The information is obtained from expert knowledge expressed in a calibrated mechanistic model of exposure assessment, data on inter- and intra-individual variability in exposures from the literature, and context-specific exposure measurements. The ART provides central estimates and credible intervals for different percentiles of the exposure distribution, for full-shift and long-term average exposures. The ART can produce exposure estimates in the absence of measurements, but the precision of the estimates improves as more data become available. The methodology presented in this paper is able to utilize partially analogous data, a novel approach designed to make efficient use of a sparsely populated measurement database although some additional research is still required before practical implementation. The methodology is demonstrated using two worked examples: an exposure to copper pyrithione in the spraying of antifouling paints and an exposure to ethyl acetate in shoe repair.

McNally, Kevin; Warren, Nicholas; Fransman, Wouter; Entink, Rinke Klein; Schinkel, Jody; van Tongeren, Martie; Cherrie, John W.; Kromhout, Hans; Schneider, Thomas; Tielemans, Erik

2014-01-01

157

A mathematical model for the absorption and metabolism of formaldehyde vapour by humans  

SciTech Connect

Epidemiological studies of occupational exposure to formaldehyde gas (HCHO) have suggested possible links between concentration and duration of exposure, and elevated risks of leukaemia and other cancers at sites distant from the site of contact. Formaldehyde is a highly water soluble gas which, when inhaled, reacts rapidly at the site of contact and is quickly metabolised by enzymes in the respiratory tissue. Inhaled formaldehyde is almost entirely absorbed in the respiratory tract and, for formaldehyde induced toxicity to occur at distant sites, HCHO must enter the blood and be transported to systemic tissues via the circulatory system. A mathematical model describing the absorption and removal of inhaled formaldehyde in the nasal tissue is therefore formulated to predict the proportion of formaldehyde entering into the blood. Accounting for the spatial distribution of the formaldehyde concentration and the metabolic activity within the mucosa, the concentration of formaldehyde in the mucus, the epithelium and the blood has been determined and was found to attain a steady-state profile within a few seconds of exposure. The increase of the formaldehyde concentration in the blood was predicted to be insignificant compared with the existing pre-exposure levels in the body, indicating that formaldehyde is rapidly removed in the nasal tissue. The results of the model thus suggest that it is highly unlikely that following inhalation by the nose, formaldehyde itself will cause toxicity at sites other than the initial site of contact in the respiratory tract.

Franks, S.J. [Health and Safety Laboratory, Harpur Hill, Buxton SK17 9JN (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: Susan.Franks@hsl.gov.uk

2005-08-15

158

Occupational exposure to vinyl chloride and risk of hepatocellular carcinoma.  

PubMed

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a common form of cancer that arises from hepatocytes and whose risk may be affected by several known factors, including viruses, alcohol, cigarette smoking, and several genetic conditions. Liver angiosarcoma is a rare cancer that develops from endothelial cells and whose most relevant known risk factor is occupational exposure to vinyl chloride (VC). Since occupational exposure to high levels of VC may still occur, we reviewed the epidemiological and experimental evidence supporting the notion that inhalation exposure to VC is a risk factor for HCC. We find that available epidemiological evidence is based on a dose-risk study with 10 HCC cases and on a partially overlapping study reporting similar results: neither study provided controls for known non-occupational confounders for HCC. Carcinogenesis bioassays of VC inhalation in rodents indicate that angiosarcomas account for nearly all liver tumors induced. Thus, the role of inhalation exposure to VC in HCC risk remains unclear, awaiting further studies and the integration of results from epidemiological studies and animal models. PMID:18560983

Dragani, Tommaso A; Zocchetti, Carlo

2008-12-01

159

Relationship between the lead concentration in hair and occupational exposure.  

PubMed Central

The lead content of hair in workers occupationally exposed was correlated with the blood lead concentration. Determinations of lead in blood and hair were performed by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrophotometry in two exposed groups and a control group. A significant correlation was observed between the blood lead and hair lead concentrations, and a regression analysis showed an exponential accumulation of the lead content in hair, simultaneously with the increase of the values in blood. The colour of the hair and the age of the subject did not influence the lead accumulation in hair in the occupationally exposed subjects. The assessment of lead in hair is considered a useful screening test in estimating occupational exposure. Images

Niculescu, T; Dumitru, R; Botha, V; Alexandrescu, R; Manolescu, N

1983-01-01

160

Complex chlorinated hydrocarbons: occupational exposure in the sawmill industry.  

PubMed

Exposure to chlorophenols occurs in the vicinity of the lumber treatment area in sawmills and in subsequent work phases where treated lumber is handled. Measurements from several countries indicate that the concentration of chlorophenols in the workroom air is generally below 0.5 mg/m3, the occupational exposure limit of chlorophenols in many countries. Inhalation usually leads to relatively low concentrations of chlorophenols in urine of exposed workers. Frequent skin contact with chlorophenol solution or with freshly treated lumber can produce urine concentrations 10-100 times higher than among those with inhalatory exposure only. In addition to chlorophenols, exposure to toxic polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans may occur in some tasks carried out in sawmills. Jobs with potentially heavy exposure include the treatment of dipping-vat sludge and processes involving heating of chlorophenols, such as burning of treated waste wood and welding of metal structures contaminated by chlorophenols. PMID:2228138

Kalliokoski, P; Kauppinen, T

1990-01-01

161

Effect of Prolonged Repeated Exposure to Formaldehyde Donors with Doses Below the EC3 Value on Draining Lymph Node Responses.  

PubMed

In the Local Lymph Node Assay (LLNA), a stimulation index of 3 (SI = 3) is established as a threshold value for hazard identification of sensitization. The corresponding EC3 value, the effective concentration inducing a threefold increase compared to controls, can possibly predict threshold levels for sensitization in humans. Exposure to a dose below the threshold dose would not result in an induction of an immune response. Each repeated contact would be considered and viewed as a new contact and as long as the dose is below the threshold there will be no response, even after repeated exposures. However, repeated exposure may result in local accumulation eventually resulting in a dose that induces a response above the threshold for immunization. We investigated lymph node responses after short and prolonged exposure to formaldehyde donors, chemicals that are highly reactive with proteins and may thus persist in the skin. The studies were performed with formaldehyde and formaldehyde releasers (formaldehyde, paraformaldehyde, Quaternium-15, 2-Chloro-N-(hydroxymethyl)acetamide, and hexamethylenetetramine), at concentrations that induce a SI = 2, i.e., below the threshold for hazard identification. For all test chemicals investigated enhanced lymph node responses were obtained when comparing long-term prolonged exposure to short-term exposure, while three of five chemicals induced responses above SI = 3. Our results show that repeated and prolonged exposure to doses below the EC3 value can induce reactions above the SI = 3, the hazard identification threshold for sensitization in mice. So, when discussing the possible use of the EC3 as benchmark for risk assessment, one should consider duration of exposure and the possibility of local accumulation of the chemical under investigation. PMID:18958734

De Jong, Wim H; De Klerk, Arja; Beek, Marloes Ter; Veenman, Christiaan; Van Loveren, Henk

2007-07-01

162

Is exposure to formaldehyde in air causally associated with leukemia?--A hypothesis-based weight-of-evidence analysis  

PubMed Central

Recent scientific debate has focused on the potential for inhaled formaldehyde to cause lymphohematopoietic cancers, particularly leukemias, in humans. The concern stems from certain epidemiology studies reporting an association, although particulars of endpoints and dosimetry are inconsistent across studies and several other studies show no such effects. Animal studies generally report neither hematotoxicity nor leukemia associated with formaldehyde inhalation, and hematotoxicity studies in humans are inconsistent. Formaldehyde's reactivity has been thought to preclude systemic exposure following inhalation, and its apparent inability to reach and affect the target tissues attacked by known leukemogens has, heretofore, led to skepticism regarding its potential to cause human lymphohematopoietic cancers. Recently, however, potential modes of action for formaldehyde leukemogenesis have been hypothesized, and it has been suggested that formaldehyde be identified as a known human leukemogen. In this article, we apply our hypothesis-based weight-of-evidence (HBWoE) approach to evaluate the large body of evidence regarding formaldehyde and leukemogenesis, attending to how human, animal, and mode-of-action results inform one another. We trace the logic of inference within and across all studies, and articulate how one could account for the suite of available observations under the various proposed hypotheses. Upon comparison of alternative proposals regarding what causal processes may have led to the array of observations as we see them, we conclude that the case fora causal association is weak and strains biological plausibility. Instead, apparent association between formaldehyde inhalation and leukemia in some human studies is better interpreted as due to chance or confounding.

Rhomberg, Lorenz R; Bailey, Lisa A; Goodman, Julie E; Hamade, Ali K; Mayfield, David

2011-01-01

163

Occupational exposure of nonsmoking nightclub musicians to environmental tobacco smoke.  

PubMed

This study assessed environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposures of nonsmoking musicians in nightclub environments using total suspended particulate (TSP), the ultraviolet absorbing fraction of TSP (UVPM), gaseous nicotine, saliva nicotine, saliva cotinine, and perceived smokiness as exposure/dose indicators. Measured exposures were as high or higher than those of other occupational groups studied. TSP ranged from 110 to 1714 micrograms/m3 (mean 502, SD 390 micrograms/m3). UVPM (mean 221, SD 95 micrograms/m3) was associated with gaseous and saliva nicotine concentrations. Paired-sample variation was much higher for TSP than for UVPM. Correlation of TSP with UVPM, gaseous nicotine, and saliva nicotine was poor. Paired-sample gaseous nicotine results were similar, with exposures of 28.0 to 50.0 micrograms/m3 (mean 37.1, SD 6.9 micrograms/m3), and were high compared with previous studies. These results suggested that nightclub musicians may be exposed to higher concentrations of ETS than some other occupational groups. Saliva nicotine results were consistent with those previously reported with regard to the range of values, large variation observed, and increase in saliva nicotine levels observable after only a few hours of exposure. Saliva nicotine results could not be correlated with other measures of exposure and did not appear to be a reliable biological indicator of absorbed dose. Saliva cotinine levels were comparable to other occupational groups studied, but were lower than previous findings for bartenders and waitresses. Levels ranged from 1.7 to 5.0 ng/mL (mean 3.4, SD 0.9 ng/mL), and increased with number of exposures during the workweek, but did not correlate with other ETS indicators. PMID:8765204

Bergman, T A; Johnson, D L; Boatright, D T; Smallwood, K G; Rando, R J

1996-08-01

164

Occupational exposure of workers to 1,3-butadiene.  

PubMed Central

Researchers from the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) conducted an extent-of-exposure study of the 1,3-butadiene monomer, polymer, and end-user industries to determine the size of the exposed workforce, evaluate control technologies and personal protective equipment programs, and assess occupational exposure to 1,3-butadiene. A new analytical method was developed for 1,3-butadiene that increased the sensitivity and selectivity of the previous NIOSH method. The new method is sensitive to 0.2 microgram per 1,3-butadiene sample. Walk-through surveys were conducted in 11 monomer, 17 polymer, and 2 end-user plants. In-depth industrial hygiene surveys were conducted at 4 monomer, 5 polymer, and 2 end-user plants. Airborne exposure concentrations of 1,3-butadiene were determined using personal sampling for each job category. A total of 692 full shift and short-term personnel and 259 area air samples were examined for the presence of 1,3-butadiene. Sample results indicated that all worker exposures were well below the current OSHA PEL of 1000 ppm. Exposures ranged from less than 0.006 ppm to 374 ppm. The average exposure for all samples was less than 2 ppm. The present American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) threshold limit value for 1,3-butadiene is 10 ppm. To reduce the potential for occupational exposure, it is recommended that quality control sampling be conducted using a closed loop system. Also all process pumps should be retrofitted with dual mechanical seals, magnetic gauges should be used in loading and unloading rail cars, and engineering controls should be designed for safely voiding quality control cylinders.

Fajen, J M; Roberts, D R; Ungers, L J; Krishnan, E R

1990-01-01

165

Biological monitoring for mutagenic effects of occupational exposure to butadiene.  

PubMed

The use of biological markers in the evaluation of human exposure to hazardous agents has increased rapidly in recent years. Because 1,3-butadiene is a mutagenic carcinogen, existing occupational levels of exposure may be appropriately evaluated using somatic cell mutation as a biomarker. Previously, we have described a biomarker study of workers in a butadiene monomer plant (Ward et al., 1994). We now report results from a second study of the same group of workers, conducted after plant modernization, and present preliminary results from a study of exposures in a styrene butadiene rubber (SBR) plant. Air levels of butadiene were determined using either charcoal tubes with air pumps or passive badge dosimeters. The quantity of a butadiene metabolite in the urine was used as a biomarker of exposure and the mutagenic effects of exposure were measured using the autoradiographic hprt mutant lymphocyte assay. In all three studies, the frequencies of hprt mutants were significantly elevated in workers from the areas of highest exposure when compared to workers from lower exposure areas or non-exposed subjects. The concentration of the urinary metabolite was significantly increased in high-exposed workers in the first study of monomer plant workers but not in the second. In the first monomer plant study, historical air concentrations of butadiene were higher in the production units than in the central control unit. While concurrent determined air concentrations were not elevated in the second monomer plant study, they were elevated in high exposure areas in the SBR plant study. Mutant frequencies in the lower-exposure and the non-exposed groups were consistent with historical values for non-smoking individuals who were not exposed to known mutagens. The use of biomarkers, including the hprt mutant lymphocyte assay, may be of great value in determining an appropriate occupational exposure limit for butadiene. PMID:8901886

Ward, J B; Ammenheuser, M M; Whorton, E B; Bechtold, W E; Kelsey, K T; Legator, M S

1996-10-28

166

Exposure-response analysis of risk of respiratory disease associated with occupational exposure to chrysotile asbestos  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate alternative models and estimate risk of mortality from lung cancer and asbestosis after occupational exposure to chrysotile asbestos. METHODS: Data were used from a recent update of a cohort mortality study of workers in a South Carolina textile factory. Alternative exposure-response models were evaluated with Poisson regression. A model designed to evaluate evidence of a threshold response

L Stayner; R Smith; J Bailer; S Gilbert; K Steenland; J Dement; D Brown; R Lemen

1997-01-01

167

Detailed industrial hygiene survey, formaldehyde production, E. I. DuPont de Nemours and Co. , Chemicals and Pigment Department, Grasselli Plant, Linden, New Jersey  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey to assess the techniques used to control occupational exposure to formaldehyde (50000) and methanol (67561) was conducted at the E. I. DuPont de Nemours and Company (SIC-2869) formaldehyde production unit, Linden, New Jersey, in October 1982. Exposure concentrations were reduced primarily by the use of a process that was completely enclosed except for process sampling, methanol unloading, and

D. W. Dunn; H. D. Toy; A. J. Wright; W. H. Hedley; L. Holmes

1983-01-01

168

74 FR 3938 - Occupational Exposure to Diacetyl and Food Flavorings Containing Diacetyl  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...occupational exposure to diacetyl...OSHA's Hazard Communication Standard...employee exposure in the affected...possible health effects of diacetyl...inhalation exposures during the...Health Effects Studies of Exposure to Butter...not become aware of...

2009-01-21

169

Comparison of health of occupants and characteristics of houses among control homes and homes insulated with urea formaldehyde foam. I. Methodology.  

PubMed

The methodology of a study in which a comparison is made of the health and house characteristics of the occupants of 231 control homes and 571 houses containing urea formaldehyde foam insulation (UFFI) is described. All homes and occupants were examined on two occasions separated by an interval of 12 months, during which two-thirds of the UFFI houses performed remedial work. The occupants were examined using a health questionnaire and a series of objective tests including pulmonary function, nasal airway resistance, sense of smell, nasal surface cytology, and patch tests. The houses were assessed using a questionnaire and measurements of indoor formaldehyde and carbon dioxide levels. No obvious bias has been identified in this survey with respect to the representativeness of the population studied, the classification of the UFFI and control groups, and the input from both the respondents and observers. The symptom responses made by individuals within the same households were not correlated. Quality control assessment of the objective health tests and formaldehyde sampling and assays demonstrated that these procedures remained stable over the two phases of the study, with the exception of the expected decrease in the pulmonary flow rates over 1 year and a small unexpected increase in the forced vital capacity and the forced expiratory volume in 1 s. PMID:3349973

Broder, I; Corey, P; Cole, P; Lipa, M; Mintz, S; Nethercott, J R

1988-04-01

170

Formaldehyde Exposure and Lower Respiratory Infections in Infants: Findings from the PARIS Cohort Study  

PubMed Central

Background: Certain chemical pollutants can exacerbate lower respiratory tract infections (LRIs), a common childhood ailment. Although formaldehyde (FA) is one of the most common air pollutants found in indoor environments, its impact on infant health is uncertain. Objective: Our aim was to determine the impact of FA exposure on the LRI incidence during the first year of life of infants from the Pollution and Asthma Risk: an Infant Study (PARIS) birth cohort. Methods: FA was measured in a random sample of 196 infants’ dwellings, and exposure to this pollutant was estimated for 2,940 infants using predictive models based on measurements and data about potential determinants of FA levels. Health data were collected from parents by regular self-administered questionnaires. We used multivariate logistic regressions to estimate associations between FA exposure and the occurrence of LRI and wheezy LRI (wLRI), adjusting for potential confounders/risk factors. Results: During the first year of life, 45.8% of infants had at least one LRI, and LRI occurred simultaneously with wheezing in 48.7% of cases. The FA predictive models correctly classified 70% of dwellings as having high or low exposure, and we estimated that 43.3% of infants were exposed throughout the first year to levels of FA > 19.5 µg/m3. FA exposure was significantly associated with LRI and wLRI before and after adjustment for known LRI risk factors/confounders. For an interquartile increase in FA levels (12.4 ?g/m3), we estimated a 32% [95% confidence interval (CI): 11, 55] and 41% (95% CI: 14, 74) increase in the incidence of LRI and wLRI, respectively. Conclusion: The findings of this study suggest that infants exposed to FA at an early age have an increased incidence of LRI.

Roda, Celina; Kousignian, Isabelle; Guihenneuc-Jouyaux, Chantal; Dassonville, Claire; Nicolis, Ioannis; Just, Jocelyne

2011-01-01

171

Urinary metallothionein as a biological indicator of occupational cadmium exposure  

SciTech Connect

Radioimmunoassay and neutron activation data indicate that the urinary metallothionein concentration is related to the liver Cd concentration in occupational Cd exposure. It is also related to the kidney Cd content - but only before the onset of renal dysfunction. Further epidemiological studies are needed to establish a dose-response relationship, which may be useful in minimizing the hazard of Cd-induced renal dysfunction.

Tohyama, C.; Shaikh, Z.A.; Ellis, K.J.; Cohn, S.H.

1981-01-01

172

Occupational noise exposure and hearing loss among pulse processing workers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Occupational noise exposure and noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) has been recognised as a problem among workers in Indian\\u000a industries. The major industries in India are based on the processing of agricultural products. There are appreciable numbers\\u000a of pulse processing units spread throughout the country. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of hearing\\u000a loss among pulse processing

V. S. Patel; S. T. Ingle

2008-01-01

173

Occupational exposure to crystalline silica at alberta work sites.  

PubMed

Although crystalline silica has been recognized as a health hazard for many years, it is still encountered in many work environments. Numerous studies have revealed an association between exposure to respirable crystalline silica and the development of silicosis and other lung diseases including lung cancer. Alberta Jobs, Skills, Training and Labour conducted a project to evaluate exposure to crystalline silica at a total of 40 work sites across 13 industries. Total airborne respirable dust and respirable crystalline silica concentrations were quite variable, but there was a potential to exceed the Alberta Occupational Exposure Limit (OEL) of 0.025 mg/m(3) for respirable crystalline silica at many of the work sites evaluated. The industries with the highest potentials for overexposure occurred in sand and mineral processing (GM 0.090 mg/m(3)), followed by new commercial building construction (GM 0.055 mg/m(3)), aggregate mining and crushing (GM 0.048 mg/m(3)), abrasive blasting (GM 0.027 mg/m(3)), and demolition (GM 0.027 mg/m(3)). For worker occupations, geometric mean exposure ranged from 0.105 mg/m(3) (brick layer/mason/concrete cutting) to 0.008 mg/m(3) (dispatcher/shipping, administration). Potential for GM exposure exceeding the OEL was identified in a number of occupations where it was not expected, such as electricians, carpenters and painters. These exposures were generally related to the specific task the worker was doing, or arose from incidental exposure from other activities at the work site. The results indicate that where there is a potential for activities producing airborne respirable crystalline silica, it is critical that the employer include all worker occupations at the work site in their hazard assessment. There appears to be a relationship between airborne total respirable dust concentration and total respirable dust concentrations, but further study is require to fully characterize this relationship. If this relationship holds true, it may provide a useful hazard assessment tool for employers by which the potential for exposure to airborne respirable silica at the work site can be more easily estimated. PMID:24479465

Radnoff, Diane; Todor, Maria S; Beach, Jeremy

2014-09-01

174

Health effects of occupational exposures to vehicle emissions in Shanghai.  

PubMed

The authors investigated the health effects of occupational exposures to vehicle emissions in 745 bus drivers, conductors, and taxi drivers, compared with 532 unexposed controls, in Shanghai. Logistic regression and general linear models were used to examine the relationship between exposure and respiratory illness. Results showed that the prevalences of some respiratory symptoms and chronic respiratory diseases were significantly higher (p < 0.05) in the exposed group than in the controls. The adjusted odds ratios for throat pain, phlegm, chronic rhinitis, and chronic pharyngitis were 1.95 (95% CI 1.55-2.46), 3.90 (95% CI 2.61-5.81), 1.96 (95% CI 1.11-3.46), and 4.19 (95% CI 2.49-7.06), respectively. Also, there were exposure time response relationships for the prevalences of phlegm and chronic respiratory disease. Pulmonary function and blood lead levels were not significantly correlated with exposure status. The results suggest that occupational exposure to vehicle emissions may induce detectable adverse health effects. PMID:11210009

Zhou, W; Yuan, D; Ye, S; Qi, P; Fu, C; Christiani, D C

2001-01-01

175

Urinary biomarkers of occupational N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) exposure attributed to the dermal exposure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To evaluate whether the dermal exposure to N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) exerts significant effects and to determine the unit increment of dermal exposure on the total body burden of two biomarkers in urine: metabolism-required N-methylformamide (U-NMF) and non-metabolized DMF (U-DMF) in actual occupational environments. Methods: Exposure via respiratory and dermal routes was assessed on an individual basis for 75 workers from

Ho-Yuan Chang; Ching-Yi Tsai; Yu-Qun Lin; Tung-Sheng Shih; Yun-Chin Lin

2004-01-01

176

Cytogenetic damage and occupational exposure. 1. Exposure to stone dust  

SciTech Connect

Cytogenetic investigations were carried out on 50 workers exposed to stone dust in a stone crusher industry and on 25 control subjects never exposed to such dust. The frequency of chromosomal aberrations and sister chromatid exchanges in exposed individuals was significantly higher than that in controls. The cytogenetic indices demonstrated a clear dependence on the working environment. The effect of smoking and/or alcoholic habits coupled with exposure to stone dust has also been investigated. The results indicate that the mutagenic risk in the working environment is probably associated with silica dust in the area.

Sobti, R.C.; Bhardwaj, D.K. (Panjab Univ., Chandigarh (India))

1991-10-01

177

Occupational UV Exposure of Environmental Agents in Valencia, Spain.  

PubMed

Excessive exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UVR) is considered the most important environmental risk factor in the development of melanoma and skin cancer. Outdoor workers are among those with the highest risk from exposure to solar UVR, as their daily activities constantly expose them to this radiation source. A study was carried out in Valencia, Spain, in summer 2012 and involved a group of 11 workers for a period of six 2-day recordings. Sensitive spore-film filter-type personal dosimeters (VioSpor) were used to measure erythemal UVR received by environmental agents in the course of their daily work. Median 2-day UV exposure was 6.2 standard erythema dose (SED), with 1 SED defined as effective 100 J m(-2) when weighted with the Commission Internationale de L'Eclairage's (CIE) erythemal response function. These workers were found to receive a median of 8.3% total daily ambient ultraviolet erythemal radiation. Comparison with the occupational UV exposure limit showed that the subjects had received an erythemal UV dose in excess of occupational guidelines, indicating that protective measures against this risk are highly advisable. PMID:24494834

Serrano, María-Antonia; Cañada, Javier; Moreno, Juan Carlos; Gurrea, Gonzalo

2014-07-01

178

Risk Factors for Breast Cancer, Including Occupational Exposures  

PubMed Central

The knowledge on the etiology of breast cancer has advanced substantially in recent years, and several etiological factors are now firmly established. However, very few new discoveries have been made in relation to occupational risk factors. The International Agency for Research on Cancer has evaluated over 900 different exposures or agents to-date to determine whether they are carcinogenic to humans. These evaluations are published as a series of Monographs (www.iarc.fr). For breast cancer the following substances have been classified as "carcinogenic to humans" (Group 1): alcoholic beverages, exposure to diethylstilbestrol, estrogen-progestogen contraceptives, estrogen-progestogen hormone replacement therapy and exposure to X-radiation and gamma-radiation (in special populations such as atomic bomb survivors, medical patients, and in-utero exposure). Ethylene oxide is also classified as a Group 1 carcinogen, although the evidence for carcinogenicity in epidemiologic studies, and specifically for the human breast, is limited. The classification "probably carcinogenic to humans" (Group 2A) includes estrogen hormone replacement therapy, tobacco smoking, and shift work involving circadian disruption, including work as a flight attendant. If the association between shift work and breast cancer, the most common female cancer, is confirmed, shift work could become the leading cause of occupational cancer in women.

Meo, Margrethe; Vainio, Harri

2011-01-01

179

Cardiac Autonomic Dysfunction from Occupational Exposure to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons  

PubMed Central

Objectives Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) exposures have been associated with cardiopulmonary mortality and cardiovascular events. This study investigated the association between a biological marker of PAHs exposure, assessed by urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP), and heart rate variability (HRV) in an occupational cohort of boilermakers. Methods Continuous 24-hour monitoring of the ambulatory electrocardiogram (ECG) and pre and post shift urinary 1-OHP were repeated over extended periods of the work week. Mixed effects models were fit for the 5-minute standard deviation of normal-to-normal intervals (SDNN) in relation to urinary 1-OHP levels pre and post workshift on the day they wore the monitor, controlling for potential confounders. Results We found a significant decrease in 5-min SDNN during work of ?13.6% (95% confidence interval, ?17.2% to ?9.8%) for every standard deviation (0.53 microgram/gram [?g/g] creatinine) increase in the next-morning pre-shift 1-OHP levels. The magnitude of reduction in 5-min SDNN were largest during the late night period after work and increased with every standard deviation (0.46 ?g/g creatinine) increase in post-shift 1-OHP levels. Conclusion This is the first report providing evidence that occupational exposure to PAHs is associated with altered cardiac autonomic function. Acute exposure to PAHs may be an important predictor of cardiovascular disease risk in the work environment.

Lee, Mi-Sun; Magari, Shannon; Christiani, David C.

2013-01-01

180

The role of environmental and occupational exposures in Turkish immigrants with fibre-related disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of environmental and occupational exposures in Turkish immigrants with fibre- related disease. P. Dumortier, A.Gocmen, K. Laurent, A. Manco, P. De Vuyst. #ERS Journals Ltd 2001. ABSTRACT: Environmental exposure to tremolite and erionite causes endemic diseases of the lung and pleura in Turkey. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of these exposures and further occupational exposures on

P. Dumortier; A. Göcmen; K. Laurent; A. Manço; P. de Vuyst

2001-01-01

181

Occupational Exposure to Extremely Low Frequency Magnetic Fields and Mortality from Cardiovascular Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors evaluated the relation between occupational exposure to extremely low frequency (ELF) magnetic fields and mortality from cardiovascular diseases. The study was based on 27,790 subjects from the Swedish Twin Registry. Exposure to ELF magnetic fields was assessed by linking occupation reported in 1967 or 1973 to a job exposure matrix. Four levels of exposure were related to cause-specific

Niclas Håkansson; Per Gustavsson; Antonio Sastre; Birgitta Floderus

2003-01-01

182

Awareness and understanding of occupational exposure limits in Sweden.  

PubMed

The efficiency of a risk management tool, such as occupational exposure limits (OELs), partly depends on the responsible parties' awareness and understanding of it. The aim of this study was to measure the awareness and understanding of OELs at Swedish workplaces and to collect opinions on their use and function. Through a web-based questionnaire targeting workers that are exposed to air pollutants or chemicals, and persons working with occupational health and safety or in management at workplaces where workers are exposed to air pollutants or chemicals 1017 responses were collected. The results show that awareness and understanding of Swedish OELs is low among workers, as well as managers and occupational health and safety employees. Statistically significant, but small, differences were found depending on the size of the company and the position in the company. Based on the results, it is recommended that authorities and the social partners target this lack of awareness and understanding regarding OELs. Also, other tools to ascertain a safe working environment with regards to chemicals exposure might be useful for Swedish workplaces. PMID:23376473

Schenk, Linda

2013-04-01

183

Facial solar UV exposure of Austrian farmers during occupation.  

PubMed

Optoelectronic personal UV-meters were used to monitor the occupational facial solar erythemally effective exposure of 12 Austrian full-time farmers with high temporal resolution. To ensure high quality measurements several quality assurance procedures were applied, like calibration with respect to solar elevation and total ozone column. From April to October the test persons carried the UV-meters on the forehead during working hours. A digital diary (activity, location, weather, photoprotective measures) was completed on an hourly basis. Our field test produced 1427 complete daily records (measurement and diary). The total exposures showed high variability (77-757 standard erythema dose [SED]) which correlates with the number of working days and even stronger with the little numbers of days with high exposure (>10?SED). Risk factors for high exposures were: mixed-culture farms with aggravated working conditions, low degree of automation of working processes, inadequate operating logistics (summarized as manual work outdoor), driving machines without cabins, and female gender. UV exposure of female farmers was approximately twice as high as that of men: Women received 15% of ambient radiation while men got 8%. Avoiding daily exposure >10?SED could reduce exposure down to 40% and the risk in developing skin cancer by a factor of 40. PMID:21039574

Schmalwieser, Alois W; Cabaj, Alexander; Schauberger, Günther; Rohn, Herbert; Maier, Bernhard; Maier, Harald

2010-01-01

184

Occupational exposure to solvent mixtures: effects on health and metabolism.  

