Science.gov

Sample records for occupational formaldehyde exposure

  1. Occupational exposure to formaldehyde in dialysis units

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-08-08

    A company in Illinois that operates three dialysis centers became concerned about the occupational exposure of its employees to formaldehyde. The company requested an investigation by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) to determine the extent of employee exposure to formaldehyde. Investigators from NIOSH conducted an initial environmental survey of the facilities in April 1982 and a follow-up environmental survey in June 1982. In the areas used to reprocess dialyzers, they collected air samples to analyze for formaldehyde in the personal breathing zones of workers. The results showed that workers at two of the three facilities involved were exposed to formaldehyde concentrations of 0.50 and 0.57 parts per million (ppm), respectively, as a time-weighted average (TWA). The current Occupational Safety and Health Administration standard establishes a permissible exposure of 3 ppm, 8-hour TWA; NIOSH recommends minimizing workplace exposure levels and limiting exposure levels and limiting exposure to the lowest feasible level.

  2. Occupational exposure to formaldehyde and wood dust and nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Vaughan, T.; Stewart, P.; Teschke, K.; Lynch, C.; Swanson, G; Lyon, J.; Berwick, M.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To investigate whether occupational exposures to formaldehyde and wood dust increase the risk of nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC).?METHODS—A multicentred, population based case-control study was carried out at five cancer registries in the United States participating in the National Cancer Institute's SEER program. Cases (n=196) with a newly diagnosed NPC between 1987 and 1993, and controls (n=244) selected over the same period from the general population through random digit dialing participated in structured telephone interviews which inquired about suspected risk factors for the disease, including a lifetime history of occupational and chemical exposure. Histological type of cancer was abstracted from clinical records of the registries. Potential exposure to formaldehyde and wood dust was assessed on a job by job basis by experienced industrial hygienists who were blinded as to case or control status.?RESULTS—For formaldehyde, after adjusting for cigarette use, race, and other risk factors, a trend of increasing risk of squamous and unspecified epithelial carcinomas was found for increasing duration (p=0.014) and cumulative exposure (p=0.033) but not for maximum exposure concentration. The odds ratio (OR) for people cumulatively exposed to >1.10 ppm-years was 3.0 (95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.3 to 6.6) compared with those considered unexposed. In analyses limited to jobs considered definitely exposed, these trends became stronger. The associations were most evident among cigarette smokers. By contrast, there was no association between potential exposure to formaldehyde and undifferentiated and non-keratinising carcinomas. There was little evidence that exposure to wood dust increased risk of NPC, as modest crude associations essentially disappeared after control for potential exposure to formaldehyde.?CONCLUSIONS—These results support the hypothesis that occupational exposure to formaldehyde, but not wood dust, increases risk of NPC. This association seems to be specific to squamous cell carcinomas. Established cohorts of workers exposed to formaldehyde and wood dust should continue to be monitored for NPC and other respiratory cancers. Future studies of NPC should take into account histological type in assessing risk from environmental and host factors.???Keywords: occupational exposure; formaldehyde; wood dust PMID:10810126

  3. Cytogenetic and immunological effects associated with occupational formaldehyde exposure.

    PubMed

    Costa, Solange; García-Lestón, Julia; Coelho, Marta; Coelho, Patrícia; Costa, Carla; Silva, Susana; Porto, Beatriz; Laffon, Blanca; Teixeira, João Paulo

    2013-01-01

    Formaldehyde (FA) is a widely used industrial chemical for which exposure is associated with nasopharyngeal and sinonasal cancer. Based on sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity from human investigations, supporting studies on mechanisms underlying carcinogenesis, and experimental evidence in animals, FA status was recently revised and reclassified as a human carcinogen. The highest level of exposure to FA occurs in occupational settings. Although several studies reported FA ability to induce genotoxic responses in exposed workers, not all findings were conclusive. In addition, published studies on the immunological effects of FA indicate that this compound may be able to modulate immune responses, although data in exposed subjects are still preliminary. In this study a group of pathology anatomy workers exposed to FA was evaluated for cytogenetic and immunological parameters. A control group with similar sociodemographic characteristics and without known occupational exposure to FA was also included. Genotoxicity was evaluated by means of micronucleus (MN) test, sister chromatid exchanges (SCE), and T-cell receptor (TCR) mutation assay. Percentages of different lymphocyte subpopulations were selected as immunotoxic biomarkers. The mean level of FA environmental exposure was 0.36 ± 0.03 ppm. MN and SCE frequencies were significantly increased in the exposed group. A significant decrease of the percentage of B cells in the exposed group was also found. Data obtained in this study indicate that genotoxic and immunotoxic increased risk due to FA occupational exposure cannot be excluded. Implementation of effective control measures along with hazard prevention campaigns may be crucial to decrease the risk. PMID:23514064

  4. A recommended occupational exposure limit for formaldehyde based on irritation.

    PubMed

    Paustenbach, D; Alarie, Y; Kulle, T; Schachter, N; Smith, R; Swenberg, J; Witschi, H; Horowitz, S B

    1997-02-21

    In recent years, several regulatory agencies and professional societies have recommended an occupational exposure limit (OEL) for formaldehyde. This article presents the findings of a panel of experts, the Industrial Health Foundation panel, who were charged to identify an OEL that would prevent irritation. To accomplish this task, they critiqued approximately 150 scientific articles. Unlike many other chemicals, a large amount of data is available upon which to base a concentration-response relationship for human irritation. A mathematical model developed by Kane et al. (1979) for predicting safe levels of exposure to irritants based on animal data was also evaluated. The panel concluded that for most persons, eye irritation clearly due to formaldehyde does not occur until at least 1.0 ppm. Information from controlled studies involving volunteers indicated that moderate to severe eye, nose, and throat irritation does not occur for most persons until airborne concentrations exceed 2.0-3.0 ppm. The data indicated that below 1.0 ppm, if irritation occurs in some persons, the effects rapidly subside due to "accommodation." Based on the weight of evidence from published studies, the panel found that persons exposed to 0.3 ppm for 4-6 h in chamber studies generally reported eye irritation at a rate no different than that observed when persons were exposed to clean air. It was noted that at a concentration of 0.5 ppm (8-h TWA) eye irritation was not observed in the majority of workers (about 80%). Consequently, the panel recommended an OEL of 0.3 ppm as an 8-h time-weighted average (TWA) with a ceiling value (CV) of 1.0 ppm (a concentration not to be exceeded) to avoid irritation. The panel believes that the ACGIH TLV of 0.3 ppm as a ceiling value was unnecessarily restrictive and that this value may have been based on the TLV Committee's interpretation of the significance of studies involving self-reported responses at concentrations less than 0.5 ppm. The panel concluded that any occupational or environmental guideline for formaldehyde should be based primarily on controlled studies in humans, since nearly all other studies are compromised by the presence of other contaminants. The panel also concluded that if concentrations of formaldehyde are kept below 0.1 ppm in the indoor environment (where exposures might occur 24 h/d) this should prevent irritation in virtually all persons. The panel could not identify a group of persons who were hypersensitive, nor was there evidence that anyone could be sensitized (develop an allergy) following inhalation exposure to formaldehyde. The panel concluded that there was sufficient evidence to show that persons with asthma respond no differently than healthy individuals following exposure to concentrations up to 3.0 ppm. Although cancer risk was not a topic that received exhaustive evaluation, the panel agreed with other scientific groups who have concluded that the cancer risk of formaldehyde is negligible at airborne concentrations that do not produce chronic irritation. PMID:9055874

  5. Malignant melanomas of the nasal cavity after occupational exposure to formaldehyde.

    PubMed Central

    Holmstrom, M; Lund, V J

    1991-01-01

    Formaldehyde is a well known nasal carcinogen in rodents, but so far there has been no convincing evidence that workers occupationally exposed to formaldehyde have an increased risk of nasal cancer. In this study three cases of malignant melanoma of the nasal mucosa in persons occupationally exposed to formaldehyde for a long time are presented. The occurrence of such a rare tumour in patients with significant exposure to a known carcinogen warrants further investigation. Images PMID:1993163

  6. A Formaldehyde Exposure Assessment Tool for Occupants of FEMA Temporary Housing Units

    SciTech Connect

    Parthasarathy, Srinandini; Spears, Michael; Maddalena, Randy L.; Russell, Marion L; Apte, Michael G.

    2010-10-01

    The report outlines the methodology used to develop a web-based tool to assess the formaldehyde exposure of the occupants of Federal Emergency Management Administration (FEMA) temporary housing units (THUs) after Hurricanes Katrina and Rita in 2005. Linear regression models were built using available data to retrospectively estimate the indoor temperature and relative humidity, formaldehyde emission factors and concentration, and hence the formaldehyde exposures. The interactive web-tool allows the user to define the inputs to the model to evaluate formaldehyde exposures for different scenarios.

  7. Occupational exposure to formaldehyde, hematotoxicity and leukemia-specific chromosome changes in cultured myeloid progenitor cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Luoping; Tang, Xiaojiang; Rothman, Nathaniel; Vermeulen, Roel; Ji, Zhiying; Shen, Min; Qiu, Chuangyi; Guo, Weihong; Liu, Songwang; Reiss, Boris; Laura Beane, Freeman; Ge, Yichen; Hubbard, Alan E.; Hua, Ming; Blair, Aaron; Galvan, Noe; Ruan, Xiaolin; Alter, Blanche P.; Xin, Kerry X.; Li, Senhua; Moore, Lee E.; Kim, Sungkyoon; Xie, Yuxuan; Hayes, Richard B.; Azuma, Mariko; Hauptmann, Michael; Xiong, Jun; Stewart, Patricia; Li, Laiyu; Rappaport, Stephen M.; Huang, Hanlin; Fraumeni, Joseph F.; Smith, Martyn T.; Lan, Qing

    2010-01-01

    There are concerns about the health effects of formaldehyde exposure, including carcinogenicity, in light of elevated indoor air levels in new homes and occupational exposures experienced by workers in health care, embalming, manufacturing and other industries. Epidemiological studies suggest that formaldehyde exposure is associated with an increased risk of leukemia. However, the biological plausibility of these findings has been questioned because limited information is available on formaldehyde’s ability to disrupt hematopoietic function. Our objective was to determine if formaldehyde exposure disrupts hematopoietic function and produces leukemia-related chromosome changes in exposed humans. We examined the ability of formaldehyde to disrupt hematopoiesis in a study of 94 workers in China (43 exposed to formaldehyde and 51 frequency-matched controls) by measuring complete blood counts and peripheral stem/progenitor cell colony formation. Further, myeloid progenitor cells, the target for leukemogenesis, were cultured from the workers to quantify the level of leukemia-specific chromosome changes, including monosomy 7 and trisomy 8, in metaphase spreads of these cells. Among exposed workers, peripheral blood cell counts were significantly lowered in a manner consistent with toxic effects on the bone marrow and leukemia-specific chromosome changes were significantly elevated in myeloid blood progenitor cells. These findings suggest that formaldehyde exposure can have an adverse impact on the hematopoietic system and that leukemia induction by formaldehyde is biologically plausible, which heightens concerns about its leukemogenic potential from occupational and environmental exposures. PMID:20056626

  8. Occupational exposure to formaldehyde and alterations in lymphocyte subsets

    PubMed Central

    Hosgood, H. Dean; Zhang, Luoping; Tang, Xiaojiang; Vermeulen, Roel; Hao, Zhenyue; Shen, Min; Qiu, Chuangyi; Ge, Yichen; Hua, Ming; Ji, Zhiying; Li, Senhua; Xiong, Jun; Reiss, Boris; Liu, Songwang; Xin, Kerry X.; Azuma, Mariko; Xie, Yuxuan; Freeman, Laura Beane; Ruan, Xiaolin; Guo, Weihong; Galvan, Noe; Blair, Aaron; Li, Laiyu; Huang, Hanlin; Smith, Martyn T.; Rothman, Nathaniel; Lan, Qing

    2012-01-01

    Background Formaldehyde is used in many occupational settings, most notably in manufacturing, health care, and embalming. Formaldehyde has been classified as a human carcinogen, but its mechanism of action remains uncertain. Methods We carried out a cross-sectional study of 43 formaldehyde exposed-workers and 51 unexposed age and sex-matched controls in Guangdong, China to study formaldehyde’s early biologic effects. To follow-up our previous report that the total lymphocyte count was decreased in formaldehyde-exposed workers compared to controls, we evaluated each major lymphocyte subset (i.e., CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells, natural killer (NK) cells, and B cells) and T cell lymphocyte subset (CD4+ naïve and memory T cells, CD8+ naïve and memory T cells, and regulatory T cells). Linear regression of each subset was used to test for differences between exposed workers and controls, adjusting for potential confounders. Results Total NK cell and T cell counts were about 24% (p=0.037) and 16% (p=0.0042) lower, respectively, among exposed workers. Among certain T cell subsets, decreased counts among exposed workers were observed for CD8+ T cells (p=0.026), CD8+ effector memory T cells (p=0.018), and regulatory T cells (CD4+FoxP3+: p=0.04; CD25+FoxP3+: p=0.008). Conclusions Formaldehyde exposed-workers experienced decreased counts of NK cells, regulatory T cells, and CD8+ effector memory T cells; however, due to the small sample size these findings need to be confirmed in larger studies. PMID:22767408

  9. Genotoxic effects in occupational exposure to formaldehyde: A study in anatomy and pathology laboratories and formaldehyde-resins production

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background According to the Report on Carcinogens, formaldehyde ranks 25th in the overall U.S. chemical production, with more than 5 million tons produced each year. Given its economic importance and widespread use, many people are exposed to formaldehyde environmentally and/or occupationally. Presently, the International Agency for Research on Cancer classifies formaldehyde as carcinogenic to humans (Group 1), based on sufficient evidence in humans and in experimental animals. Manyfold in vitro studies clearly indicated that formaldehyde can induce genotoxic effects in proliferating cultured mammalian cells. Furthermore, some in vivo studies have found changes in epithelial cells and in peripheral blood lymphocytes related to formaldehyde exposure. Methods A study was carried out in Portugal, using 80 workers occupationally exposed to formaldehyde vapours: 30 workers from formaldehyde and formaldehyde-based resins production factory and 50 from 10 pathology and anatomy laboratories. A control group of 85 non-exposed subjects was considered. Exposure assessment was performed by applying simultaneously two techniques of air monitoring: NIOSH Method 2541 and Photo Ionization Detection equipment with simultaneously video recording. Evaluation of genotoxic effects was performed by application of micronucleus test in exfoliated epithelial cells from buccal mucosa and peripheral blood lymphocytes. Results Time-weighted average concentrations not exceeded the reference value (0.75 ppm) in the two occupational settings studied. Ceiling concentrations, on the other hand, were higher than reference value (0.3 ppm) in both. The frequency of micronucleus in peripheral blood lymphocytes and in epithelial cells was significantly higher in both exposed groups than in the control group (p < 0.001). Moreover, the frequency of micronucleus in peripheral blood lymphocytes was significantly higher in the laboratories group than in the factory workers (p < 0.05). A moderate positive correlation was found between duration of occupational exposure to formaldehyde (years of exposure) and micronucleus frequency in peripheral blood lymphocytes (r = 0.401; p < 0.001) and in epithelial cells (r = 0.209; p < 0.01). Conclusions The population studied is exposed to high peak concentrations of formaldehyde with a long-term exposure. These two aspects, cumulatively, can be the cause of the observed genotoxic endpoint effects. The association of these cytogenetic effects with formaldehyde exposure gives important information to risk assessment process and may also be used to assess health risks for exposed workers. PMID:20727169

  10. Occupational exposure to formaldehyde and histopathological changes in the nasal mucosa.

    PubMed Central

    Edling, C; Hellquist, H; Odkvist, L

    1988-01-01

    To study the cytotoxic effect of formaldehyde on the human nasal mucosa 75 men with occupational exposure to formaldehyde or to formaldehyde and wood dust, were examined, looking particularly at early signs of irritative effects and histopathological changes in the nasal mucosa. All men underwent a medical examination and a nasal biopsy specimen was examined by a pathologist and graded from 0-8 according to the morphological changes. A high frequency of nasal symptoms, mostly a running nose and crusting, was related to exposure to formaldehyde. Only three men had a normal mucosa; the remainder had loss of cilia and goblet cell hyperplasia (11%) and squamous metaplasia (78%); in six cases (8%) there was a mild dysplasia. The histological grading showed a significantly higher score when compared with unexposed contents (2.9 v 1.8). There was no dose response relation, no malignancies, and no difference in the histological score between those exposed to formaldehyde or to formaldehyde and wood dust. Images PMID:3203081

  11. Occupational exposure to wood dust and formaldehyde and risk of nasal, nasopharyngeal, and lung cancer among Finnish men

    PubMed Central

    Siew, Sie Sie; Kauppinen, Timo; Kyyrönen, Pentti; Heikkilä, Pirjo; Pukkala, Eero

    2012-01-01

    Controversy exists over whether or not occupational inhalation exposure to wood dust and/or formaldehyde increases risk for respiratory cancers. The objective of this study was to examine the risk of nasal, nasopharyngeal, and lung cancer in relation to occupational exposure to wood dust and formaldehyde among Finnish men. The cohort of all Finnish men born between the years 1906 and 1945 and in employment during 1970 was followed up through the Finnish Cancer Registry for cases of cancers of the nose (n = 292), nasopharynx (n = 149), and lung (n = 30,137) during the period 1971–1995. The subjects’ occupations, as recorded in the population census in 1970, were converted to estimates of exposure to wood dust, formaldehyde, asbestos, and silica dust through the Finnish job-exposure matrix. Cumulative exposure (CE) was calculated based on the prevalence, average level, and estimated duration of exposure. The relative risk (RR) estimates for the CE categories of wood dust and formaldehyde were defined by Poisson regression, with adjustments made for smoking, socioeconomic status, and exposure to asbestos and/or silica dust. Men exposed to wood dust had a significant excess risk of nasal cancer overall (RR, 1.59; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.06–2.38), and specifically nasal squamous cell carcinoma (RR, 1.98; 95% CI, 1.19–3.31). Workers exposed to formaldehyde had an RR of 1.18 (95% CI, 1.12–1.25) for lung cancer. There was no indication that CE to wood dust or formaldehyde would increase the risk of nasopharyngeal cancer. Occupational exposure to wood dust appeared to increase the risk of nasal cancer but not of nasopharyngeal or lung cancer. The slight excess risk of lung cancer observed for exposure to formaldehyde may be the result of residual confounding from smoking. In summary, this study provides further evidence that exposure to wood dust in a variety of occupations may increase the risk of nasal cancer. PMID:22904644

  12. DCEG Research on Formaldehyde Exposure

    Cancer.gov

    Studies to investigate occupational formaldehyde exposure and cancer risk, including an industrial cohort study of over 25,000 workers, a case-control study of workers in the funeral industry, and a cross-sectional study to quantify leukemia-specific chromosome changes associated with formaldehyde exposure

  13. Associations between occupation exposure to Formaldehyde and semen quality, a primary study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hai-Xu; Li, He-Cheng; Lv, Mo-Qi; Zhou, Dang-Xia; Bai, Li-Zhi; Du, Liang-Zhi; Xue, Xia; Lin, Pu; Qiu, Shu-Dong

    2015-01-01

    Formaldehyde (FA), a ubiquitous environmental pollutant, has long been suspected of having male reproductive toxicity. However, FA male reproductive toxicity was inconclusive due to dearth of human studies. Therefore, we sought to investigate whether occupational exposure to FA affects semen quality. Semen quality including five conventional parameters and seven kinematics parameters were compared between 114 male workers occupationally exposed to FA and 76 referents. FA exposure index (FEI) was measured and calculated. Our results showed that sperm progressive motility, total sperm motility, VCL, VSL and VAP were statistically significant decreased in FA exposure workers compared with the referents. Moreover, FEI was significantly negative associated with sperm progressive motility (??=?-0.19, P?=?0.01) and total sperm motility (??=?-0.23, P?=?0.004). In addition, a significant elevated risk of abnormal sperm progressive motility were observed in both low- (OR?=?2.58; 95%?CI: 1.11-5.97) and high-FA-exposed group (OR?=?3.41; 95%?CI: 1.45-7.92) respectively. Furthermore, a significant increased risk was also estimated for abnormal total sperm motility in both low- (OR?=?3.21; 95%?CI: 1.24-8.28) and high-FA-exposed group (OR?=?4.84; 95%?CI: 1.83-12.81) respectively. In conclusion, our study revealed the adverse effects of FA occupation exposure on semen quality, especially on sperm motion parameters. PMID:26515386

  14. Associations between occupation exposure to Formaldehyde and semen quality, a primary study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hai-xu; Li, He-cheng; Lv, Mo-qi; Zhou, Dang-xia; Bai, Li-zhi; Du, Liang-zhi; Xue, Xia; Lin, Pu; Qiu, Shu-dong

    2015-01-01

    Formaldehyde (FA), a ubiquitous environmental pollutant, has long been suspected of having male reproductive toxicity. However, FA male reproductive toxicity was inconclusive due to dearth of human studies. Therefore, we sought to investigate whether occupational exposure to FA affects semen quality. Semen quality including five conventional parameters and seven kinematics parameters were compared between 114 male workers occupationally exposed to FA and 76 referents. FA exposure index (FEI) was measured and calculated. Our results showed that sperm progressive motility, total sperm motility, VCL, VSL and VAP were statistically significant decreased in FA exposure workers compared with the referents. Moreover, FEI was significantly negative associated with sperm progressive motility (??=??0.19, P?=?0.01) and total sperm motility (??=??0.23, P?=?0.004). In addition, a significant elevated risk of abnormal sperm progressive motility were observed in both low- (OR?=?2.58; 95%?CI: 1.11–5.97) and high-FA-exposed group (OR?=?3.41; 95%?CI: 1.45–7.92) respectively. Furthermore, a significant increased risk was also estimated for abnormal total sperm motility in both low- (OR?=?3.21; 95%?CI: 1.24–8.28) and high-FA-exposed group (OR?=?4.84; 95%?CI: 1.83–12.81) respectively. In conclusion, our study revealed the adverse effects of FA occupation exposure on semen quality, especially on sperm motion parameters. PMID:26515386

  15. Occupational Exposure of a Medical School Staff to Formaldehyde in Tehran

    PubMed Central

    Asadi, Parisa; Jafari, Mohammad Javad; Soori, Hamid; Hosseini, Vajihe

    2012-01-01

    Background Cadavers are preserved in a fixing solution containing formalin. Formaldehyde (FA) released from formalin is inhaled by the personnel in the anatomy laboratory. Exposed personnel have reported respiratory problems and various symptoms. Due to the toxicity of FA as a strong irritant and carcinogen and also lack of a national study assessing occupational exposure to FA in gross anatomy labs in Iran, the present study aimed at occupational monitoring of personnel exposed to FA and evaluating relevant symptoms in them. Materials and Methods A total of 20 subjects (all the staff) working in a gross anatomy lab and 20 library personnel were considered for occupational monitoring of exposure to FA during three months with various climatic conditions. They were also monitored for respiratory symptoms. Air sampling and analysis of its FA content were conducted according to the NIOSH method No.2016. Symptoms of cases and controls (library personnel) with active and passive exposure to formaldehyde were also studied by a self-report questionnaire. Results In the first stage of monitoring with ventilation (supply-exhaust) system on, the exposure of personnel (Mean± SE) was 306 ± 21ppb. In the second stage of monitoring the personnel's exposure was 317 ± 26ppb with only the ventilation supply system on and in the final monitoring stage this rate was 698 ± 34ppb with the ventilation system (supply and exhaust) off. In this study, personal's exposure level to FA was higher than the indoor concentration, and the individual exposure levels of instructors were higher than those of the students. Exposure of library personnel in the adjacent department (central library) was about 50ppb. Most important complaints reported by actively exposed staff members and library personnel were the unpleasant odor (68%), cough (64%), throat irritation and runny nose (56%), burning and itching of nose (52%) and irritating eyes (48%). Conclusion Considering the level of exposure of all subjects in this study and existence of clinical symptoms, better control of the exhaust system in the gross anatomy lab and use of a more efficient ventilation system are recommended to protect the staff and instructors of the Anatomy Department. PMID:25191427

  16. Formaldehyde Exposure Control Plan Procedure: 6. 09

    E-print Network

    Jia, Songtao

    Formaldehyde Exposure Control Plan Procedure: 6. 09 Version: 2.0 Effective 8.2.2013 1 A. PURPOSE To maintain formaldehyde exposure below the Federal Occupational Safety and Health Administration exposure limit (PEL) 0.75 ppm and/or short-term exposure limit (STEL) 2.00 ppm. It is Columbia University

  17. DNA–protein crosslinks and p53 protein expression in relation to occupational exposure to formaldehyde

    PubMed Central

    Shaham, J; Bomstein, Y; Gurvich, R; Rashkovsky, M; Kaufman, Z

    2003-01-01

    Background: Formaldehyde (FA) is classified as a probable human carcinogen. Aims: To examine DNA protein crosslinks (DPC) and p53, which are generally known to be involved in carcinogenesis, in peripheral blood lymphocytes of workers exposed to FA. Methods: DPC and p53 ("wild type" and mutant) were examined in peripheral blood lymphocytes of 186 workers exposed to FA (mean years of exposure = 16) and 213 unexposed workers. Every worker completed a questionnaire on demographic data, occupational and medical history, smoking, and hygiene. Results: The adjusted mean level of DPC in the exposed and the unexposed workers differed significantly. Adjustment was made for age, sex, years of education, smoking, and origin. Exposure to FA increased the risk of having a higher level of pantropic p53 above 150 pg/ml (OR 1.6, 95% CI 0.8 to 3.1). A significant positive correlation was found between the increase of pantropic p53 protein and mutant p53 protein, as well as between pantropic p53 >150 pg/ml and mutant p53 protein. In the exposed group a significantly higher proportion of p53 >150 pg/ml was found among workers with DPC >0.187 (55.7%) (0.187 = median level of DPC) than among workers with DPC ?0.187 (33.3%). The risk of having pantropic p53 protein >150 pg/ml was determined mainly by levels of DPC. Workers with DPC above the median level had a significantly higher risk of having pantropic p53 >150 pg/ml (adjusted OR 2.5, 95% CI 1.2 to 5.4). Conclusions: Results suggest that DPC and mutation in p53 may represent steps in FA carcinogenesis and a possible causal relation between DPC and mutation in p53. These biomarkers can be applied in the assessment of the development of cancer due to FA exposure. PMID:12771391

  18. Formaldehyde risk assessment for occupationally exposed workers.

    PubMed

    Siegel, D M; Frankos, V H; Schneiderman, M A

    1983-12-01

    Formaldehyde has been shown to be carcinogenic in animals and should be considered potentially carcinogenic in humans. The mechanism of action is unknown but formaldehyde is weakly genotoxic and also may act as a late stage carcinogen or promoter. An estimated 1.3 million workers are potentially exposed to formaldehyde through their occupation. Of those exposed workers, about 3.5% were found to be exposed to formaldehyde air concentrations greater than the 3 ppm set by OSHA as a permissible exposure level. Fewer than 12% were exposed to concentrations greater than 1 ppm, but over 88% were exposed to concentrations of 0.5 ppm or more. A quantitative risk assessment, using the multistage low-dose extrapolation model, found the (maximum likelihood) estimate of lifetime risk for excess cancers to be 620 per 100,000 at the OSHA permissible exposure level. The estimated risk is 23 per 100,000 at 1 ppm and 2.8 per 100,000 at 0.5 ppm. Reduction of the OSHA permissible exposure level to 1 ppm would significantly decrease risk with minor economic disruption for most industries involved. However, reduction of risk to levels which have been generally regarded by other regulatory agencies as acceptable, i.e., 10(-5) to 10(-6), would require increased control by all the industries reviewed. PMID:6658031

  19. Formaldehyde Exposures in a University Anatomy Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winkler, Kyle William

    Air sampling studies were conducted within a university anatomical laboratory during the embalmment of a cadaver in order to determine if dangerous concentrations of formaldehyde existed. Three air sampling studies were conducted in the anatomical laboratory on three separate days that a cadaver was being embalmed. Samples were collected and analyzed using the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Sampling and Analytical Methods: Method 52. Each air sampling study sampled for short term exposure limit (STEL) and time weighted mean (TWA) breathing zone formaldehyde concentrations as well as area TWA formaldehyde concentrations. A personal aldehyde monitor was also used in each air sampling study to sample for breathing zone formaldehyde concentrations. Measured TWA mean exposures to formaldehyde ranged from 0.15--1.3 parts per million (ppm), STEL formaldehyde exposures ranged from 0.019--0.64 ppm, and eight-hour TWAs ranged from 0.03 to 3.6 ppm. All 8-hour TWA formaldehyde concentrations sampled in the anatomy laboratory during an embalmment were less than the permissible exposure limit (PEL) required by OSHA.

  20. Respiratory effects due to occupational exposure to formaldehyde: Systematic review with meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Mathur, Neeraj; Rastogi, S. K.

    2007-01-01

    Subjects exposed to organic solvents frequently complain of respiratory symptoms. Epidemiological studies conducted in these exposed subjects with special reference to respiratory effects are very few and that too are on very small number of subjects. This paper critically reviews most of the epidemiological studies in formaldehyde induced respiratory effects and combines them through meta analysis to get global precise estimates of the respiratory risks. A computerized bibliographic search revealed 16 epidemiological studies out of which 12 studies were considered for meta analysis. The symptoms of upper respiratory tract were more prevalent as the combined odds of exposed was 5.04 compared to controls. The pooled odds ratio for acute lower respiratory symptoms ranged between 1.85 and 2.91. The mean fall of FVC, FEV1 and FEV1/FVC was only 3.4%, 3.6% and 0.6% respectively, which was not statistically or physiologically considered significant. PMID:21957369

  1. Comparison of health of occupants and characteristics of houses among control homes and homes insulated with urea formaldehyde foam. II. Initial health and house variables and exposure-response relationships

    SciTech Connect

    Broder, I.; Corey, P.; Cole, P.; Lipa, M.; Mintz, S.; Nethercott, J.R.

    1988-04-01

    A health survey was conducted on 1726 occupants of urea formaldehyde foam insulated (UFFI) houses and 720 residents of control homes. The occupants of the UFFI houses showed a modest excess of many symptoms relative to the controls. This excess of complaints was contributed mainly by the residents of households which were intending to have their UFFI removed and by onsets which followed the installation of UFFI. There were no associated abnormalities in nasal airway resistance, sense of smell, pulmonary function, or patch tests for allergy to formaldehyde. However, the UFFI subjects intending to have their UFFI removed demonstrated a small increase in nasal epithelial squamous metaplasia. The indoor formaldehyde levels of the UFFI houses were about 20% higher than in the controls, while the carbon dioxide levels were similar in both groups. The UFFI subjects showed positive relationships between level of formaldehyde exposure and the presence of a number of symptoms, which were largely dependent on a small group of formaldehyde values that were in excess of 0.12 ppm. A number of the exposure-response relationships were enhanced by UFFI. These results suggested that some adverse health effects of UFFI were explained by formaldehyde alone while others were related to the combined effects of formaldehyde and an additional UFFI-related factor(s) which was not identified.

  2. Formaldehyde exposures from tobacco smoke: a review.

    PubMed Central

    Godish, T

    1989-01-01

    Reports of formaldehyde levels in mainstream, sidestream, and environmental tobacco smoke from nine studies are reviewed. Considerable disparity exists between formaldehyde production rates determined from mainstream-sidestream studies and those reporting levels in environmental tobacco smoke. Tobacco smoke does not appear to increase vapor-phase formaldehyde levels significantly in indoor environments, but formaldehyde exposure in mainstream smoke may pose a risk of upper respiratory system cancer and increase the risk of cancer in smokers. PMID:2665532

  3. The Massachusetts program for reducing the risk of formaldehyde exposure.

    PubMed Central

    Walker, B; Fox, P; Li, V; Parker, G

    1987-01-01

    Urea formaldehyde foam insulation in homes has caused increasing concerns about the adverse health effects associated with residential exposure to formaldehyde emissions. These health effects cover a broad spectrum of symptoms, including neurophysiological effects, respiratory irritations, and eye and skin irritations. Recent studies have also suggested a possible correlation between exposure to formaldehyde vapors and cancer. In 1979, following hundreds of complaints of adverse health effects from occupants of dwellings insulated with urea formaldehyde foam insulation (UFFI), the Massachusetts Department of Public Health issued regulations banning the new installation of UFFI in Massachusetts. New State legislation was adopted in 1986 which reformulated UFFI policy. The law established a minimum concentration of formaldehyde of 0.1 parts per million (ppm) below which removal of the insulation is not required or encouraged. A trust fund financed by industry was established to pay for air testing and for the removal of UFFI from homes if the formaldehyde level exceeds the statutory minimum of 0.1 ppm or if an occupant experiences adverse health effects attributable to the insulation. Based on the Massachusetts experience, these requirements have been identified: the need for flexibility and midcourse corrections in the development of health policy to allow for the incorporation of new scientific information or changes in the economic or political environment, the need for close coordination with all affected parties, and the need for scientific and technical policy development to be joined with economic and political perspectives to ensure smooth implementation of health policies. PMID:3108945

  4. Clinical evaluation of patients with complaints related to formaldehyde exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Imbus, H.R.

    1985-12-01

    Formaldehyde is a very widely used chemical in our present society and one with which every physician has had a first-hand experience in his early days of training in the anatomy laboratory. The National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health lists 52 occupations that expose people to formaldehyde. In recent years, however, the increasing use of formaldehyde resins in the production of building materials such as particleboard and urea-formaldehyde foam insulation has resulted in exposures of large numbers of people in nonoccupational settings. Consumer products such as cosmetics, cigarettes, textiles, furniture, draperies, and preservatives release formaldehyde. It is present in the outdoor atmosphere from products of combustion and automobile exhaust and likewise in the home from such things as gas cooking. These more widespread and increased exposures have resulted in concern regarding potential health effects. Therefore, it is likely that physicians have or will encounter patients who wish evaluations of a present or potential health effect from formaldehyde. This article is for the purpose of providing assistance in such evaluation.110 references.

  5. OSHA reduces permissible worker exposure level to formaldehyde

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    The US Department of Labor announced on November 20 that it is reducing permissible worker exposure to formaldehyde by two-thirds in a new final rule that will be published shortly. Health studies indicate that workers exposed to formaldehyde are at increased risk of contracting occupational illnesses. This new standard will eliminate significant risks of these decreases among workers through its sharp reduction of permissible exposure levels (PELs). The new standard lowers the PEL for formaldehyde at all work places covered by the OSH Act to one part per million parts of air (1 ppm) averaged over an eight hour workday from the current 3 ppm and establishes a short term exposure level (STEL) (i.e. exposure during any 15-minute period) of 2 ppm. OSHA also has adopted an action level of 0.5 ppm measured over eight hours. If work place exposures are maintained below the STEL and the action level, employers may discontinue required exposure monitoring, certain employee training, and parts of medical surveillance.

  6. Formaldehyde exposure and acute health effects study

    SciTech Connect

    Quackenboss, J.J.; Lebowitz, M.D.; Michaud, J.P.; Bronnimann, D. )

    1989-01-01

    To assess the effects of formaldehyde exposures on health, exposure groups were defined using baseline exposure and health questionnaires. Formaldehyde concentrations were poorly correlated with these exposure classifications, perhaps due to the time delay between classification and monitoring. The 151 households reported here had a mean HCHO concentration of 35 (S.E. 1.5 and median 30) {mu}g/m{sup 3}. Passive samplers prepared in our lab were calibrated in a chamber to derive an estimated sampling rate of 0.311 {mu}g/(mg {center dot} m{sup {minus}3} {center dot} hr). They were also compared to commercially available samplers inside of the homes, with a correlation coefficient of 0.896 and mean difference of 2.6 {mu}g/m{sup 3}. In this report of initial findings from an ongoing study, daily symptoms and peak expiratory flow measurements were compared with an HCHO exposure classification based on the median measured concentrations. None of the symptoms groups were related to HCHO exposure when controlling for age and sex. There was a significant relationship between HCHO exposure and variability in peak expiratory flows that was dependent on age group. It may be especially important to assess the variability in reactive individuals and children to determine the short-term effects of HCHO exposures and possible long-term consequences.

  7. Successful reduction of morticians' exposure to formaldehyde during embalming procedures.

    PubMed

    Hiipakka, D W; Dyrdahl, K S; Garcia Cardenas, M

    2001-01-01

    A case study of the effectiveness of upgraded ventilation engineering controls in a military mortuary facility was performed. Worst-case mortician formaldehyde exposures generated during the use of highly concentrated embalming fluid (required to meet a 2-week preservation standard for overseas case processing and return of the deceased to the continental United States) were documented. A detailed exposure evaluation via consecutive short-term exposure limit (STEL) samples facilitated characterization of the hazard potential for each distinct phase of the embalming process. After baseline screening with 3M passive formaldehyde dosimeters, a total of 145 personal and area STEL sorbent tube samples were collected during six embalming cases between 1994 and 1998. Prior to the installation of local exhaust ventilation controls, personal time-weighted average (TWA) exposure values during embalming activities were 3.19-7.69 ppm for a mean of 4.80 ppm (calculated 8-hour TWA exposures for mortician workshifts were 1.32-2.86 ppm, mean 1.93 ppm). Initial STEL exposures ranged from a low of 0.14 during preembalming body preparation to 20.89 ppm during aspiration of arterial fluids (mean = 4.16 ppm). Embalming room general area samples revealed a mean concentration of 0.76 ppm. With ventilation upgrades installed in 1997, calculated personal 8-hour TWA exposure values during embalming procedures were reduced. STEL exposures decreased to between 0.11 to 3.44 ppm (mean of 0.55 ppm); embalming room general area sample concentrations decreased to a mean of 0.089 ppm. Because occasional 15-min peak exposures continued to exceed the 2.0 ppm Occupational Safety and Health Administration STEL during tasks involving large volumes of embalming fluid or direct contact with paraformaldehyde preservative powders, general room ventilation was further upgraded to 25 room air changes per hour. PMID:11767933

  8. Health Risk Assessment of Inhalation Exposure to Formaldehyde and Benzene in Newly Remodeled Buildings, Beijing

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Lihui; Mo, Jinhan; Sundell, Jan; Fan, Zhihua; Zhang, Yinping

    2013-01-01

    Objective To assess health risks associated with inhalation exposure to formaldehyde and benzene mainly emitted from building and decoration materials in newly remodeled indoor spaces in Beijing. Methods We tested the formaldehyde and benzene concentrations in indoor air of 410 dwellings and 451 offices remodeled within the past year, in which the occupants had health concerns about indoor air quality. To assess non-carcinogenic health risks, we compared the data to the health guidelines in China and USA, respectively. To assess carcinogenic health risks, we first modeled indoor personal exposure to formaldehyde and benzene using the concentration data, and then estimated the associated cancer risks by multiplying the indoor personal exposure by the Inhalation Unit Risk values (IURs) provided by the U.S. EPA Integrated Risk Information System (U.S. EPA IRIS) and the California Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment (OEHHA), respectively. Results (1) The indoor formaldehyde concentrations of 85% dwellings and 67% offices were above the acute Reference Exposure Level (REL) recommended by the OEHHA and the concentrations of all tested buildings were above the chronic REL recommended by the OEHHA; (2) The indoor benzene concentrations of 12% dwellings and 32% offices exceeded the reference concentration (RfC) recommended by the U.S. EPA IRIS; (3) The median cancer risks from indoor exposure to formaldehyde and benzene were 1,150 and 106 per million (based on U.S. EPA IRIS IURs), 531 and 394 per million (based on OEHHA IURs). Conclusions In the tested buildings, formaldehyde exposure may pose acute and chronic non-carcinogenic health risks to the occupants, whereas benzene exposure may pose chronic non-carcinogenic risks to the occupants. Exposure to both compounds is associated with significant carcinogenic risks. Improvement in ventilation, establishment of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emission labeling systems for decorating and refurbishing materials are recommended to reduce indoor VOCs exposure. PMID:24244522

  9. Commentary: mechanistic considerations for associations between formaldehyde exposure and nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Occupational exposure to formaldehyde has been linked to nasopharyngeal carcinoma. To date, mechanistic explanations for this association have primarily focused on formaldehyde-induced cytotoxicity, regenerative hyperplasia and DNA damage. However, recent studies broaden the potential mechanisms as it is now well established that formaldehyde dehydrogenase, identical to S-nitrosoglutathione reductase, is an important mediator of cGMP-independent nitric oxide signaling pathways. We have previously described mechanisms by which formaldehyde can influence nitrosothiol homeostasis thereby leading to changes in pulmonary physiology. Considering evidences that nitrosothiols govern the Epstein-Barr virus infection cycle, and that the virus is strongly implicated in the etiology of nasopharyngeal carcinoma, studies are needed to examine the potential for formaldehyde to reactivate the Epstein-Barr virus as well as additively or synergistically interact with the virus to potentiate epithelial cell transformation. PMID:19939253

  10. Occupational exposure in MRI

    PubMed Central

    Mcrobbie, D W

    2012-01-01

    This article reviews occupational exposure in clinical MRI; it specifically considers units of exposure, basic physical interactions, health effects, guideline limits, dosimetry, results of exposure surveys, calculation of induced fields and the status of the European Physical Agents Directive. Electromagnetic field exposure in MRI from the static field B0, imaging gradients and radiofrequency transmission fields induces electric fields and currents in tissue, which are responsible for various acute sensory effects. The underlying theory and its application to the formulation of incident and induced field limits are presented. The recent International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) Bundesministerium für Arbeit und Soziales and Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers limits for incident field exposure are interpreted in a manner applicable to MRI. Field measurements show that exposure from movement within the B0 fringe field can exceed ICNIRP reference levels within 0.5 m of the bore entrance. Rate of change of field dB/dt from the imaging gradients is unlikely to exceed the new limits, although incident field limits can be exceeded for radiofrequency (RF) exposure within 0.2–0.5 m of the bore entrance. Dosimetric surveys of routine clinical practice show that staff are exposed to peak values of 42±24% of B0, with time-averaged exposures of 5.2±2.8 mT for magnets in the range 0.6–4 T. Exposure to time-varying fields arising from movement within the B0 fringe resulted in peak dB/dt of approximately 2 T s?1. Modelling of induced electric fields from the imaging gradients shows that ICNIRP-induced field limits are unlikely to be exceeded in most situations; however, movement through the static field may still present a problem. The likely application of the limits is discussed with respect to the reformulation of the European Union (EU) directive and its possible implications for MRI. PMID:22457400

  11. Closed-circuit apparatus for specific inhalation challenges with an occupational agent, formaldehyde, in vapor form.

    PubMed

    Lemière, C; Cloutier, Y; Perrault, G; Drolet, D; Cartier, A; Malo, J L

    1996-06-01

    Specific inhalation challenges are an important tool for confirming occupational asthma. In recent years, we have described two closed-circuit apparatuses that allow exposure to stable and controlled concentrations of particles and isocyanate gases. More recently, we developed a similar apparatus that generates chemicals in vapor form. The aim of this work is to describe its performance in the specific case of formaldehyde. This instrument is made of four parts: a generator as such, an exposure chamber, a monitor, and an automated regulatory system. This apparatus was assessed in four subjects suspected of having formaldehyde-induced asthma or alveolitis. The concentrations of formaldehyde were increased from 0.5 to 1 mg/m3 to 3 mg/m3 keeping the concentration at a value of 3 mg/m3 or less (threshold limit value). The dispersion of obtained values by comparison with the median data (6 values) was as follows: maximum value, 12 to 84%; minimum value, 20 to 58%; interquartile range, 0.13 to 0.9 mg/m3. We observed that target concentrations took a few minutes to be reached, but, once they were obtained, delivered concentrations were stable. The new vapor-delivery apparatus allows us to obtain concentrations of formaldehyde that are close to target concentrations with an acceptable dispersion of values around target concentration. Its use should be extended to other chemicals besides formaldehyde. PMID:8769522

  12. Antibodies and immune profiles of individuals occupationally exposed to formaldehyde: six case reports.

    PubMed

    Thrasher, J D; Broughton, A; Micevich, P

    1988-01-01

    Six patients with multiple subjective health complaints, which have been correlated with chronic exposure to formaldehyde during the course of their education and occupations, were tested for the existence of antibodies (IgE, IgM, and IgG) to formaldehyde (F) conjugated to human serum albumin (F-HSA). In addition, the percentage and absolute numbers of peripheral lymphocyte subpopulations as determined by surface markers were investigated. Antibody titers to F-HSA were present as follows: IgE (2 patients), IgM (3 of 4 tested patients), and IgG (5 patients). Analysis of lymphocyte subpopulations showed T-helper/suppressor (H/S) ratios ranging from 0.8 to 3.3. All 6 patients had elevated Tal cells (antigen memory cells), whereas interleuken 2 receptor positive cells were within expected values. Following formaldehyde exposure, 5 of the patients complained of an initial flulike illness from which they have not completely recovered. The sixth individual had a history of recurrent respiratory infections and surgical removal of hyperplastic ethmoid sinus tissue. The common occurrence of anti-F-HSA antibodies, flulike illness, and Tal cells are interpreted as suggestive of a chronic antigenic stimulation of the immune system in these 6 patients. Further immunological work-up of additional subjects and immune parameters with similar history of formaldehyde exposure and subjective health complaints is warranted. PMID:2973232

  13. Chronic respiratory effects of indoor formaldehyde exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Krzyzanowski, M.; Quackenboss, J.J.; Lebowitz, M.D.

    1990-01-01

    The relation of chronic respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function to formaldehyde (HCHO) in homes was studied in a sample of 298 children (6-15 years of age) and 613 adults. HCHO measurements were made with passive samplers two one-week periods. Data on chronic cough and phlegm, wheeze, attacks of breathlessness, and doctor diagnoses of chronic bronchitis and asthma were collected with self-completed questionnaires. Peak expiratory flow rates (PEFR) were obtained during the evenings and mornings for up to 14 consecutive days for each individual. Significantly greater prevalence rates of asthma and chronic bronchitis were found in children from houses with HCHO levels 60-120 ppb than in those less exposed, especially in children also exposed to environmental tobacco smoke. In children, levels of PEFR linearly decreased with HCHO exposure, with estimated decrease due to 60 ppb of HCHO equivalent to 22% of PEFR level in nonexposed children.

  14. NATIONAL OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE SURVEY (NOES)

    EPA Science Inventory

    From 1981 to 1983, NIOSH conducted the National Occupational Exposure Survey (NOES) that collected data on potential occupational exposures to chemical, physical, and biological agents. The survey involved on-site visits to 4,490 establishments in 522 industry types [OMB 1972] em...

  15. Lowest adverse effects concentrations (LOAECs) for formaldehyde exposure.

    PubMed

    Gelbke, Heinz-Peter; Gröters, Sibylle; Morfeld, Peter

    2014-10-01

    In 2012 the Committee for Risk Assessment (RAC) of the European Chemicals Agency concluded that 2ppm formaldehyde represent a Lowest Observed Adverse Effect Concentration (LOAEC) for polypoid adenomas, histopathological lesions and cell proliferation. An analysis of all data shows that a LOAEC of 2ppm it is not justified for cell proliferation and polypoid adenomas. Higher values are also supported by a new statistical analysis. For histopathological lesions a NOAEC of 1ppm may be defined but the lesions at 2ppm cannot be regarded as pre-stages for tumour development. One major uncertainty exists: the description of polypoid adenomas and the lesions at 2ppm often is insufficient and diagnostic uncertainties can only be resolved by a re-evaluation according to modern histomorphological standards. Although the discrepancy between our assessment and that of RAC may seem rather small we feel the LOAECs proposed by RAC must be challenged taking into consideration the broad data base for formaldehyde and the potential impact of any published RAC opinion on the present discussions about appropriate occupational and indoor exposure limits. PMID:25073108

  16. Control of workers' exposure to airborne endotoxins and formaldehyde during the use of metalworking fluids.

    PubMed

    Linnainmaa, Markku; Kiviranta, Hannu; Laitinen, Juha; Laitinen, Sirpa

    2003-01-01

    The study evaluated the effects of triazine use and machine enclosure on workers' exposure to bacteria, endotoxins, and formaldehyde in the use of metalworking fluids (MWF). Concentrations of triazine and bacterial contaminants were monitored in bulk samples of MWF from two machines in one workplace. One of the machines was used normally; triazine was added to the other when needed. Air sampling was used to estimate workers' exposure to endotoxins at 18 workplaces near enclosed and open machines. Concentrations of triazine in MWF and formaldehyde in the air were measured. Some recirculating local exhaust ventilation systems were also tested. The endotoxin and bacteria concentrations in the biocide test of MWF rapidly increased when the biocide levels decreased below 500 ppm. Airborne concentrations of endotoxins were substantially lower near enclosed machines than near open ones. Concentrations of airborne formaldehyde were below the Finnish occupational exposure limit at the existing levels of triazine in MWF. Concentrations of triazine in MWF correlated well with those of formaldehyde in the air near the machines (correlation coefficient r=.69). The results showed that the triazine levels in MWF should continuously be kept high enough (>500 ppm) to prevent workers' exposure to endotoxins and bacteria. Overdosing with triazine, however, should be avoided, so that the levels of airborne formaldehyde remain low. Triazine levels in MWF can be followed by the method described in this article. Workers' exposure to contaminants of MWF can be reduced substantially by enclosing the machines and equipping them with local exhausts. PMID:12908865

  17. Exposure to formaldehyde in health care: an evaluation of the white blood count differential.

    PubMed

    Sancini, Angela; Rosati, Maria Valeria; De Sio, Simone; Casale, Teodorico; Caciari, Tiziana; Samperi, Ilaria; Sacco, Carmina; Fortunato, Bruna Rita; Pimpinella, Benedetta; Andreozzi, Giorgia; Tomei, Gianfranco; Tomei, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    The aim of our study is to estimate if the occupational exposure to formaldehyde can cause alterations of leukocytes plasma values in health care workers employed in a big hospital compared to a control group. We studied employees in operating rooms and laboratories of Pathological Anatomy, Molecular Biology, Molecular Neurobiology, Parasitology and Experimental Oncology (exposed to formaldehyde) and employees of the Department of Internal Medicine (not exposed). The sample studied was composed of 86 workers exposed to formaldehyde and 86 workers not exposed. All subjects underwent a clinical-anamnaestic examination and for all subjects were measured the following values: total white blood cells, lymphocytes, monocytes and granulocytes (eosinophils, basophils, neutrophils). Statistical analysis of data was based on calculation of the mean, standard deviation and the distribution into classes according to the nature of each variable. Differences were considered significant when p was < 0.05. The mean and the distribution of values of the white blood cells, lymphocytes, monocytes and eosinophils were significantly higher in male subjects exposed to formaldehyde compared to not-exposed. Not significant differences were found in female subjects exposed compared to not exposed. The results underline the importance of a careful risk assessment of workers exposed to formaldehyde and the use of appropriate preventive measures. The health care trained and informed about the risks he is exposed to should observe good standards of behavior and, where it is not possible to use alternative materials, the indoor concentrations of formaldehyde should never exceed occupational limit values. PMID:25369713

  18. Occupational Radiation Exposures

    Cancer.gov

    DCEG researchers are studying cancer risks among populations who are occupationally exposed to radiation. Chernobyl Clean-up Workers Mayak Nuclear Facility Workers U.S. Radiologic Technologists Interventional Fluoroscopists Print This Page Occupational

  19. DOE 2012 occupational radiation exposure

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2013-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Analysis within the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report to provide an overview of the status of radiation protection practices at DOE (including the National Nuclear Security Administration [NNSA]). The DOE 2012 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report provides an evaluation of DOE-wide performance regarding compliance with Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations (C.F.R.), Part 835, Occupational Radiation Protection dose limits and as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) process requirements. In addition, the report provides data to DOE organizations responsible for developing policies for protection of individuals from the adverse health effects of radiation. The report provides a summary and an analysis of occupational radiation exposure information from the monitoring of individuals involved in DOE activities. Over the past 5-year period, the occupational radiation exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site.

  20. DOE 2011 occupational radiation exposure

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2012-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Analysis within the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report to provide an overview of the status of radiation protection practices at DOE (including the National Nuclear Security Administration [NNSA]). The DOE 2011 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report provides an evaluation of DOE-wide performance regarding compliance with Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations (C.F.R.), Part 835, Occupational Radiation Protection dose limits and as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) process requirements. In addition, the report provides data to DOE organizations responsible for developing policies for protection of individuals from the adverse health effects of radiation. The report provides a summary and an analysis of occupational radiation exposure information from the monitoring of individuals involved in DOE activities. The occupational radiation exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site over the past five years.

  1. Formaldehyde.

    PubMed

    Pontén, Ann; Bruze, Magnus

    2015-01-01

    Formaldehyde is the American Contact Dermatitis Society Contact Allergen of the Year for 2015. The exposure is widespread, and contact allergy might be difficult to suspect in the individual dermatitis patient. The relevance of contact allergy to formaldehyde might also be difficult to evaluate. Recently, however, several studies have been performed aimed at enhancing the patch test technique and evaluating the clinical relevance of contact allergy to formaldehyde. The patch test concentration of formaldehyde has been recommended by the European Environmental Contact Dermatitis Research Group to be 2.0%, that is, the dose of 0.60 mg/cm (wt/vol) instead of 1.0%, which is the concentration previously used for the baseline series in most countries. Without causing any more irritant reactions, the patch test concentration of 2.0% detects twice as many contact allergies and enables the diagnosis of formaldehyde-allergic patients who otherwise would have been missed. The studies that underpin the decision were performed in Europe and partly in the United States. The Finn Chamber patch test system was used. The allergen dose per area was kept uniform with a micropipette. This report describes the background for routinely using formaldehyde 2.0% instead of 1.0% and for using a micropipette when applying the test solution. PMID:25581665

  2. Occupational Chemical Exposures Among Cosmetologists

    PubMed Central

    Pak, Victoria M.; Powers, Martha; Liu, Jianghong

    2014-01-01

    More research is needed to understand possible occupational reproductive risks for cosmetologists, specifically hairdressers and nail technicians, two occupations that often share workspace and exposure to hair dyes and nail polish. Cosmetologists are predominantly females of reproductive age; thus, they may be at higher risk for the effects of exposure to reproductive toxins. The purpose of this article is to inform nurses and public health professionals about occupational exposures for cosmetologists and discuss interventions to reduce the risks of reproductive disorders among susceptible worker populations. PMID:24328919

  3. DOE 2009 occupational radiation exposure

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2010-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Corporate Safety Analysis (HS-30) within the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report to provide an overview of the status of radiation protection practices at DOE.* The DOE 2009 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report provides an evaluation of DOE-wide performance regarding compliance with DOE Part 835 dose limits and as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) process requirements. In addition, the report provides data to DOE organizations responsible for developing policies for protection of individuals from the effects of radiation. The report provides a summary and an analysis of occupational radiation exposure information from the monitoring of individuals involved in DOE activities. The occupational radiation exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site over the past 5 years.

  4. DOE 2010 occupational radiation exposure

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2011-11-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Analysis within the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report to provide an overview of the status of radiation protection practices at DOE.* The DOE 2010 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report provides an evaluation of DOE-wide performance regarding compliance with DOE Part 835 dose limits and as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) process requirements. In addition, the report provides data to DOE organizations responsible for developing policies for protection of individuals from the effects of radiation. The report provides a summary and an analysis of occupational radiation exposure information from the monitoring of individuals involved in DOE activities. The occupational radiation exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site over the past 5 years.

  5. DOE 2008 occupational radiation exposure

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2009-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Corporate Safety Analysis (HS-30) within the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report to provide an overview of the status of radiation protection practices at DOE. The DOE 2008 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report provides an evaluation of DOE-wide performance regarding compliance with DOE Part 835 dose limits and as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) process requirements. In addition, the report provides data to DOE organizations responsible for developing policies for protection of individuals from the effects of radiation. This report provides a summary and an analysis of occupational radiation exposure information from the monitoring of individuals involved in DOE activities. The occupational radiation exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site over the past 5 years.

  6. Chronic respiratory effects of indoor formaldehyde exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Krzyzanowski, M.; Quackenboss, J.J.; Lebowitz, M.D. )

    1990-08-01

    The relation of chronic respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function to formaldehyde (HCHO) in homes was studied in a sample of 298 children (6-15 years of age) and 613 adults. HCHO measurements were made with passive samplers during two 1-week periods. Data on chronic cough and phlegm, wheeze, attacks of breathlessness, and doctor diagnoses of chronic bronchitis and asthma were collected with self-completed questionnaires. Peak expiratory flow rates (PEFR) were obtained during the evenings and mornings for up to 14 consecutive days for each individual. Significantly greater prevalence rates of asthma and chronic bronchitis were found in children from houses with HCHO levels 60-120 ppb than in those less exposed, especially in children also exposed to environmental tobacco smoke. In children, levels of PEFR decreased linearly with HCHO exposure, with the estimated decrease due to 60 ppb of HCHO equivalent to 22% of PEFR level in nonexposed children. The effects in asthmatic children exposed to HCHO below 50 ppb were greater than in healthy ones. The effects in adults were less evident: decrements in PEFR due to HCHO over 40 ppb were seen only in the morning, and mainly in smokers.

  7. Exposure to Stress: Occupational Hazards in Hospitals

    MedlinePLUS

    EXPOSURE TO STRESS Occupational Hazards in Hospitals DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Exposure to Stress Occupational Hazards in Hospitals DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND ...

  8. In vitro study on cytotoxicity and intracellular formaldehyde concentration changes after exposure to formaldehyde and its derivatives.

    PubMed

    Ke, Y J; Qin, X D; Zhang, Y C; Li, H; Li, R; Yuan, J L; Yang, X; Ding, S M

    2014-08-01

    HeLa cells were exposed to formaldehyde and its metabolic derivatives, methanol, formic acid, and acetaldehyde, to investigate that the toxicity of formaldehyde is not caused by the chemical group. After 1 h of treatment with formaldehyde, mitochondrial assays showed that low concentrations (e.g. 10 ?mol/L) of formaldehyde promoted growth of the HeLa cells, while higher concentrations (e.g. ?62.5 ?mol/L) inhibited cell growth; while all four chemicals at a concentration of 125 ?mol/L affected cell growth, formaldehyde affected the largest. Reactive oxygen species concentration increased with the concentration of the exposure chemical. The endogenous formaldehyde content increased the most in the formaldehyde group, but in other three groups, it did not increase as the exposure concentration increased. Expression of dehydrogenase (formaldehyde dehydrogenase (FDH)) in the formaldehyde (10.40) and methanol (10.60) groups increased significantly compared with the control (1), while it was similar to the control in formic acid (0.90) and acetaldehyde (1.10) groups. Our results suggest that formaldehyde could affect cell activity and even enter cells. Exposure to formaldehyde changes the endogenous formaldehyde concentration in cells within 24 h, and this induces expression of FDH for formaldehyde degradation to maintain the formaldehyde balance. The toxicity of formaldehyde is not caused by the carbon atoms in the aldehyde, hydroxyl, or carboxyl groups. Formaldehyde is hypothesized to be an important signaling molecule in the regulation of cell growth and maintenance of the endogenous formaldehyde level. PMID:24220877

  9. Occupational asthma due to glutaraldehyde and formaldehyde in endoscopy and x ray departments.

    PubMed Central

    Gannon, P. F.; Bright, P.; Campbell, M.; O'Hickey, S. P.; Burge, P. S.

    1995-01-01

    BACKGROUND--Glutaraldehyde is the best disinfectant for fibreoptic endoscopes. It is also used in the processing of x ray films. A number of studies have reported eye, nose, and respiratory symptoms in exposed workers. Three individual case reports of occupational asthma in endoscopy workers and a radiographer have also been published. We describe a further seven cases of occupational asthma due to glutaraldehyde in endoscopy and x ray departments, together with exposure levels measured during the challenge tests and in 19 endoscopy and x ray departments in the region. METHODS--Eight workers were referred for investigation of suspected occupational asthma following direct or indirect exposure to glutaraldehyde at work. They were investigated by serial measurements of peak expiratory flow (PEF) and specific bronchial provocation tests. Glutaraldehyde levels were measured using personal and static short and longer term air samples during the challenge tests and in 13 endoscopy units and six x ray darkrooms in the region where concern about glutaraldehyde exposure had been expressed. Three of the workers investigated with occupational asthma came from departments where glutaraldehyde air measurements had been made; the others came from other hospitals or departments. RESULTS--The diagnosis of occupational asthma was confirmed in seven workers, all of whom had PEF records suggestive of occupational asthma and positive specific bronchial challenge tests to glutaraldehyde. Bronchial provocation testing was negative in one worker who was no longer exposed and who had a less clearcut history of occupational asthma. Three workers also had a positive specific bronchial challenge to formaldehyde. The mean level of glutaraldehyde in air during the challenge tests was 0.068 mg/m3, about one tenth of the short term occupational exposure standard of 0.7 mg/m3. The levels obtained in the challenge chamber were similar to those measured in 13 endoscopy suites and six x ray darkrooms where median short term levels were 0.16 mg/m3 during decantation in endoscopy suites and < 0.009 mg/m3 in darkrooms. CONCLUSIONS--Glutaraldehyde can cause occupational asthma. The exposure levels measured in the workplace suggest that sensitisation may occur at levels below the current occupational exposure standard. PMID:7701454

  10. 29 CFR 1910.1048 - Formaldehyde.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...observed. Some persons have developed asthma or bronchitis following exposure to formaldehyde...sensitizer which can cause occupational asthma in a previously normal individual. Formaldehyde can produce symptoms of bronchial asthma in humans. The mechanism may be...

  11. 29 CFR 1910.1048 - Formaldehyde.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...observed. Some persons have developed asthma or bronchitis following exposure to formaldehyde...sensitizer which can cause occupational asthma in a previously normal individual. Formaldehyde can produce symptoms of bronchial asthma in humans. The mechanism may be...

  12. 29 CFR 1910.1048 - Formaldehyde.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...observed. Some persons have developed asthma or bronchitis following exposure to formaldehyde...sensitizer which can cause occupational asthma in a previously normal individual. Formaldehyde can produce symptoms of bronchial asthma in humans. The mechanism may be...

  13. 29 CFR 1910.1048 - Formaldehyde.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...observed. Some persons have developed asthma or bronchitis following exposure to formaldehyde...sensitizer which can cause occupational asthma in a previously normal individual. Formaldehyde can produce symptoms of bronchial asthma in humans. The mechanism may be...

  14. 29 CFR 1910.1048 - Formaldehyde.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...observed. Some persons have developed asthma or bronchitis following exposure to formaldehyde...sensitizer which can cause occupational asthma in a previously normal individual. Formaldehyde can produce symptoms of bronchial asthma in humans. The mechanism may be...

  15. Health risks from indoor formaldehyde exposures in northwest weatherized residences

    SciTech Connect

    Mellinger, P.J.; Sever, L.E.

    1986-10-01

    Conflicting opinions on the potential hazards associated with formaldehyde exposure triggered a national workshop to address the toxicological questions concerning the health effects of formaldehyde. Since quantitative human data are not available to derive a dose-response curve for formaldehyde risk assessment, nonhuman data are used. In the case of formaldehyde, data from animals exposed to high concentrations are used to estimate human risk at much lower concentrations. This study presents the several steps that make up a risk assessment and examines any additional data that might alter significantly the risk estimates presented in the 1984 EIS. Rat inhalation chronic bioassay data from a study sponsored by the Chemical Industry Institute of Toxicology (CIIT) have been used to develop a risk equation that was subsequently used by BPA in its EIS. The CIIT data base remains the only acceptable animal data that can support the estimation of a dose-response curve. The development of mathematical models continues with a great deal of energy, and the use of different models is largely responsible for the great variability of the formaldehyde risk estimates. While one can calculate different values for carcinogenic risk associated with formaldehyde exposure than were presented earlier in the BPA EIS, they are not likely to be any better.

  16. DOE 2013 occupational radiation exposure

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2014-11-01

    The Office of Analysis within the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environment, Health, Safety and Security (EHSS) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report to provide an overview of the status of radiation protection practices at DOE (including the National Nuclear Security Administration [NNSA]). The DOE 2013 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report provides an evaluation of DOE-wide performance regarding compliance with Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations (C.F.R.), Part 835, Occupational Radiation Protection dose limits and as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) process requirements. In addition, the report provides data to DOE organizations responsible for developing policies for protection of individuals from the adverse health effects of radiation. The report provides a summary and an analysis of occupational radiation exposure information from the monitoring of individuals involved in DOE activities. Over the past five-year period, the occupational radiation exposure information has been analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site.

  17. Formaldehyde and LeukemiA: Epidemiology, Potential Mechanisms and Implications for Risk Assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    Formaldehyde is widely used in the United States and other countries. Occupational and environmental exposures to formaldehyde may be associated with an increased risk of leukemia in exposed individuals. However, risk assessment of formaldehyde and leukemia has been challenging ...

  18. Occupational exposure and lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Spyratos, Dionysios; Zarogoulidis, Paul; Porpodis, Konstantinos; Tsakiridis, Kosmas; Machairiotis, Nikolaos; Katsikogiannis, Nikolaos; Kougioumtzi, Ioanna; Dryllis, Georgios; Kallianos, Anastasios; Rapti, Aggeliki; Li, Chen; Zarogoulidis, Konstantinos

    2013-09-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death for male and the second most usual cancer for women after breast cancer. Currently there are available several non-specific cytotoxic agents and several targeted agents for lung cancer therapy. However; early stage diagnosis is still unavailable and several efforts are being made towards this direction. Novel biomarkers are being investigated along with new biopsy techniques. The occupational and environmental exposure to carcinogenic agents is an everyday phenomenon. Therefore until efficient early diagnosis is available, avoidance of exposure to carcinogenic agents is necessary. In the current mini-review occupational and environmental carcinogenic agents will be presented. PMID:24102018

  19. Occupational exposure and lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Spyratos, Dionysios; Porpodis, Konstantinos; Tsakiridis, Kosmas; Machairiotis, Nikolaos; Katsikogiannis, Nikolaos; Kougioumtzi, Ioanna; Dryllis, Georgios; Kallianos, Anastasios; Rapti, Aggeliki; Li, Chen; Zarogoulidis, Konstantinos

    2013-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death for male and the second most usual cancer for women after breast cancer. Currently there are available several non-specific cytotoxic agents and several targeted agents for lung cancer therapy. However; early stage diagnosis is still unavailable and several efforts are being made towards this direction. Novel biomarkers are being investigated along with new biopsy techniques. The occupational and environmental exposure to carcinogenic agents is an everyday phenomenon. Therefore until efficient early diagnosis is available, avoidance of exposure to carcinogenic agents is necessary. In the current mini-review occupational and environmental carcinogenic agents will be presented. PMID:24102018

  20. CHRONIC RESPIRATORY EFFECTS OF INDOOR FORMALDEHYDE EXPOSURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The relation of chronic respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function to formaldehyde (HCHO) in homes was studied in a sample of 298 children (6 - 15 years of age) and 613 adults. CHO measurements were made with passive samplers two one-week periods. ata on chronic cough and phlegm...

  1. Exposure to formaldehyde and glutardialdehyde in operating theatres.

    PubMed

    Binding, N; Witting, U

    1990-01-01

    The disinfection of operating theatres and adjoining areas is carried out with chemical disinfectants containing not only formaldehyde but also glutardialdehyde. The cleaning staff is therefore unavoidably exposed to these two substances. Adequate and correct evaluation of staff exposure must be based on exact quantification of these aldehydes in room air. The statutory MAK-levels of 0.5 ppm (formaldehyde) and 0.2 ppm (glutardialdehyde) call for highly sensitive and specific analytical methods for monitoring exposure that should be suited for personal measuring as well. Since previous methods have failed to meet these requirements, we have adapted a newly developed method for the specific measurement of formaldehyde and other aldehydes and ketones for the personal monitoring of formaldehyde and glutardialdehyde. Detailed personal measurings over whole shifts and of short-term peaks have yielded the following results: During routine disinfection activities in operating theatres using low concentrations of disinfectants, the limits prescribed by MAK can be respected. Disinfections to prevent notifiable infectious diseases in accordance with the Federal Epidemic Law (Bundesseuchengesetz) involving the use of higher disinfectant concentrations are liable to exceed the MAK limits for formaldehyde and glutardialdehyde. If for reasons of hygiene this excess exposure cannot be avoided, effective protection of the cleaning staff from unacceptably high concentrations of these substances can be ensured only by providing personal protective outfits. PMID:2112118

  2. Occupational Surveillance for Spaceflight Exposures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tarver, William J.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the importance of longterm occupational health surveillance of astronauts after exposure to the possible hazards of spaceflight. Because there is not much information about long term effects of spaceflight on human health, it is important to identify some of the possible results of exposure to the many possible factors that can influence longterm health impacts. This surveillance also allows for NASA to meet the obligation to care for the astronauts for their lifetime.

