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1

Cytogenetic and immunological effects associated with occupational formaldehyde exposure.  

PubMed

Formaldehyde (FA) is a widely used industrial chemical for which exposure is associated with nasopharyngeal and sinonasal cancer. Based on sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity from human investigations, supporting studies on mechanisms underlying carcinogenesis, and experimental evidence in animals, FA status was recently revised and reclassified as a human carcinogen. The highest level of exposure to FA occurs in occupational settings. Although several studies reported FA ability to induce genotoxic responses in exposed workers, not all findings were conclusive. In addition, published studies on the immunological effects of FA indicate that this compound may be able to modulate immune responses, although data in exposed subjects are still preliminary. In this study a group of pathology anatomy workers exposed to FA was evaluated for cytogenetic and immunological parameters. A control group with similar sociodemographic characteristics and without known occupational exposure to FA was also included. Genotoxicity was evaluated by means of micronucleus (MN) test, sister chromatid exchanges (SCE), and T-cell receptor (TCR) mutation assay. Percentages of different lymphocyte subpopulations were selected as immunotoxic biomarkers. The mean level of FA environmental exposure was 0.36 ± 0.03 ppm. MN and SCE frequencies were significantly increased in the exposed group. A significant decrease of the percentage of B cells in the exposed group was also found. Data obtained in this study indicate that genotoxic and immunotoxic increased risk due to FA occupational exposure cannot be excluded. Implementation of effective control measures along with hazard prevention campaigns may be crucial to decrease the risk. PMID:23514064

Costa, Solange; García-Lestón, Julia; Coelho, Marta; Coelho, Patrícia; Costa, Carla; Silva, Susana; Porto, Beatriz; Laffon, Blanca; Teixeira, João Paulo

2013-01-01

2

OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE TO FORMALDEHYDE IN A MEDICAL CENTER AUTOPSY SERVICE  

EPA Science Inventory

The formaldehyde exposure occurring in the autopsy service of a medical complex were evaluated as part of a study to detect genetically harmful effects of chemical exposures. Determination of time-weighted average (TWA) exposures and characterization of the patterns of exposure e...

3

DCEG Research on Formaldehyde Exposure  

Cancer.gov

Studies to investigate occupational formaldehyde exposure and cancer risk, including an industrial cohort study of over 25,000 workers, a case-control study of workers in the funeral industry, and a cross-sectional study to quantify leukemia-specific chromosome changes associated with formaldehyde exposure

4

Assessing Formaldehyde Exposure in Your Gross Lab: Occupational Exposure Limits and Best Practices  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource is part of the AAA Education and Teaching Session. In particular this resource is a pdf of the presentation from the AAA 2012 Refresher Course - The Facts about Formaldehyde:What Every Anatomist Should Know.

Julia Rosen (University of Arizona)

2012-04-21

5

Formaldehyde exposure in a gross anatomy laboratory  

Microsoft Academic Search

A gross anatomy laboratory for medical students was evaluated for formaldehyde levels throughout its eight-week term. Results indicated that exposures for students and instructors were below the 3-ppm permissible exposure limit (assuming a maximum of five hours of daily exposure) established by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration. However, about one third of the eight-hour time-weighted-average exposures were greater than

Jimmy L. Perkins; James D. Kimbrough

1985-01-01

6

Formaldehyde exposure in a gross anatomy laboratory  

SciTech Connect

A gross anatomy laboratory for medical students was evaluated for formaldehyde levels throughout its eight-week term. Results indicated that exposures for students and instructors were below the 3-ppm permissible exposure limit (assuming a maximum of five hours of daily exposure) established by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration. However, about one third of the eight-hour time-weighted-average exposures were greater than 1 ppm under the same assumptions. Exposure levels for students and instructors did not differ. Exposures tended to decrease over the term unless internal cadaver cavities were being dissected. These exposures are significant in light of the recent implication of formaldehyde as an animal carcinogen and the trend to reduce permissible levels to 1 ppm or lower.

Perkins, J.L.; Kimbrough, J.D.

1985-11-01

7

A study of respiratory effects from exposure to 2.0 ppm formaldehyde in occupationally exposed workers.  

PubMed

It has been suggested that exposure to formaldehyde (FA) induces asthmatic symptomatology. We have previously studied healthy and asthmatic individuals and found that lung function was unaltered by controlled exposures to 2.0 ppm FA with and without mild exercise. Our present study extends these observations to a group of hospital laboratory workers routinely exposed to FA. Fifteen laboratory workers were exposed in double-blind, random sequence to 0 and 2 ppm FA for 40 min in an environmental chamber with temperature and relative humidity held constant at 23 degrees C and 50%, respectively. These exposures were repeated on two more occasions with a 10-min exercise regimen (450 kpm/min) after being in the chamber 5 min. In addition, a symptom diary and measurements of peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) were recorded for 24 hr after exposure. Lung function remained unaltered for all 4 exposure days; e.g., mean FEV1.0 for the group did not change by more than 3% at any testing time on any exposure day. Also, there were no delayed obstructive changes as measured by PEFR recordings. Symptoms were mild and transient with unusual odor and eye irritation the most frequent complaint. No lower airway symptoms were reported. We conclude that this group of healthy laboratory workers did not experience any acute or delayed lung function changes from exposure to 2.0 ppm FA at rest and with exercise and that irritative symptoms were few. PMID:3691441

Schachter, E N; Witek, T J; Brody, D J; Tosun, T; Beck, G J; Leaderer, B P

1987-12-01

8

Human performance during experimental formaldehyde exposure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sixty-one subjects were exposed in a climate chamber for 5.5 hours to a controlled atmospheric environment. Formaldehyde vapors were added in concentrations of 0, 0.15, 0.40, or 1.20 mg\\/m³. The exposures were arranged in a 4 x 4, balanced latin square design, involving four days in each of four weeks. The subjects were all males. Of these 32 had occupational

B. Bach; O. F. Pedersen; L. Moelhave

1990-01-01

9

Environmental Health Formaldehyde Exposure in Homes  

E-print Network

with phenol-formaldehyde products (commonly known as exterior grade products). Phenol-formaldehyde productsEnvironmental Health Formaldehyde Exposure in Homes: A Reference for State Officials to Use in Decision-making Background The issue of formaldehyde exposure in homes is long-standing and has been

10

Comparison of health of occupants and characteristics of houses among control homes and homes insulated with urea formaldehyde foam. II. Initial health and house variables and exposure-response relationships  

SciTech Connect

A health survey was conducted on 1726 occupants of urea formaldehyde foam insulated (UFFI) houses and 720 residents of control homes. The occupants of the UFFI houses showed a modest excess of many symptoms relative to the controls. This excess of complaints was contributed mainly by the residents of households which were intending to have their UFFI removed and by onsets which followed the installation of UFFI. There were no associated abnormalities in nasal airway resistance, sense of smell, pulmonary function, or patch tests for allergy to formaldehyde. However, the UFFI subjects intending to have their UFFI removed demonstrated a small increase in nasal epithelial squamous metaplasia. The indoor formaldehyde levels of the UFFI houses were about 20% higher than in the controls, while the carbon dioxide levels were similar in both groups. The UFFI subjects showed positive relationships between level of formaldehyde exposure and the presence of a number of symptoms, which were largely dependent on a small group of formaldehyde values that were in excess of 0.12 ppm. A number of the exposure-response relationships were enhanced by UFFI. These results suggested that some adverse health effects of UFFI were explained by formaldehyde alone while others were related to the combined effects of formaldehyde and an additional UFFI-related factor(s) which was not identified.

Broder, I.; Corey, P.; Cole, P.; Lipa, M.; Mintz, S.; Nethercott, J.R.

1988-04-01

11

Commentary: mechanistic considerations for associations between formaldehyde exposure and nasopharyngeal carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Occupational exposure to formaldehyde has been linked to nasopharyngeal carcinoma. To date, mechanistic explanations for this association have primarily focused on formaldehyde-induced cytotoxicity, regenerative hyperplasia and DNA damage. However, recent studies broaden the potential mechanisms as it is now well established that formaldehyde dehydrogenase, identical to S-nitrosoglutathione reductase, is an important mediator of cGMP-independent nitric oxide signaling pathways. We have

Chad M Thompson; Roland C Grafström

2009-01-01

12

[Formaldehyde exposure levels and exposure control measures during an anatomy dissecting course].  

PubMed

The evaporation of formaldehyde from cadavers can produce high exposures among students and instructors. A possible causal role for formaldehyde has been considered likely for tumor of the nasopharynx and the nasal cavities in human beings. Due to this reason, Japan Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) has set a guideline, which includes--decrease in gaseous formaldehyde in gross anatomy dissection laboratories and a guide to medical students about the toxicity of formaldehyde and protective method to avoid damages to skin, mucous, membrane, etc, in 2002. To understand what effective plans should be regarding the awareness of students about this notification, this study measured the gaseous formaldehyde concentrations in the anatomy dissection room and also analyzed the formaldehyde-related symptoms, and frequency of using protective measures. The study was conducted over a period of 3 months during the anatomy dissection exercise. We found that immediately after removing the cadavers' plastic covering, formaldehyde concentrations in the dissection room increased sharply. The concentration reached a peak point of 0.62 ppm after 10 minutes of starting of the class. This was much above the recommended level of 0.5 ppm set by Japan Society for Occupational Health. After 30 minutes of achieving the peak the formaldehyde level started decreasing gradually to a level of 0.11 ppm. Formaldehyde-related symptoms were observed in 59% of students. They had experienced symptoms of irritation of eyes, nose, throat, airways, skin, and headache during the course. Ocular discomfort was found significantly higher in the contact lenses users compared to the spectacle users or the normal eye sight group. Although, the guidelines about toxicity of formaldehyde and its protective measures to prevent damages to skin, mucous membrane etc. were informed to every student, only 52% of the students used both the mask containing activated carbon and the rubber gloves in every practical class without fail. Environmental Health Criteria 89 of International Program of Chemical Safety states, "It must be regarded that formaldehyde fluid is not absorbed directly into tissues through the skin". So the students may be allowed in some cases to touch the cadaver, treated by formaldehyde content fixative, by bare hands to understand the feel of certain organs and tissues. These results support that the rules of health supervision including necessity to use of protective measures, monitoring of indoor air formaldehyde etc. should be adhered by students and instructors in anatomy dissection room during the practical class. PMID:12833854

Tanaka, Kazuko; Nishiyama, Keiji; Yaginuma, Hiroyuki; Sasaki, Akihiko; Maeda, Takahumi; Kaneko, Sin-ya; Onami, Tetsuo; Tanaka, Masatoshi

2003-06-01

13

Formaldehyde Exposure Levels and Serum Antibodies to Formaldehyde-Human Serum Albumin of Korean Medical Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

In our study, we estimated formaldehyde exposure levels of Korean medical students during their cadaver dissection practice hours. In addition, we examined the prevalence rates of formaldehyde-specific immunoglobulin E or immunoglobulin G antibodies and compared the results with the symptoms the students experienced as a result of formaldehyde exposure. There were 167 Korean medical students (i.e., subjects) aged 23.8 ±

Heon Kim; Yong-Dae Kim; Soo-Hun Cho

1999-01-01

14

Occupational exposure in MRI  

PubMed Central

This article reviews occupational exposure in clinical MRI; it specifically considers units of exposure, basic physical interactions, health effects, guideline limits, dosimetry, results of exposure surveys, calculation of induced fields and the status of the European Physical Agents Directive. Electromagnetic field exposure in MRI from the static field B0, imaging gradients and radiofrequency transmission fields induces electric fields and currents in tissue, which are responsible for various acute sensory effects. The underlying theory and its application to the formulation of incident and induced field limits are presented. The recent International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) Bundesministerium für Arbeit und Soziales and Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers limits for incident field exposure are interpreted in a manner applicable to MRI. Field measurements show that exposure from movement within the B0 fringe field can exceed ICNIRP reference levels within 0.5 m of the bore entrance. Rate of change of field dB/dt from the imaging gradients is unlikely to exceed the new limits, although incident field limits can be exceeded for radiofrequency (RF) exposure within 0.2–0.5 m of the bore entrance. Dosimetric surveys of routine clinical practice show that staff are exposed to peak values of 42±24% of B0, with time-averaged exposures of 5.2±2.8 mT for magnets in the range 0.6–4 T. Exposure to time-varying fields arising from movement within the B0 fringe resulted in peak dB/dt of approximately 2 T s?1. Modelling of induced electric fields from the imaging gradients shows that ICNIRP-induced field limits are unlikely to be exceeded in most situations; however, movement through the static field may still present a problem. The likely application of the limits is discussed with respect to the reformulation of the European Union (EU) directive and its possible implications for MRI. PMID:22457400

Mcrobbie, D W

2012-01-01

15

Chronic respiratory effects of indoor formaldehyde exposure  

SciTech Connect

The relation of chronic respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function to formaldehyde (HCHO) in homes was studied in a sample of 298 children (6-15 years of age) and 613 adults. HCHO measurements were made with passive samplers two one-week periods. Data on chronic cough and phlegm, wheeze, attacks of breathlessness, and doctor diagnoses of chronic bronchitis and asthma were collected with self-completed questionnaires. Peak expiratory flow rates (PEFR) were obtained during the evenings and mornings for up to 14 consecutive days for each individual. Significantly greater prevalence rates of asthma and chronic bronchitis were found in children from houses with HCHO levels 60-120 ppb than in those less exposed, especially in children also exposed to environmental tobacco smoke. In children, levels of PEFR linearly decreased with HCHO exposure, with estimated decrease due to 60 ppb of HCHO equivalent to 22% of PEFR level in nonexposed children.

Krzyzanowski, M.; Quackenboss, J.J.; Lebowitz, M.D.

1990-01-01

16

Lowest adverse effects concentrations (LOAECs) for formaldehyde exposure.  

PubMed

In 2012 the Committee for Risk Assessment (RAC) of the European Chemicals Agency concluded that 2ppm formaldehyde represent a Lowest Observed Adverse Effect Concentration (LOAEC) for polypoid adenomas, histopathological lesions and cell proliferation. An analysis of all data shows that a LOAEC of 2ppm it is not justified for cell proliferation and polypoid adenomas. Higher values are also supported by a new statistical analysis. For histopathological lesions a NOAEC of 1ppm may be defined but the lesions at 2ppm cannot be regarded as pre-stages for tumour development. One major uncertainty exists: the description of polypoid adenomas and the lesions at 2ppm often is insufficient and diagnostic uncertainties can only be resolved by a re-evaluation according to modern histomorphological standards. Although the discrepancy between our assessment and that of RAC may seem rather small we feel the LOAECs proposed by RAC must be challenged taking into consideration the broad data base for formaldehyde and the potential impact of any published RAC opinion on the present discussions about appropriate occupational and indoor exposure limits. PMID:25073108

Gelbke, Heinz-Peter; Gröters, Sibylle; Morfeld, Peter

2014-10-01

17

NATIONAL OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE SURVEY (NOES)  

EPA Science Inventory

From 1981 to 1983, NIOSH conducted the National Occupational Exposure Survey (NOES) that collected data on potential occupational exposures to chemical, physical, and biological agents. The survey involved on-site visits to 4,490 establishments in 522 industry types [OMB 1972] em...

18

Occupational exposure to manganese.  

PubMed Central

The relationship between the degree of exposure and biological effects of manganese was studied in a group of 369 workers employed in the production of ferroalloys. Two other groups of workers, from an electrode plant and from an aluminium rolling mill, served as controls. Mean manganese concentrations at work places where ferroalloys were produced varied from 0-301 to 20-442 mg/m3. The exposure level of the two control groups was from 2 to 30 microgram/m3 and from 0-05 to 0-07 microgram/m3, in the electrode plant and rolling mill respectively. Sixty-two (16-8%) manganese alloy workers showed some signs of neurological impairment. These signs were noticeably less in the two control groups (5-8% and 0%) than in the occupationally exposed group. Subjective symptoms, which are nonspecific but may be symptoms of subclinical manganism, were not markedly different in the three groups. However, in the manganese alloy workers some of the subjective symptoms occurred more frequently in heavier smokers than in light smokers or nonsmokers. Heavier smokers engaged in manganese alloy production showed some of the subjective symptoms more often than heavier smokers from the control groups. PMID:871441

Saric, M; Markicevic, A; Hrustic, O

1977-01-01

19

Chronic respiratory effects of indoor formaldehyde exposure  

SciTech Connect

The relation of chronic respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function to formaldehyde (HCHO) in homes was studied in a sample of 298 children (6-15 years of age) and 613 adults. HCHO measurements were made with passive samplers during two 1-week periods. Data on chronic cough and phlegm, wheeze, attacks of breathlessness, and doctor diagnoses of chronic bronchitis and asthma were collected with self-completed questionnaires. Peak expiratory flow rates (PEFR) were obtained during the evenings and mornings for up to 14 consecutive days for each individual. Significantly greater prevalence rates of asthma and chronic bronchitis were found in children from houses with HCHO levels 60-120 ppb than in those less exposed, especially in children also exposed to environmental tobacco smoke. In children, levels of PEFR decreased linearly with HCHO exposure, with the estimated decrease due to 60 ppb of HCHO equivalent to 22% of PEFR level in nonexposed children. The effects in asthmatic children exposed to HCHO below 50 ppb were greater than in healthy ones. The effects in adults were less evident: decrements in PEFR due to HCHO over 40 ppb were seen only in the morning, and mainly in smokers.

Krzyzanowski, M.; Quackenboss, J.J.; Lebowitz, M.D. (Univ. of Arizona Health Sciences Center, Tucson (USA))

1990-08-01

20

Occupational Radiation Exposures  

Cancer.gov

DCEG researchers are studying cancer risks among populations who are occupationally exposed to radiation. Chernobyl Clean-up Workers Mayak Nuclear Facility Workers U.S. Radiologic Technologists Interventional Fluoroscopists Print This Page Occupational

21

FORMALDEHYDE Formaldehyde Management Plan i  

E-print Network

)5-3960 (Industrial Hygiene, Biological Safety, Occupational Safety, Hazardous Waste Management, Fire ProtectionFORMALDEHYDE MANAGEMENT PLAN #12;Formaldehyde Management Plan i Review and Approval Authority Formaldehyde Management Plan this page intentionally blank #12;Formaldehyde Management Plan iii Table

Rubloff, Gary W.

22

Worker exposure to endotoxin, phenolic compounds, and formaldehyde in a fiberglass insulation manufacturing plant.  

PubMed

Worker exposures in a fiberglass wool insulation manufacturing plant were studied. The plant used a continuous process and operated at full production during a six-week study. Area samples were used to characterize spatial variability of contaminant levels. Repeated personal samples were used to characterize the distribution and to explore within- and between-worker variability of exposures. The greatest potential for exposure to each of the contaminants was restricted to specific areas of the plant. Area geometric mean concentrations were 1 to 390 ng/m3 for endotoxin and 22 to 414 micrograms/m3 for formaldehyde. There was considerable within-area variation of endotoxin (geometric standard deviation [GSD] 2.6 to 5.5) and formaldehyde (GSD 2.0 to 4.5). Concentrations of phenolic compounds were correlated with endotoxin and were influenced by a relatively high limit of detection. The ranges of personal GM exposures across homogeneous groupings were smaller than the range for the corresponding areas (endotoxin 5.8 to 36.4 ng/m3; formaldehyde 18.1 to 67.4 micrograms/m3). Variability in personal exposure was high. Individual GSDs ranged up to 10, with the mean individual GSD of 3.4 for endotoxin, and up to 12 with mean 3.7 for formaldehyde. Suggested thresholds for acute respiratory effects of endotoxin exposure were frequently exceeded (46% of 8-hr personal samples > 10 ng/m3, 7% > 100 ng/m3). No personal samples exceeded the Occupational Safety and Health Administration permissible exposure level or the American Conference of Government Industrial Hygienists' threshold limit value for formaldehyde; however, 34% were greater than 60 micrograms/m3 and 11% were greater than 120 micrograms/m3. Thus, exposures fell in a range where important exposure-response relationship could be examined. PMID:8865598

Milton, D K; Walters, M D; Hammond, K; Evans, J S

1996-10-01

23

CHRONIC RESPIRATORY EFFECTS OF INDOOR FORMALDEHYDE EXPOSURE  

EPA Science Inventory

The relation of chronic respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function to formaldehyde (HCHO) in homes was studied in a sample of 298 children (6 - 15 years of age) and 613 adults. CHO measurements were made with passive samplers two one-week periods. ata on chronic cough and phlegm...

24

Review article Formaldehyde in China: Production, consumption, exposure levels, and health effects  

E-print Network

Formaldehyde, an economically important chemical, is classified as a human carcinogen that causes naso formaldehyde exposure, concentrations in homes, office buildings, workshops, public places, and food often . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1214 3.6. Food exposure

California at Berkeley, University of

25

Formaldehyde  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Formaldehyde, as an aqueous solution ranging from 37 to 50 wt%, continues to be the preferred aldehyde for reaction with phenol for the preparation of phenolic resins. Over 30 million metric tons of formaldehyde represent the global worldwide consumption of formaldehyde for an array of products, besides phenolic resins. These include urea formaldehyde resins, melamine formaldehyde resins, polyacetal resins, methylenebis (4-phenyl isocyanate), butanediol, pentaerythritol, and others.

Kowatsch, Stefan

26

Occupational Surveillance for Spaceflight Exposures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This slide presentation reviews the importance of longterm occupational health surveillance of astronauts after exposure to the possible hazards of spaceflight. Because there is not much information about long term effects of spaceflight on human health, it is important to identify some of the possible results of exposure to the many possible factors that can influence longterm health impacts. This surveillance also allows for NASA to meet the obligation to care for the astronauts for their lifetime.

Tarver, William J.

2010-01-01

27

Formaldehyde  

MedlinePLUS

... Basic Information on Pollutants and Sources of Indoor Air Pollution Asbestos Biological Pollutants Carbon Monoxide (CO) Formaldehyde/Pressed Wood Products Lead (Pb) Nitrogen Dioxide (NO 2 ... Read "Care for Your Air: A Guide to Indoor Air Quality" Formaldehyde is ...

28

Occupational exposure to chemical agents in the paper industry.  

PubMed

As part of an International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) international epidemiological study of workers in the pulp and paper industry, previously unpublished exposure measurements were assembled in a database. This article summarizes the results of 3,873 measurements carried out in the production departments of paper and paperboard mills and recycling plants in 12 countries. In the paper and paperboard mills, most of the agents were measured in the pulping and refining departments and in on-machine coating and winding of paper/paperboard. Exposures to asbestos, carbon monoxide, formaldehyde, fungal spores, bacteria, nitrogen dioxide, minerals dusts, paper dust, sulphuric acid and different solvents sometimes exceeded exposure limit values. In the re-pulping and de-inking departments of recycling plants high exposures to formaldehyde, fungal spores, bacteria and paper dust were observed. High exposures to asbestos, bioaerosols, carbon monoxide and paper dust were found in many departments; ammonia, formaldehyde, mineral and paper dust and solvents were found in coating machines; and diphenyl and polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs) were found in some special circumstances. Measurements in the newsprint and uncoated paper machine departments revealed only a few elevated exposures. In nearly all departments, measurements of epichlorohydrin, PCBs, sulphur dioxide, hydrogen sulphide and mercaptans tended to be low, often even below their detection limits. In spite of some uncertainties in the measurement data, the study provides new insights into the level and variation of occupational exposures of production workers in the paper and paperboard industry. PMID:15368059

Korhonen, K; Liukkonen, T; Ahrens, W; Astrakianakis, G; Boffetta, P; Burdorf, A; Heederik, D; Kauppinen, T; Kogevinas, M; Osvoll, P; Rix, B A; Saalo, A; Sunyer, J; Szadkowska-Stanczyk, I; Teschke, K; Westberg, H; Widerkiewicz, K

2004-10-01

29

Non-occupational exposure to silica dust  

PubMed Central

Occupational exposure to silica occurs at workplaces in factories like quartz crushing facilities (silica flour milling), agate, ceramic, slate pencil, glass, stone quarries and mines, etc., Non-occupational exposure to silica dust can be from industrial sources in the vicinity of the industry as well as non-industrial sources. Recently, public concern regarding non-occupational or ambient exposure to crystalline silica has emerged making it important to gather information available on non-occupational exposures to silica dust and non-occupational silicosis. This paper reviews various non-occupational exposures reported in literature including some studies by the author. Methodology used in assessment of non-occupational exposures, standards for non-occupational exposures to silica dust and indirect estimation of cumulative risk % are also discussed. PMID:23776316

Bhagia, L. J.

2012-01-01

30

Exposure to low molecular weight isocyanates and formaldehyde in foundries using hot box core binders.  

PubMed

Emissions from a chemical core binder system (Hot Box) based on a formaldehyde-carbamide resin have been investigated. The binder is used in some Swedish die-casting foundries. During core-making and casting, low molecular monoisocyanates, in particular methyl isocyanate (MIC) and isocyanic acid (ICA), were identified. Exposure to air concentrations of MIC, ICA and formaldehyde were subsequently determined in all Swedish foundries using the Hot Box binder, and involved three brass and one grey iron foundry. The survey was carried out in the winter period of 2001, and involved core-makers, casters and fettlers in the brass foundries, whereas only core-makers were included in the grey iron foundry. For each worker, four to five short-term samples of isocyanates (n = 298) and one 8 h sample of formaldehyde (n = 64) were collected during one shift for 15 die-casters, 39 core-makers and 10 other workers in the foundry. The air concentrations of the MIC short-term samples varied between <4 and 68 microg m(-3), with corresponding ICA levels between <4 and 280 microg m(-3). Calculated 8 h time weighted average air concentrations of MIC, based on short-term samples for each individual, varied between <4 and 31 microg m(-3); for ICA the corresponding levels varied from <4 to 190 microg m(-3). The formaldehyde time weighted average concentration levels ranged from 14 to 1600 microg m(-3), and the Swedish occupational exposure limit (600 microg m(-3)) was exceeded only in 3% of the samples. In general, the core-makers were exposed to higher average formaldehyde levels compared to the casters, the latter being more exposed to monoisocyanates. During core-making and die-casting, low molecular monoisocyanates, in particular MIC and ICA, were identified. Compared to the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) threshold limit value-time weighted average (TLV-TWA) for MIC, the exposures were low. The lack of toxicological and human data for ICA and the relatively high air concentrations call for medical examination and preventive measures in production, ventilation and the use of personal safety equipment in the investigated foundries. PMID:16126762

Westberg, Håkan; Löfstedt, Håkan; Seldén, Anders; Lilja, Bengt-Gunnar; Nayström, Peter

2005-11-01

31

Occupational exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs).  

PubMed Central

Human occupational exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) with varying chlorine content has been reported by several investigators, using analyses of blood or adipose samples or skin wipes to evaluate levels in the body. The intensity of occupational exposure is related to both duration and intensity of exposure. The qualitative nature of occupational exposure, as well as casual environmental exposure, has been shown to consist of less readily metabolized PCB congeners. The pattern of PCB congeners in human tissues, determined by gas chromatography, may or may not be readily ascribed to specific PCB standard mixtures. The average occupational exposure, as depicted in several studies of blood, plasma or serum concentrations, is approximately 10 to 1000 times that observed in nonoccupationally exposed persons. Currently used methods of PCB quantitation and pattern identification vary widely, with no uniformly administered criteria being applied to characterize human PCB exposure. PMID:3928344

Wolff, M S

1985-01-01

32

Identification of Gene Markers for Formaldehyde Exposure in Humans  

PubMed Central

Background Formaldehyde (FA) is classified as a human carcinogen and has been linked to increased leukemia rates in some epidemiologic studies. Inhalation of FA induces sensory irritation at relatively low concentrations. However, little is known concerning the cellular alterations observed after FA exposure in humans. Objectives Our aim was to profile global gene expression in Hs 680.Tr human tracheal fibroblasts exposed to FA and to develop biomarkers for the evaluation of FA exposure in humans. Methods and Results We used gene expression analysis, and identified 54 genes designated as FA responsive. On the basis of these data, we conducted an exploratory analysis of the expression of these genes in human subjects exposed to high or low levels of FA. We monitored FA exposure by measuring the urinary concentration of thiazolidine-4-carboxylate (TZCA), a stable and quantitative cysteinyl adduct of FA. Nine genes were selected for real-time PCR analysis; of these, BHLHB2, CCNL1, SE20-4, C8FW, PLK2, and SGK showed elevated expression in subjects with high concentrations of TZCA. Conclusion The identification of gene marker candidates in vitro using microarray analysis and their validation using human samples obtained from exposed subjects is a good tool for discovering genes of potential mechanistic interest and biomarkers of exposure. Thus, these genes are differentially expressed in response to FA and are potential effect biomarkers of FA exposure. PMID:17938736

Li, Guang-Yong; Lee, Hye-Young; Shin, Ho-Sang; Kim, Hyeon-Young; Lim, Cheol-Hong; Lee, Byung-Hoon

2007-01-01

33

Exposure to Formaldehyde and Its Potential Human Health Hazards  

Microsoft Academic Search

A widely used chemical, formaldehyde is normally present in both indoor and outdoor air. The rapid growth of formaldehyde-related industries in the past two decades reflects the result of its increased use in building materials and other commercial sectors. Consequently, formaldehyde is encountered almost every day from large segments of society due to its various sources. Many governments and agencies

Ki-Hyun Kim; Shamin Ara Jahan; Jong-Tae Lee

2011-01-01

34

Biologic interactions between smoking and occupational exposures  

SciTech Connect

Cigarette smoking is a major cause of cancer and lung disease in the U.S. population. The biological processes that underlie the response of the lung to cigarette smoke are important considerations for designing analyses of the effects of occupational exposures. Interactions between cigarette smoking and occupational exposures may occur through a combined effect on the mechanism of disease production, through an effect on the dose of the toxic substances that reach the target issue, or through an effect on the response of the lung to the toxic agents. Disease due to occupational exposures can occur in a similar pattern in both smokers and nonsmokers; however, as more complex interactions are examined, different responses to the same occupational exposure may be identified for smokers and nonsmokers. It is only through the successful intermingling of biologic information with epidemiologic data that these interactions can be fully examined. 66 references.

Burns, D.M.; Froines, J.R.; Jarvik, M.E.

1988-01-01

35

Occupational Pesticide Exposures and Respiratory Health  

PubMed Central

Pesticides have been widely used to control pest and pest-related diseases in agriculture, fishery, forestry and the food industry. In this review, we identify a number of respiratory symptoms and diseases that have been associated with occupational pesticide exposures. Impaired lung function has also been observed among people occupationally exposed to pesticides. There was strong evidence for an association between occupational pesticide exposure and asthma, especially in agricultural occupations. In addition, we found suggestive evidence for a link between occupational pesticide exposure and chronic bronchitis or COPD. There was inconclusive evidence for the association between occupational pesticide exposure and lung cancer. Better control of pesticide uses and enforcement of safety behaviors, such as using personal protection equipment (PPE) in the workplace, are critical for reducing the risk of developing pesticide-related symptoms and diseases. Educational training programs focusing on basic safety precautions and proper uses of personal protection equipment (PPE) are possible interventions that could be used to control the respiratory diseases associated with pesticide exposure in occupational setting. PMID:24287863

Ye, Ming; Beach, Jeremy; Martin, Jonathan W.; Senthilselvan, Ambikaipakan

2013-01-01

36

Exposure Interactions in Occupational\\/Environmental Toxicology  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article highlights the importance of evaluating the whole person when health professionals diagnose potential toxicity from occupational and\\/or environmental exposure. Health professionals must consider interactions of combined exposures to toxic agents resulting from the personal lifestyle of an individual, along with various drugs which the person may be taking. In addition, health professionals must evaluate potential family or home

B. K. Nelson

1997-01-01

37

Psychiatric epidemiologic study of occupational lead exposure  

SciTech Connect

The association of occupational lead exposure with neuropsychiatric functioning was evaluated using data collected in 1982 in eastern Pennsylvania from 288 lead-exposed workers and 181 nonexposed subjects. Both current and cumulative exposure indices were used. After controlling for age, education, and income, few meaningful differences between exposed and control workers were found on either neuropsychologic or psychosocial variables. Dose-response analyses indicated that among lead-exposed workers, cumulative and current exposure were unrelated to neuropsychologic performance. The only meaningful associations occurred between exposure and level of conflict in interpersonal relationships. The results thus give evidence against hypotheses suggesting adverse neuropsychologic effects.

Parkinson, D.K.; Ryan, C.; Bromet, E.J.; Connell, M.M.

1986-02-01

38

An overview of occupational benzene exposures and occupational exposure limits in Europe and North America.  

PubMed

Benzene has become one of the most intensely regulated substances in the world. Its ubiquitous use as a solvent has led to many working populations being exposed; in the early days often in uncontrolled conditions, leading to high exposures. Current occupational exposures are tightly controlled and are largely confined to workers in the petrochemical industry, vehicle mechanics, firefighters, workers exposed to automobile emissions, and some other occupational groups. Typically, occupational exposure levels are currently at or below 3.25 mg/m3 (1 ppm), and environmental exposures are typically below 50 microg/m3 (15 ppb). Smoking remains a significant source of exposure in both occupationally and non-occupationally exposed individuals. The early experiences of high occupational exposures led to the identification of haematopoietic effects of benzene and the need for improved control and regulation. As with most occupational standards, there has been a reduction in exposure limits as effects have been identified at ever-lower levels, accompanied by a societal concern for improved standards of occupational health. In 1946, the United States occupational exposure limit for benzene, promulgated by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, was 325 mg/m3 (100 ppm), but nowadays most European and North American countries have harmonised at 1.63-3.25mg/m3 (0.5-1 ppm). This latter figure was agreed within the European Union in 1997 and was adopted within national legislation by all Member States. The data on which this limit is set are essentially the same as those used by other standard-setting committees; this is an excellent example of how standards are set using science, pragmatism and societal values in the absence of complete information. PMID:15935799

Capleton, Alexander C; Levy, Leonard S

2005-05-30

39

Parental Occupational Exposures and Autism Spectrum Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Both self-report and industrial hygienist (IH) assessed parental occupational information were used in this pilot study in which 174 families (93 children with ASD and 81 unaffected children) enrolled in the Childhood Autism Risks from Genetics and Environment study participated. IH results indicated exposures to lacquer, varnish, and xylene…

McCanlies, Erin C.; Fekedulegn, Desta; Mnatsakanova, Anna; Burchfiel, Cecil M.; Sanderson, Wayne T.; Charles, Luenda E.; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva

2012-01-01

40

Paternal Occupational Exposures and Childhood Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the study described here was to test the hypothesis that paternal occupational exposure near conception increases the risk of cancer in the offspring. We conducted a cohort study based on a population of 235,635 children born shortly after two different censuses in Sweden. The children were followed from birth to 14 years, and cases of cancer were

Maria Feychting; Nils Plato; Gun Nise; Anders Ahlbom

2001-01-01

41

29 CFR 1926.52 - Occupational noise exposure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Occupational noise exposure. 1926.52 Section...Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION...HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Occupational Health and Environmental Controls...

2010-07-01

42

Human occupational and nonoccupational exposure to fibers.  

PubMed Central

Human exposure to fibers in occupational and nonoccupational environments has been a health concern for nearly a century. In this review, selected results from the literature are presented to highlight the availability, limitations, and interpretive difficulties associated with the past and current human fiber exposure data sets. In the traditionally defined asbestos fibers, large amounts of the data available suffer from the diversity of sample collection and analysis methods. Two simple generalizations suggest that occupational exposures are several orders of magnitude higher than that of environmental exposures; and currently extant data and the current routine measurement practices present significant difficulties in the consistent interpretation of the data with respect to health effects. The data on the human exposures to man-made vitreous fibers are much more complete than the data on asbestos exposure, while exposure data on other man-made fibrous materials are lacking. The human exposure data to many minerals which, at times, exist in fibrous habit, are very scanty, and in view of the biological activity of some of these fibers, this lack may be of significant concern. PMID:2272324

Esmen, N A; Erdal, S

1990-01-01

43

Identifying an indoor air exposure limit for formaldehyde considering both irritation and cancer hazards  

PubMed Central

Formaldehyde is a well-studied chemical and effects from inhalation exposures have been extensively characterized in numerous controlled studies with human volunteers, including asthmatics and other sensitive individuals, which provide a rich database on exposure concentrations that can reliably produce the symptoms of sensory irritation. Although individuals can differ in their sensitivity to odor and eye irritation, the majority of authoritative reviews of the formaldehyde literature have concluded that an air concentration of 0.3 ppm will provide protection from eye irritation for virtually everyone. A weight of evidence-based formaldehyde exposure limit of 0.1 ppm (100 ppb) is recommended as an indoor air level for all individuals for odor detection and sensory irritation. It has recently been suggested by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), the National Toxicology Program (NTP), and the US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) that formaldehyde is causally associated with nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC) and leukemia. This has led US EPA to conclude that irritation is not the most sensitive toxic endpoint and that carcinogenicity should dictate how to establish exposure limits for formaldehyde. In this review, a number of lines of reasoning and substantial scientific evidence are described and discussed, which leads to a conclusion that neither point of contact nor systemic effects of any type, including NPC or leukemia, are causally associated with exposure to formaldehyde. This conclusion supports the view that the equivocal epidemiology studies that suggest otherwise are almost certainly flawed by identified or yet to be unidentified confounding variables. Thus, this assessment concludes that a formaldehyde indoor air limit of 0.1 ppm should protect even particularly susceptible individuals from both irritation effects and any potential cancer hazard. PMID:21635194

Golden, Robert

2011-01-01

44

48 CFR 952.223-75 - Preservation of individual occupational radiation exposure records.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Preservation of individual occupational radiation exposure records. 952...223-75 Preservation of individual occupational radiation exposure records. ...criticality: Preservation of Individual Occupational Radiation Exposure Records (APR...

2010-10-01

45

Antibody production in rats after long-term exposure to formaldehyde  

SciTech Connect

Sprague-Dawley rats were vaccinated with pneumococcal polysaccharide antigens and tetanus toxoid to evaluate the immunologic effects of long-term formaldehyde exposure. The antibody response to vaccination was measured 3 to 4 weeks later by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. An IgG response to pneumococcal polysaccharides and to tetanus toxoid was found in both the formaldehyde-exposed group and a control group of rats not exposed to formaldehyde. The IgM response to tetanus toxoid was significant in both groups but neither group showed a significant IgM response to pneumococcal polysaccharides. There were thus no signs of impaired B-cell function in rats exposed to a high concentration (12.6 ppm) of formaldehyde for nearly 2 years.

Holmstroem, M.R.; Rynnel-Dagoeoe, B.Wi.; Wilhelmsson, B. (Karolinska Institutet (Sweden))

1989-09-01

46

Effects of occupational lead exposure.  

PubMed

Fifty-three workers in a battery factory, 52 solderers in a television factory, and 50 embroidery workers (a reference group) were studied. The average air lead levels of the three workplaces were 0.578 mg/m3, 0.002 mg/m3, and 0.001 mg/m3, respectively. Adverse effects in terms of clinical manifestations and biochemical criteria were evident among the battery factory workers. A significant dose-response relationship existed between the toxic effects and the air lead levels. The solderers showed no apparent abnormalities in comparison with the embroidery workers. The early clinical manifestations were dysfunction of the central nervous system, indigestion, arthralgia, and myalgia in the extremities. A positive association was observed between the prevalence of fatigue, mild abdominal pain, and arthralgia and the blood lead (PbB), urinary lead (PbU), and zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) levels. The symptomatic threshold values of PbB, PbU, and ZPP were 30 micrograms/dl (1.5 mumol/l), 0.045 mg/l (0.2 mumol/l), and 40 micrograms/dl (0.7 mumol/l), respectively. The PbB, PbU, free erythrocyte protoporphyrin, and ZPP levels and the blood aminolevulinic dehydratase ratio could be used as indicators of lead exposure, although ZPP is preferred for a preventive monitoring program. The motor and sensory conduction velocities of the median nerve were slower in the exposed groups than in the reference group. No effects on behavioral function were observed among the solderers. PMID:3832431

Wang, Y L; Lu, P K; Chen, Z Q; Liang, Y X; Lu, Q M; Pan, Z Q; Shao, M

1985-01-01

47

DOE occupational radiation exposure 1996 report  

SciTech Connect

The goal of the US Department of Energy (DOE) is to conduct its radiological operations to ensure the health and safety of all DOE employees including contractors and subcontractors. The DOE strives to maintain radiation exposures to its workers below administrative control levels and DOE limits and to further reduce these exposures and releases to levels that are ``As Low As Reasonably Achievable`` (ALARA). The DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report, 1996 provides summary and analysis of the occupational radiation exposure received by individuals associated with DOE activities. The DOE mission includes stewardship of the nuclear weapons stockpile and the associated facilities, environmental restoration of DOE and precursor agency sites, and energy research. Collective exposure at DOE has declined by 80% over the past decade due to a cessation in opportunities for exposure during the transition in DOE mission from weapons production to cleanup, deactivation and decommissioning, and changes in reporting requirements and dose calculation methodology. In 1996, the collective dose decreased by 10% from the 1995 value due to decreased doses at five of the seven highest-dose DOE sites. For 1996, these sites attributed the reduction in collective dose to the completion of several decontamination and decommissioning projects, reduced spent fuel storage activities, and effective ALARA practices. This report is intended to be a valuable tool for managers in their management of radiological safety programs and commitment of resources.

NONE

1996-12-31

48

Soft tissue sarcoma and occupational exposures  

SciTech Connect

The associations between soft tissue sarcoma (STS) and occupational exposures were studied in a case-referent study in the southeast of Sweden. Exposure information was obtained through mailed questionnaires to 96 cases, 450 randomly selected population referents, and 200 cancer referents. Odds ratios (OR), were calculated for various occupational groups, and particularly, for occupations with potential exposure to chlorinated phenoxy herbicides and chlorophenols. In the analyses based on population referents, increased risks for soft tissue sarcoma were seen for especially gardeners (OR = 4.1), but also railroad workers (OR = 3.1); construction workers with exposure to impregnating agents (OR = 2.3), asbestos (OR = 1.8), or pressure impregnating agents (OR = 1.7); and unspecified chemical workers with potential exposure to phenoxy herbicides and/or chlorophenols (OR = 1.6). A similar pattern appeared when cancer referents were used although the numerical values of the odds ratios became different. A grouping of jobs resulted in Mantel-Haensel OR from 1.5 to 1.9 for farmers and forestry workers, dependent on referents used and even more increased OR for railroad workers and unspecified chemical workers with potential exposure to phenoxy herbicides and chlorophenols. The results of the study confirm rather than refute that phenoxy herbicides and chlorophenols could be of etiologic importance for STS; the high risk for gardeners, although based on a small number of individuals, was unexpected and remains unclear. Also, since other cancers were used as referents, no definite problems of recall bias should obtain in this material. None of the exposed groups had a higher proportion of smokers than the unexposed group.

Wingren, G.; Fredrikson, M.; Brage, H.N.; Nordenskjoeld, B.A.; Axelson, O. (University Hospital, Linkoeping (Sweden))

1990-08-15

49

Occupational exposures and asthma among nursing professionals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives:To identify occupational exposure risk factors associated with the development of new-onset asthma in nurses.Methods:A cross-sectional survey was administered to a sample of licensed Texas nurses (response rate 70%) and compared to three other healthcare professional groups. Nursing professionals were defined based on self-reported longest held job. Outcome variables were physician-diagnosed new-onset asthma after entry into the healthcare profession and

A A Arif; G L Delclos; C Serra

2009-01-01

50

[Subacute hypersensitivity pneumonitis after occupational mold exposure].  

PubMed

Mold-induced hypersensitivity pneumonitis is a rare and usually slowly progressing disorder. Therefore, the diagnosis and etiological investigations may be challenging and may often cause delay, despite the fact that early diagnosis and avoidance of the disease inducing agent are essential for the management of the disease. When appropriately treated, hypersensitivity pneumonitis is usually a relatively benign disorder. Irreversible pulmonary fibrosis may develop in cases of prolonged exposure. The disorder is considered as an occupational disease if the sufficient exposure occurs at workplace. PMID:23786111

Eerikäinen, Johanna; Nynäs, Pia; Uitti, Jukka

2013-01-01

51

Monitoring occupational exposure to cancer chemotherapy drugs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Reports of the health effects of handling cytotoxic drugs and compliance with guidelines for handling these agents are briefly reviewed, and studies using analytical and biological methods of detecting exposure are evaluated. There is little conclusive evidence of detrimental health effects from occupational exposure to cytotoxic drugs. Work practices have improved since the issuance of guidelines for handling these drugs, but compliance with the recommended practices is still inadequate. Of 64 reports published since 1979 on studies of workers' exposure to these drugs, 53 involved studies of changes in cellular or molecular endpoints (biological markers) and 12 described chemical analyses of drugs or their metabolites in urine (2 involved both, and 2 reported the same study). The primary biological markers used were urine mutagenicity, sister chromatid exchange, and chromosomal aberrations; other studies involved formation of micronuclei and measurements of urinary thioethers. The studies had small sample sizes, and the methods were qualitative, nonspecific, subject to many confounders, and possibly not sensitive enough to detect most occupational exposures. Since none of the currently available biological and analytical methods is sufficiently reliable or reproducible for routine monitoring of exposure in the workplace, further studies using these methods are not recommended; efforts should focus instead on wide-spread implementation of improved practices for handling cytotoxic drugs.

Baker, E. S.; Connor, T. H.

1996-01-01

52

DOE 2012 Occupational Radiation Exposure October 2013  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Analysis within the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report to provide an overview of the status of radiation protection practices at DOE (including the National Nuclear Security Administration [NNSA]). The DOE 2012 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report provides an evaluation of DOE-wide performance regarding compliance with Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations (C.F.R.), Part 835, Occupational Radiation Protection dose limits and as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) process requirements. In addition, the report provides data to DOE organizations responsible for developing policies for protection of individuals from the adverse health effects of radiation. The report provides a summary and an analysis of occupational radiation exposure information from the monitoring of individuals involved in DOE activities. Over the past 5-year period, the occupational radiation exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site. As an indicator of the overall amount of radiation dose received during the conduct of operations at DOE, the report includes information on collective total effective dose (TED). The TED is comprised of the effective dose (ED) from external sources, which includes neutron and photon radiation, and the internal committed effective dose (CED), which results from the intake of radioactive material into the body. The collective ED from photon exposure decreased by 23% between 2011 and 2012, while the neutron dose increased by 5%. The internal dose components of the collective TED decreased by 7%. Over the past 5-year period, 99.99% of the individuals receiving measurable TED have received doses below the 2 roentgen equivalent in man (rems) (20 millisievert [mSv]) TED administrative control level (ACL), which is well below the DOE regulatory limit of 5 rems (50 mSv) TED annually. The occupational radiation exposure records show that in 2012, DOE facilities continued to comply with DOE dose limits and ACLs and worked to minimize exposure to individuals. The DOE collective TED decreased 17.1% from 2011 to 2012. The collective TED decreased at three of the five sites with the largest collective TED. u Idaho Site – Collective dose reductions were achieved as a result of continuing improvements at the Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Project (AMWTP) through the planning of drum movements that reduced the number of times a container is handled; placement of waste containers that created highradiation areas in a centralized location; and increased worker awareness of high-dose rate areas. In addition, Idaho had the largest decrease in the total number of workers with measurable TED (1,143 fewer workers). u Hanford Site (Hanford) – An overall reduction of decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) activities at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) and Transuranic (TRU) retrieval activities resulted in collective dose reductions. u Savannah River Site (SRS) – Reductions were achieved through ALARA initiatives employed site wide. The Solid Waste Management Facility used extended specialty tools, cameras and lead shield walls to facilitate removal of drums. These tools and techniques reduce exposure time through improved efficiency, increase distance from the source of radiation by remote monitoring, shield the workers to lower the dose rate, and reduce the potential for contamination and release of material through repacking of waste. Overall, from 2011 to 2012, there was a 19% decrease in the number of workers with measurable dose. Furthermore, due to a slight decrease in both the DOE workforce (7%) and monitored workers (10%), the ratio of workers with measurable doses to monitored workers decreased to 13%. Another primary indicator of the level of radiation exposure covered in this report is the average measurable dose, which normalizes the collective dose over the population of workers who actually received a measurable dose. The average measurable TED in

none,

2012-02-02

53

[Titanium dioxide nanoparticles: occupational exposure limits].  

PubMed

Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is produced in Poland as a high production volume chemical (HPVC). It is used mainly as a pigment for paints and coatings, plastics, paper, and also as additives to food and pharmaceuticals. Titanium dioxide nanoparticles are increasingly applied in cosmetics, textiles and plastics as the ultraviolet light blocker. This contributes to a growing occupational exposure to TiO2 nanoparticles. Nanoparticles are potentially responsible for the most adverse effects of titanium dioxide. Due to the absence of separate fraction of nanoobjects and appropriate measurement methods the maximum admissible concentrations (MAC) for particles < 100 nm and nano-TiO2 cannot be established. In the world there are 2 proposals of occupational exposure levels for titanium dioxide nanoparticles: 0.3 mg/m3, proposed by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), and 0.6 mg/m3, proposed by experts of the New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO). The authors of this article, based on the available data and existing methods for hygiene standards binding in Poland, concluded that the MAC value of 0.3 mg/m3 for nanoparticles TiO2 in the workplace air can be accepted. PMID:25230569

Swidwi?ska-Gajewska, Anna Maria; Czerczak, S?awomir

2014-01-01

54

DOE 2008 Occupational Radiation Exposure October 2009  

SciTech Connect

A major priority of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is to ensure the health, safety, and security of DOE employees, contractors, and subcontractors. The Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) provides the corporate-level leadership and strategic vision necessary to better coordinate and integrate health, safety, environment, security, enforcement, and independent oversight programs. One function that supports this mission is the DOE Corporate Operating Experience Program that provides collection, analysis, and dissemination of performance indicators, such as occupational radiation exposure information. This analysis supports corporate decision-making and synthesizes operational information to support continuous environment, safety, and health improvement across the DOE complex.

U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security

2009-10-01

55

Occupational lead exposure and pituitary function.  

PubMed

Twenty-five moderately exposed lead workers (mean blood-lead level 1.9 mumol/l) had lower plasma levels of follicle stimulating hormone than 25 individually matched controls without occupational lead exposure (blood-lead level 0.2 mumol/l). In addition, the ten most heavily exposed individuals had higher levels of thyroid stimulating hormone, and the 14 workers under the age of 40 had decreased plasma levels of luteinizing hormone and serum levels of cortisol, as compared to the controls. All values were within "normal" reference limits. There was no significant change of the plasma testosterone level. These data indicate a complex effect on the endocrine system by moderate lead exposure, possibly mediated by changes at the hypothalamic-pituitary level. Besides the effect on hormone levels, there was also a decrease in plasma selenium level for the lead exposed workers. PMID:2498211

Gustafson, A; Hedner, P; Schütz, A; Skerfving, S

1989-01-01

56

Formaldehyde Exposure among Industrial Workers Is Associated with Increased Risk of Cancers of the Blood and Lymphatic System  

Cancer.gov

Results from an ongoing study of workers employed at plants that used or produced formaldehyde continue to show a possible link between formaldehyde exposure and death from cancers of the blood and lymphatic system, particularly myeloid leukemia. The report, by researchers at the NCI provides an additional 10 years of follow-up data to build on previous findings from this study.

57

Occupational Exposure to Metalworking Fluid Mist and Sump Fluid Contaminants  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper summarizes the analytical and occupational hygiene findings from a recent survey of occupational exposure to metalworking fluids (MWFs) in the engineering industry. The aim of the survey was to link MWF mist exposure measurements with particular engineering processes and controls, and utilize the data obtained to develop exposure standards. At the same time the opportunity was taken to

A. T. SIMPSON; M. STEAR; J. A. GROVES; M. PINEY; S. D. BRADLEY; S. STAGG; B. CROOK

2003-01-01

58

Occupant radon exposure in houses with basements  

SciTech Connect

This study compares basement and main-level radon exposure based on bi-level week-long radon measurements, occupancy and activity data collected in normal use during heating and non-heating seasons in a geographically-stratified random sample of about 600 Minnesota homes, in response to critiques of radon measurement protocol. Basement radon (RN1) (M=4.5, SD=4.5) and main level (Rn2)(M=2.9, SD=3.4) correlation was 0.8 (p=.00), including seasonal variation. In a 101-house subsample where Rn1 >=4.0 pCi/L and Rn2 <=3.9 pCi/L, maximum household exposure in basements was 1162 pCiHrs (M=120, Sd=207), main-level 2486 pCiHrs (M-434, SD=421). In same households, persons with most basement-time maxed 100 hrs (M=13,SD=23), persons with most main-level time maxed 160 hrs (M=79, SD=39). Basement activities show two patterns, (1) member used it for personal domain, e.g. sleeping, and (2) household used it for general activities, e.g. TV or children`s play. Basement occupancy justifies measurement of radon in the lowest livable housing level.