PubMed

Exposure monitoring by personal diffusive samplers, biological monitoring of toluene exposure by urinary hippuric acid determination, haematology, serum biochemistry for liver function, and a subjective symptom survey by questionnaire were conducted on 303 male solvent workers. They were exposed to a mixture of solvents including toluene (geometric mean 18 ppm), methyl ethyl ketone (MEK; 16 ppm), isopropyl alcohol (IPA; 7 ppm), and ethyl acetate (9 ppm). The intensity was mostly below unity using the additiveness formula based on current Japanese occupational exposure limits, but more than eight times unity at the maximum. The results were compared with the findings in 135 non-exposed male workers of similar ages. Haematology and liver function tests did not show any exposure related abnormality, and subjective symptoms were mostly related to central nervous system depression and local irritation. Further analysis suggested that the irritation effects were not related to exposure to MEK. Analysis of the relation between toluene exposure and hippuric acid excretion in urine showed that there was no metabolic interaction between MEK and toluene, or between IPA and toluene. Overall, therefore, it is concluded that there was no sign or symptom detected to suggest anything other than toluene toxicity, that there was no evidence to indicate any modification of toluene toxicity or metabolism due to coexposure, and that the additiveness assumption is reasonable for risk assessment for the combination of solvents under these exposure conditions. PMID:7951776

Ukai, H; Takada, S; Inui, S; Imai, Y; Kawai, T; Shimbo, S; Ikeda, M

1994-08-01

185

Carbofuran occupational dermal toxicity, exposure and risk assessment†  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Carbofuran is a carbamate insecticide that inhibits AChE. Although toxic by ingestion in mammals, it has low dermal toxicity, with relatively few confirmed worker illnesses. This risk assessment describes its time of onset, time to peak effect and time to recovery in rats using brain AChE inhibition in acute and 21 day dermal studies; in vitro rat/human relative dermal absorption for granular (5G) and liquid (4F) formulations; occupational exposure estimates using the Pesticide Handlers' Exposure Database and Agricultural Handlers' Exposure Database (PHED/AHED). RESULTS The point of departure for acute risk calculation (BMDL10) was 6.7 mg kg?1 day?1 for brain AChE inhibition after 6 h exposure. In a 21 day study, the BMDL10 was 6.8 mg kg?1 day?1, indicating reversibility. At 75 mg kg?1 day?1, time of onset was ?30 min and time to peak effect was 6–12 h. Rat skin had ca tenfold greater dermal absorption of carbofuran (Furadan® 5G or 4F) than human skin. Exposure estimates for 5G in rice and 4F in ten crops had adequate margins of exposure (>100). CONCLUSION Rat dermal carbofuran toxicity was assessed in terms of dose and time-related inhibition of AChE. Comparative dermal absorption in rats was greater than in humans. Worker exposure estimates indicated acceptable risk for granular and liquid formulations of carbofuran. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry

Gammon, Derek W; Liu, Zhiwei; Becker, John M

2012-01-01

186

Out of hours management of occupational exposures to blood and body fluids in healthcare staff  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims: To assess and compare the out of hours and in hours management of occupational blood and body fluid exposures in a London teaching hospital.Methods: The occupational health and accident and emergency records of individuals presenting with occupational body fluid exposures over a six month period at a London teaching hospital were analysed retrospectively. Main outcome measures were the completeness

D Patel; M Gawthrop; D Snashall; I Madan

2002-01-01

187

Occupational exposure to carcinogens in the European Union  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES—To construct a computer assisted information system for the estimation of the numbers of workers exposed to established and suspected human carcinogens in the member states of the European Union (EU).?METHODS—A database called CAREX (carcinogen exposure) was designed to provide selected exposure data and documented estimates of the number of workers exposed to carcinogens by country, carcinogen, and industry. CAREX includes data on agents evaluated by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) (all agents in groups 1 and 2A as of February 1995, and selected agents in group 2B) and on ionising radiation, displayed across the 55 industrial classes. The 1990-3 occupational exposure was estimated in two phases. Firstly, estimates were generated by the CAREX system on the basis of national labour force data and exposure prevalence estimates from two reference countries (Finland and the United States) which had the most comprehensive data available on exposures to these agents. For selected countries, these estimates were then refined by national experts in view of the perceived exposure patterns in their own countries compared with those of the reference countries.?RESULTS—About 32 million workers (23% of those employed) in the EU were exposed to agents covered by CAREX. At least 22 million workers were exposed to IARC group 1 carcinogens. The exposed workers had altogether 42 million exposures (1.3 mean exposures for each exposed worker). The most common exposures were solar radiation (9.1 million workers exposed at least 75% of working time), environmental tobacco smoke (7.5 million workers exposed at least 75% of working time), crystalline silica (3.2 million exposed), diesel exhaust (3.0 million), radon (2.7 million), and wood dust (2.6 million).?CONCLUSION—These preliminary estimates indicate that in the early 1990s, a substantial proportion of workers in the EU were exposed to carcinogens.???Keywords: exposure; carcinogen; Europe

Kauppinen, T.; Toikkanen, J.; Pedersen, D.; Young, R.; Ahrens, W.; Boffetta, P.; Hansen, J.; Kromhout, H.; Blasco, J. M.; Mirabelli, D.; de la Orden-River..., V.; Pannett, B.; Plato, N.; Savela, A.; Vincent, R.; Kogevinas, M.

2000-01-01

188

Occupational exposure to ethylene oxide of hospital staff.  

PubMed

Occupational exposure to ethylene oxide was assessed among the workers remaining in direct contact with ethylene oxide or with ethylene oxide-sterilized instruments in 13 hospitals located in the city of Lód? and its suburbs. Individual dosimetry and stationary sampling methods were employed. The samples collected from the occupational environment were analysed by gas chromatography with mass detection. The analytical method enabled determination of low ethylene oxide concentrations in the presence of the accompanying chemicals, such as ethyl alcohol, isopropyl alcohol, ethyl ether and isoflurene. In total, 227 determinations were made, and ethylene oxide at concentrations above 0.01 mg/m3 (which was the detection limit of the method) was found to be present in 164 samples. The ethylene oxide levels were found to vary widely, from lower than 0.01 TLV to several hundred times the TLV value. PMID:10360085

Weso?owski, W; Sitarek, K

1999-01-01

189

Occupational exposure to organic solvents and breast cancer in women  

PubMed Central

Background Although studies in rodents suggest possible associations between exposure to organic solvents and breast cancer, the evidence in humans is limited. Methods We evaluated job histories of 2383 incident breast cancer cases diagnosed during 2000–2003, and 2502 controls who participated in a large population-based case-control study in Poland. Industrial hygienists reviewed occupational histories and developed exposure metrics for total organic solvents and benzene. Unconditional logistic regression analyses estimated odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) as the measure of association with breast cancer, controlling for breast cancer risk factors. Stratified analyses examined the potential modification by known breast cancer risk factors. Associations were also evaluated by estrogen (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) status and by other clinical characteristics of the tumours using polytomous regression analyses. Results Women who ever worked at jobs with organic solvents exposure had a small, non-significant increase in breast cancer risk (OR=1.16; 95%CI 0.99 to 1.4). A significant association was present for ER and PR negative tumors (OR 1.40; 95% CI 1.1 to 1.8), but there was no association with tumors with both positive receptors (OR 0.97; 95% CI 0.8 to 1.2 (p-heterogeneity: 0.008)). We did not observe trends with increasing level of exposure. Known breast cancer risk factors did not modify the association with organic solvents and breast cancer risk. No association with breast cancer was found for benzene exposure (OR 1.00; 95% CI 0.8 to 1.3). Conclusion Our study provides weak evidence for a possible association between occupational exposure to organic solvents as a class and breast cancer risk. The association might be limited to hormone receptor negative tumors.

Peplonska, Beata; Stewart, Patricia; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonila; Lissowska, Jolanta; Brinton, Louise A.; Gromiec, Jan Piotr; Brzeznicki, Slawomir; Yang, Rose; Sherman, Mark; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Blair, Aaron

2009-01-01

190

Comparison of methods for obtaining occupational exposure information in a case-control interview study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Comparison of methods for obtaining occupational exposure information in a case-control interview study. Two indirect methods for linking occupation and industry of employment with specific exposures and directly reported occupational exposure information were compared using data from a population-based case-control interview study of chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Exposures suspected of being associated with increased risk of chronic lymphocytic leukemia were examined

M. S. Linet; W. F. Stewart; M. L. Van Natta; L. D. McCaffrey; M. Szklo

1986-01-01

191

The putative role of ovary removal and progesterone when considering the effect of formaldehyde exposure on lung inflammation induced by ovalbumin  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: Formaldehyde exposure during the menstrual cycle is known to affect the course of allergic lung inflammation. Because our previous data demonstrated that formaldehyde combined with an ovariectomy reduced allergic lung inflammation, we investigated the putative role of ovary removal and progesterone treatment when considering the effect of formaldehyde on allergic lung inflammation. METHOD: Ovariectomized rats and their matched controls were exposed to formaldehyde (1%, 3 days, 90 min/day) or vehicle, and immediately after exposure, the rats were sensitized to ovalbumin by a subcutaneous route. After 1 week, the rats received a booster by the same route, and after an additional week, the rats were challenged with ovalbumin (1%) by an aerosol route. The leukocyte numbers, interleukin-10 (IL-10) release, myeloperoxidase activity, vascular permeability, ex vivo tracheal reactivity to methacholine and mast cell degranulation were determined 24 h later. RESULTS: Our results showed that previous exposure to formaldehyde in allergic rats decreased lung cell recruitment, tracheal reactivity, myeloperoxidase activity, vascular permeability and mast cell degranulation while increasing IL-10 levels. Ovariectomy only caused an additional reduction in tracheal reactivity without changing the other parameters studied. Progesterone treatment reversed the effects of formaldehyde exposure on ex vivo tracheal reactivity, cell influx into the lungs and mast cell degranulation. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, our study revealed that formaldehyde and ovariectomy downregulated allergic lung inflammation by IL-10 release and mast cell degranulation. Progesterone treatment increased eosinophil recruitment and mast cell degranulation, which in turn may be responsible for tracheal hyperreactivity and allergic lung inflammation.

Lino-dos-Santos-Franco, Adriana; Amemiya, Renata Midori; de Oliveira, Ana Paula Ligeiro; Damazo, Amilcar Sabino; Breithaupt-Faloppa, Ana Cristina; Vitoretti, Luana Beatriz; Acceturi, Beatriz Golega; Tavares-de-Lima, Wothan

2013-01-01

192

Occupational exposure to laser surgery generated air contaminants.  

PubMed

The objective of the review is to show that scientific evidence is lacking on the safety of laser-generated air contaminants. Further research and data collection are necessary to characterize the potential dangers associated with exposures of health care professionals to laser generated air contaminants. The article is a review of existing scientific evidence in the area of exposure risks to health care professionals. A careful search of the scientific literature both in medicine and engineering was performed, as well as contact with experts from laser standards advisory sources. These sources include: International Laser Safety Conference, National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health, American National Standard Institute, Laser Safety Institute and Rockwell Laser Industries. The review includes articles in the literature documenting cases of over-exposures to contaminants while using a class IV laser, the same class laser used in surgery. Several studies of case reports of laser-generated air contaminants from cutting on human and animal tissues are included. Articles and guidelines on this subject of laser-generated contaminants from the above listed sources were used in writing this review. The review indicates that lasers used in surgery are potential occupational health risks. PMID:9584689

Blustein, D; Blustein, J

1998-04-01

193

Rectal cancer and occupational risk factors: a hypothesis-generating, exposure-based case-control study.  

PubMed

In 1979, a hypothesis-generating, population-based case-control study was undertaken in Montreal, Canada, to explore the association between occupational exposure to 294 substances, 130 occupations and industries, and various cancers. Interviews were carried out with 3, 630 histologically confirmed cancer cases, of whom 257 had rectal cancer, and with 533 population controls, to obtain detailed job history and data on potential confounders. The job history of each subject was evaluated by a team of chemists and hygienists and translated into occupational exposures. Logistic regression analyses adjusted for age, education, cigarette smoking, beer consumption, body mass index, and respondent status were performed using population controls and cancer controls, e.g., 1,295 subjects with cancers at sites other than the rectum, lung, colon, rectosigmoid junction, small intestine, and peritoneum. We present here the results based on cancer controls. The following substances showed some association with rectal cancer: rubber dust, rubber pyrolysis products, cotton dust, wool fibers, rayon fibers, a group of solvents (carbon tetrachloride, methylene chloride, trichloroethylene, acetone, aliphatic ketones, aliphatic esters, toluene, styrene), polychloroprene, glass fibers, formaldehyde, extenders, and ionizing radiation. The independent effect of many of these substances could not be disentangled as many were highly correlated with each other. PMID:10956400

Dumas, S; Parent, M E; Siemiatycki, J; Brisson, J

2000-09-15

194

Occupational Exposure to HDI: Progress and Challenges in Biomarker Analysis  

PubMed Central

1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI) is extensively used in the automotive repair industry and is a commonly reported cause of occupational asthma in industrialized populations. However, the exact pathological mechanism remains uncertain. Characterization and quantification of biomarkers resulting from HDI exposure can fill important knowledge gaps between exposure, susceptibility, and the rise of immunological reactions and sensitization leading to asthma. Here, we discuss existing challenges in HDI biomarker analysis including the quantification of N-acetyl-1,6-hexamethylene diamine (monoacetyl-HDA) and N,N?-diacetyl-1,6-hexamethylene diamine (diacetyl-HDA) in urine samples based on previously established methods for HDA analysis. In addition, we describe the optimization of reaction conditions for the synthesis of monoacetyl-HDA and diacetyl-HDA, and utilize these standards for the quantification of these metabolites in the urine of three occupationally exposed workers. Diacetyl-HDA was present in untreated urine at 0.015 – 0.060 ?g/l. Using base hydrolysis, the concentration range of monoacetyl-HDA in urine was 0.19 – 2.2 ?g/l, 60-fold higher than in the untreated samples on average. HDA was detected only in one sample after base hydrolysis (0.026 ?g/l). In contrast, acid hydrolysis yielded HDA concentrations ranging from 0.36 to 10.1 ?g/l in these three samples. These findings demonstrate HDI metabolism via N-acetylation metabolic pathway and protein adduct formation resulting from occupational exposure to HDI.

Flack, Sheila L.; Ball, Louise M.; Nylander-French, Leena A.

2010-01-01

195

What You Need to Know About Occupational Exposure to Metalworking Fluids.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document summarizes the findings of the recently released NISOH Criteria for a Recommend Standard Occupational Exposure to Metalworking Fluids. According to the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 (Public Law 95-164), the National Institute fo...

1998-01-01

196

Prediction of toxic substances emission for occupational exposure assessment.  

PubMed

Methods for predicting organic solvents, chromic acid, mineral oil, styrene, and sulphuric acid emissions in painting, metal degreasing, wood preservation, chromium electroplating, turning, grinding, making glass fortified polyester laminates and lead batteries charging, injection moulding of polystyrene plastics, and making polyurethane foam processes are described. Experimentally introduced equations are based on the essential parameters of these processes. Knowing the emission and the total flow rate of ventilation, it is possible to calculate toxic agent concentration, which is the basis of occupational exposure assessment. PMID:10828151

Benczek, K M; Gaweda, E; Kurpiewska, J

2000-01-01

197

[Pleural mesothelioma in barman with probable occupational exposure to asbestos].  

PubMed

The case of a barman who suffer from Malignant Mesothelioma (MM) has been signaled. For this case it has been documented a possible source of occupational exposure to asbestos caused by the presence of asbestos components in the professional espressos coffee machines. In some gaskets which are part of these coffee machines, we verified the presence of chrysotile fibers. Italian National Mesothelioma Register have reported a MM case with a professional origin arised in a barman with a certain diagnosis in 1999 (Tuscany Region). PMID:18409882

Luisi, V; Marinaccio, A; Mera, E S; Dario, R; Licchelli, B; Molinini, R

2007-01-01

198

Occupational exposure to woodsmoke and oxidative stress in wildland firefighters.  

PubMed

Experimental studies indicate that exposure to woodsmoke could induce oxidative stress. However studies have not been conducted among the general population and specialized occupational groups despite the existence of elevated woodsmoke exposure situations. Therefore, we investigated whether there were across workshift changes in oxidative stress biomarkers among wildland firefighters who are occupationally exposed to elevated levels of woodsmoke. We collected pre- and post-workshift urine samples from 19 wildland firefighters before and after prescribed burns. We measured malondialdehyde (MDA) and 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxo-dG) in the samples, and analyzed whether there were cross-shift changes in their levels, and the relationships between the changes and the length of firefighting career, age of firefighter, and quantified workshift exposure to particulate matter. Overall no significant cross-shift change was observed for 8-oxodG or MDA in the urine samples of the firefighters. Changes in both biomarkers were also not associated with PM2.5, which was used as a marker of exposure. However, overall unadjusted geometric mean 8-oxo-dG levels in the samples (31 ?g/g creatinine) was relatively higher compared to those measured in healthy individuals in many occupational or general population studies. Additionally, cross-shift changes in 8-oxo-dG excretion were dependent on the length of firefighting career (p=0.01) or age of the subject (p=0.01). Significant increases in 8-oxo-dG level from pre-shift to post-shift were observed for those who had been firefighters for 2 years or less. The results indicate that oxidative stress response measured as cross-shift changes in 8-oxo-dG may depend on age or the length of a firefighter's career. These results suggest the need to investigate the longer term health effects of cumulative exposure of woodsmoke exposure among wildland firefighters, because increased body burden of oxidative stress is a risk factor for many diseases and is theorized to be involved in aging. PMID:23434577

Adetona, Olorunfemi; Zhang, Jim Junfeng; Hall, Daniel B; Wang, Jia-Sheng; Vena, John E; Naeher, Luke P

2013-04-01

199

Proportional mortality patterns among chemical plant workers exposed to formaldehyde.  

PubMed Central

To examine the possible health risks associated with occupational exposure to formaldehyde a proportional mortality analysis was conducted on deaths occurring between 1950 and 1976 among 136 men who had been employed a month or more in one of five formaldehyde-related areas of a large chemical producing plant located in Springfield, Massachusetts, USA. Overall, no statistically significant excesses or deficits in proportional mortality were observed among the formaldehyde-exposed group based on comparisons with both United States men and men from the local county area. In addition, no important differences in mortality were observed among this group when comparisons were made with 456 male decedents from the same plant who had not had a month or more of formaldehyde exposure. Within the calendar period examined, no deaths from sinonasal cancer were observed among the chemical workers studied nor was mention made on any death certificate of sinonasal cancer as a contributory cause of death. No important excesses, trends, or patterns in cancer mortality were observed among white male formadelhyde-exposed workers when consideration was given to age and time period of death, type and duration of formaldehyde exposure, and the lapse period from the onset of the first formaldehyde-related job assignment. Although certain limitations of this study do not allow definite conclusions to be drawn, the results indicate no trends or patterns in proportional mortality that could be directly linked to exposures to formaldehyde.

Marsh, G M

1982-01-01

200

Consumer inhalation exposure to formaldehyde from the use of personal care products/cosmetics.  

PubMed

We measured consumer exposure to formaldehyde (FA) from personal care products (PCP) containing FA-releasing preservatives. Six study subjects applied facial moisturiser, foundation, shower gel, shampoo, deodorant, hair conditioner, hair styling gel or body lotion at the 90th percentile amount of EU PCP consumer use. FA air concentrations were measured in the empty room, in the presence of study subjects prior to PCP use, and for one hour (breathing zone, area monitoring) after PCP use. The mean FA air concentration in the empty bathroom was 1.32 ± 0.67 ?g/m³, in the presence of subjects it was 2.33 ± 0.86 ?g/m³). Except for body lotion and hair conditioner (6.2 ± 0.1.9 or 4.5 ± 0.1.5 ?g/m³, respectively), mean 1-h FA air concentrations after PCP use were similar to background. Peak FA air concentrations, ranging from baseline values (2.2 ?g/m³; shower gel) to 11.5 ?g/m³ (body lotion), occurred during 0-5 to 5-10 min after PCP use. Despite of exaggerated exposure conditions, FA air levels were a fraction of those considered to be safe (120 ?g/m³), occurring in indoor air (22-124 ?g/m³) or expired human breath (1.4-87 ?g/m³). Overall, our data yielded evidence that inhalation of FA from the use of PCP containing FA-releasers poses no risk to human health. PMID:22406137

Lefebvre, Marc-André; Meuling, Wim J A; Engel, Roel; Coroama, Manuela C; Renner, Gerald; Pape, Wolfgang; Nohynek, Gerhard J

2012-06-01

201

Does occupational exposure to dust prevent colorectal cancer?  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES--To explore the impression that occupational epidemiologists tend to focus on associations suggestive of increased risk and tend to ignore those associations in which risk is not increased. To examine the risk of colorectal cancer in cohorts exposed to dust, cohorts in which it has been suggested that occupational exposure is a cause of increased risk of stomach cancer. METHODS--A review of the publications in the English language on mortality among hard rock miners, granite, and quarry workers identified from a MEDLINE search and the index of the library of the Ontario Ministry of Labour. RESULTS--When all of the studies were combined, there were significant excesses of lung and stomach cancers, but a significant deficit of colorectal cancer (standardised mortality ratio (SMR) = 83.9; 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 76-91). Overall mortality from gastrointestinal cancer was close to expectation (SMR = 105; 95% CI 99-111). Among those cohorts with increased risk of stomach cancer, rates of colorectal cancer were significantly decreased (SMR = 80; 95% CI 72-88). Among cohorts without increased risk of stomach cancer, the SMR for colorectal cancer was not significantly different from 100 (SMR = 98; 95% CI 81-115). CONCLUSIONS--This review supports the impression that occupational epidemiologists tend to focus on associations suggestive of increased risk and tend to ignore those associations in which risk is not increased. The explanation for the inverse association between risk of stomach and colorectal cancer is uncertain and deserves further study.

Finkelstein, M M

1995-01-01

202

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and occupational exposures  

PubMed Central

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in both industrialized and developing countries. Cigarette smoking is the major risk factor for COPD. However, relevant information from the literature published within the last years, either on general population samples or on workplaces, indicate that about 15% of all cases of COPD is work-related. Specific settings and agents are quoted which have been indicated or confirmed as linked to COPD. Coal miners, hard-rock miners, tunnel workers, concrete-manufacturing workers, nonmining industrial workers have been shown to be at highest risk for developing COPD. Further evidence that occupational agents are capable of inducing COPD comes from experimental studies, particularly in animal models. In conclusion, occupational exposure to dusts, chemicals, gases should be considered an established, or supported by good evidence, risk factor for developing COPD. The implications of this substantial occupational contribution to COPD must be considered in research planning, in public policy decision-making, and in clinical practice.

Boschetto, Piera; Quintavalle, Sonia; Miotto, Deborah; Lo Cascio, Natalina; Zeni, Elena; Mapp, Cristina E

2006-01-01

203

Effective biological dose from occupational exposure during nanoparticle synthesis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanomaterial and nanotechnology safety require the characterization of occupational exposure levels for completing a risk assessment. However, equally important is the estimation of the effective internal dose via lung deposition, transport and clearance mechanisms. An integrated source-to-biological dose assessment study is presented using real monitoring data collected during nanoparticle synthesis. Experimental monitoring data of airborne exposure levels during nanoparticle synthesis of CaSO4 and BiPO4 nanoparticles in a research laboratory is coupled with a human lung transport and deposition model, which solves in an Eulerian framework the general dynamic equation for polydisperse aerosols using particle specific physical-chemical properties. Subsequently, the lung deposition model is coupled with a mathematical particle clearance model providing the effective biological dose as well as the time course of the biological dose build-up after exposure. The results for the example of BiPO4 demonstrate that even short exposures throughout the day can lead to particle doses of 1.10·E+08#/(kg-bw·8h-shift), with the majority accumulating in the pulmonary region. Clearance of particles is slow and is not completed within a working shift following a 1 hour exposure. It mostly occurs via macrophage activity in the alveolar region, with small amounts transported to the interstitium and less to the lymph nodes.

Demou, Evangelia; Tran, Lang; Housiadas, Christos

2009-02-01

204

Occupational exposure to airborne lead in Brazilian police officers.  

PubMed

Shooting with lead-containing ammunition in indoor firing ranges is a known source of lead exposure in adults. Police officers may be at risk of lead intoxication when regular training shooting exercises are yearly mandatory to law enforcement officers. Effects on health must be documented, even when low-level elemental (inorganic) lead exposure is detected. Forty police officers (nineteen cadets and twenty-one instructors) responded to a questionnaire about health, shooting habits, and potential lead exposure before a training curse. Blood samples were collected and analyzed for blood lead level (BLL) before and after a three days training curse. The mean BLL for the instructors' group was 5.5?g/dL±0.6. The mean BLL for the cadets' group before the training was 3.3?g/dL±0.15 and after the training the main BLL was 18.2?g/dL±1.5. Samples were analyzed by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (ICP-MS). All the participants in the training curse had significantly increased BLL (mean increment about 15?g/dL) after the three days indoor shooting season. In conclusion, occupational lead exposure in indoor firing ranges is a source of lead exposure in Brazilian police officers, and appears to be a health risk, especially when heavy weapons with lead-containing ammunition are used in indoor environments during the firing training seasons. PMID:24411572

Rocha, Ernesto Díaz; Sarkis, Jorge E Souza; Carvalho, Maria de Fátima H; Santos, Gerson Vechio Dos; Canesso, Claudemir

2014-07-01

205

Occupational paternal exposure to benzene and risk of spontaneous abortion.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE--The purpose of this study was to evaluate the risk of spontaneous abortion among the wives of male workers occupationally exposed to benzene. METHODS--The wives of 823 men working in two chemical plants at the time of the study were asked to complete a questionnaire describing their pregnancies. The analysis of the 1739 pregnancies that ended in a spontaneous abortion or a birth is presented. The firms' payroll records provided all workers' employment history, including dates. Benzene exposure, graded at two levels (< 5, > or = 5 ppm), was determined for every job, so that benzene exposure for each worker's entire professional life (at these companies) could be assessed. This information was linked to the dates of the pregnancies reported in the questionnaires to enable the exposure status of each pregnancy to be defined (1270 non-exposed and 274 exposed). The frequency of spontaneous abortion, defined as the number of spontaneous abortions divided by the total of spontaneous abortions and births was evaluated. RESULTS--When adjusted for tobacco consumption, mother's age and pregnancy order, the odds ratio of the association between paternal exposure to approximately 5 ppm of benzene and the risk of spontaneous abortion was close to and statistically not different from unity (OR = 1.1; 95% CI (0.7-1.8). CONCLUSION--In this study paternal exposure to benzene did not increase the risk of spontaneous abortion.

Strucker, I; Mandereau, L; Aubert-Berleur, M P; Deplan, F; Paris, A; Richard, A; Hemon, D

1994-01-01

206

Urinary hippuric acid concentration after occupational exposure to toluene.  

PubMed Central

The results of industrial investigations have shown a correlation between the rate of hippuric acid excretion in a single urine sample collected after daily occupational exposure and the amount of toluene absorbed. The rate of hippuric acid excretion and the average concentration of toluene vapour during exposure time were also related. The quantitative range of the test has been limited to amounts exceeding 425 mg of toluene and concentrations exceeding 69 ppm of toluene in the air because of the physiological presence of hippuric acid in urine. The rate of hippuric acid excretion in urine depends on diuresis and is constant for urinary fractions with diuresis of 30 ml/h. The physiological excretion rate was 20 mg/h with a standard deviation +/- 4.3 mg/h, maximal physiological level 33 mg/h.

Wilczok, T; Bieniek, G

1978-01-01

207

Hazardous health effects of occupational exposure to wood dust.  

PubMed

Because of the world-wide increase in the use of wood, diseases due to exposure to wood dust and substances connected with the wood-processing industry are also likely to increase. Many authors have written about disorders of this kind, ranging from irritative and allergic reactions to cancerogenic effects. There exist a great deal of widely disseminated publications on this subject. Moreover, the various existing synonyms, especially for tropical woods, render more difficult the valuation of published results. The purpose of this review of publications issued in recent years is to represent all known symptoms and disorders due to occupational wood-dust exposure. Furthermore, points that remain unclarified should be shown in order to stimulate further investigations. Recommendations for safety restrictions are also given. PMID:2283318

Flechsig, R; Nedo, G

1990-01-01

208

INTEROCC case-control study: lack of association between glioma tumors and occupational exposure to selected combustion products, dusts and other chemical agents  

PubMed Central

Background The aim was to investigate possible associations between glioma (an aggressive type of brain cancer) and occupational exposure to selected agents: combustion products (diesel and gasoline exhaust emissions, benzo(a)pyrene), dusts (animal dust, asbestos, crystalline silica, wood dust) and some other chemical agents (formaldehyde, oil mist, sulphur dioxide). Methods The INTEROCC study included cases diagnosed with glioma during 2000–2004 in sub-regions of seven countries. Population controls, selected from various sampling frames in different centers, were frequency or individually matched to cases by sex, age and center. Face-to-face interviews with the subject or a proxy respondent were conducted by trained interviewers. Detailed information was collected on socio-economic and lifestyle characteristics, medical history and work history. Occupational exposure to the 10 selected agents was assessed by a job exposure matrix (JEM) which provides estimates of the probability and level of exposure for different occupations. Using a 25% probability of exposure in a given occupation in the JEM as the threshold for considering a worker exposed, the lifetime prevalence of exposure varied from about 1% to about 15% for the different agents. Associations between glioma and each of the 10 agents were estimated by conditional logistic regression, and using three separate exposure indices: i) ever vs. never; ii) lifetime cumulative exposure; iii) total duration of exposure. Results The study sample consisted of 1,800 glioma cases and 5,160 controls. Most odds ratio estimates were close to the null value. None of the ten agents displayed a significantly increased odds ratio nor any indication of dose–response relationships with cumulative exposure or with duration of exposure. Conclusion Thus, there was no evidence that these exposures influence risk of glioma.

2013-01-01

209

Paternal occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields and neuroblastoma in offspring  

SciTech Connect

Investigators in Texas have reported an association between paternal employment in jobs linked with exposure to electromagnetic fields and risk of neuroblastoma in offspring. In an attempt to replicate this finding, the authors conducted a case-control study in Ohio. A total of 101 incident cases of neuroblastoma were identified through the Columbus (Ohio) Children's Hospital Tumor Registry. All cases were born sometime during the period 1942-1967. From a statewide roster of birth certificates, four controls were selected for each case, with individual matching on the case's year of birth, race, and sex, and the mother's county of residence at the time of the (index) child's birth. Multiple definitions were employed to infer the potential for paternal occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields from the industry/occupation statements on the birth certificates. Case-control comparisons revealed adjusted odds ratios ranging in magnitude from 0.5 to 1.9. For two of the exposure definitions employed--both of which are similar to one used by the Texas investigators--the corresponding odds ratios were modestly elevated (odds ratios = 1.6 and 1.9). Notably, the magnitude of these odds ratios is not inconsistent with the Texas findings, where the exposure definition referred to yielded an odds ratio of 2.1. Because the point estimates in this study are imprecise, and because the biologic plausibility of the association is uncertain, the results reported here must be interpreted cautiously. However, the apparent consistency between two independent studies suggests that future evaluation of the association is warranted.

Wilkins, J.R. 3d.; Hundley, V.D. (Ohio State Univ., Columbus (USA))

1990-06-01

210

Occupational versus environmental and lifestyle exposures of children and adolescents in the European Union  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is recent international concern about specific exposures of children and adolescents to toxicants. In general, the situation within the European Union appears as follows. (i) Occupational exposure: Due to regulatory measures, there are almost no toxicologically significant occupational exposure situations of children to chemical toxicants. This contrasts to the situation in developing countries. There is also strict regulation of

Hermann M. Bolt

2002-01-01

211

Occupational radiation Exposure at Agreement State-Licensed Materials Facilities, 1997-2010  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this report is to examine occupational radiation exposures received under Agreement State licensees. As such, this report reflects the occupational radiation exposure data contained in the Radiation Exposure Information and Reporting System (REIRS) database, for 1997 through 2010, from Agreement State-licensed materials facilities.