  3. Occupational exposure to chemical agents in the paper industry.

    PubMed

    Korhonen, K; Liukkonen, T; Ahrens, W; Astrakianakis, G; Boffetta, P; Burdorf, A; Heederik, D; Kauppinen, T; Kogevinas, M; Osvoll, P; Rix, B A; Saalo, A; Sunyer, J; Szadkowska-Stanczyk, I; Teschke, K; Westberg, H; Widerkiewicz, K

    2004-10-01

    As part of an International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) international epidemiological study of workers in the pulp and paper industry, previously unpublished exposure measurements were assembled in a database. This article summarizes the results of 3,873 measurements carried out in the production departments of paper and paperboard mills and recycling plants in 12 countries. In the paper and paperboard mills, most of the agents were measured in the pulping and refining departments and in on-machine coating and winding of paper/paperboard. Exposures to asbestos, carbon monoxide, formaldehyde, fungal spores, bacteria, nitrogen dioxide, minerals dusts, paper dust, sulphuric acid and different solvents sometimes exceeded exposure limit values. In the re-pulping and de-inking departments of recycling plants high exposures to formaldehyde, fungal spores, bacteria and paper dust were observed. High exposures to asbestos, bioaerosols, carbon monoxide and paper dust were found in many departments; ammonia, formaldehyde, mineral and paper dust and solvents were found in coating machines; and diphenyl and polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs) were found in some special circumstances. Measurements in the newsprint and uncoated paper machine departments revealed only a few elevated exposures. In nearly all departments, measurements of epichlorohydrin, PCBs, sulphur dioxide, hydrogen sulphide and mercaptans tended to be low, often even below their detection limits. In spite of some uncertainties in the measurement data, the study provides new insights into the level and variation of occupational exposures of production workers in the paper and paperboard industry. PMID:15368059

  4. Characterization of formaldehyde exposure resulting from the use of four professional hair straightening products.

    PubMed

    Pierce, J S; Abelmann, A; Spicer, L J; Adams, R E; Glynn, M E; Neier, K; Finley, B L; Gaffney, S H

    2011-11-01

    An exposure simulation study was conducted to characterize potential formaldehyde exposures of salon workers and clients during keratin hair smoothing treatments. Four different hair treatment brands (Brazilian Blowout, Coppola, Global Keratin, and La Brasiliana) were applied to separate human hair wigs mounted on mannequin heads. Short-term (6-16 min) and long-term (41-371 min) personal and area samples (at distances of 0.5 to 3.0 m from the source) were collected during each treatment for the 1-day simulation. A total of 88 personal, area, and clearance samples were collected. Results were analyzed based on task sampling (blow-dry, flat-iron), treatment sampling (per hair product), and time-weighted averages (per hair treatment, four consecutive treatments). Real-time monitoring of tracer gas levels, for determining the air exchange rate, and formaldehyde levels were logged throughout the simulation. Bulk samples of each hair treatment were collected to identify and quantify formaldehyde and other chemical components that may degrade to formaldehyde under excessive heat. Mean airborne concentrations of formaldehyde ranged from 0.08-3.47 ppm during blow-dry and 0.08-1.05 ppm during flat-iron. During each treatment, the mean airborne concentrations ranged from 0.02-1.19 ppm throughout different zones of the salon. Estimated 8-hr time-weighted averages for one treatment per day ranged from 0.02 ppm for La Brasiliana to 0.08-0.16 ppm for Brazilian Blowout. For four treatments per day, means ranged from 0.04-0.05 ppm for La Brasiliana to 0.44-0.75 ppm for Brazilian Blowout. Using all four products in one day resulted in estimated 8-hr time-weighted averages ranging from 0.17-0.29 ppm. Results from bulk sampling reported formaldehyde concentrations of 11.5% in Brazilian Blowout, 8.3% in Global Keratin, 3% in Coppola, and 0% in La Brasiliana. Other products that degrade into formaldehyde were detected in Global Keratin, Coppola, and La Brasiliana. The results of this study show that professional hair smoothing treatments--even those labeled "formaldehyde-free"--have the potential to produce formaldehyde concentrations that meet or exceed current occupational exposure limits. PMID:22035353

  5. Formaldehyde in pathology departments.

    PubMed Central

    Clark, R P

    1983-01-01

    Toxic effects of formaldehyde in humans are discussed in relation to occupational exposure and tolerance to this agent. Carcinogenic and mutagenic properties of formaldehyde have been reported in animals and this has led to concern about a possible role in human cancer. The current state of affairs is reviewed in the light of a lack of direct evidence linking formaldehyde with cancer in man and in relation to recommended exposure levels. It is important to employ effective means of containment and practical methods for reducing exposure to formaldehyde in pathology departments and post-mortem rooms are described. Images PMID:6223948

  6. Non-occupational exposure to silica dust.

    PubMed

    Bhagia, L J

    2012-09-01

    Occupational exposure to silica occurs at workplaces in factories like quartz crushing facilities (silica flour milling), agate, ceramic, slate pencil, glass, stone quarries and mines, etc., Non-occupational exposure to silica dust can be from industrial sources in the vicinity of the industry as well as non-industrial sources. Recently, public concern regarding non-occupational or ambient exposure to crystalline silica has emerged making it important to gather information available on non-occupational exposures to silica dust and non-occupational silicosis. This paper reviews various non-occupational exposures reported in literature including some studies by the author. Methodology used in assessment of non-occupational exposures, standards for non-occupational exposures to silica dust and indirect estimation of cumulative risk % are also discussed. PMID:23776316

  7. Non-occupational exposure to silica dust

    PubMed Central

    Bhagia, L. J.

    2012-01-01

    Occupational exposure to silica occurs at workplaces in factories like quartz crushing facilities (silica flour milling), agate, ceramic, slate pencil, glass, stone quarries and mines, etc., Non-occupational exposure to silica dust can be from industrial sources in the vicinity of the industry as well as non-industrial sources. Recently, public concern regarding non-occupational or ambient exposure to crystalline silica has emerged making it important to gather information available on non-occupational exposures to silica dust and non-occupational silicosis. This paper reviews various non-occupational exposures reported in literature including some studies by the author. Methodology used in assessment of non-occupational exposures, standards for non-occupational exposures to silica dust and indirect estimation of cumulative risk % are also discussed. PMID:23776316

  8. Formaldehyde Exposure and Asthma in Children: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    McGwin, Gerald; Lienert, Jeffrey; Kennedy, John I.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Despite multiple published studies regarding the association between formaldehyde exposure and childhood asthma, a consistent association has not been identified. Here we report the results of a systematic review of published literature in order to provide a more comprehensive picture of this relationship. Data sources After a comprehensive literature search, we identified seven peer-reviewed studies providing quantitative results regarding the association between formaldehyde exposure and asthma in children. Studies were heterogeneous with respect to the definition of asthma (e.g., self-report, physician diagnosis). Most of the studies were cross-sectional. Data extraction For each study, an odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for asthma were either abstracted from published results or calculated based on the data provided. Characteristics regarding the study design and population were also abstracted. Data synthesis We used fixed- and random-effects models to calculate pooled ORs and 95% CIs; measures of heterogeneity were also calculated. A fixed-effects model produced an OR of 1.03 (95% CI, 1.02–1.04), and random effects model produced an OR of 1.17 (95% CI, 1.01–1.36), both reflecting an increase of 10 ?g/m3 of formaldehyde. Both the Q and I2 statistics indicated a moderate amount of heterogeneity. Conclusions Results indicate a significant positive association between formaldehyde exposure and childhood asthma. Given the largely cross-sectional nature of the studies underlying this meta-analysis, further well-designed prospective epidemiologic studies are needed. PMID:20064771

  9. Occupational Exposures and Longitudinal Lung Function Decline

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Shu-Yi; Lin, Xihong; Christiani, David C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Few longitudinal studies have been conducted on occupational exposure and lung function. This study investigated occupational dust exposure effects on lung function and whether genetic variants influence such effects. Methods The study population (1,332 participants) was from the Framingham Heart Study, in which participant lung function measures were available from up to five examinations over nearly 17 years. Occupational dust exposures were classified into “more” and “less” likely dust exposure. We used linear mixed effects models for the analysis. Results Participants with more likely dust exposure had a mean 4.5 mL/year excess loss rate of FEV1 over time. However, occupational dust exposures alone or interactions with age or time had no significant effect on FEV1/FVC. No statistically significant effects of genetic modifications in the different subgroups were identified for FEV1 loss. Conclusions Occupational dust exposures may accelerate the rate of FEV1 loss but not FEV1/FVC loss. PMID:25384732

  10. Exposure to low molecular weight isocyanates and formaldehyde in foundries using hot box core binders.

    PubMed

    Westberg, Håkan; Löfstedt, Håkan; Seldén, Anders; Lilja, Bengt-Gunnar; Nayström, Peter

    2005-11-01

    Emissions from a chemical core binder system (Hot Box) based on a formaldehyde-carbamide resin have been investigated. The binder is used in some Swedish die-casting foundries. During core-making and casting, low molecular monoisocyanates, in particular methyl isocyanate (MIC) and isocyanic acid (ICA), were identified. Exposure to air concentrations of MIC, ICA and formaldehyde were subsequently determined in all Swedish foundries using the Hot Box binder, and involved three brass and one grey iron foundry. The survey was carried out in the winter period of 2001, and involved core-makers, casters and fettlers in the brass foundries, whereas only core-makers were included in the grey iron foundry. For each worker, four to five short-term samples of isocyanates (n = 298) and one 8 h sample of formaldehyde (n = 64) were collected during one shift for 15 die-casters, 39 core-makers and 10 other workers in the foundry. The air concentrations of the MIC short-term samples varied between <4 and 68 microg m(-3), with corresponding ICA levels between <4 and 280 microg m(-3). Calculated 8 h time weighted average air concentrations of MIC, based on short-term samples for each individual, varied between <4 and 31 microg m(-3); for ICA the corresponding levels varied from <4 to 190 microg m(-3). The formaldehyde time weighted average concentration levels ranged from 14 to 1600 microg m(-3), and the Swedish occupational exposure limit (600 microg m(-3)) was exceeded only in 3% of the samples. In general, the core-makers were exposed to higher average formaldehyde levels compared to the casters, the latter being more exposed to monoisocyanates. During core-making and die-casting, low molecular monoisocyanates, in particular MIC and ICA, were identified. Compared to the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) threshold limit value-time weighted average (TLV-TWA) for MIC, the exposures were low. The lack of toxicological and human data for ICA and the relatively high air concentrations call for medical examination and preventive measures in production, ventilation and the use of personal safety equipment in the investigated foundries. PMID:16126762

  11. DOE occupational radiation exposure 2006 report

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2006-12-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Corporate Safety Analysis (HS-30) within the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report to provide an overview of the status of radiation protection practices at DOE. This report provides a summary and an analysis of occupational radiation exposure information for all monitored individuals associated with DOE activities. The occupational radiation exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site over the past five years.

  12. DOE occupational radiation exposure 2005 report

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2005-12-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Offi ce of Corporate Safety Analysis (HS-30) within the Office of Health Safety and Security (HSS) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report to provide an overview of the status of radiation protection practices at DOE. This report provides a summary and an analysis of occupational radiation exposure information for all monitored individuals associated with the DOE activities. The occupational radiation exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site over the past 5 years.

  13. INSTRUCTION CONCERNING RISKS FROM OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION EXPOSURE

    E-print Network

    Hammack, Richard

    INSTRUCTION CONCERNING RISKS FROM OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION EXPOSURE This instructional material the health risks from exposure to ionizing radiation. A question and answer format has been used study. The biological effects that are known to occur after exposure to high doses (hundreds of rem

  14. Identification of Gene Markers for Formaldehyde Exposure in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Li, Guang-Yong; Lee, Hye-Young; Shin, Ho-Sang; Kim, Hyeon-Young; Lim, Cheol-Hong; Lee, Byung-Hoon

    2007-01-01

    Background Formaldehyde (FA) is classified as a human carcinogen and has been linked to increased leukemia rates in some epidemiologic studies. Inhalation of FA induces sensory irritation at relatively low concentrations. However, little is known concerning the cellular alterations observed after FA exposure in humans. Objectives Our aim was to profile global gene expression in Hs 680.Tr human tracheal fibroblasts exposed to FA and to develop biomarkers for the evaluation of FA exposure in humans. Methods and Results We used gene expression analysis, and identified 54 genes designated as FA responsive. On the basis of these data, we conducted an exploratory analysis of the expression of these genes in human subjects exposed to high or low levels of FA. We monitored FA exposure by measuring the urinary concentration of thiazolidine-4-carboxylate (TZCA), a stable and quantitative cysteinyl adduct of FA. Nine genes were selected for real-time PCR analysis; of these, BHLHB2, CCNL1, SE20-4, C8FW, PLK2, and SGK showed elevated expression in subjects with high concentrations of TZCA. Conclusion The identification of gene marker candidates in vitro using microarray analysis and their validation using human samples obtained from exposed subjects is a good tool for discovering genes of potential mechanistic interest and biomarkers of exposure. Thus, these genes are differentially expressed in response to FA and are potential effect biomarkers of FA exposure. PMID:17938736

  15. Formaldehyde

    Cancer.gov

    Formaldehyde is a colorless, strong-smelling, flammable chemical that is produced industrially and used in building materials such as particleboard, plywood, and other pressed-wood products. In addition, it is commonly used as a fungicide, germicide, and disinfectant, and as a preservative in mortuaries and medical laboratories. Formaldehyde also occurs naturally in the environment. It is produced during the decay of plant material in the soil and during normal chemical processes in most living organisms.

  16. Formaldehyde exposure induces autophagy in testicular tissues of adult male rats.

    PubMed

    Han, Shui-Ping; Zhou, Dang-Xia; Lin, Pu; Qin, Zhen; An, Lu; Zheng, Lie-Rui; Lei, Li

    2015-03-01

    Formaldehyde, a ubiquitous environmental pollutant, has long been suspected of causing adverse male reproductive effects. However, the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying this phenomenon remain elusive. The overall aim of this study is to clarify the role of autophagy in male reproductive injuries induced by formaldehyde exposure, by which we can further understand the molecular mechanism of spermatogenesis and develop new targets for prevention and treatment of male infertility. In this study, electron microscopy, Western blot, and RT-PCR analysis were used to detect autophagy in testicular tissues. Moreover, testicular weights, histopathology, and morphometry were used to evaluate the reproductive injuries of formaldehyde exposure. We found that formaldehyde exposure-induced autophagy in testicular tissues was dose dependent. Increasing autophagosomes in spermatogenetic cells was observed by electron microscopy in formaldehyde exposure group. In addition, RT-PCR and Western blot analysis showed the transcription levels of the LC3-II, as well as the conversion from LC3-I to LC3-II, an indicator of autophagy, significantly increased in testicular tissue of formaldehyde exposure group in a dose dependent manner when compared with those in control group. Furthermore, the alterations of autophage were basically consistent with the changes in testicular weight and morphologic findings. In summary, formaldehyde exposure triggered autophagy, and autophagy may be a scathing factor responsible for male reproductive impairment induced by formaldehyde. PMID:24142868

  17. Dose level of occupational exposure in China.

    PubMed

    Tian, Yuan; Zhang, Liang'an; Ju, Yongjian

    2008-01-01

    This paper discusses the dose level of Chinese occupational exposures during 1986-2000. Data on occupational exposures from the main categories in nuclear fuel cycle (uranium enrichment and conversion, fuel fabrication, reactor operation, waste management and research activity, except for uranium mining and milling because of the lack of data), medical uses of radiation (diagnostic radiation, nuclear medicine and radiotherapy) and industrial uses of radiation (industrial radiography and radioisotope production) are presented and summarised in detail. These are the main components of occupational exposures in China. In general, the average annual effective doses show a steady decreasing trend over periods: from 2.16 to 1.16 mSv in medical uses of radiation during 1990-2000; from 1.92 to 1.18 mSv in industrial radiography during 1990-2000; from 8.79 to 2.05 mSv in radioisotope production during the period 1980-2000. Almost all the average annual effective doses in discussed occupations were lower than 5 mSv in recent years (except for well-logging: 6.86 mSv in 1999) and no monitored workers were found to have received the occupational exposure exceeding 50 mSv in a single year or 100 mSv in a five-year period. So the Chinese protection status of occupation exposure has been improved in recent years. However, the average annual effective doses in some occupations, such as diagnostic radiology and coal mining, were still much higher than that of the whole world. There are still needs for further improvement and careful monitoring of occupational exposure to protect every worker from excessive occupational exposure, especially for the workers who were neglected before. PMID:17878147

  18. Occupational Exposure to Carbon Nanotubes and Nanofibers

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Topics Publications and Products Programs Contact NIOSH Current Intelligence Bulletin 65: Occupational Exposure to Carbon Nanotubes and ... his or her work experience. NIOSH issues Current Intelligence Bulletins (CIBs) to disseminate new scientific information about ...

  19. Occupational Pesticide Exposures and Respiratory Health

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Ming; Beach, Jeremy; Martin, Jonathan W.; Senthilselvan, Ambikaipakan

    2013-01-01

    Pesticides have been widely used to control pest and pest-related diseases in agriculture, fishery, forestry and the food industry. In this review, we identify a number of respiratory symptoms and diseases that have been associated with occupational pesticide exposures. Impaired lung function has also been observed among people occupationally exposed to pesticides. There was strong evidence for an association between occupational pesticide exposure and asthma, especially in agricultural occupations. In addition, we found suggestive evidence for a link between occupational pesticide exposure and chronic bronchitis or COPD. There was inconclusive evidence for the association between occupational pesticide exposure and lung cancer. Better control of pesticide uses and enforcement of safety behaviors, such as using personal protection equipment (PPE) in the workplace, are critical for reducing the risk of developing pesticide-related symptoms and diseases. Educational training programs focusing on basic safety precautions and proper uses of personal protection equipment (PPE) are possible interventions that could be used to control the respiratory diseases associated with pesticide exposure in occupational setting. PMID:24287863

  20. [Nanosilver--Occupational exposure limits].

    PubMed

    ?widwi?ska-Gajewska, Anna Maria; Czerczak, S?awomir

    2015-01-01

    Historically, nanosilver has been known as colloidal silver composed of particles with a size below 100 nm. Silver nanoparticles are used in many technologies, creating a wide range of products. Due to antibacterial properties nanosilver is used, among others, in medical devices (wound dressings), textiles (sport clothes, socks), plastics and building materials (paints). Colloidal silver is considered by many as an ideal agent in the fight against pathogenic microorganisms, unlike antibiotics, without side effects. However, in light of toxicological research, nanosilver is not inert to the body. The inhalation of silver nanoparticles have an adverse effect mainly on the liver and lung of rats. The oxidative stress caused by reactive oxygen species is responsible for the toxicity of nanoparticles, contributing to cytotoxic and genotoxic effects. The activity of the readily oxidized nanosilver surface underlies the molecular mechanism of toxicity. This leads to the release of silver ions, a known harmful agent. Occupational exposure to silver nanoparticles may occur in the process of its manufacture, formulation and also usage during spraying, in particular. In Poland, as well as in other countries of the world, there is no separate hygiene standards applicable to nanomaterials. The present study attempts to estimate the value of MAC-TWA (maximum admissible concentration--the time-weighted average) for silver--a nano-objects fraction, which amounted to 0.01 mg/m3. The authors are of the opinion that the current value of the MAC-TWA for silver metallic--inhalable fraction (0.05 mg/m3) does not provide sufficient protection against the harmful effects of silver in the form of nano-objects. PMID:26325054

  1. DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure, 2001 report

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2001-12-31

    The goal of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is to conduct its operations, including radiological, to ensure the safety and health of all DOE employees, contractors, and subcontractors. The DOE strives to maintain radiation exposures to its workers below administrative control levels and DOE limits and to further reduce these exposures to levels that are “As Low As Reasonably Achievable” (ALARA). The 2001 DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report provides a summary and analysis of the occupational radiation exposure received by individuals associated with DOE activities. The DOE mission includes stewardship of the nuclear weapons stockpile and the associated facilities, environmental restoration of DOE, and energy research.

  2. Formaldehyde exposure impairs the function and differentiation of NK cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eun-Mi; Lee, Hwa-Youn; Lee, Eun-Hee; Lee, Ki-Mo; Park, Min; Ji, Kon-Young; Jang, Ji-Hun; Jeong, Yun-Hwa; Lee, Kwang-Ho; Yoon, Il-Joo; Kim, Su-Man; Jeong, Moon-Jin; Kim, Kwang Dong; Kang, Hyung-Sik

    2013-11-25

    We investigated the cytotoxic effects of formaldehyde (FA) on lymphocytes. FA-exposed mice showed a profound reduction not only in the number of natural killer (NK) cells but also in the expression of NK cell-specific receptors, but these mice did not exhibit decreases in the numbers of T or B lymphocytes. FA exposure also induced decreases in NK cytolytic activity and in the expression of NK cell-associated genes, such as IFN-?, perforin and CD122. To determine the effect of FA on tumorigenicity, C57BL/6 mice were subcutaneously injected with B16F10 melanoma cells after FA exposure. The mass of the B16F10 tumor and the concentration of extravascular polymorphonuclear leukocytes were greater than those in unexposed tumor-bearing control mice. The number and cytolytic activity of NK cells were also reduced in B16F10 tumor-bearing mice exposed to FA. To determine how FA reduces the NK cell number, NK precursor (pNK) cells were treated with FA, and the differentiation status of the NK cells was analyzed. NK cell differentiation was impaired by FA treatment in a concentration-dependent manner. These findings indicate that FA exposure may promote tumor progression by impairing NK cell function and differentiation. PMID:24060340

  3. Brain cancer and occupational exposure to lead.

    PubMed

    Cocco, P; Dosemeci, M; Heineman, E F

    1998-11-01

    A recent report in the literature suggested a link between occupational exposure to lead and brain cancer. To explore the hypothesis, we applied a job-exposure matrix for lead to the occupation and industry codes given on the death certificate of 27,060 brain cancer cases and 108,240 controls who died of non-malignant diseases in 24 US states in 1984-1992. Brain cancer risk increased by probability of exposure to lead among Caucasian men and women with high-level exposure, with a significant twofold excess among Caucasian men with high probability and high level of exposure to lead (odds ratio = 2.1; 95% confidence interval, 1.1-4.0). Risks were also elevated in the low- and medium-probability cells for African-American men with high-level exposure to lead. Trend by intensity level was statistically significant among African-American men (all probabilities combined). Although exposure assessment was based solely on the occupation and industry reported on the death certificate, these results add to other epidemiologic and experimental findings in lending some support to the hypothesis of an association between occupational exposure to lead and brain cancer risk. Analytic studies are warranted to further test this hypothesis. PMID:9830598

  4. DOE occupational radiation exposure 2007 report

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2007-12-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Corporate Safety Analysis (HS-30) within the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report to provide an overview of the status of radiation protection practices at DOE.* The annual DOEOccupational Radiation Exposure 2007 Report provides an evaluation of DOE-wide performance regarding compliance with DOE Part 835 dose limits and ALARA process requirements. In addition the report provides data to DOE organizations responsible for developing policies for protection of individuals from the effects of radiation. This report provides a summary and an analysis of occupational radiation exposure information from the monitoring of individuals involved in DOE activities. The occupational radiation exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site over the past five years.

  5. Formaldehyde

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Formaldehyde ; CASRN 50 - 00 - 0 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Effec

  6. OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE INCIDENT REPORT Student's Name __________________Signature _______________________Date/Time___________

    E-print Network

    Alford, Simon

    OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE INCIDENT REPORT Student's Name __________________Signature _______________________Date/Time___________ Location where exposure occurred # __________________________________________Pager #___________________________ Date of Exposure ____/_____/____Time ______am__ pm __ Contacted

  7. Preliminary study: Formaldehyde exposure in laboratories of Sharjah university in UAE

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Hafiz Omer

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Laboratory technicians, students, and instructors are at high risk, because they deal with chemicals including formaldehyde. Thus, this preliminary study was conducted to measure the concentration of formaldehyde in the laboratories of the University of Sharjah in UAE. Materials and Methods: Thirty-two air samples were collected and analyzed for formaldehyde using National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) method 3500. In this method, formaldehyde reacts with chromotropic acid in the presence of sulfuric acid to form a colored solution. The absorbance of the colored solution is read in spectrophotometer at wavelength 580 nm and is proportional to the quantity of the formaldehyde in the solution. Results: For the anatomy laboratory and in the presence of the covered cadaver, the mean concentration of formaldehyde was found to be 0.100 ppm with a range of 0.095–0.105 ppm. Whereas for the other laboratories, the highest mean concentration of formaldehyde was 0.024 ppm in the general microbiology laboratory and the lowest mean concentration of formaldehyde was 0.001 ppm in the environmental health laboratory. The 8-hour (time-weighted average) concentration of formaldehyde was found to be ranging between 0.0003 ppm in environmental health laboratory and 0.026 ppm in the anatomy laboratory. Conclusions: The highest level of concentration of formaldehyde in the presence of the covered cadaver in anatomy laboratory exceeded the recommended ceiling standard established by USA-NIOSH which is 0.1 ppm, but below the ceiling standard established by American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists which is 0.3 ppm. Thus, it is recommended that formaldehyde levels should be measured periodically specially during the dissection in the anatomy laboratory, and local exhaust ventilation system should be installed and personal protective equipment such as safety glass and gloves should be available and be used to prevent direct skin or eye contact. PMID:21808499

  8. Behavioral sensitization after repeated formaldehyde exposure in rats.

    PubMed

    Sorg, B A; Hochstatter, T

    1999-01-01

    Multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) is a phenomenon whereby individuals report increased sensitivity to chemicals in the environment, and attribute their sensitivities to prior exposure to the same or often structurally unrelated chemicals. A leading hypothesis suggests that MCS is akin to behavioral sensitization observed in rodents after repeated exposure to drugs of abuse or environmental stressors. Sensitization occurring within limbic circuitry of the central nervous system (CNS) may explain the multisymptom complaints in individuals with MCS. The present studies represent the continuing development of an animal model for MCS, the basis of which is the CNS sensitization hypothesis. Three behaviors were assessed in rats repeatedly exposed to formaldehyde (Form) inhalation. In the first series of experiments, rats were given high-dose Form exposure (11 parts per million [ppm]; 1 h/day x 7 days) or low-dose Form exposure (1 ppm; either 1 h/day x 7 days or 1 h/day x 5 days/week x 4 weeks). Within a few days after discontinuing daily Form, cocaine-induced locomotor activity was elevated after high-dose Form or 20 days of low-dose Form inhalation. Approximately 1 month later, cocaine-induced locomotor activity remained significantly elevated in the 20-day Form-exposed rats. The second experiment assessed whether prior exposure to Form (20 days, as above) would alter the ability to condition to an odor (orange oil) paired with footshock. The results suggested a tendency to increase the conditioned fear response to the odor but not the context of the footshock box, and a decreased tendency to extinguish the conditioned fear response to odor. The third experiment examined whether CNS sensitization to daily cocaine or stress would alter subsequent avoidance responding to odor (Form). Daily cocaine significantly elevated approach responses to Form, while daily stress pretreatment produced a trend in the opposite direction, producing greater avoidance of Form. Preliminary studies indicated that repeated daily Form inhalation (20 days, as above) produced a greater avoidance to subsequent Form presentation, suggesting that daily Form inhalation may serve as a stressor. The results support the hypothesis that repeated chemical exposure in rats may produce CNS plasticity manifest as greater sensitivity to dopaminergic drugs, enhanced fear conditioning to odor paired with an aversive event, and greater avoidance of odors. Some of these behavioral changes observed in rats may provide a link with symptoms in a subset of individuals with MCS. PMID:10416287

  9. OCCUPATIONAL SILICA EXPOSURE AND CHRONIC KIDNEY DISEASE

    PubMed Central

    Vupputuri, Suma; Parks, Christine G.; Nylander-French, Leena A.; Owen-Smith, Ashli; Hogan, Susan L.; Sandler, Dale P.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Occupational exposure to silica may be associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Most studies have been conducted in occupational cohorts with high levels of exposure but small numbers of cases. We analyzed data from a population-based case-control study of occupational silica exposure and CKD. Methods Cases were hospital patients with newly diagnosed CKD and community controls were selected using random digit dialing and frequency matched by age, gender, race and proximity to the hospital. Silica exposure estimates were assigned by industrial hygiene review of lifetime job history data and weighted for certainty and intensity. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate the odds ratios (ORs) for CKD conditioned on demographic, lifestyle and clinical variables. Results The mean age of participants was 62 years (range, 30-83 years), 56% were male and 54% were white. Any silica exposure (compared to none) was associated with a 40% increased risk of CKD (OR=1.40, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.04, 1.89) in a multivariable adjusted model. The mean cumulative duration of silica exposure was significantly higher in exposed cases than in exposed controls (33.4 vs. 24.8 years, respectively). Overall, compared to non-exposed participants, the ORs (95% CI) for those below and above the median duration of silica exposure were 1.20 (95% CI: 0.77, 1.86) and 1.76 (95% CI: 1.14, 2.71), respectively. Conclusions We found a positive relationship between occupational silica exposure and CKD. A dose-response trend of increasing CKD risk with increasing duration of silica exposure was observed and was particularly strong among non-whites. PMID:22032652

  10. Six year follow up of lung function in men occupationally exposed to formaldehyde.

    PubMed Central

    Nunn, A J; Craigen, A A; Darbyshire, J H; Venables, K M; Newman Taylor, A J

    1990-01-01

    The long term effects of formaldehyde on the respiratory tract have been investigated in a group of 164 workers exposed daily to the chemical during the production of urea formaldehyde resin, together with 129 workers not exposed to free formaldehyde. Exposure was classified as high (corresponding to an eight hour time weighted exposure of more than 2.0 ppm), medium (0.6 to 2.0 ppm), or low (0.1 to 0.5 ppm). Twenty five per cent of workers had had high exposure at some time and 17% moderate exposure. Both the exposed and unexposed groups had an annual assessment that included lung function. The proportion with self reported respiratory symptoms was similar in the two groups, 12% and 16% reporting breathlessness on hurrying and 26% and 20% wheezing. The initial forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) was within 0.5 l (approximately one standard deviation (SD)) of the predicted value (by age and height) in 65% of the exposed and 59% of unexposed workers and more than 0.5 l below the predicted value in 9% of exposed and 11% of unexposed workers. The mean decline in FEV1 was 42 ml a year (SD 45) in the exposed group and 41 ml a year in the unexposed group (SD 40 ml a year). The rate of decline showed the expected association with smoking in the unexposed group, but in the exposed group the mean rate of decline in the never smokers was similar to that in current smokers. There were, however, relatively few never smokers and considerable variation in the rates of decline. In the exposed group no association was found between the rate of decline and indices of exposure to formaldehyde. Thus there is no evidence from this study of an excess of respiratory symptoms or decline in lung function in the workers exposed to formaldehyde. The similar rate of decline of FEV1 however in never smokers and smokers of the exposed group is consistent with findings of other studies for workers exposed to formaldehyde and to toluene di-isocyanate. PMID:2245186

  11. Occupational exposure in dentistry and miscarriage

    PubMed Central

    Lindbohm, Marja?Liisa; Ylöstalo, Pekka; Sallmén, Markku; Henriks?Eckerman, Maj?Len; Nurminen, Tuula; Forss, Helena; Taskinen, Helena

    2007-01-01

    Background Information on the reproductive effects of chemical exposures in dental work is sparse or inconsistent. Aim To investigate whether dental workers exposed to acrylate compounds, mercury amalgam, solvents or disinfectants are at an increased risk of miscarriage. Methods The study was conducted among women dental workers and a comparison group of workers occupationally unexposed to dental restorative materials. Information on pregnancies was obtained from national registers and outpatient units of hospitals. Data on occupational exposure were obtained using postal questionnaires. The final study population included 222 cases of miscarriage and 498 controls (births). An occupational hygienist assessed exposure to acrylate compounds, disinfectants and solvents. Exposure to other agents was assessed on the basis of the questionnaire data. Odds ratios (ORs) and confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using conditional logistic regression. Results The ORs adjusted for confounding factors were increased for moderate?exposure and high?exposure categories of mercury amalgam (OR 2.0, 95% CI 1.0 to 4.1 and OR 1.3, 95% CI 0.6 to 2.5, respectively). The risk was slightly increased for the highest?exposure category of 2?hydroxyethylmethacrylate (OR 1.4, 95% CI 0.7 to 2.6) and polymethylmethacrylate dust (OR 1.4, 95% CI 0.8 to 2.4). A slightly increased risk was also detected for likely exposure to organic solvents (OR 1.4, 95% CI 0.8 to 2.3) and disinfectants (OR 1.5, 95% CI 0.9 to 2.7). Conclusions No strong association or consistent dose–response relationship was observed between exposure to chemical agents in dental work and the risk of miscarriage. A slightly increased risk was found for exposure to mercury amalgam, some acrylate compounds, solvents and disinfectants. These findings indicate that the possibility of a weak association between exposure to these agents and an increased risk of miscarriage cannot be excluded. PMID:17053021

  12. Occupational and adult lead exposure in Wisconsin.

    PubMed

    Garman, S; Anderson, H A; Moen, T

    2000-11-01

    Lead is a versatile metal with many industrial applications. It is among the oldest recognized occupational health hazards. Lead poisoning has been a reportable disease in Wisconsin since 1911. Although reportable, it was not until Wisconsin established an Occupational and Environmental Health Epidemiology program in 1979 that modern reporting levels were adopted, physician and laboratory reporting promoted and publicized, and elevated blood lead report tracking initiated. With the federal funding from the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), a comprehensive adult blood lead surveillance program was created in 1987. Eleven years of surveillance trend data reveal a Wisconsin success story. Most Wisconsin industries have made substantial strides toward reducing occupational lead exposure. The improvement is reflected in the reduced number of elevated blood lead levels in Wisconsin's adult blood lead surveillance data. However, Wisconsin must remain vigilant as new and re-emerging lead exposures continue to be identified through adult blood lead surveillance. Wisconsin will also need to continue with its occupational lead exposure reduction efforts if it is to achieve the Federal Healthy People 2010 goals and objectives to have no adult blood lead level greater than 25 micrograms/dL. PMID:11149254

  13. Occupational exposures in rare cancers: A critical review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Charbotel, B; Fervers, B; Droz, J P

    2014-05-01

    The contribution of occupational exposures to rare cancers, which represent 22% of all cancers diagnosed annually in Europe, remains insufficiently considered. We conducted a comprehensive review of occupational risk factors in 67 rare cancers (annual incidence <6/100,000). An examination of relevant articles in PubMed (1960-2012) and the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) monographs revealed that 26 cancer sites, such as mesothelioma, nasal, larynx, liver, ovarian cancer, bone sarcoma, and hematopoietic malignancies were consistently linked to occupational factors. Main exposures included asbestos, wood dust, metals/metalloids, formaldehyde, benzene, vinyl chloride, and radiation. There was inconsistent evidence regarding 22 rare malignancies. We did not identify relevant data for 19 rare cancers. Despite limitations of published evidence, our review provides useful information that can facilitate the identification of work-related factors that contribute to rare cancers. International collaborations, development of improved exposure assessment methods, and molecular approaches can improve future studies. PMID:24387944

  14. Malondialdehyde-Deoxyguanosine Adduct Formation in Workers of Pathology Wards. The Role of Air Formaldehyde Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Romanazzi, Valeria; Munnia, Armelle; Piro, Sara; Allione, Alessandra; Ricceri, Fulvio; Guarrera, Simonetta; Pignata, Cristina; Matullo, Giuseppe; Wang, Poguang; Giese, Roger W.; Peluso, Marco

    2010-01-01

    Background Formaldehyde is a ubiquitous pollutant to which humans are exposed. Pathologists can experience high formaldehyde exposure levels. Formaldehyde – among other properties – induce oxidative stress and free radicals, which react with DNA and lipids, leading to oxidative damage and lipid peroxidation, respectively. We measured the levels of air-formaldehyde exposure in a group of Italian pathologists and controls. We analyzed the effect of formaldehyde exposure on leukocyte malondialdehyde-deoxyguanosine adducts (M1-dG), a biomarker of oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation. We studied the relationship between air-formaldehyde and M1-dG adducts. Methods Air-formaldehyde levels were measured by personal air samplers. M1-dG adducts were analyzed by 32P-postlabelling assay. Results Reduction rooms pathologists were significantly exposed to air-formaldehyde in respect to controls and to the pathologists working in other laboratory areas (p<0.001). A significant difference for M1-dG adducts between exposed pathologists and controls was found (p=0.045). The effect becomes stronger when the evaluation of air-formaldehyde exposure was based on personal samplers (p=0.018). Increased M1dG adduct levels were only found in individuals exposed to air-formaldehyde concentrations higher than 66 ?g/m3. When the exposed workers and controls were subgrouped according to smoking, M1-dG tended to increase in all the subjects but a significant association between M1-dG and air-formaldehyde was only found in not smokers (p= 0.009). Air formaldehyde played a role positive but not significant (r = 0.355, p = 0.075, Pearson correlation) in the formation of M1-dG, only in not smokers. Conclusions Working in the reduction rooms and to be exposed to air-formaldehyde concentrations higher than 66 ?g/m3 is associated with increased levels of M1-dG adducts. PMID:20707408

  15. Recent trend in risk assessment of formaldehyde exposures from indoor air.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Gunnar Damgård; Larsen, Søren Thor; Wolkoff, Peder

    2013-01-01

    Studies about formaldehyde (FA) published since the guideline of 0.1 mg/m(3) by the World Health Organization (WHO) in 2010 have been evaluated; critical effects were eye and nasal (portal-of-entry) irritation. Also, it was considered to prevent long-term effects, including all types of cancer. The majority of the recent toxicokinetic studies showed no exposure-dependent FA-DNA adducts outside the portal-of-entry area and FA-DNA adducts at distant sites were due to endogenously generated FA. The no-observed-adverse-effect level for sensory irritation was 0.5 ppm and recently reconfirmed in hypo- and hypersensitive individuals. Investigation of the relationship between FA exposure and asthma or other airway effects in children showed no convincing association. In rats, repeated exposures showed no point mutation in the p53 and K-Ras genes at ?15 ppm neither increased cell proliferation, histopathological changes and changes in gene expression at 0.7 ppm. Repeated controlled exposures (0.5 ppm with peaks at 1 ppm) did not increase micronucleus formation in human buccal cells or nasal tissue (0.7 ppm) or in vivo genotoxicity in peripheral blood lymphocytes (0.7 ppm), but higher occupational exposures were associated with genotoxicity in buccal cells and cultivated peripheral blood lymphocytes. It is still valid that exposures not inducing nasal squamous cell carcinoma in rats will not induce nasopharyngeal cancer or lymphohematopoietic malignancies in humans. Reproductive and developmental toxicity are not considered relevant in the absence of sensory irritation. In conclusion, the WHO guideline has been strengthened. PMID:23179754

  16. Parental Occupational Exposures and Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCanlies, Erin C.; Fekedulegn, Desta; Mnatsakanova, Anna; Burchfiel, Cecil M.; Sanderson, Wayne T.; Charles, Luenda E.; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva

    2012-01-01

    Both self-report and industrial hygienist (IH) assessed parental occupational information were used in this pilot study in which 174 families (93 children with ASD and 81 unaffected children) enrolled in the Childhood Autism Risks from Genetics and Environment study participated. IH results indicated exposures to lacquer, varnish, and xylene…

  17. MINIMIZING OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE TO PESTICIDES: PERSONNEL MONITORING

    EPA Science Inventory

    This communication is presented with two objectives in mind. The first objective is to provide an introduction to personnel monitoring of occupational exposure to pesticides for those who are not familiar with this field of investigation. The second objective is to stimulate disc...

  18. Formaldehyde.

    PubMed

    Smith, A E

    1992-05-01

    In 1979 formaldehyde was projected into the toxicological limelight when Kerns and his group from the American Chemical Industry Institute of Toxicology (CIIT) released preliminary results of an inhalation study on male and female rats. Those animals exposed to 14.3 p.p.m. for 8 h/day and 5 days/week for up to 2 years showed the development of squamous cell carcinomas in a high proportion (55 per cent) of the animals. Rats similarly exposed to 5.6 p.p.m. were slightly affected with 0.85 per cent producing tumours. The next 10 years became a frenzy of activity by toxicologists, epidemiologists and industry groups, all striving to answer the question: 'Is formaldehyde a human carcinogen?'. This paper will attempt to examine the extent to which the question has been answered. It will consider how the industry responded to the initial shock finding and review the subsequent accumulation of animal and human data. It will also address the regulatory position and compare the steps taken in different countries to control the risk, and again consider how industry has responded to such regulatory forces. This review will necessarily only be able to cover the main issues and major conclusions as the extent of the subject is enormous. There are, however, a number of comprehensive texts on the subject should more information be required. PMID:1606311

  19. Human occupational and nonoccupational exposure to fibers.

    PubMed Central

    Esmen, N A; Erdal, S

    1990-01-01

    Human exposure to fibers in occupational and nonoccupational environments has been a health concern for nearly a century. In this review, selected results from the literature are presented to highlight the availability, limitations, and interpretive difficulties associated with the past and current human fiber exposure data sets. In the traditionally defined asbestos fibers, large amounts of the data available suffer from the diversity of sample collection and analysis methods. Two simple generalizations suggest that occupational exposures are several orders of magnitude higher than that of environmental exposures; and currently extant data and the current routine measurement practices present significant difficulties in the consistent interpretation of the data with respect to health effects. The data on the human exposures to man-made vitreous fibers are much more complete than the data on asbestos exposure, while exposure data on other man-made fibrous materials are lacking. The human exposure data to many minerals which, at times, exist in fibrous habit, are very scanty, and in view of the biological activity of some of these fibers, this lack may be of significant concern. PMID:2272324

  20. OCCUPATIONAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL EXPOSURES TO RADON: A PERSPECTIVE FOR MITIGATORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper compares normal environmental and occupational exposures to radon and radon decay products for the occupational group including radon mitigators and diagnosticians. ccupational exposures to radon and radon decay products and the associated high incidence of radiation-in...

  1. DOE occupational radiation exposure 1998 report

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    1998-12-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environment, Safety and Health with support from Environment Safety and Health Technical Information Services publishes the DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report. This report is intended to be a valuable tool for DOE/DOE contractor managers in managing radiological safety programs and to assist them in prioritizing resources. We appreciate the efforts and contributions from the various stakeholders within and outside DOE and hope we have succeeded in making the report more useful. This report includes occupational radiation exposure information for all monitored DOE employees, contractors, subcontractors, and visitors. The exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site. For the purposes of examining trends, data for the past 5 years are included in the analysis.

  2. DOE occupational radiation exposure 2004 report

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2004-12-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Corporate Performance Assessment (EH-3) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report. This report is intended to be a valuable tool for DOE and DOE contractor managers and workers in managing radiological safety programs and to assist them in prioritizing resources. We appreciate the efforts and contributions from the various stakeholders within and outside DOE to make the report most useful. This report includes occupational radiation exposure information for all monitored DOE employees, contractors, and subcontractors, as well as members of the public. DOE is defined to include the National Nuclear Security Administration sites. The exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site. For the purposes of examining trends, data for the past 5 years are included in the analysis.

  3. DOE occupational radiation exposure 1996 report

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    1996-12-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environment, Safety and Health publishes the DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report. This report is intended to be a valuable tool for DOE/DOE contractor managers in their management of radiological safety programs and to assist them in the prioritization of resources. We appreciate the efforts and contributions from the various stakeholders within and outside the DOE and hope we have succeeded in making the report more useful. This report includes occupational radiation exposure information for all DOE employees, contractors, subcontractors, and visitors. The exposure information is analyzed in terms of collective data, dose to individuals, and dose by site. For the purposes of examining trends, data for the past 5 years are included in the analysis.

  4. DOE occupational radiation exposure 2000 report

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2000-12-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Safety and Health publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report. This report is intended to be a valuable tool for DOE and DOE contractor managers in managing radiological safety programs and to assist them in prioritizing resources. We appreciate the efforts and contributions from the various stakeholders within and outside DOE in making this report most useful to them. This report includes occupational radiation exposure information for all monitored DOE employees, contractors, subcontractors, and visitors. The exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site. For the purposes of examining trends, data for the past 5 years are included in the analysis.

  5. DOE occupational radiation exposure 2002 report

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2002-12-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Corporate Performance Assessment (EH-3) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report. This report is intended to be a valuable tool for DOE and DOE contractor managers and workers in managing radiological safety programs and to assist them in prioritizing resources. We appreciate the efforts and contributions from the various stakeholders within and outside DOE to make the report most useful. This report includes occupational radiation exposure information for all monitored DOE employees, contractors, subcontractors, and members of the public. The exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site. For the purposes of examining trends, data for the past 5 years are included in the analysis.

  6. DOE occupational radiation exposure 2003 report

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2003-12-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Corporate Performance Assessment (EH-3) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report. This report is intended to be a valuable tool for DOE and DOE contractor managers and workers in managing radiological safety programs and to assist them in prioritizing resources. We appreciate the efforts and contributions from the various stakeholders within and outside DOE to make the report most useful. This report includes occupational radiation exposure information for all monitored DOE employees, contractors, subcontractors, and members of the public. DOE is defined to include the National Nuclear Security Administration sites. The exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site. For the purposes of examining trends, data for the past 5 years are included in the analysis.

  7. DOE occupational radiation exposure 1997 report

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    1997-12-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environment, Safety and Health publishes the DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report. This report is intended to be a valuable tool for DOE/DOE contractor managers in managing radiological safety programs and to assist them in prioritizing resources. We appreciate the efforts and contributions from the various stakeholders within and outside DOE and hope we have succeeded in making the report more useful. This report includes occupational radiation exposure information for all monitored DOE employees, contractors, subcontractors, and visitors. The exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site. For the purposes of examining trends, data for the past 5 years are included in the analysis.

  8. Nasal mucosa in workers exposed to formaldehyde: a pilot study.

    PubMed Central

    Boysen, M; Zadig, E; Digernes, V; Abeler, V; Reith, A

    1990-01-01

    This study evaluates the histological changes, especially the presence of possible precancerous lesions, in the nasal mucosa of workers exposed to formaldehyde. Nasal biopsies of 37 workers occupationally exposed to formaldehyde for more than five years and 37 age matched referents showed a higher degree of metaplastic alterations in the former group. In addition, three cases of epithelial dysplasia were observed among the exposed. These results indicate that formaldehyde may be potentially carcinogenic to man. Combination of this finding with the inconclusive epidemiological studies suggests that formaldehyde is a weak carcinogen and that occupational exposure to formaldehyde alone is insufficient to induce nasal cancer. Images PMID:2310715

  9. Dosimetry of N6-Formyllysine Adducts Following [13C2H2]-Formaldehyde Exposures in Rats

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    With formaldehyde as the major source of endogenous N6-formyllysine protein adducts, we quantified endogenous and exogenous N6-formyllysine in the nasal epithelium of rats exposed by inhalation to 0.7, 2, 5.8, and 9.1 ppm [13C2H2]-formaldehyde using liquid chromatography-coupled tandem mass spectrometry. Exogenous N6-formyllysine was detected in the nasal epithelium, with concentration-dependent formation in total as well as fractionated (cytoplasmic, membrane, nuclear) proteins, but was not detected in the lung, liver, or bone marrow. Endogenous adducts dominated at all exposure conditions, with a 6 h 9.1 ppm formaldehyde exposure resulting in one-third of the total load of N6-formyllysine being derived from exogenous sources. The results parallel previous studies of formaldehyde-induced DNA adducts. PMID:24087891

  10. Dosimetry of N?-formyllysine adducts following [¹³C²H?]-formaldehyde exposures in rats.

    PubMed

    Edrissi, Bahar; Taghizadeh, Koli; Moeller, Benjamin C; Kracko, Dean; Doyle-Eisele, Melanie; Swenberg, James A; Dedon, Peter C

    2013-10-21

    With formaldehyde as the major source of endogenous N?-formyllysine protein adducts, we quantified endogenous and exogenous N?-formyllysine in the nasal epithelium of rats exposed by inhalation to 0.7, 2, 5.8, and 9.1 ppm [¹³C²H?]-formaldehyde using liquid chromatography-coupled tandem mass spectrometry. Exogenous N?-formyllysine was detected in the nasal epithelium, with concentration-dependent formation in total as well as fractionated (cytoplasmic, membrane, nuclear) proteins, but was not detected in the lung, liver, or bone marrow. Endogenous adducts dominated at all exposure conditions, with a 6 h 9.1 ppm formaldehyde exposure resulting in one-third of the total load of N?-formyllysine being derived from exogenous sources. The results parallel previous studies of formaldehyde-induced DNA adducts. PMID:24087891

  11. Formaldehyde concentrations in biology department teaching facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Korky, J.K.; Schwarz, S.R.; Lustigman, B.K.

    1987-05-01

    As students and faculty in the biological sciences can attest, low grade exposure to formaldehyde by skin contact and inhalation during dissection is quite irritating. Health effects noted upon exposure to formaldehyde at concentrations of 0.1 to 5 ppm are burning of the eyes, lacrimation, and general irritation to the upper respiratory passages. Symptoms reported for higher exposures, 10 to 20 ppm, include coughing, tightening of the chest, headache and palpitation of the heart. Long exposures at 50 to 100 ppm or more might result in pulmonary edema, pneumonitis, and even death. There is also concern with regard to potential long term detrimental effects. Formaldehyde has been cited as a possible carcinogen in animals. It is a known mutagen in laboratory experimental systems involving Drosophilia, grasshoppers, flowering plants, fungi and bacteria. Animal testing has led investigators to postulate that the primary damage resulting from formaldehyde exposure may involve DNA synthesis and ribosomal RNA transcription. The National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health Administration (NIOSH) investigators have been studying occupational exposure to formaldehyde for over a decade in a variety of industries. This study was undertaken to assess formaldehyde concentrations in biology department dissecting facilities in the 1982-1983 academic year in order if routine dissection produces levels of formaldehyde which were unsafe according to NIOSH and OSHA standards. Chronic formaldehyde exposure is cause for greater concern than incidental exposure.

  12. Occupational lead exposure aboard a tall ship

    SciTech Connect

    Landrigan, P.J.; Straub, W.E.

    1985-01-01

    To evaluate occupational exposures to lead in shipfitters cutting and riveting lead-painted iron plates aboard an iron-hulled sailing vessel, the authors conducted an environmental and medical survey. Lead exposures in seven personal (breathing zone) air samples ranged from 108 to 500 micrograms/mT (mean 257 micrograms/mT); all were above the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) standard of 50 micrograms/mT. In two short-term air samples obtained while exhaust ventilation was temporarily disconnected, mean lead exposure rose to 547 micrograms/mT. Blood lead levels in ten shipfitters ranged from 25 to 53 micrograms/dl. Blood lead levels in shipfitters were significantly higher than in other shipyard workers. Smoking shipfitters had significantly higher lead levels than nonsmokers. Lead levels in shipfitters who wore respirators were not lower than in those who wore no protective gear. Four shipfitters had erythrocyte protoporphyrin (EP) concentrations above the adult upper normal limit of 50 micrograms/dl. A close correlation was found between blood lead and EP levels. Prevalence of lead-related symptoms was no higher in shipfitters than in other workers. These data indicate that serious occupational exposure to lead can occur in a relatively small boatyard.

  13. DOE occupational radiation exposure 1996 report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-31

    The goal of the US Department of Energy (DOE) is to conduct its radiological operations to ensure the health and safety of all DOE employees including contractors and subcontractors. The DOE strives to maintain radiation exposures to its workers below administrative control levels and DOE limits and to further reduce these exposures and releases to levels that are ``As Low As Reasonably Achievable`` (ALARA). The DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report, 1996 provides summary and analysis of the occupational radiation exposure received by individuals associated with DOE activities. The DOE mission includes stewardship of the nuclear weapons stockpile and the associated facilities, environmental restoration of DOE and precursor agency sites, and energy research. Collective exposure at DOE has declined by 80% over the past decade due to a cessation in opportunities for exposure during the transition in DOE mission from weapons production to cleanup, deactivation and decommissioning, and changes in reporting requirements and dose calculation methodology. In 1996, the collective dose decreased by 10% from the 1995 value due to decreased doses at five of the seven highest-dose DOE sites. For 1996, these sites attributed the reduction in collective dose to the completion of several decontamination and decommissioning projects, reduced spent fuel storage activities, and effective ALARA practices. This report is intended to be a valuable tool for managers in their management of radiological safety programs and commitment of resources.

  14. Formaldehyde exposure and its effects during pregnancy: Recommendations for laboratory attendance based on available data.

    PubMed

    Haffner, Matthew J; Oakes, Peter; Demerdash, Amin; Yammine, Kaissar Cesar; Watanabe, Koichi; Loukas, Marios; Tubbs, R Shane

    2015-11-01

    Formalin is commonly used in fixation of cadaveric specimens. Exposure to formaldehyde, a component of formalin and a known carcinogen, during gross anatomy laboratory dissection is a continuing concern for pregnant students and instructors. Since there is little literature on this specific topic, the current review was compiled in the hope of offering recommendations to pregnant students and instructors who are engaged in human anatomical dissection where formalin is used. Relevant articles were obtained through searches of PubMed and Google Scholar for the terms "formaldehyde," "pregnant," "formalin," and "exposure." A literature search was conducted for chemical information and articles about exposure as issued by government regulatory agencies and chemical companies that produce formaldehyde. This led to the compilation of 29 articles each of which included references to previous, relevant, human research. The reviewed literature contains data strongly suggesting that pregnancy can be affected by formaldehyde exposure. Therefore, on the basis our analysis, female students who might be pregnant should avoid formaldehyde exposure, including that in a gross anatomy laboratory. Instructors should find other means of ensuring anatomical competence for these students. Clin. Anat. 28:972-979, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26375478

  15. Investigation of Exposure to Formaldehyde from Preserved Biological Specimens. Status Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Consumer Product Safety Commission, Washington, DC.

    This investigation of formaldehyde exposure in school laboratories, where its principal source is from preserved biological specimens, was undertaken because of concern over exposure levels reported in the literature. Information was obtained in two ways. A limited survey of schools was conducted to determine extent of students' use of preserved…

  16. Identifying an indoor air exposure limit for formaldehyde considering both irritation and cancer hazards

    PubMed Central

    Golden, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Formaldehyde is a well-studied chemical and effects from inhalation exposures have been extensively characterized in numerous controlled studies with human volunteers, including asthmatics and other sensitive individuals, which provide a rich database on exposure concentrations that can reliably produce the symptoms of sensory irritation. Although individuals can differ in their sensitivity to odor and eye irritation, the majority of authoritative reviews of the formaldehyde literature have concluded that an air concentration of 0.3 ppm will provide protection from eye irritation for virtually everyone. A weight of evidence-based formaldehyde exposure limit of 0.1 ppm (100 ppb) is recommended as an indoor air level for all individuals for odor detection and sensory irritation. It has recently been suggested by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), the National Toxicology Program (NTP), and the US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) that formaldehyde is causally associated with nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC) and leukemia. This has led US EPA to conclude that irritation is not the most sensitive toxic endpoint and that carcinogenicity should dictate how to establish exposure limits for formaldehyde. In this review, a number of lines of reasoning and substantial scientific evidence are described and discussed, which leads to a conclusion that neither point of contact nor systemic effects of any type, including NPC or leukemia, are causally associated with exposure to formaldehyde. This conclusion supports the view that the equivocal epidemiology studies that suggest otherwise are almost certainly flawed by identified or yet to be unidentified confounding variables. Thus, this assessment concludes that a formaldehyde indoor air limit of 0.1 ppm should protect even particularly susceptible individuals from both irritation effects and any potential cancer hazard. PMID:21635194

  17. Soft tissue sarcoma and occupational exposures

    SciTech Connect

    Wingren, G.; Fredrikson, M.; Brage, H.N.; Nordenskjoeld, B.A.; Axelson, O. )

    1990-08-15

    The associations between soft tissue sarcoma (STS) and occupational exposures were studied in a case-referent study in the southeast of Sweden. Exposure information was obtained through mailed questionnaires to 96 cases, 450 randomly selected population referents, and 200 cancer referents. Odds ratios (OR), were calculated for various occupational groups, and particularly, for occupations with potential exposure to chlorinated phenoxy herbicides and chlorophenols. In the analyses based on population referents, increased risks for soft tissue sarcoma were seen for especially gardeners (OR = 4.1), but also railroad workers (OR = 3.1); construction workers with exposure to impregnating agents (OR = 2.3), asbestos (OR = 1.8), or pressure impregnating agents (OR = 1.7); and unspecified chemical workers with potential exposure to phenoxy herbicides and/or chlorophenols (OR = 1.6). A similar pattern appeared when cancer referents were used although the numerical values of the odds ratios became different. A grouping of jobs resulted in Mantel-Haensel OR from 1.5 to 1.9 for farmers and forestry workers, dependent on referents used and even more increased OR for railroad workers and unspecified chemical workers with potential exposure to phenoxy herbicides and chlorophenols. The results of the study confirm rather than refute that phenoxy herbicides and chlorophenols could be of etiologic importance for STS; the high risk for gardeners, although based on a small number of individuals, was unexpected and remains unclear. Also, since other cancers were used as referents, no definite problems of recall bias should obtain in this material. None of the exposed groups had a higher proportion of smokers than the unexposed group.

  18. Neurotoxic effects of occupational exposure to organotins

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, W.D.; Emmett, E.A.; Steiner, J.; Tureen, R.

    1981-08-01

    The authors gave 22 chemical workers neurological, psychiatric, and neuropsychological examinations and placed them in one of two groups according to their degree of exposure to trimethyltin chloride spillage during January 1978. Other chemicals to which they had been exposed were dimethyltin dichloride and methyl chloride. Specific and nonspecific symptoms of intoxication of the CNS showed a significantly greater frequency in the highly exposed group, including cycles of depression and destructive rage, each lasting a few hours. These observations should alert diagnosticians to this type of occupational exposure.

  19. Monitoring occupational exposure to cancer chemotherapy drugs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, E. S.; Connor, T. H.

    1996-01-01

    Reports of the health effects of handling cytotoxic drugs and compliance with guidelines for handling these agents are briefly reviewed, and studies using analytical and biological methods of detecting exposure are evaluated. There is little conclusive evidence of detrimental health effects from occupational exposure to cytotoxic drugs. Work practices have improved since the issuance of guidelines for handling these drugs, but compliance with the recommended practices is still inadequate. Of 64 reports published since 1979 on studies of workers' exposure to these drugs, 53 involved studies of changes in cellular or molecular endpoints (biological markers) and 12 described chemical analyses of drugs or their metabolites in urine (2 involved both, and 2 reported the same study). The primary biological markers used were urine mutagenicity, sister chromatid exchange, and chromosomal aberrations; other studies involved formation of micronuclei and measurements of urinary thioethers. The studies had small sample sizes, and the methods were qualitative, nonspecific, subject to many confounders, and possibly not sensitive enough to detect most occupational exposures. Since none of the currently available biological and analytical methods is sufficiently reliable or reproducible for routine monitoring of exposure in the workplace, further studies using these methods are not recommended; efforts should focus instead on wide-spread implementation of improved practices for handling cytotoxic drugs.

  20. Olfactory impairment after chronic occupational cadmium exposure.

    PubMed

    Rose, C S; Heywood, P G; Costanzo, R M

    1992-06-01

    Disorders of olfaction affect millions of Americans, but the extent to which occupational and environmental exposures contribute to these disorders is unknown. We examined 55 workers with chronic occupational exposure to cadmium fumes in a brazing operation. We estimated cadmium body burden using urinary cadmium levels and assessed cadmium-induced renal damage by urinary beta 2-microglobulin levels. We quantified olfactory function using a standardized test that measured two components of olfaction, butanol detection threshold and odor identification, and compared workers with a reference group. Forty-four percent of the cadmium-exposed workers were mildly hyposmic, and 13% were either moderately or severely hyposmic. In the reference group, 31% were mildly hyposmic, and the rest were normosmic. The workers with both high urinary cadmium levels and tubular proteinuria had the most significant olfactory dysfunction, with a selective defect in odor detection threshold. Our findings suggest that chronic occupational cadmium exposure sufficient to cause renal damage also is associated with impairment in olfactory function. PMID:1619490

  1. Epigenetic Changes Induced by Air Toxics: Formaldehyde Exposure Alters miRNA Expression Profiles in Human Lung Cells

    PubMed Central

    Rager, Julia E.; Smeester, Lisa; Jaspers, Ilona; Sexton, Kenneth G.; Fry, Rebecca C.

    2011-01-01

    Background Exposure to formaldehyde, a known air toxic, is associated with cancer and lung disease. Despite the adverse health effects of formaldehyde, the mechanisms underlying formaldehyde-induced disease remain largely unknown. Research has uncovered microRNAs (miRNAs) as key posttranscriptional regulators of gene expression that may influence cellular disease state. Although studies have compared different miRNA expression patterns between diseased and healthy tissue, this is the first study to examine perturbations in global miRNA levels resulting from formaldehyde exposure. Objectives We investigated whether cellular miRNA expression profiles are modified by formaldehyde exposure to test the hypothesis that formaldehyde exposure disrupts miRNA expression levels within lung cells, representing a novel epigenetic mechanism through which formaldehyde may induce disease. Methods Human lung epithelial cells were grown at air–liquid interface and exposed to gaseous formaldehyde at 1 ppm for 4 hr. Small RNAs and protein were collected and analyzed for miRNA expression using microarray analysis and for interleukin (IL-8) protein levels by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results Gaseous formaldehyde exposure altered the miRNA expression profiles in human lung cells. Specifically, 89 miRNAs were significantly down-regulated in formaldehyde-exposed samples versus controls. Functional and molecular network analysis of the predicted miRNA transcript targets revealed that formaldehyde exposure potentially alters signaling pathways associated with cancer, inflammatory response, and endocrine system regulation. IL-8 release increased in cells exposed to formaldehyde, and results were confirmed by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Conclusions Formaldehyde alters miRNA patterns that regulate gene expression, potentially leading to the initiation of a variety of diseases. PMID:21147603

  2. Antibody production in rats after long-term exposure to formaldehyde

    SciTech Connect

    Holmstroem, M.R.; Rynnel-Dagoeoe, B.Wi.; Wilhelmsson, B. )

    1989-09-01

    Sprague-Dawley rats were vaccinated with pneumococcal polysaccharide antigens and tetanus toxoid to evaluate the immunologic effects of long-term formaldehyde exposure. The antibody response to vaccination was measured 3 to 4 weeks later by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. An IgG response to pneumococcal polysaccharides and to tetanus toxoid was found in both the formaldehyde-exposed group and a control group of rats not exposed to formaldehyde. The IgM response to tetanus toxoid was significant in both groups but neither group showed a significant IgM response to pneumococcal polysaccharides. There were thus no signs of impaired B-cell function in rats exposed to a high concentration (12.6 ppm) of formaldehyde for nearly 2 years.

  3. Formaldehyde Exposure and Mortality Risks From Acute Myeloid Leukemia and Other Lymphohematopoietic Malignancies in the US National Cancer Institute Cohort Study of Workers in Formaldehyde Industries

    PubMed Central

    Dell, Linda D.; Boffetta, Paolo; Gallagher, Alexa E.; Crawford, Lori; Lees, Peter SJ.; Mundt, Kenneth A.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate associations between cumulative and peak formaldehyde exposure and mortality from acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and other lymphohematopoietic malignancies. Methods: Cox proportional hazards analyses. Results: Acute myeloid leukemia was unrelated to cumulative exposure. Hodgkin lymphoma relative risk estimates in the highest exposure categories of cumulative and peak exposures were, respectively, 3.76 (Ptrend = 0.05) and 5.13 (Ptrend = 0.003). There were suggestive associations with peak exposure observed for chronic myeloid leukemia, albeit based on very small numbers. No other lymphohematopoietic malignancy was associated with either chronic or peak exposure. Conclusions: Insofar as there is no prior epidemiologic evidence supporting associations between formaldehyde and either Hodgkin leukemia or chronic myeloid leukemia, any causal interpretations of the observed risk patterns are at most tentative. Findings from this re-analysis do not support the hypothesis that formaldehyde is a cause of AML. PMID:26147546

  4. DOE 2012 Occupational Radiation Exposure October 2013

    SciTech Connect

    2012-02-02

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Analysis within the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report to provide an overview of the status of radiation protection practices at DOE (including the National Nuclear Security Administration [NNSA]). The DOE 2012 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report provides an evaluation of DOE-wide performance regarding compliance with Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations (C.F.R.), Part 835, Occupational Radiation Protection dose limits and as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) process requirements. In addition, the report provides data to DOE organizations responsible for developing policies for protection of individuals from the adverse health effects of radiation. The report provides a summary and an analysis of occupational radiation exposure information from the monitoring of individuals involved in DOE activities. Over the past 5-year period, the occupational radiation exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site. As an indicator of the overall amount of radiation dose received during the conduct of operations at DOE, the report includes information on collective total effective dose (TED). The TED is comprised of the effective dose (ED) from external sources, which includes neutron and photon radiation, and the internal committed effective dose (CED), which results from the intake of radioactive material into the body. The collective ED from photon exposure decreased by 23% between 2011 and 2012, while the neutron dose increased by 5%. The internal dose components of the collective TED decreased by 7%. Over the past 5-year period, 99.99% of the individuals receiving measurable TED have received doses below the 2 roentgen equivalent in man (rems) (20 millisievert [mSv]) TED administrative control level (ACL), which is well below the DOE regulatory limit of 5 rems (50 mSv) TED annually. The occupational radiation exposure records show that in 2012, DOE facilities continued to comply with DOE dose limits and ACLs and worked to minimize exposure to individuals. The DOE collective TED decreased 17.1% from 2011 to 2012. The collective TED decreased at three of the five sites with the largest collective TED. u Idaho Site – Collective dose reductions were achieved as a result of continuing improvements at the Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Project (AMWTP) through the planning of drum movements that reduced the number of times a container is handled; placement of waste containers that created highradiation areas in a centralized location; and increased worker awareness of high-dose rate areas. In addition, Idaho had the largest decrease in the total number of workers with measurable TED (1,143 fewer workers). u Hanford Site (Hanford) – An overall reduction of decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) activities at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) and Transuranic (TRU) retrieval activities resulted in collective dose reductions. u Savannah River Site (SRS) – Reductions were achieved through ALARA initiatives employed site wide. The Solid Waste Management Facility used extended specialty tools, cameras and lead shield walls to facilitate removal of drums. These tools and techniques reduce exposure time through improved efficiency, increase distance from the source of radiation by remote monitoring, shield the workers to lower the dose rate, and reduce the potential for contamination and release of material through repacking of waste. Overall, from 2011 to 2012, there was a 19% decrease in the number of workers with measurable dose. Furthermore, due to a slight decrease in both the DOE workforce (7%) and monitored workers (10%), the ratio of workers with measurable doses to monitored workers decreased to 13%. Another primary indicator of the level of radiation exposure covered in this report is the average measurable dose, which normalizes the collective dose over the population of workers who actually received a measurable dose. The average measurable TED in

  5. Low Level Laser Therapy Reduces the Development of Lung Inflammation Induced by Formaldehyde Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Miranda da Silva, Cristiane; Peres Leal, Mayara; Brochetti, Robson Alexandre; Braga, Tárcio; Vitoretti, Luana Beatriz; Saraiva Câmara, Niels Olsen; Damazo, Amílcar Sabino; Ligeiro-de-Oliveira, Ana Paula; Chavantes, Maria Cristina; Lino-dos-Santos-Franco, Adriana

    2015-01-01

    Lung diseases constitute an important public health problem and its growing level of concern has led to efforts for the development of new therapies, particularly for the control of lung inflammation. Low Level Laser Therapy (LLLT) has been highlighted as a non-invasive therapy with few side effects, but its mechanisms need to be better understood and explored. Considering that pollution causes several harmful effects on human health, including lung inflammation, in this study, we have used formaldehyde (FA), an environmental and occupational pollutant, for the induction of neutrophilic lung inflammation. Our objective was to investigate the local and systemic effects of LLLT after FA exposure. Male Wistar rats were exposed to FA (1%) or vehicle (distillated water) during 3 consecutive days and treated or not with LLLT (1 and 5 hours after each FA exposure). Non-manipulated rats were used as control. 24 h after the last FA exposure, we analyzed the local and systemic effects of LLLT. The treatment with LLLT reduced the development of neutrophilic lung inflammation induced by FA, as observed by the reduced number of leukocytes, mast cells degranulated, and a decreased myeloperoxidase activity in the lung. Moreover, LLLT also reduced the microvascular lung permeability in the parenchyma and the intrapulmonary bronchi. Alterations on the profile of inflammatory cytokines were evidenced by the reduced levels of IL-6 and TNF-? and the elevated levels of IL-10 in the lung. Together, our results showed that LLLT abolishes FA-induced neutrophilic lung inflammation by a reduction of the inflammatory cytokines and mast cell degranulation. This study may provide important information about the mechanisms of LLLT in lung inflammation induced by a pollutant. PMID:26569396

  6. Occupational exposure assessment of highway toll station workers to vehicle engine exhaust.

    PubMed

    Belloc-Santaliestra, Miriam; van der Haar, Rudolf; Molinero-Ruiz, Emilia

    2015-01-01

    Toll station workers are occupationally exposed to vehicle engine exhaust, a complex mixture of different chemical substances, including carcinogenic compounds. Therefore, a study was carried out on attendants of two highway toll stations to describe their occupational exposure to vehicle engine exhaust, based on a worst-case scenario approach. Personal sampling was conducted during the day shift for all attendants, testing for three groups of chemical substances: polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and aldehydes (formaldehyde and acrolein). Concentrations of total PAH, BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes) and formaldehyde content varied between 97.60-336.08 ng/m3, 5.01-40.52 ?g/m3, and 0.06-19.13 ?g/m3, respectively. No clear relationships could be established between exposure levels and the number of vehicles. Furthermore, no differences were found between truck versus car lanes, or inside versus outside the tollbooth. Not all the detected VOCs were related to vehicle exhaust; some were consistent with the use of cleaning products. The measured concentrations were far below the established occupational exposure limits, but tended to be higher than values reported for outdoor urban environments. There are very few international studies assessing occupational exposures among toll station workers, and this is the first such study to be conducted in Spain. The results suggest that further, more detailed studies are necessary to characterize exposure properly, and ones which include other airborne pollutants, such as ultrafine particles. The comparison of the results to other similar studies was difficult, since no data related to some important exposure determinants have been provided. Therefore, it is recommended that these determinants be considered in future studies. PMID:25411914

  7. 29 CFR 1926.52 - Occupational noise exposure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Occupational noise exposure. 1926.52 Section 1926.52 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Occupational Health and Environmental Controls § 1926.52 Occupational...

