These are representative sample records from Science.gov related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at Science.gov.
1

Occupational exposure to formaldehyde and wood dust and nasopharyngeal carcinoma  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES—To investigate whether occupational exposures to formaldehyde and wood dust increase the risk of nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC).?METHODS—A multicentred, population based case-control study was carried out at five cancer registries in the United States participating in the National Cancer Institute's SEER program. Cases (n=196) with a newly diagnosed NPC between 1987 and 1993, and controls (n=244) selected over the same period from the general population through random digit dialing participated in structured telephone interviews which inquired about suspected risk factors for the disease, including a lifetime history of occupational and chemical exposure. Histological type of cancer was abstracted from clinical records of the registries. Potential exposure to formaldehyde and wood dust was assessed on a job by job basis by experienced industrial hygienists who were blinded as to case or control status.?RESULTS—For formaldehyde, after adjusting for cigarette use, race, and other risk factors, a trend of increasing risk of squamous and unspecified epithelial carcinomas was found for increasing duration (p=0.014) and cumulative exposure (p=0.033) but not for maximum exposure concentration. The odds ratio (OR) for people cumulatively exposed to >1.10 ppm-years was 3.0 (95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.3 to 6.6) compared with those considered unexposed. In analyses limited to jobs considered definitely exposed, these trends became stronger. The associations were most evident among cigarette smokers. By contrast, there was no association between potential exposure to formaldehyde and undifferentiated and non-keratinising carcinomas. There was little evidence that exposure to wood dust increased risk of NPC, as modest crude associations essentially disappeared after control for potential exposure to formaldehyde.?CONCLUSIONS—These results support the hypothesis that occupational exposure to formaldehyde, but not wood dust, increases risk of NPC. This association seems to be specific to squamous cell carcinomas. Established cohorts of workers exposed to formaldehyde and wood dust should continue to be monitored for NPC and other respiratory cancers. Future studies of NPC should take into account histological type in assessing risk from environmental and host factors.???Keywords: occupational exposure; formaldehyde; wood dust PMID:10810126

Vaughan, T.; Stewart, P.; Teschke, K.; Lynch, C.; Swanson, G; Lyon, J.; Berwick, M.

2000-01-01

2

Occupational Formaldehyde Exposure and Cancer Risk  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource is part of the AAA Education and Teaching Session. In particular this resource is a pdf of the presentation from the AAA 2012 Refresher Course - The Facts about Formaldehyde:What Every Anatomist Should Know.

PhD Laura Freeman (National Cancer Institute)

2012-04-21

3

A Formaldehyde Exposure Assessment Tool for Occupants of FEMA Temporary Housing Units  

SciTech Connect

The report outlines the methodology used to develop a web-based tool to assess the formaldehyde exposure of the occupants of Federal Emergency Management Administration (FEMA) temporary housing units (THUs) after Hurricanes Katrina and Rita in 2005. Linear regression models were built using available data to retrospectively estimate the indoor temperature and relative humidity, formaldehyde emission factors and concentration, and hence the formaldehyde exposures. The interactive web-tool allows the user to define the inputs to the model to evaluate formaldehyde exposures for different scenarios.

Parthasarathy, Srinandini; Spears, Michael; Maddalena, Randy L.; Russell, Marion L; Apte, Michael G.

2010-10-01

4

NIOSH comments to DOL on the Occupational Safety and Health Administration proposed rule on occupational exposure to formaldehyde by R. A. Lemen, February 9, 1987  

SciTech Connect

The testimony contains the comments of NIOSH regarding the proposed rule on occupational exposure to formaldehyde (50000). The comments concern the results of epidemiologic and industrial hygiene studies of workers exposed to formaldehyde, along with risk estimates for cancer sites of the upper respiratory system associated with such exposures. NIOSH encourages further research to evaluate the cancer risk associated with the combined exposure to formaldehyde and particulates. NIOSH recommends that the occupational exposure to formaldehyde be controlled to the lowest feasible concentration.

Not Available

1987-02-09

5

Evaluation of the health impact of lowering the formaldehyde occupational exposure limit for Quebec workers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aimed at assessing the impact on irritating effects of lowering the current occupational exposure limit (OEL) for formaldehyde in occupational settings in the Province of Quebec, Canada, from a 2ppm ceiling value to 1, 0.75 or 0.3ppm. This was achieved through (i) a re-assessment of the exposure–response relationship based on a pooled analysis of published controlled human studies

Nolwenn Noisel; Michèle Bouchard; Gaétan Carrier

2007-01-01

6

DCEG Research on Formaldehyde Exposure  

Cancer.gov

Studies to investigate occupational formaldehyde exposure and cancer risk, including an industrial cohort study of over 25,000 workers, a case-control study of workers in the funeral industry, and a cross-sectional study to quantify leukemia-specific chromosome changes associated with formaldehyde exposure

7

Occupational Exposure of a Medical School Staff to Formaldehyde in Tehran  

PubMed Central

Background Cadavers are preserved in a fixing solution containing formalin. Formaldehyde (FA) released from formalin is inhaled by the personnel in the anatomy laboratory. Exposed personnel have reported respiratory problems and various symptoms. Due to the toxicity of FA as a strong irritant and carcinogen and also lack of a national study assessing occupational exposure to FA in gross anatomy labs in Iran, the present study aimed at occupational monitoring of personnel exposed to FA and evaluating relevant symptoms in them. Materials and Methods A total of 20 subjects (all the staff) working in a gross anatomy lab and 20 library personnel were considered for occupational monitoring of exposure to FA during three months with various climatic conditions. They were also monitored for respiratory symptoms. Air sampling and analysis of its FA content were conducted according to the NIOSH method No.2016. Symptoms of cases and controls (library personnel) with active and passive exposure to formaldehyde were also studied by a self-report questionnaire. Results In the first stage of monitoring with ventilation (supply-exhaust) system on, the exposure of personnel (Mean± SE) was 306 ± 21ppb. In the second stage of monitoring the personnel's exposure was 317 ± 26ppb with only the ventilation supply system on and in the final monitoring stage this rate was 698 ± 34ppb with the ventilation system (supply and exhaust) off. In this study, personal's exposure level to FA was higher than the indoor concentration, and the individual exposure levels of instructors were higher than those of the students. Exposure of library personnel in the adjacent department (central library) was about 50ppb. Most important complaints reported by actively exposed staff members and library personnel were the unpleasant odor (68%), cough (64%), throat irritation and runny nose (56%), burning and itching of nose (52%) and irritating eyes (48%). Conclusion Considering the level of exposure of all subjects in this study and existence of clinical symptoms, better control of the exhaust system in the gross anatomy lab and use of a more efficient ventilation system are recommended to protect the staff and instructors of the Anatomy Department. PMID:25191427

Asadi, Parisa; Jafari, Mohammad Javad; Soori, Hamid; Hosseini, Vajihe

2012-01-01

8

NIOSH (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health) to DOL (Department of Labor) on OSHA (Occupational Safety and Health Administration) proposed rule for occupational exposure to formaldehyde, by R. Lemen, May 5, 1986  

SciTech Connect

In view of animal studies indicating that formaldehyde was a carcinogen, the testimony provided evidence to support the position that exposure to formaldehyde be kept to the lowest feasible concentration possible. Significant excesses of squamous-cell carcinomas of the nasal cavity were found in both male and female Fischer-344-rats, in male hybrid-mice, and in male Sprague-Dawley-rats. Results of individual studies suggested a connection between formaldehyde exposure and the incidence of lung cancer, brain cancer, leukemia, and nasopharyngeal cancer. Evidence suggested that formaldehyde forms cross linking bonds between DNA and protein at concentrations of 6ppm and greater. Examination of workplace exposure data suggested that in most occupations formaldehyde exposures were below 0.5ppm concentration levels with only 10 percent being above 1ppm.

Not Available

1986-05-05

9

Occupational laryngitis caused by formaldehyde: a case report.  

PubMed

Formaldehyde is commonly accepted to be an allergen and irritant. However, specifically diagnosed occupational respiratory diseases caused by formaldehyde are relatively rare. Occupational laryngitis was diagnosed in a 47-year-old dairy foreman. He had been exposed for 9 years to formaldehyde emitted from a milk-packing machine situated underneath his office. His exposure level varied considerably. Under normal process conditions, the measured formaldehyde level was 0.03 mg/m3. The patient was examined by different specialists over 1 1/2 years. It was concluded that he had psychogenic dysphonia. However, a specific laryngeal provocation test with formaldehyde carried out at the Finnish Institute of Occupational Health was positive. His laryngitis was so serious that he was pensioned. During the 3 years of follow-up his condition gradually worsened. He now reacts especially to tobacco smoke and other air impurities known to contain formaldehyde. PMID:8833780

Roto, P; Sala, E

1996-03-01

10

Formaldehyde exposure and leukemia: A new meta-analysis and potential Luoping Zhang a,  

E-print Network

Review Formaldehyde exposure and leukemia: A new meta-analysis and potential mechanisms Luoping between leukemia and occupational exposure to formaldehyde''. Here, we review the epidemiological studies exposure, we show that summary relative risks (RRs) were elevated in 15 studies of leukemia (RR = 1

California at Berkeley, University of

11

Clinical evaluation of patients with complaints related to formaldehyde exposure  

SciTech Connect

Formaldehyde is a very widely used chemical in our present society and one with which every physician has had a first-hand experience in his early days of training in the anatomy laboratory. The National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health lists 52 occupations that expose people to formaldehyde. In recent years, however, the increasing use of formaldehyde resins in the production of building materials such as particleboard and urea-formaldehyde foam insulation has resulted in exposures of large numbers of people in nonoccupational settings. Consumer products such as cosmetics, cigarettes, textiles, furniture, draperies, and preservatives release formaldehyde. It is present in the outdoor atmosphere from products of combustion and automobile exhaust and likewise in the home from such things as gas cooking. These more widespread and increased exposures have resulted in concern regarding potential health effects. Therefore, it is likely that physicians have or will encounter patients who wish evaluations of a present or potential health effect from formaldehyde. This article is for the purpose of providing assistance in such evaluation.110 references.

Imbus, H.R.

1985-12-01

12

Sinonasal adenoid cystic carcinoma following formaldehyde exposure in the operating theatre.  

PubMed

We present a case report of an auxiliary nurse who developed an adenoid cystic carcinoma in her left maxillary sinus following occupational exposure to formaldehyde in the operating theatre. Currently, the epidemiological evidence that formaldehyde can cause cancer in humans is considered to be limited. Previous case-control-studies of formaldehyde and sinonasal cancer have mainly investigated subjects who were concomitantly exposed to wood dust, a known risk factor to the development of sinonasal adenocarcinoma of intestinal type. Our case report presents a patient who has developed an adenoid cystic carcinoma following exposure to formaldehyde. We suggest that the occupational physician remains alert to formaldehyde as an occupational hazard among health care workers. PMID:25550707

Sandvik, Anniken; Klingen, Tor Audun; Langård, Sverre

2014-01-01

13

Formaldehyde exposure and acute health effects study  

SciTech Connect

To assess the effects of formaldehyde exposures on health, exposure groups were defined using baseline exposure and health questionnaires. Formaldehyde concentrations were poorly correlated with these exposure classifications, perhaps due to the time delay between classification and monitoring. The 151 households reported here had a mean HCHO concentration of 35 (S.E. 1.5 and median 30) {mu}g/m{sup 3}. Passive samplers prepared in our lab were calibrated in a chamber to derive an estimated sampling rate of 0.311 {mu}g/(mg {center dot} m{sup {minus}3} {center dot} hr). They were also compared to commercially available samplers inside of the homes, with a correlation coefficient of 0.896 and mean difference of 2.6 {mu}g/m{sup 3}. In this report of initial findings from an ongoing study, daily symptoms and peak expiratory flow measurements were compared with an HCHO exposure classification based on the median measured concentrations. None of the symptoms groups were related to HCHO exposure when controlling for age and sex. There was a significant relationship between HCHO exposure and variability in peak expiratory flows that was dependent on age group. It may be especially important to assess the variability in reactive individuals and children to determine the short-term effects of HCHO exposures and possible long-term consequences.

Quackenboss, J.J.; Lebowitz, M.D.; Michaud, J.P.; Bronnimann, D. (Univ. of Arizona Health Sciences Center, Tucson (USA))

1989-01-01

14

Video exposure assessments demonstrate excessive laboratory formaldehyde exposures.  

PubMed

Video exposure assessments were conducted in a comparative anatomy laboratory using formaldehyde-preserved sharks and cats. Work in the facility using time-integrated samplers indicated personal and area concentrations generally below the current OSHA permissible exposure limit. However, complaints about room air quality were frequent and routine. Using a photoionization detector with an integral data logger, total ionizables present were sampled as a surrogate for formaldehyde. After synchronizing time tracks from the datalogger concentrations with simultaneously created videotapes of laboratory tasks, composite video exposure overlays were generated. Use of this video exposure method revealed very short-lived, excessively high peak exposure events, whereas conventional time-weighted averages indicated the majority (30/32) of personal exposures were below the OSHA limit of 0.75 ppm. These legally acceptable exposure levels were associated with self-reported symptoms of burning nose and eyes and eye irritation. Thus, transient peak formaldehyde concentrations not detected by longer term averaging studies could be responsible for the health effects reported. The video exposure monitoring method demonstrated that close dissection work, opening peritoneal cavities, and specimen selection activities were most likely the causes of elevated student exposures. Teaching assistants' exposures were the highest, exceeding OSHA limits on several occasions. The utility of the video monitoring method for conducting enhanced, critical task exposure assessments is discussed. PMID:12746068

Ryan, Timothy J; Burroughs, G Edward; Taylor, Katy; Kovein, Ronald J

2003-06-01

15

Health Risk Assessment of Inhalation Exposure to Formaldehyde and Benzene in Newly Remodeled Buildings, Beijing  

PubMed Central

Objective To assess health risks associated with inhalation exposure to formaldehyde and benzene mainly emitted from building and decoration materials in newly remodeled indoor spaces in Beijing. Methods We tested the formaldehyde and benzene concentrations in indoor air of 410 dwellings and 451 offices remodeled within the past year, in which the occupants had health concerns about indoor air quality. To assess non-carcinogenic health risks, we compared the data to the health guidelines in China and USA, respectively. To assess carcinogenic health risks, we first modeled indoor personal exposure to formaldehyde and benzene using the concentration data, and then estimated the associated cancer risks by multiplying the indoor personal exposure by the Inhalation Unit Risk values (IURs) provided by the U.S. EPA Integrated Risk Information System (U.S. EPA IRIS) and the California Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment (OEHHA), respectively. Results (1) The indoor formaldehyde concentrations of 85% dwellings and 67% offices were above the acute Reference Exposure Level (REL) recommended by the OEHHA and the concentrations of all tested buildings were above the chronic REL recommended by the OEHHA; (2) The indoor benzene concentrations of 12% dwellings and 32% offices exceeded the reference concentration (RfC) recommended by the U.S. EPA IRIS; (3) The median cancer risks from indoor exposure to formaldehyde and benzene were 1,150 and 106 per million (based on U.S. EPA IRIS IURs), 531 and 394 per million (based on OEHHA IURs). Conclusions In the tested buildings, formaldehyde exposure may pose acute and chronic non-carcinogenic health risks to the occupants, whereas benzene exposure may pose chronic non-carcinogenic risks to the occupants. Exposure to both compounds is associated with significant carcinogenic risks. Improvement in ventilation, establishment of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emission labeling systems for decorating and refurbishing materials are recommended to reduce indoor VOCs exposure. PMID:24244522

Huang, Lihui; Mo, Jinhan; Sundell, Jan; Fan, Zhihua; Zhang, Yinping

2013-01-01

16

Irritant effects of formaldehyde exposure in mobile homes.  

PubMed Central

This paper reports the irritant effects associated with formaldehyde exposures in mobile homes. Week-long, integrated formaldehyde concentrations were measured using passive monitors in summer and winter while the mobile home residents continued their normal activities. Information on acute health problems, chronic respiratory/allergic illnesses, smoking behavior, demographic variables, and time spent at home was obtained on over 1000 individuals during the sampling period. Measured formaldehyde concentrations varied from under the limit of detection (0.01 ppm) to 0.46 ppm. Formaldehyde exposure was estimated for each individual by multiplying the concentration measured in his or her home by the time he or she spent at home. Irritant effects were found to be associated with formaldehyde exposure after controlling for age, sex, smoking status, and chronic illnesses using a logistic procedure. Some of the interaction terms found to be significant indicated that there were synergistic effects between formaldehyde exposure and chronic health problems. PMID:1954947

Liu, K S; Huang, F Y; Hayward, S B; Wesolowski, J; Sexton, K

1991-01-01

17

Occupational exposure in MRI  

PubMed Central

This article reviews occupational exposure in clinical MRI; it specifically considers units of exposure, basic physical interactions, health effects, guideline limits, dosimetry, results of exposure surveys, calculation of induced fields and the status of the European Physical Agents Directive. Electromagnetic field exposure in MRI from the static field B0, imaging gradients and radiofrequency transmission fields induces electric fields and currents in tissue, which are responsible for various acute sensory effects. The underlying theory and its application to the formulation of incident and induced field limits are presented. The recent International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) Bundesministerium für Arbeit und Soziales and Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers limits for incident field exposure are interpreted in a manner applicable to MRI. Field measurements show that exposure from movement within the B0 fringe field can exceed ICNIRP reference levels within 0.5 m of the bore entrance. Rate of change of field dB/dt from the imaging gradients is unlikely to exceed the new limits, although incident field limits can be exceeded for radiofrequency (RF) exposure within 0.2–0.5 m of the bore entrance. Dosimetric surveys of routine clinical practice show that staff are exposed to peak values of 42±24% of B0, with time-averaged exposures of 5.2±2.8 mT for magnets in the range 0.6–4 T. Exposure to time-varying fields arising from movement within the B0 fringe resulted in peak dB/dt of approximately 2 T s?1. Modelling of induced electric fields from the imaging gradients shows that ICNIRP-induced field limits are unlikely to be exceeded in most situations; however, movement through the static field may still present a problem. The likely application of the limits is discussed with respect to the reformulation of the European Union (EU) directive and its possible implications for MRI. PMID:22457400

Mcrobbie, D W

2012-01-01

18

NATIONAL OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE SURVEY (NOES)  

EPA Science Inventory

From 1981 to 1983, NIOSH conducted the National Occupational Exposure Survey (NOES) that collected data on potential occupational exposures to chemical, physical, and biological agents. The survey involved on-site visits to 4,490 establishments in 522 industry types [OMB 1972] em...

19

Formaldehyde.  

PubMed

Formaldehyde is the American Contact Dermatitis Society Contact Allergen of the Year for 2015. The exposure is widespread, and contact allergy might be difficult to suspect in the individual dermatitis patient. The relevance of contact allergy to formaldehyde might also be difficult to evaluate. Recently, however, several studies have been performed aimed at enhancing the patch test technique and evaluating the clinical relevance of contact allergy to formaldehyde. The patch test concentration of formaldehyde has been recommended by the European Environmental Contact Dermatitis Research Group to be 2.0%, that is, the dose of 0.60 mg/cm (wt/vol) instead of 1.0%, which is the concentration previously used for the baseline series in most countries. Without causing any more irritant reactions, the patch test concentration of 2.0% detects twice as many contact allergies and enables the diagnosis of formaldehyde-allergic patients who otherwise would have been missed. The studies that underpin the decision were performed in Europe and partly in the United States. The Finn Chamber patch test system was used. The allergen dose per area was kept uniform with a micropipette. This report describes the background for routinely using formaldehyde 2.0% instead of 1.0% and for using a micropipette when applying the test solution. PMID:25581665

Pontén, Ann; Bruze, Magnus

2015-01-01

20

Exposure to formaldehyde in health care: an evaluation of the white blood count differential.  

PubMed

The aim of our study is to estimate if the occupational exposure to formaldehyde can cause alterations of leukocytes plasma values in health care workers employed in a big hospital compared to a control group. We studied employees in operating rooms and laboratories of Pathological Anatomy, Molecular Biology, Molecular Neurobiology, Parasitology and Experimental Oncology (exposed to formaldehyde) and employees of the Department of Internal Medicine (not exposed). The sample studied was composed of 86 workers exposed to formaldehyde and 86 workers not exposed. All subjects underwent a clinical-anamnaestic examination and for all subjects were measured the following values: total white blood cells, lymphocytes, monocytes and granulocytes (eosinophils, basophils, neutrophils). Statistical analysis of data was based on calculation of the mean, standard deviation and the distribution into classes according to the nature of each variable. Differences were considered significant when p was < 0.05. The mean and the distribution of values of the white blood cells, lymphocytes, monocytes and eosinophils were significantly higher in male subjects exposed to formaldehyde compared to not-exposed. Not significant differences were found in female subjects exposed compared to not exposed. The results underline the importance of a careful risk assessment of workers exposed to formaldehyde and the use of appropriate preventive measures. The health care trained and informed about the risks he is exposed to should observe good standards of behavior and, where it is not possible to use alternative materials, the indoor concentrations of formaldehyde should never exceed occupational limit values. PMID:25369713

Sancini, Angela; Rosati, Maria Valeria; De Sio, Simone; Casale, Teodorico; Caciari, Tiziana; Samperi, Ilaria; Sacco, Carmina; Fortunato, Bruna Rita; Pimpinella, Benedetta; Andreozzi, Giorgia; Tomei, Gianfranco; Tomei, Francesco

2014-01-01

21

Occupational Radiation Exposures  

Cancer.gov

DCEG researchers are studying cancer risks among populations who are occupationally exposed to radiation. Chernobyl Clean-up Workers Mayak Nuclear Facility Workers U.S. Radiologic Technologists Interventional Fluoroscopists Print This Page Occupational

22

Health risks from indoor formaldehyde exposures in northwest weatherized residences  

SciTech Connect

Conflicting opinions on the potential hazards associated with formaldehyde exposure triggered a national workshop to address the toxicological questions concerning the health effects of formaldehyde. Since quantitative human data are not available to derive a dose-response curve for formaldehyde risk assessment, nonhuman data are used. In the case of formaldehyde, data from animals exposed to high concentrations are used to estimate human risk at much lower concentrations. This study presents the several steps that make up a risk assessment and examines any additional data that might alter significantly the risk estimates presented in the 1984 EIS. Rat inhalation chronic bioassay data from a study sponsored by the Chemical Industry Institute of Toxicology (CIIT) have been used to develop a risk equation that was subsequently used by BPA in its EIS. The CIIT data base remains the only acceptable animal data that can support the estimation of a dose-response curve. The development of mathematical models continues with a great deal of energy, and the use of different models is largely responsible for the great variability of the formaldehyde risk estimates. While one can calculate different values for carcinogenic risk associated with formaldehyde exposure than were presented earlier in the BPA EIS, they are not likely to be any better.

Mellinger, P.J.; Sever, L.E.

1986-10-01

23

Occupational exposure and lung cancer  

PubMed Central

Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death for male and the second most usual cancer for women after breast cancer. Currently there are available several non-specific cytotoxic agents and several targeted agents for lung cancer therapy. However; early stage diagnosis is still unavailable and several efforts are being made towards this direction. Novel biomarkers are being investigated along with new biopsy techniques. The occupational and environmental exposure to carcinogenic agents is an everyday phenomenon. Therefore until efficient early diagnosis is available, avoidance of exposure to carcinogenic agents is necessary. In the current mini-review occupational and environmental carcinogenic agents will be presented. PMID:24102018

Spyratos, Dionysios; Porpodis, Konstantinos; Tsakiridis, Kosmas; Machairiotis, Nikolaos; Katsikogiannis, Nikolaos; Kougioumtzi, Ioanna; Dryllis, Georgios; Kallianos, Anastasios; Rapti, Aggeliki; Li, Chen; Zarogoulidis, Konstantinos

2013-01-01

24

Occupational Surveillance for Spaceflight Exposures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This slide presentation reviews the importance of longterm occupational health surveillance of astronauts after exposure to the possible hazards of spaceflight. Because there is not much information about long term effects of spaceflight on human health, it is important to identify some of the possible results of exposure to the many possible factors that can influence longterm health impacts. This surveillance also allows for NASA to meet the obligation to care for the astronauts for their lifetime.

Tarver, William J.

2010-01-01

25

OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE LIMITS FOR CHEMICALS  

Microsoft Academic Search

? Occupational exposure limits (OELs) are tools to help employers protect the health of those who may be exposed to chemicals in their workplace. Under the United Kingdom Control of Substances Hazardous to Health (COSHH) Regulations they define adequate control by inhalation.? OELs are set by the Health and Safety Commission (HSC) on advice from its Advisory Committee on Toxic

M Topping

2001-01-01

26

Occupational exposure to chemical agents in the paper industry.  

PubMed

As part of an International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) international epidemiological study of workers in the pulp and paper industry, previously unpublished exposure measurements were assembled in a database. This article summarizes the results of 3,873 measurements carried out in the production departments of paper and paperboard mills and recycling plants in 12 countries. In the paper and paperboard mills, most of the agents were measured in the pulping and refining departments and in on-machine coating and winding of paper/paperboard. Exposures to asbestos, carbon monoxide, formaldehyde, fungal spores, bacteria, nitrogen dioxide, minerals dusts, paper dust, sulphuric acid and different solvents sometimes exceeded exposure limit values. In the re-pulping and de-inking departments of recycling plants high exposures to formaldehyde, fungal spores, bacteria and paper dust were observed. High exposures to asbestos, bioaerosols, carbon monoxide and paper dust were found in many departments; ammonia, formaldehyde, mineral and paper dust and solvents were found in coating machines; and diphenyl and polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs) were found in some special circumstances. Measurements in the newsprint and uncoated paper machine departments revealed only a few elevated exposures. In nearly all departments, measurements of epichlorohydrin, PCBs, sulphur dioxide, hydrogen sulphide and mercaptans tended to be low, often even below their detection limits. In spite of some uncertainties in the measurement data, the study provides new insights into the level and variation of occupational exposures of production workers in the paper and paperboard industry. PMID:15368059

Korhonen, K; Liukkonen, T; Ahrens, W; Astrakianakis, G; Boffetta, P; Burdorf, A; Heederik, D; Kauppinen, T; Kogevinas, M; Osvoll, P; Rix, B A; Saalo, A; Sunyer, J; Szadkowska-Stanczyk, I; Teschke, K; Westberg, H; Widerkiewicz, K

2004-10-01

27

Formaldehyde in pathology departments.  

PubMed Central

Toxic effects of formaldehyde in humans are discussed in relation to occupational exposure and tolerance to this agent. Carcinogenic and mutagenic properties of formaldehyde have been reported in animals and this has led to concern about a possible role in human cancer. The current state of affairs is reviewed in the light of a lack of direct evidence linking formaldehyde with cancer in man and in relation to recommended exposure levels. It is important to employ effective means of containment and practical methods for reducing exposure to formaldehyde in pathology departments and post-mortem rooms are described. Images PMID:6223948

Clark, R P

1983-01-01

28

Formaldehyde  

MedlinePLUS

... Basic Information on Pollutants and Sources of Indoor Air Pollution Asbestos Biological Pollutants Carbon Monoxide (CO) Formaldehyde/Pressed Wood Products Lead (Pb) Nitrogen Dioxide (NO 2 ... Read "Care for Your Air: A Guide to Indoor Air Quality" Formaldehyde is ...

29

Trichloroethylene: environmental and occupational exposure.  

PubMed

Trichloroethylene is used in paint strippers, rug cleaners, spot removers, typewriter correction fluid and industrial cleaners. It is a common environmental contaminant, detected in over one-third of hazardous waste sites and in 10 percent of groundwater sources. Acute workplace exposure above acceptable levels can cause neurologic, respiratory and hepatic problems. The health effects of prolonged occupational and environmental low-level exposure are probably minimal, but whether such exposure poses a risk remains controversial. Although trichloroethylene has been shown to cause cancer in some animals, it has not been proven to be a human carcinogen. Trichloroethylene has been involved in several well-publicized cases of contamination of community water supplies, and family physicians are likely to receive questions about this chemical. PMID:1636564

Campos-Outcalt, D

1992-08-01

30

Trichloroethylene: environmental and occupational exposure  

SciTech Connect

Trichloroethylene is used in paint strippers, rug cleaners, spot removers, typewriter correction fluid and industrial cleaners. It is a common environmental contaminant, detected in over one-third of hazardous waste sites and in 10 percent of groundwater sources. Acute workplace exposure above acceptable levels can cause neurologic, respiratory and hepatic problems. The health effects of prolonged occupational and environmental low-level exposure are probably minimal, but whether such exposure poses a risk remains controversial. Although trichloroethylene has been shown to cause cancer in some animals, it has not been proven to be a human carcinogen. Trichloroethylene has been involved in several well-publicized cases of contamination of community water supplies, and family physicians are likely to receive questions about this chemical.22 references.

Campos-Outcalt, D. (University of Arizona College of Medicine, Tucson (United States))

1992-08-01

31

[Isocyanates: occupational exposures and disorders].  

PubMed

Isocyanates are extensively used for the production of different foams and elastomers. They also serve as glues, lacquer hardeners, inks, adhesives, fillers, finishes, sealants, coating and insulation materials. Usually, their application results in inhalative, partly also in cutaneous uptake. This review describes occupational exposures to isocyanates as well as hazardous effects. Isocyanates are used in the automotive/mechanical engineering/building and construction/mining/casting/electricity and electronic/plastics/printing/timber and furniture/white goods and textile industry, partly also in medicine. Hazardous exposures to thermal degradation products of isocyanate-based polyurethanes and other materials have also be taken into consideration. Obstructive airway diseases are the major disorder caused by isocyanates. Rare cases suffer from extrinsic allergic alveolitis or eczema. In addition to regulation-based primary prevention qualitative medical surveillance mostly prevents disorders. There is also a need for the establishment of a validated biomonitoring of endangered employees. PMID:13680473

Baur, X

2003-09-01

32

Occup Environ Med . Author manuscript Occupation and occupational exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals  

E-print Network

Occup Environ Med . Author manuscript Page /1 12 Occupation and occupational exposure to endocrine. Lifetime work history was obtained during in-person interviews. Occupational exposures to endocrine elevated risk of male breast cancer observed in motor vehicle mechanics. Endocrine disruptors

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

33

Occupational exposure to natural radiation.  

PubMed

Natural sources of radiation can make an important contribution to the exposures of people at work. Two areas of interest are work with minerals having elevated concentrations of activity and work in buildings where radon daughter concentrations are elevated. The Euratom Directive on ionising radiation requires that the handling of radioactive substances be reported to national authorities. National authorities may waive this requirement where the activity per unit mass is below 100 Bq g-1, or for solid natural radioactive substances, 500 Bq g-1. An investigation was undertaken in five factories to determine whether work with minerals having levels of natural activity below these might lead to significant doses. Models based on the data collected were used to relate the activity in the minerals to the effective dose equivalent arising from gamma radiation, inhalation of radon daughters, and intake of long-lived activity. These assessments show that the activity concentration at which exposures to airborne dust could lead to doses equal to one-tenth of the dose limit for workers are 0.3 Bq g-1 for thorium-232 and 1 Bq g-1 for uranium-238. Above these values, radiological supervision may be necessary. In a separate study, measurements of radon daughter concentrations were made in seventy workplaces. Concentrations in some premises approached or exceeded the derived air concentration for occupational exposure. The highest concentrations were found in premises with low ventilation rates. PMID:4081708

Dixon, D W

1985-10-01

34

Toward WHO-recommended occupational exposure limits  

Microsoft Academic Search

The WHO Project on Recommended Health-based Limits in Occupational Exposure resulted in the development of occupational exposure limit (OEL) values for a few groups of widely used industrial chemicals. A comparative analysis of the WHO-recommended OEL and existing OEL in selected countries has been made. It was shown that in the OEL's development, there is need for harmonization of methodology,

M. I. Mikheev

1995-01-01

35

Ubiquitous Formaldehyde Exposure and Public Health Concerns in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Formaldehyde is a ubiquitous chemical that can be found in work places, office buildings, new homes, some food and drugs, and almost everywhere in our environment. Recently, the IARC and US NTP reevaluated the weights of evidence on the adverse health effects of formaldehyde and concluded that formaldehyde causes nasopharyngeal cancer and myeloid leukemia in humans. Formaldehyde is asso- ciated

Luoping Zhang

2011-01-01

36

Formaldehyde exposure induces autophagy in testicular tissues of adult male rats.  

PubMed

Formaldehyde, a ubiquitous environmental pollutant, has long been suspected of causing adverse male reproductive effects. However, the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying this phenomenon remain elusive. The overall aim of this study is to clarify the role of autophagy in male reproductive injuries induced by formaldehyde exposure, by which we can further understand the molecular mechanism of spermatogenesis and develop new targets for prevention and treatment of male infertility. In this study, electron microscopy, Western blot, and RT-PCR analysis were used to detect autophagy in testicular tissues. Moreover, testicular weights, histopathology, and morphometry were used to evaluate the reproductive injuries of formaldehyde exposure. We found that formaldehyde exposure-induced autophagy in testicular tissues was dose dependent. Increasing autophagosomes in spermatogenetic cells was observed by electron microscopy in formaldehyde exposure group. In addition, RT-PCR and Western blot analysis showed the transcription levels of the LC3-II, as well as the conversion from LC3-I to LC3-II, an indicator of autophagy, significantly increased in testicular tissue of formaldehyde exposure group in a dose dependent manner when compared with those in control group. Furthermore, the alterations of autophage were basically consistent with the changes in testicular weight and morphologic findings. In summary, formaldehyde exposure triggered autophagy, and autophagy may be a scathing factor responsible for male reproductive impairment induced by formaldehyde. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 30: 323-331, 2015. PMID:24142868

Han, Shui-Ping; Zhou, Dang-Xia; Lin, Pu; Qin, Zhen; An, Lu; Zheng, Lie-Rui; Lei, Li

2015-03-01

37

Parkinsonism and occupational exposure to pesticides  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVETo examine the risk of parkinsonism related to lifetime occupational exposure to pesticides among a cohort of men, mostly orchardists, in Washington State.METHODSAll 310 subjects in this study had previously participated in a cohort study of men occupationally exposed to pesticides. Subjects were given a structured neurological examination and completed a self administered questionnaire which elicited detailed information on pesticide

L S Engel; H Checkoway; M C Keifer; N S Seixas; W T Longstreth Jr; K C Scott; K Hudnell; W K Anger; R Camicioli

2001-01-01

38

Biologic interactions between smoking and occupational exposures  

SciTech Connect

Cigarette smoking is a major cause of cancer and lung disease in the U.S. population. The biological processes that underlie the response of the lung to cigarette smoke are important considerations for designing analyses of the effects of occupational exposures. Interactions between cigarette smoking and occupational exposures may occur through a combined effect on the mechanism of disease production, through an effect on the dose of the toxic substances that reach the target issue, or through an effect on the response of the lung to the toxic agents. Disease due to occupational exposures can occur in a similar pattern in both smokers and nonsmokers; however, as more complex interactions are examined, different responses to the same occupational exposure may be identified for smokers and nonsmokers. It is only through the successful intermingling of biologic information with epidemiologic data that these interactions can be fully examined. 66 references.

Burns, D.M.; Froines, J.R.; Jarvik, M.E.

1988-01-01

39

Occupational Pesticide Exposures and Respiratory Health  

PubMed Central

Pesticides have been widely used to control pest and pest-related diseases in agriculture, fishery, forestry and the food industry. In this review, we identify a number of respiratory symptoms and diseases that have been associated with occupational pesticide exposures. Impaired lung function has also been observed among people occupationally exposed to pesticides. There was strong evidence for an association between occupational pesticide exposure and asthma, especially in agricultural occupations. In addition, we found suggestive evidence for a link between occupational pesticide exposure and chronic bronchitis or COPD. There was inconclusive evidence for the association between occupational pesticide exposure and lung cancer. Better control of pesticide uses and enforcement of safety behaviors, such as using personal protection equipment (PPE) in the workplace, are critical for reducing the risk of developing pesticide-related symptoms and diseases. Educational training programs focusing on basic safety precautions and proper uses of personal protection equipment (PPE) are possible interventions that could be used to control the respiratory diseases associated with pesticide exposure in occupational setting. PMID:24287863

Ye, Ming; Beach, Jeremy; Martin, Jonathan W.; Senthilselvan, Ambikaipakan

2013-01-01

40

75 FR 17163 - Formaldehyde Standard; Extension of the Office of Management and Budget's (OMB) Approval of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...causes and prevention of occupational injuries, illnesses, and...adverse health effects from occupational exposure to formaldehyde...the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, the affected...necessary for the proper performance of the Agency's...

2010-04-05

41

Occupational exposures and longitudinal lung function decline.  

PubMed

Background Few longitudinal studies have been conducted on occupational exposure and lung function. This study investigated occupational dust exposure effects on lung function and whether genetic variants influence such effects. Methods The study population (1,332 participants) was from the Framingham Heart Study, in which participant lung function measures were available from up to five examinations over nearly 17 years. Occupational dust exposures were classified into "more" and "less" likely dust exposure. We used linear mixed effects models for the analysis. Results Participants with more likely dust exposure had a mean 4.5?mL/year excess loss rate of FEV1 over time. However, occupational dust exposures alone or interactions with age or time had no significant effect on FEV1 /FVC. No statistically significant effects of genetic modifications in the different subgroups were identified for FEV1 loss. Conclusions Occupational dust exposures may accelerate the rate of FEV1 loss but not FEV1 /FVC loss. Am. J. Ind. Med. 58:14-20, 2015. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25384732

Liao, Shu-Yi; Lin, Xihong; Christiani, David C

2015-01-01

42

Occupational cancer in Britain. Exposure assessment methodology.  

PubMed

To estimate the current occupational cancer burden due to past exposures in Britain, estimates of the number of exposed workers at different levels are required, as well as risk estimates of cancer due to the exposures. This paper describes the methods and results for estimating the historical exposures. All occupational carcinogens or exposure circumstances classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer as definite or probable human carcinogens and potentially to be found in British workplaces over the past 20-40 years were included in this study. Estimates of the number of people exposed by industrial sector were based predominantly on two sources of data, the CARcinogen EXposure (CAREX) database and the UK Labour Force Survey. Where possible, multiple and overlapping exposures were taken into account. Dose-response risk estimates were generally not available in the epidemiological literature for the cancer-exposure pairs in this study, and none of the sources available for obtaining the numbers exposed provided data by different levels of exposure. Industrial sectors were therefore assigned using expert judgement to 'higher'- and 'lower'-exposure groups based on the similarity of exposure to the population in the key epidemiological studies from which risk estimates had been selected. Estimates of historical exposure prevalence were obtained for 41 carcinogens or occupational circumstances. These include exposures to chemicals and metals, combustion products, other mixtures or groups of chemicals, mineral and biological dusts, physical agents and work patterns, as well as occupations and industries that have been associated with increased risk of cancer, but for which the causative agents are unknown. There were more than half a million workers exposed to each of six carcinogens (radon, solar radiation, crystalline silica, mineral oils, non-arsenical insecticides and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin); other agents to which a large number of workers are exposed included benzene, diesel engine exhaust and environmental tobacco smoke. The study has highlighted several industrial sectors with large proportions of workers potentially exposed to multiple carcinogens. The relevant available data have been used to generate estimates of the prevalence of past exposure to occupational carcinogens to enable the occupational cancer burden in Britain to be estimated. These data are considered adequate for the present purpose, but new data on the prevalence and intensity of current occupational exposure to carcinogens should be collected to ensure that future policy decisions be based on reliable evidence. PMID:22710674

Van Tongeren, Martie; Jimenez, Araceli S; Hutchings, Sally J; MacCalman, Laura; Rushton, Lesley; Cherrie, John W

2012-06-19

43

Occupational exposures and risk of acoustic neuroma  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesAcoustic neuroma is a benign tumour accounting for approximately 6–10% of all intracranial tumours and occurs mainly in patients aged ?50 years. Our aim was to investigate a wide range of occupational exposures, individual occupational titles and socioeconomic status (SES) as potential risk factors for acoustic neuroma.MethodsWe conducted a population-based case–control study of 793 acoustic neuroma cases identified through the

Michaela Prochazka; Maria Feychting; Anders Ahlbom; Colin G Edwards; Gun Nise; Nils Plato; Judith A Schwartzbaum; Ulla M Forssén

2010-01-01

44

Occupational exposures and risk of pancreatic cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective was to analyze the relationship between occupation (and specific occupational exposures) and risk of exocrine\\u000a pancreatic cancer (EPC). We conducted a multicenter hospital-based case–control study in Eastern Spain. We included 161 incident\\u000a cases of EPC (59.6% men, 94 with histological confirmation, of whom 80% had ductal adenocarcinoma). Cases were frequency-matched\\u000a with 455 controls by sex, age and province

Miguel Santibañez; Jesús Vioque; Juan Alguacil; Manuela García de la Hera; Eduardo Moreno-Osset; Alfredo Carrato; Miquel Porta; Timo Kauppinen

2010-01-01

45

Occupational exposure in dentistry and miscarriage  

PubMed Central

Background Information on the reproductive effects of chemical exposures in dental work is sparse or inconsistent. Aim To investigate whether dental workers exposed to acrylate compounds, mercury amalgam, solvents or disinfectants are at an increased risk of miscarriage. Methods The study was conducted among women dental workers and a comparison group of workers occupationally unexposed to dental restorative materials. Information on pregnancies was obtained from national registers and outpatient units of hospitals. Data on occupational exposure were obtained using postal questionnaires. The final study population included 222 cases of miscarriage and 498 controls (births). An occupational hygienist assessed exposure to acrylate compounds, disinfectants and solvents. Exposure to other agents was assessed on the basis of the questionnaire data. Odds ratios (ORs) and confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using conditional logistic regression. Results The ORs adjusted for confounding factors were increased for moderate?exposure and high?exposure categories of mercury amalgam (OR 2.0, 95% CI 1.0 to 4.1 and OR 1.3, 95% CI 0.6 to 2.5, respectively). The risk was slightly increased for the highest?exposure category of 2?hydroxyethylmethacrylate (OR 1.4, 95% CI 0.7 to 2.6) and polymethylmethacrylate dust (OR 1.4, 95% CI 0.8 to 2.4). A slightly increased risk was also detected for likely exposure to organic solvents (OR 1.4, 95% CI 0.8 to 2.3) and disinfectants (OR 1.5, 95% CI 0.9 to 2.7). Conclusions No strong association or consistent dose–response relationship was observed between exposure to chemical agents in dental work and the risk of miscarriage. A slightly increased risk was found for exposure to mercury amalgam, some acrylate compounds, solvents and disinfectants. These findings indicate that the possibility of a weak association between exposure to these agents and an increased risk of miscarriage cannot be excluded. PMID:17053021

Lindbohm, Marja?Liisa; Ylöstalo, Pekka; Sallmén, Markku; Henriks?Eckerman, Maj?Len; Nurminen, Tuula; Forss, Helena; Taskinen, Helena

2007-01-01

46

MINIMIZING OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE TO PESTICIDES: PERSONNEL MONITORING  

EPA Science Inventory

This communication is presented with two objectives in mind. The first objective is to provide an introduction to personnel monitoring of occupational exposure to pesticides for those who are not familiar with this field of investigation. The second objective is to stimulate disc...

47

Paternal Occupational Exposures and Childhood Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the study described here was to test the hypothesis that paternal occupational exposure near conception increases the risk of cancer in the offspring. We conducted a cohort study based on a population of 235,635 children born shortly after two different censuses in Sweden. The children were followed from birth to 14 years, and cases of cancer were

Maria Feychting; Nils Plato; Gun Nise; Anders Ahlbom

2001-01-01

48

Parental Occupational Exposures and Autism Spectrum Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Both self-report and industrial hygienist (IH) assessed parental occupational information were used in this pilot study in which 174 families (93 children with ASD and 81 unaffected children) enrolled in the Childhood Autism Risks from Genetics and Environment study participated. IH results indicated exposures to lacquer, varnish, and xylene…

McCanlies, Erin C.; Fekedulegn, Desta; Mnatsakanova, Anna; Burchfiel, Cecil M.; Sanderson, Wayne T.; Charles, Luenda E.; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva

2012-01-01

49

Safety standards for occupational exposure to dichloromethane  

SciTech Connect

The toxic effects of dichloromethane (DCM) are reviewed. Human dose-response data, tolerance levels, and the effects of physical exercise and smoking on DCM toxicity are reported. Finally, occupational exposure, current NIOSH (1976) recommendations, and the consequences of ill-health as they pertain to DCM in the workplace are discussed.

Skrabalak, D.S.; Babish, J.G.

1983-06-01

50

Exposure of farm laborers and dairy cattle to formaldehyde from footbath use at a dairy farm in New York State.  

PubMed

Formalin footbaths are commonly used in the dairy industry to prevent cattle hoof diseases. Although formalin is a well-documented disinfectant, it is also a carcinogen and irritant. The aim of this study was to estimate the exposure of farm workers and dairy cattle to formaldehyde from footbaths located in a milking facility and a heifer facility at a dairy farm in western New York, USA. The dairy farm included approximately 3900 dairy cattle including young stock; of these, 1670 cows were milked three times per day in a 60-stall carousel milking parlor, and approximately 800 heifers were located at the heifer facility where footbaths with formalin were in use. The formaldehyde concentration of the air was measured using a Formaldemeter™ htV approximately 50cm above the 3% formalin footbaths in the milking (one footbath location) and heifer (three footbath locations) facilities on three consecutive days. The measured formaldehyde concentrations varied between 0.00 and 2.28ppm, falling within the safety guidelines established by the Occupation Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) of the United States. Significant differences were found in the formaldehyde concentrations at the different footbath locations in the heifer facility, potentially due to the varying levels of ventilation at each location. Changes in the ambient temperature during the 3-day sampling period did not significantly affect the concentrations. We believe that the substantial ventilation at both the heifer and milking facilities ensured that the formaldehyde concentrations did not exceed OSHA guidelines, thus permitting the safe use of formalin footbaths in this farm. PMID:24768913

Doane, M; Sarenbo, S

2014-07-15

51

48 CFR 952.223-75 - Preservation of individual occupational radiation exposure records.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Preservation of individual occupational radiation exposure records...Preservation of Individual Occupational Radiation Exposure Records...1984) Individual occupational radiation exposure records generated in the performance of work under...

2010-10-01

52

Human occupational and nonoccupational exposure to fibers.  

PubMed Central

Human exposure to fibers in occupational and nonoccupational environments has been a health concern for nearly a century. In this review, selected results from the literature are presented to highlight the availability, limitations, and interpretive difficulties associated with the past and current human fiber exposure data sets. In the traditionally defined asbestos fibers, large amounts of the data available suffer from the diversity of sample collection and analysis methods. Two simple generalizations suggest that occupational exposures are several orders of magnitude higher than that of environmental exposures; and currently extant data and the current routine measurement practices present significant difficulties in the consistent interpretation of the data with respect to health effects. The data on the human exposures to man-made vitreous fibers are much more complete than the data on asbestos exposure, while exposure data on other man-made fibrous materials are lacking. The human exposure data to many minerals which, at times, exist in fibrous habit, are very scanty, and in view of the biological activity of some of these fibers, this lack may be of significant concern. PMID:2272324

Esmen, N A; Erdal, S

1990-01-01

53

DOE occupational radiation exposure 1996 report  

SciTech Connect

The goal of the US Department of Energy (DOE) is to conduct its radiological operations to ensure the health and safety of all DOE employees including contractors and subcontractors. The DOE strives to maintain radiation exposures to its workers below administrative control levels and DOE limits and to further reduce these exposures and releases to levels that are ``As Low As Reasonably Achievable`` (ALARA). The DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report, 1996 provides summary and analysis of the occupational radiation exposure received by individuals associated with DOE activities. The DOE mission includes stewardship of the nuclear weapons stockpile and the associated facilities, environmental restoration of DOE and precursor agency sites, and energy research. Collective exposure at DOE has declined by 80% over the past decade due to a cessation in opportunities for exposure during the transition in DOE mission from weapons production to cleanup, deactivation and decommissioning, and changes in reporting requirements and dose calculation methodology. In 1996, the collective dose decreased by 10% from the 1995 value due to decreased doses at five of the seven highest-dose DOE sites. For 1996, these sites attributed the reduction in collective dose to the completion of several decontamination and decommissioning projects, reduced spent fuel storage activities, and effective ALARA practices. This report is intended to be a valuable tool for managers in their management of radiological safety programs and commitment of resources.

NONE

1996-12-31

54

Occup Environ Med. Author manuscript Occupational exposure to pesticides and lymphoid neoplasms among  

E-print Network

Occup Environ Med. Author manuscript Page /1 12 Occupational exposure to pesticides and lymphoid between occupational exposure to pesticides and the risk of lymphoid neoplasms (LN) in men. Methods in the orthopaedic and rheumatological departments. Exposures to pesticides were evaluated through specific

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

55

Soft tissue sarcoma and occupational exposures  

SciTech Connect

The associations between soft tissue sarcoma (STS) and occupational exposures were studied in a case-referent study in the southeast of Sweden. Exposure information was obtained through mailed questionnaires to 96 cases, 450 randomly selected population referents, and 200 cancer referents. Odds ratios (OR), were calculated for various occupational groups, and particularly, for occupations with potential exposure to chlorinated phenoxy herbicides and chlorophenols. In the analyses based on population referents, increased risks for soft tissue sarcoma were seen for especially gardeners (OR = 4.1), but also railroad workers (OR = 3.1); construction workers with exposure to impregnating agents (OR = 2.3), asbestos (OR = 1.8), or pressure impregnating agents (OR = 1.7); and unspecified chemical workers with potential exposure to phenoxy herbicides and/or chlorophenols (OR = 1.6). A similar pattern appeared when cancer referents were used although the numerical values of the odds ratios became different. A grouping of jobs resulted in Mantel-Haensel OR from 1.5 to 1.9 for farmers and forestry workers, dependent on referents used and even more increased OR for railroad workers and unspecified chemical workers with potential exposure to phenoxy herbicides and chlorophenols. The results of the study confirm rather than refute that phenoxy herbicides and chlorophenols could be of etiologic importance for STS; the high risk for gardeners, although based on a small number of individuals, was unexpected and remains unclear. Also, since other cancers were used as referents, no definite problems of recall bias should obtain in this material. None of the exposed groups had a higher proportion of smokers than the unexposed group.

Wingren, G.; Fredrikson, M.; Brage, H.N.; Nordenskjoeld, B.A.; Axelson, O. (University Hospital, Linkoeping (Sweden))

1990-08-15

56

Monitoring occupational exposure to cancer chemotherapy drugs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Reports of the health effects of handling cytotoxic drugs and compliance with guidelines for handling these agents are briefly reviewed, and studies using analytical and biological methods of detecting exposure are evaluated. There is little conclusive evidence of detrimental health effects from occupational exposure to cytotoxic drugs. Work practices have improved since the issuance of guidelines for handling these drugs, but compliance with the recommended practices is still inadequate. Of 64 reports published since 1979 on studies of workers' exposure to these drugs, 53 involved studies of changes in cellular or molecular endpoints (biological markers) and 12 described chemical analyses of drugs or their metabolites in urine (2 involved both, and 2 reported the same study). The primary biological markers used were urine mutagenicity, sister chromatid exchange, and chromosomal aberrations; other studies involved formation of micronuclei and measurements of urinary thioethers. The studies had small sample sizes, and the methods were qualitative, nonspecific, subject to many confounders, and possibly not sensitive enough to detect most occupational exposures. Since none of the currently available biological and analytical methods is sufficiently reliable or reproducible for routine monitoring of exposure in the workplace, further studies using these methods are not recommended; efforts should focus instead on wide-spread implementation of improved practices for handling cytotoxic drugs.

Baker, E. S.; Connor, T. H.