U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research

2012-07-07

212

Wilms' tumor and exposures to residential and occupational hazardous chemicals.  

PubMed

This case-control study examines the association between residential and occupational exposures to hazardous chemicals and the risk of Wilms' tumor. The study included 303 cases recruited from six state cancer registries, who were diagnosed between January 1, 1992 and December 31, 1995. A total of 575 controls selected through random digit dialing were frequency matched to the cases. A standard questionnaire was administered to participants during a telephone interview. Parental residential addresses and locations of US Environmental Protection Agency National Priority List (NPL) sites were geocoded and analyzed, along with occupational exposure information. There were no cases of Wilms' tumor found in individuals living within one-half mile distance of a hazardous waste site. However, elevated odds ratios were found for using hairdressing chemicals, motor oil, paint, paint stripper, and pesticides during the pregnancy term and during the 2-year period prior to birth. The findings do not support the hypothesis that Wilms' tumor is associated with residing near an NPL site. PMID:16373202

Tsai, James; Kaye, Wendy E; Bove, Frank J

2006-01-01

213

Occupational exposures to uranium: processes, hazards, and regulations  

SciTech Connect

The United States Uranium Registry (USUR) was formed in 1978 to investigate potential hazards from occupational exposure to uranium and to assess the need for special health-related studies of uranium workers. This report provides a summary of Registry work done to date. The history of the uranium industry is outlined first, and the current commercial uranium industry (mining, milling, conversion, enrichment, and fuel fabrication) is described. This description includes information on basic processes and areas of greatest potential radiological exposure. In addition, inactive commercial facilities and other uranium operations are discussed. Regulation of the commercial production industry for uranium fuel is reported, including the historic development of regulations and the current regulatory agencies and procedures for each phase of the industry. A review of radiological health practices in the industry - facility monitoring, exposure control, exposure evaluation, and record-keeping - is presented. A discussion of the nonradiological hazards of the industry is provided, and the final section describes the tissue program developed as part of the Registry.

Stoetzel, G.A.; Fisher, D.R.; McCormack, W.D.; Hoenes, G.R.; Marks, S.; Moore, R.H.; Quilici, D.G.; Breitenstein, B.D.

1981-04-01

214

Renal effects of environmental and occupational lead exposure.  

PubMed Central

Environmental and industrial lead exposures continue to pose major public health problems in children and in adults. Acute exposure to high concentrations of lead can result in proximal tubular damage with characteristic histologic features and manifested by glycosuria and aminoaciduria. Chronic occupational exposure to lead, or consumption of illicit alcohol adulterated with lead, has also been linked to a high incidence of renal dysfunction, which is characterized by glomerular and tubulointerstitial changes resulting in chronic renal failure, hypertension, hyperuricemia, and gout. A high incidence of nephropathy was reported during the early part of this century from Queensland, Australia, in persons with a history of childhood lead poisoning. No such sequela has been found in studies of three cohorts of lead-poisoned children from the United States. Studies in individuals with low-level lead exposure have shown a correlation between blood lead levels and serum creatinine or creatinine clearance. Chronic low-level exposure to lead is also associated with increased urinary excretion of low molecular weight proteins and lysosomal enzymes. The relationship between renal dysfunction detected by these sensitive tests and the future development of chronic renal disease remains uncertain. Epidemiologic studies have shown an association between blood lead levels and blood pressure, and hypertension is a cardinal feature of lead nephropathy. Evidence for increased body lead burden is a prerequisite for the diagnosis of lead nephropathy. Blood lead levels are a poor indicator of body lead burden and reflect recent exposure. The EDTA lead mobilization test has been used extensively in the past to assess body lead burden. It is now replaced by the less invasive in vivo X-ray fluorescence for determination of bone lead content. Images p928-a Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 2. Figure 3.

Loghman-Adham, M

1997-01-01

215

Occupational exposure in patients with the antisynthetase syndrome.  

PubMed

Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is common in patients with myositis and is related with the presence of antisynthetase autoantibodies (aSA). Together with other manifestations, the resulting condition is known as the antisynthetase syndrome (ASS). Contact with certain environmental and occupational agents is also associated with the development of ILD. The objective of this study was to analyze occupational exposure and associated clinical manifestations in a cohort of patients with ASS. aSA had been identified by line immunoassay and confirmed by immunoprecipitation. Serial pulmonary function tests had been carried out to assess lung function. Thirty-two ASS patients and a control group of 32 myositis patients without aSA underwent a specific questionnaire interview to evaluate their cumulative exposure to biological dust, mineral dust, and gases/fumes up to disease onset. Comparisons were done with the Fisher exact test and Mann-Whitney test. Out from 32 ASS patients (median age, 42.7 yeras; IQR 32.2-52.5), twenty-six patients had anti-Jo-1, three anti-PL-12, and three anti-PL-7. Nine had polymyositis, 15 dermatomyositis, one amyopathic dermatomyositis, and seven pure ILD without myositis. Sixteen ASS patients (50 %) and seven (22 %) myositis patients without aSA had ever been highly exposed to dust, gases, or fumes (p?exposure (p?=?0.06) over the observation period. In conclusion, a high percentage of patients with ASS had been exposed to dusts, gases, or fumes. PMID:24384826

Labirua-Iturburu, Ane; Selva-O'Callaghan, Albert; Zock, Jan-Paul; Orriols, Ramon; Martínez-Gómez, Xavier; Vilardell-Tarrés, Miquel

2014-02-01

216

29 CFR 1926.52 - Occupational noise exposure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Occupational Health and Environmental Controls §...

2013-07-01

217

An assessment of potential cancer risk following occupational exposure to ethanol.  

PubMed

Recognition of the carcinogenic properties of ethanol has resulted from comprehensive evidence regarding the effect of consumption of alcohol; indeed, ethanol in alcoholic beverages is now considered a Group 1 carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. However, there is little information on the effects of ethanol following exposure via the occupationally relevant routes of inhalation and dermal exposure. This review therefore focuses on these exposure routes, to assess potential carcinogenic risk associated with occupational exposure to ethanol. Inhalatory exposure at the current occupational exposure limit (OEL) for the United Kingdom (1000 ppm ethanol over an 8-h shift) was estimated to be equivalent to ingestion of 10 g ethanol (approximately 1 glass of alcohol) per day. However, in the occupational setting the dose-rate delivery of this amount of ethanol is low, allowing for its rapid and effective elimination, for the majority of individuals. Similarly, while dermal absorption in an occupational setting could potentially add to overall body ethanol burden, additional carcinogenic risk of such exposure is considered negligible. Thus, on balance, there appears little cause to suppose occupational exposure at or below the current OEL associates with any appreciable increase in risk of cancer. However, available occupational exposure data to confirm this view are currently limited. It is also suggested that adoption of a more flexible classification regime, considering risk in the context of hazard and exposure (such as that adopted by the German MAK commission), would represent an improvement over traditional occupational risk assessment practices. PMID:19466672

Bevan, Ruth J; Slack, Rebecca J; Holmes, Philip; Levy, Leonard S

2009-03-01

218

Formaldehyde: toxicology and hazards  

SciTech Connect

The widespread use of formaldehyde-based resins had led to the observation of consumer annoyance and health problems associated with its release. Formaldehyde vapor now is known to off-gas from many of these products. Vapor exposure of humans results in symptoms of eye and upper respiratory tract irritation. Inhaled formaldehyde also produces nasal carcinomas in rats and mice (following exposure to 14.1 ppm in mice and 5.6 ppm in rats for 6 hr/day, 5 days/week for 24 mo). These findings resulted in intensified concern over the amount of formaldehyde released into the indoor environment from various laboratory and consumer products.

Casteel, S.W.; Vernon, R.J.; Bailey, E.M. Jr.

1987-02-01

219

Occupational exposure in the fluorescent lamp recycling sector in France.  

PubMed

The fluorescent lamp recycling sector is growing considerably in Europe due to increasingly strict regulations aimed at inciting the consumption of low energy light bulbs and their end-of-life management. Chemical risks were assessed in fluorescent lamp recycling facilities by field measurement surveys in France, highlighting that occupational exposure and pollutant levels in the working environment were correlated with the main recycling steps and processes. The mean levels of worker exposure are 4.4mg/m(3), 15.4?g/m(3), 14.0?g/m(3), 247.6?g/m(3), respectively, for total inhalable dust, mercury, lead and yttrium. The mean levels of airborne pollutants are 3.1mg/m(3), 9.0?g/m(3), 9.0?g/m(3), 219.2?g/m(3), respectively, for total inhalable dust, mercury, lead and yttrium. The ranges are very wide. Surface samples from employees' skin and granulometric analysis were also carried out. The overview shows that all the stages and processes involved in lamp recycling are concerned by the risk of hazardous substances penetrating into the bodies of employees, although exposure of the latter varies depending on the processes and tasks they perform. The conclusion of this study strongly recommends the development of a new generation of processes in parallel with more information sharing and regulatory measures. PMID:24768515

Zimmermann, François; Lecler, Marie-Thérèse; Clerc, Frédéric; Chollot, Alain; Silvente, Eric; Grosjean, Jérome

2014-07-01

220

Electromagnetic field occupational exposure: non-thermal vs. thermal effects.  

PubMed

There are a variety of definitions for "non-thermal effects" included in different international standards. They start by the simple description that they are "effects of electromagnetic energy on a body that are not heat-related effects", passing through the very general definition related to low-level effects: "biological effects ascribed to exposure to low-level electric, magnetic and electromagnetic fields, i.e. at or below the corresponding dosimetric reference levels in the frequency range covered in this standard (0 Hz-300 GHz)", and going to the concrete definition of "the stimulation of muscles, nerves, or sensory organs, vertigo or phosfenes". Here, we discuss what kind of effect does the non-thermal one has on human body and give data of measurements in different occupations with low-frequency sources of electromagnetic field such as electric power distribution systems, transformers, MRI systems and : video display units (VDUs), whereas thermal effects should not be expected. In some of these workplaces, values above the exposure limits could be found, nevertheless that they are in the term "non-thermal effects" on human body. Examples are workplaces in MRI, also in some power plants. Here, we will not comment on non-thermal effects as a result of RF or microwave exposure because there are not proven evidence about the existance of such effects and mechanisms for them are not clear. PMID:23675617

Israel, M; Zaryabova, V; Ivanova, M

2013-06-01

221

Respiratory effects of occupational exposure to tobacco dust.  

PubMed Central

Few investigations of the respiratory effects of occupational exposure to tobacco dust have been carried out and the threshold limit value has not well been established. A cross sectional survey on a sample of 223 male and female workers at a cigar and cigarette factory in Lucca (Tuscany) showed a significantly higher prevalence of wheezing, attacks of shortness of breath with wheezing, dyspnoea, and rhinitis than in a reference population. A trend towards a decrease in forced end expiratory flows according to smoking habit and work duration was evident. Positive skin prick tests were observed in 26% of men and 23% of women and were positively associated with duration of work and negatively with cigarette smoking. Thin interstitial space involvement was observed on chest x ray examination in almost half the female workers with more than 35 years exposure. These findings suggest that prolonged exposure to tobacco dust may have negative health effects and that it is advisable to establish a threshold limit value for tobacco dust different from that of inert dust.

Viegi, G; Paggiaro, P L; Begliomini, E; Vaghetti, E; Paoletti, P; Giuntini, C

1986-01-01

222

Formaldehyde-exposure characterization in garment-manufacturing plants: a composite summary of three in-depth industrial-hygiene surveys  

Microsoft Academic Search

The extent of exposure to formaldehyde was investigated at three garment manufacturing facilities using fabrics pretreated with a formaldehyde-based resin system. Two of the facilities (in Georgia) operated on a two-shift basis with approximately 1000 and 500 workers; one facility (in Pennsylvania) operated on a one-shift basis and had approximately 600 workers. The facilities cut and sewed men's dress shirts

L. J. Elliott; L. T. Stayner; L. M. Blade; W. Halperin; R. Keenlyside

1987-01-01

223

Paternal occupational exposures and the risk of Down syndrome.  

PubMed Central

An exploratory case-control study of paternal occupation as a risk factor for Down syndrome was conducted. With the use of the British Columbia Health Surveillance Registry, 1,008 cases of live-born Down syndrome were identified for the period 1952-73. Two controls were matched to each case by using the birth files of British Columbia. Paternal occupation was obtained from the birth notice. Elevated maternal age-adjusted relative risks of Down syndrome were found for fathers employed as janitors (odds ratio [OR] = 3.26; 95% confidence interval [C.I.] = 1.02-10.44); mechanics (OR = 3.27; C.I. = 1.57-6.80); farm managers/workers (OR = 2.03; C.I. = 1.25-3.03); material-moving equipment operators (OR = 1.88; C.I. = 0.93-3.82); food processors (OR = 1.79; C.I. = 0.96-3.31); sheet-metal workers, iron workers, and other metalworkers (OR = 1.57; C.I. = 0.92-2.69); and sawmill workers (OR = 1.43; C.I. = 0.90-2.66). This large study provides new leads for further evaluation of the role of paternal exposures in the etiology of Down syndrome.

Olshan, A F; Baird, P A; Teschke, K

1989-01-01

224

Prevention of psychological disability after occupational respiratory exposures.  

PubMed

"Psychological injury" in the workplace constitutes the fastest-growing sector of workers' compensation disability claims in several states. Most such claims pertain to effects of "occupational stress," including interpersonal conflicts with supervisors or co-workers, adaptation to changing work practices, and job insecurity. Of equal interest are the psychological consequences of chemical insults on the job. In the case of occupational respiratory exposures, psychological co-morbidity may occur along with a variety of acute, chronic, and latent illness states. Both predictable responses (such as adjustment reactions to disabling physical conditions) and idiopathic patterns (such as the development of odor-conditioned panic attacks or panic disorder) have been described. Physicians who evaluate and treat such patients need to be alert to the potential interaction of physiological and psychological stressors. Effective prevention and treatment requires not only an appreciation of the patient's view of the disease process, but also a recognition of the role of prognostic uncertainty in the subsequent development of anxiety symptoms. In some cases, exclusive attention to physical signs and symptoms may actually lead to a worsening of impairment and disability. PMID:2008632

Shusterman, D J; Dager, S R

1991-01-01

225

Occupational exposure to asbestos and urinary bladder cancer.  

PubMed

By the use of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy dispersion spectrometry the amount (mean value mean = 191 +/- 94 fibers/mg of tissue) and the type (chrysotile and tremolite) of asbestos fibers have been determined in tissue samples of four bladder cancer patients affected by pulmonary asbestosis, working in the same plant producing asbestos-cement pipes and boards. Similar measurements were carried out on samples of bladder cancers of eight control patients not professionally exposed to asbestos. Only five of them also revealed chrysotile fibers (mean = 151 +/- 196 fibers/mg of tissue). The paucity of the study and control cases and the small quantitative difference between them regarding the presence of infraneoplastic asbestos fibers does not consent us to hypothesize a causal relationship between tumor and occupational exposure. PMID:1324833

Molinini, R; Paoletti, L; Albrizio, M; Pennella, A; Nardulli, F; Caruso, G

1992-08-01

226

Interpretation of Urinary and Blood Benzene biomarkers of Exposure for Non-Occupationally Exposed Individuals  

EPA Science Inventory

Non-occupational exposure to benzene occurs primarily through inhalation ofair impacted by motor vehicle exhaust, fuel sources, and cigarette smoke. This study relates published measurements ofbenzene biomarkers to air exposure concentrations. Benzene has three reliable biomar...

227

A review of current and proposed standards for occupational exposures to radio-frequency energy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The essential aspects of an acceptable r-f occupational exposure program are presented. They include exposure limits, surveillance of work environment, medical attention, investigation of accidental overexposures, and documentation of overexposures. Each aspect is briefly discussed.

Odland, L. T.

1975-01-01

228

Analysis of BPA (Bonneville Power Administration) Occupational Electric Field Exposure Data. Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents analyses of data collected during a Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) pilot study to quantify occupational exposures to 60-Hz electric fields. The objectives were: (1) to provide estimates of 60-Hz electric field exposures of BPA ...

T. D. Bracken

1986-01-01

229

Occupational exposure and lung cancer risk in a coastal area of Northeastern Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

A case-control study of lung cancer and occupational exposure was conducted in a coastal area of Northeastern Italy where metallurgical and mechanical industries, docks and shipyards are located. Cases comprised 756 men who died of primary lung cancer in a 5-year period. Controls comprised 756 male subjects dying from other causes during the same period. Occupational exposures to lung carcinogens

Massimo Bovenzi; Giorgio Stanta; Gianluigi Antiga; Paolo Peruzzo; Furio Cavallieri

1993-01-01

230

Occupational exposure to carcinogens and risk of lung cancer: results from The Netherlands cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES: To investigate risk of lung cancers associated with common established carcinogenic occupational exposures (asbestos, paint dust, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and welding fumes) in a prospective cohort study among the general population, and to estimate the proportion of lung cancer cases attributable to these occupational exposures. METHODS: A prospective cohort study on diet, other lifestyle factors, job history, and cancer

A J van Loon; I. J. Kant; G. M. H. Swaen; R. A. Goldbohm; A M Kremer; P A van den Brandt

1997-01-01

231

Information about occupational exposure to asbestos given to cases in an etiological study: Ethical aspects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the study is to consider some ethical aspects of the provision of information, to the cases or their families, about the assessment of occupational asbestos exposure obtained in a case–control study of malignant mesothelioma of the pleura. An informative letter with the result of the evaluation of their occupational exposure to asbestos was sent to the participating

A. Escolar Pujolar; C. González; A. Agudo; A. Calleja; M. Beltrán; J. González-Moya; S. Hernandez; R. Panades; J. Ramirez; D. Turuguet

2001-01-01

232

NON-OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURES TO PESTICIDES FOR RESIDENTS OF TWO U.S. CITIES  

EPA Science Inventory

The Non-Occupational Pesticide Exposure Study, funded by the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency, was designed to assess total human exposures to 32 pesticides and pesticide degradation products in the non-occupational environment; however, the study focused primarily on inhala...

233

67 FR 54389 - Occupational Exposure to Hexavalent Chromium (CrVI)  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...occupational exposures to CrVI presents...usage of and exposure to CrVI...of health effects data...OSHA is aware of a number...CrVI health effects data? In...to assess exposure when evaluating the health effects data contained...evaluate CrVI exposures in individual...Assessment OSHA is aware of the...

2002-08-22

234

FINAL REPORT OF THE NON-OCCUPATIONAL PESTICIDE EXPOSURE STUDY (NOPES)  

EPA Science Inventory

The Non-occupational pesticide Exposure Study was the first attempt to develop a methodology for measuring the potential exposure of specified populations to pesticides. n this study, as in other studies utilizing the Tota1 Exposure Asessment Methodology (TEAM), the exposures wer...

235

Occupational Bloodborne Exposure Incident Survey & Management of Exposure Incidents in a Dental Teaching Environment  

PubMed Central

Objectives The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of occupational exposure incidents among undergraduate dental students and the factors associated with it in the educational dental clinics at Pharos University in Alexandria – Egypt, and to measure the commitment with applying infection control policy in the form of compliance with post-exposure management protocol and reporting exposure incidents. Materials and Methods An anonymous self-administered questionnaire consisting of thirteen multiple-choice questions was distributed among 350 undergraduate dental students in mid-senior and senior levels during lectures at the end of the second semester of 2011, with a response rate of 90.00%. Results About 62.00% of the senior students reported that exposures occurred outside the patient’s mouth. A high percentage of both the mid-senior and senior students (74.70% and 70.70%, respectively) reported that they were exposed to multiple sources of incidents. The vast majority of studied groups stated that they didn’t follow Infection Control Protocol after Incident Exposure. Conclusion The findings of this study confirm that dental students experience exposure incidents but are not likely to report them, thus it is important that the principles of infection control training and reporting of all exposure incidents continue to be emphasized throughout undergraduate dental education.

Sedky, Nabila A.

2013-01-01

236

Contributions of non-occupational activities to total noise exposure of construction workers.  

PubMed

This paper describes how exposures received during routine and episodic non-occupational activities contribute to total noise exposure in a group of occupationally exposed workers. Two-hundred and sixty-six construction apprentices enrolled in a longitudinal hearing loss study and completed questionnaires at 1 yr of follow-up to determine their episodic activities (e.g. concert attendance, power tool use, firearms exposure). Noise exposure levels for these episodic exposures were determined from the published literature. Routine activities were assessed using activity cards filled out over 530 subject-days, along with noise dosimetry measurements made over 124 subject-days of measurement. Equivalent Leq exposure levels were then calculated for specific activities. These activity-specific Leq values were combined into estimated individual annual Leq exposure levels for the 6760 nominal annual non-occupational hours in a year (LAeq6760h), which were then transformed into equivalent levels for a 2000 h exposure period (LA2000hn) for comparison with occupational noise exposure risk criteria. The mean non-occupational LAeq6760h exposure values for the cohort ranged from 56 to 87 dBA (equivalent LA2000hn 62-93 dBA). At the mid range of the routine and episodic activity exposure level distribution, the mean LAeq6760h was 73 dBA (LA2000hn 78 dBA). Nineteen percent of the LA2000hn non-occupational exposures exceeded 85 dBA, the generally recommended occupational limit for a 2000 h workyear, at the mid-range of exposure levels. Due to a lack of available data, firearms use could not be incorporated into the total noise exposure estimates. However, firearms users reported more exposure to other noisy non-occupational activities and had statistically significantly higher estimated exposure levels even without including their firearms exposure than did non-shooters. When compared with the high levels of occupational noise found in construction, non-occupational noise exposures generally present little additional exposure for most workers. However, they may contribute significantly to overall exposure in the subset of workers who frequently participate in selected noisy activities. PMID:15242844

Neitzel, Richard; Seixas, Noah; Goldman, Bryan; Daniell, William

2004-07-01

237

Hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal gland axis in mice inhaling toluene prior to low-level long-term exposure to formaldehyde.  

PubMed

We studied the change in the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal gland (HPA) axis upon adding prior toluene inhalation to our previous formaldehyde inhalation experiments to determine whether short term exposure to relatively high levels of toluene triggers multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS). Data come from immunocytochemical, morphometrical and RT-PCR measurements. Four groups of adult female mice were exposed to differing concentrations (0, 80, 400, and 2,000 ppb) of formaldehyde for 16 hr/day, 5 days/week for twelve weeks, after the mice were exposed intranasally to 500 ppm toluene per mouse for 6 hr/day, for 3 days. We found that the number of corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH)-immunoreactive (ir) neurons was up-regulated according to the amount of formaldehyde as well as inhalation of formaldehyde alone in our previous experiment. The proportion of adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH)-ir cells increased according to the formaldehyde concentration, though there was no significant difference between the 400 and 2,000 groups. The number of ACTH-ir cells was higher in the 400 group than in the other groups (0, 80, and 2,000). Expression of ACTH-mRNA was also up-regulated according to the quantity of formaldehyde. The sinusoid in the anterior pituitary showed more dilatation in the 400 and 2,000 groups than in the control group, especially in the 2,000 group. We propose that exposure to toluene prior to inhalation of formaldehyde has no effect on the HPA axis and as a trigger of MCS, although greater sinusoid dilatation was found in the anterior pituitary gland at higher concentrations of formaldehyde. PMID:15805735

Sari, Dwi Kesuma; Kuwahara, Sachi; Furuya, Masaru; Tsukamoto, Yasuhiro; Hori, Hajime; Kunugita, Naoki; Arashidani, Keiichi; Fujimaki, Hidekazu; Sasaki, Fumihiko

2005-03-01

238

Biological monitoring of occupational exposure to inorganic arsenic  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: This study was undertaken to assess reliable biological indicators for monitoring the occupational exposure to inorganic arsenic (iAs), taking into account the possible confounding role of arsenicals present in food and of the element present in drinking water. METHODS: 51 Glass workers exposed to As trioxide were monitored by measuring dust in the breathing zone, with personal air samplers. Urine samples at the end of work shift were analysed for biological monitoring. A control group of 39 subjects not exposed to As, and eight volunteers who drank water containing about 45 micrograms/l iAs for a week were also considered. Plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was used for the analysis of total As in air and urine samples, whereas the urinary As species (trivalent, As3; pentavalent, As5; monomethyl arsonic acid, MMA; dimethyl arsinic acid, DMA; arsenobetaine, AsB) were measured by liquid chromatography coupled with plasma mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) RESULTS: Environmental concentrations of As in air varied widely (mean 84 micrograms/m3, SD 61, median 40) and also the sum of urinary iAs MMA and DMA, varied among the groups of exposed subjects (mean 106 micrograms/l, SD 84, median 65). AsB was the most excreted species (34% of total As) followed by DMA (28%), MMA (26%), and As3 + As5 (12%). In the volunteers who drank As in the water the excretion of MMA and DMA increased (from a median of 0.5 to 5 micrograms/day for MMA and from 4 to 13 micrograms/day for DMA). The best correlations between As in air and its urinary species were found for total iAs and As3 + As5. CONCLUSIONS: To avoid the effect of As from sources other than occupation on urinary species of the element, in particular on DMA, it is proposed that urinary As3 + As5 may an indicator for monitoring the exposure to iAs. For concentrations of 10 micrograms/m3 the current environmental limit for iAs, the limit for urinary As3 + As5 was calculated to be around 5 micrograms/l, even if the wide variation of values needs critical evaluation and application of data. The choice of this indicator might be relevant also from a toxicological point of view. Trivalent arsenic is in fact the most active species and its measure in urine could be the best indicator of some critical effects of the element, such as cancer.  

Apostoli, P.; Bartoli, D.; Alessio, L.; Buchet, J. P.

1999-01-01

239

Non-occupational exposure to asbestos and malignant mesothelioma in the Italian National Registry of Mesotheliomas  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundMalignant mesotheliomas are strictly related to asbestos, but in a proportion of cases no exposure can be recalled. Published estimates of this proportion have important variations. Historical and geographical differences in the fraction of cancer due to any given exposure are to be expected, but incomplete identification of non-occupational exposures may have played a role.MethodsTo assess the role of non-occupational

Dario Mirabelli; Domenica Cavone; Enzo Merler; Valerio Gennaro; Antonio Romanelli; Carolina Mensi; Elisabetta Chellini; Carmela Nicita; Alessandro Marinaccio; Corrado Magnani; Marina Musti

2010-01-01

240

Evaluation of biomarkers for occupational exposure to benzene.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE--To evaluate the relations between environmental benzene concentrations and various biomarkers of exposure to benzene. METHODS--Analyses were carried out on environmental air, unmetabolised benzene in urine, trans, trans-muconic acid (ttMA), and three major phenolic metabolites of benzene; catechol, hydroquinone, and phenol, in two field studies on 64 workers exposed to benzene concentrations from 0.12 to 68 ppm, the time weighted average (TWA). Forty nonexposed subjects were also investigated. RESULTS--Among the five urinary biomarkers studied, ttMA correlated best with environmental benzene concentration (correlation coefficient, r = 0.87). When urinary phenolic metabolites were compared with environmental benzene, hydroquinone correlated best with benzene in air. No correlation was found between unmetabolised benzene in urine and environmental benzene concentrations. The correlation coefficients for environmental benzene and end of shift catechol, hydroquinone, and phenol were 0.30, 0.70, and 0.66, respectively. Detailed analysis, however, suggests that urinary phenol was not a specific biomarker for exposure below 5 ppm. In contrast, ttMA and hydroquinone seemed to be specific and sensitive even at concentrations of below 1 ppm. Although unmetabolised benzene in urine showed good correlation with atmospheric benzene (r = 0.50, P < 0.05), data were insufficient to suggest that it is a useful biomarker for exposure to low concentrations of benzene. The results from the present study also showed that both ttMA and hydroquinone were able to differentiate the background level found in subjects not occupationally exposed and those exposed to less than 1 ppm of benzene. This suggests that these two biomarkers are useful indices for monitoring low concentrations of benzene. Furthermore, these two metabolites are known to be involved in bone marrow leukaemogenesis, their applications in biological monitoring could thus be important in risk assessment. CONCLUSION--The good correlations between ttMA, hydroquinone, and atmospheric benzene, even at concentrations of less than 1 ppm, suggest that they are sensitive and specific biomarkers for benzene exposure.

Ong, C N; Kok, P W; Lee, B L; Shi, C Y; Ong, H Y; Chia, K S; Lee, C S; Luo, X W

1995-01-01

241

Comparison of methods for obtaining occupational exposure information in a case-control interview study  

SciTech Connect

Comparison of methods for obtaining occupational exposure information in a case-control interview study. Two indirect methods for linking occupation and industry of employment with specific exposures and directly reported occupational exposure information were compared using data from a population-based case-control interview study of chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Exposures suspected of being associated with increased risk of chronic lymphocytic leukemia were examined using a job-exposure matrix developed by Hoar et al. and a linkage system based on data collected in the National Occupational Hazard Survey conducted in 1972-1974 by the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health. Concordance of exposure determination for the two occupation-exposure linkage methods was quite variable. In general, correlation was fairly low, although it was better for some of the exposures studied (butadiene and asbestos, for which most kappas were 0.40 to 0.60) than for others. Correlation between the two approaches was particularly poor for carbon tetrachloride and benzene (kappas ranged from 0.01 to 0.12). Higher proportions of cases and controls directly reported exposure to benzene and asbestos than was determined using the two more indirect methods, neither of which showed consistently greater correlation with direct reporting.

Linet, M.S.; Stewart, W.F.; Van Natta, M.L.; McCaffrey, L.D.; Szklo, M.

1986-09-01

242

Occupational lead exposure in Denmark: screening with the haematofluorometer.  

PubMed Central

The zinc protoporphyrin/haemoglobin (ZPP/Hb) ratio was measured in the field with a haematofluorometer. A significant increase in ZPP/Hb ratio with advancing age was found in 1295 men who denied any excess exposure to lead. Ninety-seven per cent of the results were below 110 mumol ZPP/mol Hb(Fe) (4.4 microgram ZPP/g Hb). The ZPP/Hb ratio was determined in a lead-exposed population of 2275 men, and in 305 a blood lead analysis was also performed. A blood lead limit of 2.9 mumol/l (60 microgram/100 ml) corresponds to about 500 mumol ZPP/mol Hb(Fe) (20 microgram/g). This limit was exceeded in workers engaged in secondary lead smelting, storage battery manufacture, car radiator repair, crystal glass manufacture, storage battery repair, ship breaking, metal foundries, the ceramic industry, scrap metal handling, and PVC plastic manufacture. Other occupations caused lower lead exposures with ZPP/Hb ratios between 110 and 500 mumol ZPP/mol Hb(Fe): such ratios were found in men from shooting ranges, in leaded pane manufacturers, gunsmiths, car paint sprayers, type setters, steel rolling mill workers, shipbuilders and welders, car mechanics, lead pigment handlers, and solderers. Increased ZPP/Hb ratios and blood lead levels in 210 workers were associated with a decrease in haemoglobin concentration in the blood. Thus, the haematofluorometer has proved to be very useful for screening purposes. A blood lead determination should be performed if the ZPP/Hb ratio exceeds 300 microgram ZPP/mol Hb(Fe) (12 microgram/g).

