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Sample records for occupational heavy lifting

  1. Heavy Lift Launch Vehicle Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    During the Space Shuttle development phase, Marshall plarners concluded a Heavy Lift Launch Vehicle (HLLV) would be needed for successful Space Industrialization. Shown here in this 1976's artist's conception is an early version of the HLLV during launch.

  2. Prosthetic Hand Lifts Heavy Loads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carden, James R.; Norton, William; Belcher, Jewell G.; Vest, Thomas W.

    1991-01-01

    Prosthetic hand designed to enable amputee to lift diverse heavy objects like rocks and logs. Has simple serrated end effector with no moving parts. Prosthesis held on forearm by system of flexible straps. Features include ruggedness, simplicity, and relatively low cost.

  3. Heavy Lift for Exploration: Options and Utilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Creech, Steve; Sumrall, Phil

    2010-01-01

    Every study of exploration capabilities since the Apollo Program has recommended the renewal of a heavy lift launch capability for the United States. NASA is aggressively pursuing that capability. This paper will discuss several aspects of that effort and the potential uses for that heavy lift capability. The need for heavy lift was cited most recent in the findings of the Review of U.S. Human Space Flight Plans Committee. Combined with considerations of launch availability and on-orbit operations, the Committee finds that exploration will benefit from the availability of a heavy-lift vehicle, the report said. In addition, heavy lift would enable the launching of large scientific observatories and more capable deep-space missions. It may also provide benefit in national security applications. The most recent focus of NASA s heavy lift effort is the Ares V cargo launch vehicle, which is part of the Constellation Program architecture for human exploration beyond low Earth orbit (LEO). The most recent point-of-departure configuration of the Ares V was approved during the Lunar Capabilities concept Review (LCCR) in 2008. The Ares V first stage propulsion system consists of a core stage powered by six commercial liquid hydrogen/liquid oxygen (LH2/LOX) RS-68 engines, flanked by two 5.5-segment solid rocket boosters (SRBs) based on the 5-segment Ares I first stage. The boosters use the same Polybutadiene Acrylonitrile (PBAN) propellant as the Space Shuttle. Atop the core stage is the Earth departure stage (EDS), powered by a single J-2X upper stage engine based on the Ares I upper stage engine. The 33-foot-diameter payload shroud can enclose a lunar lander, scientific instruments, or other payloads. Since LCCR, NASA has continued to refine the design through several successive internal design cycles. In addition, NASA has worked to quantify the broad national consensus for heavy lift in ways that, to the extent possible, meet the needs of the user community.

  4. NASA Heavy Lift Rotorcraft Systems Investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Wayne; Yamauchi, Gloria K.; Watts, Michael E.

    2005-01-01

    The NASA Heavy Lift Rotorcraft Systems Investigation examined in depth several rotorcraft configurations for large civil transport, designed to meet the technology goals of the NASA Vehicle Systems Program. The investigation identified the Large Civil Tiltrotor as the configuration with the best potential to meet the technology goals. The design presented was economically competitive, with the potential for substantial impact on the air transportation system. The keys to achieving a competitive aircraft were low drag airframe and low disk loading rotors; structural weight reduction, for both airframe and rotors; drive system weight reduction; improved engine efficiency; low maintenance design; and manufacturing cost comparable to fixed-wing aircraft. Risk reduction plans were developed to provide the strategic direction to support a heavy-lift rotorcraft development. The following high risk areas were identified for heavy lift rotorcraft: high torque, light weight drive system; high performance, structurally efficient rotor/wing system; low noise aircraft; and super-integrated vehicle management system.

  5. Heavy-lift launch vehicle propulsion considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ordway, Wayne L.

    1991-01-01

    Information on heavy-lift launch vehicle (HLLV) propulsion is given in viewgraph form. The objective was to investigate Earth to orbit options which minimize on-orbit operations and impacts to Space Station Freedom, have a reasonable capability to support Mars missions, and minimize mass in low Earth orbit. Potential synergism with the Space Transportation System is considered. Launch vehicle sizing results, HLLV thrust requirements, and propulsion system reliability are covered.

  6. Variable-Compliance Couplings For Heavy Lifting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerley, James; Eklund, Wayne; Burkhardt, Raymond; Richardson, George W.

    1992-01-01

    New coupling devices contain manual or electronically controlled, motorized drives that vary stiffnesses. Short, clamped lengths of cable provide compliance. Using threaded rods, cables stretched, relaxed, or folded to make coupling more or less stiff. In more-advanced device, brackets holding cables moved by stepping motor via gearbox and ball screw. Motor operates under computer control with position feedback. Control computer commands greater stiffness during operations requiring precise positioning, and greater compliance to accommodate manufacturing tolerances. Intended for use in wrist joints of robotic manipulators and other industrial equipment that must lift heavy objects.

  7. Current Status of NASA's Heavy Lift Plans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Creech, Steve

    2010-01-01

    Numerous studies since the Apollo Program of the 1960s have highlighted the benefits of - and the need for - a national heavy lift launch capability to support human exploration, science, national security, and commercial development of space. NASA's most recent and most refined effort to develop that heavy lift capability is the Ares V. Ares V is a key element of NASA's Constellation Program. It s overall goal s part of approved national space policy is to retire the Space Shuttle and develop its successor, complete the International Space Station, and resume human exploration beyond low Earth orbit (LEO), beginning with exploration of the Moon as a step to other destinations in the Solar System. Ares V s first role is that of cargo vehicle to carry a lunar lander into Earth orbit, rendezvous with astronauts launched on the smaller Ares I crew launch vehicle, and perform the trans lunar injection (TLI) mission to send the mated crew and lander vehicles to the Moon. The design reference missions (DRMs) envisioned for it also include direct lunar cargo flights and a human Mars mission. Although NASA's priority from the start of the Constellation Program to the present has been development of the Ares I and Orion crew vehicle to replace the retiring Shuttle fleet, the Ares team has made significant progress in understanding the performance, design trades, technology needs, mission scenarios, ground and flight operations, cost, and other factors associated with heavy lift development. The current reference configuration was selected during the Lunar Capabilities Concept Review (LCCR) in fall 2008. That design has served since then as a point of departure for further refinements and trades among five participating NASA field centers. Ares V development to date has benefited from progress on the Ares I due to commonality between the vehicles. The Ares I first stage completed a successful firing of a 5-segment solid rocket motor. The Ares I-X launch Numerous studies since the Apollo Program of the 1960s have highlighted the benefits of and the need for - a national heavy lift launch capability to support human exploration, science, national security, and commercial development of space. NASA s most recent and most refined effort to develop that heavy lift capability is the Ares V. Ares V is a key element of NASA s Constellation Program. It s overall goal s part of approved national space policy is to retire the Space Shuttle and develop its successor, complete the International Space Station, and resume human exploration beyond low Earth orbit (LEO), beginning with exploration of the Moon as a step to other destinations in the Solar System. Ares V s first role is that of cargo vehicle to carry a lunar lander into Earth orbit, rendezvous with astronauts launched on the smaller Ares I crew launch vehicle, and perform the trans lunar injection (TLI) mission to send the mated crew and lander vehicles to the Moon. The design reference missions (DRMs) envisioned for it also include direct lunar cargo flights and a human Mars mission. Although NASA s priority from the start of the Constellation Program to the present has been development of the Ares I and Orion crew vehicle to replace the retiring Shuttle fleet, the Ares team has made significant progress in understanding the performance, design trades, technology needs, mission scenarios, ground and flight operations, cost, and other factors associated with heavy lift development. The current reference configuration was selected during the Lunar Capabilities Concept Review (LCCR) in fall 2008. That design has served since then as a point of departure for further refinements and trades among five participating NASA field centers. Ares V development to date has benefited from progress on the Ares I due to commonality between the vehicles. The Ares I first stage completed a successful firing of a 5-segment solid rocket motor. The Ares I-X launch successfully demonstrated in suborbital flighhe ability to assemble, prepare, launch, control and recover the Ares I configuration and compare

  8. Heavy Lift Launch Capability with a New Hydrocarbon Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Threet, Grady E., Jr.; Holt, James B.; Philips, Alan D.; Garcia, Jessica A.

    2011-01-01

    The Advanced Concepts Office at NASA's George C. Marshall Space Flight Center was tasked to define the thrust requirement of a new liquid oxygen rich staged combustion cycle hydrocarbon engine that could be utilized in a launch vehicle to meet NASA s future heavy lift needs. Launch vehicle concepts were sized using this engine for different heavy lift payload classes. Engine out capabilities for one of the heavy lift configurations were also analyzed for increased reliability that may be desired for high value payloads or crewed missions. The applicability for this engine in vehicle concepts to meet military and commercial class payloads comparable to current ELV capability was also evaluated.

  9. Space station heavy lift launch vehicle utilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deryder, L. J.

    1988-01-01

    The use of Heavy Lift Launch Vehicles (HLLVs) for Space Station assembly, logistics. and resupply is explored. Potential HLLVs, including those based on the Titan, and Shuttle-derived vehicles (SDV), are discussed. The baseline Critical Evaluation Task Force (CETF) Space Station assembly sequence is described and compared with assembly options made possible through the use of HLLVs. The issues of cost, dual compatibility with the Space Shuttle Space Transportation System (STS), co-manifesting of payloads with other science missions cargo return, and ground handling and launch facilities are also considered. The main advantage achieved by using HLLVs are simplification of assembly procedures, added resupply capability, and increased assured access to space. The major disadvantages are increased orbital flight operations complexity, higher logistics costs, and additional ground handling/launch facility requirements. Also, there will not be any improvement in return cargo capacity, nor any addition to crew transport capabilities. Finally, the dual STS/HLLV compatibility should be maintained to minimize program risk. HLLV and Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle design must parallel that of the Space Station.

  10. Space station heavy lift launch vehicle utilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deryder, L. J.

    1988-04-01

    The use of Heavy Lift Launch Vehicles (HLLVs) for Space Station assembly, logistics. and resupply is explored. Potential HLLVs, including those based on the Titan, and Shuttle-derived vehicles (SDV), are discussed. The baseline Critical Evaluation Task Force (CETF) Space Station assembly sequence is described and compared with assembly options made possible through the use of HLLVs. The issues of cost, dual compatibility with the Space Shuttle Space Transportation System (STS), co-manifesting of payloads with other science missions cargo return, and ground handling and launch facilities are also considered. The main advantage achieved by using HLLVs are simplification of assembly procedures, added resupply capability, and increased assured access to space. The major disadvantages are increased orbital flight operations complexity, higher logistics costs, and additional ground handling/launch facility requirements. Also, there will not be any improvement in return cargo capacity, nor any addition to crew transport capabilities. Finally, the dual STS/HLLV compatibility should be maintained to minimize program risk. HLLV and Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle design must parallel that of the Space Station.

  11. Heavy Lift & Propulsion Technology (HL&PT) - Duration: 30 minutes.

    NASA Video Gallery

    Cris Guidi delivers a presentation from the Heavy Lift & Propulsion Technology (HL&PT) study team on May 25, 2010, at the NASA Exploration Enterprise Workshop held in Galveston, TX. The purpose of ...

  12. Civil markets for buoyant heavy-lift vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mettam, P. J.; Hansen, D.; Ardema, M. D.

    1981-01-01

    Worldwide civil markets for heavy lift airships were investigated. Substantial potential market demand was identified for payloads of from 13 to 800 tons. The largest markets appear to be in applications to relieve port congestion, construction of power generating plants, and, most notably, logging. Because of significant uncertainties both in vehicle and market characteristics, further analysis will be necessary to verify the identified market potential of heavy lift airship concepts.

  13. Heavy Lift Launch Capability with a New Hydrocarbon Engine (NHE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Threet, Grady E., Jr.; Holt, James B.; Philips, Alan D.; Garcia, Jessica A.

    2011-01-01

    The Advanced Concepts Office (ACO) at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center has analyzed over 2000 Ares V and other heavy lift concepts in the last 3 years. These concepts were analyzed for Lunar Exploration Missions, heavy lift capability to Low Earth Orbit (LEO) as well as exploratory missions to other near earth objects in our solar system. With the pending retirement of the Shuttle fleet, our nation will be without a civil heavy lift launch capability, so the future development of a new heavy lift capability is imperative for the exploration and large science missions our Agency has been tasked to deliver. The majority of the heavy lift concepts analyzed by ACO during the last 3 years have been based on liquid oxygen / liquid hydrogen (LOX/LH2) core stage and solids booster stage propulsion technologies (Ares V / Shuttle Derived and their variants). These concepts were driven by the decisions made from the results of the Exploration Systems Architecture Study (ESAS), which in turn, led to the Ares V launch vehicle that has been baselined in the Constellation Program. Now that the decision has been made at the Agency level to cancel Constellation, other propulsion options such as liquid hydrocarbon fuels are back in the exploration trade space. NASA is still planning exploration missions with the eventual destination of Mars and a new heavy lift launch vehicle is still required and will serve as the centerpiece of our nation s next exploration architecture s infrastructure. With an extensive launch vehicle database already developed on LOX/LH2 based heavy lift launch vehicles, ACO initiated a study to look at using a new high thrust (> 1.0 Mlb vacuum thrust) hydrocarbon engine as the primary main stage propulsion in such a launch vehicle.

  14. Weight and cost estimating relationships for heavy lift airships

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gray, D. W.

    1979-01-01

    Weight and cost estimating relationships, including additional parameters that influence the cost and performance of heavy-lift airships (HLA), are discussed. Inputs to a closed loop computer program, consisting of useful load, forward speed, lift module positive or negative thrust, and rotors and propellers, are examined. Detail is given to the HLA cost and weight program (HLACW), which computes component weights, vehicle size, buoyancy lift, rotor and propellar thrust, and engine horse power. This program solves the problem of interrelating the different aerostat, rotors, engines and propeller sizes. Six sets of 'default parameters' are left for the operator to change during each computer run enabling slight data manipulation without altering the program.

  15. Designs and Technology Requirements for Civil Heavy Lift Rotorcraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Wayne; Yamauchi, Gloria K.; Watts, Michael E.

    2006-01-01

    The NASA Heavy Lift Rotorcraft Systems Investigation examined in depth several rotorcraft configurations for large civil transport, designed to meet the technology goals of the NASA Vehicle Systems Program. The investigation identified the Large Civil Tiltrotor as the configuration with the best potential to meet the technology goals. The design presented was economically competitive, with the potential for substantial impact on the air transportation system. The keys to achieving a competitive aircraft were low drag airframe and low disk loading rotors; structural weight reduction, for both airframe and rotors; drive system weight reduction; improved engine efficiency; low maintenance design; and manufacturing cost comparable to fixed-wing aircraft. Risk reduction plans were developed to provide the strategic direction to support a heavy-lift rotorcraft development. The following high risk areas were identified for heavy lift rotorcraft: high torque, light weight drive system; high performance, structurally efficient rotor/wing system; low noise aircraft; and super-integrated vehicle management system.

  16. Large Scale Composite Manufacturing for Heavy Lift Launch Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stavana, Jacob; Cohen, Leslie J.; Houseal, Keth; Pelham, Larry; Lort, Richard; Zimmerman, Thomas; Sutter, James; Western, Mike; Harper, Robert; Stuart, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Risk reduction for the large scale composite manufacturing is an important goal to produce light weight components for heavy lift launch vehicles. NASA and an industry team successfully employed a building block approach using low-cost Automated Tape Layup (ATL) of autoclave and Out-of-Autoclave (OoA) prepregs. Several large, curved sandwich panels were fabricated at HITCO Carbon Composites. The aluminum honeycomb core sandwich panels are segments of a 1/16th arc from a 10 meter cylindrical barrel. Lessons learned highlight the manufacturing challenges required to produce light weight composite structures such as fairings for heavy lift launch vehicles.

  17. Small helicopter could find niche in remote heavy lift operations

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-21

    A new helicopter specifically designed for external vertical lift operations, such as moving transportable rig components or seismic equipment in remote locations, operates more efficiently than most other medium or heavy-lift helicopters, according to manufacturer Kaman Aerospace. The single-pilot helicopter was designed as an aerial truck for efficient lifting of heavy loads but with the operating costs of a light-lift craft. The K-Max helicopter can lift more pounds of cargo per gallon of fuel consumed than other similar helicopters, according to Kaman. For example, to transport a 5,000-lb load at an elevation of 8,000 ft, the K-Max helicopter consumes 85 gal of fuel/hr. Under the same load conditions, the next most efficient commercially available helicopter consumes 160 gal of fuel/hr and requires two pilots. The 4,500-lb helicopter can lift 5,000 lb to an altitude of 8,000 ft or about 6,000 lb at low altitudes.

  18. An economic comparison of three heavy lift airborne systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carson, B. H.

    1975-01-01

    Current state of art trends indicate that a 50-ton payload helicopter could be built by the end of the decade. However, alternative aircraft that employ LTA principles are shown to be more economically attractive, both in terms of investment and operating costs for the ultra-heavy lift role. Costing methodology follows rationale developed by airframe manufacturers, and includes learning curve factors.

  19. A survey of commercially available expendable heavy lift launch vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mihal, Joseph J., Jr.

    1994-06-01

    This thesis examines the launch vehicle options available to place a heavy payload, 10 tons, into a low-earth-orbit. The study provides the current status of the space launch vehicle market for heavy lift launchers. The following launchers are looked at in detail: Titan 3, Proton, Energia, Long March 3, Ariane 5, and the H-2. Vehicle design history and launch record are examined. Each launcher is then examined and broken down by stages, including the payload sections. A typical launch sequence is included for each vehicle. Finally, the cost of the various launchers is examined. Conclusions regarding the future need of heavy lift launch vehicles and a look at the current political environment is made.

  20. Current developments lighter than air systems. [heavy lift airships

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayer, N. J.

    1981-01-01

    Lighter than air aircraft (LTA) developments and research in the United States and other countries are reviewed. The emphasis in the U.S. is on VTOL airships capable of heavy lift, and on long endurance types for coastal maritime patrol. Design concepts include hybrids which combine heavier than air and LTA components and characteristics. Research programs are concentrated on aerodynamics, flight dynamics, and control of hybrid types.

  1. Heavy-Lift for a New Paradigm in Space Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, Bruce; Burkey, Martin

    2010-01-01

    NASA is developing an unprecedented heavy-lift capability to enable human exploration beyond low Earth orbit (LEO). This capability could also significantly enhance numerous other missions of scientific, national security, and commercial importance. That capability is currently configured as the Ares V cargo launch vehicle. This capability will eclipse the capability the United States lost with the retirement of the Saturn V. It is capable of launching roughly 53 percent more payload mass to trans lunar injection (TLI) and 30 percent more payload mass to LEO than its Apollo Program predecessor. Ares V is a major element of NASA's Constellation Program, which also includes the Ares I crew launch vehicle (CLV), Orion crew exploration vehicle (CEV), and a lunar lander for crew and cargo. As currently configured, Ares V will be capable of launching 413,800 pounds (187.7 mT) to LEO, 138,500 pounds (63 mT) direct to the Moon or 156,700 pounds (71.1 mT) in its dual-launch architecture role with Ares I. Its 33-foot (10 m) shroud provides unprecedented payload volume. Assessment of astronomy and planetary science payload requirements since spring 2008 has indicated that a Saturn V-class heavy-lift vehicle has the potential to support a range of payloads and missions. This vehicle configuration enables some missions previously considered difficult or impossible and enhances many others. Collaborative design/architecture inputs, exchanges, and analyses have already begun between scientists and payload developers. This early dialogue between NASA engineers and payload designers allows both communities to shape their designs and operational concepts to be mutually supportive to the extent possible with the least financial impact. This paper provides an overview of the capabilities of a heavy-lift vehicle to launch payloads with increased mass and/or volume and reduce technical and cost risk in both design and operations.

  2. Heavy Lift for National Security: The Ares V

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sumrall, Phil

    2009-01-01

    The NASA Ares Projects Office is developing the launch vehicles to move the United States and humanity beyond low earth orbit. Ares I is a crewed vehicle, and Ares V is a heavy lift vehicle being designed to launch cargo into LEO and transfer cargo and crews to the Moon. This is a snapshot of development and capabilities. Ares V is early in the requirements formulation stage of development pending the outcome of the Review of U.S. Human Space Flight Plans Committee and White House action. The Ares V vehicle will be considered a national asset, creating unmatched opportunities for human exploration, science, national security, and space business.

  3. Heavy Lift Vehicle (HLV) Avionics Flight Computing Architecture Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodson, Robert F.; Chen, Yuan; Morgan, Dwayne R.; Butler, A. Marc; Sdhuh, Joseph M.; Petelle, Jennifer K.; Gwaltney, David A.; Coe, Lisa D.; Koelbl, Terry G.; Nguyen, Hai D.

    2011-01-01

    A NASA multi-Center study team was assembled from LaRC, MSFC, KSC, JSC and WFF to examine potential flight computing architectures for a Heavy Lift Vehicle (HLV) to better understand avionics drivers. The study examined Design Reference Missions (DRMs) and vehicle requirements that could impact the vehicles avionics. The study considered multiple self-checking and voting architectural variants and examined reliability, fault-tolerance, mass, power, and redundancy management impacts. Furthermore, a goal of the study was to develop the skills and tools needed to rapidly assess additional architectures should requirements or assumptions change.

  4. Ares V: Progress Toward a Heavy Lift Capability for the Heavy Lift Capability for the Moon and Beyond

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sumrall, Phil

    2008-01-01

    The NASA Ares Projects are developing the launch vehicles to move the United States and humanity beyond low earth orbit. Ares 1 is a crewed vehicle, and Ares V is a heavy-lift vehicle being designed to send crews and cargo to the Moon. The Ares V design is evolving and maturing toward an authority-to-proceed milestone in 2011. The Ares V vehicle will be considered a national asset, opening new worlds and creating unmatched opportunities for human exploration, science, national security, and space business.

  5. Study of Civil Markets for Heavy-Lift Airships

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mettam, P. J.; Hansen, D.; Chabot, C.; Byrne, R.

    1978-01-01

    The civil markets for heavy lift airships (HLAs) were defined by first identifying areas of most likely application. The operational suitability of HLAs for the applications identified were then assessed. The operating economics of HLAs were established and the market size for HLA services estimated by comparing HLA operating and economic characteristics with those of competing modes. The sensitivities of the market size to HLA characteristics were evaluated and the number and sizes of the vehicles required to service the more promising markets were defined. Important characteristics for future HLAs are discussed that were derived from the study of each application, including operational requirements, features enhancing profitability, military compatibility, improved design requirements, approach to entry into service, and institutional implications for design and operation.

  6. Ares V: Refining a New Heavy Lift Capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Creech, Steve; Sumrall, Phil

    2008-01-01

    The Ares V cargo launch vehicle represents a significant new national commitment to expand human space exploration beyond low Earth orbit. Viewed more broadly, this new heavy-lift rocket will be an advancement over the national strategic capability lost when the Saturn V program ended more than three decades ago. The Ares V is one of two new launch vehicles being designed by NASA to support U.S. Space Exploration Policy. NASA selected the Ares I crew launch vehicle and the Ares V (Figure 1) during extensive independent and internal architecture and vehicle trade studies to complete the International Space Station, retire the current Space Shuttle fleet, return to the Moon by 2020, and journey to destinations beyond. These vehicles share components derived from the Apollo-era Saturn, Space Shuttle, and contemporary launch vehicle programs to provide safe, affordable, reliable, versatile sustainable space transportation to support national space goals for decades to come.