1996-01-01

57

DOE 2012 Occupational Radiation Exposure October 2013  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Analysis within the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report to provide an overview of the status of radiation protection practices at DOE (including the National Nuclear Security Administration [NNSA]). The DOE 2012 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report provides an evaluation of DOE-wide performance regarding compliance with Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations (C.F.R.), Part 835, Occupational Radiation Protection dose limits and as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) process requirements. In addition, the report provides data to DOE organizations responsible for developing policies for protection of individuals from the adverse health effects of radiation. The report provides a summary and an analysis of occupational radiation exposure information from the monitoring of individuals involved in DOE activities. Over the past 5-year period, the occupational radiation exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site. As an indicator of the overall amount of radiation dose received during the conduct of operations at DOE, the report includes information on collective total effective dose (TED). The TED is comprised of the effective dose (ED) from external sources, which includes neutron and photon radiation, and the internal committed effective dose (CED), which results from the intake of radioactive material into the body. The collective ED from photon exposure decreased by 23% between 2011 and 2012, while the neutron dose increased by 5%. The internal dose components of the collective TED decreased by 7%. Over the past 5-year period, 99.99% of the individuals receiving measurable TED have received doses below the 2 roentgen equivalent in man (rems) (20 millisievert [mSv]) TED administrative control level (ACL), which is well below the DOE regulatory limit of 5 rems (50 mSv) TED annually. The occupational radiation exposure records show that in 2012, DOE facilities continued to comply with DOE dose limits and ACLs and worked to minimize exposure to individuals. The DOE collective TED decreased 17.1% from 2011 to 2012. The collective TED decreased at three of the five sites with the largest collective TED. u Idaho Site – Collective dose reductions were achieved as a result of continuing improvements at the Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Project (AMWTP) through the planning of drum movements that reduced the number of times a container is handled; placement of waste containers that created highradiation areas in a centralized location; and increased worker awareness of high-dose rate areas. In addition, Idaho had the largest decrease in the total number of workers with measurable TED (1,143 fewer workers). u Hanford Site (Hanford) – An overall reduction of decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) activities at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) and Transuranic (TRU) retrieval activities resulted in collective dose reductions. u Savannah River Site (SRS) – Reductions were achieved through ALARA initiatives employed site wide. The Solid Waste Management Facility used extended specialty tools, cameras and lead shield walls to facilitate removal of drums. These tools and techniques reduce exposure time through improved efficiency, increase distance from the source of radiation by remote monitoring, shield the workers to lower the dose rate, and reduce the potential for contamination and release of material through repacking of waste. Overall, from 2011 to 2012, there was a 19% decrease in the number of workers with measurable dose. Furthermore, due to a slight decrease in both the DOE workforce (7%) and monitored workers (10%), the ratio of workers with measurable doses to monitored workers decreased to 13%. Another primary indicator of the level of radiation exposure covered in this report is the average measurable dose, which normalizes the collective dose over the population of workers who actually received a measurable dose. The average measurable TED in

none,

2012-02-02

58

Bone Marrow Injury Induced via Oxidative Stress in Mice by Inhalation Exposure to Formaldehyde  

PubMed Central

Objective Formaldehyde, a ubiquitous environmental pollutant has been classified as a human leukemogen. However, toxicity of formaldehyde in bone marrow, the target site of leukemia induction, is still poorly understood. Methodology/Principal Findings To investigate bone marrow toxicity (bone marrow pathology, hematotoxicity) and underlying mechanisms (oxidative stress, inflammation, apoptosis) in formaldehyde-exposed mice. Male Balb/c mice were exposed to formaldehyde (0, 0.5, and 3.0 mg/m3) by nose-only inhalation for 8 hours/day, over a two week period designed to simulate a factory work schedule, with an exposure-free “weekend” on days 6 and 7, and were sacrificed on the morning of day 13. Counts of white blood cells, red blood cells and lymphocytes were significantly (p<0.05) decreased at 0.5 mg/m3 (43%, 7%, and 39%, respectively) and 3.0 mg/m3 (52%, 27%, and 43%, respectively) formaldehyde exposure, while platelet counts were significantly increased by 109% (0.5 mg/m3) and 67% (3.0 mg/m3). Biomarkers of oxidative stress (reactive oxygen species, glutathione depletion, cytochrome P450 1A1 and glutathione s-transferase theta 1 expression), inflammation (nuclear factor kappa-B, tomour necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-1 beta), and apoptosis (activity of cysteine-aspartic acid protease 3) in bone marrow tissues were induced at one or both formaldehyde doses mentioned above. Conclusions/Significance Exposure of mice to formaldehyde by inhalation induced bone marrow toxicity, and that oxidative stress, inflammation and the consequential apoptosis jointly constitute potential mechanisms of such induced toxicity. PMID:24040369

McHale, Cliona; Li, Rui; Zhang, Luoping; Wu, Yang; Ye, Xin; Yang, Xu; Ding, Shumao

2013-01-01

59

RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access Diet, occupational exposure and early asthma  

E-print Network

RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access Diet, occupational exposure and early asthma incidence among bakers,2 and Denis Zmirou-Navier1,2,3 Abstract Background: The natural history of occupational asthma (OA settings. Keywords: Occupational asthma, Epidemiology, Atopy, Vitamins Background Occupational asthma (OA

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

60

Parkinsonism and occupational exposure to pesticides  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE—To examine the risk of parkinsonism related to lifetime occupational exposure to pesticides among a cohort of men, mostly orchardists, in Washington State.?METHODS—All 310 subjects in this study had previously participated in a cohort study of men occupationally exposed to pesticides. Subjects were given a structured neurological examination and completed a self administered questionnaire which elicited detailed information on pesticide (insecticide, herbicide, and fungicide) use throughout their working careers. Demographic characteristics were also sought. Subjects had a mean age of 69.6 years (range 49-96, SD 8.1). There were 238 (76.8%) subjects who reported some occupational exposure to pesticides, whereas 72 (23.2%) reported none. Parkinsonism was defined by the presence of two or more of rest tremor, rigidity, bradykinesia, and impairment of postural reflexes in subjects not on antiparkinsonian medication, or the presence of at least one sign if they were on such medication. Parkinson's disease was not studied explicitly because of the difficulty in distinguishing it from other parkinsonian syndromes. A generalised linear model was used to estimate prevalence ratios (PRs) for parkinsonism relative to history of farming, pesticide use, and use of well water.?RESULTS—A PR of 2.0 (95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.0 to 4.2) was found for subjects in the highest tertile of years of exposure to pesticides; a similarly increased, non-significant, PR was found for the middle tertile (1.9 (95% CI 0.9 to 4.0)), although a trend test did not show a significant exposure-response relation. No increased risks were found associated with specific pesticides or pesticide classes, nor with a history of farming or use of well water.?CONCLUSION—Parkinsonism may be associated with long term occupational exposure to pesticides, although no associations with specific pesticides could be detected. This finding is consistent with most of the publications on this topic.???Keywords: farmer; parkinsonism; pesticides PMID:11511745

Engel, L; Checkoway, H; Keifer, M; Seixas, N; Longstreth, W; Scott, K; Hudnell, K; Anger, W; Camicioli, R

2001-01-01

61

Occupational exposure assessment of highway toll station workers to vehicle engine exhaust.  

PubMed

Toll station workers are occupationally exposed to vehicle engine exhaust, a complex mixture of different chemical substances, including carcinogenic compounds. Therefore, a study was carried out on attendants of two highway toll stations to describe their occupational exposure to vehicle engine exhaust, based on a worst-case scenario approach. Personal sampling was conducted during the day shift for all attendants, testing for three groups of chemical substances: polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and aldehydes (formaldehyde and acrolein). Concentrations of total PAH, BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes) and formaldehyde content varied between 97.60-336.08 ng/m3, 5.01-40.52 ?g/m3, and 0.06-19.13 ?g/m3, respectively. No clear relationships could be established between exposure levels and the number of vehicles. Furthermore, no differences were found between truck versus car lanes, or inside versus outside the tollbooth. Not all the detected VOCs were related to vehicle exhaust; some were consistent with the use of cleaning products. The measured concentrations were far below the established occupational exposure limits, but tended to be higher than values reported for outdoor urban environments. There are very few international studies assessing occupational exposures among toll station workers, and this is the first such study to be conducted in Spain. The results suggest that further, more detailed studies are necessary to characterize exposure properly, and ones which include other airborne pollutants, such as ultrafine particles. The comparison of the results to other similar studies was difficult, since no data related to some important exposure determinants have been provided. Therefore, it is recommended that these determinants be considered in future studies. PMID:25411914

Belloc-Santaliestra, Miriam; van der Haar, Rudolf; Molinero-Ruiz, Emilia

2015-01-01

62

DOE 2008 Occupational Radiation Exposure October 2009  

SciTech Connect

A major priority of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is to ensure the health, safety, and security of DOE employees, contractors, and subcontractors. The Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) provides the corporate-level leadership and strategic vision necessary to better coordinate and integrate health, safety, environment, security, enforcement, and independent oversight programs. One function that supports this mission is the DOE Corporate Operating Experience Program that provides collection, analysis, and dissemination of performance indicators, such as occupational radiation exposure information. This analysis supports corporate decision-making and synthesizes operational information to support continuous environment, safety, and health improvement across the DOE complex.

U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security

2009-10-01

63

A Study of Respiratory Effects from Exposure to 2 ppm Formaldehyde in Healthy Subjects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Formaldehyde (FA) is a common indoor air pollutant with irritative properties. It has been suggested that FA may produce physiologic alterations of the respiratory system. To study such responses, 15 nonsmoking, healthy subjects were exposed in a double blind, random manner to 0 and 2 ppm FA for 40 min in an environmental chamber. In addition, the same exposures were

E. Neil Schachter; Theodore J. Witek Jr; Tarik Tosun; Brian P. Leaderer; Gerald J. Beck

1986-01-01

64

Occupational exposure to benzene in South Korea.  

PubMed

Benzene has been used in various industries as glues or solvents in Korea. Since 1981, a preparation containing more than 1% benzene is not allowed to be manufactured, used or dealt with in the workplace, except in laboratories and in those situations benzene must be used in a completely sealed process as specified in Industrial Safety and Health Act (ISHA). Claims for compensation of hematopoietic diseases related to benzene have been rising even though the work environment has been improved. This study was conducted to assess the status of benzene exposure in different industries in Korea. We reviewed the claimed cases investigated by the Korea Occupational Safety and Health Agency (KOSHA) between 1992 and 2000. The Survey of National Work Environment Status in 1998 was analyzed to assume the number of workers and factories exposed to benzene. In 2000, six factories were investigated to evaluate benzene exposure. Personal air monitoring was performed in 61 workers and urine samples were collected from 57 workers to measure trans,trans-muconic acid (t,t-MA). Hematologic examination has performed. Thirty-four cases of hematopoietic diseases were investigated by KOSHA including eight cases of myelodysplastic syndrome and eight cases of acute myelocytic leukemia. Eight cases were accepted as related to benzene exposure. The number of workers possibly exposed to benzene can be estimated to be 196,182 workers from 6219 factories based on the database. The geometric mean of benzene in air was 0.094 (0.005-5.311) ppm. Seven samples were higher than 1 ppm but they did not go over the 10 ppm occupational exposure limit (OEL) value in Korea. The geometric mean of trans,trans-muconic acid in urine was 0.966 (0.24-2.74) mg/g creatinine. The benzene exposure level was low except in a factory where benzene was used to polymerize other chemicals. The ambient benzene from 0.1 to 1 ppm was significantly correlated with urine t,t-MA concentration (r=0.733, p<0.01). Hematologic parameters did not show significant difference among groups divided into the level of exposure. Korean workers were not highly exposed to benzene and the level of exposure was mostly less than 1 ppm. However, there might be an excessive risk of hematopoietic disorders due to relatively high past exposure. The OEL value of benzene was amended to 1 ppm from 10 ppm in 2002 and was effective since July 2003. PMID:15935801

Kang, Seong-Kyu; Lee, Mi-Young; Kim, Tae-Kyun; Lee, Jeong-Oh; Ahn, Yeon Soon

2005-05-30

65

Therapeutic associated with occupational exposure to silica.  

PubMed

Occupational exposure to silica dust has been increasing the possible risk of varieties of pathologies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the protective activity of ethanolic extract of Glycyrrhiza glabra roots at doses of 500 and 1000 mg/kg, p.o., given for 7 days against the toxicity of SiO(2) nanoparticles (50mg/kg intraperitoneal for 6 weeks) in rats. Exposure to silica altered various respiratory and biochemical variables, including ALT, AST, albumin, urea, uric acid, creatinine, catalase, LPO and GSH. Treatments with G. glabra extract significantly improved antioxidant status towards control. Stone workers in the Gwalior region exposed to silica dust had higher prevalence of cough, wheezing and shortness of breath. Increased serum ACE level was noted in the silica exposed group. It is of immense need to monitor this problem for betterment of worker's health. PMID:22575538

Raghuvanshi, Suchita; Shrivastava, Sadhana; Johri, Sonia; Shukla, Sangeeta

2012-06-01

66

[Occupational exposure and chronic heart failure severity].  

PubMed

Chronic heart failure (CHF) is characterized by the inability of the heart to supply the body with sufficient amount of blood for metabolic and circulatory needs. The main risk factors for CHF development are: hypertension, type 2 diabetes, obesity, smoking, chronic kidney diseases. Many occupational exposures, such as extremes of heat or cold temperatures, prolonged exposure to noise, vibrations, pesticides, can contribute to etiology of this disease. The aim of our study was to evaluate if work can affect CHF severity. We analyzed retrospectively the first 76 smokers aged over 65 years who presented to the outpatient Clinic of Chronic Heart Failure. The patients were divided in 4 groups based on their previous job: white-collars, farmers, steelworkers and subjects performing different occupational activities (hairdressers, firemen, masons). Our results showed that farmers had a reduced left ventricular ejection fraction compared with white-collars (p = 0.0045) although NYHA class and the presence/absence of CHF risk factors were not different between the two groups. This data suggests that the farmer job could be associated with the severity of CHF. PMID:18409765

Beltrame, D; Lo Cascio, N; Miotto, D; Mapp, C E; De Rosa, E; Boschetto, P

2007-01-01

67

Modeling repeated measurement data for occupational exposure assessment and epidemiology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Repeated measurements designs, occur frequently in the assessment of exposure to toxic chemicals. This thesis deals with the possibilities of using mixed effects models for occupational exposure assessment and in the analysis of exposure response relationships. The model enables simultaneous estimation of both the variance components of exposure (between- and within-subject) and the unbiased regression coefficients for determinants of exposure.

Chava Peretz

2003-01-01

68

78 FR 56273 - Occupational Exposure to Respirable Crystalline Silica  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) proposes to amend its existing standards for occupational exposure to respirable crystalline silica. The basis for issuance of this proposal is a preliminary determination by the Assistant Secretary of Labor for Occupational Safety and Health that employees exposed to respirable crystalline silica face a significant risk to their health at......

2013-09-12

69

Occupational exposure and laryngeal and hypopharyngeal cancer risk in central and eastern Europe  

SciTech Connect

A multicenter case-control study was conducted during 1999-2002 in four European countries (Poland, Romania, Russia, and Slovakia) to evaluate the role of occupational exposures in risk of laryngeal/hypopharyngeal cancer. Male cancer cases (34 hypopharyngeal, 316 laryngeal) with full data on occupational history and nonoccupational factors were compared with 728 hospital controls for occupational exposure to 73 suspected carcinogens. Occupational history was evaluated by industrial hygienists blinded to case/control status. Elevated risks for over exposure to coal dust were found for both hypopharyngeal (odds ratio (OR) = 4.19, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.18, 14.89) and laryngeal (OR = 1.81, 95% CI: 0.94, 3.47) cancer, with clear dose-response patterns. Inclusion of a 20-year lag in the analysis strengthened these associations. Hypopharyngeal cancer risk was also significantly associated with exposure to mild steel dust (OR = 3.04, 95% CI: 1.39, 6.64) and iron compounds and fumes (OR = 2.74, 95% CI: 1.29, 5.84), without clear dose-response relations. Laryngeal cancer was significantly associated with exposure to hard-alloys dust (OR = 2.23, 95% CI: 1.08, 4.57) and chlorinated solvents (OR = 2.18, 95% CI: 1.03, 4.61), without dose-response relations. A possible link between high formaldehyde exposure and laryngeal cancer was suggested. These data indicate that occupational exposure to coal dust may play a role in laryngeal and hypopharyngeal cancer. Other possible relations need further evaluation.

Shangina, O.; Brennan, P.; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, N.; Mates, D.; Fabianova, E.; Fletcher, T.; Mannetje, A.; Boffetta, P.; Zaridze, D. [International Agency for Research Center, Lyon (France)

2006-08-15

70

OCCUPATIONAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL PESTICIDE EXPOSURE STUDY IN SOUTH FLORIDA  

EPA Science Inventory

The investigation was designed to assess the occupational and environmental exposure to pesticides in South Florida, an area where pesticides are widely used. In addition to the conventional approach for measuring exposure to organophosphates and carbamates by means of cholineste...

71

[New data on occupational exposure to isocyanates].  

PubMed

During recent decades the industrial use of isocyanates has expanded enormously due to the huge product palette with a variety of different properties. As opposed to the fast technical development, there is a delay in the formulation of respective occupational health and safety regulations. Adverse health effects of isocyanates are mainly due to inhalative exposure. In addition, cutaneous contact causes toxic as well as allergic reactions. Oligomeric and polymeric isocyanates that are mostly used in the industry are only regulated in the Technical Rules for Hazardous Substances 430 (TRGS 430), but not by the mandatory occupational medical surveillance directive (Arbeitsmedizinische Vorsorgeverordnung). Although the TRGS 430 facilitates risk assessment (e. g., the aerosol penetration factor is related to the size of aerosols; only the acute irritative effect of oligomeric and polymeric isocyanates as shown in animal studies is taken into consideration in the case of defining a so-called evaluation factor), so far this new regulation has not yet been implemented in practice according to our own findings. PMID:19768665

Baur, X; Budnik, L T

2009-11-01

72

Respiratory Symptoms and Occupational Dust Exposure In US Veterans  

PubMed Central

PROBLEM Occupational exposure to organic and inorganic dusts may result in symptoms of chronic respiratory disease. METHOD To investigate the utility of obtaining a history of occupational exposure to dust in US veterans, a respiratory health survey was conducted between 1988 and 1992. They were asked for history of cough, phlegm, and wheeze, and occupational dust exposures Information on cigarette use and other possible confounders was also obtained. RESULTS In 2,617 white males, after adjusting for cigarette smoking, age, distance to the nearest major roadway, and chronic respiratory disease, there was an overall 2-fold increased risk of all three respiratory symptoms attributable to occupational dust exposure. The odds ratio (OR) increased based on exposure intensity. CONCLUSIONS After considering possible confounders, dust exposure was associated with respiratory symptoms, with the greatest risk attributable to heavy intensity exposure. PMID:15368060

Garshick, Eric; Laden, Francine; Hart, Jaime; Moy, Marilyn L.

2007-01-01

73

Carcinogenicity of Formaldehyde in Rats and Mice after Long-Term Inhalation Exposure1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Groups of approximately 120 male and 120 female Fischer 344 rats and C57BL\\/6 x C3H F, mice were exposed by inhalation to 0, 2.0, 5.6, and 14.3 ppm of formaldehyde gas 6 hr\\/day, 5 days\\/week, for 24 months. This exposure period was followed by up to 6 months of nonexposure. Interim sacrifices were conducted at 6, 12, 18, 24, 27,

William D. Kerns; Kenneth L. Pavkov; David J. Donofrio; Edward J. Gralla; James A. Swenberg

74

CAREX Canada: an enhanced model for assessing occupational carcinogen exposure  

PubMed Central

Objectives To estimate the numbers of workers exposed to known and suspected occupational carcinogens in Canada, building on the methods of CARcinogen EXposure (CAREX) projects in the European Union (EU). Methods CAREX Canada consists of estimates of the prevalence and level of exposure to occupational carcinogens. CAREX Canada includes occupational agents evaluated by the International Agency for Research on Cancer as known, probable or possible human carcinogens that were present and feasible to assess in Canadian workplaces. A Canadian Workplace Exposure Database was established to identify the potential for exposure in particular industries and occupations, and to create exposure level estimates among priority agents, where possible. CAREX EU data were reviewed for relevance to the Canadian context and the proportion of workers likely to be exposed by industry and occupation in Canada was assigned using expert assessment and agreement by a minimum of two occupational hygienists. These proportions were used to generate prevalence estimates by linkage with the Census of Population for 2006, and these estimates are available by industry, occupation, sex and province. Results CAREX Canada estimated the number of workers exposed to 44 known, probable and suspected carcinogens. Estimates of levels of exposure were further developed for 18 priority agents. Common exposures included night shift work (1.9 million exposed), solar ultraviolet radiation exposure (1.5 million exposed) and diesel engine exhaust (781?000 exposed). Conclusions A substantial proportion of Canadian workers are exposed to known and suspected carcinogens at work. PMID:24969047

Peters, Cheryl E; Ge, Calvin B; Hall, Amy L; Davies, Hugh W; Demers, Paul A

2015-01-01

75

78 FR 78962 - Criteria for a Recommended Standard; Occupational Exposure to Heat and Hot Environments; Draft...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Standard; Occupational Exposure to Heat and Hot Environments; Draft Criteria Document Availability...Standard: Occupational Exposure to Heat and Hot Environments for public comment. To view...Standard: Occupational Exposure to Heat and Hot Environments''. Special emphasis...

2013-12-27

76

Formaldehyde exposure of medical students and instructors and clinical symptoms during gross anatomy laboratory in Thammasat University.  

PubMed

To study formaldehyde concentrations in the breathing zone and symptoms induced by gaseous formaldehyde exposure of medical students and instructors during gross anatomy laboratory at faculty of Medicine, Thammasat university. Formaldehyde concentrations in the indoor air and breathing zone of medical students were measured during the cadaver dissection. Formaldehyde concentrations in the indoor air and in the breathing zone were ranged from 0.401 to 0.581 ppm (mean 0.491 +/- 0.090) and from 0.472 to 0.848 ppm (mean 0.660 +/- 0.188) respectively. The mean of formaldehyde concentrations in the breathing zone of medical students and instructors was significantly higher than the mean of formaldehyde concentration in indoor air (p < 0.05). The most symptoms were general fatigue (82.7-87.8%), burning eyes (66.2-85.0%) and burning nose (62.5-81.1%). There was no statistically significant difference in burning eye symptom between contact lenses users and no contact lenses users (p > 0.05). Even though formaldehyde concentrations were relatively low, medical students, instructors and cadaver related workers should wear personal protective devices to reduce the effect of gaseous formaldehyde exposure during gross anatomy laboratory or contact cadaver. PMID:21294402

Lakchayapakorn, Kajorn; Watchalayarn, Pensri

2010-12-01

77

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields  

SciTech Connect

In an hypothesis-generating case-control study of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, lifetime occupational histories were obtained. The patients (n = 28) were clinic based. The occupational exposure of interest in this report is electromagnetic fields (EMFs). This is the first and so far the only exposure analyzed in this study. Occupational exposure up to 2 years prior to estimated disease symptom onset was used for construction of exposure indices for cases. Controls (n = 32) were blood and nonblood relatives of cases. Occupational exposure for controls was through the same age as exposure for the corresponding cases. Twenty (71%) cases and 28 (88%) controls had at least 20 years of work experience covering the exposure period. The occupational history and task data were used to classify blindly each occupation for each subject as having high, medium/high, medium, medium/low, or low EMF exposure, based primarily on data from an earlier and unrelated study designed to obtain occupational EMF exposure information on workers in ``electrical`` and ``nonelectrical`` jobs. By using the length of time each subject spent in each occupation through the exposure period, two indices of exposure were constructed: total occupational exposure (E{sub 1}) and average occupational exposure (E{sub 2}). For cases and controls with at least 20 years of work experience, the odds ratio (OR) for exposure at the 75th percentile of the E{sub 1} case exposure data relative to minimum exposure was 7.5 (P < 0.02; 95% CI, 1.4--38.1) and the corresponding OR for E{sub 2} was 5.5 (P < 0.02; 95% CI, 1.3--22.5). For all cases and controls, the ORs were 2.5 (P < 0.1; 95% CI, 0.9--8.1) for E{sub 1} and 2.3 (P = 0.12; 95% CI, 0.8--6.6) for E{sub 2}. This study should be considered an hypothesis-generating study. Larger studies, using incident cases and improved exposure assessment, should be undertaken.

Davanipour, Z.; Sobel, E.; Bowman, J.D.; Qian, Z. [Univ. of Southern California School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA (United States)] [Univ. of Southern California School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Will, A.D.

1997-03-01

78

A mathematical model for the absorption and metabolism of formaldehyde vapour by humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epidemiological studies of occupational exposure to formaldehyde gas (HCHO) have suggested possible links between concentration and duration of exposure, and elevated risks of leukaemia and other cancers at sites distant from the site of contact. Formaldehyde is a highly water soluble gas which, when inhaled, reacts rapidly at the site of contact and is quickly metabolised by enzymes in the

S. J. Franks

2005-01-01

79

Renal cell cancer and occupational exposure to chemical agents.  

PubMed

A case-referent study of occupational risk indicators of renal cell adenocarcinoma was conducted. Each incident case in Finland in 1977-1978 was matched with two population referents. Lifelong job histories were collected and translated into indicators of industry, occupation, and occupational exposures. The analyses of 338 sets of cases and referents revealed elevated risks for a history of employment in white-collar occupations; the printing industry; the chemical industry; the manufacturing of metal products; mail, telephone, and telegraph services; and iron and metalware work. A decreased risk was observed for male farmers. An elevated risk and an exposure-response relationship were found for gasoline exposure. The excess risk was highest at a latency period of approximately 30 years. The findings support the hypothesis that exposure to some constituent(s) of gasoline increases the incidence of renal adenocarcinoma in humans. Suggestions of elevated risks appeared for exposures to inorganic lead, cadmium, and nonchlorinated solvents. PMID:1925434

Partanen, T; Heikkilä, P; Hernberg, S; Kauppinen, T; Moneta, G; Ojajärvi, A

1991-08-01

80

A comparison of occupational and nonoccupational noise exposures in Sweden.  

PubMed

This study was conducted to evaluate noise exposures and the contributions of occupational and nonoccupational activities among three groups of Swedish workers (office workers, day care workers, and military flight technicians), and to evaluate risk factors for elevated hearing threshold levels. Forty-five subjects were recruited across the three groups. Each subject completed a risk factor questionnaire along with Békésy audiometry at frequencies between 125 and 8000 Hz. Subjects also wore a noise dosimeter continuously for 1 week, and documented their occupational and nonoccupational activities using a time-activity log. Subjects in all groups completed >7400 h of dosimetry, and had weekly exposures between 76 and 81 dBA. Day care workers had the highest daily exposures, and flight technicians had the highest weekly exposures. Most daily and weekly exposures exceeded the 70 dBA exposure limit recommended for prevention of any hearing loss. Subjects' perceptions of their exposures generally agreed well with measured noise levels. Among office workers, exposures were predominately nonoccupational, while among flight technicians nonoccupational and occupational activities contributed roughly equally, and among day care workers occupational exposures were dominant. Extreme exposures and cumulative noise exposure were associated with an increased risk of hearing threshold levels >10 dB hearing level. Effective hearing loss prevention programs may be needed in occupations not historically considered to be at high risk of noise-induced hearing loss (e.g., day care workers). Prevention efforts need to address nonoccupational exposures as well as occupational exposures, as nonoccupational activities may present the dominant risk of noise-induced hearing loss for some workers. PMID:25209036

Neitzel, Richard L; Svensson, Eva B; Sayler, Stephanie K; Ann-Christin, Johnson

2014-01-01

81

The development and regulation of occupational exposure limits in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare, on an administrative basis, establishes and supervises the Administrative Concentration Level, which can be viewed as an Occupational Exposure Limit (OEL) legally binding employers to maintain a good working environment. The Japan Society for Occupational Health, on a scientific basis, establishes the Recommended OELs, which can be viewed as a reference value for

Ken Takahashi; Toshiaki Higashi

2006-01-01

82

Personality Traits in Miners with Past Occupational Elemental Mercury Exposure  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we evaluated the impact of long-term occupational exposure to elemental mercury vapor (Hg0) on the personality traits of ex-mercury miners. Study groups included 53 ex-miners previ- ously exposed to Hg0 and 53 age-matched controls. Miners and controls completed the self-reporting Eysenck Personality Questionnaire and the Emotional States Questionnaire. The relationship between the indices of past occupational exposure

Darja Kobal Grum; Alfred B. Kobal; Niko Arneri?; Milena Horvat; Bernard Ženko; Sašo Džeroski; Joško Osredkar

2006-01-01

83

Reduction of exposure to solvents and formaldehyde in surface-coating operations in the woodworking industry.  

PubMed

A 1-year study has been performed at a company which manufacturers office furniture, and can be subdivided into three phases: measurement of exposure prior to remedial measures; remedial measures whose purpose was to reduce exposure; and new measurements after remedial measures. Remedial measures concentrated on changes which would reduce exposure to solvents. These measures fall into two categories: (i) the training of employees about the way airborne pollutants spread and ways of avoiding exposure; and (ii) locating and eliminating important sources of emission. Employees were trained mainly by the PIMEX (PIcture Mix EXposure) method for showing them how exposure depended on methods of work and conditions at the workplace. The most important sources of solvent emissions were pin-pointed by the GridMap method. The results show that exposure can be greatly reduced through training, adjustment of existing equipment and minor technical measures. This is the case even when exposure is initially at a concentration which is clearly below hygienic limit values. This approach should also reduce exposure to formaldehyde, though this could not be evaluated because the raw materials used changed during the study. PMID:2372190

Rosén, G; Andersson, I M; Juringe, L

1990-06-01

84

Occupation- and exposure-related studies on human sperm.  

PubMed

Many kinds of exposures and chemicals have been shown to affect human sperm quantity and quality. This review focuses first on the best known occupational testicular toxin, dibromochloropropane. Prolonged heat is clearly detrimental to spermatogenesis. Studies on occupational heat, radiation, and chemical exposures and their effects on sperm are reviewed. The evaluation of human sperm studies is hampered by inconsistencies in biological analytical methods, in control for confounders, and in weaknesses of study design. Still, there is reason to suggest that human semen parameters can serve as valuable indicators of toxic and, in future, even genotoxic effects of occupational and environmental factors. PMID:8520954

Lähdetie, J

1995-08-01

85

76 FR 72216 - Occupational Exposure to Hazardous Chemicals in Laboratories Standard; Extension of the Office of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...causes and prevention of occupational injuries, illnesses, and...657). The Standard on Occupational Exposure to Hazardous Chemicals...necessary for the proper performance of the Agency's functions...contained in the Standard on Occupational Exposure to Hazardous...

2011-11-22

86

76 FR 25376 - Occupational Exposure to Hazardous Chemicals in Laboratories Standard; Extension of the Office of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...causes and prevention of occupational injuries, illnesses, and...The Standard entitled ``Occupational Exposure to Hazardous Chemicals...necessary for the proper performance of the Agency's functions...requirements contained in the Occupational Exposure to Hazardous...

2011-05-04

87

DOE 2010 Occupational Radiation Exposure November 2011  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses radiation protection and dose reporting requirements, presents the 2010 occupational radiation dose data trended over the past 5 years, and includes instructions to submit successful ALARA projects.

U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Analysis

2011-11-11

88

Sensory irritation as a basis for setting occupational exposure limits.  

PubMed

There is a need of guidance on how local irritancy data should be incorporated into risk assessment procedures, particularly with respect to the derivation of occupational exposure limits (OELs). Therefore, a board of experts from German committees in charge of the derivation of OELs discussed the major challenges of this particular end point for regulatory toxicology. As a result, this overview deals with the question of integrating results of local toxicity at the eyes and the upper respiratory tract (URT). Part 1 describes the morphology and physiology of the relevant target sites, i.e., the outer eye, nasal cavity, and larynx/pharynx in humans. Special emphasis is placed on sensory innervation, species differences between humans and rodents, and possible effects of obnoxious odor in humans. Based on this physiological basis, Part 2 describes a conceptual model for the causation of adverse health effects at these targets that is composed of two pathways. The first, "sensory irritation" pathway is initiated by the interaction of local irritants with receptors of the nervous system (e.g., trigeminal nerve endings) and a downstream cascade of reflexes and defense mechanisms (e.g., eyeblinks, coughing). While the first stages of this pathway are thought to be completely reversible, high or prolonged exposure can lead to neurogenic inflammation and subsequently tissue damage. The second, "tissue irritation" pathway starts with the interaction of the local irritant with the epithelial cell layers of the eyes and the URT. Adaptive changes are the first response on that pathway followed by inflammation and irreversible damages. Regardless of these initial steps, at high concentrations and prolonged exposures, the two pathways converge to the adverse effect of morphologically and biochemically ascertainable changes. Experimental exposure studies with human volunteers provide the empirical basis for effects along the sensory irritation pathway and thus, "sensory NOAEChuman" can be derived. In contrast, inhalation studies with rodents investigate the second pathway that yields an "irritative NOAECanimal." Usually the data for both pathways is not available and extrapolation across species is necessary. Part 3 comprises an empirical approach for the derivation of a default factor for interspecies differences. Therefore, from those substances under discussion in German scientific and regulatory bodies, 19 substances were identified known to be human irritants with available human and animal data. The evaluation started with three substances: ethyl acrylate, formaldehyde, and methyl methacrylate. For these substances, appropriate chronic animal and a controlled human exposure studies were available. The comparison of the sensory NOAEChuman with the irritative NOAECanimal (chronic) resulted in an interspecies extrapolation factor (iEF) of 3 for extrapolating animal data concerning local sensory irritating effects. The adequacy of this iEF was confirmed by its application to additional substances with lower data density (acetaldehyde, ammonia, n-butyl acetate, hydrogen sulfide, and 2-ethylhexanol). Thus, extrapolating from animal studies, an iEF of 3 should be applied for local sensory irritants without reliable human data, unless individual data argue for a substance-specific approach. PMID:25182421

Brüning, Thomas; Bartsch, Rüdiger; Bolt, Hermann Maximillian; Desel, Herbert; Drexler, Hans; Gundert-Remy, Ursula; Hartwig, Andrea; Jäckh, Rudolf; Leibold, Edgar; Pallapies, Dirk; Rettenmeier, Albert W; Schlüter, Gerhard; Stropp, Gisela; Sucker, Kirsten; Triebig, Gerhard; Westphal, Götz; van Thriel, Christoph

2014-10-01

89

Exposure to benzene, occupational stress, and reduced birth weight  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES—The association between birth weight and exposure to benzene, work stress, and other occupational and environmental hazards was investigated.?METHODS—In a large petrochemical industry, 792 pregnant workers were enrolled and followed up through delivery between May 1996 and December 1998. Exposure to benzene and other solvents was assessed by an industrial hygienist based on each woman's job title and workplace information. Other occupational and environmental exposures and personal information, including perceived work stress, exposure to noise, physical exertion at work, and passive smoking, were obtained by an interview questionnaire. Univariate and multivariate regression models were used to examine the individual and combined associations of occupational and environmental exposures with birth weight, with adjustment for major confounders including gestational age.?RESULTS—In the univariate model, birth weight was negatively associated with exposure to benzene (?58 g (95% confidence interval (95% CI), ?115 to ?2)) and with work stress (?84 g (95% CI, ?158 to ?10)). In the multivariate model, there was a significant interaction between exposure to benzene and work stress relative to reduced birth weight, after adjustment for other environmental and occupational exposures and personal variables. Adjusted mean birth weight was 3445 g (95% CI 3401 to 3489) among those with neither exposure, 3430 g for those with exposure to benzene only, 3426 g for those with work stress only, and 3262 g (95% CI 3156 to 3369) for those with both exposures. In other words, there was 183 g (95% CI 65 to 301) reduction in birth weight among those with both exposure to benzene and work stress compared with those with neither exposure. Other work or environmental factors could not explain these findings.?CONCLUSIONS—Low level exposure to benzene and work stress interact to reduce birth weight in this population.???Keywords: birth weight; benzene; work stress PMID:10984337

Chen, D.; Cho, S.; Chen, C.; Wang, X.; Damokosh, A.; Ryan, L.; Smith, T.; Christiani, D.; Xu, X.

2000-01-01

90

Occupational exposures to respirable crystalline silica during hydraulic fracturing.  

PubMed

This report describes a previously uncharacterized occupational health hazard: work crew exposures to respirable crystalline silica during hydraulic fracturing. Hydraulic fracturing involves high pressure injection of large volumes of water and sand, and smaller quantities of well treatment chemicals, into a gas or oil well to fracture shale or other rock formations, allowing more efficient recovery of hydrocarbons from a petroleum-bearing reservoir. Crystalline silica ("frac sand") is commonly used as a proppant to hold open cracks and fissures created by hydraulic pressure. Each stage of the process requires hundreds of thousands of pounds of quartz-containing sand; millions of pounds may be needed for all zones of a well. Mechanical handling of frac sand creates respirable crystalline silica dust, a potential exposure hazard for workers. Researchers at the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health collected 111 personal breathing zone samples at 11 sites in five states to evaluate worker exposures to respirable crystalline silica during hydraulic fracturing. At each of the 11 sites, full-shift samples exceeded occupational health criteria (e.g., the Occupational Safety and Health Administration calculated permissible exposure limit, the NIOSH recommended exposure limit, or the ACGIH threshold limit value), in some cases, by 10 or more times the occupational health criteria. Based on these evaluations, an occupational health hazard was determined to exist for workplace exposures to crystalline silica. Seven points of dust generation were identified, including sand handling machinery and dust generated from the work site itself. Recommendations to control exposures include product substitution (when feasible), engineering controls or modifications to sand handling machinery, administrative controls, and use of personal protective equipment. To our knowledge, this represents the first systematic study of work crew exposures to crystalline silica during hydraulic fracturing. Companies that conduct hydraulic fracturing using silica sand should evaluate their operations to determine the potential for worker exposure to respirable crystalline silica and implement controls as necessary to protect workers. PMID:23679563

Esswein, Eric J; Breitenstein, Michael; Snawder, John; Kiefer, Max; Sieber, W Karl

2013-01-01

91

RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access Occupational exposure to asbestos and lung  

E-print Network

RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access Occupational exposure to asbestos and lung cancer in men: evidence consistently demonstrated that workplace exposure to it increases the risk of developing lung cancer. Few of lung cancer, and 2,053 controls recruited from 8 Canadian provinces between 1994 and 1997. Self

Boyer, Edmond

92

Occupational exposure to trihalomethanes in indoor swimming pools  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study evaluated occupational exposure to trihalomethanes (THMs) in indoor swimming pools. Thirty-two subjects, representing the whole workforce employed in the five public indoor swimming pools in the city of Modena (Northern Italy) were enrolled. Both environmental and biological monitoring of THMs exposure were performed. Environmental concentrations of THMs in different areas inside the swimming pools (at the poolside, in

Guglielmina Fantuzzi; Elena Righi; Guerrino Predieri; Giorgia Ceppelli; Fabriziomaria Gobba; Gabriella Aggazzotti

2001-01-01

93

Extensive changes to occupational exposure limits in Korea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Occupational exposure limits (OELs) are used as an important tool to protect workers from adverse chemical exposures and its detrimental effects on their health. The Ministry of Labor (MOL) can establish and publish OELs based on the Industrial Safety and Health Act in Korea. The first set of OELs was announced by the MOL in 1986. At that time, it

Jee Yeon Jeong; Sangjun Choi; Young Lim Kho; Pan Gyi Kim

2010-01-01

94

Management of occupational hazards in healthcare: exposure to diphencyprone  

PubMed Central

Diphencyprone is a chemical agent used most commonly in the treatment of alopecia areata. Its mechanism of action is through the sensitisation (type IV immune reaction) of affected areas to stimulate hair follicle growth. The consequences of accidental occupational exposure, however, have not been widely recognised. This report describes the clinical presentation and management of two pharmacy technicians that presented to Sheffield Occupational Health Service (SOHS) centre in 2012. Exposure sources were identified through a workplace visit arranged between the SOHS centre and the hospital's pharmacy; a chemical analysis revealed concentrations of the chemical sufficient to induce sensitisation at several points during the manufacturing process. The case highlights the role of close liaison between specialist services (dermatology and occupational medicine) in managing individual patient cases and mitigating risk within relevant occupational groups. PMID:23417940

Basu, Subhashis; Adisesh, Anil

2013-01-01

95

Occupational PAH Exposures during Prescribed Pile Burns  

PubMed Central

Wildland firefighters are exposed to particulate matter and gases containing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), many of which are known carcinogens. Our objective was to evaluate the extent of firefighter exposure to particulate and PAHs during prescribed pile burns of mainly ponderosa pine slash and determine whether these exposures were correlated with changes in urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-HP), a PAH metabolite. Personal and area sampling for particulate and PAH exposures were conducted on the White Mountain Apache Tribe reservation, working with 21 Bureau of Indian Affairs/Fort Apache Agency wildland firefighters during the fall of 2006. Urine samples were collected pre- and post-exposure and pulmonary function was measured. Personal PAH exposures were detectable for only 3 of 16 PAHs analyzed: naphthalene, phenanthrene, and fluorene, all of which were identified only in vapor-phase samples. Condensed-phase PAHs were detected in PM2.5 area samples (20 of 21 PAHs analyzed were detected, all but naphthalene) at concentrations below 1 ?g m?3. The total PAH/PM2.5 mass fractions were roughly a factor of two higher during smoldering (1.06 ± 0.15) than ignition (0.55 ± 0.04 ?g mg?1). There were no significant changes in urinary 1-HP or pulmonary function following exposure to pile burning. In summary, PAH exposures were low in pile burns, and urinary testing for a PAH metabolite failed to show a significant difference between baseline and post-exposure measurements. PMID:18515848

Robinson, M. S.; Anthony, T. R.; Littau, S. R.; Herckes, P.; Nelson, X.; Poplin, G. S.; Burgess, J. L.

2008-01-01

96

Exposure assessment in industry specific retrospective occupational epidemiology studies.  

PubMed Central

Quantitative estimation of exposure for occupational epidemiology studies has received increasing attention in recent years and, as a result, a body of methodological literature has begun to take form. This paper reviews the generic issues in the methodology of exposure assessment, particularly methods for quantitative retrospective assessment studies. A simple framework, termed an exposure data matrix (EDM), for defining and analysing exposure data is proposed and discussed in terms of the definition of matrix dimensions and scales. Several methods for estimation, interpolation, and extrapolation, ranging from subjective ratings to quantitative statistical modelling are presented and discussed. The various approaches to exposure assessment based on the EDM concept are illustrated with studies of lung disease among coal miners and other dust and chemically induced chronic occupational diseases. The advantages of validated statistical models are emphasised. The importance of analysis and control of errors in exposure assessments, and integration of the exposure assessment and exposure-response processes, especially for emerging occupational health issues, is emphasised. PMID:7489051

Seixas, N S; Checkoway, H

1995-01-01

97

Lung cancer risk, occupational exposure, and the debrisoquine metabolic phenotype.  

PubMed

The risk of lung cancer in smokers was examined based on the debrisoquine metabolic phenotype and on exposure to occupational lung carcinogens, specifically asbestos and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Extensive metabolizers of debrisoquine are at a 4-fold increased risk for lung cancer compared to poor metabolizers, after adjustment for age, sex, and smoking (pack-years), when only occupationally unexposed subjects are considered. Increased risk related to the debrisoquine metabolic phenotype was greatest for squamous and small cell histologies, and least for the adenocarcinoma subtype. Men with a history of exposure to occupational carcinogens had significantly increased risk of lung cancer (relative risk = 2.8), after adjustment for age and smoking. Considering the combined effect of the high risk extensive metabolizers debrisoquine metabolic phenotype and likely occupational exposure to asbestos, the relative excess risk for lung cancer was 18-fold. This finding is consistent with a synergism in risk between the ability to extensively metabolize debrisoquine and occupational exposure to lung carcinogens in male smokers. Debrisoquine phenotyping has potential for identifying carcinogen-exposed workers at high risk of lung cancer. PMID:2731181

Caporaso, N; Hayes, R B; Dosemeci, M; Hoover, R; Ayesh, R; Hetzel, M; Idle, J

1989-07-01

98

Annual occupational exposure to ultraviolet radiation in central Queensland.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to determine annual occupational exposure to UV radiation by measurement and derive ambient exposure fractions for an entire year that could be applied in the human exposure model. Using polysulphone the daily occupational erythema effective solar ultraviolet radiation exposure at selected body sites of Australia Post mail delivery personnel and physical education teachers were measured over an 18-mo period on a daily basis in the Rockhampton (lat. 23.5 degrees S) region. The daily exposures were summed to estimate an annual exposure for these occupations in this region. For the Australia Post mail delivery personnel, who had very little change to the posture or route during delivery, the annual mean estimates of exposure to erythema effective solar irradiance for the chest, hands, and back were in the range of 192+/-27 kJ m(-2), 388+/-45 kJ m(-2), and 283+/-32 kJ m(-2), respectively. Physical education teachers had varied duties on a day-to-day basis and many changes in their posture and outdoor locations where the exposure occurred. Their annual mean exposure on the vertex (hat), chest, shoulder, thigh, and back were in the range 340+/-71 kJ m(-2), 140+/-28 kJ m(-2), 180+/-40 kJ m(-2), 129+/-24 kJ m(-2), and 212+/-42 kJ m(-2), respectively. The annual exposure range for erythema effective solar irradiance at different body sites during the experimental period was between 120 and 440 kJ m(-2) for the two occupational groups. These exposures greatly exceed the National Health and Medical Research Council occupational standard limit of 30 J m(-2) for daily exposure, which indicates the need for additional protective measures. The ambient exposure was also measured and used to compute ambient exposure fractions for the different body sites over an entire year, which are useful for model calculations on human exposure and assess increase in risk of n on melanoma skin cancer. PMID:11669207

Vishvakarman, D; Wong, J C; Boreham, B W

2001-11-01

99

Occupational Exposure to Volatile Organic Compounds and Aldehydes in the U.S. Trucking Industry  

PubMed Central

Diesel exhaust is a complex chemical mixture that has been linked to lung cancer mortality in a number of epidemiologic studies. However, the dose–response relationship remains largely undefined, and the specific components responsible for carcinogenicity have not been identified. Although previous focus has been on the particulate phase, diesel exhaust includes a vapor phase of numerous volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and aldehydes that are either known or suspected carcinogens, such as 1,3-butadiene, benzene, and formaldehyde. However, there are relatively few studies that quantify exposure to VOCs and aldehydes in diesel-heavy and other exhaust-related microenvironments. As part of a nationwide assessment of exposure to diesel exhaust in the trucking industry, we collected measurements of VOCs and aldehydes at 15 different U.S. trucking terminals and in city truck drivers (with 6 repeat site visits), observing average shift concentrations in truck cabs and at multiple background and work area locations within each terminal. In this paper, we characterize occupational exposure to 18 different VOCs and aldehydes, as well as relationships with particulate mass (elemental carbon in PM < 1 ? m and PM2.5) across locations to determine source characteristics. Our results show that occupational exposure to VOCs and aldehydes varies significantly across the different sampling locations within each terminal, with significantly higher exposures noted in the work environments over background levels (p < 0.01). A structural equation model performed well in predicting terminal exposures to VOCs and aldehydes as a function of job, background levels, weather conditions, proximity to a major road, and geographic location (R2 = 0.2–0.4 work area; R2 = 0.5–0.9 background). PMID:17993162

DAVIS, M. E.; BLICHARZ, A. P.; HART, J. E.; LADEN, F.; GARSHICK, E.; SMITH, T. J.

2008-01-01

100

Indoor Air in Beauty Salons and Occupational Health Exposure of Cosmetologists to Chemical Substances  

PubMed Central

The indoor environment in four beauty salons located in Athens (Greece) was examined in order to investigate the occupational health exposure of cosmetologists to various chemical products typically used in their work. Chemical substances chosen for investigation were volatile organic compounds (VOCs), formaldehyde, ozone and carbon dioxide. Total VOCs levels measured showed significant variation (100–1,450 ?g m?3) depending on the products used and the number of treatments carried out, as well as ventilation. The main VOCs found in the salons were aromatics (toluene, xylene), esters and ketones (ethyl acetate, acetone, etc.) which are used as solvents in various beauty products; terpenes (pinene, limonene, camphor, menthenol) which have a particular odor and others like camphor which have specific properties. Ozone concentrations measured in all salons were quite low (0.1 and 13.3 ?g m?3) and formaldehyde concentrations detected were lower than the detection limit of the method in all salons (<0.05 ppm). Carbon dioxide levels ranged between 402 and 1,268 ppm, depending on the number of people present in the salons during measurements and ventilation. Cosmetologists may be exposed to high concentrations of a mixture of volatile organic compounds although these levels could be decreased significantly by following certain practices such as good ventilation of the areas, closing the packages of the beauty products when not in use and finally selecting safer beauty products without strong odor. PMID:20195448

Tsigonia, Alexandra; Lagoudi, Argyro; Chandrinou, Stavroula; Linos, Athena; Evlogias, Nikos; Alexopoulos, Evangelos C.

2010-01-01

101

Occupational exposure to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in wood dust  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sino-nasal cancer (SNC) represents approximately 3% of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology (ORL) cancers. Adenocarcinoma SNC is an acknowledged occupational disease affecting certain specialized workers such as joiners and cabinetmakers. The high proportion of woodworkers contracting a SNC, subjected to an estimated risk 50 to 100 times higher than that affecting the general population, has suggested various study paths to possible causes such as tannin in hardwood, formaldehyde in plywood and benzo(a)pyrene produced by wood when overheated by cutting tools. It is acknowledged that tannin does not cause cancer to workers exposed to tea dust. Apart from being an irritant, formaldehyde is also classified as carcinogenic. The path involving carcinogenic Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) emitted by overheated wood is attractive. In this study, we measured the particle size and PAHs content in dust emitted by the processing of wood in an experimental chamber, and in field situation. Quantification of 16 PAHs is carried out by capillary GC-ion trap Mass Spectrometric analysis (GC-MS). The materials tested are rough fir tree, oak, impregnated polyurethane (PU) oak. The wood dust contains carcinogenic PAHs at the level of ?g.g-1 or ppm. During sanding operations, the PU varnish-impregnated wood produces 100 times more PAHs in dust than the unfinished wood.

Huynh, C. K.; Schüpfer, P.; Boiteux, P.

2009-02-01

102

Occupational Exposure to Carbon Nanotubes and Nanofibers  

MedlinePLUS

... findings from a new laboratory study in which mice were exposed by inhalation to multi-walled carbon ... have the potential to initiate or promote cancer. Mice receiving both an initiator chemical plus inhalation exposure ...

103

Epidemiologic evidence for asthma and exposure to air toxics: linkages between occupational, indoor, and community air pollution research.  

PubMed Central

Outdoor ambient air pollutant exposures in communities are relevant to the acute exacerbation and possibly the onset of asthma. However, the complexity of pollutant mixtures and etiologic heterogeneity of asthma has made it difficult to identify causal components in those mixtures. Occupational exposures associated with asthma may yield clues to causal components in ambient air pollution because such exposures are often identifiable as single-chemical agents (e.g., metal compounds). However, translating occupational to community exposure-response relationships is limited. Of the air toxics found to cause occupational asthma, only formaldehyde has been frequently investigated in epidemiologic studies of allergic respiratory responses to indoor air, where general consistency can be shown despite lower ambient exposures. The specific volatile organic compounds (VOCs) identified in association with occupational asthma are generally not the same as those in studies showing respiratory effects of VOC mixtures on nonoccupational adult and pediatric asthma. In addition, experimental evidence indicates that airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposures linked to diesel exhaust particles (DEPs) have proinflammatory effects on airways, but there is insufficient supporting evidence from the occupational literature of effects of DEPs on asthma or lung function. In contrast, nonoccupational epidemiologic studies have frequently shown associations between allergic responses or asthma with exposures to ambient air pollutant mixtures with PAH components, including black smoke, high home or school traffic density (particularly truck traffic), and environmental tobacco smoke. Other particle-phase and gaseous co-pollutants are likely causal in these associations as well. Epidemiologic research on the relationship of both asthma onset and exacerbation to air pollution is needed to disentangle effects of air toxics from monitored criteria air pollutants such as particle mass. Community studies should focus on air toxics expected to have adverse respiratory effects based on biological mechanisms, particularly irritant and immunological pathways to asthma onset and exacerbation. PMID:12194890

Delfino, Ralph J

2002-01-01

104

Occupational exposures during the World Trade Center disaster response.  

PubMed

Upon the request of the New York City Department of Health, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) monitored occupational exposures among emergency response workers during the rescue and recovery activities at the World Trade Center disaster site from September 18 through 4 October 2001. During this period, over 1,200 bulk and air samples were collected to estimate or characterize workers' occupational exposures. Samples were collected and analyzed for asbestos, carbon monoxide (CO), chlorodifluoromethane (Freon 22), diesel exhaust, hydrogen sulfide, inorganic acids, mercury and other metals, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, respirable particulate not otherwise regulated (PNOR), respirable crystalline silica, total PNOR, and volatile organic compounds. Exposures to most of these potential hazards did not exceed NIOSH Recommended Exposure Limits or Occupational Safety and Health Administration Permissible Exposure Limits. However, one torch cutter was overexposed to cadmium and another worker (and possibly three others) was overexposed to CO. The elevated cadmium and CO levels were the result of workers using oxy-acetylene cutting torches and gasoline-powered cutting saws. Recommendations were made to ensure adequate ventilation and worker understanding when using these tools and, where possible, to substitute rechargeable, battery-powered cutting saws for gasoline-powered ones. Toxicology PMID:12539869

Wallingford, K M; Snyder, E M

2001-06-01

105

An investigation of occupational metal exposure in thermal spraying processes.  

PubMed

A cross-sectional study of 34 workers engaged in thermal spraying at six worksites was undertaken in order to determine levels of exposure to and uptake of metals during different metal spraying activities. Levels of exposure to cobalt, chromium and nickel were highest in plasma sprayers and, on occasions exceeded UK Occupational Exposure Limits. Exposure to metals during detonation gun and electric arc spraying was better controlled and levels remained below the relevant Occupational Exposure Limits throughout the study period. Urinary levels of cobalt and nickel mirrored the airborne concentrations and the highest urine concentrations were again found in plasma sprayers. Urinary chromium levels were highest in electric arc sprayers, which may also reflect an increased body burden in this group due to a longer history of exposure. The findings clearly indicate that exposure to and uptake of metals may exceed UK Occupational Limits or Standards when spraying is performed manually or semi-automatically and where control relies on local exhaust ventilation (LEV) and personal respiratory protective equipment (RPE). PMID:9200854

Chadwick, J K; Wilson, H K; White, M A

1997-06-20

106

Risks from occupational and dietary exposure to mevinphos.  

PubMed

Mevinphos (trade name, Phosdrin), a category 1 organophosphorus insecticide, has been used mainly as a cleanup pesticide for vegetable crops. A risk assessment for occupational and dietary exposure to mevinphos was initiated because of the high acute toxicity of the compound. Repetitive dosing with mevinphos did not cause any discernible histopathological effects in mice or rats, nor was it oncogenic in either species. The principal toxic effects of mevinphos, both short- and long term, were due to inhibition of cholinesterase activity. Consequently, potential adverse effects from short-term exposures were the primary concern. A human no-observed-effect level (0.025 mg/kg) for cholinergic signs was used as the regulatory basis for calculating margins of safety (MOSs) for potential acute dietary and short-term occupational exposures. Estimates of exposure to mixer/loaders, pilots, and flaggers associated with aerial application of mevinphos were based on passive dosimetry. Because no acceptable exposure studies for work tasks associated with ground application of mevinphos were available, surrogate data based on ground application of oxydemeton-methyl were used. Exposure estimates for field workers and harvesters relied on measured dislodgeable foliar residues of mevinphos and transfer factors generated from studies of other active ingredients. MOSs for mean acute occupational exposure of mixer/loader/applicators associated with ground application and of harvesters working in fruit trees were less than the value conventionally recommended to protect people from the toxic effects of mevinphos. MOSs for the 95th percentile of short-term worker exposure for all mixer/loader work categories associated with mevinphos application were also inadequate. Calculated MOSs for potential acute dietary exposure to measured residue levels of mevinphos were adequate for the various population subgroups. However, 25 of the USEPA tolerances for mevinphos on agricultural commodities were not adequate to protect for the toxic effects of mevinphos from theoretical acute dietary exposure to one or more population subgroups if commodities are consumed with residues at the tolerance level. When the mean short-term occupational exposures were combined with potential acute dietary exposure, the MOSs for mixer/loaders engaged in aerial applications, as well as ground applications, were inadequate to protect people from the toxic effects of mevinphos. As mitigation of the estimated excessive occupational exposures did not appear possible, both California and the USEPA were preparing to cancel registration of the product. However, an agreement was worked out between the manufacturer and the two agencies that ended production for domestic use but allowed existing stocks in the channels of trade to continue to be used for a limited period. PMID:8714219

Cochran, R C; Formoli, T A; Silva, M H; Kellner, T P; Lewis, C M; Pfeifer, K F

1996-01-01

107

Occupational radiation exposure to the surgeon.  