  8. Bone Marrow Injury Induced via Oxidative Stress in Mice by Inhalation Exposure to Formaldehyde

    PubMed Central

    McHale, Cliona; Li, Rui; Zhang, Luoping; Wu, Yang; Ye, Xin; Yang, Xu; Ding, Shumao

    2013-01-01

    Objective Formaldehyde, a ubiquitous environmental pollutant has been classified as a human leukemogen. However, toxicity of formaldehyde in bone marrow, the target site of leukemia induction, is still poorly understood. Methodology/Principal Findings To investigate bone marrow toxicity (bone marrow pathology, hematotoxicity) and underlying mechanisms (oxidative stress, inflammation, apoptosis) in formaldehyde-exposed mice. Male Balb/c mice were exposed to formaldehyde (0, 0.5, and 3.0 mg/m3) by nose-only inhalation for 8 hours/day, over a two week period designed to simulate a factory work schedule, with an exposure-free “weekend” on days 6 and 7, and were sacrificed on the morning of day 13. Counts of white blood cells, red blood cells and lymphocytes were significantly (p<0.05) decreased at 0.5 mg/m3 (43%, 7%, and 39%, respectively) and 3.0 mg/m3 (52%, 27%, and 43%, respectively) formaldehyde exposure, while platelet counts were significantly increased by 109% (0.5 mg/m3) and 67% (3.0 mg/m3). Biomarkers of oxidative stress (reactive oxygen species, glutathione depletion, cytochrome P450 1A1 and glutathione s-transferase theta 1 expression), inflammation (nuclear factor kappa-B, tomour necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-1 beta), and apoptosis (activity of cysteine-aspartic acid protease 3) in bone marrow tissues were induced at one or both formaldehyde doses mentioned above. Conclusions/Significance Exposure of mice to formaldehyde by inhalation induced bone marrow toxicity, and that oxidative stress, inflammation and the consequential apoptosis jointly constitute potential mechanisms of such induced toxicity. PMID:24040369

  9. DOE 2008 Occupational Radiation Exposure October 2009

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security

    2009-10-01

    A major priority of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is to ensure the health, safety, and security of DOE employees, contractors, and subcontractors. The Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) provides the corporate-level leadership and strategic vision necessary to better coordinate and integrate health, safety, environment, security, enforcement, and independent oversight programs. One function that supports this mission is the DOE Corporate Operating Experience Program that provides collection, analysis, and dissemination of performance indicators, such as occupational radiation exposure information. This analysis supports corporate decision-making and synthesizes operational information to support continuous environment, safety, and health improvement across the DOE complex.

  10. Metallothionein and occupational exposure to cadmium.

    PubMed Central

    Falck, F Y; Fine, L J; Smith, R G; Garvey, J; Schork, A; England, B; McClatchey, K D; Linton, J

    1983-01-01

    The relationship between metallothionein (MT), chronic exposure to cadmium (Cd), and renal function was investigated in 53 men who were occupationally exposed to Cd. The aim was to determine if MT is a potential biological monitor for chronic exposure to Cd which would be useful for preventing Cd nephropathy. In this study MT excretion, serum MT, and serum creatinine concentrations were significantly higher in subjects with abnormal renal function who had been exposed to Cd. MT excretion was also linearly related on an individual basis to protein excretion, beta 2-microglobulin (beta 2-M) excretion, and cumulative time weighted exposure (dose). MT excretion was also a better predictor of dose than either beta 2-M excretion or Cd excretion. The findings suggest that MT is a potential biological monitor for chronic Cd exposure that would be useful for preventing Cd-induced nephropathy. Further studies of non-specific nephropathies and MT are needed to determine if MT is a specific indicator of proximal tubule function secondary to chronic exposure to Cd. PMID:6347245

  11. Occupational exposure to cadmium and lung function.

    PubMed

    Cortona, G; Apostoli, P; Toffoletto, F; Baldasseroni, A; Ghezzi, I; Goggi, E; Fornari, S; Alessio, L

    1992-01-01

    A total of 69 male subjects occupationally exposed to cadmium fumes in a factory producing silver-cadmium-copper alloys for brazing, were subjected to lung function tests, including ventilation (FVC and FEV1), residual volume (RV) and alveolar-capillary diffusion capacity (TLCO and KCO). For each subject, the cumulative exposure to cadmium was calculated as the product of the number of years in the job and the average atmospheric concentration of cadmium (expressed in micrograms/m3) encountered each year. Cadmium-exposed subjects had moderately higher mean values of RV (+ 8%) as compared with the control group; the increase was greater (+ 10%) in the subgroup of workers with greater cumulative exposure to cadmium. No significant differences were observed in FVC, FEV1, TLCO and KCO. PMID:1303942

  12. Therapeutic associated with occupational exposure to silica.

    PubMed

    Raghuvanshi, Suchita; Shrivastava, Sadhana; Johri, Sonia; Shukla, Sangeeta

    2012-06-01

    Occupational exposure to silica dust has been increasing the possible risk of varieties of pathologies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the protective activity of ethanolic extract of Glycyrrhiza glabra roots at doses of 500 and 1000 mg/kg, p.o., given for 7 days against the toxicity of SiO(2) nanoparticles (50mg/kg intraperitoneal for 6 weeks) in rats. Exposure to silica altered various respiratory and biochemical variables, including ALT, AST, albumin, urea, uric acid, creatinine, catalase, LPO and GSH. Treatments with G. glabra extract significantly improved antioxidant status towards control. Stone workers in the Gwalior region exposed to silica dust had higher prevalence of cough, wheezing and shortness of breath. Increased serum ACE level was noted in the silica exposed group. It is of immense need to monitor this problem for betterment of worker's health. PMID:22575538

  13. Environmental and Occupational Exposures in Immigrant Health

    PubMed Central

    Eamranond, Pracha P.; Hu, Howard

    2008-01-01

    Immigrants comprise vulnerable populations that are frequently exposed to a multitude of environmental and occupational hazards. The historical context behind state and federal legislation has helped to foster an environment that is particularly hostile toward caring for immigrant health. Current hazards include toxic exposures, air and noise pollution, motor vehicle accidents, crowded living and work environments with inadequate ventilation, poor sanitation, mechanical injury, among many others. Immigrants lack the appropriate training, materials, health care access, and other resources to reduce their exposure to preventable environmental and occupational health risks. This dilemma is exacerbated by current anti-immigrant sentiments, miscommunication between native and immigrant populations, and legislation denying immigrants access to publicly funded medical care. Given that current health policy has failed to address immigrant health appropriately and political impetus is lacking, efforts should also focus on alternative solutions, including organized labor. Labor unions that serve to educate workers, survey work environments, and defend worker rights will greatly alleviate and prevent the burden of disease incurred by immigrants. The nation’s health will benefit from improved regulation of living and workplace environments to improve the health of immigrants, regardless of legal status. PMID:21572847

  14. Occupant radon exposure in houses with basements

    SciTech Connect

    Franklin, E.M.; Fuoss, S.

    1995-12-31

    This study compares basement and main-level radon exposure based on bi-level week-long radon measurements, occupancy and activity data collected in normal use during heating and non-heating seasons in a geographically-stratified random sample of about 600 Minnesota homes, in response to critiques of radon measurement protocol. Basement radon (RN1) (M=4.5, SD=4.5) and main level (Rn2)(M=2.9, SD=3.4) correlation was 0.8 (p=.00), including seasonal variation. In a 101-house subsample where Rn1 >=4.0 pCi/L and Rn2 <=3.9 pCi/L, maximum household exposure in basements was 1162 pCiHrs (M=120, Sd=207), main-level 2486 pCiHrs (M-434, SD=421). In same households, persons with most basement-time maxed 100 hrs (M=13,SD=23), persons with most main-level time maxed 160 hrs (M=79, SD=39). Basement activities show two patterns, (1) member used it for personal domain, e.g. sleeping, and (2) household used it for general activities, e.g. TV or children`s play. Basement occupancy justifies measurement of radon in the lowest livable housing level.

  15. [Occupational exposure and chronic heart failure severity].

    PubMed

    Beltrame, D; Lo Cascio, N; Miotto, D; Mapp, C E; De Rosa, E; Boschetto, P

    2007-01-01

    Chronic heart failure (CHF) is characterized by the inability of the heart to supply the body with sufficient amount of blood for metabolic and circulatory needs. The main risk factors for CHF development are: hypertension, type 2 diabetes, obesity, smoking, chronic kidney diseases. Many occupational exposures, such as extremes of heat or cold temperatures, prolonged exposure to noise, vibrations, pesticides, can contribute to etiology of this disease. The aim of our study was to evaluate if work can affect CHF severity. We analyzed retrospectively the first 76 smokers aged over 65 years who presented to the outpatient Clinic of Chronic Heart Failure. The patients were divided in 4 groups based on their previous job: white-collars, farmers, steelworkers and subjects performing different occupational activities (hairdressers, firemen, masons). Our results showed that farmers had a reduced left ventricular ejection fraction compared with white-collars (p = 0.0045) although NYHA class and the presence/absence of CHF risk factors were not different between the two groups. This data suggests that the farmer job could be associated with the severity of CHF. PMID:18409765

  16. Occupational exposures and pancreatic cancer: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ojajarvi, I; Partanen, T.; Ahlbom, A.; Boffetta, P.; Hakulinen, T.; Jourenkova, N.; Kauppinen, T.; Kogevinas, M.; Porta, M.; Vainio, H.; Weiderpass, E.; Wesseling, C.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—Consolidation of epidemiological data on pancreatic cancer and worksite exposures.?METHODS—Publications during 1969-98 were surveyed. Studies without verified exposures were excluded. Meta-analyses were conducted on data from 92 studies covering 161 populations, with results for 23 agents or groups of agents. With a standard format, five epidemiologists extracted risk estimates and variables of the structure and quality of each study. The extracted data were centrally checked. Random meta-models were applied.?RESULTS—Based on 20 populations, exposure to chlorinated hydrocarbon (CHC) solvents and related compounds was associated with a meta-risk ratio (MRR) of 1.4 (95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.0 to 1.8). Nickel and nickel compounds were considered in four populations (1.9; 1.2 to 3.2). Excesses were found also for chromium and chromium compounds (1.4; 0.9 to 2.3), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) (1.5; 0.9 to 2.5), organochlorine insecticides (1.5; 0.6 to 3.7), silica dust (1.4; 0.9 to 2.0), and aliphatic and alicyclic hydrocarbon solvents (1.3; 0.8 to 2.8). Evidence on pancreatic carcinogenicity was weak or non-positive for the following agents: acrylonitrile (1.1; 0.0 to 6.2); arsenic (1.0; 0.6 to 1.5); asbestos (1.1; 0.9 to 1.5); diesel engine exhaust (1.0; 0.9 to 1.3); electromagnetic fields (1.1; 0.8 to 1.4); formaldehyde (0.8; 0.5 to 1.0); flour dust (1.1; 0.3 to 3.2); cadmium and cadmium compounds (0.7; 0.4 to 1.4); gasoline (1.0; 0.8 to 1.2); herbicides (1.0; 0.8 to 1.3); iron and iron compounds (1.3; 0.7 to 2.5); lead and lead compounds (1.1; 0.8 to 1.5); man-made vitreous fibres (1.0; 0.6 to 1.6); oil mist (0.9; 0.8 to 1.0); and wood dust (1.1; 0.9 to 2.5). The occupational aetiological fraction of pancreatic cancer was estimated at 12%. In a subpopulation exposed to CHC solvents and related compounds, it was 29%; to chromium and chromium compounds, 23%; to nickel and nickel compounds, 47%; to insecticides, 33%; and to PAHs, 33%.?CONCLUSION—Occupational exposures may increase risk of pancreatic cancer. High quality studies are called for on interactions between occupational, environmental, and lifestyle factors as well as interactions between genes and the environment.???Keywords: pancreatic cancer; occupational exposure; meta-analysis PMID:10769297

  17. Parental occupational exposure and spontaneous abortions in Finland

    SciTech Connect

    Lindbohm, M.L.; Hemminki, K.; Kyyroenen, P.

    1984-09-01

    Spontaneous abortions were analyzed by the occupational exposure of women and their husbands, with data from the Finnish hospital discharge register and the national census. The occupations were grouped according to presumed exposure into seven categories: exposure to solvent; automobile exhaust fumes; polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; other chemicals; metals; textile dust; and animal microorganisms. The relative risks of spontaneous abortion were estimated with logistic regression analysis to adjust for potentially confounding factors. The broad exposure categories appeared, at most, to be weak risk factors of spontaneous abortion, because the relative risks of abortion were not significantly increased in any of the parental exposure groups. The analysis of detailed occupational categories showed some female and male occupations with an increased risk. The observations of increased risk related to laboratory work supported earlier findings. The high number of textile occupations with increased risk is also worth noting, and further investigations are necessary to confirm whether this is due to occupational hazards or other factors.

  18. Occupational exposure and laryngeal and hypopharyngeal cancer risk in central and eastern Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Shangina, O.; Brennan, P.; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, N.; Mates, D.; Fabianova, E.; Fletcher, T.; Mannetje, A.; Boffetta, P.; Zaridze, D.

    2006-08-15

    A multicenter case-control study was conducted during 1999-2002 in four European countries (Poland, Romania, Russia, and Slovakia) to evaluate the role of occupational exposures in risk of laryngeal/hypopharyngeal cancer. Male cancer cases (34 hypopharyngeal, 316 laryngeal) with full data on occupational history and nonoccupational factors were compared with 728 hospital controls for occupational exposure to 73 suspected carcinogens. Occupational history was evaluated by industrial hygienists blinded to case/control status. Elevated risks for over exposure to coal dust were found for both hypopharyngeal (odds ratio (OR) = 4.19, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.18, 14.89) and laryngeal (OR = 1.81, 95% CI: 0.94, 3.47) cancer, with clear dose-response patterns. Inclusion of a 20-year lag in the analysis strengthened these associations. Hypopharyngeal cancer risk was also significantly associated with exposure to mild steel dust (OR = 3.04, 95% CI: 1.39, 6.64) and iron compounds and fumes (OR = 2.74, 95% CI: 1.29, 5.84), without clear dose-response relations. Laryngeal cancer was significantly associated with exposure to hard-alloys dust (OR = 2.23, 95% CI: 1.08, 4.57) and chlorinated solvents (OR = 2.18, 95% CI: 1.03, 4.61), without dose-response relations. A possible link between high formaldehyde exposure and laryngeal cancer was suggested. These data indicate that occupational exposure to coal dust may play a role in laryngeal and hypopharyngeal cancer. Other possible relations need further evaluation.

  19. OCCUPATIONAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL PESTICIDE EXPOSURE STUDY IN SOUTH FLORIDA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The investigation was designed to assess the occupational and environmental exposure to pesticides in South Florida, an area where pesticides are widely used. In addition to the conventional approach for measuring exposure to organophosphates and carbamates by means of cholineste...

  20. 29 CFR 1926.52 - Occupational noise exposure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Occupational noise exposure. 1926.52 Section 1926.52 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Occupational Health and Environmental...

  1. 29 CFR 1926.52 - Occupational noise exposure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Occupational noise exposure. 1926.52 Section 1926.52 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Occupational Health and Environmental...

  2. 29 CFR 1926.52 - Occupational noise exposure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Occupational noise exposure. 1926.52 Section 1926.52 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Occupational Health and Environmental...

  3. 29 CFR 1926.52 - Occupational noise exposure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Occupational noise exposure. 1926.52 Section 1926.52 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Occupational Health and Environmental...

  4. [Biological monitoring of occupational exposure to sevoflurane].

    PubMed

    Imbriani, M; Zadra, P; Negri, S; Alessio, A; Maestri, L; Ghittori, S

    2001-01-01

    Sevoflurane has been used in the last few years in brief surgical operations, either alone or in combination with nitrous oxide. Occupationally exposed groups include anesthesiologists, surgeons and operating room nurses. In 1977 the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) recommended that occupational exposure to halogenated anesthetic agents (halothane, enflurane, and isoflurane), when used as the sole anesthetic, should be controlled so that no worker would be exposed to time-weighted average concentrations greater than 2 ppm during anesthetic administration. When halogenated anesthetics are associated with nitrous oxide, NIOSH recommends that the limit value should not exceed 0.5 ppm. We think these recommendations can be extended to sevoflurane. Metabolism of sevoflurane is catalyzed by cytochrome P-450; this involves oxidation of the fluoromethyl side chain of the molecule, followed by glucuronidation. Two urinary metabolites of sevoflurane have been identified: inorganic fluoride (which, however, is not specific) and a non-volatile compound that yields hexafluoroisopropanol (HFIP) when digested with the enzyme beta-glucuronidase. In order to investigate the role of urinary HFIP as an indicator of occupational exposure to sevoflurane (CI, ppm), CI was measured in 145 members of 18 operating room staffs. The measurements of the time-weighted average of CI in the breathing zone were made by means of diffusive personal samplers. Each sampler was exposed during the whole working period. Sevoflurane was desorbed with CS2 from charcoal and the concentrations were measured on a gas chromatograph (GC) equipped with a mass selective detector (MSD). The GC was equipped with a 25 meter cross-linked phenylmethylsilicon column (internal diameter 0.2 mm). GC conditions were as follows: injector column temperature = 200 degrees C; column temperature = 30 degrees C; carrier gas = helium; injection technique of samples = splitless. The analytical conditions for the MSD were the following: ion mass monitored = 131 m/e; dwell time = 50 msec; selected ion monitoring window time = 0.1 amu; electromultiplier = 400 V. Urine samples were collected near the end of the shift and were analyzed for HFIP by head-space gas chromatography after glucuronide hydrolysis. 0.5 ml of urine and 1.5 ml of 10 M sulfuric acid were added to 21.8 ml headspace vials. The vials were immediately capped, vortexed, and loaded into the headspace autosampler. Samples were maintained at 100 degrees C for 30 min, after which glucuronide hydrolysis was 99% complete. Analyses were performed on a GC equipped with a MSD. The analytical conditions for urine analysis were as follows: cross-linked 5% phenylmethylsilicon column (internal diameter 0.2 mm, length 25 m); column temperature = 35 degrees C; carrier gas = helium. The analytical conditions for the MSD were: monitored ions = 51.05 and 99; dwell time = 100 ms; selected ion monitoring window time = 0.1 amu; electromultiplier voltage = 2000 Volt. With our analytical procedure, the detection limit of HFIP in urine was 20 micrograms/L. The variation coefficient (CV) for HFIP measurement in urine was 8.7% (on 10 determinations; mean value = 1000 micrograms/L). The median value of CI was 0.77 ppm (Geometric Standard Deviation = 4.08; range = 0.05-27.9 ppm). The correlation between CI and HFIP (Cu, microgram/L) was: Log Cu (microgram/L) = 0.813 x Log CI (ppm) + 2.517 (r = 0.79, n = 145, p < 0.0001). On the basis of the equation it was possible to establish tentatively the biological limit values corresponding to the respective occupational exposure limit values proposed for sevoflurane. According to our experimental results, HFIP values of 488 micrograms/L and 160 micrograms/L correspond to airborne sevoflurane concentrations of 2 and 0.5 ppm respectively. PMID:11515150

  5. 125I Measurements for Occupational Exposure Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, L.; Pinhão, N. R.

    2008-08-01

    Whenever there is a risk of occupational exposure to dispersible radioactive material, it is necessary to have a monitoring program to assess the effective dose arising from the intake of radionuclides by workers. In this paper we present our experience in bioassay measurements of 125I in urine samples of workers using high resolution gamma spectrometry. For a 24-hour excretion period, we found activity values of the order of one Bq and estimated the committed effective doses to be less than one ?Sv. Although very small, these values led to a re-evaluation and improvement of the laboratory safety conditions. We discuss the calibration procedure followed for the activity measurements, the estimation of the uncertainty in the excreted activity, the calculation of detection and quantification limits and estimation of performance indicators. Aspects regarding the spectral analysis, true coincidence summing and matrix effects are also considered.

  6. Respiratory Symptoms and Occupational Dust Exposure In US Veterans

    PubMed Central

    Garshick, Eric; Laden, Francine; Hart, Jaime; Moy, Marilyn L.

    2007-01-01

    PROBLEM Occupational exposure to organic and inorganic dusts may result in symptoms of chronic respiratory disease. METHOD To investigate the utility of obtaining a history of occupational exposure to dust in US veterans, a respiratory health survey was conducted between 1988 and 1992. They were asked for history of cough, phlegm, and wheeze, and occupational dust exposures Information on cigarette use and other possible confounders was also obtained. RESULTS In 2,617 white males, after adjusting for cigarette smoking, age, distance to the nearest major roadway, and chronic respiratory disease, there was an overall 2-fold increased risk of all three respiratory symptoms attributable to occupational dust exposure. The odds ratio (OR) increased based on exposure intensity. CONCLUSIONS After considering possible confounders, dust exposure was associated with respiratory symptoms, with the greatest risk attributable to heavy intensity exposure. PMID:15368060

  7. Wood dust and formaldehyde exposures in the cabinet-making industry

    SciTech Connect

    Sass-kortsak, A.; Holness, D.L.; Pilger, C.W.; Nethercott, J.R.

    1986-12-01

    Time-weighted average (TWA) personal total and respirable dust exposures were determined gravimetrically for 48 subjects in 4 cabinet-making plants. TWA personal formaldehyde exposures also were obtained, with the use of 3M 3750 passive monitors. Selective area sampling for formaldehyde was undertaken using two methods. The results obtained with the passive monitors were compared to the standard chromotropic acid impinger method. Considerable variation was noted in the dust exposures. Cabinet-makers exposed to softwoods were found to have a mean exposure of approximately one half of the current applicable ACGIHTWA-TLV, while hard-wood exposure was twice the applicable TWA-TLV. The highest dust exposures were recorded for those workers sanding, the mean total dust being 2.91 mg/m/sup 3/ (S.E. 0.70) and respirable dust 0.63 mg/m/sup 3/ (S.E. 0.20). Sanding operations also were found to produce a higher proportion of respirable dust (22%) than other woodworking operations (6%-14%). Workers in assembly areas also were found to have higher dust exposures, likely reflecting the fact that conventional dust collection devices for stationary woodworking equipment are not appropriate for hand held tools and hand sanding. The importance of making respirable dust measurements is discussed. The poor correlation between paired total and respirable dust concentrations indicates that both measurements should be made. Some potential limitations to respirable wood dust sampling using 10 mm nylon cyclones are noted, however. Area dust concentrations were found to be significantly lower than personal exposures, emphasizing the importance of personal sampling data. Formaldehyde vapor exposures were very low, with a mean of 0.06 ppm (S.E. 0.01).

  8. Parental occupational exposures and risk of childhood cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Colt, J S; Blair, A

    1998-01-01

    Occupational exposures of parents might be related to cancer in their offspring. Forty-eight published studies on this topic have reported relative risks for over 1000 specific occupation/cancer combinations. Virtually all of the studies employed the case-control design. Occupations and exposures of fathers were investigated much more frequently than those of the mother. Information about parental occupations was derived through interviews or from birth certificates and other administrative records. Specific exposures were typically estimated by industrial hygienists or were self-reported. The studies have several limitations related to the quality of the exposure assessment, small numbers of exposed cases, multiple comparisons, and possible bias toward the reporting of positive results. Despite these limitations, they provide evidence that certain parental exposures may be harmful to children and deserve further study. The strongest evidence is for childhood leukemia and paternal exposure to solvents, paints, and employment in motor vehicle-related occupations; and childhood nervous system cancers and paternal exposure to paints. To more clearly evaluate the importance of these and other exposures in future investigations, we need improvements in four areas: a) more careful attention must be paid to maternal exposures; b) studies should employ more sophisticated exposure assessment techniques; c) careful attention must be paid to the postulated mechanism, timing, and route of exposure; and d) if postnatal exposures are evaluated, studies should provide evidence that the exposure is actually transferred from the workplace to the child's environment. PMID:9646055

  9. Lung function: occupational exposure to wood dust

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Objectives Occupational exposure to wood dust has been shown to cause several respiratory disorders, such as allergic rhinitis, chronic bronchitis, asthma, sino-nasal adenocarcinoma, and impairment of lung function. The aim of the study was to estimate lung function (in the woodworking industry) among workers employed by wood processing, who run the risk of being expose to wood dust. Methods The study concerns a group of 70 workers aged 24-55. All the workers underwent general and laryngological examination. A group of 20 workers, working at the positions where dustiness exceeded TLV (threshold limit value) took X-ray of the chest and spirometry. The following parameters were measured: VC, IC, ERV, TV, BF, FEV1, FVC, PEF, MEF25-75, FEV1%FVC, FEV1%VC. The data are presented as means ± SD and the authors applied references values according to ERS guidelines. Results The results show that there was no decline in FEV1 (3.7 ± 0.7) and FVC (4.5 ± 0.8). Normal lung function was defined as FEV1/VC ratio ?0.7. None of the tested workers had obstructive pattern in spirometry. The mean FEV1%VC was 77.1 ± 10.2. These results suggest that wood dust exposure might not lead to significant pulmonary damage. Conclusions These data do not corroborate that wood dust plays significant role in lung function impairment. Future studies of respiratory health among workers exposed to wood dust are needed. PMID:20156717

  10. Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and occupational exposure.

    PubMed

    Scherr, P A; Hutchison, G B; Neiman, R S

    1992-10-01

    A case-control study was conducted to assess the effect of occupational exposures on the risk of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Interviews were conducted with 303 persons with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma newly diagnosed from January 1, 1980, to May 31, 1982, among residents of the Boston, MA, metropolitan area and 303 age and gender matched controls. The study found an increased risk of disease among persons employed in the agriculture, forestry, and fishing industry [relative risk (RR) = 3.0]; the construction industry [RR = 2.1]; and the leather industry [RR = 2.1]. The particular job groupings at increased risk were plant farmers and gardeners (RR unbounded); painters and plasterers (RR = 6.0); and carpenters, brick and stone masons, plumbers, and roofers (RR = 12.0). Although other exposures may have led to these increased risks, the findings in this study are consistent with an increased risk of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma for workers who may be exposed to chlorophenols or phenoxyacetic acids. PMID:1394164

  11. Effects of formaldehyde exposure on human NK cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Li, Qi; Mei, Qibing; Huyan, Ting; Xie, Li; Che, Su; Yang, Hui; Zhang, Mingjie; Huang, Qingsheng

    2013-11-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells play a pivotal role in human immunologic surveillance. Formaldehyde (FA), a ubiquitous environmental contaminant, has been classified as a carcinogen to humans. Although it is known that immune cells are sensitive to FA, so far little is known about how it's affecting the activity of human NK cells. To probe it, the primary human NK cells were treated with different concentrations of FA (3200, 1600, 800, 400, 200, 100, 50, and 0 ?M) in vitro. The morphology, viability, apoptosis, cytotoxicity (killing tumor cell activity) and cytokine and cytolytic proteins secretion of NK cells were evaluated respectively. Our results reveal that FA could induce NK cells death obviously in a concentration-dependent manner. With the decreased concentrations of FA from 3200 ?M to 800 ?M, accordingly, the viability of NK cells increased from 65. 2 ± 12.1% to 78.48 ± 10.3% (p<0.05), and the cytotoxicity of NK cells recovered from 29.2 ± 8.5% to 63.9 ± 5.9% (p<0.05). The secretion of perforin was affected significantly by FA, whereas the secretion of IFN-? and granzyme-B altered slightly. It is concluded that human NK cell is sensitive to FA, 800 ?M may be a critical concentration of FA inhibiting the activity of human NK cell. PMID:24035925

  12. 78 FR 78962 - Criteria for a Recommended Standard; Occupational Exposure to Heat and Hot Environments; Draft...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-27

    ...; Occupational Exposure to Heat and Hot Environments; Draft Criteria Document Availability AGENCY: National... Recommended Standard: Occupational Exposure to Heat and Hot Environments for public comment. To view the... draft document, ``Criteria for a Recommended Standard: Occupational Exposure to Heat and...

  13. 78 FR 65242 - Occupational Exposure to Crystalline Silica; Extension of Comment Period; Extension of Period To...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-31

    ...RIN 1218-AB70 Occupational Exposure to Crystalline Silica; Extension...Rulemaking (NPRM) on Occupational Exposure to Crystalline Silica for an...www.regulations.gov index; however, some information...12, 2013, for occupational exposure to respirable crystalline...

  14. 78 FR 78962 - Criteria for a Recommended Standard; Occupational Exposure to Heat and Hot Environments; Draft...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-27

    ...Occupational Exposure to Heat and Hot Environments; Draft Criteria Document Availability...Occupational Exposure to Heat and Hot Environments for public comment. To view the notice...Occupational Exposure to Heat and Hot Environments''. Special emphasis will be...

  15. CAREX Canada: an enhanced model for assessing occupational carcinogen exposure

    PubMed Central

    Peters, Cheryl E; Ge, Calvin B; Hall, Amy L; Davies, Hugh W; Demers, Paul A

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To estimate the numbers of workers exposed to known and suspected occupational carcinogens in Canada, building on the methods of CARcinogen EXposure (CAREX) projects in the European Union (EU). Methods CAREX Canada consists of estimates of the prevalence and level of exposure to occupational carcinogens. CAREX Canada includes occupational agents evaluated by the International Agency for Research on Cancer as known, probable or possible human carcinogens that were present and feasible to assess in Canadian workplaces. A Canadian Workplace Exposure Database was established to identify the potential for exposure in particular industries and occupations, and to create exposure level estimates among priority agents, where possible. CAREX EU data were reviewed for relevance to the Canadian context and the proportion of workers likely to be exposed by industry and occupation in Canada was assigned using expert assessment and agreement by a minimum of two occupational hygienists. These proportions were used to generate prevalence estimates by linkage with the Census of Population for 2006, and these estimates are available by industry, occupation, sex and province. Results CAREX Canada estimated the number of workers exposed to 44 known, probable and suspected carcinogens. Estimates of levels of exposure were further developed for 18 priority agents. Common exposures included night shift work (1.9 million exposed), solar ultraviolet radiation exposure (1.5 million exposed) and diesel engine exhaust (781?000 exposed). Conclusions A substantial proportion of Canadian workers are exposed to known and suspected carcinogens at work. PMID:24969047

  16. Aggregate Exposure and Cumulative Risk Assessment – Integrating Occupational and Non-occupational Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Lentz, TJ; Dotson, GS; Williams, PRD; Maier, MA; Gadagbui, B; Pandalai, SP; Lamba, A; Hearl, F; Mumtaz, M

    2015-01-01

    Occupational exposure limits have traditionally focused on preventing morbidity and mortality arising from inhalation exposures to individual chemical stressors in the workplace. While central to occupational risk assessment, occupational exposure limits have limited application as a refined disease prevention tool because they do not account for all of the complexities of the work and non-occupational environments and are based on varying health endpoints. To be of greater utility, occupational exposure limits and other risk management tools could integrate broader consideration of risks from multiple exposure pathways and routes (aggregate risk) as well as the combined risk from exposure to both chemical and nonchemical stressors, within and beyond the workplace, including the possibility that such exposures may cause interactions or modify the toxic effects observed (cumulative risk). Although still at a rudimentary stage in many cases, a variety of methods and tools have been developed or are being used in allied risk assessment fields to incorporate such considerations in the risk assessment process. These approaches, which are collectively referred to as cumulative risk assessment, have potential to be adapted or modified for occupational scenarios and provide a tangible path forward for occupational risk assessment. Accounting for complex exposures in the workplace and the broader risks faced by the individual also requires a more complete consideration of the composite effects of occupational and non-occupational risk factors to fully assess and manage worker health problems. Barriers to integrating these different factors remain, but new and ongoing community-based and worker health-related initiatives may provide mechanisms for identifying and integrating risk from aggregate exposures and cumulative risks from all relevant sources, be they occupational or non-occupational. PMID:26583907

  17. Aggregate Exposure and Cumulative Risk Assessment-Integrating Occupational and Non-occupational Risk Factors.

    PubMed

    Lentz, T J; Dotson, G S; Williams, P R D; Maier, A; Gadagbui, B; Pandalai, S P; Lamba, A; Hearl, F; Mumtaz, M

    2015-01-01

    Occupational exposure limits have traditionally focused on preventing morbidity and mortality arising from inhalation exposures to individual chemical stressors in the workplace. While central to occupational risk assessment, occupational exposure limits have limited application as a refined disease prevention tool because they do not account for all of the complexities of the work and non-occupational environments and are based on varying health endpoints. To be of greater utility, occupational exposure limits and other risk management tools could integrate broader consideration of risks from multiple exposure pathways and routes (aggregate risk) as well as the combined risk from exposure to both chemical and non-chemical stressors, within and beyond the workplace, including the possibility that such exposures may cause interactions or modify the toxic effects observed (cumulative risk). Although still at a rudimentary stage in many cases, a variety of methods and tools have been developed or are being used in allied risk assessment fields to incorporate such considerations in the risk assessment process. These approaches, which are collectively referred to as cumulative risk assessment, have potential to be adapted or modified for occupational scenarios and provide a tangible path forward for occupational risk assessment. Accounting for complex exposures in the workplace and the broader risks faced by the individual also requires a more complete consideration of the composite effects of occupational and non-occupational risk factors to fully assess and manage worker health problems. Barriers to integrating these different factors remain, but new and ongoing community-based and worker health-related initiatives may provide mechanisms for identifying and integrating risk from aggregate exposures and cumulative risks from all relevant sources, be they occupational or non-occupational. PMID:26583907

  18. Formaldehyde exposure of medical students and instructors and clinical symptoms during gross anatomy laboratory in Thammasat University.

    PubMed

    Lakchayapakorn, Kajorn; Watchalayarn, Pensri

    2010-12-01

    To study formaldehyde concentrations in the breathing zone and symptoms induced by gaseous formaldehyde exposure of medical students and instructors during gross anatomy laboratory at faculty of Medicine, Thammasat university. Formaldehyde concentrations in the indoor air and breathing zone of medical students were measured during the cadaver dissection. Formaldehyde concentrations in the indoor air and in the breathing zone were ranged from 0.401 to 0.581 ppm (mean 0.491 +/- 0.090) and from 0.472 to 0.848 ppm (mean 0.660 +/- 0.188) respectively. The mean of formaldehyde concentrations in the breathing zone of medical students and instructors was significantly higher than the mean of formaldehyde concentration in indoor air (p < 0.05). The most symptoms were general fatigue (82.7-87.8%), burning eyes (66.2-85.0%) and burning nose (62.5-81.1%). There was no statistically significant difference in burning eye symptom between contact lenses users and no contact lenses users (p > 0.05). Even though formaldehyde concentrations were relatively low, medical students, instructors and cadaver related workers should wear personal protective devices to reduce the effect of gaseous formaldehyde exposure during gross anatomy laboratory or contact cadaver. PMID:21294402

  19. Policy on Exposure to Blood Borne Pathogens (BBP) and other Occupational Exposures or Injuries

    E-print Network

    Myers, Lawrence C.

    Policy on Exposure to Blood Borne Pathogens (BBP) and other Occupational Exposures or Injuries Steps to take in case of BBP exposure 1. If an exposure should occur, the exposure site should first be thoroughly washed and/or irrigated. If you think you may have had an exposure but are not sure, you should

  20. Exposure Estimation and Interpretation of Occupational Risk: Enhanced Information for the Occupational Risk Manager

    PubMed Central

    Waters, Martha; McKernan, Lauralynn; Maier, Andrew; Jayjock, Michael; Schaeffer, Val; Brosseau, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    The fundamental goal of this article is to describe, define, and analyze the components of the risk characterization process for occupational exposures. Current methods are described for the probabilistic characterization of exposure, including newer techniques that have increasing applications for assessing data from occupational exposure scenarios. In addition, since the probability of health effects reflects variability in the exposure estimate as well as the dose-response curve—the integrated considerations of variability surrounding both components of the risk characterization provide greater information to the occupational hygienist. Probabilistic tools provide a more informed view of exposure as compared to use of discrete point estimates for these inputs to the risk characterization process. Active use of such tools for exposure and risk assessment will lead to a scientifically supported worker health protection program. Understanding the bases for an occupational risk assessment, focusing on important sources of variability and uncertainty enables characterizing occupational risk in terms of a probability, rather than a binary decision of acceptable risk or unacceptable risk. A critical review of existing methods highlights several conclusions: (1) exposure estimates and the dose-response are impacted by both variability and uncertainty and a well-developed risk characterization reflects and communicates this consideration; (2) occupational risk is probabilistic in nature and most accurately considered as a distribution, not a point estimate; and (3) occupational hygienists have a variety of tools available to incorporate concepts of risk characterization into occupational health and practice. PMID:26302336

  1. Exposure Estimation and Interpretation of Occupational Risk: Enhanced Information for the Occupational Risk Manager.

    PubMed

    Waters, Martha; McKernan, Lauralynn; Maier, Andrew; Jayjock, Michael; Schaeffer, Val; Brosseau, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    The fundamental goal of this article is to describe, define, and analyze the components of the risk characterization process for occupational exposures. Current methods are described for the probabilistic characterization of exposure, including newer techniques that have increasing applications for assessing data from occupational exposure scenarios. In addition, since the probability of health effects reflects variability in the exposure estimate as well as the dose-response curve-the integrated considerations of variability surrounding both components of the risk characterization provide greater information to the occupational hygienist. Probabilistic tools provide a more informed view of exposure as compared to use of discrete point estimates for these inputs to the risk characterization process. Active use of such tools for exposure and risk assessment will lead to a scientifically supported worker health protection program. Understanding the bases for an occupational risk assessment, focusing on important sources of variability and uncertainty enables characterizing occupational risk in terms of a probability, rather than a binary decision of acceptable risk or unacceptable risk. A critical review of existing methods highlights several conclusions: (1) exposure estimates and the dose-response are impacted by both variability and uncertainty and a well-developed risk characterization reflects and communicates this consideration; (2) occupational risk is probabilistic in nature and most accurately considered as a distribution, not a point estimate; and (3) occupational hygienists have a variety of tools available to incorporate concepts of risk characterization into occupational health and practice. PMID:26302336

  2. Outdoor Formaldehyde and NO2 Exposures and Markers of Genotoxicity in Children Living Near Chipboard Industries

    PubMed Central

    Fracasso, Maria Enrica; Marchetti, Pierpaolo; Doria, Denise; Girardi, Paolo; Guarda, Linda; Pesce, Giancarlo; Pironi, Vanda; Ricci, Paolo; de Marco, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Background: Industrial air pollution is a public health hazard. Previous evidence documented increased respiratory symptoms and hospitalizations in children who live near the factories in the largest chipboard manufacturing district in Italy (Viadana). Objectives: We evaluated the association of outdoor exposure to formaldehyde and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) with markers of early genotoxic damage in oral mucosa cells of randomly selected children (6–12 years of age) living in Viadana. Methods: In 2010–2011, DNA strand breaks and nuclear abnormalities were evaluated in exfoliated buccal cells by the comet and micronucleus assays, respectively, and formaldehyde and NO2 were monitored by passive sampling. Annual exposure estimates to pollutants were assigned to children’s houses by spatial interpolation. Results: Of 656 children, 413 (63%) participated. Children living near (< 2 km) the chipboard industries had the highest average exposure to formaldehyde and NO2 (p < 0.001). A 1-SD increase in formaldehyde (0.20 ?g/m3) was associated with a 0.13% (95% CI: 0.03, 0.22%) higher comet tail intensity, a 0.007 (95% CI: 0.001, 0.012) higher tail moment, and a 12% relative increase [relative risk (RR) = 1.12; 95% CI: 1.02, 1.23] in nuclear buds. A 1-SD NO2 increase (2.13 ?g/m3) was associated with a 0.13% (95% CI: 0.07, 0.19%) increase in binucleated cells and a 16% relative increase (RR = 1.16; 95% CI: 1.06, 1.26) in nuclear buds. Conclusions: Exposure to pollutants was associated with markers of genotoxicity in exfoliated buccal cells of children living in a region with chipboard industries. These findings, combined with previously reported associations between chipboard industrial activities and respiratory outcomes in children, add to concerns about potential adverse effects of industry-related exposures in the Viadana district. Citation: Marcon A, Fracasso ME, Marchetti P, Doria D, Girardi P, Guarda L, Pesce G, Pironi V, Ricci P, de Marco R. 2014. Outdoor formaldehyde and NO2 exposures and markers of genotoxicity in children living near chipboard industries. Environ Health Perspect 122:639–645;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307259 PMID:24694350

  3. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Davanipour, Z.; Sobel, E.; Bowman, J.D.; Qian, Z.; Will, A.D.

    1997-03-01

    In an hypothesis-generating case-control study of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, lifetime occupational histories were obtained. The patients (n = 28) were clinic based. The occupational exposure of interest in this report is electromagnetic fields (EMFs). This is the first and so far the only exposure analyzed in this study. Occupational exposure up to 2 years prior to estimated disease symptom onset was used for construction of exposure indices for cases. Controls (n = 32) were blood and nonblood relatives of cases. Occupational exposure for controls was through the same age as exposure for the corresponding cases. Twenty (71%) cases and 28 (88%) controls had at least 20 years of work experience covering the exposure period. The occupational history and task data were used to classify blindly each occupation for each subject as having high, medium/high, medium, medium/low, or low EMF exposure, based primarily on data from an earlier and unrelated study designed to obtain occupational EMF exposure information on workers in ``electrical`` and ``nonelectrical`` jobs. By using the length of time each subject spent in each occupation through the exposure period, two indices of exposure were constructed: total occupational exposure (E{sub 1}) and average occupational exposure (E{sub 2}). For cases and controls with at least 20 years of work experience, the odds ratio (OR) for exposure at the 75th percentile of the E{sub 1} case exposure data relative to minimum exposure was 7.5 (P < 0.02; 95% CI, 1.4--38.1) and the corresponding OR for E{sub 2} was 5.5 (P < 0.02; 95% CI, 1.3--22.5). For all cases and controls, the ORs were 2.5 (P < 0.1; 95% CI, 0.9--8.1) for E{sub 1} and 2.3 (P = 0.12; 95% CI, 0.8--6.6) for E{sub 2}. This study should be considered an hypothesis-generating study. Larger studies, using incident cases and improved exposure assessment, should be undertaken.

  4. UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA Program for Maintaining Occupational Radiation Exposure

    E-print Network

    Slatton, Clint

    APPENDIX I UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA Program for Maintaining Occupational Radiation Exposure for Non radiation exposures (individual and collective) as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA). In accordance will perform a review to determine methods by which exposures might be lowered. This review shall include

  5. Occupational exposures and risk of systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Parks, Christine G; Cooper, Glinda S

    2005-11-01

    This review summarizes the growing body of epidemiologic and experimental research pertaining to the relationship between SLE and occupational exposures, such as crystalline silica, solvents, and pesticides. Epidemiologic studies, using different designs in different settings, have demonstrated moderate to strong associations between occupational silica exposure and SLE. Recent experimental studies of silica in lupus-prone mice provide support for the idea that, in addition to its known adjuvant effect, silica exposure increases the generation of apoptotic material, an important source of self-antigen. Despite compelling experimental studies of the organic solvent trichloroethylene (TCE) in lupus-prone mice, there is little evidence of an overall association of SLE and occupational exposure to a broad classification of solvents in humans. However, there is a lack of data on SLE in occupational cohorts with exposures to TCE or other specific solvents. One epidemiologic study reported an association of pesticide mixing and SLE, while a recent experimental study reported accelerated disease in pesticide-treated lupus-prone mice. Other occupational exposures worth investigating include asbestos, metals, and UV radiation. Attention should also be given to the role of gene-environment interactions, which may require large, multi-site studies that collect both genetic material and occupational exposure data. The quality of exposure assessment is an important consideration in designing and evaluating these studies. The use of pre-clinical endpoints (e.g. high-titer autoantibodies) in occupational cohorts with well-characterized exposure histories may reveal occupational risk factors for autoimmunity, and may also provide baseline data for studies of determinants of progression to SLE. PMID:16373255

  6. 41 CFR 50-204.10 - Occupational noise exposure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Public Contracts PUBLIC CONTRACTS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR 204-SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS FOR FEDERAL SUPPLY CONTRACTS General Safety and Health Standards § 50-204.10 Occupational noise exposure. (a) Protection... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Occupational...

  7. 41 CFR 50-204.10 - Occupational noise exposure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Public Contracts PUBLIC CONTRACTS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR 204-SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS FOR FEDERAL SUPPLY CONTRACTS General Safety and Health Standards § 50-204.10 Occupational noise exposure. (a) Protection... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Occupational...

  8. 41 CFR 50-204.10 - Occupational noise exposure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Public Contracts PUBLIC CONTRACTS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR 204-SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS FOR FEDERAL SUPPLY CONTRACTS General Safety and Health Standards § 50-204.10 Occupational noise exposure. (a) Protection... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2012-07-01 2009-07-01 true Occupational...

  9. 41 CFR 50-204.10 - Occupational noise exposure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Public Contracts PUBLIC CONTRACTS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR 204-SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS FOR FEDERAL SUPPLY CONTRACTS General Safety and Health Standards § 50-204.10 Occupational noise exposure. (a) Protection... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Occupational...

  10. DOE occupational radiation exposure. Report 1992--1994

    SciTech Connect

    1997-05-01

    The DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report, 1992-1994 reports occupational radiation exposures incurred by individuals at US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities from 1992 through 1994. This report includes occupational radiation exposure information for all DOE employees, contractors, subcontractors, and visitors. This information is analyzed and trended over time to provide a measure of the DOE`s performance in protecting its workers from radiation. Occupational radiation exposure at DOE has been decreasing over the past 5 years. In particular, doses in the higher dose ranges are decreasing, including the number of doses in excess of the DOE limits and doses in excess of the 2 rem Administrative Control Level (ACL). This is an indication of greater attention being given to protecting these individuals from radiation in the workplace.

  11. Historical Context and Recent Advances in Exposure-Response Estimation for Deriving Occupational Exposure Limits

    PubMed Central

    Wheeler, M.W.; Park, R. M.; Bailer, A. J.; Whittaker, C.

    2015-01-01

    Virtually no occupational exposure standards specify the level of risk for the prescribed exposure, and most occupational exposure limits are not based on quantitative risk assessment (QRA) at all. Wider use of QRA could improve understanding of occupational risks while increasing focus on identifying exposure concentrations conferring acceptably low levels of risk to workers. Exposure-response modeling between a defined hazard and the biological response of interest is necessary to provide a quantitative foundation for risk-based occupational exposure limits; and there has been considerable work devoted to establishing reliable methods quantifying the exposure-response relationship including methods of extrapolation below the observed responses. We review several exposure-response modeling methods available for QRA, and demonstrate their utility with simulated data sets. PMID:26252067

  12. Sensory irritation as a basis for setting occupational exposure limits.

    PubMed

    Brüning, Thomas; Bartsch, Rüdiger; Bolt, Hermann Maximillian; Desel, Herbert; Drexler, Hans; Gundert-Remy, Ursula; Hartwig, Andrea; Jäckh, Rudolf; Leibold, Edgar; Pallapies, Dirk; Rettenmeier, Albert W; Schlüter, Gerhard; Stropp, Gisela; Sucker, Kirsten; Triebig, Gerhard; Westphal, Götz; van Thriel, Christoph

    2014-10-01

    There is a need of guidance on how local irritancy data should be incorporated into risk assessment procedures, particularly with respect to the derivation of occupational exposure limits (OELs). Therefore, a board of experts from German committees in charge of the derivation of OELs discussed the major challenges of this particular end point for regulatory toxicology. As a result, this overview deals with the question of integrating results of local toxicity at the eyes and the upper respiratory tract (URT). Part 1 describes the morphology and physiology of the relevant target sites, i.e., the outer eye, nasal cavity, and larynx/pharynx in humans. Special emphasis is placed on sensory innervation, species differences between humans and rodents, and possible effects of obnoxious odor in humans. Based on this physiological basis, Part 2 describes a conceptual model for the causation of adverse health effects at these targets that is composed of two pathways. The first, "sensory irritation" pathway is initiated by the interaction of local irritants with receptors of the nervous system (e.g., trigeminal nerve endings) and a downstream cascade of reflexes and defense mechanisms (e.g., eyeblinks, coughing). While the first stages of this pathway are thought to be completely reversible, high or prolonged exposure can lead to neurogenic inflammation and subsequently tissue damage. The second, "tissue irritation" pathway starts with the interaction of the local irritant with the epithelial cell layers of the eyes and the URT. Adaptive changes are the first response on that pathway followed by inflammation and irreversible damages. Regardless of these initial steps, at high concentrations and prolonged exposures, the two pathways converge to the adverse effect of morphologically and biochemically ascertainable changes. Experimental exposure studies with human volunteers provide the empirical basis for effects along the sensory irritation pathway and thus, "sensory NOAEChuman" can be derived. In contrast, inhalation studies with rodents investigate the second pathway that yields an "irritative NOAECanimal." Usually the data for both pathways is not available and extrapolation across species is necessary. Part 3 comprises an empirical approach for the derivation of a default factor for interspecies differences. Therefore, from those substances under discussion in German scientific and regulatory bodies, 19 substances were identified known to be human irritants with available human and animal data. The evaluation started with three substances: ethyl acrylate, formaldehyde, and methyl methacrylate. For these substances, appropriate chronic animal and a controlled human exposure studies were available. The comparison of the sensory NOAEChuman with the irritative NOAECanimal (chronic) resulted in an interspecies extrapolation factor (iEF) of 3 for extrapolating animal data concerning local sensory irritating effects. The adequacy of this iEF was confirmed by its application to additional substances with lower data density (acetaldehyde, ammonia, n-butyl acetate, hydrogen sulfide, and 2-ethylhexanol). Thus, extrapolating from animal studies, an iEF of 3 should be applied for local sensory irritants without reliable human data, unless individual data argue for a substance-specific approach. PMID:25182421

  13. DOE 2010 Occupational Radiation Exposure November 2011

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Analysis

    2011-11-11

    This report discusses radiation protection and dose reporting requirements, presents the 2010 occupational radiation dose data trended over the past 5 years, and includes instructions to submit successful ALARA projects.

  14. Central nervous system toxicity after acute oral formaldehyde exposure in rabbits: An experimental study.

    PubMed

    Arici, S; Karaman, S; Dogru, S; Cayli, S; Arici, A; Suren, M; Karaman, T; Kaya, Z

    2014-11-01

    Formaldehyde (FA) is one of the most widely used chemical compounds in industrial field. It is described as toxic, particularly to the nervous system, the urogenital system, and the respiratory tracts. In this study, we determined the effects of acute oral exposure to FA in rabbit brain tissue. A total of 16 rabbits were selected and divided into 2 groups: formaldehyde group (group F) and control group (group C). FA was administered to group F at a rate of 40 mg/kg/day via a nasogastric tube for 5 days. Saline was similarly administered to the eight controls. All the animals were euthanized after 5 days of exposure, and brain tissue samples were collected in 10% neutral formalin and embedded in paraffin. To investigate the effects of FA on the apoptotic process, we examined active caspase-3, Bax, and Bcl-2 immunohistochemical expression and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate -biotin nick-end labeling (TUNEL) reactivity in the rabbit brains. In addition, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) was biochemically assessed in brain tissue samples for neurotoxicity. We found that FA treatment caused a significant decrease in Bcl-2 expression and an increase in active caspase-3 and Bax expressions as well as an increase in the number of TUNEL-positive apoptotic cells. The GFAP level was found to be significantly higher in group F. In conclusion, acute oral exposure to FA caused DNA damage, apoptosis, and neuronal injury in the rabbit brains. PMID:24501105

  15. Occupational exposures to respirable crystalline silica during hydraulic fracturing.

    PubMed

    Esswein, Eric J; Breitenstein, Michael; Snawder, John; Kiefer, Max; Sieber, W Karl

    2013-01-01

    This report describes a previously uncharacterized occupational health hazard: work crew exposures to respirable crystalline silica during hydraulic fracturing. Hydraulic fracturing involves high pressure injection of large volumes of water and sand, and smaller quantities of well treatment chemicals, into a gas or oil well to fracture shale or other rock formations, allowing more efficient recovery of hydrocarbons from a petroleum-bearing reservoir. Crystalline silica ("frac sand") is commonly used as a proppant to hold open cracks and fissures created by hydraulic pressure. Each stage of the process requires hundreds of thousands of pounds of quartz-containing sand; millions of pounds may be needed for all zones of a well. Mechanical handling of frac sand creates respirable crystalline silica dust, a potential exposure hazard for workers. Researchers at the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health collected 111 personal breathing zone samples at 11 sites in five states to evaluate worker exposures to respirable crystalline silica during hydraulic fracturing. At each of the 11 sites, full-shift samples exceeded occupational health criteria (e.g., the Occupational Safety and Health Administration calculated permissible exposure limit, the NIOSH recommended exposure limit, or the ACGIH threshold limit value), in some cases, by 10 or more times the occupational health criteria. Based on these evaluations, an occupational health hazard was determined to exist for workplace exposures to crystalline silica. Seven points of dust generation were identified, including sand handling machinery and dust generated from the work site itself. Recommendations to control exposures include product substitution (when feasible), engineering controls or modifications to sand handling machinery, administrative controls, and use of personal protective equipment. To our knowledge, this represents the first systematic study of work crew exposures to crystalline silica during hydraulic fracturing. Companies that conduct hydraulic fracturing using silica sand should evaluate their operations to determine the potential for worker exposure to respirable crystalline silica and implement controls as necessary to protect workers. PMID:23679563

  16. Measurement of specific IgE antibodies in individuals exposed to formaldehyde.

    PubMed

    Kramps, J A; Peltenburg, L T; Kerklaan, P R; Spieksma, F T; Valentijn, R M; Dijkman, J H

    1989-09-01

    Using an in-vitro test, the presence of formaldehyde-specific IgE antibodies was investigated in sera from four groups of individuals exposed to formaldehyde by different routes and concentrations. Group (A) 28 subjects living or working in rooms or places where formaldehyde-containing construction materials were used; (B) 18 subjects occupationally exposed to relatively high concentrations of formaldehyde; (C) 12 paramedic employees working in a renal dialysis unit where formaldehyde-sterilized dialysers were being used; and (D) 28 subjects undergoing haemodialysis with these formaldehyde-sterilized dialysers. Formaldehyde-specific IgE antibodies could be detected in only one of the 86 serum samples. This particular sample was from a worker occupationally exposed to formaldehyde (group (B], but who did not show any work-related symptoms. In two pools of control sera from unexposed subjects no specific IgE antibodies to formaldehyde were detected. It is concluded that exposure to formaldehyde, even in relatively high concentrations, rarely evokes the production of specific IgE antibodies. The presence of these specific antibodies is not necessarily attended by allergic symptoms. On the other hand, the symptoms supposed to be related to formaldehyde exposure and reported in this study by 24 out of 28 subjects in group (A), and some of the subjects in groups (B) and (C), cannot be attributed to an IgE-mediated sensitization to formaldehyde. PMID:2790559

  17. Ocular Injury by Transient Formaldehyde Exposure in a Rabbit Eye Model

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Li-Ju; Hsu, Wei-Hsiu; Wu, Albert M.; Wu, June H.

    2013-01-01

    Formaldehyde (FA) is frequently used in sterilizing surgical instruments and materials. Exposure to FA is highly concerned for eye tissues. Rabbit corneal epithelial cells were examined for changes after FA exposure. Our results showed that cell survival decreased 7 days after transient 3 min exposure to more than 100 ppm FA by trypan blue staining while MTT assay detected significant decrease at 20 ppm at 24 hours observation. The decrease of cell survival rate was concentration (up to 600 ppm)- and observation time (1–7 day)- dependent. The cell number decreased after 100 ppm FA exposure for more than 10 min at 7-day observation. The FA treated cells showed increased apoptosis/necrosis and cell cycle accumulation at sub G1 phase as well as mitochondria clustering around nucleus. The in vivo rabbit eye exposure for tear production by Schirmer’s test revealed that the FA-induced overproduction of tear also exhibited observation time (1–10 day)- and FA concentration (20–300 ppm for 5 min exposure)-dependent. Activated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (pERK2) in cornea explants by western blotting was reduced and increased c-Jun amino - terminal kinase (JNK) activation (pJNK) in cornea and conjunctiva was evident at 2 month after exposure to 50–200 ppm FA for 5 min. In conclusion, injury to the eye with transient exposure of up to 100 ppm FA for 3 min decreased corneal cell survival while a more sensitive MTT test detected the cell decrease at 20 ppm FA exposure. Morphology changes can be observed even at 5 ppm FA exposure for 3 min at 7 days after. The FA exposure also increased apoptotic/necrotic cells and sub-G1 phase in cell cycle. Long term effect (2 months after exposure) on the eye tissues even after the removal of FA can be observed with persistent JNK activation in cornea and conjunctiva. PMID:23818956

  18. Ocular injury by transient formaldehyde exposure in a rabbit eye model.

    PubMed

    Lai, Li-Ju; Hsu, Wei-Hsiu; Wu, Albert M; Wu, June H

    2013-01-01

    Formaldehyde (FA) is frequently used in sterilizing surgical instruments and materials. Exposure to FA is highly concerned for eye tissues. Rabbit corneal epithelial cells were examined for changes after FA exposure. Our results showed that cell survival decreased 7 days after transient 3 min exposure to more than 100 ppm FA by trypan blue staining while MTT assay detected significant decrease at 20 ppm at 24 hours observation. The decrease of cell survival rate was concentration (up to 600 ppm)- and observation time (1-7 day)- dependent. The cell number decreased after 100 ppm FA exposure for more than 10 min at 7-day observation. The FA treated cells showed increased apoptosis/necrosis and cell cycle accumulation at sub G1 phase as well as mitochondria clustering around nucleus. The in vivo rabbit eye exposure for tear production by Schirmer's test revealed that the FA-induced overproduction of tear also exhibited observation time (1-10 day)- and FA concentration (20-300 ppm for 5 min exposure)-dependent. Activated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (pERK2) in cornea explants by western blotting was reduced and increased c-Jun amino - terminal kinase (JNK) activation (pJNK) in cornea and conjunctiva was evident at 2 month after exposure to 50-200 ppm FA for 5 min. In conclusion, injury to the eye with transient exposure of up to 100 ppm FA for 3 min decreased corneal cell survival while a more sensitive MTT test detected the cell decrease at 20 ppm FA exposure. Morphology changes can be observed even at 5 ppm FA exposure for 3 min at 7 days after. The FA exposure also increased apoptotic/necrotic cells and sub-G1 phase in cell cycle. Long term effect (2 months after exposure) on the eye tissues even after the removal of FA can be observed with persistent JNK activation in cornea and conjunctiva. PMID:23818956

  19. The influence of occupational exposure on male reproductive function.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Tina Kold; Bonde, Jens Peter; Joffe, Michael

    2006-12-01

    Recently, many studies have found a decrease in semen quality which has increased the focus on male reproductive health. Occupational hazards are by far the best documented in reproductive epidemiological research. Generally, occupational exposures have been divided into physical exposures (heat and radiation), chemical exposures (solvents and pesticides), psychological exposures (distress), exposure to metals and welding. The recent and/or most important epidemiological studies exploring the effect of occupational exposures on semen quality and fecundity, the ability to conceive, are reviewed. The evidence for an adverse effect on male reproduction of several occupational and environmental exposures and toxicants, such as heat, ionizing radiation, inorganic lead, dibromochloropropane, ethylene dibromide, some ethylene glycol ethers, carbon disulfide and welding operations, is strongly supported in well-designed epidemiological studies. For other agents, the association is only suspected or suggested and needs further evaluation before conclusions can be drawn. It is also important to bear in mind that many workers in the non-Western world still are exposed to substances that are banned in the Western world, sometimes in high concentrations. PMID:17151390

  20. DOE Basic Overview of Occupational Radiation Exposure_2011 pamphlet

    SciTech Connect

    ORAU

    2012-08-08

    This pamphlet focusses on two HSS activities that help ensure radiation exposures are accurately assessed and recorded, namely: 1) the quality and accuracy of occupational radiation exposure monitoring, and 2) the recording, reporting, analysis, and dissemination of the monitoring results. It is intended to provide a short summary of two specific HSS programs that aid in the oversight of radiation protection activities at DOE. The Department of Energy Laboratory Accreditation Program (DOELAP) is in place to ensure that radiation exposure monitoring at all DOE sites is precise and accurate, and conforms to national and international performance and quality assurance standards. The DOE Radiation Exposure Monitoring Systems (REMS) program provides for the collection, analysis, and dissemination of occupational radiation exposure information. The annual REMS report is a valuable tool for managing radiological safety programs and for developing policies to protect individuals from occupational exposure to radiation. In tandem, these programs provide DOE management and workers an assurance that occupational radiation exposures are accurately measured, analyzed, and reported.

  1. Exposure to low doses of formaldehyde during pregnancy suppresses the development of allergic lung inflammation in offspring.

    PubMed

    Maiellaro, Marília; Correa-Costa, Matheus; Vitoretti, Luana Beatriz; Gimenes Júnior, João Antônio; Câmara, Niels Olsen Saraiva; Tavares-de-Lima, Wothan; Farsky, Sandra Helena Poliselli; Lino-dos-Santos-Franco, Adriana

    2014-08-01

    Formaldehyde (FA) is an environmental and occupational pollutant, and its toxic effects on the immune system have been shown. Nevertheless, no data are available regarding the programming mechanisms after FA exposure and its repercussions for the immune systems of offspring. In this study, our objective was to investigate the effects of low-dose exposure of FA on pregnant rats and its repercussion for the development of allergic lung inflammation in offspring. Pregnant Wistar rats were assigned in 3 groups: P (rats exposed to FA (0.75 ppm, 1 h/day, 5 days/week, for 21 days)), C (rats exposed to vehicle of FA (distillated water)) and B (rats non-manipulated). After 30 days of age, the offspring was sensitised with ovalbumin (OVA)-alum and challenged with aerosolized OVA (1%, 15 min, 3 days). After 24 h the OVA challenge the parameters were evaluated. Our data showed that low-dose exposure to FA during pregnancy induced low birth weight and suppressed the development of allergic lung inflammation and tracheal hyperresponsiveness in offspring by mechanisms mediated by reduced anaphylactic antibodies synthesis, IL-6 and TNF-alpha secretion. Elevated levels of IL-10 were found. Any systemic alteration was detected in the exposed pregnant rats, although oxidative stress in the uterine environment was evident at the moment of the delivery based on elevated COX-1 expression and reduced cNOS and SOD-2 in the uterus. Therefore, we show the putative programming mechanisms induced by FA on the immune system for the first time and the mechanisms involved may be related to oxidative stress in the foetal microenvironment. PMID:24844129

  2. Effect of formaldehyde gas exposure in a murine allergic contact hypersensitivity model.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Kazuyasu; Tsuji, Kazuhide; Matsuura, Hironori; Okazaki, Fusako; Takahashi, Sachiko; Arata, Jirô; Iwatsuki, Keiji

    2005-01-01

    To clarify the effect of formaldehyde (FA) gas exposure on contact hypersensitivity (CHS), CHS reactions against 2,4,6-trinitrochlorobenzene (TNCB) was studied in BALB/c mice with a low dose of FA gas exposure. The TNCB-induced CHS reactions were slightly suppressed by the FA gas exposure immediately after sensitization, whereas they were significantly enhanced and prolonged in mice continuously exposed to FA gas before and after sensitization. We showed that exposure to FA gas enhanced the Th2 dominant responses in draining lymph node (LN) in early stage of CHS. In contrast, T cell subsets and their intracellular cytokine production in the draining LN were similar during the early stage of CHS by FA gas exposure during the sensitization phase. The percentage of CD8+ T cells was increased, and the percentage of CD4+CD25+ T cells was decreased in the FA gas-exposed group at 72 hr after elicitation. These results indicate that FA gas-exposed might influence regulatory T cells. Furthermore, in the chronic CHS model that was repetitively elicited with TNCB, more intensive and prolonged CHS reactions, and increased numbers of mast cells were found in the FA gas-exposed group at 4 hr after elicitation than in the control group, FA gas exposure may alter the intensity of allergic CHS. PMID:15803868

  3. Adenocarcinoma of the stomach and exposure to occupational dust

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, W.E.; Bernstein, L.; Peters, J.M.; Garabrant, D.H.; Mack, T.M.

    1988-07-01

    The authors studied 1342 cases of adenocarcinoma of the stomach identified by a population-based cancer registry in Los Angeles County, California. The cases were males aged 20-64 years first diagnosed between 1972 and 1982. To determine whether exposure to occupational dust increased the risk of developing stomach cancer, occupational titles were rated for the likelihood of exposure to various kinds of dust. Men who worked in dusty jobs had a risk for developing stomach cancer 1.3 times that of unexposed men. The association of exposure to dust with stomach cancer was stronger at higher levels of exposure. The risk was not uniform throughout the stomach: the highest risk (1.8 times that of unexposed men) was found for the antrum/pylorus. At that site, exposure to mineral dust carried the greatest risk for cancer (3.7 times the risk for unexposed men). The highest risks from dust exposure were observed in blacks. Risk was related to race, socioeconomic status, and immigrant status, but these factors did not entirely explain the association with dust exposure. The observed relation between dust exposure and stomach cancer is consistent with results of previous mortality and case-control studies of cancer in men who worked in dusty occupations. Ingested dust may be one factor in the etiology of adenocarcinoma of the stomach.