  7. Heavy Lift Launch Vehicles for 1995 and Beyond

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toelle, R. (Compiler)

    1985-01-01

    A Heavy Lift Launch Vehicle (HLLV) designed to deliver 300,000 lb to a 540 n mi circular polar orbit may be required to meet national needs for 1995 and beyond. The vehicle described herein can accommodate payload envelopes up to 50 ft diameter by 200 ft in length. Design requirements include reusability for the more expensive components such as avionics and propulsion systems, rapid launch turnaround time, minimum hardware inventory, stage and component flexibility and commonality, and low operational costs. All ascent propulsion systems utilize liquid propellants, and overall launch vehicle stack height is minimized while maintaining a reasonable vehicle diameter. The ascent propulsion systems are based on the development of a new liquid oxygen/hydrocarbon booster engine and liquid oxygen/liquid hydrogen upper stage engine derived from today's SSME technology. Wherever possible, propulsion and avionics systems are contained in reusable propulsion/avionics modules that are recovered after each launch.

  8. Impact of Airfoils on Aerodynamic Optimization of Heavy Lift Rotorcraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acree, Cecil W., Jr.; Martin Preston B.; Romander, Ethan A.

    2006-01-01

    Rotor airfoils were developed for two large tiltrotor designs, the Large Civil Tilt Rotor (LCTR) and the Military Heavy Tilt Rotor (MHTR). The LCTR was the most promising of several rotorcraft concepts produced by the NASA Heavy Lift Rotorcraft Systems Investigation. It was designed to carry 120 passengers for 1200 nm, with performance of 350 knots cruise at 30,000 ft altitude. A parallel design, the MHTR, had a notional mission of 40,000 Ib payload, 500 nm range, and 300 knots cruise at 4000 ft, 95 F. Both aircraft were sized by the RC code developed by the U. S. Army Aeroflightdynamics Directorate (AFDD). The rotors were then optimized using the CAMRAD II comprehensive analysis code. Rotor airfoils were designed for each aircraft, and their effects on performance analyzed by CAMRAD II. Airfoil design criteria are discussed for each rotor. Twist and taper optimization are presented in detail for each rotor, with discussions of performance improvements provided by the new airfoils, compared to current technology airfoils. Effects of stall delay and blade flexibility on performance are also included.

  9. Ground and Range Operations for a Heavy-Lift Vehicle: Preliminary Thoughts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rabelo, Luis; Zhu, Yanshen; Compton, Jeppie; Bardina, Jorge

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses the ground and range operations for a Shuttle derived Heavy-Lift Vehicle being launched from the Kennedy Space Center on the Eastern range. Comparisons will be made between the Shuttle and a heavy lift configuration (SLS-ETF MPCV April 2011) by contrasting their subsystems. The analysis will also describe a simulation configuration with the potential to be utilized for heavy lift vehicle processing/range simulation modeling and the development of decision-making systems utilized by the range. In addition, a simple simulation model is used to provide the required critical thinking foundations for this preliminary analysis.

  10. Shuttle Derived In-Line Heavy Lift Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenwood, Terry; Twichell, Wallace; Ferrari, Daniel; Kuck, Frederick

    2005-01-01

    This paper introduces an evolvable Space Shuttle derived family of launch vehicles. It details the steps in the evolution of the vehicle family, noting how the evolving lift capability compares with the evolving lift requirements. A system description is given for each vehicle. The cost of each development stage is described. Also discussed are demonstration programs, the merits of the SSME vs. an expendable rocket engine (RS-68), and finally, the next steps needed to refine this concept.

  11. Feasibility study of modern airships, phase 2. Volume 1: Heavy lift airship vehicle. Book 1: Overall study results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    A Heavy Lift Airship combining buoyant lift derived from a conventional helium-filled non-rigid airship hull with propulsive lift derived from conventional helicopter rotors was investigated. The buoyant lift essentially offsets the empty weight of the vehicle; thus the rotor thrust is available for useful load and to maneuver and control the vehicle. Such a vehicle is capable of providing a quantum increase in current vertical lifting capability. Certain critical deficiencies of past airships are significantly minimized or eliminated.

  12. Engine-Out Capabilities Assessment of Heavy Lift Launch Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holladay, Jon; Baggett, Keithe; Thrasher, Chad; Bellamy, K. Scott; Feldman, Stuart

    2012-01-01

    Engine-out (EO) is a condition that might occur during flight due to the failure of one or more engines. Protection against this occurrence can be called engine-out capability (EOC) whereupon significantly improved loss of mission may occur, in addition to reduction in performance and increased cost. A standardized engine-out capability has not been studied exhaustively as it pertains to space launch systems. This work presents results for a specific vehicle design with specific engines, but also uniquely provides an approach to realizing the necessity of EOC for any launch vehicle system design. A derived top-level approach to engine-out philosophy for a heavy lift launch vehicle is given herein, based on an historical assessment of launch vehicle capabilities. The methodology itself is not intended to present a best path forward, but instead provides three parameters for assessment of a particular vehicle. Of the several parameters affected by this EOC, the three parameters of interest in this research are reliability (Loss of Mission (LOM) and Loss of Crew (LOC)), vehicle performance, and cost. The intent of this effort is to provide insight into the impacts of EO capability on these parameters. The effects of EOC on reliability, performance and cost are detailed, including how these important launch vehicle metrics can be combined to assess what could be considered overall launch vehicle affordability. In support of achieving the first critical milestone (Mission Concept Review) in the development of the Space Launch System (SLS), a team assessed two-stage, large-diameter vehicles that utilized liquid oxygen (LOX)-RP propellants in the First Stage and LOX/LH2 propellant in the Upper Stage. With multiple large thrust-class engines employed on the stages, engine-out capability could be a significant driver to mission success. It was determined that LOM results improve by a factor of five when assuming EOC for both Core Stage (CS) (first stage) and Upper Stage (US) EO, assuming a reference launch vehicle with 5 RP engines on the CS and 3 LOX/LH2 engines on the US. The benefit of adding both CS and US engine-out capability is significant. When adding EOC for either first or second stages, there is less than a 20% benefit. Performance analysis has shown that if the vehicle is not protected for EO during the first part of the flight and only protected in the later part of the flight, there is a diminishing performance penalty, as indicated by failures occurring in the first stage at different times. This work did not consider any options to abort. While adding an engine for EOC drives cost upward, the impact depends on the number of needed engines manufactured per year and the launch manifest. There is a significant cost savings if multiple flights occur within one year. Flying two flights per year would cost approximately $4,000 per pound less than the same configuration with one flight per year, assuming both CS and US EOC. The cost is within 15% of the cost of one flight per year with no engine-out capability for the same vehicle. This study can be extended to other launch vehicles. While the numbers given in this paper are specific to a certain vehicle configuration, the process requires only a high level of data to allow an analyst to draw conclusions. The weighting of each of the identified parameters will determine the optimization of each launch vehicle. The results of this engine-out assessment provide a means to understand this optimization while maintaining an unbiased perspective.

  13. Aeromechanical stability analysis of a multirotor vehicle model representing a hybrid heavy lift airship (HHLA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venkatesan, C.; Friedmann, P. P.

    1984-01-01

    Hybrid Heavy Lift Airship (HHLA) is a proposed candidate vehicle aimed at providing heavy lift capability at low cost. This vehicle consists of a buoyant envelope attached to a supporting structure to which four rotor systems, taken from existing helicopters are attached. Nonlinear equations of motion capable of modelling the dynamics of this coupled multi-rotor/support frame/vehicle system have been developed. Using these equations of motion the aeroelastic and aeromechanical stability analysis is performed aimed at identifying potential instabilities which could occur for this type of vehicle. The coupling between various blade, supporting structure and rigid body modes is identified. Furthermore, the effects of changes in buoyancy ratio (Buoyant lift/total weight) on the dynamic characteristics of the vehicle are studied. The dynamic effects found are of considerable importance for the design of such vehicles. The analytical model developed is also useful for studying the aeromechanical stability of single rotor and tandem rotor coupled rotor/fuselage systems.

  14. Aeromechanical stability analysis of a multirotor vehicle with application to hybrid heavy lift helicopter dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venkatesan, C.; Friedmann, P. P.

    1984-01-01

    The Hybrid Heavy Lift Helicopter (HHLH) is a potential candidate vehicle aimed at providing heavy lift capability at low cost. This vehicle consists of a buoyant envelope attached to a supporting structure. Four rotor systems are also attached to the supporting structure. Nonlinear equations of motion capable of modeling the dynamics of this multi-rotor/support frame/vehicle system have been developed and used to study the fundamental aeromechanical stability characteristics of this class of vehicles. The mechanism of coupling between the blades, supporting structure and rigid body modes is identified and the effect of buoyancy ratio (buoyant lift/total weight) on the vehicle dynamics is studied. It is shown that dynamics effects have a major role in the design of such vehicles. The analytical model developed is also useful for studying the aeromechanical stability of single rotor and tandem rotor coupled rotor/fuselage systems.

  15. Two-axis hydraulic joint for high speed, heavy lift robotic operations

    SciTech Connect

    Vaughn, M.R.; Robinett, R.D.; Phelan, J.R.; VanZuiden, D.M.

    1994-04-01

    A hydraulically driven universal joint was developed for a heavy lift, high speed nuclear waste remediation application. Each axis is driven by a simple hydraulic cylinder controlled by a jet pipe servovalve. Servovalve behavior is controlled by a force feedback control system, which damps the hydraulic resonance. A prototype single joint robot was built and tested. A two joint robot is under construction.

  16. Vehicle concepts and technology requirements for buoyant heavy-lift systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ardema, M. D.

    1981-01-01

    Several buoyant-vehicle (airship) concepts proposed for short hauls of heavy payloads are described. Numerous studies identified operating cost and payload capacity advantages relative to existing or proposed heavy-lift helicopters for such vehicles. Applications involving payloads of from 15 tons up to 800 tons were identified. The buoyant quad-rotor concept is discussed in detail, including the history of its development, current estimates of performance and economics, currently perceived technology requirements, and recent research and technology development. It is concluded that the buoyant quad-rotor, and possibly other buoyant vehicle concepts, has the potential of satisfying the market for very heavy vertical lift but that additional research and technology development are necessary. Because of uncertainties in analytical prediction methods and small-scale experimental measurements, there is a strong need for large or full-scale experiments in ground test facilities and, ultimately, with a flight research vehicle.

  17. Performance of Advanced Heavy-Lift, High-Speed Rotorcraft Configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Wayne; Yeo, Hyeonsoo; Acree, C. W., Jr.

    2007-01-01

    The aerodynamic performance of rotorcraft designed for heavy-lift and high-speed cruise is examined. Configurations considered include the tiltrotor, the compound helicopter, and the lift-offset rotor. Design conditions are hover and 250-350 knot cruise, at 5k/ISA+20oC (civil) or 4k/95oF (military); with cruise conditions at 4000 or 30,000 ft. The performance was calculated using the comprehensive analysis CAMRAD II, emphasizing rotor optimization and performance, including wing-rotor interference. Aircraft performance was calculated using estimates of the aircraft drag and auxiliary propulsion efficiency. The performance metric is total power, in terms of equivalent aircraft lift-to-drag ratio L/D = WV/P for cruise, and figure of merit for hover.

  18. A test manager's perspective of a test concept for a heavy lift vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pargeon, John I., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    The developmment of a test concept is a significant part of the advanced planning activities accomplished for the Initial Operational Test and Evaluation (IOT&E) of new systems. A test concept is generally viewed as a description, including rationale, of the test structure, evaluation methodology and management approach required to plan and conduct the IOT&E of a program such as a new heavy lift launch vehicle system. The test concept as presented in this paper is made up of an operations area, a test area, an evaluation area, and a management area. The description presented here is written from the perspective of one test manager, and represents his views of a possible framework of a test concept using examples for a potential IOT&E of a heavy lift launch vehicle.

  19. A test manager's perspective of a test concept for a heavy lift vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pargeon, John I., Jr.

    1990-09-01

    The developmment of a test concept is a significant part of the advanced planning activities accomplished for the Initial Operational Test and Evaluation (IOT&E) of new systems. A test concept is generally viewed as a description, including rationale, of the test structure, evaluation methodology and management approach required to plan and conduct the IOT&E of a program such as a new heavy lift launch vehicle system. The test concept as presented in this paper is made up of an operations area, a test area, an evaluation area, and a management area. The description presented here is written from the perspective of one test manager, and represents his views of a possible framework of a test concept using examples for a potential IOT&E of a heavy lift launch vehicle.

  20. Lunar Lander Offloading Operations Using a Heavy-Lift Lunar Surface Manipulator System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jefferies, Sharon A.; Doggett, William R.; Chrone, Jonathan; Angster, Scott; Dorsey, John T.; Jones, Thomas C.; Haddad, Michael E.; Helton, David A.; Caldwell, Darrell L., Jr.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the feasibility of using a heavy-lift variant of the Lunar Surface Manipulator System (LSMS-H) to lift and handle a 12 metric ton payload. Design challenges and requirements particular to handling heavy cargo were examined. Differences between the previously developed first-generation LSMS and the heavy-lift version are highlighted. An in-depth evaluation of the tip-over risk during LSMS-H operations has been conducted using the Synergistic Engineering Environment and potential methods to mitigate that risk are identified. The study investigated three specific offloading scenarios pertinent to current Lunar Campaign studies. The first involved offloading a large element, such as a habitat or logistics module, onto a mobility chassis with a lander-mounted LSMS-H and offloading that payload from the chassis onto the lunar surface with a surface-mounted LSMS-H. The second scenario involved offloading small pressurized rovers with a lander-mounted LSMS-H. The third scenario involved offloading cargo from a third-party lander, such as the proposed ESA cargo lander, with a chassis-mounted LSMS-H. In all cases, the analyses show that the LSMS-H can perform the required operations safely. However, Chariot-mounted operations require the addition of stabilizing outriggers, and when operating from the Lunar surface, LSMS-H functionality is enhanced by adding a simple ground anchoring system.

  1. Perceived heaviness in the context of Newton's Second Law: Combined effects of muscle activity and lifting kinematics.

    PubMed

    Waddell, Morgan L; Fine, Justin M; Likens, Aaron D; Amazeen, Eric L; Amazeen, Polemnia G

    2016-03-01

    Researchers generally agree that perceived heaviness is based on the actions associated with unsupported holding. Psychophysical research has supported this idea, as has psychophysiological research connecting muscle activity to the perceptions of heaviness and effort. However, the role of muscle activity in the context of the resulting motions has not been investigated. In the present study, perceptions of heaviness were recorded along with the electromyogram (EMG) of the lifting muscle and peak acceleration of the lift. Consistent with predictions derived from Newton's Second Law of motion (Force=Mass Acceleration), normal and illusory perceptions of heaviness were a function of the ratio of muscle activity to lifting acceleration. These results identify a psychophysiological mechanism for heaviness perception based on the forces and motions associated with unsupported holding. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26436526

  2. Exploration Launch Projects RS-68B Engine Requirements for NASA's Heavy Lift Ares V

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sumrall, John P.; McArthur, J. Craig; Lacey, Matt

    2007-01-01

    NASA's Vision for Exploration requires a safe, efficient, reliable, and versatile launch vehicle capable of placing large payloads into Earth orbit for transfer to the Moon and destinations beyond. The Ares V Cargo Launch Vehicle (CaLV) will provide this heavy lift capability. The Ares V launch concept is shown in Fig. 1. When it stands on the launch pad at Kennedy Space Center late in the next decade, the Ares V stack will be almost 360 feet tall. As currently envisioned, it will lift 133,000 to 144,000 pounds to trans-lunar injection, depending on the length of loiter time on Earth orbit. This presentation will provide an overview of the Constellation architecture, the Ares launch vehicles, and, specifically, the latest developments in the RS-68B engine for the Ares V.

  3. Ares V: Designing the Heavy Lift Capability to Explore the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sumrall, John P.; McArthur, Craig

    2007-01-01

    NASA's Vision for Exploration requires a safe, efficient, reliable, and versatile launch vehicle capable ofplacing large payloads into Earth orbit for transfer to the Moon and destinations beyond. The Ares V Cargo Launch Vehicle (CaLV) will provide this heavy lift capability. The Ares V launch concept is shown. When it stands on the launch pad at Kennedy Space Center late in the next decade, the Ares V stack will be almost 360 feet fall. As currently envisioned, it will lift 136 metric tons (300,000 pounds) to a 30-by-160 nautical mile orbit at 28.5-degrees inclination, or 55 metric tons (120,000 pounds) to trans-lunar injection. This paper will cover the latest developments in the Ares V project in 2007 and discuss future activities.

  4. Definition of avionics concepts for a heavy lift cargo vehicle, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    A cost effective, multiuser simulation, test, and demonstration facility to support the development of avionics systems for future space vehicles is defined. The technology needs and requirements of future Heavy Lift Cargo Vehicles (HLCVs) are analyzed and serve as the basis for sizing of the avionics facility although the lab is not limited in use to support of HLCVs. Volume 2 is the technical volume and provides the results of the vehicle avionics trade studies, the avionics lab objectives, the lab's functional requirements and design, physical facility considerations, and a summary cost estimate.

  5. Foundation for Heavy Lift: Early Developments in the Ares V Cargo Launch Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sumrall, John P.; McArthur, J. Craig

    2007-01-01

    The Ares V Cargo Launch Vehicle (CaLV) is NASA's primary vessel for safe, reliable delivery of the Lunar Surface Access Module (LSAM) and other resources into Earth orbit, as articulated in the U.S. Vision for Space Exploration.' The Ares V launch concept is shown. The foundation for this heavy-lift companion to the Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV) is taking shape within NASA and with its government and industry partners. This paper will address accomplishments in the Ares V Launch Vehicle during 2006 and 2007 and offer a preview of future activities.

  6. Foundation for Heavy Lift - Early Developments in the Ares V Launch Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McArthur, J. Craig; Pannell, Bill; Lacey, Matt

    2007-01-01

    The Ares V Cargo Launch Vehicle (CaLV) is NASA's primary vessel for safe, reliable delivery of the Lunar Surface Access Module (LSAM) and other resources into Earth orbit, as articulated in the U.S. Vision for Space Exploration. The Ares V launch concept is shown. The foundation for this heavy-lift companion to the Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV) is taking shape within NASA and with its government and industry partners. This paper will address accomplishments in the Ares V Launch Vehicle during 2006 and 2007 and offer a preview of future activities.

  7. Definition of avionics concepts for a heavy lift cargo vehicle. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    A cost effective, multiuser simulation, test, and demonstration facility to support the development of avionics systems for future space vehicles is examined. The technology needs and requirements of future Heavy Lift Cargo Vehicles (HLCVs) are analyzed and serve as the basis for sizing of the avionics facility, although the lab is not limited in use to support of HLCVs. Volume 1 provides a summary of the vehicle avionics trade studies, the avionics lab objectives, a summary of the lab's functional requirements and design, physical facility considerations, and cost estimates.

  8. [The occupational risks and pathologies due to the manual lifting of patients in Italian legislation].

    PubMed

    Ricci, M G; Battevi, N

    1999-01-01

    Current Italian legislation establishes all necessary details of intervention procedures aimed at elimination or substantial reduction of risk due to manual lifting of patients. Chapter V of Law No 626/94, which was a thoroughly innovative step in the field of safety, hygiene and prevention at the workplace, in 3 articles and one annex incorporated Community Directive 269/90 into Italian legislation. The model to approach manual load handling, whose definition can in all respects be transferred to health facilities where load means patients who are not self-sufficient in movement, sets out a precise strategy of actions. The first action is automation of the "production process", which is inapplicable in the health care sector; the second action is to provide "aids", which is perfectly applicable to the health care sector. A further action foreseen by the regulations that should be taken into consideration in addressing the problem of manual patient handling from the point of view of prevention is found in the Law (Presidential Decree) of 14/1/97 concerning criteria of accreditation of health facilities, which also refers to the regulations contained in Law 626/94. As regards the insurance coverage of acute or chronic impairment due to manual handling of loads/patients, these aspects are still not contemplated in any regulations. This contradiction became even more evident with the introduction of Law No 626/94 where in Chapter V reference is made to "dorsal-lumbar lesions". Although these lesions are recognized legally in the acute form (accidents), there are also degenerative diseases with chronic development, and the latter are not given any protection apart from the theoretical recognition contained in the Constitutional Court Sentence 179/88. It is to be hoped that the review process of the list of compensable occupational diseases will address this problem, too, so that it can be solved as soon as possible. PMID:10371810

  9. Advanced transportation system studies. Technical area 2: Heavy lift launch vehicle development. Volume 2; Technical Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Sections 10 to 13 of the Advanced Transportation System Studies final report are included in this volume. Section 10 contains a copy of an executive summary that was prepared by Lockheed Space Operations Company (LSOC) to document their support to the TA-2 contract during the first-year period of performance of the contract, May 1992 through May 1993. LSOC participated on the TA-2 contract as part of the concurrent engineering launch system definition team, and provided outstanding heavy lift launch vehicle (HLLV) ground operations requirements and concept assessments for Lockheed Missiles and Space Company (LMSC) through an intercompany work transfer as well as providing specific HLLV ground operations assessments at the direction of NASA KSC through KSC funding that was routed to the TA-2 contract. Section 11 contains a copy of a vehicle-independent, launch system health management requirements assessment. The purpose of the assessment was to define both health management requirements and the associated interfaces between a generic advanced transportation system launch vehicle and all related elements of the entire transportation system, including the ground segment. Section 12 presents the major TA-2 presentations provided to summarize the significant results and conclusions that were developed over the course of the contract. Finally, Section 13 presents the design and assessment report on the first lunar outpost heavy lift launch vehicle.

  10. A Near-Term, High-Confidence Heavy Lift Launch Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothschild, William J.; Talay, Theodore A.

    2009-01-01

    The use of well understood, legacy elements of the Space Shuttle system could yield a near-term, high-confidence Heavy Lift Launch Vehicle that offers significant performance, reliability, schedule, risk, cost, and work force transition benefits. A side-mount Shuttle-Derived Vehicle (SDV) concept has been defined that has major improvements over previous Shuttle-C concepts. This SDV is shown to carry crew plus large logistics payloads to the ISS, support an operationally efficient and cost effective program of lunar exploration, and offer the potential to support commercial launch operations. This paper provides the latest data and estimates on the configurations, performance, concept of operations, reliability and safety, development schedule, risks, costs, and work force transition opportunities for this optimized side-mount SDV concept. The results presented in this paper have been based on established models and fully validated analysis tools used by the Space Shuttle Program, and are consistent with similar analysis tools commonly used throughout the aerospace industry. While these results serve as a factual basis for comparisons with other launch system architectures, no such comparisons are presented in this paper. The authors welcome comparisons between this optimized SDV and other Heavy Lift Launch Vehicle concepts.

  11. NASA's Space Launch System: A Heavy-Lift Platform for Entirely New Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Creech, Stephen D.

    2012-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Space Launch System (SLS) will contribute a new capability for human space flight and scientific missions beyond low-Earth orbit (LEO). The SLS Program, managed at NASA s Marshall Space Flight Center, will develop the heavy-lift vehicle that will launch the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV), equipment, supplies, and major science missions for exploration and discovery. Orion will carry crews to space, provide emergency abort capability, sustain the crew during space travel, and provide safe reentry from deep-space return velocities. Supporting Orion s first autonomous flight to lunar orbit and back in 2017 and its first crewed flight in 2021, the SLS ultimately offers a flexible platform for both human and scientific exploration. The SLS plan leverages legacy infrastructure and hardware in NASA s inventory, as well as continues with advanced technologies now in development, to deliver an initial 70 metric ton (t) lift capability in 2017, evolving to a 130-t capability, using a block upgrade approach. This paper will give an overview of the SLS design and management approach against a backdrop of the missions it will support. It will detail the plan to deliver the initial SLS capability to the launch pad in the near term, as well as summarize the innovative approaches the SLS team is applying to deliver a safe, affordable, and sustainable long-range capability for entirely new missions-opening a new realm of knowledge and a world of possibilities for multiple partners. Design reference missions that the SLS is being planned to support include Mars, Jupiter, Lagrange Points, and near-Earth asteroids (NEAs), among others. The Agency is developing its mission manifest in parallel with the development of a heavy-lift flagship that will dramatically increase total lift and volume capacity beyond current launch vehicle options, reduce trip times, and provide a robust platform for conducting new missions destined to rewrite textbooks with the information they deliver, while creating a framework for further collaboration among domestic and international partners, and potentially spurring economic expansion into new markets.