Grandjean, P

1979-01-01

243

Industry's perception and use of occupational exposure limits.  

PubMed

Market research was carried out to determine industry's perception of occupational exposure limits (OELs) and the extent to which they influence the selection of measures to control exposure. Telephone interviews were carried out with 1000 randomly selected users of chemicals, 400 from establishments with some use of chemicals and 600 from establishments with chemicals in daily use. 150 interviews were also carried out with Trade Union Health and Safety Representatives. The interviews covered basic information on chemicals used, sources of information, risk reduction measures used and understanding of COSHH and OELs. Most respondents came from firms with 10 employees or less (75%, all user group; 57%, heavy user group), closely reflecting the profile of British industry. In contrast, most (77%) Trade Union Health and Safety Representatives came from firms with at least 100 employees. Respondents in the all user group were drawn from across the whole range of industrial activity, whereas the heavy users were concentrated in manufacturing. The results showed that in making decisions on what control measures to use most users rely heavily on information from suppliers and personal experience and rather less on information from sources such as Trade Associations and HSE. Most respondents reported that steps were taken to protect employees. The use of personal protective equipment featured highly, followed by process controls. Little consideration was given to the possibility of substitution. Awareness of COSHH was limited with 65% of the all user group and 53% of the heavy user group being unaware of any legal requirements for establishments which manufacture or work with chemicals. Awareness of OELs was similarly limited with 19% of the all user group and 32% of the heavy user group having any real understanding. The results from Trade Union Representatives showed that overall they are somewhat better informed than chemical users in the small firms surveyed. PMID:9738433

Topping, M D; Williams, C R; Devine, J M

1998-08-01

244

Occupational exposures worldwide and revision of international standards for protection.  

PubMed

United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) has become the world authority on the levels and effects of ionising radiation. Since 1975, UNSCEAR has evaluated inter alia the level of occupational exposure worldwide. Based on revised questionnaires, more detailed information is now available. The results of the last evaluation (1995-2002) will be shown in the paper. Lessons learned from the responses by UN Member States will be given, as well as an outline of plans for data collection in future cycles. The requirements for protection against exposure to ionising radiation of workers, the public and patients are established in the International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionising Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources (BSS), published in 1996. As a result of a review of the BSS in 2006, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) started a process for the revision of these standards in 2007. International organisations including the joint sponsoring organisations of the BSS-IAEA, FAO, ILO, OECD/NEA, PAHO and WHO--as well as potential new joint sponsoring organisations of the revised BSS--the European Commission and UNEP-were involved from the beginning in the revision process. The paper also provides a summary of the status of the Draft Revised BSS and describes the new format. The paper focuses, in particular, on requirements for the protection of workers as well as recordkeeping requirements, which provide the legal basis for the collection of specific data; these data are of the type that can be used by UNSCEAR. PMID:21148586

Czarwinski, R; Crick, M J

2011-03-01

245

Cardiac damage secondary to occupational exposure to tin vapor.  

PubMed

Tin is commonly used as a coating on copper kitchen appliances, and "tinsmithing" as a trade is common in many non-Western countries, where cooking utensils are re-tinned when the cooking surface wears thin. Tinsmiths, or "tinkers," are commonly exposed to the following fumes during their work: stannic [tin(IV)] oxide, ammonium chloride, and hydrochloric acid. In this study we assessed workers from tinsmith workshops of our province for signs, symptoms, and laboratory evidence of cardiac end-organ damage. Between June 2002 and March 2003, researchers went to the main tinsmith workshop area of our province to interview tinsmiths in their workplaces and to gather addresses of their "traveling tinker" colleagues, who work with portable equipment. All workers were interviewed and underwent a complete physical examination, blood testing for lipid parameters, and echocardiography. Twenty-six tin workers (mean age 49+/- 10 y) and 25 control patients (convenience sample of hospital employees) were included in the study. Tobacco use, incidence of hypertension, and serum lipid parameters were not significantly different between the two groups (p < .05). The differences in myocardial performance index, systolic function, and mitral flow A velocity were also nonsignificant. However, the mitral inflow E velocity in the tinsmiths was significantly less than in controls (0.71+/- 0.1 vs. 0.95+/- 0.1 m/s, p < .001). The mitral deceleration time was also much longer in the tinsmith group (216+/- 71 ms vs. 143+/- 14 ms, p < .001). Eleven of the tinkers (23%) were found to have aortic valve sclerosis (severe in one, moderate in another, mild in the other nine), but aortic valve sclerosis was found in none of the control subjects. One tinsmith was found to have three-vessel coronary disease on angiogram. Another tinker with "myocarditis" in the past, and slow flow on angiography, had normalization of his cardiac tests after refraining from tin exposure for 6 mo. Thus, occupational exposure to heavy tin fumes is associated with left ventricle diastolic dysfunction and sclerosis of the aortic valve. Tin workers should minimize their exposure to tin fumes, and physicians should monitor tinsmiths closely for signs of heart disease. PMID:16326401

Gunay, Nurullah; Aksoy, Mehmet; Davutoglu, Vedat; Yildirim, Cuma; Ege, Ibrahim

2006-01-01

246

Renal cancer risk and occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and plastics  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate whether occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and certain plastic monomers increased renal cell carcinomas (RCC) risk. Methods Unconditional logistic regression was used to calculate RCC risk in relation to exposure. Results No association between RCC risk and having ever been occupationally exposed to any polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons or plastics was observed. Duration of exposure and average exposure also showed no association with risk. Suggestive positive associations between RCC risk and cumulative exposure to styrene (P-trend = 0.02) and acrylonitrile (P-trend = 0.06) were found. Cumulative exposure to petroleum/gasoline engine emissions was inversely associated with risk (P-trend = 0.02). Conclusions Results indicate a possible association between occupational styrene and acrylonitrile exposure and RCC risk. Additional studies are needed to replicate findings, as this is the first time these associations have been reported and they may be due to chance.

Karami, Sara; Boffetta, Paolo; Brennan, Paul; Stewart, Patricia A.; Zaridze, David; Matveev, Vsevolod; Janout, Vladimir; Kollarova, Helena; Bencko, Vladimir; Navratilova, Marie; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonila; Mates, Dana; Gromiec, Jan P.; Sobotka, Roman; Chow, Wong-Ho; Rothman, Nathaniel; Moore, Lee E.

2011-01-01

247

Formaldehyde and Leukemia: Epidemiology, Potential Mechanisms and Implications for Risk Assessment  

PubMed Central

Formaldehyde is widely used in the United States and other countries. Occupational and environmental exposures to formaldehyde may be associated with an increased risk of leukemia in exposed individuals. However, risk assessment of formaldehyde and leukemia has been challenging due to inconsistencies in human and animal studies and the lack of a known mechanism for leukemia induction. Here we provide a summary of the symposium at the Environmental Mutagen Society Meeting in 2008, which focused on the epidemiology of formaldehyde and leukemia, potential mechanisms, and implication for risk assessment, with emphasis on future directions in multidisciplinary formaldehyde research. Updated results of two of the three largest industrial cohort studies of formaldehyde-exposed workers have shown positive associations with leukemia, particularly myeloid leukemia, and a recent meta-analysis of studies to date supports this association. Recent mechanistic studies have shown the formation of formaldehyde-induced DNA adducts and characterized the essential DNA repair pathways that mitigate formaldehyde toxicity. The implications of the updated findings for the design of future studies to more effectively assess the risk of leukemia arising from formaldehyde exposure were discussed and specific recommendations were made. A toxicogenomic approach in experimental models and human exposure studies, together with the measurement of biomarkers of internal exposure, such as formaldehyde-DNA and protein adducts, should prove fruitful. It was recognized that increased communication among scientists who perform epidemiology, toxicology, biology, and risk assessment could enhance the design of future studies, which could ultimately reduce uncertainty in the risk assessment of formaldehyde and leukemia.

Zhang, Luoping; Freeman, Laura E. Beane; Nakamura, Jun; Hecht, Stephen S.; Vandenberg, John J.; Smith, Martyn T.; Sonawane, Babasaheb R.

2009-01-01

248

Occupational exposure to chemicals and risk of thyroid cancer in Sweden  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  To explore thyroid cancer (TC) risk in the Swedish population, associated with occupational exposure to certain chemicals.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  National cancer and death registries were used to follow-up (1971–1989) all Swedish workers employed in the 1970 census. Each\\u000a combination of occupation and industry was linked to a Swedish job-exposure matrix (JEM), with exposure to 13 chemicals classified\\u000a as “possible exposure”, “probable exposure

Virginia Lope; Beatriz Pérez-Gómez; Nuria Aragonés; Gonzalo López-Abente; Per Gustavsson; Nils Plato; Agustín Silva-Mato; Marina Pollán

2009-01-01

249

Occupational Exposure in the Transport, Handling and Storage of Hazardous Liquid Waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

In NSW, many hazardous wastes are also classified as Dangerous Goods and Hazardous Substances. Occupational exposure assessment may be used to differentiate between acceptable and unacceptable exposures, to control unacceptable exposures, demonstrate compliance with legal or other guidelines or all three (AIHA 1991). One major challenge when dealing with hazardous waste is that its composition is not always known, making

Michael Weller

250

Occupational hydrocarbon exposure and nephrotoxicity: a cohort study and literature review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrocarbon exposure has been shown to play an important role in the development of renal dysfunction in several occupational settings. In this study, renal screening was performed in a group of paint sprayers with exposure to hydrocarbon-based paints, recruited from a car manufacturing plant where personal protective equipment was widely used. The hydrocarbon exposure scores and various markers of renal

P. Pai; A. Stevenson; H. Mason; G. M. Bell

1998-01-01

251

Occupational exposures as risk factors for gastric cancer in Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Occupational associations with gastric cancer were investigated in a multicenter case-control study in Italy involving interviews with 640 histologically confirmed male cases and 959 controls, randomly selected from the resident populations of the study areas. From information on the three jobs each person held the longest, risks were evaluated according to employment in 35 occupations (ever or 21+ years) and

Pierluigi Cocco; Domenico Palli; Eva Buiatti; Francesco Cipriani; Adriano DeCarli; Pierina Manca; Mary H. Ward; William J. Blot; Joseph F. Fraumeni

1994-01-01

252

Risk of lymphatic or haematopoietic cancer mortality with occupational exposure to animals or the public  

PubMed Central

Background: Occupational exposure to animals or the public could result in exposure to infectious agents, which may play a role in the aetiology of lymphohaematopoietic (LH) cancers. Aims: To conduct a population based, case-control study of death certificate data from 1984 to 1998 in 24 US states in order to evaluate the risk of mortality from LH neoplasms associated with occupational exposure to animals or the public. Methods: Cases were selected as those with an underlying cause of death of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL, n = 72 589), Hodgkin's disease (HD, n = 5479), multiple myeloma (n = 35 857), or leukaemia (n = 68 598); 912 615 controls were randomly selected from all remaining deaths, frequency matched on age, sex, race, and geographic region. Results: Occupational exposure to animals was associated with modest increased risks of mortality from all four LH cancers; these associations varied by region. Occupational exposure to the public was associated with only negligible increased risk with LH cancer outcomes. Occupations involving animal exposure were predominantly agricultural, and the risks associated with employment in the livestock industry exceeded the corresponding risks associated with the crop industry for all outcomes except HD. Conclusions: Increased risks of NHL, HD, multiple myeloma, and leukaemia were associated with occupations that involved animal exposure. Regional differences in risk imply that the risks may be associated with exposure to specific livestock or farming practices. However, these associations may be confounded by other farming related exposures, such as pesticides. Because the use of death certificates to classify occupation may result in misclassification during aetiologically relevant time periods, these hypotheses should be further explored in studies with detailed information on lifetime occupation.

Svec, M; Ward, M; Dosemeci, M; Checkoway, H; De Roos, A J

2005-01-01

253

Non-Occupational Exposure to Asbestos in Buildings: A Practical Risk Management Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current federal regulations do not address non-occupational exposure to asbestos. In the absence of such regulations, if asbestos-containing materials are present in a building, it is advisable to develop a management program to ensure that the inhalation risk to building occupants does not increase with time and that appropriate steps are taken during activities which have the potential to release

JEFFREY MARK PAULL; MORTON CORN; PETER S. J. LEES; PATRICK N. BREYSSE

1986-01-01

254

Occupational exposure to talc containing asbestos. Morbidity, mortality, and environmental studies of miners and millers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) conducted studies of mortality and morbidity patterns and occupational exposures among talc miners and millers in upper New York. The mortality study was based on 398 white male workers who began employment between January 1, 1947 and December 31, 1959 and whose vital status was determined as of June 30, 1975.

J. M. Dement; R. D. Zumwalde; J. F. Gamble; W. Fellner; M. J. DeMeo

1980-01-01

255

Cancer risk from occupational and environmental exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epidemiologic evidence on the relationship between polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and cancer is reviewed. High occupational exposure to PAHs occurs in several industries and occupations. Covered here are aluminum production, coal gasification, coke production, iron and steel foundries, tar distillation, shale oil extraction, wood impregnation, roofing, road paving, carbon black production, carbon electrode production, chimney sweeping, and calcium carbide production.

Paolo Boffetta; Nadia Jourenkova; Per Gustavsson

1997-01-01

256

Mortality rates in the Federal Republic of Germany following previous occupational exposure to asbestos dust  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1972, a procedure was introduced by the Industrial Injuries Insurance Institutes (Berufsgenossenschaften) of the Federal Republic of Germany, which is to be used by the special occupational health service for employees exposed to asbestos dust. Since 1 January 1972, occupational health examinations are performed when exposure to asbestos dust has been of at least 3 years' duration.

H.-J. Woitowitz; H.-J. Lange; L. Beierl; M. Rathgeb; K. Schmidt; K. Ulm; T. Giesen; R. H. Wohowitz; L. Pache; K. Rödelsperger

1986-01-01

257

Health Hazard Evaluation Report: HETA-2011-0014-3147, November 2011. Formaldehyde Exposures During Brazilian Blowout Hair Smoothing Treatment at a Hair Salon - Ohio.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In November 2010, NIOSH received an HHE request from the owner of a hair salon in Ohio. The request concerned employee exposure to formaldehyde when performing hair smoothing treatments using the Brazilian Blowout hair products. We met with the employer a...

E. Page S. Durgam

2011-01-01

258

Policy Manual - Safety Appendices - Formaldehyde Fact Sheet  

Cancer.gov

To protect workers exposed to formaldehyde, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) standard (29 CFR 1910.1048) applies to formaldehyde gas, its solutions, and a variety of material such as trioxane, paraformaldehyde, and resin formulations, and solids and mixtures containing formaldehyde that serve as sources of the substance.

259

Occupational aluminum exposure: evidence in support of its neurobehavioral impact.  

PubMed

Aluminum is a metal with known neurotoxic properties which are linked to encephalopathy and neurodegenerative diseases. The objectives of the current meta-analysis study were: (1) to summarize neurobehavioral data obtained by epidemiological studies in occupational settings and (2) to analyze confounding within these data. The meta-analysis was based on estimates of effect sizes. Overall effect sizes were obtained by application of a random effects model. The final sample consisted of nine studies examining 449 exposed and 315 control subjects. The mean urinary aluminum concentrations in the exposed groups ranged from 13 to 133 microg/l. Six neuropsychological tests, which yielded 10 performance variables, were analyzed. Nine overall effect sizes indicated an inferior performance for the exposed group. A significant overall effect size (d(RE)=-0.43) was obtained for the digit symbol test measuring speed-related components of cognitive and motor performance. Moreover, the individual effect sizes obtained for this test suggested an exposure-response relationship. Results obtained from either raw or adjusted mean scores revealed that confounding in the data could not be excluded. The results were compared to studies not included here due to a shortage of required data. Similarities were discussed in terms of sensitivity of the tests for detecting aluminum-related changes in brain function. There was concurring evidence from different studies that urinary Al concentrations below 135 microg/l have an impact on cognitive performance. The significant effect for the digit symbol might be related to its multifaceted character which requires functioning in different components of cognitive and motor performance. This feature could possibly turn the test into a screening instrument for neurobehavioral effects. However, additional studies are necessary to verify and to differentiate the effect of aluminum on cognitive performance. From a neuropsychological perspective, implicit and explicit memory, visuo-spatial and central odor processing should be examined. A measure of verbal intelligence should be included in order to address the influence of confounding. Internationally standardized exposure measures would enhance the comparability of studies. PMID:17692380

Meyer-Baron, Monika; Schäper, Michael; Knapp, Guido; van Thriel, Christoph

2007-11-01

260

Occupational and environmental health guidelines for the evaluation and control of asbestos exposure. Technical guide  

SciTech Connect

This publication provides preventive-medicine information and guidance about controlling asbestos exposure. It applies to military and civilian personnel and on-post dependents worldwide who are occupationally or nonoccupationally exposed to asbestos.

Tuggle

1986-07-01

261

Criteria for a Recommended Standard - Occupational Exposure to Alkanes (C5-C8).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report presents the criteria and the recommended standard based thereon which were prepared to meet the need for preventing occupational disease and injury arising from workplace exposure to pentane, hexane, heptane, or octane. The standard is based o...

1977-01-01

262

Occupational sun exposure and risk of melanoma according to anatomical site.  

PubMed

Although sunburn and intermittent sun exposures are associated with increased melanoma risk, most studies have found null or inverse associations between occupational (more continuous pattern) sun exposure and melanoma risk. The association of melanoma with occupational sun exposure may differ according to anatomical site, with some studies finding a positive association with melanoma on the head and neck. We examined the association between occupational sun exposure (self-reported weekday sun exposure) and melanoma risk according to anatomical site, using data from two multicentre population-based case-control studies: the Australian Melanoma Family Study (588 cases, 472 controls) and the Genes, Environment and Melanoma study (GEM; 1079 cases, 2,181 controls). Unconditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and their 95% confidence intervals, adjusting for potential confounders. Occupational sun exposure was not positively associated with melanoma risk overall or at different body sites in both studies. The GEM study found inverse associations between occupational sun exposure and melanoma on the head and neck [OR for highest vs. lowest quartile: 0.56, 95% confidence intervals (CI) 0.36-0.86, ptrend 0.02], and between the proportion of total sun exposure occurring on weekdays and melanoma on the upper limbs (OR for highest vs. lowest quartile: 0.66, 95% CI 0.42-1.02, ptrend 0.03). Our results suggest that occupational sun exposure does not increase risk of melanoma, even of melanomas situated on the head and neck. This finding seemed not to be due to negative confounding of occupational sun exposure by weekend sun. PMID:24288300

Vuong, Kylie; McGeechan, Kevin; Armstrong, Bruce K; Cust, Anne E

2014-06-01

263

Airborne Isocyanate Exposures in the Collision Repair Industry and a Comparison to Occupational Exposure Limits  

PubMed Central

Isocyanate exposure was evaluated in 33 spray painters from 25 Washington State autobody shops. Personal breathing zone samples (n = 228) were analyzed for isophorone diisocyanate (IPDI) monomer, 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI) monomer, IPDI polyisocyanate, and three polyisocyanate forms of HDI. The objective was to describe exposures to isocyanates while spray painting, compare them with short-term exposure limits (STELs), and describe the isocyanate composition in the samples. The composition of polyisocyanates (IPDI and HDI) in the samples varied greatly, with maximum amounts ranging from up to 58% for HDI biuret to 96% for HDI isocyanurate. There was a significant inverse relationship between the percentage composition of HDI isocyanurate to IPDI and to HDI uretdione. Two 15-min STELs were compared: (1) Oregon's Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OR-OSHA) STEL of 1000 ?g/m3 for HDI polyisocyanate, and (2) the United Kingdom's Health and Safety Executive (UK-HSE) STEL of 70 ?g NCO/m3 for all isocyanates. Eighty percent of samples containing HDI polyisocyanate exceeded the OR-OSHA STEL while 98% of samples exceeded the UKHSE STEL. The majority of painters (67%) wore half-face air-purifying respirators while spray painting. Using the OROSHA and the UK-HSE STELs as benchmarks, 21% and 67% of painters, respectively, had at least one exposure that exceeded the respirator's OSHA-assigned protection factor. A critical review of the STELs revealed the following limitations: (1) the OR-OSHA STEL does not include all polyisocyanates, and (2) the UK-HSE STEL is derived from monomeric isocyanates, whereas the species present in typical spray coatings are polyisocyanates. In conclusion, the variable mixtures of isocyanates used by autobody painters suggest that an occupational exposure limit is required that includes all polyisocyanates. Despite the limitations of the STELs, we determined that a respirator with an assigned protection factor of 25 or greater is required to protect against isocyanate exposures during spray painting. Consequently, half-face air-purifying respirators, which are most commonly used and have an assigned protection factor of 10, do not afford adequate respiratory protection.

Reeb-Whitaker, Carolyn; Whittaker, Stephen G.; Ceballos, Diana M.; Weiland, Elisa C.; Flack, Sheila L.; Fent, Kenneth W.; Thomasen, Jennifer M.; Gaines, Linda G. Trelles; Nylander-French, Leena A.

2014-01-01

264

Multicentric study on malignant pleural mesothelioma and non-occupational exposure to asbestos  

Microsoft Academic Search

Insufficient evidence exists on the risk of pleural mesothelioma from non-occupational exposure to asbestos. A population-based case–control study was carried out in six areas from Italy, Spain and Switzerland. Information was collected for 215 new histologically confirmed cases and 448 controls. A panel of industrial hygienists assessed asbestos exposure separately for occupational, domestic and environmental sources. Classification of domestic and

C Magnani; A Agudo; C A González; A Andrion; A Calleja; E Chellini; P Dalmasso; A Escolar; S Hernandez; C Ivaldi; D Mirabelli; J Ramirez; D Turuguet; M Usel; B Terracini

2000-01-01

265

A new carbon monoxide occupational dosimeter: results from a worker exposure assessment survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

The LBNL\\/QGI occupational carbon monoxide (CO) dosimeter (LOCD), a new, inexpensive CO passive sampler, was field-validated in an occupational exposure assessment study in the Moscone Convention Center (MCC) in San Francisco, CA in January, 1997. The LOCD measures time-weighed-average (TWA) CO exposures from 10 to 800 parts per million hours (ppm h; accuracy ±20%; precision 10 ppm h). This device

MICHAEL G APTE; DANIEL D COX; S KATHARINE HAMMOND; LARA A GUNDEL

1999-01-01

266

71 FR 63238 - Occupational Exposure to Hexavalent Chromium  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Employees with exposures for which respirators...programs in effect on May 30...an initial exposure determination...characterize employee exposures). Thereafter...wishing to adhere to the standard...Agreement will be effective upon execution...reduce employee exposure to or below...employees whose exposures to...

2006-10-30

267

67 FR 70707 - Occupational Exposure to Beryllium; Request for Information  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...description of how the exposure takes place within...the potential for exposure, in each job category...levels of employee exposures to beryllium in...for determining exposure levels. OSHA requests...exposure. B. Health Effects OSHA is aware of a number...

2002-11-26

268

[Analysis of occupational exposure to asbestos in cases of mesothelioma registered in Romagna (1986-1998)].  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and major correlates of occupational exposure to asbestos among the 125 cases of mesothelioma of the pleura, peritoneum, and pericardium registered in the Romagna Region of Italy between 1986 and 1998. Adequate occupational information was obtained for 122 (98%) cases. Among these, the male:female ratio was 81:41 (2.0), the median age was 68 years (range, 25-92), and the pleural location accounted for 96 (79%) cases. According to job history, 61 (50%) cases had had definite (23), probable (12), and possible (26) occupational exposure to asbestos. The probability (multiple logistic regression estimate) was greater for males (odds ratio, 10.8) but decreased for cases with mesothelioma of the peritoneum and pericardium (0.21) as well as those above the median age (0.38). Time period, residence, mode of diagnosis (histology, cytology, other), source of information (patient, wife/husband, others), and smoking habits exerted no independent effect. For 35 (57%) cases, occupational exposure was related to asbestos pollution of the workplace and not to the specific work task. Cases with definite, probable, and possible occupational exposure showed no significant difference in the distribution (Kruskal-Wallis test) by year of initial employment at risk, duration of exposure, and latency (median, 36 years). Occupational exposure occurred in a total of 22 workplaces. Three of these accounted for 21 (34%) cases. Multiple (> or = 2) cases (total 27 or 44%) were observed in six workplaces. PMID:11233577

2000-01-01

269

Environmental triggers of nocturnal dry cough in infancy: new insights about chronic domestic exposure to formaldehyde in the PARIS birth cohort.  

PubMed

Although formaldehyde is a common indoor pollutant, its impact on respiratory symptoms in childhood remains unclear. The aim of this study was to examine the relation between domestic formaldehyde exposure and occurrence of coughing, one of the most prevalent respiratory symptoms during the first year of life of infants from the PARIS birth cohort involving 3840 healthy full-term babies. The presence of respiratory symptoms, including dry cough at night apart from a cold or chest infection in the past 12 months was reported on a standardized health questionnaire. Formaldehyde exposure was estimated for all infants using a predictive model established from data (both repeated measurements and information about determinants of levels) collected in a random sample of infants from the cohort. An unconditional logistic regression was fitted to study the relation between annual domestic formaldehyde exposure and dry cough at night, adjusting for all potential risk factors/confounders. The prevalence of dry cough at night was 14.9%. Parental history of allergy was found to modify the relation between environmental factors and dry cough. Cockroaches, used mattresses, and family stressor events were associated with dry cough in infants with parental allergy history. Conversely, domestic formaldehyde exposure tended to increase occurrence of dry cough at night only among babies without parental history of allergy (adjusted OR per 10 µg/m(3) increase in levels, single imputation approach: 1.45, 95% CI: 1.08-1.96, and Bayesian approach: 1.12, 0.91-1.36). This study suggests that the impact of indoor environmental exposure on dry cough at night in infancy is different depending on the presence or not of parental history of allergy. PMID:23562392

Roda, Célina; Guihenneuc-Jouyaux, Chantal; Momas, Isabelle

2013-05-01

270

NIOSH (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health) Testimony on the Occupational Safety and Health Administration Proposed Rule: Occupational Exposure to Benzene, Part 1, to DOL (Department of Labor), by J. Donald Millar, March 1986.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The testimony concerned the proposed rule from the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) regarding occupational exposure to benzene (71432). The possibility that the proposed 1 part per million (ppm) benzene standard did not substantially r...

1986-01-01

271

Criteria for a Recommended Standard: Occupational Exposure to Hexavalent Chromium.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this criteria document, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) reviews the critical health effects studies of hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) compounds in order to update its assessment of the potential health effects of occupat...

2013-01-01

272

An effort to test the embryotoxicity of benzene, toluene, xylene, and formaldehyde to murine embryonic stem cells using airborne exposure technique.  

PubMed

Benzene, toluene, xylene, and formaldehyde are well-known indoor air pollutants, especially after house decoration. They are also common pollutants in the working places of the plastic industry, chemical industry, and leather industry. It has been reported that these pollutants cause people to be irritated, sick, experience a headache, and be dizzy. They also have the potential to induce asthma, aplastic anemia, and leukemia, even cause abortion or fetus malformation in humans. In this study, the airborne toxicity of benzene, toluene, xylene, and formaldehyde to murine embryonic stem cells (mES cells) were tested using airborne exposure technique to evaluate the mES cell airborne exposure model on embryotoxicity prediction. Briefly, mES cells were cultured on Transwell inserts and were exposed to an airborne surrounding of test chemicals in a chamber for 1 h at 37 degrees C. Cytotoxicity was determined using the MTT assay after further culture for 18 h at 37 degrees C in normal medium. The airborne IC(50) (50% inhibition concentration) of benzene, toluene, xylene, and formaldehyde derived from the fitted dose-response curves were 17,400 +/- 1290, 16,000 +/- 250, 4680 +/- 500, and 620 +/- 310 ppm, respectively. Formaldehyde was found to be the compound most toxic to mES cells compared to benzene homologues. The toxicity data had good correlation with the in vivo data. The results showed that the mES airborne exposure model may be used to predict embryotoxicity of volatile organic compounds. PMID:19635035

Shen, Shuijie; Yuan, Lingmin; Zeng, Su

2009-10-01

273

Occupational exposure to diesel and gasoline emissions and lung cancer in Canadian men.  

PubMed

The International Agency for Research on Cancer classifies diesel exhaust as a probable human carcinogen; this decision is based largely from lung cancer evidence. Gasoline exhaust is classified as a possible carcinogen. Epidemiological studies are needed that improve upon some of the limitations of previous research with respect to the characterization of exposure, and the control for the potential confounding influence of smoking and other occupational exposures. Our objective was to investigate associations between occupational exposure to diesel and gasoline engine emissions and lung cancer. We used a case-control study design that involved men 40 years of age and older at the time of interview. Analyses are based on 1681 incident cases of lung cancer and 2,053 population controls. A self-reported questionnaire elicited a lifetime occupational history, including general tasks, and information on other potential risk factors. Occupational exposures to diesel and gasoline emissions, crystalline silica, and asbestos were assigned to each job held by study subjects by industrial hygienists who were blind to case-control status. Exposure metrics for diesel and gasoline emissions that were modeled included: ever exposure, cumulative exposure, and concentration of exposure. We found a dose-response relationship between cumulative occupational exposure to diesel engine emissions and lung cancer. This association was more pronounced for the squamous and large cell subtypes with adjusted odds ratios across the three increasing tertiles of cumulative lifetime exposure relative to those with no exposure of 0.99, 1.25, and 1.32 (p=0.04) for squamous cell carcinoma, and 1.06, 1.19, 1.68 (p=0.02) for large cell carcinoma. While the association with cumulative exposure to gasoline was weakly positive, it was not statistically significant. Our findings suggest that exposure to diesel engine emissions increases the risk of lung cancer particularly for squamous and large cell carcinoma subtypes. PMID:21536265

Villeneuve, Paul J; Parent, Marie-Élise; Sahni, Vanita; Johnson, Kenneth C

2011-07-01

274

Linking expert judgement and trends in occupational exposure into a job-exposure matrix for historical exposure to asbestos in The Netherlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this article was to describe the structure and content of a job-exposure matrix (JEM) for historical asbestos exposure in The Netherlands. The JEM contained 309 occupational job title groups in 70 branches of industry during 10 periods of 5 years during 1945-1994, resulting in 3090 evaluations. Dutch sources on asbestos exposure measurements provided quantitative guidance for 69

PAUL SWUSTE; MOHSSINE DAHHAN; ALEX BURDORF

2008-01-01

275

Past Occupational Exposure to Airborne Manganese in a Manganese Alloy Plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

A retrospective exposure assessment of a group of manganese (Mn) alloy workers was performed in conjunction with a 2004 follow-up study, 14 years after cessation of exposure, to evaluate the long-term effects of occupational Mn exposure on neurobehavioral functions. The ferro- and silico-Mn alloy plant opened in 1973 and closed in 1991. The airborne total Mn (TMn) exposures for job

Mary Baldwin; Maryse Bouchard; Fabrice Larribe; Donna Mergler

2008-01-01

276

Occupational cancer in Spain.  