  4. Exposure assessment in industry specific retrospective occupational epidemiology studies.

    PubMed Central

    Seixas, N S; Checkoway, H

    1995-01-01

    Quantitative estimation of exposure for occupational epidemiology studies has received increasing attention in recent years and, as a result, a body of methodological literature has begun to take form. This paper reviews the generic issues in the methodology of exposure assessment, particularly methods for quantitative retrospective assessment studies. A simple framework, termed an exposure data matrix (EDM), for defining and analysing exposure data is proposed and discussed in terms of the definition of matrix dimensions and scales. Several methods for estimation, interpolation, and extrapolation, ranging from subjective ratings to quantitative statistical modelling are presented and discussed. The various approaches to exposure assessment based on the EDM concept are illustrated with studies of lung disease among coal miners and other dust and chemically induced chronic occupational diseases. The advantages of validated statistical models are emphasised. The importance of analysis and control of errors in exposure assessments, and integration of the exposure assessment and exposure-response processes, especially for emerging occupational health issues, is emphasised. PMID:7489051

  5. Occupational PAH exposures during prescribed pile burns.

    PubMed

    Robinson, M S; Anthony, T R; Littau, S R; Herckes, P; Nelson, X; Poplin, G S; Burgess, J L

    2008-08-01

    Wildland firefighters are exposed to particulate matter and gases containing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), many of which are known carcinogens. Our objective was to evaluate the extent of firefighter exposure to particulate and PAHs during prescribed pile burns of mainly ponderosa pine slash and determine whether these exposures were correlated with changes in urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-HP), a PAH metabolite. Personal and area sampling for particulate and PAH exposures were conducted on the White Mountain Apache Tribe reservation, working with 21 Bureau of Indian Affairs/Fort Apache Agency wildland firefighters during the fall of 2006. Urine samples were collected pre- and post-exposure and pulmonary function was measured. Personal PAH exposures were detectable for only 3 of 16 PAHs analyzed: naphthalene, phenanthrene, and fluorene, all of which were identified only in vapor-phase samples. Condensed-phase PAHs were detected in PM2.5 area samples (20 of 21 PAHs analyzed were detected, all but naphthalene) at concentrations below 1 microg m(-3). The total PAH/PM2.5 mass fractions were roughly a factor of two higher during smoldering (1.06 +/- 0.15) than ignition (0.55 +/- 0.04 microg mg(-1)). There were no significant changes in urinary 1-HP or pulmonary function following exposure to pile burning. In summary, PAH exposures were low in pile burns, and urinary testing for a PAH metabolite failed to show a significant difference between baseline and post-exposure measurements. PMID:18515848

  6. Developing regulations for occupational exposures to health hazards in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Rampal, Krishna Gopal; Mohd Nizam, J

    2006-11-01

    In Malaysia exposures in the workplace are regulated under the Factories and Machinery Act (FMA), 1967 and also under the more comprehensive Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA) enacted in 1994. With OSHA 1994 the philosophy of legislating safety and health in the workplace changed from one that was very prescriptive and containing detailed technical provisions under FMA, 1967 to one that is more flexible and encourages self-regulation under OSHA 1994. OSHA 1994 is supported by regulations, codes of practices and guidelines to further clarify the provisions in the Act. Under the FMA 1967 emphasis was on safety while with OSHA 1994 there has been equal emphasis on addressing health hazards in the workplace. Regulations for occupational exposures are developed by the Department of Occupational Safety and Health with tripartite and stakeholder consultation. When developing these regulations International Labor Organization Conventions, laws of other countries and occupational exposure standards adopted internationally are reviewed. The government also conducts surveys to collect information on both exposures and health effects in workplaces to have better understanding on specific occupational health problems. Effective law enforcement is crucial in ensuring compliance to safety and health law. The challenge at the moment is to ensure all employers and employees, particularly those in the small and medium enterprises, understand and comply with the provisions stipulated in the legislation. PMID:16899331

  7. Epidemiologic evidence for asthma and exposure to air toxics: linkages between occupational, indoor, and community air pollution research.

    PubMed Central

    Delfino, Ralph J

    2002-01-01

    Outdoor ambient air pollutant exposures in communities are relevant to the acute exacerbation and possibly the onset of asthma. However, the complexity of pollutant mixtures and etiologic heterogeneity of asthma has made it difficult to identify causal components in those mixtures. Occupational exposures associated with asthma may yield clues to causal components in ambient air pollution because such exposures are often identifiable as single-chemical agents (e.g., metal compounds). However, translating occupational to community exposure-response relationships is limited. Of the air toxics found to cause occupational asthma, only formaldehyde has been frequently investigated in epidemiologic studies of allergic respiratory responses to indoor air, where general consistency can be shown despite lower ambient exposures. The specific volatile organic compounds (VOCs) identified in association with occupational asthma are generally not the same as those in studies showing respiratory effects of VOC mixtures on nonoccupational adult and pediatric asthma. In addition, experimental evidence indicates that airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposures linked to diesel exhaust particles (DEPs) have proinflammatory effects on airways, but there is insufficient supporting evidence from the occupational literature of effects of DEPs on asthma or lung function. In contrast, nonoccupational epidemiologic studies have frequently shown associations between allergic responses or asthma with exposures to ambient air pollutant mixtures with PAH components, including black smoke, high home or school traffic density (particularly truck traffic), and environmental tobacco smoke. Other particle-phase and gaseous co-pollutants are likely causal in these associations as well. Epidemiologic research on the relationship of both asthma onset and exacerbation to air pollution is needed to disentangle effects of air toxics from monitored criteria air pollutants such as particle mass. Community studies should focus on air toxics expected to have adverse respiratory effects based on biological mechanisms, particularly irritant and immunological pathways to asthma onset and exacerbation. PMID:12194890

  8. Formaldehyde and acetaldehyde exposure mitigation in US residences: in-home measurements of ventilation control and source control.

    PubMed

    Hult, E L; Willem, H; Price, P N; Hotchi, T; Russell, M L; Singer, B C

    2015-10-01

    Measurements were taken in new US residences to assess the extent to which ventilation and source control can mitigate formaldehyde exposure. Increasing ventilation consistently lowered indoor formaldehyde concentrations. However, at a reference air exchange rate of 0.35 h(-1), increasing ventilation was up to 60% less effective than would be predicted if the emission rate were constant. This is consistent with formaldehyde emission rates decreasing as air concentrations increase, as observed in chamber studies. In contrast, measurements suggest acetaldehyde emission was independent of ventilation rate. To evaluate the effectiveness of source control, formaldehyde concentrations were measured in Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED)-certified/Indoor airPLUS homes constructed with materials certified to have low emission rates of volatile organic compounds (VOC). At a reference air exchange rate of 0.35 h(-1), and adjusting for home age, temperature and relative humidity, formaldehyde concentrations in homes built with low-VOC materials were 42% lower on average than in reference new homes with conventional building materials. Without adjustment, concentrations were 27% lower in the low-VOC homes. The mean and standard deviation of formaldehyde concentration was 33 ?g/m(3) and 22 ?g/m(3) for low-VOC homes and 45 ?g/m(3) and 30 ?g/m(3) for conventional. PMID:25252109

  9. Technical aspects of gaseous formaldehyde as a sterilant.

    PubMed

    Handlos, V

    1984-03-01

    The design of a sterilizer for sterilization of heat sensitive items using gaseous formaldehyde and steam is described. The sterilizer is able to create a constant formaldehyde-steam concentration over a period of at least one hour. It is further able to operate at formaldehyde concentrations close to saturation with only small residues on sterilized plastic materials. The autoclave is used for measurement of formaldehyde solubility in polyolefines and poly(vinyl chloride) being approx. 15 and 250 ppm, respectively, at 70 degrees C and 30 mg HCHO I-1. The diffusion coefficient of formaldehyde in poly(vinyl chloride) is measured and is in the same order of magnitude as for ethylene oxide in poly(methyl methacrylate) i.e. 10(-10) cm2 s-1. Measurements of airborne formaldehyde in front of different sterilizers show that it is possible to design facilities meeting occupational exposure limits. PMID:6722252

  10. Occupational exposure to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in wood dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huynh, C. K.; Schüpfer, P.; Boiteux, P.

    2009-02-01

    Sino-nasal cancer (SNC) represents approximately 3% of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology (ORL) cancers. Adenocarcinoma SNC is an acknowledged occupational disease affecting certain specialized workers such as joiners and cabinetmakers. The high proportion of woodworkers contracting a SNC, subjected to an estimated risk 50 to 100 times higher than that affecting the general population, has suggested various study paths to possible causes such as tannin in hardwood, formaldehyde in plywood and benzo(a)pyrene produced by wood when overheated by cutting tools. It is acknowledged that tannin does not cause cancer to workers exposed to tea dust. Apart from being an irritant, formaldehyde is also classified as carcinogenic. The path involving carcinogenic Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) emitted by overheated wood is attractive. In this study, we measured the particle size and PAHs content in dust emitted by the processing of wood in an experimental chamber, and in field situation. Quantification of 16 PAHs is carried out by capillary GC-ion trap Mass Spectrometric analysis (GC-MS). The materials tested are rough fir tree, oak, impregnated polyurethane (PU) oak. The wood dust contains carcinogenic PAHs at the level of ?g.g-1 or ppm. During sanding operations, the PU varnish-impregnated wood produces 100 times more PAHs in dust than the unfinished wood.

  11. Wood-related occupations, wood dust exposure, and sinonasal cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Hayes, R.B.; Gerin, M.; Raatgever, J.W.; de Bruyn, A.

    1986-10-01

    A case-control study was conducted to examine the relations between type of woodworking and the extent of wood dust exposure to the risks for specific histologic types of sinonasal cancer. In cooperation with the major treatment centers in the Netherlands, 116 male patients newly diagnosed between 1978 and 1981 with primary malignancies of epithelial origin of this site were identified for study. Living controls were selected from the municipal registries, and deceased controls were selected from the national death registry. Interviews were completed for 91 (78%) cases and 195 (75%) controls. Job histories were coded by industry and occupation. An index of exposure was developed to classify the extent of occupational exposure to wood dust. When necessary, adjustment was made for age and usual cigarette use. The risk for nasal adenocarcinoma was elevated by industry for the wood and paper industry (odds ratio (OR) = 11.9) and by occupation for those employed in furniture and cabinet making (OR = 139.8), in factory joinery and carpentry work (OR = 16.3), and in association with high-level wood dust exposure (OR = 26.3). Other types of nasal cancer were not found to be associated with wood-related industries or occupations. A moderate excess in risk for squamous cell cancer (OR = 2.5) was associated with low-level wood dust exposure; however, no dose-response relation was evident. The association between wood dust and adenocarcinoma was strongest for those employed in wood dust-related occupations between 1930 and 1941. The risk of adenocarcinoma did not appear to decrease for at least 15 years after termination of exposure to wood dust. No cases of nasal adenocarcinoma were observed in men whose first exposure to wood dust occurred after 1941.

  12. Occupational Skin Hazards From Ultraviolet (UV) Exposures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urbach, F.; Wolbarsht, M. L.

    1981-11-01

    The various types of UV effects on the skin are classified according to the part of the spectrum and their beneficial or deleterious nature. Some hazardous ultraviolet sources used in industrial processes are described, and examples of photoallergy, phototoxicity, and photosensitization resulting from UV exposures are given. The incidence of skin cancer as a function of geographical location and exposure to sunlight is discussed in relation to natural and artificial exposures to long and short wavelength UV, especially in connection with tanning booths. The conclusion is reached that there is enough ultraviolet in a normal environment to propose a hazard, and additional ultraviolet exposure from industrial or consumer sources is not necessary, and should be eliminated wherever possible.

  13. Occupational Skin Hazards From Ultraviolet (UV) Exposures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urbach, F.; Wolbarsht, M. L.

    1980-10-01

    The various types of UV effects on the skin are classified according to the part of the spectrum and their beneficial or deleterious nature. Some hazardous ultraviolet sources used in industrial processes are described, and examples of photoallergy, phototoxicity, and photosensitization resulting from UV exposures are given. The incidence of skin cancer as a function of geographical location and exposure to sunlight is discussed in relation to natural and artificial exposures to long and short wavelength UV, especially in connection with tanning booths. The conclusion is reached that there is enough ultraviolet in a normal environment to propose a hazard, and additional ultraviolet exposure from industrial or consumer sources is not necessary, and should be eliminated wherever possible.

  14. Cytokinesis blocked micronucleus assay of peripheral lymphocytes revealing the genotoxic effect of formaldehyde exposure.

    PubMed

    Souza, Anne D; Devi, Rema

    2014-04-01

    Formaldehyde (FA), which is said to be a carcinogenic agent, is commonly used in anatomy laboratories. This study used the cytokinesis blocked micronucleus assay (CBMN) to assess DNA damage due to FA exposure by measuring the frequency of micronuclei (MN) in lymphocytes. The extent of DNA damage was assessed with respect to the duration of exposure. Thirty male anatomy laboratory workers from various medical colleges involved with storing specimens and embalming were included in the study. Thirty males who were not exposed to FA were included as a comparison group. Blood samples were collected after informed consent was given. Information regarding age, duration of FA exposure and smoking habits was obtained by a questionnaire. The CBMN assay was conducted on cultured isolated lymphocytes stained with Giemsa. MN were counted in a total of 1000 binucleated lymphocytes. The effect of smoking was assessed using appropriate statistical tests. The frequency of MN in lymphocytes was significantly higher in the exposed group (P < 0.001). The duration of exposure correlated positively with the frequency of MN (r = 0.5, P = 0.02). Neither aging nor smoking correlated significantly with the formation of MN. The present study highlights significant DNA damage in people exposed to FA. The extent of damage was directly proportional to the duration of exposure. PMID:23893659

  15. Occupational exposures during the World Trade Center disaster response.

    PubMed

    Wallingford, K M; Snyder, E M

    2001-06-01

    Upon the request of the New York City Department of Health, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) monitored occupational exposures among emergency response workers during the rescue and recovery activities at the World Trade Center disaster site from September 18 through 4 October 2001. During this period, over 1,200 bulk and air samples were collected to estimate or characterize workers' occupational exposures. Samples were collected and analyzed for asbestos, carbon monoxide (CO), chlorodifluoromethane (Freon 22), diesel exhaust, hydrogen sulfide, inorganic acids, mercury and other metals, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, respirable particulate not otherwise regulated (PNOR), respirable crystalline silica, total PNOR, and volatile organic compounds. Exposures to most of these potential hazards did not exceed NIOSH Recommended Exposure Limits or Occupational Safety and Health Administration Permissible Exposure Limits. However, one torch cutter was overexposed to cadmium and another worker (and possibly three others) was overexposed to CO. The elevated cadmium and CO levels were the result of workers using oxy-acetylene cutting torches and gasoline-powered cutting saws. Recommendations were made to ensure adequate ventilation and worker understanding when using these tools and, where possible, to substitute rechargeable, battery-powered cutting saws for gasoline-powered ones. Toxicology PMID:12539869

  16. A mathematical model for the absorption and metabolism of formaldehyde vapour by humans

    SciTech Connect

    Franks, S.J. . E-mail: Susan.Franks@hsl.gov.uk

    2005-08-15

    Epidemiological studies of occupational exposure to formaldehyde gas (HCHO) have suggested possible links between concentration and duration of exposure, and elevated risks of leukaemia and other cancers at sites distant from the site of contact. Formaldehyde is a highly water soluble gas which, when inhaled, reacts rapidly at the site of contact and is quickly metabolised by enzymes in the respiratory tissue. Inhaled formaldehyde is almost entirely absorbed in the respiratory tract and, for formaldehyde induced toxicity to occur at distant sites, HCHO must enter the blood and be transported to systemic tissues via the circulatory system. A mathematical model describing the absorption and removal of inhaled formaldehyde in the nasal tissue is therefore formulated to predict the proportion of formaldehyde entering into the blood. Accounting for the spatial distribution of the formaldehyde concentration and the metabolic activity within the mucosa, the concentration of formaldehyde in the mucus, the epithelium and the blood has been determined and was found to attain a steady-state profile within a few seconds of exposure. The increase of the formaldehyde concentration in the blood was predicted to be insignificant compared with the existing pre-exposure levels in the body, indicating that formaldehyde is rapidly removed in the nasal tissue. The results of the model thus suggest that it is highly unlikely that following inhalation by the nose, formaldehyde itself will cause toxicity at sites other than the initial site of contact in the respiratory tract.

  17. Assessing the reproductive health of men with occupational exposures

    PubMed Central

    Schrader, Steven M; Marlow, Katherine L

    2014-01-01

    The earliest report linking environmental (occupational) exposure to adverse human male reproductive effects dates back to1775 when an English physician, Percival Pott, reported a high incidence of scrotal cancer in chimney sweeps. This observation led to safety regulations in the form of bathing requirements for these workers. The fact that male-mediated reproductive harm in humans may be a result of toxicant exposures did not become firmly established until relatively recently, when Lancranjan studied lead-exposed workers in Romania in 1975, and later in 1977, when Whorton examined the effects of dibromochloropropane (DBCP) on male workers in California. Since these discoveries, several additional human reproductive toxicants have been identified through the convergence of laboratory and observational findings. Many research gaps remain, as the pool of potential human exposures with undetermined effects on male reproduction is vast. This review provides an overview of methods used to study the effects of exposures on male reproduction and their reproductive health, with a primary emphasis on the implementation and interpretation of human studies. Emphasis will be on occupational exposures, although much of the information is also useful in assessing environmental studies, occupational exposures are usually much higher and better defined. PMID:24369130

  18. Association between occupational exposure and the clinical characteristics of COPD

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The contribution of occupational exposures to COPD and their interaction with cigarette smoking on clinical pattern of COPD remain underappreciated. The aim of this study was to explore the contribution of occupational exposures on clinical pattern of COPD. Methods Cross-sectional data from a multicenter tertiary care cohort of 591 smokers or ex-smokers with COPD (median FEV1 49%) were analyzed. Self-reported exposure to vapor, dust, gas or fumes (VDGF) at any time during the entire career was recorded. Results VDGF exposure was reported in 209 (35%) subjects aged 31 to 88 years. Several features were significantly associated with VDGF exposure: age (median 68 versus 64 years, p?occupational exposures are associated with distinct patients characteristics. PMID:22537093

  19. Biomonitoring of human genotoxicity induced by complex occupational exposures.

    PubMed

    Schoket, B; Poirier, M C; Mayer, G; Török, G; Kolozsi-Ringelhann, A; Bognár, G; Bigbee, W L; Vincze, I

    1999-09-30

    Sensitivity, specificity and correlations among several biomarkers for monitoring occupational exposure to complex mixtures of genotoxic agents were assessed in occupational environments in Hungarian study populations. The studies have been focused on DNA adduct formation, urinary metabolites, mutations and micronuclei induced by exposures to complex organic mixtures. In two Hungarian aluminium plants, increased DNA adduct and 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OH-PY) levels were observed in workers as compared to controls. However, no association between the biomarker levels was evident on an individual basis. In Hungarian garage mechanics, DNA adduct determinations did not show increased genotoxic exposure as compared to the controls. However, ambient air measurements, significantly enhanced 1-OH-PY levels, and slightly enhanced frequency of micronuclei indicated increased polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposure in the garages, as compared to the general environment. In a Hungarian vulcanizing plant, DNA adduct determinations and 1-OH-PY did not show significantly elevated exposure levels as compared to controls. The glycophorin A (GPA) somatic mutation assay was also negative for this occupational exposure. The results support previous observations of a lack of correlation between DNA adducts detectable by 32P-postlabelling and those measured by the PAH-DNA immunoassay in the same DNA sample. These studies also demonstrate a lack of close correlation between levels of DNA adducts and urinary 1-OH-PY in the same individual. PMID:10575430

  20. Overview of occupational exposure to electric and magnetic fields and cancer: advancements in exposure assessment.

    PubMed Central

    Savitz, D A

    1995-01-01

    For over ten years, there has been concern with the potential for increased risk of cancer among "electrical workers." In contrast to studies of residential exposure to magnetic fields, occupational studies include electric and magnetic field exposures and have much greater variability in field intensity, frequency, and temporal patterns. Studies of leukemia in electrical workers show a moderate consistency, with elevated risk ratios of 1.2 to 2.0 commonly observed. Brain tumors are similarly elevated with some consistency, and three recent studies have suggested increased risk of male breast cancer. Retrospective exposure assessment methods were advanced in recent studies of diverse occupations in a study in central Sweden, which yielded evidence of increased risk of chronic lymphocytic leukemia among men in more highly exposed occupations. A study of telephone workers in New York State incorporated measurements and found some indication of increased leukemia risk only when exposures were based on historical technology. Utility workers in southern California were studied and found not to have increased risks of leukemia and brain cancer based on exposures estimated with measurements. An ongoing study of electric utility workers at five companies in the United States incorporates an extensive measurement protocol. Randomly selected workers within occupational categories wore a time-integrating magnetic-field meter to provide estimates of exposure for the occupational category. We were able to estimate and partition the variance into between-day (the largest contributor), within occupational categories, and between occupational categories. Principal research needs concern optimal levels of worker aggregation for exposure assignment, historical extrapolation, study of diverse work environments, and integration of residential and occupational exposure in the same study. PMID:7614951

  1. Lead exposure among five distinct occupational groups: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Gharaibeh, Mohammad Younis; Alzoubi, Karem Hasan; Khabour, Omar Falah; Khader, Yousef Saleh; Gharaibeh, Mamoun Abdallah; Matarneh, Sulaiman Khalid

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate blood lead concentration among five selected occupational groups. The five groups were: hospital health workers, shop workers, taxi drivers, automobiles mechanics, and wood workers. The groups did not significantly differ among each other in the average of age and work years. ANOVA test revealed significantly higher mean lead blood concentration in taxi drivers, automechanics, and wood workers compared to other groups. Additionally, workers with lead concentration >0.483 umol/L (10?g/dL) were more likely to have frequent muscle pain compared to those with lower concentrations. No association between other symptoms of lead exposure/toxicity and blood lead concentration was detected. In conclusion, special attention must be directed toward lead blood levels and lead poisoning symptoms when examining patients from certain occupational groups such as taxi drivers, automechanics, and wood workers. Special safety precautions and educational programs are also needed to limit the lead exposure in these occupational groups. PMID:24374433

  2. LINKING DATA TO STUDY REPRODUCTIVE EFFECTS OF OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many existing data systems or registers can be used to study occupational exposures and reproduction. Use of these data systems, especially those already computerized, results in great savings in time and resources. The report describes existing record systems on reproductive out...

  3. Occupational Exposure to Natural Sources of Ionising Radiation in Ireland

    SciTech Connect

    Organo, Catherine; Colgan, Tony; Fenton, David; Synnott, Hugh; Currivan, Lorraine

    2008-08-07

    The Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland (RPII) has recently completed a detailed evaluation of all radiation exposure pathways from sources of both natural and artificial radiation in the Irish environment. This paper presents a compilation of the occupational doses received by Irish workers exposed to natural sources of ionising radiation.

  4. Investing in Prospective Cohorts for Etiologic Study of Occupational Exposures

    EPA Science Inventory

    Prospective cohorts have played a major role in understanding the role of diet, physical activity, medical conditions, and genes in the development of many diseases, but have not been widely used in the study of occupational exposures. Studies in agriculture are an exception. W...

  5. Occupational exposure to DDT among mosquito control sprayers

    SciTech Connect

    Nhachi, C.F.B.; Kasilo, O.J. )

    1990-08-01

    DDT, a broad action insecticide whose use is restricted or banned in most industrialized countries is still often used for vector control in many tropical and developing countries. Despite the fact that DDT is accumulative and persistant in the ecosystem use of such substitutes as malathion or propoxur is not popular because these increases costs by 3.4 to 8.5 fold. As such DDT is economically attractive to poorer countries. As far as can be ascertained no systemic poisoning has resulted from occupational exposure to DDT. Due to the large particle size, the amount of DDT inhaled by workers is far less than the amount reaching exposed portions of skin. As such occupational exposure is mainly dermal or tropical. Occupational exposure to DDT studies have been done before. The present study is an analysis of some characteristics, (i.e. age, body size, relationship between plasma vitamin A and DDE levels, and smoking habits), of occupational exposure to DDT among spraymen in a Zimbabwe population.

  6. Toxic hepatitis in occupational exposure to solvents

    PubMed Central

    Malaguarnera, Giulia; Cataudella, Emanuela; Giordano, Maria; Nunnari, Giuseppe; Chisari, Giuseppe; Malaguarnera, Mariano

    2012-01-01

    The liver is the main organ responsible for the metabolism of drugs and toxic chemicals, and so is the primary target organ for many organic solvents. Work activities with hepatotoxins exposures are numerous and, moreover, organic solvents are used in various industrial processes. Organic solvents used in different industrial processes may be associated with hepatotoxicity. Several factors contribute to liver toxicity; among these are: species differences, nutritional condition, genetic factors, interaction with medications in use, alcohol abuse and interaction, and age. This review addresses the mechanisms of hepatotoxicity. The main pathogenic mechanisms responsible for functional and organic damage caused by solvents are: inflammation, dysfunction of cytochrome P450, mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress. The health impact of exposure to solvents in the workplace remains an interesting and worrying question for professional health work. PMID:22719183

  7. Is exposure to formaldehyde in air causally associated with leukemia?—A hypothesis-based weight-of-evidence analysis

    PubMed Central

    Rhomberg, Lorenz R; Bailey, Lisa A; Goodman, Julie E; Hamade, Ali K; Mayfield, David

    2011-01-01

    Recent scientific debate has focused on the potential for inhaled formaldehyde to cause lymphohematopoietic cancers, particularly leukemias, in humans. The concern stems from certain epidemiology studies reporting an association, although particulars of endpoints and dosimetry are inconsistent across studies and several other studies show no such effects. Animal studies generally report neither hematotoxicity nor leukemia associated with formaldehyde inhalation, and hematotoxicity studies in humans are inconsistent. Formaldehyde's reactivity has been thought to preclude systemic exposure following inhalation, and its apparent inability to reach and affect the target tissues attacked by known leukemogens has, heretofore, led to skepticism regarding its potential to cause human lymphohematopoietic cancers. Recently, however, potential modes of action for formaldehyde leukemogenesis have been hypothesized, and it has been suggested that formaldehyde be identified as a known human leukemogen. In this article, we apply our hypothesis-based weight-of-evidence (HBWoE) approach to evaluate the large body of evidence regarding formaldehyde and leukemogenesis, attending to how human, animal, and mode-of-action results inform one another. We trace the logic of inference within and across all studies, and articulate how one could account for the suite of available observations under the various proposed hypotheses. Upon comparison of alternative proposals regarding what causal processes may have led to the array of observations as we see them, we conclude that the case fora causal association is weak and strains biological plausibility. Instead, apparent association between formaldehyde inhalation and leukemia in some human studies is better interpreted as due to chance or confounding. PMID:21635189

  8. Occupational exposure to hydrazine and subsequent risk of cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Wald, N; Boreham, J; Doll, R; Bonsall, J

    1984-01-01

    Four hundred and twenty seven men with varying degrees of occupational exposure to hydrazine, a weak animal carcinogen, were studied to see if they provided any evidence of carcinogenicity to man. The observed mortality was close to that expected for lung cancer, other cancers, and all other causes, irrespective of the level of exposure. There were 49 deaths (61.47 expected) from all causes including five deaths from lung cancer (6.65 expected). The results show that no obvious hazards associated with hydrazine exposure have yet appeared but because of the small number of men studied they can only exclude gross hazards. PMID:6691933

  9. Occupational exposures among fathers of children with Wilms tumor

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkins, J.R.; Sinks, T.H. Jr.

    1984-06-01

    An occupation-and-exposure linkage system was utilized to perform an epidemiologic case-control study of paternal occupation and Wilms tumor in offspring. The first part of the study was designed to test the hypothesis that paternal lead (Pb) exposure is a risk factor for Wilms tumor in offspring. The second part of the study was an exploratory analysis that sought to generate possible etiologic hypotheses about other paternal exposures in the workplace in relation to Wilms tumor. Calculation of odds ratios indicated that there was no statistical difference in the frequency of occupational exposure to Pb, Pb alkyls, and Pb salts for fathers of children with Wilms' tumor and fathers of controls, a finding that contrasts sharply with the results of the one previously reported study in this area. In the exploratory phase of the study, case fathers were found more likely to have been exposed to boron, while control fathers were found more likely to have encountered insecticides, acetylene, o-chlorobenzylidene, oil orange ss, and diethylene glycol; the differences were statistically significant. Troublesome methodologic problems, including exposure misclassification, sample size, and multiple comparisons, are discussed.

  10. 75 FR 80819 - Draft Current Intelligence Bulletin “Occupational Exposure to Carbon Nanotubes and Nanofibers”

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-23

    ...Bulletin ``Occupational Exposure to Carbon Nanotubes and Nanofibers'' AGENCY...plans to evaluate the scientific data on carbon nanotubes and to issue its findings on...entitled ``Occupational Exposure to Carbon Nanotubes and Nanofibers'' has...

  11. 48 CFR 952.223-75 - Preservation of individual occupational radiation exposure records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...Preservation of individual occupational radiation exposure records. 952.223-75...Preservation of individual occupational radiation exposure records. As prescribed...planning and execution, or 952.223-72, Radiation protection and nuclear...

  12. 48 CFR 952.223-75 - Preservation of individual occupational radiation exposure records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...Preservation of individual occupational radiation exposure records. 952.223-75...Preservation of individual occupational radiation exposure records. Link to an amendment...planning and execution, or 952.223-72, Radiation protection and nuclear...

  13. 48 CFR 952.223-75 - Preservation of individual occupational radiation exposure records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...Preservation of individual occupational radiation exposure records. 952.223-75...Preservation of individual occupational radiation exposure records. As prescribed...planning and execution, or 952.223-72, Radiation protection and nuclear...

  14. 48 CFR 952.223-75 - Preservation of individual occupational radiation exposure records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...Preservation of individual occupational radiation exposure records. 952.223-75...Preservation of individual occupational radiation exposure records. As prescribed...planning and execution, or 952.223-72, Radiation protection and nuclear...

  15. 48 CFR 952.223-75 - Preservation of individual occupational radiation exposure records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...Preservation of individual occupational radiation exposure records. 952.223-75...Preservation of individual occupational radiation exposure records. As prescribed...planning and execution, or 952.223-72, Radiation protection and nuclear...

  16. 75 FR 24746 - Occupational Exposure to Noise Standard; Extension of the Office of Management and Budget's (OMB...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-05

    ...specified in the Occupational Exposure to Noise Standard. The...www.regulations.gov index; however, some information...contained in the Occupational Exposure to Noise Standard (29...Title: Occupational Exposure to Noise Standard...www.regulations.gov index, some...

  17. Effectiveness of various methods of formaldehyde neutralization using monoethanolamine.

    PubMed

    Coskey, Andrew; Gest, Thomas R

    2015-05-01

    Formaldehyde is the most commonly used fixative chemical for the preservation of human cadavers used for educational purposes in the United States. Formaldehyde is also a known carcinogenic agent whose exposure level is regulated by guidelines of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration. Various methods for formaldehyde neutralization exist, yet many donations programs do not take any steps to neutralize the formaldehyde in embalmed donor bodies. The effectiveness of monoethanolamine (MEA) in neutralizing formaldehyde is well documented when used as a final injection during embalming. The purpose of this study is to report the effectiveness of several post-embalming techniques of formaldehyde neutralization. Twenty-four donor bodies were assigned to four experimental groups of six. For the three experimental groups, the techniques tested involve delivery of a 20:1 dilution of deionized water:MEA via recannulization and gravity flow infusion, compartment injection, and alternate wetting solution containing four percent MEA. Our results indicated that spray bottle delivery was not effective in neutralization of formaldehyde compared to the control group, but that formaldehyde levels decreased when recannulization or compartment injection were used. The most effective method of formaldehyde neutralization was compartment injection of MEA solution (P?formaldehyde neutralization. PMID:25832967

  18. [Evaluation of occupational exposure to mineral oil].

    PubMed

    Gaweda, E; Kurpiewska, J; Benczek, K M; Kije?ska, D

    2000-01-01

    The results of measurements of mineral oil concentrations in the air of selected workposts in five plants, taken in 1996-99, are presented. Absorption spectrometry in IR was used for determining mineral oils. In order to collect oil mist on a glass filter a personal sampling or stationary method was used. The results obtained show that the level of exposure to mineral oils in Polish industry is rather low. In few cases only oil mist was present in the air in amounts exceeding the Polish MAC value of 5 mg/m3. It was also noted that the situation has improved during the recent years. PMID:11059409

  19. Occupational exposure to crystalline silica and autoimmune disease.

    PubMed

    Parks, C G; Conrad, K; Cooper, G S

    1999-10-01

    Occupational exposure to silica dust has been examined as a possible risk factor with respect to several systemic autoimmune diseases, including scleroderma, rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and some of the small vessel vasculitidies with renal involvement (e.g., Wegener granulomatosis). Crystalline silica, or quartz, is an abundant mineral found in sand, rock, and soil. High-level exposure to respirable silica dust can cause chronic inflammation and fibrosis in the lung and other organs. Studies of specific occupational groups with high-level silica exposure (e.g., miners) have shown increased rates of autoimmune diseases compared to the expected rates in the general population. However, some clinic- and population-based studies have not demonstrated an association between silica exposure and risk of autoimmune diseases. This lack of effect may be due to the limited statistical power of these studies to examine this association or because the lower- or moderate-level exposures that may be more common in the general population were not considered. Experimental studies demonstrate that silica can act as an adjuvant to nonspecifically enhance the immune response. This is one mechanism by which silica might be involved in the development of autoimmune diseases. Given that several different autoimmune diseases may be associated with silica dust exposure, silica dust may act to promote or accelerate disease development, requiring some other factor to break immune tolerance or initiate autoimmunity. The specific manifestation of this effect may depend on underlying differences in genetic susceptibility or other environmental exposures. PMID:10970168

  20. Occupational exposure to crystalline silica and autoimmune disease.

    PubMed Central

    Parks, C G; Conrad, K; Cooper, G S

    1999-01-01

    Occupational exposure to silica dust has been examined as a possible risk factor with respect to several systemic autoimmune diseases, including scleroderma, rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and some of the small vessel vasculitidies with renal involvement (e.g., Wegener granulomatosis). Crystalline silica, or quartz, is an abundant mineral found in sand, rock, and soil. High-level exposure to respirable silica dust can cause chronic inflammation and fibrosis in the lung and other organs. Studies of specific occupational groups with high-level silica exposure (e.g., miners) have shown increased rates of autoimmune diseases compared to the expected rates in the general population. However, some clinic- and population-based studies have not demonstrated an association between silica exposure and risk of autoimmune diseases. This lack of effect may be due to the limited statistical power of these studies to examine this association or because the lower- or moderate-level exposures that may be more common in the general population were not considered. Experimental studies demonstrate that silica can act as an adjuvant to nonspecifically enhance the immune response. This is one mechanism by which silica might be involved in the development of autoimmune diseases. Given that several different autoimmune diseases may be associated with silica dust exposure, silica dust may act to promote or accelerate disease development, requiring some other factor to break immune tolerance or initiate autoimmunity. The specific manifestation of this effect may depend on underlying differences in genetic susceptibility or other environmental exposures. PMID:10970168

  1. The determination of exogenous formaldehyde in blood of rats during and after inhalation exposure.

    PubMed

    Kleinnijenhuis, Anne J; Staal, Yvonne C M; Duistermaat, Evert; Engel, Roel; Woutersen, Ruud A

    2013-02-01

    Formaldehyde (FA) is suspected of being associated with the development of leukemia. An inhalation experiment with FA was performed in rats to study whether FA can enter the blood and could thus cause systemic toxicity in remote tissues such as the bone marrow. Therefore, a sophisticated analytical method was developed to detect blood concentrations of FA during and after single 6-h exposure by inhalation. In order to differentiate between exogenous and endogenous FA the rats were exposed to stable isotope ((13)C) labeled FA by inhalation. During and after exposure of the rats to (13)C-FA their blood was analyzed to determine the ratio between labeled and natural FA in blood and the total blood concentration of FA. With respect to sensitivity, with the applied method exogenous (13)C-FA could have been detected in blood at a concentration approximately 1.5% of the endogenous FA blood concentration. Exogenous (13)C-FA was not detectable in the blood of rats either during or up to 30 min after the exposure. It was concluded that the inhalation of (13)C-FA at 10 ppm for 6h did not result in an increase of the total FA concentration in blood. PMID:23159914

  2. CPL 2-2.69 -Enforcement Procedures for the Occupational Exposure to Bloodborne Pathogens

    E-print Network

    for Follow-Up of Health-Care Workers After Occupational Exposure to Hepatitis C Virus". July 4, 1997; Vol.Directives CPL 2-2.69 - Enforcement Procedures for the Occupational Exposure to Bloodborne: Enforcement Procedures for the Occupational Exposure to Bloodborne Pathogens · Standard Number: 1910

  3. Exploring the Usefulness of Occupational Exposure Registries for Surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Genesove, Leon; Moore, Kris; Del Bianco, Ann; Kramer, Desre

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The ongoing presence of asbestos in products used across workplaces in Canada reinforces the importance of occupational exposure surveillance. This study evaluates the usefulness of the Ontario Asbestos Workers Registry. Methods: The study includes 30,829 workers aged 15 to 80 years. Researchers reported on the data quality and analyzed the proportions of workers exposed by industry, and standardized rates by geographic areas and over time. Results: The incidence of exposure started to decrease around 1990; but about 2000 workers were still exposed annually until 2006. Results showed large geographical disparities. Unexpectedly, workers from industries other than construction reported exposure. Conclusions: The Ontario Asbestos Workers Registry is a useful but challenging source of information for the surveillance of asbestos exposure in Ontario. The registry could benefit from well-defined surveillance objectives, a clear exposure definition, systematic enforcement, regular data analyses, and results dissemination. PMID:25162835

  4. Formaldehyde Exposure and Lower Respiratory Infections in Infants: Findings from the PARIS Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Roda, Célina; Kousignian, Isabelle; Guihenneuc-Jouyaux, Chantal; Dassonville, Claire; Nicolis, Ioannis; Just, Jocelyne

    2011-01-01

    Background: Certain chemical pollutants can exacerbate lower respiratory tract infections (LRIs), a common childhood ailment. Although formaldehyde (FA) is one of the most common air pollutants found in indoor environments, its impact on infant health is uncertain. Objective: Our aim was to determine the impact of FA exposure on the LRI incidence during the first year of life of infants from the Pollution and Asthma Risk: an Infant Study (PARIS) birth cohort. Methods: FA was measured in a random sample of 196 infants’ dwellings, and exposure to this pollutant was estimated for 2,940 infants using predictive models based on measurements and data about potential determinants of FA levels. Health data were collected from parents by regular self-administered questionnaires. We used multivariate logistic regressions to estimate associations between FA exposure and the occurrence of LRI and wheezy LRI (wLRI), adjusting for potential confounders/risk factors. Results: During the first year of life, 45.8% of infants had at least one LRI, and LRI occurred simultaneously with wheezing in 48.7% of cases. The FA predictive models correctly classified 70% of dwellings as having high or low exposure, and we estimated that 43.3% of infants were exposed throughout the first year to levels of FA > 19.5 µg/m3. FA exposure was significantly associated with LRI and wLRI before and after adjustment for known LRI risk factors/confounders. For an interquartile increase in FA levels (12.4 ?g/m3), we estimated a 32% [95% confidence interval (CI): 11, 55] and 41% (95% CI: 14, 74) increase in the incidence of LRI and wLRI, respectively. Conclusion: The findings of this study suggest that infants exposed to FA at an early age have an increased incidence of LRI. PMID:21810553

  5. Occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields in physiotherapy departments.

    PubMed

    Maccà, I; Scapellato, M L; Carrieri, M; Pasqua di Bisceglie, A; Saia, B; Bartolucci, G B

    2008-01-01

    To assess occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields, 11 microwave (MW), 4 short-wave diathermy and 15 magneto therapy devices were analysed in eight physiotherapy departments. Measurements taken at consoles and environmental mapping showed values above European Directive 2004/40/EC and ACGIH exposure limits at approximately 50 cm from MW applicators (2.45 GHz) and above the Directive magnetic field limit near the diathermy unit (27.12 MHz). Levels in front of MW therapy applicators decreased rapidly with distance and reduction in power; this may not always occur in work environments where nearby metal structures (chairs, couches, etc.) may reflect or perturb electromagnetic fields. Large differences in stray field intensities were found for various MW applicators. Measurements of power density strength around MW electrodes confirmed radiation fields between 30 degrees and 150 degrees , with a peak at 90 degrees , in front of the cylindrical applicator and maximum values between 30 degrees and 150 degrees over the whole range of 180 degrees for the rectangular parabolic applicator. Our results reveal that although most areas show substantially low levels of occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields in physiotherapy units, certain cases of over-occupational exposure limits do exist. PMID:17562660

  6. Potential Health Effects Associated with Dermal Exposure to Occupational Chemicals

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Stacey E; Meade, B Jean

    2014-01-01

    There are a large number of workers in the United States, spanning a variety of occupational industries and sectors, who are potentially exposed to chemicals that can be absorbed through the skin. Occupational skin exposures can result in numerous diseases that can adversely affect an individual’s health and capacity to perform at work. In general, there are three types of chemical–skin interactions of concern: direct skin effects, immune-mediated skin effects, and systemic effects. While hundreds of chemicals (metals, epoxy and acrylic resins, rubber additives, and chemical intermediates) present in virtually every industry have been identified to cause direct and immune-mediated effects such as contact dermatitis or urticaria, less is known about the number and types of chemicals contributing to systemic effects. In an attempt to raise awareness, skin notation assignments communicate the potential for dermal absorption; however, there is a need for standardization among agencies to communicate an accurate description of occupational hazards. Studies have suggested that exposure to complex mixtures, excessive hand washing, use of hand sanitizers, high frequency of wet work, and environmental or other factors may enhance penetration and stimulate other biological responses altering the outcomes of dermal chemical exposure. Understanding the hazards of dermal exposure is essential for the proper implementation of protective measures to ensure worker safety and health. PMID:25574139

  7. Occupational exposure to diesel engine exhaust: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Pronk, Anjoeka; Coble, Joseph; Stewart, Patricia A

    2009-07-01

    Diesel exhaust (DE) is classified as a probable human carcinogen. Aims were to describe the major occupational uses of diesel engines and give an overview of personal DE exposure levels and determinants of exposure as reported in the published literature. Measurements representative of personal DE exposure were abstracted from the literature for the following agents: elemental carbon (EC), particulate matter (PM), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxide (NO), and nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)). Information on determinants of exposure was abstracted. In total, 3528 EC, 4166 PM, 581 CO, 322 NO, and 1404 NO(2) measurements were abstracted. From the 10,001 measurements, 32% represented exposure from on-road vehicles and 68% from off-road vehicles (30% mining, 15% railroad, and 22% others). Highest levels were reported for enclosed underground work sites in which heavy equipment is used: mining, mine maintenance, and construction (EC: 27-658 microg/m(3)). Intermediate exposure levels were generally reported for above-ground (semi-) enclosed areas in which smaller equipment was run: mechanics in a shop, emergency workers in fire stations, distribution workers at a dock, and workers loading/unloading inside a ferry (generally: EC<50 microg/m(3)). Lowest levels were reported for enclosed areas separated from the source, such as drivers and train crew, or outside, such as surface mining, parking attendants, vehicle testers, utility service workers, surface construction and airline ground personnel (EC<25 microg/m(3)). The other agents showed a similar pattern. Determinants of exposure reported for enclosed situations were ventilation and exhaust after treatment devices. Reported DE exposure levels were highest for underground mining and construction, intermediate for working in above-ground (semi-) enclosed areas and lowest for working outside or separated from the source. The presented data can be used as a basis for assessing occupational exposure in population-based epidemiological studies and guide future exposure assessment efforts for industrial hygiene and epidemiological studies. PMID:19277070

  8. Occupational exposure of workers to 1,3-butadiene.

    PubMed

    Fajen, J M; Roberts, D R; Ungers, L J; Krishnan, E R

    1990-06-01

    Researchers from the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) conducted an extent-of-exposure study of the 1,3-butadiene monomer, polymer, and end-user industries to determine the size of the exposed workforce, evaluate control technologies and personal protective equipment programs, and assess occupational exposure to 1,3-butadiene. A new analytical method was developed for 1,3-butadiene that increased the sensitivity and selectivity of the previous NIOSH method. The new method is sensitive to 0.2 microgram per 1,3-butadiene sample. Walk-through surveys were conducted in 11 monomer, 17 polymer, and 2 end-user plants. In-depth industrial hygiene surveys were conducted at 4 monomer, 5 polymer, and 2 end-user plants. Airborne exposure concentrations of 1,3-butadiene were determined using personal sampling for each job category. A total of 692 full shift and short-term personnel and 259 area air samples were examined for the presence of 1,3-butadiene. Sample results indicated that all worker exposures were well below the current OSHA PEL of 1000 ppm. Exposures ranged from less than 0.006 ppm to 374 ppm. The average exposure for all samples was less than 2 ppm. The present American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) threshold limit value for 1,3-butadiene is 10 ppm. To reduce the potential for occupational exposure, it is recommended that quality control sampling be conducted using a closed loop system. Also all process pumps should be retrofitted with dual mechanical seals, magnetic gauges should be used in loading and unloading rail cars, and engineering controls should be designed for safely voiding quality control cylinders. PMID:2401251

  9. Semi-quantitative exposure assessment of occupational exposure to wood dust and nasopharyngeal cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Ekpanyaskul, Chatchai; Sangrajrang, Suleeporn; Ekburanawat, Wiwat; Brennan, Paul; Mannetje, Andrea; Thetkathuek, Anamai; Saejiw, Nutjaree; Ruangsuwan, Tassanu; Boffetta, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Occupational exposure to wood dust is one cause of nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC); however, assessing this exposure remains problematic. Therefore, the objective of this study was to develop a semi-quantitative exposure assessment method and then utilize it to evaluate the association between occupational exposure to wood dust and the development of NPC. In addition, variations in risk by histology were examined. A case-control study was conducted with 327 newly diagnosed cases of NPC at the National Cancer Institute and regional cancer centers in Thailand with 1:1 controls matched for age, gender and geographical residence. Occupational information was obtained through personal interviews. The potential probability, frequency and intensity of exposure to wood dust were assessed on a job-by-job basis by experienced experts. Analysis was performed by conditional logistic regression and presented in odds ratio (ORs) estimates and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Overall, a non significant relationship between occupational wood dust exposure and NPC risk for all subjects was observed (ORs=1.61, 95%CI 0.99-2.59); however, the risk became significant when analyses focused on types 2 and 3 of NPC (ORs=1.62, 95%CI 1.03-2.74). The significant association was stronger for those exposed to wood dust for >10 year (ORs=2.26, 95%CI 1.10-4.63), for those with first-time exposure at age>25 year (ORs=2.07, 95%CI 1.08-3.94), and for those who had a high cumulative exposure (ORs=2.17, 95%CI 1.03-4.58) when compared with those considered unexposed. In conclusion, wood dust is likely to be associated with an increased risk of type 2 or 3 NPC in the Thai population. The results of this study show that semi-quantitative exposure assessment is suitable for occupational exposure assessment in a case control study and complements the information from self-reporting. PMID:26028096

  10. A computer software application for managing occupational exposure data.

    PubMed

    Morgan, D A; Wolbert, B J; Owens, P G; Opheim, G S

    1998-10-01

    The Health Hazard Information Module is the U.S. Army's computer software application for managing occupational exposure data. The project mission is to utilize automated information systems technology to improve the overall effectiveness of industrial hygiene programs. Field industrial hygiene professionals document their survey methods, findings, conclusions, and recommendations with a portable, pen-based computer. Back at the office, the data are electronically transferred to a desktop workstation. Users can generate standard or customized reports in hard copy or electronic formats. Annually, users transfer their data to a corporate mainframe computer. The software incorporates appropriate information and represents an excellent template worth examining during the ongoing international effort to standardize occupational exposure data. Planned refinements include distributing the software to other Department of Defense agencies and making it commercially available for a nominal fee through the National Technical Information Service in the near future. PMID:9794070

  11. Personality Traits in Miners with Past Occupational Elemental Mercury Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Grum, Darja Kobal; Kobal, Alfred B.; Arneri?, Niko; Horvat, Milena; Ženko, Bernard; Džeroski, Sašo; Osredkar, Joško

    2006-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated the impact of long-term occupational exposure to elemental mercury vapor (Hg0) on the personality traits of ex-mercury miners. Study groups included 53 ex-miners previously exposed to Hg0 and 53 age-matched controls. Miners and controls completed the self-reporting Eysenck Personality Questionnaire and the Emotional States Questionnaire. The relationship between the indices of past occupational exposure and the observed personality traits was evaluated using Pearson’s correlation coefficient and on a subgroup level by machine learning methods (regression trees). The ex-mercury miners were intermittently exposed to Hg0 for a period of 7–31 years. The means of exposure-cycle urine mercury (U-Hg) concentrations ranged from 20 to 120 ?g/L. The results obtained indicate that ex-miners tend to be more introverted and sincere, more depressive, more rigid in expressing their emotions and are likely to have more negative self-concepts than controls, but no correlations were found with the indices of past occupational exposure. Despite certain limitations, results obtained by the regression tree suggest that higher alcohol consumption per se and long-term intermittent, moderate exposure to Hg0 (exposure cycle mean U-Hg concentrations > 38.7 < 53.5 ?g/L) in interaction with alcohol remain a plausible explanation for the depression associated with negative self-concept found in subgroups of ex-mercury miners. This could be one of the reason for the higher risk of suicide among miners of the Idrija Mercury Mine in the last 45 years. PMID:16451870

  12. Acquired amegakaryocytic thrombocytopenia in a patient with occupational chemical exposure.

    PubMed

    Patel, Monaliben; Kalra, Ankur; Surapaneni, Rakesh; Schwarting, Roland; Devereux, Linda

    2014-01-01

    Acquired amegakaryocytic thrombocytopenia (AAT) is a hematologic disorder that presents as thrombocytopenia with absent megakaryocytes in the bone marrow. Causes of AAT include toxins, drugs, viral infections, systemic lupus erythematosus, and cytokine deficiencies. Patients with AAT should be followed for possible progression to aplastic anemia or myelodysplastic syndrome. We present a case of a 61-year-old woman with AAT due to occupational chemical exposure. PMID:22314209

  13. Urinary metallothionein as a biological indicator of occupational cadmium exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Tohyama, C.; Shaikh, Z.A.; Ellis, K.J.; Cohn, S.H.

    1981-01-01

    Radioimmunoassay and neutron activation data indicate that the urinary metallothionein concentration is related to the liver Cd concentration in occupational Cd exposure. It is also related to the kidney Cd content - but only before the onset of renal dysfunction. Further epidemiological studies are needed to establish a dose-response relationship, which may be useful in minimizing the hazard of Cd-induced renal dysfunction.

  14. Exposure to flour dust in the occupational environment

    PubMed Central

    Stobnicka, Agata; Górny, Rafa? L.

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to flour dust can be found in the food industry and animal feed production. It may result in various adverse health outcomes from conjunctivitis to baker's asthma. In this paper, flour dust exposure in the above-mentioned occupational environments is characterized and its health effects are discussed. A peer-reviewed literature search was carried out and all available published materials were included if they provided information on the above-mentioned elements. The hitherto conducted studies show that different components of flour dust like enzymes, proteins and baker's additives can cause both non-allergic and allergic reactions among exposed workers. Moreover, the problem of exposure to cereal allergens present in flour dust can also be a concern for bakers’ family members. Appreciating the importance of all these issues, the exposure assessment methods, hygienic standards and preventive measures are also addressed in this paper. PMID:26414680

  15. Occupational and environmental human lead exposure in Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Paoliello, M.M.B. . E-mail: monibas@sercomtel.com.br; De Capitani, E.M.

    2007-02-15

    The purpose of this paper is to present a review of data on assessment of exposure and adverse effects due to environmental and occupational lead exposure in Brazil. Epidemiological investigations on children lead exposure around industrial and mining areas have shown that lead contamination is an actual source of concern. Lead in gasoline has been phasing out since the 1980s, and it is now completely discontinued. The last lead mining and lead refining plant was closed in 1995, leaving residual environmental lead contamination which has recently been investigated using a multidisciplinary approach. Moreover, there are hundreds of small battery recycling plants and secondary smelting facilities all over the country, which produce focal urban areas of lead contamination. Current regulatory limits for workplace lead exposure have shown to be inadequate as safety limits according to a few studies carried out lately.

  16. The putative role of ovary removal and progesterone when considering the effect of formaldehyde exposure on lung inflammation induced by ovalbumin

    PubMed Central

    Lino-dos-Santos-Franco, Adriana; Amemiya, Renata Midori; de Oliveira, Ana Paula Ligeiro; Damazo, Amílcar Sabino; Breithaupt-Faloppa, Ana Cristina; Vitoretti, Luana Beatriz; Acceturi, Beatriz Golegã; Tavares-de-Lima, Wothan

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Formaldehyde exposure during the menstrual cycle is known to affect the course of allergic lung inflammation. Because our previous data demonstrated that formaldehyde combined with an ovariectomy reduced allergic lung inflammation, we investigated the putative role of ovary removal and progesterone treatment when considering the effect of formaldehyde on allergic lung inflammation. METHOD: Ovariectomized rats and their matched controls were exposed to formaldehyde (1%, 3 days, 90 min/day) or vehicle, and immediately after exposure, the rats were sensitized to ovalbumin by a subcutaneous route. After 1 week, the rats received a booster by the same route, and after an additional week, the rats were challenged with ovalbumin (1%) by an aerosol route. The leukocyte numbers, interleukin-10 (IL-10) release, myeloperoxidase activity, vascular permeability, ex vivo tracheal reactivity to methacholine and mast cell degranulation were determined 24 h later. RESULTS: Our results showed that previous exposure to formaldehyde in allergic rats decreased lung cell recruitment, tracheal reactivity, myeloperoxidase activity, vascular permeability and mast cell degranulation while increasing IL-10 levels. Ovariectomy only caused an additional reduction in tracheal reactivity without changing the other parameters studied. Progesterone treatment reversed the effects of formaldehyde exposure on ex vivo tracheal reactivity, cell influx into the lungs and mast cell degranulation. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, our study revealed that formaldehyde and ovariectomy downregulated allergic lung inflammation by IL-10 release and mast cell degranulation. Progesterone treatment increased eosinophil recruitment and mast cell degranulation, which in turn may be responsible for tracheal hyperreactivity and allergic lung inflammation. PMID:24473511

  17. Childhood leukemia and parents' occupational and home exposures.

    PubMed

    Lowengart, R A; Peters, J M; Cicioni, C; Buckley, J; Bernstein, L; Preston-Martin, S; Rappaport, E

    1987-07-01

    A case-control study of children of ages 10 years and under in Los Angeles County was conducted to investigate the causes of leukemia. The mothers and fathers of acute leukemia cases and their individually matched controls were interviewed regarding specific occupational and home exposures as well as other potential risk factors associated with leukemia. Analysis of the information from the 123 matched pairs showed an increased risk of leukemia for children whose fathers had occupational exposure after the birth of the child to chlorinated solvents [odds ratio (OR) = 3.5, P = .01], spray paint (OR = 2.0, P = .02), dyes or pigments (OR = 4.5, P = .03), methyl ethyl ketone (CAS: 78-93-3; OR = 3.0, P = .05), and cutting oil (OR = 1.7, P = .05) or whose fathers were exposed during the mother's pregnancy with the child to spray paint (OR = 2.2, P = .03). For all of these, the risk associated with frequent use was greater than for infrequent use. There was an increased risk of leukemia for the child if the father worked in industries manufacturing transportation equipment (mostly aircraft) (OR = 2.5, P = .03) or machinery (OR = 3.0, P = .02). An increased risk was found for children whose parents used pesticides in the home (OR = 3.8, P = .004) or garden (OR = 6.5, P = .007) or who burned incense in the home (OR = 2.7, P = .007). The risk was greater for frequent use. Risk of leukemia was related to mothers' employment in personal service industries (OR = 2.7, P = .04) but not to specified occupational exposures. Risk related to fathers' exposure to chlorinated solvents, employment in the transportation equipment-manufacturing industry, and parents' exposure to household or garden pesticides and incense remains statistically significant after adjusting for the other significant findings. PMID:3474448

  18. Comparison of health of occupants and characteristics of houses among control homes and homes insulated with urea formaldehyde foam. I. Methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Broder, I.; Corey, P.; Cole, P.; Lipa, M.; Mintz, S.; Nethercott, J.R. )

    1988-04-01

    The methodology of a study in which a comparison is made of the health and house characteristics of the occupants of 231 control homes and 571 houses containing urea formaldehyde foam insulation (UFFI) is described. All homes and occupants were examined on two occasions separated by an interval of 12 months, during which two-thirds of the UFFI houses performed remedial work. The occupants were examined using a health questionnaire and a series of objective tests including pulmonary function, nasal airway resistance, sense of smell, nasal surface cytology, and patch tests. The houses were assessed using a questionnaire and measurements of indoor formaldehyde and carbon dioxide levels. No obvious bias has been identified in this survey with respect to the representativeness of the population studied, the classification of the UFFI and control groups, and the input from both the respondents and observes. The symptom responses made by individuals within the same households were not correlated. Quality control assessment of the objective health tests and formaldehyde sampling and assays demonstrated that these procedures remained stable over the two phases of the study, with the exception of the expected decrease in the pulmonary flow rates over 1 year and a small unexpected increase in the forced vital capacity and the forced expiratory volume in 1 s.

  19. Long-term exposure to gaseous formaldehyde promotes allergen-specific IgE-mediated immune responses in a murine model.

    PubMed

    Gu, Yh; Fujimiya, Y; Kunugita, N

    2008-01-01

    It has long been questioned that whether exposure to formaldehyde in indoor environments may be a risk factor for developing allergen-specific IgE-mediated inflammatory responses, because there is limited clinical or experimental evidence that formaldehyde is involved in the cascade for IgE production. There is no known lower limit, below which there is no threat of serious allergic symptoms. The present study illustrates that the threshold limit of formaldehyde, 0.08 ppm (as defined by the World Health Organization), did not cause ovalbumin-specific IgE inflammatory immune responses, but higher than threshold concentrations of formaldehyde gas result in both enhanced allergen-specific IgE responses and NK (Natural Killer)-cell activity in peripheral blood cells in a murine model. Thus, formaldehyde gas may be involved in promoting allergic inflammatory effects in subjects primed with specific allergens by NK-cell activation. These results indicate that even threshold concentrations of formaldehyde gas may play a regulatory role for 'systemic' cell-mediated immune responses. The extensive use of adhesives for building materials has resulted in higher levels of indoor air pollutants. It is conceivable that increased time indoors may enhance pre-existing allergic symptoms by concomitant exposure to volatile organic compounds and formaldehyde. The affordable limit for formaldehyde might be much lower than currently established levels in indoor environments. PMID:18480147

  20. Evaluation of occupational exposure to benzene by urinalysis.

    PubMed

    Ghittori, S; Maestri, L; Fiorentino, M L; Imbriani, M

    1995-01-01

    Urinary phenol determinations have traditionally been used to monitor high levels of occupational benzene exposure. However, urinary phenol cannot be used to monitor low-level exposures. New biological indexes for exposure to low levels of benzene are thus needed. The aim of this study was to investigate the relations between exposure to benzene (A-benzene, ppm), as measured by personal air sampling, and the excretion of benzene (U-benzene, ng/l), trans,trans-muconic acid (MA, mg/g creatinine), and S-phenylmercapturic acid (PMA, micrograms/g creatinine) in urine. The subjects of the study were 145 workers exposed to benzene in a chemical plant. The geometric mean exposure level was 0.1 ppm (geometric standard deviation = 4.16). After logarithmic transformation of the data the following linear regressions were found: log (U-benzene, ng/l) = 0.681 log (A-benzene ppm) + 4.018; log (MA, mg/g creatinine) = 0.429 log (A-benzen ppm) - 0.304; and log (PMA, micrograms/g creatinine) = 0.712 log (A-benzene ppm) + 1.664. The correlation coefficients were, respectively, 0.66, 0.58, and 0.74. On the basis of the equations it was possible to establish tentative biological limit values corresponding to the respective occupational exposure limit values. In conclusion, the concentrations of benzene, mercapturic acid, and muconic acid in urine proved to be good parameters for monitoring low benzene exposure at the workplace. PMID:7591178

  1. Risk Factors for Breast Cancer, Including Occupational Exposures

    PubMed Central

    Meo, Margrethe; Vainio, Harri

    2011-01-01

    The knowledge on the etiology of breast cancer has advanced substantially in recent years, and several etiological factors are now firmly established. However, very few new discoveries have been made in relation to occupational risk factors. The International Agency for Research on Cancer has evaluated over 900 different exposures or agents to-date to determine whether they are carcinogenic to humans. These evaluations are published as a series of Monographs (www.iarc.fr). For breast cancer the following substances have been classified as "carcinogenic to humans" (Group 1): alcoholic beverages, exposure to diethylstilbestrol, estrogen-progestogen contraceptives, estrogen-progestogen hormone replacement therapy and exposure to X-radiation and gamma-radiation (in special populations such as atomic bomb survivors, medical patients, and in-utero exposure). Ethylene oxide is also classified as a Group 1 carcinogen, although the evidence for carcinogenicity in epidemiologic studies, and specifically for the human breast, is limited. The classification "probably carcinogenic to humans" (Group 2A) includes estrogen hormone replacement therapy, tobacco smoking, and shift work involving circadian disruption, including work as a flight attendant. If the association between shift work and breast cancer, the most common female cancer, is confirmed, shift work could become the leading cause of occupational cancer in women. PMID:22953181

  2. Differential effects of female sex hormones on cellular recruitment and tracheal reactivity after formaldehyde exposure.

    PubMed

    Lino-dos-Santos-Franco, Adriana; Amemiya, Renata Midori; Ligeiro de Oliveira, Ana Paula; Breithaupt-Faloppa, Ana Cristina; Damazo, Amílcar Sabino; Oliveira-Filho, Ricardo Martins; Tavares-de-Lima, Wothan

    2011-09-10

    Female sex hormones (FSHs) exert profound regulatory effects on the course of lung inflammation due to allergic and non-allergic immune responses. As pollution is one of the pivotal factors to induce lung dysfunction, in this study we investigated the modulatory role of FSHs on lung inflammation after a formaldehyde (FA) exposure. For this purpose, lung and systemic inflammatory responses were evaluated in terms of leukocytes countings in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), peripheral blood and bone marrow lavage from 7-day ovariectomized (OVx) and Sham-OVx rats subjected to FA inhalation for 3 consecutive days. The hypothesized link between effects of FSHs on expression of adhesion molecules and mast cells degranulation was also studied. Once exposed to FA, Sham-OVx rats increased the number of total cells recovered in BAL and of leukocytes in peripheral blood, and decreased the counts in bone marrow. By contrast, in OVx rats upon FA exposure there was a reduction of the total cells counts in BAL and of blood leukocytes; lung expressions of ICAM-1 and Mac-1 were depressed, but the number of bone marrow cells did not vary. Estradiol treatment of OVx rats increased the total cells in BAL and decreased the number of blood leukocytes, whereas the number of bone marrow cell remained unaltered. Progesterone treatment, in turn increased the total cells in BAL and blood leukocytes, but decreased the number of bone marrow cells. OVx rats exposed to FA developed tracheal hyperresponsiveness to methacholine (MCh). A similarly altered response was found between the tracheal segments of Sham-OVx rats after FA exposure and that found in tracheae of naïve rats. Estradiol treatment prevented FA-induced tracheal hyperresponsiveness to MCh whereas progesterone was ineffective in this regard. In addition, OVx rats upon FA exposure significantly increased both, the ability of mast cell degranulation and serum corticosterone levels. In conclusion, it was found that FSHs act by distinct control mechanisms on FA-induced lung inflammation and tracheal hyperresponsiveness, since at low circulating levels of FSHs (such as those after OVx) there is some resistance to the development of a lung inflammatory response, but the cholinergic tracheal responsiveness is exacerbated. Our data also help to understand the involvement of FSHs on mast cells activity after pollutants exposure and add information regarding the role of FSHs on the mechanisms related to endothelium-leukocyte interactions. PMID:21726612

  3. Comparative hazard evaluation, an approach to regulation: Formaldehyde in drinking water

    SciTech Connect

    Owen, B.A.; Dudney, C.S.; Tan, E.; Easterly, C.E.

    1990-04-01

    Formaldehyde is an important industrial chemical that is ubiquitous to the human environment. The estimated 7 billion pounds of formaldehyde produced annually in the US are consumed in a great diversity of manufacturing and processing applications resulting in occupational exposure of more than 1 million workers and in the nonoccupational exposure of 11 million consumers. Exposure to formaldehyde can result in a spectrum of adverse health effects depending on the concentration and route of entry into the body. This report will attempt to provide a comprehensive analysis of the available data regarding health effects of formaldehyde exposure, incorporating information on metabolism and biological mechanisms into a framework of comparative hazard evaluation. Integral to this effort will be a comparison of ingestion of formaldehyde in drinking water with ingestion of naturally occurring formaldehyde in foods and other substances generally regarded as safe. The perspective offered by this approach should provide a rational framework enabling regulatory authorities and other concerned individuals to evaluate objectively the potential hazard of ingesting formaldehyde as a low-level contaminant in drinking water. A brief overview will examine the nature of residential exposure to formaldehyde from both air and water sources. A discussion of typical dietary sources of formaldehyde will extend the exposure assessment and provide data for later comparisons. In order to provide a better understanding of the health effects of formaldehyde, an overview of the metabolism and biological effects of formaldehyde, including toxic, teratogenic, mutagenic and carcinogenic effects will precede discussion of the potential carcinogenicity of formaldehyde in humans. Then, the comparative hazard evaluation will be followed by a summary and conclusion. 161 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Parental occupational exposure to pesticides and childhood brain cancer.

    PubMed

    van Wijngaarden, Edwin; Stewart, Patricia A; Olshan, Andrew F; Savitz, David A; Bunin, Greta R

    2003-06-01

    The authors examined the risk of childhood brain cancer in relation to parental exposure to classes of pesticides among 154 children diagnosed with astrocytoma and 158 children diagnosed with primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNET) in the United States and Canada between 1986 and 1989. Controls were selected by random digit dialing and were individually matched to cases by race, age, and geographic area. Each job in the fathers' work history and the usual occupation of mothers were assigned a probability, intensity, and frequency of exposure to insecticides, herbicides, and agricultural and nonagricultural fungicides. Elevated risks of astrocytoma were found for paternal exposure (ever vs. never) to all four classes of pesticides (odds ratio (OR) = 1.4-1.6). An increased risk of PNET was observed for only herbicides (OR = 1.5). For mothers, odds ratios for astrocytoma were elevated for insecticides, herbicides, and nonagricultural fungicides (OR = 1.3-1.6) but not agricultural fungicides (OR = 1.0). No indication was found of an increased risk for PNET. There was little indication for an association with cumulative and average parental exposure. Most risk estimates were around unity, and exposure-response patterns were absent. Overall, it seems unlikely that parental exposure to pesticides plays an important role in the etiology of childhood brain cancer. PMID:12777362

  5. [Cognitive disorders in workers engaged into formaldehyde and methanol production].

    PubMed

    Maliutina, N N; Taranenko, L A

    2014-01-01

    The authors studied cognitive functions state in workers engaged into chemical production under exposure to combination of factors with prevalent methanol and formaldehyde. Study covered 128 examinees of main occupations and 89 individuals of reference group. Through periodic medical examinations, state of cognitive functions was assessed by Montreal scale (MCA). Findings are increased serum levels of methanol and formaldehyde in the main group members. Moderate cognitive disorders of multifunctional type were seen. Associations of these disorders with acting agents were studied, and high degree of their correlations with occupation was revealed. PMID:25335424

  6. 75 FR 80819 - Draft Current Intelligence Bulletin “Occupational Exposure to Carbon Nanotubes and Nanofibers”

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Printing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Draft Current Intelligence Bulletin ``Occupational... draft Current Intelligence Bulletin entitled ``Occupational Exposure to Carbon Nanotubes and...

  7. Occupational exposure to radio-frequency electromagnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Mild, K.H.

    1980-01-01

    The paper considers occupational exposure to radio-frequency (RF) electromagnetic (EM) fields in industrial processes in near-field situations where electric and magnetic field strengths are monitored to assess the health hazard. Plastic materials are joined by an RF machine whose electrodes are not shielded and which may produce high level RF fields in the immediate vicinity, exceeding the ANSI standard. A physiotherapist may be exposed to high E and H fields using RF shortwave therapy, the maintenance personnel in FM/TV broadcast towers are subject to intense RF fields, and induction heating equipment used for forging, annealing and brazing can expose operators' hands to magnetic fields.

  8. Occupational radiation Exposure at Agreement State-Licensed Materials Facilities, 1997-2010

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research

    2012-07-07

    The purpose of this report is to examine occupational radiation exposures received under Agreement State licensees. As such, this report reflects the occupational radiation exposure data contained in the Radiation Exposure Information and Reporting System (REIRS) database, for 1997 through 2010, from Agreement State-licensed materials facilities.

  9. 76 FR 72216 - Occupational Exposure to Hazardous Chemicals in Laboratories Standard; Extension of the Office of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-22

    ... exposures at or below the permissible exposure limits specified for the hazardous chemicals in 29 CFR Part... Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995 (44 U.S.C. 3506 et seq.) and Secretary of Labor's Order No. 4-2010 (75 FR... Occupational Safety and Health Administration Occupational Exposure to Hazardous Chemicals in...