  12. NASA's Space Launch System: A Heavy-Lift Platform for Entirely New Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Creech, Stephen A.

    2012-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration s (NASA's) Space Launch System (SLS) will contribute a new capability for human space flight and scientific missions beyond low-Earth orbit. The SLS Program, managed at NASA s Marshall Space Fight Center, will develop the heavy-lift vehicle that will launch the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV), equipment, supplies, and major science missions. Orion will carry crews to space, provide emergency abort capability, sustain the crew during space travel, and provide safe reentry from deep-space return velocities. Supporting Orion s first autonomous flight to lunar orbit and back in 2017 and its first crewed flight in 2021, the SLS ultimately offers a flexible platform for both human and scientific exploration. The SLS plan leverages legacy infrastructure and hardware in NASA s inventory, as well as continues with advanced propulsion technologies now in development, to deliver an initial 70 metric ton (t) lift capability in 2017, evolving to a 130-t capability after 2021, using a block upgrade approach. This paper will give an overview of the SLS design and management approach against a backdrop of the missions it will support. It will detail the plan to deliver the initial SLS capability to the launch pad in the near term, as well as summarize the innovative approaches the SLS team is applying to deliver a safe, affordable, and sustainable long-range capability for entirely new missions opening a new realm of knowledge and a world of possibilities for multiple partners. Design reference missions that the SLS is being planned to support include asteroids, Lagrange Points, and Mars, among others. The Agency is developing its mission manifest in parallel with the development of a heavy-lift flagship that will dramatically increase total lift and volume capacity beyond current launch vehicle options, reduce trip times, and provide a robust platform for conducting new missions destined to rewrite textbooks with the information they deliver, while creating a framework for further collaboration among domestic and international partners, and potentially spurring economic expansion into new markets.

  13. Next Generation Heavy-Lift Launch Vehicle: Large Diameter, Hydrocarbon-Fueled Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holliday, Jon; Monk, Timothy; Adams, Charles; Campbell, Ricky

    2012-01-01

    With the passage of the 2010 NASA Authorization Act, NASA was directed to begin the development of the Space Launch System (SLS) as a follow-on to the Space Shuttle Program. The SLS is envisioned as a heavy lift launch vehicle that will provide the foundation for future large-scale, beyond low Earth orbit (LEO) missions. Supporting the Mission Concept Review (MCR) milestone, several teams were formed to conduct an initial Requirements Analysis Cycle (RAC). These teams identified several vehicle concept candidates capable of meeting the preliminary system requirements. One such team, dubbed RAC Team 2, was tasked with identifying launch vehicles that are based on large stage diameters (up to the Saturn V S-IC and S-II stage diameters of 33 ft) and utilize high-thrust liquid oxygen (LOX)/RP engines as a First Stage propulsion system. While the trade space for this class of LOX/RP vehicles is relatively large, recent NASA activities (namely the Heavy Lift Launch Vehicle Study in late 2009 and the Heavy Lift Propulsion Technology Study of 2010) examined specific families within this trade space. Although the findings from these studies were incorporated in the Team 2 activity, additional branches of the trade space were examined and alternative approaches to vehicle development were considered. Furthermore, Team 2 set out to define a highly functional, flexible, and cost-effective launch vehicle concept. Utilizing this approach, a versatile two-stage launch vehicle concept was chosen as a preferred option. The preferred vehicle option has the capability to fly in several different configurations (e.g. engine arrangements) that gives this concept an inherent operational flexibility which allows the vehicle to meet a wide range of performance requirements without the need for costly block upgrades. Even still, this concept preserves the option for evolvability should the need arise in future mission scenarios. The foundation of this conceptual design is a focus on low cost and effectiveness rather than efficiency or cutting-edge technology. This paper details the approach and process, as well as the trade space analysis, leading to the preferred vehicle concept.

  14. Structure and properties of polyethylene films used in heavy lift balloons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khoury, F.; Crissman, J. M.; Fanconi, B. M.; Wagner, H. L.; Botz, L. H.

    1985-01-01

    The following features of five polyethylene films used by NASA in the construction of heavy lift balloons have been examined: molecular weight, molecular weight distribution, branching, melting behavior, density, surface texture, birefringence, orientation of crystalline regions, unlaxial deformation in the machine and transverse directions, and the effect of sample geometry and strain rate on deformation behavior. The goal of this exploratory study was to determine whether there are significant differences in any of the above mentioned features, or combination of features between the films. The acquisition of such information is a first step towards determining whether there are any specific correlations between film characteristics and the incidence of catastrophic failure of balloons during ascent through the troposphere. This exploratory study has resulted in the identification of similarities and differences between various features of the films.

  15. Heavy-lift vehicle-launched Space Station method and apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wade, Donald C. (Inventor); Delafuente, Horacio M. (Inventor); Berka, Reginald B. (Inventor); Rickman, Steven L. (Inventor); Castro, Edgar O. (Inventor); Nagy, Kornel (Inventor); Wesselski, Clarence J. (Inventor); Pelischek, Timothy E. (Inventor); Schliesing, John A. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    Methods and apparatus are provided for a single heavy-lift launch to place a complete, operational space station on-orbit. A payload including the space station takes the place of a shuttle orbiter using the launch vehicle of the shuttle orbiter. The payload includes a forward shroud, a core module, a propulsion module, and a transition module between the core module and the propulsion module. The essential subsystems are preintegrated and verified on Earth. The core module provides means for attaching international modules with minimum impact to the overall design. The space station includes six control moment gyros for selectably operating in either LVLH (local-vertical local-horizontal) or SI (solar inertial) flight modes.

  16. The Business Case for Spiral Development in Heavy Lift Launch Vehicle Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farr, Rebecca A.; Christensen, David L.; Keith, Edward L.

    2005-01-01

    Performance capabilities of a specific combination of the Space Shuttle external tank and various liquid engines in an in-line configuration, two-stage core vehicle with multiple redesigned solid rocket motor strap-ons are reexamined. This concept proposes using existing assets, hardware, and capabilities that are already crew-rated, flight certified, being manufactured under existing contracts, have a long history of component and system ground testing, and have been flown for over 20 yr. This paper goes beyond describing potential performance capabilities of specific components to discuss the overall system feasibility-from end to end, start to finish-describing the inherent cost advantages of the Spiral Development concept, which builds on existing capabilities and assets, as opposed to starting up a "fresh sheet" heavy-lift launch vehicle program from scratch.

  17. Final design report of a personnel launch system and a family of heavy lift launch vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tupa, James; Merritt, Debbie; Riha, David; Burton, Lee; Kubinski, Russell; Drake, Kerry; Mann, Darrin; Turner, Ken

    1991-01-01

    The objective was to design both a Personnel Launch System (PLS) and a family of Heavy Lift Launch Vehicles (FHLLVs) that provide low cost and efficient operation in missions not suited for the Shuttle. The PLS vehicle is designed primarily for space station crew rotation and emergency crew return. The final design of the PLS vehicle and its interior is given. The mission of the FHLLVs is to place large, massive payloads into Earth orbit with payload flexibility being considered foremost in the design. The final design of three launch vehicles was found to yield a payload capacity range from 20 to 200 mt. These designs include the use of multistaged, high thrust liquid engines mounted on the core stages of the rocket.

  18. Simulation of Heavy Lift Airship dynamics over large ranges of incidence and speed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tischler, M. B.; Jex, H. R.; Ringland, R. F.

    1981-01-01

    A nonlinear, multibody, six-degrees-of-freedom digital simulation has been developed to study generic Heavy Lift Airship (HLA) dynamics and control. The basic aerodynamic functions developed to model the hull, tail, and rotor loads continuously over all incidence ranges are reviewed and applied to a Quadrotor HLA with a low fineness ratio hull and a small vee-tail. Trim calculations for a test vehicle suggest control power deficiencies in crosswind stationkeeping for the unloaded vehicle. Gust responses show the importance of correctly calculating loads due to accelerated relative motion of air and hull. Numerically linearized dynamics for the test vehicle show the existence of a divergent yaw mode, and an oscillatory pitch mode whose stability characteristics are sensitive to flight speed. A considerable improvement in the vehicle's stability and response results from a simple multi-axis closed-loop control system operating on the rotors and propeller blades.

  19. A New Heavy-Lift Capability for Space Exploration: NASA's Ares V Cargo Launch Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sumrall, John P.; McArthur, J. Craig

    2007-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is developing new launch systems and preparing to retire the Space Shuttle by 2010, as directed in the United States (U.S.) Vision for Space Exploration. The Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV) and the Ares V heavy-lift Cargo Launch Vehicle (CaLV) systems will build upon proven, reliable hardware derived from the Apollo-Saturn and Space Shuttle programs to deliver safe, reliable, affordable space transportation solutions. This approach leverages existing aerospace talent and a unique infrastructure, as well as legacy knowledge gained from nearly 50 years' experience developing space hardware. Early next decade, the Ares I will launch the new Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) to the International Space Station (ISS) or to low-Earth orbit for trips to the Moon and, ultimately, Mars. Late next decade, the Ares V's Earth Departure Stage will carry larger payloads such as the lunar lander into orbit, and the Crew Exploration Vehicle will dock with it for missions to the Moon, where astronauts will explore new territories and conduct science and technology experiments. Both Ares I and Ares V are being designed to support longer future trips to Mars. The Exploration Launch Projects Office is designing, developing, testing, and evaluating both launch vehicle systems in partnership with other NASA Centers, Government agencies, and industry contractors. This paper provides top-level information regarding the genesis and evolution of the baseline configuration for the Ares V heavy-lift system. It also discusses riskbased, management strategies, such as building on powerful hardware and promoting common features between the Ares I and Ares V systems to reduce technical, schedule, and cost risks, as well as development and operations costs. Finally, it summarizes several notable accomplishments since October 2005, when the Exploration Launch Projects effort officially kicked off, and looks ahead at work planned for 2007 and beyond.

  20. ESC-B: The Cryogenic Upper Stage for Europe's Heavy Lift Launcher Ariane 5ECB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juhls, A.

    2002-01-01

    -A. Juhls, Astrium GmbH -M. Lepelletier, Snecma Moteurs -JM. Bahu, CNES -C. Poincheval, CNES. In the year 1998 the European ministerial council decided to initiate the Ariane 5 Plus programme in order to upgrade the European heavy lift launcher Ariane 5. The market was changing more rapidly than predicted showing steadily growing satellite mass and the demand for flexible missions while strong competitors were intensifying their preparations to enter the commercial business. The answer was to improve the Ariane 5 launcher by modifying the cryogenic first (or lower ?) stage and the solid boosters and by introducing two cryogenic upper stages in two steps: In order to cope with the short term need of a significant growth of GTO lift capacity up to 10 t the first denoted ESC-A shall enter commercial service in 2002. Four years later a more powerful second version shall take over enabling a GTO performance of 12 t and providing versatile mission capability. The paper will focus on this new cryogenic upper stage denoted ESC-B giving first a general description of main characteristics and constituents. The article will highlight different challenging aspects of the ESC-B development: Ambitious economical conditions regarding both limited development budgets and the strong need to reduce production cost require improved working methods and an adjustment of the conventional development logic, in particular regarding new verification methods. Furthermore Europe is now facing the complex combination of versatile mission capability together with a powerful cryogenic upper stage. The paper will present the approach to define reasonable mission scenarios in order to cover customer demands while avoiding too stringent system requirements. Along with VINCI, Europe's first expander cycle type engine featuring an extendable nozzle dedicated subsystems will be described which allow 4 re-ignitions and 6 hours of ballistic flight. The paper concludes with the summary of the development planning aiming at a first launch of ESC-B in 2006.

  1. A New Heavy-Lift Capability for Space Exploration: NASA's Ares V Cargo Launch Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sumrall, John P.

    2006-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is developing new launch systems in preparation for the retirement of the Space Shuttle by 2010, as directed in the United States (U.S.) Vision for Space Exploration. The Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV) and the Ares V heavy-lift Cargo Launch Vehicle (CaLV) systems will build upon proven, reliable hardware derived from the Apollo Saturn (1961 to 1975) and Space Shuttle (1972 to 2010) programs to deliver safe, reliable, affordable space transportation solutions. This approach leverages existing aerospace talent and a unique infrastructure, as well as the vast amount of legacy knowledge gained from almost a half-century of hard-won experience in the space enterprise. Beginning early next decade, the Ares I will launch the new Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) to the International Space Station (ISS) or to low-Earth orbit for trips to the Moon and, ultimately, Mars. Late next decade, the Ares V's Earth Departure Stage will carry larger payloads such as the lunar lander into orbit, and the Crew Exploration Vehicle will dock with it for missions to the Moon, where astronauts will explore new territories and conduct science and technology experiments. Both the Ares I and Ares V systems are being designed to support longer future trips to Mars. The Exploration Launch Projects Office, located at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center, is designing, developing, testing, and evaluating both launch vehicle systems in partnership with other NASA Centers, Government agencies, and industry contractors. This paper provides top-level information regarding the genesis and evolution of the baseline configuration for the Ares V heavy-lift system. It also touches on risk-based management strategies, such as building on powerful hardware and promoting common features between the Ares I and Ares V systems to reduce technical, schedule, and cost risks, as well as development and operations costs. Finally, it gives a summary of several notable accomplishments over the past year, since the Exploration Launch Projects effort officially kicked off in October 2005, and looks ahead at work planned for 2007 and beyond.

  2. Spacely's rockets: Personnel launch system/family of heavy lift launch vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    During 1990, numerous questions were raised regarding the ability of the current shuttle orbiter to provide reliable, on demand support of the planned space station. Besides being plagued by reliability problems, the shuttle lacks the ability to launch some of the heavy payloads required for future space exploration, and is too expensive to operate as a mere passenger ferry to orbit. Therefore, additional launch systems are required to complement the shuttle in a more robust and capable Space Transportation System. In December 1990, the Report of the Advisory Committee on the Future of the U.S. Space Program, advised NASA of the risks of becoming too dependent on the space shuttle as an all-purpose vehicle. Furthermore, the committee felt that reducing the number of shuttle missions would prolong the life of the existing fleet. In their suggestions, the board members strongly advocated the establishment of a fleet of unmanned, heavy lift launch vehicles (HLLV's) to support the space station and other payload-intensive enterprises. Another committee recommendation was that a space station crew rotation/rescue vehicle be developed as an alternative to the shuttle, or as a contingency if the shuttle is not available. The committee emphasized that this vehicle be designed for use as a personnel carrier, not a cargo carrier. This recommendation was made to avoid building another version of the existing shuttle, which is not ideally suited as a passenger vehicle only. The objective of this project was to design both a Personnel Launch System (PLS) and a family of HLLV's that provide low cost and efficient operation in missions not suited for the shuttle.

  3. Update on the Ares V to Support Heavy Lift for U.S. Space Exploration Policy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sumrall, John P.; Creech, Steve

    2008-01-01

    When NASA's Ares V cargo launch vehicle begins flying late next decade, its capabilities will significantly exceed the 1960s-era Saturn V. It will send more crew and cargo to more places on the lunar surface than Apollo and provide ongoing support to a permanent lunar outpost that will open the Moon to greater exploration, science and adventure than ever before. Moreover, it will restore the United States heavy-lift capability, which can support human and robotic exploration for decades to come. Ares V remains in a pre-design analysis cycle stage pending a planned Authority to Proceed (ATP) in late 2010. Ares V benefits from the decision to draw from heritage hardware and its commonality with the Ares I crew launch vehicle, which completed its preliminary design review (PDR) in September 2008. Most of the work on Ares V to date has been focused on refining the vehicle design through a variety of internal studies. This paper will provide background information on the Ares V evolution, emphasizing the vehicle configuration as it exists today.

  4. Navier-Stokes Simulation of a Heavy Lift Slowed-Rotor Compound Helicopter Configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allan, Brian G.; Jenkins, Luther N.; Yao, Chung-Sheng; Bartram, Scott M.; Hallissy, Jim B.; Harris, Jerome; Noonan, Kevin W.; Wong, Oliver D.; Jones, Henry E.; Malovrh, Brendon D.; reis, Deane G.; Mace, W. Derry

    2009-01-01

    Time accurate numerical simulations were performed using the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) flow solver OVERFLOW for a heavy lift, slowed-rotor, compound helicopter configuration, tested at the NASA Langley 14- by 22-Foot Subsonic Tunnel. The primary purpose of these simulations is to provide support for the development of a large field of view Particle Imaging Velocimetry (PIV) flow measurement technique supported by the Subsonic Rotary Wing (SRW) project under the NASA Fundamental Aeronautics program. These simulations provide a better understanding of the rotor and body wake flows and helped to define PIV measurement locations as well as requirements for validation of flow solver codes. The large field PIV system can measure the three-dimensional velocity flow field in a 0.914m by 1.83m plane. PIV measurements were performed upstream and downstream of the vertical tail section and are compared to simulation results. The simulations are also used to better understand the tunnel wall and body/rotor support effects by comparing simulations with and without tunnel floor/ceiling walls and supports. Comparisons are also made to the experimental force and moment data for the body and rotor.

  5. Advanced Transportation System Studies Technical Area 2 (TA-2) Heavy Lift Launch Vehicle Development Contract. Volume 2; Technical Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The sections in this report include: Single Stage to Orbit (SSTO) Design Ground-rules; Operations Issues and Lessons Learned; Vertical-Takeoff/Landing Versus Vertical-Takeoff/Horizontal-Landing; SSTO Design Results; SSTO Simulation Results; SSTO Assessment Results; SSTO Sizing Tool User's Guide; SSto Turnaround Assessment Report; Ground Operations Assessment First Year Executive Summary; Health Management System Definition Study; Major TA-2 Presentations; First Lunar Outpost Heavy Lift Launch Vehicle Design and Assessment; and the section, Russian Propulsion Technology Assessment Reports.

  6. Advanced grid-stiffened composite shells for applications in heavy-lift helicopter rotor blade spars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayanan Nampy, Sreenivas

    Modern rotor blades are constructed using composite materials to exploit their superior structural performance compared to metals. Helicopter rotor blade spars are conventionally designed as monocoque structures. Blades of the proposed Heavy Lift Helicopter are envisioned to be as heavy as 800 lbs when designed using the monocoque spar design. A new and innovative design is proposed to replace the conventional spar designs with light weight grid-stiffened composite shell. Composite stiffened shells have been known to provide excellent strength to weight ratio and damage tolerance with an excellent potential to reduce weight. Conventional stringer--rib stiffened construction is not suitable for rotor blade spars since they are limited in generating high torsion stiffness that is required for aeroelastic stability of the rotor. As a result, off-axis (helical) stiffeners must be provided. This is a new design space where innovative modeling techniques are needed. The structural behavior of grid-stiffened structures under axial, bending, and torsion loads, typically experienced by rotor blades need to be accurately predicted. The overall objective of the present research is to develop and integrate the necessary design analysis tools to conduct a feasibility study in employing grid-stiffened shells for heavy-lift rotor blade spars. Upon evaluating the limitations in state-of-the-art analytical models in predicting the axial, bending, and torsion stiffness coefficients of grid and grid-stiffened structures, a new analytical model was developed. The new analytical model based on the smeared stiffness approach was developed employing the stiffness matrices of the constituent members of the grid structure such as an arch, helical, or straight beam representing circumferential, helical, and longitudinal stiffeners. This analysis has the capability to model various stiffening configurations such as angle-grid, ortho-grid, and general-grid. Analyses were performed using an existing state-of-the-art and newly developed model to predict the torsion, bending, and axial stiffness of grid and grid-stiffened structures with various stiffening configurations. These predictions were compared to results generated using finite element analysis (FEA) to observe excellent correlation (within 6%) for a range of parameters for grid and grid-stiffened structures such as grid density, stiffener angle, and aspect ratio of the stiffener cross-section. Experimental results from cylindrical grid specimen testing were compared with analytical prediction using the new analysis. The new analysis predicted stiffness coefficients with nearly 7% error compared to FEA results. From the parametric studies conducted, it was observed that the previous state-of-the-art analysis on the other hand exhibited errors of the order of 39% for certain designs. Stability evaluations were also conducted by integrating the new analysis with established stability formulations. A design study was conducted to evaluate the potential weight savings of a simple grid-stiffened rotor blade spar structure compared to a baseline monocoque design. Various design constraints such as stiffness, strength, and stability were imposed. A manual search was conducted for design parameters such as stiffener density, stiffener angle, shell laminate, and stiffener aspect ratio that provide lightweight grid-stiffened designs compared to the baseline. It was found that a weight saving of 9.1% compared to the baseline is possible without violating any of the design constraints.

  7. A study of aeroelastic and structural dynamic effects in multi-rotor systems with application to hybrid heavy lift vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedmann, P. P.

    1984-01-01

    An aeroelastic model suitable for the study of aeroelastic and structural dynamic effects in multirotor vehicles simulating a hybrid heavy lift vehicle was developed and applied to the study of a number of diverse problems. The analytical model developed proved capable of modeling a number of aeroelastic problems, namely: (1) isolated blade aeroelastic stability in hover and forward flight, (2) coupled rotor/fuselage aeromechanical problem in air or ground resonance, (3) tandem rotor coupled rotor/fuselage problems, and (4) the aeromechanical stability of a multirotor vehicle model representing a hybrid heavy lift airship (HHLA). The model was used to simulate the ground resonance boundaries of a three bladed hingeless rotor model, including the effect of aerodynamic loads, and the theoretical predictions compared well with experimental results. Subsequently the model was used to study the aeromechanical stability of a vehicle representing a hybrid heavy lift airship, and potential instabilities which could occur for this type of vehicle were identified. The coupling between various blade, supporting structure and rigid body modes was identified.

  8. One Engine Inoperative (OEI) and Autorotation For Heavy Lift Rotorcraft Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Tom

    2012-01-01

    Federal Aviation Administration will certainly require the Heavy Lift Rotorcraft to be operated under Category A performance and operations requirements. Because of the weight, no operation will be allowed except Category A according to FAA Part 29.1(c). This means that any where along the flight path, the aircraft must be able to land safely following an engine failure or continue flight. A repeatable flight profile must be developed and executed to ensure that the aircraft can be safely landed or flown away depending on its location on the flight profile. This means that there will be no Height-Velocity testing required as is currently required for Part 29 Category B. Since all the configurations shown to date are different than existing rotorcraft, each type would have to develop their individual requirements under existing special conditions FAA Part 21.17(b). This means the FAA will take the opportunity to negotiate additional requirements or change requirements to ensure safety. For example, since the tiltrotor did not fit normal rotorcraft category, new rules were negotiated between the applicant and the FAA. As a result of this negotiation, performance requirements for Category A were increased. The rules were written in terms of guaranteed performance instead of Category A requirements. Detailed discussion will follow later. The proposed tiltrotor would likely follow along with the current tiltrotor rules with the possibility of increase Category A performance requirements. Compounding with addition of wing and auxiliary thrust to both the tandem and coaxial rotor would result in new special condition aircraft. To my knowledge, no compound tandem or compound coaxial rotor has ever been certified by FAA.

  9. Ultra-heavy vertical lift system: The Heli-Stat. [helicopter - airship combination for materials handling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piasecki, F. N.

    1975-01-01

    A hybrid VTOL airship which is combined with helicopters is evaluated. The static lift of the airship supports approximately the full empty weight of the entire assembly. The helicopter rotors furnish the lift to support the payload as well as the propulsion and control about all axes. Thus existing helicopters, with no new technology required, can be made to lift payloads of ten times the capacity of each one alone, and considerably more than that of any airship built so far. A vehicle is described which has a 75-ton payload, based on four existing CH-53D helicopters and an airship of 3,600,000 cu. ft. The method of interconnection is described along with discussion of control, instrumentation, drive system and critical design conditions. The vertical lift and positioning capabilities of this vehicle far exceed any other means available today, yet can be built with a minimum of risk, development cost and time.