PubMed

The knowledge of specific problems of occupational cancer in Spain is scarce. The environment of the workplace has improved over the last few years after a long period distinguished by bad working conditions, incomplete legislation, and insufficient safety measures and control. It has been estimated that 3,083,479 workers (25.4% of employees) were exposed to carcinogens. The most common occupational exposures to carcinogenic agents were solar radiation, environmental tobacco smoke, silica, and wood dust. The highest number of employees were exposed to silica crystalline (404,729), diesel engine exhaust (274,321), rubber products (99,804), benzene (89,932), ethylene dibromide (81,336), agents used in furniture and cabinet making (72,068), and formaldehyde (71,189). The percentage of total cancer deaths attributed to occupational exposure was 4% (6% in men, 0.9% in women). Compared with other European countries, the incidence of lung cancer and leukemia in Spain are one of the lowest, but it is rapidly increasing. The incidence of urinary bladder and larynx cancer, on the contrary, are one of the highest. Few studies on occupational cancer have been conducted in Spain. The main problems are the availability of death certificates and the quality of the information on occupation in mortality of statistics. It is necessary to improve methods of assessment of exposures using expert hygienists and biologic markers of exposure and diseases. Reduction of cancer by limiting or avoiding exposure to known occupational carcinogens is still necessary. PMID:10350510

González, C A; Agudo, A

1999-05-01

277

Occupational cancer in Spain.  

PubMed Central

The knowledge of specific problems of occupational cancer in Spain is scarce. The environment of the workplace has improved over the last few years after a long period distinguished by bad working conditions, incomplete legislation, and insufficient safety measures and control. It has been estimated that 3,083,479 workers (25.4% of employees) were exposed to carcinogens. The most common occupational exposures to carcinogenic agents were solar radiation, environmental tobacco smoke, silica, and wood dust. The highest number of employees were exposed to silica crystalline (404,729), diesel engine exhaust (274,321), rubber products (99,804), benzene (89,932), ethylene dibromide (81,336), agents used in furniture and cabinet making (72,068), and formaldehyde (71,189). The percentage of total cancer deaths attributed to occupational exposure was 4% (6% in men, 0.9% in women). Compared with other European countries, the incidence of lung cancer and leukemia in Spain are one of the lowest, but it is rapidly increasing. The incidence of urinary bladder and larynx cancer, on the contrary, are one of the highest. Few studies on occupational cancer have been conducted in Spain. The main problems are the availability of death certificates and the quality of the information on occupation in mortality of statistics. It is necessary to improve methods of assessment of exposures using expert hygienists and biologic markers of exposure and diseases. Reduction of cancer by limiting or avoiding exposure to known occupational carcinogens is still necessary.

Gonzalez, C A; Agudo, A

1999-01-01

278

Occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields and acute leukaemia: analysis of a case-control study  

PubMed Central

Aims: To investigate whether the risk of acute leukaemia among adults is associated with occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields. Methods: Probable occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields at higher than typical residential levels was investigated among 764 patients diagnosed with acute leukaemia during 1991–96 and 1510 sex and age matched controls. A job exposure matrix was applied to the self reported employment histories to determine whether or not a subject was exposed to electromagnetic fields. Risks were assessed using conditional logistic regression for a matched analysis. Results: Study subjects considered probably ever exposed to electromagnetic fields at work were not at increased risk of acute leukaemia compared to those considered never exposed. Generally, no associations were observed on stratification by sex, leukaemia subtype, number of years since exposure stopped, or occupation; there was no evidence of a dose-response effect using increasing number of years exposed. However, relative to women considered never exposed, a significant excess of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia was observed among women probably exposed to electromagnetic fields at work that remained increased irrespective of time prior to diagnosis or job ever held. Conclusion: This large population based case-control study found little evidence to support an association between occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields and acute leukaemia. While an excess of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia among women was observed, it is unlikely that occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields was responsible, given that increased risks remained during periods when exposure above background levels was improbable.

Willett, E; McKinney, P; Fear, N; Cartwright, R; Roman, E

2003-01-01

279

Occupational exposures during routine activities in coal-fueled power plants  

SciTech Connect

Limited information is available on occupational exposures during routine, nonoutage work activities in coal-fueled power plants. This study evaluated occupational exposures to the principal contaminants in the facilities, including respirable dust (coal dust), arsenic, noise, asbestos, and heat stress. The data were collected over a 3-month period, during the summer of 2001. Each of the 5 facilities was divided into 5 similar exposure groups based on previous exposure assessments and job tasks performed. Of the nearly 400 air samples collected, only 1 exceeded the allowable occupational exposure value. For the noise samples, 55 (about 18%) were equal to or greater than the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) 8-hour hearing conservation program level of 85 dBA, and 12 (about 4%) were equal to or greater than the OSHA 8-hour permissible exposure level of 90 dBA. Heat stress monitoring at the facilities indicates that 26% of the 1-hour TWAs were exceeded for one or all of the recommended heat stress limits. The data also concluded that some work sites were above the heat stress ceiling values recommended by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). Four of the 20 employees personally monitored exceeded the recommended limits for heart rate or body core temperature. This suggests there is a potential for heat strain if signs and symptoms are ignored. Recommendations are made to better control the heat stress exposure.

Bird, M.J.; MacIntosh, D.L.; Williams, P.L. [University of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States). Dept. of Environmental Health Science

2004-06-15

280

64 FR 49548 - Health Standards for Occupational Noise Exposure  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...of noise exposure above 115...occasional exposures above this...MSHA is not persuaded by these...has been in effect at metal...all noise exposures.'' Other...daily noise exposure, variations...preference, communication needs, hearing...its actual effectiveness is greatly...remove, effective, and hygienic...less with......

1999-09-13

281

62 FR 1494 - Occupational Exposure to Methylene Chloride  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...short duration exposures to MC. Thus...reduce the exposure- related risks of acute CNS effects, episodes...it focuses attention on sources of MC exposure in the workplace...Measurement of STEL exposures can indicate...the employer target those...

1997-01-10

282

69 FR 35146 - Occupational Noise Exposure for Railroad Operating Employees  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...whether the exposures exceeded...that noise exposure was within...reduce the effects of noise...impaired communication. FRA also...decreasing vigilance. FRA then...reduce the exposure of operating...help ensure effective radio communications, and to...for crew communication. Noise can...of noise exposure varies......

2004-06-23

283

71 FR 63065 - Occupational Noise Exposure for Railroad Operating Employees  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...recognized the effectiveness of this redesign...for crew communication. Noise can...of noise exposure varies greatly...addressing noise exposures in the locomotive...implement effective training...since few exposures are reduced...truly that effective (as evidenced...reducing noise exposure in cab environments...FRA is not aware of......

2006-10-27

284

61 FR 56746 - Occupational Exposure to 1,3-Butadiene  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...employee exposures, training...hazard communication, regulated...DATES: The effective date of these...and for the exposure goal program...mixing of effects. More specifically...measure of the effect of an exposure on risk...factors that influence the outcome...confounding exposures from...

1996-11-04

285

A coupled sensor-spectrophotometric device for continuous measurement of formaldehyde in indoor environments.  

PubMed

Despite long-standing awareness of adverse health effects associated with chronic human exposure to formaldehyde, this hazardous air pollutant remains a challenge to measure in indoor environments. Traditional analytical techniques evaluate formaldehyde concentrations over several hours to several days in a single location in a residence, making it difficult to characterize daily temporal and spatial variation in human exposure to formaldehyde. There is a need for portable, easy-to-use devices that are specific and sensitive to gas-phase formaldehyde over short sampling periods so that dynamic processes governing formaldehyde fate, transport, and potential remediation in indoor environments may be studied more effectively. A recently developed device couples a chemical sensor element with spectrophotometric analysis for detection and quantification of part per billion (ppbv) gas-phase formaldehyde concentrations. This study established the ability of the coupled sensor-spectrophotometric device (CSSD) to report formaldehyde concentrations accurately and continuously on a 30-min sampling cycle at low ppbv concentrations previously untested for this device in a laboratory setting. Determination of the method detection limit (MDL), based on 40 samples each at test concentrations of 5 and 10?ppbv, was found to be 1.9 and 2.0?ppbv, respectively. Performance of the CSSD was compared with the dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) derivatization method for formaldehyde concentrations ranging from 5-50?ppbv, and a linear relationship with a coefficient of determination of 0.983 was found between these two analytical techniques. The CSSD was also used to monitor indoor formaldehyde concentrations in two manufactured homes. During this time, formaldehyde concentrations varied from below detection limit to 65?ppbv and were above the US National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) recommended exposure limit (REL) of 16?ppbv, which is also the exposure limit value now adopted by the US Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) to procure manufactured housing, 80% and 100% of the time, respectively. PMID:24084757

Carter, Ellison M; Jackson, Mark C; Katz, Lynn E; Speitel, Gerald E

2014-01-01

286

SPERM COUNT, MORPHOLOGY AND FLUORESCENT BODY FREQUENCY IN AUTOPSY SERVICE WORKERS EXPOSED TO FORMALDEHYDE  

EPA Science Inventory

The ability of a battery of genetic monitoring tests to detect occupational formaldehyde exposure in a population of a hospital autopsy service workers was investigated. Eleven exposed individuals and 11 matched controls were evaluated for sperm count, abnormal sperm morphology a...

287

Evaluation of Job Changes within the Refractory Ceramic Fiber Industry and How They Effect an Employee's Occupational Exposures.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Knowing the comprehensive history of a job or an employee's occupational exposure is important for determining worker exposures. Changes associated with jobs or job tasks can impact these exposures significantly. Often job descriptions are too general or ...

L. L. Borland

1998-01-01

288

Optical Detection of Formaldehyde  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The potential for buildup .of formaldehyde in closed space environments poses a direct health hazard to personnel. The National Aeronautic Space Agency (NASA) has established a maximum permitted concentration of 0.04 ppm for 7 to 180 days for all space craft. Early detection is critical to ensure that formaldehyde levels do not accumulate. above these limits. New sensor technologies are needed to enable real time,in situ detection in a compact and reusable form factor. Addressing this need,research into the use of reactive fluorescent dyes which reversibly bind to formaldehyde (liquid or gas) has been conducted to support the development of a formaldehyde.sensor. In the presence of formaldehyde the dyes' characteristic fluorescence peaks shift providing the basis for an optical detection. Dye responses to formaldehyde exposure were characterized; demonstrating the optical detection of formaldehyde in under 10 seconds and down to concentrations of 0.5 ppm. To .incorporate the dye .in.an optical sensor device requires. a means of containing and manipulating the dye. Multiple form factors using two dissimilar sbstrates were considered to determine a suitable configuration. A prototype sensor was demonstrated and considerations for a field able sensor were presented. This research provides a necessary first step toward the development of a compact, reusable; real time optical formaldehyde sensor suitable for use in the U.S. space program,

Patty, Kira D.; Gregory, Don A.

2008-01-01

289

Optical detection of formaldehyde  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The potential for buildup of formaldehyde in closed space environments poses a direct health hazard to personnel. The National Aeronautic Space Agency (NASA) has established a maximum permitted concentration of 0.04 ppm for 7 to 180 days for all space craft. Early detection is critical to ensure that formaldehyde levels do not accumulate above these limits. New sensor technologies are needed to enable real time, in situ detection in a compact and reusable form factor. Addressing this need, research into the use of reactive fluorescent dyes which reversibly bind to formaldehyde (liquid or gas) has been conducted to support the development of a formaldehyde sensor. In the presence of formaldehyde the dyes' characteristic fluorescence peaks shift providing the basis for an optical detection. Dye responses to formaldehyde exposure were characterized; demonstrating the optical detection of formaldehyde in under 10 seconds and down to concentrations of 0.5 ppm. To incorporate the dye in an optical sensor device requires a means of containing and manipulating the dye. Multiple form factors using two dissimilar substrates were considered to determine a suitable configuration. A prototype sensor was demonstrated and considerations for a fieldable sensor were presented. This research provides a necessary first step toward the development of a compact, reusable, real time optical formaldehyde sensor suitable for use in the U.S. space program.

Patty, Kira D.; Gregory, Don A.

2008-05-01

290

Evaluation of mutagenicity and other adverse effects of occupational exposure to sodium azide  

SciTech Connect

The ubiquitous use of sodium azide has resulted in widespread occupational exposure to it in both laboratory and industrial settings, despite a lack of knowledge of the risks which may be involved. Explosive, toxic, and mutagenic hazards have been shown at even low-dose exposures. These effects occur in many species, from cellular damage through pathology of whole systems, and human fatalities have been reported. The advantages to its availability for applicable uses precludes reaching a ''no exposure'' level, but efforts to decrease unnecessary exposure can reduce its risk; therefore a quantitative procedure for determining human exposure is necessary. However, for various reasons present methods for this type of evaluation of azide are unsatisfactory, and minimizing hazard is dependent upon good laboratory hygiene and motivated personnel. The increasing use of azide and proportionally increasing occupational and accidental exposure in the future warrants the undertaking of chronic exposure studies, which hopefully will result in more explicit guidelines for human protection.

Frederick, K.A.; Babish, J.G.

1982-12-01

291

Occupational Exposure and the Risk of Barrett's Esophagus: A Case-Control Study  

PubMed Central

Background Case–control studies in the United States and Europe have linked occupational exposure to volatile sulfur compounds, solvents, and pesticide to increased risk of esophageal adenocarcinoma. However, the association between occupational exposures and the risk of Barrett’s esophagus (BE) is unclear given the absence of studies in this area. Methods This is a case–control study in patients undergoing endoscopy who were either referred directly or were eligible for screening colonoscopy and recruited from primary care clinics. All participants completed a survey on (1) self-reported occupational exposures to asbestos, metal dust, organic solvents, and pesticides, and (2) self reported longest held job and job-related activities. The latter were assigned by an industrial hygienist who was blinded to the case and control status into one of 99 standard occupational categories used by the US Department of Labor. Each occupational category was then assigned an expected level of exposure to the same four classes of agents in addition to radiation. We compared the self-reported exposure and the expected occupational exposure based on the self-reported occupation between cases with definitive BE and controls without BE. We examined the associations adjusting for age, sex, race, and patient recruitment source in a multivariable logistic regression analysis. Results We examined 226 cases of definitive BE and 1,424 controls without BE. There was a greater proportion of patients with self-reported asbestos exposure in cases than controls (16.2 % vs. 12.0 %; p = 0.08) but no significant differences in metal dust, organic solvents, or pesticides. The multivariate model did not show an independent association between self-reported asbestos exposure and BE. For the calculated occupational exposure, there were no significant differences between cases and controls for asbestos (29.6 % vs. 27.5 %; p = 0.5), metal dust, organic solvents, pesticides, or radiation exposure. Among commonly reported occupation, there were significantly greater proportion of retail sales workers in BE cases than controls (10.8 % vs. 4.9 %; p = 0.01). Conclusions Exposure to asbestos and sedentary jobs may be risk factors for Barrett’s esophagus. Further studies are needed to confirm this finding.

Qureshi, Zeeshan; Ramsey, David; Kramer, Jennifer R.; Whitehead, Lawrence

2014-01-01

292

Occupational exposure and defects of the central nervous system in offspring: review.  

PubMed Central

A study of published work was carried out in a search for evidence of a causal role for parental occupational exposure in the origin of structural and functional defects of the central nervous system (CNS) in children. Studies that consider this topic are scarce and mostly refer to broad categories of exposures and effects. Non-occupational studies referring to environmental exposure of humans and studies on experimental animals were also reviewed. The studies on animals provided straightforward evidence about morphological and behavioural abnormalities resulting from some agents used occupationally. The studies on humans yielded a scala of defects that could be ascribed to exposure to high doses of various agents in the environment. Evidence for a causal role of occupational exposure has not been found, but a highly probable influence on the developing CNS is hypothesised for lead, methyl mercury, and ionising radiation. Parental occupational exposure to cadmium, organic solvents, anaesthetics, and pesticides may also play a part in causing defects of the CNS. Well designed future research is needed to test the above hypotheses.

Roeleveld, N; Zielhuis, G A; Gabreels, F

1990-01-01

293

A Systematic Review of Occupational Exposure to Particulate Matter and Cardiovascular Disease  

PubMed Central

Exposure to ambient particulate air pollution is a recognized risk factor for cardiovascular disease; however the link between occupational particulate exposures and adverse cardiovascular events is less clear. We conducted a systematic review, including meta-analysis where appropriate, of the epidemiologic association between occupational exposure to particulate matter and cardiovascular disease. Out of 697 articles meeting our initial criteria, 37 articles published from January 1990 to April 2009 (12 mortality; 5 morbidity; and 20 intermediate cardiovascular endpoints) were included. Results suggest a possible association between occupational particulate exposures and ischemic heart disease (IHD) mortality as well as non-fatal myocardial infarction (MI), and stronger evidence of associations with heart rate variability and systemic inflammation, potential intermediates between occupational PM exposure and IHD. In meta-analysis of mortality studies, a significant increase in IHD was observed (meta-IRR = 1.16; 95% CI: 1.06–1.26), however these data were limited by lack of adequate control for smoking and other potential confounders. Further research is needed to better clarify the magnitude of the potential risk of the development and aggravation of IHD associated with short and long-term occupational particulate exposures and to clarify the clinical significance of acute and chronic changes in intermediate cardiovascular outcomes.

Fang, Shona C.; Cassidy, Adrian; Christiani, David C.

2010-01-01

294

Occupational exposures and chronic respiratory symptoms: a population-based study  

SciTech Connect

Data from a random sample of 8515 white adults residing in six cities in the eastern and midwestern United States were used to examine the relationships between occupational exposures to dust or to gases and fumes and chronic respiratory symptoms. 31% of the population had a history of occupational dust exposure and 30% reported exposure to gas or to fumes. After adjusting for smoking habits, age, gender, and city of residence, subjects with either occupational exposure had significantly elevated prevalence of chronic cough, chronic phlegm, persistent wheeze, and breathlessness. The adjusted relative odds of chronic respiratory symptoms for subjects exposed to dust ranged from 1.32 to 1.60. Subjects with gas or fume exposure had relative odds of symptoms between 1.27 and 1.43 when compared to unexposed subjects. Occupational dust exposure was associated with a higher prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) as defined by an FEV1/FVC ratio of less than 0.6, when comparing exposed and unexposed participants (OR=1.53, 95% CI=1.17-2.08). Gas or fume exposure was associated with a small, but not significant, increase in COPD prevalence. Significant trends were noted for wheeze and phlegm with increasing duration of dust exposure. Although 36% of exposed subjects reported exposure to both dust and fumes, there was no evidence of a multiplicative interaction between the effects of the individual exposures. Smoking was a significant independent predictor of symptoms, but did not appear to modify the effect of dust or fumes on symptom reporting. These data, obtained in random samples of general populations, demonstrate that chronic respiratory disease can be independently associated with occupational exposures.

Korn, R.J.; Dockery, D.W.; Speizer, F.E.; Ware, J.H.; Ferris, B.G.

1987-01-01

295

Occupational exposures and chronic respiratory symptoms. A population-based study  

SciTech Connect

Data from a random sample of 8515 white adults residing in 6 cities in the eastern and midwestern United States were used to examine the relationships between occupational exposures to dust or to gases and fumes and chronic respiratory symptoms; 31% of the population had a history of occupational dust exposure and 30% reported exposure to gas or fumes. After adjusting for smoking habits, age, gender, and city of residence, subjects with either occupational exposure had significantly elevated prevalences of chronic cough, chronic phlegm, persistent wheeze, and breathlessness. The adjusted relative odds of chronic respiratory symptoms for subjects exposed to dust ranged from 1.32 to 1.60. Subjects with gas or fume exposure had relative odds of symptoms between 1.27 and 1.43 when compared with unexposed subjects. Occupational dust exposure was associated with a higher prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease as defined by an FEV1/FVC ratio of less than 0.6, when comparing exposed and unexposed participants (OR = 1.53, 95% Cl = 1.17-2.08). Gas or fume exposure was associated with a small, but not significant, increase in COPD prevalence. Significant trends were noted for wheeze and phlegm with increasing duration of dust exposure. Although 36% of exposed subjects reported exposure to both dust and fumes, there was no evidence of a multiplicative interaction between the effects of the individual exposures. Smoking was a significant independent predictor of symptoms, but did not appear to modify the effect of dust or fumes on symptom reporting. These data, obtained in random samples of general populations, demonstrate that chronic respiratory symptoms and disease can be independently associated with occupational exposures.

Korn, R.J.; Dockery, D.W.; Speizer, F.E.; Ware, J.H.; Ferris, B.G. Jr.

1987-08-01

296

Effects of long-term occupational solvent exposure on contrast sensitivity and performance in visual search  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sensitive and easily applicable screening tests are greatly needed for the early detection of nervous system dysfunction in people working with neurotoxic substances. Previous studies have shown that long-term solvent exposure may cause deficits in visual perception. We, therefore, studied the effects of long-term occupational solvent exposure and chronic encephalopathy on performance in three vision tests novel in the present

Risto Näsänen; Ari Kaukiainen; Ville Hero; Juha Päällysaho; Kiti Müller; Riitta Hari; Ritva Akila; Markku Sainio

2005-01-01

297

Elemental Carbon-Based Method for Monitoring Occupational Exposures to Particulate Diesel Exhaust  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diesel exhaust has been classified a probable human carcinogen, and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) has recommended that employers reduce workers' exposures. Because diesel exhaust is a chemically complex mixture containing thousands of compounds, some measure of exposure must be selected. Previously used methods involving gravimetry or analysis of the soluble organic fraction of diesel soot

M. E. Birch; R. A. Cary

1996-01-01

298

A Method for Assessing Occupational Dermal Exposure to Permanent Hair Dyes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hairdressers have an increased risk of developing occupational skin diseases due to exposure to skin irritants and sensitizers. In the present work a method of assessing dermal exposure to permanent hair dyes was developed. The sampling performance characteristics of hand wash sampling with bag rinsing were studied for five hair dye compounds. The effect of residence time, sample load and

MARIE-LOUISE LIND; ANDERS BOMAN; JOUNI SURAKKA; JAN SOLLENBERG; BIRGITTA MEDING

2004-01-01

299

Biological monitoring of occupational exposure to methyl ethyl ketone in Japanese workers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between occupational exposure to methyl ethyl ketone (MEK) and its concentration in urine and blood was studied in a group of 72 workers in a printing factory. Personal exposure monitoring was carried out with passive samplers during the workshifts. The time weighted average (TWA) concentration of MEK ranged from 1.3 to 223.7 ppm, with a mean concentration of

M. Yoshikawa; T. Kawamoto; K. Murata; K. Arashidani; T. Katoh; Y. Kodama

1995-01-01

300

Determination of Occupational Exposure to Depleted Uranium Based on Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We used a simple method based on inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) to determine the isotopic composition of uranium in urine at levels that indicate occupational exposure to depleted uranium (DU). DU exposure is indicated by a range fo...

P. R. Boyd, R. W. Tardiff, J. W. Ejnik, A. J. Carmichael, M. M. Hamiliton

2000-01-01

301

Chromosome aberrations as a means to determine occupational exposure: an alternative  

SciTech Connect

The methodology developed to study chromosome aberrations in vitro, and the results gained in application of the method in in vivo studies of individuals receiving ionizing radiation, may provide a basis to more definitively assess occupational exposure in radiographers and radiation therapy technologists. The need for more definitive methods in measuring occupational exposure is given impetus by the fact that there is now a large group of individuals in whom a significant duration of occupational exposure may be measured. Further, increased knowledge of the effects of radiation has resulted in lower and lower levels of maximum permissible dose. And there is the undeniable, albeit relatively unproven, claim of radiation hazard in occupations not previously considered. As a group, technologists are now better organized and more aware of occupational hazards than in the past. It behooves us as professionals to act in our own behalf to improve the state of knowledge and methods of evaluation of occupational hazards that we have endured for several decades. There is no longer any more time to waste in the light of what we now know. In the author's opinion, the method described herein has the potential to determine occupational dose more accurately and definitively than has been possible heretofore and, therefore, should be tested as an alternative to present methods of personnel monitoring. History, rationale, and method are presented, and a protocol for a research study is described.

Sullivan, C.A.

1980-09-01

302

Occupational exposures estimated by means of job exposure matrices in relation to lung function in the PAARC survey.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES--The aim of this analysis of the French Cooperative PAARC (Pollution Atmosphérique et Affections Respiratoires Chroniques) survey, was to test whether occupational exposures to dusts, gases, or chemical fumes or to specific hazards, estimated by job exposure matrices, were related to a decrease in forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1). METHODS--The most recent occupation was recorded in adults, aged 25-59, from non-manual worker households. Analysis was restricted to 10,046 subjects whose occupation was encountered at least 10 times in the study and who performed good FEV1 tracings. From occupational title, exposures to dusts, gases, and chemical fumes, and to specific hazards were classified in three categories (no, low, and high) with a British, a French, and an Italian job exposure matrix. Specific hazards were analysed for the British and French job exposure matrices for the same 42 specific dusts, gases, and chemical fumes. To limit spurious associations, a selection of seven hazard groups and 12 specific hazards was set before the start of the analysis. Based on the consistency of the relations according to sex and the British and French job exposure matrices, associations of age, height, city, and smoking adjusted FEV1 score with occupational exposures were classified as very likely, possible, or unlikely. RESULTS--For the three job exposure matrices and both sexes clear exposure-response relations between the level of exposure to dusts, gases, and chemical fumes, and a decrease in FEV1 were found. Associations with FEV1 were classified as very likely for known hazards such as organic dusts and textile dusts, and not previously recognised hazards such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and detergents, and as possible for solvents, waxes and polishes, and diesel fumes. Associations found for PAHs and solvents were confirmed by the Italian job exposure matrix. Associations remained significant in women, but not in men, after adjustment for educational level. CONCLUSIONS--Hypotheses have been generated for exposure to detergents, PAHs, and solvents, but they need to be interpreted with caution before replication. Significant associations found for known risk factors with a decrease in FEV1 are arguments for the validity of the matrices. Despite the expected limitations of job exposure matrices, these results encourage further work to improve exposure assessment by job exposure matrices.

Le Moual, N; Orlowski, E; Schenker, M B; Avignon, M; Brochard, P; Kauffmann, F

1995-01-01

303

Microfabricated Formaldehyde Gas Sensors  

PubMed Central

Formaldehyde is a volatile organic compound that is widely used in textiles, paper, wood composites, and household materials. Formaldehyde will continuously outgas from manufactured wood products such as furniture, with adverse health effects resulting from prolonged low-level exposure. New, microfabricated sensors for formaldehyde have been developed to meet the need for portable, low-power gas detection. This paper reviews recent work including silicon microhotplates for metal oxide-based detection, enzyme-based electrochemical sensors, and nanowire-based sensors. This paper also investigates the promise of polymer-based sensors for low-temperature, low-power operation.

Flueckiger, Jonas; Ko, Frank K.; Cheung, Karen C.

2009-01-01

304

Assessment of time to pregnancy and spontaneous abortion status following occupational exposure to organic solvents mixture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  Due to increasing usage of chemicals in various industries, occupational exposure of women with these materials is unavoidable.\\u000a Nowadays, some studies indicate adverse effects of exposure to these chemicals, especially organic solvents on the reproductive\\u000a system of females. This study aimed to assess the relationship between spontaneous abortion and occupational exposure to organic\\u000a solvents mixture in pharmaceutical industry.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  This study

Mir Saeed Attarchi; Monir Ashouri; Yasser Labbafinejad; Saber Mohammadi

305

Survey of occupational exposure of waste industry workers to infectious waste in Washington State.  

PubMed Central

We surveyed 940 Washington state waste industry workers to evaluate occupational exposure to potentially infectious materials (response rate 47 percent). Only 26 percent were trained specifically to deal with safety hazards associated with medical waste. For the year preceding the survey, 50 percent of respondents reported having received cuts and scratches on the job, 22 percent reported direct contact with waste blood on their clothing or shoes, 8 percent had blood exposure on their skin, 3 percent blood exposure on their face or eyes, and 6 percent occupational hypodermic needlestick injuries (10 percent among waste collectors.

Turnberg, W L; Frost, F

1990-01-01

306

Workshop report: strategies for setting occupational exposure limits for engineered nanomaterials.  

PubMed

Occupational exposure limits (OELs) are important tools for managing worker exposures to chemicals; however, hazard data for many engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) are insufficient for deriving OELs by traditional methods. Technical challenges and questions about how best to measure worker exposures to ENMs also pose barriers to implementing OELs. New varieties of ENMs are being developed and introduced into commerce at a rapid pace, further compounding the issue of OEL development for ENMs. A Workshop on Strategies for Setting Occupational Exposure Limits for Engineered Nanomaterials, held in September 2012, provided an opportunity for occupational health experts from various stakeholder groups to discuss possible alternative approaches for setting OELs for ENMs and issues related to their implementation. This report summarizes the workshop proceedings and findings, identifies areas for additional research, and suggests potential avenues for further progress on this important topic. PMID:24462629

Gordon, Steven C; Butala, John H; Carter, Janet M; Elder, Alison; Gordon, Terry; Gray, George; Sayre, Philip G; Schulte, Paul A; Tsai, Candace S; West, Jay

2014-04-01

307

Formaldehyde-Assisted Isolation of Regulatory Elements (FAIRE) Analysis Uncovers Broad Changes in Chromatin Structure Resulting from Hexavalent Chromium Exposure.  