  10. Does occupational exposure to dust prevent colorectal cancer?

    PubMed Central

    Finkelstein, M M

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To explore the impression that occupational epidemiologists tend to focus on associations suggestive of increased risk and tend to ignore those associations in which risk is not increased. To examine the risk of colorectal cancer in cohorts exposed to dust, cohorts in which it has been suggested that occupational exposure is a cause of increased risk of stomach cancer. METHODS--A review of the publications in the English language on mortality among hard rock miners, granite, and quarry workers identified from a MEDLINE search and the index of the library of the Ontario Ministry of Labour. RESULTS--When all of the studies were combined, there were significant excesses of lung and stomach cancers, but a significant deficit of colorectal cancer (standardised mortality ratio (SMR) = 83.9; 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 76-91). Overall mortality from gastrointestinal cancer was close to expectation (SMR = 105; 95% CI 99-111). Among those cohorts with increased risk of stomach cancer, rates of colorectal cancer were significantly decreased (SMR = 80; 95% CI 72-88). Among cohorts without increased risk of stomach cancer, the SMR for colorectal cancer was not significantly different from 100 (SMR = 98; 95% CI 81-115). CONCLUSIONS--This review supports the impression that occupational epidemiologists tend to focus on associations suggestive of increased risk and tend to ignore those associations in which risk is not increased. The explanation for the inverse association between risk of stomach and colorectal cancer is uncertain and deserves further study. PMID:7735383

  11. Paternal occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields and neuroblastoma in offspring

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkins, J.R. 3d.; Hundley, V.D. )

    1990-06-01

    Investigators in Texas have reported an association between paternal employment in jobs linked with exposure to electromagnetic fields and risk of neuroblastoma in offspring. In an attempt to replicate this finding, the authors conducted a case-control study in Ohio. A total of 101 incident cases of neuroblastoma were identified through the Columbus (Ohio) Children's Hospital Tumor Registry. All cases were born sometime during the period 1942-1967. From a statewide roster of birth certificates, four controls were selected for each case, with individual matching on the case's year of birth, race, and sex, and the mother's county of residence at the time of the (index) child's birth. Multiple definitions were employed to infer the potential for paternal occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields from the industry/occupation statements on the birth certificates. Case-control comparisons revealed adjusted odds ratios ranging in magnitude from 0.5 to 1.9. For two of the exposure definitions employed--both of which are similar to one used by the Texas investigators--the corresponding odds ratios were modestly elevated (odds ratios = 1.6 and 1.9). Notably, the magnitude of these odds ratios is not inconsistent with the Texas findings, where the exposure definition referred to yielded an odds ratio of 2.1. Because the point estimates in this study are imprecise, and because the biologic plausibility of the association is uncertain, the results reported here must be interpreted cautiously. However, the apparent consistency between two independent studies suggests that future evaluation of the association is warranted.

  12. Occupational exposure to pesticides increases the risk of incident AD

    PubMed Central

    Hayden, K.M.; Norton, M.C.; Darcey, D.; Østbye, T.; Zandi, P.P.; Breitner, J.C.S.; Welsh-Bohmer, K.A.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Commonly used organophosphate and organochlorine pesticides inhibit acetylcholinesterase at synapses in the somatic, autonomic, and central nervous systems and may therefore have lasting effects on the nervous system. Few studies have examined the relationship of pesticide exposure and risk of dementia or Alzheimer disease (AD). We sought to examine the association of occupational pesticide exposure and the risk of incident dementia and AD in later life. Methods: Residents of the agricultural community of Cache County, UT, who were aged 65 years and older as of January 1995, were invited to participate in the study. At baseline, participants completed detailed occupational history questionnaires that included information about exposures to various types of pesticides. Cognitive status was assessed at baseline and after 3, 7, and 10 years. Standardized methods were used for detection and diagnosis of dementia and AD. Cox proportional hazards survival analyses were used to evaluate the risk of incident dementia and AD associated with pesticide exposure. Results: Among 3,084 enrollees without dementia, more men than women reported pesticide exposure (p < 0.0001). Exposed individuals (n = 572) had more years of education (p < 0.01) but did not differ from others in age. Some 500 individuals developed incident dementia, 344 with AD. After adjustment for baseline age, sex, education, APOE ?4 status, and baseline Modified Mini-Mental State Examination scores, Cox proportional hazards models showed increased risks among pesticide-exposed individuals for all-cause dementia, with hazard ratio (HR) 1.38 and 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.09–1.76, and for AD (HR 1.42, 95% CI 1.06–1.91). The risk of AD associated with organophosphate exposure (HR 1.53, 95% CI 1.05–2.23) was slightly higher than the risk associated with organochlorines (HR 1.49, 95% CI 0.99–2.24), which was nearly significant. Conclusions: Pesticide exposure may increase the risk of dementia and Alzheimer disease in late life. GLOSSARY 3MS = Modified Mini-Mental State Examination; AD = Alzheimer disease; CI = confidence interval; DQ = Dementia Questionnaire; DSM-III-R = Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 3rd edition, revised; HR = hazard ratio. PMID:20458069

  13. Formaldehyde: toxicology and hazards

    SciTech Connect

    Casteel, S.W.; Vernon, R.J.; Bailey, E.M. Jr.

    1987-02-01

    The widespread use of formaldehyde-based resins had led to the observation of consumer annoyance and health problems associated with its release. Formaldehyde vapor now is known to off-gas from many of these products. Vapor exposure of humans results in symptoms of eye and upper respiratory tract irritation. Inhaled formaldehyde also produces nasal carcinomas in rats and mice (following exposure to 14.1 ppm in mice and 5.6 ppm in rats for 6 hr/day, 5 days/week for 24 mo). These findings resulted in intensified concern over the amount of formaldehyde released into the indoor environment from various laboratory and consumer products.

  14. [Lipid pneumopathy caused by occupational exposure to cutting oil].

    PubMed

    Perol, M; Vallon, C; Vallon, J J; Guérin, J C

    1989-01-01

    This is a case report of a diffuse interstitial pneumonia which developed rapidly in a 45-year-old patient who was occupationally exposed to regular inhalations of motor oil spray. The diagnosis of lipid pneumonia was based on a lung biopsy carried out by thoracoscopy. The biochemical analysis of the lipid extracted from the alveolar lavage and of the pleural liquid showed the presence of hydrocarbons, which were analogous to those found in motor oil and the strippings that were used. The subsequent progress without treatment after removal from the risk showed a partial regression of the radiological abnormalities. The incidence of occupational pneumonia to mineral oils is relatively low when the frequency of exposure is taken into account: objective data on the extent and the nature of exposure are often incomplete in published observations. The occurrence of respiratory symptoms or radiological changes in exposed subjects requires, nevertheless, a search for a possible lipid pneumonia. The diagnosis rests on a biochemical and cytological analysis of the alveolar liquid and on a lung biopsy. PMID:2740595

  15. Occupational exposures to uranium: processes, hazards, and regulations

    SciTech Connect

    Stoetzel, G.A.; Fisher, D.R.; McCormack, W.D.; Hoenes, G.R.; Marks, S.; Moore, R.H.; Quilici, D.G.; Breitenstein, B.D.

    1981-04-01

    The United States Uranium Registry (USUR) was formed in 1978 to investigate potential hazards from occupational exposure to uranium and to assess the need for special health-related studies of uranium workers. This report provides a summary of Registry work done to date. The history of the uranium industry is outlined first, and the current commercial uranium industry (mining, milling, conversion, enrichment, and fuel fabrication) is described. This description includes information on basic processes and areas of greatest potential radiological exposure. In addition, inactive commercial facilities and other uranium operations are discussed. Regulation of the commercial production industry for uranium fuel is reported, including the historic development of regulations and the current regulatory agencies and procedures for each phase of the industry. A review of radiological health practices in the industry - facility monitoring, exposure control, exposure evaluation, and record-keeping - is presented. A discussion of the nonradiological hazards of the industry is provided, and the final section describes the tissue program developed as part of the Registry.

  16. TEXAS: a Tool for EXposure ASsessment-Statistical models for estimating occupational exposure to chemical agents.

    PubMed

    Clerc, Frédéric; Bertrand, Nicolas; Vincent, Raymond

    2015-04-01

    Measurements of occupational exposure to chemical agents are performed by sampling and analyzing workplace atmospheres. In France, this is done by the industrial hygienists of the prevention network of the Social Security Service, who collect and then enter the data in the COLCHIC database. More than 900000 measurements performed in French companies over the past 25 years have been collected. Using this amount of data is major challenge for obtaining knowledge and predicting occupational exposures. This study presents the way in which statistical models are built and used on the basis of almost 19000 recent measurements of 26 frequent chemical substances. For a given substance, the models use 13 exposure determinants as inputs, such as the task performed, the occupation of the operator or the type of process employed. The models permit to estimate two parameters: the geometric mean and geometric standard deviation. These parameters are used to build an exposure profile. By combining them with the limit value, an exposure index is estimated using a Bayesian network. A decision rule based on the interpretation of this probability is proposed to qualify the predicted situation as 'well-controlled situation', 'controlled situation', and 'poorly controlled situation'. On the basis of this decision rule, 62% of predictions are true for all substances confounded, an average of 36% of predictions are approximate and only 2% of them are wrong. The result of this study led to the development of a pragmatic software tool named TEXAS, tool for exposure assessment, which enables industrial hygienists to obtain a rapid estimation of the level of exposure control as a function of simple determinants of work situations. PMID:25433001

  17. Virus occupational exposure in solid waste processing facilities.

    PubMed

    Carducci, Annalaura; Federigi, Ileana; Verani, Marco

    2013-11-01

    It is well known that workers involved in the management of solid waste are at risk of exposure to bioaerosol, which is generally studied in relation to bacteria, fungi, and endotoxins. However, to date, there have been no reports on the incidence of work-related infectious diseases. To determine if occupational exposure to viruses occurs upon exposure to waste-related activities, monitoring was carried out in a landfill, a waste recycling plant, an incineration plant, and a waste collection vehicles. Air and surfaces were sampled and analyzed for torque teno virus (TTV), human adenovirus (HAdV), norovirus, rotavirus, and enterovirus using polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based techniques. Positivity was confirmed by sequencing and quantification with real-time PCR; infectivity was also tested for culturable viruses. Samples were analyzed in parallel for mean total bacterial and fungi counts in both the summer and winter. In total, 30% (12/40) of air and 13.5% (5/37) of surface samples collected in plants were positive for HAdV and TTV. Among the eight HAdV-positive samples, six (75%), revealed in landfill and recycling plant air and in incinerator and waste vehicles surfaces, were able to replicate in cell culture and were subsequently confirmed as infective. The frequency of detection of virus-positive samples was similar in both seasons, but with evident differences in the type of virus detected: TTV and HAdV were more frequently detected in the summer and winter, respectively. The area of highest viral contamination was the paper selection landfill. Fungi and bacterial contamination did not correlate with viral presence or concentration. In conclusion, we evidence that working with solid and liquid waste can lead to infectious viruses, included in Group 2 of the European Directive 90/679/CEE pathogens list; thus, further investigation on the sources and routes of contamination is needed in order to assess the occupational risk. PMID:23917836

  18. Formaldehyde emitted by chemical vapor sterilizers.

    PubMed

    Cooley, R L; Stilley, J; Lubow, R M

    1984-01-01

    Formaldehyde has been identified as a potential occupational carcinogen and is a component of chemical solutions used in chemical vapor sterilizers. This study evaluated room air for formaldehyde in rooms where chemical vapor sterilizers were in use. PMID:6582430

  19. Interpretation of Urinary and Blood Benzene biomarkers of Exposure for Non-Occupationally Exposed Individuals

    EPA Science Inventory

    Non-occupational exposure to benzene occurs primarily through inhalation ofair impacted by motor vehicle exhaust, fuel sources, and cigarette smoke. This study relates published measurements ofbenzene biomarkers to air exposure concentrations. Benzene has three reliable biomar...

  20. A review of current and proposed standards for occupational exposures to radio-frequency energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Odland, L. T.

    1975-01-01

    The essential aspects of an acceptable r-f occupational exposure program are presented. They include exposure limits, surveillance of work environment, medical attention, investigation of accidental overexposures, and documentation of overexposures. Each aspect is briefly discussed.

  1. 29 CFR 1926.52 - Occupational noise exposure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Occupational Health and Environmental Controls § 1926.52...

  2. 29 CFR 1926.52 - Occupational noise exposure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Occupational Health and Environmental Controls § 1926.52...

  3. 29 CFR 1926.52 - Occupational noise exposure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Occupational Health and Environmental Controls § 1926.52...

  4. 29 CFR 1926.52 - Occupational noise exposure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Occupational Health and Environmental Controls § 1926.52...

  5. 29 CFR 1926.52 - Occupational noise exposure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Occupational Health and Environmental Controls § 1926.52...

  6. Electromagnetic field occupational exposure: non-thermal vs. thermal effects.

    PubMed

    Israel, M; Zaryabova, V; Ivanova, M

    2013-06-01

    There are a variety of definitions for "non-thermal effects" included in different international standards. They start by the simple description that they are "effects of electromagnetic energy on a body that are not heat-related effects", passing through the very general definition related to low-level effects: "biological effects ascribed to exposure to low-level electric, magnetic and electromagnetic fields, i.e. at or below the corresponding dosimetric reference levels in the frequency range covered in this standard (0 Hz-300 GHz)", and going to the concrete definition of "the stimulation of muscles, nerves, or sensory organs, vertigo or phosfenes". Here, we discuss what kind of effect does the non-thermal one has on human body and give data of measurements in different occupations with low-frequency sources of electromagnetic field such as electric power distribution systems, transformers, MRI systems and : video display units (VDUs), whereas thermal effects should not be expected. In some of these workplaces, values above the exposure limits could be found, nevertheless that they are in the term "non-thermal effects" on human body. Examples are workplaces in MRI, also in some power plants. Here, we will not comment on non-thermal effects as a result of RF or microwave exposure because there are not proven evidence about the existance of such effects and mechanisms for them are not clear. PMID:23675617

  7. Occupational exposure in the fluorescent lamp recycling sector in France.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, François; Lecler, Marie-Thérèse; Clerc, Frédéric; Chollot, Alain; Silvente, Eric; Grosjean, Jérome

    2014-07-01

    The fluorescent lamp recycling sector is growing considerably in Europe due to increasingly strict regulations aimed at inciting the consumption of low energy light bulbs and their end-of-life management. Chemical risks were assessed in fluorescent lamp recycling facilities by field measurement surveys in France, highlighting that occupational exposure and pollutant levels in the working environment were correlated with the main recycling steps and processes. The mean levels of worker exposure are 4.4 mg/m(3), 15.4 ?g/m(3), 14.0 ?g/m(3), 247.6 ?g/m(3), respectively, for total inhalable dust, mercury, lead and yttrium. The mean levels of airborne pollutants are 3.1mg/m(3), 9.0 ?g/m(3), 9.0 ?g/m(3), 219.2 ?g/m(3), respectively, for total inhalable dust, mercury, lead and yttrium. The ranges are very wide. Surface samples from employees' skin and granulometric analysis were also carried out. The overview shows that all the stages and processes involved in lamp recycling are concerned by the risk of hazardous substances penetrating into the bodies of employees, although exposure of the latter varies depending on the processes and tasks they perform. The conclusion of this study strongly recommends the development of a new generation of processes in parallel with more information sharing and regulatory measures. PMID:24768515

  8. Occupational exposure to dial painters and assemblers of radioluminous timepieces.

    PubMed

    Simpson, R E; Shuman, F G; Moghissi, A A; Blackburn, J A; Bailey, E D

    1983-05-01

    An evaluation of available personnel monitoring data and radium body burden records of dial painters handling an annual average of 1.5 Ci of radium indicates that they received an average of about 2 rem/person whole body exposure, 3 rem to the lungs from radon inhalation and 0.2 rad to the bone from radium body burdens. Among groups of similar workers handling tritium in Texas plants, the highest occupational exposures were about 160 mrem annually per person received by refinishers of tritium dial timepieces and back-lit watch assemblers. Based upon scenarios of exposures to 147Pm, repairers of timepieces containing 147Pm receive about 4.4 X 10(-4) mrem/person/yr whole body dose equivalent. The amounts that they process are in the microcurie range. Although the trend is away from the use of radium as a luminizing activator, there are indications that it is still used in timepieces even as tritium and 147Pm are increasingly being used for this purpose. PMID:6853170

  9. 29 CFR 1915.1450 - Occupational exposure to hazardous chemicals in laboratories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Occupational exposure to hazardous chemicals in laboratories. 1915.1450 Section 1915.1450 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH...

  10. 29 CFR 1915.1450 - Occupational exposure to hazardous chemicals in laboratories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Occupational exposure to hazardous chemicals in laboratories. 1915.1450 Section 1915.1450 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH...

  11. 29 CFR 1915.1450 - Occupational exposure to hazardous chemicals in laboratories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Occupational exposure to hazardous chemicals in laboratories. 1915.1450 Section 1915.1450 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH...

  12. 29 CFR 1915.1450 - Occupational exposure to hazardous chemicals in laboratories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Occupational exposure to hazardous chemicals in laboratories. 1915.1450 Section 1915.1450 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH...

  13. 29 CFR 1915.1450 - Occupational exposure to hazardous chemicals in laboratories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    29 ? Labor ? 7 ? 2011-07-01 ? 2011-07-01 ? false ? Occupational exposure to hazardous chemicals in laboratories. ? 1915.1450 ? Section 1915.1450 ? Labor ? Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) ? OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) ? OCCUPATIONAL...

  14. 29 CFR 1915.1450 - Occupational exposure to hazardous chemicals in laboratories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    29 ? Labor ? 7 ? 2010-07-01 ? 2010-07-01 ? false ? Occupational exposure to hazardous chemicals in laboratories. ? 1915.1450 ? Section 1915.1450 ? Labor ? Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) ? OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) ? OCCUPATIONAL...

  15. Effects of formaldehyde exposure on anxiety-like and depression-like behavior, cognition, central levels of glucocorticoid receptor and tyrosine hydroxylase in mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Yani; Song, Zhuoyi; Ding, Yujuan; Xin, Ye; Wu, Tong; Su, Tao; He, Rongqiao; Tai, Fadao; Lian, Zhenmin

    2016-02-01

    Formaldehyde exposure is toxic to the brains of mammals, but the mechanism remains unclear. We investigated the effects of inhaled formaldehyde on anxiety, depression, cognitive capacity and central levels of glucocorticoid receptor and tyrosine hydroxylase in mice. After exposure to 0, 1 or 2 ppm gaseous formaldehyde for one week, we measured anxiety-like behavior using open field and elevated plus-maze tests, depression-like behavior using a forced swimming test, learning and memory using novel object recognition tests, levels of glucocorticoid receptors in the hippocampus and tyrosine hydroxylase in the Arc, MPOA, ZI and VTA using immuhistochemistry. We found that inhalation of 1 ppm formaldehyde reduced levels of anxiety-like behavior. Inhalation of 2 ppm formaldehyde reduced body weight, but increased levels of depression-like behavior, impaired novel object recognition, and lowered the numbers of glucocorticoid receptor immonureactive neurons in the hippocampus and tyrosine hydroxylase immonureactive neurons in the ventral tegmental area and the zona incerta, medial preoptic area. Different concentrations of gaseous formaldehyde result in different effects on anxiety, depression-like behavior and cognition ability which may be associated with alterations in hippocampal glucocorticoid receptors and brain tyrosine hydroxylase levels. PMID:26551198

  16. Occupational Radiation Exposure Analysis of US ITER DCLL TBM

    SciTech Connect

    Merrill, Brad J; Cadwallader, Lee C; Dagher, Mohamad

    2007-08-01

    This report documents an Occupational Radiation Exposure (ORE) analysis that was performed for the US International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) Dual Coolant Lead Lithium (DCLL) Test Blanket Module (TBM). This analysis was performed with the QADMOD dose code for anticipated maintenance activities for this TBM concept and its ancillary systems. The QADMOD code was used to model the PbLi cooling loop of this TBM concept by specifying gamma ray source terms that simulated radioactive material within the piping, valves, heat exchanger, permeator, pump, drain tank, and cold trap of this cooling system. Estimates of the maintenance tasks that will have to be performed and the time required to perform these tasks where developed based on either expert opinion or on industrial maintenance experience for similar technologies. This report details the modeling activity and the calculated doses for the maintenance activities envisioned for the US DCLL TBM.

  17. OCCUPATIONAL IONIZING RADIATION EXPOSURE POLICY The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) mandates that sponsoring

    E-print Network

    Page 123 OCCUPATIONAL IONIZING RADIATION EXPOSURE POLICY The Accreditation Council for Graduate for their residents/fellows. In the area of occupational ionizing radiation exposure the responsibility for residents and all affiliated institutional sources of ionizing radiation. I. The Associate Dean for GME

  18. 76 FR 25376 - Occupational Exposure to Hazardous Chemicals in Laboratories Standard; Extension of the Office of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-04

    ... permissible exposure limits specified for the hazardous chemicals in 29 CFR part 1910, subpart Z. They do so... Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995 (44 U.S.C. 3506 et seq.) and Secretary of Labor's Order No. 5-2010 (75 FR... Occupational Safety and Health Administration Occupational Exposure to Hazardous Chemicals in...

  19. Development of Occupational Exposure Limits for the Hanford Tank Farms

    SciTech Connect

    Still, Kenneth; Gardner, Donald; Snyder, Robert; Anderson, Thomas; Honeyman, James; Timchalk, Charles

    2010-04-01

    Production of plutonium for the United States’ nuclear weapons program from the 1940’s to the 1980’s generated 53 million gallons of radioactive chemical waste, which is storedin 177 underground tanks at the Hanford Site in southeastern W 18 ashington State. Recent 19 attempts to begin the retrieval and treatment of these wastes require moving the waste to 20 more modern tanks results in potential exposure of the workers to unfamiliar odors 21 emanating from headspace in the tanks. Given the unknown risks involved, workers 22 were placed on supplied air respiratory protection. CH2M HILL, the managers of the 23 Hanford Site Tank Farms, asked an Independent Toxicology Panel (ITP) to assist them in issues relating to an Industrial Hygiene and risk assessment problem. The ITP was called upon to help determine the risk of exposure to vapors from the tanks, and in general develop a strategy for solution of the problem. This paper presents the methods used to determine the chemicals of potential concern (COPC) and the resultant development of screening values and Acceptable Occupational Exposure Limits (AOELs) for these COPCs. A total of 1,826 chemicals were inventoried and evaluated. Over 1,500 chemicals were identified in the waste tanks headspaces and more than 600 of these were assigned screening values; 72 of these compounds were recommended for AOEL development. Included in this list of 72 were 57 COPCs identified by the ITP and of these 47 were subsequently assigned AOELs. An exhaustive exposure assessment strategy was developed by the CH2M HILL industrial hygiene department to evaluate these COPCs.

  20. Occupational exposures to radiofrequency fields: results of an Israeli national survey.

    PubMed

    Hareuveny, R; Kavet, R; Shachar, A; Margaliot, M; Kheifets, L

    2015-06-01

    Relatively high exposures to radiofrequency (RF) fields can occur in the broadcast, medical, and communications industries, as well in occupations that use RF emitting equipment (e.g. law enforcement). Information on exposure to workers employed in these industries and occupations is limited. We present results of an Israeli National Survey of occupational RF field levels at frequencies between ~100?kHz and 40?GHz, representing Industrial Heating, Communications, Radar, Research, and Medicine. Almost 4300 measurements from 900 sources across 25 occupations were recorded and categorised as 'routine', 'incidental', or 'unintended'. The occupation-specific geometric means (GMs) of the percentage of the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) threshold limit values (TLVs) for each of the three exposure scenarios are presented together with the geometric standard deviation (GSD). Additionally, we present estimates of occupation-specific annual personal exposures and collective exposures. The vast majority of the GM of routine exposures ranged from a fraction to less than 1% of ACGIH TLVs, except for Walkie-Talkie (GM 94% of ACGIH), Induction Heating (17%), Plastic Welding (11%), Industrial Heating (6%) and Diathermy (6%). The GM of incidental and unintended exposures exceeded the TLV for one and 14 occupations, respectively. In many cases, the within-occupation GSD was very large, and though the medians remained below TLV, variable fractions of these occupations were projected to exceed the TLV. In rank order, Walkie-Talkie, Plastic Welding, and Induction Heating workers had the highest annual cumulative personal exposure. For cumulative collective exposures within an occupation, Walkie-Talkie dominated with 96.3% of the total, reflecting both large population and high personal exposure. A brief exceedance of the TLV does not automatically translate to hazard as RF exposure limits (issued by various bodies, including ACGIH) include a 10-fold safety factor relative to thermal thresholds and are based on a 6?min averaging period. PMID:25978146

  1. Occupational Bloodborne Exposure Incident Survey & Management of Exposure Incidents in a Dental Teaching Environment

    PubMed Central

    Sedky, Nabila A.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of occupational exposure incidents among undergraduate dental students and the factors associated with it in the educational dental clinics at Pharos University in Alexandria – Egypt, and to measure the commitment with applying infection control policy in the form of compliance with post-exposure management protocol and reporting exposure incidents. Materials and Methods An anonymous self-administered questionnaire consisting of thirteen multiple-choice questions was distributed among 350 undergraduate dental students in mid-senior and senior levels during lectures at the end of the second semester of 2011, with a response rate of 90.00%. Results About 62.00% of the senior students reported that exposures occurred outside the patient’s mouth. A high percentage of both the mid-senior and senior students (74.70% and 70.70%, respectively) reported that they were exposed to multiple sources of incidents. The vast majority of studied groups stated that they didn’t follow Infection Control Protocol after Incident Exposure. Conclusion The findings of this study confirm that dental students experience exposure incidents but are not likely to report them, thus it is important that the principles of infection control training and reporting of all exposure incidents continue to be emphasized throughout undergraduate dental education. PMID:24421746

  2. Impact of Daily Noise Exposure Monitoring on Occupational Noise Exposures in Manufacturing Workers

    PubMed Central

    McTague, Michael F.; Galusha, Deron; Dixon-Ernst, Christine; Kirsche, Sharon R.; Slade, Martin D.; Cullen, Mark R.; Rabinowitz, Peter M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Despite the use of hearing protective devices (HPDs), noise induced hearing loss (NIHL) remains one of the most prevalent occupational conditions. A new technology allows for daily monitoring of noise exposures under HPDs. We report on an intervention employing the voluntary use of this technology in a worksite setting. Design Volunteers were fitted with a device allowing them to monitor noise exposure under their hearing protection on a daily basis. The trends in noise exposures for individuals who completed at least six months of the intervention were analyzed. Study Sample Recruitment occurred at three manufacturing facilities, with 127 workers enrolling and 66 workers actively using the device during their work shifts. Results Among volunteers downloading regularly, the percentage of daily exposures in excess of the OSHA action level (85dBA) decreased from 14% to 8%, while the percentage of daily exposures in excess of 90dBA decreased from 4% to less than 2%. Conclusion Initial results from this longitudinal study indicate that volunteers find daily noise exposure monitoring to be feasible, and that workers who monitor daily are able to reduce exposures. The results of subject adherence shed light on the challenges and possibilities of worksite interventions for health and safety. PMID:23373740

  3. FINAL REPORT OF THE NON-OCCUPATIONAL PESTICIDE EXPOSURE STUDY (NOPES)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Non-occupational pesticide Exposure Study was the first attempt to develop a methodology for measuring the potential exposure of specified populations to pesticides. n this study, as in other studies utilizing the Tota1 Exposure Asessment Methodology (TEAM), the exposures wer...

  4. A description of an occupational reproductive health nurse consultant practice and women's occupational exposures during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Hewitt, J B; Tellier, L

    1996-10-01

    It is estimated that each year 20 million workers in the United States are potentially exposed to a variety of reproductive hazards. In 1986, Wisconsin implemented an advanced practice public health nurse role to serve as the occupational reproductive health consultant to employees, employers, health care professionals, unions, and others. This article describes this advanced practice role in public health nursing and the women who sought reproductive health consultation. Data on the types of workplace exposures that these consultees had during pregnancy are used to illustrate the occupational history and its importance for pre-conceptional and early-pregnancy counseling. The sample for analysis was limited to the 118 women, aged 19-43 years, who received consultation services between 1990 and 1993 and whose pregnancies resulted in live births. Data were abstracted from the consultant's records of telephone and written consultations and linked to birth certificate records to provide information on smoking and alcohol use during pregnancy. The findings are summarized using descriptive statistics. Implications of the findings for public health nursing are discussed. PMID:8918177

  5. Repeated low-level formaldehyde exposure produces cross-sensitization to cocaine: possible relevance to chemical sensitivity in humans.

    PubMed

    Sorg, B A; Willis, J R; See, R E; Hopkins, B; Westberg, H H

    1998-05-01

    Sensitivity to chemicals in humans has been proposed to be an acquired disorder in which individuals become increasingly sensitive to chemicals in the environment. A possible link between the manifestation of psychiatric symptoms in individuals claiming sensitivity to chemicals was investigated based on a leading hypothesis put forth by Bell and co-workers (1992) to explain the amplification of symptoms after chemical exposure. The hypothesis is that chemical sensitivities may be akin to sensitization observed in rodents after repeated psychostimulants. Repeated exposure to psychostimulants enhances behavioral activity and the underlying neurochemical responses in specific limbic pathways; a similar sensitization of limbic pathways has been proposed to occur in individuals who become sensitive to chemicals. To test this hypothesis, female Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to either air or formaldehyde (Form) for 1 h/day for 7 days or 20 days (5 days/week x 4 weeks). Two to 4 days after the last exposure, rats were given a cocaine challenge (= early withdrawal) followed by an additional cocaine challenge 4-6 weeks later (= late withdrawal). No differences in cocaine-induced locomotor activity were noted between groups after 7 days of exposure. However, after 20 days of exposure to Form, vertical activity was significantly elevated at both early and late withdrawal times. These studies demonstrate that behavioral sensitization occurs after long-term, but not short-term, low-level exposure to Form, and lends support to the limbic system sensitization hypothesis of sensitivity to chemicals in humans. PMID:9536452

  6. Formaldehyde and Leukemia: Epidemiology, Potential Mechanisms and Implications for Risk Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Luoping; Freeman, Laura E. Beane; Nakamura, Jun; Hecht, Stephen S.; Vandenberg, John J.; Smith, Martyn T.; Sonawane, Babasaheb R.

    2009-01-01

    Formaldehyde is widely used in the United States and other countries. Occupational and environmental exposures to formaldehyde may be associated with an increased risk of leukemia in exposed individuals. However, risk assessment of formaldehyde and leukemia has been challenging due to inconsistencies in human and animal studies and the lack of a known mechanism for leukemia induction. Here we provide a summary of the symposium at the Environmental Mutagen Society Meeting in 2008, which focused on the epidemiology of formaldehyde and leukemia, potential mechanisms, and implication for risk assessment, with emphasis on future directions in multidisciplinary formaldehyde research. Updated results of two of the three largest industrial cohort studies of formaldehyde-exposed workers have shown positive associations with leukemia, particularly myeloid leukemia, and a recent meta-analysis of studies to date supports this association. Recent mechanistic studies have shown the formation of formaldehyde-induced DNA adducts and characterized the essential DNA repair pathways that mitigate formaldehyde toxicity. The implications of the updated findings for the design of future studies to more effectively assess the risk of leukemia arising from formaldehyde exposure were discussed and specific recommendations were made. A toxicogenomic approach in experimental models and human exposure studies, together with the measurement of biomarkers of internal exposure, such as formaldehyde-DNA and protein adducts, should prove fruitful. It was recognized that increased communication among scientists who perform epidemiology, toxicology, biology, and risk assessment could enhance the design of future studies, which could ultimately reduce uncertainty in the risk assessment of formaldehyde and leukemia. PMID:19790261

  7. Occupational exposure to aluminum and its biomonitoring in perspective.

    PubMed

    Riihimäki, Vesa; Aitio, Antero

    2012-11-01

    Exposure to aluminum at work is widespread, and people are exposed to several species of aluminum, which differ markedly as to the kinetics and toxicity. Especially welding of aluminum is widely applied and continuously expanding. Inhalation of fine particles of sparsely soluble aluminum results in the retention of deposited particles in the lungs. From the lungs, aluminum is released to the blood and distributed to bones and the brain, and excreted to urine. Soluble aluminum compounds are not accumulated in the lungs. Neurotoxicity is the critical effect of exposure to sparsely soluble aluminum compounds. Studies on workers exposed to aluminum welding fumes have revealed disturbances of cognitive processes, memory and concentration, and changes in mood and EEG. Early pulmonary effects have been observed among aluminum powder-production workers using high-resolution computed tomography. The primary objective of aluminum biomonitoring (BM) is to help prevent the formation of aluminum burden in the lungs and thereby to prevent harmful accumulation of aluminum in target organs. BM of aluminum can be effectively used for this purpose in the production/use of aluminum powders, aluminum welding, as well as plasma cutting, grinding, polishing and thermal spraying of aluminum. BM of aluminum may also be similarly useful in the smelting of aluminum and probably in the production of corundum. BM can help identify exposed individuals and roughly quantitate transient exposure but cannot predict health effects in the production/use of soluble aluminum salts. For urinary aluminum (U-Al) we propose an action limit of 3 µmol/L, corrected to a relative density of 1.021, in a sample collected preshift after two days without occupational exposure, and without use of aluminum-containing drugs. This value corresponds roughly to 2.3 µmol/g creatinine. Compliance with this limit is expected to protect the worker against the critical effect of aluminum in exposure to sparsely soluble aluminum dusts, the cognitive function of the central nervous system. For serum aluminum (S-Al), we do not propose an action limit because S-Al is less sensitive as an indicator of aluminum load. PMID:23013241

  8. Exposure-response analysis of risk of respiratory disease associated with occupational exposure to chrysotile asbestos.

    PubMed Central

    Stayner, L; Smith, R; Bailer, J; Gilbert, S; Steenland, K; Dement, J; Brown, D; Lemen, R

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate alternative models and estimate risk of mortality from lung cancer and asbestosis after occupational exposure to chrysotile asbestos. METHODS: Data were used from a recent update of a cohort mortality study of workers in a South Carolina textile factory. Alternative exposure-response models were evaluated with Poisson regression. A model designed to evaluate evidence of a threshold response was also fitted. Lifetime risks of lung cancer and asbestosis were estimated with an actuarial approach that accounts for competing causes of death. RESULTS: A highly significant exposure-response relation was found for both lung cancer and asbestosis. The exposure-response relation for lung cancer seemed to be linear on a multiplicative scale, which is consistent with previous analyses of lung cancer and exposure to asbestos. In contrast, the exposure-response relation for asbestosis seemed to be nonlinear on a multiplicative scale in this analysis. There was no significant evidence for a threshold in models of either the lung cancer or asbestosis. The excess lifetime risk for white men exposed for 45 years at the recently revised OSHA standard of 0.1 fibre/ml was predicted to be about 5/1000 for lung cancer, and 2/1000 for asbestosis. CONCLUSIONS: This study confirms the findings from previous investigations of a strong exposure-response relation between exposure to chrysotile asbestos and mortality from lung cancer, and asbestosis. The risk estimates for lung cancer derived from this analysis are higher than those derived from other populations exposed to chrysotile asbestos. Possible reasons for this discrepancy are discussed. PMID:9423577

  9. Dose - response relationship between noise exposure and the risk of occupational injury.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Jin-Ha; Hong, Jeong-Suk; Roh, Jaehoon; Kim, Chi-Nyon; Won, Jong-Uk

    2015-01-01

    Many workers worldwide experience fatality and disability caused by occupational injuries. This study examined the relationship between noise exposure and occupational injuries at factories in Korea. A total of 1790 factories located in northern Gyeonggi Province, Korea was evaluated. The time-weighted average levels of dust and noise exposure were taken from Workplace Exposure Assessment data. Apart occupational injuries, sports events, traffic accidents, and other accidents occurring outside workplaces were excluded. The incidences of occupational injury in each factory were calculated by data from the Korea Workers' Compensation and Welfare Services. Workplaces were classified according to the incidence of any occupational injuries (incident or nonincident workplaces, respectively). Workplace dust exposure was classified as <1 or ? 1 mg/m³ , and noise exposure as <80, 80-89, or >90 dB. Workplaces with high noise exposure were significantly associated with being incident workplaces, whereas workplaces with high dust exposure were not. The odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) derived from a logistic regression model were 1.68 (1.27-2.24) and 3.42 (2.26-5.17) at 80-89 dB and ? 90 dB versus <80 dB. These associations remained significant when in a separate analysis according to high or low dust exposure level. Noise exposure increases the risk of occupational injury in the workplace. Furthermore, the risk of occupational injury increases with noise exposure level in a dose-response relationship. Therefore, strategies for reducing noise exposure level are required to decrease the risk of occupational injury. PMID:25599757

  10. [Health effects of non-occupational exposure to asbestos].

    PubMed

    Koike, S

    1992-05-01

    Mesothelioma has occurred in a relative large number not only among miners but also among non-occupationally exposed persons living in the northwestern region of Cape State of South Africa, where crocidolite is mined and transported. The long-term residents of Thetford Mines in Quebec Province, Canada, who have never engaged in mining and milling of chrysolite have not shown an excess mortality of respiratory diseases. Tremolite in soil is responsible for mesothelioma among residents of certain geologic regions such as Cyprus, Corcica, northwestern Greece and Turkey. An increased prevalence of malignant mesothelioma has been reported among residents of three Turkish villages due to exposure to erionite fibers having a high carcinogenic potency. Mesothelioma has infrequently developed in wives who were exposed while washing the work clothes of their husbands contaminated with asbestos, especially amphiboles. The levels of airborne asbestos in public buildings and schools in the U.S.A. and England having walls and ceilings constructed with asbestos containing materials are approximately 1/100 of the permissible concentration of 0.2 f/cm3. The estimated risk from asbestos exposure in schools and buildings is lower than the level of other risks in other society. During the work of removing asbestos from buildings the asbestos concentration is remarkably increased and this persists for many weeks thereafter. The level of asbestos fibers released from brake linings of motor vehicles is higher along roads with heavy traffic, at intersections, and near toll booths than elsewhere. The concentration of asbestos fibers released from motor vehicles is generally low and not of the level to induce mesothelioma. PMID:1619796

  11. Renal cancer risk and occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and plastics

    PubMed Central

    Karami, Sara; Boffetta, Paolo; Brennan, Paul; Stewart, Patricia A.; Zaridze, David; Matveev, Vsevolod; Janout, Vladimir; Kollarova, Helena; Bencko, Vladimir; Navratilova, Marie; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonila; Mates, Dana; Gromiec, Jan P.; Sobotka, Roman; Chow, Wong-Ho; Rothman, Nathaniel; Moore, Lee E.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and certain plastic monomers increased renal cell carcinomas (RCC) risk. Methods Unconditional logistic regression was used to calculate RCC risk in relation to exposure. Results No association between RCC risk and having ever been occupationally exposed to any polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons or plastics was observed. Duration of exposure and average exposure also showed no association with risk. Suggestive positive associations between RCC risk and cumulative exposure to styrene (P-trend = 0.02) and acrylonitrile (P-trend = 0.06) were found. Cumulative exposure to petroleum/gasoline engine emissions was inversely associated with risk (P-trend = 0.02). Conclusions Results indicate a possible association between occupational styrene and acrylonitrile exposure and RCC risk. Additional studies are needed to replicate findings, as this is the first time these associations have been reported and they may be due to chance. PMID:21270648

  12. Evaluation of occupational exposure to free silica in Alberta foundries.

    PubMed

    Ayalp, A; Myroniuk, D

    1982-11-01

    The Occupational Hygiene Branch of Alberta Workers' Health, Safety and Compensation conducted a comprehensive study of the foundry industry in Alberta. The surveys assessed both the degree of health hazards present and the effectiveness of existing control systems for airborne contaminants. All nine of Alberta's ferrous foundries were surveyed in the course of the project. The foundries varied from those which were small with limited mechanization to those which were large and highly automated. The concentrations of free silica in the work environment are correlated to the different attempts to control silica using substitution and various ventilation systems. The particular foundry processes evaluated for airborne free silica were sand preparation, shakeout, dry sand transport and sand molding. Workers' exposure to free airborne silica was evaluated by personal and area samples. The free silica content of the samples was determined by infra-red spectrophotometry. The results indicated most control systems were inadequate. Effective control methods are described to reduce the health hazard. PMID:6301255

  13. Occupational exposure to zeranol, an animal growth promoter.

    PubMed Central

    Aw, T C; Smith, A B; Stephenson, R L; Glueck, C J

    1989-01-01

    Zeranol (3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12-Decahydro-7,14,16-trihydroxy-3-methyl-1H-2 - benzoxacyclotetradecin-1-one) is a synthetic oestrogenic agent used as an animal growth promoter. The effects of occupational exposure to zeranol in 11 exposed workers from a pelletising plant and 14 nonexposed subjects were assessed. A questionnaire showed that more breast symptoms were reported by male and female plant workers compared with non-exposed subjects, although the difference was not statistically significant. Clinical assessment showed no cases of gynaecomastia in all the male participants. Blood samples analysed by high performance liquid chromatography for zeranol, its precursor zearalenone, and its main metabolites did not show any of these compounds above the laboratory limit of detection. Serum levels of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinising hormone (LH), prolactin, and oestradiol showed no striking differences between the exposed and the non-exposed subjects. Total and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL cholesterol) levels did not significantly differ between the two groups but mean high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL cholesterol) levels were higher in the exposed group; this could be due to relatively high HDL cholesterol in two women exposed to zeranol or relatively low HDL cholesterol in three non-exposed men. PMID:2751933

  14. An updated review of the literature: risk factors for bladder cancer with focus on occupational exposures.

    PubMed

    Olfert, Sandra M; Felknor, Sarah A; Delclos, George L

    2006-11-01

    Workplace exposures account for 5 to 25% of all bladder cancer cases. A critical review of the literature between 1938 and 2004 was performed, with a focus on occupational exposures. Occupational exposure to bladder carcinogens, particularly to beta-naphthylamine occur in a number of industries, including aromatic amine manufacture, rubber and cable manufacture, and dyestuff manufacture and use. Risks to workers in a number of new occupations and industries are reviewed. Nonoccupational risk factors that are known or at one time have been thought to increase the risk of bladder cancer are also discussed. PMID:17195421

  15. Use of the Finnish Information System on Occupational Exposure (FINJEM) in epidemiologic, surveillance, and other applications.

    PubMed

    Kauppinen, Timo; Uuksulainen, Sanni; Saalo, Anja; Mäkinen, Ilpo; Pukkala, Eero

    2014-04-01

    This paper reviews the use of the Finnish Information System on Occupational Exposure (Finnish job-exposure matrix, FINJEM) in different applications in Finland and other countries. We describe and discuss studies on FINJEM and studies utilizing FINJEM in regard to the validity of exposure estimates, occupational epidemiology, hazard surveillance and prevention, the assessment of health risks and the burden of disease, the assessment of exposure trends and future hazards, and the construction of job-exposure matrices (JEMs) in countries other than Finland. FINJEM can be used as an exposure assessment tool in occupational epidemiology, particularly in large register-based studies. It also provides information for hazard surveillance at the national level. It is able to identify occupations with high average exposures to chemical agents and can therefore serve the priority setting of prevention. However, it has only limited use at the workplace level due to the variability of exposure between workplaces. The national estimates of exposure and their temporal trends may contribute to the assessment of both the recent and future burden of work-related health outcomes. FINJEM has also proved to be useful in the construction of other national JEMs, for example in the Nordic Occupational Cancer study in the Nordic countries. FINJEM is a quantitative JEM, which can serve many purposes and its comprehensive documentation also makes it potentially useful in countries other than Finland. PMID:24401793

  16. 29 CFR 1915.1450 - Occupational exposure to hazardous chemicals in laboratories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Occupational exposure to hazardous chemicals in laboratories. 1915.1450 Section 1915.1450 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY... chemicals in laboratories. Note: The requirements applicable to shipyard employment under this section...

  17. OCCUPATIONAL STYRENE EXPOSURE FOR TWELVE PRODUCT CATEGORIES IN THE REINFORCED-PLASTICS INDUSTRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Approximately 1500 occupational styrene exposure values from 28 reinforced-plastic manufacturers were collected retrospectively from companies and state and federal agencies. The report describes the major types of manufacturing processes within the reinforced-plastics industry a...

  18. USE OF PHARMACOKINETIC MODELS TO ASSESS OCCUPATIONAL AND RESIDENTIAL PESTICIDE EXPOSURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Urinary biomarker measurements were analyzed using a dynamic pharmacokinetic model. The dynamic model provided the structure to link spot urine samples with corresponding exposure and absorbed dose. Data from both occupational and residential studies were analyzed. In the Agri...

  19. Occupational sun exposure and risk of melanoma according to anatomical site.

    PubMed

    Vuong, Kylie; McGeechan, Kevin; Armstrong, Bruce K; Cust, Anne E

    2014-06-01

    Although sunburn and intermittent sun exposures are associated with increased melanoma risk, most studies have found null or inverse associations between occupational (more continuous pattern) sun exposure and melanoma risk. The association of melanoma with occupational sun exposure may differ according to anatomical site, with some studies finding a positive association with melanoma on the head and neck. We examined the association between occupational sun exposure (self-reported weekday sun exposure) and melanoma risk according to anatomical site, using data from two multicentre population-based case-control studies: the Australian Melanoma Family Study (588 cases, 472 controls) and the Genes, Environment and Melanoma study (GEM; 1079 cases, 2,181 controls). Unconditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and their 95% confidence intervals, adjusting for potential confounders. Occupational sun exposure was not positively associated with melanoma risk overall or at different body sites in both studies. The GEM study found inverse associations between occupational sun exposure and melanoma on the head and neck [OR for highest vs. lowest quartile: 0.56, 95% confidence intervals (CI) 0.36-0.86, ptrend 0.02], and between the proportion of total sun exposure occurring on weekdays and melanoma on the upper limbs (OR for highest vs. lowest quartile: 0.66, 95% CI 0.42-1.02, ptrend 0.03). Our results suggest that occupational sun exposure does not increase risk of melanoma, even of melanomas situated on the head and neck. This finding seemed not to be due to negative confounding of occupational sun exposure by weekend sun. PMID:24288300

  20. Assessment of occupational exposure patterns by frequency-domain analysis of time series data.

    PubMed

    Mihlan, G J; Todd, L A; Truong, K N

    2000-01-01

    Laboratory evidence increasingly points to exposure pattern characteristics, including the duration, frequency, and timing of the exposure during the day, as important factors influencing the biological response to extremely low-frequency magnetic fields. An exploratory analysis of exposure patterns was conducted in 113 electric utility workers employed as electricians, cable splicers, line workers, and power plant operators. The purpose of the study was to describe extremely low-frequency magnetic field exposure pattern characteristics of electric utility workers and evaluate grouping strategies for classifying occupational exposures based on their exposure pattern characteristics. Exposure patterns describe the cyclic fluctuation in exposures over time, and were evaluated by partitioning the variation of the time series into frequency components using frequency-domain analysis of the transformed and processed time series. The study samples were classified using traditional grouping strategies based on occupation and time-weighted average (TWA), and non-traditional grouping strategies based on cluster analysis of the standardized, low-frequency exposure pattern components. Rules for classifying samples into each group were developed using linear discriminant analysis, with the performance of each grouping strategy evaluated using a crossvalidation study design to estimate the rate of misclassification. Exposure patterns appeared unrelated to grouping strategies based on quartiles of the workday TWA, but were related to pattern clusters and occupation. The linear discriminant function produced very low misclassification error rates for the cluster grouping strategy (10%) compared to occupation (50%) and TWA quartile (69%) grouping strategies. Significant differences in the exposure patterns occurring between clusters and between occupational groups were observed, indicating that at least one of the spectral estimates in two of the groups were significantly different. However, patterns clusters produced the greatest contrast in exposure patterns of all grouping strategies, explaining 99 percent of the total variation compared to 58 percent of the total variation by occupation. PMID:10712067

  1. Cancer risk and occupational exposure to aflatoxins in Denmark.

    PubMed Central

    Olsen, J. H.; Dragsted, L.; Autrup, H.

    1988-01-01

    A study of cancer risk among male employees at 241 livestock feed processing companies in Denmark was conducted on the basis of a data linkage system for detailed investigation of occupational cancer providing employment histories back until 1964, established at the Danish Cancer Registry. Crops imported for feed production have often been contaminated with highly variable concentrations of aflatoxins; an estimated average concentration of at least 140 micrograms aflatoxin B1 kg-1 prepared mixed cattle feed prevailed in the past, yielding a daily intake for workers via the respiratory route of approximately 170 ng. Risk was established on the basis of cancer cases among male workers, whose employment in one of the companies was the job they had held for the longest time since 1964. Elevated risks for liver cancer and for cancers of the biliary tract were observed, which increased by two- to three-fold significance after a 10-year latency. Exposure to aflatoxins in the imported crops was judged to be the most probable explanation for these findings, although the influence of lifestyle factors, e.g. alcohol consumption on the results cannot be fully disregarded. Increased risks for salivary gland tumours and multiple myeloma were also detected. However, due to multiple comparisons carried out in this study these new associations must await further confirmation. A decreased risk for lung cancer was observed; despite possible negative confounding due to the smoking habits of the employees, the lung does not seem to be a target organ for the carcinogenic effect of inhaled aflatoxins in humans. PMID:3179193

  2. SPERM COUNT, MORPHOLOGY AND FLUORESCENT BODY FREQUENCY IN AUTOPSY SERVICE WORKERS EXPOSED TO FORMALDEHYDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The ability of a battery of genetic monitoring tests to detect occupational formaldehyde exposure in a population of a hospital autopsy service workers was investigated. Eleven exposed individuals and 11 matched controls were evaluated for sperm count, abnormal sperm morphology a...

  3. Formaldehyde exposure in gross anatomy laboratory of Suranaree University of Technology: a comparison of area and personal sampling.

    PubMed

    Saowakon, Naruwan; Ngernsoungnern, Piyada; Watcharavitoon, Pornpun; Ngernsoungnern, Apichart; Kosanlavit, Rachain

    2015-12-01

    Cadavers are usually preserved by embalming solution which is composed of formaldehyde (FA), phenol, and glycerol. Therefore, medical students and instructors have a higher risk of exposure to FA inhalation from cadavers during dissection. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the FA exposure in indoor air and breathing zone of medical students and instructors during dissection classes in order to investigate the relationship between them. The indoor air and personal air samples in breathing zone were collected three times during anatomy dissection classes (in January, August, and October of 2014) with sorbent tubes, which were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The air cleaner machines were determined by weight measurement. Pulmonary function tests and irritation effects were also investigated. The mean of FA concentrations ranged from 0.117 to 0.415 ppm in the indoor air and from 0.126 to 1.176 ppm in the breathing zone of students and instructors. All the personal exposure data obtained exceeded the threshold limit of NIOSH and WHO agencies. The air cleaner machines were not significant difference. The pulmonary function of instructors showed a decrease during attention of classes and statistically significant decreasing in the instructors more than those of the students. Clinical symptoms that were observed in nose and eyes were irritations with general fatigue. We suggested that the modified exhaust ventilation and a locally ventilated dissection work table were considered for reducing FA levels in the gross anatomy dissection room. PMID:26233735

  4. A Formaldehyde Exposure Assessment Tool for Occupants of FEMA Temporary Housing Units

    E-print Network

    Parthasarathy, Srinandini

    2011-01-01

    Concentration Emission Factor Temp (ºC) RH (%) VR (h -1 ) (µfactor in travel trailer THUs as a function of temperature, RH andfactor) (User Input) Model 1 Output - Indoor Temperature (T ind ) Model 2 Output - Indoor Relative Humidity (RH

  5. Effect of an ozone-generating air-purifying device on reducing concentrations of formaldehyde in air

    SciTech Connect

    Esswein, E.J.; Boeniger, M.F.

    1994-02-01

    Formaldehyde, an air contaminant found in many indoor air investigations, poses distinct occupational exposure hazards in certain job categories (e.g., mortuary science) but is also of concern when found or suspected in office buildings and homes. A variety of air-purifying devices (APDs) are currently available or marketed for application to reduce or remove concentrations of a variety of indoor air pollutants through the use of ozone as a chemical oxidant. An investigation was conducted to determine if concentrations of formaldehyde similar to those found in industrial hygiene evaluations of funeral homes could be reduced with the use of an ozone-generating APD. An ozone-generating APD was placed in an exposure chamber and formaldehyde-containing embalming solution was allowed to evaporate naturally, creating peak and mean chamber concentrations of 2.5 and 1.3 ppm, respectively. Continuous-reading instruments were used to sample for formaldehyde and ozone. Active sampling methods were also used to sample simultaneously for formaldehyde and a possible reactant product, formic acid. Triplicate measurements were made in each of three evaluations: formaldehyde alone, ozone alone, and formaldehyde and ozone combined. Concentrations of formaldehyde were virtually identical with and without 0.5 ppm ozone. No reduction in formaldehyde concentration was found during a 90-minute evaluation using ozone at this concentration with peak and average concentrations of approximately 2.5 and 1.3 ppm formaldehyde, respectively. The results of this investigation suggest that the use of ozone is ineffective in reducing concentrations of formaldehyde. Because ozone has demonstrated health hazards, and is a regulated air contaminant in both the occupational and ambient environment, the use of ozone as an air purification agent in indoor air does not seem warranted. 25 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  6. Occupational exposure to diesel and gasoline emissions and lung cancer in Canadian men.

    PubMed

    Villeneuve, Paul J; Parent, Marie-Élise; Sahni, Vanita; Johnson, Kenneth C

    2011-07-01

    The International Agency for Research on Cancer classifies diesel exhaust as a probable human carcinogen; this decision is based largely from lung cancer evidence. Gasoline exhaust is classified as a possible carcinogen. Epidemiological studies are needed that improve upon some of the limitations of previous research with respect to the characterization of exposure, and the control for the potential confounding influence of smoking and other occupational exposures. Our objective was to investigate associations between occupational exposure to diesel and gasoline engine emissions and lung cancer. We used a case-control study design that involved men 40 years of age and older at the time of interview. Analyses are based on 1681 incident cases of lung cancer and 2,053 population controls. A self-reported questionnaire elicited a lifetime occupational history, including general tasks, and information on other potential risk factors. Occupational exposures to diesel and gasoline emissions, crystalline silica, and asbestos were assigned to each job held by study subjects by industrial hygienists who were blind to case-control status. Exposure metrics for diesel and gasoline emissions that were modeled included: ever exposure, cumulative exposure, and concentration of exposure. We found a dose-response relationship between cumulative occupational exposure to diesel engine emissions and lung cancer. This association was more pronounced for the squamous and large cell subtypes with adjusted odds ratios across the three increasing tertiles of cumulative lifetime exposure relative to those with no exposure of 0.99, 1.25, and 1.32 (p=0.04) for squamous cell carcinoma, and 1.06, 1.19, 1.68 (p=0.02) for large cell carcinoma. While the association with cumulative exposure to gasoline was weakly positive, it was not statistically significant. Our findings suggest that exposure to diesel engine emissions increases the risk of lung cancer particularly for squamous and large cell carcinoma subtypes. PMID:21536265

  7. Occupational exposures to emissions from combustion of diesel and alternative fuels in underground mining--a simulated pilot study.

    PubMed

    Lutz, Eric A; Reed, Rustin J; Lee, Vivien S T; Burgess, Jefferey L

    2015-01-01

    Diesel fuel is commonly used for underground mining equipment, yet diesel engine exhaust is a known human carcinogen. Alternative fuels, including biodiesel, and a natural gas/diesel blend, offer the potential to reduce engine emissions and associated health effects. For this pilot study, exposure monitoring was performed in an underground mine during operation of a load-haul-dump vehicle. Use of low-sulfur diesel, 75% biodiesel/25% diesel blend (B75), and natural gas/diesel blend (GD) fuels were compared. Personal samples were collected for total and respirable diesel particulate matter (tDPM and rDPM, respectively) and total and respirable elemental and organic carbon (tEC, rEC, tOC, rOC, respectively), as well as carbon monoxide (CO), formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, naphthalene, nitric oxide (NO), and nitrogen dioxide (NO2). Compared to diesel, B75 use was associated with a 33% reduction in rDPM, reductions in rEC, tEC, and naphthalene, increased tDPM, tOC, and NO, and no change in rOC, CO, and NO2. Compared to diesel, GD was associated with a 66% reduction in rDPM and a reduction in all other exposures except CO. The alternative fuels tested both resulted in reduced rDPM, which is the basis for the current Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) occupational exposure standard. Although additional study is needed with a wider variety of equipment, use of alternative fuels have the promise of reducing exposures from vehicular exhaust in underground mining settings. PMID:25412337

  8. The effect of formaldehyde exposure on the transmembrane distribution of free amino acids in muscles of Mytilus edulis

    PubMed

    Zachariassen; Olsen; Aunaas

    1996-01-01

    Free amino acids in the posterior adductor muscle of mussels (Mytilus edulis) occur in a high-energy gradient group, with energy gradients of 15­18 kJ mol-1 (aspartate, beta-alanine, glycine, taurine and threonine), and a low-energy gradient group, with energy gradients around 12 kJ mol-1 (the rest of the amino acids). Two of the amino acids, glycine and taurine, are present at intracellular concentrations of 100­150 mmol kg-1, while the other amino acids occur at concentrations below 50 mmol kg-1. Exposure of mussels to formaldehyde causes a marked influx of Na+ into the muscle cells and an increase in cellular water content. The Na+ gradient, which provides the energy for the cellular accumulation of free amino acids, is reduced. The drop in the Na+ gradient is accompanied by a nearly proportional reduction in the energy gradients of all amino acids in the high-energy gradient group and a 150 mmol kg-1 reduction in the total intracellular concentration of free amino acids. Most of this reduction is made up by the Na+-dependent amino acids aspartate, glycine and threonine, the concentrations of which are reduced by about 120 mmol kg-1. The transmembrane distribution of the low-energy gradient amino acids seems to be independent of the Na+ gradient, and these amino acids display only moderate reductions in their intracellular concentrations when the Na+ gradient is reduced. The reduction in the concentrations of the free amino acids appears to be a volume-regulatory response, serving to bring the cell volume back to its optimal level after the formaldehyde-induced Na+ influx has caused a cellular swelling. The basis of these differences in Na+-dependence is discussed. Taurine, which is the quantitatively dominating organic solute and an important volume-regulatory osmolyte in mussels, does not take part in the volume-regulatory response. This may be due the role of taurine in the protection against potentially toxic Ca2+, which enters the cells in large quantities when mussels are exposed to formaldehyde. PMID:9319156

  9. Optical Detection of Formaldehyde

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patty, Kira D.; Gregory, Don A.

    2008-01-01

    The potential for buildup .of formaldehyde in closed space environments poses a direct health hazard to personnel. The National Aeronautic Space Agency (NASA) has established a maximum permitted concentration of 0.04 ppm for 7 to 180 days for all space craft. Early detection is critical to ensure that formaldehyde levels do not accumulate. above these limits. New sensor technologies are needed to enable real time,in situ detection in a compact and reusable form factor. Addressing this need,research into the use of reactive fluorescent dyes which reversibly bind to formaldehyde (liquid or gas) has been conducted to support the development of a formaldehyde.sensor. In the presence of formaldehyde the dyes' characteristic fluorescence peaks shift providing the basis for an optical detection. Dye responses to formaldehyde exposure were characterized; demonstrating the optical detection of formaldehyde in under 10 seconds and down to concentrations of 0.5 ppm. To .incorporate the dye .in.an optical sensor device requires. a means of containing and manipulating the dye. Multiple form factors using two dissimilar sbstrates were considered to determine a suitable configuration. A prototype sensor was demonstrated and considerations for a field able sensor were presented. This research provides a necessary first step toward the development of a compact, reusable; real time optical formaldehyde sensor suitable for use in the U.S. space program,

  10. Occupation and occupational exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals in male breast cancer: a case-control study in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Villeneuve, Sara; Cyr, Diane; Lynge, Elsebeth; Orsi, Laurent; Sabroe, Svend; Merletti, Franco; Gorini, Giuseppe; Morales-Suarez-Varela, Maria; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Baumgardt-Elms, Cornelia; Kaerlev, Linda; Eriksson, Mikael; Hardell, Lennart; Févotte, Joëlle; Guénel, Pascal

    2010-01-01

    Objectives Male breast cancer is a rare disease of largely unknown etiology. Besides genetic or hormone-related risk factors, a large number of environmental chemicals are suspected to play a role in breast cancer. The identification of occupations or occupational exposures associated with an increased incidence of breast cancer in men may help to identify mammary carcinogens in the environment. Methods Occupational risk factors of male breast cancer were investigated in a multi-centre case-control study conducted in 8 European countries, including 104 cases and 1901 controls. Lifetime work history was obtained during in-person interviews. Occupational exposures to endocrine disrupting chemicals (alkylphenolic compounds, phthalates, PCBs and dioxins) were assessed on a case-by-case basis from expert judgment. Results Male breast cancer incidence was more particularly increased in motor vehicle mechanics (OR=2.1, CI 1.0–4.4) with a dose-effect relationship with duration employment. It was also increased in paper makers and painters, and in workers in forestry and logging, health and social work, and manufacture of furniture. The odds ratio for exposure to alkylphenolic compounds above median was 3.8 (CI 1.5–9.5). This association persisted after adjustment for occupational exposures to other environmental estrogens. Conclusion These findings suggest that some environmental chemicals are possible mammary carcinogens. Gasoline, organic petroleum solvents or PAH can be suspected from the consistent elevated risk of male breast cancer observed in motor vehicle mechanics. Endocrine disruptors such as alkylphenolic compounds may play a role in breast cancer. PMID:20798010

  11. Occupational exposures during routine activities in coal-fueled power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Bird, M.J.; MacIntosh, D.L.; Williams, P.L.

    2004-06-15

    Limited information is available on occupational exposures during routine, nonoutage work activities in coal-fueled power plants. This study evaluated occupational exposures to the principal contaminants in the facilities, including respirable dust (coal dust), arsenic, noise, asbestos, and heat stress. The data were collected over a 3-month period, during the summer of 2001. Each of the 5 facilities was divided into 5 similar exposure groups based on previous exposure assessments and job tasks performed. Of the nearly 400 air samples collected, only 1 exceeded the allowable occupational exposure value. For the noise samples, 55 (about 18%) were equal to or greater than the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) 8-hour hearing conservation program level of 85 dBA, and 12 (about 4%) were equal to or greater than the OSHA 8-hour permissible exposure level of 90 dBA. Heat stress monitoring at the facilities indicates that 26% of the 1-hour TWAs were exceeded for one or all of the recommended heat stress limits. The data also concluded that some work sites were above the heat stress ceiling values recommended by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). Four of the 20 employees personally monitored exceeded the recommended limits for heart rate or body core temperature. This suggests there is a potential for heat strain if signs and symptoms are ignored. Recommendations are made to better control the heat stress exposure.

  12. Hexavalent chromium compounds in the workplace: assessing the extent and magnitude of occupational exposure in Italy.

    PubMed

    Scarselli, Alberto; Binazzi, Alessandra; Marzio, Davide Di; Marinaccio, Alessandro; Iavicoli, Sergio

    2012-01-01

    Hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) compounds have been classified as carcinogenic to humans. This study evaluates the extent and magnitude of occupational exposures to Cr(VI) in Italy. Data were collected from exposure registries of companies compulsorily notified by the National Workers' Compensation Authority. Each measurement was characterized by economic activity sector, work force size, worker personal data, job description, year of measurement, and level of exposure. Descriptive statistical analysis was carried out on the retrieved information. The number of workers potentially exposed was estimated for some industrial sectors. A mixed-effects model was adopted to evaluate the association between exposure variables and exposure concentrations. Over 8400 measurements of Cr(VI) exposures were selected from the database of registries for 1996-2009. Most exposures occurred in the manufacture of fabricated metal products (>50%), and the occupational group most frequently measured was metal finishing-, plating- and coating-machine operators (>52%). Measurements were associated with various Cr(VI) compounds, including chromium trioxide, potassium dichromate, sodium dichromate, strontium chromate, and zinc chromate. Cr(VI) exposure has decreased in more recent years, and the fixed-effects (Cr(VI) compound, activity sector, size and location of the facility, job category, and year of measurement of the final statistical model explained more than 70% of the variance in the observed exposure data. This study summarized data recorded in the Italian occupational exposure database and identified specific exposure patterns to Cr(VI). The mean level of exposure to Cr(VI) was 30.41 ?g/m³, and 50,118 workers were estimated at exposure risk in the selected industrial sectors. Systematic recording of occupational exposures is a source of data that allows recognition of high risk situations and improvements in exposure assessment for epidemiologic studies. PMID:22577838

  13. Exploring lifetime occupational exposure and SLE flare: a patient-focussed pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Squance, Marline L; Guest, Maya; Reeves, Glenn; Attia, John; Bridgman, Howard

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Environmental effectors, such as ultraviolet radiation exposure, infection and stress, have been established as having a role in exacerbating lupus symptoms. However, unpredictable patterns of flare events still remain a mystery. Occupational effectors have also been suggested as having a contributing role; however, they are not widely researched. In this paper we report a pilot study designed to generate focus areas for future research regarding occupational exposures and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Methods The study explored potential links between exposures and the occurrence of patient-reported flare events in 80 Australian women with SLE (American College of Rheumatology (ACR) criteria classified). Specifically, the study assessed the hypothesis that occupational exposure is associated with significant changes in the likelihood of lupus flares. Lifetime employment history was analysed with the Finnish Job Exposure Matrix (FINJEM), 40 different semiquantified exposure class estimates for a wide number of occupations based on probability of exposure (p?5%=exposed) were analysed with the construction of negative binomial regression models to test relationships between occupational agents and flare days. A backward stepwise elimination was used to generate a parsimonious model. Results Significant associations were noted for exposure classes of manual handling burden, (p=0.02, incidence rate ratio (IRR) 1.01), Iron (p=0.00, IRR 1.37), wood dust (p=0.00, IRR 3.34) and asbestos (p=0.03, IRR 2.48). Conclusion Exposure assessment results indicated that occupations, such as nursing, with a high manual handling burden, posed increased risk to patients with SLE, however, the greatest risk was associated with wood dust and iron exposure with teachers and specialist labourers. PMID:25379190

  14. Occupational cancer in Spain.

    PubMed Central

    González, C A; Agudo, A

    1999-01-01

    The knowledge of specific problems of occupational cancer in Spain is scarce. The environment of the workplace has improved over the last few years after a long period distinguished by bad working conditions, incomplete legislation, and insufficient safety measures and control. It has been estimated that 3,083,479 workers (25.4% of employees) were exposed to carcinogens. The most common occupational exposures to carcinogenic agents were solar radiation, environmental tobacco smoke, silica, and wood dust. The highest number of employees were exposed to silica crystalline (404,729), diesel engine exhaust (274,321), rubber products (99,804), benzene (89,932), ethylene dibromide (81,336), agents used in furniture and cabinet making (72,068), and formaldehyde (71,189). The percentage of total cancer deaths attributed to occupational exposure was 4% (6% in men, 0.9% in women). Compared with other European countries, the incidence of lung cancer and leukemia in Spain are one of the lowest, but it is rapidly increasing. The incidence of urinary bladder and larynx cancer, on the contrary, are one of the highest. Few studies on occupational cancer have been conducted in Spain. The main problems are the availability of death certificates and the quality of the information on occupation in mortality of statistics. It is necessary to improve methods of assessment of exposures using expert hygienists and biologic markers of exposure and diseases. Reduction of cancer by limiting or avoiding exposure to known occupational carcinogens is still necessary. PMID:10350510

  15. Experimental assessment of the sensitizing properties of formaldehyde.

    PubMed

    Hilton, J; Dearman, R J; Basketter, D A; Scholes, E W; Kimber, I

    1996-06-01

    Formaldehyde causes upper respiratory tract irritation and has been reported in some investigations to be a cause of occupational allergic asthma. The data are equivocal, however, and it has proved difficult to confirm that exposure to formaldehyde induces respiratory sensitization or provokes the production of specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibody. In this study the sensitizing properties of formaldehyde were examined experimentally. This chemical elicited strong positive responses in three independent methods for the prospective identification of contact sensitizing chemicals-the guinea pig maximization test, the occluded patch test of Buehler and the murine local lymph node assay. In contrast, in a novel predictive test method for assessment of respiratory sensitization potential-the mouse IgE test-formaldehyde at the same test concentrations was negative. Furthermore, formaldehyde induced in mice a pattern of cytokine secretion by draining lymph node cells inconsistent with the stimulation of IgE antibody responses or respiratory sensitization. These data indicate that, although formaldehyde is a potent contact allergen, it lacks a significant potential to cause sensitization of the respiratory tract. PMID:8690318

  16. An overview of occupational exposure control technology in nonferrous smelting

    SciTech Connect

    Burton, D.J.

    1980-01-01

    Principles of exposure control include: (1) exposure determination, (2) emission characterization, (3) control options development and analysis, (4) technical and economic feasibility evaluation, and (5) selection, implementation, and testing of the exposure control. New technologies that may reduce exposures are being developed in Europe and the United States. These include new approaches to pyrometallurgical smelting and the development of hydrometallurgical smelting technologies. However, for the time being, retrofit controls will be the primary means of exposure control in the domestic nonferrous smelter industry.

  17. Formaldehyde-Assisted Isolation of Regulatory Elements (FAIRE) analysis uncovers broad changes in chromatin structure resulting from hexavalent chromium exposure.