Franklin, E.M. [Univ. of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN (United States); Fuoss, S.

1995-12-31

59

Shortfalls in imputing sarcoidosis to occupational exposures.  

PubMed

The cause of sarcoidosis remains elusive. Reports of elevated sarcoidosis incidence in New York City firefighters and World Trade Center disaster responders have been advanced to support a causal relationship. This inference is open to question due to methodological differences in assessing and computing sarcoidosis incidence in populations versus putative occupational exposures. The magnitude of the odds ratio (OR; ca. 1.5) of causal candidates in the ACCESS case-control study of occupational and environmental exposures is sufficiently small that it might easily be attributable to confounders. Additionally, multiplicity of comparisons, difficulty in assembling a valid control population and the potential for recall bias critically limit causal inferences. A possible explanation for etiological elusiveness and multiplicity of elevated OR is that individuals with sarcoidosis, lacking components of efficient cellular immunity, respond with systemic granulomas to a variety of ubiquitous, frequently unidentifiable environmental antigens. Epidemiological methods for the identification of sarcoidosis causal candidates are potentially misleading and are unlikely to prove useful. PMID:22767391

Reich, Jerome M

2013-04-01

60

Neuropsychological symptoms and occupational exposure to anaesthetics.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE--To analyse the relation between symptoms regularly reported by hospital personnel and exposure to anaesthetics. SETTING--Personnel of 18 hospitals in Paris from 1987 to 1989. DESIGN--An exposed group that included all operating theatre members except for doctors, and which was divided into three subgroups depending on the degree of exposure--exposure was measured by the frequency of the use of the scavenging system--and a control group that included other hospital personnel matched by hospital, sex, occupation, age, and duration of service. SUBJECTS--557 exposed workers and 566 unexposed workers. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--The groups were compared according to the crude rates of regular symptoms. Adjusted odds ratios were calculated to estimate the risks associated with exposure to anaesthetic gas. Liver transaminase activities (alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase (s-ASAT, and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase) were measured and compared between groups of exposure. RESULTS--After controlling for working conditions and matching factors, neuropsychological symptoms and tiredness were reported more by workers in less often scavenged theatres than by controls. No difference was found between workers of the well scavenged theatres and controls. Among the exposed workers, the members of paediatric surgical staffs reported a higher rate of neurological complaints (tingling, numbness, cramps) and tiredness than the members of the other surgical staffs. They had a high value of s-ASAT more frequently than the other exposed workers. CONCLUSION--These results strengthen the hypothesis of a causal relation between exposure to anaesthetics and neuropsychological symptoms, and show a dose-response effect. They suggest that the use of ventilating systems in operating rooms is an effective means of prevention. PMID:1571297

Saurel-Cubizolles, M J; Estryn-Behar, M; Maillard, M F; Mugnier, N; Masson, A; Monod, G

1992-01-01

61

Exposure assessment in occupational epidemiology: measuring present exposures with an example of a study of occupational asthma  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the present paper is to present a comprehensive review of the issues involved in exposure assessment for occupational\\u000a epidemiology studies and to provide an example. Exposure assessment for occupational epidemiology studies is becoming more\\u000a quantitatively refined. This paper discusses important issues that need to be taken into account for exposure assessment,\\u000a with particular reference to occupational asthma.

Mark J. Nieuwenhuijsen

1997-01-01

62

Preconception Brief: Occupational/Environmental Exposures  

PubMed Central

In the last decade, more than half of U.S. children were born to working mothers and 65% of working men and women were of reproductive age. In 2004 more than 28 million women age 18–44 were employed full time. This implies the need for clinicians to possess an awareness about the impact of work on the health of their patients and their future offspring. Most chemicals in the workplace have not been evaluated for reproductive toxicity, and where exposure limits do exist, they were generally not designed to mitigate reproductive risk. Therefore, many toxicants with unambiguous reproductive and developmental effects are still in regular commercial or therapeutic use and thus present exposure potential to workers. Examples of these include heavy metals, (lead, cadmium), organic solvents (glycol ethers, percholoroethylene), pesticides and herbicides (ethylene dibromide) and sterilants, anesthetic gases and anti-cancer drugs used in healthcare. Surprisingly, many of these reproductive toxicants are well represented in traditional employment sectors of women, such as healthcare and cosmetology. Environmental exposures also figure prominently in evaluating a woman’s health risk and that to a pregnancy. Food and water quality and pesticide and solvent usage are increasingly topics raised by women and men contemplating pregnancy. The microenvironment of a woman, such as her choices of hobbies and leisure time activities also come into play. Caregivers must be aware of their patients’ potential environmental and workplace exposures and weigh any risk of exposure in the context of the time-dependent window of reproductive susceptibility. This will allow informed decision-making about the need for changes in behavior, diet, hobbies or the need for added protections on the job or alternative duty assignment. Examples of such environmental and occupational history elements will be presented together with counseling strategies for the clinician. PMID:16897370

Gehle, Kim

2006-01-01

63

Preconception brief: occupational/environmental exposures.  

PubMed

In the last decade, more than half of U.S. children were born to working mothers and 65% of working men and women were of reproductive age. In 2004 more than 28 million women age 18-44 were employed full time. This implies the need for clinicians to possess an awareness about the impact of work on the health of their patients and their future offspring. Most chemicals in the workplace have not been evaluated for reproductive toxicity, and where exposure limits do exist, they were generally not designed to mitigate reproductive risk. Therefore, many toxicants with unambiguous reproductive and developmental effects are still in regular commercial or therapeutic use and thus present exposure potential to workers. Examples of these include heavy metals, (lead, cadmium), organic solvents (glycol ethers, percholoroethylene), pesticides and herbicides (ethylene dibromide) and sterilants, anesthetic gases and anti-cancer drugs used in healthcare. Surprisingly, many of these reproductive toxicants are well represented in traditional employment sectors of women, such as healthcare and cosmetology. Environmental exposures also figure prominently in evaluating a woman's health risk and that to a pregnancy. Food and water quality and pesticide and solvent usage are increasingly topics raised by women and men contemplating pregnancy. The microenvironment of a woman, such as her choices of hobbies and leisure time activities also come into play. Caregivers must be aware of their patients' potential environmental and workplace exposures and weigh any risk of exposure in the context of the time-dependent window of reproductive susceptibility. This will allow informed decision-making about the need for changes in behavior, diet, hobbies or the need for added protections on the job or alternative duty assignment. Examples of such environmental and occupational history elements will be presented together with counseling strategies for the clinician. PMID:16897370

McDiarmid, Melissa A; Gehle, Kim

2006-09-01

64

Childhood cancer and occupational radiation exposure in parents  

Microsoft Academic Search

To test the hypothesis that a parent's job exposure to radiation affeOR). its his or her child's risk of cancer, the authors compared this exposure during the year before the child's birth for parents of children with and without cancer. Parents of children with cancer were no more likely to have worked in occupations, industries, or combined occupations and industries

Nancy Hicks; Matthew Zack; Glyn G. Caldwell; Donald J. Fernbach; John M. Falletta

1984-01-01

65

Formaldehyde Exposure in a Gross Anatomy Laboratory. Personal Exposure Level Is Higher Than Indoor Concentration (5 pp)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Goal, Scope and Background   Cadavers for gross anatomy laboratories are usually prepared by using embalming fluid which contains formaldehyde (FA) as\\u000a a principal component. During the process of dissection, FA vapors are emitted from the cadavers, resulting in the exposure\\u000a of medical students and their instructors to elevated levels of FA in the laboratory. The American Conference of Governmental\\u000a Industrial

Kimihide Ohmichi; Masatoshi Komiyama; Yoshiharu Matsuno; Yoshimitsu Takanashi; Hiroshi Miyamoto; Tomoko Kadota; Mamiko Maekawa; Yoshiro Toyama; Yukitoshi Tatsugi; Toshihiko Kohno; Masayoshi Ohmichi; Chisato Mori

2006-01-01

66

Electric and magnetic field exposure, chemical exposure, and leukemia risk in electrical'' occupations  

SciTech Connect

This project was conducted to address what are the extremely low frequency (ELF) magnetic and electric field exposures of workers in electrical'' occupations and do they exceed exposures encountered in non-electrical'' occupations and what are the chemical and physical exposures in the electrical'' occupations and do they exceed exposures encountered in non-electrical'' occupations Two subsidiary issues were does characterization and quantification of ELF magnetic field exposure in the electrical'' occupations provide data to support a dose response relationship between leukemia risk and electric or magnetic field exposure and do dffferences in chemical exposure between the occupations help explain the previously observed leukemia risk associated with these electrical'' occupations Data were collected in 3 regions in which electrical workers had been reported to have an excess of leukemia - New Zealand, Los Angeles and Seattle Measurements of magnetic fields were made on 493 electrical workers and 163 non-electrical workers.

Bowman, J.D.; Sobel, E.; London, S.J.; Thomas, D.C.; Garabrant, D.H.; Pearce, N.; Peters, J.M. (University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Preventive Medicine)

1992-12-01

67

76 FR 72216 - Occupational Exposure to Hazardous Chemicals in Laboratories Standard; Extension of the Office of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Occupational Safety and Health Administration [Docket No. OSHA-2011-0059] Occupational Exposure to Hazardous Chemicals...Paperwork) Requirements AGENCY: Occupational Safety and Health...

2011-11-22

68

76 FR 25376 - Occupational Exposure to Hazardous Chemicals in Laboratories Standard; Extension of the Office of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Occupational Safety and Health Administration [Docket No. OSHA-2011-0059] Occupational Exposure to Hazardous Chemicals...Paperwork) Requirements AGENCY: Occupational Safety and Health...

2011-05-04

69

Effects of occupational exposure - is there a link between exposure based on an occupational questionnaire and semen quality?  

PubMed

Several studies have suggested that human semen quality has declined over past decades and some have associated decline with occupational exposures. Many studies have been conducted in occupational settings, where exposure to occupational pollutants is intense. Our objective was to examine the association between exposure to occupational factors based on an occupational exposure questionnaire, and semen quality parameters (sperm concentration, motility, sperm morphology) and sperm chromatin structure. The study population consisted of 336 men who were attending an infertility clinic for diagnostic purposes and who had a normal semen concentration of ?15?mln/ml according to WHO criteria. All participants were interviewed and provided a semen sample. Additionally, a detailed questionnaire about the exposure to occupational factors was performed among the study participants. The results of the study suggest that occupational factors may affect semen quality. The exposure to noise during work was associated with decreased motility and increased DNA damage (p?=?0.005 and p?=?0.02, respectively). Exposure to polyvinyl chloride (PVC) decreased sperm concentration and motility (p?=?0.02 and p?=?0.03, respectively). Whereas exposure to high temperatures and sitting for more than 6 hours during work was positively associated with DNA fragmentation index (DFI) (p?=?0.03 and p?=?0.001, respectively). After applying the correction for multiple comparisons only the exposure to noise and sitting ?6 hours during work was associated with poorer semen quality (decreased motility and increased DFI, respectively). This study showed associations between self-reported occupational exposures and impaired semen parameters. The occupational exposure questionnaire may be useful in clinical practice for patients and physicians to identify the work factors associated with poorer semen quality. PMID:24702586

Jurewicz, Joanna; Radwan, Micha?; Sobala, Wojciech; Radwan, Pawe?; Bochenek, Micha?; Hanke, Wojciech

2014-08-01

70

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields  

SciTech Connect

In an hypothesis-generating case-control study of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, lifetime occupational histories were obtained. The patients (n = 28) were clinic based. The occupational exposure of interest in this report is electromagnetic fields (EMFs). This is the first and so far the only exposure analyzed in this study. Occupational exposure up to 2 years prior to estimated disease symptom onset was used for construction of exposure indices for cases. Controls (n = 32) were blood and nonblood relatives of cases. Occupational exposure for controls was through the same age as exposure for the corresponding cases. Twenty (71%) cases and 28 (88%) controls had at least 20 years of work experience covering the exposure period. The occupational history and task data were used to classify blindly each occupation for each subject as having high, medium/high, medium, medium/low, or low EMF exposure, based primarily on data from an earlier and unrelated study designed to obtain occupational EMF exposure information on workers in ``electrical`` and ``nonelectrical`` jobs. By using the length of time each subject spent in each occupation through the exposure period, two indices of exposure were constructed: total occupational exposure (E{sub 1}) and average occupational exposure (E{sub 2}). For cases and controls with at least 20 years of work experience, the odds ratio (OR) for exposure at the 75th percentile of the E{sub 1} case exposure data relative to minimum exposure was 7.5 (P < 0.02; 95% CI, 1.4--38.1) and the corresponding OR for E{sub 2} was 5.5 (P < 0.02; 95% CI, 1.3--22.5). For all cases and controls, the ORs were 2.5 (P < 0.1; 95% CI, 0.9--8.1) for E{sub 1} and 2.3 (P = 0.12; 95% CI, 0.8--6.6) for E{sub 2}. This study should be considered an hypothesis-generating study. Larger studies, using incident cases and improved exposure assessment, should be undertaken.

Davanipour, Z.; Sobel, E.; Bowman, J.D.; Qian, Z. [Univ. of Southern California School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA (United States)] [Univ. of Southern California School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Will, A.D.

1997-03-01

71

Occupational chemical exposures among cosmetologists: risk of reproductive disorders.  

PubMed

More research is needed to understand possible occupational reproductive risks for cosmetologists, specifically hairdressers and nail technicians, two occupations that often share workspace and exposure to hair dyes and nail polish. Cosmetologists are predominantly females of reproductive age; thus, they may be at higher risk for the effects of exposure to reproductive toxins. The purpose of this article is to inform nurses and public health professionals about occupational exposures for cosmetologists and discuss interventions to reduce the risks of reproductive disorders among susceptible worker populations. PMID:24328919

Pak, Victoria M; Powers, Martha; Liu, Jianghong

2013-12-01

72

RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access Occupational exposure to asbestos and lung  

E-print Network

RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access Occupational exposure to asbestos and lung cancer in men: evidence Research Group Abstract Background: Asbestos is classified as a human carcinogen, and studies have for other risk factors. Occupational hygienists, who were blinded to case�control status, assigned asbestos

Boyer, Edmond

73

Occupational Pesticide Exposures and Cancer Risk: A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

A review of the epidemiological literature linking pesticides to cancers in occupational studies worldwide was conducted, with particular focus on those articles published after the release of IARC Monograph 53 (1991): Occupational Exposures in Insecticide Applications and Some Pesticides. Important new data are now available. Chemicals in every major functional class of pesticides including insecticides, herbicide, fungicides, and fumigants have

Michael C. R. Alavanja; Matthew R. Bonner

2012-01-01

74

Risk of pancreatic cancer and occupational exposures in Spain  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the study was to analyse the relationship between occupational exposures and risk of pancreatic cancer. Incident cases of pancreatic cancer and hospital controls were prospectively identified and interviewed during the hospital stay. Occupational history was obtained by direct interview with the patient, and was available for 164 (89%) of 185 pancreatic cancer cases, and 238 (90%) of

JUAN ALGUACIL; TIMO KAUPPINEN; MIQUEL PORTA; TIMO PARTANEN; N URIA MALATS; MANOLIS KOGEVINAS; FERNANDO G. BENAVIDES; JORDI OBIOLS; F ELIX BERNAL

2000-01-01

75

Visits to physicians before and after exposure to urea formaldehyde foam insulation  

SciTech Connect

The average number of visits to a physician made by a sample of 351 residents of homes insulated with urea formaldehyde foam insulation in Montreal in the one year period before exposure was 5.25, and in the year following 5.62, an increase of 7 per cent (odds ratio 1.07, 95% CI = 1.00, 1.15). The increase in visits in the post insulation year was limited to subjects who had the product installed in the winter (OR = 1.48, 95% CI = 1.18,1.85), and was not seen for study subjects who insulated their homes during other seasons of the year.

L'Abbe, K.A.; Hoey, J.R.; Hanley, J.; Wacholder, S.; Nantel, A.

1988-11-01

76

DOE occupational radiation exposure. Report 1992--1994  

SciTech Connect

The DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report, 1992-1994 reports occupational radiation exposures incurred by individuals at US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities from 1992 through 1994. This report includes occupational radiation exposure information for all DOE employees, contractors, subcontractors, and visitors. This information is analyzed and trended over time to provide a measure of the DOE`s performance in protecting its workers from radiation. Occupational radiation exposure at DOE has been decreasing over the past 5 years. In particular, doses in the higher dose ranges are decreasing, including the number of doses in excess of the DOE limits and doses in excess of the 2 rem Administrative Control Level (ACL). This is an indication of greater attention being given to protecting these individuals from radiation in the workplace.

NONE

1997-05-01

77

A study of respiratory effects from exposure to 2 ppm formaldehyde in healthy subjects.  

PubMed

Formaldehyde (FA) is a common indoor air pollutant with irritative properties. It has been suggested that FA may produce physiologic alterations of the respiratory system. To study such responses, 15 nonsmoking, healthy subjects were exposed in a double blind, random manner to 0 and 2 ppm FA for 40 min in an environmental chamber. In addition, the same exposures were repeated on a separate day with the subjects performing moderate exercise (450 kpm/min) for 10 min. Exposures were carried out under controlled environmental conditions (temperature = 23 degrees C, relative humidity = 50%). Pulmonary function was measured before, during, and after exposures using partial and maximal flow-volume curves and airway resistance. Symptom diaries were given to the subjects; upper and lower airway symptoms were recorded for up to 24 hr following exposures. No significant bronchoconstriction was noted in this group. In 3 subjects, sequential measurements of peak flow over a 24-hr period following FA exposure failed to reveal any delayed airway response. On a separate day, 6 healthy subjects failed to demonstrate changes from their baseline responsiveness to methacholine after exposure to 2 ppm FA. Respiratory symptoms were, in general, confined to the upper airways and were mild to moderate in severity. We conclude that short exposures to 2 ppm FA do not result in acute or subacute changes in lung function among healthy individuals either at rest or with exercise. Subjective complaints following such exposures are confined to irritative phenomena of the upper airways. PMID:3767432

Schachter, E N; Witek, T J; Tosun, T; Leaderer, B P; Beck, G J

1986-01-01

78

Toolbox Safety Talk Formaldehyde Awareness  

E-print Network

Program named formaldehyde as a known human carcinogen. FORMALDEHYDE SPECIFICATIONS · Formaldehyde workers shall be protected from exposures to formaldehyde. · Cornell University staff and student of formaldehyde shall be prevented from contacting skin and eyes through proper personal protective equipment (PPE

Pawlowski, Wojtek

79

DOE 2010 Occupational Radiation Exposure November 2011  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses radiation protection and dose reporting requirements, presents the 2010 occupational radiation dose data trended over the past 5 years, and includes instructions to submit successful ALARA projects.

U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Analysis

2011-11-11

80

Ocular Injury by Transient Formaldehyde Exposure in a Rabbit Eye Model  

PubMed Central

Formaldehyde (FA) is frequently used in sterilizing surgical instruments and materials. Exposure to FA is highly concerned for eye tissues. Rabbit corneal epithelial cells were examined for changes after FA exposure. Our results showed that cell survival decreased 7 days after transient 3 min exposure to more than 100 ppm FA by trypan blue staining while MTT assay detected significant decrease at 20 ppm at 24 hours observation. The decrease of cell survival rate was concentration (up to 600 ppm)- and observation time (1–7 day)- dependent. The cell number decreased after 100 ppm FA exposure for more than 10 min at 7-day observation. The FA treated cells showed increased apoptosis/necrosis and cell cycle accumulation at sub G1 phase as well as mitochondria clustering around nucleus. The in vivo rabbit eye exposure for tear production by Schirmer’s test revealed that the FA-induced overproduction of tear also exhibited observation time (1–10 day)- and FA concentration (20–300 ppm for 5 min exposure)-dependent. Activated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (pERK2) in cornea explants by western blotting was reduced and increased c-Jun amino - terminal kinase (JNK) activation (pJNK) in cornea and conjunctiva was evident at 2 month after exposure to 50–200 ppm FA for 5 min. In conclusion, injury to the eye with transient exposure of up to 100 ppm FA for 3 min decreased corneal cell survival while a more sensitive MTT test detected the cell decrease at 20 ppm FA exposure. Morphology changes can be observed even at 5 ppm FA exposure for 3 min at 7 days after. The FA exposure also increased apoptotic/necrotic cells and sub-G1 phase in cell cycle. Long term effect (2 months after exposure) on the eye tissues even after the removal of FA can be observed with persistent JNK activation in cornea and conjunctiva. PMID:23818956

Lai, Li-Ju; Hsu, Wei-Hsiu; Wu, Albert M.; Wu, June H.

2013-01-01

81

Ranking the carcinogenic hazards of occupational exposures: Exposure-Potency Index (EPI) values for nine volatile industrial chemicals  

SciTech Connect

Employers, employees, and occupational health professionals need a simple index to rank carcinogens according to their potential danger at exposure levels which are commonly encountered in workplaces. We describe such an index, the Exposure-Potency Index (EPI). This simple proportion, dose level (mg/kg body weight/day) to which workers are permitted to be exposed/cancer-causing dose (mg/kg body weight/day) in test animals, permits comparisons among carcinogens. We have calculated this index for inhalation exposures to 1,3-butadiene, 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane (DBCP), 1,2-dibromoethane (EDB), ethylene oxide, formaldehyde, methylene chloride, propylene oxide, tetrachloroethylene (perchloroethylene), and trichloroethylene (TCE). The permitted worker exposure levels have frequently been close to the levels which induce tumors in laboratory animals. More recently, Permissible Exposure Limits (PEL's) for for some chemicals have been markedly reduced, and this is reflected in lowered EPI values. Combining EPI values with information on the numbers of exposed workers provides a simple means of identifying and ranking dangers to populations of workers.

Hooper, K.; Gold, L.S.

1986-01-01

82

Biological markers for formaldehyde exposure in mortician students. Report 1. Documentation of measurement methodology for characterizing extent of exposure. Final report  

SciTech Connect

A methodology used to determine airborne formaldehyde (50000) exposure in mortician students performing embalmings was evaluated. Prior to field testing, a laboratory study was conducted to evaluate the performance of a passive diffusion device in determining formaldehyde concentrations. The passive diffusion device and the NIOSH active air sampling method provided comparable formaldehyde determinations in a dynamic vapor generation chamber with a total analyte load of at least 8 parts per million hours. Field sampling studies under static air conditions revealed a negative bias and a higher imprecision among the passive monitors compared to the active sampling methods. Field tests under more turbulent air conditions resulted in continued negative bias, but similar precision. The bias observed between the passive diffusion device and the active air sampling methods may have been related to newly recognized forms of airborne formaldehyde. An average bias value calculation was used to adjust the subsequent extent of exposure study data obtained from the passive diffusion device. The authors conclude that the continuous reading passive diffusion device used to determine formaldehyde exposure performed in general agreement to the NIOSH active sampling methods, and could be used to monitor short term elevations in formaldehyde levels.

Boeniger, M.; Stewart, P.

1992-05-06

83

Occupational noise exposures among three farm families in northwest Ohio.  

PubMed

A pilot project was conducted to evaluate occupational noise exposures of three families living and working on farms in Northwest Ohio. Noise exposures were measured continuously for 7 consecutive days for each participant for 1 week each during planting, growing, and harvesting seasons. The dosimeters were programmed to evaluate noise exposures using both the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) action level and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH)/American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) guidelines. One family was evaluated per year and a total of nine family members (six adults and three children) participated. Adult noise exposures for on-farm activities (occupational exposures) ranged from 46.1 to 89.6 decibels on the A-weighted scale (dBA) as an 8-hour time-weighted average (8HR TWA) using the OSHA action level and from 62.6 to 92.1 dBA 8HR TWA using the NIOSH/ACGIH guidelines. Occupational noise exposures for the children ranged from 15.4 to 81.2 dBA 8HR TWA using the OSHA action level and from 42.4 to 85.5 dBA 8HR TWA using the NIOSH/ACGIH guidelines. Six of 45 exposures among the adults and none of the 11 exposures among the children exceeded the OSHA action level. In addition, 10 of 45 exposures among the adults and 1 of 11 exposures among the children exceeded the NIOSH/ACGIH guidelines. The results of this pilot project indicate noise exposures among farm families can exceed recommended levels. PMID:19064421

Milz, Sheryl A; Wilkins, J R; Ames, April L; Witherspoon, Melisa K

2008-01-01

84

Parental occupational exposures and risk of childhood cancer: A review  

SciTech Connect

The authors reviewed the literature in order to summarize the present knowledge on the association between parental occupational exposures to chemicals and the risk of childhood malignancy. The 32 studies pertaining to this topic were evaluated by considering various study qualities such as sample size, specificity of outcome, confounding, exposure specificity, and control selection. When evaluating the findings from any epidemiologic study, the potential sources of bias have to be considered. The selection of subjects, misclassification of exposure or outcome, and confounding from extraneous factors can contribute to a biased estimate of effect. Studies done to minimize these potential biases will be more valid, and these studies should be given the most weight when parental occupational exposures are evaluated as risk factors for childhood malignancy. We conclude that the preponderance of evidence supports the hypothesis that occupational exposure of parents to chemicals increases the risk of childhood malignancy. The parental occupational exposures implicated in childhood malignancy risk are exposure to chemicals including paints, petroleum products, solvents (especially chlorinated hydrocarbons) and pesticides, and exposure to metals. The available data do not allow the identification of specific etiologic agents within these categories of compounds. Future epidemiologic and toxicologic studies should be designed to pursue these leads. 49 references.

O'Leary, L.M.; Hicks, A.M.; Peters, J.M.; London, S. (University of Southern California School of Medicine, Los Angeles (USA))

1991-01-01

85

Occupational Exposure to Crystalline Silica and Autoimmune Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Occupational exposure to silica dust has been examined as a possible risk factor with respect to several systemic autoimmune diseases, including scleroderma, rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and some of the small vessel vasculitidies with renal involvement (e.g., Wegener granulomatosis). Crystalline silica, or quartz, is an abundant mineral found in sand, rock, and soil. High-level exposure to respirable silica dust

Christine G. Parks; Karsten Conrad; Glinda S. Cooper

1999-01-01

86

Exposure to benzene, occupational stress, and reduced birth weight  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVESThe association between birth weight and exposure to benzene, work stress, and other occupational and environmental hazards was investigated.METHODSIn a large petrochemical industry, 792 pregnant workers were enrolled and followed up through delivery between May 1996 and December 1998. Exposure to benzene and other solvents was assessed by an industrial hygienist based on each woman's job title and workplace information.

Dafang Chen; Sung-Il Cho; Changzhong Chen; Xiaobin Wang; Andrew I Damokosh; Louise Ryan; Thomas J Smith; David C Christiani; Xiping Xu

2000-01-01

87

Cytokinesis blocked micronucleus assay of peripheral lymphocytes revealing the genotoxic effect of formaldehyde exposure.  

PubMed

Formaldehyde (FA), which is said to be a carcinogenic agent, is commonly used in anatomy laboratories. This study used the cytokinesis blocked micronucleus assay (CBMN) to assess DNA damage due to FA exposure by measuring the frequency of micronuclei (MN) in lymphocytes. The extent of DNA damage was assessed with respect to the duration of exposure. Thirty male anatomy laboratory workers from various medical colleges involved with storing specimens and embalming were included in the study. Thirty males who were not exposed to FA were included as a comparison group. Blood samples were collected after informed consent was given. Information regarding age, duration of FA exposure and smoking habits was obtained by a questionnaire. The CBMN assay was conducted on cultured isolated lymphocytes stained with Giemsa. MN were counted in a total of 1000 binucleated lymphocytes. The effect of smoking was assessed using appropriate statistical tests. The frequency of MN in lymphocytes was significantly higher in the exposed group (P < 0.001). The duration of exposure correlated positively with the frequency of MN (r = 0.5, P = 0.02). Neither aging nor smoking correlated significantly with the formation of MN. The present study highlights significant DNA damage in people exposed to FA. The extent of damage was directly proportional to the duration of exposure. PMID:23893659

Souza, Anne D; Devi, Rema

2014-04-01

88

DOE Basic Overview of Occupational Radiation Exposure_2011 pamphlet  

SciTech Connect

This pamphlet focusses on two HSS activities that help ensure radiation exposures are accurately assessed and recorded, namely: 1) the quality and accuracy of occupational radiation exposure monitoring, and 2) the recording, reporting, analysis, and dissemination of the monitoring results. It is intended to provide a short summary of two specific HSS programs that aid in the oversight of radiation protection activities at DOE. The Department of Energy Laboratory Accreditation Program (DOELAP) is in place to ensure that radiation exposure monitoring at all DOE sites is precise and accurate, and conforms to national and international performance and quality assurance standards. The DOE Radiation Exposure Monitoring Systems (REMS) program provides for the collection, analysis, and dissemination of occupational radiation exposure information. The annual REMS report is a valuable tool for managing radiological safety programs and for developing policies to protect individuals from occupational exposure to radiation. In tandem, these programs provide DOE management and workers an assurance that occupational radiation exposures are accurately measured, analyzed, and reported.

ORAU

2012-08-08

89

Technical aspects of gaseous formaldehyde as a sterilant.  

PubMed

The design of a sterilizer for sterilization of heat sensitive items using gaseous formaldehyde and steam is described. The sterilizer is able to create a constant formaldehyde-steam concentration over a period of at least one hour. It is further able to operate at formaldehyde concentrations close to saturation with only small residues on sterilized plastic materials. The autoclave is used for measurement of formaldehyde solubility in polyolefines and poly(vinyl chloride) being approx. 15 and 250 ppm, respectively, at 70 degrees C and 30 mg HCHO I-1. The diffusion coefficient of formaldehyde in poly(vinyl chloride) is measured and is in the same order of magnitude as for ethylene oxide in poly(methyl methacrylate) i.e. 10(-10) cm2 s-1. Measurements of airborne formaldehyde in front of different sterilizers show that it is possible to design facilities meeting occupational exposure limits. PMID:6722252

Handlos, V

1984-03-01

90

Occupational exposures and lung cancer in New Caledonia  

PubMed Central

Aims: To study the associations between occupational exposures and the risk of lung cancer in New Caledonia. Methods: All cases diagnosed between January 1993 and December 1995 (228 lung cancers) and 305 population controls were included. Detailed information on lifetime job history, smoking, and other potential risk factors was collected by interview. Occupational exposures were assessed from the questionnaires by an industrial hygienist, without knowledge of case-control status. Results: No significant association was found with exposures related to nickel mining and refining, the main industrial activity in the territory. Among men, an excess risk of lung cancer was found for bus and truck drivers. Increased risks were also observed in men with the highest level of cumulative exposure to cleaning products and inorganic fertilisers. Exposure to field dust was associated with lung cancer risk in both sexes, and risk increased with cumulative exposure level. In some areas tremolite asbestos derived from local outcroppings was used as a whitewash. The association between exposure to field dust and lung cancer was limited to men and women exposed to this whitewash—that is, living in areas where the soil may contain tremolite. Conclusion: This study shows several associations between occupational exposures and lung cancer. The findings suggest that exposure to tremolite fibres from cultivated fields may increase the risk of lung cancer in New Caledonia. PMID:12883019

Menvielle, G; Luce, D; Fevotte, J; Bugel, I; Salomon, C; Goldberg, P; Billon-Galland, M; Goldberg, M

2003-01-01

91

Occupational PAH Exposures during Prescribed Pile Burns  

PubMed Central

Wildland firefighters are exposed to particulate matter and gases containing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), many of which are known carcinogens. Our objective was to evaluate the extent of firefighter exposure to particulate and PAHs during prescribed pile burns of mainly ponderosa pine slash and determine whether these exposures were correlated with changes in urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-HP), a PAH metabolite. Personal and area sampling for particulate and PAH exposures were conducted on the White Mountain Apache Tribe reservation, working with 21 Bureau of Indian Affairs/Fort Apache Agency wildland firefighters during the fall of 2006. Urine samples were collected pre- and post-exposure and pulmonary function was measured. Personal PAH exposures were detectable for only 3 of 16 PAHs analyzed: naphthalene, phenanthrene, and fluorene, all of which were identified only in vapor-phase samples. Condensed-phase PAHs were detected in PM2.5 area samples (20 of 21 PAHs analyzed were detected, all but naphthalene) at concentrations below 1 ?g m?3. The total PAH/PM2.5 mass fractions were roughly a factor of two higher during smoldering (1.06 ± 0.15) than ignition (0.55 ± 0.04 ?g mg?1). There were no significant changes in urinary 1-HP or pulmonary function following exposure to pile burning. In summary, PAH exposures were low in pile burns, and urinary testing for a PAH metabolite failed to show a significant difference between baseline and post-exposure measurements. PMID:18515848

Robinson, M. S.; Anthony, T. R.; Littau, S. R.; Herckes, P.; Nelson, X.; Poplin, G. S.; Burgess, J. L.

2008-01-01

92

Exposure limits and medical surveillance in occupational health  

SciTech Connect

The standards for pollutants in workplace air constitute a social consensus or agreement about acceptable levels of occupational hygiene. This agreement to exposures up to these limits inevitably includes a finite risk to the health of the workers. The numeric values of standards are needed to assess the requirements for ventilation and other occupational hygiene conditions. Planning and everyday practice in industry also need hygienic standards so that practical hygienic and safety measures can be maintained. These standards are not, however, levels below which there is no risk to health. While the hygienic standard itself carries acceptance of a certain risk, doctors cannot ethically accept any health risk to workers whatever the source of exposure. Thus personnel working in occupational health have to think about the risks of ill health even when the hygienic standards are met. The physician in occupational health has to be especially concerned to discover and estimate the risks to anyone particularly susceptible to exposures within the hygienically acceptable conditions. To do this, the occupational health physician uses medical examinations and specific investigations. In the follow-up of workers, health occupational health personnel use medical examinations in order to detect possible risks or to assess the general health status of individual workers. Health examinations are also used to detect specific injuries caused by the agents to which workers are known to be exposed in their work.

Rantanen, J.; Aitio, A.; Hemminki, K.; Jaervisalo, J.; Lindstroem, K.; Tossavainen, A.; Vainio, H.

1982-01-01

93

Childhood cancer and occupational radiation exposure in parents  

SciTech Connect

To test the hypothesis that a parent's job exposure to radiation affeOR). its his or her child's risk of cancer, the authors compared this exposure during the year before the child's birth for parents of children with and without cancer. Parents of children with cancer were no more likely to have worked in occupations, industries, or combined occupations and industries with potential ionizing radiation exposure. Bone cancer and Wilms' tumor occurred more frequently among children of fathers in all industries with moderate potential ionizing radiation exposure. Children with cancer more often had fathers who were aircraft mechanics (odds ratio (OR)) . infinity, one-sided 95% lower limit . 1.5; P . 0.04). Although four of these six were military aircraft mechanics, only children whose fathers had military jobs with potential ionizing radiation exposure had an increased cancer risk (OR . 2.73; P . 0.01). Four cancer types occurred more often among children of fathers in specific radiation-related occupations: rhabdomyosarcoma among children whose fathers were petroleum industry foremen; retinoblastoma among children whose fathers were radio and television repairmen; central nervous system cancers and other lymphatic cancers among children of Air Force fathers. Because numbers of case fathers are small and confidence limits are broad, the associations identified by this study need to be confirmed in other studies. Better identification and gradation of occupational exposure to radiation would increase the sensitivity to detect associations.

Hicks, N.; Zack, M.; Caldwell, G.G.; Fernbach, D.J.; Falletta, J.M.

1984-04-15

94

Occupational exposure to elemental constituents in fingerprint powders  

SciTech Connect

Fingerprint detection is an essential component of any crime detection agency. Little information is available regarding the elemental constituents of powders that are available currently. One recent case of lead poisoning coupled with many complaints from the Vancouver identification Squad members initiated a study regarding the elemental composition of, and the occupational exposure to, these powders. Multi-elemental analysis of the powders investigated showed that all contained varying amounts of aluminum, calcium, zinc, iron, magnesium, manganese, and nickel. One powder, however, contained 41% lead. The time spent at the scene of crime during a normal working shift averaged 95.5 min. Assessment of inhalation exposure during this period by personal air sampling pumps never exceeded the occupational exposure standards for these elements. Secondary exposure from dust-contaminated police vehicles and clothing can be an important contributor to overall exposure.

Van Netten, C.; Souter, F.; Teschke, K.E. (Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada))

1990-03-01

95

Occupational exposure to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in wood dust  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sino-nasal cancer (SNC) represents approximately 3% of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology (ORL) cancers. Adenocarcinoma SNC is an acknowledged occupational disease affecting certain specialized workers such as joiners and cabinetmakers. The high proportion of woodworkers contracting a SNC, subjected to an estimated risk 50 to 100 times higher than that affecting the general population, has suggested various study paths to possible causes such as tannin in hardwood, formaldehyde in plywood and benzo(a)pyrene produced by wood when overheated by cutting tools. It is acknowledged that tannin does not cause cancer to workers exposed to tea dust. Apart from being an irritant, formaldehyde is also classified as carcinogenic. The path involving carcinogenic Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) emitted by overheated wood is attractive. In this study, we measured the particle size and PAHs content in dust emitted by the processing of wood in an experimental chamber, and in field situation. Quantification of 16 PAHs is carried out by capillary GC-ion trap Mass Spectrometric analysis (GC-MS). The materials tested are rough fir tree, oak, impregnated polyurethane (PU) oak. The wood dust contains carcinogenic PAHs at the level of ?g.g-1 or ppm. During sanding operations, the PU varnish-impregnated wood produces 100 times more PAHs in dust than the unfinished wood.

Huynh, C. K.; Schüpfer, P.; Boiteux, P.

2009-02-01

96

Indoor Air in Beauty Salons and Occupational Health Exposure of Cosmetologists to Chemical Substances  

PubMed Central

The indoor environment in four beauty salons located in Athens (Greece) was examined in order to investigate the occupational health exposure of cosmetologists to various chemical products typically used in their work. Chemical substances chosen for investigation were volatile organic compounds (VOCs), formaldehyde, ozone and carbon dioxide. Total VOCs levels measured showed significant variation (100–1,450 ?g m?3) depending on the products used and the number of treatments carried out, as well as ventilation. The main VOCs found in the salons were aromatics (toluene, xylene), esters and ketones (ethyl acetate, acetone, etc.) which are used as solvents in various beauty products; terpenes (pinene, limonene, camphor, menthenol) which have a particular odor and others like camphor which have specific properties. Ozone concentrations measured in all salons were quite low (0.1 and 13.3 ?g m?3) and formaldehyde concentrations detected were lower than the detection limit of the method in all salons (<0.05 ppm). Carbon dioxide levels ranged between 402 and 1,268 ppm, depending on the number of people present in the salons during measurements and ventilation. Cosmetologists may be exposed to high concentrations of a mixture of volatile organic compounds although these levels could be decreased significantly by following certain practices such as good ventilation of the areas, closing the packages of the beauty products when not in use and finally selecting safer beauty products without strong odor. PMID:20195448

Tsigonia, Alexandra; Lagoudi, Argyro; Chandrinou, Stavroula; Linos, Athena; Evlogias, Nikos; Alexopoulos, Evangelos C.

2010-01-01

97

Developing regulations for occupational exposures to health hazards in Malaysia.  

PubMed

In Malaysia exposures in the workplace are regulated under the Factories and Machinery Act (FMA), 1967 and also under the more comprehensive Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA) enacted in 1994. With OSHA 1994 the philosophy of legislating safety and health in the workplace changed from one that was very prescriptive and containing detailed technical provisions under FMA, 1967 to one that is more flexible and encourages self-regulation under OSHA 1994. OSHA 1994 is supported by regulations, codes of practices and guidelines to further clarify the provisions in the Act. Under the FMA 1967 emphasis was on safety while with OSHA 1994 there has been equal emphasis on addressing health hazards in the workplace. Regulations for occupational exposures are developed by the Department of Occupational Safety and Health with tripartite and stakeholder consultation. When developing these regulations International Labor Organization Conventions, laws of other countries and occupational exposure standards adopted internationally are reviewed. The government also conducts surveys to collect information on both exposures and health effects in workplaces to have better understanding on specific occupational health problems. Effective law enforcement is crucial in ensuring compliance to safety and health law. The challenge at the moment is to ensure all employers and employees, particularly those in the small and medium enterprises, understand and comply with the provisions stipulated in the legislation. PMID:16899331

Rampal, Krishna Gopal; Mohd Nizam, J

2006-11-01

98

Adenocarcinoma of the stomach and exposure to occupational dust  

SciTech Connect

The authors studied 1342 cases of adenocarcinoma of the stomach identified by a population-based cancer registry in Los Angeles County, California. The cases were males aged 20-64 years first diagnosed between 1972 and 1982. To determine whether exposure to occupational dust increased the risk of developing stomach cancer, occupational titles were rated for the likelihood of exposure to various kinds of dust. Men who worked in dusty jobs had a risk for developing stomach cancer 1.3 times that of unexposed men. The association of exposure to dust with stomach cancer was stronger at higher levels of exposure. The risk was not uniform throughout the stomach: the highest risk (1.8 times that of unexposed men) was found for the antrum/pylorus. At that site, exposure to mineral dust carried the greatest risk for cancer (3.7 times the risk for unexposed men). The highest risks from dust exposure were observed in blacks. Risk was related to race, socioeconomic status, and immigrant status, but these factors did not entirely explain the association with dust exposure. The observed relation between dust exposure and stomach cancer is consistent with results of previous mortality and case-control studies of cancer in men who worked in dusty occupations. Ingested dust may be one factor in the etiology of adenocarcinoma of the stomach.

Wright, W.E.; Bernstein, L.; Peters, J.M.; Garabrant, D.H.; Mack, T.M.

1988-07-01

99

Exposure assessment in industry specific retrospective occupational epidemiology studies.  

PubMed Central

Quantitative estimation of exposure for occupational epidemiology studies has received increasing attention in recent years and, as a result, a body of methodological literature has begun to take form. This paper reviews the generic issues in the methodology of exposure assessment, particularly methods for quantitative retrospective assessment studies. A simple framework, termed an exposure data matrix (EDM), for defining and analysing exposure data is proposed and discussed in terms of the definition of matrix dimensions and scales. Several methods for estimation, interpolation, and extrapolation, ranging from subjective ratings to quantitative statistical modelling are presented and discussed. The various approaches to exposure assessment based on the EDM concept are illustrated with studies of lung disease among coal miners and other dust and chemically induced chronic occupational diseases. The advantages of validated statistical models are emphasised. The importance of analysis and control of errors in exposure assessments, and integration of the exposure assessment and exposure-response processes, especially for emerging occupational health issues, is emphasised. PMID:7489051

Seixas, N S; Checkoway, H

1995-01-01

100

Occupational Exposure to Pesticides and Risk of Adult Brain Tumors  

PubMed Central

The authors examined incident glioma and meningioma risk associated with occupational exposure to insecticides and herbicides in a hospital-based, case-control study of brain cancer. Cases were 462 glioma and 195 meningioma patients diagnosed between 1994 and 1998 in three US hospitals. Controls were 765 patients admitted to the same hospitals for nonmalignant conditions. Occupational histories were collected during personal interviews. Exposure to pesticides was estimated by use of a questionnaire, combined with pesticide measurement data abstracted from published sources. Using logistic regression models, the authors found no association between insecticide and herbicide exposures and risk for glioma and meningioma. There was no association between glioma and exposure to insecticides or herbicides, in men or women. Women who reported ever using herbicides had a significantly increased risk for meningioma compared with women who never used herbicides (odds ratio = 2.4, 95% confidence interval: 1.4, 4.3), and there were significant trends of increasing risk with increasing years of herbicide exposure (p = 0.01) and increasing cumulative exposure (p = 0.01). There was no association between meningioma and herbicide or insecticide exposure among men. These findings highlight the need to go beyond job title to elucidate potential carcinogenic exposures within different occupations. PMID:18299277

Samanic, Claudine M.; De Roos, Anneclaire J.; Stewart, Patricia A.; Rajaraman, Preetha; Waters, Martha A.; Inskip, Peter D.

2014-01-01

101

Occupational Exposure to Volatile Organic Compounds and Aldehydes in the U.S. Trucking Industry  

PubMed Central

Diesel exhaust is a complex chemical mixture that has been linked to lung cancer mortality in a number of epidemiologic studies. However, the dose–response relationship remains largely undefined, and the specific components responsible for carcinogenicity have not been identified. Although previous focus has been on the particulate phase, diesel exhaust includes a vapor phase of numerous volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and aldehydes that are either known or suspected carcinogens, such as 1,3-butadiene, benzene, and formaldehyde. However, there are relatively few studies that quantify exposure to VOCs and aldehydes in diesel-heavy and other exhaust-related microenvironments. As part of a nationwide assessment of exposure to diesel exhaust in the trucking industry, we collected measurements of VOCs and aldehydes at 15 different U.S. trucking terminals and in city truck drivers (with 6 repeat site visits), observing average shift concentrations in truck cabs and at multiple background and work area locations within each terminal. In this paper, we characterize occupational exposure to 18 different VOCs and aldehydes, as well as relationships with particulate mass (elemental carbon in PM < 1 ? m and PM2.5) across locations to determine source characteristics. Our results show that occupational exposure to VOCs and aldehydes varies significantly across the different sampling locations within each terminal, with significantly higher exposures noted in the work environments over background levels (p < 0.01). A structural equation model performed well in predicting terminal exposures to VOCs and aldehydes as a function of job, background levels, weather conditions, proximity to a major road, and geographic location (R2 = 0.2–0.4 work area; R2 = 0.5–0.9 background). PMID:17993162

DAVIS, M. E.; BLICHARZ, A. P.; HART, J. E.; LADEN, F.; GARSHICK, E.; SMITH, T. J.

2008-01-01

102

A mathematical model for the absorption and metabolism of formaldehyde vapour by humans  

SciTech Connect

Epidemiological studies of occupational exposure to formaldehyde gas (HCHO) have suggested possible links between concentration and duration of exposure, and elevated risks of leukaemia and other cancers at sites distant from the site of contact. Formaldehyde is a highly water soluble gas which, when inhaled, reacts rapidly at the site of contact and is quickly metabolised by enzymes in the respiratory tissue. Inhaled formaldehyde is almost entirely absorbed in the respiratory tract and, for formaldehyde induced toxicity to occur at distant sites, HCHO must enter the blood and be transported to systemic tissues via the circulatory system. A mathematical model describing the absorption and removal of inhaled formaldehyde in the nasal tissue is therefore formulated to predict the proportion of formaldehyde entering into the blood. Accounting for the spatial distribution of the formaldehyde concentration and the metabolic activity within the mucosa, the concentration of formaldehyde in the mucus, the epithelium and the blood has been determined and was found to attain a steady-state profile within a few seconds of exposure. The increase of the formaldehyde concentration in the blood was predicted to be insignificant compared with the existing pre-exposure levels in the body, indicating that formaldehyde is rapidly removed in the nasal tissue. The results of the model thus suggest that it is highly unlikely that following inhalation by the nose, formaldehyde itself will cause toxicity at sites other than the initial site of contact in the respiratory tract.

Franks, S.J. [Health and Safety Laboratory, Harpur Hill, Buxton SK17 9JN (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: Susan.Franks@hsl.gov.uk

2005-08-15

103

An unusual form of formaldehyde-induced lung disease.  

PubMed

A case report of an unusual formaldehyde exposure that had happened accidentally is described. A 54-year-old male ingested 10% formaldehyde and inhaled while vomiting and he developed cough, dyspnea and wheezing with prevalent ronci and bilateral infiltrates on chest x-ray (cxr). His pulmonary symptoms and FEV1 responded well to systemic corticosteroids and nebulised salbutamol given for the possible diagnosis of hypersensitivity and/or chemical pneumonitis, and infiltrates were cleared. Two weeks after the incident, he had massive haemoptysis, fever, leucocytes, prevalent crackles, bronchospasm, and new infiltrates on CXR. After an antibiotic and steroid therapy, his symptoms and crackles relieved, radiographic infiltrates were regressed. Delayed type hypersensitivity to formaldehyde patch test was appropriate with late-onset symptoms. This is a first case of pneumonitis as well as asthma different from the occupational exposure to formaldehyde. This data suggests direct and indirect effects of formaldehyde in healthy human airways. PMID:17594875

Baccioglu, Ayse; Kalpaklioglu, Ayse Fusun

2007-01-01

104

Is exposure to formaldehyde in air causally associated with leukemia?--A hypothesis-based weight-of-evidence analysis  

PubMed Central

Recent scientific debate has focused on the potential for inhaled formaldehyde to cause lymphohematopoietic cancers, particularly leukemias, in humans. The concern stems from certain epidemiology studies reporting an association, although particulars of endpoints and dosimetry are inconsistent across studies and several other studies show no such effects. Animal studies generally report neither hematotoxicity nor leukemia associated with formaldehyde inhalation, and hematotoxicity studies in humans are inconsistent. Formaldehyde's reactivity has been thought to preclude systemic exposure following inhalation, and its apparent inability to reach and affect the target tissues attacked by known leukemogens has, heretofore, led to skepticism regarding its potential to cause human lymphohematopoietic cancers. Recently, however, potential modes of action for formaldehyde leukemogenesis have been hypothesized, and it has been suggested that formaldehyde be identified as a known human leukemogen. In this article, we apply our hypothesis-based weight-of-evidence (HBWoE) approach to evaluate the large body of evidence regarding formaldehyde and leukemogenesis, attending to how human, animal, and mode-of-action results inform one another. We trace the logic of inference within and across all studies, and articulate how one could account for the suite of available observations under the various proposed hypotheses. Upon comparison of alternative proposals regarding what causal processes may have led to the array of observations as we see them, we conclude that the case fora causal association is weak and strains biological plausibility. Instead, apparent association between formaldehyde inhalation and leukemia in some human studies is better interpreted as due to chance or confounding. PMID:21635189

Rhomberg, Lorenz R; Bailey, Lisa A; Goodman, Julie E; Hamade, Ali K; Mayfield, David

2011-01-01

105

Is exposure to formaldehyde in air causally associated with leukemia?--A hypothesis-based weight-of-evidence analysis.  

PubMed

Recent scientific debate has focused on the potential for inhaled formaldehyde to cause lymphohematopoietic cancers, particularly leukemias, in humans. The concern stems from certain epidemiology studies reporting an association, although particulars of endpoints and dosimetry are inconsistent across studies and several other studies show no such effects. Animal studies generally report neither hematotoxicity nor leukemia associated with formaldehyde inhalation, and hematotoxicity studies in humans are inconsistent. Formaldehyde's reactivity has been thought to preclude systemic exposure following inhalation, and its apparent inability to reach and affect the target tissues attacked by known leukemogens has, heretofore, led to skepticism regarding its potential to cause human lymphohematopoietic cancers. Recently, however, potential modes of action for formaldehyde leukemogenesis have been hypothesized, and it has been suggested that formaldehyde be identified as a known human leukemogen. In this article, we apply our hypothesis-based weight-of-evidence (HBWoE) approach to evaluate the large body of evidence regarding formaldehyde and leukemogenesis, attending to how human, animal, and mode-of-action results inform one another. We trace the logic of inference within and across all studies, and articulate how one could account for the suite of available observations under the various proposed hypotheses. Upon comparison of alternative proposals regarding what causal processes may have led to the array of observations as we see them, we conclude that the case for a causal association is weak and strains biological plausibility. Instead, apparent association between formaldehyde inhalation and leukemia in some human studies is better interpreted as due to chance or confounding. PMID:21635189

Rhomberg, Lorenz R; Bailey, Lisa A; Goodman, Julie E; Hamade, Ali K; Mayfield, David

2011-08-01

106

Epidemiologic evidence for asthma and exposure to air toxics: linkages between occupational, indoor, and community air pollution research.  