  10. Lift truck safety review

    SciTech Connect

    Cadwallader, L.C.

    1997-03-01

    This report presents safety information about powered industrial trucks. The basic lift truck, the counterbalanced sit down rider truck, is the primary focus of the report. Lift truck engineering is briefly described, then a hazard analysis is performed on the lift truck. Case histories and accident statistics are also given. Rules and regulations about lift trucks, such as the US Occupational Safety an Health Administration laws and the Underwriter`s Laboratories standards, are discussed. Safety issues with lift trucks are reviewed, and lift truck safety and reliability are discussed. Some quantitative reliability values are given.

  11. Advanced transportation system studies technical area 2(TA-2): Heavy lift launch vehicle development. volume 1; Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCurry, J.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of the TA-2 contract was to provide advanced launch vehicle concept definition and analysis to assist NASA in the identification of future launch vehicle requirements. Contracted analysis activities included vehicle sizing and performance analysis, subsystem concept definition, propulsion subsystem definition (foreign and domestic), ground operations and facilities analysis, and life cycle cost estimation. This document is part of the final report for the TA-2 contract. The final report consists of three volumes: Volume 1 is the Executive Summary, Volume 2 is Technical Results, and Volume 3 is Program Cost Estimates. The document-at-hand, Volume 1, provides a summary description of the technical activities that were performed over the entire contract duration, covering three distinct launch vehicle definition activities: heavy-lift (300,000 pounds injected mass to low Earth orbit) launch vehicles for the First Lunar Outpost (FLO), medium-lift (50,000-80,000 pounds injected mass to low Earth orbit) launch vehicles, and single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) launch vehicles (25,000 pounds injected mass to a Space Station orbit).

  12. Scaling laws for testing of high lift airfoils under heavy rainfall

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bilanin, A. J.

    1985-01-01

    The results of studies regarding the effect of rainfall about aircraft are briefly reviewed. It is found that performance penalties on airfoils have been identified in subscale tests. For this reason, it is of great importance that scaling laws be dveloped to aid in the extrapolation of these data to fullscale. The present investigation represents an attempt to develop scaling laws for testing subscale airfoils under heavy rain conditions. Attention is given to rain statistics, airfoil operation in heavy rain, scaling laws, thermodynamics of condensation and/or evaporation, rainfall and airfoil scaling, aspects of splash back, film thickness, rivulets, and flap slot blockage. It is concluded that the extrapolation of airfoil performance data taken at subscale under simulated heavy rain conditions to fullscale must be undertaken with caution.

  13. Advanced Transportation System Studies Technical Area 2 (TA-2) Heavy Lift Launch Vehicle Development Contract. Volume 2; Technical Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of the Advanced Transportation System Studies (ATSS) Technical Area 2 (TA-2) Heavy Lift Launch Vehicle Development contract was to provide advanced launch vehicle concept definition and analysis to assist NASA in the identification of future launch vehicle requirements. Contracted analysis activities included vehicle sizing and performance analysis, subsystem concept definition, propulsion subsystem definition (foreign and domestic), ground operations and facilities analysis, and life cycle cost estimation. This document is Volume 2 of the final report for the contract. It provides documentation of selected technical results from various TA-2 analysis activities, including a detailed narrative description of the SSTO concept assessment results, a user's guide for the associated SSTO sizing tools, an SSTO turnaround assessment report, an executive summary of the ground operations assessments performed during the first year of the contract, a configuration-independent vehicle health management system requirements report, a copy of all major TA-2 contract presentations, a copy of the FLO launch vehicle final report, and references to Pratt & Whitney's TA-2 sponsored final reports regarding the identification of Russian main propulsion technologies.

  14. Advanced transportation system studies technical area 2 (TA-2): Heavy lift launch vehicle development. volume 3; Program Cost estimates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCurry, J. B.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of the TA-2 contract was to provide advanced launch vehicle concept definition and analysis to assist NASA in the identification of future launch vehicle requirements. Contracted analysis activities included vehicle sizing and performance analysis, subsystem concept definition, propulsion subsystem definition (foreign and domestic), ground operations and facilities analysis, and life cycle cost estimation. The basic period of performance of the TA-2 contract was from May 1992 through May 1993. No-cost extensions were exercised on the contract from June 1993 through July 1995. This document is part of the final report for the TA-2 contract. The final report consists of three volumes: Volume 1 is the Executive Summary, Volume 2 is Technical Results, and Volume 3 is Program Cost Estimates. The document-at-hand, Volume 3, provides a work breakdown structure dictionary, user's guide for the parametric life cycle cost estimation tool, and final report developed by ECON, Inc., under subcontract to Lockheed Martin on TA-2 for the analysis of heavy lift launch vehicle concepts.

  15. Aeroelastic effects in multi-rotor vehicles with application to a hybrid heavy lift system. Part 1: Formulation of equations of motion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venkatesan, C.; Friedman, P.

    1984-01-01

    This report presents a set of governing coupled differential equations for a model of a hybrid aircraft. The model consists of multiple rotor systems connected by an elastic interconnecting structure, with options to add any combination of or all of the following components; i.e., thrusters, a buoyant hull, and an underslung weight. The dynamic equations are written for the individual blade with hub motions, for the rigid body motions of the whole model, and also for the flexible modes of the interconnecting structure. One of the purposes of this study is to serve as the basis of a numerical study aimed at determining the aeroelastic stability and structural response characteristics of a Hybrid Heavy Lift Airship (HHLA). It is also expected that the formulation may be applicable to analyzing stability and responses of dual rotor helicopters such as a Heavy Lift Helicopter (HLH). Futhermore, the model is capable of representing coupled rotor/body aeromechanical problems of single rotor helicopters.

  16. Gender specific analysis of occupational diseases of the low back caused by carrying, lifting or extreme trunk flexionuse of a prevention index to identify occupations with high prevention needs

    PubMed Central

    Thiede, Markus; Liebers, Falk; Seidler, Andreas; Gravemeyer, Stefan; Latza, Ute

    2014-01-01

    Background Gender specific analysis of the occupational disease of the lumbar spine caused by carrying, lifting, or extreme trunk flexion in Germany (OD No.2108) with the aim to identify areas of focus for prevention and research with a prevention index (PI). Methods Data from the German Statutory Accident Insurance stratified by gender are shown. Results From 2002 until 2009 there were 2,877 confirmed cases of an OD No. 2108 (40.1% male and 59.1% female). The PI indicated the highest prevention need for female nursing/midwifery associate professionals and male building frame and related trades workers. Patient transfer and working in extremely bent posture were the most frequent exposures. Conclusions The identified occupations with high need for prevention among men come from nearly all major occupational groups whereas women cluster in occupational groups from the health and care sectors. Am. J. Ind. Med. 57:233244, 2014. 2013 The Authors. American Journal of Industrial Medicine Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24243091

  17. A logistics and potential hazard study of propellant systems for a Saturn 5 derived heavy lift (three-stage core) launch vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitney, E. Dow

    1992-01-01

    The Bush Administration has directed NASA to prepare for a return to the Moon and on to Mars - the Space Exploration Initiative. To meet this directive, powerful rocket boosters will be required in order to lift payloads that may reach the half-million pound range into low earth orbit. In this report an analysis is presented on logistics and potential hazards of the propellant systems envisioned for future Saturn 5 derived heavy lift launch vehicles. In discussing propellant logistics, particular attention has been given to possible problems associated with procurement, transportation, and storage of RP-1, HL2, and LOX, the heavy lift launch vehicle propellants. Current LOX producing facilities will need to be expanded and propellant storage and some support facilities will require relocation if current Launch Pads 39A and/or 39B are to be used for future heavy noise-abatement measures. Included in the report is a discussion of suggested additional studies, primarily economic and environmental, which should be undertaken in support of the goals of the Space Exploration Initiative.

  18. Satellite Power Systems (SPS) concept definition study. Volume 5: Transportation and operations analysis. [heavy lift launch and orbit transfer vehicles for orbital assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanley, G.

    1978-01-01

    The development of transportation systems to support the operations required for the orbital assembly of a 5-gigawatt satellite is discussed as well as the construction of a ground receiving antenna (rectenna). Topics covered include heavy lift launch vehicle configurations for Earth-to LEO transport; the use of chemical, nuclear, and electric orbit transfer vehicles for LEO to GEO operations; personnel transport systems; ground operations; end-to-end analysis of the construction, operation, and maintenance of the satellite and rectenna; propellant production and storage; and payload packaging.

  19. Occupational Exposure to Mineral Turpentine and Heavy Fuels: A Possible Risk Factor for Alzheimer's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Helou, Rafik; Jaecker, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Background The association between solvents and Alzheimer's disease (AD) has been the subject of several studies. Yet, only few studies have examined the various solvents separately, and the controls have rarely been monitored long enough. For these reasons and others, we believe that further studies are required. Objectives The objective of this study was to identify solvents associated with the clinicoradiological diagnostic of AD or mixed-type dementia (MD). Methods A retrospective case-control study was performed in 156 patients followed up at the Memory Diagnostic Center of Bertinot Juel Hospital (France). The inclusion criteria were known occupation(s), a Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score ?10 at the first visit, a neuropsychological evaluation performed and a diagnosis established in our Memory Diagnostic Center. The diagnostics were crossed with 9 solvents belonging to two classes of solvents. Exposure was evaluated using French national job-exposure matrices. Results Certain petroleum-based solvents and fuels (i.e. mineral turpentine, diesel fuel, fuel oil and kerosene) were associated with a diagnosis of AD or MD. This association was still significant after adjustment for age, sex and education (adjusted OR: 6.5; 95% CI: 2-20). Conclusion Occupational exposure to mineral turpentine and heavy fuels may be a risk factor for AD and MD. PMID:25028582

  20. Eyelid lift

    MedlinePLUS

    Eyelid lift surgery is done to repair sagging or drooping upper eyelids ( ptosis ). The surgery is called blepharoplasty. Sagging ... An eyelid lift is needed when eyelid drooping reduces your vision. You may be asked to have your eye doctor test ...

  1. Heavy smoking rate trends and related factors in Korean occupational groups: analysis of KNHANES 2007–2012 data

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Bo-Guen; Pang, Do-Dam; Park, Young-Jun; Lee, Jong-In; Kim, Hyoung-Ryoul; Myong, Jun-Pyo; Jang, Tae-Won

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The present study was designed to investigate the smoking and heavy smoking trends and identify possible related factors among Korean male workers from 2007 to 2012 by occupational groups. Methods The data were derived from the fourth (2007–2009) and fifth (2010–2012) waves of the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). Occupational groups were categorised into three groups, which were non-manual, manual and service and sales groups. Age-adjusted prevalence rates of smoking and heavy smoking (>20 cigarettes/day) in men aged 25–64 years were calculated. Factors associated with heavy smoking were investigated using logistic regression analyses. Results Smoking rate in manual workers decreased gradually over time (p for trend <0.0001). Smoking rate was higher in manual than non-manual workers, but the difference reduced over time (p for trend <0.0001). Heavy smoking rate decreased from 2007 to 2012 (p for trend <0.0001). Heavy smoking rate was higher in manual than non-manual workers; however, this difference increased over time. Stress, depressive mood and long working hours (≥60 h/week) were associated with heavy smoking. Conclusions Antismoking policy should focus on current and heavy smokers. Workplace antismoking programmes should consider working hours and stress, especially in manual workers. PMID:26563212

  2. Advanced underwater lift device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flanagan, David T.; Hopkins, Robert C.

    1993-01-01

    Flexible underwater lift devices ('lift bags') are used in underwater operations to provide buoyancy to submerged objects. Commercially available designs are heavy, bulky, and awkward to handle, and thus are limited in size and useful lifting capacity. An underwater lift device having less than 20 percent of the bulk and less than 10 percent of the weight of commercially available models was developed. The design features a dual membrane envelope, a nearly homogeneous envelope membrane stress distribution, and a minimum surface-to-volume ratio. A proof-of-concept model of 50 kg capacity was built and tested. Originally designed to provide buoyancy to mock-ups submerged in NASA's weightlessness simulators, the device may have application to water-landed spacecraft which must deploy flotation upon impact, and where launch weight and volume penalties are significant. The device may also be useful for the automated recovery of ocean floor probes or in marine salvage applications.

  3. Does that look heavy to you? Perceived weight judgment in lifting actions in younger and older adults

    PubMed Central

    Maguinness, Corrina; Setti, Annalisa; Roudaia, Eugenie; Kenny, Rose Anne

    2013-01-01

    When interpreting other people's movements or actions, observers may not only rely on the visual cues available in the observed movement, but they may also be able to put themselves in the other person's shoes by engaging brain systems involved in both mentalizing and motor simulation. The ageing process brings changes in both perceptual and motor abilities, yet little is known about how these changes may affect the ability to accurately interpret other people's actions. Here we investigated the effect of ageing on the ability to discriminate the weight of objects based on the movements of actors lifting these objects. Stimuli consisted of videos of an actor lifting a small box weighing 0.050.9 kg or a large box weighting 318 kg. In a four-alternative forced-choice task, younger and older participants reported the perceived weight of the box in each video. Overall, older participants were less sensitive than younger participants in discriminating the perceived weight of lifted boxes, an effect that was especially pronounced in the small box condition. Weight discrimination performance was better for the large box compared to the small box in both groups, due to greater saliency of the visual cues in this condition. These results suggest that older adults may require more salient visual cues to interpret the actions of others accurately. We discuss the potential contribution of age-related changes in visual and motor function on the observed effects and suggest that older adults' decline in the sensitivity to subtle visual cues may lead to greater reliance on visual analysis of the observed scene and its semantic context. PMID:24324423

  4. Large Spun Formed Friction-Stir Welded Tank Domes for Liquid Propellant Tanks Made from AA2195: A Technology Demonstration for the Next Generation of Heavy Lift Launchers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stachulla, M.; Pernpeinter, R.; Brewster J.; Curreri, P.; Hoffman, E.

    2010-01-01

    Improving structural efficiency while reducing manufacturing costs are key objectives when making future heavy-lift launchers more performing and cost efficient. The main enabling technologies are the application of advanced high performance materials as well as cost effective manufacture processes. This paper presents the status and main results of a joint industrial research & development effort to demonstrate TRL 6 of a novel manufacturing process for large liquid propellant tanks for launcher applications. Using high strength aluminium-lithium alloy combined with the spin forming manufacturing technique, this development aims at thinner wall thickness and weight savings up to 25% as well as a significant reduction in manufacturing effort. In this program, the concave spin forming process is used to manufacture tank domes from a single flat plate. Applied to aluminium alloy, this process allows reaching the highest possible material strength status T8, eliminating numerous welding steps which are typically necessary to assemble tank domes from 3D-curved panels. To minimize raw material costs for large diameter tank domes for launchers, the dome blank has been composed from standard plates welded together prior to spin forming by friction stir welding. After welding, the dome blank is contoured in order to meet the required wall thickness distribution. For achieving a material state of T8, also in the welding seams, the applied spin forming process allows the required cold stretching of the 3D-curved dome, with a subsequent ageing in a furnace. This combined manufacturing process has been demonstrated up to TRL 6 for tank domes with a 5.4 m diameter. In this paper, the manufacturing process as well as test results are presented. Plans are shown how this process could be applied to future heavy-lift launch vehicles developments, also for larger dome diameters.

  5. Effects of colored light and colors of comparison stimulus and their background on heaviness of lifted weight.

    PubMed

    Huang, Kuo-Chen

    2008-10-01

    The effects of colored light and colors of stimuli and their backgrounds on participants' perceptions that the weight of a stimulus was identical to a standard weight were examined. A total of 23 women and 19 men, Taiwanese college students ages 20 to 23 years (M = 21.2, SD = 0.8) were randomly divided into three groups, with each assigned to one of three possible colored light conditions. Colored light significantly affected the constant errors between weight perceptions of the comparison and standard stimuli; the perception constant errors under yellow light were significantly less than those under red and blue lights, and the constant errors under red light were less than those under blue light. Stimulus color significantly affected the constant errors, which were significantly greater for white, yellow, red, and blue comparison stimuli than for black stimuli; the constant errors were significantly greater for white and yellow stimuli than for red and blue. Moreover, an interactive two-way effect of stimulus color and colored light was detected; however, no significant effect of color of stimulus background on constant error was observed. Practical applications include development of safe lifting guidelines and package and product design. PMID:19093613

  6. 29 CFR 1926.453 - Aerial lifts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Aerial lifts. 1926.453 Section 1926.453 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Scaffolds § 1926.453 Aerial lifts. (a) General requirements. (1) Unless otherwise provided...

  7. Buckling of a Longitudinally Jointed Curved Composite Panel Arc Segment for Next Generation of Composite Heavy Lift Launch Vehicles: Verification Testing Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farrokh, Babak; Segal, Kenneth N.; Akkerman, Michael; Glenn, Ronald L.; Rodini, Benjamin T.; Fan, Wei-Ming; Kellas, Sortiris; Pineda, Evan J.

    2014-01-01

    In this work, an all-bonded out-of-autoclave (OoA) curved longitudinal composite joint concept, intended for use in the next generation of composite heavy lift launch vehicles, was evaluated and verified through finite element (FE) analysis, fabrication, testing, and post-test inspection. The joint was used to connect two curved, segmented, honeycomb sandwich panels representative of a Space Launch System (SLS) fairing design. The overall size of the resultant panel was 1.37 m by 0.74 m (54 in by 29 in), of which the joint comprised a 10.2 cm (4 in) wide longitudinal strip at the center. NASTRAN and ABAQUS were used to perform linear and non-linear analyses of the buckling and strength performance of the jointed panel. Geometric non-uniformities (i.e., surface contour imperfections) were measured and incorporated into the FE model and analysis. In addition, a sensitivity study of the specimens end condition showed that bonding face-sheet doublers to the panel's end, coupled with some stress relief features at corner-edges, can significantly reduce the stress concentrations near the load application points. Ultimately, the jointed panel was subjected to a compressive load. Load application was interrupted at the onset of buckling (at 356 kN 80 kips). A post-test non-destructive evaluation (NDE) showed that, as designed, buckling occurred without introducing any damage into the panel or the joint. The jointed panel was further capable of tolerating an impact damage to the same buckling load with no evidence of damage propagation. The OoA cured all-composite joint shows promise as a low mass factory joint for segmented barrels.

  8. The influence of the occupational exposure to heavy metals and tobacco smoke on the selected oxidative stress markers in smelters.

    PubMed

    Sciskalska, Milena; Zalewska, Marta; Grzelak, Agnieszka; Milnerowicz, Halina

    2014-06-01

    The aim of the study was to verify if there is any association between exposure to Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb, As and the formation of malondialdehyde (MDA), 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP), and whether in this process cigarette smoking plays a role. The investigations were performed in the 352 smelters occupationally exposed to heavy metals and 73 persons of control group. Metals concentration was determined by atomic absorption spectrometry. MDA and AOPP concentrations were determined by spectrophotometric methods. The concentration of 8-OHdG was determined by ELISA method. It was demonstrated an increased Cu concentration in smoking smelters compared to non-smoking control group. It was noted no differences in Zn and Mg concentrations between the examined groups. Pb concentration was more than sixfold higher in the group of smoking smelters and about fivefold higher in the group of non-smoking smelters compared to the control groups (smokers and non-smokers). It was shown that Cd concentration in the blood was nearly fivefold higher in the smoking control group compared to the non-smoking control group and more than threefold higher in the group of smoking smelters compared to non-smoking. It was shown an increased As concentration (more than fourfold) and decreased Ca concentration in both groups of smelters compared to control groups. In groups of smelters (smokers and non-smokers), twofold higher MDA and AOPP concentrations, and AOPP/albumin index compared to control groups (smokers and non-smokers) were shown. Tobacco smoke is the major source of Cd in the blood of smelters. Occupational exposure causes accumulation of Pb in the blood. Occupational exposure to heavy metals causes raise of MDA concentration and causes greater increase in AOPP concentration than tobacco smoke. PMID:24789476

  9. Prevention of occupational Back Pain

    PubMed Central

    Al-Otaibi, Sultan T.

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviews scientific research on occupational back pain and focuses on prevention of this problem. It discusses some of the challenges of translating the evidence of this multi-factorial condition into policy. Medical science is currently unable to clearly distinguish between back pain caused by work and that possibly due to other causes but which affects the individual's capacity to work. Back pain affects the vast majority of people at some point in their lives and is very costly to both the health care system and the industry. Evidence suggests that heavy lifting, driving, and vibration of the whole body are linked to occupational back pain. Once the risk factors for occupational back pain are identified, an otherwise chronic and disabling condition can be prevented in the majority of patients. As explained in this article, three levels of prevention for occupational back pain have been reported as effective. Failure to implement preventive measures may lead to a high incidence of occupational back pain. PMID:25983601

  10. Total Facelift: Forehead Lift, Midface Lift, and Neck Lift

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Patients with thick skin mainly exhibit the aging processes of sagging, whereas patients with thin skin develop wrinkles or volume loss. Asian skin is usually thicker than that of Westerners; and thus, the sagging of skin due to aging, rather than wrinkling, is the chief problem to be addressed in Asians. Asian skin is also relatively large in area and thick, implying that the weight of tissue to be lifted is considerably heavier. These factors account for the difficulties in performing a facelift in Asians. Facelifts can be divided into forehead lift, midface lift, and lower face lift. These can be performed individually or with 2-3 procedures combined. PMID:25798381

  11. A shadowgraph study of the National Launch System's 1 1/2 stage vehicle configuration and Heavy Lift Launch Vehicle configuration. [Using the Marshall Space Flight Center's 14-Inch Trisonic Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pokora, Darlene C.; Springer, Anthony M.

    1994-01-01

    A shadowgraph study of the National Launch System's (NLS's) 1 1/2 stage and heavy lift launch vehicle (HLLV) configurations is presented. Shadowgraphs are shown for the range of Mach numbers from Mach 0.6 to 5.0 at various angles-of-attack and roll angles. Since the 1 1/2 stage configuration is generally symmetric, no shadowgraphs of any roll angle are shown for this configuration. The major flow field phenomena over the NLS 1 1/2 stage and HLLV configurations are shown in the shadowgraphs. These shadowgraphs are used in the aerothermodynamic analysis of the external flow conditions the launch vehicle would encounter during the ascent stage of flight. The shadowgraphs presented in this study were obtained from configurations tested in the Marshall Space Flight Center's 14-Inch Trisonic Wind Tunnel during 1992.

  12. 49 CFR 37.165 - Lift and securement use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 CFR part 38 refer, the entity must carry the wheelchair and occupant if the lift and vehicle can... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Lift and securement use. 37.165 Section 37.165 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation TRANSPORTATION SERVICES FOR INDIVIDUALS...

  13. 49 CFR 37.165 - Lift and securement use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 CFR part 38 refer, the entity must carry the wheelchair and occupant if the lift and vehicle can... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Lift and securement use. 37.165 Section 37.165 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation TRANSPORTATION SERVICES FOR INDIVIDUALS...

  14. Nail Lifting (Onycholysis)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... means lifting of the nail from the nail bed. Overview Nail lifting (onycholysis) is the spontaneous separation (detachment) of the fingernail or toenail from the nail bed at the end of the nail (distal) and/ ...

  15. High lift selected concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, M. L.

    1979-01-01

    The benefits to high lift system maximum life and, alternatively, to high lift system complexity, of applying analytic design and analysis techniques to the design of high lift sections for flight conditions were determined and two high lift sections were designed to flight conditions. The influence of the high lift section on the sizing and economics of a specific energy efficient transport (EET) was clarified using a computerized sizing technique and an existing advanced airplane design data base. The impact of the best design resulting from the design applications studies on EET sizing and economics were evaluated. Flap technology trade studies, climb and descent studies, and augmented stability studies are included along with a description of the baseline high lift system geometry, a calculation of lift and pitching moment when separation is present, and an inverse boundary layer technique for pressure distribution synthesis and optimization.