    PubMed

    Ovesen, Jerald L; Fan, Yunxia; Zhang, Xiang; Chen, Jing; Medvedovic, Mario; Xia, Ying; Puga, Alvaro

    2014-01-01

    The ability of chromatin to switch back and forth from open euchromatin to closed heterochromatin is vital for transcriptional regulation and genomic stability, but its dynamic structure is subject to disruption by exposure to environmental agents such as hexavalent chromium. Cr(VI) exposure disrupts chromatin remodeling mechanisms and causes chromosomal damage through formation of free radicals, Cr-DNA adducts, and DNA-Cr-protein cross-links. In addition, acute, high-concentration, and chronic, low-concentration exposures to Cr(VI) lead to significantly different transcriptional and genomic stability outcomes. We used mouse hepatoma Hepa-1c1c7 cells to investigate how transcriptional responses to chromium treatment might correlate with structural chromatin changes. We used Formaldehyde-Assisted Isolation of Regulatory Elements (FAIRE) analysis coupled with deep sequencing to identify regions of the genome that may switch between open and closed chromatin in response to exposure to varying Cr(VI) concentrations. At either Cr(VI) concentration, chromatin domains surrounding binding sites for AP-1 transcription factors become significantly open, whereas BACH2 and CTCF binding sites are open solely at the low and high concentrations, respectively. Parallel gene expression profiling using RNA-seq indicates that the structural chromatin changes caused by Cr(VI) affect gene expression levels in the target areas that vary depending on Cr(VI) concentration, but show no correlation between global changes in the overall transcriptional response and Cr(VI) concentration. Our results suggest that FAIRE may be a useful technique to map chromatin elements targeted by DNA damaging agents for which there is no prior knowledge of their specificity, and to identify subsequent transcriptomic changes induced by those agents. PMID:24837440

  18. Effects of low-dose, long-term formaldehyde exposure on the structure and functions of the ovary in rats.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hai-xu; Wang, Xiao-yan; Zhou, Dang-xia; Zheng, Lie-rui; Zhang, Jing; Huo, Yong-wei; Tian, Hong

    2013-08-01

    Formaldehyde (FA) is a ubiquitous environmental pollutant. However, the effects of FA exposure on reproduction are still a matter of scientific controversy. In this study, we assessed the ovarian toxicity of long-term, low-dose FA exposure in rats and explored the potential oxidative stress mechanisms. A total of 30 Sprague-Dawley female rats were randomly allotted to three groups, in which rats were exposed to FA at a dose of 0 mg/m(3) (control), 0.5 mg/m(3) and 2.46 mg/m(3), respectively, by inhalation consecutively for 60 days. The results showed that the ovarian toxicity of FA is dose dependent. Ovarian structure and function in the group of rats exposed to 0.5 mg/m(3) FA showed no obvious difference when compared with those in the control group. However, the activity of superoxide dismutase was significantly decreased, whereas the level of malondialdehyde was significantly increased in ovaries of rats exposed to 2.46 mg/m(3) FA. Moreover, histopathological results demonstrated that the number and size of mature follicles significantly decreased, vascular congestion and interstitial edema in the ovaries of rats exposed to 2.46 mg/m(3) FA. In conclusion, this study may suggest that the FA level of 0.5 mg/m(3) can be considered as a safe level for FA exposure, but long-term FA exposure at a dose of 2.46 mg/m(3) has a harmful effect on ovary by inducing oxidative stress. PMID:22287616

  19. Formaldehyde-Assisted Isolation of Regulatory Elements (FAIRE) Analysis Uncovers Broad Changes in Chromatin Structure Resulting from Hexavalent Chromium Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Ovesen, Jerald L.; Fan, Yunxia; Zhang, Xiang; Chen, Jing; Medvedovic, Mario; Xia, Ying; Puga, Alvaro

    2014-01-01

    The ability of chromatin to switch back and forth from open euchromatin to closed heterochromatin is vital for transcriptional regulation and genomic stability, but its dynamic structure is subject to disruption by exposure to environmental agents such as hexavalent chromium. Cr(VI) exposure disrupts chromatin remodeling mechanisms and causes chromosomal damage through formation of free radicals, Cr-DNA adducts, and DNA-Cr-protein cross-links. In addition, acute, high-concentration, and chronic, low-concentration exposures to Cr(VI) lead to significantly different transcriptional and genomic stability outcomes. We used mouse hepatoma Hepa-1c1c7 cells to investigate how transcriptional responses to chromium treatment might correlate with structural chromatin changes. We used Formaldehyde-Assisted Isolation of Regulatory Elements (FAIRE) analysis coupled with deep sequencing to identify regions of the genome that may switch between open and closed chromatin in response to exposure to varying Cr(VI) concentrations. At either Cr(VI) concentration, chromatin domains surrounding binding sites for AP-1 transcription factors become significantly open, whereas BACH2 and CTCF binding sites are open solely at the low and high concentrations, respectively. Parallel gene expression profiling using RNA-seq indicates that the structural chromatin changes caused by Cr(VI) affect gene expression levels in the target areas that vary depending on Cr(VI) concentration, but show no correlation between global changes in the overall transcriptional response and Cr(VI) concentration. Our results suggest that FAIRE may be a useful technique to map chromatin elements targeted by DNA damaging agents for which there is no prior knowledge of their specificity, and to identify subsequent transcriptomic changes induced by those agents. PMID:24837440

  20. Microfabricated Formaldehyde Gas Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Flueckiger, Jonas; Ko, Frank K.; Cheung, Karen C.

    2009-01-01

    Formaldehyde is a volatile organic compound that is widely used in textiles, paper, wood composites, and household materials. Formaldehyde will continuously outgas from manufactured wood products such as furniture, with adverse health effects resulting from prolonged low-level exposure. New, microfabricated sensors for formaldehyde have been developed to meet the need for portable, low-power gas detection. This paper reviews recent work including silicon microhotplates for metal oxide-based detection, enzyme-based electrochemical sensors, and nanowire-based sensors. This paper also investigates the promise of polymer-based sensors for low-temperature, low-power operation. PMID:22291561

  1. Occupational Electromagnetic Field Exposures Associated with Sleep Quality: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hui; Chen, Guangdi; Pan, Yifeng; Chen, Zexin; Jin, Wen; Sun, Chuan; Chen, Chunjing; Dong, Xuanjun; Chen, Kun; Xu, Zhengping; Zhang, Shanchun; Yu, Yunxian

    2014-01-01

    Background Exposure to electromagnetic field (EMF) emitted by mobile phone and other machineries concerns half the world’s population and raises the problem of their impact on human health. The present study aims to explore the effects of electromagnetic field exposures on sleep quality and sleep duration among workers from electric power plant. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in an electric power plant of Zhejiang Province, China. A total of 854 participants were included in the final analysis. The detailed information of participants was obtained by trained investigators using a structured questionnaire, which including socio-demographic characteristics, lifestyle variables, sleep variables and electromagnetic exposures. Physical examination and venous blood collection were also carried out for every study subject. Results After grouping daily occupational electromagnetic exposure into three categories, subjects with long daily exposure time had a significantly higher risk of poor sleep quality in comparison to those with short daily exposure time. The adjusted odds ratios were 1.68 (95%CI: 1.18, 2.39) and 1.57 (95%CI: 1.10, 2.24) across tertiles. Additionally, among the subjects with long-term occupational exposure, the longer daily occupational exposure time apparently increased the risk of poor sleep quality (OR (95%CI): 2.12 (1.23?3.66) in the second tertile; 1.83 (1.07?3.15) in the third tertile). There was no significant association of long-term occupational exposure duration, monthly electric fee or years of mobile-phone use with sleep quality or sleep duration. Conclusions The findings showed that daily occupational EMF exposure was positively associated with poor sleep quality. It implies EMF exposure may damage human sleep quality rather than sleep duration. PMID:25340654

  2. Occupational exposures and chronic respiratory symptoms: a population-based study

    SciTech Connect

    Korn, R.J.; Dockery, D.W.; Speizer, F.E.; Ware, J.H.; Ferris, B.G.

    1987-01-01

    Data from a random sample of 8515 white adults residing in six cities in the eastern and midwestern United States were used to examine the relationships between occupational exposures to dust or to gases and fumes and chronic respiratory symptoms. 31% of the population had a history of occupational dust exposure and 30% reported exposure to gas or to fumes. After adjusting for smoking habits, age, gender, and city of residence, subjects with either occupational exposure had significantly elevated prevalence of chronic cough, chronic phlegm, persistent wheeze, and breathlessness. The adjusted relative odds of chronic respiratory symptoms for subjects exposed to dust ranged from 1.32 to 1.60. Subjects with gas or fume exposure had relative odds of symptoms between 1.27 and 1.43 when compared to unexposed subjects. Occupational dust exposure was associated with a higher prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) as defined by an FEV1/FVC ratio of less than 0.6, when comparing exposed and unexposed participants (OR=1.53, 95% CI=1.17-2.08). Gas or fume exposure was associated with a small, but not significant, increase in COPD prevalence. Significant trends were noted for wheeze and phlegm with increasing duration of dust exposure. Although 36% of exposed subjects reported exposure to both dust and fumes, there was no evidence of a multiplicative interaction between the effects of the individual exposures. Smoking was a significant independent predictor of symptoms, but did not appear to modify the effect of dust or fumes on symptom reporting. These data, obtained in random samples of general populations, demonstrate that chronic respiratory disease can be independently associated with occupational exposures.

  3. Occupational exposures and chronic respiratory symptoms. A population-based study

    SciTech Connect

    Korn, R.J.; Dockery, D.W.; Speizer, F.E.; Ware, J.H.; Ferris, B.G. Jr.

    1987-08-01

    Data from a random sample of 8515 white adults residing in 6 cities in the eastern and midwestern United States were used to examine the relationships between occupational exposures to dust or to gases and fumes and chronic respiratory symptoms; 31% of the population had a history of occupational dust exposure and 30% reported exposure to gas or fumes. After adjusting for smoking habits, age, gender, and city of residence, subjects with either occupational exposure had significantly elevated prevalences of chronic cough, chronic phlegm, persistent wheeze, and breathlessness. The adjusted relative odds of chronic respiratory symptoms for subjects exposed to dust ranged from 1.32 to 1.60. Subjects with gas or fume exposure had relative odds of symptoms between 1.27 and 1.43 when compared with unexposed subjects. Occupational dust exposure was associated with a higher prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease as defined by an FEV1/FVC ratio of less than 0.6, when comparing exposed and unexposed participants (OR = 1.53, 95% Cl = 1.17-2.08). Gas or fume exposure was associated with a small, but not significant, increase in COPD prevalence. Significant trends were noted for wheeze and phlegm with increasing duration of dust exposure. Although 36% of exposed subjects reported exposure to both dust and fumes, there was no evidence of a multiplicative interaction between the effects of the individual exposures. Smoking was a significant independent predictor of symptoms, but did not appear to modify the effect of dust or fumes on symptom reporting. These data, obtained in random samples of general populations, demonstrate that chronic respiratory symptoms and disease can be independently associated with occupational exposures.

  4. Occupational exposures and changes in pulmonary function over 13 years among residents of Cracow.

    PubMed Central

    Krzyzanowski, M; Jedrychowski, W; Wysocki, M

    1988-01-01

    In a 13 year follow up study conducted among residents of Cracow the relation of annual rate of decline in FEV1 to occupational exposures was analysed. The study group consisted of 696 men and 983 women aged 19-60 at the start of the study in 1968. They were interviewed three times, in 1968, 1973, and 1981, and decline in FEV1 was estimated for each subject from spirometric measurements in 1968 and 1981. The interviews provided data on exposure at the workplace to dusts, variable temperature, and chemicals or irritating gases, which established duration and time of the exposure. The FEV1 mean level, height, and smoking habits were considered as confounders in the analysis. The study indicated that the most pronounced influence on decline in FEV1 was prolonged and continuing exposure to variable temperature. The effects of dusts, independent of exposure to variable temperature, were much smaller but analysis in occupational subgroups suggest that dust may be important in some, such as workers in the building materials and pottery industry. Relatively immediate effects of exposure to chemicals were detected independently of effects of other exposures. The estimated effects of occupational exposures were of a similar magnitude as those of tobacco smoking though related to much smaller groups. Both effects were additive in accelerating decline in lung function. These results, obtained in the general population and less biased by selection than studies performed in industrial settings, show the importance of occupational factors in the natural history of limitation of airflow. PMID:3203079

  5. Occupational exposure to organic solvents: a risk factor for pulmonary veno-occlusive disease.

    PubMed

    Montani, David; Lau, Edmund M; Descatha, Alexis; Jaïs, Xavier; Savale, Laurent; Andujar, Pascal; Bensefa-Colas, Lynda; Girerd, Barbara; Zendah, Inès; Le Pavec, Jerome; Seferian, Andrei; Perros, Frédéric; Dorfmüller, Peter; Fadel, Elie; Soubrier, Florent; Sitbon, Oliver; Simonneau, Gérald; Humbert, Marc

    2015-12-01

    Pulmonary veno-occlusive disease (PVOD) is a rare form of pulmonary hypertension characterised by predominant remodelling of pulmonary venules. Bi-allelic mutations in the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2? kinase 4 (EIF2AK4) gene were recently described as the major cause of heritable PVOD, but risk factors associated with PVOD remain poorly understood. Occupational exposures have been proposed as a potential risk factor for PVOD, but epidemiological studies are lacking.A case-control study was conducted in consecutive PVOD (cases, n=33) and pulmonary arterial hypertension patients (controls, n=65). Occupational exposure was evaluated via questionnaire interview with blinded assessments using an expert consensus approach and a job exposure matrix (JEM).Using the expert consensus approach, PVOD was significantly associated with occupational exposure to organic solvents (adjusted OR 12.8, 95% CI 2.7-60.8), with trichloroethylene being the main agent implicated (adjusted OR 8.2, 95% CI 1.4-49.4). JEM analysis independently confirmed the association between PVOD and trichloroethylene exposure. Absence of significant trichloroethylene exposure was associated with a younger age of disease (54.8±21.4?years, p=0.037) and a high prevalence of harbouring bi-allelic EIF2AK4 mutations (41.7% versus 0%, p=0.015).Occupational exposure to organic solvents may represent a novel risk factor for PVOD. Genetic background and environmental exposure appear to influence the phenotypic expression of the disease. PMID:26541523

  6. UConn Health Employee Health GUIDELINES FOR MANAGEMENT OF OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE TO

    E-print Network

    Oliver, Douglas L.

    UConn Health Employee Health GUIDELINES FOR MANAGEMENT OF OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE TO BLOOD BORNE Public Health Service Guidelines. In approaching post-exposure anti-viral prophylaxis (PEP skin is not regarded as a significant risk. However, non- intact skin may constitute a portal of entry

  7. A Systematic Review of Occupational Exposure to Particulate Matter and Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Shona C.; Cassidy, Adrian; Christiani, David C.

    2010-01-01

    Exposure to ambient particulate air pollution is a recognized risk factor for cardiovascular disease; however the link between occupational particulate exposures and adverse cardiovascular events is less clear. We conducted a systematic review, including meta-analysis where appropriate, of the epidemiologic association between occupational exposure to particulate matter and cardiovascular disease. Out of 697 articles meeting our initial criteria, 37 articles published from January 1990 to April 2009 (12 mortality; 5 morbidity; and 20 intermediate cardiovascular endpoints) were included. Results suggest a possible association between occupational particulate exposures and ischemic heart disease (IHD) mortality as well as non-fatal myocardial infarction (MI), and stronger evidence of associations with heart rate variability and systemic inflammation, potential intermediates between occupational PM exposure and IHD. In meta-analysis of mortality studies, a significant increase in IHD was observed (meta-IRR = 1.16; 95% CI: 1.06–1.26), however these data were limited by lack of adequate control for smoking and other potential confounders. Further research is needed to better clarify the magnitude of the potential risk of the development and aggravation of IHD associated with short and long-term occupational particulate exposures and to clarify the clinical significance of acute and chronic changes in intermediate cardiovascular outcomes. PMID:20617059

  8. Assessing Occupational Exposure to Chemicals in an International Epidemiological Study of Brain Tumours

    PubMed Central

    van Tongeren, Martie

    2013-01-01

    The INTEROCC project is a multi-centre case–control study investigating the risk of developing brain cancer due to occupational chemical and electromagnetic field exposures. To estimate chemical exposures, the Finnish Job Exposure Matrix (FINJEM) was modified to improve its performance in the INTEROCC study and to address some of its limitations, resulting in the development of the INTEROCC JEM. An international team of occupational hygienists developed a crosswalk between the Finnish occupational codes used in FINJEM and the International Standard Classification of Occupations 1968 (ISCO68). For ISCO68 codes linked to multiple Finnish codes, weighted means of the exposure estimates were calculated. Similarly, multiple ISCO68 codes linked to a single Finnish code with evidence of heterogeneous exposure were refined. One of the key time periods in FINJEM (1960–1984) was split into two periods (1960–1974 and 1975–1984). Benzene exposure estimates in early periods were modified upwards. The internal consistency of hydrocarbon exposures and exposures to engine exhaust fumes was improved. Finally, exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon and benzo(a)pyrene was modified to include the contribution from second-hand smoke. The crosswalk ensured that the FINJEM exposure estimates could be applied to the INTEROCC study subjects. The modifications generally resulted in an increased prevalence of exposure to chemical agents. This increased prevalence of exposure was not restricted to the lowest categories of cumulative exposure, but was seen across all levels for some agents. Although this work has produced a JEM with important improvements compared to FINJEM, further improvements are possible with the expansion of agents and additional external data. PMID:23467593

  9. 78 FR 56273 - Occupational Exposure to Respirable Crystalline Silica

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-12

    ...to other potential carcinogens such as radon and arsenic. IARC (1997) noted that...the increased lung cancer to increased radon exposure and smoking among cases as compared...mining, gold mining involves exposure to radon and other carcinogenic...

  10. Quantitative risk approaches for formaldehyde.

    PubMed

    Howlett, C T; Mathias, R; Friess, S

    1989-01-01

    Formaldehyde presents unique data that highlight significant issues in the extrapolation of animal studies to human risk assessments. Formaldehyde causes rare nasal cancer in rats at 15 ppm, but not at lower levels of 2 ppm and 0.5 ppm in the range of human exposures. Mice and hamster studies even at high levels have results similar to low dose rats. Higginson et al. reviewed the human epidemiology studies and concluded that no excess cancer risk was observed; and if a risk exists, it is very low. Formaldehyde is a natural metabolite--the human body turns over 51 g/day. Cells, therefore, have detoxification and other defence mechanisms to formaldehyde. Recent CIIT biomechanism results elucidate these factors. These data raise two issues: First, the appropriateness of linear quantitative risk methodology given the non-linear nature of the biological data. Either a non-linear (threshold) statistical model or NOEL approach are appropriate risk assessment techniques for formaldehyde. Second, the rare nasal cancer observed in rats also occurs in control animals. A comparison of relative risk between background and low formaldehyde exposures has been calculated for both groups. Non-linear (MLE) 5 stage multistage models estimate 0 per million risk from both background and 1 ppm of formaldehyde exposure. Linear or upperbound (95%) estimates are 7,200/million from background and 5,000/million from 1 ppm formaldehyde. These estimates have a significant impact on formaldehyde regulatory programs for warning labels and "safe" exposure levels. PMID:2700168

  11. Effects of occupational exposure to tobacco smoke: is there a link between environmental exposure and disease?

    PubMed

    Pacheco, Solange A; Torres, Vukosava M; Louro, Henriqueta; Gomes, Filomena; Lopes, Carlos; Marçal, Nelson; Fragoso, Elsa; Martins, Carla; Oliveira, Cátia L; Hagenfeldt, Manuela; Bugalho-Almeida, António; Penque, Deborah; Simões, Tânia

    2013-01-01

    In a previous study, evidence was provided that indoor secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS) air pollution remains high in Lisbon restaurants where smoking is allowed, regardless of the protective measures used. The aim of this study was to determine in these locations the levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) associated with the particulate phase of SHS (PPAH), a fraction that contains recognized carginogens, such as benzo[a]pyrene (BaP). Data showed that restaurant smoking areas might contain PPAH levels as high as 110 ng/m(3), a value significantly higher than that estimated for nonsmoking areas (30 ng/m(3)) or smoke-free restaurants (22 ng/m(3)). The effective exposure to SHS components in restaurant smoking rooms was confirmed as cotinine levels found in workers' urine. Considering that all workers exhibited normal lung function, eventual molecular changes in blood that might be associated with occupational exposure to SHS and SHS-associated PPAH were investigated by measurement of two oxidative markers, total antioxidant status (TAS) and 8-hydroxyguanosine (8-OHdG) in plasma and serum, respectively. SHS-exposed workers exhibited higher mean levels of serum 8-OHdG than nonexposed workers, regardless of smoking status. By using a proteomics approach based on 2D-DIGE-MS, it was possible to identify nine differentially expressed proteins in the plasma of SHS-exposed nonsmoker workers. Two acute-phase inflammation proteins, ceruloplasmin and inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor heavy chain 4 (ITIH4), were predominant. These two proteins presented a high number of isoforms modulated by SHS exposure with the high-molecular-weight (high-MW) isoforms decreased in abundance while low-MW isoforms were increased in abundance. Whether these expression profiles are due to (1) a specific proteolytic cleavage, (2) a change on protein stability, or (3) alterations on post-translational modification pattern of these proteins remains to be investigated. Considering that these events seem to precede the first symptoms of tobacco-related diseases, our findings might contribute to elucidation of early SHS-induced pathogenic mechanisms and constitute a useful tool for monitoring the effects of SHS on occupationally exposed individuals such as those working in the hospitality industry. PMID:23514073

  12. 41 CFR 50-204.10 - Occupational noise exposure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... used to determine exposure limits from Table I. (b) When employees are subject to sound exceeding those... exceed the limit value. Cn indicates the total time of exposure at a specified noise level, and Tn... exposure. 50-204.10 Section 50-204.10 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating...

  13. Formaldehyde as a basis for residential ventilation rates.

    PubMed

    Sherman, M H; Hodgson, A T

    2004-02-01

    Traditionally, houses in the US have been ventilated by passive infiltration in combination with active window opening. However in recent years, the construction quality of residential building envelopes has been improved to reduce infiltration, and the use of windows for ventilation also may have decreased due to a number of factors. Thus, there has been increased interest in engineered ventilation systems for residences. The amount of ventilation provided by an engineered system should be set to protect occupants from unhealthy or objectionable exposures to indoor pollutants, while minimizing energy costs for conditioning incoming air. Determining the correct ventilation rate is a complex task, as there are numerous pollutants of potential concern, each having poorly characterized emission rates, and poorly defined acceptable levels of exposure. One ubiquitous pollutant in residences is formaldehyde. The sources of formaldehyde in new houses are reasonably understood, and there is a large body of literature on human health effects. This report examines the use of formaldehyde as a means of determining ventilation rates and uses existing data on emission rates of formaldehyde in new houses to derive recommended levels. Based on current, widely accepted concentration guidelines for formaldehyde, the minimum and guideline ventilation rates for most new houses are 0.28 and 0.5 air changes per hour, respectively. PMID:14756840

  14. 78 FR 45981 - Occupational Exposure to Noise Standard; Extension of the Office of Management and Budget's (OMB...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-30

    ...specified in the Occupational Exposure to Noise Standard (29...www.regulations.gov index; however, some information...employers to: Monitor worker exposure to noise when it is likely...Title: Occupational Exposure to Noise (29 CFR 1910...www.regulations.gov index, some...

  15. 78 FR 45981 - Occupational Exposure to Noise Standard; Extension of the Office of Management and Budget's (OMB...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-30

    ...) (action level); take action to reduce noise exposures to the 90 dBA permissible exposure limit (PEL); and... Act of 1995 (44 U.S.C. 3506 et seq.) and Secretary of Labor's Order No. 1-2012 (77 FR 3912). Signed at... Occupational Safety and Health Administration Occupational Exposure to Noise Standard; Extension of the...

  16. Occupational 50 Hz magnetic field exposure measurements among female sewing machine operators in Hungary.

    PubMed

    Szabó, J; Mezei, K; Thuróczy, G; Mezei, G

    2006-09-01

    Occupational magnetic field (MF) exposure is less thoroughly characterized in occupations typically held by women. Our objective was to characterize occupational 50 Hz MF personal exposure (PE) among female sewing machine operators. We measured the full shift PE of 51 seamstresses, who worked in two shifts (6-14 and 14-22 h) according to their normal work routine. Measurements were conducted using EMDEX PAL meters at chest level. The average duration of the measurement periods was 449 min (range 420-470). The average arithmetic mean exposure for all women was 0.76 microT (range 0.06-4.27). The average of maximum values was 4.30 microT (range 0.55-14.80). Women working with older sewing machines experienced higher exposure than women working on newer sewing machines. For women (n = 10) who operated sewing machines produced in 1990 or earlier, the average arithmetic mean exposure was 2.09 microT, and for women (n = 41) who operated sewing machines produced after 1990, the average arithmetic mean was 0.43 microT. We conclude that women working as sewing machine operators experience higher than average occupational MF exposure compared to other working women. Most important determinant of the women's personal MF exposure was the age of the sewing machine the women operated. PMID:16622866

  17. [Relationship between occupational respiratory pathology and cumulative exposure to dust].

    PubMed

    Novoselova, T A; Domnin, S G; Kashanski?, S V; Shcherbakov, S V

    2000-01-01

    The authors concluded that "multiplicity of excess in MAC for predominantly fibrogenic dusts" value remains quite informative criterion in classification of work conditions and in forecasting the development of occupational respiratory diseases. Suggested in the new "Hygienic criteria for evaluation and classification of work conditions according to jeopardy and harm of occupational hazards, hardiness and stress of work" Manual, method determining harm degree of work conditions according to multiplicity of excess in reference dust loads is arduous but not so informative, and recommended values for reference dust loads are boosted and need correction. PMID:10826369

  18. Validity of self reported occupational exposures to hand transmitted and whole body vibration

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, K.; Haward, B.; Griffin, M.; Bendall, H.; Coggon, D.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To assess the accuracy with which workers report their exposure to occupational sources of hand transmitted (HTV) and whole body vibration (WBV).?METHODS—179 Workers from various jobs involving exposure to HTV or WBV completed a self administered questionnaire about sources of occupational exposure to vibration in the past week. They were then observed at work over 1 hour, after which they completed a second questionnaire concerning their exposures during this observation period. The feasibility of reported sources of exposure during the past week was examined by questioning managers and by inspection of tools and machines in the workplace. The accuracy of reported sources and durations of exposure in the 1 hour period were assessed relative to what had been observed.?RESULTS—The feasibility of exposure in the previous week was confirmed for 97% of subjects who reported exposure to HTV, and for 93% of subjects who reported exposure to WBV. The individual sources of exposure reported were generally plausible, but occupational use of cars was substantially overreported, possibly because of confusion with their use in travel to and from work. The accuracy of exposures reported during the observation period was generally high, but some sources of HTV were confused—for example, nailing and stapling guns reported as riveting hammers, and hammer drills not distinguished from other sorts of drill. Workers overestimated their duration of exposure to HTV by a median factor of 2.5 (interquartile range (IQR) 1.6-5.9), but estimated durations of exposure were more accurate when the exposure was relatively continuous rather than for intermittent short periods. Reported durations of exposure to WBV were generally accurate (median ratio of reported to observed time 1.1, IQR 1.0-1.2).?CONCLUSIONS—Sources of recent occupational exposure to vibration seem to be reported with reasonable accuracy, but durations of exposure to HTV are systematically overestimated, particularly when the exposure is intermittent and for short periods. This raises the possibility that dose-response relations may have been biased in some of the studies on which exposure standards might be based, and that the levels in currently proposed standards may be too high. Future studies should pay attention to this source of error during data collection.???Keywords: vibration; exposure; assessment; validity PMID:10810109

  19. Occupational exposure to crystalline silica and the risk of lung cancer in Canadian men.

    PubMed

    Kachuri, Linda; Villeneuve, Paul J; Parent, Marie-Élise; Johnson, Kenneth C; Harris, Shelley A

    2014-07-01

    Crystalline silica is a recognized carcinogen, but the association with lung cancer at lower levels of exposure has not been well characterized. This study investigated the relationship between occupational silica exposure and lung cancer and the combined effects of cigarette smoking and silica exposure on lung cancer risk. A population-based case-control study was conducted in eight Canadian provinces between 1994 and 1997. Self-reported questionnaires were used to obtain a lifetime occupational history and information on other risk factors. Occupational hygienists assigned silica exposures to each job based on concentration, frequency and reliability. Data from 1681 incident lung cancer cases and 2053 controls were analyzed using logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (OR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI). Models included adjustments for cigarette smoking, lifetime residential second-hand smoke and occupational exposure to diesel and gasoline engine emissions. Relative to the unexposed, increasing duration of silica exposure at any concentration was associated with a significant trend in lung cancer risk (OR???30 years: 1.67, 1.21-2.24; ptrend ?=?0.002). The highest tertile of cumulative silica exposure was associated with lung cancer (OR?=?1.81, 1.34-2.42; ptrend ?=?0.004) relative to the lowest. Men exposed to silica for ?30 years with ?40 cigarette pack-years had the highest risk relative to those unexposed with <10 pack-years (OR?=?42.53, 23.54-76.83). The joint relationship with smoking was consistent with a multiplicative model. Our findings suggest that occupational exposure to silica is a risk factor for lung cancer, independently from active and passive smoking, as well as from exposure to other lung carcinogens. PMID:24272527

  20. Analysis of leukemia-specific aneuploidies in cultured myeloid progenitor cells in the absence and presence of formaldehyde exposure.

    PubMed

    Kuehner, Stefanie; Schlaier, Martina; Schwarz, Klaus; Speit, Günter

    2012-07-01

    A recently published human study suggested that exposure to formaldehyde (FA) at the workplace might induce leukemia-specific aneuploidies (monosomy 7 and trisomy 8) in cultured myeloid progenitor cells. Despite its preliminary character, this study was considered by the International Agency for Research on Cancer to be a potential mechanistic explanation for the induction of leukemia by FA. To further evaluate the reliability of these findings, chromosome preparations from cultured myeloid progenitor cells (obtained from blood samples of five healthy subjects) were analyzed by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for spontaneously occurring numerical aberrations after cultivation for 9 days. FISH analysis with probes for chromosomes 6, 7, and 8 revealed that the baseline frequency of aneuploid metaphases is similar and rather low for all three chromosomes tested. More monosomies than trisomies were measured. We also exposed myeloid progenitor cells during the whole cultivation period to FA and determined the frequency of aneuploidies after 9 days of cultivation. The results clearly indicate that FA did not induce aneuploidy under these experimental conditions. In contrast, aneuploidy was induced under these conditions by the known aneugen vincristine. Myeloid progenitor cells from healthy subjects were not particularly sensitive toward the cytotoxic action of FA. Colony forming ability in the presence of FA was not reduced to a higher degree than in cultured cell lines (A549; V79). Our results do not support the assumption of a specific effect of FA on myeloid progenitor cells as a potential mechanism for the induction of leukemia. PMID:22472192

  1. Occupational Exposures in the Oil and Gas Extraction Industry: State of the Science and Research Recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Witter, Roxana Z.; Tenney, Liliana; Clark, Suzanne; Newman, Lee S.

    2015-01-01

    The oil and gas extraction industry is rapidly growing due to horizontal drilling and high volume hydraulic fracturing (HVHF). This growth has provided new jobs and economic stimulus. The industry occupational fatality rate is 2.5 times higher than the construction industry and 7 times higher than general industry; however injury rates are lower than the construction industry, suggesting injuries are not being reported. Some workers are exposed to crystalline silica at hazardous levels, above occupational health standards. Other hazards (particulate, benzene, noise, radiation) exist. In this article, we review occupational fatality and injury rate data; discuss research looking at root causes of fatal injuries and hazardous exposures; review interventions aimed at improving occupational health and safety; and discuss information gaps and areas of needed research. We also describe Wyoming efforts to improve occupational safety in this industry, as a case example. PMID:24634090

  2. Recent and long-term occupational noise exposure and salivary cortisol level.

    PubMed

    Stokholm, Zara Ann; Hansen, Åse Marie; Grynderup, Matias Brødsgaard; Bonde, Jens Peter; Christensen, Kent Lodberg; Frederiksen, Thomas Winther; Lund, Søren Peter; Vestergaard, Jesper Medom; Kolstad, Henrik Albert

    2014-01-01

    Environmental and occupational noise exposure have been related to increased risk of cardiovascular disease, hypothetically mediated by stress-activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. The objective of this study was to investigate the relation between recent and long-term occupational noise exposure and cortisol level measured off work to assess a possible sustained HPA-axis effect. We included 501 industrial, finance, and service workers who were followed for 24h during work, leisure, and sleep. Ambient occupational noise exposure levels were recorded every 5s by personal dosimeters and we calculated the full-shift LAEq value and estimated duration and cumulative exposure based on their work histories since 1980. For 332 workers who kept a log-book on the use of hearing protection devices (HPD), we subtracted 10 dB from every noise recording obtained during HPD use and estimated the noise level at the ear. Salivary cortisol concentration was measured at 20.00 h, the following day at awakening, and 30 min after awakening on average 5, 14 and 14.5h after finishing work. The mean ambient noise exposure level was 79.9 dB(A) [range: 55.0-98.9] and the mean estimated level at the ear 77.7 dB(A) [range: 55.0-94.2]. In linear and mixed regression models that adjusted for age, sex, current smoking, heavy alcohol consumption, personal income, BMI, leisure-time noise exposure level, time since occupational noise exposure ceased, awakening time, and time of saliva sampling, we observed no statistically significant exposure response relation between recent, or long-term ambient occupational noise exposure level and any cortisol parameter off work. This was neither the case for recent noise level at the ear. To conclude, neither recent nor long-term occupational noise exposure levels were associated with increased cortisol level off work. Thus, our results do not indicate that a sustained activation of the HPA axis, as measured by cortisol, is involved in the causal pathway between occupational noise exposure and cardiovascular disease. PMID:24275001

  3. Proposed Occupational Exposure Limits for Non-Carcinogenic Hanford Waste Tank Vapor Chemicals

    SciTech Connect

    Poet, Torka S.; Timchalk, Chuck

    2006-03-24

    A large number of volatile chemicals have been identified in the headspaces of tanks used to store mixed chemical and radioactive waste at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site, and there is concern that vapor releases from the tanks may be hazardous to workers. Contractually established occupational exposure limits (OELs) established by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) and American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) do not exist for all chemicals of interest. To address the need for worker exposure guidelines for those chemicals that lack OSHA or ACGIH OELs, a procedure for assigning Acceptable Occupational Exposure Limits (AOELs) for Hanford Site tank farm workers has been developed and applied to a selected group of 57 headspace chemicals.

  4. Management of occupational exposures to hepatitis C virus: current practice and controversies.

    PubMed

    Alvarado-Ramy, F; Alter, M J; Bower, W; Henderson, D K; Sohn, A H; Sinkowitz-Cochran, R L; Jarvis, W R

    2001-01-01

    Unlike hepatitis B virus and human immunodeficiency virus, there currently are no immunization or chemoprophylactic interventions available to prevent infection after an occupational exposure to hepatitis C virus (HCV). A "Reality Check" session was held at the 4th Decennial International Conference on Nosocomial and Healthcare-Associated Infections to gather information on current practices related to management of occupational exposures to HCV, generate discussion on controversial issues, and identify areas for future research. Infection control professionals in attendance were knowledgeable in most issues addressed regarding the management of occupational exposures to HCV. Areas of controversy included the use of antiviral therapy early in the course of HCV infection and the appropriate administrative management of an HCV-infected healthcare worker. PMID:11198026

  5. Maternal occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and small for gestational age offspring

    PubMed Central

    Langlois, Peter H.; Hoyt, Adrienne T.; Desrosiers, Tania A.; Lupo, Philip J.; Lawson, Christina C.; Waters, Martha A.; Rocheleau, Carissa M.; Shaw, Gary M.; Romitti, Paul A.; Gilboa, Suzanne M.; Malik, Sadia

    2015-01-01

    Objectives While some of the highest maternal exposures to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) occur in the workplace, there is only one previous study of occupational PAH exposure and adverse pregnancy outcomes. We sought to extend this literature using interview data combined with detailed exposure assessment. Methods Data for 1997–2002 were analysed from mothers of infants without major birth defects in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study, a large population-based case-control study in the USA. Maternal telephone interviews yielded information on jobs held in the month before conception through delivery. From 6252 eligible control mothers, 2803 completed the interview, had a job, met other selection criteria, and were included in the analysis. Two industrial hygienists independently assessed occupational exposure to PAHs from the interview and reviewed results with a third to reach consensus. Small for gestational age (SGA) was the only adverse pregnancy outcome with enough exposed cases to yield meaningful results. Logistic regression estimated crude and adjusted ORs. Results Of the 2803 mothers, 221 (7.9%) had infants who were SGA. Occupational PAH exposure was found for 17 (7.7%) of the mothers with SGA offspring and 102 (4.0%) of the remaining mothers. Almost half the jobs with exposure were related to food preparation and serving. After adjustment for maternal age, there was a significant association of occupational exposure with SGA (OR=2.2, 95% CI 1.3 to 3.8). Conclusions Maternal occupational exposure to PAHs was found to be associated with increased risk of SGA offspring. PMID:24893704

  6. Occupational exposures during routine activities in coal-fueled power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Mona J. Bird; David L. MacIntosh; Phillip L. Williams

    2004-06-15

    Limited information is available on occupational exposures during routine, nonoutage work activities in coal-fueled power plants. This study evaluated occupational exposures to the principal contaminants in the facilities, including respirable dust (coal dust), arsenic, noise, asbestos, and heat stress. The data were collected over a 3-month period, during the summer of 2001, in 5 representative power plants of a large southeastern power-generating company. From 4 of the 5 facilities, 392 air samples and 302 noise samples were collected with approximately 50 respirable coal dust, 32 arsenic, 15 asbestos, and 70 noise samples from each of the 4 plants. One of the previously surveyed facilities was also evaluated for heat stress, and 1 additional coal-fueled power plant was surveyed for a total of 20 personal heat stress samples. Of the nearly 400 air samples collected, only 1 exceeded the allowable occupational exposure value. For the noise samples, 55 were equal to or greater than the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) 8-hour hearing conservation program level of 85 dBA, and 12 were equal to or greater than the OSHA 8-hour permissible exposure level of 90 dBA. The data concluded that some work sites were above the heat stress ceiling values recommended by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). Four of the 20 employees personally monitored exceeded the recommended limits for heart rate or body core temperature.

  7. Comparison of 1-hydroxypyrene exposure in the US population with that in occupational exposure studies.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wenlin; Grainger, James; Patterson, Donald G; Turner, Wayman E; Caudill, Samuel P; Needham, Larry L; Pirkle, James L; Sampson, Eric J

    2004-10-01

    Urine samples collected in 1999 and 2000 as part of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) were analyzed for 14 monohydroxy polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and, for the first time, reference range values were calculated for these metabolites in the US population. Pyrene is a major component of most PAH mixtures and often is used as a surrogate for total PAH exposure. We detected 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHpyrene), a metabolite of pyrene, in more than 99% of the samples. The overall geometric mean concentration for 1-OHpyrene in the USA was 79.8 ng/l, with a 95% confidence interval (CI) of 69.0-92.2 ng/l. The overall geometric mean creatinine-adjusted urinary 1-OHpyrene levels in the USA was 74.2 ng/g creatinine (0.039 micromol/mol), with a 95% CI of 64.1-85.9 ng/g creatinine (0.034-0.046 micromol/mol). There were no statistically significant differences among age, gender, or race/ethnicity groups. Adult smokers in the USA have urinary 1-OHpyrene levels three times higher than those of non-smokers. This difference was statistically significant. In this paper, we compare the reference range of urinary 1-OHpyrene levels with levels reported from various occupations by other researchers. PMID:15322857

  8. Current employment status, occupational category, occupational hazard exposure, and job stress in relation to telomere length: The Multiethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA)

    PubMed Central

    Fujishiro, Kaori; Diez-Roux, Ana V; Landsbergis, Paul; Jenny, Nancy Swords; Seeman, Teresa

    2014-01-01

    Objective Telomere length has been proposed as a biomarker of cell senescence, which is associated with a wide array of adverse health outcomes. While work is a major determinant of health, few studies have investigated the association of telomere length with various dimensions of occupation. Accelerated cellular aging could be a common pathway linking occupational exposure to several health outcomes. Methods Leukocyte telomere length was assessed using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (Q-PCR) in a community-based sample of 981 individuals (age: 45–84 years old). Questionnaires were used to collect information on current employment status, current or main occupation before retirement, and job strain. The O*NET (Occupational Resource Network) database was linked to the questionnaire data to create 5 exposure measures: physical activity on the job, physical hazard exposure, interpersonal stressors, job control, and job demands. Linear regression was used to estimate associations of occupational characteristics with telomere lengths after adjustment for age, sex, race, socioeconomic position, and several behavioral risk factors. Results There were no mean differences in telomere lengths across current employment status, occupational category, job strain categories or levels of most O*NET exposure measures. There was also no evidence that being in lower status occupational categories or being exposed to higher levels of adverse physical or psychosocial exposures accelerated the association between age and telomere shortening. Conclusions Cellular aging as reflected by shorter telomeres does not appear to be an important pathway linking occupation to various health outcomes. PMID:23686115

  9. Species-specific Fungal DNA in Airborne Dust as Surrogate for Occupational Mycotoxin Exposure?

    PubMed Central

    Halstensen, Anne Straumfors

    2008-01-01

    Possible health risks associated with occupational inhalation of mycotoxin-containing dust remain largely unknown, partly because methods for mycotoxin detection are not sensitive enough for the small dust masses obtained by personal sampling, which is needed for inhalable exposure measurements. Specific and sensitive PCR detection of fungi with mycotoxin-producing potential seem to be a good surrogate for occupational exposure measurements that include all fungal structures independent of morphology and cultivability. Results should, however, be interpreted with caution due to variable correlations with mycotoxin concentrations. PMID:19330091

  10. Formaldehyde exposure and leukemia: critical review and reevaluation of the results from a study that is the focus for evidence of biological plausibility.

    PubMed

    Gentry, P Robinan; Rodricks, Joseph V; Turnbull, Duncan; Bachand, Annette; Van Landingham, Cynthia; Shipp, Annette M; Albertini, Richard J; Irons, Richard

    2013-09-01

    A recent study (Zhang et al., 2010) has provided results attributed to aneuploidy in circulating stem cells that has been characterized as providing potential support for proposed mechanisms for formaldehyde to impact bone marrow. A critical review of the study, as well as a reanalysis of the underlying data, was performed and the results of this reanalysis suggested factors other than formaldehyde exposure may have contributed to the effects reported. In addition, although the authors stated in their paper that "all scorable metaphase spreads on each slide were analyzed, and a minimum of 150 cells per subject was scored," this protocol was not followed. In fact, the protocol to evaluate the presence of monosomy 7 or trisomy 8 was followed for three or less samples in exposed workers and six or less samples in non-exposed workers. In addition, the assays used (CFU-GM) do not actually measure the proposed events in primitive cells involved in the development of acute myeloid leukemia. Evaluation of these data indicates that the aneuploidy measured could not have arisen in vivo, but rather arose during in vitro culture. The results of our critical review and reanalysis of the data, in combination with recent toxicological and mechanistic studies, do not support a mechanism for a causal association between formaldehyde exposure and myeloid or lymphoid malignancies. PMID:23902349

  11. Changes in the peripheral blood transcriptome associated with occupational benzene exposure identified by cross-comparison on two microarray platforms

    E-print Network

    Chen, Jinsong

    Changes in the peripheral blood transcriptome associated with occupational benzene exposure Available online 20 January 2009 Keywords: Benzene exposure Gene expression Human blood Toxicogenomics Benzene is an established cause of leukemia, and possibly lymphoma, in humans, but the underlying

  12. Acute radiodermatitis from occupational exposure to iridium 192

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, J.; Rosen, T. )

    1989-12-01

    Industrial radiography using the man-made radioisotope iridium 192 is commonplace in the southern states. Despite established procedures and safeguards, accidental exposure may result in typical acute radiodermatitis. We have presented a clinical example of this phenomenon.9 references.

  13. 61 FR 56746 - Occupational Exposure to 1,3-Butadiene

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    1996-11-04

    ...sampling cylinders; --Replacement of pumps equipped with single mechanical seals...worker exposures to BD originating from pump leaks could be controlled more cost-effectively...engineering means, such as installation of pumps with dual mechanical seals. (Ex....

  14. Occupational exposures and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma: Canadian case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Karunanayake, Chandima P; McDuffie, Helen H; Dosman, James A; Spinelli, John J; Pahwa, Punam

    2008-01-01

    Background The objective was to study the association between Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma (NHL) and occupational exposures related to long held occupations among males in six provinces of Canada. Methods A population based case-control study was conducted from 1991 to 1994. Males with newly diagnosed NHL (ICD-10) were stratified by province of residence and age group. A total of 513 incident cases and 1506 population based controls were included in the analysis. Conditional logistic regression was conducted to fit statistical models. Results Based on conditional logistic regression modeling, the following factors independently increased the risk of NHL: farmer and machinist as long held occupations; constant exposure to diesel exhaust fumes; constant exposure to ionizing radiation (radium); and personal history of another cancer. Men who had worked for 20 years or more as farmer and machinist were the most likely to develop NHL. Conclusion An increased risk of developing NHL is associated with the following: long held occupations of faer and machinist; exposure to diesel fumes; and exposure to ionizing radiation (radium). The risk of NHL increased with the duration of employment as a farmer or machinist. PMID:18687133

  15. Leukemia and occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields: An incident case-control study

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Boji.

    1993-01-01

    The existence of an association between leukemia and electromagnetic fields (EMF) is still controversial. The results of epidemiologic studies of leukemia in occupational groups with exposure to EMF are inconsistent. Weak associations have been seen in a few studies. EMF assessment is lacking in precision. Reported dose-response relationships have been based on qualitative levels of exposure to EMF without regard to duration of employment or EMF intensity on the jobs. Furthermore, potential confounding factors in the associations were not often well controlled. The current study is an analysis of the data collected from an incident case-control study. The primary objective was to test the hypothesis that occupational exposure to EMF is associated with leukemia, including total leukemia (TL), myelogenous leukemia (MYELOG) and acute non-lymphoid leukemia (ANLL). Potential confounding factors: occupational exposure to benzene, age, smoking, alcohol consumption, and previous medical radiation exposures were controlled in multivariate logistic regression models. Dose-response relationships were estimated by cumulative occupational exposure to EMF, taking into account duration of employment and EMF intensity on the jobs. In order to overcome weaknesses of most previous studies, special efforts were made to improve the precision of EMF assessment. Two definitions of EMF were used and result discrepancies using the two definitions were observed. These difference raised a question as to whether the workers at jobs with low EMf exposure should be considered as non-exposed in future studies. In additions, the current study suggested use of lifetime cumulative EMF exposure estimates to determine dose-response relationship. The analyses of the current study suggest an association between ANLL and employment at selected jobs with high EMF exposure.

  16. Occupational Diesel Exposure, Duration of Employment, and Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Picciotto, Sally; Costello, Sadie; Eisen, Ellen A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: If less healthy workers terminate employment earlier, thus accumulating less exposure, yet remain at greater risk of the health outcome, estimated health effects of cumulative exposure will be biased downward. If exposure also affects termination of employment, then the bias cannot be addressed using conventional methods. We examined these conditions as a prelude to a reanalysis of lung cancer mortality in the Diesel Exhaust in Miners Study. Methods: We applied an accelerated failure time model to assess the effect of exposures to respirable elemental carbon (a surrogate for diesel) on time to termination of employment among nonmetal miners who ever worked underground (n = 8,307). We then applied the parametric g-formula to assess how possible interventions setting respirable elemental carbon exposure limits would have changed lifetime risk of lung cancer, adjusting for time-varying employment status. Results: Median time to termination was 36% shorter (95% confidence interval = 33%, 39%), per interquartile range width increase in respirable elemental carbon exposure. Lung cancer risk decreased with more stringent interventions, with a risk ratio of 0.8 (95% confidence interval = 0.5, 1.1) comparing a limit of ?25 µg/m3 respirable elemental carbon to no intervention. The fraction of cases attributable to diesel exposure was 27% in this population. Conclusions: The g-formula controlled for time-varying confounding by employment status, the signature of healthy worker survivor bias, which was also affected by diesel exposure. It also offers an alternative approach to risk assessment for estimating excess cumulative risk, and the impact of interventions based entirely on an observed population. PMID:26426944

  17. Post exposure prophylaxis following occupational exposure to HIV: a survey of health care workers in Mbeya, Tanzania, 2009-2010

    PubMed Central

    Mponela, Marcelina John; Oleribe, Obinna Ositadimma; Abade, Ahmed; Kwesigabo, Gideon

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Approximately, 1,000 HIV infections are transmitted annually to health care workers (HCWs) worldwide from occupational exposures. Tanzania HCWs experience one to nine needle stick injuries (NSIs) per year, yet the use of post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) is largely undocumented. We assessed factors influencing use of PEP among HCWs following occupational exposure to HIV. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in Mbeya Referral Hospital, Mbozi and Mbarali District Hospitals from December 2009 to January 2010 with a sample size of 360 HCWs. Participants were randomly selected from a list of eligible HCWs in Mbeya hospital and all eligible HCWs were enrolled in the two District Hospitals. Information regarding risk of exposure to body fluids and NSIs were collected using a questionnaire. Logistic regression was done to identify predictors for PEP use using Epi Info 3.5.1 at 95% confidence interval. Results Of 291 HCWs who participated in the study, 35.1% (102/291) were exposed to NSIs and body fluids, with NSIs accounting for 62.9% (64/102). Exposure was highest among medical attendants 38.8% (33/85). Out of exposed HCWs, (22.5% (23/102) used HIV PEP with females more likely to use PEP than males. Reporting of exposures (OR=21.1, CI: 3.85-115.62) and having PEP knowledge (OR =6.5, CI: 1.78-23.99) were significantly associated with using PEP. Conclusion Despite the observed rate of occupational exposure to HCWs in Tanzania, use of PEP is still low. Effective prevention from HIV infection at work places is required through proper training of HCWs on PEP with emphasis on timely reporting of exposures. PMID:26405468

  18. In-depth survey report: Evaluation of a ventilation system to control formaldehyde exposures during embalming at Cincinnati College of Mortuary Science, Cincinnati, Ohio

    SciTech Connect

    Gressel, M.G.

    1990-12-01

    The goal of the study was to develop and evaluate local exhaust ventilation controls which will reduce the embalmer's exposure to formaldehyde (50000). The Cincinnati College of Mortuary Science had three tables set up for conducting embalmings. Two of the tables were in a large room which serves as a laboratory for the students. The third was located in an isolation room and was used primarily for suspected infectious cases. All the embalmings conducted for the study were conducted in the isolation room and all involved noninfectious bodies. The local exhaust ventilation system developed for the mortuary consisted of 6 foot slot hoods on either side of the embalming table. Of the 32 personal samples taken, the formaldehyde concentration of five samples showed a concentration of 1 part per million. The author recommends that a local exhaust ventilation system similar to the design tested here be installed permanently in the isolation room and on the other tables in the main embalming laboratory.

  19. Evidence for unapparent Brucella canis infections among adults with occupational exposure to dogs.

    PubMed

    Krueger, W S; Lucero, N E; Brower, A; Heil, G L; Gray, G C

    2014-11-01

    Human serological assays designed to detect brucellosis will miss infections caused by Brucella canis, and low levels of periodic bacteremia limit diagnosis by blood culture. Recent B. canis outbreaks in dogs and concomitant illnesses in caretakers suggest that unapparent human infections may be occurring. With more than a quarter of a million persons in occupations involving dogs, and nearly 80 million dog owners in the United States, this pathogen is an under-recognized human health threat. To investigate occupational exposure to B. canis, we adapted a commercial canine serological assay and present the first controlled seroepidemiological study of human B. canis infections in recent years. 306 adults with occupational exposure to dogs and 101 non-matched, non-canine-exposed subjects were enrolled. Antibodies were detected using the canine D-Tec(®) CB rapid slide agglutination test (RSAT) kit with a secondary 2-mercaptoethanol (ME)-RSAT. Results were validated on a blinded subset of sera with an additional RSAT and indirect enzyme-linked immunoassay at the National Administration of Laboratories and Health Institutes (ANLIS) in Argentina. Seroprevalence ranged from 10.8% (RSAT) to 3.6% (ME-RSAT) among canine-exposed subjects. Kennel employees were more likely to test RSAT seropositive compared with other canine exposures (OR = 2.7; 95% CI, 1.3-5.8); however, low seroprevalence limited meaningful occupational risk factor analyses. Two seropositive participants reported experiencing symptoms consistent with brucellosis and having exposure to B. canis-infected dogs; however, temporality of symptom onset with reported exposure could not be determined. D-Tec(®) CB results had substantial agreement with ANLIS assays (Cohen's kappa = 0.60-0.68). These data add to a growing body of literature suggesting that people occupationally exposed to dogs may be at risk of unapparent B. canis infection. It seems prudent to consider B. canis as an occupational public health concern and encourage the development of serological assays to detect human B. canis infections. PMID:24751191

  20. Statistical Modeling of Occupational Exposure to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Using OSHA Data.

    PubMed

    Lee, Derrick G; Lavoué, Jérôme; Spinelli, John J; Burstyn, Igor

    2015-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a group of pollutants with multiple variants classified as carcinogenic. The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) provided access to two PAH exposure databanks of United States workplace compliance testing data collected between 1979 and 2010. Mixed-effects logistic models were used to predict the exceedance fraction (EF), i.e., the probability of exceeding OSHA's Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL = 0.2 mg/m3) for PAHs based on industry and occupation. Measurements of coal tar pitch volatiles were used as a surrogate for PAHs. Time, databank, occupation, and industry were included as fixed-effects while an identifier for the compliance inspection number was included as a random effect. Analyses involved 2,509 full-shift personal measurements. Results showed that the majority of industries had an estimated EF < 0.5, although several industries, including Standardized Industry Classification codes 1623 (Water, Sewer, Pipeline, and Communication and Powerline Construction), 1711 (Plumbing, Heating, and Air-Conditioning), 2824 (Manmade Organic Fibres), 3496 (Misc. Fabricated Wire products), and 5812 (Eating Places), and Major group's 13 (Oil and Gas Extraction) and 30 (Rubber and Miscellaneous Plastic Products), were estimated to have more than an 80% likelihood of exceeding the PEL. There was an inverse temporal trend of exceeding the PEL, with lower risk in most recent years, albeit not statistically significant. Similar results were shown when incorporating occupation, but varied depending on the occupation as the majority of industries predicted at the administrative level, e.g., managers, had an estimated EF < 0.5 while at the minimally skilled/laborer level there was a substantial increase in the estimated EF. These statistical models allow the prediction of PAH exposure risk through individual occupational histories and will be used to create a job-exposure matrix for use in a population-based case-control study exploring PAH exposure and breast cancer risk. PMID:26011057

  1. Whole-Body Lifetime Occupational Lead Exposure and Risk of Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Coon, Steven; Stark, Azadeh; Peterson, Edward; Gloi, Aime; Kortsha, Gene; Pounds, Joel; Chettle, David; Gorell, Jay

    2006-01-01

    Background Several epidemiologic studies have suggested an association between Parkinson’s disease (PD) and exposure to heavy metals using subjective exposure measurements. Objectives We investigated the association between objective chronic occupational lead exposure and the risk of PD. Methods We enrolled 121 PD patients and 414 age-, sex-, and race-, frequency-matched controls in a case–control study. As an indicator of chronic Pb exposure, we measured concentrations of tibial and calcaneal bone Pb stores using 109Cadmium excited K-series X-ray fluorescence. As an indicator of recent exposure, we measured blood Pb concentration. We collected occupational data on participants from 18 years of age until the age at enrollment, and an industrial hygienist determined the duration and intensity of environmental Pb exposure. We employed physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling to combine these data, and we estimated whole-body lifetime Pb exposures for each individual. Logistic regression analysis produced estimates of PD risk by quartile of lifetime Pb exposure. Results Risk of PD was elevated by > 2-fold [odds ratio = 2.27 (95% confidence interval, 1.13–4.55); p = 0.021] for individuals in the highest quartile for lifetime lead exposure relative to the lowest quartile, adjusting for age, sex, race, smoking history, and coffee and alcohol consumption. The associated risk of PD for the second and third quartiles were elevated but not statistically significant at the ? = 0.05 level. Conclusions These results provide an objective measure of chronic Pb exposure and confirm our earlier findings that occupational exposure to Pb is a risk factor for PD. PMID:17185278

  2. Occupational and environmental exposures as risk factors for systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Glinda S; Parks, Christine G

    2004-10-01

    Although genetic susceptibility plays a strong role in the etiology of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), recent research has provided new evidence of the potential influence of environmental factors in the risk for this disease. This paper describes epidemiologic and experimental research pertaining to occupational and environmental sources of exposure to respirable crystalline silica, solvents and pesticides, and two "lifestyle" factors (smoking and hair dye use). As has been seen with other systemic autoimmune diseases (eg, systemic sclerosis and rheumatoid arthritis), a series of epidemiologic studies, using different designs in different settings, have demonstrated relatively strong and consistent associations between occupational silica exposure and SLE. The type and quality of exposure assessment is an important consideration in evaluating these studies. Recent experimental studies examined the effect of trichloroethylene exposure in MRL+/+ mice, but to date there have been few epidemiologic studies of solvents and SLE. There are numerous avenues with respect to environmental factors in SLE that need additional research. PMID:15355749

  3. Occupational exposure to magnetic fields and electric shocks and risk of ALS: the Swiss National Cohort.

    PubMed

    Huss, Anke; Spoerri, Adrian; Egger, Matthias; Kromhout, Hans; Vermeulen, Roel

    2015-03-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) has been associated with exposures in so-called 'electrical occupations'. It is unclear if this possible link may be explained by exposure to extremely low-frequency magnetic fields (ELF-MF) or by electrical shocks. We evaluated ALS mortality in 2000-2008 and exposure to ELF-MF and electrical shocks in the Swiss National Cohort, using job exposure matrices for occupations at censuses 1990 and 2000. We compared 2.2 million workers with high or medium vs. low exposure to ELF-MF and electrical shocks using Cox proportional hazard models. Results showed that mortality from ALS was higher in people who had medium or high ELF-MF exposure in both censuses (HR 1.55 (95% CI 1.11-2.15)), but closer to unity for electrical shocks (HR 1.17 (95% CI 0.83-1.65)). When both exposures were included in the same model, the HR for ELF-MF changed little (HR 1.56), but the HR for electric shocks was attenuated to 0.97. In conclusion, there was an association between exposure to ELF-MF and mortality from ALS among workers with a higher likelihood of long-term exposure. PMID:25229273

  4. Occupational exposure to noise in maxillofacial operating theatres: an initial prospective study.

    PubMed

    Tay, Brian Diaz; Prabhu, I S; Cousin, C H S; Cousin, G C S

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to excessive noise could impair surgical performance and communication, and lead to long-term hearing loss, but it is only recently that studies on occupational exposure to noise in operating theatres have been published. The aim of this prospective study was to assess mean and peak levels of noise during maxillofacial operations. We found that both were comparable to those in other surgical specialties such as orthopaedics in which power tools are used. PMID:26597912

  5. Occupational and Environmental Exposures Associated with Testicular Germ Cell Tumours: Systematic Review of Prenatal and Life-Long Exposures

    PubMed Central

    Béranger, Rémi; Le Cornet, Charlotte; Schüz, Joachim; Fervers, Béatrice

    2013-01-01

    Background Testicular germ cell tumours (TGCT) are the most common cancers in men aged between 15 and 44 years and the incidence has increased steeply over the past 30 years. The rapid increase in the incidence, the spatial variation and the evolution of incidence in migrants suggest that environmental risk factors play a role in TGCT aetiology. The purpose of our review is to summarise the current state of knowledge on occupational and environmental factors thought to be associated with TGCT. Methods A systematic literature search of PubMed. All selected articles were quality appraised by two independent researchers using the ‘Newcastle-Ottawa Quality Assessment Scale’. Results After exclusion of duplicate reports, 72 relevant articles were selected; 65 assessed exposure in adulthood, 7 assessed parental exposures and 2 assessed both. Associations with occupation was reported for agricultural workers, construction workers, firemen, policemen, military personnel, as well as workers in paper, plastic or metal industries. Electromagnetic fields, PCBs and pesticides were also suggested. However, results were inconsistent and studies showing positive associations tended to had lower quality ranking using the assessment scale (p=0.02). Discussion Current evidence does not allow concluding on existence of any clear association between TGCT and adulthood occupational or environmental exposure. The limitations of the studies may partly explain the inconsistencies observed. The lack of association with adulthood exposure is in line with current hypotheses supporting the prenatal origin of TGCT. Future research should focus on prenatal or early life exposure, as well as combined effect of prenatal and later life exposure. National and international collaborative studies should allow for more adequately powered epidemiological studies. More sophisticated methods for assessing exposure as well as evaluating gene–environment interactions will be necessary to establish clear conclusion. PMID:24155923

  6. Dermal Exposure Associated with Occupational End Use of Pesticides and the Role of Protective Measures

    PubMed Central

    MacFarlane, Ewan; Carey, Renee; Keegel, Tessa; El-Zaemay, Sonia; Fritschi, Lin

    2013-01-01

    Background Occupational end users of pesticides may experience bodily absorption of the pesticide products they use, risking possible health effects. The purpose of this paper is to provide a guide for researchers, practitioners, and policy makers working in the field of agricultural health or other areas where occupational end use of pesticides and exposure issues are of interest. Methods This paper characterizes the health effects of pesticide exposure, jobs associated with pesticide use, pesticide-related tasks, absorption of pesticides through the skin, and the use of personal protective equipment (PPE) for reducing exposure. Conclusions Although international and national efforts to reduce pesticide exposure through regulatory means should continue, it is difficult in the agricultural sector to implement engineering or system controls. It is clear that use of PPE does reduce dermal pesticide exposure but compliance among the majority of occupationally exposed pesticide end users appears to be poor. More research is needed on higher-order controls to reduce pesticide exposure and to understand the reasons for poor compliance with PPE and identify effective training methods. PMID:24106643

  7. Perceptions of Workplace Heat Exposure and Controls among Occupational Hygienists and Relevant Specialists in Australia

    PubMed Central

    Xiang, Jianjun; Hansen, Alana; Pisaniello, Dino; Bi, Peng

    2015-01-01

    With warmer weather projections, workplace heat exposure is presenting a growing challenge to workers’ health and safety. Occupational hygienists are the specialist group conducting measurements and providing advice on heat stress management to industry. In order to provide insights into hygienists perceptions on workplace heat exposure, current and future preparedness for extreme heat, and barriers to possible heat adaptation strategies, a self-administered questionnaire survey was conducted during a national conference of the Australian Institute of Occupational Hygienists. Nearly 90% of the 180 respondents were at least moderately concerned about extreme heat and 19% were dissatisfied with current heat stress prevention measures. Barriers recognized by the participants were lack of awareness (68%), insufficient training (56%), unsatisfactory management commitment (52%), and low compliance with prevention policies (40%). The findings suggest a need to refine occupational heat management and prevention strategies. PMID:26287608

  8. Monitoring of Occupational Exposure of Mild Steel Welders to Ozone and Nitrogen Oxides

    PubMed Central

    Esmaeilzadeh, Morteza; Mehrabi, Yadollah; Salehpour, Sousan

    2011-01-01

    Background Metal Inert Gas (MIG) welding and Tungsten Inert Gas (TIG) welding are widely used for mild steel segments in basic metal industries. Pulmonary problems such as asthma, pulmonary inflammation, hyper-responsiveness of airways and higher susceptibility to infections are reported as the result of occupational exposure of welders to ozone and nitrogen oxides. Potent oxidizing agents like ozone and nitrogen oxides are also reported to be a precursor for respiratory problems and cause lipid peroxidation of membranes. Materials and Methods A total of 43 nonsmoking MIG and TIG welders and 41 nonsmoking workers without appreciable exposure to any chemicals as the control population were chosen to participate in this study. Occupational exposure to ozone was monitored according to the validated methods. Malondialdehyde (MDA) of blood serum as a biomarker for lipid peroxidation was analyzed using Reverse Phase High Performance Liquid Chromatography. Data obtained from this study were analyzed using t-test, Pearson's correlation coefficient and multiple regression analysis. Results A total of 88.4% and 74.4% of welders had exposure to ozone and nitrogen dioxide higher than the permissible limit of occupational exposure, respectively. Generally, exposure of MIG welders to ozone was significantly higher than TIG welders (P = 0.006). However, exposure to nitrogen dioxide gas was comparable in both groups. Serum MDA of welders was significantly higher than that of the control group (P = 0.001). A significant correlation was detected between ozone exposure and level of serum malondialdehyde. Such correlation was not observed for nitrogen dioxide exposure. Conclusion Considering the high exposure of welders to ozone and nitrogen dioxide, and higher level of serum malondialdehyde in them compared to controls, risk management is recommended for this group of workers. PMID:25191389

  9. 48 CFR 952.223-75 - Preservation of individual occupational radiation exposure records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 923.7003(h), insert the clause in contracts containing 952.223-71, Integration of environment, safety, and health into work planning and execution, or 952.223-72, Radiation protection and nuclear... occupational radiation exposure records. 952.223-75 Section 952.223-75 Federal Acquisition Regulations...

  10. 48 CFR 952.223-75 - Preservation of individual occupational radiation exposure records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 923.7003(h), insert the clause in contracts containing 952.223-71, Integration of environment, safety, and health into work planning and execution, or 952.223-72, Radiation protection and nuclear... occupational radiation exposure records. 952.223-75 Section 952.223-75 Federal Acquisition Regulations...

  11. 48 CFR 952.223-75 - Preservation of individual occupational radiation exposure records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 923.7003(h), insert the clause in contracts containing 952.223-71, Integration of environment, safety, and health into work planning and execution, or 952.223-72, Radiation protection and nuclear... occupational radiation exposure records. 952.223-75 Section 952.223-75 Federal Acquisition Regulations...

  12. 48 CFR 952.223-75 - Preservation of individual occupational radiation exposure records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 923.7003(h), insert the clause in contracts containing 952.223-71, Integration of environment, safety, and health into work planning and execution, or 952.223-72, Radiation protection and nuclear... occupational radiation exposure records. 952.223-75 Section 952.223-75 Federal Acquisition Regulations...

  13. 48 CFR 952.223-75 - Preservation of individual occupational radiation exposure records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... contracts containing 952.223-71, Integration of environment, safety, and health into work planning and... 36 CFR Chapter XII, Subchapter B, “Records Management,” the National Archives and Records... occupational radiation exposure records. 952.223-75 Section 952.223-75 Federal Acquisition Regulations...