PubMed

The ability of chromatin to switch back and forth from open euchromatin to closed heterochromatin is vital for transcriptional regulation and genomic stability, but its dynamic structure is subject to disruption by exposure to environmental agents such as hexavalent chromium. Cr(VI) exposure disrupts chromatin remodeling mechanisms and causes chromosomal damage through formation of free radicals, Cr-DNA adducts, and DNA-Cr-protein cross-links. In addition, acute, high-concentration, and chronic, low-concentration exposures to Cr(VI) lead to significantly different transcriptional and genomic stability outcomes. We used mouse hepatoma Hepa-1c1c7 cells to investigate how transcriptional responses to chromium treatment might correlate with structural chromatin changes. We used Formaldehyde-Assisted Isolation of Regulatory Elements (FAIRE) analysis coupled with deep sequencing to identify regions of the genome that may switch between open and closed chromatin in response to exposure to varying Cr(VI) concentrations. At either Cr(VI) concentration, chromatin domains surrounding binding sites for AP-1 transcription factors become significantly open, whereas BACH2 and CTCF binding sites are open solely at the low and high concentrations, respectively. Parallel gene expression profiling using RNA-seq indicates that the structural chromatin changes caused by Cr(VI) affect gene expression levels in the target areas that vary depending on Cr(VI) concentration, but show no correlation between global changes in the overall transcriptional response and Cr(VI) concentration. Our results suggest that FAIRE may be a useful technique to map chromatin elements targeted by DNA damaging agents for which there is no prior knowledge of their specificity, and to identify subsequent transcriptomic changes induced by those agents. PMID:24837440

Ovesen, Jerald L; Fan, Yunxia; Zhang, Xiang; Chen, Jing; Medvedovic, Mario; Xia, Ying; Puga, Alvaro

2014-01-01

308

Formaldehyde-Assisted Isolation of Regulatory Elements (FAIRE) Analysis Uncovers Broad Changes in Chromatin Structure Resulting from Hexavalent Chromium Exposure  

PubMed Central

The ability of chromatin to switch back and forth from open euchromatin to closed heterochromatin is vital for transcriptional regulation and genomic stability, but its dynamic structure is subject to disruption by exposure to environmental agents such as hexavalent chromium. Cr(VI) exposure disrupts chromatin remodeling mechanisms and causes chromosomal damage through formation of free radicals, Cr-DNA adducts, and DNA-Cr-protein cross-links. In addition, acute, high-concentration, and chronic, low-concentration exposures to Cr(VI) lead to significantly different transcriptional and genomic stability outcomes. We used mouse hepatoma Hepa-1c1c7 cells to investigate how transcriptional responses to chromium treatment might correlate with structural chromatin changes. We used Formaldehyde-Assisted Isolation of Regulatory Elements (FAIRE) analysis coupled with deep sequencing to identify regions of the genome that may switch between open and closed chromatin in response to exposure to varying Cr(VI) concentrations. At either Cr(VI) concentration, chromatin domains surrounding binding sites for AP-1 transcription factors become significantly open, whereas BACH2 and CTCF binding sites are open solely at the low and high concentrations, respectively. Parallel gene expression profiling using RNA-seq indicates that the structural chromatin changes caused by Cr(VI) affect gene expression levels in the target areas that vary depending on Cr(VI) concentration, but show no correlation between global changes in the overall transcriptional response and Cr(VI) concentration. Our results suggest that FAIRE may be a useful technique to map chromatin elements targeted by DNA damaging agents for which there is no prior knowledge of their specificity, and to identify subsequent transcriptomic changes induced by those agents.

Ovesen, Jerald L.; Fan, Yunxia; Zhang, Xiang; Chen, Jing; Medvedovic, Mario; Xia, Ying; Puga, Alvaro

2014-01-01

309

Experimental assessment of the sensitizing properties of formaldehyde.  

PubMed

Formaldehyde causes upper respiratory tract irritation and has been reported in some investigations to be a cause of occupational allergic asthma. The data are equivocal, however, and it has proved difficult to confirm that exposure to formaldehyde induces respiratory sensitization or provokes the production of specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibody. In this study the sensitizing properties of formaldehyde were examined experimentally. This chemical elicited strong positive responses in three independent methods for the prospective identification of contact sensitizing chemicals-the guinea pig maximization test, the occluded patch test of Buehler and the murine local lymph node assay. In contrast, in a novel predictive test method for assessment of respiratory sensitization potential-the mouse IgE test-formaldehyde at the same test concentrations was negative. Furthermore, formaldehyde induced in mice a pattern of cytokine secretion by draining lymph node cells inconsistent with the stimulation of IgE antibody responses or respiratory sensitization. These data indicate that, although formaldehyde is a potent contact allergen, it lacks a significant potential to cause sensitization of the respiratory tract. PMID:8690318

Hilton, J; Dearman, R J; Basketter, D A; Scholes, E W; Kimber, I

1996-06-01

310

Assessing Occupational Exposure to Chemicals in an International Epidemiological Study of Brain Tumours  

PubMed Central

The INTEROCC project is a multi-centre case–control study investigating the risk of developing brain cancer due to occupational chemical and electromagnetic field exposures. To estimate chemical exposures, the Finnish Job Exposure Matrix (FINJEM) was modified to improve its performance in the INTEROCC study and to address some of its limitations, resulting in the development of the INTEROCC JEM. An international team of occupational hygienists developed a crosswalk between the Finnish occupational codes used in FINJEM and the International Standard Classification of Occupations 1968 (ISCO68). For ISCO68 codes linked to multiple Finnish codes, weighted means of the exposure estimates were calculated. Similarly, multiple ISCO68 codes linked to a single Finnish code with evidence of heterogeneous exposure were refined. One of the key time periods in FINJEM (1960–1984) was split into two periods (1960–1974 and 1975–1984). Benzene exposure estimates in early periods were modified upwards. The internal consistency of hydrocarbon exposures and exposures to engine exhaust fumes was improved. Finally, exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon and benzo(a)pyrene was modified to include the contribution from second-hand smoke. The crosswalk ensured that the FINJEM exposure estimates could be applied to the INTEROCC study subjects. The modifications generally resulted in an increased prevalence of exposure to chemical agents. This increased prevalence of exposure was not restricted to the lowest categories of cumulative exposure, but was seen across all levels for some agents. Although this work has produced a JEM with important improvements compared to FINJEM, further improvements are possible with the expansion of agents and additional external data.

van Tongeren, Martie

2013-01-01

311

Father's occupational exposure to carcinogenic agents and childhood acute leukemia: a new method to assess exposure (a case-control study)  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Medical research has not been able to establish whether a father's occupational exposures are associated with the development of acute leukemia (AL) in their offspring. The studies conducted have weaknesses that have generated a misclassification of such exposure. Occupations and exposures to substances associated with childhood cancer are not very frequently encountered in the general population; thus, the reported

Maria Luisa Perez-Saldivar; Manuel Carlos Ortega-Alvarez; Arturo Fajardo-Gutierrez; Roberto Bernaldez-Rios; Aurora Medina-Sanson; Miguel Angel Palomo-Colli; Rogelio Paredes-Aguilera; Armando Martínez-Avalos; Victor Hugo Borja-Aburto; Maria Rodriguez-Rivera; Victor Manuel Vargas-Garcia; Jesus Zarco-Contreras; Janet Flores-Lujano; Juan Manuel Mejia-Arangure

2008-01-01

312

Occupational exposure to asbestos in the drywall taping process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies of airborne asbestos fiber concentrations associated with various operations of the drywall taping process have been undertaken in the province of Alberta, Canada. The results show that mixing, sanding and sweeping created high levels of airborne asbestos dust. The measured concentrations were frequently in excess of occupational health standards. Sanding in particular was assessed the most hazardous operation. The

DAVE K. VERMA; CHARLES G. MIDDLETON

1980-01-01

313

The History of OSHA's Asbestos Rulemakings and Some Distinctive Approaches that They Introduced for Regulating Occupational Exposure to Toxic Substances  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) has regulated occupational exposure to asbestos since 1971. Since issuing its first asbestos standard, OSHA has modified it several times in response to new information about the health risk of exposure and concern expressed by workers and public health groups. As each modification has reduced worker exposure and disease risk, each also has

John F. Martonik; Edith Nash; Elizabeth Grossman

2001-01-01

314

Ischaemic heart disease mortality study among workers with occupational exposure to ammonium perfluorooctanoate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives:Ammonium perfluorooctanoate (APFO) is a biopersistent surfactant used in the manufacture of several types of fluoropolymers. Based on previous findings of increased serum lipid levels associated with exposure to APFO, we evaluated ischaemic heart disease (IHD) mortality in a cohort of occupationally exposed workers.Methods:Relative risks (RR) were estimated from exposure–response analyses of cumulative exposure measures using proportional hazards regression models.Results:239

C J Sakr; J M Symons; K H Kreckmann; R C Leonard

2009-01-01

315

Population-Based Case-Control Study of Occupational Exposure to Electromagnetic Fields and Breast Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE: This population-based case-control study examined occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields in relation to female breast cancer incidence among 843 breast cancer cases and 773 controls.METHODS: Exposure was classified based on work in the two longest-held jobs, and indices of cumulative exposure to magnetic fields based on a measurement survey.RESULTS: Female breast cancer was not associated with employment as an

Edwin Van Wijngaarden; Leena A Nylander-French; Robert C Millikan; David A Savitz; Dana Loomis

2001-01-01

316

Criteria for a recommended standard. Occupational exposure to respirable coal mine dust  

SciTech Connect

Information regarding adverse health effects resulting from exposure to respirable coal mine dust was reviewed as a basis for the development of new occupational safety and health standards. Evidence indicated that coal mine dust exposures over a working lifetime may result in the development of simple coal workers` pneumonocoiosis, progressive massive fibrosis, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Recommendations are provided concerning respirable coal mine dust sampling to monitor worker exposure, the proper use of personal protective equipment, and medical screening and surveillance examinations.

NONE

1995-09-01

317

Occupational exposures in the oil and gas extraction industry: State of the science and research recommendations.  

PubMed

The oil and gas extraction industry is rapidly growing due to horizontal drilling and high volume hydraulic fracturing (HVHF). This growth has provided new jobs and economic stimulus. The industry occupational fatality rate is 2.5 times higher than the construction industry and 7 times higher than general industry; however injury rates are lower than the construction industry, suggesting injuries are not being reported. Some workers are exposed to crystalline silica at hazardous levels, above occupational health standards. Other hazards (particulate, benzene, noise, radiation) exist. In this article, we review occupational fatality and injury rate data; discuss research looking at root causes of fatal injuries and hazardous exposures; review interventions aimed at improving occupational health and safety; and discuss information gaps and areas of needed research. We also describe Wyoming efforts to improve occupational safety in this industry, as a case example. Am. J. Ind. Med. 57:847-856, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24634090

Witter, Roxana Z; Tenney, Liliana; Clark, Suzanne; Newman, Lee S

2014-07-01

318

Occupational exposures and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma: Canadian case-control study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The objective was to study the association between Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma (NHL) and occupational exposures related to long held occupations among males in six provinces of Canada. METHODS: A population based case-control study was conducted from 1991 to 1994. Males with newly diagnosed NHL (ICD-10) were stratified by province of residence and age group. A total of 513 incident cases

Chandima P Karunanayake; Helen H McDuffie; James A Dosman; John J Spinelli; Punam Pahwa

2008-01-01

319

Occupational exposure to crystalline silica and the risk of lung cancer in Canadian men.  

PubMed

Crystalline silica is a recognized carcinogen, but the association with lung cancer at lower levels of exposure has not been well characterized. This study investigated the relationship between occupational silica exposure and lung cancer and the combined effects of cigarette smoking and silica exposure on lung cancer risk. A population-based case-control study was conducted in eight Canadian provinces between 1994 and 1997. Self-reported questionnaires were used to obtain a lifetime occupational history and information on other risk factors. Occupational hygienists assigned silica exposures to each job based on concentration, frequency and reliability. Data from 1681 incident lung cancer cases and 2053 controls were analyzed using logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (OR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI). Models included adjustments for cigarette smoking, lifetime residential second-hand smoke and occupational exposure to diesel and gasoline engine emissions. Relative to the unexposed, increasing duration of silica exposure at any concentration was associated with a significant trend in lung cancer risk (OR???30 years: 1.67, 1.21-2.24; ptrend ?=?0.002). The highest tertile of cumulative silica exposure was associated with lung cancer (OR?=?1.81, 1.34-2.42; ptrend ?=?0.004) relative to the lowest. Men exposed to silica for ?30 years with ?40 cigarette pack-years had the highest risk relative to those unexposed with <10 pack-years (OR?=?42.53, 23.54-76.83). The joint relationship with smoking was consistent with a multiplicative model. Our findings suggest that occupational exposure to silica is a risk factor for lung cancer, independently from active and passive smoking, as well as from exposure to other lung carcinogens. PMID:24272527

Kachuri, Linda; Villeneuve, Paul J; Parent, Marie-Élise; Johnson, Kenneth C; Harris, Shelley A

2014-07-01

320

Metabolic and health consequences of occupational exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls  

Microsoft Academic Search

In surveys of three groups of workers occupationally exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) serum PCB concentrations were quantitated as lower chlorinated biphenyls (L-PCBs) and higher chlorinated biphenyls (H-PCBs). Serum L-PCB and H-PCB concentrations were many times greater among workers employed in power capacitor manufacturing than exposed areas. Statistically significant positive correlations of symptoms suggestive of mucous membrane and skin irritation,

A B Smith; J Schloemer; L K Lowry; A W Smallwood; R N Ligo; S Tanaka; W Stringer; M Jones; R Hervin; C J Glueck

1982-01-01

321

Occupational aluminum exposure: Evidence in support of its neurobehavioral impact  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aluminum is a metal with known neurotoxic properties which are linked to encephalopathy and neurodegenerative diseases. The objectives of the current meta-analysis study were: (1) to summarize neurobehavioral data obtained by epidemiological studies in occupational settings and (2) to analyze confounding within these data.The meta-analysis was based on estimates of effect sizes. Overall effect sizes were obtained by application of

Monika Meyer-Baron; Michael Schäper; Guido Knapp; Christoph van Thriel

2007-01-01

322

[Ackerman's tumor of the larynx and occupational exposure to asbestos].  

PubMed

The so-called "Ackerman's tumor" is a neoplasm of uncertain dignity. Aim of this paper is to clarify, whether this is an asbestos-induced tumor of the larynx in accordance with German regulations for occupational diseases. A 43-year old male presented the clinical picture of a stenosing laryngeal tumor. A verrucous neoplasm without a proven malignity in the sense of an Ackerman's tumor was diagnosed through several sequential biopsies. Approximately 2 years later a total laryngectomy was performed, because of a squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx. An occupational disease in accordance with 4104 BKV was claimed in connection with an asbestos exposition of 28,3 fibre years (fibres/m3 x years). An Ackerman's tumor is--in accordance with its definition in the German-speaking area--not conclusively malignant, there is no indication of a relation between asbestos and such a tumor in literature, there is no specific benign disorder of the larynx caused by asbestos. This brings us to the conclusion that the Ackerman's tumor of the larynx is no asbestos-induced laryngeal tumor as per German occupational disease regulations. PMID:17806001

Scheuermann, K; Delank, K-W

2007-08-01

323

Cancer risk from occupational and environmental exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.  

PubMed

Epidemiologic evidence on the relationship between polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and cancer is reviewed. High occupational exposure to PAHs occurs in several industries and occupations. Covered here are aluminum production, coal gasification, coke production, iron and steel foundries, tar distillation, shale oil extraction, wood impregnation, roofing, road paving, carbon black production, carbon electrode production, chimney sweeping, and calcium carbide production. In addition, workers exposed to diesel engine exhaust in the transport industry and in related occupations are exposed to PAHs and nitro-PAHs. Heavy exposure to PAHs entails a substantial risk of lung, skin, and bladder cancer, which is not likely to be due to other carcinogenic exposures present in the same industries. The lung seems to be the major target organ of PAH carcinogenicity and increased risk is present in most of the industries and occupations listed above. An increased risk of skin cancer follows high dermal exposure. An increase in bladder cancer risk is found mainly in industries with high exposure to PAHs from coal tars and pitches. Increased risks have been reported for other organs, namely the larynx and the kidney; the available evidence, however, is inconclusive. The results of studies addressing environmental PAH exposure are consistent with these conclusions. PMID:9498904

Boffetta, P; Jourenkova, N; Gustavsson, P

1997-05-01

324

61 FR 66348 - Health Standards for Occupational Noise Exposure  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...produce potential communication difficulties...population. This effect has been demonstrated...counter the effect. Michael...important aural communications. To accomplish...to the noise exposure spectra as close...substantially influenced by the spectra...The noise exposures ranged...

1996-12-17

325

Tools for regulatory assessment of occupational exposure: development and challenges  

Microsoft Academic Search

REACH (Registration, Evaluation and Authorization of CHemicals) requires improved exposure models that can be incorporated into screening tools and refined assessment tools. These are referred to as tier 1 and 2 models, respectively. There are a number of candidate in tier 1 models that could be used with REACH. Tier 2 models, producing robust and realistic exposure assessments, are currently

Erik Tielemans; Nick Warren; Thomas Schneider; Martin Tischer; Peter Ritchie; Henk Goede; Hans Kromhout; Joop Van Hemmen; John W Cherrie

2007-01-01

326

Occupational exposure to solvent mixtures: effects on health and metabolism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exposure monitoring by personal diffusive samplers, biological monitoring of toluene exposure by urinary hippuric acid determination, haematology, serum biochemistry for liver function, and a subjective symptom survey by questionnaire were conducted on 303 male solvent workers. They were exposed to a mixture of solvents including toluene (geometric mean 18 ppm), methyl ethyl ketone (MEK; 16 ppm), isopropyl alcohol (IPA; 7

H Ukai; S Takada; S Inui; Y Imai; T Kawai; S Shimbo; M Ikeda

1994-01-01

327

Current employment status, occupational category, occupational hazard exposure, and job stress in relation to telomere length: The Multiethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA)  

PubMed Central

Objective Telomere length has been proposed as a biomarker of cell senescence, which is associated with a wide array of adverse health outcomes. While work is a major determinant of health, few studies have investigated the association of telomere length with various dimensions of occupation. Accelerated cellular aging could be a common pathway linking occupational exposure to several health outcomes. Methods Leukocyte telomere length was assessed using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (Q-PCR) in a community-based sample of 981 individuals (age: 45–84 years old). Questionnaires were used to collect information on current employment status, current or main occupation before retirement, and job strain. The O*NET (Occupational Resource Network) database was linked to the questionnaire data to create 5 exposure measures: physical activity on the job, physical hazard exposure, interpersonal stressors, job control, and job demands. Linear regression was used to estimate associations of occupational characteristics with telomere lengths after adjustment for age, sex, race, socioeconomic position, and several behavioral risk factors. Results There were no mean differences in telomere lengths across current employment status, occupational category, job strain categories or levels of most O*NET exposure measures. There was also no evidence that being in lower status occupational categories or being exposed to higher levels of adverse physical or psychosocial exposures accelerated the association between age and telomere shortening. Conclusions Cellular aging as reflected by shorter telomeres does not appear to be an important pathway linking occupation to various health outcomes.

Fujishiro, Kaori; Diez-Roux, Ana V; Landsbergis, Paul; Jenny, Nancy Swords; Seeman, Teresa

2014-01-01

328

Regional maps of occupational heat exposure: past, present, and potential future  

PubMed Central

Background An important feature of climate change is increasing human heat exposure in workplaces without cooling systems in tropical and subtropical countries. Detailed gridded heat exposure maps will provide essential information for public health authorities. Objectives To develop and test methods for calculating occupational heat exposures and present results in easily interpreted maps. Design Published formulas for a common occupational heat exposure index, the WBGT (Wet Bulb Globe Temperature), were used in combination with global gridded climate data to calculate heat exposure in 0.5° grid squares. Monthly averages of daily maximum temperatures, as indicators of typical temperatures during the hottest part of the day, and corresponding water vapour pressures produced estimates of monthly WBGT indoors (without cooling systems) or outdoors in the shade. Results The maps show the WBGT within four hot regions of the world during the three hottest months in 1975 and 2000: Australia, South Asia, Southern Africa, Central America, and southern US. Between 1975 and 2000 a WBGT increase of 0.5–1°C was common and the maps show clear decreases in some places. The time trends fit with the development of global climate change. The high WBGT values (particularly in South Asia) already cause excessive occupational heat exposures during the three hottest months. If continued climate change increases WBGT by 3°C, our maps identify areas where occupational heat stress in non-cooled workplaces will be extreme. Conclusions The mapping method provides a rapid visual impression of occupational heat exposures in large regions of the world. The local changes in WBGT between 1975 and 2000 fit with the global climate change trends. Future increases of WBGT may create extreme heat exposure situations in large areas of the world.

Hyatt, Olivia M.; Lemke, Bruno; Kjellstrom, Tord

2010-01-01

329

Occupational exposures during routine activities in coal-fueled power plants  

SciTech Connect

Limited information is available on occupational exposures during routine, nonoutage work activities in coal-fueled power plants. This study evaluated occupational exposures to the principal contaminants in the facilities, including respirable dust (coal dust), arsenic, noise, asbestos, and heat stress. The data were collected over a 3-month period, during the summer of 2001, in 5 representative power plants of a large southeastern power-generating company. From 4 of the 5 facilities, 392 air samples and 302 noise samples were collected with approximately 50 respirable coal dust, 32 arsenic, 15 asbestos, and 70 noise samples from each of the 4 plants. One of the previously surveyed facilities was also evaluated for heat stress, and 1 additional coal-fueled power plant was surveyed for a total of 20 personal heat stress samples. Of the nearly 400 air samples collected, only 1 exceeded the allowable occupational exposure value. For the noise samples, 55 were equal to or greater than the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) 8-hour hearing conservation program level of 85 dBA, and 12 were equal to or greater than the OSHA 8-hour permissible exposure level of 90 dBA. The data concluded that some work sites were above the heat stress ceiling values recommended by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). Four of the 20 employees personally monitored exceeded the recommended limits for heart rate or body core temperature.

Mona J. Bird; David L. MacIntosh; Phillip L. Williams [University of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States). Dept. of Environmental Health Science

2004-06-15

330

Breast cancer risk after occupational solvent exposure: the influence of timing and setting.  

PubMed

Organic solvents are ubiquitous in occupational settings where they may contribute to risks for carcinogenesis. However, there is limited information on organic solvents as human breast carcinogens. We examined the relationship between occupational exposure to solvents and breast cancer in a prospective study of 47,661 women with an occupational history in the Sister Study cohort. Occupational solvent exposure was categorized using self-reported job-specific solvent use collected at baseline. Multivariable Cox regression analyses were used to assess breast cancer risk, adjusting for established breast cancer risk factors. A total of 1,798 women were diagnosed with breast cancer during follow-up, including 1,255 invasive cases. Overall the risk of invasive breast cancer was not associated with lifetime exposure to solvents [HR, 1.04; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.88-1.24]. Parous women who worked with solvents before their first full-term birth had an increased risk of estrogen receptor-positive invasive breast cancer compared with women who never worked with solvents (HR, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.03-1.86). A significantly elevated risk for estrogen receptor-positive invasive breast cancer was associated with solvent exposure among clinical laboratory technologists and technicians (HR, 2.00; 95% CI, 1.07-3.73). Occupational exposure to solvents before first birth, a critical period of breast tissue differentiation, may result in increased vulnerability for breast cancer. Our findings suggest a need for future studies in this area to focus on exposure time windows and solvent types in different occupational settings. Cancer Res; 74(11); 3076-83. ©2014 AACR. PMID:24879566

Ekenga, Christine C; Parks, Christine G; D'Aloisio, Aimee A; DeRoo, Lisa A; Sandler, Dale P

2014-06-01

331

Analysis of occupational asbestos exposure and lung cancer mortality using the g formula.  

PubMed

We employed the parametric G formula to analyze lung cancer mortality in a cohort of textile manufacturing workers who were occupationally exposed to asbestos in South Carolina. A total of 3,002 adults with a median age of 24 years at enrollment (58% male, 81% Caucasian) were followed for 117,471 person-years between 1940 and 2001, and 195 lung cancer deaths were observed. Chrysotile asbestos exposure was measured in fiber-years per milliliter of air, and annual occupational exposures were estimated on the basis of detailed work histories. Sixteen percent of person-years involved exposure to asbestos, with a median exposure of 3.30 fiber-years/mL among those exposed. Lung cancer mortality by age 90 years under the observed asbestos exposure was 9.44%. In comparison with observed asbestos exposure, if the facility had operated under the current Occupational Safety and Health Administration asbestos exposure standard of <0.1 fibers/mL, we estimate that the cohort would have experienced 24% less lung cancer mortality by age 90 years (mortality ratio = 0.76, 95% confidence interval: 0.62, 0.94). A further reduction in asbestos exposure to a standard of <0.05 fibers/mL was estimated to have resulted in a minimal additional reduction in lung cancer mortality by age 90 years (mortality ratio = 0.75, 95% confidence interval: 0.61, 0.92). PMID:23558355

Cole, Stephen R; Richardson, David B; Chu, Haitao; Naimi, Ashley I

2013-05-01

332

Analysis of Occupational Asbestos Exposure and Lung Cancer Mortality Using the G Formula  

PubMed Central

We employed the parametric G formula to analyze lung cancer mortality in a cohort of textile manufacturing workers who were occupationally exposed to asbestos in South Carolina. A total of 3,002 adults with a median age of 24 years at enrollment (58% male, 81% Caucasian) were followed for 117,471 person-years between 1940 and 2001, and 195 lung cancer deaths were observed. Chrysotile asbestos exposure was measured in fiber-years per milliliter of air, and annual occupational exposures were estimated on the basis of detailed work histories. Sixteen percent of person-years involved exposure to asbestos, with a median exposure of 3.30 fiber-years/mL among those exposed. Lung cancer mortality by age 90 years under the observed asbestos exposure was 9.44%. In comparison with observed asbestos exposure, if the facility had operated under the current Occupational Safety and Health Administration asbestos exposure standard of <0.1 fibers/mL, we estimate that the cohort would have experienced 24% less lung cancer mortality by age 90 years (mortality ratio = 0.76, 95% confidence interval: 0.62, 0.94). A further reduction in asbestos exposure to a standard of <0.05 fibers/mL was estimated to have resulted in a minimal additional reduction in lung cancer mortality by age 90 years (mortality ratio = 0.75, 95% confidence interval: 0.61, 0.92).

Cole, Stephen R.; Richardson, David B.; Chu, Haitao; Naimi, Ashley I.

2013-01-01

333

Exposure, skin protection and occupational skin diseases in the glass-fibre-reinforced plastics industry.  

PubMed

A total of 100 workers, 86 from the glass-fibre-reinforced plastics (GRP) industry, 11 from polystyrene production and 3 from polyester resin coating manufacture, were examined for occupational skin hazards and for evaluation of skin protection. The workers had been exposed to many chemicals. Those working in the GRP industry had also been exposed to glass fibre and to dust produced by finishing work. 94% used protective gloves. 22 workers, all employed in the GRP industry, had contracted occupational skin disorders. 6 had allergic and 12 irritant contact dermatitis. 4 workers had an accidental injury caused by a peroxide catalyst, fire, hot air and constant mechanical friction. Allergic dermatoses were due to natural rubber (latex) (4 cases) in protective gloves, phenol-formaldehyde resin (1 case) and cobalt naphthenate (1 case). Irritant hand dermatoses (5 cases) were caused by the combined hazardous effect of unsaturated polyester or vinyl ester resins, organic solvents, glass fibre and dust from finishing work on the skin. Other cases of irritant dermatoses (7 cases) were due to the dust, promoted by mechanical friction of clothes. Skin disorders in the GRP industry were common (26%) but the symptoms were mild and only 3 patients had been on sick leave because of occupational skin disease. PMID:8222622

Tarvainen, K; Jolanki, R; Forsman-Grönholm, L; Estlander, T; Pfäffli, P; Juntunen, J; Kanerva, L

1993-09-01

334

Tools for regulatory assessment of occupational exposure: development and challenges.  

PubMed

REACH (Registration, Evaluation and Authorization of CHemicals) requires improved exposure models that can be incorporated into screening tools and refined assessment tools. These are referred to as tier 1 and 2 models, respectively. There are a number of candidate in tier 1 models that could be used with REACH. Tier 2 models, producing robust and realistic exposure assessments, are currently not available. A research programme is proposed in this paper that will result in a new, advanced exposure assessment tool for REACH. In addition, issues related to variability and uncertainty are discussed briefly, and some examples of tier 1 screening tools are presented. The proposed framework for the tier 2 tool is based on a Bayesian approach, and makes full use of mechanistically modelled estimates and any relevant measurements of exposure. The new approach will preclude the necessity to conduct of case-by-case exposure measurements for each chemical and scenario, since the system will allow for the use of analogous exposure data from relatively comparable scenarios. The development of the new approach requires substantial effort in the area of mechanistic modelling, database development and Bayesian statistical techniques. In this paper, the data gaps and areas for future research are identified to help realise and further improve this type of approach within REACH. A structured data collection and storage system is a central element of the research programme and the availability of this type of tool may also facilitate the sharing of exposure data down and up the supply chain. In addition, new data that are stored according to the proposed structure could enable the validation of any exposure model and thus this programme enhances the exposure assessment field as a whole. PMID:17622251

Tielemans, Erik; Warren, Nick; Schneider, Thomas; Tischer, Martin; Ritchie, Peter; Goede, Henk; Kromhout, Hans; Van Hemmen, Joop; Cherrie, John W

2007-12-01

335

Mass, surface area and number metrics in diesel occupational exposure assessment.  

PubMed

While diesel aerosol exposure assessment has traditionally been based on the mass concentration metric, recent studies have suggested that particle number and surface area concentrations may be more health-relevant. In this study, we evaluated the exposures of three occupational groups-bus drivers, parking garage attendants, and bus mechanics-using the mass concentration of elemental carbon (EC) as well as surface area and number concentrations. These occupational groups are exposed to mixtures of diesel and gasoline exhaust on a regular basis in various ratios. The three groups had significantly different exposures to workshift TWA EC with the highest levels observed in the bus garage mechanics and the lowest levels in the parking ramp booth attendants. In terms of surface area, parking ramp attendants had significantly greater exposures than bus garage mechanics, who in turn had significantly greater exposures than bus drivers. In terms of number concentrations, the exposures of garage mechanics exceeded those of ramp booth attendants by a factor of 5-6. Depending on the exposure metric chosen, the three occupational groups had quite different exposure rankings. This illustrates the importance of the choice of exposure metric in epidemiological studies. If these three occupational groups were part of an epidemiological study, depending on the metric used, they may or may not be part of the same similarly exposed group (SEG). The exposure rankings (e.g., low, medium, or high) of the three groups also changes with the metric used. If the incorrect metric is used, significant misclassification errors may occur. PMID:15986054

Ramachandran, Gurumurthy; Paulsen, Dwane; Watts, Winthrop; Kittelson, David

2005-07-01

336

Prevalence and pattern of occupational exposure to whole body vibration in Great Britain: findings from a national survey  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES—To estimate the number of workers in Great Britain with significant occupational exposure to whole body vibration (WBV) and to identify the common sources of exposure and the occupations and industries where such exposures arise.?METHODS—A postal questionnaire was posted to a random community sample of 22 194 men and women of working age. Among other things, the questionnaire asked about exposure to WBV in the past week, including occupational and common non-occupational sources. Responses were assessed by occupation and industry, and national prevalence estimates were derived from census information. Estimates were also made of the average estimated daily personal dose of vibration (eVDV).?RESULTS—From the 12 907 responses it was estimated that 7.2 million men and 1.8 million women in Great Britain are exposed to WBV at work in a 1 week period if the occupational use of cars, vans, buses, trains, and motor cycles is included within the definition of exposure. The eVDV of >374 000 men and 9000 women was estimated to exceed a proposed British Standard action level of 15 ms-1.75. Occupations in which the estimated exposures most often exceeded 15 ms-1.75 included forklift truck and mechanical truck drivers, farm owners and managers, farm workers, and drivers of road goods vehicles. These occupations also contributed the largest estimated numbers of workers in Great Britain with such levels of exposure. The highest estimated median occupational eVDVs were found in forklift truck drivers, drivers of road goods vehicles, bus and coach drivers, and technical and wholesale sales representatives, among whom a greater contribution to total dose was received from occupational exposures than from non-occupational ones; but in many other occupations the reverse applied. The most common sources of occupational exposure to WBV are cars, vans, forklift trucks, lorries, tractors, buses, and loaders.?CONCLUSIONS—Exposure to whole body vibration is common, but only a small proportion of exposures exceed the action level proposed in British standards, and in many occupations, non-occupational sources are more important than those at work. The commonest occupational sources of WBV and occupations with particularly high exposures have been identified, providing a basis for targeting future control activities.???Keywords: whole body vibration; population; prevalence; exposure

Palmer, K.; Griffin, M.; Bendall, H.; Pannett, B.; Coggon, D.