PubMed

Increased use of intraoperative fluoroscopy exposes the surgeon to significant amounts of radiation. The average yearly exposure of the public to ionizing radiation is 360 millirems (mrem), of which 300 mrem is from background radiation and 60 mrem from diagnostic radiographs. A chest radiograph exposes the patient to approximately 25 mrem and a hip radiograph to 500 mrem. A regular C-arm exposes the patient to approximately 1,200 to 4,000 mrem/min. The surgeon may receive exposure to the hands from the primary beam and to the rest of the body from scatter. Recommended yearly limits of radiation are 5,000 mrem to the torso and 50,000 mrem to the hands. Exposure to the hands may be higher than previously estimated, even from the mini C-arm. Potential decreases in radiation exposure can be accomplished by reduced exposure time; increased distance from the beam; increased shielding with gown, thyroid gland cover, gloves, and glasses; beam collimation; using the low-dose option; inverting the C-arm; and surgeon control of the C-arm. PMID:15712984

Singer, Gordon

2005-01-01

108

Risks of occupational exposure to optical radiation.  

PubMed

During the past 40 years a wide body of biomedical research has been conducted to understand the factors which influence injury to optical radiation-particularly with respect to the eye. A primary motivation for much of this research has been the advent of lasers, since focal damage of the retina from a collimated beam exposure is possible at some distance. A wide range of research studies provided the basis for establishing human exposure limits for ultraviolet and infrared radiation as well as for intense visible light. The International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) has published guidelines for human exposure, and these are available at no cost from the ICNIRP website (http://www. icnirp.org). Laser Maximum Permissible Exposure (MPE) limits used in international safety standards, such as those of the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) are based upon ICNIRP guidelines. Practical laser safety standards and regulations have evolved to promote the safe design and use of laser products. As a result of newer laser applications and increased knowledge of the biological effects, MPEs have been revised a number of times. Despite the existence of safety standards and regulations, accidental eye injuries from lasers still occur. Accidental exposure to welding arcs and intense lights occur more fequently, but the consequential loss of vision is much less, with permanent effects rare. Accidental human exposure information also adds to our understanding of ultraviolet, blue-light and laser induced retinal injury. Accidents are most frequently attributed to the lack of understanding of hazards and a failure to follow established safe work practices. PMID:17017352

Sliney, D H

2006-01-01

109

Dupuytren's contracture and occupational exposure to hand-transmitted vibration  

PubMed Central

Aims The relation between Dupuytren's contracture and occupational exposure to hand-transmitted vibration (HTV) has frequently been debated. We explored associations in a representative national sample of workers with well-characterised exposure to HTV. Methods We mailed a questionnaire to 21?201 subjects aged 16–64?years, selected at random from the age-sex registers of 34 general practices in Great Britain and to 993 subjects chosen randomly from military pay records, asking about occupational exposure to 39 sources of HTV and about fixed flexion contracture of the little or ring finger. Analysis was restricted to men at work in the previous week. Estimates were made of average daily vibration dose (A(8) root mean squared velocity (rms)) over that week. Associations with Dupuytren's contracture were estimated by Poisson regression, for lifetime exposure to HTV and for exposures in the past week >A(8) of 2.8?ms?2 rms. Estimates of relative risk (prevalence ratio (PR)) were adjusted for age, smoking status, social class and certain manual activities at work. Results In all 4969 eligible male respondents supplied full information on the study variables. These included 72 men with Dupuytren's contracture, 2287 with occupational exposure to HTV and 409 with A(8)>2.8?ms?2 in the past week. PRs for occupational exposure to HTV were elevated 1.5-fold. For men with an A(8)>2.8?ms?2 in the past week, the adjusted PR was 2.85 (95% CI 1.37 to 5.97). Conclusions Our findings suggest that risk of Dupuytren's contracture is more than doubled in men with high levels of weekly exposure to HTV. PMID:24449599

Palmer, Keith T; D'Angelo, Stefania; Syddall, Holly; Griffin, Michael J; Cooper, Cyrus; Coggon, David

2014-01-01

110

Occupational exposure limits for nanomaterials: state of the art  

Microsoft Academic Search

Assessing the need for and effectiveness of controlling airborne exposures to engineered nanomaterials in the workplace is\\u000a difficult in the absence of occupational exposure limits (OELs). At present, there are practically no OELs specific to nanomaterials\\u000a that have been adopted or promulgated by authoritative standards and guidance organizations. The vast heterogeneity of nanomaterials\\u000a limits the number of specific OELs that

P. A. Schulte; V. Murashov; R. Zumwalde; E. D. Kuempel; C. L. Geraci

2010-01-01

111

Cardiac autonomic dysfunction from occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesExposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) has been associated with cardiopulmonary mortality and cardiovascular events. This study investigated the association between a biological marker of PAH exposure, assessed by urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP), and heart-rate variability in an occupational cohort of boilermakers.MethodsContinuous 24 h monitoring of the ambulatory electrocardiogram (ECG) and pre- and postshift urinary 1-OHP were repeated over extended periods

Mi-Sun Lee; Shannon Magari; David C Christiani

2010-01-01

112

A mathematical model for the absorption and metabolism of formaldehyde vapour by humans  

SciTech Connect

Epidemiological studies of occupational exposure to formaldehyde gas (HCHO) have suggested possible links between concentration and duration of exposure, and elevated risks of leukaemia and other cancers at sites distant from the site of contact. Formaldehyde is a highly water soluble gas which, when inhaled, reacts rapidly at the site of contact and is quickly metabolised by enzymes in the respiratory tissue. Inhaled formaldehyde is almost entirely absorbed in the respiratory tract and, for formaldehyde induced toxicity to occur at distant sites, HCHO must enter the blood and be transported to systemic tissues via the circulatory system. A mathematical model describing the absorption and removal of inhaled formaldehyde in the nasal tissue is therefore formulated to predict the proportion of formaldehyde entering into the blood. Accounting for the spatial distribution of the formaldehyde concentration and the metabolic activity within the mucosa, the concentration of formaldehyde in the mucus, the epithelium and the blood has been determined and was found to attain a steady-state profile within a few seconds of exposure. The increase of the formaldehyde concentration in the blood was predicted to be insignificant compared with the existing pre-exposure levels in the body, indicating that formaldehyde is rapidly removed in the nasal tissue. The results of the model thus suggest that it is highly unlikely that following inhalation by the nose, formaldehyde itself will cause toxicity at sites other than the initial site of contact in the respiratory tract.

Franks, S.J. [Health and Safety Laboratory, Harpur Hill, Buxton SK17 9JN (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: Susan.Franks@hsl.gov.uk

2005-08-15

113

Assessing the reproductive health of men with occupational exposures.  

PubMed

The earliest report linking environmental (occupational) exposure to adverse human male reproductive effects dates back to1775 when an English physician, Percival Pott, reported a high incidence of scrotal cancer in chimney sweeps. This observation led to safety regulations in the form of bathing requirements for these workers. The fact that male-mediated reproductive harm in humans may be a result of toxicant exposures did not become firmly established until relatively recently, when Lancranjan studied lead-exposed workers in Romania in 1975, and later in 1977, when Whorton examined the effects of dibromochloropropane (DBCP) on male workers in California. Since these discoveries, several additional human reproductive toxicants have been identified through the convergence of laboratory and observational findings. Many research gaps remain, as the pool of potential human exposures with undetermined effects on male reproduction is vast. This review provides an overview of methods used to study the effects of exposures on male reproduction and their reproductive health, with a primary emphasis on the implementation and interpretation of human studies. Emphasis will be on occupational exposures, although much of the information is also useful in assessing environmental studies, occupational exposures are usually much higher and better defined. PMID:24369130

Schrader, Steven M; Marlow, Katherine L

2014-01-01

114

Effects upon health of occupational exposure to microwave radiation (radar)  

SciTech Connect

The effects of occupational experience with microwave radiation (radar) on the health of US enlisted Naval personnel were studied in cohorts of approximately 20,000 men with maximum opportunity for exposure (electronic equipment repair) and 20,000 with minimum potential for exposure (equipment operation) who served during the Korean War period. Potential exposure was assessed in terms of occupational duties, length of time in occupation and power of equipment at the time of exposure. Actual exposure to members of each cohort could not be established. Mortality by cause of death, hospitalization during military service, later hospitalization in Veterans Administration (VA) facilities, and VA disability compensation were the health indexes studied, largely through the use of automated record systems. No adverse effects were detected in these indexes that could be attributed to potential microwave radiation exposures during the period 1950-1954. Functional and behavioral changes and ill-defined conditions, such as have been reported as microwave effects, could not be investigated in this study but subgroups of the living study population can be identified for expanded follow-up.

Robinette, C.D. (National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council, Washington, DC); Silverman, C.; Jablon, S.

1980-07-01

115

Assessing the reproductive health of men with occupational exposures  

PubMed Central

The earliest report linking environmental (occupational) exposure to adverse human male reproductive effects dates back to1775 when an English physician, Percival Pott, reported a high incidence of scrotal cancer in chimney sweeps. This observation led to safety regulations in the form of bathing requirements for these workers. The fact that male-mediated reproductive harm in humans may be a result of toxicant exposures did not become firmly established until relatively recently, when Lancranjan studied lead-exposed workers in Romania in 1975, and later in 1977, when Whorton examined the effects of dibromochloropropane (DBCP) on male workers in California. Since these discoveries, several additional human reproductive toxicants have been identified through the convergence of laboratory and observational findings. Many research gaps remain, as the pool of potential human exposures with undetermined effects on male reproduction is vast. This review provides an overview of methods used to study the effects of exposures on male reproduction and their reproductive health, with a primary emphasis on the implementation and interpretation of human studies. Emphasis will be on occupational exposures, although much of the information is also useful in assessing environmental studies, occupational exposures are usually much higher and better defined. PMID:24369130

Schrader, Steven M; Marlow, Katherine L

2014-01-01

116

Biological monitoring of occupational pesticides exposure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Two kinds of measurement: (1) enzyme activities in blood, and (2) unchanged pesticides and their metabolites in urine or blood have been used in biological monitoring for assessing exposure to pesticides. The assays of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in whole blood and erythrocytes are mainly applied to estimate inhibition by organophosphates (OPs) and carbamates. A level at 70% of an

Fengsheng He

1993-01-01

117

[Occupational exposure to respiratory irritants and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease].  

PubMed

Cigarette smoking and occupational exposure to respiratory irritants are the major riskfactors for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), which is characterized by small-airway obstruction and destruction of pulmonary parenchyma: emphysema. We studied two groups of subjects: one exposed and the other one not-exposed to respiratory irritants, to investigate the relationship, if any, between occupational exposure and COPD. Subjects underwent high-resolution computed tomography-density mask of the chest to quantify pulmonary emphysema, pulmonary function tests, sputum induction and analysis for cell counts and measurements of metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 and its tissue inhibitor TIMP-1. Subjects with occupational exposure to respiratory irritants had higher residual volume and functional residual capacity, higher total inflammatory cells and neutrophils in induced sputum. By contrast, sputum levels of MMP-9, TIMP-1 and MMP-91TIMP-1 ratio did not differ between the 2 groups. We conclude that sputum induction and analysis could be a useful and non-invasive tool to study and follow subjects with occupational exposure to respiratory irritants. PMID:16240598

Quintavalle, S; Mazzetti, L; Zeni, E; Lo Cascio, N; Leprotti, S; Ballerin, L; Potena, A; Mapp, C E; De Rosa, E; Boschetto, P

2005-01-01

118

Occupational Exposure to Natural Sources of Ionising Radiation in Ireland  

SciTech Connect

The Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland (RPII) has recently completed a detailed evaluation of all radiation exposure pathways from sources of both natural and artificial radiation in the Irish environment. This paper presents a compilation of the occupational doses received by Irish workers exposed to natural sources of ionising radiation.

Organo, Catherine; Colgan, Tony; Fenton, David; Synnott, Hugh; Currivan, Lorraine [Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland, 3 Clonskeagh Square, Dublin 14 (Ireland)

2008-08-07

119

Occupational exposure to DDT among mosquito control sprayers  

SciTech Connect

DDT, a broad action insecticide whose use is restricted or banned in most industrialized countries is still often used for vector control in many tropical and developing countries. Despite the fact that DDT is accumulative and persistant in the ecosystem use of such substitutes as malathion or propoxur is not popular because these increases costs by 3.4 to 8.5 fold. As such DDT is economically attractive to poorer countries. As far as can be ascertained no systemic poisoning has resulted from occupational exposure to DDT. Due to the large particle size, the amount of DDT inhaled by workers is far less than the amount reaching exposed portions of skin. As such occupational exposure is mainly dermal or tropical. Occupational exposure to DDT studies have been done before. The present study is an analysis of some characteristics, (i.e. age, body size, relationship between plasma vitamin A and DDE levels, and smoking habits), of occupational exposure to DDT among spraymen in a Zimbabwe population.

Nhachi, C.F.B.; Kasilo, O.J. (Univ. of Zimbabwe, Harare (Zimbabwe))

1990-08-01

120

Airborne occupational exposure, ABO phenotype, and risk of obesity  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND:We have previously found a quite strong interplay between occupational airborne pollutants, ABO phenotypes, and risk of ischaemic heart disease (IHD), with long-term exposure being associated with a significantly increased risk among men with phenotype O, and not among men with other ABO phenotypes. We suggested that the biological pathway could be a stronger systemic inflammatory response in men with

P Suadicani; H O Hein; F Gyntelberg

2005-01-01

121

Renal cell carcinoma and occupational exposure to chemicals in Canada.  

PubMed

This study assesses the effect of occupational exposure to specific chemicals on the risk of renal cell carcinoma in Canada. Mailed questionnaires were used to obtain data on 1279 (691 male and 588 female) newly diagnosed, histologically confirmed renal cell carcinoma cases and 5370 population controls in eight Canadian provinces, between 1994 and 1997. Data were collected on socio-economic status, smoking habit, alcohol use, diet, residential and occupational histories, and years of exposure to any of 17 chemicals. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were derived using unconditional logistic regression. The study found an increased risk of renal cell carcinoma in males only, which was associated with occupational exposure to benzene; benzidine; coal tar, soot, pitch, creosote or asphalt; herbicides; mineral, cutting or lubricating oil; mustard gas; pesticides; and vinyl chloride. Compared with no exposure to the specific chemical, the adjusted ORs were 1.8 (95% CI = 1.2-2.6), 2.1 (1.3-3.6), 1.4 (1.1-1.8), 1.6 (1.3-2.0), 1.3 (1.1-1.7), 4.6 (1.7-12.5), 1.8 (1.4-2.3) and 2.0 (1.2-3.3), respectively; an elevated risk was also associated with exposure to cadmium salts and isopropyl oil. The risk of renal cell carcinoma increased with duration of exposure to benzene, benzidine, cadmium, herbicides and vinyl chloride. Very few females were exposed to specific chemicals in this study; further research is needed to clarify the association between occupational exposure to chemicals and renal cell carcinoma in females. PMID:12063361

Hu, J; Mao, Y; White, K

2002-05-01

122

Is exposure to formaldehyde in air causally associated with leukemia?--A hypothesis-based weight-of-evidence analysis.  

PubMed

Recent scientific debate has focused on the potential for inhaled formaldehyde to cause lymphohematopoietic cancers, particularly leukemias, in humans. The concern stems from certain epidemiology studies reporting an association, although particulars of endpoints and dosimetry are inconsistent across studies and several other studies show no such effects. Animal studies generally report neither hematotoxicity nor leukemia associated with formaldehyde inhalation, and hematotoxicity studies in humans are inconsistent. Formaldehyde's reactivity has been thought to preclude systemic exposure following inhalation, and its apparent inability to reach and affect the target tissues attacked by known leukemogens has, heretofore, led to skepticism regarding its potential to cause human lymphohematopoietic cancers. Recently, however, potential modes of action for formaldehyde leukemogenesis have been hypothesized, and it has been suggested that formaldehyde be identified as a known human leukemogen. In this article, we apply our hypothesis-based weight-of-evidence (HBWoE) approach to evaluate the large body of evidence regarding formaldehyde and leukemogenesis, attending to how human, animal, and mode-of-action results inform one another. We trace the logic of inference within and across all studies, and articulate how one could account for the suite of available observations under the various proposed hypotheses. Upon comparison of alternative proposals regarding what causal processes may have led to the array of observations as we see them, we conclude that the case for a causal association is weak and strains biological plausibility. Instead, apparent association between formaldehyde inhalation and leukemia in some human studies is better interpreted as due to chance or confounding. PMID:21635189

Rhomberg, Lorenz R; Bailey, Lisa A; Goodman, Julie E; Hamade, Ali K; Mayfield, David

2011-08-01

123

Is exposure to formaldehyde in air causally associated with leukemia?—A hypothesis-based weight-of-evidence analysis  

PubMed Central

Recent scientific debate has focused on the potential for inhaled formaldehyde to cause lymphohematopoietic cancers, particularly leukemias, in humans. The concern stems from certain epidemiology studies reporting an association, although particulars of endpoints and dosimetry are inconsistent across studies and several other studies show no such effects. Animal studies generally report neither hematotoxicity nor leukemia associated with formaldehyde inhalation, and hematotoxicity studies in humans are inconsistent. Formaldehyde's reactivity has been thought to preclude systemic exposure following inhalation, and its apparent inability to reach and affect the target tissues attacked by known leukemogens has, heretofore, led to skepticism regarding its potential to cause human lymphohematopoietic cancers. Recently, however, potential modes of action for formaldehyde leukemogenesis have been hypothesized, and it has been suggested that formaldehyde be identified as a known human leukemogen. In this article, we apply our hypothesis-based weight-of-evidence (HBWoE) approach to evaluate the large body of evidence regarding formaldehyde and leukemogenesis, attending to how human, animal, and mode-of-action results inform one another. We trace the logic of inference within and across all studies, and articulate how one could account for the suite of available observations under the various proposed hypotheses. Upon comparison of alternative proposals regarding what causal processes may have led to the array of observations as we see them, we conclude that the case fora causal association is weak and strains biological plausibility. Instead, apparent association between formaldehyde inhalation and leukemia in some human studies is better interpreted as due to chance or confounding. PMID:21635189

Rhomberg, Lorenz R; Bailey, Lisa A; Goodman, Julie E; Hamade, Ali K; Mayfield, David

2011-01-01

124

Occupational exposure through spraying remedial pesticides.  

PubMed

A total of 20 surveys at 15 sites of remedial in-situ timber and masonry treatment took place in the latter half of 1996. Two of these surveys concerned wall washes (biocides), the remainder were non-agricultural pesticides. The purpose was to measure the surface deposition and inhalation exposure of the operatives to the pesticide spray fluids used. The diluted spray fluids were found to have significantly different concentrations from those intended by the sprayer. The pesticides were applied at pressures between 320 and 1050 kPa. Deposition rates for spray fluid on coveralls covered a wide range, with more than 30 fold difference between the median and the highest results (median 209 mg/minute; range 27.4 to 6550 mg/min). Contamination of coveralls occurred in all surveys, with the pesticide getting beneath the coveralls in 95% of surveys, with a median 5% contamination beneath the overall. The averaged and normalised deposition pattern was 75% legs, 11% arms, 12% torso and 2% head. Exposure of hands to pesticide (expressed as spray fluid) beneath protective gloves occurred in 89% of surveys (median 5.78 mg/minute; range 0.23 to 358 mg/min) and contamination of socks by spray fluid in 78% of surveys (median 2.08 mg/minute; range 0.12 to 260 mg/min). Exposure by inhalation to spray fluid was measurable in 72% of surveys (median 53.5 mg/m3 TWA; range 4.33 to 1320 mg/m3; 2 data excluded). Inhalation exposure and deposition on coveralls rose markedly at spray pressures above 700 kPa (100 psi). PMID:9684556

Garrod, A N; Rimmer, D A; Robertshaw, L; Jones, T

1998-04-01

125

Detailed industrial hygiene survey, formaldehyde production, E. I. DuPont de Nemours and Co. , Chemicals and Pigment Department, Grasselli Plant, Linden, New Jersey  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey to assess the techniques used to control occupational exposure to formaldehyde (50000) and methanol (67561) was conducted at the E. I. DuPont de Nemours and Company (SIC-2869) formaldehyde production unit, Linden, New Jersey, in October 1982. Exposure concentrations were reduced primarily by the use of a process that was completely enclosed except for process sampling, methanol unloading, and

D. W. Dunn; H. D. Toy; A. J. Wright; W. H. Hedley; L. Holmes

1983-01-01

126

Unacceptable "occupational" exposure to toxic agents among children in Ecuador.  

PubMed

To document the problem of child labor as a health issue, we report here three case-studies in Ecuador: exposure to mercury among gold washers, exposure to organophosphates and carbamates in the fruit-growing industry, and exposure to solvents among shoe cleaners. We measured the relevant biological indicators of exposure (mercury in urine, urinary levels of phenols, and acetylcholine esterase in erythrocytes) among selected samples of 10 children for each working place. In all the case studies, the values of the biological indicators showed elevated exposure to well-known toxicants, which are now rare in developed countries, even among adult workers. The findings meld with a previously reported case study of intoxication from inorganic lead among children employed in the manufacture of roof tiles in Ecuador. This study highlights the need to properly evaluate and control the potential health effects due to exposure to toxic substances among children employed in different occupations in several parts of the world. PMID:9219645

Harari, R; Forastiere, F; Axelson, O

1997-09-01

127

Acute resin phenol-formaldehyde intoxication. A life threatening occupational hazard.  

PubMed

1. A 38-year-old previously healthy worker accidentally spilled phenol-formaldehyde resin over a large area of his skin. 2. Several days later he was hospitalized with extensive necrotic skin lesions, fever, hypertension, adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), proteinuria and renal functional impairment. 3. All symptoms improved progressively and eventually disappeared. 4. We propose that toxic materials originating from the necrotic skin lesions and the continued facilitated absorption of the resin and/or its components via the skin lesions were the main factors responsible for this alarming multisystem involvement. 5. Workers handling this material should be instructed to take appropriate precautions and physicians should be alerted to the potential pathophysiological consequences. PMID:2744783

Cohen, N; Modai, D; Khahil, A; Golik, A

1989-05-01

128

48 CFR 952.223-75 - Preservation of individual occupational radiation exposure records.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Preservation of individual occupational radiation exposure records. 952.223-75...Preservation of individual occupational radiation exposure records. Link to an amendment...planning and execution, or 952.223-72, Radiation protection and nuclear...

2014-10-01

129

Occupational radiation exposure and pregnancy in orthopaedics.  

PubMed

Radiological imaging is necessary in a wide variety of trauma and elective orthopaedic operations. The evolving orthopaedic workforce includes an increasing number of pregnant workers. Current legislation in the United Kingdom, Europe and United States allows them to choose their degree of participation, if any, with fluoroscopic procedures. For those who wish to engage in radiation-prone procedures, specific regulations apply to limit the radiation dose to the pregnant worker and unborn child. This paper considers those aspects of radiation protection, the potential effects of exposure to radiation in pregnancy and the dose of radiation from common orthopaedic procedures, which are important for safe clinical practice. PMID:22219242

Uzoigwe, C E; Middleton, R G

2012-01-01

130

Occupational exposure during remediation works at a uranium tailings pile.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to assess by different approaches the occupational exposure during the remediation of a tailings dam in an abandoned uranium mining site, with an area of about 13.3 ha and an estimated volume of 1.39 million m³. A hypothetical scenario was created in which the workers involved in the remediation activities were exposed to radiation through both internal and external pathways. It was intended to assess quantitatively the potential exposure of the workforce involved in the remediation works, focussing particularly on the inhalation of radon and on the gamma irradiation from the contaminated soil. Different methodologies were considered based on a deterministic and a probabilistic approach for dose assessment and risk assessment, respectively. The deterministic approach typically employs a highly "conservative" single value for each input parameter. The probabilistic approach employs sensitivity and uncertainty analysis of input parameters using probabilistic distributions of the sensitive parameters. The results indicate that annual effective dose limit for occupational exposure (worst scenario case created) may reach a significant fraction of occupational radiation protection limits. This is also stressed by the values obtained for the occupational risk estimated by Monte Carlo methodology using probabilistic distributions for the input parameters. The results also showed that the pathway with the highest dose does not necessarily correspond to the pathway with the highest risk. Nevertheless, it is well known that probabilistic analysis generally produces more realistic results. PMID:22974553

Dinis, Maria de Lurdes; Fiúza, António

2013-05-01

131

Gene-environment interaction and biological monitoring of occupational exposures  

SciTech Connect

Biological monitoring methods and biological limit values applied in occupational and environmental medicine have been traditionally developed on the assumption that individuals do not differ significantly in their biotransformation capacities. It has become clear, however, that this is not the case, but wide inter-individual differences exist in the metabolism of chemicals. Integration of the data on individual metabolic capacity in biological monitoring studies is therefore anticipated to represent a significant refinement of the currently used methods. We have recently conducted several biological monitoring studies on occupationally exposed subjects, which have included the determination of the workers' genotypes for the metabolic genes of potential importance for a given chemical exposure. The exposure levels have been measured by urine metabolites, adducts in blood macromolecules, and cytogenetic alterations in lymphocytes. Our studies indicate that genetic polymorphisms in metabolic genes may indeed be important modifiers of individual biological monitoring results of, e.g., carbon disulphide and styrene. The information is anticipated to be useful in insuring that the workplace is safe for everyone, including the most sensitive individuals. This knowledge could also be useful to occupational physicians, industrial hygienists, and regulatory bodies in charge of defining acceptable exposure limits for environmental and/or occupational pollutants.

Hirvonen, Ari [Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Topeliuksenkatu 41 a A, 00250 Helsinki (Finland)]. E-mail: Ari.Hirvonen@ttl.fi

2005-09-01

132

Comparative evaluation of biomarkers of occupational exposure to toluene  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives  This study was initiated to make comparative evaluation of five proposed urinary markers of occupational exposure to toluene,\\u000a i.e., benzyl alcohol, benzylmercapturic acid, o-cresol, hippuric acid and un-metabolized toluene.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  In practice, six plants in Japan were surveyed, and 122 Japanese workers (mostly printers; all men) together with 12 occupationally\\u000a nonexposed control subjects (to be called controls; all men) agreed to

Hirohiko Ukai; Toshio Kawai; Osamu Inoue; Yuki Maejima; Yoshinari Fukui; Fumiko Ohashi; Satoru Okamoto; Shiro Takada; Haruhiko Sakurai; Masayuki Ikeda

2007-01-01

133

Advanced REACH Tool: a Bayesian model for occupational exposure assessment.  

PubMed

This paper describes a Bayesian model for the assessment of inhalation exposures in an occupational setting; the methodology underpins a freely available web-based application for exposure assessment, the Advanced REACH Tool (ART). The ART is a higher tier exposure tool that combines disparate sources of information within a Bayesian statistical framework. The information is obtained from expert knowledge expressed in a calibrated mechanistic model of exposure assessment, data on inter- and intra-individual variability in exposures from the literature, and context-specific exposure measurements. The ART provides central estimates and credible intervals for different percentiles of the exposure distribution, for full-shift and long-term average exposures. The ART can produce exposure estimates in the absence of measurements, but the precision of the estimates improves as more data become available. The methodology presented in this paper is able to utilize partially analogous data, a novel approach designed to make efficient use of a sparsely populated measurement database although some additional research is still required before practical implementation. The methodology is demonstrated using two worked examples: an exposure to copper pyrithione in the spraying of antifouling paints and an exposure to ethyl acetate in shoe repair. PMID:24665110

McNally, Kevin; Warren, Nicholas; Fransman, Wouter; Entink, Rinke Klein; Schinkel, Jody; van Tongeren, Martie; Cherrie, John W; Kromhout, Hans; Schneider, Thomas; Tielemans, Erik

2014-06-01

134

Advanced REACH Tool: A Bayesian Model for Occupational Exposure Assessment  

PubMed Central

This paper describes a Bayesian model for the assessment of inhalation exposures in an occupational setting; the methodology underpins a freely available web-based application for exposure assessment, the Advanced REACH Tool (ART). The ART is a higher tier exposure tool that combines disparate sources of information within a Bayesian statistical framework. The information is obtained from expert knowledge expressed in a calibrated mechanistic model of exposure assessment, data on inter- and intra-individual variability in exposures from the literature, and context-specific exposure measurements. The ART provides central estimates and credible intervals for different percentiles of the exposure distribution, for full-shift and long-term average exposures. The ART can produce exposure estimates in the absence of measurements, but the precision of the estimates improves as more data become available. The methodology presented in this paper is able to utilize partially analogous data, a novel approach designed to make efficient use of a sparsely populated measurement database although some additional research is still required before practical implementation. The methodology is demonstrated using two worked examples: an exposure to copper pyrithione in the spraying of antifouling paints and an exposure to ethyl acetate in shoe repair. PMID:24665110

McNally, Kevin; Warren, Nicholas; Fransman, Wouter; Entink, Rinke Klein; Schinkel, Jody; van Tongeren, Martie; Cherrie, John W.; Kromhout, Hans; Schneider, Thomas; Tielemans, Erik

2014-01-01

135

Isocyanate exposure and occupational asthma: a case-referent study  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE—To examine the quantitative relation between exposure to isocyanates and occupational asthma, and to explore the role of atopy and smoking in occurrence of the disease.?METHOD—A case-referent study was undertaken of cases from two manufacturing companies (A and B) from which referents without disease could be selected and reliable exposure measurements were available. In company A, 27 cases mainly attributed to toluene diisocyanate (TDI) were matched to 51 referents on work area, start and duration of employment, sex, and age. Exposures were estimated from existing measurements by job category. In company B there were seven cases attributed to 4,4'-diphenylmethane diisocyanate (MDI) in two areas of the plant; 12 non-cases from the same areas were used as referents. Personal exposure measurements were available for all cases and 11 referents.?RESULTS—No difference in peak exposures between cases and referents was found in either plant; but in both, time weighted average (TWA) exposures at the time of onset of asthma were higher for cases. In A, the mean TWA exposure for cases was 1.5 (95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.2 to 1.8) ppb compared with 1.2 (1.0 to 1.4) ppb for referents. From a matched analysis, the odds ratio (OR) associated with 8 hour TWA exposure to isocyanates greater than 1.125 ppb (the median concentration for the referent group) was 3.2 (95% CI 0.96 to 10.6; p=0.06). Occupational asthma was associated with a pre-employment history of atopic illness (OR 3.5, p=0.04) and, less strongly, with smoking (OR 2.1, p=0.14). In B, small numbers limited analysis, but three of seven cases had at least one TWA exposure measurement greater than 5 ppb compared with one of 11 referents (OR 7.5, p=0.09).?CONCLUSION—Asthma can occur at low concentrations of isocyanates, but even at low concentrations, the higher the exposure the greater the risk. By contrast with other studies, smoking and atopy seemed to increase the odds of occupational asthma due to isocyanates, but did not affect the estimate of risk associated with exposure.???Keywords: occupational asthma; isocyanates PMID:11077012

Meredith, S; Bugler, J; Clark, R

2000-01-01

136

[Occupational exposure to ionizing radiation in hospital. Analysis of individual risk by area and occupational category].  

PubMed

An analysis of occupational radiation exposure from 1988-2008 of 43 medical, 41 nurses and 4 nuclear medicine technicians of interventional cardiology, nuclear medicine, radiology-neuroradiology, urology and orthopedics has been performed. The mean annual effective dose to the whole body of all monitored workers are decreasing; one vascular surgeon, has exceeded 20 mSv/year. The doses received by physicians in the hands were up in radiology, urology and cardiology. Currently, interventional cardiology-hemodynamic is the most department-average exposure. Nurses are overall less exposed, the great exposure is in nuclear medicine, where the technicians are included. PMID:23393889

Maccà, I; Maso, S; Saia, B O; Bartolucci, G B

2011-01-01

137

Exploring the Usefulness of Occupational Exposure Registries for Surveillance  

PubMed Central

Objective: The ongoing presence of asbestos in products used across workplaces in Canada reinforces the importance of occupational exposure surveillance. This study evaluates the usefulness of the Ontario Asbestos Workers Registry. Methods: The study includes 30,829 workers aged 15 to 80 years. Researchers reported on the data quality and analyzed the proportions of workers exposed by industry, and standardized rates by geographic areas and over time. Results: The incidence of exposure started to decrease around 1990; but about 2000 workers were still exposed annually until 2006. Results showed large geographical disparities. Unexpectedly, workers from industries other than construction reported exposure. Conclusions: The Ontario Asbestos Workers Registry is a useful but challenging source of information for the surveillance of asbestos exposure in Ontario. The registry could benefit from well-defined surveillance objectives, a clear exposure definition, systematic enforcement, regular data analyses, and results dissemination. PMID:25162835

Genesove, Leon; Moore, Kris; Del Bianco, Ann; Kramer, Desre

2014-01-01

138

Simultaneous occupational exposure to FM and UHF transmitters.  

PubMed

Occupational exposure caused by large broadcasting transmitters exceeds current reference levels. As it is common for different radio and TV transmitters to share the location, we analysed combined exposure on a 40-m high mast. The frequency modulation (FM) transmitter, located between the 10th and 30th metre, had the power of 25 kW, whereas an ultra-high frequency (UHF) transmitter of 5 kW occupied the top 8 m of the mast. Measured and calculated values of the electric field strength exceeded the reference levels up to 10 times; however, the results for the specific absorption rate (SAR) values show that the reference levels are very conservative for FM exposure, i.e., basic restrictions are not exceeded even when the reference levels are exceeded 10 times. However, for UHF exposure the reference levels are not conservative; they give a good prediction of real exposure. PMID:22721535

Vali?, Blaž; Kos, Bor; Gajšek, Peter

2012-01-01

139

Potential Health Effects Associated with Dermal Exposure to Occupational Chemicals  

PubMed Central

There are a large number of workers in the United States, spanning a variety of occupational industries and sectors, who are potentially exposed to chemicals that can be absorbed through the skin. Occupational skin exposures can result in numerous diseases that can adversely affect an individual’s health and capacity to perform at work. In general, there are three types of chemical–skin interactions of concern: direct skin effects, immune-mediated skin effects, and systemic effects. While hundreds of chemicals (metals, epoxy and acrylic resins, rubber additives, and chemical intermediates) present in virtually every industry have been identified to cause direct and immune-mediated effects such as contact dermatitis or urticaria, less is known about the number and types of chemicals contributing to systemic effects. In an attempt to raise awareness, skin notation assignments communicate the potential for dermal absorption; however, there is a need for standardization among agencies to communicate an accurate description of occupational hazards. Studies have suggested that exposure to complex mixtures, excessive hand washing, use of hand sanitizers, high frequency of wet work, and environmental or other factors may enhance penetration and stimulate other biological responses altering the outcomes of dermal chemical exposure. Understanding the hazards of dermal exposure is essential for the proper implementation of protective measures to ensure worker safety and health. PMID:25574139

Anderson, Stacey E; Meade, B Jean

2014-01-01

140

Adverse effects of long-time exposure to formaldehyde vapour on testicular tissue and sperm parameters in rats  

PubMed Central

Formalin is widely used in industry and in medicine (as tissue fixative and disinfectant).It contains reactive molecules which have been known for its cytotoxic effects. To evaluate the effect of formalin exposure on the testicular tissue and sperm parameter from neonatal period through physical and sexual maturity, 28 male Wister rats were assigned into two equal test and control groups. The test group was exposed to 1.5 ppm of the vapor of 10% formaldehyde in a special chamber for 2 hr per day at 20-26 ?C and the air pressure of 760-763 atm. After 55 days, the tubular differentiation (TDI) and repopulation (RI) indexes in testicular tissue, sperm quality parameters, serum total antioxidant capacity and testosterone level were determined. The formaldehyde-exposed animals showed severe seminiferous tubules atrophy, edematous connective tissue, arrested spermatogenesis with negative TDI and RI and vascular thrombosis compared to control group. Histomorphological studies showed a high sperm mortality and abnormality associated with a remarkable decrease in sperm count. Formaldehyde-exposed animals revealed with decreased serum level of testosterone (p < 0.05) and down-regulated antioxidant status versus control group. In conclusion, the current data provide inclusive histological and biochemical information about the chronic exposure to formaldehyde with emphasizing on reproductive disorders including histological adverse effects on the testicular tissue, spermatogenesis, sperm viability, count and the abnormalities which can potentially cause infertility after sexual maturation.

Razi, Mazdak; Malekinejad, Hassan; Sayrafi, Reza; Hosseinchi, Mohammad Reza; Feyzi, Sajad; Moshtagion, Seyed Mehdi; Janbaz, Hamed

2013-01-01

141

Occupational exposure of workers to 1,3-butadiene.  

PubMed Central

Researchers from the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) conducted an extent-of-exposure study of the 1,3-butadiene monomer, polymer, and end-user industries to determine the size of the exposed workforce, evaluate control technologies and personal protective equipment programs, and assess occupational exposure to 1,3-butadiene. A new analytical method was developed for 1,3-butadiene that increased the sensitivity and selectivity of the previous NIOSH method. The new method is sensitive to 0.2 microgram per 1,3-butadiene sample. Walk-through surveys were conducted in 11 monomer, 17 polymer, and 2 end-user plants. In-depth industrial hygiene surveys were conducted at 4 monomer, 5 polymer, and 2 end-user plants. Airborne exposure concentrations of 1,3-butadiene were determined using personal sampling for each job category. A total of 692 full shift and short-term personnel and 259 area air samples were examined for the presence of 1,3-butadiene. Sample results indicated that all worker exposures were well below the current OSHA PEL of 1000 ppm. Exposures ranged from less than 0.006 ppm to 374 ppm. The average exposure for all samples was less than 2 ppm. The present American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) threshold limit value for 1,3-butadiene is 10 ppm. To reduce the potential for occupational exposure, it is recommended that quality control sampling be conducted using a closed loop system. Also all process pumps should be retrofitted with dual mechanical seals, magnetic gauges should be used in loading and unloading rail cars, and engineering controls should be designed for safely voiding quality control cylinders. PMID:2401251

Fajen, J M; Roberts, D R; Ungers, L J; Krishnan, E R

1990-01-01

142

Occupational exposure to diesel engine exhaust: A literature review  

PubMed Central

Background Diesel exhaust (DE) is classified as a probable human carcinogen. Aims were to describe the major occupational uses of diesel engines and give an overview of personal DE exposure levels and determinants of exposure as reported in the published literature. Methods Measurements representative of personal DE exposure were abstracted from the literature for the following agents: elemental carbon (EC), particulate matter (PM), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxide (NO), and nitrogen dioxide (NO2). Information on determinants of exposure was abstracted. Results In total, 3528 EC, 4166 PM, 581 CO, 322 NO, and 1404 NO2 measurements were abstracted. From the 10,001 measurements, 32% represented exposure from on-road vehicles, and 68% from off-road vehicles (30% mining, 15% railroad, and 22% other). Highest levels were reported for enclosed underground work sites where heavy equipment is used: mining, mine maintenance, and construction, (EC: 27-658 ?g/m3). Intermediate exposure levels were generally reported for above ground (semi-)enclosed areas where smaller equipment was run: mechanics in a shop, emergency workers in fire stations, distribution workers at a dock, and workers loading/unloading inside a ferry (generally: EC< 50 ?g/m3). Lowest levels were reported for enclosed areas separated from the source such as drivers and train crew, or outside such as surface mining, parking attendants, vehicle testers, utility service workers, surface construction and airline ground personnel (EC<25 ?g/m3). The other agents showed a similar pattern. Determinants of exposure reported for enclosed situations were ventilation and exhaust after treatment devices. Conclusions Reported DE exposure levels were highest for underground mining and construction, intermediate for working in above ground (semi-)enclosed areas and lowest for working outside or separated from the source. The presented data can be used as a basis for assessing occupational exposure in population-based epidemiological studies and guide future exposure assessment efforts for industrial hygiene and epidemiological studies. PMID:19277070

Pronk, Anjoeka; Coble, Joseph; Stewart, Patricia

2010-01-01

143

Occupational exposure to blood among hospital workers in montenegro.  

PubMed

This cross-sectional study was performed in nine Montenegrin hospitals to estimate the burden of occupational exposure to blood among hospital workers in Montenegro in 2010 using a modified Croatian self-reporting questionnaire on exposure to blood-borne infections. Of the 1043 respondents, 517 (49.6 %) reported exposure to blood. Variations between the hospitals were not significant, except for the hospital in Kotor, which stands out with the high percentage of exposed hospital workers (p<0.05). More than 77 % of exposures were not reported through standard hospital protocols at the time of the incident. The most exposed group to blood were nurses (357 of 517; 69.1 %), but the percentage of exposed nurses within the group did not stand out compared to other occupations and was close to that reported by physicians (50.57 % vs. 57.49 %, respectively). The number of hospital workers with appropriate HBV vaccination was surprisingly low (35.7 %) and significantly below the recommended best practice (at least two consecutive doses of HBV vaccine documented for 100 % of employees) (p<0.001). Even with its limitations, our study fills a gap in knowledge about the actual number of sharps incidents and other occupational exposure to blood among hospital workers in Montenegro as well as about the issue of underreporting, which is very common. It also confirms the urgent need for active implementation of special, comprehensive measures to prevent needle-stick and other sharps injuries. Constant staff training, life-long learning, and standardising post-exposure procedures are also recommended. PMID:25274934

Cvejanov-Kezunovi?, Ljiljana; Mustajbegovi?, Jadranka; Milosevic, Milan; Civljak, Rok

2014-09-01

144

Personality Traits in Miners with Past Occupational Elemental Mercury Exposure  

PubMed Central

In this study, we evaluated the impact of long-term occupational exposure to elemental mercury vapor (Hg0) on the personality traits of ex-mercury miners. Study groups included 53 ex-miners previously exposed to Hg0 and 53 age-matched controls. Miners and controls completed the self-reporting Eysenck Personality Questionnaire and the Emotional States Questionnaire. The relationship between the indices of past occupational exposure and the observed personality traits was evaluated using Pearson’s correlation coefficient and on a subgroup level by machine learning methods (regression trees). The ex-mercury miners were intermittently exposed to Hg0 for a period of 7–31 years. The means of exposure-cycle urine mercury (U-Hg) concentrations ranged from 20 to 120 ?g/L. The results obtained indicate that ex-miners tend to be more introverted and sincere, more depressive, more rigid in expressing their emotions and are likely to have more negative self-concepts than controls, but no correlations were found with the indices of past occupational exposure. Despite certain limitations, results obtained by the regression tree suggest that higher alcohol consumption per se and long-term intermittent, moderate exposure to Hg0 (exposure cycle mean U-Hg concentrations > 38.7 < 53.5 ?g/L) in interaction with alcohol remain a plausible explanation for the depression associated with negative self-concept found in subgroups of ex-mercury miners. This could be one of the reason for the higher risk of suicide among miners of the Idrija Mercury Mine in the last 45 years. PMID:16451870

Grum, Darja Kobal; Kobal, Alfred B.; Arneri?, Niko; Horvat, Milena; Ženko, Bernard; Džeroski, Sašo; Osredkar, Joško

2006-01-01

145

Environmental and occupational exposure to manganese: a multimedia assessment.  

PubMed

Methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl (MMT) is an organic additive used in Canada since 1976 as an anti-knock agent in unleaded gasoline. Its combustion leads to the emission of Mn oxides, especially Mn3O4. Since no study has assessed the potential risk of chronic exposure to low concentrations resulting from these emissions, the present investigation was undertaken to assess the level of environmental and occupational exposure of the human population. The multimedia exposure of two groups of workers (garage mechanics and blue-collar workers) potentially exposed to different levels of Mn from the combustion of MMT was assessed using personal air samplers, a dietary compilation, water samples at their places of residence, an epidemiological questionnaire and blood and hair samples. Results show that garage mechanics were exposed on average to higher atmospheric Mn at work (0.42 microgram/m3) than the blue-collar workers (0.04 microgram/m3). However, the contribution of atmospheric Mn to the total absorbed dose was less than 1%, and well below the standards established for occupational or environmental exposure; food contributes more than 95% of the multimedia dose. The average whole blood Mn concentrations were similar for the two groups (0.67-0.76 microgram/100 ml) and fall within the normal adult range. The average hair Mn concentrations were significantly higher for the garage mechanics (0.66 microgram/g) than for the blue-collar workers (0.39 microgram/g). The contribution of exogenous Mn versus endogenous Mn is questioned. As judged by the governmental standards or criteria for occupational and non-occupational environments, the current Mn levels in food, water and air may not cause any problems for the workers. PMID:7545647

Loranger, S; Zayed, J

1995-01-01

146

Occupational exposure control: the problem of quantities in radiation protection.  

PubMed

The paper explores the quantities and units used in radiation protection with special emphasis on their applications in occupational exposure control. An overview of the current situation reveals that there seem to be too many different quantities associated with the same unit. Some of these quantities are defined in a quite complicated manner and, therefore, may cause some confusion in their interpretation and practical use in the field. Some suggestions towards the simplification of the present system are also proposed. PMID:21084329

Sabol, J; Navrátil, L; Rosina, J

2011-03-01

147

Visual impairment on dentists related to occupational mercury exposure  

Microsoft Academic Search

A detailed assessment of visual function was obtained in subjects with low-level occupational mercury exposure by measuring hue saturation thresholds and contrast sensitivity functions for luminance and chromatic modulation. General practice dentists (n=15) were compared to age-matched healthy controls (n=13). Color discrimination estimated by the area of Mac Adam ellipses was impaired, showing diffuse discrimination loss. There was also reduction

Luiz H. M. Canto-Pereira; Marcos Lago; Marcelo F. Costa; Anderson R. Rodrigues; Cézar A. Saito; Luiz Carlos L. Silveira; Dora F. Ventura

2005-01-01

148

Occupational exposure to crystalline silica at Alberta work sites.  

PubMed

Although crystalline silica has been recognized as a health hazard for many years, it is still encountered in many work environments. Numerous studies have revealed an association between exposure to respirable crystalline silica and the development of silicosis and other lung diseases including lung cancer. Alberta Jobs, Skills, Training and Labour conducted a project to evaluate exposure to crystalline silica at a total of 40 work sites across 13 industries. Total airborne respirable dust and respirable crystalline silica concentrations were quite variable, but there was a potential to exceed the Alberta Occupational Exposure Limit (OEL) of 0.025 mg/m(3) for respirable crystalline silica at many of the work sites evaluated. The industries with the highest potentials for overexposure occurred in sand and mineral processing (GM 0.090 mg/m(3)), followed by new commercial building construction (GM 0.055 mg/m(3)), aggregate mining and crushing (GM 0.048 mg/m(3)), abrasive blasting (GM 0.027 mg/m(3)), and demolition (GM 0.027 mg/m(3)). For worker occupations, geometric mean exposure ranged from 0.105 mg/m(3) (brick layer/mason/concrete cutting) to 0.008 mg/m(3) (dispatcher/shipping, administration). Potential for GM exposure exceeding the OEL was identified in a number of occupations where it was not expected, such as electricians, carpenters and painters. These exposures were generally related to the specific task the worker was doing, or arose from incidental exposure from other activities at the work site. The results indicate that where there is a potential for activities producing airborne respirable crystalline silica, it is critical that the employer include all worker occupations at the work site in their hazard assessment. There appears to be a relationship between airborne total respirable dust concentration and total respirable dust concentrations, but further study is require to fully characterize this relationship. If this relationship holds true, it may provide a useful hazard assessment tool for employers by which the potential for exposure to airborne respirable silica at the work site can be more easily estimated. PMID:24479465

Radnoff, Diane; Todor, Maria S; Beach, Jeremy

2014-01-01

149

Prostate cancer and occupational whole-body vibration exposure.  

PubMed

Prostate cancer is common and its etiology largely unknown; therefore, it is important to explore all potential risk factors that are biologically plausible. Recent literature suggests a relationship between whole-body vibration (WBV) and prostate cancer risk. The aim of this study was to determine whether occupational WBV was a risk factor for prostate cancer. Existing data, collected on 447 incident cases and 532 population controls (or their proxies), in Montreal, Canada, were used to evaluate this question. Personal interviews collected detailed job descriptions for every job held, the tasks involved, and type of equipment used. For each job, experts assessed the intensity and daily duration of WBV exposure. Inter-rater agreement for WBV ratings was examined using the kappa statistic, with values that ranged from 0.83 to 0.94. Logistic regression models explored the relationship between WBV exposure and prostate cancer, using various combinations of intensity, daily duration, and years of exposure. Potential confounders were also examined. Occupations with WBV exposure demonstrated an increased statistically non-significant risk [odds ratio (OR) = 1.44, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.99-2.09]. The risk for transport equipment operation, a job with WBV exposure, was significantly elevated (OR = 1.90, 95% CI: 1.07-3.39). These results, together with those of an earlier study, suggest that workers in heavy equipment and transport equipment operation may have increased risk of prostate cancer. Further investigation is warranted. PMID:22539558

Nadalin, Victoria; Kreiger, Nancy; Parent, Marie-Elise; Salmoni, Alan; Sass-Kortsak, Andrea; Siemiatycki, Jack; Sloan, Margaret; Purdham, James

2012-10-01

150

Neurobehavioral effects of occupational exposure to low-level styrene.  

PubMed

Eighty-six workers in six fiberglass-reinforced plastics manufacturing plants in Taiwan were given a detailed evaluation including medical and occupational questionnaires, symptom questionnaires, blood sampling, and neurobehavioral tests, including cognitive performance, vibratory perception threshold, and thermal perception threshold. A Chinese version of cognitive tests modified from the Neurobehavioral Evaluation System 2 was applied. Forty-one workers directly exposed to styrene at the mean concentration of 22 ppm are compared with 45 workers not subject to styrene exposure. Multiple linear regression analysis controlling for age, sex, education, and alcohol intake revealed significant associations between styrene exposure and responses in some neuropsychologic measurements. No acute or chronic symptom had significant correlation with styrene exposure. Among the neurobehavioral tests, only the continuous performance test and vibration threshold were significantly and adversely affected in workers exposed to styrene. Significant changes in the central and peripheral nervous system were thus detected at a mean styrene exposure of 22 ppm. PMID:8866539

Tsai, S Y; Chen, J D

1996-01-01

151

Occupational and environmental human lead exposure in Brazil  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this paper is to present a review of data on assessment of exposure and adverse effects due to environmental and occupational lead exposure in Brazil. Epidemiological investigations on children lead exposure around industrial and mining areas have shown that lead contamination is an actual source of concern. Lead in gasoline has been phasing out since the 1980s, and it is now completely discontinued. The last lead mining and lead refining plant was closed in 1995, leaving residual environmental lead contamination which has recently been investigated using a multidisciplinary approach. Moreover, there are hundreds of small battery recycling plants and secondary smelting facilities all over the country, which produce focal urban areas of lead contamination. Current regulatory limits for workplace lead exposure have shown to be inadequate as safety limits according to a few studies carried out lately.

Paoliello, M.M.B. [Departamento de Patologia, Analises Clinicas e Toxicologicas, Centro de Ciencias da Saude, Universidade Estadual de Londrina, Avenida Robert Koch 60, 86038-440 Londrina, Parana (Brazil)]. E-mail: monibas@sercomtel.com.br; De Capitani, E.M. [Centro de Controle de Intoxicacoes, Hospital Universitario da UNICAMP, Faculdade de Ciencias Medicas, Universidade Estadual de Campinas (Brazil)

2007-02-15

152

The health- and addictive effectes due to exposure to aldehydes of cigarette smoke. Part 1; Acetaldehyde, Formaldehyde, Acrolein and Propionaldehyde  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the desk study presented here, health effects and possible addictive\\u000aeffects of aldehyde exposure due to cigarette smoking are discussed. In\\u000athe light of currently available literature the health effects of\\u000aexposure to acetaldehyde, formaldehyde, acrolein and propionaldehyde were\\u000aassessed. All aldehydes cause pathological damage to the respiratory\\u000atract and reach high peak concentrations in the respiratory tract during

Andel I van; E. Schenk; B. Rambali; G. Wolterink; Werken G van de; Stevenson H; Aerts LAGJM van; Vleeming W

2007-01-01

153

The putative role of ovary removal and progesterone when considering the effect of formaldehyde exposure on lung inflammation induced by ovalbumin  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: Formaldehyde exposure during the menstrual cycle is known to affect the course of allergic lung inflammation. Because our previous data demonstrated that formaldehyde combined with an ovariectomy reduced allergic lung inflammation, we investigated the putative role of ovary removal and progesterone treatment when considering the effect of formaldehyde on allergic lung inflammation. METHOD: Ovariectomized rats and their matched controls were exposed to formaldehyde (1%, 3 days, 90 min/day) or vehicle, and immediately after exposure, the rats were sensitized to ovalbumin by a subcutaneous route. After 1 week, the rats received a booster by the same route, and after an additional week, the rats were challenged with ovalbumin (1%) by an aerosol route. The leukocyte numbers, interleukin-10 (IL-10) release, myeloperoxidase activity, vascular permeability, ex vivo tracheal reactivity to methacholine and mast cell degranulation were determined 24 h later. RESULTS: Our results showed that previous exposure to formaldehyde in allergic rats decreased lung cell recruitment, tracheal reactivity, myeloperoxidase activity, vascular permeability and mast cell degranulation while increasing IL-10 levels. Ovariectomy only caused an additional reduction in tracheal reactivity without changing the other parameters studied. Progesterone treatment reversed the effects of formaldehyde exposure on ex vivo tracheal reactivity, cell influx into the lungs and mast cell degranulation. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, our study revealed that formaldehyde and ovariectomy downregulated allergic lung inflammation by IL-10 release and mast cell degranulation. Progesterone treatment increased eosinophil recruitment and mast cell degranulation, which in turn may be responsible for tracheal hyperreactivity and allergic lung inflammation. PMID:24473511

Lino-dos-Santos-Franco, Adriana; Amemiya, Renata Midori; de Oliveira, Ana Paula Ligeiro; Damazo, Amílcar Sabino; Breithaupt-Faloppa, Ana Cristina; Vitoretti, Luana Beatriz; Acceturi, Beatriz Golegã; Tavares-de-Lima, Wothan

2013-01-01

154

Approaches and Considerations for Setting Occupational Exposure Limits for Sensory Irritants: Report of Recent Symposia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past 50 years significant strides have been made in reducing occupational exposure to airborne chemicals. To a large extent, the impetus behind the reductions has been the identification of presumably safe levels of exposure, or occupational exposure limits (OELs). Most of the reduction in exposure has been to chemicals such as hepatotoxins, neurotoxins, nephrotoxins, and carcinogens that cause

Dennis Paustenbach

2001-01-01

155

Risk Factors for Breast Cancer, Including Occupational Exposures  

PubMed Central

The knowledge on the etiology of breast cancer has advanced substantially in recent years, and several etiological factors are now firmly established. However, very few new discoveries have been made in relation to occupational risk factors. The International Agency for Research on Cancer has evaluated over 900 different exposures or agents to-date to determine whether they are carcinogenic to humans. These evaluations are published as a series of Monographs (www.iarc.fr). For breast cancer the following substances have been classified as "carcinogenic to humans" (Group 1): alcoholic beverages, exposure to diethylstilbestrol, estrogen-progestogen contraceptives, estrogen-progestogen hormone replacement therapy and exposure to X-radiation and gamma-radiation (in special populations such as atomic bomb survivors, medical patients, and in-utero exposure). Ethylene oxide is also classified as a Group 1 carcinogen, although the evidence for carcinogenicity in epidemiologic studies, and specifically for the human breast, is limited. The classification "probably carcinogenic to humans" (Group 2A) includes estrogen hormone replacement therapy, tobacco smoking, and shift work involving circadian disruption, including work as a flight attendant. If the association between shift work and breast cancer, the most common female cancer, is confirmed, shift work could become the leading cause of occupational cancer in women. PMID:22953181

Meo, Margrethe; Vainio, Harri

2011-01-01

156

Cardiac Autonomic Dysfunction from Occupational Exposure to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons  

PubMed Central

Objectives Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) exposures have been associated with cardiopulmonary mortality and cardiovascular events. This study investigated the association between a biological marker of PAHs exposure, assessed by urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP), and heart rate variability (HRV) in an occupational cohort of boilermakers. Methods Continuous 24-hour monitoring of the ambulatory electrocardiogram (ECG) and pre and post shift urinary 1-OHP were repeated over extended periods of the work week. Mixed effects models were fit for the 5-minute standard deviation of normal-to-normal intervals (SDNN) in relation to urinary 1-OHP levels pre and post workshift on the day they wore the monitor, controlling for potential confounders. Results We found a significant decrease in 5-min SDNN during work of ?13.6% (95% confidence interval, ?17.2% to ?9.8%) for every standard deviation (0.53 microgram/gram [?g/g] creatinine) increase in the next-morning pre-shift 1-OHP levels. The magnitude of reduction in 5-min SDNN were largest during the late night period after work and increased with every standard deviation (0.46 ?g/g creatinine) increase in post-shift 1-OHP levels. Conclusion This is the first report providing evidence that occupational exposure to PAHs is associated with altered cardiac autonomic function. Acute exposure to PAHs may be an important predictor of cardiovascular disease risk in the work environment. PMID:21172795

Lee, Mi-Sun; Magari, Shannon; Christiani, David C.