  16. Sensorimotor Memory Biases Weight Perception During Object Lifting.

    PubMed

    van Polanen, Vonne; Davare, Marco

    2015-01-01

    When lifting an object, the brain uses visual cues and an internal object representation to predict its weight and scale fingertip forces accordingly. Once available, tactile information is rapidly integrated to update the weight prediction and refine the internal object representation. If visual cues cannot be used to predict weight, force planning relies on implicit knowledge acquired from recent lifting experience, termed sensorimotor memory. Here, we investigated whether perception of weight is similarly biased according to previous lifting experience and how this is related to force scaling. Participants grasped and lifted series of light or heavy objects in a semi-randomized order and estimated their weights. As expected, we found that forces were scaled based on previous lifts (sensorimotor memory) and these effects increased depending on the length of recent lifting experience. Importantly, perceptual weight estimates were also influenced by the preceding lift, resulting in lower estimations after a heavy lift compared to a light one. In addition, weight estimations were negatively correlated with the magnitude of planned force parameters. This perceptual bias was only found if the current lift was light, but not heavy since the magnitude of sensorimotor memory effects had, according to Weber's law, relatively less impact on heavy compared to light objects. A control experiment tested the importance of active lifting in mediating these perceptual changes and showed that when weights are passively applied on the hand, no effect of previous sensory experience is found on perception. These results highlight how fast learning of novel object lifting dynamics can shape weight perception and demonstrate a tight link between action planning and perception control. If predictive force scaling and actual object weight do not match, the online motor corrections, rapidly implemented to downscale forces, will also downscale weight estimation in a proportional manner. PMID:26778993

  17. Sensorimotor Memory Biases Weight Perception During Object Lifting

    PubMed Central

    van Polanen, Vonne; Davare, Marco

    2015-01-01

    When lifting an object, the brain uses visual cues and an internal object representation to predict its weight and scale fingertip forces accordingly. Once available, tactile information is rapidly integrated to update the weight prediction and refine the internal object representation. If visual cues cannot be used to predict weight, force planning relies on implicit knowledge acquired from recent lifting experience, termed sensorimotor memory. Here, we investigated whether perception of weight is similarly biased according to previous lifting experience and how this is related to force scaling. Participants grasped and lifted series of light or heavy objects in a semi-randomized order and estimated their weights. As expected, we found that forces were scaled based on previous lifts (sensorimotor memory) and these effects increased depending on the length of recent lifting experience. Importantly, perceptual weight estimates were also influenced by the preceding lift, resulting in lower estimations after a heavy lift compared to a light one. In addition, weight estimations were negatively correlated with the magnitude of planned force parameters. This perceptual bias was only found if the current lift was light, but not heavy since the magnitude of sensorimotor memory effects had, according to Weber’s law, relatively less impact on heavy compared to light objects. A control experiment tested the importance of active lifting in mediating these perceptual changes and showed that when weights are passively applied on the hand, no effect of previous sensory experience is found on perception. These results highlight how fast learning of novel object lifting dynamics can shape weight perception and demonstrate a tight link between action planning and perception control. If predictive force scaling and actual object weight do not match, the online motor corrections, rapidly implemented to downscale forces, will also downscale weight estimation in a proportional manner. PMID:26778993

  18. 30526 artificial lift

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    This book focuses on the four major methods of artificial lift: sucker-rod pumping, gas lift, electrical submersible pumping (ESP) and hydraulic pumping. Though more than 80% of artificially lifted wells worldwide are rod-pumped, the large majority of these wells are low-volume, stripper-type producers. For this reason, sucker-rod pumping papers comprise less than 40% of the 26 SPE papers selected.

  19. Lifting BLS Power Supplies

    SciTech Connect

    Sarychev, Michael

    2007-08-01

    This note describes BLS power supplies lifting techniques and provides stress calculations for lifting plate and handles bolts. BLS power supply weight is about 120 Lbs, with the center of gravity shifted toward the right front side. A lifting plate is used to attach a power supply to a crane or a hoist. Stress calculations show that safety factors for lifting plate are 12.9 (vs. 5 required) for ultimate stress and 5.7 (vs. 3 required) for yield stress. Safety factor for shackle bolt thread shear load is 37, and safety factor for bolts that attach handles is 12.8.

  20. Effects of box size, frequency of lifting, and height of lift on maximum acceptable weight of lift and heart rate for male university students in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Abadi, Ali Salehi Sahl; Mazlomi, Adel; Saraji, Gebraeil Nasl; Zeraati, Hojjat; Hadian, Mohammad Reza; Jafari, Amir Homayoun

    2015-01-01

    Introduction In spite of the widespread use of automation in industry, manual material handling (MMH) is still performed in many occupational settings. The emphasis on ergonomics in MMH tasks is due to the potential risks of workplace accidents and injuries. This study aimed to assess the effect of box size, frequency of lift, and height of lift on maximum acceptable weight of lift (MAWL) on the heart rates of male university students in Iran. Methods This experimental study was conducted in 2015 with 15 male students recruited from Tehran University of Medical Sciences. Each participant performed 18 different lifting tasks that involved three lifting frequencies (1lift/min, 4.3 lifts/min and 6.67 lifts/min), three lifting heights (floor to knuckle, knuckle to shoulder, and shoulder to arm reach), and two box sizes. Each set of experiments was conducted during the 20 min work period using the free-style lifting technique. The working heart rates (WHR) were recorded for the entire duration. In this study, we used SPSS version 18 software and descriptive statistical methods, analysis of variance (ANOVA), and the t-test for data analysis. Results The results of the ANOVA showed that there was a significant difference between the mean of MAWL in terms of frequencies of lifts (p = 0.02). Tukey’s post hoc test indicated that there was a significant difference between the frequencies of 1 lift/minute and 6.67 lifts/minute (p = 0. 01). There was a significant difference between the mean heart rates in terms of frequencies of lifts (p = 0.006), and Tukey’s post hoc test indicated a significant difference between the frequencies of 1 lift/minute and 6.67 lifts/minute (p = 0.004). But, there was no significant difference between the mean of MAWL and the mean heart rate in terms of lifting heights (p > 0.05). The results of the t-test showed that there was a significant difference between the mean of MAWL and the mean heart rate in terms of the sizes of the two boxes (p = 0.000). Conclusion Based on the results of this study, it was concluded that MAWL and heart rate are influenced by the variables of lifting frequency and the size of the boxes. PMID:26516443

  1. View south; detail of top of lift span and lifting ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View south; detail of top of lift span and lifting cables. - Naval Base Philadelphia-Philadelphia Naval Shipyard, Lift Bridge, Mouth of Reserve Basin, League Island, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  2. Portable Lifting Seat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weddendorf, Bruce

    1993-01-01

    Portable lifting machine assists user in rising from seated position to standing position, or in sitting down. Small and light enough to be carried like briefcase. Used on variety of chairs and benches. Upholstered aluminum box houses mechanism of lifting seat. Springs on outer shaft-and-arm subassembly counterbalance part of user's weight to assist motor.

  3. Portable seat lift

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weddendorf, Bruce (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A portable seat lift that can help individuals either (1) lower themselves to a sitting position or (2) raise themselves to a standing position is presented. The portable seat lift consists of a seat mounted on a base with two levers, which are powered by a drive unit.

  4. Predicint lifting capacity.

    PubMed

    Ayoub, M M; Dryden, R; McDaniel, J; Knipfer, R; Dixon, D

    1979-12-01

    As science and technology become more sophisticated and with the rapid computation capabilities of the modern computer available, it becomes both possible and economically feasible to scientifically study man and his interaction with his working environment. It is now possible for a person seeking employment to expect and obtain a position which will not be unnecessarily hazardous to his immediate health or have detrimental effects over the long run. Manual materials handling is the contributor of over 400,000 back injuries suffered in the U.S. each year. This research is directed at determining the appropriate operator variables to measure for predicting the permissible weight of lift for three ranges of lift: floor to knuckle height, knuckle height to shoulder height, and shoulder height to reach height. A modified psychophysical procedure was used during which the subjects were instructed to adjust the weight in a tote box to the maximum weight they could lift repetitively without excessive strain or fatique. The task consisted of lifting loads under different conditions of task variables, namely, height of lift, frequency of lift, and load size. Industrial workers as well as students of both sexes were used as subjects. Based on the data obtained, the lifting capacity of the worker was determined for the different ranges of lift. In addition, predictive models were developed based on the operator variables and the task variables investigated. PMID:539547

  5. Catwalk grate lifting tool

    SciTech Connect

    Gunter, Larry W.

    1992-01-01

    A device for lifting catwalk grates comprising an elongated bent member with a handle at one end and a pair of notched braces and a hook at the opposite end that act in conjunction with each other to lock onto the grate and give mechanical advantage in lifting the grate.

  6. Understanding Wing Lift

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silva, J.; Soares, A. A.

    2010-01-01

    The conventional explanation of aerodynamic lift based on Bernoulli's equation is one of the most common mistakes in presentations to school students and is found in children's science books. The fallacies in this explanation together with an alternative explanation for aerofoil lift have already been presented in an excellent article by Babinsky…

  7. Understanding Wing Lift

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silva, J.; Soares, A. A.

    2010-01-01

    The conventional explanation of aerodynamic lift based on Bernoulli's equation is one of the most common mistakes in presentations to school students and is found in children's science books. The fallacies in this explanation together with an alternative explanation for aerofoil lift have already been presented in an excellent article by Babinsky

  8. Catwalk grate lifting tool

    DOEpatents

    Gunter, L.W.

    1992-08-11

    A device is described for lifting catwalk grates comprising an elongated bent member with a handle at one end and a pair of notched braces and a hook at the opposite end that act in conjunction with each other to lock onto the grate and give mechanical advantage in lifting the grate. 10 figs.

  9. Feasibility study of modern airships, phase 1. Volume 2: Parametric analysis (task 3). [lift, weight (mass)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lancaster, J. W.

    1975-01-01

    Various types of lighter-than-air vehicles from fully buoyant to semibuoyant hybrids were examined. Geometries were optimized for gross lifting capabilities for ellipsoidal airships, modified delta planform lifting bodies, and a short-haul, heavy-lift vehicle concept. It is indicated that: (1) neutrally buoyant airships employing a conservative update of materials and propulsion technology provide significant improvements in productivity; (2) propulsive lift for VTOL and aerodynamic lift for cruise significantly improve the productivity of low to medium gross weight ellipsoidal airships; and (3) the short-haul, heavy-lift vehicle, consisting of a simple combination of an ellipsoidal airship hull and existing helicopter componentry, provides significant potential for low-cost, near-term applications for ultra-heavy lift missions.

  10. Propulsive lift noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fink, Martin R.

    1991-08-01

    Propulsive life noise is the increase in noise that occurs when airframe surfaces are placed in the propulsive system's exhaust to increase their lift force. Increased local flow velocities and turbulence levels, due to the propulsive system exhaust gases passing along the airframe lifting surfaces, cause an increase in maximum lift coefficient. The airplane's flight speed required for takeoff and landing can then be significantly reduced, allowing operation from shorter runways than those of conventional commercial airports. Unfortunately, interaction of high velocity turbulent exhaust flow with the airframe's solid surfaces generates additional noise radiation. Aeroacoustic processes that cause propulsive lift noise also are present in airframe noise and propulsive system installation noise. Research studies of propulsive lift noise led to development of improved methods of predicting noise radiation from surfaces in turbulent flows. Noise reduction and prediction methods of aircraft noise are discussed.

  11. Samus Counter Lifting Fixture

    SciTech Connect

    Stredde, H.; /Fermilab

    1998-05-27

    A lifting fixture has been designed to handle the Samus counters. These counters are being removed from the D-zero area and will be transported off site for further use at another facility. This fixture is designed specifically for this particular application and will be transferred along with the counters. The future use of these counters may entail installation at a facility without access to a crane and therefore a lift fixture suitable for both crane and/or fork lift usage has been created The counters weigh approximately 3000 lbs. and have threaded rods extended through the counter at the top comers for lifting. When these counters were first handled/installed these rods were used in conjunction with appropriate slings and handled by crane. The rods are secured with nuts tightened against the face of the counter. The rod thread is M16 x 2({approx}.625-inch dia.) and extends 2-inch (on average) from the face of the counter. It is this cantilevered rod that the lift fixture engages with 'C' style plates at the four top comers. The strongback portion of the lift fixture is a steel rectangular tube 8-inch (vertical) x 4-inch x .25-inch wall, 130-inch long. 1.5-inch square bars are welded perpendicular to the long axis of the rectangular tube at the appropriate lift points and the 'C' plates are fastened to these bars with 3/4-10 high strength bolts -grade 8. Two short channel sections are positioned-welded-to the bottom of the rectangular tube on 40 feet centers, which are used as locators for fork lift tines. On the top are lifting eyes for sling/crane usage and are rated at 3500 lbs. safe working load each - vertical lift only.

  12. Interior of lift mechanism area of eastern lift span, looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior of lift mechanism area of eastern lift span, looking northwest. - Arlington Memorial Bridge, Spanning Potomac River between Lincoln Memorial & Arlington National Cemetery, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  13. Observing object lifting errors modulates cortico-spinal excitability and improves object lifting performance.

    PubMed

    Buckingham, Gavin; Wong, Jeremy D; Tang, Minnie; Gribble, Paul L; Goodale, Melvyn A

    2014-01-01

    Observing the actions of others has been shown to modulate cortico-spinal excitability and affect behaviour. However, the sensorimotor consequences of observing errors are not well understood. Here, participants watched actors lift identically weighted large and small cubes which typically elicit expectation-based fingertip force errors. One group of participants observed the standard overestimation and underestimation-style errors that characterise early lifts with these cubes (Error video--EV). Another group watched the same actors performing the well-adapted error-free lifts that characterise later, well-practiced lifts with these cubes (No error video--NEV). We then examined actual object lifting performance in the subjects who watched the EV and NEV. Despite having similar cognitive expectations and perceptions of heaviness, the group that watched novice lifters making errors themselves made fewer overestimation-style errors than those who watched the expert lifts. To determine how the observation of errors alters cortico-spinal excitability, we measured motor evoked potentials in separate group of participants while they passively observed these EV and NEV. Here, we noted a novel size-based modulation of cortico-spinal excitability when observing the expert lifts, which was eradicated when watching errors. Together, these findings suggest that individuals' sensorimotor systems are sensitive to the subtle visual differences between observing novice and expert performance. PMID:23953062

  14. Occupational Physical Loading Tasks and Knee Osteoarthritis: A Review of the Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Ezzat, Allison M.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: To perform a systematic review with best evidence synthesis examining the literature on the relationship between occupational loading tasks and knee osteoarthritis (OA). Methods: Two databases were searched to identify articles published between 1946 and April, 2011. Eligible studies were those that (1) included adults reporting on their employment history; (2) measured individuals' exposure to work-related activities with heavy loading in the knee joint; and (3) identified presence of knee OA (determined by X-ray), cartilage defects associated with knee OA (identified by magnetic resonance imaging), or joint replacement surgery. Results: A total of 32 articles from 31 studies met the inclusion criteria. We found moderate evidence that combined heavy lifting and kneeling is a risk factor for knee OA, with odds ratios (OR) varying from 1.8 to 7.9, and limited evidence for heavy lifting (OR=1.47.3), kneeling (OR=1.56.9), stair climbing (OR=1.65.1), and occupational groups (OR=1.44.7) as risk factors. When examined by sex, moderate level evidence of knee OA was found in men; however, the evidence in women was limited. Conclusions: Further high-quality prospective studies are warranted to provide further evidence on the role of occupational loading tasks in knee OA, particularly in women. PMID:24719516

  15. Dubai gas lift automation

    SciTech Connect

    Coltharp, E.D.; Khokhar, M.

    1984-09-01

    Dubai Petroleum Company has recently installed a computer gas lift surveillance and gas lift gas injection control system in the Fateh and S.W. Fateh Fields located in the southern part of the Arabian Gulf. This system is the fourth generation of the computer control system installed in California in 1971 by Conoco, Inc. This paper describes the advantages and problems in this system to monitor and control the gas lift operation of 116 wells through 30 intelligent remote terminal units (RTU). In addition, this system monitors the condition of critical operational

  16. Understanding wing lift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, J.; Soares, A. A.

    2010-05-01

    The conventional explanation of aerodynamic lift based on Bernoulli's equation is one of the most common mistakes in presentations to school students and is found in children's science books. The fallacies in this explanation together with an alternative explanation for aerofoil lift have already been presented in an excellent article by Babinsky (2003 Phys. Educ. 38 497-503). However, in Babinsky's explanation, the air friction forces are ignored and the flow-field curvature introduced by the aerofoil shape is understood intuitively. In this article, a simple analysis of the lift with friction forces incorporated is presented to give a more precise qualitative explanation.

  17. FREIGHT CONTAINER LIFTING STANDARD

    SciTech Connect

    POWERS DJ; SCOTT MA; MACKEY TC

    2010-01-13

    This standard details the correct methods of lifting and handling Series 1 freight containers following ISO-3874 and ISO-1496. The changes within RPP-40736 will allow better reading comprehension, as well as correcting editorial errors.

  18. Wind tower service lift

    DOEpatents

    Oliphant, David; Quilter, Jared; Andersen, Todd; Conroy, Thomas

    2011-09-13

    An apparatus used for maintaining a wind tower structure wherein the wind tower structure may have a plurality of legs and may be configured to support a wind turbine above the ground in a better position to interface with winds. The lift structure may be configured for carrying objects and have a guide system and drive system for mechanically communicating with a primary cable, rail or other first elongate member attached to the wind tower structure. The drive system and guide system may transmit forces that move the lift relative to the cable and thereby relative to the wind tower structure. A control interface may be included for controlling the amount and direction of the power into the guide system and drive system thereby causing the guide system and drive system to move the lift relative to said first elongate member such that said lift moves relative to said wind tower structure.

  19. Aerodynamic Lifting Force.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weltner, Klaus

    1990-01-01

    Describes some experiments showing both qualitatively and quantitatively that aerodynamic lift is a reaction force. Demonstrates reaction forces caused by the acceleration of an airstream and the deflection of an airstream. Provides pictures of demonstration apparatus and mathematical expressions. (YP)

  20. High-rate artificial lift

    SciTech Connect

    Clegg, J.D.

    1988-03-01

    This paper summarizes the major considerations in the selection, design, installation, operation, or repair of high-rate artificial-lift systems. The major types of artificial lift - sucker-rod pumps, gas-lift systems, electrical submersible pumps, hydraulic pumps and jets, and hydraulic turbine-driven pumps - will be discussed. An extensive bibliography of artificial-lift papers is included.

  1. Ares V: Progress Toward Unprecedented Heavy Lift

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sumrall, Phil

    2010-01-01

    Ares V represents the vehicle that will again make possible human exploration beyond low Earth orbit. The Ares V is part of NASA s Constellation Program architecture developed to support the International Space Station (ISS), establish a permanent human presence on the Moon, and explore it to an extent far greater than was possible with the Apollo Program. Ares V will carry the lunar lander to orbit where it will join the Orion crew spacecraft, launched by the smaller Ares I launch vehicle. Then the Ares V upper stage will send the Orion and lander to the Moon. Ares V is also intended to launch automated cargo landers to the Moon. The Ares vehicles are designed to employ the proven technologies and experience from the Space Shuttle, Delta IV, and earlier U.S. programs, as well as sharing common components where feasible. The Ares V is in an early stage of concept development. However, commonality allows it to benefit from development work already under way on the Ares I, including the first stage booster, and upper stage, J-2X upper stage engine. This paper will discuss progress to date on the Ares V and its potential for freeing payload designers from current mass and volume constraints. Progress includes development progress on Ares I elements that will be shared by the two launch vehicles. The Ares I first stage recently completed a successful test firing of Development Motor 1 (DM-1). The J-2X engine is proceeding with manufacturing of components for the first development engines that will be used for testing. Several component-level tests have been completed or are under way that will help verify designs and confirm solutions to design challenges. The Ares V Earth departure stage will benefit from the Ares I upper stage development, including design, manufacturing, and materials testing. NASA is also working with government and industry to collect data on flights and testing of the operational RS-68 engine and potential upgrades. The Ares V team continues to evaluate technical options, vehicle configurations, and operations concepts for the Ares V. The team recently completed a Fall Face-to-Face meeting that served as a stepping-stone to the Systems Requirements Review (SRR). This four-day meeting served as an information exchange for the various teams at several NASA field centers and supporting contractors.

  2. Affordable Heavy Lift Capability: 2000-2004

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This custom bibliography from the NASA Scientific and Technical Information Program lists a sampling of records found in the NASA Aeronautics and Space Database. The scope of this topic includes technologies to allow robust, affordable access of cargo, particularly to low-Earth orbit. This area of focus is one of the enabling technologies as defined by NASA s Report of the President s Commission on Implementation of United States Space Exploration Policy, published in June 2004.

  3. Human exposure to heavy metals. Rare earth pneumoconiosis in occupational workers. [From Carbon arc lamps in photoengraving

    SciTech Connect

    Vocaturo, G.; Colombo, F.; Zanoni, M.; Rodi, F.; Sabbioni, E.; Pietra, R.

    1983-05-01

    A male subject exposed for many years to rare earth (RE)-containing fumes and dusts emitted from carbon arc lamps in photoengraving laboratories was investigated to rule out RE pneumoconiosis. While chest x-ray films showed a severe pulmonary fibrosis, clinical analysis showed obvious high RE concentrations in the pulmonary and lymph node biopsy specimens compared with the corresponding tissues of 11 unexposed subjects. In addition to other elements, levels of thorium (Th), which is generally present as an impurity of RE compounds, were also determined to estimate the radiation dose which may be involved in inducing pneumoconiosis. The results show that the levels of Th are more than two orders of magnitude lower than the maximum permissible concentration for occupational exposure to natural 232Th, suggesting that the long-term accumulation of RE in the lungs played a role in the pathogenesis of the observed pulmonary fibrosis of the worker.

  4. Circulation control technology applied to propulsive high lift systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Englar, R. J.; Nichols, J. H., Jr.; Harris, M. J.; Eppel, J. C.; Shovlin, M. D.

    1984-01-01

    Technology developed for the Circulation Control Wing high-lift system has been extended to augment lift by entraining and redirecting engine thrust. Ejecting a thin jet sheet tangentially over a small curved deflecting surface adjacent to the slipstream of a turbofan engine causes the slipstream to flow around that deflecting surface. The angle of deflection is controlled pneumatically by varying the momentum of the thin jet sheet. The downward momentum of the slipstream enhances wing lift. This concept of pneumatically deflecting the slipstream has been applied to an upper surface blowing high-lift system and to a thrust deflecting system. The capability of the pneumatic upper surface blowing system was demonstrated in a series of investigations using a wind tunnel model and the NASA Quiet Short-haul Research Aircraft (QSRA). Full-scale thrust deflections greater than 90 deg were achieved. This mechanically simple system can provide increased maneuverability, heavy lift or overload capability, or short takeoff and landing performance.

  5. Relationship between handling heavy items during pregnancy and spontaneous abortion: a cross-sectional survey of working women in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Bokim; Jung, Hye-Sun

    2012-01-01

    The researchers conducted a cross-sectional survey to determine the relationship between handling heavy items during pregnancy and spontaneous abortion among working women in South Korea. One thousand working women were selected from a database of those eligible for maternity benefits under the National Employment Insurance Plan. Study results showed that handling heavy items during pregnancy was associated with an increased risk of spontaneous abortion after adjusting for general characteristics of the participants and their work environment. A collective effort is needed on the parts of employers, employees, occupational health nurses, and the government to protect working women from lifting heavy items while pregnant. PMID:22233596

  6. Waste Package Lifting Calculation

    SciTech Connect

    H. Marr

    2000-05-11

    The objective of this calculation is to evaluate the structural response of the waste package during the horizontal and vertical lifting operations in order to support the waste package lifting feature design. The scope of this calculation includes the evaluation of the 21 PWR UCF (pressurized water reactor uncanistered fuel) waste package, naval waste package, 5 DHLW/DOE SNF (defense high-level waste/Department of Energy spent nuclear fuel)--short waste package, and 44 BWR (boiling water reactor) UCF waste package. Procedure AP-3.12Q, Revision 0, ICN 0, calculations, is used to develop and document this calculation.