PubMed Central

Outdoor ambient air pollutant exposures in communities are relevant to the acute exacerbation and possibly the onset of asthma. However, the complexity of pollutant mixtures and etiologic heterogeneity of asthma has made it difficult to identify causal components in those mixtures. Occupational exposures associated with asthma may yield clues to causal components in ambient air pollution because such exposures are often identifiable as single-chemical agents (e.g., metal compounds). However, translating occupational to community exposure-response relationships is limited. Of the air toxics found to cause occupational asthma, only formaldehyde has been frequently investigated in epidemiologic studies of allergic respiratory responses to indoor air, where general consistency can be shown despite lower ambient exposures. The specific volatile organic compounds (VOCs) identified in association with occupational asthma are generally not the same as those in studies showing respiratory effects of VOC mixtures on nonoccupational adult and pediatric asthma. In addition, experimental evidence indicates that airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposures linked to diesel exhaust particles (DEPs) have proinflammatory effects on airways, but there is insufficient supporting evidence from the occupational literature of effects of DEPs on asthma or lung function. In contrast, nonoccupational epidemiologic studies have frequently shown associations between allergic responses or asthma with exposures to ambient air pollutant mixtures with PAH components, including black smoke, high home or school traffic density (particularly truck traffic), and environmental tobacco smoke. Other particle-phase and gaseous co-pollutants are likely causal in these associations as well. Epidemiologic research on the relationship of both asthma onset and exacerbation to air pollution is needed to disentangle effects of air toxics from monitored criteria air pollutants such as particle mass. Community studies should focus on air toxics expected to have adverse respiratory effects based on biological mechanisms, particularly irritant and immunological pathways to asthma onset and exacerbation. PMID:12194890

Delfino, Ralph J

2002-01-01

107

Reconstruction of occupational mercury exposures at a chloralkali plant  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE—To reconstruct historical workplace exposure to mercury (Hg) from 1956 to 1994 at a large chloralkali factory for use in a current epidemiology study of the factory.?METHODS—All job activities of the employees were classified into one of 16 exposure categories, and the dates of changes in the processes were identified. Exposures to Hg for each job category, at each period of the plant's operation, were then reconstructed from several data sources. A job-time period-exposure matrix was created, and the individual exposures of former workers were calculated. Data on exposure to Hg in air were compared with modelled concentrations of Hg in air and data on urinary Hg of the employees.?RESULTS—Within an exposure category, concentrations of Hg in air were fairly constant for the first 20 years of the factory's operation, but began to increase in the late 1970s. Employees working in the cell room had the greatest exposures to Hg. The exposure estimates had significant correlations (p<0.001) with the urinary data and were well within the modelled range of concentrations of Hg in air.?CONCLUSIONS—The highest exposures occurred from 1987 until the plant closed in early 1994 with some exposure categories having time weighted average exposures to Hg greater than 140 µg/m3.???Keywords: mercury; chloralkali; occupational exposure; job exposure matrix PMID:11160985

Williams, P; Frumkin, H; Pierce, M; Manning, C; Elon, L; Sanders, A

2001-01-01

108

Occupational exposure to butadiene, isoprene and chloroprene.  

PubMed

Workers are exposed to butadiene, isoprene and chloroprene in the manufacture of these monomers and in their use in the production of various elastomers. These include styrene butadiene rubber, polybutadiene, polyisoprene, butyl rubber and neoprene. Monomer production and extraction are done in typical closed chemical process units where low background levels of the monomers are the result of minor leaks in valves and pumps. Occasionally, higher levels occur as a result of planned or unplanned events that cause releases. Polymer production is also a closed process, but the occasional clogging of pipes and equipment with polymer requiring maintenance operations where some release is likely occurs much more often than for monomer production. For this reason, exposure levels are generally higher on polymer production units. Polymer finishing is essentially an open process, but almost all monomer should have been stripped from the polymer before finishing. Where small amounts of solvents or monomers remain in the polymer and are volatilized in finishing, they are captured by vapor control systems. As a result, exposures in finishing are typically low. Measured levels of exposure in recent years are presented. In general, modern levels of exposure are well below OSHA, ACGIH and other applicable limits. Few measurements were made prior to the 1970s, but epidemiological estimates made by modeling suggest that levels could have been quite high in the 1940s and 1950s. In these years, manual reactor cleaning was common, and pumps often leaked. PMID:11397391

Lynch, J

2001-06-01

109

Occupational exposure to acid mists and periodontal attachment loss.  

PubMed

This study investigated the hypotheses that occupational exposure to acid mists is positively associated with periodontal disease, assessed by periodontal attachment loss. The study sample included 530 male workers at a metal processing factory. Data were obtained from interviews and oral examinations. Periodontal attachment loss was defined as >or= 4mm at probing, in at least one tooth. A job exposure matrix was utilized for exposure evaluation. Exposure to acid mists was positively associated with periodontal attachment loss >or= 4mm at any time (prevalence ratio, PR(adjusted) = 2.17), past (PR(adjusted) = 2.11), and over 6 years of exposure (PR(adjusted) = 1.77), independently of age, alcohol consumption, and smoking, and these results were limited to workers who did not use dental floss. Exposure to acid mists is a potential risk factor for periodontal attachment loss, and further studies are needed, using longitudinal designs and more accurate exposure measures. PMID:18327437

Almeida, Tatiana F de; Vianna, Maria Isabel P; Santana, Vilma S; Gomes Filho, Isaac S

2008-03-01

110

Occupational exposure limits for nanomaterials: state of the art  

Microsoft Academic Search

Assessing the need for and effectiveness of controlling airborne exposures to engineered nanomaterials in the workplace is\\u000a difficult in the absence of occupational exposure limits (OELs). At present, there are practically no OELs specific to nanomaterials\\u000a that have been adopted or promulgated by authoritative standards and guidance organizations. The vast heterogeneity of nanomaterials\\u000a limits the number of specific OELs that

P. A. Schulte; V. Murashov; R. Zumwalde; E. D. Kuempel; C. L. Geraci

2010-01-01

111

Determination of formaldehyde levels in 100 furniture workshops in Ankara.  

PubMed

One of the airborne pollutants in wood products industry is formaldehyde, which may pose some health effects. Therefore this study is conducted to determine formaldehyde levels in 100 furniture-manufacturing workshops in Ankara and also to determine the symptoms, which may be related with formaldehyde exposure among the workers. Indoor formaldehyde levels ranged from 0.02 ppm to 2.22 ppm with a mean of 0.6 +/- 0.3 ppm. Outdoor formaldehyde levels also ranged from 0.0 ppm to 0.08 ppm with a mean of 0.03 +/- 0.03 ppm. Formaldehyde levels were higher in workplaces located at basement than in workplaces located at or above ground level (p < 0.01). An association was found between indoor formaldehyde levels and the types of fuel used (p < 0.05). The levels were higher in workplaces where only sawdust was used for heating, than in workplaces where wood, coal, and sawdust are used (p = 0.02). An association was found between runny nose and indoor formaldehyde levels (p = 0.03). Formaldehyde levels were lower in workplaces where employees had no symptoms than in those where employees had 4 or more symptoms (p = 0.02). Of 229 employees 57 subjects (24.9%) work under the formaldehyde levels of 0.75 ppm and above. Thus, approximately one fourth of the employees in workplaces are working in environments with formaldehyde levels exceeding those permitted by Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). The employees working in small-scale furniture workshops are at risk of formaldehyde exposure. Measures, such as improved ventilation, have to be taken in these workplaces, in order to decrease the formaldehyde levels. PMID:16141685

Vaizo?lu, Songül Acar; Aycan, Sefer; Akin, Levent; Koçdor, Pelin; Pamukçu, Gül; Muhsino?lu, Orkun; Ozer, Feyza; Evci, E Didem; Güler, Ca?atay

2005-10-01

112

TITLE: THE HEALTH IMPACT OF NON-OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE TO ASBESTOS. WHAT DO WE KNOW?  

E-print Network

TITLE: THE HEALTH IMPACT OF NON-OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE TO ASBESTOS. WHAT DO WE KNOW? Running head: Non-occupational exposure to asbestos Authors: Marcel Goldberg 1,2,3 and Danièle Luce 1,2 1: INSERM-occupational exposure to asbestos, in circumstances where exposure levels are usually lower than those found

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

113

Lead exposure among five distinct occupational groups: a comparative study.  

PubMed

This study was conducted to evaluate blood lead concentration among five selected occupational groups. The five groups were: hospital health workers, shop workers, taxi drivers, automobiles mechanics, and wood workers. The groups did not significantly differ among each other in the average of age and work years. ANOVA test revealed significantly higher mean lead blood concentration in taxi drivers, automechanics, and wood workers compared to other groups. Additionally, workers with lead concentration >0.483 umol/L (10?g/dL) were more likely to have frequent muscle pain compared to those with lower concentrations. No association between other symptoms of lead exposure/toxicity and blood lead concentration was detected. In conclusion, special attention must be directed toward lead blood levels and lead poisoning symptoms when examining patients from certain occupational groups such as taxi drivers, automechanics, and wood workers. Special safety precautions and educational programs are also needed to limit the lead exposure in these occupational groups. PMID:24374433

Gharaibeh, Mohammad Younis; Alzoubi, Karem Hasan; Khabour, Omar Falah; Khader, Yousef Saleh; Gharaibeh, Mamoun Abdallah; Matarneh, Sulaiman Khalid

2014-01-01

114

Parental occupational exposure to engine exhausts and childhood brain tumors.  

PubMed

Childhood brain tumors (CBT) are the leading cause of cancer death in children; their risk factors are still largely unknown. Since most CBTs are diagnosed before five years of age, prenatal exposure and early postnatal factors may be involved in their etiology. We investigated the association between CBT and parental occupational exposure to engine exhausts in an Australian population-based case-control study. Parents of 306 cases and 950 controls completed detailed occupational histories. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated for both maternal and paternal exposure in key time periods. Increased risks were observed for maternal exposure to diesel exhaust any time before the child's birth (OR 2.03, 95% CI 1.09-3.81) and paternal exposure around the time of the child's conception (OR 1.62, 95% CI 1.12-2.34). No clear associations with other engine exhausts were found. Our results suggest that parental occupational exposure to diesel exhaust may increase the risk of CBT. PMID:23184618

Peters, Susan; Glass, Deborah C; Reid, Alison; de Klerk, Nicholas; Armstrong, Bruce K; Kellie, Stewart; Ashton, Lesley J; Milne, Elizabeth; Fritschi, Lin

2013-06-15

115

Association between occupational exposure and the clinical characteristics of COPD  

PubMed Central

Background The contribution of occupational exposures to COPD and their interaction with cigarette smoking on clinical pattern of COPD remain underappreciated. The aim of this study was to explore the contribution of occupational exposures on clinical pattern of COPD. Methods Cross-sectional data from a multicenter tertiary care cohort of 591 smokers or ex-smokers with COPD (median FEV1 49%) were analyzed. Self-reported exposure to vapor, dust, gas or fumes (VDGF) at any time during the entire career was recorded. Results VDGF exposure was reported in 209 (35%) subjects aged 31 to 88 years. Several features were significantly associated with VDGF exposure: age (median 68 versus 64 years, p?occupational exposures are associated with distinct patients characteristics. PMID:22537093

2012-01-01

116

Assessing the reproductive health of men with occupational exposures  

PubMed Central

The earliest report linking environmental (occupational) exposure to adverse human male reproductive effects dates back to1775 when an English physician, Percival Pott, reported a high incidence of scrotal cancer in chimney sweeps. This observation led to safety regulations in the form of bathing requirements for these workers. The fact that male-mediated reproductive harm in humans may be a result of toxicant exposures did not become firmly established until relatively recently, when Lancranjan studied lead-exposed workers in Romania in 1975, and later in 1977, when Whorton examined the effects of dibromochloropropane (DBCP) on male workers in California. Since these discoveries, several additional human reproductive toxicants have been identified through the convergence of laboratory and observational findings. Many research gaps remain, as the pool of potential human exposures with undetermined effects on male reproduction is vast. This review provides an overview of methods used to study the effects of exposures on male reproduction and their reproductive health, with a primary emphasis on the implementation and interpretation of human studies. Emphasis will be on occupational exposures, although much of the information is also useful in assessing environmental studies, occupational exposures are usually much higher and better defined. PMID:24369130

Schrader, Steven M; Marlow, Katherine L

2014-01-01

117

Effects upon health of occupational exposure to microwave radiation (radar)  

SciTech Connect

The effects of occupational experience with microwave radiation (radar) on the health of US enlisted Naval personnel were studied in cohorts of approximately 20,000 men with maximum opportunity for exposure (electronic equipment repair) and 20,000 with minimum potential for exposure (equipment operation) who served during the Korean War period. Potential exposure was assessed in terms of occupational duties, length of time in occupation and power of equipment at the time of exposure. Actual exposure to members of each cohort could not be established. Mortality by cause of death, hospitalization during military service, later hospitalization in Veterans Administration (VA) facilities, and VA disability compensation were the health indexes studied, largely through the use of automated record systems. No adverse effects were detected in these indexes that could be attributed to potential microwave radiation exposures during the period 1950-1954. Functional and behavioral changes and ill-defined conditions, such as have been reported as microwave effects, could not be investigated in this study but subgroups of the living study population can be identified for expanded follow-up.

Robinette, C.D. (National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council, Washington, DC); Silverman, C.; Jablon, S.

1980-07-01

118

LINKING DATA TO STUDY REPRODUCTIVE EFFECTS OF OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURES  

EPA Science Inventory

Many existing data systems or registers can be used to study occupational exposures and reproduction. Use of these data systems, especially those already computerized, results in great savings in time and resources. The report describes existing record systems on reproductive out...

119

Scleroderma and occupational exposure to hand-transmitted vibration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To determine whether occupational exposure to hand-transmitted vibration is a risk factor for scleroderma (systemic sclerosis, SSc), two case-control studies were conducted in the provinces of Trento and Verona, northeastern Italy. Methods: In the Trento study, 21 patients with a diagnosis of either systemic or localised scleroderma were recruited from those admitted to all hospitals of the province from

Massimo Bovenzi; Fabio Barbone; Federica E. Pisa; Alberto Betta; Luciano Romeo

2001-01-01

120

Occupational exposure to DDT among mosquito control sprayers  

SciTech Connect

DDT, a broad action insecticide whose use is restricted or banned in most industrialized countries is still often used for vector control in many tropical and developing countries. Despite the fact that DDT is accumulative and persistant in the ecosystem use of such substitutes as malathion or propoxur is not popular because these increases costs by 3.4 to 8.5 fold. As such DDT is economically attractive to poorer countries. As far as can be ascertained no systemic poisoning has resulted from occupational exposure to DDT. Due to the large particle size, the amount of DDT inhaled by workers is far less than the amount reaching exposed portions of skin. As such occupational exposure is mainly dermal or tropical. Occupational exposure to DDT studies have been done before. The present study is an analysis of some characteristics, (i.e. age, body size, relationship between plasma vitamin A and DDE levels, and smoking habits), of occupational exposure to DDT among spraymen in a Zimbabwe population.

Nhachi, C.F.B.; Kasilo, O.J. (Univ. of Zimbabwe, Harare (Zimbabwe))

1990-08-01

121

Toxic hepatitis in occupational exposure to solvents  

PubMed Central

The liver is the main organ responsible for the metabolism of drugs and toxic chemicals, and so is the primary target organ for many organic solvents. Work activities with hepatotoxins exposures are numerous and, moreover, organic solvents are used in various industrial processes. Organic solvents used in different industrial processes may be associated with hepatotoxicity. Several factors contribute to liver toxicity; among these are: species differences, nutritional condition, genetic factors, interaction with medications in use, alcohol abuse and interaction, and age. This review addresses the mechanisms of hepatotoxicity. The main pathogenic mechanisms responsible for functional and organic damage caused by solvents are: inflammation, dysfunction of cytochrome P450, mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress. The health impact of exposure to solvents in the workplace remains an interesting and worrying question for professional health work. PMID:22719183

Malaguarnera, Giulia; Cataudella, Emanuela; Giordano, Maria; Nunnari, Giuseppe; Chisari, Giuseppe; Malaguarnera, Mariano

2012-01-01

122

Overview of occupational exposure to electric and magnetic fields and cancer: advancements in exposure assessment.  

PubMed Central

For over ten years, there has been concern with the potential for increased risk of cancer among "electrical workers." In contrast to studies of residential exposure to magnetic fields, occupational studies include electric and magnetic field exposures and have much greater variability in field intensity, frequency, and temporal patterns. Studies of leukemia in electrical workers show a moderate consistency, with elevated risk ratios of 1.2 to 2.0 commonly observed. Brain tumors are similarly elevated with some consistency, and three recent studies have suggested increased risk of male breast cancer. Retrospective exposure assessment methods were advanced in recent studies of diverse occupations in a study in central Sweden, which yielded evidence of increased risk of chronic lymphocytic leukemia among men in more highly exposed occupations. A study of telephone workers in New York State incorporated measurements and found some indication of increased leukemia risk only when exposures were based on historical technology. Utility workers in southern California were studied and found not to have increased risks of leukemia and brain cancer based on exposures estimated with measurements. An ongoing study of electric utility workers at five companies in the United States incorporates an extensive measurement protocol. Randomly selected workers within occupational categories wore a time-integrating magnetic-field meter to provide estimates of exposure for the occupational category. We were able to estimate and partition the variance into between-day (the largest contributor), within occupational categories, and between occupational categories. Principal research needs concern optimal levels of worker aggregation for exposure assignment, historical extrapolation, study of diverse work environments, and integration of residential and occupational exposure in the same study. PMID:7614951

Savitz, D A

1995-01-01

123

Comparison of health of occupants and characteristics of houses among control homes and homes insulated with urea formaldehyde foam. I. Methodology  

SciTech Connect

The methodology of a study in which a comparison is made of the health and house characteristics of the occupants of 231 control homes and 571 houses containing urea formaldehyde foam insulation (UFFI) is described. All homes and occupants were examined on two occasions separated by an interval of 12 months, during which two-thirds of the UFFI houses performed remedial work. The occupants were examined using a health questionnaire and a series of objective tests including pulmonary function, nasal airway resistance, sense of smell, nasal surface cytology, and patch tests. The houses were assessed using a questionnaire and measurements of indoor formaldehyde and carbon dioxide levels. No obvious bias has been identified in this survey with respect to the representativeness of the population studied, the classification of the UFFI and control groups, and the input from both the respondents and observes. The symptom responses made by individuals within the same households were not correlated. Quality control assessment of the objective health tests and formaldehyde sampling and assays demonstrated that these procedures remained stable over the two phases of the study, with the exception of the expected decrease in the pulmonary flow rates over 1 year and a small unexpected increase in the forced vital capacity and the forced expiratory volume in 1 s.

Broder, I.; Corey, P.; Cole, P.; Lipa, M.; Mintz, S.; Nethercott, J.R. (Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada))

1988-04-01

124

Characterization of skin inflammation induced by repeated exposure of toluene, xylene, and formaldehyde in mice.  

PubMed

Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are considered the main cause of sick building syndrome and they are likely to irritate the skin, eyes, and mucous membrane; however, the toxic threshold and the mechanisms of cutaneous reaction induced by long-time VOC exposure have not been clarified. In the present study, we investigated the effect of repeated painting of VOCs onto mouse skin. Various concentrations of toluene, xylene, and formaldehyde (FA) were applied once a week for 5 weeks. While FA solution (2-10%) induced remarkable ear swelling and caused evident infiltration of inflammatory cells, high concentrations of toluene and xylene (50 or 100%) evoked mild ear swelling and marginal inflammatory cell invasion. In addition, FA exposure markedly increased the expression of interleukin-4 (IL-4), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), neurotrophin-3 (NT-3), and transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 (TRPV-1) mRNAs in the ears and IL-4 and NT-3 mRNAs in the cervical lymph nodes. Furthermore, capsazepine, a TRPV-1 antagonist, significantly suppressed ear swelling caused by repeated painting of 5% FA. These findings demonstrate that FA has more potent irritancy against skin than toluene or xylene and suggest that the Th2 response, neurotrophins and TRPV-1 play important roles in FA-induced skin inflammation. PMID:19904815

Saito, Asaka; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Usuda, Haruki; Shibata, Tomonori; Higashi, Sayaka; Yamashita, Hirotaka; Inagaki, Naoki; Nagai, Hiroichi

2011-06-01

125

Occupational exposures and practices in nuclear power plants  

SciTech Connect

As the first generation of commercial nuclear power comes to a close, it is timely to consider the status of occupational exposure in the power generation industry, that is, the collective occupational radiation doses received by workers in nuclear power plants. The picture is surprising. One might have thought that as newer, larger, and more modern plants came on line, there would be a significant decrease in exposure per unit of electricity generated. There is some indication that this is now happening. One might also have thought that the United States, being a leader in the development of nuclear power, and in the knowledge, experience and technology of nuclear radiation protection, would have the greatest success in controlling exposure. This expectation has not been fulfilled. 32 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

Baum, J.W.

1989-01-01

126

78 FR 45981 - Occupational Exposure to Noise Standard; Extension of the Office of Management and Budget's (OMB...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Occupational Safety and Health Administration [Docket No. OSHA-2010-0017] Occupational Exposure to Noise Standard; Extension...Paperwork) Requirements AGENCY: Occupational Safety and Health...

2013-07-30

127

75 FR 24746 - Occupational Exposure to Noise Standard; Extension of the Office of Management and Budget's (OMB...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Occupational Safety and Health Administration [Docket No. OSHA-2010-0017] Occupational Exposure to Noise Standard; Extension...Paperwork) Requirements AGENCY: Occupational Safety and Health...

2010-05-05

128

48 CFR 952.223-75 - Preservation of individual occupational radiation exposure records.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Preservation of individual occupational radiation exposure records. 952.223-75...Preservation of individual occupational radiation exposure records. As prescribed...planning and execution, or 952.223-72, Radiation protection and nuclear...

2013-10-01

129

48 CFR 952.223-75 - Preservation of individual occupational radiation exposure records.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Preservation of individual occupational radiation exposure records. 952.223-75...Preservation of individual occupational radiation exposure records. As prescribed...planning and execution, or 952.223-72, Radiation protection and nuclear...

2012-10-01

130

48 CFR 952.223-75 - Preservation of individual occupational radiation exposure records.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Preservation of individual occupational radiation exposure records. 952.223-75...Preservation of individual occupational radiation exposure records. As prescribed...planning and execution, or 952.223-72, Radiation protection and nuclear...

2011-10-01

131

Advanced REACH Tool: a Bayesian model for occupational exposure assessment.  

PubMed

This paper describes a Bayesian model for the assessment of inhalation exposures in an occupational setting; the methodology underpins a freely available web-based application for exposure assessment, the Advanced REACH Tool (ART). The ART is a higher tier exposure tool that combines disparate sources of information within a Bayesian statistical framework. The information is obtained from expert knowledge expressed in a calibrated mechanistic model of exposure assessment, data on inter- and intra-individual variability in exposures from the literature, and context-specific exposure measurements. The ART provides central estimates and credible intervals for different percentiles of the exposure distribution, for full-shift and long-term average exposures. The ART can produce exposure estimates in the absence of measurements, but the precision of the estimates improves as more data become available. The methodology presented in this paper is able to utilize partially analogous data, a novel approach designed to make efficient use of a sparsely populated measurement database although some additional research is still required before practical implementation. The methodology is demonstrated using two worked examples: an exposure to copper pyrithione in the spraying of antifouling paints and an exposure to ethyl acetate in shoe repair. PMID:24665110

McNally, Kevin; Warren, Nicholas; Fransman, Wouter; Entink, Rinke Klein; Schinkel, Jody; van Tongeren, Martie; Cherrie, John W; Kromhout, Hans; Schneider, Thomas; Tielemans, Erik

2014-06-01

132

Evaluation of Potential Exposure to Formaldehyde Air Emissions from a Washing Machine Using the IAQX Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Consumers may be exposed to formaldehyde during the use of liquid laundry detergent containing a preservative. The primary objective of this analysis was to present an approach to predict formaldehyde air emissions from a washing machine and the subsequent vapor concentrations in the laundry room air using the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA's) Simulation Tool Kit for Indoor Air Quality

David McCready; Scott M. Arnold; Donald D. Fontaine

2012-01-01

133

Exploring the Usefulness of Occupational Exposure Registries for Surveillance  

PubMed Central

Objective: The ongoing presence of asbestos in products used across workplaces in Canada reinforces the importance of occupational exposure surveillance. This study evaluates the usefulness of the Ontario Asbestos Workers Registry. Methods: The study includes 30,829 workers aged 15 to 80 years. Researchers reported on the data quality and analyzed the proportions of workers exposed by industry, and standardized rates by geographic areas and over time. Results: The incidence of exposure started to decrease around 1990; but about 2000 workers were still exposed annually until 2006. Results showed large geographical disparities. Unexpectedly, workers from industries other than construction reported exposure. Conclusions: The Ontario Asbestos Workers Registry is a useful but challenging source of information for the surveillance of asbestos exposure in Ontario. The registry could benefit from well-defined surveillance objectives, a clear exposure definition, systematic enforcement, regular data analyses, and results dissemination. PMID:25162835

Genesove, Leon; Moore, Kris; Del Bianco, Ann; Kramer, Desre

2014-01-01

134

Occupational exposure to diesel engine exhaust: A literature review  

PubMed Central

Background Diesel exhaust (DE) is classified as a probable human carcinogen. Aims were to describe the major occupational uses of diesel engines and give an overview of personal DE exposure levels and determinants of exposure as reported in the published literature. Methods Measurements representative of personal DE exposure were abstracted from the literature for the following agents: elemental carbon (EC), particulate matter (PM), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxide (NO), and nitrogen dioxide (NO2). Information on determinants of exposure was abstracted. Results In total, 3528 EC, 4166 PM, 581 CO, 322 NO, and 1404 NO2 measurements were abstracted. From the 10,001 measurements, 32% represented exposure from on-road vehicles, and 68% from off-road vehicles (30% mining, 15% railroad, and 22% other). Highest levels were reported for enclosed underground work sites where heavy equipment is used: mining, mine maintenance, and construction, (EC: 27-658 ?g/m3). Intermediate exposure levels were generally reported for above ground (semi-)enclosed areas where smaller equipment was run: mechanics in a shop, emergency workers in fire stations, distribution workers at a dock, and workers loading/unloading inside a ferry (generally: EC< 50 ?g/m3). Lowest levels were reported for enclosed areas separated from the source such as drivers and train crew, or outside such as surface mining, parking attendants, vehicle testers, utility service workers, surface construction and airline ground personnel (EC<25 ?g/m3). The other agents showed a similar pattern. Determinants of exposure reported for enclosed situations were ventilation and exhaust after treatment devices. Conclusions Reported DE exposure levels were highest for underground mining and construction, intermediate for working in above ground (semi-)enclosed areas and lowest for working outside or separated from the source. The presented data can be used as a basis for assessing occupational exposure in population-based epidemiological studies and guide future exposure assessment efforts for industrial hygiene and epidemiological studies. PMID:19277070

Pronk, Anjoeka; Coble, Joseph; Stewart, Patricia

2010-01-01

135

Occupational exposure to diesel engine exhaust: a literature review.  

PubMed

Diesel exhaust (DE) is classified as a probable human carcinogen. Aims were to describe the major occupational uses of diesel engines and give an overview of personal DE exposure levels and determinants of exposure as reported in the published literature. Measurements representative of personal DE exposure were abstracted from the literature for the following agents: elemental carbon (EC), particulate matter (PM), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxide (NO), and nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)). Information on determinants of exposure was abstracted. In total, 3528 EC, 4166 PM, 581 CO, 322 NO, and 1404 NO(2) measurements were abstracted. From the 10,001 measurements, 32% represented exposure from on-road vehicles and 68% from off-road vehicles (30% mining, 15% railroad, and 22% others). Highest levels were reported for enclosed underground work sites in which heavy equipment is used: mining, mine maintenance, and construction (EC: 27-658 microg/m(3)). Intermediate exposure levels were generally reported for above-ground (semi-) enclosed areas in which smaller equipment was run: mechanics in a shop, emergency workers in fire stations, distribution workers at a dock, and workers loading/unloading inside a ferry (generally: EC<50 microg/m(3)). Lowest levels were reported for enclosed areas separated from the source, such as drivers and train crew, or outside, such as surface mining, parking attendants, vehicle testers, utility service workers, surface construction and airline ground personnel (EC<25 microg/m(3)). The other agents showed a similar pattern. Determinants of exposure reported for enclosed situations were ventilation and exhaust after treatment devices. Reported DE exposure levels were highest for underground mining and construction, intermediate for working in above-ground (semi-) enclosed areas and lowest for working outside or separated from the source. The presented data can be used as a basis for assessing occupational exposure in population-based epidemiological studies and guide future exposure assessment efforts for industrial hygiene and epidemiological studies. PMID:19277070

Pronk, Anjoeka; Coble, Joseph; Stewart, Patricia A

2009-07-01

136

Occupational exposures and COPD: an ecological analysis of international data.  

PubMed

The occupational contribution to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has yet to be put in a global perspective. In the present study, an ecological approach to this question was used, analysing group-level data from 90 sex-specific strata from 45 sites of the Burden of Obstructive Lung Disease study, the Latin American Project for the Investigation of Obstructive Lung Disease and the European Community Respiratory Health Survey follow-up. These data were used to study the association between occupational exposures and COPD Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) stage II or above. Regression analysis of the sex-specific group-level prevalence rates of COPD at each site against the prevalence of occupational exposure and ever-smoking was performed, taking into account mean smoking pack-yrs and mean age by site, sex, study cohort and sample size. For the entire data set, the prevalence of exposures predicted COPD prevalence (0.8% increase in COPD prevalence per 10% increase in exposure prevalence). By comparison, for every 10% increase in the proportion of the ever-smoking population, the prevalence of COPD GOLD stage II or above increased by 1.3%. Given the observed median population COPD prevalence of 3.4%, the model predicted that a 20% relative reduction in the disease burden (i.e. to a COPD prevalence of 2.7%) could be achieved by a 5.4% reduction in overall smoking rates or an 8.8% reduction in the prevalence of occupational exposures. When the data set was analysed by sex-specific site data, among males, the occupational effect was a 0.8% COPD prevalence increase per 10% change in exposure prevalence; among females, a 1.0% increase in COPD per 10% change in exposure prevalence was observed. Within the limitations of an ecological analysis, these findings support a worldwide association between dusty trades and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease for both females and males, placing this within the context of the dominant role of cigarette smoking in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease causation. PMID:19010980

Blanc, P D; Menezes, A M B; Plana, E; Mannino, D M; Hallal, P C; Toren, K; Eisner, M D; Zock, J-P

2009-02-01

137

Occupational Exposure to Polychlorinated Biphenyls and Risk of Breast Cancer  

PubMed Central

Background Despite the endocrine system activity exhibited by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), recent studies have shown little association between PCB exposure and breast cancer mortality. Objectives To further evaluate the relation between PCB exposure and breast cancer risk, we studied incidence, a more sensitive end point than mortality, in an occupational cohort. Methods We followed 5,752 women employed for at least 1 year in one of three capacitor manufacturing facilities, identifying cases from questionnaires, cancer registries, and death certificates through 1998. We collected lifestyle and reproductive information via questionnaire from participants or next of kin and used semiquantitative job-exposure matrices for inhalation and dermal exposures combined. We generated standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) and standardized rate ratios and used Cox proportional hazards regression models to evaluate potential confounders and effect modifiers. Results Overall, the breast cancer SIR was 0.81 (95% confidence interval, 0.72–0.92; n = 257), and regression modeling showed little effect of employment duration or cumulative exposure. However, for the 362 women of questionnaire-identified races other than white, we observed positive, statistically significant associations with employment duration and cumulative exposure; only smoking, birth cohort, and self- or proxy questionnaire completion had statistically significant explanatory power when added to models with exposure metrics. Conclusions We found no overall elevation in breast cancer risk after occupational exposure to PCBs. However, the exposure-related risk elevations seen among nonwhite workers, although of limited interpretability given the small number of cases, warrant further investigation, because the usual reproductive risk factors accounted for little of the increased risk. PMID:19270799

Silver, Sharon R.; Whelan, Elizabeth A.; Deddens, James A.; Steenland, N. Kyle; Hopf, Nancy B.; Waters, Martha A.; Ruder, Avima M.; Prince, Mary M.; Yong, Lee C.; Hein, Misty J.; Ward, Elizabeth M.

2009-01-01

138

Occupational exposure to blood among hospital workers in montenegro.  

PubMed

Abstract This cross-sectional study was performed in nine Montenegrin hospitals to estimate the burden of occupational exposure to blood among hospital workers in Montenegro in 2010 using a modified Croatian self-reporting questionnaire on exposure to blood-borne infections. Of the 1043 respondents, 517 (49.6 %) reported exposure to blood. Variations between the hospitals were not significant, except for the hospital in Kotor, which stands out with the high percentage of exposed hospital workers (p<0.05). More than 77 % of exposures were not reported through standard hospital protocols at the time of the incident. The most exposed group to blood were nurses (357 of 517; 69.1 %), but the percentage of exposed nurses within the group did not stand out compared to other occupations and was close to that reported by physicians (50.57 % vs. 57.49 %, respectively). The number of hospital workers with appropriate HBV vaccination was surprisingly low (35.7 %) and significantly below the recommended best practice (at least two consecutive doses of HBV vaccine documented for 100 % of employees) (p<0.001). Even with its limitations, our study fills a gap in knowledge about the actual number of sharps incidents and other occupational exposure to blood among hospital workers in Montenegro as well as about the issue of underreporting, which is very common. It also confirms the urgent need for active implementation of special, comprehensive measures to prevent needle-stick and other sharps injuries. Constant staff training, life-long learning, and standardising post-exposure procedures are also recommended. PMID:25274934

Cvejanov-Kezunovi?, Ljiljana; Mustajbegovi?, Jadranka; Milosevic, Milan; Civljak, Rok

2014-01-01

139

Personality traits in miners with past occupational elemental mercury exposure.  

PubMed

In this study, we evaluated the impact of long-term occupational exposure to elemental mercury vapor (Hg0) on the personality traits of ex-mercury miners. Study groups included 53 ex-miners previously exposed to Hg0 and 53 age-matched controls. Miners and controls completed the self-reporting Eysenck Personality Questionnaire and the Emotional States Questionnaire. The relationship between the indices of past occupational exposure and the observed personality traits was evaluated using Pearson's correlation coefficient and on a subgroup level by machine learning methods (regression trees). The ex-mercury miners were intermittently exposed to Hg0 for a period of 7-31 years. The means of exposure-cycle urine mercury (U-Hg) concentrations ranged from 20 to 120 microg/L. The results obtained indicate that ex-miners tend to be more introverted and sincere, more depressive, more rigid in expressing their emotions and are likely to have more negative self-concepts than controls, but no correlations were found with the indices of past occupational exposure. Despite certain limitations, results obtained by the regression tree suggest that higher alcohol consumption per se and long-term intermittent, moderate exposure to Hg0 (exposure cycle mean U-Hg concentrations > 38.7 < 53.5 microg/L) in interaction with alcohol remain a plausible explanation for the depression associated with negative self-concept found in subgroups of ex-mercury miners. This could be one of the reason for the higher risk of suicide among miners of the Idrija Mercury Mine in the last 45 years. PMID:16451870

Kobal Grum, Darja; Kobal, Alfred B; Arneric, Niko; Horvat, Milena; Zenko, Bernard; Dzeroski, Saso; Osredkar, Josko

2006-02-01

140

Personality Traits in Miners with Past Occupational Elemental Mercury Exposure  

PubMed Central

In this study, we evaluated the impact of long-term occupational exposure to elemental mercury vapor (Hg0) on the personality traits of ex-mercury miners. Study groups included 53 ex-miners previously exposed to Hg0 and 53 age-matched controls. Miners and controls completed the self-reporting Eysenck Personality Questionnaire and the Emotional States Questionnaire. The relationship between the indices of past occupational exposure and the observed personality traits was evaluated using Pearson’s correlation coefficient and on a subgroup level by machine learning methods (regression trees). The ex-mercury miners were intermittently exposed to Hg0 for a period of 7–31 years. The means of exposure-cycle urine mercury (U-Hg) concentrations ranged from 20 to 120 ?g/L. The results obtained indicate that ex-miners tend to be more introverted and sincere, more depressive, more rigid in expressing their emotions and are likely to have more negative self-concepts than controls, but no correlations were found with the indices of past occupational exposure. Despite certain limitations, results obtained by the regression tree suggest that higher alcohol consumption per se and long-term intermittent, moderate exposure to Hg0 (exposure cycle mean U-Hg concentrations > 38.7 < 53.5 ?g/L) in interaction with alcohol remain a plausible explanation for the depression associated with negative self-concept found in subgroups of ex-mercury miners. This could be one of the reason for the higher risk of suicide among miners of the Idrija Mercury Mine in the last 45 years. PMID:16451870

Grum, Darja Kobal; Kobal, Alfred B.; Arneric, Niko; Horvat, Milena; Zenko, Bernard; Dzeroski, Saso; Osredkar, Josko

2006-01-01

141

Occupational and environmental human lead exposure in Brazil.  

PubMed

The purpose of this paper is to present a review of data on assessment of exposure and adverse effects due to environmental and occupational lead exposure in Brazil. Epidemiological investigations on children lead exposure around industrial and mining areas have shown that lead contamination is an actual source of concern. Lead in gasoline has been phasing out since the 1980s, and it is now completely discontinued. The last lead mining and lead refining plant was closed in 1995, leaving residual environmental lead contamination which has recently been investigated using a multidisciplinary approach. Moreover, there are hundreds of small battery recycling plants and secondary smelting facilities all over the country, which produce focal urban areas of lead contamination. Current regulatory limits for workplace lead exposure have shown to be inadequate as safety limits according to a few studies carried out lately. PMID:16919621

Paoliello, M M B; De Capitani, E M

2007-02-01

142

Occupational and environmental human lead exposure in Brazil  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this paper is to present a review of data on assessment of exposure and adverse effects due to environmental and occupational lead exposure in Brazil. Epidemiological investigations on children lead exposure around industrial and mining areas have shown that lead contamination is an actual source of concern. Lead in gasoline has been phasing out since the 1980s, and it is now completely discontinued. The last lead mining and lead refining plant was closed in 1995, leaving residual environmental lead contamination which has recently been investigated using a multidisciplinary approach. Moreover, there are hundreds of small battery recycling plants and secondary smelting facilities all over the country, which produce focal urban areas of lead contamination. Current regulatory limits for workplace lead exposure have shown to be inadequate as safety limits according to a few studies carried out lately.

Paoliello, M.M.B. [Departamento de Patologia, Analises Clinicas e Toxicologicas, Centro de Ciencias da Saude, Universidade Estadual de Londrina, Avenida Robert Koch 60, 86038-440 Londrina, Parana (Brazil)]. E-mail: monibas@sercomtel.com.br; De Capitani, E.M. [Centro de Controle de Intoxicacoes, Hospital Universitario da UNICAMP, Faculdade de Ciencias Medicas, Universidade Estadual de Campinas (Brazil)

2007-02-15

143

Occupational UV exposure of environmental agents in Valencia, Spain.  

PubMed

Excessive exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UVR) is considered the most important environmental risk factor in the development of melanoma and skin cancer. Outdoor workers are among those with the highest risk from exposure to solar UVR, as their daily activities constantly expose them to this radiation source. A study was carried out in Valencia, Spain, in summer 2012 and involved a group of 11 workers for a period of six 2-day recordings. Sensitive spore-film filter-type personal dosimeters (VioSpor) were used to measure erythemal UVR received by environmental agents in the course of their daily work. Median 2-day UV exposure was 6.2 standard erythema dose (SED), with 1 SED defined as effective 100 J m(-2) when weighted with the Commission Internationale de L'Eclairage's (CIE) erythemal response function. These workers were found to receive a median of 8.3% total daily ambient ultraviolet erythemal radiation. Comparison with the occupational UV exposure limit showed that the subjects had received an erythemal UV dose in excess of occupational guidelines, indicating that protective measures against this risk are highly advisable. PMID:24494834

Serrano, María-Antonia; Cañada, Javier; Moreno, Juan Carlos; Gurrea, Gonzalo

2014-01-01

144

Police officer anxiety after occupational blood and body fluid exposure.  

PubMed

Background In the course of their work, police staff are at risk of exposure to blood and body fluids (BBF) and potentially at risk of acquiring a blood-borne viral infection.Aims To examine levels of anxiety among Scottish police staff following an occupational exposure to BBF.Methods Police staff who reported an incident of exposure to their occupational health (OH) provider were invited to complete a postal questionnaire about their levels of self-reported anxiety after the incident and after contact with medical services (namely, OH and accident and emergency (A&E)).Results Seventy exposed individuals (66% of those invited to take part) completed a questionnaire. Participants' self-reported anxiety after the incident varied widely. Levels of anxiety reduced over time and following contact with medical services. A&E staff were more likely to be the first point of medical contact for the most anxious individuals. Pre-incident training was not associated with post-incident anxiety.Conclusions The findings suggest that contact with medical services helps to alleviate post-exposure anxieties among police staff. PMID:22679212

Dunleavy, K; Taylor, A; Gow, J; Cullen, B; Roy, K

2012-06-01

145

Cardiac Autonomic Dysfunction from Occupational Exposure to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons  

PubMed Central

Objectives Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) exposures have been associated with cardiopulmonary mortality and cardiovascular events. This study investigated the association between a biological marker of PAHs exposure, assessed by urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP), and heart rate variability (HRV) in an occupational cohort of boilermakers. Methods Continuous 24-hour monitoring of the ambulatory electrocardiogram (ECG) and pre and post shift urinary 1-OHP were repeated over extended periods of the work week. Mixed effects models were fit for the 5-minute standard deviation of normal-to-normal intervals (SDNN) in relation to urinary 1-OHP levels pre and post workshift on the day they wore the monitor, controlling for potential confounders. Results We found a significant decrease in 5-min SDNN during work of ?13.6% (95% confidence interval, ?17.2% to ?9.8%) for every standard deviation (0.53 microgram/gram [?g/g] creatinine) increase in the next-morning pre-shift 1-OHP levels. The magnitude of reduction in 5-min SDNN were largest during the late night period after work and increased with every standard deviation (0.46 ?g/g creatinine) increase in post-shift 1-OHP levels. Conclusion This is the first report providing evidence that occupational exposure to PAHs is associated with altered cardiac autonomic function. Acute exposure to PAHs may be an important predictor of cardiovascular disease risk in the work environment. PMID:21172795

Lee, Mi-Sun; Magari, Shannon; Christiani, David C.

2013-01-01

146

Serum lipid peroxide level and blood superoxide dismutase activity in workers with occupational exposure to lead  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied whether lead exposure increased the serum lipid peroxide (LPO) level and inhibited blood superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in workers with occupational exposure to lead and rats injected with lead. We examined the following subjects: (1) manual workers (712 males) from 18 to 59-years-old in steel production with occupational exposure to lead, (2) office workers (155 males) without exposure

Yoshinori Ito; Yoshihide Niiya; Hideki Kurita; Shogo Shima; Susumu Sarai

1985-01-01

147

Occupational exposure to carcinogens in the European Union  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES—To construct a computer assisted information system for the estimation of the numbers of workers exposed to established and suspected human carcinogens in the member states of the European Union (EU).?METHODS—A database called CAREX (carcinogen exposure) was designed to provide selected exposure data and documented estimates of the number of workers exposed to carcinogens by country, carcinogen, and industry. CAREX includes data on agents evaluated by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) (all agents in groups 1 and 2A as of February 1995, and selected agents in group 2B) and on ionising radiation, displayed across the 55 industrial classes. The 1990-3 occupational exposure was estimated in two phases. Firstly, estimates were generated by the CAREX system on the basis of national labour force data and exposure prevalence estimates from two reference countries (Finland and the United States) which had the most comprehensive data available on exposures to these agents. For selected countries, these estimates were then refined by national experts in view of the perceived exposure patterns in their own countries compared with those of the reference countries.?RESULTS—About 32 million workers (23% of those employed) in the EU were exposed to agents covered by CAREX. At least 22 million workers were exposed to IARC group 1 carcinogens. The exposed workers had altogether 42 million exposures (1.3 mean exposures for each exposed worker). The most common exposures were solar radiation (9.1 million workers exposed at least 75% of working time), environmental tobacco smoke (7.5 million workers exposed at least 75% of working time), crystalline silica (3.2 million exposed), diesel exhaust (3.0 million), radon (2.7 million), and wood dust (2.6 million).?CONCLUSION—These preliminary estimates indicate that in the early 1990s, a substantial proportion of workers in the EU were exposed to carcinogens.???Keywords: exposure; carcinogen; Europe PMID:10711264

Kauppinen, T.; Toikkanen, J.; Pedersen, D.; Young, R.; Ahrens, W.; Boffetta, P.; Hansen, J.; Kromhout, H.; Blasco, J. M.; Mirabelli, D.; de la Orden-River..., V.; Pannett, B.; Plato, N.; Savela, A.; Vincent, R.; Kogevinas, M.

2000-01-01

148

Occupational exposure to woodsmoke and oxidative stress in wildland firefighters.  

PubMed

Experimental studies indicate that exposure to woodsmoke could induce oxidative stress. However studies have not been conducted among the general population and specialized occupational groups despite the existence of elevated woodsmoke exposure situations. Therefore, we investigated whether there were across workshift changes in oxidative stress biomarkers among wildland firefighters who are occupationally exposed to elevated levels of woodsmoke. We collected pre- and post-workshift urine samples from 19 wildland firefighters before and after prescribed burns. We measured malondialdehyde (MDA) and 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxo-dG) in the samples, and analyzed whether there were cross-shift changes in their levels, and the relationships between the changes and the length of firefighting career, age of firefighter, and quantified workshift exposure to particulate matter. Overall no significant cross-shift change was observed for 8-oxodG or MDA in the urine samples of the firefighters. Changes in both biomarkers were also not associated with PM2.5, which was used as a marker of exposure. However, overall unadjusted geometric mean 8-oxo-dG levels in the samples (31 ?g/g creatinine) was relatively higher compared to those measured in healthy individuals in many occupational or general population studies. Additionally, cross-shift changes in 8-oxo-dG excretion were dependent on the length of firefighting career (p=0.01) or age of the subject (p=0.01). Significant increases in 8-oxo-dG level from pre-shift to post-shift were observed for those who had been firefighters for 2 years or less. The results indicate that oxidative stress response measured as cross-shift changes in 8-oxo-dG may depend on age or the length of a firefighter's career. These results suggest the need to investigate the longer term health effects of cumulative exposure of woodsmoke exposure among wildland firefighters, because increased body burden of oxidative stress is a risk factor for many diseases and is theorized to be involved in aging. PMID:23434577

Adetona, Olorunfemi; Zhang, Jim Junfeng; Hall, Daniel B; Wang, Jia-Sheng; Vena, John E; Naeher, Luke P

2013-04-01

149

Occupational exposure to radio-frequency electromagnetic fields  

SciTech Connect

The paper considers occupational exposure to radio-frequency (RF) electromagnetic (EM) fields in industrial processes in near-field situations where electric and magnetic field strengths are monitored to assess the health hazard. Plastic materials are joined by an RF machine whose electrodes are not shielded and which may produce high level RF fields in the immediate vicinity, exceeding the ANSI standard. A physiotherapist may be exposed to high E and H fields using RF shortwave therapy, the maintenance personnel in FM/TV broadcast towers are subject to intense RF fields, and induction heating equipment used for forging, annealing and brazing can expose operators' hands to magnetic fields.

Mild, K.H.

1980-01-01

150

Health, occupational exposure, and thoracic magnetic moment of shipyard welders  

SciTech Connect

Magnetopneumography (MPG), a sensitive technique for the non-invasive detection of trace amounts of magnetic substances in the lungs, may be useful to help demonstrate either causality for welding induced disease or the absence thereof by establishing the extent of occupational exposures, and identifying individuals and cohorts at high risk. In order to further examine the potential utility of MPG techniques, pilot studies were performed on a cohorts of intermediate-high exposed non-smoking shipyard welders and unexposed non shipyard electricians participating in a study of the effects of welding on health using a pilot model of a MPG instrument incorporating an AC susceptibility bridge.

Stern, R.M.; Drenck, K.; Lyngenbo, O.; Dirksen, H.; Groth, S.

1985-01-01

151

Prediction of toxic substances emission for occupational exposure assessment.  

PubMed

Methods for predicting organic solvents, chromic acid, mineral oil, styrene, and sulphuric acid emissions in painting, metal degreasing, wood preservation, chromium electroplating, turning, grinding, making glass fortified polyester laminates and lead batteries charging, injection moulding of polystyrene plastics, and making polyurethane foam processes are described. Experimentally introduced equations are based on the essential parameters of these processes. Knowing the emission and the total flow rate of ventilation, it is possible to calculate toxic agent concentration, which is the basis of occupational exposure assessment. PMID:10828151

Benczek, K M; Gaweda, E; Kurpiewska, J

2000-01-01

152

Occupational exposure to environmental tobacco smoke: results of two personal exposure studies.  

PubMed Central

Personal monitoring is a more accurate measure of individual exposure to airborne constituents because it incorporates human activity patterns and collects actual breathing zone samples to which subjects are exposed. Two recent studies conducted by our laboratory offer perspective on occupational exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) from a personal exposure standpoint. In a study of nearly 1600 workers, levels of ETS were lower than or comparable to those in earlier studies. Limits on smoking in designated areas also acted to reduce overall exposure of workers. In facilities where smoking is permitted, ETS exposures are 10 to 20 times greater than in facilities in which smoking is banned. Service workers were exposed to higher levels of ETS than workers in white-collar occupations. For the narrower occupational category of waiters, waitresses, and bartenders, a second study in one urban location indicated that ETS levels to which wait staff are exposed are not considerably different from those exposure levels of subjects in the larger study who work in environments in which smoking is unrestricted. Bartenders were exposed to higher ETS levels, but there is a distinction between bartenders working in smaller facilities and those working in multiroom restaurant bars, with the former exposed to higher levels of ETS than the latter. In addition, ETS levels encountered by these more highly exposed workers are lower that those estimated by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration. Concomitant area monitoring in the smaller study suggests that area samples can only be used to estimate individual personal exposure to within an order of magnitude or greater. PMID:10350519

Jenkins, R A; Counts, R W

1999-01-01

153

Glutathione level after long-term occupational elemental mercury exposure  

SciTech Connect

Many in vitro and in vivo studies have elucidated the interaction of inorganic mercury (Hg) and glutathione. However, human studies are limited. In this study, we investigated the potential effects of remote long-term intermittent occupational elemental Hg vapour (Hg{sup o}) exposure on erythrocyte glutathione levels and some antioxidative enzyme activities in ex-mercury miners in the period after exposure. The study included 49 ex-mercury miners divided into subgroups of 28 still active, Hg{sup o}-not-exposed miners and 21 elderly retired miners, and 41 controls, age-matched to the miners subgroup. The control workers were taken from 'mercury-free works'. Reduced glutathione (GSH) and oxidized disulphide glutathione (GSSG) concentrations in haemolysed erythrocytes were determined by capillary electrophoresis, while total glutathione (total GSH) and the GSH/GSSG ratio were calculated from the determined values. Catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and glutathione reductase (GR) activities in erythrocytes were measured using commercially available reagent kits, while urine Hg (U-Hg) concentrations were determined by cold vapour atomic absorption (CVAAS). No correlation of present U-Hg levels, GSH, GSSG, and antioxidative enzymes with remote occupational biological exposure indices were found. The mean CAT activity in miners and retired miners was significantly higher (p<0.05) than in the controls. No differences in mean GPx activity among the three groups were found, whereas the mean GR activity was significantly higher (p<0.05) in miners than in retired miners. The mean concentrations of GSH (mmol/g Hb) in miners (13.03{+-}3.71) were significantly higher (p<0.05) than in the control group (11.68{+-}2.66). No differences in mean total GSH, GSSG levels, and GSH/GSSG ratio between miners and controls were found. A positive correlation between GSSG and present U-Hg excretion (r=0.41, p=0.001) in the whole group of ex-mercury miners was observed. The significantly lower GSH level (p<0.05) determined in the group of retired miners (9.64{+-}1.45) seems to be age-related (r=-0.39, p=0.001). Thus, the moderate but significantly increased GSH level, GR and CAT activity in erythrocytes in the subgroup of miners observed in the period after exposure to Hg{sup o} could be an inductive and additive response to maintain the balance between GSH and antioxidative enzymes in interaction with the Hg body burden accumulated during remote occupational exposure, which does not represent a severely increased oxidative stress.