2013-01-01

157

Carbofuran occupational dermal toxicity, exposure and risk assessment†  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Carbofuran is a carbamate insecticide that inhibits AChE. Although toxic by ingestion in mammals, it has low dermal toxicity, with relatively few confirmed worker illnesses. This risk assessment describes its time of onset, time to peak effect and time to recovery in rats using brain AChE inhibition in acute and 21 day dermal studies; in vitro rat/human relative dermal absorption for granular (5G) and liquid (4F) formulations; occupational exposure estimates using the Pesticide Handlers' Exposure Database and Agricultural Handlers' Exposure Database (PHED/AHED). RESULTS The point of departure for acute risk calculation (BMDL10) was 6.7 mg kg?1 day?1 for brain AChE inhibition after 6 h exposure. In a 21 day study, the BMDL10 was 6.8 mg kg?1 day?1, indicating reversibility. At 75 mg kg?1 day?1, time of onset was ?30 min and time to peak effect was 6–12 h. Rat skin had ca tenfold greater dermal absorption of carbofuran (Furadan® 5G or 4F) than human skin. Exposure estimates for 5G in rice and 4F in ten crops had adequate margins of exposure (>100). CONCLUSION Rat dermal carbofuran toxicity was assessed in terms of dose and time-related inhibition of AChE. Comparative dermal absorption in rats was greater than in humans. Worker exposure estimates indicated acceptable risk for granular and liquid formulations of carbofuran. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry PMID:21834090

Gammon, Derek W; Liu, Zhiwei; Becker, John M

2012-01-01

158

Occupational exposure to solvent mixtures: effects on health and metabolism.  

PubMed Central

Exposure monitoring by personal diffusive samplers, biological monitoring of toluene exposure by urinary hippuric acid determination, haematology, serum biochemistry for liver function, and a subjective symptom survey by questionnaire were conducted on 303 male solvent workers. They were exposed to a mixture of solvents including toluene (geometric mean 18 ppm), methyl ethyl ketone (MEK; 16 ppm), isopropyl alcohol (IPA; 7 ppm), and ethyl acetate (9 ppm). The intensity was mostly below unity using the additiveness formula based on current Japanese occupational exposure limits, but more than eight times unity at the maximum. The results were compared with the findings in 135 non-exposed male workers of similar ages. Haematology and liver function tests did not show any exposure related abnormality, and subjective symptoms were mostly related to central nervous system depression and local irritation. Further analysis suggested that the irritation effects were not related to exposure to MEK. Analysis of the relation between toluene exposure and hippuric acid excretion in urine showed that there was no metabolic interaction between MEK and toluene, or between IPA and toluene. Overall, therefore, it is concluded that there was no sign or symptom detected to suggest anything other than toluene toxicity, that there was no evidence to indicate any modification of toluene toxicity or metabolism due to coexposure, and that the additiveness assumption is reasonable for risk assessment for the combination of solvents under these exposure conditions. PMID:7951776

Ukai, H; Takada, S; Inui, S; Imai, Y; Kawai, T; Shimbo, S; Ikeda, M

1994-01-01

159

Occupational exposure to carcinogens in the European Union  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES—To construct a computer assisted information system for the estimation of the numbers of workers exposed to established and suspected human carcinogens in the member states of the European Union (EU).?METHODS—A database called CAREX (carcinogen exposure) was designed to provide selected exposure data and documented estimates of the number of workers exposed to carcinogens by country, carcinogen, and industry. CAREX includes data on agents evaluated by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) (all agents in groups 1 and 2A as of February 1995, and selected agents in group 2B) and on ionising radiation, displayed across the 55 industrial classes. The 1990-3 occupational exposure was estimated in two phases. Firstly, estimates were generated by the CAREX system on the basis of national labour force data and exposure prevalence estimates from two reference countries (Finland and the United States) which had the most comprehensive data available on exposures to these agents. For selected countries, these estimates were then refined by national experts in view of the perceived exposure patterns in their own countries compared with those of the reference countries.?RESULTS—About 32 million workers (23% of those employed) in the EU were exposed to agents covered by CAREX. At least 22 million workers were exposed to IARC group 1 carcinogens. The exposed workers had altogether 42 million exposures (1.3 mean exposures for each exposed worker). The most common exposures were solar radiation (9.1 million workers exposed at least 75% of working time), environmental tobacco smoke (7.5 million workers exposed at least 75% of working time), crystalline silica (3.2 million exposed), diesel exhaust (3.0 million), radon (2.7 million), and wood dust (2.6 million).?CONCLUSION—These preliminary estimates indicate that in the early 1990s, a substantial proportion of workers in the EU were exposed to carcinogens.???Keywords: exposure; carcinogen; Europe PMID:10711264

Kauppinen, T.; Toikkanen, J.; Pedersen, D.; Young, R.; Ahrens, W.; Boffetta, P.; Hansen, J.; Kromhout, H.; Blasco, J. M.; Mirabelli, D.; de la Orden-River..., V.; Pannett, B.; Plato, N.; Savela, A.; Vincent, R.; Kogevinas, M.

2000-01-01

160

Acute effect upon pulmonary function of low level exposure to phenol-formaldehyde-resin-coated wood.  

PubMed

In order to determine whether phenol-formaldehyde-resin-coated wood particles would cause an acute decline in pulmonary function, 176 workers in 2 oriented strandboard production plants were given respiratory questionnaires and pulmonary function tests before and during their work shifts. Measurements of dust and adsorbed formaldehyde were made on the same day as the pulmonary function tests. Measured formaldehyde levels were low, and measured dust levels were low to moderate. There was no evidence of an acute effect upon pulmonary function. PMID:3177221

Imbus, H R; Tochilin, S J

1988-09-01

161

Occupational exposure to organic solvents and breast cancer in women  

PubMed Central

Background Although studies in rodents suggest possible associations between exposure to organic solvents and breast cancer, the evidence in humans is limited. Methods We evaluated job histories of 2383 incident breast cancer cases diagnosed during 2000–2003, and 2502 controls who participated in a large population-based case-control study in Poland. Industrial hygienists reviewed occupational histories and developed exposure metrics for total organic solvents and benzene. Unconditional logistic regression analyses estimated odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) as the measure of association with breast cancer, controlling for breast cancer risk factors. Stratified analyses examined the potential modification by known breast cancer risk factors. Associations were also evaluated by estrogen (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) status and by other clinical characteristics of the tumours using polytomous regression analyses. Results Women who ever worked at jobs with organic solvents exposure had a small, non-significant increase in breast cancer risk (OR=1.16; 95%CI 0.99 to 1.4). A significant association was present for ER and PR negative tumors (OR 1.40; 95% CI 1.1 to 1.8), but there was no association with tumors with both positive receptors (OR 0.97; 95% CI 0.8 to 1.2 (p-heterogeneity: 0.008)). We did not observe trends with increasing level of exposure. Known breast cancer risk factors did not modify the association with organic solvents and breast cancer risk. No association with breast cancer was found for benzene exposure (OR 1.00; 95% CI 0.8 to 1.3). Conclusion Our study provides weak evidence for a possible association between occupational exposure to organic solvents as a class and breast cancer risk. The association might be limited to hormone receptor negative tumors. PMID:19819862

Peplonska, Beata; Stewart, Patricia; Szeszenia-D?browska, Neonila; Lissowska, Jolanta; Brinton, Louise A.; Gromiec, Jan Piotr; Brzeznicki, Slawomir; Yang, Rose; Sherman, Mark; García-Closas, Montserrat; Blair, Aaron

2009-01-01

162

Occupational Solvent Exposure During Pregnancy and Child Behavior at Age Two Correspondence to  

E-print Network

1 Occupational Solvent Exposure During Pregnancy and Child Behavior at Age Two Correspondence, prenatal exposure WORD COUNT: 3320 ABSTRACT Objectives: Many women who work during pregnancy examined their effects on children's behavior following prenatal exposure. Methods: Women from the PELAGIE

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

163

77 FR 16865 - Proposed Extension of Existing Information Collection; Occupational Noise Exposure  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Part 62 Occupational Noise Exposure Sec. 62...These requirements are a performance-oriented approach to monitoring...collection related to the occupational noise standard. MSHA is...necessary for the proper performance of MSHA's functions,...

2012-03-22

164

Prediction of toxic substances emission for occupational exposure assessment.  

PubMed

Methods for predicting organic solvents, chromic acid, mineral oil, styrene, and sulphuric acid emissions in painting, metal degreasing, wood preservation, chromium electroplating, turning, grinding, making glass fortified polyester laminates and lead batteries charging, injection moulding of polystyrene plastics, and making polyurethane foam processes are described. Experimentally introduced equations are based on the essential parameters of these processes. Knowing the emission and the total flow rate of ventilation, it is possible to calculate toxic agent concentration, which is the basis of occupational exposure assessment. PMID:10828151

Benczek, K M; Gaweda, E; Kurpiewska, J

2000-01-01

165

INTEROCC case–control study: lack of association between glioma tumors and occupational exposure to selected combustion products, dusts and other chemical agents  

PubMed Central

Background The aim was to investigate possible associations between glioma (an aggressive type of brain cancer) and occupational exposure to selected agents: combustion products (diesel and gasoline exhaust emissions, benzo(a)pyrene), dusts (animal dust, asbestos, crystalline silica, wood dust) and some other chemical agents (formaldehyde, oil mist, sulphur dioxide). Methods The INTEROCC study included cases diagnosed with glioma during 2000–2004 in sub-regions of seven countries. Population controls, selected from various sampling frames in different centers, were frequency or individually matched to cases by sex, age and center. Face-to-face interviews with the subject or a proxy respondent were conducted by trained interviewers. Detailed information was collected on socio-economic and lifestyle characteristics, medical history and work history. Occupational exposure to the 10 selected agents was assessed by a job exposure matrix (JEM) which provides estimates of the probability and level of exposure for different occupations. Using a 25% probability of exposure in a given occupation in the JEM as the threshold for considering a worker exposed, the lifetime prevalence of exposure varied from about 1% to about 15% for the different agents. Associations between glioma and each of the 10 agents were estimated by conditional logistic regression, and using three separate exposure indices: i) ever vs. never; ii) lifetime cumulative exposure; iii) total duration of exposure. Results The study sample consisted of 1,800 glioma cases and 5,160 controls. Most odds ratio estimates were close to the null value. None of the ten agents displayed a significantly increased odds ratio nor any indication of dose–response relationships with cumulative exposure or with duration of exposure. Conclusion Thus, there was no evidence that these exposures influence risk of glioma. PMID:23587105

2013-01-01

166

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and occupational exposures.  

PubMed

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in both industrialized and developing countries. Cigarette smoking is the major risk factor for COPD. However, relevant information from the literature published within the last years, either on general population samples or on workplaces, indicate that about 15% of all cases of COPD is work-related. Specific settings and agents are quoted which have been indicated or confirmed as linked to COPD. Coal miners, hard-rock miners, tunnel workers, concrete-manufacturing workers, nonmining industrial workers have been shown to be at highest risk for developing COPD. Further evidence that occupational agents are capable of inducing COPD comes from experimental studies, particularly in animal models. In conclusion, occupational exposure to dusts, chemicals, gases should be considered an established, or supported by good evidence, risk factor for developing COPD. The implications of this substantial occupational contribution to COPD must be considered in research planning, in public policy decision-making, and in clinical practice. PMID:16756686

Boschetto, Piera; Quintavalle, Sonia; Miotto, Deborah; Lo Cascio, Natalina; Zeni, Elena; Mapp, Cristina E

2006-01-01

167

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and occupational exposures  

PubMed Central

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in both industrialized and developing countries. Cigarette smoking is the major risk factor for COPD. However, relevant information from the literature published within the last years, either on general population samples or on workplaces, indicate that about 15% of all cases of COPD is work-related. Specific settings and agents are quoted which have been indicated or confirmed as linked to COPD. Coal miners, hard-rock miners, tunnel workers, concrete-manufacturing workers, nonmining industrial workers have been shown to be at highest risk for developing COPD. Further evidence that occupational agents are capable of inducing COPD comes from experimental studies, particularly in animal models. In conclusion, occupational exposure to dusts, chemicals, gases should be considered an established, or supported by good evidence, risk factor for developing COPD. The implications of this substantial occupational contribution to COPD must be considered in research planning, in public policy decision-making, and in clinical practice. PMID:16756686

Boschetto, Piera; Quintavalle, Sonia; Miotto, Deborah; Lo Cascio, Natalina; Zeni, Elena; Mapp, Cristina E

2006-01-01

168

Occupational radiation Exposure at Agreement State-Licensed Materials Facilities, 1997-2010  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this report is to examine occupational radiation exposures received under Agreement State licensees. As such, this report reflects the occupational radiation exposure data contained in the Radiation Exposure Information and Reporting System (REIRS) database, for 1997 through 2010, from Agreement State-licensed materials facilities.

U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research

2012-07-07

169

Approaches for the development of occupational exposure limits for man-made mineral fibres (MMMFs)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Occupational exposure limits (OELs) are an essential tool in the control of exposure to hazardous chemical agents, and serve to minimise the occurrence of occupational diseases associated with such exposure. The setting of OELs, together with other associated measures, forms an essential part of the European Community’s strategy on health and safety at work, upon which the legislative framework for

Kyriakoula Ziegler-Skylakakis

2004-01-01

170

Glutathione level after long-term occupational elemental mercury exposure.  

PubMed

Many in vitro and in vivo studies have elucidated the interaction of inorganic mercury (Hg) and glutathione. However, human studies are limited. In this study, we investigated the potential effects of remote long-term intermittent occupational elemental Hg vapour (Hg degrees ) exposure on erythrocyte glutathione levels and some antioxidative enzyme activities in ex-mercury miners in the period after exposure. The study included 49 ex-mercury miners divided into subgroups of 28 still active, Hg degrees -not-exposed miners and 21 elderly retired miners, and 41 controls, age-matched to the miners subgroup. The control workers were taken from "mercury-free works". Reduced glutathione (GSH) and oxidized disulphide glutathione (GSSG) concentrations in haemolysed erythrocytes were determined by capillary electrophoresis, while total glutathione (total GSH) and the GSH/GSSG ratio were calculated from the determined values. Catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and glutathione reductase (GR) activities in erythrocytes were measured using commercially available reagent kits, while urine Hg (U-Hg) concentrations were determined by cold vapour atomic absorption (CVAAS). No correlation of present U-Hg levels, GSH, GSSG, and antioxidative enzymes with remote occupational biological exposure indices were found. The mean CAT activity in miners and retired miners was significantly higher (p<0.05) than in the controls. No differences in mean GPx activity among the three groups were found, whereas the mean GR activity was significantly higher (p<0.05) in miners than in retired miners. The mean concentrations of GSH (mmol/g Hb) in miners (13.03+/-3.71) were significantly higher (p<0.05) than in the control group (11.68+/-2.66). No differences in mean total GSH, GSSG levels, and GSH/GSSG ratio between miners and controls were found. A positive correlation between GSSG and present U-Hg excretion (r=0.41, p=0.001) in the whole group of ex-mercury miners was observed. The significantly lower GSH level (p<0.05) determined in the group of retired miners (9.64+/-1.45) seems to be age-related (r= -0.39, p=0.001). Thus, the moderate but significantly increased GSH level, GR and CAT activity in erythrocytes in the subgroup of miners observed in the period after exposure to Hg degrees could be an inductive and additive response to maintain the balance between GSH and antioxidative enzymes in interaction with the Hg body burden accumulated during remote occupational exposure, which does not represent a severely increased oxidative stress. PMID:17706633

Kobal, Alfred Bogomir; Prezelj, Marija; Horvat, Milena; Krsnik, Mladen; Gibicar, Darija; Osredkar, Josko

2008-05-01

171

Glutathione level after long-term occupational elemental mercury exposure  

SciTech Connect

Many in vitro and in vivo studies have elucidated the interaction of inorganic mercury (Hg) and glutathione. However, human studies are limited. In this study, we investigated the potential effects of remote long-term intermittent occupational elemental Hg vapour (Hg{sup o}) exposure on erythrocyte glutathione levels and some antioxidative enzyme activities in ex-mercury miners in the period after exposure. The study included 49 ex-mercury miners divided into subgroups of 28 still active, Hg{sup o}-not-exposed miners and 21 elderly retired miners, and 41 controls, age-matched to the miners subgroup. The control workers were taken from 'mercury-free works'. Reduced glutathione (GSH) and oxidized disulphide glutathione (GSSG) concentrations in haemolysed erythrocytes were determined by capillary electrophoresis, while total glutathione (total GSH) and the GSH/GSSG ratio were calculated from the determined values. Catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and glutathione reductase (GR) activities in erythrocytes were measured using commercially available reagent kits, while urine Hg (U-Hg) concentrations were determined by cold vapour atomic absorption (CVAAS). No correlation of present U-Hg levels, GSH, GSSG, and antioxidative enzymes with remote occupational biological exposure indices were found. The mean CAT activity in miners and retired miners was significantly higher (p<0.05) than in the controls. No differences in mean GPx activity among the three groups were found, whereas the mean GR activity was significantly higher (p<0.05) in miners than in retired miners. The mean concentrations of GSH (mmol/g Hb) in miners (13.03{+-}3.71) were significantly higher (p<0.05) than in the control group (11.68{+-}2.66). No differences in mean total GSH, GSSG levels, and GSH/GSSG ratio between miners and controls were found. A positive correlation between GSSG and present U-Hg excretion (r=0.41, p=0.001) in the whole group of ex-mercury miners was observed. The significantly lower GSH level (p<0.05) determined in the group of retired miners (9.64{+-}1.45) seems to be age-related (r=-0.39, p=0.001). Thus, the moderate but significantly increased GSH level, GR and CAT activity in erythrocytes in the subgroup of miners observed in the period after exposure to Hg{sup o} could be an inductive and additive response to maintain the balance between GSH and antioxidative enzymes in interaction with the Hg body burden accumulated during remote occupational exposure, which does not represent a severely increased oxidative stress.

Kobal, Alfred Bogomir [University Medical Centre Ljubljana, Institute of Clinical Chemistry and Biochemistry, Njegoseva 4, SI-1525 Ljubljana (Slovenia)], E-mail: abkobal@volja.net; Prezelj, Marija [University Medical Centre Ljubljana, Institute of Clinical Chemistry and Biochemistry, Njegoseva 4, SI-1525 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Horvat, Milena [Department of Environmental Sciences, Jozef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Krsnik, Mladen [University Medical Centre Ljubljana, Institute of Clinical Chemistry and Biochemistry, Njegoseva 4, SI-1525 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Gibicar, Darija [Department of Environmental Sciences, Jozef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Osredkar, Josko [University Medical Centre Ljubljana, Institute of Clinical Chemistry and Biochemistry, Njegoseva 4, SI-1525 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

2008-05-15

172

Paternal occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields and neuroblastoma in offspring  

SciTech Connect

Investigators in Texas have reported an association between paternal employment in jobs linked with exposure to electromagnetic fields and risk of neuroblastoma in offspring. In an attempt to replicate this finding, the authors conducted a case-control study in Ohio. A total of 101 incident cases of neuroblastoma were identified through the Columbus (Ohio) Children's Hospital Tumor Registry. All cases were born sometime during the period 1942-1967. From a statewide roster of birth certificates, four controls were selected for each case, with individual matching on the case's year of birth, race, and sex, and the mother's county of residence at the time of the (index) child's birth. Multiple definitions were employed to infer the potential for paternal occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields from the industry/occupation statements on the birth certificates. Case-control comparisons revealed adjusted odds ratios ranging in magnitude from 0.5 to 1.9. For two of the exposure definitions employed--both of which are similar to one used by the Texas investigators--the corresponding odds ratios were modestly elevated (odds ratios = 1.6 and 1.9). Notably, the magnitude of these odds ratios is not inconsistent with the Texas findings, where the exposure definition referred to yielded an odds ratio of 2.1. Because the point estimates in this study are imprecise, and because the biologic plausibility of the association is uncertain, the results reported here must be interpreted cautiously. However, the apparent consistency between two independent studies suggests that future evaluation of the association is warranted.

Wilkins, J.R. 3d.; Hundley, V.D. (Ohio State Univ., Columbus (USA))

1990-06-01

173

Occupational exposure to pesticides and lymphoid neoplasms among men: results of a French case-control study.  

E-print Network

Occupational exposure to pesticides and lymphoid neoplasms among men: results of a French case: laurent.orsi@inserm.fr Running title: Occupational pesticides exposure and lymphoma Keywords: occupation: Investigating the relationship between occupational exposure to pesticides and the risk of lymphoid neoplasms

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

174

TEXAS: a Tool for EXposure ASsessment-Statistical Models for Estimating Occupational Exposure to Chemical Agents.  

PubMed

Measurements of occupational exposure to chemical agents are performed by sampling and analyzing workplace atmospheres. In France, this is done by the industrial hygienists of the prevention network of the Social Security Service, who collect and then enter the data in the COLCHIC database. More than 900000 measurements performed in French companies over the past 25 years have been collected. Using this amount of data is major challenge for obtaining knowledge and predicting occupational exposures. This study presents the way in which statistical models are built and used on the basis of almost 19000 recent measurements of 26 frequent chemical substances. For a given substance, the models use 13 exposure determinants as inputs, such as the task performed, the occupation of the operator or the type of process employed. The models permit to estimate two parameters: the geometric mean and geometric standard deviation. These parameters are used to build an exposure profile. By combining them with the limit value, an exposure index is estimated using a Bayesian network. A decision rule based on the interpretation of this probability is proposed to qualify the predicted situation as 'well-controlled situation', 'controlled situation', and 'poorly controlled situation'. On the basis of this decision rule, 62% of predictions are true for all substances confounded, an average of 36% of predictions are approximate and only 2% of them are wrong. The result of this study led to the development of a pragmatic software tool named TEXAS, tool for exposure assessment, which enables industrial hygienists to obtain a rapid estimation of the level of exposure control as a function of simple determinants of work situations. PMID:25433001

Clerc, Frédéric; Bertrand, Nicolas; Vincent, Raymond

2014-11-27

175

Occupational Exposure to HIV in an Urban University Hospital Setting.  

PubMed

In response to the potential transmission of the human immunodeficiency virus in a hospital setting, an occupational exposure assessment program was established at a New York City university hospital in 1990. During the first year, 322 potential exposures to blood or body secretions in 313 health care workers (HCWs) were reported. Exposures occurred most frequently on the surgical service (36%), and in patients' rooms (37%). Nurses accounted for 53% and physicians 25% of reported exposures. A percutaneous injury was reported by 78% of HCWs. Human error was responsible for the exposure in 54% of HCWs and was associated with a break in universal precautions in one-third. The immune status for HIV antibody, hepatitis B antigen and hepatitis C antibody was positive in 11%, 3% and 9% in source patients, respectively. However, the immune status for these potential nosocomially transmitted pathogens was not determined in 12%-26% of source patients. Based on the source patients HIV antibody status and the extent of injury, zidovudine was recommended to 39 HCWs; 12 refused prophylaxis. HIV seroconversion was not documented in those HCW who returned for follow-up testing. A similar assessment program for medical students rotating on the surgical service revealed that two-thirds were exposed to blood or body fluids while in the operating room. Only 16% of sharps injuries were self-inflicted, whereas 66% were caused by another HCWs, usually a surgical attending or houseofficer. These data underscore the necessity for institutional programs regarding management of HCWs potentially exposed to HIV. Such programs not only provide an indispensable service to the exposed HCW and medical student, but also a means by which infection control policies and educational programs may be monitored and implemented. PMID:11098192

Roberts; Lincoff; Frankel

1999-04-01

176

Occupational exposure to dial painters and assemblers of radioluminous timepieces.  

PubMed

An evaluation of available personnel monitoring data and radium body burden records of dial painters handling an annual average of 1.5 Ci of radium indicates that they received an average of about 2 rem/person whole body exposure, 3 rem to the lungs from radon inhalation and 0.2 rad to the bone from radium body burdens. Among groups of similar workers handling tritium in Texas plants, the highest occupational exposures were about 160 mrem annually per person received by refinishers of tritium dial timepieces and back-lit watch assemblers. Based upon scenarios of exposures to 147Pm, repairers of timepieces containing 147Pm receive about 4.4 X 10(-4) mrem/person/yr whole body dose equivalent. The amounts that they process are in the microcurie range. Although the trend is away from the use of radium as a luminizing activator, there are indications that it is still used in timepieces even as tritium and 147Pm are increasingly being used for this purpose. PMID:6853170

Simpson, R E; Shuman, F G; Moghissi, A A; Blackburn, J A; Bailey, E D

1983-05-01

177

Occupational exposure in the fluorescent lamp recycling sector in France.  

PubMed

The fluorescent lamp recycling sector is growing considerably in Europe due to increasingly strict regulations aimed at inciting the consumption of low energy light bulbs and their end-of-life management. Chemical risks were assessed in fluorescent lamp recycling facilities by field measurement surveys in France, highlighting that occupational exposure and pollutant levels in the working environment were correlated with the main recycling steps and processes. The mean levels of worker exposure are 4.4 mg/m(3), 15.4 ?g/m(3), 14.0 ?g/m(3), 247.6 ?g/m(3), respectively, for total inhalable dust, mercury, lead and yttrium. The mean levels of airborne pollutants are 3.1mg/m(3), 9.0 ?g/m(3), 9.0 ?g/m(3), 219.2 ?g/m(3), respectively, for total inhalable dust, mercury, lead and yttrium. The ranges are very wide. Surface samples from employees' skin and granulometric analysis were also carried out. The overview shows that all the stages and processes involved in lamp recycling are concerned by the risk of hazardous substances penetrating into the bodies of employees, although exposure of the latter varies depending on the processes and tasks they perform. The conclusion of this study strongly recommends the development of a new generation of processes in parallel with more information sharing and regulatory measures. PMID:24768515

Zimmermann, François; Lecler, Marie-Thérèse; Clerc, Frédéric; Chollot, Alain; Silvente, Eric; Grosjean, Jérome

2014-07-01

178

Interpretation of Urinary and Blood Benzene biomarkers of Exposure for Non-Occupationally Exposed Individuals  

EPA Science Inventory

Non-occupational exposure to benzene occurs primarily through inhalation ofair impacted by motor vehicle exhaust, fuel sources, and cigarette smoke. This study relates published measurements ofbenzene biomarkers to air exposure concentrations. Benzene has three reliable biomar...

179

Needs of occupational exposure sampling strategies for compliance and epidemiology.  

PubMed Central

Although a great deal of occupational exposure data is collected, it is probably insufficient to truly answer the question of legislative compliance, ill directed in terms of real workplace risks, and is of little subsequent use for epidemiological research. This paper is an attempt to summarise the more important components and requirements of a sampling strategy, and it is therefore aimed at those with this responsibility. Perhaps, all too frequently, the more esoteric nature of these issues and their research means that they are published in journals outside the normal sphere of readership, or when it is within that sphere the quantity of statistical nomenclature and content makes it too daunting to attempt to read. By simplifying and summarising, this paper is intended to help justify a change in the sampling programme and to initiate debate. PMID:8535488

Gardiner, K

1995-01-01

180

Management of occupational blood exposures: looking at progress.  

PubMed

Occupational blood exposure (OBE) is a well-recognised hazard in the healthcare setting. A 4-year review of OBE in a large Irish teaching hospital over 2008-2011 found encouraging results, but identified deficits in documentation, communication and follow-up. The process was repeated 1 year later to determine if improvements were achieved and recommendations implemented. In 2012, 110 OBEs were reported, of which 81% were reported within 72 hours of the injury. The administration of first aid was adequately documented in 85% of cases and confirmation of the provision of appropriate information and/or counselling in 72% of the cases. Attendance for follow-up was broadly in line with the previous review. The findings and recommendations contributed to improvements in practice. However, to ensure these are ongoing, the reinforcement of an educational strategy in a systematic way is fundamental. PMID:25541870

Flynn, Mairead Holland; Reid, Alex

2015-01-01

181

[Occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields in physiotherapy departments].  

PubMed

An assessment of the electromagnetic fields emitted from short and ultrashort wave diathermy sources and from magneto therapy operating at a frequency of 50 Hz was made to evaluate the occupational exposure to the operators. Operators were exposed to electromagnetic fields which rarely exceed the recommended limits of International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) and American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH). Only a measurement of electromagnetic fields near short wave diathermy equipment operating at a frequency of 27.12 MHz exposed operators to levels above those recommended by ICNIRP at a distance of 1 metre. Magnetic fields of magneto therapy exceeded residential exposition of 1 microtesla, at a distance of 4 metres. PMID:12528353

Maccà, I; Scapellato, M L; Perini, M; Virgili, A; Saia, B; Bartolucci, G B

2002-01-01

182

Strategy of the scientific committee on occupational exposure limits (SCOEL) in the derivation of occupational exposure limits for carcinogens and mutagens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Setting standards, such as occupational exposure limits (OELs) for carcinogenic substances must consider modes of action.\\u000a At the European Union level, the scientific committee on occupational exposure limits (SCOEL) has discussed a number of chemical\\u000a carcinogens and has issued recommendations. For some carcinogens, health-based OELs were recommended, while quantitative assessments\\u000a of carcinogenic risks were performed for others. For purposes of

Hermann M. Bolt; Alicia Huici-Montagud

2008-01-01

183

Recording of data of individual measurements of occupational exposure: guideline of the Dutch Society of Occupational Hygiene (October 1999).  

PubMed

Following the recommendations of the European Working Group on Exposure Databases, a Working Group (on Storage of Data of Measurements of Occupational Exposure) of the Dutch Occupational Hygiene Society has developed a Guideline which was presented at the International Symposium on Occupational Exposure Databases and Their Application for the Next Millennium, November 1-3, 1999, London. To establish the present situation, a small-scale telephone survey of monitoring practices and storage of data was done within the Society. The results of the telephone survey and the draft guidance document were discussed with the occupational hygienists and other stakeholders (e.g., authorities, industry, labor unions, and occupational physicians) in a society meeting. This meeting was used to gather ideas on the need and support for a guidance document and to get input for improving the draft guidance document and for implementation of the Guideline. After this meeting, the Guideline was further developed and published by the Dutch Occupational Hygiene Society. The Guideline concentrates on the data elements required when storing exposure data. The data elements presented are the minimum and should be stored minimally to ensure proper interpretation of results at present and in the future and definitions of the items used are given. The Guideline does not prescribe how the data should be stored, or which procedures need to be used to guarantee the quality of the recorded data elements. PMID:11217698

Brederode, D; Linker, F; Marquart, H; Pothuis, J; Slijpen, J; Timmermans, H

2001-02-01

184

Occupational exposure to chromium and nickel in the 1980s in Finland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two large data bases accumulated from the 1980s at the Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, one with results on urinary chromium and nickel analyses and the other with results on total and hexavalent chromium and nickel, were compiled and analysed in order to clarify the occupational exposure during the 1980s, and to reveal possible trends in the exposure of workers

Mirja Kiilunen

1997-01-01

185

Setting Occupational Exposure Limits for Sensory Irritants: The Approach in the European Union  

Microsoft Academic Search

Beginning in 1990, the European Commission initiated a program to establish European Union (EU)-wide occupational exposure limits (OELs). As in the United States and other countries, a panel of experts known as the Scientific Committee on Occupational Exposure Limits (SCOEL) was identified and brought together to identify the proper values. This article describes the approach used by SCOEL to identify

Maureen Meldrum

2001-01-01

186

Occupational exposure to carcinogens and risk of lung cancer: results from The Netherlands cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES: To investigate risk of lung cancers associated with common established carcinogenic occupational exposures (asbestos, paint dust, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and welding fumes) in a prospective cohort study among the general population, and to estimate the proportion of lung cancer cases attributable to these occupational exposures. METHODS: A prospective cohort study on diet, other lifestyle factors, job history, and cancer

A J van Loon; I. J. Kant; G. M. H. Swaen; R. A. Goldbohm; A M Kremer; P A van den Brandt

1997-01-01

187

NON-OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURES TO PESTICIDES FOR RESIDENTS OF TWO U.S. CITIES  

EPA Science Inventory

The Non-Occupational Pesticide Exposure Study, funded by the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency, was designed to assess total human exposures to 32 pesticides and pesticide degradation products in the non-occupational environment; however, the study focused primarily on inhala...

188

Development of occupational exposure limits for the Hanford tank farms.  

PubMed

Production of plutonium for the United States' nuclear weapons program from the 1940s to the 1980s generated 53 million gallons of radioactive chemical waste, which is stored in 177 underground tanks at the Hanford site in southeastern Washington State. Recent attempts to begin the retrieval and treatment of these wastes require moving the waste to more modern tanks and result in potential exposure of the workers to unfamiliar odors emanating from headspace in the tanks. Given the unknown risks involved, workers were placed on supplied air respiratory protection. CH2MHILL, the managers of the Hanford site tank farms, asked an Independent Toxicology Panel (ITP) to assist them in issues relating to an industrial hygiene and risk assessment problem. The ITP was called upon to help determine the risk of exposure to vapors from the tanks, and in general develop a strategy for solution of the problem. This paper presents the methods used to determine the chemicals of potential concern (COPCs) and the resultant development of screening values and Acceptable Occupational Exposure Limits (AOELs) for these COPCs. A total of 1826 chemicals were inventoried and evaluated. Over 1500 chemicals were identified in the waste tanks headspaces and more than 600 of these were assigned screening values; 72 of these compounds were recommended for AOEL development. Included in this list of 72 were 57 COPCs identified by the ITP and of these 47 were subsequently assigned AOELs. An exhaustive exposure assessment strategy was developed by the CH2MHILL industrial hygiene department to evaluate these COPCs. PMID:20180654

Still, Kenneth R; Gardner, Donald E; Snyder, Robert; Anderson, Thomas J; Honeyman, James O; Timchalk, Charles

2010-04-01

189

78 FR 45981 - Occupational Exposure to Noise Standard; Extension of the Office of Management and Budget's (OMB...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...burden is accurate. The Occupational Safety and Health Act of...causes and prevention of occupational injuries, illnesses, and...necessary for the proper performance of the Agency's functions...requirements contained in the Occupational Exposure to Noise...

2013-07-30

190

75 FR 24746 - Occupational Exposure to Noise Standard; Extension of the Office of Management and Budget's (OMB...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...burden is accurate. The Occupational Safety and Health Act of...causes and prevention of occupational injuries, illnesses, and...necessary for the proper performance of the Agency's functions...requirements contained in the Occupational Exposure to Noise...

2010-05-05

191

Occupational Exposure to HIV Among Health Care Providers: A Qualitative Study in Yunnan, China  

PubMed Central

With the HIV/AIDS epidemic spreading, health care providers (HCPs) in China are facing a growing risk of occupational exposure to and infection with HIV. There is a need to describe occupational exposure cases and compliance with postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) guidelines among HCPs. Qualitative in-depth interviews were conducted with 33 HCPs in Yunnan Province, China. Information about occupational exposures the HCPs and their co-workers experienced was collected and analyzed using ATLAS.ti. Most occupational exposure accidents happened during emergencies, when HCPs did not have time to consider self-protection. Exposure to HIV caused exposed HCPs severe adverse psychological pressure, such as stress and anxiety. Compliance with PEP guidelines among participants was poor; barriers to better compliance were identified. This study underscored the importance of institutional support in promoting compliance with PEP guidelines among exposed providers. Further training and emphasis on universal precautions and PEP guidelines may reduce the risk of occupational infections. PMID:17641135

Lin, Chunqing; Li, Li; Wu, Zunyou; Wu, Sheng; Jia, Manhong

2009-01-01

192

An Assessment of Occupational Exposure to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in the UK  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cross-industry occupational hygiene survey was commissioned by the Health and Safety Executive (HSE) to determine the levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposure in UK industry and to determine if one or more target analytes were suitable as markers for assessing total exposure to PAHs. There were no broadly applicable UK exposure standards for assessing total exposure to PAHs.

JOHN UNWIN; JOHN COCKER; EMMA SCOBBIE; HELEN CHAMBERS

2006-01-01

193

Neuropsychological dysfunction related to earlier occupational exposure to mercury vapor.  

PubMed

We assessed the neuropsychological test performances of 26 patients (mean age = 41.5 +/- 6.1 years; mean years of education = 9.8 +/- 1.8; 20 males) diagnosed with chronic occupational mercurialism who were former workers at a fluorescent lamp factory. They had been exposed to elemental mercury for an average of 10.2 +/- 3.8 years and had been away from this work for 6 +/- 4.7 years. Mean urinary mercury concentrations 1 year after cessation of work were 1.8 +/- 0.9 microg/g creatinine. Twenty control subjects matched for age, gender, and education (18 males) were used for comparison. Neuropsychological assessment included attention, inhibitory control, verbal and visual memory, verbal fluency, manual dexterity, visual-spatial function, executive function, and semantic knowledge tests. The Beck Depression Inventory and the State and Trait Inventory were used to assess depression and anxiety symptoms, respectively. The raw score for the group exposed to mercury indicated slower information processing speed, inferior performance in psychomotor speed, verbal spontaneous recall memory, and manual dexterity of the dominant hand and non-dominant hand (P < 0.05). In addition, the patients showed increased depression and anxiety symptoms (P < 0.001). A statistically significant correlation (Pearson) was demonstrable between mean urinary mercury and anxiety trait (r = 0.75, P = 0.03). The neuropsychological performances of the former workers suggest that occupational exposure to elemental mercury has long-term effects on information processing and psychomotor function, with increased depression and anxiety also possibly reflecting the psychosocial context. PMID:17334541

Zachi, E C; D F, Ventura; Faria, M A M; Taub, A

2007-03-01

194

Formaldehyde-fixation of platelets for flow cytometric measurement of phosphatidylserine exposure is feasible.  

PubMed

Strong platelet activation results in a redistribution of negatively charged phospholipids from the cytosolic to the outer leaflet of the cellular membrane. Annexin V has a high affinity to negatively charged phospholipids and can be used to identify procoagulant platelets. Formaldehyde fixation can cause factitious Annexin V binding. Our aim was to evaluate a method for fixing platelets avoiding additional Annexin V binding. We induced expression of negatively charged phospholipids on the surface of a fraction of platelets by combined activation with convulxin and thrombin in the presence of Annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate and calcium. Aliquots of resting and activated platelets were fixed with a low concentration, calcium-free formaldehyde solution. Both native platelets and fixed platelets were analyzed by flow cytometry immediately and after a 24-h storage at 4°C. We observed that the percentage of Annexin V positive resting platelets ranged from 1.5 to 9.3% for the native samples and from 0.4 to 12.8% for the fixed samples (P?=?0.706, paired t-test). The amount of Annexin V positive convulxin/thrombin activated platelets varied from 12.9 to 35.4% without fixation and from 15.3 to 36.3% after formalin fixation (P?=?0.450). After a 24-h storage at 4°C, Annexin V positive platelets significantly increased both in the resting and in the convulxin/thrombin activated samples of native platelets (both P?formaldehyde solution does not alter the proportion of Annexin V positive platelets. This method can be used to investigate properties of procoagulant platelets by multicolor flow-cytometric analysis requiring fixation steps. © 2014 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry. PMID:25266200

Rochat, Sophie; Alberio, Lorenzo

2015-01-01

195

Dose - response relationship between noise exposure and the risk of occupational injury.  

PubMed

Many workers worldwide experience fatality and disability caused by occupational injuries. This study examined the relationship between noise exposure and occupational injuries at factories in Korea. A total of 1790 factories located in northern Gyeonggi Province, Korea was evaluated. The time-weighted average levels of dust and noise exposure were taken from Workplace Exposure Assessment data. Apart occupational injuries, sports events, traffic accidents, and other accidents occurring outside workplaces were excluded. The incidences of occupational injury in each factory were calculated by data from the Korea Workers' Compensation and Welfare Services. Workplaces were classified according to the incidence of any occupational injuries (incident or nonincident workplaces, respectively). Workplace dust exposure was classified as <1 or ?1 mg/m 3 , and noise exposure as <80, 80-89, or >90 dB. Workplaces with high noise exposure were significantly associated with being incident workplaces, whereas workplaces with high dust exposure were not. The odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) derived from a logistic regression model were 1.68 (1.27-2.24) and 3.42 (2.26-5.17) at 80-89 dB and ?90 dB versus <80 dB. These associations remained significant when in a separate analysis according to high or low dust exposure level. Noise exposure increases the risk of occupational injury in the workplace. Furthermore, the risk of occupational injury increases with noise exposure level in a dose-response relationship. Therefore, strategies for reducing noise exposure level are required to decrease the risk of occupational injury. PMID:25599757

Yoon, Jin-Ha; Hong, Jeong-Suk; Roh, Jaehoon; Kim, Chi-Nyon; Won, Jong-Uk

2015-01-01

196

[Health effects of non-occupational exposure to asbestos].  

PubMed

Mesothelioma has occurred in a relative large number not only among miners but also among non-occupationally exposed persons living in the northwestern region of Cape State of South Africa, where crocidolite is mined and transported. The long-term residents of Thetford Mines in Quebec Province, Canada, who have never engaged in mining and milling of chrysolite have not shown an excess mortality of respiratory diseases. Tremolite in soil is responsible for mesothelioma among residents of certain geologic regions such as Cyprus, Corcica, northwestern Greece and Turkey. An increased prevalence of malignant mesothelioma has been reported among residents of three Turkish villages due to exposure to erionite fibers having a high carcinogenic potency. Mesothelioma has infrequently developed in wives who were exposed while washing the work clothes of their husbands contaminated with asbestos, especially amphiboles. The levels of airborne asbestos in public buildings and schools in the U.S.A. and England having walls and ceilings constructed with asbestos containing materials are approximately 1/100 of the permissible concentration of 0.2 f/cm3. The estimated risk from asbestos exposure in schools and buildings is lower than the level of other risks in other society. During the work of removing asbestos from buildings the asbestos concentration is remarkably increased and this persists for many weeks thereafter. The level of asbestos fibers released from brake linings of motor vehicles is higher along roads with heavy traffic, at intersections, and near toll booths than elsewhere. The concentration of asbestos fibers released from motor vehicles is generally low and not of the level to induce mesothelioma. PMID:1619796

Koike, S

1992-05-01

197

Exposure-response analysis of risk of respiratory disease associated with occupational exposure to chrysotile asbestos.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate alternative models and estimate risk of mortality from lung cancer and asbestosis after occupational exposure to chrysotile asbestos. METHODS: Data were used from a recent update of a cohort mortality study of workers in a South Carolina textile factory. Alternative exposure-response models were evaluated with Poisson regression. A model designed to evaluate evidence of a threshold response was also fitted. Lifetime risks of lung cancer and asbestosis were estimated with an actuarial approach that accounts for competing causes of death. RESULTS: A highly significant exposure-response relation was found for both lung cancer and asbestosis. The exposure-response relation for lung cancer seemed to be linear on a multiplicative scale, which is consistent with previous analyses of lung cancer and exposure to asbestos. In contrast, the exposure-response relation for asbestosis seemed to be nonlinear on a multiplicative scale in this analysis. There was no significant evidence for a threshold in models of either the lung cancer or asbestosis. The excess lifetime risk for white men exposed for 45 years at the recently revised OSHA standard of 0.1 fibre/ml was predicted to be about 5/1000 for lung cancer, and 2/1000 for asbestosis. CONCLUSIONS: This study confirms the findings from previous investigations of a strong exposure-response relation between exposure to chrysotile asbestos and mortality from lung cancer, and asbestosis. The risk estimates for lung cancer derived from this analysis are higher than those derived from other populations exposed to chrysotile asbestos. Possible reasons for this discrepancy are discussed. PMID:9423577

Stayner, L; Smith, R; Bailer, J; Gilbert, S; Steenland, K; Dement, J; Brown, D; Lemen, R

1997-01-01

198

Risk of hypospadias in relation to maternal occupational exposure to potential endocrine disrupting chemicals  

PubMed Central

Background: Reported rises in the prevalence of hypospadias and other abnormalities of the male reproductive system may be a result of exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals. Aims: To analyse the relation between risk of hypospadias and maternal occupation, particularly with regard to exposure to potential endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). Methods: Data (1980–96) from the National Congenital Anomaly System (NCAS) were used to analyse the proportion of all congenital anomaly cases (n = 35 962) which were notified with hypospadias (n = 3471) by occupational codes (348 individual job titles) and by categories of exposure to potential EDCs from a job exposure matrix. Results: Five individual occupations (of 348) showed nominally statistically significant excesses, none of which had possible or probable exposure to potential EDCs. Odds ratios for "possible" or "probable" compared to "unlikely" exposure to potential EDCs did not show statistically significant increases in any of the EDC categories after adjustment for social class of the mother and father, nor was there evidence of an upward trend in risk with likelihood of exposure. In the 1992–96 time period odds ratios were increased for hairdressers (the largest group exposed to potential EDCs) and for probable exposure to phthalates (of which hairdressers form the largest group) before social class adjustment. Conclusions: There was little evidence for a relation between risk of hypospadias and maternal occupation or occupational exposure to potential EDCs, but as the exposure classification was necessarily crude, these findings should be interpreted with caution. PMID:12883014

Vrijheid, M; Armstrong, B; Dolk, H; van Tongeren, M; Botting, B

2003-01-01

199

Are occupational, hobby, or lifestyle exposures associated with Philadelphia chromosome positive chronic myeloid leukaemia?  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES—To investigate a broad range of occupational, hobby, and lifestyle exposures, suggested as risk factors for Philadelphia chromosome positive (Ph+) chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML).?METHODS—A case-control study, comprising 255 Ph+CML patients from southern Sweden and matched controls, was conducted. Individual data on work tasks, hobbies, and lifestyle exposures were obtained by telephone interviews. Occupational hygienists assessed occupational and hobby exposures for each subject individually. Also, occupational titles were obtained from national registries, and group level exposure—that is, the exposure proportion for each occupational title—was assessed with a job exposure matrix. The effects of 11 exposures using individual data and two exposures using group data (organic solvents and animal dust) were estimated.?RESULTS—For the individual data on organic solvents, an effect was found for moderate or high intensity of exposure (odds ratio (OR) 3.4, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.1 to 11) and for long duration (15-20 years) of exposure (OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.1 to 4.0). By contrast, the group data showed no association (OR 0.69, 95% CI 0.27 to 1.8; moderate or high intensity versus no exposure). For extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (EMFs), only individual data were available. An association with long occupational exposure to EMFs was found (OR 2.3, 95% CI 1.2 to 4.5). However, no effect of EMF intensity was indicated. No significant effects of benzene, gasoline or diesel, or tobacco smoking were found. OR estimates below unity were suggested for personal use of hair dye and for agricultural exposures.?CONCLUSIONS—Associations between exposure to organic solvents and EMFs, and Ph+CML were indicated but were not entirely consistent.???Keywords: risk factors; epidemiology; case-control study PMID:11600728

Bjork, J; Albin, M; Welinder, H; Tinnerberg, H; Mauritzson, N; Kauppinen, T; Stromberg, U; Johansson, B; Billstrom, R; Mikoczy, Z; Ahlgren, T; Nilsson, P; Mitelman, F; Hagmar, L

2001-01-01

200

A Critical Appraisal of the Setting and Implementation of Occupational Exposure Limits in the Netherlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since 1978 in the Netherlands occupational exposure limits, designated maxi mum accepted concentrations (MACs), have been established by a three-step procedure. In the first, purely health-based, step the Dutch Expert Committee on Occupational Standards (DECOS), a committee of the Health Council of the Netherlands, establishes a health-based recommended occupational expo sure limit (HBR-OEL). In the second, feasibility, step the Subcommittee

V. J. Feron; C. Hoeksema; J. H. E. Artsa; P. C. Noordam; C. L. Maas

1994-01-01

201

Depression and panic attacks related to phenol-formaldehyde composite material exposure in an aerospace manufacturing plant.  

PubMed

In a case series study we evaluated 53 composite-materials workers in an aerospace plant who filed workers' compensation claims for illness allegedly related to phenol-formaldehyde resin exposure. Symptoms ranged from mucosal and skin irritation to depression and cognitive impairment. Certain health practitioners implying they had immunologic dysfunction and organic brain injury, led workers to believe they were chemically poisoned. Industrial hygiene evaluation failed to show levels of chemicals above permissible levels. Thorough evaluation by our multidisciplinary panel failed to find significant objective abnormalities by physical exam and laboratory testing. Thirty-nine percent of the workers had sensory irritation and/or skin complaints that generally resolved rapidly with removal from exposure. Psychiatric diagnoses (including major depression and/or panic attacks) were made in 74% of the workers, but only 26% of these had antecedent disease. Fourteen (26%) had multiple somatic complaints that generally persisted despite removal from exposure, but they also had long histories of significant pre-existing psychological illness. Detailed neuropsychologic testing failed to show any definite evidence or organic brain dysfunction in any of the workers tested. We speculate that sensory irritation from low-level volatile organic compounds with autonomic arousal, reinforced by the belief they were "chemically poisoned," led to psychogenic illness. PMID:1838999

Sparks, P J; Ayars, G H; Simon, G E; Katon, W J; Altman, L C; Johnson, R L

1991-01-01

202

Occupational Exposure to Hazardous Airborne Pollutants: Effects of Air Mixing and Source Location  

Microsoft Academic Search

The presence of airborne pollutants in indoor environments has been associated with occupants’ discomfort and\\/or adverse health effects. This study investigates occupational exposure in relation to indoor air mixing and source location relative to a human body. Experimental and computational methods were used to provide information about the pollutant distribution in the vicinity of the human body for different levels

Donghyun Rim; Atila Novoselac

2010-01-01

203

Occupationally Related Stress Exposures and Stress Reactions in the Emergency Medical Services  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explored the phenomenon of occupationally related stress exposures and stress reactions in the emergency medical services. While the emergency services are nearly ubiquitous in the United States, very little exploration has been done into the prevalence and sequelae of occupationally related stresses to which emergency medical technicians (EMTs) are exposed as part of their work. This study, based

Elizabeth Anne Donnelly

2010-01-01

204

A Proposed Approach for Setting Occupational Exposure Limits for Sensory Irritants Based on Chemosensory Models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: Setting occupational exposure limits (OELs) for odorous or irritating chemicals is a global occupational health challenge. However, often there is inadequate knowledge about the toxicology of these chemicals to set an OEL and their irritation potencies are usually not rec- ognized until they are manufactured or used in large quantities. Methods: In this paper, the importance of accounting for

SHANNON H. GAFFNEY; DENNIS J. PAUSTENBACH

2007-01-01

205

Mineral fiber content of lung tissue in patients with environmental exposures: household contacts vs building occupants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analysis of tissue mineral fiber content in patients with environmental exposures has seldom been reported in the past. Our studies of six household contacts of asbestos workers indicate that these individuals often have pulmonary asbestos concentrations similar to some occupationally exposed individuals. In contrast, our studies of four occupants of buildings with asbestos-containing materials indicate that these individuals often have

VICTOR L. ROGGLI; WILLIAM E. LONGO

1991-01-01

206

A coupled sensor-spectrophotometric device for continuous measurement of formaldehyde in indoor environments.  

PubMed

Despite long-standing awareness of adverse health effects associated with chronic human exposure to formaldehyde, this hazardous air pollutant remains a challenge to measure in indoor environments. Traditional analytical techniques evaluate formaldehyde concentrations over several hours to several days in a single location in a residence, making it difficult to characterize daily temporal and spatial variation in human exposure to formaldehyde. There is a need for portable, easy-to-use devices that are specific and sensitive to gas-phase formaldehyde over short sampling periods so that dynamic processes governing formaldehyde fate, transport, and potential remediation in indoor environments may be studied more effectively. A recently developed device couples a chemical sensor element with spectrophotometric analysis for detection and quantification of part per billion (ppbv) gas-phase formaldehyde concentrations. This study established the ability of the coupled sensor-spectrophotometric device (CSSD) to report formaldehyde concentrations accurately and continuously on a 30-min sampling cycle at low ppbv concentrations previously untested for this device in a laboratory setting. Determination of the method detection limit (MDL), based on 40 samples each at test concentrations of 5 and 10?ppbv, was found to be 1.9 and 2.0?ppbv, respectively. Performance of the CSSD was compared with the dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) derivatization method for formaldehyde concentrations ranging from 5-50?ppbv, and a linear relationship with a coefficient of determination of 0.983 was found between these two analytical techniques. The CSSD was also used to monitor indoor formaldehyde concentrations in two manufactured homes. During this time, formaldehyde concentrations varied from below detection limit to 65?ppbv and were above the US National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) recommended exposure limit (REL) of 16?ppbv, which is also the exposure limit value now adopted by the US Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) to procure manufactured housing, 80% and 100% of the time, respectively. PMID:24084757

Carter, Ellison M; Jackson, Mark C; Katz, Lynn E; Speitel, Gerald E

2014-01-01

207

OCCUPATIONAL STYRENE EXPOSURE FOR TWELVE PRODUCT CATEGORIES IN THE REINFORCED-PLASTICS INDUSTRY  

EPA Science Inventory

Approximately 1500 occupational styrene exposure values from 28 reinforced-plastic manufacturers were collected retrospectively from companies and state and federal agencies. The report describes the major types of manufacturing processes within the reinforced-plastics industry a...