  14. The Scientific Basis of Uncertainty Factors Used in Setting Occupational Exposure Limits

    PubMed Central

    Dankovic, DA; Naumann, BD; Maier, A; Dourson, ML; Levy, LS

    2015-01-01

    The uncertainty factor concept is integrated into health risk assessments for all aspects of public health practice, including by most organizations that derive occupational exposure limits. The use of uncertainty factors is predicated on the assumption that a sufficient reduction in exposure from those at the boundary for the onset of adverse effects will yield a safe exposure level for at least the great majority of the exposed population, including vulnerable subgroups. There are differences in the application of the uncertainty factor approach among groups that conduct occupational assessments; however, there are common areas of uncertainty which are considered by all or nearly all occupational exposure limit-setting organizations. Five key uncertainties that are often examined include interspecies variability in response when extrapolating from animal studies to humans, response variability in humans, uncertainty in estimating a no-effect level from a dose where effects were observed, extrapolation from shorter duration studies to a full life-time exposure, and other insufficiencies in the overall health effects database indicating that the most sensitive adverse effect may not have been evaluated. In addition, a modifying factor is used by some organizations to account for other remaining uncertainties – typically related to exposure scenarios or accounting for the interplay among the five areas noted above. Consideration of uncertainties in occupational exposure limit derivation is a systematic process whereby the factors applied are not arbitrary, although they are mathematically imprecise. As the scientific basis for uncertainty factor application has improved, default uncertainty factors are now used only in the absence of chemical-specific data, and the trend is to replace them with chemical-specific adjustment factors whenever possible. The increased application of scientific data in the development of uncertainty factors for individual chemicals also has the benefit of increasing the transparency of occupational exposure limit derivation. Improved characterization of the scientific basis for uncertainty factors has led to increasing rigor and transparency in their application as part of the overall occupational exposure limit derivation process. PMID:26097979

  15. The Scientific Basis of Uncertainty Factors Used in Setting Occupational Exposure Limits.

    PubMed

    Dankovic, D A; Naumann, B D; Maier, A; Dourson, M L; Levy, L S

    2015-11-25

    The uncertainty factor concept is integrated into health risk assessments for all aspects of public health practice, including by most organizations that derive occupational exposure limits. The use of uncertainty factors is predicated on the assumption that a sufficient reduction in exposure from those at the boundary for the onset of adverse effects will yield a safe exposure level for at least the great majority of the exposed population, including vulnerable subgroups. There are differences in the application of the uncertainty factor approach among groups that conduct occupational assessments; however, there are common areas of uncertainty which are considered by all or nearly all occupational exposure limit-setting organizations. Five key uncertainties that are often examined include interspecies variability in response when extrapolating from animal studies to humans, response variability in humans, uncertainty in estimating a no-effect level from a dose where effects were observed, extrapolation from shorter duration studies to a full life-time exposure, and other insufficiencies in the overall health effects database indicating that the most sensitive adverse effect may not have been evaluated. In addition, a modifying factor is used by some organizations to account for other remaining uncertainties-typically related to exposure scenarios or accounting for the interplay among the five areas noted above. Consideration of uncertainties in occupational exposure limit derivation is a systematic process whereby the factors applied are not arbitrary, although they are mathematically imprecise. As the scientific basis for uncertainty factor application has improved, default uncertainty factors are now used only in the absence of chemical-specific data, and the trend is to replace them with chemical-specific adjustment factors whenever possible. The increased application of scientific data in the development of uncertainty factors for individual chemicals also has the benefit of increasing the transparency of occupational exposure limit derivation. Improved characterization of the scientific basis for uncertainty factors has led to increasing rigor and transparency in their application as part of the overall occupational exposure limit derivation process. PMID:26097979

  16. 78 FR 56273 - Occupational Exposure to Respirable Crystalline Silica

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-12

    ... ancillary provisions for employee protection such as preferred methods for controlling exposure, respiratory... comments, identified by Docket No. OSHA-2010-0034, by any of the following methods: Electronically: You may... comments or testimony on the Agency's scientific and technical analyses, OSHA requests that you...

  17. Occupational Exposure to Asbestos; Criteria for a Recommended Standard.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. for Occupational Safety and Health (DHEW/PHS), Rockville, MD.

    Recommended standards for control of exposure to asbestos dust in the workplace are set out from the following standpoints: environmental, medical, labeling, personal protective equipment and clothing, apprisal of employees, work practices, and monitoring and recordkeeping requirements. The goal is maintenance of a low level of concentration to…

  18. Sensory Perception: An Overlooked Target of Occupational Exposure to Metals

    PubMed Central

    Gobba, Fabriziomaria

    2003-01-01

    The effect of exposure to industrial metals on sensory perception of workers has received only modest interest from the medical community to date. Nevertheless, some experimental and epidemiological data exist showing that industrial metals can affect vision, hearing and olfactory function, and a similar effect is also suggested for touch and taste. In this review the main industrial metals involved are discussed. An important limit in available knowledge is that, to date, the number of chemicals studied is relatively small. Another is that the large majority of the studies have evaluated the effect of a single chemical on a single sense. As an example, we know that mercury can impair hearing, smell, taste, touch and also vision, but we have scant idea if, in the same worker, a relation exists between impairments in different senses, or if impairments are independent. Moreover, workers are frequently exposed to different chemicals; a few available results suggest that a co-exposure may have no effect, or result in both an increase and a decrease of the effect, as observed for hearing loss, but this aspect certainly deserves much more study. As a conclusion, exposure to industrial metals can affect sensory perception, but knowledge of this effect is yet incomplete, and is largely inadequate especially for an estimation of “safe” thresholds of exposure. These data support the desirability of further good quality studies in this field. PMID:18365054

  19. [Occupational exposure in cancer of the mouth, pharynx and larynx].

    PubMed

    Oreggia, F; de Stefani, E; Correa, P; Rivero, S; Fernández, G; Leiva, J; Zavala, D

    1989-01-01

    The AA. have scheduled a case-control study in order to assess the ambient hazards factors in these cancers, through the evaluation of its occupational risk. The program cover 242 cases of the epidermoid type of carcinoma (positive biopsy), and the group was parallelled with another group of 322 (after the age) admitted at the same Hospital, but affected with several processes. Were excluded the cancer of the lung, bladder, pancreas and kidney because of the causal link with tobacco smokers. In oral and pharyngeal cancer the AA. found out that the workers of high risk were butchers, blacksmiths, masons, drivers, electricians and railwaymen. Regarding the cancer of the larynx mechanics, plumbers, farmers, textile workers and drivers showed the greatest linkage. These findings are in accordance with those published in previous papers. PMID:2774110

  20. Maternal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls and the secondary sex ratio: an occupational cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Though commercial production of polychlorinated biphenyls was banned in the United States in 1977, exposure continues due to their environmental persistence. Several studies have examined the association between environmental polychlorinated biphenyl exposure and modulations of the secondary sex ratio, with conflicting results. Objective Our objective was to evaluate the association between maternal preconceptional occupational polychlorinated biphenyl exposure and the secondary sex ratio. Methods We examined primipara singleton births of 2595 women, who worked in three capacitor plants at least one year during the period polychlorinated biphenyls were used. Cumulative estimated maternal occupational polychlorinated biphenyl exposure at the time of the infant's conception was calculated from plant-specific job-exposure matrices. A logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the association between maternal polychlorinated biphenyl exposure and male sex at birth (yes/no). Results Maternal body mass index at age 20, smoking status, and race did not vary between those occupationally exposed and those unexposed before the child's conception. Polychlorinated biphenyl-exposed mothers were, however, more likely to have used oral contraceptives and to have been older at the birth of their first child than non-occupationally exposed women. Among 1506 infants liveborn to polychlorinated biphenyl-exposed primiparous women, 49.8% were male; compared to 49.9% among those not exposed (n = 1089). Multivariate analyses controlling for mother's age and year of birth found no significant association between the odds of a male birth and mother's cumulative estimated polychlorinated biphenyl exposure to time of conception. Conclusions Based on these data, we find no evidence of altered sex ratio among children born to primiparous polychlorinated biphenyl-exposed female workers. PMID:21418576

  1. Inhalable dust measurements as a first approach to assessing occupational exposure in the pharmaceutical industry.

    PubMed

    Champmartin, C; Clerc, F

    2014-01-01

    Occupational exposure to active ingredients in the pharmaceutical industry has been the subject of very few published studies. Nevertheless, operations involving active powdered drugs or dusty operations potentially lead to operator exposure. The aim of this study was to collect occupational exposure data in the pharmaceutical industry for production processes involving powdered active ingredients. While the possibility of assessing drug exposure from dust level is examined, this article focuses on inhalable dust exposure, without taking chemical risk into account. A total of 377 atmospheric (ambient and personal) samples were collected in nine drug production sites (pharmaceutical companies and contract manufacturing organizations) and the dust levels were assessed. For each sample, relevant contextual information was collected. A wide range of results was observed, both site- and operation-dependent. Exposure to inhalable dust levels varied from 0.01 mg/m(3)to 135 mg/m(3). Though restricted to dust exposure, the study highlighted some potentially critical situations or operations, in particular manual tasks (loading, unloading, mechanical actions) performed in open systems. Simple preventive measures such as ventilation, containment, and minimization of manual handling should reduce dust emissions and workers' exposure to inhalable dust. PMID:24369930

  2. Setting Occupational Exposure Limits for Chemical Allergens—Understanding the Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Dotson, G. S.; Maier, A.; Siegel, P. D.; Anderson, S. E.; Green, B. J.; Stefaniak, A. B.; Codispoti, C. D.; Kimber, I.

    2015-01-01

    Chemical allergens represent a significant health burden in the workplace. Exposures to such chemicals can cause the onset of a diverse group of adverse health effects triggered by immune-mediated responses. Common responses associated with workplace exposures to low molecular weight (LMW) chemical allergens range from allergic contact dermatitis to life-threatening cases of asthma. Establishing occupational exposure limits (OELs) for chemical allergens presents numerous difficulties for occupational hygiene professionals. Few OELs have been developed for LMW allergens because of the unique biological mechanisms that govern the immune-mediated responses. The purpose of this article is to explore the primary challenges confronting the establishment of OELs for LMW allergens. Specific topics include: (1) understanding the biology of LMW chemical allergies as it applies to setting OELs; (2) selecting the appropriate immune-mediated response (i.e., sensitization versus elicitation); (3) characterizing the dose (concentration)-response relationship of immune-mediated responses; (4) determining the impact of temporal exposure patterns (i.e., cumulative versus acute exposures); and (5) understanding the role of individual susceptibility and exposure route. Additional information is presented on the importance of using alternative exposure recommendations and risk management practices, including medical surveillance, to aid in protecting workers from exposures to LMW allergens when OELs cannot be established. PMID:26583909

  3. Setting Occupational Exposure Limits for Chemical Allergens-Understanding the Challenges.

    PubMed

    Dotson, G S; Maier, A; Siegel, P D; Anderson, S E; Green, B J; Stefaniak, A B; Codispoti, C D; Kimber, I

    2015-01-01

    Chemical allergens represent a significant health burden in the workplace. Exposures to such chemicals can cause the onset of a diverse group of adverse health effects triggered by immune-mediated responses. Common responses associated with workplace exposures to low molecular weight (LMW) chemical allergens range from allergic contact dermatitis to life-threatening cases of asthma. Establishing occupational exposure limits (OELs) for chemical allergens presents numerous difficulties for occupational hygiene professionals. Few OELs have been developed for LMW allergens because of the unique biological mechanisms that govern the immune-mediated responses. The purpose of this article is to explore the primary challenges confronting the establishment of OELs for LMW allergens. Specific topics include: (1) understanding the biology of LMW chemical allergies as it applies to setting OELs; (2) selecting the appropriate immune-mediated response (i.e., sensitization versus elicitation); (3) characterizing the dose (concentration)-response relationship of immune-mediated responses; (4) determining the impact of temporal exposure patterns (i.e., cumulative versus acute exposures); and (5) understanding the role of individual susceptibility and exposure route. Additional information is presented on the importance of using alternative exposure recommendations and risk management practices, including medical surveillance, to aid in protecting workers from exposures to LMW allergens when OELs cannot be established. PMID:26583909

  4. Occupational lead exposure in Finland. VI. Final report.

    PubMed

    Tola, S; Hernberg, S; Vesanto, R

    1976-06-01

    Between 1970 and 1973, 2,209 workers representing 30 different types of work were studied in Finland for lead exposure. The indicator of lead exposure was the blood lead concentrations (Pb-B) of the workers. The highest recommended value for Pb-B in Finland, 70 mug/100 ml of blood, was exceeded in the following types of work: PVC plastic manufacturing, storage tank manufacturing and repairing, machine shop work, treating metal surfaces, paint manufacturing, car radiator repairing, spray painting, machine shop work (railway), and storage battery repair. The types of work with the highest average exposure were lead scrap smelting (Pb-B median 79 mug/100 ml, range 35--118), storage battery manufacturing (Pb-B median 66 mug/100 ml, range 19--101), metal founding, (Pb-B median 53 mug/100 ml, range 6--108) shipbreaking (Pb-B median 49 mug/100 ml, range 26--106) crystal glass manufacturing (Pb-B median 41 mug/100 ml, range 12--82), car radiator repairing (Pb-B median 38 mug/100 ml, range 17--83), and PVC plastic manufacturing (Pb-B median 37 mug/100 ml, range 10--126). During the past 5 years cases of clincial lead poisoning have occurred in all of these types of work, and the patients received workmen's compensation. The usefulness of the national poisoning register in predicting the relative hazard of lead exposure in the types of work studied was evaluated with the aid of rank order correlation statistics. The analysis showed that the poisoning register is a useful indicator of lead exposure in the most exposed types of work. However, the present survey also revealed work in which the hazard had escaped recognition in this country: metal founding, car repairing, and car radiator repairing, for example. Although it seems possible to predict the most heavily exposed work types from national poisoning registers only, the detection of workers with less severe manifestations of toxic effects, or somtimes even poisoning, in other types of work first requires a systematic survey of all types of work with possible lead exposure, and then regular monitoring of all exposed workers. PMID:959791

  5. Occupational and environmental exposures and lung cancer in an industrialised area in Italy

    PubMed Central

    Fano, V; Michelozzi, P; Ancona, C; Capon, A; Forastiere, F; Perucci, C

    2004-01-01

    Aims: To investigate the effects of occupational exposures and residence near to industrial sites on lung cancer mortality in an area in Italy. Methods: 234 cases of lung cancer and 729 controls matched by sex, age, and date of death were enrolled. Environmental exposure was evaluated using historical residence data. A geographical information system was used to compute distances from residence to pollution source (cement factory, power plants, harbour) and an average distance was computed for each subject. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) in a logistic regression model were used to estimate the relative risk of lung cancer associated with the risk factors (smoking habits and occupational exposure) collected by questionnaire; ORs for distances from pollution sources and from city centre were computed, adjusting for smoking habits, education, and occupation. Results: Smoking habits (?10 cigarettes/day, OR = 2.28; 11–20, OR = 4.64; >20, OR = 6.61) and occupational exposure to asbestos (OR = 3.50) were significantly associated with lung cancer risk. Reported traffic level of area of residence and residence near the four sources were not associated with increased risk of lung cancer. There was a significantly increased risk for those residing outside the city centre, in the southern outskirts (OR = 1.51). Conclusions: The increased lung cancer risk observed in the area can partly be explained by occupational exposures. The increased risk in the outskirts of the city is consistent with the results of dispersion models that indicate high levels of pollutant deposition in the same area. PMID:15317916

  6. Chemical markers of occupational exposure to teak wood dust.

    PubMed

    Carrieri, Mariella; Bartolucci, Giovanni Battista; Lee, Taekhee; Barbero, Ana; Harper, Martin

    2014-06-01

    A novel high-performance liquid chromatographic/ultraviolet method was developed to detect lapachol (LP) and deoxylapachol (DLP) in wood dust as chemical markers of teak wood (a suspected human carcinogen). The specificity of this analysis was determined by noting the absence of LP and DLP in 12 other specimens of different woods belonging to the angiosperm family. The consistency was examined by analyzing teak from three different sources, where the percentages (wt/wt) of the chemicals ranged from 0.006 to 0.261 for LP and from 0.038 to 0.497 for DLP, respectively. Although the LP and DLP components of teak varied according to source, a very high correlation coefficient (r (2) > 0.98 always) was found between the content of the two markers in the bulk specimens and in bulk dust derived from them. The method was then applied to teak dust collected on polyvinylchloride filters from aerosol in an exposure chamber in the range of mass loadings between 0.03 and 3.65 mg, which corresponds to a dust exposure between 0.124 and 8.703 mg m(-3) for a sampling time of 2h. A field test was also carried out in a small factory where teak was used. A good correlation was confirmed between LP and DLP versus the dust collected on the filter in both cases. LP and DLP can be markers to estimate the true quantities of teak dust inhaled in a workplace with mixed wood dust, provided the results are matched to the content of LP and DLP in the bulk wood. LP and DLP have also been proposed as the agents responsible for allergic reaction to teak dust. Therefore, it would be useful to evaluate the exposure to these two substances even without a relationship to teak dust exposure. PMID:24671613

  7. Chemical Markers of Occupational Exposure to Teak Wood Dust

    PubMed Central

    Carrieri, Mariella; Bartolucci, Giovanni Battista; Lee, Taekhee; Barbero, Ana; Harper, Martin

    2014-01-01

    A novel high-performance liquid chromatographic/ultraviolet method was developed to detect lapachol (LP) and deoxylapachol (DLP) in wood dust as chemical markers of teak wood (a suspected human carcinogen). The specificity of this analysis was determined by noting the absence of LP and DLP in 12 other specimens of different woods belonging to the angiosperm family. The consistency was examined by analyzing teak from three different sources, where the percentages (wt/wt) of the chemicals ranged from 0.006 to 0.261 for LP and from 0.038 to 0.497 for DLP, respectively. Although the LP and DLP components of teak varied according to source, a very high correlation coefficient (r 2 > 0.98 always) was found between the content of the two markers in the bulk specimens and in bulk dust derived from them. The method was then applied to teak dust collected on polyvinylchloride filters from aerosol in an exposure chamber in the range of mass loadings between 0.03 and 3.65mg, which corresponds to a dust exposure between 0.124 and 8.703mg m?3 for a sampling time of 2h. A field test was also carried out in a small factory where teak was used. A good correlation was confirmed between LP and DLP versus the dust collected on the filter in both cases. LP and DLP can be markers to estimate the true quantities of teak dust inhaled in a workplace with mixed wood dust, provided the results are matched to the content of LP and DLP in the bulk wood. LP and DLP have also been proposed as the agents responsible for allergic reaction to teak dust. Therefore, it would be useful to evaluate the exposure to these two substances even without a relationship to teak dust exposure. PMID:24671613

  8. Occupational exposure to particulate air pollution and mortality due to ischaemic heart disease and cerebrovascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Torén, Kjell; Bergdahl, Ingvar A; Nilsson, Tohr; Järvholm, Bengt

    2007-01-01

    Objectives A growing number of epidemiological studies are showing that ambient exposure to particulate matter air pollution is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease; however, whether occupational exposure increases this risk is not clear. The aim of the present study was to examine whether occupational exposure to particulate air pollution increases the risk for ischaemic heart disease and cerebrovascular disease. Methods The study population was a cohort of 176?309 occupationally exposed Swedish male construction workers and 71?778 unexposed male construction workers. The definition of exposure to inorganic dust (asbestos, man?made mineral fibres, dust from cement, concrete and quartz), wood dust, fumes (metal fumes, asphalt fumes and diesel exhaust) and gases and irritants (organic solvents and reactive chemicals) was based on a job?exposure matrix with focus on exposure in the mid?1970s. The cohort was followed from 1971 to 2002 with regard to mortality to ischaemic heart disease and cerebrovascular disease. Relative risks (RR) were obtained by the person?years method and from Poisson regression models adjusting for baseline values of blood pressure, body mass index, age and smoking habits. Results Any occupational particulate air pollution was associated with an increased risk for ischemic heart disease (RR 1.13, 95% CI 1.07 to 1.19), but there was no increased risk for cerebrovascular disease (RR 0.97, 95% CI 0.88 to 1.07). There was an increased risk for ischaemic heart disease and exposure to inorganic dust (RR 1.07, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.12) and exposure to fumes (RR 1.05, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.10), especially diesel exhaust (RR 1.18, 95% CI 1.13 to 1.24). There was no significantly increased risk for cerebrovascular disease and exposure to inorganic dust, fumes or wood dust. Conclusions Occupational exposure to particulate air pollution, especially diesel exhaust, among construction workers increases the risk for ischaemic heart disease. PMID:17303673

  9. Occupational exposure to dust in quartz manufacturing industry.

    PubMed

    Fulekar, M H

    1999-05-01

    Owing to the abundance of a sedimentary rock, 65 small-scale quartz manufacturing enterprises, employing 650 workers, have been established in the region studied. Quartz powder manufacturing involves various processes and operations, such as manual handling of quartz stones, crushing, grinding, sieving, screening, mixing, storing and bagging. Results demonstrate that each of these operations generates high concentrations of airborne 'total' dust and respirable dust, which contain a very high percentage (> 75%) free silica. The estimated average exposure to airborne 'total' dust was 22.5 mg m-3 (Permissible Limit of Exposure 1.08 mg m-3), and respirable dust 2.93 mg m-3 (PLE 0.36 mg m-3). This shows that 'total' dust exposure was 7.7 times higher than respirable dust. Since the present work systems and practices may pose a serious health risk to the workers, public and the environment, suitable preventive and control measures have been suggested for improvement in the workplace. PMID:10432870

  10. Occupational exposure to chrome VI compounds in French companies: results of a national campaign to measure exposure (2010-2013).

    PubMed

    Vincent, Raymond; Gillet, Martine; Goutet, Pierre; Guichard, Christine; Hédouin-Langlet, Catherine; Frocaut, Anne Marie; Lambert, Pierre; Leray, Fabrice; Mardelle, Patricia; Dorotte, Michel; Rousset, Davy

    2015-01-01

    A campaign to measure exposure to hexavalent chromium compounds was carried out in France by the seven CARSAT chemistry laboratories, CRAMIF laboratory, and INRS over the 2010-2013 period. The survey included 99 companies involved in various activity sectors. The inhalable fraction of airborne particles was sampled, and exposure levels were determined using ion chromatography analysis combined with post-column derivatization and UV detection. The quality of the measurement results was guaranteed by an inter-laboratory comparison system involving all the laboratories participating in this study. Exposure levels frequently exceeded the French occupational exposure limit value (OELV) of 1 µg m(-3), in activities such as thermal metallization and manufacturing and application of paint in the aeronautics sector. The results also reveal a general trend for a greater proportion of soluble Chromium VI (Cr VI) compounds compared with insoluble compounds. Qualitative and quantitative information relating to the presence of other metallic compounds in the air of workplaces is also provided, for example for Cr III, Ni, Fe, etc. The sampling strategy used and the measurement method are easy to implement, making it possible to check occupational exposure with a view to comparing it to an 8 h-OELV of 1 µg m(-3). PMID:25381441

  11. Sinonasal Cancer and Occupational Exposure in a Population-Based Registry

    PubMed Central

    Mensi, Carolina; Sieno, Claudia; Riboldi, Luciano; Bertazzi, Pier Alberto

    2013-01-01

    We examined occupational exposures among subjects with sinonasal cancer (SNC) recorded in a population-based registry in the Lombardy Region, the most populated and industrialized Italian region. The registry collects complete clinical information and exposure to carcinogens regarding all SNC cases occurring in the population of the region. In the period 2008–2011, we recorded 210 SNC cases (137 men, 73 women). The most frequent occupational exposures were to wood (44 cases, 21.0%) and leather dust (29 cases, 13.8%), especially among men: 39 cases (28.5%) to wood and 23 cases (16.8%) to leather dust. Exposure to other agents was infrequent (<2%). Among 62 subjects with adenocarcinoma, 50% had been exposed to wood dust and 30.7% to leather dust. The proportions were around 10% in subjects with squamous cell carcinoma and about 20% for tumors with another histology. The age-standardized rates (×100,000 person-years) were 0.7 in men and 0.3 in women. Complete collection of cases and their occupational history through a specialized cancer registry is fundamental to accurately monitor SNC occurrence in a population and to uncover exposure to carcinogens in different industrial sectors, even those not considered as posing a high risk of SNC, and also in extraoccupational settings. PMID:24082884

  12. Environmental and occupational exposure to chemicals and telomere length in human studies.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao; Lin, Shao; Funk, William E; Hou, Lifang

    2013-10-01

    Telomeres are complexes of tandem repeats of DNA (5'-TTAGGG-3') and protein that cap eukaryotic chromosomes and play a critical role in chromosome stability. Telomeres shorten with aging and this process can be accelerated by increased oxidative stress and episodes of inflammation. Evidence is rapidly growing that telomere length (TL) may be affected by environmental chemicals that have frequently been associated with chronic diseases. In this article, we review the published data on TL in relation to environmental and occupational exposure to several chemicals based on our own and others' studies. The environmental and occupational exposures associated with shorter TL include traffic-related air pollution (ie, particulate matter (PM), black carbon (BC), and benzene and toluene), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), N-nitrosamines, pesticides, lead, exposure in car mechanical workshops, and hazardous waste exposure. Arsenic, persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and short-term exposure to PM are associated with longer TL. We discuss the possible reasons for the differences in results, including time- and dose-related issues, study design, and possible mechanisms involved in telomere regulation. We also discuss the future directions and challenges for TL-related environmental and occupational health research, such as investigation of TL in subpopulations of blood leukocytes, and the study of genetic and epigenetic factors that may regulate telomere integrity using longitudinal designs. PMID:23775864

  13. Environmental and occupational exposure to chemicals and telomere length in human studies.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao; Lin, Shao; Funk, William E; Hou, Lifang

    2013-12-01

    Telomeres are complexes of tandem repeats of DNA (5'-TTAGGG-3') and protein that cap eukaryotic chromosomes and play a critical role in chromosome stability. Telomeres shorten with aging and this process can be accelerated by increased oxidative stress and episodes of inflammation. Evidence is rapidly growing that telomere length (TL) may be affected by environmental chemicals that have frequently been associated with chronic diseases. In this article, we review the published data on TL in relation to environmental and occupational exposure to several chemicals based on our own and others' studies. The environmental and occupational exposures associated with shorter TL include traffic-related air pollution (ie, particulate matter (PM), black carbon (BC), and benzene and toluene), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), N-nitrosamines, pesticides, lead, exposure in car mechanical workshops, and hazardous waste exposure. Arsenic, persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and short-term exposure to PM are associated with longer TL. We discuss the possible reasons for the differences in results, including time- and dose-related issues, study design, and possible mechanisms involved in telomere regulation. We also discuss the future directions and challenges for TL-related environmental and occupational health research, such as investigation of TL in subpopulations of blood leukocytes, and the study of genetic and epigenetic factors that may regulate telomere integrity using longitudinal designs. PMID:24243983

  14. The electromagnetic environment of Magnetic Resonance Imaging systems. Occupational exposure assessment reveals RF harmonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gourzoulidis, G.; Karabetsos, E.; Skamnakis, N.; Kappas, C.; Theodorou, K.; Tsougos, I.; Maris, T. G.

    2015-09-01

    Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) systems played a crucial role in the postponement of the former occupational electromagnetic fields (EMF) European Directive (2004/40/EC) and in the formation of the latest exposure limits adopted in the new one (2013/35/EU). Moreover, the complex MRI environment will be finally excluded from the implementation of the new occupational limits, leading to an increased demand for Occupational Health and Safety (OHS) surveillance. The gradient function of MRI systems and the application of the RF excitation frequency result in low and high frequency exposures, respectively. This electromagnetic field exposure, in combination with the increased static magnetic field exposure, makes the MRI environment a unique case of combined EMF exposure. The electromagnetic field levels in close proximity of different MRI systems have been assessed at various frequencies. Quality Assurance (QA) & safety issues were also faced. Preliminary results show initial compliance with the forthcoming limits in each different frequency band, but also revealed peculiar RF harmonic components, of no safety concern, to the whole range detected (20-1000MHz). Further work is needed in order to clarify their origin and characteristics.

  15. Excessive occupational heat exposure: a significant ergonomic challenge and health risk for current and future workers

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Occupational heat exposure threatens the health of a worker not only when heat illness occurs but also when a worker’s performance and work capacity is impaired. Occupational contexts that involve hot and humid climatic conditions, heavy physical workloads and/or protective clothing create a strenuous and potentially dangerous thermal load for a worker. There are recognized heat prevention strategies and international thermal ergonomic standards to protect the worker. However, such standards have been developed largely in temperate western settings, and their validity and relevance is questionable for some geographical, cultural and socioeconomic contexts where the risk of excessive heat exposure can be high. There is evidence from low- and middle-income tropical countries that excessive heat exposure remains a significant issue for occupational health. Workers in these countries are likely to be at high risk of excessive heat exposure as they are densely populated, have large informal work sectors and are expected to experience substantial increases in temperature due to global climate change. The aim of this paper is to discuss current and future ergonomic risks associated with working in the heat as well as potential methods for maintaining the health and productivity of workers, particularly those most vulnerable to excessive heat exposure. PMID:25057350

  16. The association between occupational exposures and cigarette smoking among operating engineers

    PubMed Central

    Hong, OiSaeng; Duffy, Sonia A.; Choi, Seung Hee; Chin, Dal Lae

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between occupational exposures and cigarette smoking among operating engineers. A cross-sectional survey was conducted with operating engineers (N=412) from a mid-western state in the United States. The survey included validated questions on cigarette smoking, occupational exposures, demographics, comorbidities, and health behaviors. About 35% were current smokers. Those exposed to asphalt fumes, heat stress, concrete dust, and welding fumes were less likely to smoke (OR=.79; 95CI: .64–.98). Other factors associated with smoking included younger age (OR=.97; 95CI:.94–.99), problem drinking (OR=1.07; 95CI:1.03–1.12), lower Body Mass Index (OR=.95; 95CI:.90–.99), and being separated/ widowed/ divorced (OR=2.24; 95CI:1.19–4.20). Further investigation is needed for better understanding about job specific exposure patterns and their impact on cigarette smoking among operating engineers. PMID:24325748

  17. Wet-work Exposure: A Main Risk Factor for Occupational Hand Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Behroozy, Ali; Keegel, Tessa G.

    2014-01-01

    Wet-work can be defined as activities where workers have to immerse their hands in liquids for >2 hours per shift, or wear waterproof (occlusive) gloves for a corresponding amount of time, or wash their hands >20 times per shift. This review considers the recent literature on wet-work exposure, and examines wet-work as a main risk factor for developing irritant contact dermatitis of the hands. The aim of this paper is to provide a detailed description of wet-work exposure among specific occupational groups who extensively deal with water and other liquids in their occupations. Furthermore, it highlights the extent and importance of the subsequent adverse health effects caused by exposure to wet-work. PMID:25516808

  18. Concordance of occupational and environmental exposure information elicited from patients with Alzheimer's disease and surrogate respondents

    SciTech Connect

    Chong, J.P.; Turpie, I.; Haines, T.; Muir, G.; Farnworth, H.; Cruttenden, K.; Julian, J.; Verma, D.; Hillers, T.

    1989-01-01

    Identification of risk factors for Alzheimer's disease through the use of well designed case-control studies has been described as a research priority. Increasing recognition of the neurotoxic potential of many industrial chemicals such as organic solvents raises the question of the occupational and environmental contribution to the etiology of this high-priority health problem. The intention of this study was to develop and evaluate a methodology that could be used in a large scale case-control study of the occupational and environmental risk factors for dementia or a population-based surveillance system for neurotoxic disorders. The specific objectives of this study were to investigate: (1) the reliability of exposure-eliciting, interviewer-administered questionnaires given to patients with Alzheimer's disease (SDAT); (2) the reliability of exposure-eliciting interviewer-administered questionnaires given to the family of patients with SDAT and the agreement with the responses of the patient or surrogate respondents; (3) the reliability and agreement of responses of age- and sex-matched control patients and their families selected from geriatric care institutions and the community, with respect to the same exposure-eliciting and interviewer-administered questionnaire; and (4) the reliability of agent-based exposure ascertainment by a single, trained rater. The results of the study demonstrate that occupational and environmental histories from which exposure information can be derived is most reliably elicited from job descriptions of cases and control subjects rather than job titles alone or detailed probes for potential neurotoxic exposures. This will necessitate the use of standardized interviewer-administered instruments to derive this information in case-control studies of Alzheimer's disease or population-based surveillance systems for occupational and environmental neurotoxicity.

  19. MATERNAL OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE TO POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS AND RISK OF ORAL CLEFT-AFFECTED PREGNANCIES

    PubMed Central

    Langlois, Peter H; Hoyt, Adrienne T; Lupo, Philip J; Lawson, Christina C; Waters, Martha A; Desrosiers, Tania A; Shaw, Gary M; Romitti, Paul A; Lammer, Edward J

    2014-01-01

    Objective Evaluate whether there is an association between maternal occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and oral cleftsin offspring. This is the first human study of PAHs and clefts of which the authors are aware. Design Case-control study. Setting, Participants Data for 1997–2002 from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study, a large population-based case-control study in the US, were analyzed. Maternal telephone interviews yielded information on jobs held in the month before through three months after conception. Two industrial hygienists independently assessed occupational exposure to PAHs ; all jobs rated as exposed or with rating difficulty were reviewed with a third industrial hygienist to reach consensus on all exposure parameters. Logistic regression estimated crude and adjusted odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CL±P) and cleft palate alone (CP). Results There were 2989 controls( 3.5% exposed), 805 cases of CL±P (5.8% exposed) and 439 cases of CP (4.6% exposed). The odds of maternal occupational exposure to PAH (any vs none) during pregnancy was increased for CL±P cases as compared with controls (OR 1.69, 95% CI 1.18–2.40); the OR was 1.47 (95% CI 1.02–2.12) adjusted for maternal education. There was a statistically significant adjusted exposure-response relationship for CL±P (ptrend = 0.02). ORs for CP were not statistically significant. Conclusions Maternal occupational exposure to PAHs was associated with increased risk of cleft lip with or without cleft palate in offspring. PMID:23136939

  20. Surveillance of nasal and bladder cancer to locate sources of exposure to occupational carcinogens.

    PubMed Central

    Teschke, K; Morgan, M S; Checkoway, H; Franklin, G; Spinelli, J J; van Belle, G; Weiss, N S

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To locate sources of occupational exposure to nasal and bladder carcinogens for surveillance follow up in British Columbia, Canada. METHODS: Incident cases of nasal cancer (n = 48), bladder cancer (n = 105), and population based controls (n = 159) matched for sex and age, were interviewed about their jobs, exposures, and smoking histories. Odds ratios (ORs) were calculated for 57 occupational groups with stratified exact methods to control for age, sex, and smoking. RESULTS: Occupational groups at increased risk of nasal cancer included: textile workers (six cases, OR 7.6); miners, drillers, and blasters (six cases, OR 3.5); welders (two cases, OR 3.5); pulp and paper workers (three cases, OR 3.1); and plumbers and pipefitters (two cases, OR 3.0). Nasal cancer ORs were not increased in occupations exposed to wood dust, possibly due to low exposures in local wood industries. Strongly increased risks of bladder cancer were found for sheet metal workers (four cases, OR 5.3), miners (19 cases, OR 4.5), gardeners (six cases, OR 3.7), and hairdressers (three cases, OR 3.2). Among occupations originally considered at risk, the following had increased risks of bladder cancer: painters (four cases, OR 2.8); laundry workers (five cases, OR 2.3); chemical and petroleum workers (15 cases, OR 1.8); machinists (eight cases, OR 1.6); and textile workers (three cases, OR 1.5). CONCLUSIONS: Occupational groups with increased risks and three or more cases with similar duties were selected for surveillance follow up. For nasal cancer, these included textile workers (five were garment makers) and pulp and paper workers (three performed maintenance tasks likely to entail stainless steel welding). For bladder cancer, these included miners (12 worked underground), machinists (five worked in traditional machining), hairdressers (three had applied hair dyes), and laundry workers (three were drycleaners). PMID:9245952

  1. Severe Cognitive Dysfunction and Occupational Extremely Low Frequency Magnetic Field Exposure among Elderly Mexican Americans

    PubMed Central

    Davanipour, Zoreh; Tseng, Chiu-Chen; Lee, Pey-Jiuan; Markides, Kyriakos S.; Sobel, Eugene

    2014-01-01

    Aims This report is the first study of the possible relationship between extremely low frequency (50–60 Hz, ELF) magnetic field (MF) exposure and severe cognitive dysfunction. Earlier studies investigated the relationships between MF occupational exposure and Alzheimer’s disease (AD) or dementia. These studies had mixed results, depending upon whether the diagnosis of AD or dementia was performed by experts and upon the methodology used to classify MF exposure. Study Design Population-based case-control. Place and Duration of Study Neurology and Preventive Medicine, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, 2 years. Methodology The study population consisted of 3050 Mexican Americans, aged 65+, enrolled in Phase 1 of the Hispanic Established Population for the Epidemiologic Study of the Elderly (H-EPESE) study. Mini-Mental State Exam (MMSE) results, primary occupational history, and other data were collected. Severe cognitive dysfunction was defined as an MMSE score below 10. The MF exposure methodology developed and used in earlier studies was used. Results Univariate odds ratios (OR) were 3.4 (P< .03; 95% CI: 1.3–8.9) for high and 1.7 (P=.27; 95% CI: 0.7–4.1) for medium or high (M/H) MF occupations. In multivariate main effects models, the results were similar. When interaction terms were allowed in the models, the interactions between M/H or high occupational MF exposure and smoking history or age group were statistically significant, depending upon whether two (65–74, 75+) or three (65–74, 75–84, 85+) age groups were considered, respectively. When the analyses were limited to subjects aged 75+, the interactions between M/H or high MF occupations and a positive smoking history were statistically significant. Conclusion The results of this study indicate that working in an occupation with high or M/H MF exposure may increase the risk of severe cognitive dysfunction. Smoking and older age may increase the deleterious effect of MF exposure. PMID:24839595

  2. Occupational radon exposure and lung cancer mortality: estimating intervention effects using the parametric G formula

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Jessie K.; McGrath, Leah J.; Buckley, Jessie P.; Schubauer-Berigan, Mary K.; Cole, Stephen R.; Richardson, David B.

    2015-01-01

    Background Traditional regression analysis techniques used to estimate associations between occupational radon exposure and lung cancer focus on estimating the effect of cumulative radon exposure on lung cancer, while public health interventions are typically based on regulating radon concentration rather than workers’ cumulative exposure. Moreover, estimating the direct effect of cumulative occupational exposure on lung cancer may be difficult in situations vulnerable to the healthy worker survivor bias. Methods Workers in the Colorado Plateau Uranium Miners cohort (N=4,134) entered the study between 1950 and 1964 and were followed for lung cancer mortality through 2005. We use the parametric g-formula to compare the observed lung cancer mortality to the potential lung cancer mortality had each of 3 policies to limit monthly radon exposure been in place throughout follow-up. Results There were 617 lung cancer deaths over 135,275 person-years of follow-up. With no intervention on radon exposure, estimated lung cancer mortality by age 90 was 16%. Lung cancer mortality was reduced for all interventions considered, and larger reductions in lung cancer mortality were seen for interventions with lower monthly radon exposure limits. The most stringent guideline, the Mine Safety and Health Administration standard of 0.33 working level months, reduced lung cancer mortality from 16% to 10% (risk ratio 0.67; 95% confidence interval 0.61, 0.73). Conclusions This work illustrates the utility of the parametric g-formula for estimating the effects of policies regarding occupational exposures, particularly in situations vulnerable to the healthy worker survivor bias. PMID:25192403

  3. Occupational EMF exposure from radar at X and Ku frequency band and plasma catecholamine levels.

    PubMed

    Singh, Sarika; Kapoor, Neeru

    2015-09-01

    Workers in certain occupations such as the military may be exposed to technical radiofrequency radiation exposure above current limits, which may pose a health risk. The present investigation intended to find the effect of chronic electromagnetic field (EMF) exposure from radar on plasma catecholamines in the military workforce. In the study, 166 male personnel selected randomly were categorized into three groups: control (n?=?68), exposure group-I (X-band, 8-12?GHz, n?=?40), and exposure group-II (Ku-band, 12.5-18?GHz, n?=?58). The three clusters were further divided into two groups according to their years of service (YOS) (up to 9 years and ?10 years) to study the effect of years of radar exposure. Enzyme immunoassay was employed to assess catecholamine concentrations. EMF levels were recorded at different occupational distances from radar. Significant adrenaline diminution was registered in exposure group-II with no significant difference in exposure group-I when both groups were weighed against control. Nor-adrenaline and dopamine levels did not vary significantly in both exposure groups when compared to controls. Exposure in terms of YOS also did not yield any significant alteration in any of the catecholamines and in any of the exposure groups when compared with their respective control groups. The shift from baseline catecholamine values due to stress has immense significance for health and well-being. Their continual alteration may prove harmful in due course. Suitable follow-up studies are needed to further strengthen these preliminary observations and for now, exposures should be limited as much as possible with essential safeguards. PMID:26058851

  4. Comprehensive evaluation of long-term trends in occupational exposure: Part 1. Description of the database

    PubMed Central

    Symanski, E.; Kupper, L. L.; Rappaport, S. M.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To conduct a comprehensive evaluation of long term changes in occupational exposure among a broad cross section of industries worldwide. METHODS: A review of the scientific literature identified studies that reported historical changes in exposure. About 700 sets of data from 119 published and several unpublished sources were compiled. Data were published over a 30 year period in 25 journals that spanned a range of disciplines. For each data set, the average exposure level was compiled for each period and details on the contaminant, the industry and location, changes in the threshold limit value (TLV), as well as the type of sampling method were recorded. Spearman rank correlation coefficients were used to identify monotonic changes in exposure over time and simple linear regression analyses were used to characterise trends in exposure. RESULTS: About 78% of the natural log transformed data showed linear trends towards lower exposure levels whereas 22% indicated increasing trends. (The Spearman rank correlation analyses produced a similar breakdown between exposures monotonically increasing or decreasing over time.) Although the rates of reduction for the data showing downward trends ranged from -1% to -62% per year, most exposures declined at rates between -4% and -14% per year (the interquartile range), with a median value of -8% per year. Exposures seemed to increase at rates that were slightly lower than those of exposures which have declined over time. Data sets that showed downward (versus upward) trends were influenced by several factors including type and carcinogenicity of the contaminant, type of monitoring, historical changes in the threshold limit values (TLVs), and period of sampling. CONCLUSIONS: This review supports the notion that occupational exposures are generally lower today than they were years or decades ago. However, such trends seem to have been affected by factors related to the contaminant, as well as to the period and type of sampling.   PMID:9764107

  5. Occupational exposure to nanoparticles at commercial photocopy centers.

    PubMed

    Martin, John; Bello, Dhimiter; Bunker, Kristin; Shafer, Martin; Christiani, David; Woskie, Susan; Demokritou, Philip

    2015-11-15

    Photocopiers emit high levels of nanoparticles (PM0.1). To-date little is known of physicochemical composition of PM0.1 in real workplace settings. Here we perform a comprehensive physicochemical and morphological characterization of PM0.1 and raw materials (toners and paper) at eight commercial photocopy centers that use color and monochrome photocopiers over the course of a full week. We document high PM0.1 exposures with complex composition and several ENM in toners and PM0.1. Daily geometric mean PM0.1 concentrations ranged from 3700 to 34000 particles/cubic-centimeter (particles/cm(3)) (GSD 1.4-3.3), up to 12 times greater than background, with transient peaks >1.4 million particles/cm(3). PM0.1 contained 6-63% organic carbon, <1% elemental carbon, and 2-8% metals, including iron, zinc, titania, chromium, nickel and manganese, typically in the <0.01-1% range, and in agreement with toner composition. These findings document widespread ENM in toner formulations and high nanoparticle exposures are an industry-wide phenomenon. It further calls attention to the need to substantially redesign the interface of this technology with workers and consumers. PMID:26148960

  6. Whole-Body Lifetime Occupational Lead Exposure and Risk of Parkinson’s Disease

    SciTech Connect

    Coon , Steven; Stark, Azadeh; Peterson, Edward; Gloi, Aime; Kortsha, Gene; Pounds, Joel G.; Chettle, D. R.; Gorell, Jay M.

    2006-12-01

    We enrolled 121 PD patients and 414 age-, sex-, and race-, frequency-matched controls in a case–control study. As an indicator of chronic Pb exposure, we measured concentrations of tibial and calcaneal bone Pb stores using 109Cadmium excited K-series X-ray fluorescence. As an indicator of recent exposure, we measured blood Pb concentration. We collected occupational data on participants from 18 years of age until the age at enrollment, and an industrial hygienist determined the duration and intensity of environmental Pb exposure. We employed physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling to combine these data, and we estimated whole-body lifetime Pb exposures for each individual. Logistic regression analysis produced estimates of PD risk by quartile of lifetime Pb exposure.

  7. Occupational and public field exposure from communication, navigation, and radar systems used for air traffic control.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Wout; Goeminne, Francis; Vermeeren, Günter; Verloock, Leen; Martens, Luc

    2012-12-01

    Electromagnetic exposure (occupational and general public) to 14 types of air traffic control (ATC) systems is assessed. Measurement methods are proposed for in situ exposure assessment of these ATC systems. In total, 50 sites are investigated at 1,073 locations in the frequency range of 255 kHz to 24 GHz. For all installations, typical and maximal exposure values for workers and the general public are provided. Two of the 14 types of systems, Non-Directional Beacons (NDB) (up to 881.6 V m) and Doppler Very High Frequency (VHF) Omni-directional Range (DVOR) (up to 92.3 V m), exhibited levels requiring recommended minimum distances such that the ICNIRP reference levels are not exceeded. Cumulative exposure of all present radiofrequency (RF) sources is investigated, and it is concluded that the ATC source dominates the total exposure in its neighborhood. PMID:23111522

  8. Occupational exposure to dust in slate pencil manufacture.

    PubMed

    Fulekar, M H; Alam Khan, M M

    1995-02-01

    Slate pencils are manufactured from natural rock known as Binota Shale in small factories. Since the dust generated by stone-cutting and groove-making machines during the process contains a very high percentage of free silica and the particles are of sizes ranging up to a few microns in diameter the exposure both to respirable and to total inhalable airborne dust was assessed. Dust sizing revealed that all of the dust was respirable (less than 2.5 microns). Measurement of the intake velocity of the exhaust system in many cases showed it to be less than 10 m s-1. Suggestions are made for improvement in the working conditions. PMID:7702243

  9. Occupational exposure to dust and lung disease among sheet metal workers.

    PubMed Central

    Hunting, K L; Welch, L S

    1993-01-01

    A previous large medical survey of active and retired sheet metal workers with 20 or more years in the trade indicated an unexpectedly high prevalence of obstructive pulmonary disease among both smokers and non-smokers. This study utilised interviews with a cross section of the previously surveyed group to explore occupational risk factors for lung disease. Four hundred and seven workers were selected from the previously surveyed group on the basis of their potential for exposure to fibreglass and asbestos. Selection was independent of health state, and excluded welders. A detailed history of occupational exposure was obtained by telephone interview for 333 of these workers. Exposure data were analysed in relation to previously collected data on chronic bronchitis, obstructive lung disease, and personal characteristics. Assessment of the effects of exposure to fibreglass as distinct from the effects of exposure to asbestos has been difficult in previous studies of construction workers. The experienced workers studied here have performed a diversity of jobs involving exposure to many different types of materials, and this enabled exposure to each dust to be evaluated separately. The risk of chronic bronchitis increased sharply by pack-years of cigarettes smoked; current smokers had a double risk compared with those who had never smoked or had stopped smoking. The occurrence of chronic bronchitis also increased with increasing duration of exposure to asbestos. Workers with a history of high intensity exposure to fibreglass had a more than doubled risk of chronic bronchitis. Obstructive lung disease, defined by results of pulmonary function tests at the medical survey, was also related to both smoking and occupational risk factors. Number of pack years smoked was the strongest predictor of obstructive lung disease. Duration of direct and indirect exposure to welding fume was also a positive predictor of obstructive lung disease. Duration of exposure to asbestos was significantly associated with obstructive lung disease but the dose-response relation was inconsistent, especially for those with higher pack-years of smoking exposure. Exposure to fibreglass was not a risk factor for obstructive lung disease. PMID:8507596

  10. Occupations and exposures in the work environment as determinants for rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Olsson, A; Skogh, T; Axelson, O; Wingren, G

    2004-01-01

    Background and Aims: Several occupational categories have been associated with rheumatoid arthritis (RA); this study was conducted to further evaluate these associations. Methods: Lifelong occupational history together with exposure experiences were collected through a postal questionnaire answered by 293 incident cases and 1346 population based referents. Occupational determinants were evaluated through stratified and multivariate analyses; pooled analyses with previously gathered data on 422 prevalent cases and 858 referents were also performed. Results: In both materials, significantly increased logistic odds ratios (LORs) were seen for male conductors, freight and transport workers (LOR 17.8, 95% CI 1.5 to 207.8 and LOR 4.7, 95% CI 1.4 to 16.3, respectively), and farmers and farm workers (LOR 2.4, 95% CI 1.1 to 5.2, and LOR 2.2, 95% CI 1.3 to 3.5, respectively). Among women, increased LORs were seen in the separate and the pooled material for printmakers and process engravers (LOR 5.5, 95% CI 0.9 to 32.6, and LOR 3.0, 95% CI 0.9 to 10.3, respectively). Increased risks were seen in both materials for men exposed to asbestos (LOR 2.5, 95% CI 1.0 to 6.8, and LOR 1.6, 95% CI 0.8 to 3.3, respectively), and vibrations (LOR 2.0, 95% CI 0.9 to 4.4, and LOR 2.2, 95% CI 1.3 to 3.8, respectively). The risk for RA increased with increasing duration of exposure to vibrations and mineral dust, respectively. Conclusions: There was evidence of a causal relation between exposures to vibrations and mineral dust and development of RA among men. Occupational factors seem to be aetiologically more important for men, and most occupations at risk involve multiple exposures. Several exposures associated with an increased risk for RA are frequent among farmers, and some of the occupations at risk include exposure to organic dust. PMID:14985518

  11. Occupational exposure to Aspergillus and aflatoxins among food-grain workers in India

    PubMed Central

    Malik, Abida; Ali, Sana; Shahid, Mohd; Bhargava, Rakesh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Aflatoxins are a metabolite of Aspergillus molds and are widespread in the natural environment. Workers who handle food grains are at increased risk of exposure to aflatoxins and subsequently certain respiratory conditions. In India, more than half of the employed population is engaged in some type of agricultural work, yet little known about the respiratory problems as a result of exposure to aflatoxins among workers who handle food grains in India. Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the risk of occupational exposure to aflatoxins in food-grain workers compared to workers who are not occupationally exposed to food grains. Methods: Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and serum samples from 46 food-grain workers and 44 non-food-grain workers were analyzed for the presence of aflatoxins. Microscopy and culture of BAL samples were performed to detect Aspergillus species. Results: Aflatoxins were detected in 32.6% of the food-grain workers and 9.1% of non food grain workers (P<0.01). A significant difference was also found in BAL culture for Aspergillus (P<0.01) between the two groups. About 47.8% of the food-grain workers and 11.4% of non-food-grain workers had chronic respiratory symptoms. Conclusion: Occupational exposure to aflatoxins in food-grain workers was found to be associated with the increased presence of respiratory symptoms. PMID:25000106

  12. Occupational Exposure to Crystalline Silica Dust in the United States, 1988–2003

    PubMed Central

    Yassin, Abdiaziz; Yebesi, Francis; Tingle, Rex

    2005-01-01

    The purposes of this study were a) to summarize measurements of airborne (respirable) crystalline silica dust exposure levels among U.S. workers, b) to provide an update of the 1990 Stewart and Rice report on airborne silica exposure levels in high-risk industries and occupations with data for the time period 1988–2003, c) to estimate the number of workers potentially exposed to silica in industries that the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) inspected for high exposure levels, and d) to conduct time trend analyses on airborne silica dust exposure levels for time-weighted average (TWA) measurements. Compliance inspection data that were taken from the OSHA Integrated Management Information System (IMIS) for 1988–2003 (n = 7,209) were used to measure the airborne crystalline silica dust exposure levels among U.S. workers. A second-order autoregressive model was applied to assess the change in the mean silica exposure measurements over time. The overall geometric mean of silica exposure levels for 8-hr personal TWA samples collected during programmed inspections was 0.077 mg/m3, well above the applicable American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists threshold limit value of 0.05 mg/m3. Surgical appliances supplies industry [Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) 3842] had the lowest geometric mean silica exposure level of 0.017 mg/m3, compared with the highest level, 0.166 mg/m3, for the metal valves and pipe fitting industry (SIC 3494), for an 8-hr TWA measurement. Although a downward trend in the airborne silica exposure levels was observed during 1988–2003, the results showed that 3.6% of the sampled workers were exposed above the OSHA-calculated permissible exposure limit. PMID:15743711

  13. Parental occupational lead exposure and lead concentration of newborn cord blood

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, J.D.; Shy, W.Y.; Chen, J.S.; Yang, K.H.; Hwang, Y.H.

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of parental occupational lead exposure on the lead levels of newborn cord blood in the Taipei area. From September 1984 to June 1985, 5,000 pregnant women voluntarily participated in the study at the Taipei Municipal Maternal and Child Hospital. Each woman was interviewed regarding her and her husband's occupational exposures; 2,948 successfully delivered healthy newborns, and cord blood samples were obtained using Terumo Venoject, and 242 samples were analyzed by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry using an Instrumentation Laboratory 251 instrument. Nine cord blood samples were from newborns with both parents exposed, 26 samples had maternal exposure only, 105 samples had paternal exposure only, and 102 were nonexposed. The results showed that the average lead level of cord blood with both parents exposed was 8.9 +/- 2.9 micrograms%, maternal exposure 9.0 +/- 3.8 micrograms%, paternal exposure 8.3 +/- 3.4 micrograms%, and 6.9 +/- 3.2 micrograms% in the nonexposed group. There were significant differences between the nonexposed and the maternal exposure groups, and also between the nonexposed and paternal exposure groups. All 26 maternal exposures were from lead soldering operations. Multivariate analysis revealed that, after control of father's exposure status, newborn cord blood lead level increased 0.27 micrograms% for each hour the mother spent on lead soldering during a normal working day, thus suggesting that soldering during pregnancy may be hazardous to newborns. Paternal contribution to the cord blood lead levels seemed to be through either working at home with the pregnant mother also at home or bringing work clothes home for laundering.

  14. Reproductive effects of occupational DDT exposure among male malaria control workers.

    PubMed Central

    Salazar-García, Félix; Gallardo-Díaz, Esperanza; Cerón-Mireles, Prudencia; Loomis, Dana; Borja-Aburto, Victor H

    2004-01-01

    To assess potential effects of human DDT [1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane] exposure, we evaluated the reproductive history of 2,033 workers in the antimalaria campaign of Mexico. Data on occupational exposure to DDT and reproductive outcomes were gathered through a questionnaire, and workers provided information about 9,187 pregnancies. We estimated paternal exposure to DDT before each pregnancy using three approaches: a) a dichotomous indicator for pregnancies before and after exposure began, b) a qualitative index of four exposure categories, and c) an estimation of the DDT metabolite DDE [1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene] accumulated in fat. To assess associations, we used logistic regression models that accounted for correlated observations and adjusted for parents' age at each child's birth, exposure to other pesticides, exposure to chemical substances in other employment, smoking, and alcohol consumption. The odds ratio for birth defects comparing pregnancies after and before the first exposure was 3.77 [95% confidence interval (95% CI), 1.19-9.52]. Compared with the lowest quartile of estimated DDE in fat, the ORs were 2.48 (95% CI, 0.75-8.11), 4.15 (95% CI, 1.38-12.46), and 3.76 (95% CI, 1.23-11.44) for quartiles 2, 3, and 4, equivalent to p,p -DDE in fat of 50, 82, and 298 microg/g fat, respectively. No significant association was found for spontaneous abortion or sex ratio. We found an increased risk of birth defects associated with high occupational exposure to DDT in this group of workers. The significance of this association at lower exposure levels found in the general population remains uncertain. PMID:15064158

  15. Occupational exposure to extremely low frequency magnetic fields and brain tumour risks in the INTEROCC study

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Michelle C; Benke, Geza; Bowman, Joseph D; Figuerola, Jordi; Fleming, Sarah; Hours, Martine; Kincl, Laurel; Krewski, Daniel; McLean, Dave; Parent, Marie-Elise; Richardson, Lesley; Sadetzki, Siegal; Schlaefer, Klaus; Schlehofer, Brigitte; Schüz, Joachim; Siemiatycki, Jack; van Tongeren, Martie; Cardis, Elisabeth

    2014-01-01

    Background Occupational exposure to extremely low frequency magnetic fields (ELF) is a suspected risk factor for brain tumours, however the literature is inconsistent. Few studies have assessed whether ELF in different time windows of exposure may be associated with specific histologic types of brain tumours. This study examines the association between ELF and brain tumours in the large-scale INTEROCC study. Methods Cases of adult primary glioma and meningioma were recruited in seven countries (Australia, Canada, France, Germany, Israel, New Zealand, United Kingdom) between 2000 and 2004. Estimates of mean workday ELF exposure based on a job exposure matrix assigned. Estimates of cumulative exposure, average exposure, maximum exposure, and exposure duration were calculated for the lifetime, and 1–4, 5–9, and 10+ years prior to the diagnosis/reference date. Results There were 3,761 included brain tumour cases (1,939 glioma, 1,822 meningioma) and 5,404 population controls. There was no association between lifetime cumulative ELF exposure and glioma or meningioma risk. However, there were positive associations between cumulative ELF 1–4 years prior to the diagnosis/reference date and glioma (odds ratio (OR) ? 90th percentile vs < 25th percentile = 1.67, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.36–2.07, p < 0.0001 linear trend), and, somewhat weaker associations with meningioma (OR ? 90th percentile vs < 25th percentile = 1.23, 95% CI 0.97–1.57, p = 0.02 linear trend). Conclusions Results showed positive associations between ELF in the recent past and glioma. Impact Occupational ELF exposure may play a role in the later stages (promotion and progression) of brain tumourigenesis. PMID:24935666

  16. Residual formaldehyde after low-temperature steam and formaldehyde sterilization

    PubMed Central

    Gibson, G. L.; Johnston, H. P.; Turkington, V. E.

    1968-01-01

    The levels of formaldehyde remaining in various articles have been estimated immediately after a low-temperature steam and formaldehyde sterilizing process and after various periods of aeration. These levels have been compared with the levels of ethylene oxide remaining after exposure to an ethylene oxide sterilizing process. In rubber and polythene and a plastic, formaldehyde levels are low and slowly fall even further. Ethylene oxide levels are relatively much higher even after seven days' aeration. It is not considered that the residual levels of formaldehyde in rubber, polythene, and a plastic should constitute a danger. Residual levels of formaldehyde in fabrics and paper are higher but this may be of value by giving a self-disinfecting action on storage. PMID:5717551

  17. Occupational and environmental exposures and risk of systemic lupus erythematosus: silica, sunlight, solvents

    PubMed Central

    Wither, Joan; Bernatsky, Sasha; Claudio, Jaime O.; Clarke, Ann; Rioux, John D.; Fortin, Paul R.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives. We examined occupational and non-occupational exposures in relation to risk of SLE in a case–control study conducted through the Canadian Network for Improved Outcomes in SLE (CaNIOS). Methods. SLE cases (n?=?258) were recruited from 11 rheumatology centres across Canada. Controls (without SLE, n?=?263) were randomly selected from phone number listings and matched to cases by age, sex and area of residence. Data were collected using a structured telephone interview. Results. An association was seen with outdoor work in the 12 months preceding diagnosis [odds ratio (OR) 2.0; 95% CI 1.1, 3.8]; effect modification by sun reaction was suggested, with the strongest effect among people who reported reacting to midday sun with a blistering sunburn or a rash (OR 7.9; 95% CI 0.97, 64.7). Relatively strong but imprecise associations were seen with work as an artist working with paints, dyes or developing film (OR 3.9; 95% CI 1.3, 12.3) and work that included applying nail polish or nail applications (OR 10.2; 95% CI 1.3, 81.5). Patients were more likely than controls to report participation in pottery or ceramics work as a leisure activity, with an increased risk among individuals with a total frequency of at least 26 days (OR 2.1; 95% CI 1.1, 3.9). Analyses of potential respirable silica exposures suggested an exposure–response gradient (OR 1.0, 1.4. and 2.1 for zero, one and two or more sources of exposure, respectively; trend test P?occupational and non-occupational exposures in the development of SLE. PMID:20675707

  18. Occupational exposures and asthma in 14,000 adults from the general population.

    PubMed

    Le Moual, Nicole; Kennedy, Susan M; Kauffmann, Francine

    2004-12-01

    The association of asthma with occupational exposures was studied in 14,151 adults, aged 25-59 years, from the general population of the 1975 French Pollution Atmospherique et Affections Respiratoires Chroniques (PAARC) Survey. Associations of asthma with specific jobs, such as personal care workers, waiters, and stock clerks, were observed, with age-, sex-, and smoking-adjusted odds ratios between 1.5 and 1.7. Exposures to 18 asthmagenic agents (low and high molecular weight and mixed environment) were estimated by an asthma-specific job exposure matrix. Risks associated with asthma increased when subjects with imprecise estimates of exposure were excluded. Risks increased further with increasing specificity of the definition of asthma when considering jobs or specific agents, such as industrial cleaning agents, latex, flour, highly reactive chemicals, and textiles. For example, for industrial cleaning agents, odds ratios increased from 1.55 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.08, 2.23) for "ever asthma," to 2.17 (95% CI: 1.41, 3.34) for asthma onset after age 14 years, to 2.35 (95% CI: 1.38, 4.00) for asthma onset after beginning current job, and to 2.51 (95% CI: 1.33, 4.75) for asthma with airflow limitation. Results underlined the importance of the specificity of exposure and asthma definitions and indicated a deleterious role of occupational exposure on asthma, especially for cleaning agents. PMID:15561990

  19. Occupational exposures and asthma in 14,000 adults from the general population

    PubMed Central

    Le Moual, Nicole; Kennedy, Susan M.; Kauffmann, Francine

    2004-01-01

    The association of occupational exposures and asthma were studied in 14151 adults, aged 25–59 years, from the general population of the French PAARC (Pollution Atmospherique et Affections Respiratoires Chroniques, 1975) Survey. Associations of asthma to specific jobs such as personal care workers, waiters, stock clerks were observed, with age, sex, smoking adjusted odds ratios between 1.5 and 1.7. Exposures to 18 asthmagenic agents (low, high molecular weight and mixed environment) were estimated by an asthma-specific job exposure matrix. Risks associated with asthma increased when excluding subjects with imprecise estimates of exposure. Risks further increased when increasing specificity of the definition of asthma considering jobs or specific agents such as industrial cleaning agents, latex, flour, highly reactive chemicals, and textiles. For example, for industrial cleaning agents, odds ratios increased from 1.55 (95% CI: 1.08, 2.23) for ever asthma, to 2.51 (95% CI: 1.33, 4.75) for asthma with airflow limitation, to 2.17 (95% CI: 1.41, 3.34) for asthma onset after age 14, and to 2.35 (95% CI: 1.38, 4.00) for asthma onset after beginning of current job. Results underlined the importance of the specificity of exposure and asthma definitions and indicated a deleterious role of occupational exposure on asthma, especially for cleaning agents. PMID:15561990

  20. Measurement error and model specification in determining how duration of tasks affects level of occupational exposure.

    PubMed

    Burstyn, Igor

    2009-04-01

    Statistical modeling of determinants of exposure ascertained in large-scale surveys is an increasingly popular approach to both (i) identifying effective occupational exposure controls that arise in 'natural experiments' and (ii) predicting how altering some working conditions may impact exposure levels. This paper sheds light on two underappreciated methodological challenges of such studies. First, I examine the impact of measurement error in the observed determinant of exposure on an investigator's ability to correctly rank the determinants of exposure in terms of their exposure rate (one aspect of how important a give determinant is). Simultaneously, I consider the issue of whether empirical models fitted for the sake of statistical convenience actually reflect the physical reality that is being modeled and how this may affect the answer to the question about ranking determinants of exposure. These general issues are examined in the context of the 'time per task' determinant of exposure and true exposure model that states that exposure is equal to product of exposure rate and duration of a task. Simulation studies were conducted and their conclusions applied in re-examining the data on the impact of duration of some key task on exposure levels to flour dust among bakers. The simulation study demonstrated that bias due to measurement error in observed effects can be either positive or negative. The main conclusion is that the correct ranking of exposure rates can be obtained from both true and poorly specified exposure models, but can be severely distorted by errors in estimates of the duration of tasks performed. PMID:19188265

  1. Application of statistical models for secondary data usage of the US Navy's Occupational Exposure Database (NOED).

    PubMed

    Formisano, J A; Still, K; Alexander, W; Lippmann, M

    2001-02-01

    Many organizations around the world have collected data related to individual worker exposures that are used to determine compliance with workplace standards. These data are often warehoused and thereafter rarely used as an information resource. Using appropriate groupings and analysis of OSHA data, Gómez showed that such stored data can provide additional insight on factors affecting occupational exposures. Using data from the Occupational Exposure Database of the United States Navy, the usefulness of statistical models for defining probabilities of exposure above permissible limits for observed work conditions is examined. Analyses have highlighted worker Similar Exposure Groups (SEGs) with potential for overexposure to asbestos and lead. In terms of grouping data, Rappaport et al. defined the Within-Between Lognormal Model, a scale-independent measure for quantifying between-worker variability within a selected worker group: (B)R.95 = exp[3.92s(sB)], representing the ratio of arithmetic mean exposures received by workers in the 97.5th and 2.5th percentiles. To help search for groups, the Proportional Odds Model, a generalization of the logistic model to ordinal data, can predict probabilities for group exposure above the Occupational Exposure Limit (OEL), or the Action Level (AL), which is one-half of the OEL. Worker SEGs have been identified for asbestos workers removing friable asbestos ((B)R.95 = 11.0) and nonfriable asbestos ((B)R.95 = 6.5); metal cleaning workers sandingspecialized equipment ((B)R.95 = 11.3), and workers at target shooting ranges cleaning up lead debris ((B)R.95 = 10). Estimated probabilities for the categories OEL support current understanding of work processes examined. Differences in probability noted between tasks and levels of ventilation validate this method for evaluating other available workplace exposure determinants, and for predicting probability of membership in categories that may help further define worker exposure groups, and determinants of excessive exposures. Thus, analyses of retrospective exposure data can help identify work site and work practice factors for efficient targeting of remediation resources. PMID:11217712

  2. Occupational and patient exposure in coronary angiography procedures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sulieman, A.; Alzimami, K.; Gafar, R.; Babikir, E.; Alsafi, K.; Suliman, I. I.

    2014-11-01

    Cardiac catheterization is the gold standard in the diagnosis and management of coronary artery diseases. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the radiation dose of patients and staff during cardiology procedures. Staff was monitored using thermoluminescence dosimeter (TLD) chips for 86 procedures. The mean patient dose was 2813.6 ?Gy m2 and the mean fluoroscopic time was 4.8 min. The mean radiation doses for cardiologists were 0.9 mGy for the forehead, 0.92 mGy for the thyroid, 1.38 mGy for the chest, 1.28 mGy for the waist and 1.41 mGy for the hand. The mean radiation doses for assistants were 0.72 mGy for the chest, 0.82 mGy for the hand. High patient and staff exposure is due to lack of experience and protective equipment, exacerbated by a high workload. Interventional procedures remain operator dependent; therefore, continuous training is crucial.