Kobal, Alfred Bogomir [University Medical Centre Ljubljana, Institute of Clinical Chemistry and Biochemistry, Njegoseva 4, SI-1525 Ljubljana (Slovenia)], E-mail: abkobal@volja.net; Prezelj, Marija [University Medical Centre Ljubljana, Institute of Clinical Chemistry and Biochemistry, Njegoseva 4, SI-1525 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Horvat, Milena [Department of Environmental Sciences, Jozef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Krsnik, Mladen [University Medical Centre Ljubljana, Institute of Clinical Chemistry and Biochemistry, Njegoseva 4, SI-1525 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Gibicar, Darija [Department of Environmental Sciences, Jozef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Osredkar, Josko [University Medical Centre Ljubljana, Institute of Clinical Chemistry and Biochemistry, Njegoseva 4, SI-1525 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

2008-05-15

154

Choice of rating method for assessing occupational asbestos exposure: study for compensation purposes in France  

E-print Network

Choice of rating method for assessing occupational asbestos exposure: study for compensation was to define the most suitable rating method for assessing occupational asbestos exposure in order to assess -- randomly selected and representing 457 jobs held. Job asbestos exposure was assessed by a six-expert panel

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

155

Occupational radiation Exposure at Agreement State-Licensed Materials Facilities, 1997-2010  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this report is to examine occupational radiation exposures received under Agreement State licensees. As such, this report reflects the occupational radiation exposure data contained in the Radiation Exposure Information and Reporting System (REIRS) database, for 1997 through 2010, from Agreement State-licensed materials facilities.

U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research

2012-07-07

156

Virus occupational exposure in solid waste processing facilities.  

PubMed

It is well known that workers involved in the management of solid waste are at risk of exposure to bioaerosol, which is generally studied in relation to bacteria, fungi, and endotoxins. However, to date, there have been no reports on the incidence of work-related infectious diseases. To determine if occupational exposure to viruses occurs upon exposure to waste-related activities, monitoring was carried out in a landfill, a waste recycling plant, an incineration plant, and a waste collection vehicles. Air and surfaces were sampled and analyzed for torque teno virus (TTV), human adenovirus (HAdV), norovirus, rotavirus, and enterovirus using polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based techniques. Positivity was confirmed by sequencing and quantification with real-time PCR; infectivity was also tested for culturable viruses. Samples were analyzed in parallel for mean total bacterial and fungi counts in both the summer and winter. In total, 30% (12/40) of air and 13.5% (5/37) of surface samples collected in plants were positive for HAdV and TTV. Among the eight HAdV-positive samples, six (75%), revealed in landfill and recycling plant air and in incinerator and waste vehicles surfaces, were able to replicate in cell culture and were subsequently confirmed as infective. The frequency of detection of virus-positive samples was similar in both seasons, but with evident differences in the type of virus detected: TTV and HAdV were more frequently detected in the summer and winter, respectively. The area of highest viral contamination was the paper selection landfill. Fungi and bacterial contamination did not correlate with viral presence or concentration. In conclusion, we evidence that working with solid and liquid waste can lead to infectious viruses, included in Group 2 of the European Directive 90/679/CEE pathogens list; thus, further investigation on the sources and routes of contamination is needed in order to assess the occupational risk. PMID:23917836

Carducci, Annalaura; Federigi, Ileana; Verani, Marco

2013-11-01

157

Occupational exposure in patients with the antisynthetase syndrome.  

PubMed

Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is common in patients with myositis and is related with the presence of antisynthetase autoantibodies (aSA). Together with other manifestations, the resulting condition is known as the antisynthetase syndrome (ASS). Contact with certain environmental and occupational agents is also associated with the development of ILD. The objective of this study was to analyze occupational exposure and associated clinical manifestations in a cohort of patients with ASS. aSA had been identified by line immunoassay and confirmed by immunoprecipitation. Serial pulmonary function tests had been carried out to assess lung function. Thirty-two ASS patients and a control group of 32 myositis patients without aSA underwent a specific questionnaire interview to evaluate their cumulative exposure to biological dust, mineral dust, and gases/fumes up to disease onset. Comparisons were done with the Fisher exact test and Mann-Whitney test. Out from 32 ASS patients (median age, 42.7 yeras; IQR 32.2-52.5), twenty-six patients had anti-Jo-1, three anti-PL-12, and three anti-PL-7. Nine had polymyositis, 15 dermatomyositis, one amyopathic dermatomyositis, and seven pure ILD without myositis. Sixteen ASS patients (50 %) and seven (22 %) myositis patients without aSA had ever been highly exposed to dust, gases, or fumes (p?exposure (p?=?0.06) over the observation period. In conclusion, a high percentage of patients with ASS had been exposed to dusts, gases, or fumes. PMID:24384826

Labirua-Iturburu, Ane; Selva-O'Callaghan, Albert; Zock, Jan-Paul; Orriols, Ramon; Martínez-Gómez, Xavier; Vilardell-Tarrés, Miquel

2014-02-01

158

29 CFR 1926.52 - Occupational noise exposure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Occupational Health and Environmental Controls § 1926.52...

2011-07-01

159

29 CFR 1926.52 - Occupational noise exposure.  

...Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Occupational Health and Environmental Controls § 1926.52...

2014-07-01

160

29 CFR 1926.52 - Occupational noise exposure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Occupational Health and Environmental Controls § 1926.52...

2013-07-01

161

29 CFR 1926.52 - Occupational noise exposure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Occupational Health and Environmental Controls § 1926.52...

2012-07-01

162

29 CFR 1910.1048 - Formaldehyde.  

...formaldehyde on the increased risk of impairment of their health. (5) Examinations...employee at an increased risk of material impairment of health from exposure to formaldehyde...him or her at increased risk of impaired health from exposure...

2014-07-01

163

Occupational Radiation Exposure Analysis of US ITER DCLL TBM  

SciTech Connect

This report documents an Occupational Radiation Exposure (ORE) analysis that was performed for the US International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) Dual Coolant Lead Lithium (DCLL) Test Blanket Module (TBM). This analysis was performed with the QADMOD dose code for anticipated maintenance activities for this TBM concept and its ancillary systems. The QADMOD code was used to model the PbLi cooling loop of this TBM concept by specifying gamma ray source terms that simulated radioactive material within the piping, valves, heat exchanger, permeator, pump, drain tank, and cold trap of this cooling system. Estimates of the maintenance tasks that will have to be performed and the time required to perform these tasks where developed based on either expert opinion or on industrial maintenance experience for similar technologies. This report details the modeling activity and the calculated doses for the maintenance activities envisioned for the US DCLL TBM.

Merrill, Brad J; Cadwallader, Lee C; Dagher, Mohamad

2007-08-01

164

Interpretation of Urinary and Blood Benzene biomarkers of Exposure for Non-Occupationally Exposed Individuals  

EPA Science Inventory

Non-occupational exposure to benzene occurs primarily through inhalation ofair impacted by motor vehicle exhaust, fuel sources, and cigarette smoke. This study relates published measurements ofbenzene biomarkers to air exposure concentrations. Benzene has three reliable biomar...

165

A review of current and proposed standards for occupational exposures to radio-frequency energy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The essential aspects of an acceptable r-f occupational exposure program are presented. They include exposure limits, surveillance of work environment, medical attention, investigation of accidental overexposures, and documentation of overexposures. Each aspect is briefly discussed.

Odland, L. T.

1975-01-01

166

Strategy of the scientific committee on occupational exposure limits (SCOEL) in the derivation of occupational exposure limits for carcinogens and mutagens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Setting standards, such as occupational exposure limits (OELs) for carcinogenic substances must consider modes of action.\\u000a At the European Union level, the scientific committee on occupational exposure limits (SCOEL) has discussed a number of chemical\\u000a carcinogens and has issued recommendations. For some carcinogens, health-based OELs were recommended, while quantitative assessments\\u000a of carcinogenic risks were performed for others. For purposes of

Hermann M. Bolt; Alicia Huici-Montagud

2008-01-01

167

Association of expired nitric oxide with occupational particulate exposure.  

PubMed Central

Particulate air pollution has been associated with adverse respiratory health effects. This study assessed the utility of expired nitric oxide to detect acute airway responses to metal-containing fine particulates. Using a repeated-measures study design, we investigated the association between the fractional concentration of expired nitric oxide (F(E)NO) and exposure to particulate matter with an aerodynamic mass median diameter of less than or equal to 2.5 micro m (PM(2.5)) in boilermakers exposed to residual oil fly ash and metal fumes. Subjects were monitored for 5 days during boiler repair overhauls in 1999 (n = 20) or 2000 (n = 14). The Wilcoxon median baseline F(E)NO was 10.6 ppb [95% confidence interval (CI): 9.1, 12.7] in 1999 and 7.4 ppb (95% CI: 6.7, 8.0) in 2000. The Wilcoxon median PM(2.5) 8-hr time-weighted average was 0.56 mg/m(3) (95% CI: 0.37, 0.93) in 1999 and 0.86 mg/m(3) (95% CI: 0.65, 1.07) in 2000. F(E)NO levels during the work week were significantly lower than baseline F(E)NO in 1999 (p < 0.001). A significant inverse exposure-response relationship between log-transformed F(E)NO and the previous workday's PM(2.5) concentration was found in 1999, after adjusting for smoking status, age, and sampling year. With each 1 mg/m(3) incremental increase in PM(2.5) exposure, log F(E)NO decreased by 0.24 (95% CI: -0.38, -0.10) in 1999. The lack of an exposure-response relationship between PM(2.5) exposure and F(E)NO in 2000 could be attributable to exposure misclassification resulting from the use of respirators. In conclusion, occupational exposure to metal-containing fine particulates was associated with significant decreases in F(E)NO in a survey of workers with limited respirator usage. PMID:12727593

Kim, Jee Young; Wand, Matthew P; Hauser, Russ; Mukherjee, Sutapa; Herrick, Robert F; Christiani, David C

2003-01-01

168

Occupational exposures to bloodborne viruses among German dental professionals and students in a clinical setting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  Exposures to bloodborne pathogens pose a serious risk to dental healthcare workers (DHCW). Despite improved methods of preventing\\u000a exposures like needlestick injuries (NSI), occupational exposures still continue to occur. The purpose of this study was to\\u000a evaluate the incidence of occupational exposures to patient body fluids among German DHCW, to assess the rate of reporting\\u000a of such incidents, and to

Sabine Wicker; Holger F. Rabenau

2010-01-01

169

Occupational exposure and lung cancer risk in a coastal area of Northeastern Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

A case-control study of lung cancer and occupational exposure was conducted in a coastal area of Northeastern Italy where metallurgical and mechanical industries, docks and shipyards are located. Cases comprised 756 men who died of primary lung cancer in a 5-year period. Controls comprised 756 male subjects dying from other causes during the same period. Occupational exposures to lung carcinogens

Massimo Bovenzi; Giorgio Stanta; Gianluigi Antiga; Paolo Peruzzo; Furio Cavallieri

1993-01-01

170

Indoor air quality and occupational exposures at a bus terminal.  

PubMed

This article presents an assessment of indoor air quality at a bus terminal. For this purpose, field surveys were conducted, and air samples were collected and analyzed for the presence of selected indoor air quality indicators. Mathematical modeling was performed to simulate bus emission rates, occupational exposure, and ventilation requirements to maintain acceptable indoor air quality. A sensitivity analysis based on literature-derived emission rates estimates was conducted to evaluate the effect of seasonal temperature changes within the terminal. Control measures to improve indoor air quality at the terminal are also outlined. While carbon monoxide concentrations were below the corresponding American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists' (ACGIH) standards under normal operating conditions, they exceeded the 8-hr recommended average standard at peak hours and the World Health Organization (WHO) standard at all times. Total suspended particulates levels, on the other hand, were above the 24-hr American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Engineers' (ASHRAE) standard. Carbon monoxide emission rates that were estimated using the transient mass balance model correlated relatively well with those reported in the literature. Modeling results showed that the natural ventilation rate should be at least doubled for acceptable indoor air quality. While pollutant exposure levels depended on the individual activity patterns and the pollutant concentration, pollutant emissions rates within the terminal were affected mostly by the temperature with a 20-25 percent variation in carbon monoxide levels due to changes in seasonal temperatures. PMID:12791548

El-Fadel, Mutasem; El-Hougeiri, Nisrine

2003-07-01

171

Occupational exposure to anaesthetic gases: a role for TIVA.  

PubMed

Modern anaesthesia is still mostly administered by the inhalational route and there is increasing concern over its potential for pollution. One of the first gaseous anaesthetic agents was nitrous oxide and this is still widely used today despite being associated with adverse effects caused by depression of vitamin B(12) function and diminished reproductive health. The use of halothane is associated with hepatitis but the adverse effects of newer halogenated hydrocarbons are less well recognised. Chronic exposure may cause reduction in antioxidant activity in plasma and erythrocytes, inhibition of neutrophil apoptosis, depression of central neuro-respiratory activity, increased DNA breaks, effects on cerebral blood circulation and altered renal function. Inhalational anaesthetics also have adverse environmental effects, including ozone damage and greenhouse gas effects. Levels of inhalational anaesthetics in the ambient air of operating theatres and recovery rooms often exceed those stated in national guidelines. Anaesthetic procedures can be modified and air-conditioning and air scavenging systems should be used to minimise the risks from occupational exposure and threats to the environment. Such contamination could be avoided with the use of total intravenous anaesthesia. PMID:19480607

Irwin, Michael G; Trinh, Theresa; Yao, Che-Lin

2009-07-01

172

Occupational Exposure to HIV Among Health Care Providers: A Qualitative Study in Yunnan, China  

PubMed Central

With the HIV/AIDS epidemic spreading, health care providers (HCPs) in China are facing a growing risk of occupational exposure to and infection with HIV. There is a need to describe occupational exposure cases and compliance with postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) guidelines among HCPs. Qualitative in-depth interviews were conducted with 33 HCPs in Yunnan Province, China. Information about occupational exposures the HCPs and their co-workers experienced was collected and analyzed using ATLAS.ti. Most occupational exposure accidents happened during emergencies, when HCPs did not have time to consider self-protection. Exposure to HIV caused exposed HCPs severe adverse psychological pressure, such as stress and anxiety. Compliance with PEP guidelines among participants was poor; barriers to better compliance were identified. This study underscored the importance of institutional support in promoting compliance with PEP guidelines among exposed providers. Further training and emphasis on universal precautions and PEP guidelines may reduce the risk of occupational infections. PMID:17641135

Lin, Chunqing; Li, Li; Wu, Zunyou; Wu, Sheng; Jia, Manhong

2009-01-01

173

Occupational exposure to aluminum and its biomonitoring in perspective.  

PubMed

Exposure to aluminum at work is widespread, and people are exposed to several species of aluminum, which differ markedly as to the kinetics and toxicity. Especially welding of aluminum is widely applied and continuously expanding. Inhalation of fine particles of sparsely soluble aluminum results in the retention of deposited particles in the lungs. From the lungs, aluminum is released to the blood and distributed to bones and the brain, and excreted to urine. Soluble aluminum compounds are not accumulated in the lungs. Neurotoxicity is the critical effect of exposure to sparsely soluble aluminum compounds. Studies on workers exposed to aluminum welding fumes have revealed disturbances of cognitive processes, memory and concentration, and changes in mood and EEG. Early pulmonary effects have been observed among aluminum powder-production workers using high-resolution computed tomography. The primary objective of aluminum biomonitoring (BM) is to help prevent the formation of aluminum burden in the lungs and thereby to prevent harmful accumulation of aluminum in target organs. BM of aluminum can be effectively used for this purpose in the production/use of aluminum powders, aluminum welding, as well as plasma cutting, grinding, polishing and thermal spraying of aluminum. BM of aluminum may also be similarly useful in the smelting of aluminum and probably in the production of corundum. BM can help identify exposed individuals and roughly quantitate transient exposure but cannot predict health effects in the production/use of soluble aluminum salts. For urinary aluminum (U-Al) we propose an action limit of 3 µmol/L, corrected to a relative density of 1.021, in a sample collected preshift after two days without occupational exposure, and without use of aluminum-containing drugs. This value corresponds roughly to 2.3 µmol/g creatinine. Compliance with this limit is expected to protect the worker against the critical effect of aluminum in exposure to sparsely soluble aluminum dusts, the cognitive function of the central nervous system. For serum aluminum (S-Al), we do not propose an action limit because S-Al is less sensitive as an indicator of aluminum load. PMID:23013241

Riihimäki, Vesa; Aitio, Antero

2012-11-01

174

Health Hazard Evaluation Report: HETA-2011-0014-3147, November 2011. Formaldehyde Exposures During Brazilian Blowout Hair Smoothing Treatment at a Hair Salon - Ohio.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In November 2010, NIOSH received an HHE request from the owner of a hair salon in Ohio. The request concerned employee exposure to formaldehyde when performing hair smoothing treatments using the Brazilian Blowout hair products. We met with the employer a...

E. Page, S. Durgam

2011-01-01

175

Maternal occupational exposure during pregnancy and the risk of spina bifida.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: A case-control study was carried out to explore associations between spina bifida and occupational exposure of the mother. METHODS: The cases were children with spina bifida aperta born between 1980 and 1992 from nine hospitals in the Netherlands. The controls were children born healthy in the same period as the cases, from hospitals and from the general population. Data collection was carried out in two steps. Firstly, postal questionnaires were sent to all the parents of cases and controls to gather information on occupations and potential confounders. In the second phase of the study, information on specific exposures was collected by means of job and task specific personal interviews. Interviews were performed with 55 case mothers and 66 control mothers who had occupations with a potential for chemical or physical exposure. Those exposures were assumed to be negligible for--for example, teachers and secretaries, so personal interviews were not indicated for these women. Information was collected on specific tasks in the period just after conception, and on the associated use of chemical or physical agents, frequency of exposure, and use of protective equipment. RESULTS: The analyses of occupation showed an increased risk for women working in agricultural occupations (OR = 3.4, CI:1.3-9.0), and, although less distinct, for cleaning women (OR = 1.7, CI:0.9-3.4). Only a few women seemed to be occupationally exposed to chemical or physical agents. No differences in occurrence of specific exposures could be detected between cases and controls. Besides, no differences were seen in pesticide or disinfectant exposure among case and control mothers in agricultural occupations. CONCLUSIONS: Occupational exposures of the mother during pregnancy were infrequent and did not seem to play an important part in the aetiology of spina bifida in this study. The association found between spina bifida and maternal agricultural occupations could not be explained by the use of pesticides by the mother or by any other occupational exposure. PMID:8777455

Blatter, B M; Roeleveld, N; Zielhuis, G A; Gabreels, F J; Verbeek, A L

1996-01-01

176

Evaluation of biomarkers for occupational exposure to benzene.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE--To evaluate the relations between environmental benzene concentrations and various biomarkers of exposure to benzene. METHODS--Analyses were carried out on environmental air, unmetabolised benzene in urine, trans, trans-muconic acid (ttMA), and three major phenolic metabolites of benzene; catechol, hydroquinone, and phenol, in two field studies on 64 workers exposed to benzene concentrations from 0.12 to 68 ppm, the time weighted average (TWA). Forty nonexposed subjects were also investigated. RESULTS--Among the five urinary biomarkers studied, ttMA correlated best with environmental benzene concentration (correlation coefficient, r = 0.87). When urinary phenolic metabolites were compared with environmental benzene, hydroquinone correlated best with benzene in air. No correlation was found between unmetabolised benzene in urine and environmental benzene concentrations. The correlation coefficients for environmental benzene and end of shift catechol, hydroquinone, and phenol were 0.30, 0.70, and 0.66, respectively. Detailed analysis, however, suggests that urinary phenol was not a specific biomarker for exposure below 5 ppm. In contrast, ttMA and hydroquinone seemed to be specific and sensitive even at concentrations of below 1 ppm. Although unmetabolised benzene in urine showed good correlation with atmospheric benzene (r = 0.50, P < 0.05), data were insufficient to suggest that it is a useful biomarker for exposure to low concentrations of benzene. The results from the present study also showed that both ttMA and hydroquinone were able to differentiate the background level found in subjects not occupationally exposed and those exposed to less than 1 ppm of benzene. This suggests that these two biomarkers are useful indices for monitoring low concentrations of benzene. Furthermore, these two metabolites are known to be involved in bone marrow leukaemogenesis, their applications in biological monitoring could thus be important in risk assessment. CONCLUSION--The good correlations between ttMA, hydroquinone, and atmospheric benzene, even at concentrations of less than 1 ppm, suggest that they are sensitive and specific biomarkers for benzene exposure. PMID:7663638

Ong, C N; Kok, P W; Lee, B L; Shi, C Y; Ong, H Y; Chia, K S; Lee, C S; Luo, X W

1995-01-01

177

Occupational exposures worldwide and revision of international standards for protection.  

PubMed

United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) has become the world authority on the levels and effects of ionising radiation. Since 1975, UNSCEAR has evaluated inter alia the level of occupational exposure worldwide. Based on revised questionnaires, more detailed information is now available. The results of the last evaluation (1995-2002) will be shown in the paper. Lessons learned from the responses by UN Member States will be given, as well as an outline of plans for data collection in future cycles. The requirements for protection against exposure to ionising radiation of workers, the public and patients are established in the International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionising Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources (BSS), published in 1996. As a result of a review of the BSS in 2006, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) started a process for the revision of these standards in 2007. International organisations including the joint sponsoring organisations of the BSS-IAEA, FAO, ILO, OECD/NEA, PAHO and WHO--as well as potential new joint sponsoring organisations of the revised BSS--the European Commission and UNEP-were involved from the beginning in the revision process. The paper also provides a summary of the status of the Draft Revised BSS and describes the new format. The paper focuses, in particular, on requirements for the protection of workers as well as recordkeeping requirements, which provide the legal basis for the collection of specific data; these data are of the type that can be used by UNSCEAR. PMID:21148586

Czarwinski, R; Crick, M J

2011-03-01

178

Optical Detection of Formaldehyde  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The potential for buildup .of formaldehyde in closed space environments poses a direct health hazard to personnel. The National Aeronautic Space Agency (NASA) has established a maximum permitted concentration of 0.04 ppm for 7 to 180 days for all space craft. Early detection is critical to ensure that formaldehyde levels do not accumulate. above these limits. New sensor technologies are needed to enable real time,in situ detection in a compact and reusable form factor. Addressing this need,research into the use of reactive fluorescent dyes which reversibly bind to formaldehyde (liquid or gas) has been conducted to support the development of a formaldehyde.sensor. In the presence of formaldehyde the dyes' characteristic fluorescence peaks shift providing the basis for an optical detection. Dye responses to formaldehyde exposure were characterized; demonstrating the optical detection of formaldehyde in under 10 seconds and down to concentrations of 0.5 ppm. To .incorporate the dye .in.an optical sensor device requires. a means of containing and manipulating the dye. Multiple form factors using two dissimilar sbstrates were considered to determine a suitable configuration. A prototype sensor was demonstrated and considerations for a field able sensor were presented. This research provides a necessary first step toward the development of a compact, reusable; real time optical formaldehyde sensor suitable for use in the U.S. space program,

Patty, Kira D.; Gregory, Don A.

2008-01-01

179

Optical detection of formaldehyde  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The potential for buildup of formaldehyde in closed space environments poses a direct health hazard to personnel. The National Aeronautic Space Agency (NASA) has established a maximum permitted concentration of 0.04 ppm for 7 to 180 days for all space craft. Early detection is critical to ensure that formaldehyde levels do not accumulate above these limits. New sensor technologies are needed to enable real time, in situ detection in a compact and reusable form factor. Addressing this need, research into the use of reactive fluorescent dyes which reversibly bind to formaldehyde (liquid or gas) has been conducted to support the development of a formaldehyde sensor. In the presence of formaldehyde the dyes' characteristic fluorescence peaks shift providing the basis for an optical detection. Dye responses to formaldehyde exposure were characterized; demonstrating the optical detection of formaldehyde in under 10 seconds and down to concentrations of 0.5 ppm. To incorporate the dye in an optical sensor device requires a means of containing and manipulating the dye. Multiple form factors using two dissimilar substrates were considered to determine a suitable configuration. A prototype sensor was demonstrated and considerations for a fieldable sensor were presented. This research provides a necessary first step toward the development of a compact, reusable, real time optical formaldehyde sensor suitable for use in the U.S. space program.

Patty, Kira D.; Gregory, Don A.

2008-04-01

180

Worker Exposure to Endotoxin, Phenolic Compounds, and Formaldehyde in a Fiberglass Insulation Manufacturing Plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Worker exposures in a fiberglass wool insulation manufacturing plant were studied. The plant used a continuous process and operated at full production during a six-week study. Area samples were used to characterize spatial variability of contaminant levels. Repeated personal samples were used to characterize the distribution and to explore within- and between-worker variability of exposures. The greatest potential for exposure

Donald K. Milton; Michael D. Walters; Katharine Hammond; John S. Evans

1996-01-01

181

A coupled sensor-spectrophotometric device for continuous measurement of formaldehyde in indoor environments.  

PubMed

Despite long-standing awareness of adverse health effects associated with chronic human exposure to formaldehyde, this hazardous air pollutant remains a challenge to measure in indoor environments. Traditional analytical techniques evaluate formaldehyde concentrations over several hours to several days in a single location in a residence, making it difficult to characterize daily temporal and spatial variation in human exposure to formaldehyde. There is a need for portable, easy-to-use devices that are specific and sensitive to gas-phase formaldehyde over short sampling periods so that dynamic processes governing formaldehyde fate, transport, and potential remediation in indoor environments may be studied more effectively. A recently developed device couples a chemical sensor element with spectrophotometric analysis for detection and quantification of part per billion (ppbv) gas-phase formaldehyde concentrations. This study established the ability of the coupled sensor-spectrophotometric device (CSSD) to report formaldehyde concentrations accurately and continuously on a 30-min sampling cycle at low ppbv concentrations previously untested for this device in a laboratory setting. Determination of the method detection limit (MDL), based on 40 samples each at test concentrations of 5 and 10?ppbv, was found to be 1.9 and 2.0?ppbv, respectively. Performance of the CSSD was compared with the dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) derivatization method for formaldehyde concentrations ranging from 5-50?ppbv, and a linear relationship with a coefficient of determination of 0.983 was found between these two analytical techniques. The CSSD was also used to monitor indoor formaldehyde concentrations in two manufactured homes. During this time, formaldehyde concentrations varied from below detection limit to 65?ppbv and were above the US National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) recommended exposure limit (REL) of 16?ppbv, which is also the exposure limit value now adopted by the US Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) to procure manufactured housing, 80% and 100% of the time, respectively. PMID:24084757

Carter, Ellison M; Jackson, Mark C; Katz, Lynn E; Speitel, Gerald E

2014-01-01

182

Multiple myeloma and diesel and other occupational exposures in swedish construction workers.  

PubMed

We examined the relationships between occupational exposures and the risk of multiple myeloma among male construction workers in Sweden. A total of 446 myeloma subjects were identified among 365,424 male workers followed from 1971 to 1999. Occupational exposure was assessed using a semiquantitative job-exposure matrix, based on a survey carried out by the Construction Industry's Organization for Working Environment, Occupational Safety and Health in Sweden. Rate ratios (RRs) in the exposed groups relative to the unexposed groups were estimated by Poisson regression. We found an increased risk (RR = 1.3, 95% CI 1.04-1.71) among construction workers exposed to diesel exhaust. Adjustment for other occupational exposures did not change this estimate (RR = 1.3, 95% CI 1.00-1.77). However, there was no monotonic increase in risk with estimated level of exposure (RR for low = 1.4, moderate = 1.1, high = 1.4). There was no evidence of increased risk associated with the other occupational exposures among these construction workers, including asbestos, asphalt, cement dust, metal dust, mineral wool, organic solvents, stone dust and wood dust. Occupational exposure to diesel exhaust in the Swedish construction industry may present a small risk of multiple myeloma, but lack of an exposure-response trend tempers our ability to draw clear conclusions. PMID:12925968

Lee, Won Jin; Baris, Dalsu; Järvholm, Bengt; Silverman, Debra T; Bergdahl, Ingvar A; Blair, Aaron

2003-10-20

183

Microfabricated Formaldehyde Gas Sensors  

PubMed Central

Formaldehyde is a volatile organic compound that is widely used in textiles, paper, wood composites, and household materials. Formaldehyde will continuously outgas from manufactured wood products such as furniture, with adverse health effects resulting from prolonged low-level exposure. New, microfabricated sensors for formaldehyde have been developed to meet the need for portable, low-power gas detection. This paper reviews recent work including silicon microhotplates for metal oxide-based detection, enzyme-based electrochemical sensors, and nanowire-based sensors. This paper also investigates the promise of polymer-based sensors for low-temperature, low-power operation. PMID:22291561

Flueckiger, Jonas; Ko, Frank K.; Cheung, Karen C.

2009-01-01

184

[The National Registry of Occupational Exposures to Carcinogens (SIREP): information system and results].  

PubMed

The recording of occupational exposure to carcinogens is a fundamental step in order to assess exposure risk factors in workplaces. The aim of this paper is to describe the characteristics of the Italian register of occupational exposures to carcinogen agents (SIREP). The core data collected in the system are: firm characteristics, worker demographics, and exposure information. Statistical descriptive analyses were performed by economic activity sector, carcinogen agent and geographic location. Currently, the information recorded regard: 12,300 firms, 130,000 workers, and 250,000 exposures. The SIREP database has been set up in order to assess, control and reduce the carcinogen risk at workplace. PMID:23393806

Scarselli, Alberto

2011-01-01

185

National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health General Industry Occupational Exposure Databases: Their Structure, Capabilities, and Limitations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The passage of the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 resulted in increased concern for the safety and health of workers in the United States. Early in 1971, a Hazard and Disease Task Force, formed by the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, identified a need for more detailed information on the distribution of potential exposures of employees in

Alice Greife; Randy Young; Mary Carroll; W. Karl Sieber; David Pedersen; David Sundin; Joe Seta

1995-01-01

186

Occupational exposure to antineoplastic agents at several departments in a hospital  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The occupational exposure to cyclophosphamide (CP), ifosfamide (IF), 5-fluorouracil (5FU), and methotrexate (MTX) of 25 pharmacy technicians and nurses from four departments of a hospital was investigated. Previously developed methods for the detection of exposure to some antineoplastic agents were validated. Exposure to CP, IF, 5FU, and MTX was measured by the analysis of these compounds in the environment

P. J. M. Sessink; K. A. Boer; A. P. H. Scheefhals; R. B. M. Anzion; R. P. Bos

1992-01-01

187

Ann Occup Hyg . Author manuscript Pulmonary carcinoid tumors and asbestos exposure  

E-print Network

between asbestos exposure and pulmonary carcinoid tumors. Methods A retrospective case-control study, recruited in 2 hospitals in the region of Paris. Asbestos exposure was assessed via expertiseAnn Occup Hyg . Author manuscript Page /1 8 Pulmonary carcinoid tumors and asbestos exposure B n

Boyer, Edmond

188

SPERM COUNT, MORPHOLOGY AND FLUORESCENT BODY FREQUENCY IN AUTOPSY SERVICE WORKERS EXPOSED TO FORMALDEHYDE  

EPA Science Inventory

The ability of a battery of genetic monitoring tests to detect occupational formaldehyde exposure in a population of a hospital autopsy service workers was investigated. Eleven exposed individuals and 11 matched controls were evaluated for sperm count, abnormal sperm morphology a...

189

Reconstructing past occupational exposures: how reliable are women's reports of their partner's occupation?  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesMost of the evidence on agreement between self- and proxy-reported occupational data comes from interview-based studies. The authors aimed to examine agreement between women's reports of their partner's occupation and their partner's own description using questionnaire-based data collected as a part of the prospective, population-based Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children.MethodsInformation on present occupation was self-reported by women's partners

Nara Tagiyeva; Sean Semple; Graham Devereux; Andrea Sherriff; John Henderson; Peter Elias; Jon G Ayres

2010-01-01

190

Effects of parental occupational exposure to lead and other metals on spontaneous abortion.  

PubMed

The aim of this article was to summarize the epidemiologic studies on the possible impact of parental occupational exposure to lead or other metals on spontaneous abortion. For paternal exposure, the total number of abortions in the studies with adequate exposure contrast were 340 for lead, 240 for mercury, and 90 for unspecified metals and, correspondingly, for maternal exposure, about 80 for lead, 80 for mercury, 70 for nickel, and 130 for exposure to unspecified metals. Epidemiologic studies indicate that paternal exposure to lead or mercury might be associated with the risk of spontaneous abortion. For maternal exposure, no clear conclusion could be reached. In particular, paternal occupational exposure levels to metals were substantial compared with population values. Even though there are shortcomings in the present knowledge, protective goals for paternal exposure to lead and mercury are warranted. More well-designed studies on metals are needed. PMID:8520953

Anttila, A; Sallmén, M

1995-08-01

191

Occupational and environmental health guidelines for the evaluation and control of asbestos exposure. Technical guide  

SciTech Connect

This publication provides preventive-medicine information and guidance about controlling asbestos exposure. It applies to military and civilian personnel and on-post dependents worldwide who are occupationally or nonoccupationally exposed to asbestos.

Tuggle

1986-07-01

192

Airborne isocyanate exposures in the collision repair industry and a comparison to occupational exposure limits.  

PubMed

Isocyanate exposure was evaluated in 33 spray painters from 25 Washington State autobody shops. Personal breathing zone samples (n = 228) were analyzed for isophorone diisocyanate (IPDI) monomer, 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI) monomer, IPDI polyisocyanate, and three polyisocyanate forms of HDI. The objective was to describe exposures to isocyanates while spray painting, compare them with short-term exposure limits (STELs), and describe the isocyanate composition in the samples. The composition of polyisocyanates (IPDI and HDI) in the samples varied greatly, with maximum amounts ranging from up to 58% for HDI biuret to 96% for HDI isocyanurate. There was a significant inverse relationship between the percentage composition of HDI isocyanurate to IPDI and to HDI uretdione. Two 15-min STELs were compared: (1) Oregon's Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OR-OSHA) STEL of 1000 ?g/m(3) for HDI polyisocyanate, and (2) the United Kingdom's Health and Safety Executive (UK-HSE) STEL of 70 ?g NCO/m(3) for all isocyanates. Eighty percent of samples containing HDI polyisocyanate exceeded the OR-OSHA STEL while 98% of samples exceeded the UK-HSE STEL. The majority of painters (67%) wore half-face air-purifying respirators while spray painting. Using the OR-OSHA and the UK-HSE STELs as benchmarks, 21% and 67% of painters, respectively, had at least one exposure that exceeded the respirator's OSHA-assigned protection factor. A critical review of the STELs revealed the following limitations: (1) the OR-OSHA STEL does not include all polyisocyanates, and (2) the UK-HSE STEL is derived from monomeric isocyanates, whereas the species present in typical spray coatings are polyisocyanates. In conclusion, the variable mixtures of isocyanates used by autobody painters suggest that an occupational exposure limit is required that includes all polyisocyanates. Despite the limitations of the STELs, we determined that a respirator with an assigned protection factor of 25 or greater is required to protect against isocyanate exposures during spray painting. Consequently, half-face air-purifying respirators, which are most commonly used and have an assigned protection factor of 10, do not afford adequate respiratory protection. PMID:22500941

Reeb-Whitaker, Carolyn; Whittaker, Stephen G; Ceballos, Diana M; Weiland, Elisa C; Flack, Sheila L; Fent, Kenneth W; Thomasen, Jennifer M; Trelles Gaines, Linda G; Nylander-French, Leena A

2012-01-01

193

Airborne Isocyanate Exposures in the Collision Repair Industry and a Comparison to Occupational Exposure Limits  

PubMed Central

Isocyanate exposure was evaluated in 33 spray painters from 25 Washington State autobody shops. Personal breathing zone samples (n = 228) were analyzed for isophorone diisocyanate (IPDI) monomer, 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI) monomer, IPDI polyisocyanate, and three polyisocyanate forms of HDI. The objective was to describe exposures to isocyanates while spray painting, compare them with short-term exposure limits (STELs), and describe the isocyanate composition in the samples. The composition of polyisocyanates (IPDI and HDI) in the samples varied greatly, with maximum amounts ranging from up to 58% for HDI biuret to 96% for HDI isocyanurate. There was a significant inverse relationship between the percentage composition of HDI isocyanurate to IPDI and to HDI uretdione. Two 15-min STELs were compared: (1) Oregon's Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OR-OSHA) STEL of 1000 ?g/m3 for HDI polyisocyanate, and (2) the United Kingdom's Health and Safety Executive (UK-HSE) STEL of 70 ?g NCO/m3 for all isocyanates. Eighty percent of samples containing HDI polyisocyanate exceeded the OR-OSHA STEL while 98% of samples exceeded the UKHSE STEL. The majority of painters (67%) wore half-face air-purifying respirators while spray painting. Using the OROSHA and the UK-HSE STELs as benchmarks, 21% and 67% of painters, respectively, had at least one exposure that exceeded the respirator's OSHA-assigned protection factor. A critical review of the STELs revealed the following limitations: (1) the OR-OSHA STEL does not include all polyisocyanates, and (2) the UK-HSE STEL is derived from monomeric isocyanates, whereas the species present in typical spray coatings are polyisocyanates. In conclusion, the variable mixtures of isocyanates used by autobody painters suggest that an occupational exposure limit is required that includes all polyisocyanates. Despite the limitations of the STELs, we determined that a respirator with an assigned protection factor of 25 or greater is required to protect against isocyanate exposures during spray painting. Consequently, half-face air-purifying respirators, which are most commonly used and have an assigned protection factor of 10, do not afford adequate respiratory protection. PMID:22500941

Reeb-Whitaker, Carolyn; Whittaker, Stephen G.; Ceballos, Diana M.; Weiland, Elisa C.; Flack, Sheila L.; Fent, Kenneth W.; Thomasen, Jennifer M.; Gaines, Linda G. Trelles; Nylander-French, Leena A.

2014-01-01

194

A new carbon monoxide occupational dosimeter: results from a worker exposure assessment survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

The LBNL\\/QGI occupational carbon monoxide (CO) dosimeter (LOCD), a new, inexpensive CO passive sampler, was field-validated in an occupational exposure assessment study in the Moscone Convention Center (MCC) in San Francisco, CA in January, 1997. The LOCD measures time-weighed-average (TWA) CO exposures from 10 to 800 parts per million hours (ppm h; accuracy ±20%; precision 10 ppm h). This device

MICHAEL G APTE; DANIEL D COX; S KATHARINE HAMMOND; LARA A GUNDEL

1999-01-01

195

Standard Precautions: Occupational Exposure and Behavior of Health Care Workers in Ethiopia  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundOccupational exposure to blood and body fluids is a serious concern for health care workers, and presents a major risk for the transmission of infections such as HIV and hepatitis viruses. The objective of this study was to investigate occupational exposures and behavior of health care workers (HCWs) in eastern Ethiopia.MethodsWe surveyed 475 HCWs working in 10 hospitals and 20

Ayalu A. Reda; Shiferaw Fisseha; Bezatu Mengistie; Jean-Michel Vandeweerd; Srikanth Tripathy

2010-01-01

196

Occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and lung cancer risk: a multicenter study in Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundLung cancer incidence in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) is among the highest in the world, and the role of occupational exposures has not been adequately studied in these countries.ObjectivesTo investigate the contribution of occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) to lung cancer in CEE.MethodsA case–control study was conducted in the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Romania, Russia and Slovakia,

Ann C Olsson; Joelle Fevotte; Tony Fletcher; Adrian Cassidy; Andrea t Mannetje; David Zaridze; Neonila Szeszenia-Dabrowska; Peter Rudnai; Jolanta Lissowska; Eleonora Fabianova; Dana Mates; Vladimir Bencko; Lenka Foretova; Vladimir Janout; Paul Brennan; Paolo Boffetta

2009-01-01

197

Evaluating Occupational 60Hertz Electric-Field Exposures for Guideline Compliance  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines determination of compliance of 60-Hz electric-field exposures with occupational guideline limits. The guidelines are expressed as a limit on the unperturbed electric field without allowance for the severity of potential spark discharges. A line worker on a 500-kV transmission-line tower provided a practical example of an occupational exposure. In this realistic case, the worker's posture, the uniformity

T. Dan Bracken; Russell Senior; Monty Tuominen

2004-01-01

198

Occupation and occupational exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals in male breast cancer: a case-control study in Europe  

PubMed Central

Objectives Male breast cancer is a rare disease of largely unknown etiology. Besides genetic or hormone-related risk factors, a large number of environmental chemicals are suspected to play a role in breast cancer. The identification of occupations or occupational exposures associated with an increased incidence of breast cancer in men may help to identify mammary carcinogens in the environment. Methods Occupational risk factors of male breast cancer were investigated in a multi-centre case-control study conducted in 8 European countries, including 104 cases and 1901 controls. Lifetime work history was obtained during in-person interviews. Occupational exposures to endocrine disrupting chemicals (alkylphenolic compounds, phthalates, PCBs and dioxins) were assessed on a case-by-case basis from expert judgment. Results Male breast cancer incidence was more particularly increased in motor vehicle mechanics (OR=2.1, CI 1.0–4.4) with a dose-effect relationship with duration employment. It was also increased in paper makers and painters, and in workers in forestry and logging, health and social work, and manufacture of furniture. The odds ratio for exposure to alkylphenolic compounds above median was 3.8 (CI 1.5–9.5). This association persisted after adjustment for occupational exposures to other environmental estrogens. Conclusion These findings suggest that some environmental chemicals are possible mammary carcinogens. Gasoline, organic petroleum solvents or PAH can be suspected from the consistent elevated risk of male breast cancer observed in motor vehicle mechanics. Endocrine disruptors such as alkylphenolic compounds may play a role in breast cancer. PMID:20798010

Villeneuve, Sara; Cyr, Diane; Lynge, Elsebeth; Orsi, Laurent; Sabroe, Svend; Merletti, Franco; Gorini, Giuseppe; Morales-Suarez-Varela, Maria; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Baumgardt-Elms, Cornelia; Kaerlev, Linda; Eriksson, Mikael; Hardell, Lennart; Fevotte, Joelle; Guenel, Pascal

2010-01-01

199

Asthma following occupational exposure to Lycopodium clavatum in condom manufacturers.  

PubMed Central

Occupational asthma in two women employed in the manufacture of condoms is reported. The spores of Lycopodium clavatum, used as a rubber dusting agent, were identified as the causative agent. PMID:8153931

Cullinan, P; Cannon, J; Sheril, D; Newman Taylor, A

1993-01-01

200

Asthma following occupational exposure to Lycopodium clavatum in condom manufacturers.  

PubMed

Occupational asthma in two women employed in the manufacture of condoms is reported. The spores of Lycopodium clavatum, used as a rubber dusting agent, were identified as the causative agent. PMID:8153931

Cullinan, P; Cannon, J; Sheril, D; Newman Taylor, A

1993-07-01

201

Linking expert judgement and trends in occupational exposure into a job-exposure matrix for historical exposure to asbestos in The Netherlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this article was to describe the structure and content of a job-exposure matrix (JEM) for historical asbestos exposure in The Netherlands. The JEM contained 309 occupational job title groups in 70 branches of industry during 10 periods of 5 years during 1945-1994, resulting in 3090 evaluations. Dutch sources on asbestos exposure measurements provided quantitative guidance for 69

PAUL SWUSTE; MOHSSINE DAHHAN; ALEX BURDORF

2008-01-01

202

Identifying pesticide use patterns among flower growers to assess occupational exposure to mixtures  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesExposure assessment to a single pesticide does not capture the complexity of the occupational exposure. Recently, pesticide use patterns analysis has emerged as an alternative to study these exposures. The aim of this study is to identify the pesticide use pattern among flower growers in Mexico participating in the study on the endocrine and reproductive effects associated with pesticide exposure.MethodsA

Astrid Schilmann; Marina Lacasaña; Julia Blanco-Muñoz; Clemente Aguilar-Garduño; Aarón Salinas-Rodríguez; Mario Flores-Aldana; Mariano E Cebrián

2009-01-01

203

Occupational Styrene Exposure for Twelve Product Categories in the Reinforced-Plastics Industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Approximately 1500 occupational styrene exposure values from 28 reinforced-plastic manufacturers were collected retrospectively from companies and state and federal agencies. This report describes the major types of manufacturing processes within the reinforced-plastics industry and reports on the availability, collection and analysis of historical exposure information. Average exposure to styrene in most open-mold companies (24–82?ppm) was generally 2–3 times the exposure

GRACE K. LEMASTERS; ARCH CARSON; STEVEN J. SAMUELS

1985-01-01

204

Formaldehyde as a basis for residential ventilation rates  

SciTech Connect

Traditionally, houses in the U.S. have been ventilated by passive infiltration in combination with active window opening. However in recent years, the construction quality of residential building envelopes has been improved to reduce infiltration, and the use of windows for ventilation also may have decreased due to a number of factors. Thus, there has been increased interest in engineered ventilation systems for residences. The amount of ventilation provided by an engineered system should be set to protect occupants from unhealthy or objectionable exposures to indoor pollutants, while minimizing energy costs for conditioning incoming air. Determining the correct ventilation rate is a complex task, as there are numerous pollutants of potential concern, each having poorly characterized emission rates, and poorly defined acceptable levels of exposure. One ubiquitous pollutant in residences is formaldehyde. The sources of formaldehyde in new houses are reasonably understood, and there is a large body of literature on human health effects. This report examines the use of formaldehyde as a means of determining ventilation rates and uses existing data on emission rates of formaldehyde in new houses to derive recommended levels. Based on current, widely accepted concentration guidelines for formaldehyde, the minimum and guideline ventilation rates for most new houses are 0.28 and 0.5 air changes per hour, respectively.

Sherman, M.H.; Hodgson, A.T.

2002-04-28

205

Occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields and acute leukaemia: analysis of a case-control study  

PubMed Central

Aims: To investigate whether the risk of acute leukaemia among adults is associated with occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields. Methods: Probable occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields at higher than typical residential levels was investigated among 764 patients diagnosed with acute leukaemia during 1991–96 and 1510 sex and age matched controls. A job exposure matrix was applied to the self reported employment histories to determine whether or not a subject was exposed to electromagnetic fields. Risks were assessed using conditional logistic regression for a matched analysis. Results: Study subjects considered probably ever exposed to electromagnetic fields at work were not at increased risk of acute leukaemia compared to those considered never exposed. Generally, no associations were observed on stratification by sex, leukaemia subtype, number of years since exposure stopped, or occupation; there was no evidence of a dose-response effect using increasing number of years exposed. However, relative to women considered never exposed, a significant excess of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia was observed among women probably exposed to electromagnetic fields at work that remained increased irrespective of time prior to diagnosis or job ever held. Conclusion: This large population based case-control study found little evidence to support an association between occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields and acute leukaemia. While an excess of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia among women was observed, it is unlikely that occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields was responsible, given that increased risks remained during periods when exposure above background levels was improbable. PMID:12883018

Willett, E; McKinney, P; Fear, N; Cartwright, R; Roman, E

2003-01-01

206

Exploring lifetime occupational exposure and SLE flare: a patient-focussed pilot study  

PubMed Central

Introduction Environmental effectors, such as ultraviolet radiation exposure, infection and stress, have been established as having a role in exacerbating lupus symptoms. However, unpredictable patterns of flare events still remain a mystery. Occupational effectors have also been suggested as having a contributing role; however, they are not widely researched. In this paper we report a pilot study designed to generate focus areas for future research regarding occupational exposures and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Methods The study explored potential links between exposures and the occurrence of patient-reported flare events in 80 Australian women with SLE (American College of Rheumatology (ACR) criteria classified). Specifically, the study assessed the hypothesis that occupational exposure is associated with significant changes in the likelihood of lupus flares. Lifetime employment history was analysed with the Finnish Job Exposure Matrix (FINJEM), 40 different semiquantified exposure class estimates for a wide number of occupations based on probability of exposure (p?5%=exposed) were analysed with the construction of negative binomial regression models to test relationships between occupational agents and flare days. A backward stepwise elimination was used to generate a parsimonious model. Results Significant associations were noted for exposure classes of manual handling burden, (p=0.02, incidence rate ratio (IRR) 1.01), Iron (p=0.00, IRR 1.37), wood dust (p=0.00, IRR 3.34) and asbestos (p=0.03, IRR 2.48). Conclusion Exposure assessment results indicated that occupations, such as nursing, with a high manual handling burden, posed increased risk to patients with SLE, however, the greatest risk was associated with wood dust and iron exposure with teachers and specialist labourers. PMID:25379190

Squance, Marline L; Guest, Maya; Reeves, Glenn; Attia, John; Bridgman, Howard

2014-01-01

207

Occupational exposures in healthcare workers in University Hospital Dubrava--10 year follow-up study.  

PubMed

Occupational hazardous exposure in healthcare workers is any contact with a material that carries the risk of acquiring an infection during their working activities. Among the most frequent viral occupational infections are those transmitted by blood such as hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Therefore, they represent a significant public health problem related to the majority of documented cases of professionally acquired infections. Reporting of occupational exposures in University Hospital Dubrava has been implemented in connection with the activity of the Committee for Hospital Infections since January 2002. During the period of occupational exposures' monitoring (from January 2002 to December 2011) 451 cases were reported. The majority of occupational exposures were reported by nurses and medical technicians (55.4%). The most common type of exposure was the needlestick injury (77.6%). 27.9% of the accidents occurred during the blood sampling and 23.5% during the surgical procedure. In 59.4% of the exposed workers aHBs-titer status was assessed as satisfactory. Positive serology with respect to HBV was confirmed in 1.6% of patients, HCV in 2.2% of patients and none for HIV. Cases of professionally acquired infections were not recorded in the registry. Consequences of the occupational exposure could include the development of professional infection, ban or inability to work further in health care services and last but not least a threat to healthcare workers life. It is therefore deemed necessary to prevent occupational exposure to blood-borne infections. The most important preventive action in respect to HBV, HCV and HIV infections is nonspecific pre-exposure prophylaxis. PMID:24344541

Serdar, Tihana; Derek, Lovorka; Uni?, Adriana; Marijancevi?, Domagoj; Markovi?, Durda; Primorac, Ana; Petrovecki, Mladen

2013-09-01

208

Case-control study on renal cell cancer and occupational exposure to trichloroethylene. Part I: Exposure assessment.  

PubMed

A method for a semi-quantitative retrospective assessment of exposure to trichloroethylene (TCE) was implemented for a case-control study conducted in the Arve valley (France), an area with a widely developed screw-cutting industry, where teams of occupational physicians have collected a large quantity of well-documented measurements. A task-exposure matrix was developed to link the main working circumstances in a screw-cutting workshop to corresponding TCE-exposure levels: a 'basic level' was assigned to each task, standing for usual working procedures; exposure circumstances, such as duration or distance from the TCE source, were introduced as corrective factors. In parallel, a detailed occupational questionnaire was designed, setting subjects' descriptions of their successive jobs and working circumstances against levels assessed in the matrix. Possible exposure to TCE, plus some other occupational compounds (other solvents, oils, some metals, asbestos, welding fumes and ionizing radiations), were assessed for any job in all job histories. An average level of exposure to TCE, related to an 8 h usual working day, was attributed to each job period in turn, which was then categorized into six classes: 0; 1-35; 35-50; 50-75; 75-100; and >100 p.p.m. A total of 402 study subjects described their occupational life (average 3.7 jobs/subject, from 1924 to 2003). About 19% of the 1486 job periods described were assessed as being exposed to TCE; of these, 72.2% involved levels<35 p.p.m., 13.2% involved levels>50 p.p.m. and 5.4% above the French occupational exposure limit of 75 p.p.m. (TWA 8 h). A total of 41 job periods included exposure with peaks. Compared with levels encountered in other studies, the more severely exposed part of our study population seemed more exposed than most other populations previously studied, owing to vapor degreasing practices. PMID:16840434

Fevotte, Joëlle; Charbotel, Barbara; Muller-Beauté, Philippe; Martin, Jean-Louis; Hours, Martine; Bergeret, Alain

2006-11-01

209

Occupational exposure and defects of the central nervous system in offspring: review.  