208

USE OF PHARMACOKINETIC MODELS TO ASSESS OCCUPATIONAL AND RESIDENTIAL PESTICIDE EXPOSURE  

EPA Science Inventory

Urinary biomarker measurements were analyzed using a dynamic pharmacokinetic model. The dynamic model provided the structure to link spot urine samples with corresponding exposure and absorbed dose. Data from both occupational and residential studies were analyzed. In the Agri...

209

Occupational exposures and risk of esophageal and gastric cardia cancers among male Swedish construction workers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The rising incidence and the strong male predominance among patients with esophageal and gastric cardia adenocarcinoma remain unexplained. We hypothesized that occupational airborne exposures in a traditional male dominated industry might contribute to these observations.

Catarina Jansson; Anna L. V. Johansson; Ingvar A. Bergdahl; Paul W. Dickman; Nils Plato; Johanna Adami; Paolo Boffetta; Jesper Lagergren

2005-01-01

210

Occupational exposures as risk factors for gastric cancer in Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Occupational associations with gastric cancer were investigated in a multicenter case-control study in Italy involving interviews with 640 histologically confirmed male cases and 959 controls, randomly selected from the resident populations of the study areas. From information on the three jobs each person held the longest, risks were evaluated according to employment in 35 occupations (ever or 21+ years) and

Pierluigi Cocco; Domenico Palli; Eva Buiatti; Francesco Cipriani; Adriano DeCarli; Pierina Manca; Mary H. Ward; William J. Blot; Joseph F. Fraumeni

1994-01-01

211

Optical Detection of Formaldehyde  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The potential for buildup .of formaldehyde in closed space environments poses a direct health hazard to personnel. The National Aeronautic Space Agency (NASA) has established a maximum permitted concentration of 0.04 ppm for 7 to 180 days for all space craft. Early detection is critical to ensure that formaldehyde levels do not accumulate. above these limits. New sensor technologies are needed to enable real time,in situ detection in a compact and reusable form factor. Addressing this need,research into the use of reactive fluorescent dyes which reversibly bind to formaldehyde (liquid or gas) has been conducted to support the development of a formaldehyde.sensor. In the presence of formaldehyde the dyes' characteristic fluorescence peaks shift providing the basis for an optical detection. Dye responses to formaldehyde exposure were characterized; demonstrating the optical detection of formaldehyde in under 10 seconds and down to concentrations of 0.5 ppm. To .incorporate the dye .in.an optical sensor device requires. a means of containing and manipulating the dye. Multiple form factors using two dissimilar sbstrates were considered to determine a suitable configuration. A prototype sensor was demonstrated and considerations for a field able sensor were presented. This research provides a necessary first step toward the development of a compact, reusable; real time optical formaldehyde sensor suitable for use in the U.S. space program,

Patty, Kira D.; Gregory, Don A.

2008-01-01

212

SPERM COUNT, MORPHOLOGY AND FLUORESCENT BODY FREQUENCY IN AUTOPSY SERVICE WORKERS EXPOSED TO FORMALDEHYDE  

EPA Science Inventory

The ability of a battery of genetic monitoring tests to detect occupational formaldehyde exposure in a population of a hospital autopsy service workers was investigated. Eleven exposed individuals and 11 matched controls were evaluated for sperm count, abnormal sperm morphology a...

213

Performance of Population-specific Job Exposure-Matrices (JEM) . European Collaborative Analyses on Occupational risk factors for COPD using Job Exposure  

E-print Network

on Occupational risk factors for COPD using Job Exposure Matrices (ECOJEM). N Le Moual, P Bakke, E Orlowski, D Obstructive Lung Disease (COPD) have been investigated mostly in occupational populations [1] [2 to estimate occupational risk factors in community-based studies on COPD. Population-specific job exposure

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

214

Linking expert judgement and trends in occupational exposure into a job-exposure matrix for historical exposure to asbestos in The Netherlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this article was to describe the structure and content of a job-exposure matrix (JEM) for historical asbestos exposure in The Netherlands. The JEM contained 309 occupational job title groups in 70 branches of industry during 10 periods of 5 years during 1945-1994, resulting in 3090 evaluations. Dutch sources on asbestos exposure measurements provided quantitative guidance for 69

PAUL SWUSTE; MOHSSINE DAHHAN; ALEX BURDORF

2008-01-01

215

Occupational exposures and asthma in 14,000 adults from the general population. Nicole Le Moual1  

E-print Network

Occupational exposures and asthma in 14,000 adults from the general population. Nicole Le Moual1 69 E-mail : lemoual@vjf.inserm.fr Keywords: asthma, occupational diseases, occupations, occupational study on the Genetics and Environment of Asthma; ECRHS, European Community Respiratory Health Survey

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

216

Occupational exposure to diesel and gasoline emissions and lung cancer in Canadian men.  

PubMed

The International Agency for Research on Cancer classifies diesel exhaust as a probable human carcinogen; this decision is based largely from lung cancer evidence. Gasoline exhaust is classified as a possible carcinogen. Epidemiological studies are needed that improve upon some of the limitations of previous research with respect to the characterization of exposure, and the control for the potential confounding influence of smoking and other occupational exposures. Our objective was to investigate associations between occupational exposure to diesel and gasoline engine emissions and lung cancer. We used a case-control study design that involved men 40 years of age and older at the time of interview. Analyses are based on 1681 incident cases of lung cancer and 2,053 population controls. A self-reported questionnaire elicited a lifetime occupational history, including general tasks, and information on other potential risk factors. Occupational exposures to diesel and gasoline emissions, crystalline silica, and asbestos were assigned to each job held by study subjects by industrial hygienists who were blind to case-control status. Exposure metrics for diesel and gasoline emissions that were modeled included: ever exposure, cumulative exposure, and concentration of exposure. We found a dose-response relationship between cumulative occupational exposure to diesel engine emissions and lung cancer. This association was more pronounced for the squamous and large cell subtypes with adjusted odds ratios across the three increasing tertiles of cumulative lifetime exposure relative to those with no exposure of 0.99, 1.25, and 1.32 (p=0.04) for squamous cell carcinoma, and 1.06, 1.19, 1.68 (p=0.02) for large cell carcinoma. While the association with cumulative exposure to gasoline was weakly positive, it was not statistically significant. Our findings suggest that exposure to diesel engine emissions increases the risk of lung cancer particularly for squamous and large cell carcinoma subtypes. PMID:21536265

Villeneuve, Paul J; Parent, Marie-Élise; Sahni, Vanita; Johnson, Kenneth C

2011-07-01

217

Occupational cancer in Spain.  

PubMed Central

The knowledge of specific problems of occupational cancer in Spain is scarce. The environment of the workplace has improved over the last few years after a long period distinguished by bad working conditions, incomplete legislation, and insufficient safety measures and control. It has been estimated that 3,083,479 workers (25.4% of employees) were exposed to carcinogens. The most common occupational exposures to carcinogenic agents were solar radiation, environmental tobacco smoke, silica, and wood dust. The highest number of employees were exposed to silica crystalline (404,729), diesel engine exhaust (274,321), rubber products (99,804), benzene (89,932), ethylene dibromide (81,336), agents used in furniture and cabinet making (72,068), and formaldehyde (71,189). The percentage of total cancer deaths attributed to occupational exposure was 4% (6% in men, 0.9% in women). Compared with other European countries, the incidence of lung cancer and leukemia in Spain are one of the lowest, but it is rapidly increasing. The incidence of urinary bladder and larynx cancer, on the contrary, are one of the highest. Few studies on occupational cancer have been conducted in Spain. The main problems are the availability of death certificates and the quality of the information on occupation in mortality of statistics. It is necessary to improve methods of assessment of exposures using expert hygienists and biologic markers of exposure and diseases. Reduction of cancer by limiting or avoiding exposure to known occupational carcinogens is still necessary. PMID:10350510

González, C A; Agudo, A

1999-01-01

218

Occupational cancer in Spain.  

PubMed

The knowledge of specific problems of occupational cancer in Spain is scarce. The environment of the workplace has improved over the last few years after a long period distinguished by bad working conditions, incomplete legislation, and insufficient safety measures and control. It has been estimated that 3,083,479 workers (25.4% of employees) were exposed to carcinogens. The most common occupational exposures to carcinogenic agents were solar radiation, environmental tobacco smoke, silica, and wood dust. The highest number of employees were exposed to silica crystalline (404,729), diesel engine exhaust (274,321), rubber products (99,804), benzene (89,932), ethylene dibromide (81,336), agents used in furniture and cabinet making (72,068), and formaldehyde (71,189). The percentage of total cancer deaths attributed to occupational exposure was 4% (6% in men, 0.9% in women). Compared with other European countries, the incidence of lung cancer and leukemia in Spain are one of the lowest, but it is rapidly increasing. The incidence of urinary bladder and larynx cancer, on the contrary, are one of the highest. Few studies on occupational cancer have been conducted in Spain. The main problems are the availability of death certificates and the quality of the information on occupation in mortality of statistics. It is necessary to improve methods of assessment of exposures using expert hygienists and biologic markers of exposure and diseases. Reduction of cancer by limiting or avoiding exposure to known occupational carcinogens is still necessary. PMID:10350510

González, C A; Agudo, A

1999-05-01

219

The role of psychosocial assessment and support in occupational exposure management.  

PubMed

Hundreds of thousands of occupational exposures to the blood and body fluids of patients occur every year in health care settings. The risk of acquiring HIV infection after exposure to HIV infected blood is 0.452%. Despite this low risk, the impact of each of these exposures is significant to the health care worker who is exposed. This paper focuses on the importance of adapting HIV education and counseling models to occupational settings. It recommends the incorporation of psychosocial assessment, risk reduction education, counseling, and support into existing exposure management programs. Barriers to effective occupational exposure counseling and their possible solutions are examined. Case studies are used to illustrate the complex issues raised during counseling. PMID:9241392

Tannebaum, J; Anastasoff, J

1997-06-01

220

Occupational Exposures to Emissions from Combustion of Diesel and Alternative Fuels in Underground Mining - A Simulated Pilot Study.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT Diesel fuel is commonly used for underground mining equipment, yet diesel engine exhaust is a known human carcinogen. Alternative fuels, including biodiesel, and a natural gas/diesel blend, offer the potential to reduce engine emissions and associated health effects. For this pilot study, exposure monitoring was performed in an underground mine during operation of a load-haul-dump vehicle. Use of low-sulfur diesel, 75% biodiesel/25% diesel blend (B75), and natural gas/diesel blend (GD) fuels were compared. Personal samples were collected for total and respirable diesel particulate matter (tDPM and rDPM, respectively), total and respirable elemental and organic carbon (tEC, rEC, tOC, rOC, respectively), as well as carbon monoxide (CO), formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, naphthalene, nitric oxide (NO), and nitrogen dioxide (NO2). Compared to diesel, B75 use was associated with a 33% reduction in rDPM, reductions in rEC, tEC and naphthalene, increased tDPM, tOC and NO, and no change in rOC, CO and NO2. Compared to diesel, GD was associated with a 66% reduction in rDPM and a reduction in all other exposures except CO. The alternative fuels tested both resulted in reduced rDPM, which is the basis for the current Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) occupational exposure standard. Although additional study is needed with a wider variety of equipment, use of alternative fuels have the promise of reducing exposures from vehicular exhaust in underground mining settings. PMID:25412337

Lutz, Eric A; Reed, Rustin J; Lee, Vivien S T; Burgess, Jefferey L

2014-11-20

221

Exploring lifetime occupational exposure and SLE flare: a patient-focussed pilot study  

PubMed Central

Introduction Environmental effectors, such as ultraviolet radiation exposure, infection and stress, have been established as having a role in exacerbating lupus symptoms. However, unpredictable patterns of flare events still remain a mystery. Occupational effectors have also been suggested as having a contributing role; however, they are not widely researched. In this paper we report a pilot study designed to generate focus areas for future research regarding occupational exposures and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Methods The study explored potential links between exposures and the occurrence of patient-reported flare events in 80 Australian women with SLE (American College of Rheumatology (ACR) criteria classified). Specifically, the study assessed the hypothesis that occupational exposure is associated with significant changes in the likelihood of lupus flares. Lifetime employment history was analysed with the Finnish Job Exposure Matrix (FINJEM), 40 different semiquantified exposure class estimates for a wide number of occupations based on probability of exposure (p?5%=exposed) were analysed with the construction of negative binomial regression models to test relationships between occupational agents and flare days. A backward stepwise elimination was used to generate a parsimonious model. Results Significant associations were noted for exposure classes of manual handling burden, (p=0.02, incidence rate ratio (IRR) 1.01), Iron (p=0.00, IRR 1.37), wood dust (p=0.00, IRR 3.34) and asbestos (p=0.03, IRR 2.48). Conclusion Exposure assessment results indicated that occupations, such as nursing, with a high manual handling burden, posed increased risk to patients with SLE, however, the greatest risk was associated with wood dust and iron exposure with teachers and specialist labourers. PMID:25379190

Squance, Marline L; Guest, Maya; Reeves, Glenn; Attia, John; Bridgman, Howard

2014-01-01

222

Occupational Exposure and the Risk of Barrett’s Esophagus: A Case–Control Study  

PubMed Central

Background Case–control studies in the United States and Europe have linked occupational exposure to volatile sulfur compounds, solvents, and pesticide to increased risk of esophageal adenocarcinoma. However, the association between occupational exposures and the risk of Barrett’s esophagus (BE) is unclear given the absence of studies in this area. Methods This is a case–control study in patients undergoing endoscopy who were either referred directly or were eligible for screening colonoscopy and recruited from primary care clinics. All participants completed a survey on (1) self-reported occupational exposures to asbestos, metal dust, organic solvents, and pesticides, and (2) self reported longest held job and job-related activities. The latter were assigned by an industrial hygienist who was blinded to the case and control status into one of 99 standard occupational categories used by the US Department of Labor. Each occupational category was then assigned an expected level of exposure to the same four classes of agents in addition to radiation. We compared the self-reported exposure and the expected occupational exposure based on the self-reported occupation between cases with definitive BE and controls without BE. We examined the associations adjusting for age, sex, race, and patient recruitment source in a multivariable logistic regression analysis. Results We examined 226 cases of definitive BE and 1,424 controls without BE. There was a greater proportion of patients with self-reported asbestos exposure in cases than controls (16.2 % vs. 12.0 %; p = 0.08) but no significant differences in metal dust, organic solvents, or pesticides. The multivariate model did not show an independent association between self-reported asbestos exposure and BE. For the calculated occupational exposure, there were no significant differences between cases and controls for asbestos (29.6 % vs. 27.5 %; p = 0.5), metal dust, organic solvents, pesticides, or radiation exposure. Among commonly reported occupation, there were significantly greater proportion of retail sales workers in BE cases than controls (10.8 % vs. 4.9 %; p = 0.01). Conclusions Exposure to asbestos and sedentary jobs may be risk factors for Barrett’s esophagus. Further studies are needed to confirm this finding. PMID:23381104

Qureshi, Zeeshan; Ramsey, David; Kramer, Jennifer R.; Whitehead, Lawrence

2014-01-01

223

Occupational Electromagnetic Field Exposures Associated with Sleep Quality: A Cross-Sectional Study  

PubMed Central

Background Exposure to electromagnetic field (EMF) emitted by mobile phone and other machineries concerns half the world’s population and raises the problem of their impact on human health. The present study aims to explore the effects of electromagnetic field exposures on sleep quality and sleep duration among workers from electric power plant. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in an electric power plant of Zhejiang Province, China. A total of 854 participants were included in the final analysis. The detailed information of participants was obtained by trained investigators using a structured questionnaire, which including socio-demographic characteristics, lifestyle variables, sleep variables and electromagnetic exposures. Physical examination and venous blood collection were also carried out for every study subject. Results After grouping daily occupational electromagnetic exposure into three categories, subjects with long daily exposure time had a significantly higher risk of poor sleep quality in comparison to those with short daily exposure time. The adjusted odds ratios were 1.68 (95%CI: 1.18, 2.39) and 1.57 (95%CI: 1.10, 2.24) across tertiles. Additionally, among the subjects with long-term occupational exposure, the longer daily occupational exposure time apparently increased the risk of poor sleep quality (OR (95%CI): 2.12 (1.23?3.66) in the second tertile; 1.83 (1.07?3.15) in the third tertile). There was no significant association of long-term occupational exposure duration, monthly electric fee or years of mobile-phone use with sleep quality or sleep duration. Conclusions The findings showed that daily occupational EMF exposure was positively associated with poor sleep quality. It implies EMF exposure may damage human sleep quality rather than sleep duration. PMID:25340654

Liu, Hui; Chen, Guangdi; Pan, Yifeng; Chen, Zexin; Jin, Wen; Sun, Chuan; Chen, Chunjing; Dong, Xuanjun; Chen, Kun; Xu, Zhengping; Zhang, Shanchun; Yu, Yunxian

2014-01-01

224

Occupational exposures and chronic respiratory symptoms. A population-based study  

SciTech Connect

Data from a random sample of 8515 white adults residing in 6 cities in the eastern and midwestern United States were used to examine the relationships between occupational exposures to dust or to gases and fumes and chronic respiratory symptoms; 31% of the population had a history of occupational dust exposure and 30% reported exposure to gas or fumes. After adjusting for smoking habits, age, gender, and city of residence, subjects with either occupational exposure had significantly elevated prevalences of chronic cough, chronic phlegm, persistent wheeze, and breathlessness. The adjusted relative odds of chronic respiratory symptoms for subjects exposed to dust ranged from 1.32 to 1.60. Subjects with gas or fume exposure had relative odds of symptoms between 1.27 and 1.43 when compared with unexposed subjects. Occupational dust exposure was associated with a higher prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease as defined by an FEV1/FVC ratio of less than 0.6, when comparing exposed and unexposed participants (OR = 1.53, 95% Cl = 1.17-2.08). Gas or fume exposure was associated with a small, but not significant, increase in COPD prevalence. Significant trends were noted for wheeze and phlegm with increasing duration of dust exposure. Although 36% of exposed subjects reported exposure to both dust and fumes, there was no evidence of a multiplicative interaction between the effects of the individual exposures. Smoking was a significant independent predictor of symptoms, but did not appear to modify the effect of dust or fumes on symptom reporting. These data, obtained in random samples of general populations, demonstrate that chronic respiratory symptoms and disease can be independently associated with occupational exposures.

Korn, R.J.; Dockery, D.W.; Speizer, F.E.; Ware, J.H.; Ferris, B.G. Jr.

1987-08-01

225

Occupational exposures and chronic respiratory symptoms: a population-based study  

SciTech Connect

Data from a random sample of 8515 white adults residing in six cities in the eastern and midwestern United States were used to examine the relationships between occupational exposures to dust or to gases and fumes and chronic respiratory symptoms. 31% of the population had a history of occupational dust exposure and 30% reported exposure to gas or to fumes. After adjusting for smoking habits, age, gender, and city of residence, subjects with either occupational exposure had significantly elevated prevalence of chronic cough, chronic phlegm, persistent wheeze, and breathlessness. The adjusted relative odds of chronic respiratory symptoms for subjects exposed to dust ranged from 1.32 to 1.60. Subjects with gas or fume exposure had relative odds of symptoms between 1.27 and 1.43 when compared to unexposed subjects. Occupational dust exposure was associated with a higher prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) as defined by an FEV1/FVC ratio of less than 0.6, when comparing exposed and unexposed participants (OR=1.53, 95% CI=1.17-2.08). Gas or fume exposure was associated with a small, but not significant, increase in COPD prevalence. Significant trends were noted for wheeze and phlegm with increasing duration of dust exposure. Although 36% of exposed subjects reported exposure to both dust and fumes, there was no evidence of a multiplicative interaction between the effects of the individual exposures. Smoking was a significant independent predictor of symptoms, but did not appear to modify the effect of dust or fumes on symptom reporting. These data, obtained in random samples of general populations, demonstrate that chronic respiratory disease can be independently associated with occupational exposures.

Korn, R.J.; Dockery, D.W.; Speizer, F.E.; Ware, J.H.; Ferris, B.G.

1987-01-01

226

SPUTUM CYTOLOGY IN OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE TO HEAVY METALS - A PRELIMINARY STUDY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our study aimed the early detection of respiratory injuries afflicted with occupational exposure to chromium, cadmium, nickel and their compounds, with a known high carcinogenic risk. 23 platers (average of exposure 15.57±5.05 years) and matched controls have been investigated by clinical examination (including otolaryngology exam) completed by sputum cytology and an individual questionnaire. Heavy metals concentration, as well as the

Irina Anca Popescu; Doina Popa; Irina Alexandrescu

227

Occupational exposure limits for 30 organophosphate pesticides based on inhibition of red blood cell acetylcholinesterase  

Microsoft Academic Search

Toxicity and other relevant data for 30 organophosphate pesticides were evaluated to suggest inhalation occupational exposure limits (OELs), and to support development of a risk assessment strategy for organophosphates in general. Specifically, the value of relative potency analysis and the predictability of inhalation OELs by acute toxicity measures and by repeated oral exposure NOELs was assessed. Suggested OELs are based

Jan E Storm; Karl K Rozman; John Doull

2000-01-01

228

Malignant mesothelioma and occupational exposure to asbestos: a clinicopathological correlation of 1445 cases.  

PubMed

Asbestos exposure is indisputably associated with development of mesothelioma. However, relatively few studies have evaluated the type of occupational exposure in correlation with asbestos fiber content and type. This study reports findings in 1445 cases of mesothelioma with known exposure history; 268 of these also had fiber burden analysis. The 1445 cases of mesothelioma were subclassified into 23 predominant occupational or exposure categories. Asbestos body counts per gram of wet lung tissue were determined by light microscopy. Asbestos fiber content and type were determined by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive x-ray analysis. Results were compared with a control group of 19 lung tissue samples. Ninety-four percent of the cases occurred among 19 exposure categories. Median asbestos body counts and levels of commercial and noncommercial amphibole fibers showed elevated levels for each of these 19 categories. Chrysotile fibers were detectable in 36 of 268 cases. All but 2 of these also had above-background levels of commercial amphiboles. When compared to commercial amphiboles, the median values for noncommercial amphibole fibers were higher in 4 of the 19 exposure groups. Most mesotheliomas in the United States fall into a limited number of exposure categories. Although a predominant occupation was ascertained for each of these cases, there was a substantial overlap in exposure types. All but 1 of the occupational categories analyzed had above-background levels of commercial amphiboles. Commercial amphiboles are responsible for most of the mesothelioma cases observed in the United States. PMID:12036093

Roggli, Victor L; Sharma, Anupama; Butnor, Kelly J; Sporn, Thomas; Vollmer, Robin T

2002-01-01

229

Application of statistical modeling to occupational exposure assessment  

SciTech Connect

This dissertation applies statistical modeling to two problems: (1) describing a single worker's exposure distribution and estimating its associated arithemetic mean; and (2) describing the distribution of inhalation exposure levels among a population of respirator wearers while accounting for variability in ambient exposure and respirator penetration values within and between wearers. A task-based statistical construct for a single worker's exposure levels for a single agent is developed; the model accounts for variability in short-term time weighted average (TWA) exposure values within a task, and for variability in arithmetic mean exposure levels between tasks. Five sample survey designs for estimating a worker's arithmetic mean exposure level are examined. Stratified random sampling designs, in which short-term TWAs are measured for time periods selected on a task basis, can provide a more precise estimate of the arithmetic mean exposure level than the traditional survey design for the same fixed cost. For describing inhalation exposure levels (C{sub i}) among a population of air-purifying respirator wearers, a synthesis of lognormal one-way analysis of variance models for ambient exposure levels (C.) and respirator penetration (P) values provides the most tractable construct. The model is applied to assessing the risk of toxicant overexposure for a respirator wearer population. Overexposure to a chronic toxicant is equated with an arithmetic mean exposure level above the permissible exposure limit (PEL) value, while overexposure to an acute toxicant is equated with a 95th percentile exposure level above the PEL value.

Nicas, M.

1991-01-01

230

Formaldehyde as a basis for residential ventilation rates  

SciTech Connect

Traditionally, houses in the U.S. have been ventilated by passive infiltration in combination with active window opening. However in recent years, the construction quality of residential building envelopes has been improved to reduce infiltration, and the use of windows for ventilation also may have decreased due to a number of factors. Thus, there has been increased interest in engineered ventilation systems for residences. The amount of ventilation provided by an engineered system should be set to protect occupants from unhealthy or objectionable exposures to indoor pollutants, while minimizing energy costs for conditioning incoming air. Determining the correct ventilation rate is a complex task, as there are numerous pollutants of potential concern, each having poorly characterized emission rates, and poorly defined acceptable levels of exposure. One ubiquitous pollutant in residences is formaldehyde. The sources of formaldehyde in new houses are reasonably understood, and there is a large body of literature on human health effects. This report examines the use of formaldehyde as a means of determining ventilation rates and uses existing data on emission rates of formaldehyde in new houses to derive recommended levels. Based on current, widely accepted concentration guidelines for formaldehyde, the minimum and guideline ventilation rates for most new houses are 0.28 and 0.5 air changes per hour, respectively.

Sherman, M.H.; Hodgson, A.T.

2002-04-28

231

Assessing occupational exposure to chemicals in an international epidemiological study of brain tumours.  

PubMed

The INTEROCC project is a multi-centre case-control study investigating the risk of developing brain cancer due to occupational chemical and electromagnetic field exposures. To estimate chemical exposures, the Finnish Job Exposure Matrix (FINJEM) was modified to improve its performance in the INTEROCC study and to address some of its limitations, resulting in the development of the INTEROCC JEM. An international team of occupational hygienists developed a crosswalk between the Finnish occupational codes used in FINJEM and the International Standard Classification of Occupations 1968 (ISCO68). For ISCO68 codes linked to multiple Finnish codes, weighted means of the exposure estimates were calculated. Similarly, multiple ISCO68 codes linked to a single Finnish code with evidence of heterogeneous exposure were refined. One of the key time periods in FINJEM (1960-1984) was split into two periods (1960-1974 and 1975-1984). Benzene exposure estimates in early periods were modified upwards. The internal consistency of hydrocarbon exposures and exposures to engine exhaust fumes was improved. Finally, exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon and benzo(a)pyrene was modified to include the contribution from second-hand smoke. The crosswalk ensured that the FINJEM exposure estimates could be applied to the INTEROCC study subjects. The modifications generally resulted in an increased prevalence of exposure to chemical agents. This increased prevalence of exposure was not restricted to the lowest categories of cumulative exposure, but was seen across all levels for some agents. Although this work has produced a JEM with important improvements compared to FINJEM, further improvements are possible with the expansion of agents and additional external data. PMID:23467593

van Tongeren, Martie; Kincl, Laurel; Richardson, Lesley; Benke, Geza; Figuerola, Jordi; Kauppinen, Timo; Lakhani, Ramzan; Lavoué, Jérôme; McLean, Dave; Plato, Nils; Cardis, Elisabeth

2013-06-01

232

Occupational exposure to asbestos in the drywall taping process.  

PubMed

Studies of airborne asbestos fiber concentrations associated with various operations of the drywall taping process have been undertaken in the province of Alberta, Canada. The results show that mixing, sanding and sweeping created high levels of airborne asbestos dust. The measured concentrations were frequently in excess of occupational health standards. Sanding in particular was assessed the most hazardous operation. The results are discussed in light of present and proposed Occupational Health Standards, and in terms of its implications for other workers, household contacts, and consumer's risk. Measures to reduce and control the health hazards associated with the process are described. PMID:7395743

Verma, D K; Middleton, C G

1980-04-01

233

Occupational 50 Hz magnetic field exposure measurements among female sewing machine operators in Hungary.  

PubMed

Occupational magnetic field (MF) exposure is less thoroughly characterized in occupations typically held by women. Our objective was to characterize occupational 50 Hz MF personal exposure (PE) among female sewing machine operators. We measured the full shift PE of 51 seamstresses, who worked in two shifts (6-14 and 14-22 h) according to their normal work routine. Measurements were conducted using EMDEX PAL meters at chest level. The average duration of the measurement periods was 449 min (range 420-470). The average arithmetic mean exposure for all women was 0.76 microT (range 0.06-4.27). The average of maximum values was 4.30 microT (range 0.55-14.80). Women working with older sewing machines experienced higher exposure than women working on newer sewing machines. For women (n = 10) who operated sewing machines produced in 1990 or earlier, the average arithmetic mean exposure was 2.09 microT, and for women (n = 41) who operated sewing machines produced after 1990, the average arithmetic mean was 0.43 microT. We conclude that women working as sewing machine operators experience higher than average occupational MF exposure compared to other working women. Most important determinant of the women's personal MF exposure was the age of the sewing machine the women operated. PMID:16622866

Szabó, J; Mezei, K; Thuróczy, G; Mezei, G

2006-09-01

234

Ischaemic heart disease mortality study among workers with occupational exposure to ammonium perfluorooctanoate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives:Ammonium perfluorooctanoate (APFO) is a biopersistent surfactant used in the manufacture of several types of fluoropolymers. Based on previous findings of increased serum lipid levels associated with exposure to APFO, we evaluated ischaemic heart disease (IHD) mortality in a cohort of occupationally exposed workers.Methods:Relative risks (RR) were estimated from exposure–response analyses of cumulative exposure measures using proportional hazards regression models.Results:239

C J Sakr; J M Symons; K H Kreckmann; R C Leonard

2009-01-01

235

Occupational exposure to crystalline silica and the risk of lung cancer in Canadian men.  

PubMed

Crystalline silica is a recognized carcinogen, but the association with lung cancer at lower levels of exposure has not been well characterized. This study investigated the relationship between occupational silica exposure and lung cancer and the combined effects of cigarette smoking and silica exposure on lung cancer risk. A population-based case-control study was conducted in eight Canadian provinces between 1994 and 1997. Self-reported questionnaires were used to obtain a lifetime occupational history and information on other risk factors. Occupational hygienists assigned silica exposures to each job based on concentration, frequency and reliability. Data from 1681 incident lung cancer cases and 2053 controls were analyzed using logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (OR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI). Models included adjustments for cigarette smoking, lifetime residential second-hand smoke and occupational exposure to diesel and gasoline engine emissions. Relative to the unexposed, increasing duration of silica exposure at any concentration was associated with a significant trend in lung cancer risk (OR???30 years: 1.67, 1.21-2.24; ptrend ?=?0.002). The highest tertile of cumulative silica exposure was associated with lung cancer (OR?=?1.81, 1.34-2.42; ptrend ?=?0.004) relative to the lowest. Men exposed to silica for ?30 years with ?40 cigarette pack-years had the highest risk relative to those unexposed with <10 pack-years (OR?=?42.53, 23.54-76.83). The joint relationship with smoking was consistent with a multiplicative model. Our findings suggest that occupational exposure to silica is a risk factor for lung cancer, independently from active and passive smoking, as well as from exposure to other lung carcinogens. PMID:24272527

Kachuri, Linda; Villeneuve, Paul J; Parent, Marie-Élise; Johnson, Kenneth C; Harris, Shelley A

2014-07-01

236

Occupational exposures in the oil and gas extraction industry: State of the science and research recommendations.  

PubMed

The oil and gas extraction industry is rapidly growing due to horizontal drilling and high volume hydraulic fracturing (HVHF). This growth has provided new jobs and economic stimulus. The industry occupational fatality rate is 2.5 times higher than the construction industry and 7 times higher than general industry; however injury rates are lower than the construction industry, suggesting injuries are not being reported. Some workers are exposed to crystalline silica at hazardous levels, above occupational health standards. Other hazards (particulate, benzene, noise, radiation) exist. In this article, we review occupational fatality and injury rate data; discuss research looking at root causes of fatal injuries and hazardous exposures; review interventions aimed at improving occupational health and safety; and discuss information gaps and areas of needed research. We also describe Wyoming efforts to improve occupational safety in this industry, as a case example. PMID:24634090

Witter, Roxana Z; Tenney, Liliana; Clark, Suzanne; Newman, Lee S

2014-07-01

237

Validity of self reported occupational exposures to hand transmitted and whole body vibration  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES—To assess the accuracy with which workers report their exposure to occupational sources of hand transmitted (HTV) and whole body vibration (WBV).?METHODS—179 Workers from various jobs involving exposure to HTV or WBV completed a self administered questionnaire about sources of occupational exposure to vibration in the past week. They were then observed at work over 1 hour, after which they completed a second questionnaire concerning their exposures during this observation period. The feasibility of reported sources of exposure during the past week was examined by questioning managers and by inspection of tools and machines in the workplace. The accuracy of reported sources and durations of exposure in the 1 hour period were assessed relative to what had been observed.?RESULTS—The feasibility of exposure in the previous week was confirmed for 97% of subjects who reported exposure to HTV, and for 93% of subjects who reported exposure to WBV. The individual sources of exposure reported were generally plausible, but occupational use of cars was substantially overreported, possibly because of confusion with their use in travel to and from work. The accuracy of exposures reported during the observation period was generally high, but some sources of HTV were confused—for example, nailing and stapling guns reported as riveting hammers, and hammer drills not distinguished from other sorts of drill. Workers overestimated their duration of exposure to HTV by a median factor of 2.5 (interquartile range (IQR) 1.6-5.9), but estimated durations of exposure were more accurate when the exposure was relatively continuous rather than for intermittent short periods. Reported durations of exposure to WBV were generally accurate (median ratio of reported to observed time 1.1, IQR 1.0-1.2).?CONCLUSIONS—Sources of recent occupational exposure to vibration seem to be reported with reasonable accuracy, but durations of exposure to HTV are systematically overestimated, particularly when the exposure is intermittent and for short periods. This raises the possibility that dose-response relations may have been biased in some of the studies on which exposure standards might be based, and that the levels in currently proposed standards may be too high. Future studies should pay attention to this source of error during data collection.???Keywords: vibration; exposure; assessment; validity PMID:10810109

Palmer, K.; Haward, B.; Griffin, M.; Bendall, H.; Coggon, D.

2000-01-01

238

Variability and consistency of electric and magnetic field occupational exposure measurements.  

PubMed

There is widespread scientific and public interest in possible health effects from exposure to electric and magnetic fields at frequencies associated with electricity use. Electric and magnetic field exposure assessment presents specific problems, among which are the inherent variability in exposure, the lack of robust statistical summary measures, and the lack of an accepted metric based on biological response. These pose challenges in defining distinct exposure groups, a basic goal for exposure assessments used in epidemiological studies. This paper explores the extent to which distinct electric and magnetic field exposure groups can be defined, by examining the variability and consistency of occupational electric and magnetic field exposure measurements among studies and within individual studies. Principal analyses are made by job titles because they are the most frequently used descriptors for stratifying occupational exposures to electric and magnetic fields. Methodological issues affecting the degree of consistency in measured electric and magnetic field exposures among occupational environments are also examined. Exposures by job title reported from electric and magnetic field measurement studies are summarized by general job category and industry. Analyses are performed both within and between job categories. Distributions of daily measured exposures for job categories taken from three large studies in the U.S. electric utility industry are compared to investigate consistency of exposures at a more detailed level. Analyses of reported personal exposure measurements from many studies and countries are consistent with less rigorous observations made heretofore on the basis of individual studies. In these studies, significantly elevated electric and magnetic field exposures are found in the electrician, lineworker, and substation worker categories; significantly elevated magnetic field exposures are also noted in the generation worker category; and magnetic field exposures in these groups are consistent across countries. Analyses within and among the elevated exposure job categories indicate that there are no significant differences between them. Among the studies, it is not possible to distinguish between exposures for well-defined groups within the categories, such as between transmission lineworkers and distribution lineworkers in the lineworker category; between generation operators and generation mechanics; or between substation operators and substation maintenance workers. This information provides a context for past studies and will help future efforts to define distinct occupational exposure groups exposed to electric and magnetic fields. Compilations of measured personal exposure data by industry and job title have been prepared as appendices (available from the author upon request). PMID:8889954

Bracken, T D; Patterson, R M

1996-01-01

239

Establishing an Occupational Exposure Limit for Hexavalent Chromium in the European Union  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Criteria Document for hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)], currently under preparation at the Institute of Occupational Health, University of Birmingham, is intended for use in setting an occupational exposure limit (OEL) for Cr(VI) in the European Union (EU). The requirement for establishing OELs, specifically known as indicative limit values, in the EU is set out in Council Directive 80\\/1107\\/EEC, amended by

Hilary J. Cross; Stephen P. Faux; Leonard S. Levy

1997-01-01

240

Neuropsychological dysfunction related to earlier occupational exposure to mercury vapor  

Microsoft Academic Search

We assessed the neuropsychological test performances of 26 patients (mean age = 41.5 ± 6.1 years; mean years of education = 9.8 ± 1.8; 20 males) diagnosed with chronic occupational mercurialism who were former workers at a fluorescent lamp factory. They had been exposed to elemental mercury for an average of 10.2 ± 3.8 years and had been away from

E. C. Zachi; D. F. Ventura; M. A. M. Faria; A. Taub

2007-01-01

241

Occupational exposure to carcinogens in the European Union  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVESTo construct a computer assisted information system for the estimation of the numbers of workers exposed to established and suspected human carcinogens in the member states of the European Union (EU).METHODSA database called CAREX (carcinogen exposure) was designed to provide selected exposure data and documented estimates of the number of workers exposed to carcinogens by country, carcinogen, and industry. CAREX

Timo Kauppinen; Jouni Toikkanen; David Pedersen; Randy Young; Wolfgang Ahrens; Paolo Boffetta; Johnni Hansen; Hans Kromhout; Jeronimo Maqueda Blasco; Dario Mirabelli; Victoria de la Orden-Rivera; Brian Pannett; Nils Plato; Anja Savela; Raymond Vincent; Manolis Kogevinas

2000-01-01

242

Assessing Operating Room Nurses Occupational Exposure to Nitrous Oxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

A large population of health care workers is potentially exposed to nitrous oxide which can cause decrease in mental performance, audiovisual ability, and reduced fertility, neurological, renal, and liver disease. Nitrous oxide exposure assessment in operating room has been not been done in Korean hospitals. To explore the nitrous oxide exposure among nurses in operating room, area sample and personal

J. Baek; M. Uhm; S. Bae; K. P. Singh

243

Regional maps of occupational heat exposure: past, present, and potential future  

PubMed Central

Background An important feature of climate change is increasing human heat exposure in workplaces without cooling systems in tropical and subtropical countries. Detailed gridded heat exposure maps will provide essential information for public health authorities. Objectives To develop and test methods for calculating occupational heat exposures and present results in easily interpreted maps. Design Published formulas for a common occupational heat exposure index, the WBGT (Wet Bulb Globe Temperature), were used in combination with global gridded climate data to calculate heat exposure in 0.5° grid squares. Monthly averages of daily maximum temperatures, as indicators of typical temperatures during the hottest part of the day, and corresponding water vapour pressures produced estimates of monthly WBGT indoors (without cooling systems) or outdoors in the shade. Results The maps show the WBGT within four hot regions of the world during the three hottest months in 1975 and 2000: Australia, South Asia, Southern Africa, Central America, and southern US. Between 1975 and 2000 a WBGT increase of 0.5–1°C was common and the maps show clear decreases in some places. The time trends fit with the development of global climate change. The high WBGT values (particularly in South Asia) already cause excessive occupational heat exposures during the three hottest months. If continued climate change increases WBGT by 3°C, our maps identify areas where occupational heat stress in non-cooled workplaces will be extreme. Conclusions The mapping method provides a rapid visual impression of occupational heat exposures in large regions of the world. The local changes in WBGT between 1975 and 2000 fit with the global climate change trends. Future increases of WBGT may create extreme heat exposure situations in large areas of the world. PMID:21165172

Hyatt, Olivia M.; Lemke, Bruno; Kjellstrom, Tord

2010-01-01

244

[The role of occupational exposures in the etiology of bladder cancer].  

PubMed

In a case-control study in southern Israel, 150 male subjects with histologically proven transitional cell cancer (TCC) of the bladder were matched with 150 controls. Both groups were interviewed regarding past occupational exposures, lifestyle habits, and co-morbidities. Significant associations were demonstrated between certain occupational exposures and the risk to develop TCC. These exposures were (a) organic solvents (OR 3.5, 95% CI = 1.4-8.4), (b) aromatic amines and\\or paints (OR = 2.7, 95% CI = 1.1-6.3) and (c) PAHs (OR = 1.9, 95% CI = 1.2-4.3). Similarly, significant associations were found between certain occupations (jobs) and the risk of future TCC, such as metal workers and welders. In conclusion, certain types of occupational exposures and industrial jobs bear extra risk for the future development of TCC (in addition to the well established risk of smoking). Thus, better identification and control of these occupational risk factors (chemicals and work processes) is required in order to reduce the risk for this relatively common cancer and improve protection for the relevant groups of workers. PMID:15603262

Gordon, O; Carel, R S; Kordish, E

2004-11-01

245

A Case–Control Study of Occupational Exposure to Trichloroethylene and Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma  

PubMed Central

Background Previous epidemiologic findings suggest an association between exposure to trichloroethylene (TCE), a chlorinated solvent primarily used for vapor degreasing of metal parts, and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). Objectives We investigated the association between occupational TCE exposure and NHL within a population-based case–control study using detailed exposure assessment methods. Methods Cases (n = 1,189; 76% participation rate) and controls (n = 982; 52% participation rate) provided information on their occupational histories and, for selected occupations, on possible workplace exposure to TCE using job-specific interview modules. An industrial hygienist assessed potential TCE exposure based on this information and a review of the TCE industrial hygiene literature. We computed odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) relating NHL and different metrics of estimated TCE exposure, categorized using tertiles among exposed controls, with unexposed subjects as the reference group. Results We observed associations with NHL for the highest tertiles of estimated average weekly exposure (23 exposed cases; OR = 2.5; 95% CI, 1.1–6.1) and cumulative exposure (24 exposed cases; OR = 2.3; 95% CI, 1.0–5.0) to TCE. Tests for trend with these metrics surpassed or approached statistical significance (p-value for trend = 0.02 and 0.08, respectively); however, we did not observe dose–response relationships across the exposure levels. Overall, neither duration nor intensity of exposure was associated with NHL, although we observed an association with the lowest tertile of exposure duration (OR = 2.1; 95% CI, 1.0–4.7). Conclusions Our findings offer additional support for an association between high levels of exposure to TCE and increased risk of NHL. However, we cannot rule out the possibility of confounding from other chlorinated solvents used for vapor degreasing and note that our exposure assessment methods have not been validated. PMID:21370516

Purdue, Mark P.; Bakke, Berit; Stewart, Patricia; De Roos, Anneclaire J.; Schenk, Maryjean; Lynch, Charles F.; Bernstein, Leslie; Morton, Lindsay M.; Cerhan, James R.; Severson, Richard K.; Cozen, Wendy; Davis, Scott; Rothman, Nathaniel; Hartge, Patricia; Colt, Joanne S.

2011-01-01

246

Prevalence and pattern of occupational exposure to whole body vibration in Great Britain: findings from a national survey  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES—To estimate the number of workers in Great Britain with significant occupational exposure to whole body vibration (WBV) and to identify the common sources of exposure and the occupations and industries where such exposures arise.?METHODS—A postal questionnaire was posted to a random community sample of 22 194 men and women of working age. Among other things, the questionnaire asked about exposure to WBV in the past week, including occupational and common non-occupational sources. Responses were assessed by occupation and industry, and national prevalence estimates were derived from census information. Estimates were also made of the average estimated daily personal dose of vibration (eVDV).?RESULTS—From the 12 907 responses it was estimated that 7.2 million men and 1.8 million women in Great Britain are exposed to WBV at work in a 1 week period if the occupational use of cars, vans, buses, trains, and motor cycles is included within the definition of exposure. The eVDV of >374 000 men and 9000 women was estimated to exceed a proposed British Standard action level of 15 ms-1.75. Occupations in which the estimated exposures most often exceeded 15 ms-1.75 included forklift truck and mechanical truck drivers, farm owners and managers, farm workers, and drivers of road goods vehicles. These occupations also contributed the largest estimated numbers of workers in Great Britain with such levels of exposure. The highest estimated median occupational eVDVs were found in forklift truck drivers, drivers of road goods vehicles, bus and coach drivers, and technical and wholesale sales representatives, among whom a greater contribution to total dose was received from occupational exposures than from non-occupational ones; but in many other occupations the reverse applied. The most common sources of occupational exposure to WBV are cars, vans, forklift trucks, lorries, tractors, buses, and loaders.?CONCLUSIONS—Exposure to whole body vibration is common, but only a small proportion of exposures exceed the action level proposed in British standards, and in many occupations, non-occupational sources are more important than those at work. The commonest occupational sources of WBV and occupations with particularly high exposures have been identified, providing a basis for targeting future control activities.???Keywords: whole body vibration; population; prevalence; exposure PMID:10810108

Palmer, K.; Griffin, M.; Bendall, H.; Pannett, B.; Coggon, D.

2000-01-01

247

Exposure, skin protection and occupational skin diseases in the glass-fibre-reinforced plastics industry.  

PubMed

A total of 100 workers, 86 from the glass-fibre-reinforced plastics (GRP) industry, 11 from polystyrene production and 3 from polyester resin coating manufacture, were examined for occupational skin hazards and for evaluation of skin protection. The workers had been exposed to many chemicals. Those working in the GRP industry had also been exposed to glass fibre and to dust produced by finishing work. 94% used protective gloves. 22 workers, all employed in the GRP industry, had contracted occupational skin disorders. 6 had allergic and 12 irritant contact dermatitis. 4 workers had an accidental injury caused by a peroxide catalyst, fire, hot air and constant mechanical friction. Allergic dermatoses were due to natural rubber (latex) (4 cases) in protective gloves, phenol-formaldehyde resin (1 case) and cobalt naphthenate (1 case). Irritant hand dermatoses (5 cases) were caused by the combined hazardous effect of unsaturated polyester or vinyl ester resins, organic solvents, glass fibre and dust from finishing work on the skin. Other cases of irritant dermatoses (7 cases) were due to the dust, promoted by mechanical friction of clothes. Skin disorders in the GRP industry were common (26%) but the symptoms were mild and only 3 patients had been on sick leave because of occupational skin disease. PMID:8222622

Tarvainen, K; Jolanki, R; Forsman-Grönholm, L; Estlander, T; Pfäffli, P; Juntunen, J; Kanerva, L

1993-09-01

248

Species-specific Fungal DNA in Airborne Dust as Surrogate for Occupational Mycotoxin Exposure?  

PubMed Central

Possible health risks associated with occupational inhalation of mycotoxin-containing dust remain largely unknown, partly because methods for mycotoxin detection are not sensitive enough for the small dust masses obtained by personal sampling, which is needed for inhalable exposure measurements. Specific and sensitive PCR detection of fungi with mycotoxin-producing potential seem to be a good surrogate for occupational exposure measurements that include all fungal structures independent of morphology and cultivability. Results should, however, be interpreted with caution due to variable correlations with mycotoxin concentrations. PMID:19330091

Halstensen, Anne Straumfors

2008-01-01

249

Occupational exposure to asbestos during renovation of oil-shale fuelled power plants in Estonia.  

PubMed

Many thousands of tonnes of asbestos were used in buildings in the past, especially for thermal insulation of pipes and boilers in power plants. Occupational exposure to asbestos dust now mainly occurs during demolition, renovation and routine maintenance activities. The objective of this study was to evaluate occupational exposure to airborne asbestos during renovation of solid oil-shale fuelled power plants carried out in 2001-2003. Air monitoring inside and outside of the renovation area was performed. The concentration of airborne fibres in the working environment increased during renovation but the valid limit value (0.1 fibres/cm(3)) was not exceeded. PMID:17888242

Kangur, Maie

2007-01-01

250

Case-control study of bladder cancer in New Jersey. I. Occupational exposures in white males.  

PubMed

The occupational bladder cancer risk for New Jersey white males was estimated with the use of both industry-job title-based and exposure-based analyses of data from 658 incident cases and 1,258 general population controls. The overall bladder cancer risk attributable to occupational exposures was estimated as 20-22%. A wide variety of employment categories and exposures contributed to this risk. Odds ratios were significantly high for employment as garage and gas station workers and food counter workers and/or cooks and for exposure to leather, rubber, paint, printing ink, and other organic compounds. Odds ratios for textile mill workers, chemical workers, and metal workers for the a priori high-risk employment category and odds ratios for those exposed to dyes, chlorinated compounds, and rubber showed significant differences between younger and older subjects. Bladder cancer risk associated with occupational exposures was not limited to persons with initial exposures before 25 years of age. However, there was significantly decreasing risk for bladder cancer with increasing age at first exposure for chemical workers and metal workers and for the a priori high-risk materials and metals. Drivers and/or deliverymen and miscellaneous laborers had significantly increasing bladder cancer risk with increasing duration of employment. PMID:6585596

Schoenberg, J B; Stemhagen, A; Mogielnicki, A P; Altman, R; Abe, T; Mason, T J

1984-05-01

251

Ethyl benzene should be considered ototoxic at occupationally relevant exposure concentrations.  

PubMed

Organic solvents can produce ototoxic effects in both man and experimental animals. The objective of this study was to review the literature on the effects of low-level exposure to ethyl benzene on the auditory system and consider its relevance for the occupational settings. Both human and animal investigations were evaluated only for realistic exposure concentrations based on the permissible exposure limits. In Quebec, the Time-Weighed Average Exposure Value for 8A h (TWAEV) is 100A ppm (434A mg/m(3)) and the Short-Term Exposure Value for 15A min (STEV) is 125A ppm (543A mg/m(3)). In humans, the upper limit for considering ototoxicity data relevant to the occupational exposure situation was set at STEV. Animal data were evaluated only for exposure concentrations up to 100 times the TWAEV. In workers, there is no evidence of either ethyl benzene-induced hearing losses or ototoxic interaction after combined exposure to ethyl benzene and noise. In rats, ethyl benzene affects the auditory function mainly in the cochlear mid-frequency range and ototoxic interaction was observed after combined exposure to noise and ethyl benzene. Further studies with sufficient data on the ethyl benzene exposure of workers are necessary to make a definitive conclusion. Given the current evidence from animal studies, we recommend considering ethyl benzene as an ototoxic agent. PMID:19022877

Vyskocil, A; Leroux, T; Truchon, G; Lemay, F; Gendron, M; Gagnon, F; El Majidi, N; Viau, C

2008-05-01

252

Evidence for unapparent Brucella canis infections among adults with occupational exposure to dogs.  

PubMed

Human serological assays designed to detect brucellosis will miss infections caused by Brucella canis, and low levels of periodic bacteremia limit diagnosis by blood culture. Recent B. canis outbreaks in dogs and concomitant illnesses in caretakers suggest that unapparent human infections may be occurring. With more than a quarter of a million persons in occupations involving dogs, and nearly 80 million dog owners in the United States, this pathogen is an under-recognized human health threat. To investigate occupational exposure to B. canis, we adapted a commercial canine serological assay and present the first controlled seroepidemiological study of human B. canis infections in recent years. 306 adults with occupational exposure to dogs and 101 non-matched, non-canine-exposed subjects were enrolled. Antibodies were detected using the canine D-Tec(®) CB rapid slide agglutination test (RSAT) kit with a secondary 2-mercaptoethanol (ME)-RSAT. Results were validated on a blinded subset of sera with an additional RSAT and indirect enzyme-linked immunoassay at the National Administration of Laboratories and Health Institutes (ANLIS) in Argentina. Seroprevalence ranged from 10.8% (RSAT) to 3.6% (ME-RSAT) among canine-exposed subjects. Kennel employees were more likely to test RSAT seropositive compared with other canine exposures (OR = 2.7; 95% CI, 1.3-5.8); however, low seroprevalence limited meaningful occupational risk factor analyses. Two seropositive participants reported experiencing symptoms consistent with brucellosis and having exposure to B. canis-infected dogs; however, temporality of symptom onset with reported exposure could not be determined. D-Tec(®) CB results had substantial agreement with ANLIS assays (Cohen's kappa = 0.60-0.68). These data add to a growing body of literature suggesting that people occupationally exposed to dogs may be at risk of unapparent B. canis infection. It seems prudent to consider B. canis as an occupational public health concern and encourage the development of serological assays to detect human B. canis infections. PMID:24751191

Krueger, W S; Lucero, N E; Brower, A; Heil, G L; Gray, G C

2014-11-01

253

[How to establish the relationship between an occupational exposure and the occurrence of a disease?].  

PubMed

The establishment of causal relationship between a previous exposure and a disease is based on medical and scientific data. In France, three procedures operate for the recognition and the compensation of the diseases related to occupational exposure, to asbestos and to nuclear weapons tests. A suspicion of link is enough for the victim to initiate proceedings. The physician of each patient had to identify the exposure that could further the occurrence of their disease, to advise and to make the social allocations easier, and to certify the disease but not the link or exposure. PMID:24851366

Choudat, Dominique

2014-03-01

254

Occupational exposure and 12-year spirometric changes among Paris area workers.  