2000-01-01

337

A Case-Control Study of Occupational Exposure to Trichloroethylene and Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma  

PubMed Central

Background Previous epidemiologic findings suggest an association between exposure to trichloroethylene (TCE), a chlorinated solvent primarily used for vapor degreasing of metal parts, and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). Objectives We investigated the association between occupational TCE exposure and NHL within a population-based case–control study using detailed exposure assessment methods. Methods Cases (n = 1,189; 76% participation rate) and controls (n = 982; 52% participation rate) provided information on their occupational histories and, for selected occupations, on possible workplace exposure to TCE using job-specific interview modules. An industrial hygienist assessed potential TCE exposure based on this information and a review of the TCE industrial hygiene literature. We computed odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) relating NHL and different metrics of estimated TCE exposure, categorized using tertiles among exposed controls, with unexposed subjects as the reference group. Results We observed associations with NHL for the highest tertiles of estimated average weekly exposure (23 exposed cases; OR = 2.5; 95% CI, 1.1–6.1) and cumulative exposure (24 exposed cases; OR = 2.3; 95% CI, 1.0–5.0) to TCE. Tests for trend with these metrics surpassed or approached statistical significance (p-value for trend = 0.02 and 0.08, respectively); however, we did not observe dose–response relationships across the exposure levels. Overall, neither duration nor intensity of exposure was associated with NHL, although we observed an association with the lowest tertile of exposure duration (OR = 2.1; 95% CI, 1.0–4.7). Conclusions Our findings offer additional support for an association between high levels of exposure to TCE and increased risk of NHL. However, we cannot rule out the possibility of confounding from other chlorinated solvents used for vapor degreasing and note that our exposure assessment methods have not been validated.

Purdue, Mark P.; Bakke, Berit; Stewart, Patricia; De Roos, Anneclaire J.; Schenk, Maryjean; Lynch, Charles F.; Bernstein, Leslie; Morton, Lindsay M.; Cerhan, James R.; Severson, Richard K.; Cozen, Wendy; Davis, Scott; Rothman, Nathaniel; Hartge, Patricia; Colt, Joanne S.

2011-01-01

338

Occupational exposure to asbestos during renovation of oil-shale fuelled power plants in Estonia.  

PubMed

Many thousands of tonnes of asbestos were used in buildings in the past, especially for thermal insulation of pipes and boilers in power plants. Occupational exposure to asbestos dust now mainly occurs during demolition, renovation and routine maintenance activities. The objective of this study was to evaluate occupational exposure to airborne asbestos during renovation of solid oil-shale fuelled power plants carried out in 2001-2003. Air monitoring inside and outside of the renovation area was performed. The concentration of airborne fibres in the working environment increased during renovation but the valid limit value (0.1 fibres/cm(3)) was not exceeded. PMID:17888242

Kangur, Maie

2007-01-01

339

A meta-analysis of occupational trichloroethylene exposure and liver cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  Findings from epidemiologic studies of trichloroethylene (TCE) exposure and liver cancer have been inconsistent. To quantitatively\\u000a evaluate this association and to examine sources of heterogeneity, we conducted a meta-analysis of occupational studies of\\u000a TCE exposure and liver\\/biliary tract cancer.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  We identified 14 occupational cohort studies of TCE exposed workers and one case-control study that met our inclusion criteria.\\u000a Nine studies

Dominik D. Alexander; Michael A. Kelsh; Pamela J. Mink; Jeffrey H. Mandel; Rupa Basu; Michal Weingart

2007-01-01

340

Liver angiosarcoma and hemangiopericytoma after occupational exposure to vinyl chloride monomer.  

PubMed Central

Various malignant tumors of the liver, especially liver angiosarcoma, have been described after occupational exposure to vinyl chloride monomer. We present the case records and pathologic findings of two plastic industry workers who had been exposed to high concentrations of vinyl chloride. These workers developed hepatic neoplasms, angiosarcoma, or hemangiopericytoma. We discuss the histogenesis of these tumors; the common vascular origin and the mutual transformation of these two tumors suggest that the hemangiopericytoma may also have developed during occupational exposure to high concentrations of vinyl chloride monomer. Images Figure 1 Figure 2

Hozo, I; Miric, D; Bojic, L; Giunio, L; Lusic, I; Culic, V; Simunic, M

2000-01-01

341

Liver angiosarcoma and hemangiopericytoma after occupational exposure to vinyl chloride monomer.  

PubMed

Various malignant tumors of the liver, especially liver angiosarcoma, have been described after occupational exposure to vinyl chloride monomer. We present the case records and pathologic findings of two plastic industry workers who had been exposed to high concentrations of vinyl chloride. These workers developed hepatic neoplasms, angiosarcoma, or hemangiopericytoma. We discuss the histogenesis of these tumors; the common vascular origin and the mutual transformation of these two tumors suggest that the hemangiopericytoma may also have developed during occupational exposure to high concentrations of vinyl chloride monomer. PMID:10964802

Hozo, I; Miric, D; Bojic, L; Giunio, L; Lusic, I; Culic, V; Simunic, M

2000-08-01

342

62 FR 52343 - National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health; Occupational Exposure to Inorganic Lead...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...dl:``In adhering to the 60 g...for possible effects that may occur below 60 g/dl. Adherence to this 60 g...inorganic lead exposure only after their...adverse health effects of inorganic...affected by exposures to...

1997-10-07

343

62 FR 55407 - National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health; Occupational Exposure to Inorganic Lead...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

... g/dl: ``In adhering to the 60 g...concerns for possible effects that may occur below 60 g/dl. Adherence to this 60 g...involving inorganic lead exposure only after their...all adverse health effects of inorganic lead...adversely affected by exposures to inorganic...

1997-10-24

344

Hearing loss associated with smoking and occupational noise exposure in a Japanese metal working company.  

PubMed

The effects of smoking on hearing loss within the context of atherosclerosis was assessed, and the statistical interaction of occupational noise evaluated. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 397 Japanese males working at a metal factory, aged 21-66 years, in a periodical health checkup. The following information was obtained: two smoking indices of smoking status and Brinkman index, occupational noise exposures and atherosclerotic risk factors (body mass index, blood pressure, serum cholesterol, hemoglobin A1c, atherosclerosis index). Hearing acuity was measured at 4 kHz using a pure-tone audiometer in a quiet room. Among the total subjects, 55 (13.9%) were identified as having hearing loss at 4 kHz, and 151 (38.0%) were currently exposed to occupational noise. When adjusted for age and occupational noise exposure, odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) of hearing loss were 3.16 (1.04, 9.62) for past smokers and 3.39 (1.05, 11.01) for heavy smokers (Brinkman index >750 cigarettes per day x number of years), compared with never-smokers. Statistical interaction of occupational noise exposure was insignificant with the association between smoking and hearing loss. When including atherosclerotic risk factors in a multiple model, there were no significant associations between hearing loss and either smoking or any other factors (i.e., occupational noise and atherosclerotic factors). Smoking was found to be associated with hearing loss beyond occupational noise exposure, and this association seemed to be masked by atherosclerotic factors, suggesting that the direction of the atherosclerotic effect on the relationship might need to be explored between smoking and hearing impairment. PMID:15761747

Nomura, Kyoko; Nakao, Mutsuhiro; Yano, Eiji

2005-04-01

345

Non-occupational lead exposure and hypertension in Pakistani adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hypertension is one of the most prevalent diseases in the developed and developing countries. Based on the long historical\\u000a association and the provocative findings of blood pressure effects at low level of lead exposure a study was carried out to\\u000a determine if an association existed between low blood lead concentration and hypertension. In this study the effects of low-level\\u000a exposure

Sohaila Rahman; Nasir Khalid; Jamshed Hussian Zaidi; Shujaat Ahmad; Mohammad Zafar Iqbal

2006-01-01

346

Occupational Exposure to Polychlorinated Biphenyls and Risk of Breast Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

results : Overall, the breast cancer SIR was 0.81 (95% confidence interval, 0.72-0.92; n = 257), and regression modeling showed little effect of employment duration or cumulative exposure. However, for the 362 women of questionnaire-identified races other than white, we observed posi - tive, statistically significant associations with employment duration and cumulative exposure; only smoking, birth cohort, and self- or

Sharon R. Silver; Elizabeth A. Whelan; James A. Deddens; N. Kyle Steenland; Nancy B. Hopf; Martha A. Waters; Avima M. Ruder; Mary M. Prince; Lee C. Yong; Misty J. Hein; Elizabeth M. Ward

2008-01-01

347

Biomarkers of occupational exposure to air pollution, inflammation and oxidative damage in taxi drivers.  

PubMed

Exposure to environmental pollutants has been recognised as a risk factor for cardiovascular events. 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP) is a biomarker of exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from traffic-related air pollution. Experimental studies indicate that PAH exposure could be associated with inflammation and atherogenesis. Thus, the purpose of this study was to evaluate whether the biomarker of PAH exposure is associated with biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress and if these effects modulate the risk of developing cardiovascular diseases in workers exposed to air pollution. This study included 60 subjects, comprising 39 taxi drivers and 21 non-occupationally exposed persons. Environmental PM2.5 and benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) levels, in addition to biomarkers of exposure and oxidative damage, were determined. Inflammatory cytokines (IL-1?, IL-6, IL-10, TNF-?, IFN-? and hs-CRP) and serum levels of oxidised LDL (ox-LDL), auto-antibodies (ox-LDL-Ab) and homocysteine (Hcy) were also evaluated. PM2.5 and BaP exhibited averages of 12.4±6.9 ?g m(-3) and 1.0±0.6 ng m(-3), respectively. Urinary 1-OHP levels were increased in taxi drivers compared to the non-occupationally exposed subjects (p<0.05) and were positively correlated with pro-inflammatory cytokines and negatively correlated with antioxidants. Furthermore, taxi drivers had elevated pro-inflammatory cytokines, biomarkers of oxidative damage, and ox-LDL, ox-LDL-Ab and Hcy levels, although antioxidant enzymes were decreased compared to the non-occupationally exposed subjects (p<0.05). In summary, our findings indicate that taxi drivers showed major exposure to pollutants, such as PAHs, in relation to non-occupationally exposed subjects. This finding was associated with higher inflammatory biomarkers and Hcy, which represent important predictors for cardiovascular events. These data suggest a contribution of PAHs to cardiovascular diseases upon occupational exposure. PMID:23872245

Brucker, Natália; Moro, Angela M; Charão, Mariele F; Durgante, Juliano; Freitas, Fernando; Baierle, Marília; Nascimento, Sabrina; Gauer, Bruna; Bulcão, Rachel P; Bubols, Guilherme B; Ferrari, Pedro D; Thiesen, Flávia V; Gioda, Adriana; Duarte, Marta M M F; de Castro, Iran; Saldiva, Paulo H; Garcia, Solange C

2013-10-01

348

Low back pain around retirement age and physical occupational exposure during working life  

PubMed Central

Background Physical occupational exposure is a risk factor for low back pain in workers but the long term effects of exposure remain unclear. As several countries consider increasing the retirement age, further information on this topic is relevant. This study aimed to describe the prevalence of low back pain among middle aged and aging individuals in the general French population according to physical occupational exposure and retirement status. Methods The study population originated from the French national survey 'Enquête décennale santé 2002'. Low back pain for more than 30 days within the previous twelve months (LBP) was assessed using a French version of the Nordic questionnaire. Occupational exposure was self assessed. Subjects were classified as "exposed" if they were currently or had previously been exposed to handling of heavy loads and/or to tiring postures. The weighted prevalence of LBP was computed separately for men and women, for active (aged 45-59) and retiree (aged 55-74), according to 5-year age group and past/present occupational exposure. Results For active men, the prevalence of LBP was significantly higher in those currently or previously exposed (n = 1051) compared with those never exposed (n = 1183), respectively over 20% versus less than 11%. Among retired men, the prevalence of LBP tended towards equivalence with increasing age among those previously exposed (n = 748) and those unexposed (n = 599). Patterns were quite similar for women with a higher prevalence in exposed active women (n = 741) compared to unexposed (n = 1260): around 25% versus 15%. Similarly, differences between previously exposed (n = 430) and unexposed (n = 489) retired women tended to reduce with age. Conclusion The prevalence of LBP in active workers was associated with occupational exposure. The link with past exposure among retirees decreased with age. These results should be considered for policies dealing with prevention at the workplace and retirement.

2011-01-01

349

Leukemia and occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields: An incident case-control study  

SciTech Connect

The existence of an association between leukemia and electromagnetic fields (EMF) is still controversial. The results of epidemiologic studies of leukemia in occupational groups with exposure to EMF are inconsistent. Weak associations have been seen in a few studies. EMF assessment is lacking in precision. Reported dose-response relationships have been based on qualitative levels of exposure to EMF without regard to duration of employment or EMF intensity on the jobs. Furthermore, potential confounding factors in the associations were not often well controlled. The current study is an analysis of the data collected from an incident case-control study. The primary objective was to test the hypothesis that occupational exposure to EMF is associated with leukemia, including total leukemia (TL), myelogenous leukemia (MYELOG) and acute non-lymphoid leukemia (ANLL). Potential confounding factors: occupational exposure to benzene, age, smoking, alcohol consumption, and previous medical radiation exposures were controlled in multivariate logistic regression models. Dose-response relationships were estimated by cumulative occupational exposure to EMF, taking into account duration of employment and EMF intensity on the jobs. In order to overcome weaknesses of most previous studies, special efforts were made to improve the precision of EMF assessment. Two definitions of EMF were used and result discrepancies using the two definitions were observed. These difference raised a question as to whether the workers at jobs with low EMf exposure should be considered as non-exposed in future studies. In additions, the current study suggested use of lifetime cumulative EMF exposure estimates to determine dose-response relationship. The analyses of the current study suggest an association between ANLL and employment at selected jobs with high EMF exposure.

Huang, Boji.

1993-01-01

350

Occupational exposure to arsenic and risk of nonmelanoma skin cancer in a multinational European study.  

PubMed

Occupational studies show a high risk of lung cancer related to arsenic exposure by inhalation; however, only a few studies, and with conflicting results, previously examined a potential link between arsenic exposure at work and skin cancer. The aim of this study is to assess airborne arsenic exposures at the workplace and to quantify associations with nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC). The study sample consists of 618 incident cases of NMSC and 527 hospital-based controls aged 30-79 years from Hungary, Romania and Slovakia. Exposures were evaluated by local experts using occupational histories. Information on host factors and other exposures was collected and used to adjust the associations of interest using multivariable logistic regression. The lifetime prevalence of exposure to work-related arsenic is 23.9% for cases and 15.5% for controls. No significant association between arsenic exposure in the workplace and NMSC was detected, although an increased adjusted odd ratio was observed for participants with higher cumulative lifetime workplace exposure to arsenic in dust and fumes compared to referents [odds ratios (OR) = 1.94, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.76-4.95]. There is evidence for modification of the workplace arsenic-NMSC association by work-related sunlight exposure in women, with a markedly increased adjusted OR in the presence of workplace sunlight exposure (OR = 10.22, 95% CI = 2.48-42.07). Workplace coexposure to arsenic and sunlight may thus pose an increased risk of NMSC. PMID:23595521

Surdu, Simona; Fitzgerald, Edward F; Bloom, Michael S; Boscoe, Francis P; Carpenter, David O; Haase, Richard F; Gurzau, Eugen; Rudnai, Peter; Koppova, Kvetoslava; Févotte, Joëlle; Vahter, Marie; Leonardi, Giovanni; Goessler, Walter; Kumar, Rajiv; Fletcher, Tony

2013-11-01

351

NIOSH (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health) Testimony to DOL (Department of Labor) on Occupational Exposure to Acrylonitrile by R. Yodaiken, M.D., March 3, 1978.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Testimony was presented concerning the establishment of an occupational exposure standard for acrylonitrile (107131) (AN) to which an estimated 125,000 workers were potentially exposed. Two year feeding and inhalation studies with animals indicated the ch...

1978-01-01

352

Clinical-epidemiological features of contact dermatitis in rural and urban communities in northern Ethiopia: correlation with environmental or occupational exposure.  

PubMed

BACKGROUND: The widespread diffusion of low-quality products as well as the local cultural habits could be a relevant cause of allergic diseases in developing countries. In the present observational study, we explored the prevalence of allergic contact dermatitis in both rural and urban settings in northern Ethiopia, where skin diseases represent a frequent cause of morbidity. Clinical features and specific reactivities in association with environmental or occupational exposure were investigated. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We patch tested 480 consecutive patients, visited at the Mekele IDC, exhibiting symptoms of contact dermatitis. A detailed medical history of each patient was collected. RESULTS: A positive patch-test response was observed in 50% of subjects; nickel was the most frequent sensitizer (26.2%), followed by p-tert-butylphenol formaldehyde resin (10%), fragrance mix (7.1%), potassium dichromate (5.4%), cobalt chloride (4.6%), disperse blue (2.3%), and p-phenylenediamine (1.7%). Gender-related differences were analyzed for single allergen. Eczema represented the most common manifestation, affecting the head and neck as primary skin areas. While reactivity to nickel interested almost all the occupational categories, sensitization to other allergens could be ascribed to working habits or environmental exposure. CONCLUSIONS: The results gathered from this study, the first one conducted within the Tigray region in Ethiopia, confirm the need to take appropriate measures to limit the nickel rate in metal objects and may be useful to design allergenic series suitable for patch testing in those geographical settings. PMID:23330703

Morrone, Aldo; Bordignon, Valentina; Barnabas, Gebre Ab; Dassoni, Federica; Latini, Ottavio; Padovese, Valeska; Ensoli, Fabrizio; Cristaudo, Antonio

2013-01-20

353

Classification of occupational activities for assessment of inhalation exposure.  

PubMed

There is a large variety of activities in workplaces that can lead to emission of substances. Coding systems based on determinants of emission have so far not been developed. In this paper, a system of Activity Classes and Activity Subclasses is proposed for categorizing activities involving chemical use. Activity Classes share their so-called 'emission generation mechanisms' and physical state of the product handled and the underlying determinants of emission. A number of (industrial) stakeholders actively participated in testing and fine-tuning the system. With the help of these stakeholders, it was found to be relatively easy to allocate a large number of activities to the Activity Classes and Activity Subclasses. The system facilitates a more structured classification of activities in exposure databases, a structured analysis of the analogy of exposure activities, and a transparent quantification of the activity emission potential in (new) exposure assessment models. The first use of the system is in the Advanced REACH Tool. PMID:21926067

Marquart, Hans; Schneider, Thomas; Goede, Henk; Tischer, Martin; Schinkel, Jody; Warren, Nick; Fransman, Wouter; Spaan, Suzanne; Van Tongeren, Martie; Kromhout, Hans; Tielemans, Erik; Cherrie, John W

2011-11-01

354

Current issues in the epidemiology and toxicology of occupational exposure to lead.  

PubMed Central

Occupational exposure to lead is widespread in the United States. Clinically evident lead poisoning as well as subclinical toxicity occur in populations with occupational lead exposure. The focus of current research on lead toxicity in industrial populations is in the definition of dose-response relationships, particularly at low levels of exposure. Major interest surrounds the development of biochemical and physiologic markers of subclinical toxicity. Need exists to better delineate the toxicity of lead on the peripheral and central nervous system, the kidneys, the cardiovascular system, and the reproductive organs using newly developed markers. To obtain more accurate information on cumulative individual exposure to lead, future research on lead toxicity will increasingly use X-ray fluorescence analysis for determination of the lead content in home.

Landrigan, P J

1990-01-01

355

Evaluation of several methods for assessing the effects of occupational exposure to radiation  

SciTech Connect

The evaluation of health effects in populations occupationally exposed to low-level ionizing radiation is a matter of considerable current controversy. The analysis of data on such exposures presents a variety of problems resulting from the time dependent nature of the exposure data, certain selective biases found in working populations, and particularly limits imposed by the size of the populations, and the magnitudes of exposures received. In this paper, several methods of analysis are presented and evaluated using data from the Hanford plant for illustration. Questions of interest include whether or not to utilize an external control, and how to handle the highly skewed exposure data most effectively. Expressions for the power of various procedures are used not only to compare methods but also to evaluate the potential for detecting effects in occupationally exposed populations.

Gilbert, E.S.

1980-05-01

356

1-hydroxypyrene as a biomarker of occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in boilermakers.  

PubMed

A repeated measures short-term prospective study was performed in boilermakers to determine occupational polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposure using the biomarker, 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP). Two work sites were studied; an apprentice school (metal fume exposure) and a boiler overhaul (residual oil fly ash [ROFA] and metal fume exposure). Pre- and postshift urine samples (n = 241; 41 male subjects) were analyzed for cotinine and 1-OHP. Descriptive statistics and generalized estimating equations were calculated. At the apprentice school cross-shift 1-OHP levels did not significantly differ. At the overhaul 1-OHP levels increased during the week in smokers and nonsmokers; in nonsmokers the 1-OHP level increased significantly postshift compared to preshift. In conclusion this study suggests that boilermakers exposed to occupational particulates are exposed to PAH. The urinary 1-OHP level may be a useful biomarker of PAH exposure in boilermakers exposed to ROFA, particularly in nonsmokers. PMID:12500453

Mukherjee, Sutapa; Rodrigues, Ema; Weker, Robert; Palmer, Lyle J; Christiani, David C

2002-12-01

357

Effects of occupational exposure to organic solvents upon cognitive performance  

SciTech Connect

Twenty-three individuals exposed to mixed organic solvents were compared with 23 nonexposed controls on a number of cognitive performance tasks. Solvent exposure resulted in a significantly poorer performance on the forward digit span test, copying of a complex figure, and on semantic memory tests which also measure individual's ability to integrate linguistic information into cohesive units. These tasks rely heavily upon short-term memory and its integrative operations in higher cognitive function. Acute exposure effect was also observed for the linguistic integrative task.

Milanovic, L.; Spilich, G.; Vucinic, G.; Knezevic, S.; Ribaric, B.; Mubrin, Z. (DZ Medvescak Marticeva, Zagreb (Yugoslavia))

1990-11-01

358

Occupational styrene exposure, colour vision and contrast sensitivity: a cohort study with repeated measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  Associations between occupational styrene exposures and impairment of visual functions were investigated with a view to answering\\u000a three questions: (1) are the published findings for colour vision deficiencies and impaired contrast sensitivity to reproduce\\u000a in a new study approach, (2) if such effects exist, are they related to current or chronic exposures and (3) if effects exist,\\u000a are there reductions

Andreas Seeber; Thomas Bruckner; Gerhard Triebig

2009-01-01

359

Occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields and adult leukaemia: a review of the epidemiological evidence  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between occupational exposure to extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields and adult leukaemia has\\u000a been studied extensively during the last decade. The first studies were based on crude exposure assessments, estimated through\\u000a job titles, with no or only limited control of confounding factors. The results were often inconsistent, indicating no effects\\u000a in about 50% of the studies, while the other

Maria Feychting

1996-01-01

360

Risk of hepatitis C seroconversion after occupational exposures in health care workers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: To determine the incidence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) seroconversion, health care workers reporting an occupational exposure with blood or other risk-prone body materials from a patient known to be seropositive for HCV antibody were enrolled.Methods: HCV seroconversion within 6 months of a reported exposure was assessed by second-generation enzyme immunoassay and immunoblot assay.Results: From January 1992 through December

Vincenzo Puro; Nicola Petrosillo; Giuseppe Ippolito

1995-01-01

361

Toward developing a new occupational exposure metric approach for characterization of diesel aerosols  

Microsoft Academic Search

The extensive use of diesel-powered equipment in mines makes the exposure to diesel aerosols a serious occupational issue. The exposure metric currently used in U.S. underground non-coal mines is based on the measurement of total carbon (TC) and elemental carbon (EC) mass concentration in the air. Recent toxicological evidence suggests that the measurement of mass concentration is not sufficient to

Emanuele G. Cauda; Bon Ki Ku; Arthur L. Miller; Teresa L. Barone

2012-01-01

362

Occupational Exposure to Pesticides and Risk of Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pesticide exposure may be a risk factor for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, but it is not certain which types of pesticides are involved. A population-based case-control study was undertaken in 2000-2001 using detailed methods of assessing occupational pesticide exposure. Cases with incident non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in two Australian states (n ¼ 694) and controls (n ¼ 694) were chosen from Australian electoral rolls.

L. Fritschi; G. Benke; A. M. Hughes; A. Kricker; J. Turner; C. M. Vajdic; A. Grulich; S. Milliken; J. Kaldor; B. K. Armstrong

2005-01-01

363

Headphone Noise: Occupational Noise Exposure Assessment for Communication Personnel  

Microsoft Academic Search

For communication personnel exposed to noise emitted by headphones, the sound pressure level measured at the position of the exposed person (but the person absent) does not adequately represent the sound exposure. The first section of this paper reports comments concerning the legislation, the relevant international standards and the state- of-the-art of researches in this field. Then, the second section

A. Perettia; F. Pedriellic; F. Maulid; A. Farinae

364

Occupational Dermal Exposure to Permanent Hair Dyes Among Hairdressers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Skin exposure to permanent hair dye compounds was assessed in 33 hairdressers using a previously evaluated hand rinse method. Hand rinse samples were collected from each hand before the start of hair dyeing, after application of the dye and after cutting the newly-dyed hair. Sixteen of the hairdressers did not use gloves during dye application, and none used gloves while

MARIE-LOUISE LIND; ANDERS BOMAN; JAN SOLLENBERG; STINA JOHNSSON; GUNNEL HAGELTHORN; BIRGITTA MEDING

2005-01-01

365

Paternal occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields and neuroblastoma in offspring  

Microsoft Academic Search

Investigators in Texas have reported an association between paternal employment in jobs linked with exposure to electromagnetic fields and risk of neuroblastoma in offspring. In an attempt to replicate this finding, the authors conducted a case-control study in Ohio. A total of 101 incident cases of neuroblastoma were identified through the Columbus (Ohio) Children's Hospital Tumor Registry. All cases were

V. D. Hundley

1990-01-01

366

Occupational exposure to airborne asbestos from coatings, mastics, and adhesives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past few years, a question has arisen about the degree of exposure to airborne asbestos associated with the application, cleanup, and tear-out of glues and mastics used between 1940 and the present. These liquid products were used either to adhere insulation to pipes and boilers or to cover the insulation so as to protect it. In this study,

Dennis J Paustenbach; Amy Sage; Michael Bono; Fionna Mowat

2004-01-01

367

[Occupational exposure to hexavalent chromium during aircraft painting].  

PubMed

Hygienists are interested in hexavalent chromium due to its genotoxic and carcinogenic effect on humans. The use of products containing hexavalent chromium is decreasing in many industrial fields because of the substitution with less-toxic compounds. In the aeronautical industry, however, the chromate are added to primer paint as a corrosion inhibitor of aircrafts surfaces: so hexavalent chromium compounds are available in many primers with a composition ranging from 10% to 13%. The application of these primers by using electrostatic guns potentially exposes painting and coating workers at high concentrations of aerosols containing Cr(VI). The aim of the present study is the evaluation of professional exposure to hexavalent chromium during aircraft painting, by adopting both environmental personal sampling and biological monitoring. To valuate workers exposure levels the personal measurements results have been compared with the exposure limit values (TLV-TWA) and the urinary chromium contents with the biological exposure indices (IBE). Moreover the strategy of coupling environmental sampling with biological monitoring seems to be a useful instrument to measure the validity of the individual protection devices. PMID:18409827

Gherardi, M; Gatto, M P; Gordiani, A; Paci, E; Proietto, A

2007-01-01

368

Biological monitoring of occupational exposure to methyl ethyl ketone  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary This study was conducted to evaluate the usefulness of three commonly used methods of biological monitoring for worker exposed to methyl ethyl ketone (MEK) under field conditions using blood, breath and urine. Environmental MEK exposures were measured by personal sampling with carbon-felt dosimeters. The correlation coefficient (r) between the time-weighted average (TWA) MEK concentration in air and the MEK

C. N. Ong; G. L. Sia; H. Y. Ong; W. H. Phoon; K. T. Tan

1991-01-01

369

Occupational Exposure to Asbestos; Criteria for a Recommended Standard.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recommended standards for control of exposure to asbestos dust in the workplace are set out from the following standpoints: environmental, medical, labeling, personal protective equipment and clothing, apprisal of employees, work practices, and monitoring and recordkeeping requirements. The goal is maintenance of a low level of concentration to…

National Inst. for Occupational Safety and Health (DHEW/PHS), Rockville, MD.

370

Study of Anticipated Impact on DOE Programs from Proposed Reductions to the External Occupational Radiation Exposure Limit.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A study of the impact of reducing the occupational radiation exposure limit from 5 rem/yr to 2.5, 1.0 and 0.5 rem/yr, respectively produced the following conclusions: reduction of the occupational exposure limit would result in significant increase in tot...

1981-01-01

371

Different types of malignancies due to occupational exposure to benzene: a review of recent observations in Turkey  

SciTech Connect

Since the first description of a case of leukemia due to occupational exposure to benzene, several types of malignancies following the use of this chemical agent have been reported: leukemia, malignant lymphoma, lung cancer, myeloid metaplasia, paroxysmal noctural hemoglobinuria, and multiple myeloma. The evidence suggesting a causal relationship between occupational exposure to benzene and development of the various types of malignancies is discussed.

Aksoy, M.

1980-10-01

372

Different types of malignancies due to occupational exposure to benzene: A review of recent observations in Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the first description of a case of leukemia due to occupational exposure to benzene, several types of malignancies following the use of this chemical agent have been reported: leukemia, malignant lymphoma, lung cancer, myeloid metaplasia, paroxysmal noctural hemoglobinuria, and multiple myeloma. The evidence suggesting a causal relationship between occupational exposure to benzene and development of the various types of

M. Aksoy

1980-01-01

373

Allergic rhinitis in laboratory workers caused by occupational exposure to guinea pigs: an immunological and clinical study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Occupational exposure in laboratory workers to various animals can result in clinically significant-respiratory allergies. We used clinical and immunological methods to study five laboratory workers who exhibited symptoms of nasal allergy upon occupational exposure to guinea pigs. As compared with a control group of ten nonallergic laboratory workers, the symptomatic workers generally had positive skin test reactions for allergens derived

T. Hanada; T. Shima; M. Ohyama

1995-01-01

374

Criteria for a Recommended Standard. Occupational Exposure to Coal Tar Products.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

NIOSH recommends that occupational exposure to coal tar products in the workplace be controlled so that employees are not exposed to coal tar, coal tar pitch, creosote, or mixtures of these substances at a concentration greater than 0.1 milligrams per cub...