  3. Occupational Exposure to Urban Air Pollution and Allergic Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Vimercati, Luigi; Gatti, Maria Franca; Baldassarre, Antonio; Nettis, Eustachio; Favia, Nicola; Palma, Marco; Martina, Gabriella Lucia Maria; Di Leo, Elisabetta; Musti, Marina

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to air pollution is associated with increased morbidity from cardiovascular diseases, lung cancer, respiratory and allergic diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate allergic diseases in 111 traffic wardens compared to a control group of 101 administrative employees. All participating subjects underwent a physical examination, in which a complete medical history was taken and a dedicated allergological questionnaire administered. Spirometry, Specific IgE dosage (RAST) and skin prick tests (SPT) were done. Diagnostic investigations such as the nasal cytology, a specific nasal provocation test and rhinomanometry were also performed. Statistical analyses were performed using STATA version 11. The percentage of subjects with a diagnosis of allergy was higher in the exposed workers than in the controls. As regards the clinical tests, the positivity was higher for the group of exposed subjects. Among the exposed workers, those who worked on foot or motorcycle had a higher positivity in clinical trials compared to the traffic wardens who used the car. Our study showed a higher percentage of allergic subjects in the group of workers exposed to outdoor pollutants than in the controls. These results suggest that allergological tests should be included in the health surveillance protocols for workers exposed to outdoor pollutants. PMID:26501303

  4. Occupational Exposure to Urban Air Pollution and Allergic Diseases.

    PubMed

    Vimercati, Luigi; Gatti, Maria Franca; Baldassarre, Antonio; Nettis, Eustachio; Favia, Nicola; Palma, Marco; Martina, Gabriella Lucia Maria; Di Leo, Elisabetta; Musti, Marina

    2015-10-01

    Exposure to air pollution is associated with increased morbidity from cardiovascular diseases, lung cancer, respiratory and allergic diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate allergic diseases in 111 traffic wardens compared to a control group of 101 administrative employees. All participating subjects underwent a physical examination, in which a complete medical history was taken and a dedicated allergological questionnaire administered. Spirometry, Specific IgE dosage (RAST) and skin prick tests (SPT) were done. Diagnostic investigations such as the nasal cytology, a specific nasal provocation test and rhinomanometry were also performed. Statistical analyses were performed using STATA version 11. The percentage of subjects with a diagnosis of allergy was higher in the exposed workers than in the controls. As regards the clinical tests, the positivity was higher for the group of exposed subjects. Among the exposed workers, those who worked on foot or motorcycle had a higher positivity in clinical trials compared to the traffic wardens who used the car. Our study showed a higher percentage of allergic subjects in the group of workers exposed to outdoor pollutants than in the controls. These results suggest that allergological tests should be included in the health surveillance protocols for workers exposed to outdoor pollutants. PMID:26501303

  5. Occupational Exposure to Diesel Motor Exhaust and Lung Cancer: A Dose-Response Relationship Hidden by Asbestos Exposure Adjustment? The ICARE Study

    PubMed Central

    Matrat, Mireille; Guida, Florence; Cénée, Sylvie; Févotte, Joelle; Carton, Matthieu; Cyr, Diane; Menvielle, Gwenn; Paget-Bailly, Sophie; Radoï, Loredana; Schmaus, Annie; Bara, Simona; Velten, Michel; Luce, Danièle; Stücker, Isabelle; The Icare Study Group

    2015-01-01

    Background. In a French large population-based case-control study we investigated the dose-response relationship between lung cancer and occupational exposure to diesel motor exhaust (DME), taking into account asbestos exposure. Methods. Exposure to DME was assessed by questionnaire. Asbestos was taken into account through a global indicator of exposure to occupational carcinogens or by a specific JEM. Results. We found a crude dose response relationship with most of the indicators of DME exposure, including with the cumulative exposure index. All results were affected by adjustment for asbestos exposure. The dose response relationships between DME and lung cancer were observed among subjects never exposed to asbestos. Conclusions. Exposure to DME and to asbestos is frequently found among the same subjects, which may explain why dose-response relationships in previous studies that adjusted for asbestos exposure were inconsistent. PMID:26425123

  6. Occupational exposure to microorganisms used as biocontrol agents in plant production.

    PubMed

    Madsen, Anne Mette

    2011-01-01

    Exposure to bioaerosols containing fungi and bacteria may cause various deleterious respiratory health effects. Fungi and bacteria are commercially produced and applied to the environment as microbiological pest control agents (MPCAs). Attention has been drawn towards the exposure and health risks due to the use of commercially important MPCAs. As part of a risk evaluation this paper intends to review whether the exposure to MPCAs (Beauveria bassiana, Verticillium lecanii, Trichoderma harzianum, T. viride, T. polysporum, Paecilomyces fumosoroseus, P. lilacinus, Streptomyces griseoviridis, Bacillus subtilis and Ba. thuringiensis) exceeds background exposure levels. The paper is further aimed to focus on the aerosolization of MPCAs in relation to exposure and human inhalation. From the few studies about exposures it is concluded that both people handling MPCAs in occupational settings and residents of an area where MPCAs have been applied may be exposed to MPCAs. The highest exposures to MPCAs are found for people applying MPCAs. In 2 of 12 environments exposure to applied MPCAs were higher than exposure to the total number of bacteria or fungi. PMID:21196399

  7. Occupational Exposure to Magnetic Fields and Breast Cancer Among Women Textile Workers in Shanghai, China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wenjin; Ray, Roberta M.; Thomas, David B.; Yost, Michael; Davis, Scott; Breslow, Norman; Gao, Dao Li; Fitzgibbons, E. Dawn; Camp, Janice E.; Wong, Eva; Wernli, Karen J.; Checkoway, Harvey

    2013-01-01

    Exposure to magnetic fields (MFs) is hypothesized to increase the risk of breast cancer by reducing production of melatonin by the pineal gland. A nested case-cohort study was conducted to investigate the association between occupational exposure to MFs and the risk of breast cancer within a cohort of 267,400 female textile workers in Shanghai, China. The study included 1,687 incident breast cancer cases diagnosed from 1989 to 2000 and 4,702 noncases selected from the cohort. Subjects’ complete work histories were linked to a job–exposure matrix developed specifically for the present study to estimate cumulative MF exposure. Hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated using Cox proportional hazards modeling that was adapted for the case-cohort design. Hazard ratios were estimated in relation to cumulative exposure during a woman's entire working years. No association was observed between cumulative exposure to MFs and overall risk of breast cancer. The hazard ratio for the highest compared with the lowest quartile of cumulative exposure was 1.03 (95% confidence interval: 0.87, 1.21). Similar null findings were observed when exposures were lagged and stratified by age at breast cancer diagnosis. The findings do not support the hypothesis that MF exposure increases the risk of breast cancer. PMID:24043439

  8. Occupational exposure to airborne contaminants during offshore oil drilling.

    PubMed

    Kirkhus, Niels E; Thomassen, Yngvar; Ulvestad, Bente; Woldbæk, Torill; Ellingsen, Dag G

    2015-07-01

    The aim was to study exposure to airborne contaminants in oil drillers during ordinary work. Personal samples were collected among 65 drill floor workers on four stationary and six moveable rigs in the Norwegian offshore sector. Air concentrations of drilling mud were determined based on measurements of the non-volatile mud components Ca and Fe. The median air concentration of mud was 140 ?g m(-3). Median air concentrations of oil mist (180 ?g m(-3)), oil vapour (14 mg m(-3)) and organic carbon (46 ?g m(-3)) were also measured. All contaminants were detected in all work areas (drill floor, shaker area, mud pits, pump room, other areas). The highest air concentrations were measured in the shaker area, but the differences in air concentrations between working areas were moderate. Oil mist and oil vapour concentrations were statistically higher on moveable rigs than on stationary rigs, but after adjusting for differences in mud temperature the differences between rig types were no longer of statistical significance. Statistically significant positive associations were found between mud temperature and the concentrations of oil mist (Spearman's R = 0.46) and oil vapour (0.39), and between viscosity of base oil and oil mist concentrations. Use of pressure washers was associated with higher air concentrations of mud. A series of 18 parallel stationary samples showed a high and statistically significant association between concentrations of organic carbon and oil mist (r = 0.98). This study shows that workers are exposed to airborne non-volatilized mud components. Air concentrations of volatile mud components like oil mist and oil vapour were low, but were present in all the studied working areas. PMID:26020723

  9. Occupational exposure of phosphate mine workers: airborne radioactivity measurements and dose assessment.

    PubMed

    Khater, Ashraf E; Hussein, M A; Hussein, Mohamed I

    2004-01-01

    Under the Egyptian program for radiation safety and control, airborne radioactivity measurements and radiological dose assessment were conducted in some phosphate and uranium mines. Abu-Tartor mine is one of the biggest underground phosphate mines in Egypt. Airborne radioactivity, radon ((222)Rn) and its short-lived decay products (progenies) and thoron ((220)Rn), were measured in selected locations along the mine. The environmental gamma and workers dose equivalent rate (mSv/y) were measured inside and outside the mine using thermo-luminescence dosimeters (TLD). The results were presented and discussed. The calculated annual effective dose due to airborne radioactivity is the main source of occupational exposure and exceeding the maximum recommended level by ICRP-60 inside the mine tunnels. A number of recommendations are suggested to control the occupational exposures. PMID:15149761

  10. [Nervous system disorders induced by occupational exposure to arsenic and its inorganic compounds: a literature review].

    PubMed

    Si?czuk-Walczak, Halina

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a review of the effect of arsenic (As) and its inorganic compounds on the nervous system. In humans, inhalation exposure mostly occurs in occupational conditions. In the occupational environment, the most extensive exposure to this element is observed in the copper industry. Chronic As poisoning is manifested by skin and mucous membrane lesions, impairment of the nervous system in the form of disorders of psychic functions and polyneuropathies, retrobulbar neuritis, disorders of peripheral circulation and the risk for Raynaud's syndrome. Arsenic-induced polyneuropathy is usually a very serious and chronic disease. A complete recovery is observed in only 15-20% of patients. As-induced encephalopathy is an irreversible process. PMID:20187500

  11. A Retrospective Assessment of Occupational Exposure to Elemental Carbon in the U.S. Trucking Industry

    PubMed Central

    Hart, Jaime E.; Laden, Francine; Garshick, Eric; Smith, Thomas J.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Despite considerable epidemiologic evidence about the health effects of chronic exposure to vehicle exhaust, efforts at defining the extent of risk have been limited by the lack of historical exposure measurements suitable for use in epidemiologic studies and for risk assessment. Objectives: We sought to reconstruct exposure to elemental carbon (EC), a marker of diesel and other vehicle exhaust exposure, in a large national cohort of U.S. trucking industry workers. Methods: We identified the predictors of measured exposures based on a statistical model and used this information to extrapolate exposures across the cohort nationally. These estimates were adjusted for changes in work-related conditions over time based on a previous exposure assessment of this industry, and for changes in background levels based on a trend analysis of historical air pollution data, to derive monthly estimates of EC exposure for each job and trucking terminal combination between 1971 and 2000. Results: Occupational exposure to EC declined substantially over time, and we found significant variability in estimated exposures both within and across job groups, trucking terminals, and regions of the United States. Average estimated EC exposures during a typical work shift ranged from < 1 ?g/m3 in the lowest exposed category in the 1990s to > 40 ?g/m3 for workers in the highest exposed jobs in the 1970s. Conclusions: Our results provide a framework for understanding changes over time in exposure to EC in the U.S. trucking industry. Our assessment should minimize exposure misclassification by capturing variation among terminals and across U.S. regions, and changes over time. PMID:21447452

  12. Formaldehyde Laminate Flooring Clinician Fact Sheet

    E-print Network

    Formaldehyde Laminate Flooring Clinician Fact Sheet National Center for Environmental Health Agency, cigarettes, gas stoves) What are the health effects of formaldehyde exposure? Health effects from exposure of the eyes, nose, and throat Skin rashes Cough Shortness of breath Bronchospasm and wheezing, especially

  13. Lead exposure: Public and occupational health hazards. (Latest citations from Pollution abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the effects of chronic lead exposure in humans and animals. The citations explore lead exposure resulting from occupational hazards, automobile emissions, and air pollution. Lead absorption in children is discussed. The clinical features of lead toxicity are noted, and biochemical assays for the quantification of blood and tissue lead levels are discussed. D-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase and its relation to blood lead levels are cited.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  14. The three most common occupational exposures reported by pregnant women: A update

    SciTech Connect

    Bentur, Y.; Koren, G. )

    1991-08-01

    Many uncertainties exist in regard to counseling women with occupational exposures during pregnancy. This is due to limited knowledge of the reproductive toxicologic effects of industrial agents, lack of safety standards aimed at protecting the fetus, and limitations in assessing the extent of exposure. The approach to this subject taken by the Motherisk Program and a review of the three most common occupational exposures are presented. Epidemiologic studies and measurements of radiation do not suggest a reproductive hazard for video display terminals. Exposure to organic solvents is hard to quantitate, and information is sparse and sometimes contradictory, and therapeutic decisions are difficult to reach. To date there is no convincing evidence that working with organic solvents within safety regulations would harm a fetus, in contradistinction to detrimental fetal effects of solvent abuse. The reproductive risks of lead are well documented, fetal exposure can be assessed, and effective treatment exists, but its effects on the pregnancy have not been fully established. However, new evidence suggests that maternal levels that are much lower than the accepted adult limits may be damaging to the fetus. 107 references.

  15. The Occupational Exposure Limit for Fluid Aerosol Generated in Metalworking Operations: Limitations and Recommendations

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this review was to assess current knowledge related to the occupational exposure limit (OEL) for fluid aerosols including either mineral or chemical oil that are generated in metalworking operations, and to discuss whether their OEL can be appropriately used to prevent several health risks that may vary among metalworking fluid (MWF) types. The OEL (time-weighted average; 5 mg/m3, short-term exposure limit ; 15 mg/m3) has been applied to MWF aerosols without consideration of different fluid aerosol-size fractions. The OEL, is also based on the assumption that there are no significant differences in risk among fluid types, which may be contentious. Particularly, the health risks from exposure to water-soluble fluids may not have been sufficiently considered. Although adoption of The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health's recommended exposure limit for MWF aerosol (0.5 mg/m3) would be an effective step towards minimizing and evaluating the upper respiratory irritation that may be caused by neat or diluted MWF, this would fail to address the hazards (e.g., asthma and hypersensitivity pneumonitis) caused by microbial contaminants generated only by the use of water-soluble fluids. The absence of an OEL for the water-soluble fluids used in approximately 80-90 % of all applicants may result in limitations of the protection from health risks caused by exposure to those fluids. PMID:22953224

  16. Potential Occupational Exposures and Health Risks Associated with Biomass-Based Power Generation.

    PubMed

    Rohr, Annette C; Campleman, Sharan L; Long, Christopher M; Peterson, Michael K; Weatherstone, Susan; Quick, Will; Lewis, Ari

    2015-07-01

    Biomass is increasingly being used for power generation; however, assessment of potential occupational health and safety (OH&S) concerns related to usage of biomass fuels in combustion-based generation remains limited. We reviewed the available literature on known and potential OH&S issues associated with biomass-based fuel usage for electricity generation at the utility scale. We considered three potential exposure scenarios--pre-combustion exposure to material associated with the fuel, exposure to combustion products, and post-combustion exposure to ash and residues. Testing of dust, fungal and bacterial levels at two power stations was also undertaken. Results indicated that dust concentrations within biomass plants can be extremely variable, with peak levels in some areas exceeding occupational exposure limits for wood dust and general inhalable dust. Fungal spore types, identified as common environmental species, were higher than in outdoor air. Our review suggests that pre-combustion risks, including bioaerosols and biogenic organics, should be considered further. Combustion and post-combustion risks appear similar to current fossil-based combustion. In light of limited available information, additional studies at power plants utilizing a variety of technologies and biomass fuels are recommended. PMID:26206568

  17. Traffic-related occupational exposures to PM2.5, CO, and VOCs in Trujillo, Peru.

    PubMed

    Han, Xianglu; Aguilar-Villalobos, Manuel; Allen, John; Carlton, Cameron S; Robinson, Robert; Bayer, Charlene; Naeher, Luke P

    2005-01-01

    A traffic-related exposure study was conducted among 58 workers (drivers, vendors, traffic police, and gas station attendants) and 10 office workers as controls in Trujillo, Peru, in July 2002. PM2.5 was collected, carbon monoxide (CO) was measured, volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were sampled and analyzed. Newspaper vendors had the highest full-shift CO exposures (mean +/- SD: 11.4 +/- 8.9 ppm), while office workers had the lowest (2.0 +/- 1.7 ppm). Bus drivers had the highest full-shift PM2.5 exposures (161 +/- 8.9 microg/m3), while gas station attendants (64 +/- 26.5 microg/m3) and office workers (65 +/- 8.5 microg/m3) were the lowest. Full-shift benzene/toluene/ethylbenzene/xylene exposures (BTEX) among gas station attendants (111/254/43/214 microg/m3) were much higher than those among van and taxi drivers. Several of the traffic-related occupational exposures studied were elevated and are of occupational health concern. PMID:16130969

  18. Potential Occupational Exposures and Health Risks Associated with Biomass-Based Power Generation

    PubMed Central

    Rohr, Annette C.; Campleman, Sharan L.; Long, Christopher M.; Peterson, Michael K.; Weatherstone, Susan; Quick, Will; Lewis, Ari

    2015-01-01

    Biomass is increasingly being used for power generation; however, assessment of potential occupational health and safety (OH&S) concerns related to usage of biomass fuels in combustion-based generation remains limited. We reviewed the available literature on known and potential OH&S issues associated with biomass-based fuel usage for electricity generation at the utility scale. We considered three potential exposure scenarios—pre-combustion exposure to material associated with the fuel, exposure to combustion products, and post-combustion exposure to ash and residues. Testing of dust, fungal and bacterial levels at two power stations was also undertaken. Results indicated that dust concentrations within biomass plants can be extremely variable, with peak levels in some areas exceeding occupational exposure limits for wood dust and general inhalable dust. Fungal spore types, identified as common environmental species, were higher than in outdoor air. Our review suggests that pre-combustion risks, including bioaerosols and biogenic organics, should be considered further. Combustion and post-combustion risks appear similar to current fossil-based combustion. In light of limited available information, additional studies at power plants utilizing a variety of technologies and biomass fuels are recommended. PMID:26206568

  19. Occupational Exposure to HIV: Perceptions and Preventive Practices of Indian Nursing Students

    PubMed Central

    Shivalli, Siddharudha

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Nurses have a frontier caring role that brings them in close contact with patients' blood and body fluids. An understanding of their professional behavior is essential to assess and minimize the occupational exposure to HIV among them. Objectives. (1) To appraise the knowledge, attitudes, and preventive practices of nursing students pertaining to occupational exposure to HIV. (2) To quantify the risk and correlates of exposure to HIV among them. Methodology. Cross-sectional study was conducted in a nursing college of Varanasi, India. A semistructured and pretested pro forma consisting of questions pertaining to modes of HIV transmission, universal precaution practices, and various aspects of nursing HIV patients was utilized. Independent sample t- and z-tests were applied to judge the association of study variables with the knowledge and risk of HIV. Results. The study sample consisted of 87 female and 16 male nurses. Participants' knowledge of HIV transmission was satisfactory. More than 80% of them had an exposure to blood/body fluid in the last year. Exposure rates for blood/body fluid did not show a significant association (P?>?0.05) with study variables. Conclusion. There were serious lacunae in implementation of the universal precautions despite satisfactory knowledge. Reinforcement of universal precautions is required. PMID:24987531

  20. Determination of N2-hydroxymethyl-dG Adducts in Nasal Epithelium and Bone Marrow of Non-human Primates following 13CD2-Formaldehyde Inhalation Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Moeller, Benjamin C.; Lu, Kun; Doyle-Eisele, Melanie; McDonald, Jacob; Gigliotti, Andrew; Swenberg, James A.

    2012-01-01

    The presence of endogenous and exogenous N2-hydroxymethyl-dG adducts in DNA from nasal mucosa and bone marrow of cynomolgus macaques exposed to 1.9 and 6.1 ppm of [13CD2]-formaldehyde for 6 hours a day for 2 consecutive days was investigated using a highly sensitive nano-UPLC-MS/MS method with a Limit of Detection of 20 amol. Both exogenous and endogenous adducts were readily detected and quantified in the nasal tissues of both exposure groups, with an exposure dependent increase in exogenous adducts observed. In contrast, only endogenous adducts were detectable in the bone marrow, even though ~10 times more DNA was analyzed. PMID:21222454

  1. Revisiting the NIOSH Criteria for a Recommended Standard: Occupational Noise Exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, William J.; Franks, John R.

    2002-05-01

    In 1998, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) revised the Criteria for a Recommended Standard: Occupational Noise Exposure [DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 98-126]. NIOSH reevaluated the recommended exposure limit (REL) for occupational noise exposure and reaffirms support for 85-dBA REL. Based upon scientific evidence, NIOSH recommends a 3-dB exchange rate. NIOSH recommends that significant threshold shift be identified as an increase of 15 dB in the hearing threshold level at 500, 1000, 2000, 3000, 4000, or 6000 Hz in either ear, with two consecutive audiometric tests. The new criterion has the advantages of a high identification rate and a low false-positive rate. In contrast with the former 1972 criterion, NIOSH no longer recommends age correction on individual audiograms. NIOSH has revisited its recommendations on the using of single-number laboratory-derived Noise Reduction Rating (NRR) required by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for labeling of hearing protectors sold within the United States. In 1972, NIOSH recommended the use of the full NRR value; however, the new criterion recommends derating the NRR by 25%, 50%, and 70% for earmuffs, formable earplugs, and all other earplugs, respectively. This presentation will compare and contrast current regulations against the NIOSH recommendations.

  2. An evaluation of several methods for assessing the effects of occupational exposure to radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Gilbert, E.S.

    1983-03-01

    Several methods for the analysis of occupational radiation exposure data, including procedures based on Cox's proportional hazards model, are presented and evaluated. Issues of interest include the contribution of an external control, the effective handling of highly skewed exposure data, and the potential for detecting effects in populations occupationally exposed to radiation. Expressions for evaluating the power of various procedures are derived and applied to data from the Hanford population in order to determine power curves for detecting leukemia effects, with both additive and multiplicative linear models being used. It is found that the introduction of an external control can increase power, although not when an overall adjustment factor must be estimated from the data or when death rates for the study population are substantially lower than those for the control population. It is also found that very little power is lost if exposures are grouped. Finally, the power calculations indicate, as expected, that in analyses of occupationally exposed populations, such as the Hanford workers, there is very little chance of detecting radiation effects at the levels of our current estimates. However, power is reasonably good for detecting effects that are 10 to 15 times larger.

  3. Validation of a self-administered questionnaire for assessing occupational and environmental exposures of pregnant women

    SciTech Connect

    Eskenazi, B.; Pearson, K.

    1988-11-01

    The present investigation sought to determine whether a self-administered questionnaire could be used to obtain occupational information from pregnant women attending the obstetrical clinics at the University of California, San Francisco from July to November 1986. The authors compared the accuracy of responses of 57 women on the self-administered questionnaire with those obtained on a detailed clinical interview by an occupational health professional. The self-administered questionnaire and the clinical interview included information on the woman's job title, the type of company she worked for, the level of physical activity, her exposures on the job and at home, and her partner's occupation. The authors also examined whether the validity of the self-administered questionnaire could be improved on review by an industrial hygienist. The questionnaire took less than 20 minutes to complete, with over 90% of the women answering three-quarters of it. It was substantially accurate in obtaining information on number of hours worked during pregnancy, type of shift worked, and stress level in the workplace; exposure to radiation, video display terminals, fumes, gases, and cigarette smoke in the workplace; and exposure to pesticides, paint, and cigarette smoke at home. On those variables for which the responses on the self-administered questionnaire were less accurate, review by the industrial hygienist improved the level of accuracy considerably. These findings suggest that a self-administered questionnaire can be used to obtain valid information from pregnant women attending a prenatal clinic.

  4. Report of the Federal Panel on Formaldehyde.

    PubMed Central

    1982-01-01

    The Federal Panel on Formaldehyde concluded that definitive experiments exist which demonstrate the mutagenicity and carcinogenicity of formaldehyde under laboratory conditions. Formaldehyde induces both gene mutations and chromosomal aberrations in a variety of test systems. Inhalation of formaldehyde causes cancer of the nose in rats. The concentrations of formaldehyde in inhaled air that caused nasal cancer in Fisher 344 rats are within the same order of magnitude as those to which humans may be exposed. The data presently available do not permit a direct assessment of the carcinogenicity of formaldehyde to man. Epidemiologic studies on exposed human populations are in progress and may further clarify the situation. Other experimental and human studies on toxic effects such as teratogenicity and reproductive disorders are as yet inadequate for a health risk assessment. The CIIT 24 month study on animal carcinogenicity has not yet been completely evaluated. Additional data are expected on the effects of prolonged exposure to lower doses of formaldehyde and on the possible carcinogenicity of formaldehyde in the mouse. The panel recommends that, for a comprehensive health risk assessment, further experiments be conducted on the effects of other modes of exposure (ingestion and skin penetration), the effects in humans, and on the pharmacokinetics of formaldehyde in man and animals and the possible role for formaldehyde in reproductive and chronic respiratory disorders. It is the conclusion of the panel that formaldehyde should be presumed to pose a carcinogenic risk to humans. PMID:6977445

  5. The Relationship between the Occupational Exposure of Trichloroethylene and Kidney Cancer

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Trichloroethylene (TCE) has been widely used as a degreasing agent in many manufacturing industries. Recently, the International Agency for Research on Cancer presented “sufficient evidence” for the causal relationship between TCE and kidney cancer. The aim of this study was to review the epidemiologic evidences regarding the relationship between TCE exposure and kidney cancer in Korean work environments. The results from the cohort studies were inconsistent, but according to the meta-analysis and case–control studies, an increased risk for kidney cancer was present in the exposure group and the dose–response relationship could be identified using various measures of exposure. In Korea, TCE is a commonly used chemical for cleaning or degreasing processes by various manufacturers; average exposure levels of TCE vary widely. When occupational physicians evaluate work-relatedness kidney cancers, they must consider past exposure levels, which could be very high (>100 ppm in some cases) and associated with jobs, such as plating, cleaning, or degreasing. The exposure levels at a manual job could be higher than an automated job. The peak level of TCE could also be considered an important exposure-related variable due to the possibility of carcinogenesis associated with high TCE doses. This review could be a comprehensive reference for assessing work-related TCE exposure and kidney cancer in Korea. PMID:24955246

  6. Formaldehyde and the risk of squamous cell carcinoma of the sinonasal cavities.

    PubMed Central

    Olsen, J H; Asnaes, S

    1986-01-01

    A study of 759 histologically verified cancers of the nasal cavity (287 cases), paranasal sinuses (179 cases), and nasopharynx (293 cases) and 2465 cancer controls diagnosed in Denmark between 1970 and 1982 was conducted to investigate the importance of occupational exposure to formaldehyde. Information on job history for cases and controls was derived from a national data linkage system and exposure to formaldehyde and wood dust was assessed by industrial hygienists unaware of the case-control status of the patients. The exposure rates for formaldehyde among male and female controls were 4.2% and 0.1%, respectively. After proper adjustment for contemporary wood dust exposure, relative risks of 2.3 (95% CI = 0.9-5.8) for squamous cell carcinoma and 2.2 (95% CI = 0.7-7.2) for adenocarcinoma of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses were detected among men who have ever been exposed to formaldehyde in their job compared with those never exposed. The introduction of a 10 year latency period did not change the risk estimates substantially. It was considered unlikely that the results were due to bias or misclassification of exposure although the effect of chance could not be excluded. PMID:3790457

  7. TASK-BASED EXPOSURE MATRIX TOWARD EVALUATING AND IDENTIFYING OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE TO ENGINEERED CARBONACEOUS NANOMATERIALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    It is expected that the findings from this study will contribute to human exposure estimation during the product lifecycle analysis of carbon nanotubes and nanofibers. In addition, the task exposure matrix will provide important background information for the design of future ...

  8. FLOW CYTOMETRY OF ACRIDINE ORANGE STAINED SPERM IS A RAPID AND PRACTICAL METHOD FOR MONITORING OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE TO GENOTOXICANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Public awareness is growing concerning the reproductive consequences of the numerous environmental and occupational chemicals. Exposure of germ cells within the seminiferous tubules of the mammalian testis to chemical toxins often causes severe perturbation of cell growth, divisi...

  9. Association between Occupational Exposure to Wood Dust and Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Alonso-Sardón, Montserrat; Chamorro, Antonio-J.; Hernández-García, Ignacio; Iglesias-de-Sena, Helena; Martín-Rodero, Helena; Herrera, Cristian; Marcos, Miguel; Mirón-Canelo, José Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Objective To perform a systematic review to analyze the association between occupational exposure to wood dust and cancer. Methods A systematic literature search of entries made in the MEDLINE-PubMed database between 1957 and 2013 was conducted to identify studies that had assessed the relationship between occupational exposure to wood dust and different types of cancer. A meta-analysis of selected case-control and cohort studies was subsequently performed. Results A total of 114 studies were identified and 70 were selected for review. Of these, 42 studies focused on the relationship between wood dust and nasal cancer (n = 22), lung cancer (n = 11), and other types of cancer (n = 9). Low-to-moderate quality evidence that wood dust acts as a carcinogen was obtained, and a stronger association between wood dust and nasal adenocarcinoma was observed. A lesser association between wood dust exposure and lung cancer was also observed. Several studies suggested that there is a relationship between wood dust and the onset of other cancers, although there was no evidence to establish an association. A meta-analysis that included four case-controls studies showed that workers exposed to wood dust exhibited higher rates of nasal adenocarcinoma than other workers (odds ratio = 10.28; 95% confidence interval: 5.92 and 17.85; P<0,0001), although a large degree of heterogeneity was found. Conclusions Low-to-moderate quality evidence supports a causal association between cancer and occupational exposure to wood dust, and this association was stronger for nasal adenocarcinoma than for lung cancer. There was no evidence of an association between wood dust exposure and the other cancers examined. PMID:26191795

  10. Occupational exposure to environmental tobacco smoke: a study in Lisbon restaurants.

    PubMed

    Pacheco, Solange A; Aguiar, Fátima; Ruivo, Patrícia; Proença, Maria Carmo; Sekera, Michael; Penque, Deborah; Simões, Tânia

    2012-01-01

    Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), also referred to as secondhand smoke (SHS), is a major threat to public health and is increasingly recognized as an occupational hazard to workers in the hospitality industry. Therefore, several countries have implemented smoke-free regulations at hospitality industry sites. In Portugal, since 2008, legislation partially banned smoking in restaurants and bars but until now no data have been made available on levels of indoor ETS pollution/exposure at these locations. The aim of this study was to examine the occupational exposure to ETS/SHS in several restaurants in Lisbon, measured by indoor fine particles (PM(2.5)) and urinary cotinine concentration in workers, after the partial smoking ban in Portugal. Results showed that the PM(2.5) median level in smoking designated areas was 253 ?g/m³, eightfold higher than levels recorded in canteens or outdoor. The nonsmoking rooms of mixed restaurants exhibited PM(2.5) median level of 88 ?g/m³, which is higher than all smoke-free locations studied, approximately threefold greater than those found in canteens. Importantly, urinary cotinine concentrations were significantly higher in nonsmoker employees working in those smoking designated areas, confirming exposure to ETS. The proportion of smokers in those rooms was found to be significantly positively correlated with nonsmoker urinary cotinine and indoor PM(2.5) levels, establishing that both markers were occupational-ETS derived. The use of reinforced ventilation systems seemed not to be sufficient to decrease the observed ETS pollution/exposure in those smoking locations. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that the partial restrictions on smoking in Portuguese venues failed to provide adequate protection to their employees, irrespective of protective measures used. Therefore, a smoke-free legislation protecting individuals from exposure to ETS/SHS in all public places and workplaces is urgently needed in Portugal. PMID:22788372

  11. Occupational Exposure of Shiraz Dental Students to Patients’ Blood and Body Fluid

    PubMed Central

    Shaghaghian, Soheila; Golkari, Ali; Pardis, Soheil; Rezayi, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Statement of the Problem Exposure to patients’ blood and body fluids would prone the dental students to the risk of blood borne infections. Several studies have shown a high prevalence of these exposures in dental settings particularly in developing countries. However, few studies have evaluated the epidemiology of these exposures in dental students in Iran. Purpose To assess the epidemiology of occupational exposures among dental students and consequently designing the appropriate interventions in order to prevent these exposures. Materials and Method In this cross-sectional study performed during March to June 2011, all 191 Shiraz clinical dental students were asked to complete a self-administered questionnaire. This questionnaire included demographic information and experience of sharp injuries and mucocutaneous contaminations. Chi square and t-test were employed to evaluate the risk factors of exposure. Results 80%of the participants were exposed to the patients’ blood or body fluids during their clinical course. No association was found between the exposure and demographic factors. Injection needle and recapping were the most common causes of these injuries. The most common sites that were injured and caused mucocutaneous contamination were finger and face, respectively. The most frequent activity causing contamination was using high-speed rotary instruments. Only 6.4% of the exposures had been reported to the related authorities and the remains were underreported. Conclusion Blood and body fluid exposure in dental setting is common and a lot of them are not reported. To reduce the hazards of these exposures, infection control authorities should design interventions especially for mentioned high-risk conditions. They should change dental students’ behavior especially regarding not recapping injection needles and using eyewear. Dental schools seem to need a management center and a standard protocol for following up the exposures. PMID:26331151

  12. Occupational Radiation Exposure from C Arm Fluoroscopy During Common Orthopaedic Surgical Procedures and its Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Samuel, Sumant; Saran, Atul K; Mahajan, M K; Mam, M K

    2015-01-01

    Background: Image intensifiers have become popular due to the concept of minimally invasive surgeries leading to decreasing invasiveness, decreased operative time, and less morbidity. The drawback, however, is an increased risk of radiation exposure to surgeon, patient and theatre staff. These exposures have been of concern due to their potential ability to produce biological effects. The present study was embarked upon to analyse the amount of radiation received by orthopedic surgeons in India using standard precautionary measures and also to bring awareness about the use of image intensifier safety in everyday practice. Materials and Methods: Twelve right-handed male orthopedic surgeons (4 senior consultants, 5 junior consultants and 3 residents) were included in a three month prospective study for radiation exposure measurement with adequate protection measures in all procedures requiring C Arm fluoroscopy. Each surgeon was provided with 5 Thermo Luminescent Dosimeter (TLD) badges which were tagged at the level of neck, chest, gonads and both wrists. Operative time and exposure time of each procedure was recorded. Exposure dose of each badge at the end of the study was obtained and the results were analysed. Results: Mean radiation exposure to all the parts were well within permissible limits. There was a significantly positive correlation between the exposure time and the exposure dose for the left wrist (r=0.735, p<0.01) and right wrist (r=0.58, p<0.05). The dominant hand had the maximum exposure overall. Conclusion: Orthopaedic surgeons are not classified radiation workers. The mean exposure doses to all parts of the body were well within permissible limits. Nothing conclusive, however, can be said about the stochastic effects (chance effects like cancers). Any amount of radiation taken is bound to pose an additional occupational hazard. It is thus desirable that radiation safety precautions should be taken and exposures regularly monitored with at least one dosimeter for monitoring the whole-body dose. PMID:25954671

  13. Occupational exposure to neurotoxic substances in Asian countries - Challenges and approaches

    PubMed Central

    Meyer-Baron, Monika; Kim, Eun A; Nuwayhid, Iman; Ichihara, Gaku; Kang, Seong-Kyu

    2012-01-01

    The fact that a conference on neurotoxicity was held in China triggered the idea to provide an insight into occupational diseases, their development and the approaches to investigate them in Asian countries. A historical review, a meta-analysis, and studies on humans and animals provide impressions on past and current problems. The Korean example showed that each newly introduced industry is accompanied by its own problems as regards occupational diseases. Mercury and carbon disulfide were of importance in the beginning, whereas solvents and manganese became important later. Outbreaks of diseases were important reasons to guide both the public and the governmental attention to prevention and allowed within a relatively short time considerable progress. As the example on the replacement of 2-bromopropane by 1-bromopropane showed, also the introduction of chemicals that are more beneficial for the environment may result in additional occupational risks. A lower mutagenicity of 1-bromopopane was shown to be associated with a greater neurotoxicity in Japanese studies. Although occupational health and diseases are commonly related to adults, child workers exposed to solvents were examined in a Lebanese study. The study started outlining the health hazards in young workers because they might be at a much greater risk due to the not yet completed maturation of their nervous system. That some occupational diseases are not yet a focus of prevention was shown by the study on pesticides. If at all, the serious health consequences resulting from excessive exposure were investigated. Research enabling precautionary actions was not available from the international literature. Despite globalization the knowledge on occupational diseases is not yet “globalized” and each country obviously undergoes its own development triggered by local experiences. Economic development that requires a healthy workforce, but also public interest that challenges governmental regulations further efforts on the prevention of occupational diseases. The paper reflects a summary of the talks presented at the symposium “Occupational Neurotoxicities in Asian Countries” as part of the 11th International Symposium on Neurobehavioral Methods and Effects in Occupational and Environmental Health. PMID:22202747

  14. Sol-gel based sensor for selective formaldehyde determination.

    PubMed

    Bunkoed, Opas; Davis, Frank; Kanatharana, Proespichaya; Thavarungkul, Panote; Higson, Séamus P J

    2010-02-01

    We report the development of transparent sol-gels with entrapped sensitive and selective reagents for the detection of formaldehyde. The sampling method is based on the adsorption of formaldehyde from the air and reaction with beta-diketones (for example acetylacetone) in a sol-gel matrix to produce a yellow product, lutidine, which was detected directly. The proposed method does not require preparation of samples prior to analysis and allows both screening by visual detection and quantitative measurement by simple spectrophotometry. The detection limit of 0.03 ppmv formaldehyde is reported which is lower than the maximum exposure concentrations recommended by both the World Health Organisation (WHO) and the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). This sampling method was found to give good reproducibility, the relative standard deviation at 0.2 and 1 ppmv being 6.3% and 4.6%, respectively. Other carbonyl compounds i.e. acetaldehyde, benzaldehyde, acetone and butanone do not interfere with this analytical approach. Results are provided for the determination of formaldehyde in indoor air. PMID:20103132

  15. Characterization of allergic response induced by repeated dermal exposure of IL-4/Luc/CNS-1 transgenic mice to low dose formaldehyde

    PubMed Central

    Kwak, Moon-Hwa; Kim, Ji-Eun; Go, Jun; Koh, Eun-Kyoung; Song, Sung-Hwa; Sung, Ji-Eun; Yang, Seung-Yun; An, Beum-Soo; Jung, Young-Jin; Lee, Jae-Ho; Lim, Yong

    2014-01-01

    Although formaldehyde (FA) is known to be a major allergen responsible for allergic contact dermatitis, there are conflicting reports regarding correlation between FA exposure and interleukin (IL-4) expression. To investigate whether allergic responses including IL-4 expression were induced by repeated dermal exposure to low dose FA, alterations in the luciferase signal and allergic phenotypes were measured in IL-4/Luc/CNS-1 transgenic (Tg) mice containing luciferase cDNA under control of the IL-4 promoter after exposure to 4% FA for 2 weeks. High levels of luciferase were detected in the abdominal region of the whole body and submandibular lymph node (SLN) of FA treated mice. Additionally, the ear thickness and IgE concentration were significantly upregulated in the FA treated group when compared with the acetone olive oil (AOO) treated group. FA treated mice showed enhanced auricular lymph node (ALN) weight, epidermis and dermis thickness, and infiltration of inflammatory cells. Furthermore, the expression of IL-6 among T helper 2 cytokines was higher in the FA treated group than the AOO treated group, while vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) levels remained constant. Overall, the results presented herein provide additional evidence that various allergic responses may be successfully induced in IL-4/Luc/CNS-1 Tg mice after exposure to low dose FA for 2 weeks. The luciferase signal under the IL-4 promoter may reflect general indicators of the allergic response induced by exposure to low dose FA. PMID:25324870

  16. Characterization of allergic response induced by repeated dermal exposure of IL-4/Luc/CNS-1 transgenic mice to low dose formaldehyde.

    PubMed

    Kwak, Moon-Hwa; Kim, Ji-Eun; Go, Jun; Koh, Eun-Kyoung; Song, Sung-Hwa; Sung, Ji-Eun; Yang, Seung-Yun; An, Beum-Soo; Jung, Young-Jin; Lee, Jae-Ho; Lim, Yong; Hwang, Dae-Youn

    2014-09-01

    Although formaldehyde (FA) is known to be a major allergen responsible for allergic contact dermatitis, there are conflicting reports regarding correlation between FA exposure and interleukin (IL-4) expression. To investigate whether allergic responses including IL-4 expression were induced by repeated dermal exposure to low dose FA, alterations in the luciferase signal and allergic phenotypes were measured in IL-4/Luc/CNS-1 transgenic (Tg) mice containing luciferase cDNA under control of the IL-4 promoter after exposure to 4% FA for 2 weeks. High levels of luciferase were detected in the abdominal region of the whole body and submandibular lymph node (SLN) of FA treated mice. Additionally, the ear thickness and IgE concentration were significantly upregulated in the FA treated group when compared with the acetone olive oil (AOO) treated group. FA treated mice showed enhanced auricular lymph node (ALN) weight, epidermis and dermis thickness, and infiltration of inflammatory cells. Furthermore, the expression of IL-6 among T helper 2 cytokines was higher in the FA treated group than the AOO treated group, while vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) levels remained constant. Overall, the results presented herein provide additional evidence that various allergic responses may be successfully induced in IL-4/Luc/CNS-1 Tg mice after exposure to low dose FA for 2 weeks. The luciferase signal under the IL-4 promoter may reflect general indicators of the allergic response induced by exposure to low dose FA. PMID:25324870

  17. Human exposure to mercury in a compact fluorescent lamp manufacturing area: By food (rice and fish) consumption and occupational exposure.

    PubMed

    Liang, Peng; Feng, Xinbin; Zhang, Chan; Zhang, Jin; Cao, Yucheng; You, Qiongzhi; Leung, Anna Oi Wah; Wong, Ming-Hung; Wu, Sheng-Chun

    2015-03-01

    To investigate human Hg exposure by food consumption and occupation exposure in a compact fluorescent lamp (CFL) manufacturing area, human hair and rice samples were collected from Gaohong town, Zhejiang Province, China. The mean values of total mercury (THg) and methylmercury (MeHg) concentrations in local cultivated rice samples were significantly higher than in commercial rice samples which indicated that CFL manufacturing activities resulted in Hg accumulation in local rice samples. For all of the study participants, significantly higher THg concentrations in human hair were observed in CFL workers compared with other residents. In comparison, MeHg concentrations in human hair of residents whose diet consisted of local cultivated rice were significantly higher than those who consumed commercial rice. These results demonstrated that CFL manufacturing activities resulted in THg accumulation in the hair of CFL workers. However, MeHg in hair were mainly affected by the sources of rice of the residents. PMID:25590130

  18. Occupational exposures and risk of systemic lupus erythematosus: a review of the evidence and exposure assessment methods in population- and clinic-based studies.

    PubMed

    Parks, C G; Cooper, G S

    2006-01-01

    Epidemiologic and experimental research suggests a potential role of occupational exposures in the development of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). A plausible association has been identified in studies of occupational silica exposure and SLE, complemented by experimental studies in lupus-prone mice exploring potential mechanisms related to apoptosis and immune dysregulation. Experimental studies of the solvent trichloroethylene in lupus-prone mice provide evidence of effects on immune function, including increased production of autoantibodies and activation of CD4+ T cells. However, few studies of occupational solvent exposure and SLE have been conducted, and those that are available show little evidence of an association. There is some suggestion from the available studies of the potential influence of pesticides on SLE, but as with solvents, the specific type of pesticides that may be implicated is not known. Our understanding of the role of occupational exposures in SLE could be advanced by the development of larger, multisite or parallel studies that utilize similar questionnaire and exposure evaluation methods. Multiple studies using comparable exposure measures are needed to provide sufficient sample size for examining gene-environment interactions. We provide a general overview of data requirements and methods available for the assessment and evaluation of occupational exposures in clinical and population-based studies of SLE. PMID:17153843

  19. [Cancerogenic effect of occupational exposure to man-made mineral fibers: results from the epidemiological study].

    PubMed

    Szadkowska-Sta?czyk, Irena; Stroszejn-Mrowca, Grazyna

    2002-01-01

    The size and technology of the man-made mineral fibers production in Poland is presented. The results of the case-referent and cohort studies aimed at assessing risk for or mortality from respiratory system cancers in populations occupationally exposed to dust containing artificial mineral fibers are also analyzed. The majority of studies focused on the exposure to glass fibers, however, their results revealed no increased risk for cancers in those exposed. As to the increased risk for respiratory system cancers induced by exposure to glass and slag wool fibers, the same proportion of positive and negative results was found in the literature. Most of the studies showed no association between the risk level and the exposure period or cumulative dose. The association with latency period of more than 20 years was only emphasized. This together with the fact that in the majority of studies neither smoking histories nor exposures to other respiratory carcinogens were considered significantly undermine the cause-effect inference. Bearing this mind, it should be concluded that there is an urgent need to undertake further studies with the aim to assess the health risk of exposure to man-made mineral fibers, but only such studies in which besides exposure to fibers, it will be possible to analyze exposure to other coexisting carcinogenic agents. PMID:12116904

  20. Clinical and pathological characteristics of hepatotoxicity associated with occupational exposure to dimethylformamide

    SciTech Connect

    Redlich, C.A.; West, A.B.; Fleming, L.; True, L.D.; Cullen, M.R.; Riely, C.A. )

    1990-09-01

    The clinical characteristics, laboratory results, and liver biopsy findings of seven workers with toxic liver injury associated with exposure to several solvents, including substantial levels of the widely used solvent dimethylformamide, are presented. Three patients had short exposure (less than 3 months), four long exposure (greater than 1 year). Among those with brief exposure, symptoms included anorexia, abdominal pain, and disulfiram-type reaction. Aminotransferases were markedly elevated with the ratio of alanine aminotransferase to aspartate aminotransferase always greater than 1. Liver biopsy showed focal hepatocellular necrosis and microvesicular steatosis with prominence of smooth endoplasmic reticulum, complex lysosomes, and pleomorphic mitochondria with crystalline inclusions. Among workers with long exposure, symptoms were minimal and enzyme elevations modest. Biopsies showed macrovesicular steatosis, pleomorphic mitochondria without crystalloids, and prominent smooth endoplasmic reticulum, but no evidence of persisting acute injury or fibrosis. Abnormal aminotransferases in both groups may persist for months after removal from exposure, but progression to cirrhosis in continually exposed workers was not observed. We conclude that exposure of these workers to solvents, chiefly dimethylformamide, may result in two variants of toxic liver injury with subtle clinical, laboratory, and morphological features. This may be readily overlooked if occupational history and biopsy histology are not carefully evaluated.

  1. Skin disease after occupational dermal exposure to coal tar: a review of the scientific literature.

    PubMed

    Moustafa, Giannis-Aimant; Xanthopoulou, Eleni; Riza, Elena; Linos, Athena

    2015-08-01

    For about a century, coal tar has been used in industry and has been applied in the therapeutic management of several skin diseases. However, in the last decades the benefits of coal tar exploitation for humans could not outweigh its harmful effects on health. The aim of this study is to present the main adverse effects of coal tar on skin, with the emphasis on occupational exposure. The scientific literature indicates that dermal exposure to coal tar and coal tar pitches can be the cause of phototoxic reactions, irritation and burn, allergic dermatitis, folliculitis, occupational acne, atrophy of the epidermis, and hyperpigmentation. Moreover coal tar has been implicated in tumorigenesis, a relationship shown in numerous studies but not confirmed yet as the mechanism has not been fully clarified. A common finding in most studies is that exposure over a long period is the main risk factor for malignancy development, even in low exposure levels. Additional prospective, well-designed studies need to be performed to confirm the validity of the carcinogenic, mutagenic, and cytotoxic potential of coal tar on skin. PMID:26183242

  2. Advances in Inhalation Dosimetry Models and Methods for Occupational Risk Assessment and Exposure Limit Derivation

    PubMed Central

    Kuempel, Eileen D.; Sweeney, Lisa M.; Morris, John B.; Jarabek, Annie M.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide an overview and practical guide to occupational health professionals concerning the derivation and use of dose estimates in risk assessment for development of occupational exposure limits (OELs) for inhaled substances. Dosimetry is the study and practice of measuring or estimating the internal dose of a substance in individuals or a population. Dosimetry thus provides an essential link to understanding the relationship between an external exposure and a biological response. Use of dosimetry principles and tools can improve the accuracy of risk assessment, and reduce the uncertainty, by providing reliable estimates of the internal dose at the target tissue. This is accomplished through specific measurement data or predictive models, when available, or the use of basic dosimetry principles for broad classes of materials. Accurate dose estimation is essential not only for dose-response assessment, but also for interspecies extrapolation and for risk characterization at given exposures. Inhalation dosimetry is the focus of this paper since it is a major route of exposure in the workplace. Practical examples of dose estimation and OEL derivation are provided for inhaled gases and particulates. PMID:26551218

  3. The effect of occupational lead exposure on lipid peroxidation, protein carbonylation, and plasma viscosity.

    PubMed

    Kasperczyk, S?awomir; S?owi?ska-?o?y?ska, Ludmi?a; Kasperczyk, Aleksandra; Wielkoszy?ski, Tomasz; Birkner, Ewa

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of occupational lead (Pb) exposure on lipid peroxidation, protein carbonylation, and plasma viscosity in workers. The examined group included 283 healthy male employees of manufacturing facilities using zinc and Pb. The mean blood concentrations of Pb and zinc protoporphyrin as well as the mean urine ?-aminolevulinic acid levels were used as markers of exposure for the examined group. Taking into account the obtained mean values of blood lead level, the examined group was divided into three subgroups. When comparing the control group with the subgroups, Pb exposure markers were significantly elevated in all the three subgroups. Concentrations of conjugated dienes (CD), lipid hydroperoxides, malondialdehyde (MDA), and protein carbonyl groups were also significantly increased. Conversely, the levels of total protein and protein sulfhydryls were significantly decreased in the subgroups compared with the controls. The plasma viscosity was significantly elevated in the subgroups. A dose-response between Pb levels and plasma viscosity was not observed. Pb supposedly elevates MDA and CD in a dose-dependent manner. In conclusion, occupational Pb exposure induces oxidative stress that results in lipid and protein damage. Moreover, Pb-induced oxidative stress is likely the primary factor that elevates plasma viscosity, despite decreased protein levels. PMID:23709227

  4. Occupational Asthma

    MedlinePLUS

    Asthma - occupational exposure; Irritant-induced reactive airways disease ... Avoiding exposure to the substance that is causing your asthma is the best treatment. Measures may include: Changing jobs ( ...

  5. Performance of population specific job exposure matrices (JEMs): European collaborative analyses on occupational risk factors for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease with job exposure matrices (ECOJEM)

    PubMed Central

    Le Moual, N; Bakke, P; Orlowski, E; Heederik, D; Kromhout, H; Kennedy, S; Rijcken, B; Kauffmann, F

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To compare the performance of population specific job exposure matrices (JEMs) and self reported occupational exposure with data on exposure and lung function from three European general populations.?METHODS—Self reported occupational exposure (yes or no) and present occupation were recorded in the three general population surveys conducted in France, The Netherlands, and Norway. Analysis was performed on subjects, aged 25-64, who provided good forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) tracings and whose occupations were performed by at least two people, in the French (6217 men and 5571 women), the Dutch (men from urban (854) and rural (780) areas), and the Norwegian (395 men) surveys. Two population specific JEMs, based on the percentage of subjects who reported themselves exposed in each job, were constructed for each survey and each sex. The first matrix classified jobs into three categories of exposure according to the proportion of subjects who reported themselves exposed in each job (P10-50 JEM, low < 10%, moderate 10-49%, high ? 50%). For the second matrix, a dichotomous variable was constructed to have the same statistical power as the self reported exposure—that is, the exposure prevalence (p) was the same with both exposure assessment methods (Pp JEM). Relations between occupational exposure, as estimated by the two JEMs and self reported exposure, and age, height, city, and smoking adjusted FEV1 score were compared.?RESULTS—Significant associations between occupational exposure estimated by the population specific JEM and lung function were found in the French and the rural Dutch surveys, whereas no significant relation was found with self reported exposure. In populations with few subjects in most jobs, exposure cannot be estimated with sufficient precision by a population specific JEM, which may explain the lack of relation in the Norwegian and the Dutch (urban area) surveys.?CONCLUSION—The population specific JEM, which was easy to construct and cost little, seemed to perform better than crude self reported exposures, in populations with sufficient numbers of subjects per job.???Keywords: job exposure matrix; occupational exposure; lung function PMID:10711281

  6. Case-control study of occupational exposures and male breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Cocco, P.; Figgs, L.; Dosemeci, M.; Hayes, R.; Linet, M. S.; Hsing, A. W.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether risk of male breast cancer is associated with workplace exposures. METHODS: A case-control study of 178 cases of male breast cancer and 1041 controls was carried out with data from the United States national mortality follow-back survey, which collected questionnaire information from proxy respondents of a 1% sample of all 1986 United States deaths among subjects aged 25-74 years. Occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields, high temperatures, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), herbicides, other pesticides, and organic solvents was assessed by applying job- exposure matrices, based on the 1980 United States census occupation and industry codes, to the longest job held by study subjects as reported by the informants. A socioeconomic status index was created by combining information on annual family income, education, assets, and occupation to assess the association of socioeconomic status with male breast cancer. Relative risks were derived from logistic regression modelling, which included age, socioeconomic status, marital status, and body mass index, as well as occupational exposures. RESULTS: Risk for male breast cancer increased significantly with increasing socioeconomic status index (test for trend: p < 0.01), but the risks associated with individual socioeconomic status variables were smaller and the trends were not significant. A significant increase in risk of male breast cancer was associated with employment in blast furnaces, steel works, and rolling mills (odds ratio (OR) 3.4; 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.1 to 10.1, based on six cases), and motor vehicle manufacturing (OR 3.1; 95% CI 1.2 to 8.2, based on seven cases). However, exposures to electromagnetic fields, high temperature, PAHs, herbicides, other pesticides, and organic solvents were not associated with risk of male breast cancer. CONCLUSIONS: The role of workplace exposures in increasing risk of breast cancer among men employed in motor vehicle manufacturing and in blast furnaces, steel works, and rolling mills deserves further investigation. The finding on socioeconomic status suggests that, as well as reproductive factors, other lifestyle factors such as diet that may be related to high socioeconomic status in men should be investigated further.   PMID:9861181

  7. Retrospective Exposure Assessment for Occupational Disease of an Individual Worker Using an Exposure Database and Trend Analysis.

    PubMed

    Chung, Derrick A; Yang, Rui Rain; Verma, Dave K; Luo, Jun

    2015-12-01

    This article outlines a hierarchy of data required for retrospective exposure assessment for occupational disease of an individual worker. It then outlines in a step-wise manner how trend analysis using a relatively large exposure database can be used to estimate such exposure. The process of how a large database containing exposure measurements can be prepared for estimating historic occupational exposures of individual workers in relation to their illnesses is described. The asbestos subset from a large government collected air monitoring database called Medical Surveillance (MESU) was selected to illustrate the cleaning and analysis processes. After unidentifiable values were removed, the cleaned dataset was examined for possible sources of variability such as changes to sampling protocol. Limit of detection (LOD) values were substituted for all non-detectable values prior to the calculation of descriptive statistic using left censored analysis methods (i.e., maximum likelihood estimation (MLE), Kaplan Meier (KM), and simple substitution). The JoinPoint Regression Program was used to perform trend analysis and calculate an annual percentage change (APC) value for the available sampling period. An asbestos case study is presented to illustrate how the APC can then be combined with more recent job and/or process specific exposure data to estimate historic levels. The MESU asbestos dataset contained 1,610 samples from 1984-1995. An average of 17% of this data was left censored. The asbestos air sampling methods in Ontario changed around 1990. LOD values of 0.06 f/cc and 0.02 f/cc were substituted for LOD values pre- and post-1990, respectively. The annual mean fiber levels for the MLE method were an average of 44% lower than KM and substitution methods. The corresponding APC for MLE method was -6.5% and -7.7% for KM and simple substitution. The findings of this paper illustrate how the temporal trend of an exposure databases can be used to efficiently estimate historic contaminant levels in the presence of limited historical information. PMID:26252188

  8. A National Study on Nurses’ Exposure to Occupational Violence in Lebanon: Prevalence, Consequences and Associated Factors

    PubMed Central

    Alameddine, Mohamad; Mourad, Yara; Dimassi, Hani

    2015-01-01

    Background Healthcare institutions have commonly reported exposure of employees, particularly nurses, to high levels of occupational violence. Despite such evidence in the Middle East Region, there is a dearth of national studies that have systematically investigated this phenomenon. This study investigates the prevalence, characteristics, consequences and factors associated with nurses’ exposure to occupational violence in Lebanon. Methods A cross-sectional design was utilized to survey a nationally representative sample of 915 nurses registered with the Order of Nurses in Lebanon. Stratified random sampling by governorate was utilized. Individually-mailed questionnaires collected information on exposure to violence, degree of burnout and demographic/professional background. The main outcome variables were exposure to verbal abuse (never, 1–3, 4–9 and 10+ times) and physical violence (never, ever) over the past 12-months. Descriptive statistics were used to estimate prevalence of violence. Multivariable, binomial and multinomial regression models were carried out to investigate the correlates of exposure to verbal abuse and physical violence, respectively. Results Response rate was 64.8%. Over the last year, prevalence of nurses’ exposure to verbal abuse was 62%, (CI: 58–65%) and physical violence was 10%, (CI: 8–13%). Among respondents, 31.7% of nurses indicated likelihood to quit their jobs and 22.3% were undetermined. Furthermore, 54.1% reported high levels of emotional exhaustion and 28.8% reported high levels of depersonalization. Compared to nurses with no exposure to verbal abuse, nurses reporting high exposure had high levels of emotional exhaustion (OR:6.4; CI:1.76–23.32), depersonalization (OR:6.8; CI: 3–15) and intention to quit job (OR:3.9; CI: 1.8–8.3). They further reported absence of anti-violence policies at their institutions (OR: 3; CI: 1.5–6.3). Nurses that were ever exposed to physical violence were more likely to be males (OR: 2.2; CI: 1.1–4.3), working day and night shifts (OR: 2.8; CI: 1.4–5.5) and subject to ten or more incidents of verbal abuse per year (OR: 46.7; CI: 10.1–214). Conclusions An alarming two-thirds of respondents reported exposure to verbal abuse which was found to be a significant predictor of the three subscales of burnout, intention to quit and exposure to physical violence. The prevalence of exposure to physical violence is disconcerting due to its severe consequences. Policy and decision-makers are urged to use study findings for policy and practice interventions to create safe work environments conducive to nurses’ productivity and retention. PMID:26355686

  9. Progressive supranuclear palsy-like parkinsonism resulting from occupational exposure to lead sulphate batteries.

    PubMed

    Sanz, P; Nogué, S; Vilchez, D; Vilchez, J; Casal, A; Logroscino, G

    2007-01-01

    A 53-year-old man who had worked for 17 years manufacturing car batteries, with overt exposure to lead, developed a clinical picture initially characterized by signs of parkinsonism, followed by atypical signs such as loss of memory, reduction of eye movement, dysarthria, chorea-like dyskinesia and sexual impotence. The diagnosis of atypical parkinsonism was eventually changed to progressive supranuclear palsy-like parkinsonism. The patient was treated with various anti-Parkinson's disease drugs, including levodopa, with modest improvement. The symptoms deteriorated progressively, leading to permanent occupational disability with noticeable limitation of daily activities. Toxicological studies revealed abnormally high blood levels of lead. Discontinuation of lead exposure was followed first by clinical stabilization and then steady improvement. This case confirms recent reports that link exposure to lead and its compounds with degenerative diseases of the central nervous system, such as Parkinson's disease. PMID:17408069

  10. Occupational Radiation Exposure at Commercial Nuclear Power Reactors and Other Facilities 2008

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research

    2009-12-01

    This report summarizes the occupational exposure data that are maintained in the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Radiation Exposure Information and Reporting System (REIRS). The bulk of the information contained in the report was compiled from the 2008 annual reports submitted by five of the seven categories1 of NRC licensees subject to the reporting requirements of 10 CFR 20.2206. The annual reports submitted by these licensees consist of radiation exposure records for each monitored individual. These records are analyzed for trends and presented in this report in terms of collective dose and the distribution of dose among the monitored individuals. Because there are no geologic repositories for high-level waste currently licensed and no low-level waste disposal facilities in operation, only five categories will be considered in this report.

  11. Usefulness of biomarkers as intermediate endpoints in health risks posed by occupational lead exposure.

    PubMed

    Borghini, Andrea; Gianicolo, Emilio Antonio; Andreassi, Maria Grazia

    2016-01-01

    The article concerns potential harmful effects of exposure to lead. Although the occurrence of severe lead poisoning has receded in several countries, occupational exposure resulting in moderate and clinically symptomatic toxicity is still common. An earlier and precise characterization of an individual response is obligatory in order to assess the possible risks for human health. Biomarkers may fill important gaps in the path from exposure to a disease. Specifically speaking, emerging (DNA double strand breaks and telomeric DNA erosion) and validated (micronuclei induction and chromosomal aberrations) biomarkers of genotoxicity seem to provide evidence for the assessment of molecular and cellular damage. Moreover, identi?cation of genetic variability with a key role in modulating genotoxic damage may help minimize risks for susceptible subjects. Further investigations are naturally needed to properly define their diagnostic and/or prognostic value as "early warning" signs of a long-term risk for a subsequent clinically overt disease. PMID:26670349

  12. Occupational exposures and colorectal cancers: A quantitative overview of epidemiological evidence

    PubMed Central

    Oddone, Enrico; Modonesi, Carlo; Gatta, Gemma

    2014-01-01

    A traditional belief widespread across the biomedical community was that dietary habits and genetic predisposition were the basic factors causing colorectal cancer. In more recent times, however, a growing evidence has shown that other determinants can be very important in increasing (or reducing) incidence of this malignancy. The hypothesis that environmental and occupational risk factors are associated with colorectal cancer is gaining ground, and high risks of colorectal cancer have been reported among workers in some industrial branches. The aim of this study was to investigate the epidemiologic relationship between colorectal cancer and occupational exposures to several industrial activities, by means of a scientific literature review and meta-analysis. This work pointed out increased risks of colorectal cancer for labourers occupied in industries with a wide use of chemical compounds, such as leather (RR = 1.70, 95%CI: 1.24-2.34), basic metals (RR = 1.32, 95%CI: 1.07-1.65), plastic and rubber manufacturing (RR = 1.30, 95%CI: 0.98-1.71 and RR = 1.27, 95%CI: 0.92-1.76, respectively), besides workers in the sector of repair and installation of machinery exposed to asbestos (RR = 1.40, 95%CI: 1.07-1.84). Based on our results, the estimated crude excess risk fraction attributable to occupational exposure ranged from about 11% to about 15%. However, homogeneous pattern of association between colorectal cancer and industrial branches did not emerge from this review. PMID:25253943

  13. The Global Landscape of Occupational Exposure Limits—Implementation of Harmonization Principles to Guide Limit Selection

    PubMed Central

    Deveau, M; Chen, C-P; Johanson, G; Krewski, D; Maier, A; Niven, KJ; Ripple, S; Schulte, PA; Silk, J; Urbanus, JH; Zalk, DM; Niemeier, RW

    2015-01-01

    Occupational exposure limits (OELs) serve as health-based benchmarks against which measured or estimated workplace exposures can be compared. In the years since the introduction of OELs to public health practice, both developed and developing countries have established processes for deriving, setting, and using OELs to protect workers exposed to hazardous chemicals. These processes vary widely, however, and have thus resulted in a confusing international landscape for identifying and applying such limits in workplaces. The occupational hygienist will encounter significant overlap in coverage among organizations for many chemicals, while other important chemicals have OELs developed by few, if any, organizations. Where multiple organizations have published an OEL, the derived value often varies considerably—reflecting differences in both risk policy and risk assessment methodology as well as access to available pertinent data. This paper explores the underlying reasons for variability in OELs, and recommends the harmonization of risk-based methods used by OEL-deriving organizations. A framework is also proposed for the identification and systematic evaluation of OEL resources, which occupational hygienists can use to support risk characterization and risk management decisions in situations where multiple potentially relevant OELs exist. PMID:26099071

  14. Occupational radiation exposures of artisans mining columbite-tantalite in the eastern Democratic Republic of Congo.

    PubMed

    Mustapha, A O; Mbuzukongira, P; Mangala, M J

    2007-06-01

    Artisans in Masisi and other parts of the North Kivu province in the eastern Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) mine columbite-tantalite mineral ores (also called 'coltan') for the tantalum content. The potential occupational radiation exposures in the course of this operation, due to the presence of naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM), have been investigated in this screening survey. Activity concentrations of the naturally occurring radionuclides in samples of coltan were measured using gamma-ray spectrometry. The average values in Bq g(-1) are 10.75 +/- 5.11 for (238)U, 7.06 +/- 3.39 for (226)Ra, 1.75 +/- 0.85 for (232)Th, and 1.63 +/- 0.52 for (40)K. Based on these values and the working scenarios involved in artisanal coltan mining, the occupational doses that may accrue from a variety of exposure pathways were determined by model calculations. The results, assuming conservative dust load and dilution factors, indicate that grinding and sieving coltan can give rise to high occupational doses, up to 18 mSv per annum on average. PMID:17664663

  15. The Global Landscape of Occupational Exposure Limits-Implementation of Harmonization Principles to Guide Limit Selection.

    PubMed

    Deveau, M; Chen, C-P; Johanson, G; Krewski, D; Maier, A; Niven, K J; Ripple, S; Schulte, P A; Silk, J; Urbanus, J H; Zalk, D M; Niemeier, R W

    2015-01-01

    Occupational exposure limits (OELs) serve as health-based benchmarks against which measured or estimated workplace exposures can be compared. In the years since the introduction of OELs to public health practice, both developed and developing countries have established processes for deriving, setting, and using OELs to protect workers exposed to hazardous chemicals. These processes vary widely, however, and have thus resulted in a confusing international landscape for identifying and applying such limits in workplaces. The occupational hygienist will encounter significant overlap in coverage among organizations for many chemicals, while other important chemicals have OELs developed by few, if any, organizations. Where multiple organizations have published an OEL, the derived value often varies considerably-reflecting differences in both risk policy and risk assessment methodology as well as access to available pertinent data. This article explores the underlying reasons for variability in OELs, and recommends the harmonization of risk-based methods used by OEL-deriving organizations. A framework is also proposed for the identification and systematic evaluation of OEL resources, which occupational hygienists can use to support risk characterization and risk management decisions in situations where multiple potentially relevant OELs exist. PMID:26099071

  16. An overview of the characterization of occupational exposure to nanoaerosols in workplaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castellano, Paola; Ferrante, Riccardo; Curini, Roberta; Canepari, Silvia

    2009-05-01

    Currently, there is a lack of standardized sampling and metric methods that can be applied to measure the level of exposure to nanosized aerosols. Therefore, any attempt to characterize exposure to nanoparticles (NP) in a workplace must involve a multifaceted approach characterized by different sampling and analytical techniques to measure all relevant characteristics of NP exposure. Furthermore, as NP aerosols are always complex mixtures of multiple origins, sampling and analytical methods need to be improved to selectively evaluate the apportionment from specific sources to the final nanomaterials. An open question at the world's level is how to relate specific toxic effects of NP with one or more among several different parameters (such as particle size, mass, composition, surface area, number concentration, aggregation or agglomeration state, water solubility and surface chemistry). As the evaluation of occupational exposure to NP in workplaces needs dimensional and chemical characterization, the main problem is the choice of the sampling and dimensional separation techniques. Therefore a convenient approach to allow a satisfactory risk assessment could be the contemporary use of different sampling and measuring techniques for particles with known toxicity in selected workplaces. Despite the lack of specific NP exposure limit values, exposure metrics, appropriate to nanoaerosols, are discussed in the Technical Report ISO/TR 27628:2007 with the aim to enable occupational hygienists to characterize and monitor nanoaerosols in workplaces. Moreover, NIOSH has developed the Document Approaches to Safe Nanotechnology (intended to be an information exchange with NIOSH) in order to address current and future research needs to understanding the potential risks that nanotechnology may have to workers.

  17. NIOSH testimony to DOL on the Occupational Safety and Health Administration's proposed rule on occupational exposure to cadmium by R. A. Lemen, July 17, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-07-17

    The testimony summarizes the position of NIOSH in support of the proposed rule on cadmium (7440439). NIOSH supports the position of OSHA that exposure to cadmium is associated with increased incidence of lung cancer, emphysema, and kidney dysfunction. Because cadmium is a potential occupational carcinogen, occupational exposures to cadmium should be reduced to the lowest feasible level. NIOSH strongly recommends the use of engineering controls and work practices instead of personal protective equipment, including respiratory protection, for controlling exposures to cadmium. NIOSH responds in this testimony to specific areas covered in the proposed rule including respiratory protection, medical surveillance, medical screening requirements, and exposure monitoring frequency. Use of specific control methods is considered for cadmium plating operations, stabilizer production, and pigment production.

  18. Occupational radiation exposure due to norm in a rare-earth compounds production facility.

    PubMed

    Haridasan, P P; Pillai, P M B; Tripathi, R M; Puranik, V D

    2008-01-01

    In India, rare-earth compounds are produced from the beach sand mineral monazite. Caustic digestion of the mineral followed by selective acid extraction is the method used to separate composite rare-earth fraction. The composite rare-earth chloride contains low levels of natural radionuclides and is the starting material for individual rare-earth compounds which have wide applications. Activity concentrations in composite rare-earth compounds such as chlorides, fluorides, carbonates and oxides of Ce, Nd, Pr, Sm, Gd, etc. are presented in this paper. The external gamma exposure rates and airborne activity due to thorium and thoron progeny in the occupational environment are studied. The activity levels in liquid effluent are presented. The potential individual occupational dose is estimated to be 1.9 mSv per annum. PMID:18550514

  19. Occupational Exposure to Swine, Poultry, and Cattle and Antibody Biomarkers of Campylobacter jejuni Exposure and Autoimmune Peripheral Neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Vegosen, Leora; Breysse, Patrick N.; Agnew, Jacqueline; Gray, Gregory C.; Nachamkin, Irving; Sheikh, Kazim; Kamel, Freya; Silbergeld, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Foodborne Campylobacter jejuni infection has been associated with an increased risk of autoimmune peripheral neuropathy, but risks of occupational exposure to C. jejuni have received less attention. This study compared anti-C. jejuni IgA, IgG, and IgM antibody levels, as well as the likelihood of testing positive for any of five anti-ganglioside autoantibodies, between animal farmers and non-farmers. Anti-C. jejuni antibody levels were also compared between farmers with different animal herd or flock sizes. The relationship between anti-C. jejuni antibody levels and detection of anti-ganglioside autoantibodies was also assessed. Methods Serum samples from 129 Agricultural Health Study swine farmers (some of whom also worked with other animals) and 46 non-farmers, all from Iowa, were analyzed for anti-C. jejuni antibodies and anti-ganglioside autoantibodies using ELISA. Information on animal exposures was assessed using questionnaire data. Anti-C. jejuni antibody levels were compared using Mann-Whitney tests and linear regression on log-transformed outcomes. Fisher’s Exact Tests and logistic regression were used to compare likelihood of positivity for anti-ganglioside autoantibodies. Results Farmers had significantly higher levels of anti-C. jejuni IgA (p < 0.0001) and IgG