PubMed Central

A follow-up study over 12 years was conducted among 556 men aged 30 to 54 in 1960 and working at that time in factories around Paris (France). Various occupational exposures were recorded at the time of the 1960 survey after a technical study of each workplace. The annual rate of decline of FEV1 during 12 years was estimated for each subject from the measurements in 1960 and 1972. This rate (the FEV1 slope) was related independently of FEV1 level (which reflects the loss since the beginning of adult life) and of smoking habits to occupational exposure to dust, gases, and heat. FEV1 slope was significantly related to inhalation of mineral dust (even in the absence of silica) as well as to grain dust, and the slope was steeper with increased intensity of exposure to dust. Analysis of job changes showed that among heavily exposed subjects, those who changed jobs had a less steep slope than those who did not. Our results support the hypothesis of a causal role of exposure to dust in the development of chronic airflow obstruction and of a benefit when exposure to dust ceases. Exposure to dust, gas, and heat usually occurred together so data on gas and heat were analysed after taking account of exposure to dust. The influence of heat on FEV1 decline showed a clear trend. Results suggest that exposure to gases associated with exposure to dust or heat or both had a deleterious effect. After adjusting for age, smoking, and FEV1 level (ASLA) the following average slopes were obtained: 44 ml/a (for exposure to none or to only a slight amount of dust, or to gases alone), 51 ml/a (heat), 53 ml/a (noticeable dust), 55 ml/a (noticeable dust and heat), 60 ml/a (noticeable dust, heat, and high concentration of gases). Independently of the occupational exposures, ASLA FEV1 slopes among manual workers were related to skill, being 44 ml/a for skilled and 51 ml/a for unskilled men. Independently of social class and occupational exposures recorded, there were differences in FEV1 slopes by factory, suggesting that one should not rely on using one factory as the control of studies of occupational exposure to another. PMID:7093148

Kauffmann, F; Drouet, D; Lellouch, J; Brille, D

1982-01-01

255

Experimental PVC Material Challenge in Subjects with Occupational PVC Exposure  

PubMed Central

Background Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) materials have been linked to asthma in several epidemiologic studies, but the possible causal factors remain unknown. Participants We challenged 10 subjects experimentally to degraded PVC products under controlled conditions. All of the subjects had previously experienced respiratory symptoms suspected to be caused by this kind of exposure in their work place. Five subjects had doctor-diagnosed asthma. Methods The subjects were exposed to degraded PVC material in an exposure chamber; a challenge with ceramic tile was used as the control test. We followed exhaled nitric oxide, nasal NO, lung functions, cytokines [tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), interleukin-4 (IL-4), IL-6, and IL-12] and NO in nasal lavage fluid (NAL) during and after the exposures. We also measured 2-ethylhexanol in exhaled breath samples and NAL. Results On the morning after the PVC exposure, subjects reported respiratory tract symptoms significantly more often than they did after the control test (50% vs. 0%, respectively; p = 0.029; n = 10). We did not detect any changes in lung functions or levels of exhaled NO, nasal NO, or NO in NAL after PVC challenge compared with the control test. Cytokine levels increased after both exposures, with no statistically significant difference between situations. All of the exhaled breath samples collected during the PVC exposure contained 2-ethylhexanol. Conclusions PVC flooring challenge can evoke respiratory tract symptoms in exposed subjects. Our results do not support the hypothesis that PVC materials themselves evoke immediate asthmatic reactions. The chamber test used is well suited to this type of exposure study. PMID:16966097

Tuomainen, Anneli; Stark, Harri; Seuri, Markku; Hirvonen, Maija-Riitta; Linnainmaa, Markku; Sieppi, Anne; Tukiainen, Hannu

2006-01-01

256

Suicide and potential occupational exposure to pesticides, Colorado 1990-1999.  

PubMed

A number of occupational studies have reported high rates of suicide among selected occupations, including farmers. Limited work has focused on occupational exposures that may increase the risk of suicide. The purpose of this study is to describe suicide among individuals potentially exposed to pesticides through their occupation. Data from Colorado death certificate files for the period 1990-1999 were obtained. Eligible records were those individuals who were Colorado residents at the time of death who had an occupation listed on their death certificates. Cases had suicide listed as the primary cause of death on the death certificates. The comparison group included Colorado residents who died from any cause during the same period other than cancer, mental disorders and injuries. A total of 4,991 suicide deaths were included and a total of 107,692 other deaths served as the comparison group. Occupations considered pesticide exposed included: veterinarians; pest control occupations; farmers and farm workers; farm managers and supervisors; marine life cultivators; nursery workers; groundskeepers and gardeners; animal caretakers; graders, sorters and inspectors of agricultural products; and forestry workers, supervisors and loggers. All other occupational categories were coded as unexposed. Logistic regression was used to compare the groups, separately for males and females. After controlling for age, race, Hispanic ethnicity, years of education, and marital status, males who were in pesticide exposed occupations had higher odds of suicide (odds ratio 1.14; 95% confidence interval 0.97, 1.34) and females in pesticide exposed occupations also had higher odds of suicide (odds ratio 1.98; 95% confidence interval 1.01, 3.88). PMID:19274902

Stallones, Lorann

2006-01-01

257

Whole-Body Lifetime Occupational Lead Exposure and Risk of Parkinson’s Disease  

PubMed Central

Background Several epidemiologic studies have suggested an association between Parkinson’s disease (PD) and exposure to heavy metals using subjective exposure measurements. Objectives We investigated the association between objective chronic occupational lead exposure and the risk of PD. Methods We enrolled 121 PD patients and 414 age-, sex-, and race-, frequency-matched controls in a case–control study. As an indicator of chronic Pb exposure, we measured concentrations of tibial and calcaneal bone Pb stores using 109Cadmium excited K-series X-ray fluorescence. As an indicator of recent exposure, we measured blood Pb concentration. We collected occupational data on participants from 18 years of age until the age at enrollment, and an industrial hygienist determined the duration and intensity of environmental Pb exposure. We employed physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling to combine these data, and we estimated whole-body lifetime Pb exposures for each individual. Logistic regression analysis produced estimates of PD risk by quartile of lifetime Pb exposure. Results Risk of PD was elevated by > 2-fold [odds ratio = 2.27 (95% confidence interval, 1.13–4.55); p = 0.021] for individuals in the highest quartile for lifetime lead exposure relative to the lowest quartile, adjusting for age, sex, race, smoking history, and coffee and alcohol consumption. The associated risk of PD for the second and third quartiles were elevated but not statistically significant at the ? = 0.05 level. Conclusions These results provide an objective measure of chronic Pb exposure and confirm our earlier findings that occupational exposure to Pb is a risk factor for PD. PMID:17185278

Coon, Steven; Stark, Azadeh; Peterson, Edward; Gloi, Aime; Kortsha, Gene; Pounds, Joel; Chettle, David; Gorell, Jay

2006-01-01

258

Classification of occupational activities for assessment of inhalation exposure.  

PubMed

There is a large variety of activities in workplaces that can lead to emission of substances. Coding systems based on determinants of emission have so far not been developed. In this paper, a system of Activity Classes and Activity Subclasses is proposed for categorizing activities involving chemical use. Activity Classes share their so-called 'emission generation mechanisms' and physical state of the product handled and the underlying determinants of emission. A number of (industrial) stakeholders actively participated in testing and fine-tuning the system. With the help of these stakeholders, it was found to be relatively easy to allocate a large number of activities to the Activity Classes and Activity Subclasses. The system facilitates a more structured classification of activities in exposure databases, a structured analysis of the analogy of exposure activities, and a transparent quantification of the activity emission potential in (new) exposure assessment models. The first use of the system is in the Advanced REACH Tool. PMID:21926067

Marquart, Hans; Schneider, Thomas; Goede, Henk; Tischer, Martin; Schinkel, Jody; Warren, Nick; Fransman, Wouter; Spaan, Suzanne; Van Tongeren, Martie; Kromhout, Hans; Tielemans, Erik; Cherrie, John W

2011-11-01

259

Risk of hepatitis C seroconversion after occupational exposures in health care workers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: To determine the incidence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) seroconversion, health care workers reporting an occupational exposure with blood or other risk-prone body materials from a patient known to be seropositive for HCV antibody were enrolled.Methods: HCV seroconversion within 6 months of a reported exposure was assessed by second-generation enzyme immunoassay and immunoblot assay.Results: From January 1992 through December

Vincenzo Puro; Nicola Petrosillo; Giuseppe Ippolito

1995-01-01

260

Occupational exposure to sevoflurane and nitrous oxide in operating room personnel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Object: To quantify the exposure of operating room personnel to sevoflurane and nitrous oxide. Design: Prospective study at a university hospital. Methods: In 25 patients undergoing elective surgical procedures, anaesthesia was induced with thiopentone\\/etomidate, vecuronium and\\u000a fentanyl and maintained with fentanyl, sevoflurane in 35% oxygen and 65% nitrous oxide (N2O). Occupational exposure to sevoflurane and N2O was measured in the

Klaus H. Hoerauf; Christine Koller; Kai Taeger; Jonny Hobbhahn

1996-01-01

261

Metalworking Fluid Mist Occupational Exposure Limits: A Discussion of Alternative Methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

NIOSH published a recommended exposure limit (REL) for metalworking fluids (MWF) in 1998 that was designed to prevent respiratory disorders associated with these industrial lubricants. The REL of 0.4 mg\\/m (as a time-weighted average for up to 10 hours) was for the fraction of aerosol corresponding to deposition in the thoracic region of the lungs. This nonregulatory occupational exposure limit

Howard Cohen; Eugene M. White

2006-01-01

262

A Meta-Analysis of the Neuropsychological Effects of Occupational Exposure to Mercury  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports a meta-analysis of 36 peer-reviewed published studies of the neuropsychological effects of occupational exposure to mercury, which yielded 43 independent samples. These studies included 2,512 exposed participants and 1,846 controls, for a total sample size of 4,358. Because the independent variables defining mercury exposure varied across studies, effect sizes were calculated for exposed versus non-exposed workers. Dose–response

Martin L. Rohling; George J. Demakis

2006-01-01

263

Acute and chronic respiratory effects of occupational exposure to ammonia.  

PubMed

In a soda ash plant, 58 workers exposed to mean airborne ammonia levels of 9.2 +/- 1.4 ppm were compared with 31 control workers with a mean exposure of 0.3 +/- 0.1 ppm. There were no differences between the groups in the reporting of respiratory or cutaneous symptoms, sense of smell, baseline lung function, or change in lung function over a work shift at the beginning and end of a workweek. No relationships between level or length of ammonia exposure and lung function results were demonstrated. PMID:2596404

Holness, D L; Purdham, J T; Nethercott, J R

1989-12-01

264

Effects of occupational exposure to organic solvents upon cognitive performance  

SciTech Connect

Twenty-three individuals exposed to mixed organic solvents were compared with 23 nonexposed controls on a number of cognitive performance tasks. Solvent exposure resulted in a significantly poorer performance on the forward digit span test, copying of a complex figure, and on semantic memory tests which also measure individual's ability to integrate linguistic information into cohesive units. These tasks rely heavily upon short-term memory and its integrative operations in higher cognitive function. Acute exposure effect was also observed for the linguistic integrative task.

Milanovic, L.; Spilich, G.; Vucinic, G.; Knezevic, S.; Ribaric, B.; Mubrin, Z. (DZ Medvescak Marticeva, Zagreb (Yugoslavia))

1990-11-01

265

Formaldehyde concentrations in biology department teaching facilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

As students and faculty in the biological sciences can attest, low grade exposure to formaldehyde by skin contact and inhalation during dissection is quite irritating. Health effects noted upon exposure to formaldehyde at concentrations of 0.1 to 5 ppm are burning of the eyes, lacrimation, and general irritation to the upper respiratory passages. Symptoms reported for higher exposures, 10 to

John K. Korky; Steven R. Schwarz; Bonnie K. Lustigman

1987-01-01

266

Occupational exposure and health problems in small-scale industry workers in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania: a situation analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Workers in informal small-scale industries (SSI) in developing countries involved in welding, spray painting, woodwork and metalwork are exposed to various hazards with consequent risk to health. Aim To assess occupational exposure and health problems in SSI in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. METHODS: Focused group discussions (FGD) were conducted among SSI workers. Participants were assessed for exposure to occupational

L. M. B. Rongo; F. J. M. H. Barten; G. I. Msamanga; D. Heederik; W. M. V. Dolmans

2004-01-01

267

Characterization of occupational exposures to cleaning products used for common cleaning tasks-a pilot study of hospital cleaners  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: In recent years, cleaning has been identified as an occupational risk because of an increased incidence of reported respiratory effects, such as asthma and asthma-like symptoms among cleaning workers. Due to the lack of systematic occupational hygiene analyses and workplace exposure data, it is not clear which cleaning-related exposures induce or aggravate asthma and other respiratory effects. Currently, there

Anila Bello; Margaret M Quinn; Melissa J Perry; Donald K Milton

2009-01-01

268

Mineral fiber content of lung tissue in patients with environmental exposures: household contacts vs building occupants  

SciTech Connect

Analysis of tissue mineral fiber content in patients with environmental exposures has seldom been reported in the past. Our studies of six household contacts of asbestos workers indicate that these individuals often have pulmonary asbestos concentrations similar to some occupationally exposed individuals. In contrast, our studies of four occupants of buildings with asbestos-containing materials indicate that these individuals often have pulmonary asbestos burdens indistinguishable from the general nonoccupationally exposed population. However, one such building occupant exposed for many years and who later developed pleural mesothelioma was studied in detail, and it was concluded that her exposure as a teacher's aide in a school building containing acoustical plaster was the likely cause of her mesothelioma.

Roggli, V.L.; Longo, W.E. (Department of Pathology, Durham Veterans Administration, NC (United States))

1991-12-31

269

Evaluation of occupational noise exposure using a wireless microphone  

E-print Network

, yielding a reading of the p&&ceniage of' the allowable noise exposure. Again in thi model, the microphone is clipped to the worker's shirt collar just under the ear. General Radio (Concord, Massachusetts) produces a unit cal1ed the Type 19fl~l Boise...

Nash, Robert Bacot

2012-06-07

270

Occupational Exposure to Asbestos; Criteria for a Recommended Standard.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recommended standards for control of exposure to asbestos dust in the workplace are set out from the following standpoints: environmental, medical, labeling, personal protective equipment and clothing, apprisal of employees, work practices, and monitoring and recordkeeping requirements. The goal is maintenance of a low level of concentration to…

National Inst. for Occupational Safety and Health (DHEW/PHS), Rockville, MD.

271

PAPER PRODUCTION AND PROCESSING - OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE AND ENVIRONMENTAL RELEASE STUDY  

EPA Science Inventory

This report presents an analysis of chemicals and processes used during the production and processing of paper and paper goods with emphasis on the workplace exposure and environmental release of chemicals from these operations. Reviews of chemical substances in this report are i...

272

Occup Environ Med . Author manuscript Heavy manual work, exposure to vibration and Dupuytrens disease?'  

E-print Network

Surveillance ; Prevalence ; Questionnaires ; Risk Factors ; Vibration ; adverse effects ; Work Author KeywordsOccup Environ Med . Author manuscript Page /1 8 Heavy manual work, exposure to vibration, and especially to distinguish heavy manual work with and without significant use of vibrating tools by using data

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

273

A proposed methodology for setting occupational exposure limits for hydrocarbon solvents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Occupational exposure limit (OEL) development for hydrocarbon solvents is complicated because most of these solvents have complex compositions and only a few representative constituents have been studied in detail. A proposed solution to this problem is to group constituents with similar physical, chemical, and toxicological properties and to assign “guidance values” to each group. A unique OEL can then be

Richard H. Mckee; Arlean M. Medeiros; Wayne C. Daughtrey

2005-01-01

274

An Assessment of Potential Cancer Risk Following Occupational Exposure to Ethanol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recognition of the carcinogenic properties of ethanol has resulted from comprehensive evidence regarding the effect of consumption of alcohol; indeed, ethanol in alcoholic beverages is now considered a Group 1 carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. However, there is little information on the effects of ethanol following exposure via the occupationally relevant routes of inhalation and dermal

Ruth J. Bevan; Rebecca J. Slack; Philip Holmes; Leonard S. Levy

2009-01-01

275

Carcinogenicity and Other Health Effects of Acrylonitrile with Reference to Occupational Exposure Limit  

Microsoft Academic Search

The occupational exposure limit for acrylonitrile (AN) has been set by many organizations on the basis of its carcinogenicity. However, recent epidemiological studies do not afford evidence supporting the hypothesis that AN is carcinogenic to humans. Review of the 18 published cohort studies revealed that, although there is not adequate evidence in humans for carcinogenicity of AN, the possibility of

Haruhiko SAKURAI

2000-01-01

276

Scientific basis for uncertainty factors used to establish occupational exposure limits for pharmaceutical active ingredients  

Microsoft Academic Search

The traditional “safety factor”; method has been used for years to establish occupational exposure limits (OELs) for active ingredients used in drugs. In the past, a single safety factor was used to address all sources of uncertainty in the limit setting process. The traditional 100?fold safety factor commonly used to derive an acceptable daily intake value incorporates a default factor

Bruce D. Naumann; Patricia A. Weideman

1995-01-01

277

Approach to Setting Occupational Exposure Limits for Sensory Irritants in the Netherlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes how scientists in the Netherlands set occupational exposure limits (OELs) for sensory irritants. When they tackle this issue, a number of key questions need to be answered. For example, did the studies indeed measure sensory irritation and not cytotoxicity? When the irritant is an odorant, can interference of olfactory stimulation be excluded? In the case of subjective

V. J. Feron; J. H. E. Arts; J. Mojet

2001-01-01

278

The Importance of Human Data in the Establishment of Occupational Exposure Limits  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of animal vs. human data for the purposes of establishing human risk was examined for four pharmaceutical compounds: acetylsalicylic acid, cyclophosphamide, indomethacin and clofibric acid. Literature searches were conducted to identify preclinical and clinical data useful for the derivation of acceptable daily intakes (ADIs) from which a number of risk values including occupational exposure limits (OELs) could be

Edward V. Sargent; Bruce D. Naumann; David G. Dolan; Ellen C. Faria; Lisa Schulman

2002-01-01

279

Sinonasal cancer and occupational exposures: a pooled analysis of 12 case–control studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: In order to examine the associations between sinonasal cancer and occupational exposures other than wood dust and leather dust, the data from 12 case–control studies conducted in seven countries were pooled and reanalyzed. Methods: The pooled data set included 195 adenocarcinoma cases (169 men and 26 women), 432 squamous cell carcinomas (330 men and 102 women), and 3136 controls

Danièle Luce; Annette Leclerc; Denis Bégin; Paul A. Demers; Michel Gérin; Ewa Orlowski; Manolis Kogevinas; Stefano Belli; Isabelle Bugel; Ulrich Bolm-Audorff; Louise A. Brinton; Pietro Comba; Lennart Hardell; Richard B. Hayes; Corrado Magnani; Enzo Merler; Susan Preston-Martin; Thomas L. Vaughan; Wei Zheng; Paolo Boffetta

2002-01-01

280

Association of occupational pesticide exposure with accelerated longitudinal decline in lung function.  

PubMed

Cross-sectional studies have shown that occupational exposure to vapors, gases, dusts, and fumes (VGDF) and pesticides is associated with a lower level of lung function. These associations seem to be stronger in ever smokers. In the current study, we aimed to assess whether occupational exposure to VGDF and pesticides is associated with longitudinal decline in lung function. We used 12,772 observations from 2,527 participants in the Vlagtwedde-Vlaardingen Study, a general-population-based cohort study that followed subjects for 25 years, from 1965 to the last survey in 1989/1990. Job-specific exposure was estimated with the ALOHA+ job exposure matrix. Associations between exposures and annual changes in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) and FEV1 as a percentage of inspiratory vital capacity (FEV1%VC) were assessed with linear mixed-effect models including sex, age, and level of lung function at the first measurement and pack-years of smoking at the last measurement. We tested for interaction between smoking and occupational exposure and assessed associations separately for never smokers and ever smokers. Exposure to VGDF was not associated with accelerated lung function decline after adjustment for co-exposure to pesticides. Exposure to pesticides, both in the last-held job and as a cumulative measure, was associated with accelerated decline in FEV1 and FEV1%VC, especially among ever smokers, where we found an excess change in FEV1 of -6.9 mL/year (95% confidence interval: -10.2, -3.7) associated with high pesticide exposure. PMID:24780843

de Jong, Kim; Boezen, H Marike; Kromhout, Hans; Vermeulen, Roel; Postma, Dirkje S; Vonk, Judith M

2014-06-01

281

Monitoring of Occupational Exposure of Mild Steel Welders to Ozone and Nitrogen Oxides  

PubMed Central

Background Metal Inert Gas (MIG) welding and Tungsten Inert Gas (TIG) welding are widely used for mild steel segments in basic metal industries. Pulmonary problems such as asthma, pulmonary inflammation, hyper-responsiveness of airways and higher susceptibility to infections are reported as the result of occupational exposure of welders to ozone and nitrogen oxides. Potent oxidizing agents like ozone and nitrogen oxides are also reported to be a precursor for respiratory problems and cause lipid peroxidation of membranes. Materials and Methods A total of 43 nonsmoking MIG and TIG welders and 41 nonsmoking workers without appreciable exposure to any chemicals as the control population were chosen to participate in this study. Occupational exposure to ozone was monitored according to the validated methods. Malondialdehyde (MDA) of blood serum as a biomarker for lipid peroxidation was analyzed using Reverse Phase High Performance Liquid Chromatography. Data obtained from this study were analyzed using t-test, Pearson's correlation coefficient and multiple regression analysis. Results A total of 88.4% and 74.4% of welders had exposure to ozone and nitrogen dioxide higher than the permissible limit of occupational exposure, respectively. Generally, exposure of MIG welders to ozone was significantly higher than TIG welders (P = 0.006). However, exposure to nitrogen dioxide gas was comparable in both groups. Serum MDA of welders was significantly higher than that of the control group (P = 0.001). A significant correlation was detected between ozone exposure and level of serum malondialdehyde. Such correlation was not observed for nitrogen dioxide exposure. Conclusion Considering the high exposure of welders to ozone and nitrogen dioxide, and higher level of serum malondialdehyde in them compared to controls, risk management is recommended for this group of workers. PMID:25191389

Esmaeilzadeh, Morteza; Mehrabi, Yadollah; Salehpour, Sousan

2011-01-01

282

Occupational noise exposure and ischaemic heart disease mortality  

PubMed Central

Aims To investigate the hypothesis that long term exposure to excessive noise can increase the risk of ischaemic heart disease. Methods A case?control design, nested within a cohort of nuclear power workers employed at two sites in England over the period 1950–98, was used. Cases were men who died from ischaemic heart disease (ICD?9: 410–414) aged 75 or under; each was matched to a surviving control of the nearest age who joined the same site at the same time. Personal noise exposure was assessed retrospectively for each man by hygienists using (1) company work histories, (2) noise survey records from 1965–98, and (3) judgements about likely use of hearing protection devices. Men were classified into four groups according to their cumulative exposure to noise, with men whose exposure at the company never exceeded 85dB(A) for at least one year being considered “unexposed”. Risks were compared via odds ratios (ORs) using conditional logistic regression and adjusted for systolic and diastolic blood pressure, height, BMI, and smoking, as measured at recruitment to the company. Results Analysis was based on 1101 case?control pairs. There was little difference between the exposure groups at recruitment. There was no evidence of increased risk at site A: the ORs for ischaemic heart disease mortality among low, medium, and high exposure categories, compared to unexposed men, being 1.04, 1.00, and 0.77. The corresponding ORs (95% CIs) at site B were 1.15 (0.81–1.65) 1.45 (1.02–2.06), and 1.37 (0.96–1.96). When the comparison was confined to men with at least five years of employment, these dropped to 1.07 (0.64–1.77), 1.33 (0.88–2.01), and 1.21 (0.82–1.79) respectively. Conclusions The authors did not find statistically robust evidence of increased risk but the estimates at site B are consistent with those in a major cohort study. A strength of the present study is that the validity of noise estimation at site B has been demonstrated elsewhere. PMID:16912090

McNamee, R; Burgess, G; Dippnall, W M; Cherry, N

2006-01-01

283

Maternal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls and the secondary sex ratio: an occupational cohort study  

PubMed Central

Background Though commercial production of polychlorinated biphenyls was banned in the United States in 1977, exposure continues due to their environmental persistence. Several studies have examined the association between environmental polychlorinated biphenyl exposure and modulations of the secondary sex ratio, with conflicting results. Objective Our objective was to evaluate the association between maternal preconceptional occupational polychlorinated biphenyl exposure and the secondary sex ratio. Methods We examined primipara singleton births of 2595 women, who worked in three capacitor plants at least one year during the period polychlorinated biphenyls were used. Cumulative estimated maternal occupational polychlorinated biphenyl exposure at the time of the infant's conception was calculated from plant-specific job-exposure matrices. A logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the association between maternal polychlorinated biphenyl exposure and male sex at birth (yes/no). Results Maternal body mass index at age 20, smoking status, and race did not vary between those occupationally exposed and those unexposed before the child's conception. Polychlorinated biphenyl-exposed mothers were, however, more likely to have used oral contraceptives and to have been older at the birth of their first child than non-occupationally exposed women. Among 1506 infants liveborn to polychlorinated biphenyl-exposed primiparous women, 49.8% were male; compared to 49.9% among those not exposed (n = 1089). Multivariate analyses controlling for mother's age and year of birth found no significant association between the odds of a male birth and mother's cumulative estimated polychlorinated biphenyl exposure to time of conception. Conclusions Based on these data, we find no evidence of altered sex ratio among children born to primiparous polychlorinated biphenyl-exposed female workers. PMID:21418576

2011-01-01

284

Occupational and environmental exposures and lung cancer in an industrialised area in Italy  

PubMed Central

Aims: To investigate the effects of occupational exposures and residence near to industrial sites on lung cancer mortality in an area in Italy. Methods: 234 cases of lung cancer and 729 controls matched by sex, age, and date of death were enrolled. Environmental exposure was evaluated using historical residence data. A geographical information system was used to compute distances from residence to pollution source (cement factory, power plants, harbour) and an average distance was computed for each subject. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) in a logistic regression model were used to estimate the relative risk of lung cancer associated with the risk factors (smoking habits and occupational exposure) collected by questionnaire; ORs for distances from pollution sources and from city centre were computed, adjusting for smoking habits, education, and occupation. Results: Smoking habits (?10 cigarettes/day, OR = 2.28; 11–20, OR = 4.64; >20, OR = 6.61) and occupational exposure to asbestos (OR = 3.50) were significantly associated with lung cancer risk. Reported traffic level of area of residence and residence near the four sources were not associated with increased risk of lung cancer. There was a significantly increased risk for those residing outside the city centre, in the southern outskirts (OR = 1.51). Conclusions: The increased lung cancer risk observed in the area can partly be explained by occupational exposures. The increased risk in the outskirts of the city is consistent with the results of dispersion models that indicate high levels of pollutant deposition in the same area. PMID:15317916

Fano, V; Michelozzi, P; Ancona, C; Capon, A; Forastiere, F; Perucci, C

2004-01-01

285

Occupational noise exposure of nightclub bar employees in Ireland.  

PubMed

Due to the transposition of the EU Directive 2003/10/EC into Irish Law, the entertainment sector was obligated to comply with the requirements of the Safety, Health and Welfare at Work (General Application) Regulations 2007, Chapter 1 Part 5: Control of Noise at Work since February 2008. Compliance with the Noise Regulations was examined in 9 nightclubs in Ireland. The typical daily noise exposure of 19 bar employees was measured using 2 logging dosimeters and a Type 1 fixed position sound level meter. Physical site inspections identified nightclub noise control measures. Interviews and questionnaires were used to assess the managers and employees awareness of the noise legislation. The average bar employee daily noise exposure (L(EX, 8h)) was 92 dBA, almost 4 times more than the accepted legal limit. None of the venues examined were fully compliant with the requirements of the 2007 Noise Regulations, and awareness of this legislation was limited. PMID:22918144

Kelly, Aoife C; Boyd, Sara M; Henehan, Gary T M; Chambers, Gordon

2012-01-01

286

A job-exposure matrix for potential endocrine-disrupting chemicals developed for a study into the association between maternal occupational exposure and hypospadias.  

PubMed

A study to assess the association between the prevalence of hypospadias and maternal occupational exposure to potential endocrine-disrupting chemicals was carried out using data from the congenital anomaly register of the Office for National Statistics. The occupation of the mother is recorded in this register and to facilitate the assessment of maternal occupational exposure, a specific job-exposure matrix for potential endocrine-disrupting chemicals was developed. Seven categories of contaminants were evaluated (pesticides, polychlorinated organic compounds, phthalates, alkylphenolic compounds, bi-phenolic compounds, heavy metals and other substances). Maternal occupations were all coded using the 1980 version of Categories of Occupations. Three occupational hygienists assessed the likelihood of exposure (unlikely, possible, probable) to these seven substance groups for all 348 possible job titles independently. Almost 30% of the job titles were classified as exposed to at least one substance category (possible or probable), with approximately 16% of the job titles being probably exposed to at least one substance category. Some examples of occupations with probable exposure to potential endocrine-disrupting chemicals include: farm workers, electricians, workers in the plastics industry, painters, printers, hairdressers, dental practitioners, laboratory workers, textile workers and cleaners. It is recognized that there are a lot of limitations to the use of job-exposure matrices in general and with the matrix presented in this paper in particular. However, the matrix forms the basis on which further developments on occupational exposure assessment of potential endocrine-disrupting chemicals could be founded. In addition, the job-exposure matrix has identified areas where more exposure information is required. For example, exposure to potential endocrine-disrupting chemicals can occur in occupations such as hairdressing and workers in beauty salons, where the working population is more likely to be female and for which little data exist on levels of exposure. PMID:12176761

Van Tongeren, Martie; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J; Gardiner, Kerry; Armstrong, Ben; Vrijheid, Martine; Dolk, Helen; Botting, Beverly

2002-07-01

287

Occupational exposure to whole body vibration-train drivers.  

PubMed

Whole body vibration exposure of the train drivers working for State Railway Lines is assessed by referring to ISO standard 2631 -1 and EU directive 2002/44/EC. The vibration measurements were done in the cabins of suburban and intercity train drivers. Suburban train driver performs his job usually in standing posture. Whereas intercity train driver works generally in seated (bending forward) posture and exposed to longer periods of continuous vibration, compared to suburban train drivers. The mean accelerations, a, along lateral, y, and vertical, z, directions measured on the driver seat (on the cabin floor) of the intercity (suburban) train were 1.4a (y) = 0.55 (0.28) m/s(2) and a (z) = 0.65 (0.23) m/s(2). Daily exposure action values suggested in EU directive are exceeded in case of intercity train drivers and their exposure falls within the health caution zone of ISO 2631-1. Intercity train drivers are therefore under the risk of having spinal disorders. A health surveillance plan requiring every five years the reassessment of the state of the spinal system of train drivers is suggested. As an early preventive measure, extended work day or more than one shift in a day is advised to be discouraged. PMID:19218752

Birlik, Gülin

2009-01-01

288

Occupational Exposure to Organic Solvents during Bridge Painting  

PubMed Central

Exposure to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from bridge painting was measured in New York City and New Jersey during the summer and fall seasons from 2005 to 2007. The effect of painting activities (paint coating layer, confinement setup, and application method) and meteorological conditions (temperature, humidity, and wind speed) on solvent exposure to aromatic, ketone, ester, and alkane compounds were individually evaluated. Mixed-effect models were used to examine the combination effects of these factors on the air concentration of total VOCs as the individual compound groups were not present in all samples. Air concentration associated with spraying was not affected by meteorological conditions since spraying was done in a confined space, thus reducing their impact on solvent air concentration. The mixed models for brushing and rolling samples included two fixed factors, i.e. application method and temperature, and one random factor, i.e. sampling day. An independent dataset (daily air samples) was used to validate the mixed model constructed for brushing and rolling samples. The regression line of the predicted values and actual measurements had a slope of 1.32?±?0.15 for daily brushing and rolling samples, with almost all points being within the 95% confidence bands. The constructed model provides practical approaches for estimating the solvent exposure from brushing and rolling activities among construction painters. An adjusted mean air concentration derived from the activity-specific spray samples was the best estimate for that painting application. PMID:20354053

Qian, Hua; Fiedler, Nancy; Moore, Dirk F.; Weisel, Clifford P.

2010-01-01

289

[Health effects of occupational exposure among shoe workers. A review].  

PubMed

World-wide epidemiological studies provide evidence that the employment in the shoe production and repair plants is associated with an enhanced risk for cancer (primarily nose and nasal sinuses). According to the majority of authors, it is induced by exposure to leather dust. It is also known that, leather dust particles contain numerous chemicals acquired during the process of leather tanning and finishing (chromium salts, vegetable dye extracts, mineral oils). Some of these compounds exert carcinogenic effect. This paper provides a review of the results of epidemiological studies on health effects of exposure to harmful factors present mainly at the footwear production and repair. These results reveal an enhanced risk for cancer of nose or nasal sinuses induced by leather dust, as well as neoplasms of hematopoietic and lymphatic systems, resulting from exposure to solvents (mostly benzene). Among non-neoplasms, diseases of the musculoskeletal system associated with ergonomic factors, contact dermatics, chronic pulmonary diseases and damage of peripheral nerves in solvent-exposed workers are diagnosed. PMID:12731407

Szadkowska-Sta?czyk, Irena; Wo?niak, Helena; Stroszejn-Mrowca, Grazyna

2003-01-01

290

Performance of self-reported occupational exposure compared to a job exposure matrix approach in asthma and chronic rhinitis  

PubMed Central

Objectives Self-reported exposure to vapors, gas, dust, or fumes (VGDF) has been widely used as an occupational exposure metric in epidemiologic studies of chronic lung diseases. Our objective was to characterize the performance of VGDF for repeatability, systematic misclassification, and sensitivity and specificity against exposure likelihood by a job exposure matrix (JEM). Methods We analyzed data from two interviews, 24 months apart, among adults with asthma and chronic rhinitis. Using distinct job as the unit of analysis, we tested a single response item (exposure to VGDF) against assignment using a job exposure matrix (JEM). We further analyzed VGDF and JEM among a subset of 199 subjects who reported the same job at both interviews, using logistic regression analysis to test factors associated with VGDF inconsistency and discordance with JEM. Results For 436 distinct jobs held by 348 subjects studied, VGDF was reported for 193 (44%); moderate to high exposure likelihood by JEM was assigned to 120 (28%). The sensitivity and specificity of VGDF against JEM was 71% and 66%, respectively. Among 199 subjects with the same job at both interviews, 32% had discordant VGDF status (kappa= 0.35). Those with chronic rhinitis without concomitant asthma compared to asthma alone were more likely to have a VGDF report that was discordant with the JEM (OR 3.6 [95% CI 1.4–9.0]; p=0.01). Rhinitis was also associated with reported VGDF in a job classified by JEM as low exposure (OR 3.9 [95% CI 1.6–9.4]; p=0.003). Conclusion The VGDF item is moderately sensitive measured against JEM as a benchmark. The measure is a useful assessment method for epidemiological studies of occupational exposure risk. PMID:18805880

Quinlan, Patricia J.; Earnest, Gillian; Eisner, Mark D.; Yelin, Edward H.; Katz, Patricia P.; Balmes, John R.; Blanc, Paul D.

2009-01-01

291

Sinonasal Cancer and Occupational Exposure in a Population-Based Registry  

PubMed Central

We examined occupational exposures among subjects with sinonasal cancer (SNC) recorded in a population-based registry in the Lombardy Region, the most populated and industrialized Italian region. The registry collects complete clinical information and exposure to carcinogens regarding all SNC cases occurring in the population of the region. In the period 2008–2011, we recorded 210 SNC cases (137 men, 73 women). The most frequent occupational exposures were to wood (44 cases, 21.0%) and leather dust (29 cases, 13.8%), especially among men: 39 cases (28.5%) to wood and 23 cases (16.8%) to leather dust. Exposure to other agents was infrequent (<2%). Among 62 subjects with adenocarcinoma, 50% had been exposed to wood dust and 30.7% to leather dust. The proportions were around 10% in subjects with squamous cell carcinoma and about 20% for tumors with another histology. The age-standardized rates (×100,000 person-years) were 0.7 in men and 0.3 in women. Complete collection of cases and their occupational history through a specialized cancer registry is fundamental to accurately monitor SNC occurrence in a population and to uncover exposure to carcinogens in different industrial sectors, even those not considered as posing a high risk of SNC, and also in extraoccupational settings. PMID:24082884

Mensi, Carolina; Sieno, Claudia; Riboldi, Luciano; Bertazzi, Pier Alberto

2013-01-01

292

Wet-work Exposure: A Main Risk Factor for Occupational Hand Dermatitis.  

PubMed

Wet-work can be defined as activities where workers have to immerse their hands in liquids for >2 hours per shift, or wear waterproof (occlusive) gloves for a corresponding amount of time, or wash their hands >20 times per shift. This review considers the recent literature on wet-work exposure, and examines wet-work as a main risk factor for developing irritant contact dermatitis of the hands. The aim of this paper is to provide a detailed description of wet-work exposure among specific occupational groups who extensively deal with water and other liquids in their occupations. Furthermore, it highlights the extent and importance of the subsequent adverse health effects caused by exposure to wet-work. PMID:25516808

Behroozy, Ali; Keegel, Tessa G

2014-12-01

293

Occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields and the occurrence of brain tumors. An analysis of possible associations  

SciTech Connect

To explore the association between occupation and the occurrence of brain tumor, an epidemiologic study was conducted using data from the death certificates of 951 adult white male Maryland residents who died of brain tumor during the period 1969 through 1982. Compared with the controls, men employed in electricity-related occupations, such as electrician, electric or electronic engineer, and utility company serviceman, were found to experience a significantly higher proportion of primary brain tumors. An increase in the odds ratio for brain tumor was found to be positively related to electromagnetic (EM) field exposure levels. Furthermore, the mean age at death was found to be significantly younger among cases in the presumed high EM-exposure group. These findings suggest that EM exposure may be associated with the pathogenesis of brain tumors, particularly in the promoting stage.

Lin, R.S.; Dischinger, P.C.; Conde, J.; Farrell, K.P.

1985-06-01

294

The association between occupational exposures and cigarette smoking among operating engineers  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between occupational exposures and cigarette smoking among operating engineers. A cross-sectional survey was conducted with operating engineers (N=412) from a mid-western state in the United States. The survey included validated questions on cigarette smoking, occupational exposures, demographics, comorbidities, and health behaviors. About 35% were current smokers. Those exposed to asphalt fumes, heat stress, concrete dust, and welding fumes were less likely to smoke (OR=.79; 95CI: .64–.98). Other factors associated with smoking included younger age (OR=.97; 95CI:.94–.99), problem drinking (OR=1.07; 95CI:1.03–1.12), lower Body Mass Index (OR=.95; 95CI:.90–.99), and being separated/ widowed/ divorced (OR=2.24; 95CI:1.19–4.20). Further investigation is needed for better understanding about job specific exposure patterns and their impact on cigarette smoking among operating engineers. PMID:24325748

Hong, OiSaeng; Duffy, Sonia A.; Choi, Seung Hee; Chin, Dal Lae

2013-01-01

295

A comparison of Bayesian hierarchical modeling with group-based exposure assessment in occupational epidemiology.  

PubMed

We build a Bayesian hierarchical model for relating disease to a potentially harmful exposure, by using data from studies in occupational epidemiology, and compare our method with the traditional group-based exposure assessment method through simulation studies, a real data application, and theoretical calculation. We focus on cohort studies where a logistic disease model is appropriate and where group means can be treated as fixed effects. The results show a variety of advantages of the fully Bayesian approach and provide recommendations on situations where the traditional group-based exposure assessment method may not be suitable to use. PMID:23553785

Xing, Li; Burstyn, Igor; Richardson, David B; Gustafson, Paul

2013-09-20

296

The Relationship between Multiple Myeloma and Occupational Exposure to Six Chlorinated Solvents  

PubMed Central

Objectives Few studies have examined whether exposure to chlorinated solvents is associated with increased risk of multiple myeloma (MM). Using occupational exposure information, we evaluated associations between the risk of MM and exposure to six chlorinated solvents: 1,1,1-trichloroethane (TCA), trichloroethylene (TCE), methylene chloride (DCM), perchloroethylene (PCE), carbon tetrachloride, and chloroform. Methods MM cases were identified through cancer registries and controls were identified in the general population. In-person interviews obtained lifetime occupational histories and additional information on jobs with likely solvent exposure. We reviewed each job and assigned exposure metrics of probability, frequency, intensity, and confidence using job-exposure matrices modified by job-specific questionnaire information. We used logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for associations between MM and having ever been exposed to each, and any, chlorinated solvent and also analyzed whether associations varied by duration and cumulative exposure. We also considered all occupations that were given the lowest confidence scores as unexposed and repeated all analyses. Results Risk of MM was significantly elevated for subjects ever exposed to TCA (OR (95% CI): 1.8 (1.1–2.9)). Ever-exposure to TCE or DCM also entailed elevated, but not statistically significant, risks of MM; these became statistically significant when occupations that had low confidence scores were considered unexposed (TCE: 1.7 (1.0–2.7); DCM: 2.0 (1.2–3.2)). Increasing duration and cumulative exposure to TCE were associated with significantly increasing risk of MM when jobs given low confidence were considered unexposed. Increasing cumulative exposure to PCE was also associated with increasing MM risk. We observed non-significantly increased MM risks with exposure to chloroform; however, few subjects were exposed. Conclusions Evidence from this relatively large case-control study suggests that exposures to certain chlorinated solvents may be associated with increased incidence of MM; however, the study is limited by relatively low participation (52%) among controls. PMID:20833760

Gold, Laura S; Stewart, Patricia A; Milliken, Kevin; Purdue, Mark; Severson, Richard; Seixas, Noah; Blair, Aaron; Hartge, Patricia; Davis, Scott; De Roos, Anneclaire J

2011-01-01

297

Developing a Semi-Quantitative Occupational Risk Prediction Model for Chemical Exposures and Its Application to a National Chemical Exposure Databank  

PubMed Central

In this study, a semi-quantitative occupational chemical exposure risk prediction model, based on the calculation of exposure hazard indexes, was proposed, corrected, and applied to a national chemical exposure databank. The model comprises one factor used to describe toxicity (i.e., the toxicity index), and two factors used to reflect the exposure potential (i.e., the exposure index and protection deficiency index) of workers exposed to chemicals. An expert system was used to correct the above proposed model. By applying the corrected model to data obtained from a national occupational chemical hazard survey program, chemical exposure risks of various manufacturing industries were determined and a national control strategy for the abatement of occupational chemical exposures was proposed. The results of the present study would provide useful information for governmental agencies to allocate their limited resources effectively for reducing chemical exposures of workers. PMID:23892550

Wang, Shih-Min; Wu, Trong-Neng; Juang, Yow-Jer; Dai, Yu-Tung; Tsai, Perng-Jy; Chen, Chiu-Ying

2013-01-01

298

Preclinical neurophysiological signs of parkinsonism in occupational manganese exposure.  

PubMed

To study the effects from low level exposure to manganese, 30 men at steel smelting works and 60 nonexposed reference subjects, were neurophysiologically examined using: (i) Electroencephalogram (EEG), Event related auditory evoked potential (AEP/P300), Brain stem auditory evoked potential (BAEP) and diadochokinesometry. No group differences concerning EEG or BAEP were found. Diadochokinesis was slower and there was a tendency towards prolonged P300 latency in the exposed group as compared to the referents. These effects may be interpreted as early (subclinical) signs of disturbances of the same type as parkinsonism. PMID:1508430

Wennberg, A; Hagman, M; Johansson, L

1992-01-01

299

Surveillance of nasal and bladder cancer to locate sources of exposure to occupational carcinogens.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To locate sources of occupational exposure to nasal and bladder carcinogens for surveillance follow up in British Columbia, Canada. METHODS: Incident cases of nasal cancer (n = 48), bladder cancer (n = 105), and population based controls (n = 159) matched for sex and age, were interviewed about their jobs, exposures, and smoking histories. Odds ratios (ORs) were calculated for 57 occupational groups with stratified exact methods to control for age, sex, and smoking. RESULTS: Occupational groups at increased risk of nasal cancer included: textile workers (six cases, OR 7.6); miners, drillers, and blasters (six cases, OR 3.5); welders (two cases, OR 3.5); pulp and paper workers (three cases, OR 3.1); and plumbers and pipefitters (two cases, OR 3.0). Nasal cancer ORs were not increased in occupations exposed to wood dust, possibly due to low exposures in local wood industries. Strongly increased risks of bladder cancer were found for sheet metal workers (four cases, OR 5.3), miners (19 cases, OR 4.5), gardeners (six cases, OR 3.7), and hairdressers (three cases, OR 3.2). Among occupations originally considered at risk, the following had increased risks of bladder cancer: painters (four cases, OR 2.8); laundry workers (five cases, OR 2.3); chemical and petroleum workers (15 cases, OR 1.8); machinists (eight cases, OR 1.6); and textile workers (three cases, OR 1.5). CONCLUSIONS: Occupational groups with increased risks and three or more cases with similar duties were selected for surveillance follow up. For nasal cancer, these included textile workers (five were garment makers) and pulp and paper workers (three performed maintenance tasks likely to entail stainless steel welding). For bladder cancer, these included miners (12 worked underground), machinists (five worked in traditional machining), hairdressers (three had applied hair dyes), and laundry workers (three were drycleaners). PMID:9245952

Teschke, K; Morgan, M S; Checkoway, H; Franklin, G; Spinelli, J J; van Belle, G; Weiss, N S

1997-01-01

300

Occupational Exposure to Chrome VI Compounds in French Companies: Results of a National Campaign to Measure Exposure (2010-2013).  

PubMed

A campaign to measure exposure to hexavalent chromium compounds was carried out in France by the seven CARSAT chemistry laboratories, CRAMIF laboratory, and INRS over the 2010-2013 period. The survey included 99 companies involved in various activity sectors. The inhalable fraction of airborne particles was sampled, and exposure levels were determined using ion chromatography analysis combined with post-column derivatization and UV detection. The quality of the measurement results was guaranteed by an inter-laboratory comparison system involving all the laboratories participating in this study. Exposure levels frequently exceeded the French occupational exposure limit value (OELV) of 1 µg m(-3), in activities such as thermal metallization and manufacturing and application of paint in the aeronautics sector. The results also reveal a general trend for a greater proportion of soluble Chromium VI (Cr VI) compounds compared with insoluble compounds. Qualitative and quantitative information relating to the presence of other metallic compounds in the air of workplaces is also provided, for example for Cr III, Ni, Fe, etc. The sampling strategy used and the measurement method are easy to implement, making it possible to check occupational exposure with a view to comparing it to an 8 h-OELV of 1 µg m(-3). PMID:25381441

Vincent, Raymond; Gillet, Martine; Goutet, Pierre; Guichard, Christine; Hédouin-Langlet, Catherine; Frocaut, Anne Marie; Lambert, Pierre; Leray, Fabrice; Mardelle, Patricia; Dorotte, Michel; Rousset, Davy

2014-11-01

301

Concordance of occupational and environmental exposure information elicited from patients with Alzheimer's disease and surrogate respondents  

SciTech Connect

Identification of risk factors for Alzheimer's disease through the use of well designed case-control studies has been described as a research priority. Increasing recognition of the neurotoxic potential of many industrial chemicals such as organic solvents raises the question of the occupational and environmental contribution to the etiology of this high-priority health problem. The intention of this study was to develop and evaluate a methodology that could be used in a large scale case-control study of the occupational and environmental risk factors for dementia or a population-based surveillance system for neurotoxic disorders. The specific objectives of this study were to investigate: (1) the reliability of exposure-eliciting, interviewer-administered questionnaires given to patients with Alzheimer's disease (SDAT); (2) the reliability of exposure-eliciting interviewer-administered questionnaires given to the family of patients with SDAT and the agreement with the responses of the patient or surrogate respondents; (3) the reliability and agreement of responses of age- and sex-matched control patients and their families selected from geriatric care institutions and the community, with respect to the same exposure-eliciting and interviewer-administered questionnaire; and (4) the reliability of agent-based exposure ascertainment by a single, trained rater. The results of the study demonstrate that occupational and environmental histories from which exposure information can be derived is most reliably elicited from job descriptions of cases and control subjects rather than job titles alone or detailed probes for potential neurotoxic exposures. This will necessitate the use of standardized interviewer-administered instruments to derive this information in case-control studies of Alzheimer's disease or population-based surveillance systems for occupational and environmental neurotoxicity.

Chong, J.P.; Turpie, I.; Haines, T.; Muir, G.; Farnworth, H.; Cruttenden, K.; Julian, J.; Verma, D.; Hillers, T.

1989-01-01

302

Widia tool grinding: the importance of primary prevention measures in reducing occupational exposure to cobalt.  

PubMed

An occupational health and industrial hygiene survey was carried out in Widia tool grinding industries in the area covered by Local Health Unit No. 60--Vimercate (Northern Italy). The principal objectives of the study were to assess occupational cobalt exposure, identify the measures required to improve the 'risk' situations, and implement specific health protocols. The results identified a variable level of occupational hazard in the tool grinding sector. An important factor in the containment of occupational exposure was, along with correct practical procedures, the existence of adequate primary prevention measures (aspiration systems over the machines). In the plants where good industrial hygiene conditions prevailed, environmental cobalt concentrations were below the TLV, whereas the levels recorded in plants with inadequate equipment were as much as 10 times the TLV. Similarly, urinary cobalt for the workers in these same plants was as much as 13 times higher than the reference population value. However, this was recorded in plants with good industrial hygiene conditions. After technical improvements, the results of biological monitoring showed an overall reduction in exposure indicator values. PMID:7939604

Cereda, C; Redaelli, M L; Canesi, M; Carniti, A; Bianchi, S

1994-06-30

303

Severe Cognitive Dysfunction and Occupational Extremely Low Frequency Magnetic Field Exposure among Elderly Mexican Americans  

PubMed Central

Aims This report is the first study of the possible relationship between extremely low frequency (50–60 Hz, ELF) magnetic field (MF) exposure and severe cognitive dysfunction. Earlier studies investigated the relationships between MF occupational exposure and Alzheimer’s disease (AD) or dementia. These studies had mixed results, depending upon whether the diagnosis of AD or dementia was performed by experts and upon the methodology used to classify MF exposure. Study Design Population-based case-control. Place and Duration of Study Neurology and Preventive Medicine, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, 2 years. Methodology The study population consisted of 3050 Mexican Americans, aged 65+, enrolled in Phase 1 of the Hispanic Established Population for the Epidemiologic Study of the Elderly (H-EPESE) study. Mini-Mental State Exam (MMSE) results, primary occupational history, and other data were collected. Severe cognitive dysfunction was defined as an MMSE score below 10. The MF exposure methodology developed and used in earlier studies was used. Results Univariate odds ratios (OR) were 3.4 (P< .03; 95% CI: 1.3–8.9) for high and 1.7 (P=.27; 95% CI: 0.7–4.1) for medium or high (M/H) MF occupations. In multivariate main effects models, the results were similar. When interaction terms were allowed in the models, the interactions between M/H or high occupational MF exposure and smoking history or age group were statistically significant, depending upon whether two (65–74, 75+) or three (65–74, 75–84, 85+) age groups were considered, respectively. When the analyses were limited to subjects aged 75+, the interactions between M/H or high MF occupations and a positive smoking history were statistically significant. Conclusion The results of this study indicate that working in an occupation with high or M/H MF exposure may increase the risk of severe cognitive dysfunction. Smoking and older age may increase the deleterious effect of MF exposure. PMID:24839595

Davanipour, Zoreh; Tseng, Chiu-Chen; Lee, Pey-Jiuan; Markides, Kyriakos S.; Sobel, Eugene

2014-01-01

304

Non-occupational lead exposure and hypertension in Pakistani adults.  

PubMed

Hypertension is one of the most prevalent diseases in the developed and developing countries. Based on the long historical association and the provocative findings of blood pressure effects at low level of lead exposure a study was carried out to determine if an association existed between low blood lead concentration and hypertension. In this study the effects of low-level exposure to lead on blood pressure were examined among 244 adults using atomic absorption spectrometer. For quality assurance purpose certified reference materials i.e., Animal blood A-13, Bovine liver 1577 and cotton cellulose V-9 from IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency) and NIST (National Institute of Standard Technology) were analyzed under identical experimental conditions. The mean age of hypertensive adults was 52 years (range 43 - 66). The mean values of systolic and diastolic blood pressure were (209+/-11.7) (range 170 - 250) and (117+/-3.9) (range 105 - 140) mmHg respectively. Blood lead concentration ranged from 78 - 201 microg/L with a mean of 139 microg/L and 165 - 497 microg/L with a mean of 255 microg/L in normal and hypertensive adults respectively. Increase in systolic blood pressure was significantly predictive with increase in blood lead levels. Body mass index (BMI) and lipid profile including total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride correlated with blood pressure. PMID:16909475

Rahman, Sohaila; Khalid, Nasir; Zaidi, Jamshed Hussain; Ahmad, Shujaat; Iqbal, Mohammad Zafar

2006-09-01

305

Occupational exposure to talc containing asbestos. Morbidity, mortality, and environmental studies of miners and millers  

SciTech Connect

The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) conducted studies of mortality and morbidity patterns and occupational exposures among talc miners and millers in upper New York. The mortality study was based on 398 white male workers who began employment between January 1, 1947 and December 31, 1959 and whose vital status was determined as of June 30, 1975. Observed cause specific mortality for the cohort as compared with that expected based on U.S. white male mortality rates indicated a significant increase in mortality due to bronchogenic cancer, nonmalignant respiratory disease (excluding influenza and pneumonia) and respiratory tuberculosis. The average latency period for bronchogenic cancer was 20 years.

Dement, J.M.; Zumwalde, R.D.; Gamble, J.F.; Fellner, W.; DeMeo, M.J.

1980-02-01

306

Multicentric study on malignant pleural mesothelioma and non-occupational exposure to asbestos.  

PubMed

Insufficient evidence exists on the risk of pleural mesothelioma from non-occupational exposure to asbestos. A population-based case-control study was carried out in six areas from Italy, Spain and Switzerland. Information was collected for 215 new histologically confirmed cases and 448 controls. A panel of industrial hygienists assessed asbestos exposure separately for occupational, domestic and environmental sources. Classification of domestic and environmental exposure was based on a complete residential history, presence and use of asbestos at home, asbestos industrial activities in the surrounding area, and their distance from the dwelling. In 53 cases and 232 controls without evidence of occupational exposure to asbestos, moderate or high probability of domestic exposure was associated with an increased risk adjusted by age and sex: odds ratio (OR) 4.81, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.8-13.1. This corresponds to three situations: cleaning asbestos-contaminated clothes, handling asbestos material and presence of asbestos material susceptible to damage. The estimated OR for high probability of environmental exposure (living within 2000 m of asbestos mines, asbestos cement plants, asbestos textiles, shipyards, or brakes factories) was 11.5 (95% CI 3.5-38.2). Living between 2000 and 5000 m from asbestos industries or within 500 m of industries using asbestos could also be associated with an increased risk. A dose-response pattern appeared with intensity of both sources of exposure. It is suggested that low-dose exposure to asbestos at home or in the general environment carries a measurable risk of malignant pleural mesothelioma. PMID:10883677

Magnani, C; Agudo, A; González, C A; Andrion, A; Calleja, A; Chellini, E; Dalmasso, P; Escolar, A; Hernandez, S; Ivaldi, C; Mirabelli, D; Ramirez, J; Turuguet, D; Usel, M; Terracini, B

2000-07-01

307

A meta-analysis of the neuropsychological effects of occupational exposure to mercury.  