PubMed Central

A study of published work was carried out in a search for evidence of a causal role for parental occupational exposure in the origin of structural and functional defects of the central nervous system (CNS) in children. Studies that consider this topic are scarce and mostly refer to broad categories of exposures and effects. Non-occupational studies referring to environmental exposure of humans and studies on experimental animals were also reviewed. The studies on animals provided straightforward evidence about morphological and behavioural abnormalities resulting from some agents used occupationally. The studies on humans yielded a scala of defects that could be ascribed to exposure to high doses of various agents in the environment. Evidence for a causal role of occupational exposure has not been found, but a highly probable influence on the developing CNS is hypothesised for lead, methyl mercury, and ionising radiation. Parental occupational exposure to cadmium, organic solvents, anaesthetics, and pesticides may also play a part in causing defects of the CNS. Well designed future research is needed to test the above hypotheses. PMID:2207028

Roeleveld, N; Zielhuis, G A; Gabreels, F

1990-01-01

210

Occupational Electromagnetic Field Exposures Associated with Sleep Quality: A Cross-Sectional Study  

PubMed Central

Background Exposure to electromagnetic field (EMF) emitted by mobile phone and other machineries concerns half the world’s population and raises the problem of their impact on human health. The present study aims to explore the effects of electromagnetic field exposures on sleep quality and sleep duration among workers from electric power plant. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in an electric power plant of Zhejiang Province, China. A total of 854 participants were included in the final analysis. The detailed information of participants was obtained by trained investigators using a structured questionnaire, which including socio-demographic characteristics, lifestyle variables, sleep variables and electromagnetic exposures. Physical examination and venous blood collection were also carried out for every study subject. Results After grouping daily occupational electromagnetic exposure into three categories, subjects with long daily exposure time had a significantly higher risk of poor sleep quality in comparison to those with short daily exposure time. The adjusted odds ratios were 1.68 (95%CI: 1.18, 2.39) and 1.57 (95%CI: 1.10, 2.24) across tertiles. Additionally, among the subjects with long-term occupational exposure, the longer daily occupational exposure time apparently increased the risk of poor sleep quality (OR (95%CI): 2.12 (1.23?3.66) in the second tertile; 1.83 (1.07?3.15) in the third tertile). There was no significant association of long-term occupational exposure duration, monthly electric fee or years of mobile-phone use with sleep quality or sleep duration. Conclusions The findings showed that daily occupational EMF exposure was positively associated with poor sleep quality. It implies EMF exposure may damage human sleep quality rather than sleep duration. PMID:25340654

Liu, Hui; Chen, Guangdi; Pan, Yifeng; Chen, Zexin; Jin, Wen; Sun, Chuan; Chen, Chunjing; Dong, Xuanjun; Chen, Kun; Xu, Zhengping; Zhang, Shanchun; Yu, Yunxian

2014-01-01

211

Occupational exposures and chronic respiratory symptoms. A population-based study  

SciTech Connect

Data from a random sample of 8515 white adults residing in 6 cities in the eastern and midwestern United States were used to examine the relationships between occupational exposures to dust or to gases and fumes and chronic respiratory symptoms; 31% of the population had a history of occupational dust exposure and 30% reported exposure to gas or fumes. After adjusting for smoking habits, age, gender, and city of residence, subjects with either occupational exposure had significantly elevated prevalences of chronic cough, chronic phlegm, persistent wheeze, and breathlessness. The adjusted relative odds of chronic respiratory symptoms for subjects exposed to dust ranged from 1.32 to 1.60. Subjects with gas or fume exposure had relative odds of symptoms between 1.27 and 1.43 when compared with unexposed subjects. Occupational dust exposure was associated with a higher prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease as defined by an FEV1/FVC ratio of less than 0.6, when comparing exposed and unexposed participants (OR = 1.53, 95% Cl = 1.17-2.08). Gas or fume exposure was associated with a small, but not significant, increase in COPD prevalence. Significant trends were noted for wheeze and phlegm with increasing duration of dust exposure. Although 36% of exposed subjects reported exposure to both dust and fumes, there was no evidence of a multiplicative interaction between the effects of the individual exposures. Smoking was a significant independent predictor of symptoms, but did not appear to modify the effect of dust or fumes on symptom reporting. These data, obtained in random samples of general populations, demonstrate that chronic respiratory symptoms and disease can be independently associated with occupational exposures.

Korn, R.J.; Dockery, D.W.; Speizer, F.E.; Ware, J.H.; Ferris, B.G. Jr.

1987-08-01

212

Occupational exposures and chronic respiratory symptoms: a population-based study  

SciTech Connect

Data from a random sample of 8515 white adults residing in six cities in the eastern and midwestern United States were used to examine the relationships between occupational exposures to dust or to gases and fumes and chronic respiratory symptoms. 31% of the population had a history of occupational dust exposure and 30% reported exposure to gas or to fumes. After adjusting for smoking habits, age, gender, and city of residence, subjects with either occupational exposure had significantly elevated prevalence of chronic cough, chronic phlegm, persistent wheeze, and breathlessness. The adjusted relative odds of chronic respiratory symptoms for subjects exposed to dust ranged from 1.32 to 1.60. Subjects with gas or fume exposure had relative odds of symptoms between 1.27 and 1.43 when compared to unexposed subjects. Occupational dust exposure was associated with a higher prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) as defined by an FEV1/FVC ratio of less than 0.6, when comparing exposed and unexposed participants (OR=1.53, 95% CI=1.17-2.08). Gas or fume exposure was associated with a small, but not significant, increase in COPD prevalence. Significant trends were noted for wheeze and phlegm with increasing duration of dust exposure. Although 36% of exposed subjects reported exposure to both dust and fumes, there was no evidence of a multiplicative interaction between the effects of the individual exposures. Smoking was a significant independent predictor of symptoms, but did not appear to modify the effect of dust or fumes on symptom reporting. These data, obtained in random samples of general populations, demonstrate that chronic respiratory disease can be independently associated with occupational exposures.

Korn, R.J.; Dockery, D.W.; Speizer, F.E.; Ware, J.H.; Ferris, B.G.

1987-01-01

213

A Synthetic Vitreous Fiber (SVF) Occupational Exposure Database: Implementing the SVF Health and Safety Partnership Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Health and Safety Partnership Program is a voluntary workplace safety program for workers involved in the manufacture, fabrication, installation, and removal of glass wool and mineral wool products. This article describes one element of this Partnership Program, the development of an occupational exposure database that characterizes exposures by fiber type, industry sector, product type, and job description. Approximately 6000

Gary E. Marchant; Michael A. Amen; Christopher H. Bullock; Charles M. Carter; Kathleen A. Johnson; Janis W. Reynolds; Francis R. Connelly; Angus E. Crane

2002-01-01

214

SPUTUM CYTOLOGY IN OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE TO HEAVY METALS - A PRELIMINARY STUDY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our study aimed the early detection of respiratory injuries afflicted with occupational exposure to chromium, cadmium, nickel and their compounds, with a known high carcinogenic risk. 23 platers (average of exposure 15.57±5.05 years) and matched controls have been investigated by clinical examination (including otolaryngology exam) completed by sputum cytology and an individual questionnaire. Heavy metals concentration, as well as the

Irina Anca Popescu; Doina Popa; Irina Alexandrescu

215

Estimating the incidence of lung cancer attributable to occupational exposure in Iran  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to estimate the fraction of lung cancer incidence in Iran attributed to occupational exposures to the well-established lung cancer carcinogens, including silica, cadmium, nickel, arsenic, chromium, diesel fumes, beryllium, and asbestos. METHODS: Nationwide exposure to each of the mentioned carcinogens was estimated using workforce data from the Iranian population census of 1995, available

Alireza Mosavi-Jarrahi; Mohammadali Mohagheghi; Bita Kalaghchi; Yasaman Mousavi-Jarrahi; Mohammad Kazem Noori

2009-01-01

216

Occupational Solvent Exposure During Pregnancy and Child Behavior at Age Two Correspondence to  

E-print Network

to adult humans is well known, but effects on child behavior following prenatal exposure are understudied1 Occupational Solvent Exposure During Pregnancy and Child Behavior at Age Two Correspondence, Canada d - School of Psychology, Laval University, Québec City, Québec, Canada e - University Hospital

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

217

Occupational exposure to carcinogens and risk of lung cancer: results from The Netherlands cohort study.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: To investigate risk of lung cancers associated with common established carcinogenic occupational exposures (asbestos, paint dust, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and welding fumes) in a prospective cohort study among the general population, and to estimate the proportion of lung cancer cases attributable to these occupational exposures. METHODS: A prospective cohort study on diet, other lifestyle factors, job history, and cancer risk that started in 1986 in The Netherlands on 58,279 men, aged 55-69 years. Based on information about job history obtained from a self-administered questionnaire, case by case expert assessment was carried out to assign to each study subject a cumulative probability of occupational exposure for each carcinogenic exposure. For analysis, a case-cohort approach was used, in which the person-years at risk were estimated from a randomly selected subcohort (n = 1688). After 4.3 years of follow up, 524 lung cancer cases with complete job history were available. RESULTS: After adjustment for age, each of the other occupational exposures, and for smoking habits and intake of vitamin C, beta-carotene, and retinol, significant associations were found between risk of lung cancer and cumulative probability of occupational exposure to asbestos (relative risk (RR) highest/no exposure = 3.49, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.69 to 7.18, trend P < 0.01 or paint dust (RR highest/no exposure = 2.48, 95% CI 0.88 to 6.97, trend P < 0.01). The population attributable risks (PARs) for the four exposures based on the multivariately adjusted RRs for ever exposed versus never exposed workers were calculated. The PAR of lifetime occupational exposure to asbestos was calculated to be 11.6%. CONCLUSIONS: This prospective cohort study among the general population showed that occupational exposure to asbestos or paint dust is associated with higher RRs for lung cancer. This study shows that after adjustment for smoking and diet about 11.6% of the cases of lung cancer in men is attributable to lifetime occupational exposure to asbestos. PMID:9538355

van Loon, A J; Kant, I J; Swaen, G M; Goldbohm, R A; Kremer, A M; van den Brandt, P A

1997-01-01

218

Chronic occupational exposure to hexavalent chromium causes DNA damage in electroplating workers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Occupational exposure to chromium compounds may result in adverse health effects. This study aims to investigate whether low-level\\u000a hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) exposure can cause DNA damage in electroplating workers.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  157 electroplating workers and 93 control subjects with no history of occupational exposure to chromium were recruited in\\u000a Hangzhou, China. Chromium levels in erythrocytes were determined by graphite furnace atomic absorption

Xu-Hui Zhang; Xuan Zhang; Xu-Chu Wang; Li-Fen Jin; Zhang-Ping Yang; Cai-Xia Jiang; Qing Chen; Xiao-Bin Ren; Jian-Zhong Cao; Qiang Wang; Yi-Min Zhu

2011-01-01

219

Assessment of time to pregnancy and spontaneous abortion status following occupational exposure to organic solvents mixture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  Due to increasing usage of chemicals in various industries, occupational exposure of women with these materials is unavoidable.\\u000a Nowadays, some studies indicate adverse effects of exposure to these chemicals, especially organic solvents on the reproductive\\u000a system of females. This study aimed to assess the relationship between spontaneous abortion and occupational exposure to organic\\u000a solvents mixture in pharmaceutical industry.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  This study

Mir Saeed Attarchi; Monir Ashouri; Yasser Labbafinejad; Saber Mohammadi

220

Chromosome aberrations as a means to determine occupational exposure: an alternative  

SciTech Connect

The methodology developed to study chromosome aberrations in vitro, and the results gained in application of the method in in vivo studies of individuals receiving ionizing radiation, may provide a basis to more definitively assess occupational exposure in radiographers and radiation therapy technologists. The need for more definitive methods in measuring occupational exposure is given impetus by the fact that there is now a large group of individuals in whom a significant duration of occupational exposure may be measured. Further, increased knowledge of the effects of radiation has resulted in lower and lower levels of maximum permissible dose. And there is the undeniable, albeit relatively unproven, claim of radiation hazard in occupations not previously considered. As a group, technologists are now better organized and more aware of occupational hazards than in the past. It behooves us as professionals to act in our own behalf to improve the state of knowledge and methods of evaluation of occupational hazards that we have endured for several decades. There is no longer any more time to waste in the light of what we now know. In the author's opinion, the method described herein has the potential to determine occupational dose more accurately and definitively than has been possible heretofore and, therefore, should be tested as an alternative to present methods of personnel monitoring. History, rationale, and method are presented, and a protocol for a research study is described.

Sullivan, C.A.

1980-09-01

221

Effects of occupational exposure to tobacco smoke: is there a link between environmental exposure and disease?  

PubMed

In a previous study, evidence was provided that indoor secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS) air pollution remains high in Lisbon restaurants where smoking is allowed, regardless of the protective measures used. The aim of this study was to determine in these locations the levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) associated with the particulate phase of SHS (PPAH), a fraction that contains recognized carginogens, such as benzo[a]pyrene (BaP). Data showed that restaurant smoking areas might contain PPAH levels as high as 110 ng/m(3), a value significantly higher than that estimated for nonsmoking areas (30 ng/m(3)) or smoke-free restaurants (22 ng/m(3)). The effective exposure to SHS components in restaurant smoking rooms was confirmed as cotinine levels found in workers' urine. Considering that all workers exhibited normal lung function, eventual molecular changes in blood that might be associated with occupational exposure to SHS and SHS-associated PPAH were investigated by measurement of two oxidative markers, total antioxidant status (TAS) and 8-hydroxyguanosine (8-OHdG) in plasma and serum, respectively. SHS-exposed workers exhibited higher mean levels of serum 8-OHdG than nonexposed workers, regardless of smoking status. By using a proteomics approach based on 2D-DIGE-MS, it was possible to identify nine differentially expressed proteins in the plasma of SHS-exposed nonsmoker workers. Two acute-phase inflammation proteins, ceruloplasmin and inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor heavy chain 4 (ITIH4), were predominant. These two proteins presented a high number of isoforms modulated by SHS exposure with the high-molecular-weight (high-MW) isoforms decreased in abundance while low-MW isoforms were increased in abundance. Whether these expression profiles are due to (1) a specific proteolytic cleavage, (2) a change on protein stability, or (3) alterations on post-translational modification pattern of these proteins remains to be investigated. Considering that these events seem to precede the first symptoms of tobacco-related diseases, our findings might contribute to elucidation of early SHS-induced pathogenic mechanisms and constitute a useful tool for monitoring the effects of SHS on occupationally exposed individuals such as those working in the hospitality industry. PMID:23514073

Pacheco, Solange A; Torres, Vukosava M; Louro, Henriqueta; Gomes, Filomena; Lopes, Carlos; Marçal, Nelson; Fragoso, Elsa; Martins, Carla; Oliveira, Cátia L; Hagenfeldt, Manuela; Bugalho-Almeida, António; Penque, Deborah; Simões, Tânia

2013-01-01

222

Occupational exposure during application and removal of antifouling paints.  

PubMed

Exposure data on biocides are relatively rare in published literature, especially for secondary exposure. This is also the case for antifouling exposure. Therefore, a field study was carried out measuring exposure to antifouling paints. Both primary exposure (rolling and spraying) and secondary exposure (during sand blasting) were studied. Exposure during rolling was measured in boatyards where paints containing dichlofluanid (DCF) were applied. Spraying was measured in dockyards (larger than boatyards) where paints containing copper were applied. Furthermore, during sand blasting the removal of old paint layers containing copper was measured. A total of 54 datasets was collected, both for inhalation and dermal exposure data. For paint and stripped paint bulk analyses were performed. The following values are all arithmetic means of the datasets. Inhalation of copper amounted to 3 mg m-3 during spraying and to 0.8 mg m-3 during sand blasting. Potential body exposure loading amounted to 272 mg h-1 copper during spraying and 33 mg h-1 during sand blasting. For dichlofluanid the inhalation exposure loading was 0.14 mg m-3 during rolling, whereas the potential body exposure loading was 267 mg h-1 and potential hand exposure loading 277 mg h-1. The results for primary exposure compare well to the very few public data available. For the secondary exposure (sand blasting) no comparable data were available. The present study shows that the exposure loading should be considered more extensively, including applicable protective gear. In this light the findings for the potmen during sand blasting suggest that personal protective equipment should be (re)considered carefully. PMID:17077106

Links, Ingrid; Van Der Jagt, Katinka E; Christopher, Yvette; Lurvink, Marc; Schinkel, Jody; Tielemans, Erik; Van Hemmen, Joop J

2007-03-01

223

Assessing occupational exposure to chemicals in an international epidemiological study of brain tumours.  

PubMed

The INTEROCC project is a multi-centre case-control study investigating the risk of developing brain cancer due to occupational chemical and electromagnetic field exposures. To estimate chemical exposures, the Finnish Job Exposure Matrix (FINJEM) was modified to improve its performance in the INTEROCC study and to address some of its limitations, resulting in the development of the INTEROCC JEM. An international team of occupational hygienists developed a crosswalk between the Finnish occupational codes used in FINJEM and the International Standard Classification of Occupations 1968 (ISCO68). For ISCO68 codes linked to multiple Finnish codes, weighted means of the exposure estimates were calculated. Similarly, multiple ISCO68 codes linked to a single Finnish code with evidence of heterogeneous exposure were refined. One of the key time periods in FINJEM (1960-1984) was split into two periods (1960-1974 and 1975-1984). Benzene exposure estimates in early periods were modified upwards. The internal consistency of hydrocarbon exposures and exposures to engine exhaust fumes was improved. Finally, exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon and benzo(a)pyrene was modified to include the contribution from second-hand smoke. The crosswalk ensured that the FINJEM exposure estimates could be applied to the INTEROCC study subjects. The modifications generally resulted in an increased prevalence of exposure to chemical agents. This increased prevalence of exposure was not restricted to the lowest categories of cumulative exposure, but was seen across all levels for some agents. Although this work has produced a JEM with important improvements compared to FINJEM, further improvements are possible with the expansion of agents and additional external data. PMID:23467593

van Tongeren, Martie; Kincl, Laurel; Richardson, Lesley; Benke, Geza; Figuerola, Jordi; Kauppinen, Timo; Lakhani, Ramzan; Lavoué, Jérôme; McLean, Dave; Plato, Nils; Cardis, Elisabeth

2013-06-01

224

Assessing Occupational Exposure to Chemicals in an International Epidemiological Study of Brain Tumours  

PubMed Central

The INTEROCC project is a multi-centre case–control study investigating the risk of developing brain cancer due to occupational chemical and electromagnetic field exposures. To estimate chemical exposures, the Finnish Job Exposure Matrix (FINJEM) was modified to improve its performance in the INTEROCC study and to address some of its limitations, resulting in the development of the INTEROCC JEM. An international team of occupational hygienists developed a crosswalk between the Finnish occupational codes used in FINJEM and the International Standard Classification of Occupations 1968 (ISCO68). For ISCO68 codes linked to multiple Finnish codes, weighted means of the exposure estimates were calculated. Similarly, multiple ISCO68 codes linked to a single Finnish code with evidence of heterogeneous exposure were refined. One of the key time periods in FINJEM (1960–1984) was split into two periods (1960–1974 and 1975–1984). Benzene exposure estimates in early periods were modified upwards. The internal consistency of hydrocarbon exposures and exposures to engine exhaust fumes was improved. Finally, exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon and benzo(a)pyrene was modified to include the contribution from second-hand smoke. The crosswalk ensured that the FINJEM exposure estimates could be applied to the INTEROCC study subjects. The modifications generally resulted in an increased prevalence of exposure to chemical agents. This increased prevalence of exposure was not restricted to the lowest categories of cumulative exposure, but was seen across all levels for some agents. Although this work has produced a JEM with important improvements compared to FINJEM, further improvements are possible with the expansion of agents and additional external data. PMID:23467593

van Tongeren, Martie

2013-01-01

225

Occupational exposures and asthma in 14,000 adults from the general population. Nicole Le Moual1  

E-print Network

Affections Respiratoires Chroniques, 1975) Survey. Associations of asthma to specific jobs such as personal, the proportion of asthma attributable to occupational exposure varies according to the definitions of asthma of occupational exposures in large studies relying on questionnaires for exposure assessment (7, 16

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

226

Criteria for a recommended standard. Occupational exposure to respirable coal mine dust  

SciTech Connect

Information regarding adverse health effects resulting from exposure to respirable coal mine dust was reviewed as a basis for the development of new occupational safety and health standards. Evidence indicated that coal mine dust exposures over a working lifetime may result in the development of simple coal workers` pneumonocoiosis, progressive massive fibrosis, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Recommendations are provided concerning respirable coal mine dust sampling to monitor worker exposure, the proper use of personal protective equipment, and medical screening and surveillance examinations.

NONE

1995-09-01

227

Nervous system effects of occupational manganese exposure on South African manganese mineworkers.  

PubMed

Occupational exposure to airborne manganese dust has been shown to produce adverse effects on the central nervous system. Four hundred and eighty-nine blue and white collar manganese mineworkers from South Africa were studied cross-sectionally to investigate the nervous system effects of medium to low occupational manganese exposures. The different facilities included underground mines, surface processing plants, and office locations. A job exposure matrix was constructed using routine occupational hygiene data. Exposure variables included years of service, a cumulative exposure index (CEI) and average intensity of exposure (AINT) across all jobs, and blood manganese. Endpoints included items from the Q16, WHO-NCTB, SPES, and Luria-Nebraska test batteries, and a brief clinical examination. Potential confounders and effect modifiers included age, level of education, past medical history including previous head injury, previous neurotoxic job exposures, tobacco use, alcohol use and home language. Associations were evaluated by multiple linear and logistic regression modeling. Average exposure intensity across all jobs was 0.21mg/m(3) manganese dust. Multivariate analyses showed that none of the symptom nor test results were associated with any measure of exposure including blood manganese, after adjustment for confounders. This relatively large null study indicates that manganese miners exposed on average across all jobs to MnO(2) at levels near the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists Threshold Limit Value (ACGIH TLV) are unlikely to have a subclinical neurotoxicity problem. PMID:12900078

Myers, Jonathan E; teWaterNaude, Jim; Fourie, Markus; Zogoe, H B Abie; Naik, Inakshi; Theodorou, Penny; Tassel, Halina; Daya, Aarti; Thompson, Mary Lou

2003-08-01

228

Throwing the baby out with the bath water? Occupational hygienists' views on the revised dutch system for occupational exposure limits.  

PubMed

In 2007, the Dutch Working Conditions Act was revised with the goal to decrease the regulatory burden, and to open up for company-specific solutions of establishing a safe and healthy work environment. One tool geared towards company-specific solutions is the compilation of the Arbocatalogs, which are company or sector-level collections of safe working methods and guidelines developed both by employers and employees. The revision also introduced a new occupational exposure limit (OEL) system in the Netherlands. This system encompasses two kinds of OELs: private and public. Private OELs are to be derived by the industry, while public OELs are issued by the Ministry of Social Affairs and Employment. With this change, the majority of the previously set Dutch OELs were removed, as the substances in question now are falling under the private realm. The motivations, expectations, and practical impacts of these revisions have been investigated through interviews with stakeholder organizations and a questionnaire study targeted at occupational hygienists. The questionnaire results show that although the Arbocatalogs seem to be relatively well received, a majority of the Dutch occupational hygienists are still relatively negative to the changes. There is a fear that private OELs will be less scientifically robust than public OELs and that the lack of robustness will have a negative impact on the field of occupational hygiene as a whole. PMID:23253359

Schenk, Linda; Palmen, Nicole Gm

2013-06-01

229

Occupational exposure to carcinogens in the European Union  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVESTo construct a computer assisted information system for the estimation of the numbers of workers exposed to established and suspected human carcinogens in the member states of the European Union (EU).METHODSA database called CAREX (carcinogen exposure) was designed to provide selected exposure data and documented estimates of the number of workers exposed to carcinogens by country, carcinogen, and industry. CAREX

Timo Kauppinen; Jouni Toikkanen; David Pedersen; Randy Young; Wolfgang Ahrens; Paolo Boffetta; Johnni Hansen; Hans Kromhout; Jeronimo Maqueda Blasco; Dario Mirabelli; Victoria de la Orden-Rivera; Brian Pannett; Nils Plato; Anja Savela; Raymond Vincent; Manolis Kogevinas

2000-01-01

230

Proposed Occupational Exposure Limits for Non-Carcinogenic Hanford Waste Tank Vapor Chemicals  

SciTech Connect

A large number of volatile chemicals have been identified in the headspaces of tanks used to store mixed chemical and radioactive waste at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site, and there is concern that vapor releases from the tanks may be hazardous to workers. Contractually established occupational exposure limits (OELs) established by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) and American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) do not exist for all chemicals of interest. To address the need for worker exposure guidelines for those chemicals that lack OSHA or ACGIH OELs, a procedure for assigning Acceptable Occupational Exposure Limits (AOELs) for Hanford Site tank farm workers has been developed and applied to a selected group of 57 headspace chemicals.

Poet, Torka S.; Timchalk, Chuck

2006-03-24

231

Effect of occupational lead exposure on lymphocyte enzymes involved in heme biosynthesis  

SciTech Connect

Lead exposure is a well-known cause of increases in urinary coproporphyrin and erythrocyte zinc-protoporphyrin, so these compounds are often used to monitor occupational lead exposure. The increased concentrations are usually assumed to result from lead inhibition of two of the mitochondrial enzymes of heme biosynthesis, coproporphyrinogen oxidase and ferrochelatase. We studied 88 subjects in whom the degree of occupational lead exposure was established by measuring erythrocyte lead and protoporphyrin. Assay of lymphocyte coproporphyrinogen oxidase and ferrochelatase activities showed that these enzymes were unaffected by lead exposure, as was a related enzyme, lymphocyte NADH-ferricyanide reductase. We propose alternative explanations for the increased concentrations of coproporphyrin and zinc-protoporphyrin seen in lead exposure.

Rossi, E.; Costin, K.A.; Garcia-Webb, P. (Queen Elizabeth II Medical Centre, Nedlands (Australia))

1990-11-01

232

Current employment status, occupational category, occupational hazard exposure, and job stress in relation to telomere length: The Multiethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA)  

PubMed Central

Objective Telomere length has been proposed as a biomarker of cell senescence, which is associated with a wide array of adverse health outcomes. While work is a major determinant of health, few studies have investigated the association of telomere length with various dimensions of occupation. Accelerated cellular aging could be a common pathway linking occupational exposure to several health outcomes. Methods Leukocyte telomere length was assessed using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (Q-PCR) in a community-based sample of 981 individuals (age: 45–84 years old). Questionnaires were used to collect information on current employment status, current or main occupation before retirement, and job strain. The O*NET (Occupational Resource Network) database was linked to the questionnaire data to create 5 exposure measures: physical activity on the job, physical hazard exposure, interpersonal stressors, job control, and job demands. Linear regression was used to estimate associations of occupational characteristics with telomere lengths after adjustment for age, sex, race, socioeconomic position, and several behavioral risk factors. Results There were no mean differences in telomere lengths across current employment status, occupational category, job strain categories or levels of most O*NET exposure measures. There was also no evidence that being in lower status occupational categories or being exposed to higher levels of adverse physical or psychosocial exposures accelerated the association between age and telomere shortening. Conclusions Cellular aging as reflected by shorter telomeres does not appear to be an important pathway linking occupation to various health outcomes. PMID:23686115

Fujishiro, Kaori; Diez-Roux, Ana V; Landsbergis, Paul; Jenny, Nancy Swords; Seeman, Teresa

2014-01-01

233

Review Article Formaldehyde and Leukemia: Epidemiology, Potential  

E-print Network

of biomarkers of internal exposure, such as formaldehyde-DNA and protein adducts, should prove fruitful, Glutathione; HR, Homologous Recombination; IRIS, Integrated Risk Information System; IARC, International

California at Berkeley, University of

234

A Case-Control Study of Occupational Exposure to Trichloroethylene and Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma  

PubMed Central

Background Previous epidemiologic findings suggest an association between exposure to trichloroethylene (TCE), a chlorinated solvent primarily used for vapor degreasing of metal parts, and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). Objectives We investigated the association between occupational TCE exposure and NHL within a population-based case–control study using detailed exposure assessment methods. Methods Cases (n = 1,189; 76% participation rate) and controls (n = 982; 52% participation rate) provided information on their occupational histories and, for selected occupations, on possible workplace exposure to TCE using job-specific interview modules. An industrial hygienist assessed potential TCE exposure based on this information and a review of the TCE industrial hygiene literature. We computed odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) relating NHL and different metrics of estimated TCE exposure, categorized using tertiles among exposed controls, with unexposed subjects as the reference group. Results We observed associations with NHL for the highest tertiles of estimated average weekly exposure (23 exposed cases; OR = 2.5; 95% CI, 1.1–6.1) and cumulative exposure (24 exposed cases; OR = 2.3; 95% CI, 1.0–5.0) to TCE. Tests for trend with these metrics surpassed or approached statistical significance (p-value for trend = 0.02 and 0.08, respectively); however, we did not observe dose–response relationships across the exposure levels. Overall, neither duration nor intensity of exposure was associated with NHL, although we observed an association with the lowest tertile of exposure duration (OR = 2.1; 95% CI, 1.0–4.7). Conclusions Our findings offer additional support for an association between high levels of exposure to TCE and increased risk of NHL. However, we cannot rule out the possibility of confounding from other chlorinated solvents used for vapor degreasing and note that our exposure assessment methods have not been validated. PMID:21370516

Purdue, Mark P.; Bakke, Berit; Stewart, Patricia; De Roos, Anneclaire J.; Schenk, Maryjean; Lynch, Charles F.; Bernstein, Leslie; Morton, Lindsay M.; Cerhan, James R.; Severson, Richard K.; Cozen, Wendy; Davis, Scott; Rothman, Nathaniel; Hartge, Patricia; Colt, Joanne S.

2011-01-01

235

Occupational trichloroethylene exposure and risk of lymphatic and haematopoietic cancers: a meta-analysis.  

PubMed

The carcinogenic potential of trichloroethylene (TCE) continues to generate much controversy, even after the US Environmental Protection Agency raised its classification to 'carcinogenic to humans'. We conducted a meta-analysis of published cohort and case-control studies exploring occupational TCE exposure in relation to five different lymphatic and haematopoietic cancers: non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL, N=24), Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL, N=13), multiple myeloma (MM, N=11), leukaemia (N=12) and chronic/small lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL/SLL, N=7).  Studies published between 1950 and 2011 were identified through a PubMed Medline search. All studies included in analyses were classified as those that assessed either occupational TCE exposure specifically ('TCE-exposure' studies) or a broader classification of all chlorinated solvents ('chlorinated solvent-exposure' studies).  A significantly raised summary estimate for NHL was seen for all cohort and case-control 'TCE-exposure' studies combined (N=19; relative risk (RR)=1.32, 95% CI 1.14 to 1.54; I(2)=25.20; p-heterogeneity=0.12) and for cohort 'TCE-exposure' studies (N=10; RR=1.52, 95% CI 1.29 to 1.79; I(2)=7.09; p-heterogeneity=0.63). A non-significant but raised summary estimate was seen for NHL case-control 'TCE-exposure' studies. No significant association with NHL risk was detected overall for any 'chlorinated solvent-exposure' studies. Summary estimates for occupational TCE exposure were not associated with risk of HL, MM, leukaemia or CLL/SLL.  Our updated meta-analysis of NHL, which incorporates new analytical results from three cohort and four case-control studies, supports an association between occupational TCE exposure and NHL. PMID:23723297

Karami, Sara; Bassig, Bryan; Stewart, Patricia A; Lee, Kyoung-Mu; Rothman, Nathaniel; Moore, Lee E; Lan, Qing

2013-08-01

236

Occupational exposure to asbestos during renovation of oil-shale fuelled power plants in Estonia.  

PubMed

Many thousands of tonnes of asbestos were used in buildings in the past, especially for thermal insulation of pipes and boilers in power plants. Occupational exposure to asbestos dust now mainly occurs during demolition, renovation and routine maintenance activities. The objective of this study was to evaluate occupational exposure to airborne asbestos during renovation of solid oil-shale fuelled power plants carried out in 2001-2003. Air monitoring inside and outside of the renovation area was performed. The concentration of airborne fibres in the working environment increased during renovation but the valid limit value (0.1 fibres/cm(3)) was not exceeded. PMID:17888242

Kangur, Maie

2007-01-01

237

Occupational silica exposure as a risk factor for scleroderma: a meta-analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives  Among potential environmental risk factors for systemic sclerosis (SSc), occupational exposures have received some attention.\\u000a In this meta-analysis, we examined the association between SSc and occupational exposure to silica.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  We searched Medline, Toxline, BIOSIS, and Embase (1949 and November 2009) for original articles published in any language.\\u000a Sixteen studies are included in the analysis, of which, 3 are cohort studies,

Zachary D. McCormic; Sura S. Khuder; Bishwa K. Aryal; April L. Ames; Sadik A. Khuder

2010-01-01

238

Occupational exposure to perchloroethylene in the dry cleaning industry.  

PubMed

Field surveys were conducted of 67 dry cleaning establishments to assess working conditions and potential for exposure to perchloroethylene, a solvent of choice in this industry. Evaluation of ventilation controls showed that 28% of cleaning machines (transfer type) did not have functioning local exhaust systems, and an additional 32% had inadequately maintained systems providing less than the recommended face velocity at the door opening. Personal sampling was performed in 20 firms to relate operator exposure levels to the process used and degree of local exhaust ventilation. Utilization of the dry-to-dry (closed system) process resulted in a lower mean TWA exposure, 28.3 ppm, as compared to 86.6 ppm for transfer operations. Five-minute peak samples taken during clothing transfer demonstrated significant exposure levels ranging from 11.3 to 533.8 ppm. A lower mean peak exposure (25.3 ppm) was found for firms with local exhaust ventilation at the recommended rate than for facilities with poorly or unventilated cleaning machines (159.7 ppm). The study points out the manner in which available control measures can be used optimally to reduce employee exposure. Increased involvement of trade associations and local health authorities is also recommended to promote the safe use of perchloroethylene in the dry cleaning industry. PMID:4003279

Materna, B L

1985-05-01

239

Occupational exposures and cancer of the colon and rectum.  

PubMed

The associations between occupational risks and colorectal cancer were examined in a Swedish population-based, case-referent study. The study was performed in Stockholm in 1986-1988 and included 569 cases and 512 referents. Relative risks (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals were calculated for different occupations/chemicals. Elevated risks of colon cancer were found among male petrol station/automobile repair workers (RR = 2.3, 0.8-6.6) and among males exposed to asbestos (RR = 1.8, 0.9-3.6), while elevated risks of rectal cancer were found among males exposed to soot (RR = 2.2, 1.1-4.3), asbestos (RR = 2.2, 1.0-4.7), cutting fluids/oils (RR = 2.1, 1.1-4.0), and combustion gases from coal/coke/wood (RR = 1.9, 1.0-3.7). However, due to a high correlation between the above-mentioned variables and the few exposed subjects, it is difficult to separate their effects properly. These analyses were adjusted for age. Further adjustments for diet, body mass, and physical activity had little or no influence on the results. PMID:1519614

Gerhardsson de Verdier, M; Plato, N; Steineck, G; Peters, J M

1992-01-01

240

Occupational exposures and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma: Canadian case-control study  

PubMed Central

Background The objective was to study the association between Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma (NHL) and occupational exposures related to long held occupations among males in six provinces of Canada. Methods A population based case-control study was conducted from 1991 to 1994. Males with newly diagnosed NHL (ICD-10) were stratified by province of residence and age group. A total of 513 incident cases and 1506 population based controls were included in the analysis. Conditional logistic regression was conducted to fit statistical models. Results Based on conditional logistic regression modeling, the following factors independently increased the risk of NHL: farmer and machinist as long held occupations; constant exposure to diesel exhaust fumes; constant exposure to ionizing radiation (radium); and personal history of another cancer. Men who had worked for 20 years or more as farmer and machinist were the most likely to develop NHL. Conclusion An increased risk of developing NHL is associated with the following: long held occupations of faer and machinist; exposure to diesel fumes; and exposure to ionizing radiation (radium). The risk of NHL increased with the duration of employment as a farmer or machinist. PMID:18687133

Karunanayake, Chandima P; McDuffie, Helen H; Dosman, James A; Spinelli, John J; Pahwa, Punam

2008-01-01

241

Occupational exposure of Sri Lankan tea plantation workers to paraquat.  

PubMed Central

Absorption of the herbicide paraquat (1,1'-dimethyl-4,4'-bipyridinium) by mixer-loaders and spray operators on a Sri Lankan tea plantation was assessed over five consecutive days of spraying. Beginning on the day before spraying started and continuing for each of the five spraying days and for seven days after the last day of spraying, 24-hour urine samples were collected from each of the workers. Potential dermal exposure was assessed during further applications of paraquat on the day after the last day of urine collection. For this purpose two spraying replicates were conducted that involved the handling or spraying of an amount of paraquat equivalent to the maximum used per day in the assessment of absorption. The mixer-loaders and spray operators incurred, on average, approximately equivalent amounts of potential dermal exposure (66 mg and 74 mg paraquat ion, resp.); however, the distribution of the exposure differed. About 86% of the total exposure experienced by the mixer-loaders was to the hands, whereas about 90% of the exposure of the spray operators involved their hands, legs, and feet, in approximately equal proportions. In both cases, 90% or more of the total potential exposure involved parts of the body that were normally uncovered. Despite the evidence of dermal exposure, no paraquat was detected in the workers' urine. This probably was due to the very low concentration of paraquat in the solutions used for spot spraying on tea plantations (0.3-0.4 g paraquat ion per litre), the high standard of personal hygiene exercised by the workers, and the low permeability of human skin to paraquat. PMID:8261566

Chester, G.; Gurunathan, G.; Jones, N.; Woollen, B. H.

1993-01-01

242

Lung cancer and occupational exposures other than cotton dust and endotoxin among women textile workers in Shanghai, China  

PubMed Central

Objectives Numerous epidemiological studies of lung cancer among textile workers worldwide consistently indicate reduced risks related to cotton dust exposure, presumably due to endotoxin contamination. Our objective was to investigate associations with other exposures potentially related to lung cancer, including wool and synthetic fibre dusts, formaldehyde, silica, dyes and metals, that have only been studied to a limited extent in the textile industry. Methods We conducted a cas–ecohort study nested within a cohort of 267 400 women textile workers in Shanghai, China. We compared work assignments and exposure histories of 628 incident lung cancer cases, diagnosed during 1989–1998, with those of a reference subcohort of 3188 workers. We reconstructed exposures with a job–exposure matrix developed specifically for textile factories. Cox proportional hazards modelling was applied to estimate age/smoking-adjusted relative risks (hazard ratios) and risk gradients associated with job assignments and specific agents other than cotton dust and endotoxin. Results No associations were observed for lung cancer with wool, silk or synthetic fibre dusts, or with other agents. However, increased risks, although statistically imprecise, were noted for ?10 years’ exposures to silica (adjusted HR 3.5, 95% CI 1.0 to 13) and ?10 years’ exposures to formaldehyde (adjusted HR 2.1, 95% CI 0.4 to 11). Conclusions Exposures to silica and formaldehyde, although not widespread among the cohort, may have increased lung cancer risk. Silica is an established human lung carcinogen, whereas there is only weak prior evidence supporting an association with formaldehyde. Both exposures warrant consideration as potential lung carcinogens in textile manufacturing. PMID:21131604

Checkoway, H; Ray, R M; Lundin, J I; Astrakianakis, G; Seixas, N S; Camp, J E; Wernli, K J; Fitzgibbons, E D; Li, W; Feng, Z; Gao, D L; Thomas, D B

2010-01-01

243

[Occupational exposure to chemicals in the manufacture of rubber tires].  

PubMed

The work environment of the rubber industry company, producing various types of tires, was assessed and the workers of the plant were included in a cohort study of mortality. Concentrations of twenty chemical substances at 137 workposts were measured by employees of the plant laboratory and the sanitary and epidemiological station in 1981-1996. The mean values and concentration ranges were determined by departments and workposts. The excess of threshold limit values was analyzed. The workposts with exposure to agents possibly carcinogenic to humans were identified. The analysis performed will render it possible to calculate doses of cumulative exposure to given compounds among workers covered by the epidemiological study. PMID:11928669

Szadkowska-Sta?czyk, I; Wilczy?ska, U; Sobala, W; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, N

2001-01-01

244

Suicide and potential occupational exposure to pesticides, Colorado 1990-1999.  

PubMed

A number of occupational studies have reported high rates of suicide among selected occupations, including farmers. Limited work has focused on occupational exposures that may increase the risk of suicide. The purpose of this study is to describe suicide among individuals potentially exposed to pesticides through their occupation. Data from Colorado death certificate files for the period 1990-1999 were obtained. Eligible records were those individuals who were Colorado residents at the time of death who had an occupation listed on their death certificates. Cases had suicide listed as the primary cause of death on the death certificates. The comparison group included Colorado residents who died from any cause during the same period other than cancer, mental disorders and injuries. A total of 4,991 suicide deaths were included and a total of 107,692 other deaths served as the comparison group. Occupations considered pesticide exposed included: veterinarians; pest control occupations; farmers and farm workers; farm managers and supervisors; marine life cultivators; nursery workers; groundskeepers and gardeners; animal caretakers; graders, sorters and inspectors of agricultural products; and forestry workers, supervisors and loggers. All other occupational categories were coded as unexposed. Logistic regression was used to compare the groups, separately for males and females. After controlling for age, race, Hispanic ethnicity, years of education, and marital status, males who were in pesticide exposed occupations had higher odds of suicide (odds ratio 1.14; 95% confidence interval 0.97, 1.34) and females in pesticide exposed occupations also had higher odds of suicide (odds ratio 1.98; 95% confidence interval 1.01, 3.88). PMID:19274902

Stallones, Lorann

2006-01-01

245

Unconsented HIV Testing in Cases of Occupational Exposure: Ethics, Law, and Policy  

PubMed Central

Post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) has substantially reduced the risk of acquiring human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) after an occupational exposure; nevertheless, exposure to HIV remains a concern for emergency department providers. According to published guidelines, PEP should be taken only when source patients are HIV positive or have risk factors for HIV. Initiating PEP when source patients are uninfected puts exposed persons at risk from taking toxic drugs with no compensating benefit. Forgoing PEP if the source is infected results in increased risk of acquiring HIV. What should be done if source patients refuse HIV testing? Is it justifiable to test the blood of these patients over their autonomous objection? The authors review current law and policy and perform an ethical analysis to determine if laws permitting unconsented testing in cases of occupational exposure can be ethically justified. PMID:22994417

Cowan, Ethan; Macklin, Ruth

2012-01-01

246

Whole-Body Lifetime Occupational Lead Exposure and Risk of Parkinson's Disease  

PubMed Central

Background Several epidemiologic studies have suggested an association between Parkinson’s disease (PD) and exposure to heavy metals using subjective exposure measurements. Objectives We investigated the association between objective chronic occupational lead exposure and the risk of PD. Methods We enrolled 121 PD patients and 414 age-, sex-, and race-, frequency-matched controls in a case–control study. As an indicator of chronic Pb exposure, we measured concentrations of tibial and calcaneal bone Pb stores using 109Cadmium excited K-series X-ray fluorescence. As an indicator of recent exposure, we measured blood Pb concentration. We collected occupational data on participants from 18 years of age until the age at enrollment, and an industrial hygienist determined the duration and intensity of environmental Pb exposure. We employed physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling to combine these data, and we estimated whole-body lifetime Pb exposures for each individual. Logistic regression analysis produced estimates of PD risk by quartile of lifetime Pb exposure. Results Risk of PD was elevated by > 2-fold [odds ratio = 2.27 (95% confidence interval, 1.13–4.55); p = 0.021] for individuals in the highest quartile for lifetime lead exposure relative to the lowest quartile, adjusting for age, sex, race, smoking history, and coffee and alcohol consumption. The associated risk of PD for the second and third quartiles were elevated but not statistically significant at the ? = 0.05 level. Conclusions These results provide an objective measure of chronic Pb exposure and confirm our earlier findings that occupational exposure to Pb is a risk factor for PD. PMID:17185278

Coon, Steven; Stark, Azadeh; Peterson, Edward; Gloi, Aime; Kortsha, Gene; Pounds, Joel; Chettle, David; Gorell, Jay

2006-01-01

247

Headphone Noise: Occupational Noise Exposure Assessment for Communication Personnel  

Microsoft Academic Search

For communication personnel exposed to noise emitted by headphones, the sound pressure level measured at the position of the exposed person (but the person absent) does not adequately represent the sound exposure. The first section of this paper reports comments concerning the legislation, the relevant international standards and the state- of-the-art of researches in this field. Then, the second section

A. Perettia; F. Pedriellic; F. Maulid; A. Farinae

248

Laryngeal cancer and occupational exposure to sulfuric acid  

SciTech Connect

Workers on an ethanol unit which used sulfuric acid in strong concentrations at a large refinery and chemical plant in Baton Rouge, Louisiana were reported in 1979, at excess risk for upper respiratory cancer. The carcinogen implicated by indirect evidence was diethyl sulfate. However, with the continued use of sulfuric acid in the same plant, and with additional cases not attributable to the ethanol process, the hypothesis of an association between sulfuric acid exposure and upper respiratory cancer was tested. Each of 50 confirmed cases of upper respiratory cancer diagnosed between 1944 and 1980, was matched to at least three controls on sex, race, age, date of initial employment, and duration of employment. Thrity-four of the 50 cases were laryngeal cancers. Data were obtained from existing plant records. Retrospective estimates of exposure were made without regard to case or control status. Findings from conditional logistic regression techniques were supported by other statistical methods. Among workers classified as potentially highly exposed, four-fold relative risks for all upper respiratory cancer sites combined were exceeded by the relative risk for laryngeal cancer specifically. Exposure-response and consistency across various comparisons after controlling statistically for tobacco-use, alcoholism and other previously implicated risk factors, suggest increased cancer risk with higher exposure.

Soskolne, C.L.; Zeighami, E.A.; Hanis, N.M.; Kupper, L.L.; Herrmann, N.; Amsel, J.; Mausner, J.S.; Stellman, J.M.

1984-09-01

249

Occupational Exposure to Asbestos; Criteria for a Recommended Standard.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recommended standards for control of exposure to asbestos dust in the workplace are set out from the following standpoints: environmental, medical, labeling, personal protective equipment and clothing, apprisal of employees, work practices, and monitoring and recordkeeping requirements. The goal is maintenance of a low level of concentration to…

National Inst. for Occupational Safety and Health (DHEW/PHS), Rockville, MD.

250

Effects of occupational pesticide exposure on children applying pesticides  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nearly 40% of the Egyptian workforce is employed in agriculture. The cotton industry relies on children and adolescents, who work seasonally, to apply pesticides to the cotton crops. Although previous research has examined adult pesticide exposures in this workforce in Egypt, no research has examined the health effects in adolescents. This study attempts to systematically replicate findings examining the impact

Gaafar M. Abdel Rasoul; Mahmoud E. Abou Salem; Atef A. Mechael; Olfat M. Hendy; Diane S. Rohlman; Ahmed A. Ismail

2008-01-01

251

PAPER PRODUCTION AND PROCESSING - OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE AND ENVIRONMENTAL RELEASE STUDY  

EPA Science Inventory

This report presents an analysis of chemicals and processes used during the production and processing of paper and paper goods with emphasis on the workplace exposure and environmental release of chemicals from these operations. Reviews of chemical substances in this report are i...

252

Occupational exposure of workers at gas station to inorganic lead.  

PubMed

Exposure to the lead is public health problem and threat to environment with proven harmful impact on human, including industrial workers and general population. Harmful impacts of exposition to nervous, endocrine, hematological, cardiovascular, immune and reproductive system to the lead are well known. This article addresses the results of retrospective research carried out with attendants at gas station and those who are professionally exposed to inorganic lead (n=73; n=81), during the course of two periodic reviews performed in 2003 and 2008. All subjects underwent physical examination, ECG, were measured blood pressure and laboratory tests encompassing basic hematological parameters, including measuring of blood lead level (BLL), as bioindicators of exposure and biomarkers of toxic impact of the lead, by the means of determining concentration of 6-aminolevulinic acid in urine (ALA).Valued obtained included (arithmetic mean +/- standard deviation): for BLL 42.5 +/- 26.2 microg/L(-1), for ALA 35.2 +/- 10.6 micromol/L(-1). Quoted values are within normal values for general population. Correlation test established positive correlation between BLL and hematological parameters, number of erythrocytes, concentration of hemoglobin and MCV, and the same correlation ratio was established between BLL and years of age, years of service and exposition years of service as well as BLL and GGT. There was not established correlation between ALA and observed hematological parameters, BLL and systole pressure. Data from our research indicate unification between professional exposure to lead and duration of exposure and increase of concentration of BLL, which are far bellow marginalvalue, but do exceed average values of BLL for people of industrial countries with possible generation of harmful impact of lead. Likewise, the results suggest the increase of overall lead load in the body does not have to be necessarily only the result of professional exposure, but of the intake through other channels as well. PMID:20514778

Cabaravdic, Mirsad; Mijanovic, Mirjana; Kusturica, Jasna; Cabaravdic, Amra

2010-01-01

253

Non-occupational exposure to paint fumes during pregnancy and fetal growth in a general population.  

PubMed

Occupational exposure to organic solvents during pregnancy has been associated with reduced fetal growth. Though organic solvents in the form of paint fumes are also found in the home environment, no studies have investigated the effect of such exposure in a general population. We studied associations between residential exposure to paint fumes during pregnancy and fetal growth within the Danish National Birth Cohort which consecutively recruited pregnant women from 1996 to 2002 from all over Denmark. Around the 30th pregnancy week, 19,000 mothers were interviewed about use of paint in their residence during pregnancy. The mothers were also asked about smoking habits and alcohol consumption during pregnancy, pre-pregnancy weight, height, parity and occupation. Information on birth weight and gestational age was obtained from national registers. We found that 45% of the mothers had been exposed to paint fumes in their residence during pregnancy. We found a statistically significant inverse relationship between exposure to paint fumes and the risk of being small for gestational age. There were no statistically significant associations between exposure to paint fumes and birth weight and risk of preterm birth after adjustment for potential confounders. Our results suggest that there are no causal relationship between non-occupational exposure to paint fumes in the residence during pregnancy and fetal growth. PMID:20219188

Sørensen, Mette; Andersen, Anne-Marie N; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole

2010-05-01

254

Dermal Exposure Associated with Occupational End Use of Pesticides and the Role of Protective Measures  

PubMed Central

Background Occupational end users of pesticides may experience bodily absorption of the pesticide products they use, risking possible health effects. The purpose of this paper is to provide a guide for researchers, practitioners, and policy makers working in the field of agricultural health or other areas where occupational end use of pesticides and exposure issues are of interest. Methods This paper characterizes the health effects of pesticide exposure, jobs associated with pesticide use, pesticide-related tasks, absorption of pesticides through the skin, and the use of personal protective equipment (PPE) for reducing exposure. Conclusions Although international and national efforts to reduce pesticide exposure through regulatory means should continue, it is difficult in the agricultural sector to implement engineering or system controls. It is clear that use of PPE does reduce dermal pesticide exposure but compliance among the majority of occupationally exposed pesticide end users appears to be poor. More research is needed on higher-order controls to reduce pesticide exposure and to understand the reasons for poor compliance with PPE and identify effective training methods. PMID:24106643

MacFarlane, Ewan; Carey, Renee; Keegel, Tessa; El-Zaemay, Sonia; Fritschi, Lin

2013-01-01

255

Occupational exposure to magnetic fields in relation to mortality from brain cancer among electricity generation and transmission workers  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether the risks of mortality from brain cancer are related to occupational exposure to magnetic fields. METHODS: A total of 112 cases of primary brain cancer (1972-91) were identified from a cohort of 84,018 male and female employees of the (then) Central Electricity Generating Board and its privatised successor companies. Individual cumulative occupational exposures to magnetic fields

J M Harrington; D I McBride; T Sorahan; G M Paddle; M van Tongeren

1997-01-01

256

Do young adults with childhood asthma avoid occupational exposures at first hire? O. Dumas 1,2  

E-print Network

1 Do young adults with childhood asthma avoid occupational exposures at first hire? O. Dumas 1 and how childhood asthma-related characteristics (before hire) relate to occupational exposures at first hire. Analyses were conducted in 298 children examined at the first survey of the Epidemiological study

Boyer, Edmond

257

Different types of malignancies due to occupational exposure to benzene: A review of recent observations in Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the first description of a case of leukemia due to occupational exposure to benzene, several types of malignancies following the use of this chemical agent have been reported: leukemia, malignant lymphoma, lung cancer, myeloid metaplasia, paroxysmal noctural hemoglobinuria, and multiple myeloma. The evidence suggesting a causal relationship between occupational exposure to benzene and development of the various types of

M. Aksoy

1980-01-01

258

ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH58, 176-183 (1992) Occupational Exposure to Asbestos and Urinary  

E-print Network

ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH58, 176-183 (1992) Occupational Exposure to Asbestos and Urinary Bladder -+ 94 fibers/mg of tissue) and the type (chrysotile and tremolite) of asbestos fibers have been in the same plant producing asbestos- cement pipes and boards. Similar measurements were carried out

Ahmad, Sajjad

259

Occupational radiation exposure at light-water-cooled nuclear power reactors, 1969--1976  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article, which is adapted from a report by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (Report NUREG-0323), presents an updated compilation of occupational radiation exposures at commercial light-water-cooled nuclear power reactors for the years 1969 through 1976. The information in this document was derived from reports submitted annually to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission in accordance with requirements of the Technical Specifications for

Johnson

1978-01-01

260

Occupational Sunlight Exposure and Melanoma in the U.S. Navy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Melanoma is the second most common cancer, after testicular cancer, in males in the U.S. Navy. A wide range of occupations with varying exposures to sunlight and other possible etiologic agents are present in the Navy. Person-years at risk and cases of malignant melanoma were ascertained using computerized service history and inpatient hospitalization files maintained at the Naval Health Research

Frank C. Garland; Martin R. White; Cedric F. Garland; Eddie Shaw; Edward D. Gorham

1990-01-01

261

Case-control study on renal cell cancer and occupational trichloroethylene exposure,  

E-print Network

and the Institute of Occupational Medicine, Edinburgh, UK. The authors thank all of the persons who agreed to help circumstances in a detailed questionnaire, setting subjects' descriptions against levels assessed in the matrix. An average level of exposure to TRI was attributed to each job-period in turn, which was then categorized

Boyer, Edmond

262

Assessment of occupational radiation exposure for two fusion power plant designs  

Microsoft Academic Search

An assessment of the occupational radiation exposure issues of the fusion power stations has been performed focusing on the primary heat transport system (PHTS) of safety and environmental assessment of fusion power (SEAFP) reactor models. Fuel cycle systems have been considered for completeness, but not assessed. Fission reactor experience and fusion power reactor studies formed the basis of this assessment.