  7. A Lighter-Than-Air System Enhanced with Kinetic Lift

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spearman, M. Leroy

    2002-01-01

    A hybrid airship system is proposed in which the buoyant lift is enhanced with kinetic lift. The airship would consist of twin hulls in which the buoyant gas is contained. The twin hulls would be connected in parallel by a wing having an airfoil contour. In forward flight, the wing would provide kinetic lift that would add to the buoyant lift. The added lift would permit a greater payload/altitude combination than that which could be supported by the buoyant lift alone. The buoyant lift is a function of the volume of gas and the flight altitude. The kinetic lift is a function of the airfoil section, wing area, and the speed and altitude of flight. Accordingly there are a number of factors that can be manipulated to arrive at a particular design. Particular designs could vary from small, lightweight systems to very large, heavy-load systems. It will be the purpose of this paper to examine the sensitivity of such a design to the several variables. In addition, possible uses made achievable by such a hybrid system will be suggested.

  8. Interior view of lift mechanism area of eastern lift span, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of lift mechanism area of eastern lift span, showing trunion gears at left and right, and counterweight above. - Arlington Memorial Bridge, Spanning Potomac River between Lincoln Memorial & Arlington National Cemetery, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  9. Interior view of lift mechanism area of eastern lift span ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of lift mechanism area of eastern lift span looking south, showing trunion gears at left and right, and counterweight above. - Arlington Memorial Bridge, Spanning Potomac River between Lincoln Memorial & Arlington National Cemetery, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  10. 4. DETAIL OF VERTICAL LIFT SPAN SHOWING CONCRETE PIERS, LIFT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. DETAIL OF VERTICAL LIFT SPAN SHOWING CONCRETE PIERS, LIFT TOWERS, AND THROUGH TRUSS, LOOKING SOUTHEAST. - Shippingsport Bridge, Spanning Illinois River at State Route 51, La Salle, La Salle County, IL

  11. Lifting as You Climb

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Debra R.

    2009-01-01

    This article addresses leadership themes and answers leadership questions presented to "Exchange" by the Panel members who attended the "Exchange" Panel of 300 Reception in Dallas, Texas, last November. There is an old proverb that encourages people to lift as they climb: "While you climb a mountain, you must not forget others along the way." With

  12. JWST Lifting System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tolleson, William

    2012-01-01

    A document describes designing, building, testing, and certifying a customized crane (Lifting Device LD) with a strong back (cradle) to facilitate the installation of long wall panels and short door panels for the GHe phase of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). The LD controls are variable-frequency drive controls designed to be adjustable for very slow and very-short-distance movements throughout the installation. The LD has a lift beam with an electric actuator attached at the end. The actuator attaches to a rectangular strong back (cradle) for lifting the long wall panels and short door panels from a lower angle into the vertical position inside the chamber, and then rotating around the chamber for installation onto the existing ceiling and floor. The LD rotates 360 (in very small increments) in both clockwise and counterclockwise directions. Eight lifting pads are on the top ring with 2-in. (.5-cm) eye holes spaced evenly around the ring to allow for the device to be suspended by three crane hoists from the top of the chamber. The LD is operated by remote controls that allow for a single, slow mode for booming the load in and out, with slow and very slow modes for rotating the load.

  13. Lifting Sample Return Capsule

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    NASA's Stardust sample return capsule successfully landed at the U.S. Air Force Utah Test and Training Range at 2:10 a.m. Pacific time (3:10 a.m. Mountain time). The capsule contains cometary and interstellar samples gathered by the Stardust spacecraft.

    Here, the capsule is being lifted at the landing site.

  14. Hydraulic lifting device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Terrell, Kyle (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A piston and cylinder assembly is disclosed which is constructed of polyvinyl chloride that uses local water pressure to perform small lifting tasks. The chamber is either pressurized to extend the piston or depressurized to retract the piston. The present invention is best utilized for raising and lowering toilet seats.

  15. Helicopter Toy and Lift Estimation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shakerin, Said

    2013-01-01

    A $1 plastic helicopter toy (called a Wacky Whirler) can be used to demonstrate lift. Students can make basic measurements of the toy, use reasonable assumptions and, with the lift formula, estimate the lift, and verify that it is sufficient to overcome the toy's weight. (Contains 1 figure.)

  16. [Subperiosteal face-lift].

    PubMed

    Tessier, P

    1989-01-01

    The "facial mask" is composed of all of the tissues lying on top of the skeleton: periosteum, deep adipose tissue, superficial musculo-aponeurotic tissue and skin. The periosteum is the intermediate zone between the skeleton, responsible for the shape of the face, and the more superficial tissues which complete the shapes and, most importantly, represent the mobile part of the face and consequently the site of facial expression. The secret of an effective "mask-lift" depends on complete subperiosteal dissection of the malar bones, zygomatic arches and orbital margins. This dissection can be performed via a coronal approach, but it is easier to start the subperiosteal dissection via a short vestibular incision. Subperiosteal dissection via a coronal incision is not only useful to lift the facial mask; it is also useful for remodelling the orbital margins and to obtain bone grafts from the parietal area in order to reinforce the glabella, check bones and nasogenial folds. PMID:2473674

  17. Development of OTEC lift cycles

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, F.C.; Michel, J.W.

    1980-01-01

    An OTEC lift cycle system may be considered an open power cycle that uses an hydraulic turbine for power generation instead of the very low pressure steam turbine used in the Claude open cycle. It offers an alternate approach to the utilization of ocean thermal energy. The lift cycle power plant can have many different system options depending on the lift process employed. Foam and mist lift processes are presently under development sponsored by the US Department of Energy and are currently in the technical feasibility development stage. The concept of lift cycles, recent developments, preliminary cost estimates, and possible further activities are presented.

  18. Armature lift windmill

    SciTech Connect

    Willmouth, R. W.

    1985-04-02

    Airfoils are secured to the frame of a vertical axis windmill to provide vertical lift to a rotatable vertical shaft and to armatures of electrical generators, thereby eliminating friction between each armature and its end bearing as well as between the vertical shaft and its end bearing. An indicator provides an indication that the generators of the windmill are generating an alternating electrical current having at least a predetermined voltage magnitude.

  19. Enhanced Rescue Lift Capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Larry A.

    2007-01-01

    The evolving and ever-increasing demands of emergency response and disaster relief support provided by rotorcraft dictate, among other things, the development of enhanced rescue lift capability for these platforms. This preliminary analysis is first-order in nature but provides considerable insight into some of the challenges inherent in trying to effect rescue using a unique form of robotic rescue device deployed and operated from rotary-wing aerial platforms.

  20. Lifting Body Flight Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barret, Chris

    1998-01-01

    NASA has a technology program in place to build the X-33 test vehicle and then the full sized Reusable Launch Vehicle, VentureStar. VentureStar is a Lifting Body (LB) flight vehicle which will carry our future payloads into orbit, and will do so at a much reduced cost. There were three design contenders for the new Reusable Launch Vehicle: a Winged Vehicle, a Vertical Lander, and the Lifting Body(LB). The LB design won the competition. A LB vehicle has no wings and derives its lift solely from the shape of its body, and has the unique advantages of superior volumetric efficiency, better aerodynamic efficiency at high angles-of-attack and hypersonic speeds, and reduced thermal protection system weight. Classically, in a ballistic vehicle, drag has been employed to control the level of deceleration in reentry. In the LB, lift enables the vehicle to decelerate at higher altitudes for the same velocity and defines the reentry corridor which includes a greater cross range. This paper outlines our LB heritage which was utilized in the design of the new Reusable Launch Vehicle, VentureStar. NASA and the U.S. Air Force have a rich heritage of LB vehicle design and flight experience. Eight LB's were built and over 225 LB test flights were conducted through 1975 in the initial LB Program. Three LB series were most significant in the advancement of today's LB technology: the M2-F; HL-1O; and X-24 series. The M2-F series was designed by NASA Ames Research Center, the HL-10 series by NASA Langley Research Center, and the X-24 series by the Air Force. LB vehicles are alive again today.

  1. Powered-lift aircraft technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deckert, W. H.; Franklin, J. A.

    1989-01-01

    Powered lift aircraft have the ability to vary the magnitude and direction of the force produced by the propulsion system so as to control the overall lift and streamwise force components of the aircraft, with the objective of enabling the aircraft to operate from minimum sized terminal sites. Power lift technology has contributed to the development of the jet lift Harrier and to the forth coming operational V-22 Tilt Rotor and the C-17 military transport. This technology will soon be expanded to include supersonic fighters with short takeoff and vertical landing capability, and will continue to be used for the development of short- and vertical-takeoff and landing transport. An overview of this field of aeronautical technology is provided for several types of powered lift aircraft. It focuses on the description of various powered lift concepts and their operational capability. Aspects of aerodynamics and flight controls pertinent to powered lift are also discussed.

  2. Catalytic Generation of Lift Gases for Balloons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zubrin, Robert; Berggren, Mark

    2011-01-01

    A lift-gas cracker (LGC) is an apparatus that generates a low-molecular-weight gas (mostly hydrogen with smaller amounts of carbon monoxide and/or carbon dioxide) at low gauge pressure by methanol reforming. LGCs are undergoing development for use as sources of buoyant gases for filling zero-gauge-pressure meteorological and scientific balloons in remote locations where heavy, high-pressure helium cylinders are not readily available. LGCs could also be used aboard large, zero-gauge-pressure, stratospheric research balloons to extend the duration of flight.

  3. Detail of lift wire rope attachment to lift span at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of lift wire rope attachment to lift span at southeast corner. Note rope-adjustment turnbuckle with strap keepers to prevent its rotation, which could pull the bridge out of alignment. A single rope and light-gauge attachment at each corner were adequate for lifting the span because most of its weight was balanced by the two counterweights. - Potomac Edison Company, Chesapeake & Ohio Canal Bridge, Spanning C & O Canal South of U.S. 11, Williamsport, Washington County, MD

  4. Lifting Bodies on Lakebed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    The wingless, lifting body aircraft sitting on Rogers Dry Lake at what is now NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, from left to right are the X-24A, M2-F3 and the HL-10.The lifting body aircraft studied the feasibility of maneuvering and landing an aerodynamic craft designed for reentry from space. These lifting bodies were air launched by a B-52 mother ship, then flew powered by their own rocket engines before making an unpowered approach and landing. They helped validate the concept that a space shuttle could make accurate landings without power. The X-24A flew from April 17, 1969 to June 4, 1971. The M2-F3 flew from June 2, 1970 until December 22, 1972. The HL-10 flew from December 22, 1966 until July 17, 1970, and logged the highest and fastest records in the lifting body program. The X-24 was one of a group of lifting bodies flown by the NASA Flight Research Center (FRC-now Dryden Flight Research Center), Edwards, California, in a joint program with the U.S. Air Force at Edwards Air Force Base from 1963 to 1975. The lifting bodies were used to demonstrate the ability of pilots to maneuver and safely land wingless vehicles designed to fly back to Earth from space and be landed like an airplane at a predetermined site. Lifting bodies' aerodynamic lift, essential to flight in the atmosphere, was obtained from their shape. The addition of fins and control surfaces allowed the pilots to stabilize and control the vehicles and regulate their flight paths. Built by Martin Aircraft Company, Maryland, for the U.S. Air Force, the X-24A was a bulbous vehicle shaped like a teardrop with three vertical fins at the rear for directional control. It weighed 6,270 pounds, was 24.5 feet long and 11.5 feet wide (measuring just the fuselage, not the distance between the tips of the outboard fins). Its first unpowered glide flight was on April 17, 1969, with Air Force Maj. Jerauld Gentry at the controls. Gentry also piloted its first powered flight on March 19, 1970. The X-24A was flown 28 times in the program that, like the HL-10, validated the concept that a Space Shuttle vehicle could be landed unpowered. The fastest speed achieved by the X-24A was 1,036 miles per hour (mph--Mach 1.6). Its maximum altitude was 71,400 feet. It was powered by an XLR-11 rocket engine with a maximum theoretical vacuum thrust of 8,480 pounds. The X-24A was later modified into the X-24B. The bulbous shape of the X-24A was converted into a 'flying flatiron' shape with a rounded top, flat bottom, and double delta platform that ended in a pointed nose. The X-24B demonstrated that accurate unpowered reentry vehicle landings were operationally feasible. Top speed achieved by the X-24B was 1,164 mph and the highest altitude it reached was 74,130 feet. The vehicle is on display at the Air Force Museum, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio. The pilot on the last powered flight of the X-24B was Bill Dana, who also flew the last X-15 flight about seven years earlier. The X-24A shape was later borrowed for the X-38 Crew Return Vehicle (CRV) technology demonstrator for the International Space Station. The X-24B is on public display at the Air Force Museum, Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio. The M2-F3 was a modified version of the M2-F2. NASA pilots said the M2-F2 had lateral control problems, even though it had a stability augmentation control system. When the M2-F2 was rebuilt at Dryden and redesignated the M2-F3, it was modified with an additional third vertical fin-centered between the tip fins-to improve control characteristics. The first flight of the M2-F3, with NASA pilot Bill Dana at the controls, was on June 2, 1970. It was a glide flight to evaluate changes in the vehicle's performance due to the modifications. The modified vehicle exhibited much better lateral stability and control characteristics than had the M2-F2. Over the next 26 missions, the M2-F3 reached a top speed of l,064 mph (Mach 1.6). Bill Dana was the pilot, and the high-speed flight took place on December 13, 1972. The highest altitude reached by the vehicle was 71,500 feet on

  5. Selection of artificial lift method

    SciTech Connect

    Neely, B.; Gipson, F.; Clegg, J.; Capps, B.; Wilson, P.

    1981-01-01

    This paper summarizes the opening remarks of the panel members on a panel discussion of 'Selection of Artificial Lift Method' held at the 56th annual Fall Technical Conference and Exhibition of the Society of Petroleum Engineers of AIME in San Antonio, Texas, October 5-7, 1981. The topics discussed include: (1) reservoir and well considerations involved in artificial lift design; (2) sucker rod pumping; (3) gas lift; (4) submersible pumping; and, (5) hydraulic pumping. Advantages and limitations of each lift method are considered.

  6. 76 FR 40935 - Vertical Tandem Lifts in Marine Terminals; Extension of the Office of Management and Budget's...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-12

    ... Reduction Act of 1995 (44 U.S.C. 3506 et seq.) and Secretary of Labor's Order No. 5-2010 (72 FR 55355... Occupational Safety and Health Administration Vertical Tandem Lifts in Marine Terminals; Extension of the... collection requirements contained in the Standard on Vertical Tandem Lifts (VTLs) in Marine Terminals (29...

  7. Initiating Piloted Mars Expeditions with Medium-Lift Launch Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonin, G. R.

    A method of accomplishing manned expeditions to Mars with existing medium-lift launch systems is discussed. In this architecture, 20-tonne propulsion stages are placed individually in low-Earth orbit, where they are mated to Mars-bound payloads and ignited at successive perigees to execute trans-Mars injection. Spacecraft follow conjunction-class trajectories to the red planet and utilize aerobraking for orbital capture and descent. Return vehicles are fuelled with methane/oxygen bipropellant synthesized primarily from Martian resources. Dispatching expeditions from orbit with individual, high-energy stages - rather than directly from the Earth's surface - allows for the division of mission mass into more manageable components, which can be launched by vehicles that exist today. This plan does not require the development of heavy-lift launch technology: an effective yet costly proposition that may otherwise hinder current space exploration initiatives. Without the need for heavy-lift boosters, manned missions to Mars can be undertaken presently, and within the constraints of today's space exploration budgets. It is concluded that the mission design herein represents a less robust, though more economically viable method for initiating manned Mars exploration than proposals which require heavy-lift technology - an alternative method by which a new planet could be opened to humanity.

  8. What is a safe lift?

    PubMed

    Espinoza, Kathy

    2013-09-01

    In a perfect world, a "safe" lift would be 51 pounds if the object is within 7 inches from the front of the body, if it is at waist height, if it is directly in front of the person, if there is a handle on the object, and if the load inside the box/bucket doesn't shift once lifted. If the load to be lifted does not meet all of these criteria, then it is an unsafe lift, and modifications must be made. Modifications would include lightening the load, getting help, or using a mechanical lifting device. There is always a way to turn an unsafe lift into a safer lift. An excellent resource for anyone interested in eliminating some of the hazards associated with lifting is the "Easy Ergonomics" publication from Cal/OSHA. This booklet offers practical advice on how to improve the workplace using engineering and administrative controls, problem-solving strategies and solutions, and a vast amount of ergonomics information and resources. "Easy Ergonomics" can be obtained by calling Cal/OSHA's education and training unit in Sacramento at 800-963-9424. A free copy can be obtained via www.dir.ca.gov/dosh/puborder.asp. PMID:24260936

  9. Project LIFT: Year 1 Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norton, Michael; Piccinino, Kelly

    2014-01-01

    Research for Action (RFA) is currently in the second year of a five-year external evaluation of the Project Leadership and Investment for Transformation (LIFT) Initiative in the Charlotte-Mecklenburg School District (CMS). Project LIFT is a public-private partnership between CMS and the local philanthropic and business communities in Charlotte,

  10. Pneumatic Spoiler Controls Airfoil Lift

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, D.; Krauss, T.

    1991-01-01

    Air ejection from leading edge of airfoil used for controlled decrease of lift. Pneumatic-spoiler principle developed for equalizing lift on helicopter rotor blades. Also used to enhance aerodynamic control of short-fuselage or rudderless aircraft such as "flying-wing" airplanes. Leading-edge injection increases maneuverability of such high-performance fixed-wing aircraft as fighters.

  11. What's happening in artificial lift

    SciTech Connect

    Lea, J.F. ); Winkler, H.W.

    1991-05-01

    New developments reported this year are primarily in the areas of electrical submersible pumps (ESPs), beam pumps, and gas lift. The available information includes new products, techniques for extending run life, controllers, monitors and various other products. Specific topics in this article include: ESP turn key leases for temporary lifting; Horizontal pumps; Gas diffusion coatings for ESP bushings and sleeves; ESP variable rate current-voltage recording monitor; Power tubing ESP status; Low volume, high efficiency ESP stage; ESP improvements for horizontal and abrasive conditions; ESP computer design program effort; Well analyzer; Beam pump controller with variable frequency drive; Hydraulic pumping units; Mobile swab unit for marginal wells; Device for unseating downhole pumps; Gas lift valve test stand; Plunger lift controllers; Resettable ESP packer; Power generation from wellhead gas; and Artificial lift PC design program.

  12. Summary of Lift and Lift/Cruise Fan Powered Lift Concept Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, Woodrow L.

    1993-01-01

    A summary is presented of some of the lift and lift/cruise fan technology including fan performance, fan stall, ground effects, ingestion and thrust loss, design tradeoffs and integration, control effectiveness and several other areas related to vertical short takeoff and landing (V/STOL) aircraft conceptual design. The various subjects addressed, while not necessarily pertinent to specific short takeoff/vertical landing (STOVL) supersonic designs being considered, are of interest to the general field of lift and lift/cruise fan aircraft designs and may be of importance in the future. The various wind tunnel and static tests reviewed are: (1) the Doak VZ-4 ducted fan, (2) the 0.57 scale model of the Bell X-22 ducted fan aircraft, (3) the Avrocar, (4) the General Electric lift/cruise fan, (5) the vertical short takeoff and landing (V/STOL) lift engine configurations related to ingestion and consequent thrust loss, (6) the XV-5 and other fan-in-wing stall consideration, (7) hybrid configurations such as lift fan and lift/cruise fan or engines, and (8) the various conceptual design studies by air-frame contractors. Other design integration problems related to small and large V/STOL transport aircraft are summarized including lessons learned during more recent conceptual design studies related to a small executive V/STOL transport aircraft.

  13. Shape memory alloy resetable spring lift for pedestrian protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, Brian M.; Brei, Diann E.; Luntz, Jonathan E.; Strom, Kenneth; Browne, Alan L.; Johnson, Nancy

    2008-03-01

    Pedestrian protection has become an increasingly important aspect of automotive safety with new regulations taking effect around the world. Because it is increasingly difficult to meet these new regulations with traditional passive approaches, active lifts are being explored that increase the "crush zone" between the hood and rigid under-hood components as a means of mitigating the consequences of an impact with a non-occupant. Active lifts, however, are technically challenging because of the simultaneously high forces, stroke and quick timing resulting in most of the current devices being single use. This paper introduces the SMArt (Shape Memory Alloy ReseTable) Spring Lift, an automatically resetable and fully reusable device, which couples conventional standard compression springs to store the energy required for a hood lift, with Shape Memory Alloys actuators to achieve both an ultra high speed release of the spring and automatic reset of the system for multiple uses. Each of the four SMArt Device subsystems, lift, release, lower and reset/dissipate, are individually described. Two identical complete prototypes were fabricated and mounted at the rear corners of the hood, incorporated within a full-scale vehicle testbed at the SMARTT (Smart Material Advanced Research and Technology Transfer) lab at University of Michigan. Full operational cycle testing of a stationary vehicle in a laboratory setting confirms the ultrafast latch release, controlled lift profile, gravity lower to reposition the hood, and spring recompression via the ratchet engine successfully rearming the device for repeat cycles. While this is only a laboratory demonstration and extensive testing and development would be required for transition to a fielded product, this study does indicate that the SMArt Lift has promise as an alternative approach to pedestrian protection.

  14. Development lifts Egyptian output

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-08-01

    Oil revenue is now the largest source of foreign exchange for the Arab Republic of Egypt, and, as such, is of vital importance to the country's plans for industrial and social development. Last year oil exports earned Egypt $2.9 billion, playing a key role in keeping the nation's economy in the black. Oil production in 1980 averaged 585,000 bpd, up from 510,000 bpd in 1979. This year oil output should average 650,000 bpd. While output is increasing, it does not appear to be doing so at a sufficient rate to meet the 1984 government target of 1 million bpd. However, the oil industry view in Egypt is that this target is achievable, though not until the mid to late 1980s. Development work scheduled for completion by 1984 only seems set to lift output to between 750,000 and 800,000 bpd. At the same time, if expansions plans for gas production are taken into account, then total hydrocarbon output measured in oil equivalents will not be too far short of the 1-million-bpd figure.

  15. Development of Nonpowered Lift for Wheelchair Users

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Yusuke; Seki, Hiroaki; Kamiya, Yoshitsugu; Hikizu, Masatoshi; Maekawa, Mitsuyoshi

    Wheelchair users need lifts to climb up/down steps at entrances with limited space. Lifts driven by motors or hydraulic equipment are large and expensive. They also need switches to start/stop actuators. The aim of our study is to develop a compact nonpowered lift for wheelchair users. We propose a lift driven by the wheels of a wheelchair on it. Coil springs are installed in the lift to decrease driving torque and some mechanisms are attached to the lift so that the small front casters of a wheelchair can cross the lift stage and the large rear wheels can drive the lift. After the lifting speed, driving force, and conditions for driving the rollers were analyzed and a prototype lift was designed and fabricated. The developed lift succeeded in raising a wheelchair with a user, and a continuous motion of a wheelchair from entering to exiting the stage was executed smoothly.

  16. Physiological and psychophysical comparison between a lifting task with identical weight but different coupling factors.