PubMed

This paper reports a meta-analysis of 36 peer-reviewed published studies of the neuropsychological effects of occupational exposure to mercury, which yielded 43 independent samples. These studies included 2,512 exposed participants and 1,846 controls, for a total sample size of 4,358. Because the independent variables defining mercury exposure varied across studies, effect sizes were calculated for exposed versus non-exposed workers. Dose-response relations were considered for measures of mercury levels in urine (81% of studies reported), blood (42% of studies reported), and air samples (33% of studies reported). Level of exposure was also estimated by reported years of exposure (M = 11.3, SD = 5.6). Cohen's d statistic yielded a statistically significant weighted study-mean effect size of -.23, p < .0001 for occupational mercury exposure. However, an effect this small is typically undetectable when evaluating individuals because it is smaller than the typical 95% confidence interval used for most neuropsychological measures. None of the exposure variables analyzed reached statistical significance. The magnitude of self-reported symptoms (-.30) was slightly larger than that obtained from objective test scores (-.22), though the difference was not statistically significant. Also, the weighted mean effect size for psychomotor skills (-.34) was the largest in magnitude, whereas the weighted mean effect size for verbal comprehension measures had the smallest (-.06). However, an analysis of the differential effects of mercury exposure across cognitive domains found significant differences between verbal comprehension measures and all other domains. None of the other domains were significantly different from one another. The weighted study-mean effect size suggests that the prevalence of neuropsychological deficits due to occupational exposure to mercury is small and difficult to detect on an individual case-by-case basis. PMID:16393923

Rohling, Martin L; Demakis, George J

2006-02-01

308

Comprehensive evaluation of long-term trends in occupational exposure: Part 1. Description of the database  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: To conduct a comprehensive evaluation of long term changes in occupational exposure among a broad cross section of industries worldwide. METHODS: A review of the scientific literature identified studies that reported historical changes in exposure. About 700 sets of data from 119 published and several unpublished sources were compiled. Data were published over a 30 year period in 25 journals that spanned a range of disciplines. For each data set, the average exposure level was compiled for each period and details on the contaminant, the industry and location, changes in the threshold limit value (TLV), as well as the type of sampling method were recorded. Spearman rank correlation coefficients were used to identify monotonic changes in exposure over time and simple linear regression analyses were used to characterise trends in exposure. RESULTS: About 78% of the natural log transformed data showed linear trends towards lower exposure levels whereas 22% indicated increasing trends. (The Spearman rank correlation analyses produced a similar breakdown between exposures monotonically increasing or decreasing over time.) Although the rates of reduction for the data showing downward trends ranged from -1% to -62% per year, most exposures declined at rates between -4% and -14% per year (the interquartile range), with a median value of -8% per year. Exposures seemed to increase at rates that were slightly lower than those of exposures which have declined over time. Data sets that showed downward (versus upward) trends were influenced by several factors including type and carcinogenicity of the contaminant, type of monitoring, historical changes in the threshold limit values (TLVs), and period of sampling. CONCLUSIONS: This review supports the notion that occupational exposures are generally lower today than they were years or decades ago. However, such trends seem to have been affected by factors related to the contaminant, as well as to the period and type of sampling.   PMID:9764107

Symanski, E.; Kupper, L. L.; Rappaport, S. M.

1998-01-01

309

Whole-Body Lifetime Occupational Lead Exposure and Risk of Parkinson’s Disease  

SciTech Connect

We enrolled 121 PD patients and 414 age-, sex-, and race-, frequency-matched controls in a case–control study. As an indicator of chronic Pb exposure, we measured concentrations of tibial and calcaneal bone Pb stores using 109Cadmium excited K-series X-ray fluorescence. As an indicator of recent exposure, we measured blood Pb concentration. We collected occupational data on participants from 18 years of age until the age at enrollment, and an industrial hygienist determined the duration and intensity of environmental Pb exposure. We employed physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling to combine these data, and we estimated whole-body lifetime Pb exposures for each individual. Logistic regression analysis produced estimates of PD risk by quartile of lifetime Pb exposure.

Coon , Steven; Stark, Azadeh; Peterson, Edward; Gloi, Aime; Kortsha, Gene; Pounds, Joel G.; Chettle, D. R.; Gorell, Jay M.

2006-12-01

310

Occupational and environmental exposure to tribromophenol used for wood surface protection in sawmills.  

PubMed

This study analyses the occupational and environmental conditions of sawmills where the lumber is protected from microorganism action by dipping it in 2,4,6 tribromophenol (TBP). Three processes were evaluated: hydraulic immersion, chain conveyor system and manual immersion. The biggest occupational exposure to TBP was registered in manual and chain conveyor systems. The average values in the workers' urine for TBP were 6.9 and 5.7 mg/g creatinine, respectively. For environmental exposure, the highest value in well waters was 25.1 microg/L and in soil was 4,602 mg/kg. It could be established that the hydraulic immersion system presents less occupational TBP exposure. Nevertheless, the hydraulic system, as well as the other two anti-stain alternatives, requires the introduction of pollution prevention efforts. To reduce the environmental exposure to TBP, the lumber-dipping tank area, the forklift traffic areas, and the storage areas need to be waterproofed. It is also necessary to implement a TBP solution recovery system to eliminate dripping from the lumber once it is removed from the fungicide dipping tanks. PMID:16134480

Gutiérrez, Manuel; Becerra, José; Godoy, Juan; Barra, Ricardo

2005-06-01

311

Lead level in seminal plasma may affect semen quality for men without occupational exposure to lead  

PubMed Central

Background Infertility affects approximately 10–15% of reproductive-age couples. Poor semen quality contributes to about 25% of infertile cases. Resulting from the direct effect on testicular function or hormonal alterations, heavy metals exposure has been related to impaired semen quality. The objective of this study was to assess the level of lead in the seminal plasma in men without occupational exposure to lead, and to determine the relationship between semen quality and lead concentration in the semen. Methods This is a prospective and nonrandomized clinical study conducted in University infertility clinic and academic research laboratory. Three hundred and forty-one male partners of infertile couples undergoing infertility evaluation and management were recruited to the study. Semen samples collected for the analyses of semen quality were also used for the measurement of lead concentrations. Semen samples were evaluated according to the WHO standards. Results All subjects were married and from infertile couples without occupational exposure to lead. There is a significant inverse correlation between the lead concentration in seminal plasma and sperm count. A higher semen lead concentration was correlated with lower sperm count, but not with semen volume, sperm motility or sperm morphology as assessed by simple linear regression. Conclusions We found that semen lead concentration was significantly higher among the patients with lower sperm count. To our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate that a high level of lead accumulation in semen may reduce the sperm count contributing to infertility of men without occupational exposure to lead. PMID:23137356

2012-01-01

312

Occupational exposure to dust and lung disease among sheet metal workers.  

PubMed

A previous large medical survey of active and retired sheet metal workers with 20 or more years in the trade indicated an unexpectedly high prevalence of obstructive pulmonary disease among both smokers and non-smokers. This study utilised interviews with a cross section of the previously surveyed group to explore occupational risk factors for lung disease. Four hundred and seven workers were selected from the previously surveyed group on the basis of their potential for exposure to fibreglass and asbestos. Selection was independent of health state, and excluded welders. A detailed history of occupational exposure was obtained by telephone interview for 333 of these workers. Exposure data were analysed in relation to previously collected data on chronic bronchitis, obstructive lung disease, and personal characteristics. Assessment of the effects of exposure to fibreglass as distinct from the effects of exposure to asbestos has been difficult in previous studies of construction workers. The experienced workers studied here have performed a diversity of jobs involving exposure to many different types of materials, and this enabled exposure to each dust to be evaluated separately. The risk of chronic bronchitis increased sharply by pack-years of cigarettes smoked; current smokers had a double risk compared with those who had never smoked or had stopped smoking. The occurrence of chronic bronchitis also increased with increasing duration of exposure to asbestos. Workers with a history of high intensity exposure to fibreglass had a more than doubled risk of chronic bronchitis. Obstructive lung disease, defined by results of pulmonary function tests at the medical survey, was also related to both smoking and occupational risk factors. Number of pack years smoked was the strongest predictor of obstructive lung disease. Duration of direct and indirect exposure to welding fume was also a positive predictor of obstructive lung disease. Duration of exposure to asbestos was significantly associated with obstructive lung disease but the dose-response relation was inconsistent, especially for those with higher pack-years of smoking exposure. Exposure to fibreglass was not a risk factor for obstructive lung disease. PMID:8507596

Hunting, K L; Welch, L S

1993-05-01

313

Occupational and environmental exposures and risk of systemic lupus erythematosus: silica, sunlight, solvents  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We examined occupational and non-occupational exposures in relation to risk of SLE in a case–control study conducted through the Canadian Network for Improved Outcomes in SLE (CaNIOS). Methods. SLE cases (n?=?258) were recruited from 11 rheumatology centres across Canada. Controls (without SLE, n?=?263) were randomly selected from phone number listings and matched to cases by age, sex and area of residence. Data were collected using a structured telephone interview. Results. An association was seen with outdoor work in the 12 months preceding diagnosis [odds ratio (OR) 2.0; 95% CI 1.1, 3.8]; effect modification by sun reaction was suggested, with the strongest effect among people who reported reacting to midday sun with a blistering sunburn or a rash (OR 7.9; 95% CI 0.97, 64.7). Relatively strong but imprecise associations were seen with work as an artist working with paints, dyes or developing film (OR 3.9; 95% CI 1.3, 12.3) and work that included applying nail polish or nail applications (OR 10.2; 95% CI 1.3, 81.5). Patients were more likely than controls to report participation in pottery or ceramics work as a leisure activity, with an increased risk among individuals with a total frequency of at least 26 days (OR 2.1; 95% CI 1.1, 3.9). Analyses of potential respirable silica exposures suggested an exposure–response gradient (OR 1.0, 1.4. and 2.1 for zero, one and two or more sources of exposure, respectively; trend test P?occupational and non-occupational exposures in the development of SLE. PMID:20675707

Wither, Joan; Bernatsky, Sasha; Claudio, Jaime O.; Clarke, Ann; Rioux, John D.; Fortin, Paul R.

2010-01-01

314

Quantitative assessment of lives lost due to delay in the regulation of occupational exposure to benzene  

SciTech Connect

Benzene exposure can cause leukemia, aplastic anemia, and possibly lymphoma. In 1978, on the basis of strong but incomplete data then available on the risk of benzene-induced leukemia, the U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) reduced the permissible occupational exposure standard for benzene from 10 ppm to 1 ppm. Shortly thereafter, the Fifth Circuit Court of Appeals stayed this ruling, and in 1980, the Supreme Court overturned the regulation, citing insufficient evidence of benefit. Thus, from 1978 until the standard was again lowered to 1 ppm in 1987, American workers were exposed to benzene at levels in excess of 1 ppm. An estimated 9600 were exposed to levels between 1 and 10 ppm, and an additional 370 were exposed at levels above 10 ppm. To assess the risk resulting from this delay in regulation, we have conducted an epidemiologic risk analysis. We merged data on numbers of persons (238,000) exposed to benzene in seven occupational categories with dose-response data from three epidemiologic studies. The range of risk in these studies indicates that 44 to 152 excess leukemia deaths will ultimately result from exposure to benzene at 10 ppm over a working lifetime (45 years) and that lower or briefer exposures will result in proportionately fewer deaths. On this basis, we calculated that between 30 and 490 excess leukemia deaths will ultimately result from occupational exposures to benzene greater than 1 ppm that occurred between 1978 and 1987. Deaths from aplastic anemia and lymphoma will likely add to this toll. These data confirm the risk of regulatory delay. They suggest that the courts, in reviewing public health regulations, must beware of facile cost-benefit arguments and be willing to accept strong evidence of health risk even when such evidence is incomplete.

Nicholson, W.J.; Landrigan, P.J. (Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY (USA))

1989-07-01

315

Cancer and occupational exposure to inorganic lead compounds: a meta-analysis of published data.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES--To review and summarise the epidemiological evidence on the carcinogenicity of occupational exposure to inorganic lead. METHODS--Case-control and cohort studies were reviewed and combined for meta-analysis. Fixed and random effect methods were used to estimate the summary effects. RESULTS--The combined results show a significant excess risk of overall cancer, stomach cancer, lung cancer, and bladder cancer, with relative risk ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) in the meta-analysis of 1.11 (1.05-1.17), 1.33 (1.18-1.49), 1.29 (1.10-1.50), and 1.41 (1.16-1.71) respectively. The RR (95% CI) for kidney cancer was also high, but did not reach significance (1.19 (0.96-1.48)). A separate analysis of studies of heavily exposed workers provided slightly increased RRs for cancers of the stomach (1.50) and lung (1.42). CONCLUSIONS--The findings from the workers with heavy exposure to lead provided some evidence to support the hypothesis of an association between stomach and lung cancer and exposure to lead. The main limitation of the present analysis is that the excess risks do not take account of potential confounders, because little information was available for other occupational exposures, smoking, and dietary habits. To some extent, the risk of lung cancer might be explained by confounders such as tobacco smoking and exposure to other occupational carcinogens. The excess risk of stomach cancer may also be explained, at least in part, by non-occupational factors. For bladder and kidney cancers, the excess risks are only suggestive of a true effect because of possible publication bias. PMID:7757170

Fu, H; Boffetta, P

1995-01-01

316

Biopersistence of nonfibrous mineral particles in the respiratory tracts of subjects following occupational exposure.  

PubMed Central

Transmission electron microscopy analysis (TEMA) was used to analyze the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of 262 subjects occupationally exposed (OE) to nonfibrous mineral particles (NFMP) and 42 controls not occupationally exposed to mineral dusts. OE subjects were divided into three groups according to the lapse of time since last exposure: < or = 1 year and < 10 years (E2), > or = 10 years (E3). The total BALF mineral particle concentration was significantly higher in OE patients than in controls and was closely related to the time lapse since last exposure to NFMP (median values for OE, 7.7 x 10(5) particles/ml; E1, 9 x 10(5) particles/ml; E2, 5 x 10(5) particles/ml; E3, 4.3 x 10(5) particles/ml; controls, 2 x 10(5) particles/ml). No statistical difference was observed for age and smoking habits between OE and control subjects. Concentrations of crystalline silica and metals (exogenous iron, aluminum, metallic alloys and other metals) were significantly higher in OE subjects than in controls, and even though these mineral concentrations decreased with increasing time since last occupational exposure, they still remained higher in the E3 group than in controls. Crystalline silica and metals were thus identified as biopersistent NFMP in the human lung using BALF ATEM method. This method is a useful tool in assessing occupational exposure to NFMP, even when a long period has elapsed since last exposure, and may be used in studying etiology of some respiratory diseases. PMID:7882949

Pairon, J C; Billon-Galland, M A; Iwatsubo, Y; Bernstein, M; Gaudichet, A; Bignon, J; Brochard, P

1994-01-01

317

Occupational Exposure to Crystalline Silica Dust in the United States, 1988–2003  

PubMed Central

The purposes of this study were a) to summarize measurements of airborne (respirable) crystalline silica dust exposure levels among U.S. workers, b) to provide an update of the 1990 Stewart and Rice report on airborne silica exposure levels in high-risk industries and occupations with data for the time period 1988–2003, c) to estimate the number of workers potentially exposed to silica in industries that the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) inspected for high exposure levels, and d) to conduct time trend analyses on airborne silica dust exposure levels for time-weighted average (TWA) measurements. Compliance inspection data that were taken from the OSHA Integrated Management Information System (IMIS) for 1988–2003 (n = 7,209) were used to measure the airborne crystalline silica dust exposure levels among U.S. workers. A second-order autoregressive model was applied to assess the change in the mean silica exposure measurements over time. The overall geometric mean of silica exposure levels for 8-hr personal TWA samples collected during programmed inspections was 0.077 mg/m3, well above the applicable American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists threshold limit value of 0.05 mg/m3. Surgical appliances supplies industry [Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) 3842] had the lowest geometric mean silica exposure level of 0.017 mg/m3, compared with the highest level, 0.166 mg/m3, for the metal valves and pipe fitting industry (SIC 3494), for an 8-hr TWA measurement. Although a downward trend in the airborne silica exposure levels was observed during 1988–2003, the results showed that 3.6% of the sampled workers were exposed above the OSHA-calculated permissible exposure limit. PMID:15743711

Yassin, Abdiaziz; Yebesi, Francis; Tingle, Rex

2005-01-01

318

Workplace monitoring of occupational exposure to refractory ceramic fiber--a 17-year retrospective.  

PubMed

This article presents a 17-year (1990-2006) retrospective summary of ongoing studies of occupational exposure to refractory ceramic fiber (RCF) in the United States. Beginning in 1990, RCF producers integrated and harmonized individual workplace monitoring programs to provide data useful for various longitudinal and cross-sectional analyses, benchmarking, and various technical analyses. For 10 of these 17 years, the program has been conducted in partnership with government agencies, first a 5-year (1993-1998) program with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and later another 5-year (2002-2006) program with the Occupational Safety and Health Administration and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. This article updates earlier published studies and provides lessons to be learned in the design of industrial hygiene monitoring and control programs. PMID:18300048

Maxim, L Daniel; Allshouse, John; Fairfax, Richard E; Lentz, T J; Venturin, Dean; Walters, Thomas E

2008-02-01

319

Occupational exposure to solid chemical agents in biomass-fired power plants and associated health effects.  

PubMed

Occupational exposure to aluminium, arsenic, lead, cadmium, and manganese can increase the risk of numerous neurophysiological changes in workers, and may lead to conditions resembling Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease. However, although the health hazard aspect of these agents has been examined, biomass-fired power plant workers' exposure to them remains a neglected issue. The purpose of this study was to measure maintenance and ash removal workers' multiple exposures to inhalable dust, metals, and crystalline silica during their work tasks in biomass-fired power plants. Maintenance and ash removal workers were exposed to high inhalable dust concentrations inside biomass-fired boilers. The median air inhalable dust concentration in workers' breathing zones were 33 mg m(-3) and 120 mg m(-3) in ash removal and maintenance tasks, respectively. The median concentration of manganese (0.31 mg m(-3)) exceeded the occupational exposure limit in worker's breathing zone samples in maintenance tasks. The most evident exposure-associated health risk from multiple exposures to metals was that of cancer, followed by central nervous system disorders, lower respiratory tract irritation, and finally upper respiratory tract irritation. To avoid the above mentioned health effects, powered air respirators with ABEK+P3 cartridges and carbon monoxide gas detectors are recommended as the minimum requirement for these work tasks. A compressed air breathing apparatus is the best form of protection for the most demanding work phases inside boilers in biomass-fired power plants. PMID:24289933

Jumpponen, M; Rönkkömäki, H; Pasanen, P; Laitinen, J

2014-06-01

320

Application of statistical models for secondary data usage of the US Navy's Occupational Exposure Database (NOED).  

PubMed

Many organizations around the world have collected data related to individual worker exposures that are used to determine compliance with workplace standards. These data are often warehoused and thereafter rarely used as an information resource. Using appropriate groupings and analysis of OSHA data, Gómez showed that such stored data can provide additional insight on factors affecting occupational exposures. Using data from the Occupational Exposure Database of the United States Navy, the usefulness of statistical models for defining probabilities of exposure above permissible limits for observed work conditions is examined. Analyses have highlighted worker Similar Exposure Groups (SEGs) with potential for overexposure to asbestos and lead. In terms of grouping data, Rappaport et al. defined the Within-Between Lognormal Model, a scale-independent measure for quantifying between-worker variability within a selected worker group: (B)R.95 = exp[3.92s(sB)], representing the ratio of arithmetic mean exposures received by workers in the 97.5th and 2.5th percentiles. To help search for groups, the Proportional Odds Model, a generalization of the logistic model to ordinal data, can predict probabilities for group exposure above the Occupational Exposure Limit (OEL), or the Action Level (AL), which is one-half of the OEL. Worker SEGs have been identified for asbestos workers removing friable asbestos ((B)R.95 = 11.0) and nonfriable asbestos ((B)R.95 = 6.5); metal cleaning workers sandingspecialized equipment ((B)R.95 = 11.3), and workers at target shooting ranges cleaning up lead debris ((B)R.95 = 10). Estimated probabilities for the categories OEL support current understanding of work processes examined. Differences in probability noted between tasks and levels of ventilation validate this method for evaluating other available workplace exposure determinants, and for predicting probability of membership in categories that may help further define worker exposure groups, and determinants of excessive exposures. Thus, analyses of retrospective exposure data can help identify work site and work practice factors for efficient targeting of remediation resources. PMID:11217712

Formisano, J A; Still, K; Alexander, W; Lippmann, M

2001-02-01

321

A review of video exposure monitoring as an occupational hygiene tool.  

PubMed

This study reviews use of video exposure monitoring (VEM, also known as PIMEX) as an occupational hygiene tool since its inception in the mid-1980s. VEM involves the combination of real-time monitoring instruments, usually for gases/vapours and dust, with video of the worker's activities. VEM is an established method used by practitioners in different countries. The technical aspects of these VEM systems are described, then applications of VEM are discussed, focussing on task analysis, training (risk communication), encouraging worker participation in and motivation for improvements in the workplace environment and occupational hygiene research. The experiences from these applications are used to illustrate how exposure visualization with video can act as a catalyst, initiating a change process in the workplace. Finally, the role of VEM as a workplace improvement tool, now and in the future, is discussed. PMID:15701684

Rosén, G; Andersson, I-M; Walsh, P T; Clark, R D R; Säämänen, A; Heinonen, K; Riipinen, H; Pääkkönen, R

2005-04-01

322

[Nervous system disorders induced by occupational exposure to arsenic and its inorganic compounds: a literature review].  

PubMed

This paper presents a review of the effect of arsenic (As) and its inorganic compounds on the nervous system. In humans, inhalation exposure mostly occurs in occupational conditions. In the occupational environment, the most extensive exposure to this element is observed in the copper industry. Chronic As poisoning is manifested by skin and mucous membrane lesions, impairment of the nervous system in the form of disorders of psychic functions and polyneuropathies, retrobulbar neuritis, disorders of peripheral circulation and the risk for Raynaud's syndrome. Arsenic-induced polyneuropathy is usually a very serious and chronic disease. A complete recovery is observed in only 15-20% of patients. As-induced encephalopathy is an irreversible process. PMID:20187500

Si?czuk-Walczak, Halina

2009-01-01

323

1.2 Health, Safety, and Environment Occupational Exposure Characterization during the Manufacture of Cellulose Nanomaterials  

E-print Network

Abstract. The forest products industry accounts for approximately 6 % of total U.S. manufacturing output; nanotechnology could play an increasing role. As with any emerging technology, cellulose nanomaterials may become commercially available in a range of products before society obtains sufficient knowledge of the risk they pose to workers, consumers, and the environment. In partnership with the Forest Products Laboratory, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health conducted an exposure characterization study of the production of cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) that had been tagged with cesium. Analyzing the filter-based air samples for elemental cesium indicated that CNCs are being aerosolized during both removal of product from the freeze dryer and centrifugation of product. The highest concentration for the cesium-tagged CNC was collected during the centrifugation process inside the enclosure cabinet. Currently there are no occupational exposure limits specific to engineered cellulose nanomaterials.

Kenneth F. Martinez; Adrienne Eastlake; Alan Rudie; Charles Geraci

324

Occupational noise exposure and incident hypertension in men: a prospective cohort study.  

PubMed

The associations between occupational noise exposure and hypertension remain controversial because of the differences in study designs, exposure assessments, and confounding controls. This prospective study investigated the relationship between noise exposure and the 10-year risk of hypertension. A cohort of 578 male workers in Taiwan was followed from 1998 to 2008. All subjects were divided into high-, intermediate-, and low-exposure groups on the basis of noise exposure assessment. Cox regression models were used to estimate the relative risks of hypertension after adjustment for potential confounders. During the 7,805 person-years of follow-up, 141 hypertension cases were identified. Significant increases of 3.2 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.2, 6.2) mm Hg in systolic blood pressure and 2.5 (95% CI: 0.1, 4.8) mm Hg in diastolic blood pressure between the baseline and follow-up measurements were observed in the high-exposure group. Participants exposed to ?85 A-weighted decibels (dBA) had a 1.93-fold (95% CI: 1.15, 3.22) risk of hypertension compared with those exposed to <80 dBA. There was a significant exposure-response pattern (P = 0.016) between the risk of hypertension and the stratum of noise exposure. Prolonged exposure to noise levels ?85 dBA may increase males' systolic and diastolic blood pressure levels. This association may translate into a higher incidence of hypertension. PMID:23470795

Chang, Ta-Yuan; Hwang, Bing-Fang; Liu, Chiu-Shong; Chen, Ren-Yin; Wang, Ven-Shing; Bao, Bo-Ying; Lai, Jim-Shoung

2013-04-15

325

Occupational Exposure to Magnetic Fields and Breast Cancer Among Women Textile Workers in Shanghai, China  

PubMed Central

Exposure to magnetic fields (MFs) is hypothesized to increase the risk of breast cancer by reducing production of melatonin by the pineal gland. A nested case-cohort study was conducted to investigate the association between occupational exposure to MFs and the risk of breast cancer within a cohort of 267,400 female textile workers in Shanghai, China. The study included 1,687 incident breast cancer cases diagnosed from 1989 to 2000 and 4,702 noncases selected from the cohort. Subjects’ complete work histories were linked to a job–exposure matrix developed specifically for the present study to estimate cumulative MF exposure. Hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated using Cox proportional hazards modeling that was adapted for the case-cohort design. Hazard ratios were estimated in relation to cumulative exposure during a woman's entire working years. No association was observed between cumulative exposure to MFs and overall risk of breast cancer. The hazard ratio for the highest compared with the lowest quartile of cumulative exposure was 1.03 (95% confidence interval: 0.87, 1.21). Similar null findings were observed when exposures were lagged and stratified by age at breast cancer diagnosis. The findings do not support the hypothesis that MF exposure increases the risk of breast cancer. PMID:24043439

Li, Wenjin; Ray, Roberta M.; Thomas, David B.; Yost, Michael; Davis, Scott; Breslow, Norman; Gao, Dao Li; Fitzgibbons, E. Dawn; Camp, Janice E.; Wong, Eva; Wernli, Karen J.; Checkoway, Harvey

2013-01-01

326

Report of the Federal Panel on Formaldehyde.  

PubMed Central

The Federal Panel on Formaldehyde concluded that definitive experiments exist which demonstrate the mutagenicity and carcinogenicity of formaldehyde under laboratory conditions. Formaldehyde induces both gene mutations and chromosomal aberrations in a variety of test systems. Inhalation of formaldehyde causes cancer of the nose in rats. The concentrations of formaldehyde in inhaled air that caused nasal cancer in Fisher 344 rats are within the same order of magnitude as those to which humans may be exposed. The data presently available do not permit a direct assessment of the carcinogenicity of formaldehyde to man. Epidemiologic studies on exposed human populations are in progress and may further clarify the situation. Other experimental and human studies on toxic effects such as teratogenicity and reproductive disorders are as yet inadequate for a health risk assessment. The CIIT 24 month study on animal carcinogenicity has not yet been completely evaluated. Additional data are expected on the effects of prolonged exposure to lower doses of formaldehyde and on the possible carcinogenicity of formaldehyde in the mouse. The panel recommends that, for a comprehensive health risk assessment, further experiments be conducted on the effects of other modes of exposure (ingestion and skin penetration), the effects in humans, and on the pharmacokinetics of formaldehyde in man and animals and the possible role for formaldehyde in reproductive and chronic respiratory disorders. It is the conclusion of the panel that formaldehyde should be presumed to pose a carcinogenic risk to humans. PMID:6977445

1982-01-01

327

Occupational Noise Exposure among Toll Tellers at Toll Plaza in Malaysia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Toll tellers working at toll plaza have potential of exposure to high noise from the vehicles especially for the peak level of sound emitted by the heavy vehicles. However, occupational exposures in this workplace have not been adequately characterized and identified. Occupational noise exposure among toll tellers at toll plaza was assessed using Sound Level Meter, Noise Dosimeter and through questionnaire survey. These data were combined to estimate the work shift exposure level and health impacts to the toll tellers by using statistical analysis. Noise Dosimeter microphone was located at the hearing zone of the toll teller which working inside the toll booth and full-period measurements were collected for each work shift. The measurements were taken at 20 toll booths from 6.00 am to 2.00 pm for 5 days. 71 respondents participated in the survey to identify the symptoms of noise induced hearing loss and other health related problems among toll tellers. Results of this study indicated that occupational noise exposure among toll tellers for Mean Continuous Equivalent Level, Leq was 79.2±1.4 dB(A), Mean Maximum Level, Lmax was 107.8±3.6 dB(A) and Mean Peak Level, Lpeak was 136.6±9.9 dB. The Peak Level reported statistically significantly at 140 dB, the level of TLV recommended by ACGIH. The research findings indicated that the primary risk exposure to toll tellers comes from noise that emitted from heavy vehicles. Most of the toll tellers show symptoms of noise induced hearing loss and annoyed by the sources of noise at the toll plaza.

Azmi, Sharifah Nadya Syed; Dawal, Siti Zawiah Md; Ya, Tuan Mohammad Yusoff Shah Tuan; Saidin, Hamidi

2010-10-01

328

Urinary naphthalene and phenanthrene as biomarkers of occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons  

PubMed Central

Objectives We investigated the utility of unmetabolized naphthalene (Nap) and phenanthrene (Phe) in urine as surrogates for exposures to mixtures of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Methods Our study included workers exposed to diesel exhausts (low PAH exposure level, n = 39) as well as those exposed to emissions from asphalt (medium PAH exposure level, n = 26) and coke ovens (high PAH exposure level, n = 28). Levels of Nap and Phe were measured in urine from each subject using head space-solid phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Published levels of airborne Nap, Phe, and other PAHs in the coke-producing and aluminum industries were also investigated. Results In post-shift urine, the highest estimated geometric mean concentrations of Nap and Phe were observed in coke-oven workers (Nap: 2,490 ng/l; Phe: 975 ng/l), followed by asphalt workers (Nap: 71.5 ng/l; Phe: 54.3 ng/l), and by diesel-exposed workers (Nap: 17.7 ng/l; Phe: 3.60 ng/l). After subtracting logged background levels of Nap and Phe from the logged post-shift levels of these PAHs in urine, the resulting values [referred to as ln(adjNap) and ln(adjPhe), respectively] were significantly correlated in each group of workers (0.71 ? Pearson r ? 0.89), suggesting a common exposure source in each case. Surprisingly, multiple linear regression analysis of ln(adjNap) on ln(adjPhe) showed no significant effect of the source of exposure (coke ovens, asphalt, and diesel exhaust) and further suggested that the ratio of urinary Nap/Phe (in natural scale) decreased with increasing exposure levels. These results were corroborated with published data for airborne Nap and Phe in the coke-producing and aluminum industries. The published air measurements also indicated that Nap and Phe levels were proportional to the levels of all combined PAHs in those industries. Conclusion Levels of Nap and Phe in urine reflect airborne exposures to these compounds and are promising surrogates for occupational exposures to PAH mixtures. Main Messages Urinary naphthalene and phenanthrene are promising surrogates for occupational exposures to PAHs. Policy Implications Measurement of urinary naphthalene and phenanthrene could simplify the assessment of occupational exposures to PAHs. PMID:19017700

Sobus, Jon R.; Waidyanatha, Suramya; McClean, Michael D.; Herrick, Robert F.; Smith, Thomas J.; Garshick, Eric; Laden, Francine; Hart, Jaime E.; Zheng, Yuxin; Rappaport, Stephen M.

2009-01-01

329

Case-control study of congenital malformations and occupational exposure to low-level ionizing radiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a case-control study, the authors investigated the association of parental occupational exposure to low-level external whole-body penetrating ionizing radiation and risk of congenital malformations in their offspring. Cases and controls were ascertained from births in two counties in southeastern Washington State, where the Hanford Site has been a major employer. A unique feature of this study was the linking

L. E. Sever; E. S. Gilbert; N. A. Hessol; J. M. McIntyre

1988-01-01

330

Correspondence between occupational exposure limit and biological action level values for alkoxyethanols and their acetates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: The Finnish occupational exposure limit (OEL) values for alkoxyethanols and their acetates were lowered in 1996. A reevaluation\\u000a of the correspondence between the new OEL value and the biological action level (BAL) was thus needed. This study was conducted\\u000a in silkscreen printing enterprises, where 2-alkoxyethanols and their acetates are mainly used as solvents. The air\\/urine correlations\\u000a between 2-methoxyethylacetate, 2-ethoxyethylacetate,

J. Laitinen

1998-01-01

331

Development of an occupational exposure limit for n-propylbromide using benchmark dose methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the development of an occupational exposure level (OEL) for n-propylbromide (nPB) using benchmark dose methods. nPB is a non-ozone depleting solvent, proposed under the Significant New Alternatives Policy (SNAP) for use as a precision vapor degreaser. OELs have generally been developed on the basis of a NOAEL or LOAEL and application of uncertainty factors; this paper represents

Mark E. Stelljes; Rosemary R. Wood

2004-01-01

332

Occupational exposure to silica and lung cancer risk in the Netherlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesThe lung cancer carcinogenicity of crystalline silica dust remains the subject of discussion. Epidemiological evidence is based on occupational cohort studies and population-based case–control studies. The aim of this study was to assess associations between male lung cancer risk and silica exposure in a population-based cohort study.MethodsThe study was conducted among men aged 55–69 years (n=58 279) from the Netherlands

Liesbeth Preller; Linda M C van den Bosch; Piet A van den Brandt; T. Kauppinen; Alexandra Goldbohm

2009-01-01

333

Occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields and sex-differential risk of uveal melanoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesThe association between occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMF) and the risk of uveal melanoma was investigated in a case–control study in nine European countries.MethodsIncident cases of uveal melanoma and population as well as hospital controls were included and frequency matched by country, 5-year birth cohort and sex. Subjects were asked whether they had worked close to high-voltage electrical transmission

Thomas Behrens; Elsebeth Lynge; Ian Cree; Svend Sabroe; Jean-Michel Lutz; Noemia Afonso; Mikael Eriksson; Pascal Guénel; Franco Merletti; Maria Morales-Suarez-Varela; Aivars Stengrevics; Joëlle Févotte; Agustin Llopis-González; Giuseppe Gorini; Galina Sharkova; Lennart Hardell; Wolfgang Ahrens

2010-01-01

334

A Retrospective Assessment of Occupational Exposure to Elemental Carbon in the U.S. Trucking Industry  

PubMed Central

Background: Despite considerable epidemiologic evidence about the health effects of chronic exposure to vehicle exhaust, efforts at defining the extent of risk have been limited by the lack of historical exposure measurements suitable for use in epidemiologic studies and for risk assessment. Objectives: We sought to reconstruct exposure to elemental carbon (EC), a marker of diesel and other vehicle exhaust exposure, in a large national cohort of U.S. trucking industry workers. Methods: We identified the predictors of measured exposures based on a statistical model and used this information to extrapolate exposures across the cohort nationally. These estimates were adjusted for changes in work-related conditions over time based on a previous exposure assessment of this industry, and for changes in background levels based on a trend analysis of historical air pollution data, to derive monthly estimates of EC exposure for each job and trucking terminal combination between 1971 and 2000. Results: Occupational exposure to EC declined substantially over time, and we found significant variability in estimated exposures both within and across job groups, trucking terminals, and regions of the United States. Average estimated EC exposures during a typical work shift ranged from < 1 ?g/m3 in the lowest exposed category in the 1990s to > 40 ?g/m3 for workers in the highest exposed jobs in the 1970s. Conclusions: Our results provide a framework for understanding changes over time in exposure to EC in the U.S. trucking industry. Our assessment should minimize exposure misclassification by capturing variation among terminals and across U.S. regions, and changes over time. PMID:21447452

Hart, Jaime E.; Laden, Francine; Garshick, Eric; Smith, Thomas J.

2011-01-01

335

Effects of occupational exposures and smoking on lung function in tile factory workers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  The aims of this study were to investigate the relations of occupational exposures in tile industry to lung function and to\\u000a evaluate potential interaction between smoking and tile dust exposure containing silica.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  A cross-sectional study of 232 workers (response rate 100%) in a tile factory and 76 office workers (response rate 73%) from\\u000a four factories in Thailand was conducted in

Maritta S. Jaakkola; Penpatra Sripaiboonkij; Jouni J. K. Jaakkola

2011-01-01

336

Occupational exposure due to naturally occurring radionuclide material in granite quarry industry.  

PubMed

The potential occupational exposure in granite quarry industry due to the presence of naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) has been investigated. The activity concentrations of (40)K, (226)Ra and (232)Th were determined using gamma-ray spectroscopy method. The annual effective dose of workers through different exposure pathways was determined by model calculations. The total annual effective dose varied from 21.48 to 33.69 ?Sv y(-1). Inhalation dose contributes the highest to the total effective dose. The results obtained were much lower than the intervention exemption levels (1.0 mSv y(-1)) given in the International Commission on Radiological Protection Publication 82. PMID:21447506

Ademola, J A

2012-02-01

337

Validation of a self-administered questionnaire for assessing occupational and environmental exposures of pregnant women  

SciTech Connect

The present investigation sought to determine whether a self-administered questionnaire could be used to obtain occupational information from pregnant women attending the obstetrical clinics at the University of California, San Francisco from July to November 1986. The authors compared the accuracy of responses of 57 women on the self-administered questionnaire with those obtained on a detailed clinical interview by an occupational health professional. The self-administered questionnaire and the clinical interview included information on the woman's job title, the type of company she worked for, the level of physical activity, her exposures on the job and at home, and her partner's occupation. The authors also examined whether the validity of the self-administered questionnaire could be improved on review by an industrial hygienist. The questionnaire took less than 20 minutes to complete, with over 90% of the women answering three-quarters of it. It was substantially accurate in obtaining information on number of hours worked during pregnancy, type of shift worked, and stress level in the workplace; exposure to radiation, video display terminals, fumes, gases, and cigarette smoke in the workplace; and exposure to pesticides, paint, and cigarette smoke at home. On those variables for which the responses on the self-administered questionnaire were less accurate, review by the industrial hygienist improved the level of accuracy considerably. These findings suggest that a self-administered questionnaire can be used to obtain valid information from pregnant women attending a prenatal clinic.

Eskenazi, B.; Pearson, K.

1988-11-01

338

Occupational Exposure to Mineral Turpentine and Heavy Fuels: A Possible Risk Factor for Alzheimer's Disease  

PubMed Central

Background The association between solvents and Alzheimer's disease (AD) has been the subject of several studies. Yet, only few studies have examined the various solvents separately, and the controls have rarely been monitored long enough. For these reasons and others, we believe that further studies are required. Objectives The objective of this study was to identify solvents associated with the clinicoradiological diagnostic of AD or mixed-type dementia (MD). Methods A retrospective case-control study was performed in 156 patients followed up at the Memory Diagnostic Center of Bertinot Juel Hospital (France). The inclusion criteria were known occupation(s), a Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score ?10 at the first visit, a neuropsychological evaluation performed and a diagnosis established in our Memory Diagnostic Center. The diagnostics were crossed with 9 solvents belonging to two classes of solvents. Exposure was evaluated using French national job-exposure matrices. Results Certain petroleum-based solvents and fuels (i.e. mineral turpentine, diesel fuel, fuel oil and kerosene) were associated with a diagnosis of AD or MD. This association was still significant after adjustment for age, sex and education (adjusted OR: 6.5; 95% CI: 2-20). Conclusion Occupational exposure to mineral turpentine and heavy fuels may be a risk factor for AD and MD. PMID:25028582

Helou, Rafik; Jaecker, Pierre

2014-01-01

339

The Occupational Exposure Limit for Fluid Aerosol Generated in Metalworking Operations: Limitations and Recommendations  

PubMed Central

The aim of this review was to assess current knowledge related to the occupational exposure limit (OEL) for fluid aerosols including either mineral or chemical oil that are generated in metalworking operations, and to discuss whether their OEL can be appropriately used to prevent several health risks that may vary among metalworking fluid (MWF) types. The OEL (time-weighted average; 5 mg/m3, short-term exposure limit ; 15 mg/m3) has been applied to MWF aerosols without consideration of different fluid aerosol-size fractions. The OEL, is also based on the assumption that there are no significant differences in risk among fluid types, which may be contentious. Particularly, the health risks from exposure to water-soluble fluids may not have been sufficiently considered. Although adoption of The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health's recommended exposure limit for MWF aerosol (0.5 mg/m3) would be an effective step towards minimizing and evaluating the upper respiratory irritation that may be caused by neat or diluted MWF, this would fail to address the hazards (e.g., asthma and hypersensitivity pneumonitis) caused by microbial contaminants generated only by the use of water-soluble fluids. The absence of an OEL for the water-soluble fluids used in approximately 80-90 % of all applicants may result in limitations of the protection from health risks caused by exposure to those fluids. PMID:22953224

2012-01-01

340

The three most common occupational exposures reported by pregnant women: A update  

SciTech Connect

Many uncertainties exist in regard to counseling women with occupational exposures during pregnancy. This is due to limited knowledge of the reproductive toxicologic effects of industrial agents, lack of safety standards aimed at protecting the fetus, and limitations in assessing the extent of exposure. The approach to this subject taken by the Motherisk Program and a review of the three most common occupational exposures are presented. Epidemiologic studies and measurements of radiation do not suggest a reproductive hazard for video display terminals. Exposure to organic solvents is hard to quantitate, and information is sparse and sometimes contradictory, and therapeutic decisions are difficult to reach. To date there is no convincing evidence that working with organic solvents within safety regulations would harm a fetus, in contradistinction to detrimental fetal effects of solvent abuse. The reproductive risks of lead are well documented, fetal exposure can be assessed, and effective treatment exists, but its effects on the pregnancy have not been fully established. However, new evidence suggests that maternal levels that are much lower than the accepted adult limits may be damaging to the fetus. 107 references.

Bentur, Y.; Koren, G. (Motherisk Program, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario (Canada))

1991-08-01

341

Thoracic magnetic dust content, occupational exposure, and respiratory status of shipyard welders.  

PubMed

The net thoracic magnetic moment of 58 highly exposed nonsmoking shipyard welders and 13 unexposed nonsmoking electricians was measured with an alternating current susceptibility bridge. The welding cohort exhibits a thorax magnetic moment, which on the average is less diamagnetic than that of the controls. This shift is consistent with a median lung burden of 110 mg Fe3O4, or 220 mg of the welding fumes characteristic for shipyard exposures. Among welders with 5+ yr of exposure, there is a slight but statistically significant correlation (r = 0.49) (p less than .0001) between inferred lung burden and lifetime occupational exposure. Although chronic bronchitis incidence and average lung function parameter values of the welders are different from those of the nonexposed cohort, respiratory status does not correlate further with either self-reported exposure or measured lung retention. PMID:3178295

Stern, R M; Drenck, K; Lyngenbo, O; Dirksen, H; Groth, S

1988-01-01

342

Renal failure and occupational exposure to organic solvents: what work-up should be Abstract 123 words  

E-print Network

1 Renal failure and occupational exposure to organic solvents: what work-up should be performed? Abstract 123 words The etiological work-up of a disease with an occupational component, such as renal discussed certain elements of the aetiological work-up in the light of a clinical case, particularly

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

343

FLOW CYTOMETRY OF ACRIDINE ORANGE STAINED SPERM IS A RAPID AND PRACTICAL METHOD FOR MONITORING OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE TO GENOTOXICANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Public awareness is growing concerning the reproductive consequences of the numerous environmental and occupational chemicals. Exposure of germ cells within the seminiferous tubules of the mammalian testis to chemical toxins often causes severe perturbation of cell growth, divisi...

344

Occupational exposure to neurotoxic substances in Asian countries - Challenges and approaches  

PubMed Central

The fact that a conference on neurotoxicity was held in China triggered the idea to provide an insight into occupational diseases, their development and the approaches to investigate them in Asian countries. A historical review, a meta-analysis, and studies on humans and animals provide impressions on past and current problems. The Korean example showed that each newly introduced industry is accompanied by its own problems as regards occupational diseases. Mercury and carbon disulfide were of importance in the beginning, whereas solvents and manganese became important later. Outbreaks of diseases were important reasons to guide both the public and the governmental attention to prevention and allowed within a relatively short time considerable progress. As the example on the replacement of 2-bromopropane by 1-bromopropane showed, also the introduction of chemicals that are more beneficial for the environment may result in additional occupational risks. A lower mutagenicity of 1-bromopopane was shown to be associated with a greater neurotoxicity in Japanese studies. Although occupational health and diseases are commonly related to adults, child workers exposed to solvents were examined in a Lebanese study. The study started outlining the health hazards in young workers because they might be at a much greater risk due to the not yet completed maturation of their nervous system. That some occupational diseases are not yet a focus of prevention was shown by the study on pesticides. If at all, the serious health consequences resulting from excessive exposure were investigated. Research enabling precautionary actions was not available from the international literature. Despite globalization the knowledge on occupational diseases is not yet “globalized” and each country obviously undergoes its own development triggered by local experiences. Economic development that requires a healthy workforce, but also public interest that challenges governmental regulations further efforts on the prevention of occupational diseases. The paper reflects a summary of the talks presented at the symposium “Occupational Neurotoxicities in Asian Countries” as part of the 11th International Symposium on Neurobehavioral Methods and Effects in Occupational and Environmental Health. PMID:22202747

Meyer-Baron, Monika; Kim, Eun A; Nuwayhid, Iman; Ichihara, Gaku; Kang, Seong-Kyu

2012-01-01

345

Characterization of allergic response induced by repeated dermal exposure of IL-4/Luc/CNS-1 transgenic mice to low dose formaldehyde  

PubMed Central

Although formaldehyde (FA) is known to be a major allergen responsible for allergic contact dermatitis, there are conflicting reports regarding correlation between FA exposure and interleukin (IL-4) expression. To investigate whether allergic responses including IL-4 expression were induced by repeated dermal exposure to low dose FA, alterations in the luciferase signal and allergic phenotypes were measured in IL-4/Luc/CNS-1 transgenic (Tg) mice containing luciferase cDNA under control of the IL-4 promoter after exposure to 4% FA for 2 weeks. High levels of luciferase were detected in the abdominal region of the whole body and submandibular lymph node (SLN) of FA treated mice. Additionally, the ear thickness and IgE concentration were significantly upregulated in the FA treated group when compared with the acetone olive oil (AOO) treated group. FA treated mice showed enhanced auricular lymph node (ALN) weight, epidermis and dermis thickness, and infiltration of inflammatory cells. Furthermore, the expression of IL-6 among T helper 2 cytokines was higher in the FA treated group than the AOO treated group, while vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) levels remained constant. Overall, the results presented herein provide additional evidence that various allergic responses may be successfully induced in IL-4/Luc/CNS-1 Tg mice after exposure to low dose FA for 2 weeks. The luciferase signal under the IL-4 promoter may reflect general indicators of the allergic response induced by exposure to low dose FA. PMID:25324870

Kwak, Moon-Hwa; Kim, Ji-Eun; Go, Jun; Koh, Eun-Kyoung; Song, Sung-Hwa; Sung, Ji-Eun; Yang, Seung-Yun; An, Beum-Soo; Jung, Young-Jin; Lee, Jae-Ho; Lim, Yong

2014-01-01

346

Evaluation and comparison of occupational noise exposure among workers on offshore and onshore oil well drilling rigs  

E-print Network

EVALUATION AND COMPARISON OF OCCUPATIONAL NOISE EXPOSURE AMONG WORKERS ON OFFSHORE AND ONSHORE OIL WELL DRILLING RIGS A Thesis by HUMBERTO SUAREZ GARCIA Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1984 Major Subject: Safety Engineering EVALUATION AND COMPARISON OF OCCUPATIONAL NOISE EXPOSURE AMONG WORKERS ON OFFSHORE AND ONSHORE OIL WELL DRILLING RIGS A Thesis by HUMBERTO SUAREZ GARCIA...

Suarez Garcia, Humberto

1984-01-01

347

Occupational Exposures to Blood in A Dental Teaching Environment: Results of a Ten-Year Surveillance Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evaluation of occupational exposures can assist with practice modifications, redesign of equipment, and targeted educational efforts. The data presented in this report has been collected as part of a ten-year surveillance program of occupational exposures to blood or other potentially infectious materials in a large dental teaching institution. From 1987 to 1997, a total of 504 percutaneous\\/non-intact skin and mucous

Fariba S. Younai; Denise C. Murphy; David Kotelchuck

348

Lack of association between Toxoplasma gondii infection and occupational exposure to animals  

PubMed Central

The association of infection with Toxoplasma gondii and occupational exposure to animals has been scantly determined. We performed a case-control study with 200 subjects from Durango Province, Mexico, occupationally exposed to animals and 200 age- and gender-matched subjects without this occupation. Sera from all participants were analyzed for anti-T. gondii IgG and IgM antibodies using enzyme-linked immunoassays. The association of seroprevalence with sociodemographic, work, clinical, and behavioral characteristics in cases was determined. Cases and controls had similar frequencies of anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies (12/200: 6.0% and 11/200: 5.5%, respectively) (OR = 3.0; 95% CI: 0.12–73.64; P = 1.0). The frequency of sera with high (>150 IU/ml) levels of anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies was comparable among cases and controls (P = 0.61). Seroprevalence of anti-T. gondii IgM antibodies was similar in cases (4, 2.0%) than in controls (4, 2.0%) (P = 1.0). Multivariate analysis showed that seropositivity was associated with eating while working (OR = 7.14; 95% CI: 1.91–26.72; P = 0.003) and consumption of duck meat (OR = 5.43; 95% CI: 1.43–20.54; P = 0.01). No association between seropositivity to T. gondii and occupational exposure to animals was found. However, risk factors for infection found should be taken into account to reduce the exposure to T. gondii. PMID:25544890

Pacheco-Vega, Sandy Janet; Hernández-Tinoco, Jesús; Saldaña-Simental, Diana Elizabeth; Sánchez-Anguiano, Luis Francisco; Salcedo-Jáquez, Misael; Ramos-Nevárez, Agar; Liesenfeld, Oliver; Márquez-Conde, José Ángel; Cerrillo-Soto, Sandra Margarita; Martínez-Ramírez, Lucio; Guido-Arreola, Carlos Alberto

2014-01-01

349

Occupation related pesticide exposure and cancer of the prostate: a meta-analysis  

PubMed Central

Aims: To summarise recent literature on the risk of prostate cancer in pesticide related occupations, to calculate the meta-rate ratio, and to compare it to data from meta-analyses previously published. Methods: A meta-analysis of 22 epidemiological studies, published between 1995 and 2001, was conducted in order to pool their rate ratio estimates. Studies were summarised and evaluated for homogeneity and publication bias. Results: The meta-rate ratio estimate, based on 25 estimators of relative risk from 22 studies, was 1.13 (95% CI 1.04 to 1.22). Significant heterogeneity of rate ratios existed among the different studies. Therefore, a stratified analysis was carried out. Major sources of heterogeneity identified were geographic location, study design, and healthy worker effect. Overall, pooled risk estimates for studies derived from Europe were lower than those derived from the USA/Canada. A significant increase in rate ratio was observed for the occupation category of pesticide applicators, whereas no significant increase was observed for farmers. There was no evidence of publication bias. Conclusion: This increased meta-rate ratio for prostate cancer in different pesticide related occupations, including farmers, is very similar to three, previously published, meta-rate ratios for prostate cancer in farmers calculated from studies published before 1995. Although the underlying data do not identify pesticide exposure as an independent cause for prostate cancer, the fact that an increased meta-rate ratio is again obtained points to occupational exposure to pesticides as a possible factor. Future epidemiological studies should focus, as far as possible, on reliable methods to estimate actual exposure. PMID:12937183

Van Maele-Fabry, G; Willems, J

2003-01-01

350

Lack of association between Toxoplasma gondii infection and occupational exposure to animals.  

PubMed

The association of infection with Toxoplasma gondii and occupational exposure to animals has been scantly determined. We performed a case-control study with 200 subjects from Durango Province, Mexico, occupationally exposed to animals and 200 age- and gender-matched subjects without this occupation. Sera from all participants were analyzed for anti-T. gondii IgG and IgM antibodies using enzyme-linked immunoassays. The association of seroprevalence with sociodemographic, work, clinical, and behavioral characteristics in cases was determined. Cases and controls had similar frequencies of anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies (12/200: 6.0% and 11/200: 5.5%, respectively) (OR = 3.0; 95% CI: 0.12-73.64; P = 1.0). The frequency of sera with high (>150 IU/ml) levels of anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies was comparable among cases and controls (P = 0.61). Seroprevalence of anti-T. gondii IgM antibodies was similar in cases (4, 2.0%) than in controls (4, 2.0%) (P = 1.0). Multivariate analysis showed that seropositivity was associated with eating while working (OR = 7.14; 95% CI: 1.91-26.72; P = 0.003) and consumption of duck meat (OR = 5.43; 95% CI: 1.43-20.54; P = 0.01). No association between seropositivity to T. gondii and occupational exposure to animals was found. However, risk factors for infection found should be taken into account to reduce the exposure to T. gondii. PMID:25544890

Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Pacheco-Vega, Sandy Janet; Hernández-Tinoco, Jesús; Saldaña-Simental, Diana Elizabeth; Sánchez-Anguiano, Luis Francisco; Salcedo-Jáquez, Misael; Ramos-Nevárez, Agar; Liesenfeld, Oliver; Márquez-Conde, José Ángel; Cerrillo-Soto, Sandra Margarita; Martínez-Ramírez, Lucio; Guido-Arreola, Carlos Alberto

2014-12-01

351

Fungi, ?-glucan, and bacteria in nasal lavage of greenhouse workers and their relation to occupational exposure.  