A Natalizio; L Di Pace; T Pinna

2001-01-01

263

Occupational Exposure and Lung Cancer Risk: A Population-based Case Referent Study in Sweden  

Microsoft Academic Search

This case-referent study investigated the lung cancer risk from occupational exposure to diesel exhaust, mixed motor exhaust, other combustion products, asbestos, metals, oil mist, and welding fumes. All cases of lung cancer in males aged 40-75 years among stable residents of Stockholm County, Sweden, were identified from 1985 to 1990. Referents were selected as a stratified (age, inclusion year) random

Per Gustavsson; Robert Jakobsson; Fredrik Nyberg; Göran Pershagen; Lars Järup; Patrik Schéele

264

Occupational radiation exposures of artisans mining columbite–tantalite in the eastern Democratic Republic of Congo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Artisans in Masisi and other parts of the North Kivu province in the eastern Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) mine columbite–tantalite mineral ores (also called ‘coltan’) for the tantalum content. The potential occupational radiation exposures in the course of this operation, due to the presence of naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM), have been investigated in this screening survey. Activity concentrations

A O Mustapha; P Mbuzukongira; M J Mangala

2007-01-01

265

Pleural malignant mesothelioma and non-occupational exposure to asbestos in Casale Monferrato, Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES--To assess and quantify the occurrence of pleural malignant mesotheliomas in people who neither experienced occupational exposure to asbestos nor were married to (or known to live with) workers exposed to asbestos in the workplace. The study was conducted in the area of the local health authority of Casale Monferrato, in north western Italy, where a large factory that produced

C Magnani; B Terracini; C Ivaldi; M Botta; A Mancini; A Andrion

1995-01-01

266

THE RELATION BETWEEN BIOMARKERS AND OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE TO POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC COMPOUNDS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently a paper was published in which we reviewed a number of studies involving occupational surveys, where both the external polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposures and one or more biomarkers were quantitatively monitored. As part of that review a statistical analysis of the results of these studies was performed, which revealed that only urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1OHPy) and possibly chromosome aberrations

Henk C. A. Brandt; William P. Watson

2004-01-01

267

Findings on Brain MRI from Research Studies of Occupational Exposure to Known Neurotoxicants  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE. The expanding use of MRI in large-scale epidemiologic studies of CNS out- comes has led to increasing concern for the consistent handling of incidental findings. Our pur- pose is to identify the prevalence of incidental neuroradiologic abnormalities in an adult pop- ulation with past occupational exposure to lead who underwent brain MRI as part of a large, longitudinal cohort

Hannah H. Alphsr; Brian S. Schwartz; Walter F. Stewart; David M. Yousema; Alphs HH; Schwartz BS; Stewart WF; Yousem DM

268

AIDS and the stigma of sexual promiscuity: Thai nurses' risk perceptions of occupational exposure to HIV  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the culturally shaped meanings of AIDS and perceptions of accidental occupational exposure to HIV among a group of twenty nurses in Bangkok, Thailand. The findings are based on data collected as a part of a larger mixed?methods study that examined how perceptions of risk behaviours (including sexual promiscuity) shape health workers' perceptions of patients living with HIV\\/AIDS.

Kit Yee Chan; Arattha Rungpueng; Daniel D. Reidpath

2009-01-01

269

Chemical markers of occupational exposure to teak wood dust.  

PubMed

A novel high-performance liquid chromatographic/ultraviolet method was developed to detect lapachol (LP) and deoxylapachol (DLP) in wood dust as chemical markers of teak wood (a suspected human carcinogen). The specificity of this analysis was determined by noting the absence of LP and DLP in 12 other specimens of different woods belonging to the angiosperm family. The consistency was examined by analyzing teak from three different sources, where the percentages (wt/wt) of the chemicals ranged from 0.006 to 0.261 for LP and from 0.038 to 0.497 for DLP, respectively. Although the LP and DLP components of teak varied according to source, a very high correlation coefficient (r (2) > 0.98 always) was found between the content of the two markers in the bulk specimens and in bulk dust derived from them. The method was then applied to teak dust collected on polyvinylchloride filters from aerosol in an exposure chamber in the range of mass loadings between 0.03 and 3.65 mg, which corresponds to a dust exposure between 0.124 and 8.703 mg m(-3) for a sampling time of 2h. A field test was also carried out in a small factory where teak was used. A good correlation was confirmed between LP and DLP versus the dust collected on the filter in both cases. LP and DLP can be markers to estimate the true quantities of teak dust inhaled in a workplace with mixed wood dust, provided the results are matched to the content of LP and DLP in the bulk wood. LP and DLP have also been proposed as the agents responsible for allergic reaction to teak dust. Therefore, it would be useful to evaluate the exposure to these two substances even without a relationship to teak dust exposure. PMID:24671613

Carrieri, Mariella; Bartolucci, Giovanni Battista; Lee, Taekhee; Barbero, Ana; Harper, Martin

2014-06-01

270

Environmental and occupational exposure to manganese: a multimedia assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl (MMT) is an organic additive used in Canada since 1976 as an anti-knock agent in unleaded gasoline. Its combustion leads to the emission of Mn oxides, especially Mn3O4. Since no study has assessed the potential risk of chronic exposure to low concentrations resulting from these emissions, the present investigation was undertaken to assess the level of environmental

Sylvain Loranger; Joseph Zayed

1995-01-01

271

[Control of occupational exposure to benzene in a chemical plant].  

PubMed

Later on detection of several cases of acute myelotoxic intoxications the use of benzene as a solvent has been banned in Italy since 1963 (Law n. 245). Its consumption has therefore been confined to synthesys processes in petrolchemical industry. The hazards arising from the operations performed in an open air chemical plant which produces alkylbenzene were monitored by the AA. The synthesis occurs in a closed system which provides opportunities for benzene exposure during filling, control and maintenance operations. Nine environmental samples out of 10 showed benzene concentrations above 10 ppm with peaks up to 110 ppm. Long term air sampling showed values ranging from 12 to 75 ppm. Urinary phenol elimination has been measured showing values above 50 mg/1 for approximately 20% of workmen. The difficulties pertaining to an adequate control of benzene exposure in chemical plants are discussed. Being skin contact a mode of entry of apreciable concern, the AA. stress out that priority in exposure monitoring should be given to biological tests such as urinary phenol level and benzene concentration in expired air measurements. PMID:755397

Scansetti, G; Pavan, I; Botta, G C

1978-01-01

272

Occup Environ Med. Author manuscript Occupational exposure to pesticides and lymphoid neoplasms among  

E-print Network

' lymphoma (NHL), 87 of Hodgkin s lymphoma (HL), 104 of lymphoproliferative syndromes (LPS) and 56 herbicides, no significant associations were evidenced for NHL. Conclusions The results, based on case exposures may be involved in HL, MM and HCL and do not rule out a role in NHL. The analyses identified

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

273

Maternal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls and the secondary sex ratio: an occupational cohort study  

PubMed Central

Background Though commercial production of polychlorinated biphenyls was banned in the United States in 1977, exposure continues due to their environmental persistence. Several studies have examined the association between environmental polychlorinated biphenyl exposure and modulations of the secondary sex ratio, with conflicting results. Objective Our objective was to evaluate the association between maternal preconceptional occupational polychlorinated biphenyl exposure and the secondary sex ratio. Methods We examined primipara singleton births of 2595 women, who worked in three capacitor plants at least one year during the period polychlorinated biphenyls were used. Cumulative estimated maternal occupational polychlorinated biphenyl exposure at the time of the infant's conception was calculated from plant-specific job-exposure matrices. A logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the association between maternal polychlorinated biphenyl exposure and male sex at birth (yes/no). Results Maternal body mass index at age 20, smoking status, and race did not vary between those occupationally exposed and those unexposed before the child's conception. Polychlorinated biphenyl-exposed mothers were, however, more likely to have used oral contraceptives and to have been older at the birth of their first child than non-occupationally exposed women. Among 1506 infants liveborn to polychlorinated biphenyl-exposed primiparous women, 49.8% were male; compared to 49.9% among those not exposed (n = 1089). Multivariate analyses controlling for mother's age and year of birth found no significant association between the odds of a male birth and mother's cumulative estimated polychlorinated biphenyl exposure to time of conception. Conclusions Based on these data, we find no evidence of altered sex ratio among children born to primiparous polychlorinated biphenyl-exposed female workers. PMID:21418576

2011-01-01

274

Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Epidemiologic approaches to occupational exposure.  

PubMed

Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) risk-related factors were epidemiologically investigated on the basis of 1,311 Japanese IPF autopsy cases selected from the annual complications of autopsy data records in Japan during a 12-yr period. Age and sex distribution of the subjects revealed a high peak in their seventh decade with males predominating. The IPF rate was more than two times higher (p < 0.01) among subjects engaged in occupations that exposed them to dust or organic solvents compared with those in other jobs. To ascertain job characteristics, an autopsy-case control study was conducted using other annual volumes of the autopsy data records and a similar tendency was observed. Then, a live-case control study was undertaken of 86 subjects with IPF. A significantly higher odds ratio was noted among metal production workers and miners compared with healthy and hospital control subjects (1.37 and 1.34, respectively, p < 0.01), and also a significantly lower odds ratio among subjects who frequently eat fish. Taken together with results of recent in vitro studies, the intrapulmonary deposition of hazardous dusts, especially metallic dusts, appears to play at least a partial role in initiating IPF. PMID:8087336

Iwai, K; Mori, T; Yamada, N; Yamaguchi, M; Hosoda, Y

1994-09-01

275

A new carbon monoxide occupational dosimeter: results from a worker exposure assessment survey.  

PubMed

The LBNL/QGI occupational carbon monoxide (CO) dosimeter (LOCD), a new, inexpensive CO passive sampler, was field-validated in an occupational exposure assessment study in the Moscone Convention Center (MCC) in San Francisco, CA in January, 1997. The LOCD measures time-weighed-average (TWA) CO exposures from 10 to 800 parts per million hours (ppm h; accuracy +/- 20%; precision 10 ppm h). This device represents a major improvement over currently available low-cost personal CO monitors. At the MCC, over 1000 workers set up and remove exhibitions. Forty propane-powered forklifts moved materials throughout the 42,000 m2 of exhibit halls. Diesel truck emissions enter the building via three internal underground loading docks. The LOCD was used to measure 154 worker exposures on 3 days. Sampler performance was compared to a standard method at 15 fixed sites. The geometric mean (GM) of all 154 exposures was 7 ppm (geometric standard deviation (GSD) = 1.6); 10% of the exposures was 10 ppm or more. Dock Walkers and Forklift Operators had the highest exposures (maximum = 34 ppm) with GM (GSD) of 9 (1.7) and 9 (1.6) ppm, respectively. Attendants and Installer/Decorators had the lowest exposures with GMs of 6 (1.6) and 7 (1.4), respectively. The Cal/OSHA personal exposure limit for CO is 25 ppm time-weighted average (TWA). PMID:10638840

Apte, M G; Cox, D D; Hammond, S K; Gundel, L A

1999-01-01

276

Occupational exposure to particulate air pollution and mortality due to ischaemic heart disease and cerebrovascular disease  

PubMed Central

Objectives A growing number of epidemiological studies are showing that ambient exposure to particulate matter air pollution is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease; however, whether occupational exposure increases this risk is not clear. The aim of the present study was to examine whether occupational exposure to particulate air pollution increases the risk for ischaemic heart disease and cerebrovascular disease. Methods The study population was a cohort of 176?309 occupationally exposed Swedish male construction workers and 71?778 unexposed male construction workers. The definition of exposure to inorganic dust (asbestos, man?made mineral fibres, dust from cement, concrete and quartz), wood dust, fumes (metal fumes, asphalt fumes and diesel exhaust) and gases and irritants (organic solvents and reactive chemicals) was based on a job?exposure matrix with focus on exposure in the mid?1970s. The cohort was followed from 1971 to 2002 with regard to mortality to ischaemic heart disease and cerebrovascular disease. Relative risks (RR) were obtained by the person?years method and from Poisson regression models adjusting for baseline values of blood pressure, body mass index, age and smoking habits. Results Any occupational particulate air pollution was associated with an increased risk for ischemic heart disease (RR 1.13, 95% CI 1.07 to 1.19), but there was no increased risk for cerebrovascular disease (RR 0.97, 95% CI 0.88 to 1.07). There was an increased risk for ischaemic heart disease and exposure to inorganic dust (RR 1.07, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.12) and exposure to fumes (RR 1.05, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.10), especially diesel exhaust (RR 1.18, 95% CI 1.13 to 1.24). There was no significantly increased risk for cerebrovascular disease and exposure to inorganic dust, fumes or wood dust. Conclusions Occupational exposure to particulate air pollution, especially diesel exhaust, among construction workers increases the risk for ischaemic heart disease. PMID:17303673

Toren, Kjell; Bergdahl, Ingvar A; Nilsson, Tohr; Jarvholm, Bengt

2007-01-01

277

Occupational styrene exposure for twelve product categories in the reinforced-plastics industry  

SciTech Connect

Approximately 1500 occupational styrene exposure values from 28 reinforced-plastic manufacturers were collected retrospectively from companies and state and federal agencies. This report describes the major types of manufacturing processes within the reinforced-plastics industry and reports on the availability, collection and analysis of historical exposure information. Average exposure to styrene in most open-mold companies (24-82 ppm) was generally 2-3 times the exposure in press-mold companies (11-26 ppm). Manufacturers of smaller boats had mean styrene exposures of 82 ppm as compared to 37 ppm for yacht companies. There was considerable overlap in styrene exposure among job titles classified as directly exposed within open- and press-mold processing.

Lemasters, G.K.; Carson, A.; Samuels, S.J.

1985-08-01

278

Occupational styrene exposure for twelve product categories in the reinforced-plastics industry.  

PubMed

Approximately 1500 occupational styrene exposure values from 28 reinforced-plastic manufacturers were collected retrospectively from companies and state and federal agencies. This report describes the major types of manufacturing processes within the reinforced-plastics industry and reports on the availability, collection and analysis of historical exposure information. Average exposure to styrene in most open-mold companies (24-82 ppm) was generally 2-3 times the exposure in press-mold companies (11-26 ppm). Manufacturers of smaller boats had mean styrene exposures of 82 ppm as compared to 37 ppm for yacht companies. There was considerable overlap in styrene exposure among job titles classified as directly exposed within open- and press-mold processing. PMID:4050680

Lemasters, G K; Carson, A; Samuels, S J

1985-08-01

279

Environmental and occupational exposure to chemicals and telomere length in human studies.  

PubMed

Telomeres are complexes of tandem repeats of DNA (5'-TTAGGG-3') and protein that cap eukaryotic chromosomes and play a critical role in chromosome stability. Telomeres shorten with aging and this process can be accelerated by increased oxidative stress and episodes of inflammation. Evidence is rapidly growing that telomere length (TL) may be affected by environmental chemicals that have frequently been associated with chronic diseases. In this article, we review the published data on TL in relation to environmental and occupational exposure to several chemicals based on our own and others' studies. The environmental and occupational exposures associated with shorter TL include traffic-related air pollution (ie, particulate matter (PM), black carbon (BC), and benzene and toluene), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), N-nitrosamines, pesticides, lead, exposure in car mechanical workshops, and hazardous waste exposure. Arsenic, persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and short-term exposure to PM are associated with longer TL. We discuss the possible reasons for the differences in results, including time- and dose-related issues, study design, and possible mechanisms involved in telomere regulation. We also discuss the future directions and challenges for TL-related environmental and occupational health research, such as investigation of TL in subpopulations of blood leukocytes, and the study of genetic and epigenetic factors that may regulate telomere integrity using longitudinal designs. PMID:23775864

Zhang, Xiao; Lin, Shao; Funk, William E; Hou, Lifang

2013-10-01

280

Environmental and occupational exposure to chemicals and telomere length in human studies.  

PubMed

Telomeres are complexes of tandem repeats of DNA (5'-TTAGGG-3') and protein that cap eukaryotic chromosomes and play a critical role in chromosome stability. Telomeres shorten with aging and this process can be accelerated by increased oxidative stress and episodes of inflammation. Evidence is rapidly growing that telomere length (TL) may be affected by environmental chemicals that have frequently been associated with chronic diseases. In this article, we review the published data on TL in relation to environmental and occupational exposure to several chemicals based on our own and others' studies. The environmental and occupational exposures associated with shorter TL include traffic-related air pollution (ie, particulate matter (PM), black carbon (BC), and benzene and toluene), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), N-nitrosamines, pesticides, lead, exposure in car mechanical workshops, and hazardous waste exposure. Arsenic, persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and short-term exposure to PM are associated with longer TL. We discuss the possible reasons for the differences in results, including time- and dose-related issues, study design, and possible mechanisms involved in telomere regulation. We also discuss the future directions and challenges for TL-related environmental and occupational health research, such as investigation of TL in subpopulations of blood leukocytes, and the study of genetic and epigenetic factors that may regulate telomere integrity using longitudinal designs. PMID:24243983

Zhang, Xiao; Lin, Shao; Funk, William E; Hou, Lifang

2013-12-01

281

Sinonasal Cancer and Occupational Exposure in a Population-Based Registry  

PubMed Central

We examined occupational exposures among subjects with sinonasal cancer (SNC) recorded in a population-based registry in the Lombardy Region, the most populated and industrialized Italian region. The registry collects complete clinical information and exposure to carcinogens regarding all SNC cases occurring in the population of the region. In the period 2008–2011, we recorded 210 SNC cases (137 men, 73 women). The most frequent occupational exposures were to wood (44 cases, 21.0%) and leather dust (29 cases, 13.8%), especially among men: 39 cases (28.5%) to wood and 23 cases (16.8%) to leather dust. Exposure to other agents was infrequent (<2%). Among 62 subjects with adenocarcinoma, 50% had been exposed to wood dust and 30.7% to leather dust. The proportions were around 10% in subjects with squamous cell carcinoma and about 20% for tumors with another histology. The age-standardized rates (×100,000 person-years) were 0.7 in men and 0.3 in women. Complete collection of cases and their occupational history through a specialized cancer registry is fundamental to accurately monitor SNC occurrence in a population and to uncover exposure to carcinogens in different industrial sectors, even those not considered as posing a high risk of SNC, and also in extraoccupational settings. PMID:24082884

Mensi, Carolina; Sieno, Claudia; Riboldi, Luciano; Bertazzi, Pier Alberto

2013-01-01

282

Maternal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls and the secondary sex ratio: an occupational cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Though commercial production of polychlorinated biphenyls was banned in the United States in 1977, exposure continues due\\u000a to their environmental persistence. Several studies have examined the association between environmental polychlorinated biphenyl\\u000a exposure and modulations of the secondary sex ratio, with conflicting results.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Objective  Our objective was to evaluate the association between maternal preconceptional occupational polychlorinated biphenyl exposure\\u000a and the secondary sex

Carissa M Rocheleau; Stephen J Bertke; James A Deddens; Avima M Ruder; Christina C Lawson; Martha A Waters; Nancy B Hopf; Margaret A Riggs; Elizabeth A Whelan

2011-01-01

283

Surveillance of nasal and bladder cancer to locate sources of exposure to occupational carcinogens.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To locate sources of occupational exposure to nasal and bladder carcinogens for surveillance follow up in British Columbia, Canada. METHODS: Incident cases of nasal cancer (n = 48), bladder cancer (n = 105), and population based controls (n = 159) matched for sex and age, were interviewed about their jobs, exposures, and smoking histories. Odds ratios (ORs) were calculated for 57 occupational groups with stratified exact methods to control for age, sex, and smoking. RESULTS: Occupational groups at increased risk of nasal cancer included: textile workers (six cases, OR 7.6); miners, drillers, and blasters (six cases, OR 3.5); welders (two cases, OR 3.5); pulp and paper workers (three cases, OR 3.1); and plumbers and pipefitters (two cases, OR 3.0). Nasal cancer ORs were not increased in occupations exposed to wood dust, possibly due to low exposures in local wood industries. Strongly increased risks of bladder cancer were found for sheet metal workers (four cases, OR 5.3), miners (19 cases, OR 4.5), gardeners (six cases, OR 3.7), and hairdressers (three cases, OR 3.2). Among occupations originally considered at risk, the following had increased risks of bladder cancer: painters (four cases, OR 2.8); laundry workers (five cases, OR 2.3); chemical and petroleum workers (15 cases, OR 1.8); machinists (eight cases, OR 1.6); and textile workers (three cases, OR 1.5). CONCLUSIONS: Occupational groups with increased risks and three or more cases with similar duties were selected for surveillance follow up. For nasal cancer, these included textile workers (five were garment makers) and pulp and paper workers (three performed maintenance tasks likely to entail stainless steel welding). For bladder cancer, these included miners (12 worked underground), machinists (five worked in traditional machining), hairdressers (three had applied hair dyes), and laundry workers (three were drycleaners). PMID:9245952

Teschke, K; Morgan, M S; Checkoway, H; Franklin, G; Spinelli, J J; van Belle, G; Weiss, N S

1997-01-01

284

MATERNAL OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE TO POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS AND RISK OF ORAL CLEFT-AFFECTED PREGNANCIES  

PubMed Central

Objective Evaluate whether there is an association between maternal occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and oral cleftsin offspring. This is the first human study of PAHs and clefts of which the authors are aware. Design Case-control study. Setting, Participants Data for 1997–2002 from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study, a large population-based case-control study in the US, were analyzed. Maternal telephone interviews yielded information on jobs held in the month before through three months after conception. Two industrial hygienists independently assessed occupational exposure to PAHs ; all jobs rated as exposed or with rating difficulty were reviewed with a third industrial hygienist to reach consensus on all exposure parameters. Logistic regression estimated crude and adjusted odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CL±P) and cleft palate alone (CP). Results There were 2989 controls( 3.5% exposed), 805 cases of CL±P (5.8% exposed) and 439 cases of CP (4.6% exposed). The odds of maternal occupational exposure to PAH (any vs none) during pregnancy was increased for CL±P cases as compared with controls (OR 1.69, 95% CI 1.18–2.40); the OR was 1.47 (95% CI 1.02–2.12) adjusted for maternal education. There was a statistically significant adjusted exposure-response relationship for CL±P (ptrend = 0.02). ORs for CP were not statistically significant. Conclusions Maternal occupational exposure to PAHs was associated with increased risk of cleft lip with or without cleft palate in offspring. PMID:23136939

Langlois, Peter H; Hoyt, Adrienne T; Lupo, Philip J; Lawson, Christina C; Waters, Martha A; Desrosiers, Tania A; Shaw, Gary M; Romitti, Paul A; Lammer, Edward J

2014-01-01

285

Neuropsychiatric syndromes and occupational exposure to zinc phosphide in Egypt.  

PubMed

Eighty-six workers exposed to zinc phosphide (Zn3P2) pesticide were studied for evidence of neuropsychiatric manifestations. They were evaluated clinically, by electroencephalography (EEG), and, in some cases, by electromyography (EMG). All were males (mean age, 35.8 years; mean duration of exposure to zinc phosphide, 11.3 years). Most presented with one (or more) neuropsychiatric symptom(s), including fear of poisoning, anxiety, impotence, and easy fatigue. About half showed evidence of neuropsychiatric signs, including hyperreflexia, polyneuropathy, lumber radiculopathy, and cervical myelopathy, as well as anxious mood, impaired attention, and psychomotor stimulation. EEG recordings showed abnormal findings in 17.4% of the subjects. The mean age in that group was 39.1 years; mean duration of exposure to Zn3P2 was 15.1 years. EMG studies showed evidence of partial denervation of the anterior tibial group of muscles and flexor digiti minimi in 2 of the 30 workers (6.7%) who underwent EMG examination. Serum levels of zinc (Zn) and cadmium (Ca) were significantly higher in exposed workers than in controls (P < 0.005). Serum copper (Cu), iron (Fe), phosphorus (P), and magnesium (Mg) were significantly lower in exposed workers than in controls. Electrophoretic pattern of globulin showed that gammaglobulin fraction was significantly increased (P < 0.005); alpha2 and beta-globulin were decreased (P < 0.005) in exposed workers. Lipoprotein pattern showed that the total lipids, B-lipoprotein, and B/alpha ratio were significantly increased (P < 0.005) in exposed workers; the alpha1 lipoprotein was decreased. Triglycerides and cholesterol were significantly increased (P < 0.001), and phospholipids and phospholipid/cholesterol ratio were significantly decreased (P < 0.005) in exposed workers compared to controls. The study findings indicated that exposure to Zn3P2 not only caused mild acute and subacute liver cell damage, but also affected renal function and perhaps B-cells of the pancreas. A total of 68.6% of the exposed workers had chest symptoms; only 24.4% presented with chest or cardiac signs. Ventilatory functions were abnormal in 70% of the exposed workers; abnormal ECG findings were present in 12.8%. PMID:9311548

Amr, M M; Abbas, E Z; El-Samra, M; El Batanuoni, M; Osman, A M

1997-01-01

286

Severe Cognitive Dysfunction and Occupational Extremely Low Frequency Magnetic Field Exposure among Elderly Mexican Americans  

PubMed Central

Aims This report is the first study of the possible relationship between extremely low frequency (50–60 Hz, ELF) magnetic field (MF) exposure and severe cognitive dysfunction. Earlier studies investigated the relationships between MF occupational exposure and Alzheimer’s disease (AD) or dementia. These studies had mixed results, depending upon whether the diagnosis of AD or dementia was performed by experts and upon the methodology used to classify MF exposure. Study Design Population-based case-control. Place and Duration of Study Neurology and Preventive Medicine, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, 2 years. Methodology The study population consisted of 3050 Mexican Americans, aged 65+, enrolled in Phase 1 of the Hispanic Established Population for the Epidemiologic Study of the Elderly (H-EPESE) study. Mini-Mental State Exam (MMSE) results, primary occupational history, and other data were collected. Severe cognitive dysfunction was defined as an MMSE score below 10. The MF exposure methodology developed and used in earlier studies was used. Results Univariate odds ratios (OR) were 3.4 (P< .03; 95% CI: 1.3–8.9) for high and 1.7 (P=.27; 95% CI: 0.7–4.1) for medium or high (M/H) MF occupations. In multivariate main effects models, the results were similar. When interaction terms were allowed in the models, the interactions between M/H or high occupational MF exposure and smoking history or age group were statistically significant, depending upon whether two (65–74, 75+) or three (65–74, 75–84, 85+) age groups were considered, respectively. When the analyses were limited to subjects aged 75+, the interactions between M/H or high MF occupations and a positive smoking history were statistically significant. Conclusion The results of this study indicate that working in an occupation with high or M/H MF exposure may increase the risk of severe cognitive dysfunction. Smoking and older age may increase the deleterious effect of MF exposure. PMID:24839595

Davanipour, Zoreh; Tseng, Chiu-Chen; Lee, Pey-Jiuan; Markides, Kyriakos S.; Sobel, Eugene

2014-01-01

287

Developing a Semi-Quantitative Occupational Risk Prediction Model for Chemical Exposures and Its Application to a National Chemical Exposure Databank  

PubMed Central

In this study, a semi-quantitative occupational chemical exposure risk prediction model, based on the calculation of exposure hazard indexes, was proposed, corrected, and applied to a national chemical exposure databank. The model comprises one factor used to describe toxicity (i.e., the toxicity index), and two factors used to reflect the exposure potential (i.e., the exposure index and protection deficiency index) of workers exposed to chemicals. An expert system was used to correct the above proposed model. By applying the corrected model to data obtained from a national occupational chemical hazard survey program, chemical exposure risks of various manufacturing industries were determined and a national control strategy for the abatement of occupational chemical exposures was proposed. The results of the present study would provide useful information for governmental agencies to allocate their limited resources effectively for reducing chemical exposures of workers. PMID:23892550

Wang, Shih-Min; Wu, Trong-Neng; Juang, Yow-Jer; Dai, Yu-Tung; Tsai, Perng-Jy; Chen, Chiu-Ying

2013-01-01

288

Report of the Federal Panel on Formaldehyde.  

PubMed Central

The Federal Panel on Formaldehyde concluded that definitive experiments exist which demonstrate the mutagenicity and carcinogenicity of formaldehyde under laboratory conditions. Formaldehyde induces both gene mutations and chromosomal aberrations in a variety of test systems. Inhalation of formaldehyde causes cancer of the nose in rats. The concentrations of formaldehyde in inhaled air that caused nasal cancer in Fisher 344 rats are within the same order of magnitude as those to which humans may be exposed. The data presently available do not permit a direct assessment of the carcinogenicity of formaldehyde to man. Epidemiologic studies on exposed human populations are in progress and may further clarify the situation. Other experimental and human studies on toxic effects such as teratogenicity and reproductive disorders are as yet inadequate for a health risk assessment. The CIIT 24 month study on animal carcinogenicity has not yet been completely evaluated. Additional data are expected on the effects of prolonged exposure to lower doses of formaldehyde and on the possible carcinogenicity of formaldehyde in the mouse. The panel recommends that, for a comprehensive health risk assessment, further experiments be conducted on the effects of other modes of exposure (ingestion and skin penetration), the effects in humans, and on the pharmacokinetics of formaldehyde in man and animals and the possible role for formaldehyde in reproductive and chronic respiratory disorders. It is the conclusion of the panel that formaldehyde should be presumed to pose a carcinogenic risk to humans. PMID:6977445

1982-01-01

289

OccIDEAS: Retrospective Occupational Exposure Assessment in Community-Based Studies Made Easier  

PubMed Central

Assessing occupational exposure in retrospective community-based case-control studies is difficult as measured exposure data are very seldom available. The expert assessment method is considered the most accurate way to attribute exposure but it is a time consuming and expensive process and may be seen as subjective, nonreproducible, and nontransparent. In this paper, we describe these problems and outline our solutions as operationalized in a web-based software application (OccIDEAS). The novel aspects of OccIDEAS are combining all steps in the assessment into one software package; enmeshing the process of assessment into the development of questionnaires; selecting the exposure(s) of interest; specifying rules for exposure assignment; allowing manual or automatic assessments; ensuring that circumstances in which exposure is possible for an individual are highlighted for review; providing reports to ensure consistency of assessment. Development of this application has the potential to make high-quality occupational assessment more efficient and accessible for epidemiological studies. PMID:20041014

Fritschi, Lin; Friesen, Melissa C.; Glass, Deborah; Benke, Geza; Girschik, Jennifer; Sadkowsky, Troy

2009-01-01

290

Multicentric study on malignant pleural mesothelioma and non-occupational exposure to asbestos  

PubMed Central

Insufficient evidence exists on the risk of pleural mesothelioma from non-occupational exposure to asbestos. A population-based case–control study was carried out in six areas from Italy, Spain and Switzerland. Information was collected for 215 new histologically confirmed cases and 448 controls. A panel of industrial hygienists assessed asbestos exposure separately for occupational, domestic and environmental sources. Classification of domestic and environmental exposure was based on a complete residential history, presence and use of asbestos at home, asbestos industrial activities in the surrounding area, and their distance from the dwelling. In 53 cases and 232 controls without evidence of occupational exposure to asbestos, moderate or high probability of domestic exposure was associated with an increased risk adjusted by age and sex: odds ratio (OR) 4.81, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.8–13.1. This corresponds to three situations: cleaning asbestos-contaminated clothes, handling asbestos material and presence of asbestos material susceptible to damage. The estimated OR for high probability of environmental exposure (living within 2000 m of asbestos mines, asbestos cement plants, asbestos textiles, shipyards, or brakes factories) was 11.5 (95% CI 3.5–38.2). Living between 2000 and 5000 m from asbestos industries or within 500 m of industries using asbestos could also be associated with an increased risk. A dose–response pattern appeared with intensity of both sources of exposure. It is suggested that low-dose exposure to asbestos at home or in the general environment carries a measurable risk of malignant pleural mesothelioma. © 2000 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10883677

Magnani, C; Agudo, A; Gonzalez, C A; Andrion, A; Calleja, A; Chellini, E; Dalmasso, P; Escolar, A; Hernandez, S; Ivaldi, C; Mirabelli, D; Ramirez, J; Turuguet, D; Usel, M; Terracini, B

2000-01-01

291

Investigation on neurotoxicity of occupational exposure to cyclohexane: a neurophysiological study.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: To examine the effect of occupational exposure to cyclohexane on the peripheral nervous system. METHODS: A nerve conduction study was performed on 18 workers exposed to cyclohexane in a luggage factory and on age and sex matched occupationally unexposed controls. 12 workers had been exposed to n-hexane (median 2.8 years) before the start of exposure to cyclohexane. To confirm the effect of exposure, a follow up study was performed on nine workers one year after the first study. The mean exposure to cyclohexane was 1.2 years in the first study. A symptom survey was performed. The exposure was measured by air sampling of the breathing zone of each worker. The urinary metabolite cyclohexanol was also monitored. RESULTS: The concentration of airborne cyclohexane ranged from 5 to 211 ppm. The urinary concentration of cyclohexanol ranged from 0.12 to 1.51 mg/l. There was a strong correlation between the cyclohexane exposure in personal air and urinary cyclohexanol. No differences were found in nerve conduction velocities (NCV) between workers exposed to cyclohexane and age and sex matched controls. The results of the follow up study showed significant improvements in peroneal motor NCV (P < 0.01) and sural sensory NCV (P < 0.05) and in ulnar motor distal latency (MDL, P < 0.05) and peroneal MDL (P < 0.05) compared with the first study. Although the past n-hexane exposure affected the first neurophysiological study, the effect had disappeared in the second study, one year later. CONCLUSION: Occupational exposure to the concentrations of cyclohexane experienced in this study had no adverse effects on the peripheral nervous system. PMID:8704858

Yuasa, J; Kishi, R; Eguchi, T; Harabuchi, I; Kawai, T; Ikeda, M; Sugimoto, R; Matsumoto, H; Miyake, H

1996-01-01

292

Comprehensive evaluation of long-term trends in occupational exposure: Part 1. Description of the database  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: To conduct a comprehensive evaluation of long term changes in occupational exposure among a broad cross section of industries worldwide. METHODS: A review of the scientific literature identified studies that reported historical changes in exposure. About 700 sets of data from 119 published and several unpublished sources were compiled. Data were published over a 30 year period in 25 journals that spanned a range of disciplines. For each data set, the average exposure level was compiled for each period and details on the contaminant, the industry and location, changes in the threshold limit value (TLV), as well as the type of sampling method were recorded. Spearman rank correlation coefficients were used to identify monotonic changes in exposure over time and simple linear regression analyses were used to characterise trends in exposure. RESULTS: About 78% of the natural log transformed data showed linear trends towards lower exposure levels whereas 22% indicated increasing trends. (The Spearman rank correlation analyses produced a similar breakdown between exposures monotonically increasing or decreasing over time.) Although the rates of reduction for the data showing downward trends ranged from -1% to -62% per year, most exposures declined at rates between -4% and -14% per year (the interquartile range), with a median value of -8% per year. Exposures seemed to increase at rates that were slightly lower than those of exposures which have declined over time. Data sets that showed downward (versus upward) trends were influenced by several factors including type and carcinogenicity of the contaminant, type of monitoring, historical changes in the threshold limit values (TLVs), and period of sampling. CONCLUSIONS: This review supports the notion that occupational exposures are generally lower today than they were years or decades ago. However, such trends seem to have been affected by factors related to the contaminant, as well as to the period and type of sampling.   PMID:9764107

Symanski, E.; Kupper, L. L.; Rappaport, S. M.

1998-01-01

293

Micronucleus monitoring to assess human occupational exposure to organochlorides  

SciTech Connect

Health surveillance for hazardous situations due to chemical exposure, in particular those which are carcinogenic, requires sensitive monitoring tests. Although experimental studies have shown the geno-toxic and carcinogenic effect of several organochlorides, the lack of epidemiologic studies prevents their classification as carcinogenic to human beings. In this context, genotoxicity tests of short duration in human cells gain importance. The relation between the clastogenic effects (chromosome breaks) and cancer induction is already known to the scientific literature. The micronucleus test has been proposed as a good indicator of clastogenesis. In the present study, we evaluated, by means of the micronucleus test, 41 workers of a chemical industry in the state of Sao Paulo, southeast region of Brazil, who had been exposed to a mixture of chlorinated solvents (carbon tetrachloride, perchloroethylene, and hexachlorobenzene) and 28 workers who had not been exposed. Peripheral lymphocytes stimulated by phytohemagglutinin and with cytokinesis blocked by cytochalasin B were used. The results showed that the exposed workers presented a statistically significant higher frequency of micronuclei than the group which had not been exposed. 19 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs.

Silva Augusto, L.G. da [Nucleo de Saude Coletiva/CPqAm/FIOCRUZ, Pernambuco (Brazil); Lieber, S.R. [Hemocentro/UNICAMP, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Ruiz, M.A. [Faculdade de Ciencias Medicas de Santos, Sao Paulo (Brazil)] [and others

1997-10-01

294

Occupational and patient exposure in coronary angiography procedures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cardiac catheterization is the gold standard in the diagnosis and management of coronary artery diseases. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the radiation dose of patients and staff during cardiology procedures. Staff was monitored using thermoluminescence dosimeter (TLD) chips for 86 procedures. The mean patient dose was 2813.6 ?Gy m2 and the mean fluoroscopic time was 4.8 min. The mean radiation doses for cardiologists were 0.9 mGy for the forehead, 0.92 mGy for the thyroid, 1.38 mGy for the chest, 1.28 mGy for the waist and 1.41 mGy for the hand. The mean radiation doses for assistants were 0.72 mGy for the chest, 0.82 mGy for the hand. High patient and staff exposure is due to lack of experience and protective equipment, exacerbated by a high workload. Interventional procedures remain operator dependent; therefore, continuous training is crucial.

Sulieman, A.; Alzimami, K.; Gafar, R.; Babikir, E.; Alsafi, K.; Suliman, I. I.

2014-11-01

295

Occupational exposure to dust and lung disease among sheet metal workers.  

PubMed Central

A previous large medical survey of active and retired sheet metal workers with 20 or more years in the trade indicated an unexpectedly high prevalence of obstructive pulmonary disease among both smokers and non-smokers. This study utilised interviews with a cross section of the previously surveyed group to explore occupational risk factors for lung disease. Four hundred and seven workers were selected from the previously surveyed group on the basis of their potential for exposure to fibreglass and asbestos. Selection was independent of health state, and excluded welders. A detailed history of occupational exposure was obtained by telephone interview for 333 of these workers. Exposure data were analysed in relation to previously collected data on chronic bronchitis, obstructive lung disease, and personal characteristics. Assessment of the effects of exposure to fibreglass as distinct from the effects of exposure to asbestos has been difficult in previous studies of construction workers. The experienced workers studied here have performed a diversity of jobs involving exposure to many different types of materials, and this enabled exposure to each dust to be evaluated separately. The risk of chronic bronchitis increased sharply by pack-years of cigarettes smoked; current smokers had a double risk compared with those who had never smoked or had stopped smoking. The occurrence of chronic bronchitis also increased with increasing duration of exposure to asbestos. Workers with a history of high intensity exposure to fibreglass had a more than doubled risk of chronic bronchitis. Obstructive lung disease, defined by results of pulmonary function tests at the medical survey, was also related to both smoking and occupational risk factors. Number of pack years smoked was the strongest predictor of obstructive lung disease. Duration of direct and indirect exposure to welding fume was also a positive predictor of obstructive lung disease. Duration of exposure to asbestos was significantly associated with obstructive lung disease but the dose-response relation was inconsistent, especially for those with higher pack-years of smoking exposure. Exposure to fibreglass was not a risk factor for obstructive lung disease. PMID:8507596

Hunting, K L; Welch, L S

1993-01-01

296

Cancer and occupational exposure to inorganic lead compounds: a meta-analysis of published data.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES--To review and summarise the epidemiological evidence on the carcinogenicity of occupational exposure to inorganic lead. METHODS--Case-control and cohort studies were reviewed and combined for meta-analysis. Fixed and random effect methods were used to estimate the summary effects. RESULTS--The combined results show a significant excess risk of overall cancer, stomach cancer, lung cancer, and bladder cancer, with relative risk ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) in the meta-analysis of 1.11 (1.05-1.17), 1.33 (1.18-1.49), 1.29 (1.10-1.50), and 1.41 (1.16-1.71) respectively. The RR (95% CI) for kidney cancer was also high, but did not reach significance (1.19 (0.96-1.48)). A separate analysis of studies of heavily exposed workers provided slightly increased RRs for cancers of the stomach (1.50) and lung (1.42). CONCLUSIONS--The findings from the workers with heavy exposure to lead provided some evidence to support the hypothesis of an association between stomach and lung cancer and exposure to lead. The main limitation of the present analysis is that the excess risks do not take account of potential confounders, because little information was available for other occupational exposures, smoking, and dietary habits. To some extent, the risk of lung cancer might be explained by confounders such as tobacco smoking and exposure to other occupational carcinogens. The excess risk of stomach cancer may also be explained, at least in part, by non-occupational factors. For bladder and kidney cancers, the excess risks are only suggestive of a true effect because of possible publication bias. PMID:7757170

Fu, H; Boffetta, P

1995-01-01

297

Occupational exposure to chlorinated solvents and risks of glioma and meningioma in adults  

PubMed Central

Objectives Chlorinated solvents are classified as probable or possible carcinogens. It is unknown whether exposure to these agents increases the risk of malignant or benign brain tumors. Our objective was to evaluate associations of brain tumor risk with occupational exposure to six chlorinated solvents [i.e., dichloromethane, chloroform, carbon tetrachloride, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, trichloroethylene, and perchloroethylene]. Methods 489 glioma cases, 197 meningioma cases, and 799 controls were enrolled in a hospital-based case-control study conducted at three U.S. hospitals in Arizona, Massachusetts and Pennsylvania. Information about occupational history was obtained through a detailed in-person interview that included job-specific modules of questions such that the interview was tailored to each individual’s particular work history. An industrial hygienist assessed potential solvent exposure based on this information and an exhaustive review of the relevant industrial hygiene literature. Unconditional logistic regression models were used to calculate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) for each solvent for ever/never, duration, cumulative, average weekly, and highest exposure. Results Overall, we found no consistent evidence of an increased risk of glioma or meningioma related to occupational exposure to the six chlorinated solvents evaluated. There was some suggestion of an association between carbon tetrachloride and glioma in analyses restricted to exposed subjects, with average weekly exposure above the median associated with increased risk compared to below-median exposure (OR=7.1, 95%CI: 1.1, 45.2). Conclusions We found no consistent evidence for increased brain tumor risk related to chlorinated solvents. PMID:22864249

Neta, Gila; Stewart, Patricia A.; Rajaraman, Preetha; Hein, Misty J.; Waters, Martha A.; Purdue, Mark P.; Samanic, Claudine; Coble, Joseph B.; Linet, Martha S.; Inskip, Peter D.

2013-01-01

298

Occupational exposure to crystalline silica dust in the United States, 1988-2003.  

PubMed

The purposes of this study were a) to summarize measurements of airborne (respirable) crystalline silica dust exposure levels among U.S. workers, b) to provide an update of the 1990 Stewart and Rice report on airborne silica exposure levels in high-risk industries and occupations with data for the time period 1988-2003, c) to estimate the number of workers potentially exposed to silica in industries that the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) inspected for high exposure levels, and d) to conduct time trend analyses on airborne silica dust exposure levels for time-weighted average (TWA) measurements. Compliance inspection data that were taken from the OSHA Integrated Management Information System (IMIS) for 1988-2003 (n = 7,209) were used to measure the airborne crystalline silica dust exposure levels among U.S. workers. A second-order autoregressive model was applied to assess the change in the mean silica exposure measurements over time. The overall geometric mean of silica exposure levels for 8-hr personal TWA samples collected during programmed inspections was 0.077 mg/m3, well above the applicable American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists threshold limit value of 0.05 mg/m3. Surgical appliances supplies industry [Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) 3842] had the lowest geometric mean silica exposure level of 0.017 mg/m3, compared with the highest level, 0.166 mg/m3, for the metal valves and pipe fitting industry (SIC 3494), for an 8-hr TWA measurement. Although a downward trend in the airborne silica exposure levels was observed during 1988-2003, the results showed that 3.6% of the sampled workers were exposed above the OSHA-calculated permissible exposure limit. PMID:15743711

Yassin, Abdiaziz; Yebesi, Francis; Tingle, Rex

2005-03-01

299

Reproductive effects of occupational DDT exposure among male malaria control workers.  

PubMed Central

To assess potential effects of human DDT [1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane] exposure, we evaluated the reproductive history of 2,033 workers in the antimalaria campaign of Mexico. Data on occupational exposure to DDT and reproductive outcomes were gathered through a questionnaire, and workers provided information about 9,187 pregnancies. We estimated paternal exposure to DDT before each pregnancy using three approaches: a) a dichotomous indicator for pregnancies before and after exposure began, b) a qualitative index of four exposure categories, and c) an estimation of the DDT metabolite DDE [1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene] accumulated in fat. To assess associations, we used logistic regression models that accounted for correlated observations and adjusted for parents' age at each child's birth, exposure to other pesticides, exposure to chemical substances in other employment, smoking, and alcohol consumption. The odds ratio for birth defects comparing pregnancies after and before the first exposure was 3.77 [95% confidence interval (95% CI), 1.19-9.52]. Compared with the lowest quartile of estimated DDE in fat, the ORs were 2.48 (95% CI, 0.75-8.11), 4.15 (95% CI, 1.38-12.46), and 3.76 (95% CI, 1.23-11.44) for quartiles 2, 3, and 4, equivalent to p,p -DDE in fat of 50, 82, and 298 microg/g fat, respectively. No significant association was found for spontaneous abortion or sex ratio. We found an increased risk of birth defects associated with high occupational exposure to DDT in this group of workers. The significance of this association at lower exposure levels found in the general population remains uncertain. PMID:15064158

Salazar-Garcia, Felix; Gallardo-Diaz, Esperanza; Ceron-Mireles, Prudencia; Loomis, Dana; Borja-Aburto, Victor H

2004-01-01

300

Application of statistical models for secondary data usage of the US Navy's Occupational Exposure Database (NOED).  

PubMed

Many organizations around the world have collected data related to individual worker exposures that are used to determine compliance with workplace standards. These data are often warehoused and thereafter rarely used as an information resource. Using appropriate groupings and analysis of OSHA data, Gómez showed that such stored data can provide additional insight on factors affecting occupational exposures. Using data from the Occupational Exposure Database of the United States Navy, the usefulness of statistical models for defining probabilities of exposure above permissible limits for observed work conditions is examined. Analyses have highlighted worker Similar Exposure Groups (SEGs) with potential for overexposure to asbestos and lead. In terms of grouping data, Rappaport et al. defined the Within-Between Lognormal Model, a scale-independent measure for quantifying between-worker variability within a selected worker group: (B)R.95 = exp[3.92s(sB)], representing the ratio of arithmetic mean exposures received by workers in the 97.5th and 2.5th percentiles. To help search for groups, the Proportional Odds Model, a generalization of the logistic model to ordinal data, can predict probabilities for group exposure above the Occupational Exposure Limit (OEL), or the Action Level (AL), which is one-half of the OEL. Worker SEGs have been identified for asbestos workers removing friable asbestos ((B)R.95 = 11.0) and nonfriable asbestos ((B)R.95 = 6.5); metal cleaning workers sandingspecialized equipment ((B)R.95 = 11.3), and workers at target shooting ranges cleaning up lead debris ((B)R.95 = 10). Estimated probabilities for the categories OEL support current understanding of work processes examined. Differences in probability noted between tasks and levels of ventilation validate this method for evaluating other available workplace exposure determinants, and for predicting probability of membership in categories that may help further define worker exposure groups, and determinants of excessive exposures. Thus, analyses of retrospective exposure data can help identify work site and work practice factors for efficient targeting of remediation resources. PMID:11217712

Formisano, J A; Still, K; Alexander, W; Lippmann, M

2001-02-01

301

Occupational exposure of poultry stockmen in current barn systems for egg production in the United Kingdom.  

PubMed

1. The occupational exposure to inhalable dust and ammonia of 12 stockmen working in barn systems conforming to the UK Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (RSPCA) Freedom Foods requirements was measured and compared with established limits for occupational exposure. The influence of the type of task upon the daily exposure was assessed and comparisons of daily exposure were made with that of battery cage system stockmen. 2. The mean inhalable dust exposures experienced by poultry stockmen working in barn systems was 10.8 mg/m3 (9.5 mg/m3, time-weighted average), for a complete working day. This was greater (P < 0.01) than the mean dust exposure measured in current cage systems of 4.8 mg/m3 (4.4 mg/m3, time-weighted average). The individual values of dust exposure for 4 of the 12 barn stockmen exceeded the occupational exposure standard (OES) of 10.0 mg/m3 for inhalable dust, whereas that of all of the individual cage stockmen taking part in this study did not. 3. The mean ammonia exposure experienced by poultry stockmen working in barn systems was 14 ppm (11 ppm, time-weighted average), for a complete working day. This also was greater (P < 0.01) than the mean ammonia exposure measured in current cage systems of 8 ppm (7 ppm, time-weighted average). None of the individual values of ammonia exposures for both barn and cage system stockmen taking part in this study exceeded the OESs of 25 ppm, although the short-term limit of 35 ppm for 15 min was exceeded on a number of occasions. 4. Current methods for assessing the combined effects of dust and ammonia indicated that 8 of the 12 barn stockmen were at risk compared with 1 of the 8 cage system stockmen. 5. The average dust burden in daily common tasks such as maintenance and collecting floor eggs ranged from 5 to 15 mg/m3, while intermittent common tasks such as nest box checks and litter spreading ranged from 13 to 35 mg/m3. Tasks that had the highest exposure values included sweeping and partition removal, ranging from 63.3 to 70.7 mg/m3. 6. Designs of the typical barn systems investigated offer little scope for reducing airborne dust for common daily tasks. Personal respiratory protection while carrying out tasks that result in high dust concentrations in barns is advisable. PMID:12195795

Whyte, R T

2002-07-01

302

Evidence for Unapparent Brucella canis Infections among Adults with Occupational Exposure to Dogs.  