    PubMed

    Adams, Kent J; DeBeliso, Mark; Sevene-Adams, Patricia G; Berning, Joseph M; Miller, Tiev; Tollerud, David J

    2010-02-01

    The objective of the revised NIOSH (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health) lifting equation is to prevent or reduce lifting-related injuries. The coupling component of the equation relates to quality of the grip (i.e., hand-to-object interface) and can be rated good, fair, or poor. Good coupling is theorized to reduce lifting stress, whereas poor coupling is theorized to increase lifting stress. This study compared the physiological and psychophysical stress between a lifting task with identical weight but different coupling factors. Subjects (n = 21; 26 +/- 6 years; 177.8 +/- 7.8 cm; 73.9 +/- 10.7 kg) transferred a milk crate or bag of dog food each weighing 12.5 kg back and forth from the floor to a table for 2, paced, 5-minute work bouts. Steady-state metabolic data were used to compare the lifting tasks. Results showed significantly higher oxygen consumption, caloric cost, heart rate, and rating of perceived exertion during the lifting task using the milk crate vs. the bag of dog food (p < 0.05). No difference in respiratory exchange ratio was observed (p > 0.05). In conclusion, a significantly higher metabolic cost and perceived exertion was observed when subjects performed a paced two-handed lifting task with good coupling factors than when using an object with poor coupling factors. When lifting stress is measured by metabolic cost and perceived exertion, these results are in contrast to expectations that a poor quality grip (i.e., poor coupling) would increase stress of a lifting task. Results of this study may help the work-place practitioner make decisions related to the use of the revised NIOSH lifting equation in the design and pacing of lifting-related tasks. Improved decision making may benefit productivity and enhance injury prevention in the workplace. PMID:20072069

  17. Shoulder disorders and occupation.

    PubMed

    Linaker, Catherine H; Walker-Bone, Karen

    2015-06-01

    Shoulder pain is very common, and it causes substantial morbidity. Standardised classification systems based upon presumed patho-anatomical origins have proved poorly reproducible and hampered epidemiological research. Despite this, there is evidence that exposure to combinations of physical workplace strains such as overhead working, heavy lifting and forceful work as well as working in an awkward posture increases the risk of shoulder disorders. Psychosocial risk factors are also associated. There is currently little evidence to suggest that either primary prevention or treatment strategies in the workplace are very effective, and more research is required, particularly around the cost-effectiveness of different strategies. PMID:26612238

  18. Complex contact and lift transformations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roulstone, I.; Sewell, M. J.

    2013-03-01

    We study mappings from sets of real variables into complex variables, which extend features of lift and contact transformations between real variables that we explored in a previous paper. In particular the relationship between lifts in R and the Cauchy-Riemann equations for functions of n complex variables is discussed. Explicit examples are given to illustrate the anatomy of such transformations, including the occurrence of singularities. Applications to nonlinear partial differential equations arising in fluid mechanics are presented.

  19. Face lift postoperative recovery.

    PubMed

    Mottura, A Aldo

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe what I have studied and experienced, mainly regarding the control and prediction of the postoperative edema; how to achieve an agreeable recovery and give positive support to the patient, who in turn will receive pleasant sensations that neutralize the negative consequences of the surgery.After the skin is lifted, the drainage flow to the flaps is reversed abruptly toward the medial part of the face, where the flap bases are located. The thickness and extension of the flap determines the magnitude of the post-op edema, which is also augmented by medial surgeries (blepharo, rhino) whose trauma obstruct their natural drainage, increasing the congestion and edema. To study the lymphatic drainage, the day before an extended face lift (FL) a woman was infiltrated in the cheek skin with lynfofast (solution of tecmesio) and the absorption was observed by gamma camera. Seven days after the FL she underwent the same study; we observed no absorption by the lymphatic, concluding that a week after surgery, the lymphatic network was still damaged. To study the venous return during surgery, a fine catheter was introduced into the external jugular vein up to the mandibular border to measure the peripheral pressure. Following platysma plication the pressure rose, and again after a simple bandage, but with an elastic bandage it increased even further, diminishing considerably when it was released. Hence, platysma plication and the elastic bandage on the neck augment the venous congestion of the face. There are diseases that produce and can prolong the surgical edema: cardiac, hepatic, and renal insufficiencies, hypothyroidism, malnutrition, etc. According to these factors, the post-op edema can be predicted, the surgeon can choose between a wide dissection or a medial surgery, depending on the social or employment compromises the patient has, or the patient must accept a prolonged recovery if a complex surgery is necessary. Operative measures which prevent extensive edemas are: avoiding transection of the temporal pedicle, or to realizing platysma plication too tight by using strong aspirative drainage instead of elastic bandages. In the post-op, the manual lymphatic drainage is initiated on the third or fifth day, but must be done by a trained professional, in a method contrary to that specified in the books for non-operated individuals. An aesthetician washes the hair and applies decongestive cold tea on the face the second day, and on the fifth, moisturizes the skin and cosmetically conceals any signs of bruising. The psychological support provided by the staff keeps the patient calm and relaxed. Five years experience with this protocol has enabled us to minimize post-op pain. The edema can be predicted with certain consistency (in which surgery there will be more or less edema) and the proper technique can be selected, permitting the patient to choose the best moment for a FL while the surgeon can avoid intra and postoperative measures that increase the edema. After surgery, the patient receives the daily assistance of the staff, which rapidly and efficiently improves this condition. We can predict and control the post-op recovery and the patient feels fine, unlike the past when recovery was abandoned to its natural evolution. If the patient perceived an intensive, positive support on behalf of the entire staff that kept him or her content, then we have succeeded in doing an excellent marketing. This may encourage others to undergo aesthetic surgery, especially those who are convinced that after surgery they might have to endure considerable suffering. PMID:12140694

  20. Fuel Cell-Powered Lift Truck Fleet Deployment Projects Final Technical Report May 2014

    SciTech Connect

    Klingler, James J

    2014-05-06

    The overall objectives of this project were to evaluate the performance, operability and safety of fork lift trucks powered by fuel cells in large distribution centers. This was accomplished by replacing the batteries in over 350 lift trucks with fuel cells at five distribution centers operated by GENCO. The annual cost savings of lift trucks powered by fuel cell power units was between $2,400 and $5,300 per truck compared to battery powered lift trucks, excluding DOE contributions. The greatest savings were in fueling labor costs where a fuel cell powered lift truck could be fueled in a few minutes per day compared to over an hour for battery powered lift trucks which required removal and replacement of batteries. Lift truck operators where generally very satisfied with the performance of the fuel cell power units, primarily because there was no reduction in power over the duration of a shift as experienced with battery powered lift trucks. The operators also appreciated the fast and easy fueling compared to the effort and potential risk of injury associated with switching heavy batteries in and out of lift trucks. There were no safety issues with the fueling or operation of the fuel cells. Although maintenance costs for the fuel cells were higher than for batteries, these costs are expected to decrease significantly in the next generation of fuel cells, making them even more cost effective.

  1. Occupational Employment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Occupational Outlook Quarterly, 2010

    2010-01-01

    When choosing a career, jobseekers often want to know which occupations offer the best prospects. Generally, occupations that have rapid job growth, many new jobs, or many job openings--and good wages--promise better opportunities. This article shows how employment in particular occupations is projected to change over the 2008-2018 decade. The

  2. Mist lift analysis summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Davenport, R.L.

    1980-09-01

    The mist flow open-cycle OTEC concept proposed by S.L. Ridgway has much promise, but the fluid mechanics of the mist flow are not well understood. The creation of the mist and the possibility of droplet growth leading to rainout (when the vapor can no longer support the mist) are particularly troublesome. This report summarizes preliminary results of a numerical analysis initiated at SERI in FY79 to study the mist-lift process. The analysis emphasizes the mass transfer and fluid mechanics of the steady-state mist flow and is based on one-dimensional models of the mist flow developed for SERI by Graham Wallis. One of Wallis's models describes a mist composed of a single size of drops and another considers several drop sizes. The latter model, further developed at SERI, considers a changing spectrum of discrete drop sizes and incorporates the mathematics describing collisions and growth of the droplets by coalescence. The analysis results show that under conditions leading to maximum lift in the single-drop-size model, the multigroup model predicts significantly reduced lift because of the growth of droplets by coalescence. The predicted lift height is sensitive to variations in the mass flow rate and inlet pressure. Inclusion of a coasting section, in which the drops would rise ballistically without change in temperature, may lead to increased lift within the existing range of operation.

  3. Lift production through asymmetric flapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jalikop, Shreyas; Sreenivas, K. R.

    2009-11-01

    At present, there is a strong interest in developing Micro Air Vehicles (MAV) for applications like disaster management and aerial surveys. At these small length scales, the flight of insects and small birds suggests that unsteady aerodynamics of flapping wings can offer many advantages over fixed wing flight, such as hovering-flight, high maneuverability and high lift at large angles of attack. Various lift generating mechanims such as delayed stall, wake capture and wing rotation contribute towards our understanding of insect flight. We address the effect of asymmetric flapping of wings on lift production. By visualising the flow around a pair of rectangular wings flapping in a water tank and numerically computing the flow using a discrete vortex method, we demonstrate that net lift can be produced by introducing an asymmetry in the upstroke-to-downstroke velocity profile of the flapping wings. The competition between generation of upstroke and downstroke tip vortices appears to hold the key to understanding this lift generation mechanism.

  4. Normalized lift: an energy interpretation of the lift coefficient simplifies comparisons of the lifting ability of rotating and flapping surfaces.

    PubMed

    Burgers, Phillip; Alexander, David E

    2012-01-01

    For a century, researchers have used the standard lift coefficient C(L) to evaluate the lift, L, generated by fixed wings over an area S against dynamic pressure, ?v(2), where v is the effective velocity of the wing. Because the lift coefficient was developed initially for fixed wings in steady flow, its application to other lifting systems requires either simplifying assumptions or complex adjustments as is the case for flapping wings and rotating cylinders.This paper interprets the standard lift coefficient of a fixed wing slightly differently, as the work exerted by the wing on the surrounding flow field (L/?S), compared against the total kinetic energy required for generating said lift, v(2). This reinterpreted coefficient, the normalized lift, is derived from the work-energy theorem and compares the lifting capabilities of dissimilar lift systems on a similar energy footing. The normalized lift is the same as the standard lift coefficient for fixed wings, but differs for wings with more complex motions; it also accounts for such complex motions explicitly and without complex modifications or adjustments. We compare the normalized lift with the previously-reported values of lift coefficient for a rotating cylinder in Magnus effect, a bat during hovering and forward flight, and a hovering dipteran.The maximum standard lift coefficient for a fixed wing without flaps in steady flow is around 1.5, yet for a rotating cylinder it may exceed 9.0, a value that implies that a rotating cylinder generates nearly 6 times the maximum lift of a wing. The maximum normalized lift for a rotating cylinder is 1.5. We suggest that the normalized lift can be used to evaluate propellers, rotors, flapping wings of animals and micro air vehicles, and underwater thrust-generating fins in the same way the lift coefficient is currently used to evaluate fixed wings. PMID:22629326

  5. Normalized Lift: An Energy Interpretation of the Lift Coefficient Simplifies Comparisons of the Lifting Ability of Rotating and Flapping Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Burgers, Phillip; Alexander, David E.

    2012-01-01

    For a century, researchers have used the standard lift coefficient CL to evaluate the lift, L, generated by fixed wings over an area S against dynamic pressure, ?v2, where v is the effective velocity of the wing. Because the lift coefficient was developed initially for fixed wings in steady flow, its application to other lifting systems requires either simplifying assumptions or complex adjustments as is the case for flapping wings and rotating cylinders. This paper interprets the standard lift coefficient of a fixed wing slightly differently, as the work exerted by the wing on the surrounding flow field (L/?S), compared against the total kinetic energy required for generating said lift, v2. This reinterpreted coefficient, the normalized lift, is derived from the work-energy theorem and compares the lifting capabilities of dissimilar lift systems on a similar energy footing. The normalized lift is the same as the standard lift coefficient for fixed wings, but differs for wings with more complex motions; it also accounts for such complex motions explicitly and without complex modifications or adjustments. We compare the normalized lift with the previously-reported values of lift coefficient for a rotating cylinder in Magnus effect, a bat during hovering and forward flight, and a hovering dipteran. The maximum standard lift coefficient for a fixed wing without flaps in steady flow is around 1.5, yet for a rotating cylinder it may exceed 9.0, a value that implies that a rotating cylinder generates nearly 6 times the maximum lift of a wing. The maximum normalized lift for a rotating cylinder is 1.5. We suggest that the normalized lift can be used to evaluate propellers, rotors, flapping wings of animals and micro air vehicles, and underwater thrust-generating fins in the same way the lift coefficient is currently used to evaluate fixed wings. PMID:22629326

  6. Individual and occupational risk factors for knee osteoarthritis: results of a case-control study in Germany

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction A number of occupational risk factors are discussed in relation to the development and progress of knee joint diseases (for example, working in a kneeling or squatting posture, lifting and carrying heavy weights). Besides the occupational factors, a number of individual risk factors are important. The distinction between work-related and other factors is crucial in assessing the risk and in deriving preventive measures in occupational health. Methods In a case-control study, patients with and without symptomatic knee osteoarthritis (OA) were questioned by means of a standardised questionnaire complemented by a semi-standardised interview. Controls were matched and assigned to the cases by gender and age. Conditional logistic regression was used in analysing data. Results In total, 739 cases and 571 controls were included in the study. In women and men, several individual and occupational predictors for knee OA could be described: obesity (odds ratio (OR) up to 17.65 in women and up to 12.56 in men); kneeling/squatting (women, OR 2.52 (>8,934 hours/life); men, 2.16 (574 to 12,244 hours/life), 2.47 (>12,244 hours/life)); genetic predisposition (women, OR 2.17; men, OR 2.37); and sports with a risk of unapparent trauma (women, OR 2.47 (≥1,440 hours/life); men, 2.58 (≥3,232 hours/life)). In women, malalignment of the knee (OR 11.54), pain in the knee already in childhood (OR 2.08), and the daily lifting and carrying of loads (≥1,088 tons/life, OR 2.13) were related to an increased OR; sitting and smoking led to a reduced OR. Conclusions The results support a dose-response relationship between kneeling/squatting and symptomatic knee OA in men and, for the first time, in women. The results concerning general and occupational predictors for knee OA reflect the findings from the literature quite well. Yet occupational risks such as jumping or climbing stairs/ladders, as discussed in the literature, did not correlate with symptomatic knee OA in the present study. With regards to occupational health, prevention measures should focus on the reduction of kneeling activities and the lifting and carrying of loads as well as general risk factors, most notably the reduction of obesity. More intervention studies of the effectiveness of tools and working methods for reducing knee straining activities are needed. PMID:20470400

  7. Occupational Consciousness

    PubMed Central

    Ramugondo, Elelwani L.

    2015-01-01

    Occupational consciousness refers to ongoing awareness of the dynamics of hegemony and recognition that dominant practices are sustained through what people do every day, with implications for personal and collective health. The emergence of the construct in post-apartheid South Africa signifies the country’s ongoing struggle with negotiating long-standing dynamics of power that were laid down during colonialism, and maintained under black majority rule. Consciousness, a key component of the new terminology, is framed from post-colonial perspectives – notably work by Biko and Fanon – and grounded in the philosophy of liberation, in order to draw attention to continuing unequal intersubjective relations that play out through human occupation. The paper also draws important links between occupational consciousness and other related constructs, namely occupational possibilities, occupational choice, occupational apartheid, and collective occupation. The use of the term ‘consciousness’ in sociology, with related or different meanings, is also explored. Occupational consciousness is then advanced as a critical notion that frames everyday doing as a potentially liberating response to oppressive social structures. This paper advances theorizing as a scholarly practice in occupational science, and could potentially expand inter or transdisciplinary work for critical conceptualizations of human occupation. PMID:26549984

  8. Serrated-Planform Lifting-Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGrath, Brian E. (Inventor); Wood, Richard M. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A novel set of serrated-planform lifting surfaces produce unexpectedly high lift coefficients at moderate to high angles-of-attack. Each serration, or tooth, is designed to shed a vortex. The interaction of the vortices greatly enhances the lifting capability over an extremely large operating range. Variations of the invention use serrated-planform lifting surfaces in planes different than that of a primary lifting surface. In an alternate embodiment, the individual teeth are controllably retractable and deployable to provide for active control of the vortex system and hence lift coefficient. Differential lift on multiple serrated-planform lifting surfaces provides a means for vehicle control. The important aerodynamic advantages of the serrated-planform lifting surfaces are not limited to aircraft applications but can be used to establish desirable performance characteristics for missiles, land vehicles, and/or watercraft.

  9. What's new in artificial lift

    SciTech Connect

    Lea, J.F. ); Winkler, H.W.

    1993-05-01

    Changes in the US industry seem to necessitate increased emphasis on energy conservation, better run-lives and equipment optimization. International operations are more concerned with equipment reliability and maintaining production. Following are some new concepts in gas lift and submersible pumps used in both areas. Beam and progressive cavity pumps, hydraulic jet and reciprocating pumps and control methods are included.

  10. Powered-Lift Aerodynamics and Acoustics. [conferences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Powered lift technology is reviewed. Topics covered include: (1) high lift aerodynamics; (2) high speed and cruise aerodynamics; (3) acoustics; (4) propulsion aerodynamics and acoustics; (5) aerodynamic and acoustic loads; and (6) full-scale and flight research.

  11. Occupational dermatosis.

    PubMed

    Alchorne, Alice de Oliveira de Avelar; Alchorne, Maurcio Mota de Avelar; Silva, Marzia Macedo

    2010-01-01

    Occupational Dermatosis is described as any alteration in the skin, mucosa or annexes that is directly or indirectly caused, conditioned, maintained or aggravated by agents present in the occupational activity or work environment. The authors of the present study describe the importance of the topic and the epidemiology and etiopathogeny of the main forms of occupational dermatoses: allergic and irritative contact dermatitis, phytodermatitis, acne (elaioconioses and chloracne), keratosis, cancers, foreign body granuloma, infections, onychias, and ulcerations. Clinical findings of occupational dermatosis are presented in relation to various professions. Laboratory tests used to diagnose this condition are analysed, with special emphasis on patch testing, which is the gold standard. Information about the treatment and prevention of this disorder is provided. Collective and individual measures, especially regarding the proper use of individual protection equipment for the prevention of occupational dermatosis, are detailed. PMID:20520928

  12. 49 CFR 37.203 - Lift maintenance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Lift maintenance. 37.203 Section 37.203... DISABILITIES (ADA) Over-the-Road Buses (OTRBs) 37.203 Lift maintenance. (a) The entity shall establish a system of regular and frequent maintenance checks of lifts sufficient to determine if they are...

  13. 49 CFR 37.203 - Lift maintenance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Lift maintenance. 37.203 Section 37.203... DISABILITIES (ADA) Over-the-Road Buses (OTRBs) 37.203 Lift maintenance. (a) The entity shall establish a system of regular and frequent maintenance checks of lifts sufficient to determine if they are...

  14. 49 CFR 37.203 - Lift maintenance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Lift maintenance. 37.203 Section 37.203... DISABILITIES (ADA) Over-the-Road Buses (OTRBs) 37.203 Lift maintenance. (a) The entity shall establish a system of regular and frequent maintenance checks of lifts sufficient to determine if they are...

  15. Vertical Lift - Not Just For Terrestrial Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Larry A

    2000-01-01

    Autonomous vertical lift vehicles hold considerable potential for supporting planetary science and exploration missions. This paper discusses several technical aspects of vertical lift planetary aerial vehicles in general, and specifically addresses technical challenges and work to date examining notional vertical lift vehicles for Mars, Titan, and Venus exploration.

  16. Lift distribution in a rectangular jet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jameson, A.

    1971-01-01

    Computer programs predict effect of slipstream-wing flow interaction on aerodynamic characteristics of deflected slipstream and tilt aircraft. One program calculates lift distribution, lift, and drag of wing in wide slipstream. Results permit development of simplified lifting surface theory for circular jet.

  17. Protect Your Back: Guidelines for Safer Lifting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cantu, Carolyn O.

    2002-01-01

    Examines back injury in teachers and child care providers; includes statistics, common causes of back pain (improper alignment, improper posture, improper lifting, and carrying), and types of back pain (acute and chronic). Focuses on preventing back injury, body mechanics for lifting and carrying, and proper lifting and carrying of children. (SD)

  18. 30 CFR 56.16016 - Lift trucks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lift trucks. 56.16016 Section 56.16016 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND....16016 Lift trucks. Fork and other similar types of lift trucks shall be operated with the (a)...

  19. 30 CFR 57.16016 - Lift trucks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lift trucks. 57.16016 Section 57.16016 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND... 57.16016 Lift trucks. Fork and other similar types of lift trucks shall be operated with the:...

  20. 30 CFR 56.16016 - Lift trucks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Lift trucks. 56.16016 Section 56.16016 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND....16016 Lift trucks. Fork and other similar types of lift trucks shall be operated with the (a)...

  1. 30 CFR 57.16016 - Lift trucks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Lift trucks. 57.16016 Section 57.16016 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND... 57.16016 Lift trucks. Fork and other similar types of lift trucks shall be operated with the:...

  2. An Alternative Maxillary Sinus Lift Technique Sinu Lift System

    PubMed Central

    T, Parthasaradhi; B, Shivakumar; Kumar, T.S.S.; P, Suganya

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Maxillary sinus augmentation surgical techniques have evolved greatly allowing successful placement of dental implants in the atrophic posterior maxillary region. The purpose of the present study is to evaluate the clinical and radiological outcomes and postoperative morbidity of sinus floor elevation procedures performed using the minimally invasive surgical technique the Sinu lift system. Materials and Methods: Sinus lift procedure was done using the sinu lift system by a transcrestal approach and bone augmentation was done on ten systemically healthy patients using ?- tricalcium phosphate and platelet rich plasma mix. The study was evaluated upto six months period with bone related parameters being assessed at base line using CT scan, OPG and after six months the results were analysed using SPSS Version 18.0 software (p < 0.01 (0.005). Wilcoxson signed rank sum test was used to correlate between preoperative and postoperative measurements. Implant placements were done at the desired area of sinus augmentation with a two year follow up. (Nobel Biocare, Nobel Biocare Holding AG, Zrich-Flughafen, Switzerland) Results: The augmented sites had a significant increase in the bone parameters at the desired grafted region. The mean gain in bone height as observed in CT Scan had revealed increased measurements from 5.80mm0.98 to 10.20mm1.68 at the sixth month evaluation. This was statistically significant (0.005). Clinically, no complications were observed during or after the surgical procedure. Conclusion: Within the limitations of this study, the Sinu lift system with a controlled working action resulted in high procedural success and this procedure may be an alternative to the currently used surgical methods. PMID:25954702

  3. Sensations of heaviness.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Gandevia SC; McCloskey DI

    1977-06-01

    We have studied the appreciation of heaviness in two groups of subjects; in 8 patients with varying degrees of unilateral 'upper motor neuron' weakness but without sensory symptoms or signs, and in 10 volunteers during partial curarization of the forearm and hand. In all experiments the subjects matched a reference weight lifted on the weak side with a variable weight on the strong side to provide an objective indication of the heaviness of the reference weight. Patients matched the weights of tennis balls filled with mercury or weights lifted by extending the index finger. Weights were judged as heavier when lifted by the weakened side both in the hemiparetic patients and in normal subjects weakened with curare. In both the hemiparetic patients and the subjects weakened with curare peripheral sensory information would signal the forces exerted in lifting the weight; however, both groups of subjects clearly placed more reliance on the effort that was being put into the contraction than on peripheral tensions achieved. The concept that we rely in part on a sensing command to the motoneurons when estimating weight agrees with observations by Holmes on patients with unilateral cerebellar dysfunction, and with recent physiological experiments.

  4. Occupational Literacy: Requirements and Instructional Response.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rush, R. Timothy

    The average worker spends 2.5 hours per day in occupational reading or writing, yet most classrooms fail to teach the reading and writing competencies required in skilled and semi-skilled job contexts. Occupational reading requires use of external references and following of directions, with a heavy dependence on prior knowledge and on insight.