PubMed

The nose and mouth are the first regions of the respiratory tract in contact with airborne microorganisms. Occupational exposures to airborne microorganisms are associated with inflammation and different symptoms of the airways. The purpose of this study is to investigate the relation between occupational exposure to fungi, ?-glucan, and bacteria and contents of fungi, ?-glucan, and bacteria in nasal lavage (NAL) of greenhouse workers. We also studied whether contents of microorganisms in NAL were related to gender, time of the work week, and runny nose. NAL samples (n = 135) were taken Monday morning and Thursday at noon and personal exposure to inhalable bioaerosols was measured during a working day. The content of fungi and ?-glucan in NAL of men was affected by their exposure to fungi and ?-glucan. The content of fungi, ?-glucan, and bacteria in NAL was higher Thursday at noon than Monday morning. The ratios of fungi in NAL between Thursday at noon and Monday morning were 14 (median value) for men and 3.5 for women. Gender had no effect on the exposure level but had a significant effect on the content of fungi, ?-glucan, and bacteria in NAL, with the highest contents in NAL of men. On Thursdays, the median content of fungi in NAL samples of men without runny noses was 9408 cfu per NAL sample, whereas the same content for women was 595 cfu per NAL sample. Workers with runny noses had fewer fungi in NAL than workers without runny noses. A higher content of ?-glucan per fungal spore was found in NAL than in the air. This indicates that mainly the larger fungal spores or pollen grains deposit in the nose. The difference between genders and the fact that the content of fungi in NAL was significantly affected by the exposure indicate that the two genders are affected by the same exposure level differently. PMID:23749501

Madsen, Anne Mette; Tendal, Kira; Thilsing, Trine; Frederiksen, Margit W; Baelum, Jesper; Hansen, Jørgen V

2013-10-01

352

Meta-analysis on occupational exposure to pesticides - Neurobehavioral impact and dose-response relationships.  

PubMed

While the health impact of high exposures to pesticides is acknowledged, the impact of chronic exposures in the absence of acute poisonings is controversial. A systematic analysis of dose-response relationships is still missing. Its absence may provoke alternative explanations for altered performances. Consequently, opportunities for health prevention in the occupational and environmental field may be missed. Objectives were (1) quantification of the neurotoxic impact of pesticides by an analysis of functional alterations in workers measured by neuropsychological performance tests, (2) estimates of dose-response relationships on the basis of exposure duration, and (3) exploration of susceptible subgroups. The meta-analysis employed a random effects model to obtain overall effects for individual performance tests. Twenty-two studies with a total of 1758 exposed and 1260 reference individuals met the inclusion criteria. At least three independent outcomes were available for twenty-six performance variables. Significant performance effects were shown in adults and referred to both cognitive and motor performances. Effect sizes ranging from dRE=-0.14 to dRE=-0.67 showed consistent outcomes for memory and attention. Relationships between effect sizes and exposure duration were indicated for individual performance variables and the total of measured performances. Studies on adolescents had to be analyzed separately due to numerous outliers. The large variation among outcomes hampered the analysis of the susceptibility in this group, while data on female workers was too scant for the analysis. Relationships exist between the impact of pesticides on performances and exposure duration. A change in test paradigms would help to decipher the impact more specifically. The use of biomarkers appropriate for lower exposures would allow a better prevention of neurotoxic effects due to occupational and environmental exposure. Intervention studies in adolescents seem warranted to specify their risk. PMID:25460642

Meyer-Baron, Monika; Knapp, Guido; Schäper, Michael; van Thriel, Christoph

2015-01-01

353

Fungi, ?-Glucan, and Bacteria in Nasal Lavage of Greenhouse Workers and Their Relation to Occupational Exposure  

PubMed Central

The nose and mouth are the first regions of the respiratory tract in contact with airborne microorganisms. Occupational exposures to airborne microorganisms are associated with inflammation and different symptoms of the airways. The purpose of this study is to investigate the relation between occupational exposure to fungi, ?-glucan, and bacteria and contents of fungi, ?-glucan, and bacteria in nasal lavage (NAL) of greenhouse workers. We also studied whether contents of microorganisms in NAL were related to gender, time of the work week, and runny nose. NAL samples (n = 135) were taken Monday morning and Thursday at noon and personal exposure to inhalable bioaerosols was measured during a working day. The content of fungi and ?-glucan in NAL of men was affected by their exposure to fungi and ?-glucan. The content of fungi, ?-glucan, and bacteria in NAL was higher Thursday at noon than Monday morning. The ratios of fungi in NAL between Thursday at noon and Monday morning were 14 (median value) for men and 3.5 for women. Gender had no effect on the exposure level but had a significant effect on the content of fungi, ?-glucan, and bacteria in NAL, with the highest contents in NAL of men. On Thursdays, the median content of fungi in NAL samples of men without runny noses was 9408 cfu per NAL sample, whereas the same content for women was 595 cfu per NAL sample. Workers with runny noses had fewer fungi in NAL than workers without runny noses. A higher content of ?-glucan per fungal spore was found in NAL than in the air. This indicates that mainly the larger fungal spores or pollen grains deposit in the nose. The difference between genders and the fact that the content of fungi in NAL was significantly affected by the exposure indicate that the two genders are affected by the same exposure level differently. PMID:23749501

Madsen, Anne Mette

2013-01-01

354

Occupational paraquat exposure of agricultural workers in large Costa Rican farms  

PubMed Central

Objective Paraquat is an herbicide widely used worldwide. This study determined the extent of occupational exposure to paraquat among farm workers in Costa Rica and identified determinants of occupational exposure. Methods Twenty-four hour urine samples were collected from 119 paraquat handlers and 54 non-handlers from banana, coffee and palm oil farms. Information about herbicide handling operations was also collected. The urinary paraquat levels were determined by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with a limit of quantiication (LOQ) of 2 ng/mL. Inhalable dust and airborne paraquat levels were simultaneously measured for a subset of the participants. Results Urinary paraquat measurements were non-detectable or very low when workers did not handle paraquat. For handlers, 83.3, 47.1 and 63.9% of the samples were below the LOQ on before-, during- and after-paraquat spray days, respectively. The arithmetic mean (±SD) of urinary paraquat level on days when workers handled paraquat was 6.3 (±10.45) µg/24h. Paraquat exposures among handlers on spray day were significantly associated with the type of crop. Conclusion Non-handlers had negligible urinary paraquat, while detectable paraquat exposures were observed among handlers on spray day. Urinary paraquat levels were different by crop. PMID:18762966

Park, Eun-Kee; Stoecklin-Marois, Maria; Koivunen, Marja E.; Gee, Shirley J.; Hammock, Bruce D.; Beckett, Laurel A.; Schenker, Marc B.

2010-01-01

355

BIOMarkers for occupational diesel exhaust exposure monitoring (BIOMODEM)--a study in underground mining.  

PubMed

Methods for the assessment of exposures to diesel exhaust were evaluated, including various biomarkers of internal exposure and early biological effects. The impact of possible biomarkers of susceptibility was also explored. Underground workers (drivers of diesel-powered excavators) at an oil shale mine in Estonia were compared with surface workers. Personal exposures to particle-associated 1-nitropyrene (NP) were some eight times higher underground than on the surface. Underground miners were also occupationally exposed to benzene and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, as indicated by excretion of urinary metabolites of benzene and pyrene. In addition, increased O(6)-alkylguanine DNA adducts were detected in the white blood cells of underground workers, suggesting higher exposure to nitroso-compounds. However, no differences between underground and surface workers were observed in the levels of other bulky DNA adducts determined by 32P-postlabelling, or in DNA damage. The study indicated that smoking, diet and residential indoor air pollution are important non-occupational factors to consider when interpreting biomonitoring results. PMID:12191893

Scheepers, P T J; Coggon, D; Knudsen, L E; Anzion, R; Autrup, H; Bogovski, S; Bos, R P; Dahmann, D; Farmer, P; Martin, E A; Micka, V; Muzyka, V; Neumann, H G; Poole, J; Schmidt-Ott, A; Seiler, F; Volf, J; Zwirner-Baier, I

2002-08-01

356

Clinical and pathological characteristics of hepatotoxicity associated with occupational exposure to dimethylformamide  

SciTech Connect

The clinical characteristics, laboratory results, and liver biopsy findings of seven workers with toxic liver injury associated with exposure to several solvents, including substantial levels of the widely used solvent dimethylformamide, are presented. Three patients had short exposure (less than 3 months), four long exposure (greater than 1 year). Among those with brief exposure, symptoms included anorexia, abdominal pain, and disulfiram-type reaction. Aminotransferases were markedly elevated with the ratio of alanine aminotransferase to aspartate aminotransferase always greater than 1. Liver biopsy showed focal hepatocellular necrosis and microvesicular steatosis with prominence of smooth endoplasmic reticulum, complex lysosomes, and pleomorphic mitochondria with crystalline inclusions. Among workers with long exposure, symptoms were minimal and enzyme elevations modest. Biopsies showed macrovesicular steatosis, pleomorphic mitochondria without crystalloids, and prominent smooth endoplasmic reticulum, but no evidence of persisting acute injury or fibrosis. Abnormal aminotransferases in both groups may persist for months after removal from exposure, but progression to cirrhosis in continually exposed workers was not observed. We conclude that exposure of these workers to solvents, chiefly dimethylformamide, may result in two variants of toxic liver injury with subtle clinical, laboratory, and morphological features. This may be readily overlooked if occupational history and biopsy histology are not carefully evaluated.

Redlich, C.A.; West, A.B.; Fleming, L.; True, L.D.; Cullen, M.R.; Riely, C.A. (Yale Univ. School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (USA))

1990-09-01

357

Human exposure to mercury in a compact fluorescent lamp manufacturing area: By food (rice and fish) consumption and occupational exposure.  

PubMed

To investigate human Hg exposure by food consumption and occupation exposure in a compact fluorescent lamp (CFL) manufacturing area, human hair and rice samples were collected from Gaohong town, Zhejiang Province, China. The mean values of total mercury (THg) and methylmercury (MeHg) concentrations in local cultivated rice samples were significantly higher than in commercial rice samples which indicated that CFL manufacturing activities resulted in Hg accumulation in local rice samples. For all of the study participants, significantly higher THg concentrations in human hair were observed in CFL workers compared with other residents. In comparison, MeHg concentrations in human hair of residents whose diet consisted of local cultivated rice were significantly higher than those who consumed commercial rice. These results demonstrated that CFL manufacturing activities resulted in THg accumulation in the hair of CFL workers. However, MeHg in hair were mainly affected by the sources of rice of the residents. PMID:25590130

Liang, Peng; Feng, Xinbin; Zhang, Chan; Zhang, Jin; Cao, Yucheng; You, Qiongzhi; Leung, Anna Oi Wah; Wong, Ming-Hung; Wu, Sheng-Chun

2015-03-01

358

Occupational exposures and colorectal cancers: a quantitative overview of epidemiological evidence.  

PubMed

A traditional belief widespread across the biomedical community was that dietary habits and genetic predisposition were the basic factors causing colorectal cancer. In more recent times, however, a growing evidence has shown that other determinants can be very important in increasing (or reducing) incidence of this malignancy. The hypothesis that environmental and occupational risk factors are associated with colorectal cancer is gaining ground, and high risks of colorectal cancer have been reported among workers in some industrial branches. The aim of this study was to investigate the epidemiologic relationship between colorectal cancer and occupational exposures to several industrial activities, by means of a scientific literature review and meta-analysis. This work pointed out increased risks of colorectal cancer for labourers occupied in industries with a wide use of chemical compounds, such as leather (RR = 1.70, 95%CI: 1.24-2.34), basic metals (RR = 1.32, 95%CI: 1.07-1.65), plastic and rubber manufacturing (RR = 1.30, 95%CI: 0.98-1.71 and RR = 1.27, 95%CI: 0.92-1.76, respectively), besides workers in the sector of repair and installation of machinery exposed to asbestos (RR = 1.40, 95%CI: 1.07-1.84). Based on our results, the estimated crude excess risk fraction attributable to occupational exposure ranged from about 11% to about 15%. However, homogeneous pattern of association between colorectal cancer and industrial branches did not emerge from this review. PMID:25253943

Oddone, Enrico; Modonesi, Carlo; Gatta, Gemma

2014-09-21

359

Occupational solvent exposure, genetic variation in immune genes, and the risk for non-Hodgkin lymphoma  

PubMed Central

Solvent exposure has been inconsistently linked to the risk for non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). The aim of this study was to determine whether the association is modified by genetic variation in immune genes. A population-based case–control study involving 601 incident cases of NHL and 717 controls was carried out in 1996–2000 among women from Connecticut. Thirty single nucleotide polymorphisms in 17 immune genes were examined in relation to the associations between exposure to various solvents and the risk for NHL. The study found that polymorphism in interleukin 10 (IL10; rs1800890) modified the association between occupational exposure to organic solvents and the risk for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (Pfor interaction=0.0058). The results remained statistically significant after adjustment for false discovery rate. Compared with women who were never occupationally exposed to any organic solvents, women who were exposed to organic solvents at least once had a significantly increased risk for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma if they carried the IL10 (rs1800890) TT genotype (odds ratio=3.31, 95% confidence interval: 1.80–6.08), but not if they carried the AT/AA genotype (odds ratio=1.14, 95% confidence interval: 0.72–1.79). No significant interactions were observed for other immune gene single nucleotide polymorphisms and various solvents in relation to NHL overall and its major subtypes. The study provided preliminary evidence supporting a role of immune gene variations in modifying the association between occupational solvent exposure and the risk for NHL. PMID:22609637

Deng, Qian; Zheng, Tongzhang; Lan, Qing; Lan, Yajia; Holford, Theodore; Chen, Yingtai; Dai, Min; Leaderer, Brian; Boyle, Peter; Chanock, Stephen J.; Rothman, Nathaniel; Zhang, Yawei

2012-01-01

360

Heat acclimation decreased oxidative DNA damage resulting from exposure to high heat in an occupational setting.  

PubMed

Heat acclimation is a physiologically and biochemically adapted process when species transition from one environmental temperature to one of the increased temperature. There is very limited epidemiological evidence on the heat-related impacts during exposure to extremely high heat in an occupational environment. This study sought to identify a potential biomarker of heat acclimation and the burden of heat on the body. The aim of this study was to elucidate oxidative DNA damage and heat acclimation through a self-comparison study design in navy boiler tenders, subjects exposed to extremely high heat in an occupational setting. Fifty-eight male soldiers who work in a boiler room were recruited for this study. The subjects were initially assessed with a health examination and body composition assessment before sailing. In order to compare the within-subject differences before and after heat exposure, the index-related heat exposure was collected before and after a routine 5-h work shift and 7-day sailing. Urinary 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), a useful marker of oxidative DNA damage was the measurement by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. The median of the change in urinary 8-OHdG was 0.78 ?g/g creatinine, as the urinary 8-OHdG after sailing was significantly higher than before sailing (p < 0.01). The urinary 8-OHdG was significantly decreased in heat-acclimated boiler tenders. Oxidative DNA damage was significantly decreased in heat-acclimated subjects. Urinary 8-OHdG can be used as a biomarker to assess the effect of heat stress as a result of occupational exposure to extremely high heat conditions. PMID:22526251

Huang, Yung-Kai; Lin, Che-Wei; Chang, Chen-Chen; Chen, Pai-Fen; Wang, Chien-Jen; Hsueh, Yu-Mei; Chiang, Hung-Che

2012-12-01

361

Estimating historical occupational exposure to airborne hexavalent chromium in a chromate production plant: 1940--1972.  

PubMed

This article presents a retrospective exposure assessment for 493 workers who were occupationally exposed to airborne hexavalent chromium, Cr(VI), at a Painesville, Ohio, chromate production plant from 1940-1972. Exposure estimates were reconstructed using a job-exposure matrix approach that related job titles with area monitoring data from 21 industrial hygiene surveys conducted from 1943 to 1971. No personal monitoring data were collected. Specifically, airborne Cr(VI) concentration profiles for 22 areas of the plant, termed job-exposure group (JEG) areas, were constructed for three distinct time periods (1940-1949, 1950-1964, and 1965-1972), with cut points based on known major plant and process changes. Average airborne Cr(VI) concentrations were the highest for the bridge crane operators (5.5 mg/m3) prior to 1965, although only four cohort members held this job title. Airborne concentrations for the rest of the production areas of the plant ranged from 1.9 mg/m3 for packers in the 1940s to 0.012 mg/m3 for ore mill operators after 1964. For nearly all JEG areas, exposures decreased over time, particularly after 1964. For example, average airborne concentrations in production areas of the plant decreased from 0.72 mg/m3 in the 1940s to 0.27 mg/m3 from 1950 to 1964, and the average was 0.039 mg/m3 after 1964. Former workers were interviewed to determine activity patterns in the plant by job title. This information was combined with Cr(VI) monitoring data to calculate cumulative occupational exposure for each worker. Cumulative exposures ranged from 0.003 to 23 (mg/m3) x years. The highest monthly 8-hour average exposure concentration for each worker ranged from 0.003 to 4.1 mg/m3. These exposure estimates have been combined with mortality data for this cohort to assess the lung cancer risk associated with inhaled Cr(VI), and a positive dose-response relationship was observed for increases in lung cancer mortality with measures of cumulative exposure and highest monthly exposure. PMID:15673096

Proctor, D M; Panko, J P; Liebig, E W; Paustenbach, D J

2004-11-01

362

Comprehensive evaluation of long-term trends in occupational exposure: Part 2. Predictive models for declining exposures  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: To explore the effects of various factors related to the industry, the contaminant, and the period and type of sampling on long term declining trends in occupational exposure. METHODS: Linear regression analyses were used to assess the relation between reductions in exposure and geographical location, industrial sector, type of contaminant, type of monitoring, carcinogenic classification, calendar period, duration of sampling, and number of reductions in the threshold limit value during the sampling period. Both univariable and multivariable models were applied. RESULTS: Based on univariable analyses, the findings suggest that exposures declined more rapidly in manufacturing than in mining, more rapidly for aerosol contaminants than for vapours, and more rapidly when biological, rather than airborne, monitoring was conducted. Exposures collected more recently (first year of sampling in 1972 or later) fell more rapidly than exposures first evaluated during earlier periods. Irrespective of when the data were collected, the results also suggest that the longer the duration of sampling the slower the rate of decline. Taken together, we found that characteristics related to the contaminant, the industry, the sampling period, and the type of sampling explained a substantial proportion of the variability for exposures evaluated before 1972 (R2 = 0.78) and for sites evaluated both before and after 1972 (R2 = 0.91), but explained essentially no variation for data gathered exclusively after 1972 (R2 = 0.04). CONCLUSIONS: By identifying factors that have affected the rates of reduction in a consistent fashion, the results should guide investigators in estimating historical levels when studies assessing exposure-response relations are carried out.   PMID:9764108

Symanski, E.; Kupper, L. L.; Hertz-Picciotto, I.; Rappaport, S. M.

1998-01-01

363

Occupational Radiation Exposure at Commercial Nuclear Power Reactors and Other Facilities 2008  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the occupational exposure data that are maintained in the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Radiation Exposure Information and Reporting System (REIRS). The bulk of the information contained in the report was compiled from the 2008 annual reports submitted by five of the seven categories1 of NRC licensees subject to the reporting requirements of 10 CFR 20.2206. The annual reports submitted by these licensees consist of radiation exposure records for each monitored individual. These records are analyzed for trends and presented in this report in terms of collective dose and the distribution of dose among the monitored individuals. Because there are no geologic repositories for high-level waste currently licensed and no low-level waste disposal facilities in operation, only five categories will be considered in this report.

U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research

2009-12-01

364

Application of geostatistical methods for estimation of the dispersion variance of occupational exposures  

SciTech Connect

Exposures to potentially hazardous agents are, like ore grades, regionalized variables. They present an autocorrelation structure and this should to be taken into account in estimating time-averaged exposures. Originally developed in France, geostatistics--which include autocorrelation modelling--have provided a coherent, complete and efficient approach for the estimation of exposures. The power and advantage of the simplest geostatistical approach are demonstrated by an example. Although initially developed to solve problems within the mining industry, geostatistics have found applications in domains as varied as hydrogeology, meteorology, forestry, cartography, geophysics, oil reservoir characterization, etc. The object of this paper, therefore, is to review this approach and to promote the extension of geostatistical methods into the fields of environmental and occupational hygiene.

Preat, B.

1987-10-01

365

FORMALDEHYDE-INDUCED GENE EXPRESSION IN F344 RAT NASAL RESPIRATORY EPITHELIUM.  

EPA Science Inventory

Formaldehyde-induced gene expression in F344 rat nasal respiratory epithelium ABSTRACT Formaldehyde, an occupational and environmental toxicant used extensively in the manufacturing of many household and personal use products, is known to induce squamous cell carci...

366

Maternal and paternal occupational exposure to agricultural work and the risk of anencephaly  

PubMed Central

Aims To evaluate the association between parental occupational exposure to agricultural work and the risk of anencephaly in three Mexican states. Methods A paired case control study (1:1) was done based on records of the Epidemiological Surveillance System of Neural Tube Defects in Mexico; 151 cases of anencephaly of more than 20?weeks' gestation were selected between March 2000 and February 2001. Controls were selected from the same maternity services as those of the cases and were born alive without congenital malformations. Information was obtained from both parents by means of a general questionnaire, a food frequency questionnaire, and a specific questionnaire on occupational exposure to pesticides. Exposures were analysed with emphasis on the three months before and one month after the last menstruation periods (acute risk period (ARP)), as well as exposure prior to the abovementioned period (non?acute risk period (NARP)). Results The children of mothers who worked in agriculture in the ARP had a greater risk of anencephaly (OR?=?4.57, 95% CI 1.05 to 19.96). The risk of fathers having a child with anencephaly was greater in those who applied pesticides irrespective of whether it was done in the ARP or the NARP (OR?=?2.50, 95% CI 0.73 to 8.64; and OR?=?2.03, 95% CI 0.58 to 7.08, respectively). Conclusions These results support the hypothesis of the effect of maternal exposure to agricultural work on anencephaly and suggest that exposure of the father to pesticides in the periconceptional period or prior to this can also increase the risk of having an anencephalic child. PMID:16873458

Lacasaña, M; Vázquez?Grameix, H; Borja?Aburto, V H; Blanco?Muñoz, J; Romieu, I; Aguilar?Garduño, C; García, A M

2006-01-01

367

Relationship between variation of seasonal temperature and extent of occupational exposure to phthalates.  

PubMed

Spot urine samples were collected in summer and winter season to examine the association between temperature variation and phthalate concentration in an occupationally exposed group. We analysed samples by high-performance liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) to determine the concentrations of four phthalate metabolites: mono (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP), monobutyl phthalate (MnBP), monoethyl phthalate (MEP), and monoisononyl phthalate (MiNP). We observed significantly higher urinary concentrations of all monitored phthalate metabolites collected during the summer in occupationally exposed group (MEP p?exposure in specific types of work environment. PMID:25081008

Pilka, Tomas; Petrovicova, Ida; Kolena, Branislav; Zatko, Tomas; Trnovec, Tomas

2015-01-01

368

Occupational radiation exposure due to norm in a rare-earth compounds production facility.  

PubMed

In India, rare-earth compounds are produced from the beach sand mineral monazite. Caustic digestion of the mineral followed by selective acid extraction is the method used to separate composite rare-earth fraction. The composite rare-earth chloride contains low levels of natural radionuclides and is the starting material for individual rare-earth compounds which have wide applications. Activity concentrations in composite rare-earth compounds such as chlorides, fluorides, carbonates and oxides of Ce, Nd, Pr, Sm, Gd, etc. are presented in this paper. The external gamma exposure rates and airborne activity due to thorium and thoron progeny in the occupational environment are studied. The activity levels in liquid effluent are presented. The potential individual occupational dose is estimated to be 1.9 mSv per annum. PMID:18550514

Haridasan, P P; Pillai, P M B; Tripathi, R M; Puranik, V D

2008-01-01

369

The suitability of EBC-Pb as a new biomarker to assess occupational exposure to lead.  

PubMed

Occupational exposure to lead (Pb) requires continuous surveillance to assure, as much as possible, safe and healthful working conditions. This study addresses the suitability of assessing Pb exposure in relevant workers using their exhaled breath condensate (EBC). This study enrolled workers of two different Pb processing industries characterized by moderate and high Pb exposure levels in the work environment, and a group of non-exposed individuals working in offices who served as baseline for Pb exposure. The EBC-Pb of workers reflected the Pb levels in the work environment of all three settings, although the relationship with B-Pb was not clear. The lack of correlation between EBC-Pb and B-Pb most probably indicates the time lag for Pb to enter in the two body pools. The EBC-Pb seems to reflect immediate exposure, providing a prompt signature of Pb in the environmental that may interact directly with the organ. By delivering short-term evaluation of exposure, EBC-Pb represents a clear advantage in biomonitoring and may become an interesting tool for estimating organ burden. PMID:24670229

Félix, Pedro M; Almeida, Susana Marta; Franco, Cristiana; Almeida, António Bugalho; Lopes, Carlos; Claro, Maria Inês; Fragoso, Elsa; Teles, Catarina; Wolterbeek, Hubert Th; Pinheiro, Teresa

2015-02-01

370

Chronic exposure of rats to occupational textile noise causes cytological changes in adrenal cortex.  

PubMed

Chronic exposure to industrial noise and its effects on biological systems. Occupational exposure to noise may result in health disorders. Our aim was to evaluate the effects of chronic exposure to high-intensity noise of textile industry cotton rooms on the adrenal morphology. The environmental noise of a cotton-mill room from a large textile factory of Northern Portugal was recorded and reproduced by an adopted electroacoustic setup in a sound-insulated animal room where the rats were housed. The sounds were reproduced at the original levels of approximately 92 dB, which was achieved by equalization and distribution of sound output in the room. Wistar rats were submitted to noise exposure, in the same time schedule as employed in textile plants. After one, three, five, and seven months, the adrenals were collected and analyzed by light microscopy. Analyzed by multivariate analysis of variance and post hoc Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons of the means between the groups. Noise exposure induced time-dependent changes in adrenal cortex, with decrease of zona fasciculata (ZF) and increase of zona reticularis volumes, together with a significant depletion of lipid droplet density in ZF cells of exposed rats, in comparison to control rats. Chronic exposure of rats to textile industry noise triggers cytological changes in the adrenals that suggest the existence of a sustained stress response. PMID:19414932

Oliveira, Maria Joao R; Monteiro, Mariana P; Ribeiro, Andreia M; Pignatelli, Duarte; Aguas, Artur P

2009-01-01

371

Statistical Methods and Software for the Analysis of Occupational Exposure Data with Non-detectable Values  

SciTech Connect

Environmental exposure measurements are, in general, positive and may be subject to left censoring; i.e,. the measured value is less than a ''detection limit''. In occupational monitoring, strategies for assessing workplace exposures typically focus on the mean exposure level or the probability that any measurement exceeds a limit. Parametric methods used to determine acceptable levels of exposure, are often based on a two parameter lognormal distribution. The mean exposure level, an upper percentile, and the exceedance fraction are used to characterize exposure levels, and confidence limits are used to describe the uncertainty in these estimates. Statistical methods for random samples (without non-detects) from the lognormal distribution are well known for each of these situations. In this report, methods for estimating these quantities based on the maximum likelihood method for randomly left censored lognormal data are described and graphical methods are used to evaluate the lognormal assumption. If the lognormal model is in doubt and an alternative distribution for the exposure profile of a similar exposure group is not available, then nonparametric methods for left censored data are used. The mean exposure level, along with the upper confidence limit, is obtained using the product limit estimate, and the upper confidence limit on an upper percentile (i.e., the upper tolerance limit) is obtained using a nonparametric approach. All of these methods are well known but computational complexity has limited their use in routine data analysis with left censored data. The recent development of the R environment for statistical data analysis and graphics has greatly enhanced the availability of high-quality nonproprietary (open source) software that serves as the basis for implementing the methods in this paper.

Frome, EL

2005-09-20

372

Childhood nervous system tumors--an evaluation of the association with paternal occupational exposure to hydrocarbons  

SciTech Connect

Paternal occupational exposures to hydrocarbons have been associated with childhood nervous system cancer, but study results have not been consistent. This population-based case-control study was designed to examine this association using a large sample size to increase the precision of risk estimates. The birth certificates of 499 children who died in Texas from intracranial and spinal cord tumors were compared with 998 control certificates randomly selected from all Texas live births. Information on parental job title and industry at the time of birth was obtained from the birth certificates. No significant associations were identified for the dichotomized variable of all hydrocarbon-related occupations combined, as variously defined in previous studies, or for most of the specific jobs affiliated with exposures to hydrocarbons. Significant, relatively stable odds ratios (OR) were found for printers and graphics arts workers (OR = 4.5; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.4-14.7) and chemical and petroleum workers with high exposure levels (OR = 3.0; CI = 1.1-8.5). A discussion of the biases involved in this type of study design is presented.

Johnson, C.C.; Annegers, J.F.; Frankowski, R.F.; Spitz, M.R.; Buffler, P.A.

1987-10-01

373

Occupational radiation exposure during removal of radioactive reactor components from GRR-1 pool.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to control occupational exposure during the removal of radioactive reactor components from a Greek research reactor pool. The method comprised the prediction of the radiation levels, the design of special shielding structures and the occupational dose assessment. Activation calculations were performed using the FISPACT code to predict the source term. Monte Carlo simulations using MCNP code were utilized to estimate the ambient dose equivalent rates. The results of the calculations were verified by measurements and were found to be in good agreement. Thermoluminescence dosemeter (TLD) and electronic personal dosemeter (EPD) were implemented to measure the radiation exposure of the workers. The total collective dose of 14 participating workers was 0.15 man mSv. The maximum individual effective dose was 0.02 mSv, and the maximum extremity equivalent dose was 0.09 mSv. The discussed method provides a useful tool enabling work planning during reactor decommissioning and renovation activities ensuring that exposures will be maintained ALARA. PMID:21051436

Kontogeorgakos, D; Tzika, F; Valakis, S; Stamatelatos, I E

2011-03-01

374

The association between occupational exposures and cigarette smoking among operating engineers.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between occupational exposures and cigarette smoking among operating engineers. A cross-sectional survey was conducted with operating engineers (N = 412) from a midwestern state in the United States. The survey included validated questions on cigarette smoking, occupational exposures, demographics, comorbidities, and health behaviors. About 35% were current smokers. Those exposed to asphalt fumes, heat stress, concrete dust, and welding fumes were less likely to smoke (odds ratio [OR] = .79, 95% confidence interval [CI]: .64-.98). Other factors associated with smoking included younger age (OR = .97, 95% CI: .94-.99), problem drinking (OR = 1.07, 95% CI: 1.03-1.12), lower Body Mass Index (OR = .95, 95% CI: .90-.99), and being separated/widowed/divorced (OR = 2.24, 95% CI: 1.19-4.20). Further investigation is needed for better understanding about job-specific exposure patterns and their impact on cigarette smoking among operating engineers. PMID:24325748

Hong, OiSaeng; Duffy, Sonia A; Choi, Seung Hee; Chin, Dal Lae

2014-01-01

375

A proposed methodology for setting occupational exposure limits for hydrocarbon solvents.  

PubMed

Occupational exposure limit (OEL) development for hydrocarbon solvents is complicated because most of these solvents have complex compositions and only a few representative constituents have been studied in detail. A proposed solution to this problem is to group constituents with similar physical, chemical, and toxicological properties and to assign "guidance values" to each group. A unique OEL can then be calculated for each solvent, using a reciprocal calculation procedure (RCP) based on the liquid composition. This procedure follows the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists' (ACGIH) generic advice for complex mixtures and is recommended by the U.K. Health and Safety Executive for OEL calculations by hydrocarbon solvent manufacturers. The RCP is justified, as the toxicological properties of the constituents are additive and the differences between the vapor and liquid compositions do not substantially affect the calculated exposure limits. The guidance values are based principally on acute central nervous system depression and eye and respiratory tract irritation, effects that are the most sensitive indicators of hydrocarbon solvent exposure. One benefit of this procedure is that it is a relatively simple but practical procedure that requires limited compositional information. Further, it provides OEL recommendations that are consistent with occupational experience and current regulatory advice. Groupings and guidance values are proposed, and sample calculations are provided. PMID:16174635

McKee, Richard H; Medeiros, Arlean M; Daughtrey, Wayne C

2005-10-01

376

Occupational noise exposure and hearing loss characteristics of a blue-collar population  

SciTech Connect

Recent studies of health effects from chronic exposure to noise in the workplace have not consistently addressed nonoccupational variables. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 197 randomly selected male hourly workers from a noisy plant ( greater than or equal to 89 dBA) in Pittsburgh to fully assess noise exposure and hearing loss, incorporating information on duration of exposure, noise level, occupational and medical histories, audiometric evaluation, and external noise sources. Population audiometric profiles are characteristic of noise-induced hearing loss; mean hearing thresholds for press room men were significantly higher at 2, 3, and 6 kHz (p less than or equal to .05). Only 40% of the men consistently wore hearing protection. Recent use of ototoxic drugs, noisy hobbies/second jobs, military service, family history of hearing loss, and ear-related problems were not found to have a significant effect on hearing levels at high frequencies, suggesting that observed hearing losses were of an occupational origin. 31 references, 3 figures, 3 tables.

Helmkamp, J.C.; Talbott, E.O.; Margolis, H.

1984-12-01

377

Solid Phase Extraction for Monitoring of Occupational Exposure to Cr (III)  

PubMed Central

Chromium is an important constituent widely used in different industrial processes for production of various synthetic materials. For evaluation of workers’ exposure to trace toxic metal of Cr (III), environmental and biological monitoring are essential processes, in which, preparation of samples is one of the most time-consuming and error-prone aspects prior to analysis. The use of solid-phase extraction (SPE) has grown and is a fertile technique of sample preparation as it provides better results than those produced by liquid-liquid extraction (LLE). SPE using mini columns filled with XAD-4 resin was optimized regarding to sample pH, ligand concentration, loading flow rate, elution solvent, sample volume, elution volume, amount of resins, and sample matrix interferences. Chromium was retained on solid sorbent and was eluted with 2 M HNO3 followed by simple determination of analytes by using flame atomic absorption spectrometery. Obtained recoveries of metal ion were more than 92%. The optimized procedure was also validated with three different pools of spiked urine samples and showed a good reproducibility over six consecutive days as well as six within-day experiments. Through this study, suitable results were obtained for relative standard deviation, therefore, it is concluded that, this optimized method can be considered to be successful in simplifying sample preparation for trace residue analysis of Cr in different matrices for evaluation of occupational and environmental exposures. To evaluate occupational exposure to chromium, 16 urine samples were taken, prepared, and analyzed based on optimized procedure. PMID:19662187

Shahtaheri, S.J.; Khadem, M.; Golbabaei, F.; Rahimi-Froushani, A.

2007-01-01

378

Lifetime Occupational Exposure to Dusts, Gases and Fumes Is Associated with Bronchitis Symptoms and Higher Diffusion Capacity in COPD Patients  

PubMed Central

Background Occupational exposure to dusts, gases and fumes has been associated with reduced FEV1 and sputum production in COPD patients. The effect of occupational exposure on other characteristics of COPD, especially those reflecting emphysema, has not been studied in these patients. Methods We studied 338 patients hospitalized for a first exacerbation of COPD in 9 Spanish hospitals, obtaining full occupational history in a face-to-face interview; job codes were linked to a job exposure matrix for semi-quantitative estimation of exposure to mineral/biological dust, and gases/fumes for each job held. Patients underwent spirometry, diffusing capacity testing and analysis of gases in stable conditions. Quality of life, dyspnea and chronic bronchitis symptoms were determined with a questionnaire interview. A high- resolution CT scan was available in 133 patients. Results 94% of the patients included were men, with a mean age of 68(8.5) years and a mean FEV1% predicted 52 (16). High exposure to gases or fumes was associated with chronic bronchitis, and exposure to mineral dust and gases/fumes was associated with higher scores for symptom perception in the St. George’s questionnaire. No occupational agent was associated with a lower FEV1. High exposure to all occupational agents was associated with better lung diffusion capacity, in long-term quitters. In the subgroup with CT data, patients with emphysema had 18% lower DLCO compared to those without emphysema. Conclusions In our cohort of COPD patients, high exposure to gases or fumes was associated with chronic bronchitis, and high exposure to all occupational agents was consistently associated with better diffusion capacity in long-term quitters. PMID:24516659

Rodríguez, Esther; Ferrer, Jaume; Zock, Jan-Paul; Serra, Ignasi; Antó, Josep M.; de Batlle, Jordi; Kromhout, Hans; Vermeulen, Roel; Donaire-González, David; Benet, Marta; Balcells, Eva; Monsó, Eduard; Gayete, Angel; Garcia-Aymerich, Judith

2014-01-01

379

Role of the CYP1A2 Gene Polymorphism on Early Ageing from Occupational Exposure  

PubMed Central

The ageing process is influenced by many internal and external factors. The toxic substances in the environment can cause genomic damages to cells, which increase the risk of early ageing. Furthermore, the cytochrome P450 1A2 (CYP1A2) gene polymorphism is a susceptibility factor and may enhance the risk of DNA damage in cells. The current study was carried out to show whether occupational exposure could cause genotoxicity in cells carrying the CYP1A2 gene polymorphism, thus enhancing the likelihood of early ageing. This study was conducted on mechanical workshop workers and a control group by collecting buccal cells from their mouths. Restriction fragment length polymorphism-polymerase chain reaction (RFLP-PCR) was used to identify the CYP1A2 gene polymorphism in the cells. In addition, three extra methods including micronuclei (MN) test, comet assay and real-time PCR (RT-PCR) were applied to determine the effects of gene polymorphisms on DNA damage and ageing from occupational exposure. The results showed that DNA damage in the cells carrying the mutated genotype was higher than the wild genotype. In addition, the difference in MN frequency (p = 0.001) and relative telomere length (p = 0.002) between workers and controls was significant (p <0.05) in the mutated genotype. The findings indicated a possible protective effect of gene polymorphism against early ageing, which was characterized by lack of a significant influence of CYP1A2 gene polymorphism on genetic material in the subjects (p >0.05). It was concluded that the CYP1A2 gene could be a contributing factor to prevent early ageing from occupational exposure. PMID:24778563

Eshkoor, SA; Ismail, P; Rahman, SA; Moin, S; Adon, MY

2013-01-01

380

Biomonitoring of complex occupational exposures to carcinogens: The case of sewage workers in Paris  

PubMed Central

Background Sewage workers provide an essential service in the protection of public and environmental health. However, they are exposed to varied mixtures of chemicals; some are known or suspected to be genotoxics or carcinogens. Thus, trying to relate adverse outcomes to single toxicant is inappropriate. We aim to investigate if sewage workers are at increased carcinogenic risk as evaluated by biomarkers of exposure and early biological effects. Methods/design This cross sectional study will compare exposed sewage workers to non-exposed office workers. Both are voluntaries from Paris municipality, males, aged (20–60) years, non-smokers since at least six months, with no history of chronic or recent illness, and have similar socioeconomic status. After at least 3 days of consecutive work, blood sample and a 24-hour urine will be collected. A caffeine test will be performed, by administering coffee and collecting urines three hours after. Subjects will fill in self-administered questionnaires; one covering the professional and lifestyle habits while the a second one is alimentary. The blood sample will be used to assess DNA adducts in peripheral lymphocytes. The 24-hour urine to assess urinary 8-oxo-7, 8-dihydro-2'-deoxy-Guanosine (8-oxo-dG), and the in vitro genotoxicity tests (comet and micronucleus) using HeLa S3 or HepG2 cells. In parallel, occupational air sampling will be conducted for some Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Volatile Organic Compounds. A weekly sampling chronology at the offices of occupational medicine in Paris city during the regular medical visits will be followed. This protocol has been accepted by the French Est III Ethical Comitee with the number 2007-A00685-48. Discussion Biomarkers of exposure and of early biological effects may help overcome the limitations of environmental exposure assessment in very complex occupational or environmental settings. PMID:18325085

Al Zabadi, Hamzeh; Ferrari, Luc; Laurent, Anne-Marie; Tiberguent, Aziz; Paris, Christophe; Zmirou-Navier, Denis

2008-01-01

381

Experiences from Occupational Exposure Limits Set on Aerosols Containing Allergenic Proteins  

PubMed Central

Occupational exposure limits (OELs) together with determined airborne exposures are used in risk assessment based managements of occupational exposures to prevent occupational diseases. In most countries, OELs have only been set for few protein-containing aerosols causing IgE-mediated allergies. They comprise aerosols of flour dust, grain dust, wood dust, natural rubber latex, and the subtilisins, which are proteolytic enzymes. These aerosols show dose-dependent effects and levels have been established, where nearly all workers may be exposed without adverse health effects, which are required for setting OELs. Our aim is to analyse prerequisites for setting OELs for the allergenic protein-containing aerosols. Opposite to the key effect of toxicological reactions, two thresholds, one for the sensitization phase and one for elicitation of IgE-mediated symptoms in sensitized individuals, are used in the OEL settings. For example, this was the case for flour dust, where OELs were based on dust levels due to linearity between flour dust and its allergen levels. The critical effects for flour and grain dust OELs were different, which indicates that conclusion by analogy (read-across) must be scientifically well founded. Except for subtilisins, no OEL have been set for other industrial enzymes, where many of which are high volume chemicals. For several of these, OELs have been proposed in the scientific literature during the last two decades. It is apparent that the scientific methodology is available for setting OELs for proteins and protein-containing aerosols where the critical effect is IgE sensitization and IgE-mediated airway diseases. PMID:22843406

Nielsen, Gunnar D.

2012-01-01

382

Derivation of an Occupational Exposure Limit (OEL) for Methylene Chloride Based on Acute CNS Effects and Relative Potency Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) methylene chloride Permissible Exposure Level (PEL) of 25 ppm is quantitatively derived from mouse tumor results observed in a high-exposure National Toxicology Program bioassay. Because this approach depends on controversial interspecies and low-dose extrapolations, the PEL itself has stimulated heated debate. Here, an alternative safety assessment for methylene chloride is presented. It is

Jan E. Storm; Karl K. Rozman

1998-01-01

383

Comparison of three analytical methods for 1-hydroxypyrene glucuronide in urine after non-occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urinary pyrene metabolites, 1-OHP and 1-OHPG, have been used as biomarkers for the assessment of occupational and environmental exposure to PAHs. This study compares the sensitivity and applicability of the different analytical methods of 1-OHPG for human biomonitoring of low level exposure to PAHs. Three analytical methods were compared: (1) HPLC method from that reported by Singh et al. (Singh,

Cheol-Koo Lee; Soo-Hun Cho; Jong-Won Kang; Seung-Joon Lee; Yeong-Su Ju; Joohon Sung; Paul T. Strickland; Daehee Kang

1999-01-01

384

Occupational exposure to ionizing and non-ionizing radiation and risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  To investigate the association between occupational exposure to ionizing, ultraviolet (UV), radiofrequency (RF) and extremely\\u000a low frequency (ELF) radiation and risk of developing non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) in a population-based case-control study.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  The study population consisted of 694 NHL cases, first diagnosed between 1 January 2000 and 31 August 2001, and 694 controls\\u000a from two regions in Australia, matched by age,

Ken K. Karipidis; Geza Benke; Malcolm R. Sim; Timo Kauppinen; Anne Kricker; Ann Maree Hughes; Andrew E. Grulich; Claire M. Vajdic; John Kaldor; Bruce Armstrong; Lin Fritschi

2007-01-01

385

Low-Dose Formaldehyde Delays DNA Damage Recognition and DNA Excision Repair in Human Cells  

PubMed Central

Objective Formaldehyde is still widely employed as a universal crosslinking agent, preservative and disinfectant, despite its proven carcinogenicity in occupationally exposed workers. Therefore, it is of paramount importance to understand the possible impact of low-dose formaldehyde exposures in the general population. Due to the concomitant occurrence of multiple indoor and outdoor toxicants, we tested how formaldehyde, at micromolar concentrations, interferes with general DNA damage recognition and excision processes that remove some of the most frequently inflicted DNA lesions. Methodology/Principal Findings The overall mobility of the DNA damage sensors UV-DDB (ultraviolet-damaged DNA-binding) and XPC (xeroderma pigmentosum group C) was analyzed by assessing real-time protein dynamics in the nucleus of cultured human cells exposed to non-cytotoxic (<100 ?M) formaldehyde concentrations. The DNA lesion-specific recruitment of these damage sensors was tested by monitoring their accumulation at local irradiation spots. DNA repair activity was determined in host-cell reactivation assays and, more directly, by measuring the excision of DNA lesions from chromosomes. Taken together, these assays demonstrated that formaldehyde obstructs the rapid nuclear trafficking of DNA damage sensors and, consequently, slows down their relocation to DNA damage sites thus delaying the excision repair of target lesions. A concentration-dependent effect relationship established a threshold concentration of as low as 25 micromolar for the inhibition of DNA excision repair. Conclusions/Significance A main implication of the retarded repair activity is that low-dose formaldehyde may exert an adjuvant role in carcinogenesis by impeding the excision of multiple mutagenic base lesions. In view of this generally disruptive effect on DNA repair, we propose that formaldehyde exposures in the general population should be further decreased to help reducing cancer risks. PMID:24722772

Luch, Andreas; Frey, Flurina C. Clement; Meier, Regula; Fei, Jia; Naegeli, Hanspeter

2014-01-01

386

Occupational exposure of dentists to electromagnetic fields produced by magnetostrictive cavitrons alters the serum cortisol level  

PubMed Central

Objectives: Some studies indicate that dentistry is one of the job categories with high potential exposure to elevated levels of extremely low frequency magnetic fields. In spite of this, information on occupational exposure of dentists to these fields is scarce. Studies on other common sources of electromagnetic fields (EMFs) such as mobile base stations have shown alterations in the cortisol level following exposure of humans to these sources. The aim of this study is to compare the level of cortisol among dentists and dentistry students who are being occupationally exposed to EMFs emitted by magnetostrictive cavitrons (case group) and among their counterparts who are not being exposed to these fields (control group). Materials and Methods: In this case–control study, blood samples were collected from 41 dentists and dentistry students, 21 of whom were exposed to EMFs emitted by cavitrons as the case group and 20 who were not exposed as the control group, twice; i.e. before work (at 8:30–9:30 a.m.) and after work (11:30–12:30 a.m.). The samples were coded and the serum cortisol level was investigated using the ELISA method (Cortisol AccuBind ELISA Kits). Results: The serum cortisol level of dentists and dental students in the morning (before starting the work) in the control group was 189.15 ± 110.70 (mean ± SD) whereas it was 157.77 ± 112.03 in those who were occupationally exposed to EMFs produced by the use of cavitrons. This difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.373). In contrast, the serum cortisol level of the participants in the noon (after stopping the work) in the control group was 136.25 ± 67.91 (mean ± SD) while it was 88.58 ± 52.83 in those who were occupationally exposed to EMFs produced by the use of cavitrons. This time, the observed difference was statistically significant (P = 0.016). In this light, while the difference between serum cortisol levels of dentists and dental students in the morning and after stopping the work was not statistically significant (P = 0.06), in the EMF-exposed group the cortisol level decreased significantly from 157.77 ± 112.03 in the morning to 88.58 ± 52.83 in the noon (P = 0.001). Conclusions: As far as we know, this is the first study that evaluated the effect of occupational exposure of dentists to EMFs on their serum cortisol level. The EMFs produced by magnetostrictive cavitrons can decrease the serum cortisol level in dentists. As cortisol plays an important role in blood pressure regulation, cardiovascular, and immune system function, a low cortisol level may threaten health. More studies are needed to clearly understand the effects of EMFs emitted by magnetostrictive cavitron on the level of stress hormones. As some studies have shown that exposure to EMFs has no effect on the cortisol level, whereas other studies reported either an increase or a decrease in the cortisol level, it can be concluded that the effects of exposure to EMFs may occur only at specific absorbed energies or energy absorption rates (usually known as window) similar to that exists in the case of exposure to the low doses of ionizing radiations. PMID:22690053

Mortazavi, S. M. J.; Vazife-Doost, S.; Yaghooti, M.; Mehdizadeh, S.; Rajaie-Far, A.

2012-01-01

387

Assessment of occupational exposures in a general population: comparison of different methods  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the relative merits of job specific questionnaires and various alternative assessment methods of occupational exposures often used in general population studies. METHODS: Subjects were participants in a hospital based case-control study of risk factors for male infertility. Estimates of exposure to organic solvents and chromium, based on job specific questionnaires, generic questionnaires, self reports of exposure, an external job exposure matrix (JEM), and a population specific JEM were compared with passive diffuse dosimeter results and measurements in urine. Urine samples from the end of the shift were analysed for metabolites of toluene, xylene, several glycol ethers, trichloroethylene, and chromium. Passive dosimeter date, metabolites of specific solvents, and urinary chromium concentrations were available for 89, 267, and 156 subjects, respectively. The alternative methods and measurements in urine were compared by means of the Cohen's kappa statistic and by computing the positive predictive value, sensitivity, and specificity of the alternative methods against measurements in urine. RESULTS: Passive dosimeter results indicated that exposure classifications with job specific questionnaire information could discriminate between high and low exposures. The kappa coefficients were < 0.4, so agreement between the various methods and measurements in urine was poor. Sensitivity of the methods ranged from 0.21 to 0.85, whereas specificity ranged from 0.34 to 0.94. Positive predictive values ranged from 0.19 to 0.58, with the highest values for job specific questionnaires. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that the implementation of job specific questionnaires in a general population study might be worth the extra expense it entails, bearing in mind the paramount importance of avoiding false positive exposure estimates when exposure prevalence is low.   PMID:10448321

Tielemans, E.; Heederik, D.; Burdorf, A.; Vermeulen, R.; Veulemans, H.; Kromhout, H.; Hartog, K.

1999-01-01

388

Occupant exposure to indoor air pollutants in modern European offices: An integrated modelling approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new model (INDAIR-CHEM) has been developed by combining a detailed indoor air chemistry model with a physical and probabilistic multi-compartment indoor/outdoor air exposure model. The detailed indoor air chemistry model was used to produce a simplified chemistry scheme for INDAIR-CHEM, which performs well for key indoor air pollutants under a range of conditions when compared to the parent model. INDAIR-CHEM was used to compare indoor pollutant concentrations in naturally ventilated offices in 8 European cities for typical outdoor conditions in summer, with those experienced during the European heat-wave in August 2003 for different air exchange rates. We also investigated the effect of cleaning with limonene based products on the subsequent exposure to secondary reaction products from limonene degradation. Extreme climatic conditions, such as a heat-wave which often leads to poor outdoor air quality, can increase personal exposure to both primary and secondary species indoors. Occupant exposure to indoor air pollutants may also be exacerbated by poor ventilation in offices. Reduced ventilation reduces maximum exposure to ozone, as there is less ingress from outdoors, but allows secondary species to persist indoors for much longer. The balance between these two processes may mean that cumulative exposures for office workers increase as ventilation decreases. Cleaning staff are at lower risk of exposure to secondary oxidation products if they clean before office hours rather than after office hours, since ozone is generally at lower outdoor (and hence indoor) concentrations during the early morning compared to late afternoon. However, from the viewpoint of office workers, reduced exposure would occur if cleaning was performed at the end of the working day.

Terry, Andrew C.; Carslaw, Nicola; Ashmore, Mike; Dimitroulopoulou, Sani; Carslaw, David C.

2014-01-01

389

Aberrant Production of Th1/Th2/Th17-Related Cytokines in Serum of C57BL/6 Mice after Short-Term Formaldehyde Exposure  

PubMed Central

Previous studies have shown that formaldehyde (FA) could cause immunotoxicity by changing the number of T lymphocytes and that cytokines play a pivotal role in the regulation of T lymphocytes. However, the previously used cytokine detection methods are difficult to use in the measurement of several cytokines in a small amount of sample for one test. Therefore, the cytometric bead array (CBA) technique was used. CBA showed better analytical efficiency and sensitivity than the previous methods. C57BL/6 mice were exposed to the control (normal saline), low FA concentration (0.5 mg/kg), and high FA concentration (2 mg/kg) for 1 week or 1 month. The contents of cytokines, including Th1-related cytokines (IL-2, IFN-?, and tumor necrosis factor), Th2-related cytokines (IL-4, IL-6, and IL-10), and Th17-related cytokines (IL-17A), were measured by using the BD FACS Canto II Flow Cytometer and analyzed by FCAP ArrayTM Software. Th1/Th2/Th17-related cytokines showed a slightly decreasing trend after low FA exposure. Conversely, a significantly increasing trend was found after high FA exposure. Th1/Th2/Th17-related cytokines all serve important functions in the immune reactions in mice after FA exposure. PMID:25264680

Wei, Haiyan; Tan, Kehong; Sun, Rongli; Yin, Lihong; Zhang, Juan; Pu, Yuepu

2014-01-01

390

Assessment of occupational exposure to extremely low frequency magnetic fields in hospital personnel.  

PubMed

It has been proposed that chronic exposure to extremely low frequency (ELF) magnetic fields (MF) in occupational environments could represent a risk factor for a number of disorders. Medical and technical workers in hospitals have been reported to be exposed to relatively strong ELF fields. The present work aims to characterize exposure to MF in the 5?Hz to 2?kHz frequency range in a large hospital through both instantaneous environmental measurements and personal monitoring of workers. The study was conducted in different working environments of a hospital with about 4400 employees, many of them working at two or more different work stations and consequently, exposed to MF levels that were expected to be unevenly distributed in space and time. The results indicate that: (1) The dominant frequency at the studied environments was 50?Hz (average 90.8?±?6% of the total B value); (2) The best descriptive information on a worker's exposure is obtained from personal monitoring of volunteer workers; (3) The arithmetic averages of exposure levels obtained from the monitoring ranged from 0.03?±?0.01?µT in nurses to 0.39?±?0.13?µT in physiotherapists; and (4) The description of the MF environment through spot measurements in the workplace, although coherent with the data from personal monitoring, might not adequately estimate MF exposure in some professional categories. PMID:21284008

Úbeda, Alejandro; Martínez, María Antonia; Cid, María Antonia; Chacón, Lucía; Trillo, María A; Leal, Jocelyne

2011-07-01

391

Occupational radiation exposure history of Idaho Field Office Operations at the INEL  

SciTech Connect

An extensive review has been made of the occupational radiation exposure records of workers at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) over the period of 1951 through 1990. The focus has been on workers employed by contractors and employees of the Idaho Field Operations Office (ID) of the United States Department of Energy (USDOE) and does not include the Naval Reactors Facility (NRF), the Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), or other operations field offices at the INEL. The radiation protection guides have decreased from 15 rem/year to 5 rem/year in 1990 for whole body penetrating radiation exposure. During these 40 years of nuclear operations (in excess of 200,000 man-years of work), a total of twelve individuals involved in four accidents exceeded the annual guidelines for exposure; nine of these exposures were received during life saving efforts on January 3, 1961 following the SL-1 reactor accident which killed three military personnel. These exposures ranged from 8 to 27 rem. Only one individual has exceeded the annual whole body penetrating radiation protection guidelines in the last 29 years.

Horan, J.R.; Braun, J.B.

1993-10-01