1977-01-01

375

Pleural malignant mesothelioma and non-occupational exposure to asbestos in Casale Monferrato, Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES--To assess and quantify the occurrence of pleural malignant mesotheliomas in people who neither experienced occupational exposure to asbestos nor were married to (or known to live with) workers exposed to asbestos in the workplace. The study was conducted in the area of the local health authority of Casale Monferrato, in north western Italy, where a large factory that produced

C Magnani; B Terracini; C Ivaldi; M Botta; A Mancini; A Andrion

1995-01-01

376

Sinonasal cancer and occupational exposures: a pooled analysis of 12 case–control studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: In order to examine the associations between sinonasal cancer and occupational exposures other than wood dust and leather dust, the data from 12 case–control studies conducted in seven countries were pooled and reanalyzed. Methods: The pooled data set included 195 adenocarcinoma cases (169 men and 26 women), 432 squamous cell carcinomas (330 men and 102 women), and 3136 controls

Danièle Luce; Annette Leclerc; Denis Bégin; Paul A. Demers; Michel Gérin; Ewa Orlowski; Manolis Kogevinas; Stefano Belli; Isabelle Bugel; Ulrich Bolm-Audorff; Louise A. Brinton; Pietro Comba; Lennart Hardell; Richard B. Hayes; Corrado Magnani; Enzo Merler; Susan Preston-Martin; Thomas L. Vaughan; Wei Zheng; Paolo Boffetta

2002-01-01

377

Toxic responses of different organs following occupational exposure of employees of a plant to ethylene oxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was carried out to assess possible toxic response(s) associated with occupational exposure to ethylene oxide (EO) in a local plant, producing disposable syringes, where the chemical was used as a sterilant. A total of 40 exposed and 47 unexposed employees were interviewed and standard respiratory symptom questionnaire as well as a questionnaire pertaining to symptoms of intoxication with

Masoud Neghab; Esmaeel Soleimani; J. Hassanzadeh

2012-01-01

378

Occupational Sunlight Exposure and Melanoma in the U.S. Navy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Melanoma is the second most common cancer, after testicular cancer, in males in the U.S. Navy. A wide range of occupations with varying exposures to sunlight and other possible etiologic agents are present in the Navy. Person-years at risk and cases of malignant melanoma were ascertained using computerized service history and inpatient hospitalization files maintained at the Naval Health Research

Frank C. Garland; Martin R. White; Cedric F. Garland; Eddie Shaw; Edward D. Gorham

1990-01-01

379

Biological monitoring of occupational exposure to isopropyl alcohol vapor by urinalysis for acetone  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship of the intensity of occupational vapor exposure to isopropyl alcohol (IPA) with urinary excretion of acetone and unmetabolized IPA was studied in 99 printers of both sexes, who were exposed to up to 66 ppm IPA (as time-weighted average), together with toluene, xylenes, methyl ethyl ketone and\\/or ethyl acetate. Acetone and IPA concentrations in urine were studied also

Toshio Kawail; Tomojiro Yasugi; Shun'ichi Horiguchi; Yoko Uchida; Okujo Iwami; Hiroshi Iguchi; Osamu Inoue; Takao Watanabe; Haruo Nakatsuka; Masayuki Ikeda

1990-01-01

380

OCCUPATIONAL NOISE EXPOSURE AND HEARING LOSS IN FIRE FIGHTERS ASSIGNED TO AIRPORT FIRE STATIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) was requested to conduct a health hazard evaluation (HHE) at a large metropolitan fire department. The request concerned the hearing levels and noise exposures of fire fighters who were assigned to two fire stations serving the international airport. There was concern that these fire fighters were at a greater risk of

Randy L. Tubbs

1991-01-01

381

Occupational Exposure and Lung Cancer Risk: A Population-based Case Referent Study in Sweden  

Microsoft Academic Search

This case-referent study investigated the lung cancer risk from occupational exposure to diesel exhaust, mixed motor exhaust, other combustion products, asbestos, metals, oil mist, and welding fumes. All cases of lung cancer in males aged 40-75 years among stable residents of Stockholm County, Sweden, were identified from 1985 to 1990. Referents were selected as a stratified (age, inclusion year) random

Per Gustavsson; Robert Jakobsson; Fredrik Nyberg; Göran Pershagen; Lars Järup; Patrik Schéele

382

Exposures to Extremely Low Frequency (ELF) Electromagnetic Fields in Occupations with Elevated Leukemia Rates  

Microsoft Academic Search

In previous epidemiological studies, elevated leukemia rates have been found in a collection of occupational categories of “electrical workers.” In this study, spot measurements were taken of the Extremely Low Frequency (below 100 Hz) electric and magnetic field exposures of “electrical workers” at 114 work sites at an electric utility, an aerospace firm, a municipal government, motion picture theaters, and

Joseph D. Bowman; David H. Garabrant; Eugene Sobel; John M. Peters

1988-01-01

383

Occupational Exposures to Potentially Infectious Material Among Guatemalan Health Care Workers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little is known about the risks to Guatemalan health care workers from accidental exposures to potentially infectious material. We studied occupational accidents at one of Guatemala's national hospitals to describe their frequency and setting. The current study was conducted on a cohort of health care workers seen at the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) specialty clinic of the Hospital General

Blanca Samayoa; Matthew Anderson; Eduardo Arathoon; Claudia Hernandez; Daniel Bourque; Carlos Vela

2006-01-01

384

Risk Assessment Approach for Nursing Infants Exposed to Volatile Organics through the Mother's Occupational Inhalation Exposure.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A 'rule-of-thumb' methodology is presented to assist in assembling risk to a nursing child due to the mother's occupational inhalation exposure. The method represents an example of the use of physiologically-based pharmacokinetic modeling using state-of-t...

M. L. Shelley M. E. Andersen J. W. Fisher

1989-01-01

385

Dermal Exposure Associated with Occupational End Use of Pesticides and the Role of Protective Measures  

PubMed Central

Background Occupational end users of pesticides may experience bodily absorption of the pesticide products they use, risking possible health effects. The purpose of this paper is to provide a guide for researchers, practitioners, and policy makers working in the field of agricultural health or other areas where occupational end use of pesticides and exposure issues are of interest. Methods This paper characterizes the health effects of pesticide exposure, jobs associated with pesticide use, pesticide-related tasks, absorption of pesticides through the skin, and the use of personal protective equipment (PPE) for reducing exposure. Conclusions Although international and national efforts to reduce pesticide exposure through regulatory means should continue, it is difficult in the agricultural sector to implement engineering or system controls. It is clear that use of PPE does reduce dermal pesticide exposure but compliance among the majority of occupationally exposed pesticide end users appears to be poor. More research is needed on higher-order controls to reduce pesticide exposure and to understand the reasons for poor compliance with PPE and identify effective training methods.

MacFarlane, Ewan; Carey, Renee; Keegel, Tessa; El-Zaemay, Sonia; Fritschi, Lin

2013-01-01

386

Occupational Exposure to Solvents and Cognitive Performance in the GAZEL Cohort: Preliminary Results  

PubMed Central

Background The impact of occupational exposure to solvents on cognitive ageing remains unclear. We examined whether long-term occupational exposure is associated with poor cognitive performance in late midlife. Methods Participants in the GAZEL cohort, set up in 1989, are employees of the French national electricity and gas company. Data on the working environment were used to create measures of cumulative exposures to solvents using a job-exposure matrix. In 2002–2004, cognitive performance was assessed using the Digit Symbol Substitution Test (DSST) and the Mini Mental State Examination in 5,242 participants (aged 55–65 years). Results In cross-sectional analysis using multiple logistic regression, there was a greater risk of poor cognitive performance (DSST score <25th percentile) among those with high exposure to benzene (OR = 1.58; 95% CI 1.31–1.90) and the grouped categories of chlorinated (OR = 1.39; 95% CI 1.3–2.3), aromatic (OR = 1.76; 95% CI 1.08–2.87), and petroleum solvents (OR = 1.50; 95% CI 1.23–1.81). Conclusions These results suggest that occupational exposures to solvents may be associated later in life with cognitive impairment, even after taking into account the effects of education, employment grade, and numerous health factors.

Berr, C.; Vercambre, M.N.; Bonenfant, S.; Singh Manoux, A.; Zins, M.; Goldberg, M.

2010-01-01

387

Association of occupational pesticide exposure with accelerated longitudinal decline in lung function.  

PubMed

Cross-sectional studies have shown that occupational exposure to vapors, gases, dusts, and fumes (VGDF) and pesticides is associated with a lower level of lung function. These associations seem to be stronger in ever smokers. In the current study, we aimed to assess whether occupational exposure to VGDF and pesticides is associated with longitudinal decline in lung function. We used 12,772 observations from 2,527 participants in the Vlagtwedde-Vlaardingen Study, a general-population-based cohort study that followed subjects for 25 years, from 1965 to the last survey in 1989/1990. Job-specific exposure was estimated with the ALOHA+ job exposure matrix. Associations between exposures and annual changes in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) and FEV1 as a percentage of inspiratory vital capacity (FEV1%VC) were assessed with linear mixed-effect models including sex, age, and level of lung function at the first measurement and pack-years of smoking at the last measurement. We tested for interaction between smoking and occupational exposure and assessed associations separately for never smokers and ever smokers. Exposure to VGDF was not associated with accelerated lung function decline after adjustment for co-exposure to pesticides. Exposure to pesticides, both in the last-held job and as a cumulative measure, was associated with accelerated decline in FEV1 and FEV1%VC, especially among ever smokers, where we found an excess change in FEV1 of -6.9 mL/year (95% confidence interval: -10.2, -3.7) associated with high pesticide exposure. PMID:24780843

de Jong, Kim; Boezen, H Marike; Kromhout, Hans; Vermeulen, Roel; Postma, Dirkje S; Vonk, Judith M

2014-06-01

388

Environmental and occupational exposure to manganese: a multimedia assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl (MMT) is an organic additive used in Canada since 1976 as an anti-knock agent in unleaded gasoline. Its combustion leads to the emission of Mn oxides, especially Mn3O4. Since no study has assessed the potential risk of chronic exposure to low concentrations resulting from these emissions, the present investigation was undertaken to assess the level of environmental

Sylvain Loranger; Joseph Zayed

1995-01-01

389

Mortality and cancer morbidity after heavy occupational fluoride exposure.  

PubMed

A cohort of 431 male cryolite workers employed for at least six months between 1924 and 1961 was identified from personnel records at the Copenhagen cryolite factory. During this period, heavy fluoride exposure resulted in at least 74 cases of skeletal fluorosis. All workmen in the cohort were followed up in Denmark until July 1, 1981. During 1941-1981, 206 men died, while only 149.3 deaths were expected from national mortality statistics. Significant excesses were seen in the following causes of death: violent death and all cancers, in particular cancer of the respiratory system. When compared with specific mortality rates for the Copenhagen area, violent death (and suicide taken alone) remained in significant excess among employees hired before 1940. Cancer morbidity data for the 35-year period 1943-1977 showed 78 cases of malignant neoplasms in the cryolite workers against 53.2 expected for Denmark as a whole and 67.9 for Copenhagen. The excess was almost entirely due to an excess number of respiratory cancers. Cancer morbidity showed no apparent correlation with length of employment or time from first exposure. Because detailed information on predictors for respiratory cancer was unavailable, a possible residual effect of fluoride cannot be excluded. However, any major carcinogenic effect of heavy fluoride exposure would be very unlikely. PMID:3964992

Grandjean, P; Juel, K; Jensen, O M

1985-01-01

390

Occupational Exposure to Organic Solvents during Bridge Painting  

PubMed Central

Exposure to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from bridge painting was measured in New York City and New Jersey during the summer and fall seasons from 2005 to 2007. The effect of painting activities (paint coating layer, confinement setup, and application method) and meteorological conditions (temperature, humidity, and wind speed) on solvent exposure to aromatic, ketone, ester, and alkane compounds were individually evaluated. Mixed-effect models were used to examine the combination effects of these factors on the air concentration of total VOCs as the individual compound groups were not present in all samples. Air concentration associated with spraying was not affected by meteorological conditions since spraying was done in a confined space, thus reducing their impact on solvent air concentration. The mixed models for brushing and rolling samples included two fixed factors, i.e. application method and temperature, and one random factor, i.e. sampling day. An independent dataset (daily air samples) was used to validate the mixed model constructed for brushing and rolling samples. The regression line of the predicted values and actual measurements had a slope of 1.32?±?0.15 for daily brushing and rolling samples, with almost all points being within the 95% confidence bands. The constructed model provides practical approaches for estimating the solvent exposure from brushing and rolling activities among construction painters. An adjusted mean air concentration derived from the activity-specific spray samples was the best estimate for that painting application.

Qian, Hua; Fiedler, Nancy; Moore, Dirk F.; Weisel, Clifford P.

2010-01-01

391

Occupational and environmental exposures and lung cancer in an industrialised area in Italy  

PubMed Central

Aims: To investigate the effects of occupational exposures and residence near to industrial sites on lung cancer mortality in an area in Italy. Methods: 234 cases of lung cancer and 729 controls matched by sex, age, and date of death were enrolled. Environmental exposure was evaluated using historical residence data. A geographical information system was used to compute distances from residence to pollution source (cement factory, power plants, harbour) and an average distance was computed for each subject. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) in a logistic regression model were used to estimate the relative risk of lung cancer associated with the risk factors (smoking habits and occupational exposure) collected by questionnaire; ORs for distances from pollution sources and from city centre were computed, adjusting for smoking habits, education, and occupation. Results: Smoking habits (?10 cigarettes/day, OR = 2.28; 11–20, OR = 4.64; >20, OR = 6.61) and occupational exposure to asbestos (OR = 3.50) were significantly associated with lung cancer risk. Reported traffic level of area of residence and residence near the four sources were not associated with increased risk of lung cancer. There was a significantly increased risk for those residing outside the city centre, in the southern outskirts (OR = 1.51). Conclusions: The increased lung cancer risk observed in the area can partly be explained by occupational exposures. The increased risk in the outskirts of the city is consistent with the results of dispersion models that indicate high levels of pollutant deposition in the same area.

Fano, V; Michelozzi, P; Ancona, C; Capon, A; Forastiere, F; Perucci, C

2004-01-01

392

[Reduced thymulin production during occupational exposure to lead].  

PubMed

Thymulin is a thymic hormone that being activated by binding a zinc ion promotes differentiation and several functions of T lymphocytes. It has been demonstrated only in experimental animals that metallic lead (Pb) is able to cause adverse effects on thymocyte number and function. The objective of this study is to evaluate the plasmatic level of active thymulin of 58 male workers being exposed for more than one year to low lead doses with respect to 59 male never exposed workers. All these were subjected to anamnesis collection, medical examination and determination of blood lead (PbB), plasmatic lead (PbPl), plasmatic thymulin, urinary lead (PbU) and urinary zinc (ZnU) levels. The mean plasma concentration of active thymulin was significantly lower in lead exposed than in non exposed workers. Active thymulin was also significantly and negatively correlated to PbB, PbPl and PbU level and resulted to be significantly and negatively influenced by PbB. Lead exposed workers had slightly higher zinc concentration in urine than non exposed workers, increasing ZnU levels by class of PbB. It is the first time that a toxic effect of lead on plasmatic active thymulin levels is demonstrated in humans, particularly in occupationally exposed workers. This study opens perspectives for further research that would both confirm the results and verify the mechanisms of action of lead on thymulin either direct or indirect and the possible role of zinc. PMID:15915658

Santarelli, L; Di Lorenzo, L; Valentino, M; Bracci, M; Rapisarda, V; Cassano, F; Elia, G; Martino, M G; Neri, G; Apostoli, P; Soleo, L

2005-01-01

393

Inhalable dust measurements as a first approach to assessing occupational exposure in the pharmaceutical industry.  

PubMed

Occupational exposure to active ingredients in the pharmaceutical industry has been the subject of very few published studies. Nevertheless, operations involving active powdered drugs or dusty operations potentially lead to operator exposure. The aim of this study was to collect occupational exposure data in the pharmaceutical industry for production processes involving powdered active ingredients. While the possibility of assessing drug exposure from dust level is examined, this article focuses on inhalable dust exposure, without taking chemical risk into account. A total of 377 atmospheric (ambient and personal) samples were collected in nine drug production sites (pharmaceutical companies and contract manufacturing organizations) and the dust levels were assessed. For each sample, relevant contextual information was collected. A wide range of results was observed, both site- and operation-dependent. Exposure to inhalable dust levels varied from 0.01 mg/m(3)to 135 mg/m(3). Though restricted to dust exposure, the study highlighted some potentially critical situations or operations, in particular manual tasks (loading, unloading, mechanical actions) performed in open systems. Simple preventive measures such as ventilation, containment, and minimization of manual handling should reduce dust emissions and workers' exposure to inhalable dust. PMID:24369930

Champmartin, C; Clerc, F

2014-01-01

394

Excessive occupational heat exposure: a significant ergonomic challenge and health risk for current and future workers  

PubMed Central

Occupational heat exposure threatens the health of a worker not only when heat illness occurs but also when a worker’s performance and work capacity is impaired. Occupational contexts that involve hot and humid climatic conditions, heavy physical workloads and/or protective clothing create a strenuous and potentially dangerous thermal load for a worker. There are recognized heat prevention strategies and international thermal ergonomic standards to protect the worker. However, such standards have been developed largely in temperate western settings, and their validity and relevance is questionable for some geographical, cultural and socioeconomic contexts where the risk of excessive heat exposure can be high. There is evidence from low- and middle-income tropical countries that excessive heat exposure remains a significant issue for occupational health. Workers in these countries are likely to be at high risk of excessive heat exposure as they are densely populated, have large informal work sectors and are expected to experience substantial increases in temperature due to global climate change. The aim of this paper is to discuss current and future ergonomic risks associated with working in the heat as well as potential methods for maintaining the health and productivity of workers, particularly those most vulnerable to excessive heat exposure.

2014-01-01

395

Environmental and occupational exposure to chemicals and telomere length in human studies.  

PubMed

Telomeres are complexes of tandem repeats of DNA (5'-TTAGGG-3') and protein that cap eukaryotic chromosomes and play a critical role in chromosome stability. Telomeres shorten with aging and this process can be accelerated by increased oxidative stress and episodes of inflammation. Evidence is rapidly growing that telomere length (TL) may be affected by environmental chemicals that have frequently been associated with chronic diseases. In this article, we review the published data on TL in relation to environmental and occupational exposure to several chemicals based on our own and others' studies. The environmental and occupational exposures associated with shorter TL include traffic-related air pollution (ie, particulate matter (PM), black carbon (BC), and benzene and toluene), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), N-nitrosamines, pesticides, lead, exposure in car mechanical workshops, and hazardous waste exposure. Arsenic, persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and short-term exposure to PM are associated with longer TL. We discuss the possible reasons for the differences in results, including time- and dose-related issues, study design, and possible mechanisms involved in telomere regulation. We also discuss the future directions and challenges for TL-related environmental and occupational health research, such as investigation of TL in subpopulations of blood leukocytes, and the study of genetic and epigenetic factors that may regulate telomere integrity using longitudinal designs. PMID:24243983

Zhang, Xiao; Lin, Shao; Funk, William E; Hou, Lifang

2013-12-01

396

[Predictive models for the assessment of occupational exposure to chemicals: a new challenge for employers].  

PubMed

Employers are obliged to carry out and document the risk associated with the use of chemical substances. The best but the most expensive method is to measure workplace concentrations of chemicals. At present no "measureless" method for risk assessment is available in Poland, but predictive models for such assessments have been developed in some countries. The purpose of this work is to review and evaluate the applicability of selected predictive methods for assessing occupational inhalation exposure and related risk to check the compliance with Occupational Exposure Limits (OELs), as well as the compliance with REACH obligations. Based on the literature data HSE COSHH Essentials, EASE, ECETOC TRA, Stoffenmanager, and EMKG-Expo-Tool were evaluated. The data on validation of predictive models were also examined. It seems that predictive models may be used as a useful method for Tier 1 assessment of occupational exposure by inhalation. Since the levels of exposure are frequently overestimated, they should be considered as "rational worst cases" for selection of proper control measures. Bearing in mind that the number of available exposure scenarios and PROC categories is limited, further validation by field surveys is highly recommended. Predictive models may serve as a good tool for preliminary risk assessment and selection of the most appropriate risk control measures in Polish small and medium size enterprises (SMEs) providing that they are available in the Polish language. This also requires an extensive training of their future users. PMID:24502133

Gromiec, Jan Piotr; Kupczewska-Dobecka, Ma?gorzata; Jankowska, Agnieszka; Czerczak, S?awomir

2013-01-01

397

Sinonasal Cancer and Occupational Exposure in a Population-Based Registry  

PubMed Central

We examined occupational exposures among subjects with sinonasal cancer (SNC) recorded in a population-based registry in the Lombardy Region, the most populated and industrialized Italian region. The registry collects complete clinical information and exposure to carcinogens regarding all SNC cases occurring in the population of the region. In the period 2008–2011, we recorded 210 SNC cases (137 men, 73 women). The most frequent occupational exposures were to wood (44 cases, 21.0%) and leather dust (29 cases, 13.8%), especially among men: 39 cases (28.5%) to wood and 23 cases (16.8%) to leather dust. Exposure to other agents was infrequent (<2%). Among 62 subjects with adenocarcinoma, 50% had been exposed to wood dust and 30.7% to leather dust. The proportions were around 10% in subjects with squamous cell carcinoma and about 20% for tumors with another histology. The age-standardized rates (×100,000 person-years) were 0.7 in men and 0.3 in women. Complete collection of cases and their occupational history through a specialized cancer registry is fundamental to accurately monitor SNC occurrence in a population and to uncover exposure to carcinogens in different industrial sectors, even those not considered as posing a high risk of SNC, and also in extraoccupational settings.

Mensi, Carolina; Sieno, Claudia; Riboldi, Luciano; Bertazzi, Pier Alberto

2013-01-01

398

Surveillance of nasal and bladder cancer to locate sources of exposure to occupational carcinogens.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To locate sources of occupational exposure to nasal and bladder carcinogens for surveillance follow up in British Columbia, Canada. METHODS: Incident cases of nasal cancer (n = 48), bladder cancer (n = 105), and population based controls (n = 159) matched for sex and age, were interviewed about their jobs, exposures, and smoking histories. Odds ratios (ORs) were calculated for 57 occupational groups with stratified exact methods to control for age, sex, and smoking. RESULTS: Occupational groups at increased risk of nasal cancer included: textile workers (six cases, OR 7.6); miners, drillers, and blasters (six cases, OR 3.5); welders (two cases, OR 3.5); pulp and paper workers (three cases, OR 3.1); and plumbers and pipefitters (two cases, OR 3.0). Nasal cancer ORs were not increased in occupations exposed to wood dust, possibly due to low exposures in local wood industries. Strongly increased risks of bladder cancer were found for sheet metal workers (four cases, OR 5.3), miners (19 cases, OR 4.5), gardeners (six cases, OR 3.7), and hairdressers (three cases, OR 3.2). Among occupations originally considered at risk, the following had increased risks of bladder cancer: painters (four cases, OR 2.8); laundry workers (five cases, OR 2.3); chemical and petroleum workers (15 cases, OR 1.8); machinists (eight cases, OR 1.6); and textile workers (three cases, OR 1.5). CONCLUSIONS: Occupational groups with increased risks and three or more cases with similar duties were selected for surveillance follow up. For nasal cancer, these included textile workers (five were garment makers) and pulp and paper workers (three performed maintenance tasks likely to entail stainless steel welding). For bladder cancer, these included miners (12 worked underground), machinists (five worked in traditional machining), hairdressers (three had applied hair dyes), and laundry workers (three were drycleaners).

Teschke, K; Morgan, M S; Checkoway, H; Franklin, G; Spinelli, J J; van Belle, G; Weiss, N S

1997-01-01

399

Maternal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls and the secondary sex ratio: an occupational cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Though commercial production of polychlorinated biphenyls was banned in the United States in 1977, exposure continues due\\u000a to their environmental persistence. Several studies have examined the association between environmental polychlorinated biphenyl\\u000a exposure and modulations of the secondary sex ratio, with conflicting results.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Objective  Our objective was to evaluate the association between maternal preconceptional occupational polychlorinated biphenyl exposure\\u000a and the secondary sex

Carissa M Rocheleau; Stephen J Bertke; James A Deddens; Avima M Ruder; Christina C Lawson; Martha A Waters; Nancy B Hopf; Margaret A Riggs; Elizabeth A Whelan

2011-01-01

400

Occupational exposure to diisononyl phthalate (DiNP) in polyvinyl chloride processing operations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  Diisononyl phthalate (DiNP) is primarily used as a plasticizer in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) materials. While information is\\u000a available on general population exposure to DiNP, occupational exposure data are lacking. We present DiNP metabolite urinary\\u000a concentrations in PVC processing workers, estimate DiNP daily intake for these workers, and compare worker estimates to other\\u000a populations.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  We assessed DiNP exposure in participants from

Cynthia J. Hines; Nancy B. Hopf; James A. Deddens; Manori J. Silva; Antonia M. Calafat

401

Non-occupational lead exposure and hypertension in Pakistani adults  

PubMed Central

Hypertension is one of the most prevalent diseases in the developed and developing countries. Based on the long historical association and the provocative findings of blood pressure effects at low level of lead exposure a study was carried out to determine if an association existed between low blood lead concentration and hypertension. In this study the effects of low-level exposure to lead on blood pressure were examined among 244 adults using atomic absorption spectrometer. For quality assurance purpose certified reference materials i.e., Animal blood A-13, Bovine liver 1577 and cotton cellulose V-9 from IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency) and NIST (National Institute of Standard Technology) were analyzed under identical experimental conditions. The mean age of hypertensive adults was 52 years (range 43~66). The mean values of systolic and diastolic blood pressure were (209±11.7) (range 170~250) and (117±3.9) (range 105~140) mmHg respectively. Blood lead concentration ranged from 78~201 µg/L with a mean of 139 µg/L and 165~497 µg/L with a mean of 255 µg/L in normal and hypertensive adults respectively. Increase in systolic blood pressure was significantly predictive with increase in blood lead levels. Body mass index (BMI) and lipid profile including total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride correlated with blood pressure.

Rahman, Sohaila; Khalid, Nasir; Zaidi, Jamshed Hussain; Ahmad, Shujaat; Iqbal, Mohammad Zafar

2006-01-01

402

Concordance of occupational and environmental exposure information elicited from patients with Alzheimer's disease and surrogate respondents  

SciTech Connect

Identification of risk factors for Alzheimer's disease through the use of well designed case-control studies has been described as a research priority. Increasing recognition of the neurotoxic potential of many industrial chemicals such as organic solvents raises the question of the occupational and environmental contribution to the etiology of this high-priority health problem. The intention of this study was to develop and evaluate a methodology that could be used in a large scale case-control study of the occupational and environmental risk factors for dementia or a population-based surveillance system for neurotoxic disorders. The specific objectives of this study were to investigate: (1) the reliability of exposure-eliciting, interviewer-administered questionnaires given to patients with Alzheimer's disease (SDAT); (2) the reliability of exposure-eliciting interviewer-administered questionnaires given to the family of patients with SDAT and the agreement with the responses of the patient or surrogate respondents; (3) the reliability and agreement of responses of age- and sex-matched control patients and their families selected from geriatric care institutions and the community, with respect to the same exposure-eliciting and interviewer-administered questionnaire; and (4) the reliability of agent-based exposure ascertainment by a single, trained rater. The results of the study demonstrate that occupational and environmental histories from which exposure information can be derived is most reliably elicited from job descriptions of cases and control subjects rather than job titles alone or detailed probes for potential neurotoxic exposures. This will necessitate the use of standardized interviewer-administered instruments to derive this information in case-control studies of Alzheimer's disease or population-based surveillance systems for occupational and environmental neurotoxicity.

Chong, J.P.; Turpie, I.; Haines, T.; Muir, G.; Farnworth, H.; Cruttenden, K.; Julian, J.; Verma, D.; Hillers, T.

1989-01-01

403

MATERNAL OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE TO POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS AND RISK OF ORAL CLEFT-AFFECTED PREGNANCIES  

PubMed Central

Objective Evaluate whether there is an association between maternal occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and oral cleftsin offspring. This is the first human study of PAHs and clefts of which the authors are aware. Design Case-control study. Setting, Participants Data for 1997–2002 from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study, a large population-based case-control study in the US, were analyzed. Maternal telephone interviews yielded information on jobs held in the month before through three months after conception. Two industrial hygienists independently assessed occupational exposure to PAHs ; all jobs rated as exposed or with rating difficulty were reviewed with a third industrial hygienist to reach consensus on all exposure parameters. Logistic regression estimated crude and adjusted odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CL±P) and cleft palate alone (CP). Results There were 2989 controls( 3.5% exposed), 805 cases of CL±P (5.8% exposed) and 439 cases of CP (4.6% exposed). The odds of maternal occupational exposure to PAH (any vs none) during pregnancy was increased for CL±P cases as compared with controls (OR 1.69, 95% CI 1.18–2.40); the OR was 1.47 (95% CI 1.02–2.12) adjusted for maternal education. There was a statistically significant adjusted exposure-response relationship for CL±P (ptrend = 0.02). ORs for CP were not statistically significant. Conclusions Maternal occupational exposure to PAHs was associated with increased risk of cleft lip with or without cleft palate in offspring.

Langlois, Peter H; Hoyt, Adrienne T; Lupo, Philip J; Lawson, Christina C; Waters, Martha A; Desrosiers, Tania A; Shaw, Gary M; Romitti, Paul A; Lammer, Edward J

2014-01-01

404

Severe Cognitive Dysfunction and Occupational Extremely Low Frequency Magnetic Field Exposure among Elderly Mexican Americans  

PubMed Central

Aims This report is the first study of the possible relationship between extremely low frequency (50–60 Hz, ELF) magnetic field (MF) exposure and severe cognitive dysfunction. Earlier studies investigated the relationships between MF occupational exposure and Alzheimer’s disease (AD) or dementia. These studies had mixed results, depending upon whether the diagnosis of AD or dementia was performed by experts and upon the methodology used to classify MF exposure. Study Design Population-based case-control. Place and Duration of Study Neurology and Preventive Medicine, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, 2 years. Methodology The study population consisted of 3050 Mexican Americans, aged 65+, enrolled in Phase 1 of the Hispanic Established Population for the Epidemiologic Study of the Elderly (H-EPESE) study. Mini-Mental State Exam (MMSE) results, primary occupational history, and other data were collected. Severe cognitive dysfunction was defined as an MMSE score below 10. The MF exposure methodology developed and used in earlier studies was used. Results Univariate odds ratios (OR) were 3.4 (P< .03; 95% CI: 1.3–8.9) for high and 1.7 (P=.27; 95% CI: 0.7–4.1) for medium or high (M/H) MF occupations. In multivariate main effects models, the results were similar. When interaction terms were allowed in the models, the interactions between M/H or high occupational MF exposure and smoking history or age group were statistically significant, depending upon whether two (65–74, 75+) or three (65–74, 75–84, 85+) age groups were considered, respectively. When the analyses were limited to subjects aged 75+, the interactions between M/H or high MF occupations and a positive smoking history were statistically significant. Conclusion The results of this study indicate that working in an occupation with high or M/H MF exposure may increase the risk of severe cognitive dysfunction. Smoking and older age may increase the deleterious effect of MF exposure.

Davanipour, Zoreh; Tseng, Chiu-Chen; Lee, Pey-Jiuan; Markides, Kyriakos S.; Sobel, Eugene

2014-01-01