PubMed

Human serological assays designed to detect brucellosis will miss infections caused by Brucella canis, and low levels of periodic bacteremia limit diagnosis by blood culture. Recent B. canis outbreaks in dogs and concomitant illnesses in caretakers suggest that unapparent human infections may be occurring. With more than a quarter of a million persons in occupations involving dogs, and nearly 80 million dog owners in the United States, this pathogen is an under-recognized human health threat. To investigate occupational exposure to B. canis, we adapted a commercial canine serological assay and present the first controlled seroepidemiological study of human B. canis infections in recent years. 306 adults with occupational exposure to dogs and 101 non-matched, non-canine-exposed subjects were enrolled. Antibodies were detected using the canine D-Tec(®) CB rapid slide agglutination test (RSAT) kit with a secondary 2-mercaptoethanol (ME)-RSAT. Results were validated on a blinded subset of sera with an additional RSAT and indirect enzyme-linked immunoassay at the National Administration of Laboratories and Health Institutes (ANLIS) in Argentina. Seroprevalence ranged from 10.8% (RSAT) to 3.6% (ME-RSAT) among canine-exposed subjects. Kennel employees were more likely to test RSAT seropositive compared with other canine exposures (OR = 2.7; 95% CI, 1.3-5.8); however, low seroprevalence limited meaningful occupational risk factor analyses. Two seropositive participants reported experiencing symptoms consistent with brucellosis and having exposure to B. canis-infected dogs; however, temporality of symptom onset with reported exposure could not be determined. D-Tec(®) CB results had substantial agreement with ANLIS assays (Cohen's kappa = 0.60-0.68). These data add to a growing body of literature suggesting that people occupationally exposed to dogs may be at risk of unapparent B. canis infection. It seems prudent to consider B. canis as an occupational public health concern and encourage the development of serological assays to detect human B. canis infections. PMID:24751191

Krueger, W S; Lucero, N E; Brower, A; Heil, G L; Gray, G C

2014-11-01

303

Occupational exposure of deck crews to carcinogenic agents on crude oil tankers.  

PubMed

Occupational exposure to carcinogenic agents on the decks on six Norwegian crude oil tankers was examined in five harbors. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the need for improving the working environment on deck on these tankers. Technical arrangements and the work itself on the deck were observed during loading or unloading. Occupational monitoring was performed by active sampling of benzene, polyaromatic hydrocarbons, and some aldehydes. The crew answered a questionnaire concerning their work, use of protective equipment, and occurrence of acute symptoms. The levels of air-borne carcinogenic agents were low, probably due to closed loading systems on all tankers. However, the seamen reported discomfort during the work that may be related to other chemical agents in the cargo. The seamen were frequently painting with lead chromate paint without using personal protective equipment. This type of chemical exposure should be evaluated. PMID:7793425

Moen, B E; Hollund, B E; Berntsen, M; Flo, R; Kyvik, K R; Riise, T

1995-04-01

304

Occupational Exposure to Magnetic Fields and Breast Cancer Among Women Textile Workers in Shanghai, China  

PubMed Central

Exposure to magnetic fields (MFs) is hypothesized to increase the risk of breast cancer by reducing production of melatonin by the pineal gland. A nested case-cohort study was conducted to investigate the association between occupational exposure to MFs and the risk of breast cancer within a cohort of 267,400 female textile workers in Shanghai, China. The study included 1,687 incident breast cancer cases diagnosed from 1989 to 2000 and 4,702 noncases selected from the cohort. Subjects’ complete work histories were linked to a job–exposure matrix developed specifically for the present study to estimate cumulative MF exposure. Hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated using Cox proportional hazards modeling that was adapted for the case-cohort design. Hazard ratios were estimated in relation to cumulative exposure during a woman's entire working years. No association was observed between cumulative exposure to MFs and overall risk of breast cancer. The hazard ratio for the highest compared with the lowest quartile of cumulative exposure was 1.03 (95% confidence interval: 0.87, 1.21). Similar null findings were observed when exposures were lagged and stratified by age at breast cancer diagnosis. The findings do not support the hypothesis that MF exposure increases the risk of breast cancer. PMID:24043439

Li, Wenjin; Ray, Roberta M.; Thomas, David B.; Yost, Michael; Davis, Scott; Breslow, Norman; Gao, Dao Li; Fitzgibbons, E. Dawn; Camp, Janice E.; Wong, Eva; Wernli, Karen J.; Checkoway, Harvey

2013-01-01

305

Characterization of allergic response induced by repeated dermal exposure of IL-4/Luc/CNS-1 transgenic mice to low dose formaldehyde  

PubMed Central

Although formaldehyde (FA) is known to be a major allergen responsible for allergic contact dermatitis, there are conflicting reports regarding correlation between FA exposure and interleukin (IL-4) expression. To investigate whether allergic responses including IL-4 expression were induced by repeated dermal exposure to low dose FA, alterations in the luciferase signal and allergic phenotypes were measured in IL-4/Luc/CNS-1 transgenic (Tg) mice containing luciferase cDNA under control of the IL-4 promoter after exposure to 4% FA for 2 weeks. High levels of luciferase were detected in the abdominal region of the whole body and submandibular lymph node (SLN) of FA treated mice. Additionally, the ear thickness and IgE concentration were significantly upregulated in the FA treated group when compared with the acetone olive oil (AOO) treated group. FA treated mice showed enhanced auricular lymph node (ALN) weight, epidermis and dermis thickness, and infiltration of inflammatory cells. Furthermore, the expression of IL-6 among T helper 2 cytokines was higher in the FA treated group than the AOO treated group, while vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) levels remained constant. Overall, the results presented herein provide additional evidence that various allergic responses may be successfully induced in IL-4/Luc/CNS-1 Tg mice after exposure to low dose FA for 2 weeks. The luciferase signal under the IL-4 promoter may reflect general indicators of the allergic response induced by exposure to low dose FA. PMID:25324870

Kwak, Moon-Hwa; Kim, Ji-Eun; Go, Jun; Koh, Eun-Kyoung; Song, Sung-Hwa; Sung, Ji-Eun; Yang, Seung-Yun; An, Beum-Soo; Jung, Young-Jin; Lee, Jae-Ho; Lim, Yong

2014-01-01

306

Occupational Noise Exposure among Toll Tellers at Toll Plaza in Malaysia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Toll tellers working at toll plaza have potential of exposure to high noise from the vehicles especially for the peak level of sound emitted by the heavy vehicles. However, occupational exposures in this workplace have not been adequately characterized and identified. Occupational noise exposure among toll tellers at toll plaza was assessed using Sound Level Meter, Noise Dosimeter and through questionnaire survey. These data were combined to estimate the work shift exposure level and health impacts to the toll tellers by using statistical analysis. Noise Dosimeter microphone was located at the hearing zone of the toll teller which working inside the toll booth and full-period measurements were collected for each work shift. The measurements were taken at 20 toll booths from 6.00 am to 2.00 pm for 5 days. 71 respondents participated in the survey to identify the symptoms of noise induced hearing loss and other health related problems among toll tellers. Results of this study indicated that occupational noise exposure among toll tellers for Mean Continuous Equivalent Level, Leq was 79.2±1.4 dB(A), Mean Maximum Level, Lmax was 107.8±3.6 dB(A) and Mean Peak Level, Lpeak was 136.6±9.9 dB. The Peak Level reported statistically significantly at 140 dB, the level of TLV recommended by ACGIH. The research findings indicated that the primary risk exposure to toll tellers comes from noise that emitted from heavy vehicles. Most of the toll tellers show symptoms of noise induced hearing loss and annoyed by the sources of noise at the toll plaza.

Azmi, Sharifah Nadya Syed; Dawal, Siti Zawiah Md; Ya, Tuan Mohammad Yusoff Shah Tuan; Saidin, Hamidi

2010-10-01

307

Longitudinal study examining the neurotoxicity of occupational exposure to aluminium-containing welding fumes  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesThe neurotoxicity of occupational exposure to aluminium (Al)-containing welding fumes has been discussed with controversial results. The aim of the longitudinal study was to examine a group of Al welders for significant central nervous changes in comparison with a non-exposed cohort.MethodsA group of 98 Al welders (mean age 37 years) in the car-body construction industry, with a median of 6

M. Buchta; E. Kiesswetter; A. Otto; K. H. Schaller; A. Seeber; W. Hilla; K. Windorfer; J. Stork; A. Kuhlmann; O. Gefeller; S. Letzel

2003-01-01

308

Occupational exposure due to naturally occurring radionuclide material in granite quarry industry.  

PubMed

The potential occupational exposure in granite quarry industry due to the presence of naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) has been investigated. The activity concentrations of (40)K, (226)Ra and (232)Th were determined using gamma-ray spectroscopy method. The annual effective dose of workers through different exposure pathways was determined by model calculations. The total annual effective dose varied from 21.48 to 33.69 ?Sv y(-1). Inhalation dose contributes the highest to the total effective dose. The results obtained were much lower than the intervention exemption levels (1.0 mSv y(-1)) given in the International Commission on Radiological Protection Publication 82. PMID:21447506

Ademola, J A

2012-02-01

309

Occupational Exposure to Mineral Turpentine and Heavy Fuels: A Possible Risk Factor for Alzheimer's Disease  

PubMed Central

Background The association between solvents and Alzheimer's disease (AD) has been the subject of several studies. Yet, only few studies have examined the various solvents separately, and the controls have rarely been monitored long enough. For these reasons and others, we believe that further studies are required. Objectives The objective of this study was to identify solvents associated with the clinicoradiological diagnostic of AD or mixed-type dementia (MD). Methods A retrospective case-control study was performed in 156 patients followed up at the Memory Diagnostic Center of Bertinot Juel Hospital (France). The inclusion criteria were known occupation(s), a Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score ?10 at the first visit, a neuropsychological evaluation performed and a diagnosis established in our Memory Diagnostic Center. The diagnostics were crossed with 9 solvents belonging to two classes of solvents. Exposure was evaluated using French national job-exposure matrices. Results Certain petroleum-based solvents and fuels (i.e. mineral turpentine, diesel fuel, fuel oil and kerosene) were associated with a diagnosis of AD or MD. This association was still significant after adjustment for age, sex and education (adjusted OR: 6.5; 95% CI: 2-20). Conclusion Occupational exposure to mineral turpentine and heavy fuels may be a risk factor for AD and MD. PMID:25028582

Helou, Rafik; Jaecker, Pierre

2014-01-01

310

Validation of a self-administered questionnaire for assessing occupational and environmental exposures of pregnant women  

SciTech Connect

The present investigation sought to determine whether a self-administered questionnaire could be used to obtain occupational information from pregnant women attending the obstetrical clinics at the University of California, San Francisco from July to November 1986. The authors compared the accuracy of responses of 57 women on the self-administered questionnaire with those obtained on a detailed clinical interview by an occupational health professional. The self-administered questionnaire and the clinical interview included information on the woman's job title, the type of company she worked for, the level of physical activity, her exposures on the job and at home, and her partner's occupation. The authors also examined whether the validity of the self-administered questionnaire could be improved on review by an industrial hygienist. The questionnaire took less than 20 minutes to complete, with over 90% of the women answering three-quarters of it. It was substantially accurate in obtaining information on number of hours worked during pregnancy, type of shift worked, and stress level in the workplace; exposure to radiation, video display terminals, fumes, gases, and cigarette smoke in the workplace; and exposure to pesticides, paint, and cigarette smoke at home. On those variables for which the responses on the self-administered questionnaire were less accurate, review by the industrial hygienist improved the level of accuracy considerably. These findings suggest that a self-administered questionnaire can be used to obtain valid information from pregnant women attending a prenatal clinic.

Eskenazi, B.; Pearson, K.

1988-11-01

311

The Occupational Exposure Limit for Fluid Aerosol Generated in Metalworking Operations: Limitations and Recommendations  

PubMed Central

The aim of this review was to assess current knowledge related to the occupational exposure limit (OEL) for fluid aerosols including either mineral or chemical oil that are generated in metalworking operations, and to discuss whether their OEL can be appropriately used to prevent several health risks that may vary among metalworking fluid (MWF) types. The OEL (time-weighted average; 5 mg/m3, short-term exposure limit ; 15 mg/m3) has been applied to MWF aerosols without consideration of different fluid aerosol-size fractions. The OEL, is also based on the assumption that there are no significant differences in risk among fluid types, which may be contentious. Particularly, the health risks from exposure to water-soluble fluids may not have been sufficiently considered. Although adoption of The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health's recommended exposure limit for MWF aerosol (0.5 mg/m3) would be an effective step towards minimizing and evaluating the upper respiratory irritation that may be caused by neat or diluted MWF, this would fail to address the hazards (e.g., asthma and hypersensitivity pneumonitis) caused by microbial contaminants generated only by the use of water-soluble fluids. The absence of an OEL for the water-soluble fluids used in approximately 80-90 % of all applicants may result in limitations of the protection from health risks caused by exposure to those fluids. PMID:22953224

2012-01-01

312

Modeled occupational exposures to gas-phase medical laser-generated air contaminants.  

PubMed

Exposure monitoring data indicate the potential for substantive exposure to laser-generated air contaminants (LGAC); however the diversity of medical lasers and their applications limit generalization from direct workplace monitoring. Emission rates of seven previously reported gas-phase constituents of medical laser-generated air contaminants (LGAC) were determined experimentally and used in a semi-empirical two-zone model to estimate a range of plausible occupational exposures to health care staff. Single-source emission rates were generated in an emission chamber as a one-compartment mass balance model at steady-state. Clinical facility parameters such as room size and ventilation rate were based on standard ventilation and environmental conditions required for a laser surgical facility in compliance with regulatory agencies. All input variables in the model including point source emission rates were varied over an appropriate distribution in a Monte Carlo simulation to generate a range of time-weighted average (TWA) concentrations in the near and far field zones of the room in a conservative approach inclusive of all contributing factors to inform future predictive models. The concentrations were assessed for risk and the highest values were shown to be at least three orders of magnitude lower than the relevant occupational exposure limits (OELs). Estimated values do not appear to present a significant exposure hazard within the conditions of our emission rate estimates. PMID:24762065

Lippert, Julia F; Lacey, Steven E; Jones, Rachael M

2014-11-01

313

The three most common occupational exposures reported by pregnant women: A update  

SciTech Connect

Many uncertainties exist in regard to counseling women with occupational exposures during pregnancy. This is due to limited knowledge of the reproductive toxicologic effects of industrial agents, lack of safety standards aimed at protecting the fetus, and limitations in assessing the extent of exposure. The approach to this subject taken by the Motherisk Program and a review of the three most common occupational exposures are presented. Epidemiologic studies and measurements of radiation do not suggest a reproductive hazard for video display terminals. Exposure to organic solvents is hard to quantitate, and information is sparse and sometimes contradictory, and therapeutic decisions are difficult to reach. To date there is no convincing evidence that working with organic solvents within safety regulations would harm a fetus, in contradistinction to detrimental fetal effects of solvent abuse. The reproductive risks of lead are well documented, fetal exposure can be assessed, and effective treatment exists, but its effects on the pregnancy have not been fully established. However, new evidence suggests that maternal levels that are much lower than the accepted adult limits may be damaging to the fetus. 107 references.

Bentur, Y.; Koren, G. (Motherisk Program, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario (Canada))

1991-08-01

314

Occupational exposure and addictions for physicians: case studies and theoretical implications.  

PubMed

Risk of addiction through occupational exposure to drugs of abuse is an important but relatively neglected public health problem. Stress and access may have much less of a role in addiction among certain populations than originally was thought. Risk of addition may be increased dramatically by unintentional exposure in the workplace to potent substances that sensitize the brain. Everyone knows that second-hand inhalation of crack vapors is a very dangerous proposition, but rarely has alarm been raised about exposing anesthesiologists to second-hand fentanyl. Additional studies of the relationship between exposure in the workplace and addiction are necessary. These studies should include biological measures, such as blood levels in exposed workers, and sensitive assays that quantitatively assess levels of exposure in the workplace. PMID:15550291

Gold, Mark S; Byars, Joanne A; Frost-Pineda, Kimberly

2004-12-01

315

Erythrocyte acetylcholinesterase activity as a surrogate indicator of lead-induced neurotoxicity in occupational lead exposure in Abeokuta, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dose–effect and dose–response relationships in occupational neurotoxicology are rarely studied by means of biochemical methods. In order to investigate the potential neurotoxic effects of lead during occupational exposure to this metal, the activity of erythrocyte acetylcholinesterase (AcChE), as well as blood pressure and pulse, were determined in various artisans in Abeokuta, Nigeria, who have been shown to be occupationally exposed

O. Ademuyiwa; R. N. Ugbaja; S. O. Rotimi; E. Abam; B. S. Okediran; O. A. Dosumu; B. O. Onunkwor

2007-01-01

316

Evaluating occupational 60-hertz electric-field exposures for guideline compliance.  

PubMed

This article examines determination of compliance of 60-Hz electric-field exposures with occupational guideline limits. The guidelines are expressed as a limit on the unperturbed electric field without allowance for the severity of potential spark discharges. A line worker on a 500-kV transmission-line tower provided a practical example of an occupational exposure. In this realistic case, the worker's posture, the uniformity of the field, and the field orientation differed from the guideline exposure scenario of standing erect in a vertical uniform field. An accurate estimate of the unperturbed nonuniform fields in the climbing space of a lattice steel structure was computed using Monte Carlo methods that modeled surface and spatial electric fields on and near standard geometrical elements. Fields were computed at 20 points in a three-dimensional array, simulating the location of the human body on the tower. We estimated the average unperturbed electric field, space potential, induced short-circuit current, induced open-circuit voltage, and the stored charge and energy available for a discharge over a range of capacitances to ground. The on-tower exposure parameters were compared with those from the idealistic guideline exposure scenario. The average electric field of 24.4 kV/m for the on-tower exposure exceeded the limit of 20 kV/m stated in the recently adopted IEEE Standard C95.6 2002. However, the charge available for a spark discharge during the on-tower exposure was less than that for the guideline exposure scenario. Thus, for an exposure limit based on a constant-charge criterion for adverse reaction to spark discharges, guideline on-tower exposure would be below the limit established for the guideline exposure scenario. Evaluation of electric-field exposures in terms of the charge associated with spark discharges provides a means of comparing any electric-field exposure scenario with the ideal guideline scenario in terms of an effects-related physical quantity. This approach is consistent with the exposure limit/basic restriction methodology that employs a basic restriction on a physical quantity as the ultimate determinant of compliance. PMID:15631058

Bracken, T Dan; Senior, Russell; Tuominen, Monty

2004-10-01

317

Differences in exposure to occupational health risks in Spanish and foreign-born workers in Spain (ITSAL Project).  

PubMed

Migrant workers usually show higher rates of work-related health problems than natives. However, little information is available about their exposure to occupational risks. We describe self-reported working exposure in Spanish and foreign-born workers. A cross-sectional survey was conducted as part of the ITSAL Project. Data on sociodemographic and self-reported occupational exposure in 1,841 foreign-born and 509 Spanish workers were collected through face-to-face interviews. Prevalence and adjusted odds ratios-aOR- (by age, education, type of contract) were calculated. Foreign-born men in non-services sectors and those in manual occupations perceived exposure to occupational risks with lower prevalence than Spanish workers. Foreign-born women reported higher prevalence of exposure than Spanish female workers. By occupation, foreign-born female workers were more likely than Spanish workers to report working many hours/day (aOR2.68; 95 % CI 1.06-6.78) and exposure to extreme temperatures (aOR2.19; 95 % CI 1.10-4.38). Some groups of migrant workers may need increased protection regarding some occupational exposures. PMID:22739799

Ronda, Elena; Agudelo-Suárez, Andrés A; García, Ana M; López-Jacob, Maria José; Ruiz-Frutos, Carlos; Benavides, Fernando G

2013-02-01

318

The Relationship between the Occupational Exposure of Trichloroethylene and Kidney Cancer  

PubMed Central

Trichloroethylene (TCE) has been widely used as a degreasing agent in many manufacturing industries. Recently, the International Agency for Research on Cancer presented “sufficient evidence” for the causal relationship between TCE and kidney cancer. The aim of this study was to review the epidemiologic evidences regarding the relationship between TCE exposure and kidney cancer in Korean work environments. The results from the cohort studies were inconsistent, but according to the meta-analysis and case–control studies, an increased risk for kidney cancer was present in the exposure group and the dose–response relationship could be identified using various measures of exposure. In Korea, TCE is a commonly used chemical for cleaning or degreasing processes by various manufacturers; average exposure levels of TCE vary widely. When occupational physicians evaluate work-relatedness kidney cancers, they must consider past exposure levels, which could be very high (>100 ppm in some cases) and associated with jobs, such as plating, cleaning, or degreasing. The exposure levels at a manual job could be higher than an automated job. The peak level of TCE could also be considered an important exposure-related variable due to the possibility of carcinogenesis associated with high TCE doses. This review could be a comprehensive reference for assessing work-related TCE exposure and kidney cancer in Korea. PMID:24955246

2014-01-01

319

Occupational exposure to neurotoxic substances in Asian countries - Challenges and approaches  

PubMed Central

The fact that a conference on neurotoxicity was held in China triggered the idea to provide an insight into occupational diseases, their development and the approaches to investigate them in Asian countries. A historical review, a meta-analysis, and studies on humans and animals provide impressions on past and current problems. The Korean example showed that each newly introduced industry is accompanied by its own problems as regards occupational diseases. Mercury and carbon disulfide were of importance in the beginning, whereas solvents and manganese became important later. Outbreaks of diseases were important reasons to guide both the public and the governmental attention to prevention and allowed within a relatively short time considerable progress. As the example on the replacement of 2-bromopropane by 1-bromopropane showed, also the introduction of chemicals that are more beneficial for the environment may result in additional occupational risks. A lower mutagenicity of 1-bromopopane was shown to be associated with a greater neurotoxicity in Japanese studies. Although occupational health and diseases are commonly related to adults, child workers exposed to solvents were examined in a Lebanese study. The study started outlining the health hazards in young workers because they might be at a much greater risk due to the not yet completed maturation of their nervous system. That some occupational diseases are not yet a focus of prevention was shown by the study on pesticides. If at all, the serious health consequences resulting from excessive exposure were investigated. Research enabling precautionary actions was not available from the international literature. Despite globalization the knowledge on occupational diseases is not yet “globalized” and each country obviously undergoes its own development triggered by local experiences. Economic development that requires a healthy workforce, but also public interest that challenges governmental regulations further efforts on the prevention of occupational diseases. The paper reflects a summary of the talks presented at the symposium “Occupational Neurotoxicities in Asian Countries” as part of the 11th International Symposium on Neurobehavioral Methods and Effects in Occupational and Environmental Health. PMID:22202747

Meyer-Baron, Monika; Kim, Eun A; Nuwayhid, Iman; Ichihara, Gaku; Kang, Seong-Kyu

2012-01-01

320

Evaluating health risks from occupational exposure to pesticides and the regulatory response.  

PubMed Central

In this study, we used measurements of occupational exposures to pesticides in agriculture to evaluate health risks and analyzed how the federal regulatory program is addressing these risks. Dose estimates developed by the State of California from measured occupational exposures to 41 pesticides were compared to standard indices of acute toxicity (LD50) and chronic effects (reference dose). Lifetime cancer risks were estimated using cancer potencies. Estimated absorbed daily doses for mixers, loaders, and applicators of pesticides ranged from less than 0.0001% to 48% of the estimated human LD50 values, and doses for 10 of 40 pesticides exceeded 1% of the estimated human LD50 values. Estimated lifetime absorbed daily doses ranged from 0.1% to 114,000% of the reference doses developed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and doses for 13 of 25 pesticides were above them. Lifetime cancer risks ranged from 1 per million to 1700 per million, and estimates for 12 of 13 pesticides were above 1 per million. Similar results were obtained for field workers and flaggers. For the pesticides examined, exposures pose greater risks of chronic effects than acute effects. Exposure reduction measures, including use of closed mixing systems and personal protective equipment, significantly reduced exposures. Proposed regulations rely primarily on requirements for personal protective equipment and use restrictions to protect workers. Chronic health risks are not considered in setting these requirements. Reviews of pesticides by the federal pesticide regulatory program have had little effect on occupational risks. Policy strategies that offer immediate protection for workers and that are not dependent on extensive review of individual pesticides should be pursued. Images Figure 1. PMID:7713022

Woodruff, T J; Kyle, A D; Bois, F Y

1994-01-01

321

Fungi, ?-Glucan, and Bacteria in Nasal Lavage of Greenhouse Workers and Their Relation to Occupational Exposure  

PubMed Central

The nose and mouth are the first regions of the respiratory tract in contact with airborne microorganisms. Occupational exposures to airborne microorganisms are associated with inflammation and different symptoms of the airways. The purpose of this study is to investigate the relation between occupational exposure to fungi, ?-glucan, and bacteria and contents of fungi, ?-glucan, and bacteria in nasal lavage (NAL) of greenhouse workers. We also studied whether contents of microorganisms in NAL were related to gender, time of the work week, and runny nose. NAL samples (n = 135) were taken Monday morning and Thursday at noon and personal exposure to inhalable bioaerosols was measured during a working day. The content of fungi and ?-glucan in NAL of men was affected by their exposure to fungi and ?-glucan. The content of fungi, ?-glucan, and bacteria in NAL was higher Thursday at noon than Monday morning. The ratios of fungi in NAL between Thursday at noon and Monday morning were 14 (median value) for men and 3.5 for women. Gender had no effect on the exposure level but had a significant effect on the content of fungi, ?-glucan, and bacteria in NAL, with the highest contents in NAL of men. On Thursdays, the median content of fungi in NAL samples of men without runny noses was 9408 cfu per NAL sample, whereas the same content for women was 595 cfu per NAL sample. Workers with runny noses had fewer fungi in NAL than workers without runny noses. A higher content of ?-glucan per fungal spore was found in NAL than in the air. This indicates that mainly the larger fungal spores or pollen grains deposit in the nose. The difference between genders and the fact that the content of fungi in NAL was significantly affected by the exposure indicate that the two genders are affected by the same exposure level differently. PMID:23749501

Madsen, Anne Mette

2013-01-01

322

Transient receptor potential genes, smoking, occupational exposures and cough in adults  

PubMed Central

Background Transient receptor potential (TRP) vanilloid and ankyrin cation channels are activated by various noxious chemicals and may play an important role in the pathogenesis of cough. The aim was to study the influence of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in TRP genes and irritant exposures on cough. Methods Nocturnal, usual, and chronic cough, smoking, and job history were obtained by questionnaire in 844 asthmatic and 2046 non-asthmatic adults from the Epidemiological study on the Genetics and Environment of Asthma (EGEA) and the European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS). Occupational exposures to vapors, gases, dusts, and/or fumes were assessed by a job-exposure matrix. Fifty-eight tagging SNPs in TRPV1, TRPV4, and TRPA1 were tested under an additive model. Results Statistically significant associations of 6 TRPV1 SNPs with cough symptoms were found in non-asthmatics after correction for multiple comparisons. Results were consistent across the eight countries examined. Haplotype-based association analysis confirmed the single SNP analyses for nocturnal cough (7-SNP haplotype: p-global = 4.8 × 10-6) and usual cough (9-SNP haplotype: p-global = 4.5 × 10-6). Cough symptoms were associated with exposure to irritants such as cigarette smoke and occupational exposures (p < 0.05). Four polymorphisms in TRPV1 further increased the risk of cough symptoms from irritant exposures in asthmatics and non-asthmatics (interaction p < 0.05). Conclusions TRPV1 SNPs were associated with cough among subjects without asthma from two independent studies in eight European countries. TRPV1 SNPs may enhance susceptibility to cough in current smokers and in subjects with a history of workplace exposures. PMID:22443337

2012-01-01

323

The Dose Response Relationship between In Ear Occupational Noise Exposure and Hearing Loss  

PubMed Central

Objectives Current understanding of the dose-response relationship between occupational noise and hearing loss is based on cross-sectional studies prior to the widespread use hearing protection and with limited data regarding noise exposures below 85dBA. We report on the hearing loss experience of a unique cohort of industrial workers with daily monitoring of noise inside of hearing protection devices. Methods At an industrial facility, workers exhibiting accelerated hearing loss were enrolled in a mandatory program to monitor daily noise exposures inside of hearing protection. We compared these noise measurements (as time-weighted LAVG) to interval rates of high frequency hearing loss over a six year period using a mixed effects model, adjusting for potential confounders. Results Workers’ high frequency hearing levels at study inception averaged more than 40 dB hearing threshold level (HTL). Most noise exposures were less than 85dBA (mean LAVG 76 dBA, interquartile range 74 to 80 dBA). We found no statistical relationship between LAvg and high frequency hearing loss (p = 0.53). Using a metric for monthly maximum noise exposure did not improve model fit. Conclusion At-ear noise exposures below 85dBA did not show an association with risk of high frequency hearing loss among workers with substantial past noise exposure and hearing loss at baseline. Therefore, effective noise control to below 85dBA may lead to significant reduction in occupational hearing loss risk in such individuals. Further research is needed on the dose response relationship of noise and hearing loss in individuals with normal hearing and little prior noise exposure. PMID:23825197

Rabinowitz, Peter M.; Galusha, Deron; Dixon-Ernst, Christine; Clougherty, Jane E.; Neitzel, Richard L.

2014-01-01

324

Unusual formaldehyde-induced hypersensitivity in two schoolgirls  

SciTech Connect

Two schoolgirls developed a syndrome resembling Henoch-Schonlein purpura while attending a recently opened school insulated with urea-formaldehyde foam (UFFI). Skin rashes and swellings were accompanied by bizarre, blue-green discoloration of the skin. Subsequent investigations by county, state and federal authorities, and low measured concentrations of formaldehyde, prompted initial conclusions that in-school formaldehyde exposures were not responsible for the girls' problems. Subsequent controlled exposures to UFFI and formaldehyde while in hospital elicited the whole cascade of symptoms. The chronology of the onset and amplification of systems make it probable that the formaldehyde exposures precipitating the girls' hypersensitivity, occurred in the school. 3 refs.

Gammage, R.B. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Hanna, W.T.; Painter, P.B. (Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (USA))

1990-01-01

325

BIOMarkers for occupational diesel exhaust exposure monitoring (BIOMODEM)--a study in underground mining.  

PubMed

Methods for the assessment of exposures to diesel exhaust were evaluated, including various biomarkers of internal exposure and early biological effects. The impact of possible biomarkers of susceptibility was also explored. Underground workers (drivers of diesel-powered excavators) at an oil shale mine in Estonia were compared with surface workers. Personal exposures to particle-associated 1-nitropyrene (NP) were some eight times higher underground than on the surface. Underground miners were also occupationally exposed to benzene and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, as indicated by excretion of urinary metabolites of benzene and pyrene. In addition, increased O(6)-alkylguanine DNA adducts were detected in the white blood cells of underground workers, suggesting higher exposure to nitroso-compounds. However, no differences between underground and surface workers were observed in the levels of other bulky DNA adducts determined by 32P-postlabelling, or in DNA damage. The study indicated that smoking, diet and residential indoor air pollution are important non-occupational factors to consider when interpreting biomonitoring results. PMID:12191893

Scheepers, P T J; Coggon, D; Knudsen, L E; Anzion, R; Autrup, H; Bogovski, S; Bos, R P; Dahmann, D; Farmer, P; Martin, E A; Micka, V; Muzyka, V; Neumann, H G; Poole, J; Schmidt-Ott, A; Seiler, F; Volf, J; Zwirner-Baier, I

2002-08-01

326

The effect of occupational lead exposure on lipid peroxidation, protein carbonylation, and plasma viscosity.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of occupational lead (Pb) exposure on lipid peroxidation, protein carbonylation, and plasma viscosity in workers. The examined group included 283 healthy male employees of manufacturing facilities using zinc and Pb. The mean blood concentrations of Pb and zinc protoporphyrin as well as the mean urine ?-aminolevulinic acid levels were used as markers of exposure for the examined group. Taking into account the obtained mean values of blood lead level, the examined group was divided into three subgroups. When comparing the control group with the subgroups, Pb exposure markers were significantly elevated in all the three subgroups. Concentrations of conjugated dienes (CD), lipid hydroperoxides, malondialdehyde (MDA), and protein carbonyl groups were also significantly increased. Conversely, the levels of total protein and protein sulfhydryls were significantly decreased in the subgroups compared with the controls. The plasma viscosity was significantly elevated in the subgroups. A dose-response between Pb levels and plasma viscosity was not observed. Pb supposedly elevates MDA and CD in a dose-dependent manner. In conclusion, occupational Pb exposure induces oxidative stress that results in lipid and protein damage. Moreover, Pb-induced oxidative stress is likely the primary factor that elevates plasma viscosity, despite decreased protein levels. PMID:23709227

Kasperczyk, Slawomir; Slowinska-Lozynska, Ludmila; Kasperczyk, Aleksandra; Wielkoszynski, Tomasz; Birkner, Ewa

2013-05-24

327

Clinical and pathological characteristics of hepatotoxicity associated with occupational exposure to dimethylformamide  

SciTech Connect

The clinical characteristics, laboratory results, and liver biopsy findings of seven workers with toxic liver injury associated with exposure to several solvents, including substantial levels of the widely used solvent dimethylformamide, are presented. Three patients had short exposure (less than 3 months), four long exposure (greater than 1 year). Among those with brief exposure, symptoms included anorexia, abdominal pain, and disulfiram-type reaction. Aminotransferases were markedly elevated with the ratio of alanine aminotransferase to aspartate aminotransferase always greater than 1. Liver biopsy showed focal hepatocellular necrosis and microvesicular steatosis with prominence of smooth endoplasmic reticulum, complex lysosomes, and pleomorphic mitochondria with crystalline inclusions. Among workers with long exposure, symptoms were minimal and enzyme elevations modest. Biopsies showed macrovesicular steatosis, pleomorphic mitochondria without crystalloids, and prominent smooth endoplasmic reticulum, but no evidence of persisting acute injury or fibrosis. Abnormal aminotransferases in both groups may persist for months after removal from exposure, but progression to cirrhosis in continually exposed workers was not observed. We conclude that exposure of these workers to solvents, chiefly dimethylformamide, may result in two variants of toxic liver injury with subtle clinical, laboratory, and morphological features. This may be readily overlooked if occupational history and biopsy histology are not carefully evaluated.

Redlich, C.A.; West, A.B.; Fleming, L.; True, L.D.; Cullen, M.R.; Riely, C.A. (Yale Univ. School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (USA))

1990-09-01

328

Occupational exposures and colorectal cancers: a quantitative overview of epidemiological evidence.  

PubMed

A traditional belief widespread across the biomedical community was that dietary habits and genetic predisposition were the basic factors causing colorectal cancer. In more recent times, however, a growing evidence has shown that other determinants can be very important in increasing (or reducing) incidence of this malignancy. The hypothesis that environmental and occupational risk factors are associated with colorectal cancer is gaining ground, and high risks of colorectal cancer have been reported among workers in some industrial branches. The aim of this study was to investigate the epidemiologic relationship between colorectal cancer and occupational exposures to several industrial activities, by means of a scientific literature review and meta-analysis. This work pointed out increased risks of colorectal cancer for labourers occupied in industries with a wide use of chemical compounds, such as leather (RR = 1.70, 95%CI: 1.24-2.34), basic metals (RR = 1.32, 95%CI: 1.07-1.65), plastic and rubber manufacturing (RR = 1.30, 95%CI: 0.98-1.71 and RR = 1.27, 95%CI: 0.92-1.76, respectively), besides workers in the sector of repair and installation of machinery exposed to asbestos (RR = 1.40, 95%CI: 1.07-1.84). Based on our results, the estimated crude excess risk fraction attributable to occupational exposure ranged from about 11% to about 15%. However, homogeneous pattern of association between colorectal cancer and industrial branches did not emerge from this review. PMID:25253943

Oddone, Enrico; Modonesi, Carlo; Gatta, Gemma

2014-09-21

329

Occupational exposures and colorectal cancers: A quantitative overview of epidemiological evidence  

PubMed Central

A traditional belief widespread across the biomedical community was that dietary habits and genetic predisposition were the basic factors causing colorectal cancer. In more recent times, however, a growing evidence has shown that other determinants can be very important in increasing (or reducing) incidence of this malignancy. The hypothesis that environmental and occupational risk factors are associated with colorectal cancer is gaining ground, and high risks of colorectal cancer have been reported among workers in some industrial branches. The aim of this study was to investigate the epidemiologic relationship between colorectal cancer and occupational exposures to several industrial activities, by means of a scientific literature review and meta-analysis. This work pointed out increased risks of colorectal cancer for labourers occupied in industries with a wide use of chemical compounds, such as leather (RR = 1.70, 95%CI: 1.24-2.34), basic metals (RR = 1.32, 95%CI: 1.07-1.65), plastic and rubber manufacturing (RR = 1.30, 95%CI: 0.98-1.71 and RR = 1.27, 95%CI: 0.92-1.76, respectively), besides workers in the sector of repair and installation of machinery exposed to asbestos (RR = 1.40, 95%CI: 1.07-1.84). Based on our results, the estimated crude excess risk fraction attributable to occupational exposure ranged from about 11% to about 15%. However, homogeneous pattern of association between colorectal cancer and industrial branches did not emerge from this review. PMID:25253943

Oddone, Enrico; Modonesi, Carlo; Gatta, Gemma

2014-01-01

330

Heat acclimation decreased oxidative DNA damage resulting from exposure to high heat in an occupational setting.  

PubMed

Heat acclimation is a physiologically and biochemically adapted process when species transition from one environmental temperature to one of the increased temperature. There is very limited epidemiological evidence on the heat-related impacts during exposure to extremely high heat in an occupational environment. This study sought to identify a potential biomarker of heat acclimation and the burden of heat on the body. The aim of this study was to elucidate oxidative DNA damage and heat acclimation through a self-comparison study design in navy boiler tenders, subjects exposed to extremely high heat in an occupational setting. Fifty-eight male soldiers who work in a boiler room were recruited for this study. The subjects were initially assessed with a health examination and body composition assessment before sailing. In order to compare the within-subject differences before and after heat exposure, the index-related heat exposure was collected before and after a routine 5-h work shift and 7-day sailing. Urinary 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), a useful marker of oxidative DNA damage was the measurement by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. The median of the change in urinary 8-OHdG was 0.78 ?g/g creatinine, as the urinary 8-OHdG after sailing was significantly higher than before sailing (p < 0.01). The urinary 8-OHdG was significantly decreased in heat-acclimated boiler tenders. Oxidative DNA damage was significantly decreased in heat-acclimated subjects. Urinary 8-OHdG can be used as a biomarker to assess the effect of heat stress as a result of occupational exposure to extremely high heat conditions. PMID:22526251

Huang, Yung-Kai; Lin, Che-Wei; Chang, Chen-Chen; Chen, Pai-Fen; Wang, Chien-Jen; Hsueh, Yu-Mei; Chiang, Hung-Che

2012-12-01

331

Diet, occupational exposure and early asthma incidence among bakers, pastry makers and hairdressers  

PubMed Central

Background The natural history of occupational asthma (OA) is influenced by many determinants. This study aims to assess the combined roles of personal characteristics, including occupational exposure and nutritional habits, on the incidence of OA during the first years at work. Methods A nested case–control study was conducted within a retrospective cohort of young workers in the bakery, pastry-making and hairdressing sectors. Cases were subjects diagnosed as ‘confirmed’ or ‘probable’ OA consecutively to a medical visit (N?=?31). Controls were subjects without OA (N?=?196). Atopy was defined after blood specific IgE analysis, based on the PhadiatopTM test. Occupational exposure was characterized by standardized questionnaires and diet patterns by a food frequency questionnaire. Results Among bakers and pastry-makers, only atopy is an independent risk factor of OA (OR?=?10.07 95%CI [2.76 – 36.65]). Among hairdressers, several variables are associated with OA. Body mass index (unit OR?=?1.24 [1.03 – 1.48]) and the score of exposure intensity (unit OR?=?1.79 [1.05 – 3.05]) are independent predictors of OA, but the role of atopy is weak (OR?=?4.94 [0.66 – 36.75]). Intake of vitamin A is higher among hairdressers cases (crude p?=?0.002, adjusted p?=?0.01 after control for body mass index and atopy); the same observation is made for vitamin D (crude p?=?0.004, adjusted p?=?0.01). Conclusion This study suggests that the influence of several factors on the incidence of OA, including dietary vitamins, might vary across exposure settings. PMID:22642690

2012-01-01

332

Comprehensive evaluation of long-term trends in occupational exposure: Part 2. Predictive models for declining exposures  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: To explore the effects of various factors related to the industry, the contaminant, and the period and type of sampling on long term declining trends in occupational exposure. METHODS: Linear regression analyses were used to assess the relation between reductions in exposure and geographical location, industrial sector, type of contaminant, type of monitoring, carcinogenic classification, calendar period, duration of sampling, and number of reductions in the threshold limit value during the sampling period. Both univariable and multivariable models were applied. RESULTS: Based on univariable analyses, the findings suggest that exposures declined more rapidly in manufacturing than in mining, more rapidly for aerosol contaminants than for vapours, and more rapidly when biological, rather than airborne, monitoring was conducted. Exposures collected more recently (first year of sampling in 1972 or later) fell more rapidly than exposures first evaluated during earlier periods. Irrespective of when the data were collected, the results also suggest that the longer the duration of sampling the slower the rate of decline. Taken together, we found that characteristics related to the contaminant, the industry, the sampling period, and the type of sampling explained a substantial proportion of the variability for exposures evaluated before 1972 (R2 = 0.78) and for sites evaluated both before and after 1972 (R2 = 0.91), but explained essentially no variation for data gathered exclusively after 1972 (R2 = 0.04). CONCLUSIONS: By identifying factors that have affected the rates of reduction in a consistent fashion, the results should guide investigators in estimating historical levels when studies assessing exposure-response relations are carried out.   PMID:9764108

Symanski, E.; Kupper, L. L.; Hertz-Picciotto, I.; Rappaport, S. M.

1998-01-01

333

Low-Dose Formaldehyde Delays DNA Damage Recognition and DNA Excision Repair in Human Cells  

PubMed Central

Objective Formaldehyde is still widely employed as a universal crosslinking agent, preservative and disinfectant, despite its proven carcinogenicity in occupationally exposed workers. Therefore, it is of paramount importance to understand the possible impact of low-dose formaldehyde exposures in the general population. Due to the concomitant occurrence of multiple indoor and outdoor toxicants, we tested how formaldehyde, at micromolar concentrations, interferes with general DNA damage recognition and excision processes that remove some of the most frequently inflicted DNA lesions. Methodology/Principal Findings The overall mobility of the DNA damage sensors UV-DDB (ultraviolet-damaged DNA-binding) and XPC (xeroderma pigmentosum group C) was analyzed by assessing real-time protein dynamics in the nucleus of cultured human cells exposed to non-cytotoxic (<100 ?M) formaldehyde concentrations. The DNA lesion-specific recruitment of these damage sensors was tested by monitoring their accumulation at local irradiation spots. DNA repair activity was determined in host-cell reactivation assays and, more directly, by measuring the excision of DNA lesions from chromosomes. Taken together, these assays demonstrated that formaldehyde obstructs the rapid nuclear trafficking of DNA damage sensors and, consequently, slows down their relocation to DNA damage sites thus delaying the excision repair of target lesions. A concentration-dependent effect relationship established a threshold concentration of as low as 25 micromolar for the inhibition of DNA excision repair. Conclusions/Significance A main implication of the retarded repair activity is that low-dose formaldehyde may exert an adjuvant role in carcinogenesis by impeding the excision of multiple mutagenic base lesions. In view of this generally disruptive effect on DNA repair, we propose that formaldehyde exposures in the general population should be further decreased to help reducing cancer risks. PMID:24722772

Luch, Andreas; Frey, Flurina C. Clement; Meier, Regula; Fei, Jia; Naegeli, Hanspeter

2014-01-01

334

Review and update of leukemia risk potentially associated with occupational exposure to benzene.  

PubMed Central

Since the 1980 U.S. Supreme Court decision on the Occupational Safety and Health Administration's (OSHA) proposal to lower the occupational benzene standard from 10 ppm to 1 ppm, numerous quantitative assessments of the leukemia risk of benzene exposure have been prepared. The primary difference between these risk assessments has been in the way in which benzene exposure has been estimated and in the models applied to describe the dose-response relationship. The more recent assessments, in attempting to estimate benzene exposures on an individual basis, and in applying models which make maximal use of the available data points, represent a substantial improvement over earlier assessments. In this paper, we will review the available risk assessments and the data upon which they are based and will present our own assessment, which builds on prior efforts. Our reevaluation of the underlying data on the cohort that we judged to be most suitable for quantitative risk analysis suggested that past assessments may have overestimated risk by a factor of 3 to 24. In addition, we will present some recently made available data of relevance to the benzene exposure histories of cohort of concern. These data provide additional suggestion that the total benzene exposure of certain members of this cohort has likely been seriously underestimated, the extent to which remains to be determined. Further analysis of these data and pursuit of additional sources to improve the characterization of the benzene exposure of this cohort appear to be warranted in order to define more precisely the benzene-leukemia dose-response relationship. PMID:2676499

Brett, S M; Rodricks, J V; Chinchilli, V M

1989-01-01

335

Occupational radiation exposure due to norm in a rare-earth compounds production facility.  

PubMed

In India, rare-earth compounds are produced from the beach sand mineral monazite. Caustic digestion of the mineral followed by selective acid extraction is the method used to separate composite rare-earth fraction. The composite rare-earth chloride contains low levels of natural radionuclides and is the starting material for individual rare-earth compounds which have wide applications. Activity concentrations in composite rare-earth compounds such as chlorides, fluorides, carbonates and oxides of Ce, Nd, Pr, Sm, Gd, etc. are presented in this paper. The external gamma exposure rates and airborne activity due to thorium and thoron progeny in the occupational environment are studied. The activity levels in liquid effluent are presented. The potential individual occupational dose is estimated to be 1.9 mSv per annum. PMID:18550514

Haridasan, P P; Pillai, P M B; Tripathi, R M; Puranik, V D

2008-01-01

336

Aberrant production of th1/th2/th17-related cytokines in serum of C57BL/6 mice after short-term formaldehyde exposure.  

PubMed

Previous studies have shown that formaldehyde (FA) could cause immunotoxicity by changing the number of T lymphocytes and that cytokines play a pivotal role in the regulation of T lymphocytes. However, the previously used cytokine detection methods are difficult to use in the measurement of several cytokines in a small amount of sample for one test. Therefore, the cytometric bead array (CBA) technique was used. CBA showed better analytical efficiency and sensitivity than the previous methods. C57BL/6 mice were exposed to the control (normal saline), low FA concentration (0.5 mg/kg), and high FA concentration (2 mg/kg) for 1 week or 1 month. The contents of cytokines, including Th1-related cytokines (IL-2, IFN-?, and tumor necrosis factor), Th2-related cytokines (IL-4, IL-6, and IL-10), and Th17-related cytokines (IL-17A), were measured by using the BD FACS Canto II Flow Cytometer and analyzed by FCAP ArrayTM Software. Th1/Th2/Th17-related cytokines showed a slightly decreasing trend after low FA exposure. Conversely, a significantly increasing trend was found after high FA exposure. Th1/Th2/Th17-related cytokines all serve important functions in the immune reactions in mice after FA exposure. PMID:25264680

Wei, Haiyan; Tan, Kehong; Sun, Rongli; Yin, Lihong; Zhang, Juan; Pu, Yuepu

2014-01-01

337

Aberrant Production of Th1/Th2/Th17-Related Cytokines in Serum of C57BL/6 Mice after Short-Term Formaldehyde Exposure  

PubMed Central

Previous studies have shown that formaldehyde (FA) could cause immunotoxicity by changing the number of T lymphocytes and that cytokines play a pivotal role in the regulation of T lymphocytes. However, the previously used cytokine detection methods are difficult to use in the measurement of several cytokines in a small amount of sample for one test. Therefore, the cytometric bead array (CBA) technique was used. CBA showed better analytical efficiency and sensitivity than the previous methods. C57BL/6 mice were exposed to the control (normal saline), low FA concentration (0.5 mg/kg), and high FA concentration (2 mg/kg) for 1 week or 1 month. The contents of cytokines, including Th1-related cytokines (IL-2, IFN-?, and tumor necrosis factor), Th2-related cytokines (IL-4, IL-6, and IL-10), and Th17-related cytokines (IL-17A), were measured by using the BD FACS Canto II Flow Cytometer and analyzed by FCAP ArrayTM Software. Th1/Th2/Th17-related cytokines showed a slightly decreasing trend after low FA exposure. Conversely, a significantly increasing trend was found after high FA exposure. Th1/Th2/Th17-related cytokines all serve important functions in the immune reactions in mice after FA exposure. PMID:25264680

Wei, Haiyan; Tan, Kehong; Sun, Rongli; Yin, Lihong; Zhang, Juan; Pu, Yuepu

2014-01-01

338

An occupational exposure assessment of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofurans in firefighters.  

PubMed

Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) are unintentional byproducts of combustion and industrial processes. Firefighters face the risk of occupational exposure to PCDD/Fs. Congener-specific analyses of 17 PCDD/Fs were performed on 20 serum samples collected from firefighters and fire scene investigators, and four soot samples that had deposited on the surfaces of the fire helmets and were collected after the firefighters had fought fires. The PCDD/F concentrations on the helmets that were contaminated by being worn at the fire scenes were 63-285 times higher than those on a clean helmet. The median serum PCDD/F concentration of the 16 firefighters (12 pg WHO(2005)-TEQ g(-1)lipid) was not different from those of the males from the general Taiwanese population (9.4 pg WHO(2005)-TEQ g(-1) lipid). However, the median PCDD/F level in the four fire scene investigators (15 pg WHO(2005)-TEQ g(-1) lipid) was higher than those in the male from the general Taiwanese population (Mann-Whitney U test, p<0.01). Furthermore, the serum samples from the firefighters and fire scene investigators, and the soot samples from the fire scenes presented similarly distinctive PCDD/F profiles that had elevated proportions for 10 PCDF congeners. Limited data indicated that the fire scene investigators were occupationally exposed to PCDD/Fs at the fire scenes. We suggested that the firefighters were not occupationally exposed to PCDD/Fs at the fire scenes due to appropriate protection. However, the fire scene investigators may have had more occupational exposure to PCDD/Fs due to poor protection, and further research must be performed to confirm this. PMID:21458022

Hsu, Jing-Fang; Guo, How-Ran; Wang, Hsueh Wen; Liao, Chin-Kun; Liao, Pao-Chi

2011-05-01

339

Occupational airborne exposure, specific sensitization and the atopic status: evidence of a complex interrelationship  

PubMed Central

Background We have investigated the relationship between atopic status and long-term occupational exposure to latex proteins or methyl diethyl diisocyanate (MDI) as high and low molecular weight asthma-inducing agents, respectively. Methods This study is based on retrospective analyses of two groups of symptomatic outpatients: 184 healthcare workers with latex exposure and 156 workers with isocyanate (MDI) exposure. We analysed atopic and non-atopic subgroups according to exposure duration and the frequencies of specific sensitization. Results 45% of the healthcare subgroup specifically sensitized to latex were atopic, whereas in the non-sensitized healthcare subgroup only 26% were atopic. On the other hand, subjects specifically sensitized to MDI were rarely atopic (only 15%), whereas in the subgroup non-sensitized to MDI atopy was present in 38%. After prolonged durations of exposure, the proportion of atopics was further elevated in most healthcare subgroups but it decreased in the MDI-exposed subjects. Conclusions We hypothesize that latex proteins as sensitizing agents might promote the development of atopy, whereas exposure to the low molecular weight MDI might inhibit the atopic status. PMID:23406275

2013-01-01

340

UW Occupational Health Program Requisition Form for Pre-Exposure Services This form confirms the eligibility for the employee listed below to receive all preventive services checked.  

E-print Network

Occupational Risks and Exposures Animal Contact exposure to vertebrate animals, animal tissues, body fluids or wastes. Please complete the Animal Contact Questionnaire prior to appointment. Infectious Agent Exposure;Services Requested: Vaccinations Respirator Fit Testing (includes questionnaire review) Immunization Review

Wisconsin at Madison, University of

341

Childhood nervous system tumors--an evaluation of the association with paternal occupational exposure to hydrocarbons  

SciTech Connect

Paternal occupational exposures to hydrocarbons have been associated with childhood nervous system cancer, but study results have not been consistent. This population-based case-control study was designed to examine this association using a large sample size to increase the precision of risk estimates. The birth certificates of 499 children who died in Texas from intracranial and spinal cord tumors were compared with 998 control certificates randomly selected from all Texas live births. Information on parental job title and industry at the time of birth was obtained from the birth certificates. No significant associations were identified for the dichotomized variable of all hydrocarbon-related occupations combined, as variously defined in previous studies, or for most of the specific jobs affiliated with exposures to hydrocarbons. Significant, relatively stable odds ratios (OR) were found for printers and graphics arts workers (OR = 4.5; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.4-14.7) and chemical and petroleum workers with high exposure levels (OR = 3.0; CI = 1.1-8.5). A discussion of the biases involved in this type of study design is presented.

Johnson, C.C.; Annegers, J.F.; Frankowski, R.F.; Spitz, M.R.; Buffler, P.A.

1987-10-01

342

Solid Phase Extraction for Monitoring of Occupational Exposure to Cr (III)  

PubMed Central

Chromium is an important constituent widely used in different industrial processes for production of various synthetic materials. For evaluation of workers’ exposure to trace toxic metal of Cr (III), environmental and biological monitoring are essential processes, in which, preparation of samples is one of the most time-consuming and error-prone aspects prior to analysis. The use of solid-phase extraction (SPE) has grown and is a fertile technique of sample preparation as it provides better results than those produced by liquid-liquid extraction (LLE). SPE using mini columns filled with XAD-4 resin was optimized regarding to sample pH, ligand concentration, loading flow rate, elution solvent, sample volume, elution volume, amount of resins, and sample matrix interferences. Chromium was retained on solid sorbent and was eluted with 2 M HNO3 followed by simple determination of analytes by using flame atomic absorption spectrometery. Obtained recoveries of metal ion were more than 92%. The optimized procedure was also validated with three different pools of spiked urine samples and showed a good reproducibility over six consecutive days as well as six within-day experiments. Through this study, suitable results were obtained for relative standard deviation, therefore, it is concluded that, this optimized method can be considered to be successful in simplifying sample preparation for trace residue analysis of Cr in different matrices for evaluation of occupational and environmental exposures. To evaluate occupational exposure to chromium, 16 urine samples were taken, prepared, and analyzed based on optimized procedure. PMID:19662187

Shahtaheri, S.J.; Khadem, M.; Golbabaei, F.; Rahimi-Froushani, A.

2007-01-01

343

Occupational chronic exposure to organic solvents XII. O-cresol excretion after toluene exposure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirty-five printing workers were investigated according to their external and internal exposure to toluene. The concentration of toluene in the air of the working place was determined using stationary air sampling and gas chromatography. To determine the levels of toluene in blood as well as the concentrations of o-cresol, hippuric acid, and phenol in urine, biological specimens were collected at

J. Angerer

1985-01-01

344

Biomonitoring of complex occupational exposures to carcinogens: The case of sewage workers in Paris  

PubMed Central

Background Sewage workers provide an essential service in the protection of public and environmental health. However, they are exposed to varied mixtures of chemicals; some are known or suspected to be genotoxics or carcinogens. Thus, trying to relate adverse outcomes to single toxicant is inappropriate. We aim to investigate if sewage workers are at increased carcinogenic risk as evaluated by biomarkers of exposure and early biological effects. Methods/design This cross sectional study will compare exposed sewage workers to non-exposed office workers. Both are voluntaries from Paris municipality, males, aged (20–60) years, non-smokers since at least six months, with no history of chronic or recent illness, and have similar socioeconomic status. After at least 3 days of consecutive work, blood sample and a 24-hour urine will be collected. A caffeine test will be performed, by administering coffee and collecting urines three hours after. Subjects will fill in self-administered questionnaires; one covering the professional and lifestyle habits while the a second one is alimentary. The blood sample will be used to assess DNA adducts in peripheral lymphocytes. The 24-hour urine to assess urinary 8-oxo-7, 8-dihydro-2'-deoxy-Guanosine (8-oxo-dG), and the in vitro genotoxicity tests (comet and micronucleus) using HeLa S3 or HepG2 cells. In parallel, occupational air sampling will be conducted for some Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Volatile Organic Compounds. A weekly sampling chronology at the offices of occupational medicine in Paris city during the regular medical visits will be followed. This protocol has been accepted by the French Est III Ethical Comitee with the number 2007-A00685-48. Discussion Biomarkers of exposure and of early biological effects may help overcome the limitations of environmental exposure assessment in very complex occupational or environmental settings. PMID:18325085

Al Zabadi, Hamzeh; Ferrari, Luc; Laurent, Anne-Marie; Tiberguent, Aziz; Paris, Christophe; Zmirou-Navier, Denis

2008-01-01

345

Glioma and occupational exposure in Sweden, a case-control study.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to analyse whether any job titles, industrial codes, and certain occupational exposures were associated with an increased risk of glioma. METHODS: A population based case-control study of incident primary brain tumours in adults was carried out in Uppsala, Sweden in the period 1987-90. The study included 192 cases of glioma and 192 matched controls. It also included cases with other tumours of the central nervous system with matched controls. Information from all 343 controls was used in this study. Information was collected by means of a questionnaire that was sent to all subjects. An occupational hygienist reviewed the questionnaires for self reported exposures to substances and assessed whether these reported exposures were plausible or not in the corresponding occupation. RESULTS: The kappa coefficient for those classified by the two methods ranged between 0.46 and 0.88, and they were almost the same for cases and controls. For men exposed to solvents a relative risk (RR) of 2.6 (95% CI 1.3 to 5.2) was found. For men exposed to pesticides the RR was 1.8 (95% CI 0.6 to 5.1), and for plastic materials the RR was 3.6 (95% CI 1.0 to 12.4). For men employed in forestry and logging the RR was 2.2 (95% CI 0.9 to 5.3) and in basic metal industries 2.0 (95% CI 1.0 to 4.0). CONCLUSION: An increased risk of glioma was associated with use of solvents, pesticides, and plastic materials but this should be interpreted with some caution. PMID:8983463

Rodvall, Y; Ahlbom, A; Spannare, B; Nise, G

1996-01-01

346

Experiences from Occupational Exposure Limits Set on Aerosols Containing Allergenic Proteins  

PubMed Central

Occupational exposure limits (OELs) together with determined airborne exposures are used in risk assessment based managements of occupational exposures to prevent occupational diseases. In most countries, OELs have only been set for few protein-containing aerosols causing IgE-mediated allergies. They comprise aerosols of flour dust, grain dust, wood dust, natural rubber latex, and the subtilisins, which are proteolytic enzymes. These aerosols show dose-dependent effects and levels have been established, where nearly all workers may be exposed without adverse health effects, which are required for setting OELs. Our aim is to analyse prerequisites for setting OELs for the allergenic protein-containing aerosols. Opposite to the key effect of toxicological reactions, two thresholds, one for the sensitization phase and one for elicitation of IgE-mediated symptoms in sensitized individuals, are used in the OEL settings. For example, this was the case for flour dust, where OELs were based on dust levels due to linearity between flour dust and its allergen levels. The critical effects for flour and grain dust OELs were different, which indicates that conclusion by analogy (read-across) must be scientifically well founded. Except for subtilisins, no OEL have been set for other industrial enzymes, where many of which are high volume chemicals. For several of these, OELs have been proposed in the scientific literature during the last two decades. It is apparent that the scientific methodology is available for setting OELs for proteins and protein-containing aerosols where the critical effect is IgE sensitization and IgE-mediated airway diseases. PMID:22843406

Nielsen, Gunnar D.

2012-01-01

347

Use of and occupational exposure to indium in the United States.  

PubMed

Indium use has increased greatly in the past decade in parallel with the growth of flat-panel displays, touchscreens, optoelectronic devices, and photovoltaic cells. Much of this growth has been in the use of indium tin oxide (ITO). This increased use has resulted in more frequent and intense exposure of workers to indium. Starting with case reports and followed by epidemiological studies, exposure to ITO has been linked to serious and sometimes fatal lung disease in workers. Much of this research was conducted in facilities that process sintered ITO, including manufacture, grinding, and indium reclamation from waste material. Little has been known about indium exposure to workers in downstream applications. In 2009-2011, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) contacted 89 potential indium-using companies; 65 (73%) responded, and 43 of the 65 responders used an indium material. Our objective was to identify current workplace applications of indium materials, tasks with potential indium exposure, and exposure controls being used. Air sampling for indium was either conducted by NIOSH or companies provided their data for a total of 63 air samples (41 personal, 22 area) across 10 companies. Indium exposure exceeded the NIOSH recommended exposure limit (REL) of 0.1 mg/m(3) for certain methods of resurfacing ITO sputter targets, cleaning sputter chamber interiors, and in manufacturing some inorganic indium compounds. Indium air concentrations were low in sputter target bonding with indium solder, backside thinning and polishing of fabricated indium phosphide-based semiconductor devices, metal alloy production, and in making indium-based solder pastes. Exposure controls such as containment, local exhaust ventilation (LEV), and tool-mounted LEV can be effective at reducing exposure. In conclusion, occupational hygienists should be aware that the manufacture and use of indium materials can result in indium air concentrations that exceed the NIOSH REL. Given recent findings of adverse health effects in workers, research is needed to determine if the current REL sufficiently protects workers against indium-related diseases. PMID:24195539

Hines, Cynthia J; Roberts, Jennifer L; Andrews, Ronnee N; Jackson, Matthew V; Deddens, James A

2013-01-01

348

Chronic occupational exposure to hexavalent chromium causes DNA damage in electroplating workers  

PubMed Central

Background Occupational exposure to chromium compounds may result in adverse health effects. This study aims to investigate whether low-level hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) exposure can cause DNA damage in electroplating workers. Methods 157 electroplating workers and 93 control subjects with no history of occupational exposure to chromium were recruited in Hangzhou, China. Chromium levels in erythrocytes were determined by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometer. DNA damage in peripheral lymphocytes was evaluated with the alkaline comet assay by three parameters: Olive tail moment, tail length and percent of DNA in the comet tail (tail DNA%). Urinary 8-OHdG levels were measured by ELISA. Results Chromium concentration in erythrocytes was about two times higher in electroplating workers (median: 4.41 ?g/L) than that in control subjects (1.54 ?g/L, P < 0.001). The medians (range) of Olive tail moment, tail length and tail DNA% in exposed workers were 1.13 (0.14-6.77), 11.17 (3.46-52.19) and 3.69 (0.65-16.20), and were significantly higher than those in control subjects (0.14 (0.01-0.39), 3.26 (3.00-4.00) and 0.69 (0.04-2.74), P < 0.001). Urinary 8-OHdG concentration was 13.65 (3.08-66.30) ?g/g creatinine in exposed workers and 8.31 (2.94-30.83) ?g/g creatinine in control subjects (P < 0.001). The differences of urinary 8-OHdG levels, Olive tail moment, tail length and tail DNA% between these two groups remained significant (P < 0.001) even after stratification by potential confounding factors such as age, gender, and smoking status. Chromium exposure was found to be positively associated with chromium levels in erythrocytes, urinary 8-OHdG levels, Olive tail moment, tail length and tail DNA%. Positive dose-response associations were also found between chromium levels in erythrocytes and Olive tail moment, tail length and tail DNA%. Conclusion The findings in this study indicated that there was detectable chromium exposure in electroplating workers. Low-level occupational chromium exposure induced DNA damage. PMID:21481275

2011-01-01

349

A PRELIMINARY ASSESSMENT OF THE OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION EXPOSURE FROM MAINTAINING THE US ITER DCLL TBM  

SciTech Connect

This paper details an Occupational Radiation Exposure (ORE) analysis performed for the US International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) Dual Coolant Lead Lithium (DCLL) Test Blanket Module (TBM). This ORE analysis was performed with the QADMOD dose code for maintenance activities anticipated for the US DCLL TBM concept and its ancillary systems. Identification of the maintenance tasks that will have to be performed and estimates of the time required to perform these tasks were developed based on either expert opinion or on industrial maintenance experience for similar technologies. This paper details the modeling activity and the calculated doses for the maintenance activities envisioned for the US DCLL TBM.

B. J. Merrill; L. C. Cadwallader; M. Dagher

2008-09-01

350

Lifetime Occupational Exposure to Dusts, Gases and Fumes Is Associated with Bronchitis Symptoms and Higher Diffusion Capacity in COPD Patients  

PubMed Central

Background Occupational exposure to dusts, gases and fumes has been associated with reduced FEV1 and sputum production in COPD patients. The effect of occupational exposure on other characteristics of COPD, especially those reflecting emphysema, has not been studied in these patients. Methods We studied 338 patients hospitalized for a first exacerbation of COPD in 9 Spanish hospitals, obtaining full occupational history in a face-to-face interview; job codes were linked to a job exposure matrix for semi-quantitative estimation of exposure to mineral/biological dust, and gases/fumes for each job held. Patients underwent spirometry, diffusing capacity testing and analysis of gases in stable conditions. Quality of life, dyspnea and chronic bronchitis symptoms were determined with a questionnaire interview. A high- resolution CT scan was available in 133 patients. Results 94% of the patients included were men, with a mean age of 68(8.5) years and a mean FEV1% predicted 52 (16). High exposure to gases or fumes was associated with chronic bronchitis, and exposure to mineral dust and gases/fumes was associated with higher scores for symptom perception in the St. George’s questionnaire. No occupational agent was associated with a lower FEV1. High exposure to all occupational agents was associated with better lung diffusion capacity, in long-term quitters. In the subgroup with CT data, patients with emphysema had 18% lower DLCO compared to those without emphysema. Conclusions In our cohort of COPD patients, high exposure to gases or fumes was associated with chronic bronchitis, and high exposure to all occupational agents was consistently associated with better diffusion capacity in long-term quitters. PMID:24516659

Rodriguez, Esther; Ferrer, Jaume; Zock, Jan-Paul; Serra, Ignasi; Anto, Josep M.; de Batlle, Jordi; Kromhout, Hans; Vermeulen, Roel; Donaire-Gonzalez, David; Benet, Marta; Balcells, Eva; Monso, Eduard; Gayete, Angel; Garcia-Aymerich, Judith

2014-01-01

351

Occupational Exposure to Ultraviolet Radiation and Risk of Non-Melanoma Skin Cancer in a Multinational European Study  

PubMed Central

Background Studies suggest that ambient sunlight plays an important role in the pathogenesis of non-melanoma skin cancers (NMSC). However, there is ongoing controversy regarding the relevance of occupational exposure to natural and artificial ultraviolet radiation (UV) radiation. Objectives We investigated potential associations between natural and artificial UV radiation exposure at work with NMSC in a case-control study conducted in Hungary, Romania, and Slovakia. Methods Occupational exposures were classified by expert assessment for 527 controls and 618 NMSC cases (515 basal cell carcinoma, BCC). Covariate information was collected via interview and multiple logistic regression models were used to assess associations between UV exposure and NMSC. Results Lifetime prevalence of occupational exposure in the participants was 13% for natural UV radiation and 7% for artificial UV radiation. Significant negative associations between occupational exposure to natural UV radiation and NMSC were detected for all who had ever been exposed (odds ratio (OR) 0.47, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.27–0.80); similar results were detected using a semi-quantitative metric of cumulative exposure. The effects were modified by skin complexion, with significantly decreased risks of BCC among participants with light skin complexion. No associations were observed in relation to occupational artificial UV radiation exposure. Conclusions The protective effect of occupational exposure to natural UV radiation was unexpected, but limited to light-skinned people, suggesting adequate sun-protection behaviors. Further investigations focusing on variations in the individual genetic susceptibility and potential interactions with environmental and other relevant factors are planned. PMID:23638051

Surdu, Simona; Fitzgerald, Edward F.; Bloom, Michael S.; Boscoe, Francis P.; Carpenter, David O.; Haase, Richard F.; Gurzau, Eugen; Rudnai, Peter; Koppova, Kvetoslava; Fevotte, Joelle; Leonardi, Giovanni; Vahter, Marie; Goessler, Walter; Kumar, Rajiv; Fletcher, Tony

2013-01-01

352

68 FR 27630 - Diseases Not Associated With Exposure to Certain Herbicide Agents  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...factors for nasal cancer include occupational exposure to nickel and chromium compounds, wood dust, and formaldehyde. Studies...Vijlder JJ. 1992. Effects of dioxins on thyroid function in newborn babies. Lancet. 339:1303.) In cord blood, the concentrations...PCB) exposure in relation to thyroid hormone levels in neonates. Epidemiology 11:249-254.) They found little......

2003-05-20

353

Maternal Occupational Exposure to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons: Effects on Gastroschisis among Offspring in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study  

PubMed Central

Background: Exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) occurs in many occupational settings. There is evidence in animal models that maternal exposure to PAHs during pregnancy is associated with gastroschisis in offspring; however, to our knowledge, no human studies examining this association have been conducted. Objective: Our goal was to conduct a case–control study assessing the association between estimated maternal occupational exposure to PAHs and gastroschisis in offspring. Methods: Data from gastroschisis cases and control infants were obtained from the population-based National Birth Defects Prevention Study for the period 1997–2002. Exposure to PAHs was assigned by industrial hygienist consensus, based on self-reported maternal occupational histories from 1 month before conception through the third month of pregnancy. Logistic regression was used to determine the association between estimated occupational PAH exposure and gastroschisis among children whose mothers were employed for at least 1 month during the month before conception through the third month of pregnancy. Results: The prevalence of estimated occupational PAH exposure was 9.0% in case mothers (27 of 299) and 3.6% in control mothers (107 of 2,993). Logistic regression analyses indicated a significant association between occupational PAHs and gastroschisis among mothers ? 20 years of age [odds ratio (OR) = 2.53; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.27, 5.04] after adjusting for maternal body mass index, education, gestational diabetes, and smoking. This association was not seen in mothers < 20 years (OR = 1.14; 95% CI: 0.55, 2.33), which is notable because although young maternal age is the strongest known risk factor for gastroschisis, most cases are born to mothers ? 20 years. Conclusion: Our findings indicate an association between occupational exposure to PAHs among mothers who are ? 20 years and gastroschisis. These results contribute to a body of evidence that PAHs may be teratogenic. PMID:22330681

Langlois, Peter H.; Reefhuis, Jennita; Lawson, Christina C.; Symanski, Elaine; Desrosiers, Tania A.; Khodr, Zeina G.; Agopian, A.J.; Waters, Martha A.; Duwe, Kara N.; Finnell, Richard H.; Mitchell, Laura E.; Moore, Cynthia A.; Romitti, Paul A.; Shaw, Gary M.

2012-01-01

354

Application of Statistical Models for Secondary Data Usage of the U.S. Navy's Occupational Exposure Database (NOED)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many organizations around the world have collected data related to individual worker exposures that are used to determine compliance with workplace standards. These data are often warehoused and thereafter rarely used as an information resource. Using appropriate groupings and analysis of OSHA data, Gómez showed that such stored data can provide additional insight on factors affecting occupational exposures. Using data

J. A. Formisano Jr; K. Still; W. Alexander; M. Lippmann

2001-01-01

355

Asbestos lung burden and asbestosis after occupational and environmental exposure in an asbestos cement manufacturing area: a necropsy study  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: The largest Italian asbestos cement factory had been active in Casale Monferrato until 1986: in previous studies a substantial increase in the incidence of pleural mesothelioma was found among residents without occupational exposure to asbestos. To estimate exposure to asbestos in the population, this study evaluated the presence of histological asbestosis and the lung burden of asbestos fibres (AFs)

C. Magnani; F. Mollo; L. Paoletti; D. Bellis; P. Bernardi; P. Betta; M. Botta; M. Falchi; C. Ivaldi; M. Pavesi

1998-01-01

356

Occupational radiation exposure history of Idaho Field Office Operations at the INEL  

SciTech Connect

An extensive review has been made of the occupational radiation exposure records of workers at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) over the period of 1951 through 1990. The focus has been on workers employed by contractors and employees of the Idaho Field Operations Office (ID) of the United States Department of Energy (USDOE) and does not include the Naval Reactors Facility (NRF), the Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), or other operations field offices at the INEL. The radiation protection guides have decreased from 15 rem/year to 5 rem/year in 1990 for whole body penetrating radiation exposure. During these 40 years of nuclear operations (in excess of 200,000 man-years of work), a total of twelve individuals involved in four accidents exceeded the annual guidelines for exposure; nine of these exposures were received during life saving efforts on January 3, 1961 following the SL-1 reactor accident which killed three military personnel. These exposures ranged from 8 to 27 rem. Only one individual has exceeded the annual whole body penetrating radiation protection guidelines in the last 29 years.

Horan, J.R.; Braun, J.B.

1993-10-01

357

What You Should Know about Formaldehyde What is formaldehyde?  

E-print Network

also increase with increases in temperature and humidity. #12;1000 ppb High If your reading falls. This is especially important if family members are elderly, young children, or have health conditions such as asthma. If your reading falls into the intermediate range, your risk of irritation from formaldehyde exposure

358

The occupational role of women in military service: Validation of occupation and prevalence of exposures in the Millennium Cohort Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

To better understand the US military's global peacekeeping and combat operations, which may expose a growing population of American servicewomen to challenging occupations and environments. Concordance between self-reported and electronic occupation codes for female participants in the Millennium Cohort was measured using kappa statistics. Multivariable logistic regression modeling was used to assess the odds of five self-reported potentially toxic environmental

Tyler C. Smith; Isabel G. Jacobson; Besa Smith; Tomoko I. Hooper; Margaret A. K. Ryan

2007-01-01

359

Occupational exposure to PCBs reduces striatal dopamine transporter densities only in women: A ?-CIT imaging study  

PubMed Central

We hypothesize that occupational exposure to PCBs is associated with a reduction in central dopamine (DA) similar to changes previously seen in PCB exposed adult non-human primates. To test that hypothesis we used [123I]?-CIT SPECT imaging to estimate basal ganglia DA transporter density in former capacitor workers. Women, but not men, showed an inverse relationship between lipid-adjusted total serum PCB concentrations and DA transporter densities in the absence of differences in serum PCB concentrations. These sex differences may reflect age-related reductions in the levels of gonadal hormones since these hormones have been shown experimentally to alter response to DA neurotoxicants. These findings may aid in better understanding the roles that sex and age play in modifying central DA function following exposure, not only to PCBs, but also to other DA neurotoxicants as well as further elucidating the role of gonadal hormones in influencing the initiation and/or progression of neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:20096358

Seegal, Richard F.; Marek, Kenneth L.; Seibyl, John P.; Jennings, Danna L.; Molho, Eric S.; Higgins, Donald S.; Factor, Stewart A.; Fitzgerald, Edward F.; Hills, Elaine A.; Korrick, Susan A.; Wolff, Mary S.; Haase, Richard F.; Todd, Andrew C.; Parsons, Patrick; McCaffrey, Robert F.

2010-01-01

360

An Evaluation of Potential Occupational Exposure to Asbestiform Amphiboles near a Former Vermiculite Mine  

PubMed Central

Amphibole asbestos (AA) has been detected on the surface of tree bark in forests neighboring an abandoned vermiculite mine near Libby, Montana. In the present study, simulations were performed to assess potential AA exposure associated with United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service (FS) occupational activities. Bark samples were collected prior, and personal breathing zone (PBZ) and Tyvek clothing wipe samples were collected during and immediately after trials that simulated FS activities. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analyses revealed AA bark concentrations up to 15 million structures per square centimeter (s/cm2). AA was detected in 25% of the PBZ TEM samples. AA was detected on wipe samples collected from all activities evaluated. This research demonstrates the potential for airborne exposure and transport of AA in the Kootenai National Forest. These findings are especially relevant to those that work in the area and to the general public who may conduct recreational activities. PMID:20049175

Hart, Julie F.; Spear, Terry M.; Ward, Tony J.; Baldwin, Caitlan E.; Salo, Marissa N.; Elashheb, Mohamed I.

2009-01-01

361

[Brazilian legislation and the international recommendations related to the occupational exposure to biologic agents].  

PubMed

Bibliographic review with the objective to identify the Brazilian legislation related to occupational exposure of health workers to biological material and compare it with the main recommendations of the International Labor Organization (ILO) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). The information was searched by access to the websites of the Ministry of Health, Ministry of Labor and Employment, ILO and CDC. The data collected were categorized into five themes for better understanding and analysis. We find that the Brazilian legislation covers most of the international recommendations, but the obligation of providing safety devices was later included in the legislation. It is concluded that workers need information about their rights and duties before the exposure to biological hazards. PMID:21468504

Galon, Tanyse; Marziale, Maria Helena Palucci; de Souza, Wecksley Leonardo

2011-01-01

362

Pulmonary disease from occupational exposure to an artificial aluminium silicate used for cat litter.  

PubMed Central

All available workers engaged in bagging an artificial crystalline aluminium silicate--the kiln-dried residue from the calcining and water extraction of alunite (a hydrated sulphate of aluminium and potassium) that is currently classified as a nuisance dust--were studied after a complaint of respiratory and systemic symptoms, including arthritis, by an employee of the factory, who showed physiological and radiographic evidence of diffuse pulmonary fibrosis and in whom lung biopsy showed diffuse fibrosis with granulomas. Inhalation challenge produced a transient decrease in transfer factor and transfer factor standardised for alveolar volume. Twenty-five subjects were known to have been exposed at some time to the dust of alunite-residue. Of the 17 who could be contacted, all agreed to attend for respiratory questionnaire and occupational history, pulmonary function testing (spirometry, lung volumes, gas transfer), and posteroanterior chest radiograph. Six subjects considered that occupational exposure to the dust was responsible for respiratory symptoms. Three subjects had abnormality of the chest radiograph consistent with pulmonary fibrosis. The mean percentage of predicted transfer factor standardised for effective alveolar volume was 71.1% in subjects with abnormal chest radiographs and 86.6% in subjects with normal radiographs (p = 0.10). There was a trend in the correlation between the percentage of predicted transfer factor standardised for effective alveolar volume and total dust exposure (sum of the products of grade of severity of each exposure period and duration of each exposure period in months) (r = 0.40 p = 0.10). This study suggests that there may be a relation between inhalation of the dust of this form of aluminium silicate and pulmonary fibrosis. Images PMID:7448131

Musk, A W; Greville, H W; Tribe, A E

1980-01-01

363

[Nanomaterials--proposals of occupational exposure limits in the world and hygiene standards in Poland].  

PubMed

Currently, there are no legally binding workplace exposure limits for substances in the form of nanoobjects. There are different ap proaches to risk assessment and determination of occupational exposure limits. The purpose of this article is to compare exposure levels in the work environment proposed by international organizations and world experts, as well as the assumptions and methods used for their estimation. This paper presents the proposals of the National Institute for Public Health and the Environment in the Netherlands (RIVM), the New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization in Japan (NEDO) and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health in the USA (NIOSH). The authors also discuss the reports on the levels for carbon nanotubes (Baytubes and Nanocyl) proposed by Pauluhn and Luizi, the derived no-effect levels (DNEL) complying with the REACH Regulation, proposed by experts under the 7th Framework Programme of the European Commission, coordinated by Professor Vicki Stone (ENRHES), and alternative estimation levels for poorly soluble particles by Pauluhn. The issue was also raised whether the method of determining maximum admissible concentrations in the work environment, currently used in Poland, is adequate for nanoobjects. Moreover, the introduction of nanoreference values, as proposed by RIVM, the definition of a new fraction for particles of 1-100 nm, taking into account the surface area and activity of the particles, and an adequate estimation of uncertainty factors seem to be worth considering. Other important, if not key issues are the appropriate measurement (numerical concentration, surface concentration, particle size distribution), as well as the methodology and equipment accessibility to all employers responsible for a reliable risk assessment of exposure to nanoparticles in the work environment. PMID:24645568

Swidwi?ska-Gajewska, Anna Maria; Czerczak, S?awomir

2013-01-01

364

Lead exposure and its adverse health effects among occupational worker's children.  

PubMed

Lead exposure is an important environmental health problem particularly affecting the children of occupational workers living in the lead-contaminated environment. The objectives of the study were to find out the frequency, potential sources and adverse health effects of elevated blood lead level (BLL) in the children of lead-related occupational workers. It was a comparative cross-sectional study. A total of two hundred forty six children aged 1-6 years, comprising an equal number (n = 123) from lead smelters/battery recycle plant workers living close to the industries at Wah/Gujranwala, Pakistan (lead-exposed group) and those living 30 km away from the industrial area (controls) were included. Demographic and clinical data of each subject was collected. Blood lead analysis was carried out by using kits on the lead analyzer (3010 B ESA, USA). Biochemical tests of renal and hepatic profile were analyzed on Selectra E auto analyzer. The median age of children was 4 years; comprising of 69 boys and 54 girls. The lead-exposed children had significantly high BLLs median (range) 8.1 (1-20.9) microg/dL as compared to controls 6.7 (1-13.3) microg/dL (p occupational workers had elevated BLL (>10 microg/dL) in 38 (31%) as compared with 14 (11%) in controls. Hematopoietic, renal, and hepatic functions were significantly impaired in the lead-exposed children. In conclusion, the children of lead-related occupational workers have significantly increased frequency (31%) of lead poisoning. The potential source of lead overexposure in these children may be indirect through father's clothes and contaminated environment at home. Increased lead accumulation adversely affects health of these children. PMID:20538706

Khan, Dilshad Ahmed; Qayyum, Shazia; Saleem, Shahid; Ansari, Wafa Munir; Khan, Farooq Ahmad

2010-09-01

365

Occupational exposure to water based paint and symptoms from the skin and eyes.  

PubMed Central

Water based paints contain organic solvents and many additives, such as biocides, surfactants, pigments, binders, amines, and monomers. The chemical complexity may introduce new potential health hazards to house painters, in particular irritative and allergic disorders. This study was performed to compare how house painters experience work with water based paints or solvent based paints, and to evaluate whether exposure to water based paints increases mucous membrane and dermal symptoms among house painters. 255 male house painters aged 20 to 65 were invited to participate in the study. Controls were two industrial populations, in total 302 men, without exposure to water based paints. Self administered questionnaires were used to assess the painter's experiences of working with different types of paints and the occurrence of symptoms in the exposed and unexposed groups. Hygiene measurements were performed during normal working days when only water based paints and no solvent based paints were used. The painters were exposed to low concentrations of dust, metals, ammonia, formaldehyde, and volatile organic compounds. The work environment was considered better when working with water based paints than with solvent based paints. There were more complaints of frequent urination when working with water based paint. Taste or olfactory disturbances were less common. General as well as work related eye and skin irritation was more common among the exposed workers. For other symptoms no significant differences were found. The study indicates that the introduction of water based paints has improved the work environment for house painters. Water based paints cause less discomfort and airway irritation than the earlier solvent based paints. Adverse general health effects seem low. Some of the painters may have dermal symptoms caused by the components in water based paints. PMID:8130846

Wieslander, G; Norback, D; Edling, C

1994-01-01

366

Plasma fluorescent oxidation products and short-term occupational particulate exposures  

PubMed Central

Background Evidence suggests that fine particulate air pollution results in oxidative induced tissue damage. Methods A global fluorescent oxidation products (FLOx) assay (fluorescent intensity (FI) units per milliliter of plasma) was measured in blood samples collected from 236 nonsmoking, Caucasian, male trucking industry workers either prior to, during, or after their work shifts. Occupational exposures to PM2.5 were based on job-specific area-level sampling. Generalized linear models were used to determine associations between FLOx levels and PM2.5, adjusted for age, time since last meal, alcohol consumption, aspirin, and cholesterol medications. Results The mean (standard deviation) level of FLOx was 265.9 FI/ml (96.0). Levels of FLOx were higher among older individuals and lower among those who had consumed alcohol in the past 24 hours. However, no associations were observed between FLOx and PM2.5. Conclusions Our results indicate no association between occupational PM2.5 exposure and this marker of global oxidative stress. PMID:22618714

Hart, Jaime E; Wu, Tianying; Laden, Francine; Garshick, Eric

2012-01-01

367

Oculodermatological findings in workers with occupational exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs).  

PubMed Central

Oculodermatological findings, such as hypersecretion of the Meibomian glands, swelling of the upper eyelids and hyperpigmentation of the conjunctivae are considered typical of "PCB poisoning." They were common clinical manifestations of yusho and yu-cheng, two epidemics in Japan and Taiwan caused by the ingestion of rice cooking oil contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans. To investigate the prevalence of such abnormalities in a population with long term occupational exposure to PCBs, a group of 326 workers employed in two capacitor manufacturing facilities were investigated in 1976, and 195 of these again in 1979. The median blood values of lower homologues of PCBs were 63 ppb (in plasma) in 1976 and 49 ppb (in serum) in 1979, and of the higher homologues 18 ppb and 17 X 5 ppb respectively. The prevalence of oculodermatological findings potentially related to the effects of PCBs were 9 X 4% and 13 X 3% at the two examinations. There was no significant association between such abnormalities and blood plasma/serum concentrations of PCBs. The observations in this work population exposed to PCBs differ from the yusho and yu-cheng experiences in that fewer clinical abnormalities were found. Suggestions are made that it may be inappropriate to extrapolate findings from the well known PCB poisoning episodes to exposures in occupational settings and that attention should be paid to the importance of polychlorinated dibenzofurans as an aetiological factor in human PCB poisoning. PMID:3924093

Fischbein, A; Rizzo, J N; Solomon, S J; Wolff, M S

1985-01-01

368

Adverse health effects of occupational exposure to radiofrequency radiation in airport surveillance radar operators  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Radar workers are exposed to pulsed high frequency electromagnetic fields. In this study, health effects of these radiations in personnel who routinely work with radar systems are investigated. Materials and Methods: The 28-item General Health Questionnaire was used as a self-administered tool for assessment of general mental health and mental distress. One hundred workers occupationally exposed to radar radiations (14-18 GHz) participated in the study. Visual reaction time was recorded with a simple blind computer-assisted-visual reaction time test. To assess the short-term memory, Wechsler Memory Scale-III test was performed. Results: Twenty to 39% of the radar workers reported different problems such as needing a good tonic, feeling run down and out of sorts, headache, tightness or pressure in the head, insomnia, getting edgy and bad-tempered. Furthermore, 47% of the radar workers reported feeling under strain. In response to this question that if they have been able to enjoy their normal day-to-day activities, 31% responded less than usual. It was also shown that work experience had significant relationships with reaction time and short-term memory indices i.e., forward digit span, reverse digit span, word recognition and paired words. Conclusion: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to show that occupational exposure to radar microwave radiation leads to changes in somatic symptoms, anxiety and insomnia, social dysfunction, and severe depression. Altogether these results indicate that occupational exposure to radar microwave radiations may be linked to some adverse health effects. PMID:24082641

Dehghan, Naser; Taeb, Shahram

2013-01-01

369

A unified model for covariate measurement error adjustment in an occupational health study while accounting for non-detectable exposures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper focuses on an occupational health study where the goal is to associate a worker's true log-normal-scale mean dust exposure over the year with forced expiratory volume. A previous analysis used repeated shift-long dust exposure measurements, taken over a year, as a surrogate to address the issue of the mean exposure being unobservable. However, in this study the associated

Kathleen A. Wannemuehler; Robert H. Lyles

2005-01-01

370

Exposure-Response Estimates for Diesel Engine Exhaust and Lung Cancer Mortality Based on Data from Three Occupational Cohorts  

PubMed Central

Background: Diesel engine exhaust (DEE) has recently been classified as a known human carcinogen. Objective: We derived a meta-exposure–response curve (ERC) for DEE and lung cancer mortality and estimated lifetime excess risks (ELRs) of lung cancer mortality based on assumed occupational and environmental exposure scenarios. Methods: We conducted a meta-regression of lung cancer mortality and cumulative exposure to elemental carbon (EC), a proxy measure of DEE, based on relative risk (RR) estimates reported by three large occupational cohort studies (including two studies of workers in the trucking industry and one study of miners). Based on the derived risk function, we calculated ELRs for several lifetime occupational and environmental exposure scenarios and also calculated the fractions of annual lung cancer deaths attributable to DEE. Results: We estimated a lnRR of 0.00098 (95% CI: 0.00055, 0.0014) for lung cancer mortality with each 1-?g/m3-year increase in cumulative EC based on a linear meta-regression model. Corresponding lnRRs for the individual studies ranged from 0.00061 to 0.0012. Estimated numbers of excess lung cancer deaths through 80 years of age for lifetime occupational exposures of 1, 10, and 25 ?g/m3 EC were 17, 200, and 689 per 10,000, respectively. For lifetime environmental exposure to 0.8 ?g/m3 EC, we estimated 21 excess lung cancer deaths per 10,000. Based on broad assumptions regarding past occupational and environmental exposures, we estimated that approximately 6% of annual lung cancer deaths may be due to DEE exposure. Conclusions: Combined data from three U.S. occupational cohort studies suggest that DEE at levels common in the workplace and in outdoor air appear to pose substantial excess lifetime risks of lung cancer, above the usually acceptable limits in the United States and Europe, which are generally set at 1/1,000 and 1/100,000 based on lifetime exposure for the occupational and general population, respectively. Citation: Vermeulen R, Silverman DT, Garshick E, Vlaanderen J, Portengen L, Steenland K. 2014. Exposure-response estimates for diesel engine exhaust and lung cancer mortality based on data from three occupational cohorts. Environ Health Perspect 122:172–177;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1306880 PMID:24273233

Silverman, Debra T.; Garshick, Eric; Vlaanderen, Jelle; Portengen, Lutzen; Steenland, Kyle

2013-01-01

371

Occupational exposure to magnetic fields from transformer stations and electric enclosures in Turkey.  

PubMed

We aimed to provide a systematic evaluation of magnetic field (MF) exposure of staff working in the offices located above or close to transformer stations (TS) and electric enclosures (EE). Occupational short-term "spot" measurements with Narda EFA-300 and isotropic magnetic field probe were carried out in two National Banks and one Industrial Company having more than 500 employees. Extremely low-frequency (ELF) MFs up to several tens of ?T were measured in the mentioned working environments. 25% of the measured MFs were found less than 0.3 ?T, the background exposure level that staff receive at home, 75% were above 0.3 ?T with the highest value of 6.8 ?T. The mean and median personal exposures were calculated to be 1.19 ?T and 0.56 ?T, respectively. Most of the staff (83%) is under risk based on epidemiological studies that reported a statistically significant association between risk of leukemia and averaged magnetic fields of 0.2 ?T or over. Results showed that risk evaluation should be considered to minimize the possibility of the workers being harmed due to exposure to work-related electromagnetic sources. PMID:21591891

Çam, Semra Tepe; F?rlarer, Arzu; Özden, Semih; Canseven, Ay?e G; Seyhan, Nesrin

2011-06-01

372

Expression of blood serum proteins and lymphocyte differentiation clusters after chronic occupational exposure to ionizing radiation.  

PubMed

This study aimed to assess effects of chronic occupational exposure on immune status in Mayak workers chronically exposed to ionizing radiation (IR). The study cohort consists of 77 workers occupationally exposed to external gamma-rays at total dose from 0.5 to 3.0 Gy (14 individuals) and workers with combined exposure (external gamma-rays at total dose range 0.7-5.1 Gy and internal alpha-radiation from incorporated plutonium with a body burden of 0.3-16.4 kBq). The control group consists of 43 age- and sex-matched individuals who never were exposed to IR, never involved in any cleanup operations following radiation accidents and never resided at contaminated areas. Enzyme-linked immunoassay and flow cytometry were used to determine the relative concentration of lymphocytes and proteins. The concentrations of T-lymphocytes, interleukin-8 and immunoglobulins G were decreased in external gamma-exposed workers relative to control. Relative concentrations of NKT-lymphocytes, concentrations of transforming growth factor-?, interferon gamma, immunoglobulins A, immunoglobulins M and matrix proteinase-9 were higher in this group as compared with control. Relative concentrations of T-lymphocytes and concentration of interleukin-8 were decreased, while both the relative and absolute concentration of natural killers, concentration of immunoglobulins A and M and matrix proteinase-9 were increased in workers with combined exposure as compared to control. An inverse linear relation was revealed between absolute concentration of T-lymphocytes, relative and absolute concentration of T-helpers cells, concentration of interferon gamma and total absorbed dose from external gamma-rays in exposed workers. For workers with incorporated plutonium, there was an inverse linear relation of absolute concentration of T-helpers as well as direct linear relation of relative concentration of NKT-lymphocytes to total absorbed red bone marrow dose from internal alpha-radiation. In all, chronic occupational IR exposure of workers induced a depletion of immune cells in peripheral blood of the individuals involved. PMID:25073961

Rybkina, Valentina L; Azizova, Tamara V; Scherthan, Harry; Meineke, Viktor; Doerr, Harald; Adamova, Galina V; Teplyakova, Olga V; Osovets, Sergey V; Bannikova, Maria V; Zurochka, Alexander V

2014-11-01

373

[Assessment of occupational exposure to aromatic polycyclic hydrocarbons determining urinary levels of 1-pyrenol].  

PubMed

In conformity with Italian law 626/94, occupational exposure to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH) in several types of work environments was assessed by analysing urinary levels of 1-pyrenol. A total of 231 non-smokers exposed to PAH (82 workers, employed in two different thermoelectric power plants using combustible oil (30 subjects from plant A and 52 from plant B), 18 subjects working for a company recovering exhausted oils, 12 working on rubber production, 10 on road surface asphalting operations, 22 working in the anodizing section of an aluminium plant, 27 chimney-sweeps, and 60 coke-oven workers (30 topside workers, and 30 doing other jobs)) were enrolled. There were also 53 non-smoker control subjects, not occupationally exposed to PAH. Current smokers were excluded, since smoking is an important confounding factor when occupational exposure to low PAH concentrations are monitored. Confounding factors, i.e., diet and passive smoking, were checked by means of a questionnaire which, in addition to personal data and habits, also requested specific details about the type of diet followed and possible exposure to passive smoking during the 24-hour period preceding urine collection. In controls, exposure to PAH in the diet significantly increased 1-pyrenol levels in urine: in subjects introducing > or = 1 microgram of pyrene with the diet, the mean urinary level of 1-pyrenol was significantly higher than that introduced with < 1 microgram (high versus low dietary intake, mean +/- SD, 0.08 +/- 0.13 and 0.04 +/- 0.06 1-pyrenol mumoles/mole of creatinine, respectively; Mann-Whitney U-test Z = 2.67, p < 0.01). Conversely, passive smoking did not influence 1-pyrenol levels. In the overall population (controls and exposed), multiple linear regression analysis showed that levels of urinary 1-pyrenol were significantly influenced by occupational exposure to PAH in asphalt workers, anodizing plant workers, chimney-sweeps, and coke-oven workers, both those working at the top side of the oven and those doing other jobs (t = 2.19, p = 0.02; t = 2.56, p = 0.01; t = 5.25, p = 0.001; t = 3.34, p = 0.001; t = 7.82, p = 0.001, respectively; F = 9.7, p < 0.01), but not in power plant workers in contact with combustible oils, workers recovering exhausted oils, or rubber production workers. Diet and passive smoking did not influence urinary 1-pyrenol levels in the entire sample population. This biomarker also allowed an assessment of exposure levels among certainly exposed subjects. The percentage of subjects with urinary 1-pyrenol values higher than the 99th percentile of the reference population (0.67 mumoles 1-pyrenol/mole of creatinine) was significantly higher than that of controls in asphalt workers (20%), anodizing plant workers (14%), chimney-sweeps (13%) and coke-oven workers (33%) (chi-square test: asphalt workers = 6.1, p = 0.01; anodizing plant workers = 4.3, p = 0.04; chimney-sweeps = 7.1, p = 0.008; coke-oven workers with other duties = 4.4, p = 0.04; top side workers = 16.5, p < 0.001). In chimney sweeps and top side workers, respectively 2 and 4 subjects (7% and 13%) exceeded the precautionary level of 1.4 mumoles 1-pyrenol/mole of creatinine; of these, 1 chimney sweep and 3 top side workers (4% and 10%) exceeded the recommended biological threshold of 2.3 mumoles 1-pyrenol/mole of creatinine. PMID:10965668

Pavanello, S; Genova, A; Foà, V; Clonfero, E

2000-01-01

374

A systematic review of the influence of occupational organophosphate pesticides exposure on neurological impairment  

PubMed Central

Objective The aim of this study was to conduct a systematic review of the published literature and to estimate whether or not there is a causal relationship between occupational exposure to organophosphate pesticides (OPs) and either neurological impairment or depressive symptoms. Data sources EMBASE, MEDLINE, Global Health and PsycINFO (1980 to April 2014). Setting Observational studies (cross-sectional, cohort and case–control studies) with exposed and unexposed groups. Participants People who occupationally use OPs for more than 1?month and their family. Primary outcome Results of neurological core test batteries or depressive symptoms such as headaches, anxiety and dizziness. Study appraisal and synthesis methods After an extensive search of various literature databases, one author screened titles and abstracts, searched the relevant publications manually and conducted data extraction. All extracted data from the selected articles were synthesised for analysis. Quality appraisal was conducted using the Newcastle Ottawa Scale. Results Of the 1024 articles retrieved by database search, 24 studies that met the inclusion and exclusion criteria were selected for analysis. Of the selected studies, 17 were cross-sectional and the remaining 7 were cohort and nested case–control studies. The geographical areas included in the studies were the USA (10 studies), the UK (4 studies), Africa (4 studies), Asia (3 studies), Europe (2 studies) and South America (1 study). Each of the included studies used different exposure and outcome assessments such as neurological scores and depressive symptoms, making it difficult to compare the results exactly. Most studies showed that exposed groups had poorer results than unexposed groups; however, owing to the inconsistent neurological test batteries, there was not enough pooling evidence to conduct a meta-analysis. Conclusions The findings of this literature review indicate that it is necessary to standardise the neurological or neuropsychological test battery and methods of measuring exposure to OPs. PMID:24961715

Takahashi, Noriko; Hashizume, Masahiro

2014-01-01

375

Proposal for the assessment to quantitative dermal exposure limits in occupational environments: Part 2. Feasibility study for application in an exposure scenario for MDA by two different dermal exposure sampling methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate two different techniques for assessing dermal exposure to 4,4'-methylene dianiline (MDA) in a field study. The results were used to test the applicability of a recently proposed quantitative dermal occupational exposure limit (DOEL) for MDA in a workplace scenario. METHODS: For two consecutive weeks six workers were monitored for exposure to MDA in a factory that made

D. H. Brouwer; L. Hoogendoorn; P. M. Bos; P. J. Boogaard; J. J. van Hemmen

1998-01-01

376

Critical review of catalytic oxidization and chemisorption methods for indoor formaldehyde removal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Formaldehyde, an irritant and cacinogent to humans, is one of the most concerning indoor gaseous pollutants because it is often found in buildings and poses a potential health risk to occupants even at a very low concentration level. Chemisorption and catalytic oxidization are two promising methods for indoor formaldehyde removal. This review covers the following aspects of the two formaldehyde

Jingjing Pei; Jianshun S. Zhang

2011-01-01

377

Comparison of tanker drivers' occupational exposures before and after the installation of a vapour recovery system.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to compare tanker drivers' occupational exposure level before and after the installation of vapour recovery facilities at 14 service stations. Road tanker drivers are exposed when handling volatile petrol liquid in bulk in the distribution chain. The drivers' exposure was studied during the unloading operation as the bulk petrol flowed into underground storage tanks, displacing vapours in the tank space and causing emission to the environment and the drivers' work area. The exposures were measured again when the dual point Stage I vapour recovery systems were installed for recycling vapours. Short-term measurements were carried out in the drivers' breathing zones by drawing polluted air through a charcoal tube during unloading. The samples were analysed in the laboratory by gas chromatography for C3-C11 aliphatic hydrocarbons, tert-butyl methyl ether (MTBE), tert-amyl methyl ether (MTAE), benzene, toluene and xylene. The road tanker loads delivered consisted of oxygenated and reformulated petrol (E95 and E98 brands), which contained on average 13% oxygenates. Before the installation of the vapour recovery system, the geometric mean (GM) concentration of aliphatic hydrocarbons was 65 mg m-3 (range 6-645 mg m-3) in the drivers' breathing zones. After the installation at the same service stations, the corresponding exposure level was 8.3 mg m-3 (range < 1-79 mg m-3). The GM of the MTBE concentrations was 8.6 mg m-3 (range 1-67 mg m-3) without vapour recovery and 1.5 mg m-3 (range < 0.1-10 mg m-3) with vapour recovery. The differences between the aliphatic hydrocarbons and the MTBE exposure levels during the unloading of the road tankers without and with vapour recovery were statistically significant (p < 0.05). PMID:11296758

Saarinen, L; Hakkola, M; Kangas, J

2000-12-01

378

Study on the relation between occupational fenvalerate exposure and spermatozoa DNA damage of pesticide factory workers  

PubMed Central

Aims: To determine sperm nuclear DNA integrity and to investigate the relation between fenvalerate (FE) exposure and spermatozoa DNA damage. Methods: Sperm DNA fragmentation was detected by a modified alkaline single cell gel electrophoresis (Comet) assay and a terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase mediated dUTP nick end labelling (TUNEL) assay. The olive tail moment (OTM) and percentage tail DNA were measured by the Comet assay, and cell positive percentage was measured by the TUNEL assay for DNA damage evaluation. Results: The DNA integrity of spermatozoa of external and internal control groups were both significantly greater than that of the FE exposed group. The median value of tail DNA percentage in the exposure group was 11.30, which was significantly higher than 5.60 in the internal control group and 5.10 in the external control group. The median value of OTM was 3.80 in the exposure group, significantly higher than 1.50 in the internal control group and 2.00 in the external control group. Mean cell positive was 31.2% in the exposure group, significantly higher than 17.4% in the internal control and 19.6% in the external control groups. Cell positive (%) was significantly correlated with tail DNA percentage and with OTM of whole subjects (n = 63). Conclusions: Results showed that occupational FE exposure is associated with an increase in sperm DNA damage. A combination of the Comet and TUNEL assays would offer more comprehensive information for a better understanding of sperm DNA damage, and the biological significance of sperm DNA damage in sperm function and male infertility. PMID:15550606

Bian, Q; Xu, L; Wang, S; Xia, Y; Tan, L; Chen, J; Song, L; Chang, H; Wang, X

2004-01-01

379

Cancer deaths and occupational exposure in a group of plutonium workers.  

PubMed

An exploratory epidemiological study was conducted for 319 deceased nuclear workers who had intakes of transuranic radionuclides and histories of employment during the time period from 1943 to 1995. The workers were employed at various facilities throughout the United States, including the Department of Energy defense facilities and uranium mining and milling sites. The majority of individuals were involved in documented radiological incidents during their careers. All had voluntarily agreed to donate their organs or whole body to the United States Transuranium and Uranium Registries. External and internal dose assessments were performed using occupational exposure histories and postmortem concentrations of transuranic radionuclides in critical organs. Statistical data analyses were performed to investigate the potential relationship between radiation exposure and causes of death within this population due to cancers of the lungs, liver, and all sites combined while controlling for the effects of other confounders. No association was found between radiation exposure and death due to cancer (? = 0.05). However, statistically significant associations were found between death due to any type of cancer and smoking (yes or no) (odds ratio = 5.41; 95% CI: 1.42 to 20.67) and rate of cigarette smoking (packs per day) (odds ratio = 2.70; 95% CI: 1.37 to 5.30). PMID:22378206

Fallahian, Naz Afarin; Brey, Richard R; Tivis, Rick D; Piland, Neill F; Simpson, David R

2012-04-01

380

Occupational hazard exposure and general health profile of welders in rural Delhi  

PubMed Central

Background: Welding is a common industrial process associated with various health hazards. The aspect of duration of hazard exposure among welders at their workplace has been studied to limited extent in India. Objective: To assess the duration of occupational hazard exposure and its association with symptoms among the welders. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted amongst 106 welders in North Delhi. Data was collected using a questionnaire containing items to assess the socio-demographic profile, their medical history and individual hazard exposure. Results: Majority of them were involved in skilled/semi-skilled job (n = 99; 93%). The predominant nature of work for majority was manual. More than half reported their work to be physically hard (n = 56; 53%), involves much lifting of weight (n = 61; 57%), and is dangerous (n = 59; 56%). Dust/smoke followed by noise was reported to be most common hazards at the workplace by them. Most of them were suffering from eye related symptoms (n = 63; 59%) followed by skin conditions (n = 28; 26%). Skin diseases were reported to be significantly common among group of welders who were exposed to dust and radiation for ?4 hours in a day (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Nearly half of the welders found their job to be dangerous and were being exposed to at least one hazardous substance at their workplace. Majority of them complained of eye symptoms. There is a need for health and safety training of this economically productive group. PMID:25006312

Chauhan, Anuradha; Anand, Tanu; Kishore, Jugal; Danielsen, Tor Erik; Ingle, Gopal Krishna

2014-01-01

381

Occupational exposure to airborne asbestos from phenolic molding material (Bakelite) during sanding, drilling, and related activities.  

PubMed

In this study, a historical phenolic (Bakelite) molding material, BMMA-5353, was tested to determine the airborne concentrations of asbestos fibers released during four different activities (sawing, sanding, drilling, and cleanup of dust generated from these activities). Each activity was performed for 30 min, often in triplicate. The primary objective for testing BMMA-5353 was to quantitatively determine the airborne concentration of asbestos fibers, if any, in the breathing zone of