  5. Serrated trailing edges for improving lift and drag characteristics of lifting surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vijgen, Paul M. H. W. (inventor); Howard, Floyd G. (inventor); Bushnell, Dennis M. (inventor); Holmes, Bruce J. (inventor)

    1992-01-01

    An improvement in the lift and drag characteristics of a lifting surface is achieved by attaching a serrated panel to the trailing edge of the lifting surface. The serrations may have a saw-tooth configuration, with a 60 degree included angle between adjacent serrations. The serrations may vary in shape and size over the span-wise length of the lifting surface, and may be positioned at fixed or adjustable deflections relative to the chord of the lifting surface.

  6. Occupational Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Sheppard, Dean

    1982-01-01

    Bronchospasm is a common cause of morbidity in the workplace. More than 100 agents are now recognized as occupational causes of asthma and numerous agents can cause exacerbations of preexisting asthma. Because of the large number of potential causative agents and the complexity of modern industrial processes, knowledge of the characteristic clinical features of occupational asthma is the key to recognizing this disease. Early diagnosis of occupational asthma is important in preventing long-term morbidity. Present evidence that prolonged exposure to some work-encountered agents can cause asthma that persists for years after the end of exposure suggests that avoidance is the only acceptable countermeasure against this disease. PMID:7164429

  7. Lifting of Discovery in VAB

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Inside the cavernous Vehicle Assembly Building, workers carry out the meticulous process of lifting the orbiter Discovery from a horizontal to a vertical position. Once upright, Discovery will be transferred into a high bay for mating with the external tank/solid rocket booster assembly already mounted on the mobile launcher platform. Completing the assembly takes about five working days. Discovery's next destination: Launch Pad 39B, and final preparations for liftoff on Mission STS-70 in early June.

  8. Quiet powered-lift propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Latest results of programs exploring new propulsion technology for powered-lift aircraft systems are presented. Topics discussed include results from the 'quiet clean short-haul experimental engine' program and progress reports on the 'quiet short-haul research aircraft' and 'tilt-rotor research aircraft' programs. In addition to these NASA programs, the Air Force AMST YC 14 and YC 15 programs were reviewed.

  9. Occupational Diseases in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eun A

    2010-01-01

    Korea has industrialized since the 1970s. Pneumoconiosis in coal miners was the most common occupational disease in the 1970s to 1980s. With the industrialization, the use of many chemicals have increased since the 1970s. As a consequence, there were outbreaks of occupational diseases caused by poisonous chemicals, such as heavy metal poisoning, solvent poisoning and occupational asthma in the late 1980s and early 1990s with civil movement for democracy. Many actions have been taken for prevention by the government, employers and employees or unions. In the 1990s most chemical related diseases and pneumoconiosis have rapidly decreased due to improving work environment. In the late 1990s, cerebro-cardiovascular diseases related to job stress or work overloads have abruptly increased especially after the economic crisis in 1998. After the year 2000, musculoskeletal disorders became a major problem especially in assembly lines in the manufacturing industry and they were expanded to the service industry. Mental diseases related to job stress have increased. Infectious diseases increased in health care workers and afforestation workers. Occupational cancers are increasing because of their long latency, although the use of carcinogenic substances are reduced, limited, and even banned. PMID:21258589

  10. Lift enhancement by bats' dynamically changing wingspan.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shizhao; Zhang, Xing; He, Guowei; Liu, Tianshu

    2015-12-01

    This paper elucidates the aerodynamic role of the dynamically changing wingspan in bat flight. Based on direct numerical simulations of the flow over a slow-flying bat, it is found that the dynamically changing wingspan can significantly enhance the lift. Further, an analysis of flow structures and lift decomposition reveal that the elevated vortex lift associated with the leading-edge vortices intensified by the dynamically changing wingspan considerably contributed to enhancement of the time-averaged lift. The nonlinear interaction between the dynamically changing wing and the vortical structures plays an important role in the lift enhancement of a flying bat in addition to the geometrical effect of changing the lifting-surface area in a flapping cycle. In addition, the dynamically changing wingspan leads to the higher efficiency in terms of generating lift for a given amount of the mechanical energy consumed in flight. PMID:26701882

  11. Generalised Eisenhart lift of the Toda chain

    SciTech Connect

    Cariglia, Marco; Gibbons, Gary

    2014-02-15

    The Toda chain of nearest neighbour interacting particles on a line can be described both in terms of geodesic motion on a manifold with one extra dimension, the Eisenhart lift, or in terms of geodesic motion in a symmetric space with several extra dimensions. We examine the relationship between these two realisations and discover that the symmetric space is a generalised, multi-particle Eisenhart lift of the original problem that reduces to the standard Eisenhart lift. Such generalised Eisenhart lift acts as an inverse Kaluza-Klein reduction, promoting coupling constants to momenta in higher dimension. In particular, isometries of the generalised lift metric correspond to energy preserving transformations that mix coordinates and coupling constants. A by-product of the analysis is that the lift of the Toda Lax pair can be used to construct higher rank Killing tensors for both the standard and generalised lift metrics.

  12. Occupational asthma

    MedlinePLUS

    ... lung disorder in which substances found in the workplace cause the airways of the lungs to swell ... in substances called triggers. Many substances in the workplace can trigger asthma symptoms, leading to occupational asthma. ...

  13. Occupational Health

    MedlinePLUS

    Occupational health problems occur at work or because of the kind of work you do. These problems can include ... by exposure to radiation Exposure to germs in health care settings Good job safety and prevention practices ...

  14. [Operative applications of occupational therapy].

    PubMed

    Saade, A

    2010-01-01

    Occupational therapy is the branch of rehabilitation whose main aim is to achieve maximum possible autonomy of the disabled person and the most complete integration into society, family and work. In subjects with motor disabilities following an occupational injury, the re-education programme includes a series of interventions aimed at progressive recovery of the ability to carry out work tasks compatible with the residual motor capacity of the worker. This article presents some examples related to the different stages making up the specific re-education programme: from the initial stages (with more purely kinesiotherapeutic techniques) directed at recovering movements and muscle strength, to the intermediate and final stages (more typically ergotherapeutic) directed first at the recovery of basic functions (clasping, pulling, pushing, lifting, lowering, carrying, etc.) and then, finally, retraining of work movements, with the introduction of compensatory methods and/or use of auxiliaries, when necessary. PMID:21438257

  15. New and expected developments in artificial lift

    SciTech Connect

    Lea, J.F.; Winkler, H.W.

    1994-12-31

    Artificial lift is a broad subject. This paper discusses some of the new developments in the major areas of artificial lift. These are (1) beam lift, (2) electrical submersible pumping, (3) gas lift, (4) hydraulic pumping and (5) miscellaneous topics. The beam lift discussion concerns a new rod material, downhole measurements for rod loading, unit design and some miscellaneous topics. The ESP (Electrical Submersible Pump) section includes a discussion on solids handling, downhole sensor technology, new motor temperature limitations, motor efficiency, and other topics. The gas lift discussion includes mention of coiled tubing with gas lift valves internal, a surface controlled gas lift valve concept, and gas lift valve testing and modeling. Hydraulic pumping is used in many locations with deep pay and fairly small production rates. New hydraulic developments include a wider availability of power fluid pumps other than positive displacement pumps, and small jet pumps specifically designed for de-watering gas wells. Some miscellaneous developments include an insertable PC (progressing cavity) pump and improved plunger lift algorithms and equipment.

  16. Automation of Workplace Lifting Hazard Assessment for Musculoskeletal Injury Prevention

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Existing methods for practically evaluating musculoskeletal exposures such as posture and repetition in workplace settings have limitations. We aimed to automate the estimation of parameters in the revised United States National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) lifting equation, a standard manual observational tool used to evaluate back injury risk related to lifting in workplace settings, using depth camera (Microsoft Kinect) and skeleton algorithm technology. Methods A large dataset (approximately 22,000 frames, derived from six subjects) of simultaneous lifting and other motions recorded in a laboratory setting using the Kinect (Microsoft Corporation, Redmond, Washington, United States) and a standard optical motion capture system (Qualysis, Qualysis Motion Capture Systems, Qualysis AB, Sweden) was assembled. Error-correction regression models were developed to improve the accuracy of NIOSH lifting equation parameters estimated from the Kinect skeleton. Kinect-Qualysis errors were modelled using gradient boosted regression trees with a Huber loss function. Models were trained on data from all but one subject and tested on the excluded subject. Finally, models were tested on three lifting trials performed by subjects not involved in the generation of the model-building dataset. Results Error-correction appears to produce estimates for NIOSH lifting equation parameters that are more accurate than those derived from the Microsoft Kinect algorithm alone. Our error-correction models substantially decreased the variance of parameter errors. In general, the Kinect underestimated parameters, and modelling reduced this bias, particularly for more biased estimates. Use of the raw Kinect skeleton model tended to result in falsely high safe recommended weight limits of loads, whereas error-corrected models gave more conservative, protective estimates. Conclusions Our results suggest that it may be possible to produce reasonable estimates of posture and temporal elements of tasks such as task frequency in an automated fashion, although these findings should be confirmed in a larger study. Further work is needed to incorporate force assessments and address workplace feasibility challenges. We anticipate that this approach could ultimately be used to perform large-scale musculoskeletal exposure assessment not only for research but also to provide real-time feedback to workers and employers during work method improvement activities and employee training. PMID:24987523

  17. Occupational stress among tunnel workers in Sikkim

    PubMed Central

    Basnet, Pragyan; Gurung, Shoyeta; Pal, Ranabir; Kar, Sumit; Bharati, Dharamvir Ranjan

    2010-01-01

    Background: Job stress has been linked to a wide range of adverse effects on mental, physical and organizational health. Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the impact of job stress on mental, physical and social health of the underground construction workers in Sikkim. Materials and Methods: The study population comprised of tunnel workers and a comparable group of controls. Using the interview technique, data was collected using the SF-36 General Health Survey Questionnaire. Results: The study population comprised of individuals of whom more than half were below 40 years of age and was comparable to the group of controls. Majority reported good health, while poor health was reported by 22 % of the subjects under study Compared to their health status last year, 52% rated their health as somewhat worse. Majority reported that their physical health problems limited them in activities of daily life, viz., running, lifting heavy objects, participation in strenuous sports, climbing several flights of stairs, bending, stooping or kneeling and walking more than a mile, during the past four weeks. More than half of them had severe body ache in the past four weeks that interfered with both work outside home and housework. This was true for emotional problems also, which interfered with their normal social activities involving family, friends, neighbors or groups. The associations of occupational stress with physical, emotional and social life and with limitation of day-to-day activities among tunnel workers were found to be statistically significant. Conclusion: The results emphasize the importance of assessment of the effects of job stress and of fulfilling the need of underground workers for optimum preventive measures. PMID:21694786

  18. Lift enhancement by trapped vortex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rossow, Vernon J.

    1992-01-01

    The viewgraphs and discussion of lift enhancement by trapped vortex are provided. Efforts are continuously being made to find simple ways to convert wings of aircraft from an efficient cruise configuration to one that develops the high lift needed during landing and takeoff. The high-lift configurations studied here consist of conventional airfoils with a trapped vortex over the upper surface. The vortex is trapped by one or two vertical fences that serve as barriers to the oncoming stream and as reflection planes for the vortex and the sink that form a separation bubble on top of the airfoil. Since the full three-dimensional unsteady flow problem over the wing of an aircraft is so complicated that it is hard to get an understanding of the principles that govern the vortex trapping process, the analysis is restricted here to the flow field illustrated in the first slide. It is assumed that the flow field between the two end plates approximates a streamwise strip of the flow over a wing. The flow between the endplates and about the airfoil consists of a spanwise vortex located between the suction orifices in the endplates. The spanwise fence or spoiler located near the nose of the airfoil serves to form a separated flow region and a shear layer. The vorticity in the shear layer is concentrated into the vortex by withdrawal of fluid at the suction orifices. As the strength of the vortex increases with time, it eventually dominates the flow in the separated region so that a shear or vertical layer is no longer shed from the tip of the fence. At that point, the vortex strength is fixed and its location is such that all of the velocity contributions at its center sum to zero thereby making it an equilibrium point for the vortex. The results of a theoretical analysis of such an idealized flow field are described.

  19. Effects of Injector Conditions on the Flame Lift-Off Length of DI Diesel Sprays

    SciTech Connect

    D. L. Siebers; B. S. Higgins

    2000-07-01

    The effects of injection pressure and orifice diameter on the lift-off length of a direct-injection (DI) diesel spray (defined as the farthest upstream location of high temperature combustion) were investigated using a natural light emission imaging technique. The lift-off length experiments were conducted in a constant-volume combustion vessel under quiescent, heavy-duty DI diesel engine conditions using a Phillips research grade No.2 diesel fuel. The results show that natural light emission at 310 nm provides an excellent marker of the lift-off length. At this location, natural light emission at 310 nm is dominated by OH chemiluminescence generated by high-temperature combustion chemistry. Lift-off lengths determined from images of natural light emission at 310 nm show that as either injection pressure (i.e., injection velocity) or orifice diameter increase, the lift-off length increases. The observed lift-off length increase was linearly dependent on injection velocity, the same dependency as previously noted for gas jets. The lift-off length increase with increasing orifice diameter, however, is different than the independence of lift-off length on orifice diameter noted for gas jets An important overall observation was made by considering the lift-off length data in conjunction with data from recent investigations of liquid-phase fuel penetration and spray development. The combined data suggests that a systematic evolution of the relationship and interaction between various processes in a DI diesel spray has been occurring over time, as injection pressures have been increased and orifice diameters reduced as part of efforts to meet emissions regulations. The trends observed may eventually help explain effects of parameters such as injection pressure and orifice diameter on emissions.

  20. Occupational Neurotoxic Diseases in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chi-Hung; Huang, Chu-Yun

    2012-01-01

    Occupational neurotoxic diseases have become increasingly common in Taiwan due to industrialization. Over the past 40 years, Taiwan has transformed from an agricultural society to an industrial society. The most common neurotoxic diseases also changed from organophosphate poisoning to heavy metal intoxication, and then to organic solvent and semiconductor agent poisoning. The nervous system is particularly vulnerable to toxic agents because of its high metabolic rate. Neurological manifestations may be transient or permanent, and may range from cognitive dysfunction, cerebellar ataxia, Parkinsonism, sensorimotor neuropathy and autonomic dysfunction to neuromuscular junction disorders. This study attempts to provide a review of the major outbreaks of occupational neurotoxins from 1968 to 2012. A total of 16 occupational neurotoxins, including organophosphates, toxic gases, heavy metals, organic solvents, and other toxic chemicals, were reviewed. Peer-reviewed articles related to the electrophysiology, neuroimaging, treatment and long-term follow up of these neurotoxic diseases were also obtained. The heavy metals involved consisted of lead, manganese, organic tin, mercury, arsenic, and thallium. The organic solvents included n-hexane, toluene, mixed solvents and carbon disulfide. Toxic gases such as carbon monoxide, and hydrogen sulfide were also included, along with toxic chemicals including polychlorinated biphenyls, tetramethylammonium hydroxide, organophosphates, and dimethylamine borane. In addition we attempted to correlate these events to the timeline of industrial development in Taiwan. By researching this topic, the hope is that it may help other developing countries to improve industrial hygiene and promote occupational safety and health care during the process of industrialization. PMID:23251841

  1. Modeling of Lifting Equipment with Backlash Consideration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vondrich, J.; Thndel, E.

    This paper looks at the impact of backlash between the worm and worm gear in an electric-driven machine the vibrations of the propelled section of the machine. The assessment is carried out for a lift machine, in which the resulting vibrations will affect the lift cab due to backlash. Eventual backlash in the worm gear will result in cage vibrations, which cause problems with ride smoothness and imprecision in stopping in desired stations. The lift has been chosen to analyze the matter in hand; in this kind of machine, excessive backlash between the worm and worm gear results in vibration of the lift cab. Equations of motion have been prepared for the lift model and worm drive backlash which can be solved in the Matlab application for different lift parameters. The equations provide cab velocity and acceleration data which can be subsequently compared with the desired values as defined in the applicable technical standards.

  2. Influence of Lift Offset on Rotorcraft Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Wayne

    2009-01-01

    The influence of lift offset on the performance of several rotorcraft configurations is explored. A lift-offset rotor, or advancing blade concept, is a hingeless rotor that can attain good efficiency at high speed by operating with more lift on the advancing side than on the retreating side of the rotor disk. The calculated performance capability of modern-technology coaxial rotors utilizing a lift offset is examined, including rotor performance optimized for hover and high-speed cruise. The ideal induced power loss of coaxial rotors in hover and twin rotors in forward flight is presented. The aerodynamic modeling requirements for performance calculations are evaluated, including wake and drag models for the high-speed flight condition. The influence of configuration on the performance of rotorcraft with lift-offset rotors is explored, considering tandem and side-by-side rotorcraft as well as wing-rotor lift share.

  3. Occupational therapist.

    PubMed

    Coad, C P

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the application of the skills of the occupational therapist in a position as coordinator of a special vocational training program in a community college district. Duties described include program for limited-English-proficient adults. A major reason for a specialized educational approach for limited-English-speaking adults came from the large influx of non-native English speaking immigrants and refugees into the community college district, many of them without job skills. The resulting vocational linguistic program involves counseling, job-skill training and vocational English instruction. A summary of the procedures involved in evaluating language proficiency and vocational skills from enrollment to job-ready status is presented and explained. This role of the occupational therapist follows the trend to incorporate the generic skills of occupational therapy into new areas of practice. PMID:23952121

  4. HSR High-Lift Technology Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Applin, Z. T.

    1999-01-01

    High-lift system performance will have a large impact on airplane noise and weight. Successful completion of PCD1 activities provided greater understanding of aerodynamic characteristics and configuration features important to high-lift system performance including: 1) Reynolds number effects (Ref. H); 2) Propulsion/airframe integration effects; and 3) Planform effects, canard/3-surface, alternate high-lift concepts, etc. PCD2 plans are aimed at achieving technology development performance goals and increasing technology readiness level for Technology Concept.

  5. Hydraulic lift: a potentially important ecosystem process.

    PubMed

    Horton, J L; Hart, S C

    1998-06-01

    Hydraulic lift is the process by which some deep-rooted plants take in water from lower soil layers and exude that water into upper, drier soil layers. Hydraulic lift is beneficial to the plant transporting the water, and may be an important water source for neighboring plants. Recent evidence shows that hydraulically lifted water can promote greater plant growth, and could have important implications for net primary productivity, as well as ecosystem nutrient cycling and water balance. PMID:21238277

  6. Three Lifting Bodies on Lakebed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    The wingless, lifting body aircraft sitting on Rogers Dry Lake at what is now NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, from left to right are the X-24A, M2-F3 and the HL-10.The lifting body aircraft studied the feasibility of maneuvering and landing an aerodynamic craft designed for reentry from space. These lifting bodies were air launched by a B-52 mother ship, then flew powered by their own rocket engines before making an unpowered approach and landing. They helped validate the concept that a space shuttle could make accurate landings without power. The X-24A flew from April 17, 1969 to June 4, 1971. The M2-F3 flew from June 2, 1970 until December 20, 1972. The HL-10 flew from December 22, 1966 until July 17, 1970 and logged the highest and fastest records in the lifting body program. The X-24 was one of a group of lifting bodies flown by the NASA Flight Research Center (FRC--now Dryden Flight Research Center), Edwards, California, in a joint program with the U.S. Air Force at Edwards Air Force Base from 1963 to 1975. The lifting bodies were used to demonstrate the ability of pilots to maneuver and safely land wingless vehicles designed to fly back to Earth from space and be landed like an airplane at a predetermined site. Lifting bodies' aerodynamic lift, essential to flight in the atmosphere, was obtained from their shape. The addition of fins and control surfaces allowed the pilots to stabilize and control the vehicles and regulate their flight paths. Built by Martin Aircraft Company, Maryland, for the U.S. Air Force, the X-24A was a bulbous vehicle shaped like a teardrop with three vertical fins at the rear for directional control. It weighed 6,270 pounds, was 24.5 feet long and 11.5 feet wide (measuring just the fuselage, not the distance between the tips of the outboard fins). Its first unpowered glide flight was on April 17, 1969, with Air Force Maj. Jerauld Gentry at the controls. Gentry also piloted its first powered flight on March 19, 1970. The X-24A was flown 28 times in the program that, like the HL-10, validated the concept that a Space Shuttle vehicle could be landed unpowered. The fastest speed achieved by the X-24A was 1,036 miles per hour (mph--Mach 1.6). Its maximum altitude was 71,400 feet. It was powered by an XLR-11 rocket engine with a maximum theoretical vacuum thrust of 8,480 pounds. The X-24A was later modified into the X-24B. The bulbous shape of the X-24A was converted into a 'flying flatiron' shape with a rounded top, flat bottom, and double delta platform that ended in a pointed nose. The X-24B demonstrated that accurate unpowered reentry vehicle landings were operationally feasible. Top speed achieved by the X-24B was 1,164 mph and the highest altitude it reached was 74,130 feet. The vehicle is on display at the Air Force Museum, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio. The pilot on the last powered flight of the X-24B was Bill Dana, who also flew the last X-15 flight about seven years earlier. The X-24A shape was later borrowed for the X-38 Crew Return Vehicle (CRV) technology demonstrator for the International Space Station. The X-24B is on public display at the Air Force Museum, Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio. The M2-F3 was a modified version of the M2-F2. NASA pilots said the M2-F2 had lateral control problems, even though it had a stability augmentation control system. When the M2-F2 was rebuilt at Dryden and redesignated the M2-F3, it was modified with an additional third vertical fin--centered between the tip fins--to improve control characteristics. The first flight of the M2-F3, with NASA pilot Bill Dana at the controls, was on June 2, 1970. It was a glide flight to evaluate changes in the vehicle's performance due to the modifications. The modified vehicle exhibited much better lateral stability and control characteristics than had the M2-F2. Over the next 26 missions, the M2-F3 reached a top speed of l,064 mph (Mach 1.6). Bill Dana was the pilot, and the high-speed flight took place on December 13, 1972. The highest altitude reached by the vehicle was 71,500 feet o

  7. Facial emphysema after sinus lift

    PubMed Central

    Sakakibara, Akiko; Suzuki, Hiroaki; Yamashita, Atsuya; Hasegawa, Takumi; Minamikawa, Tsutomu; Furudoi, Shungo; Komori, Takahide

    2015-01-01

    An 80-year-old man with a history of en bloc resection of squamous cell carcinoma of the hard palate (T4aN0M0) was performed a lateral-window sinus lift of the edentulous area of the left maxillary molar region to facilitate future placement of dental implants. Two hours after the surgery, the patient complained of sudden malar swelling. Marked swelling was present from the left infraorbital region to the buccal region. The swelling was associated with air pockets at the alar base and in the angulus oculi medialis region and subcutaneous malar tissue. Emphysema appeared after the patient blew his nose. Therefore, the mucous membrane of the maxillary sinus might have had a small hole, and air might have entered the subcutaneous tissue via the bone window when the air pressure in the maxillary sinus increased with nose blowing. It is important to advise patients to avoid increasing the intraoral pressure after sinus-lift procedure. PMID:26088054

  8. The lift-fan aircraft: Lessons learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deckert, Wallace H.

    1995-01-01

    This report summarizes the highlights and results of a workshop held at NASA Ames Research Center in October 1992. The objective of the workshop was a thorough review of the lessons learned from past research on lift fans, and lift-fan aircraft, models, designs, and components. The scope included conceptual design studies, wind tunnel investigations, propulsion systems components, piloted simulation, flight of aircraft such as the SV-5A and SV-5B and a recent lift-fan aircraft development project. The report includes a brief summary of five technical presentations that addressed the subject The Lift-Fan Aircraft: Lessons Learned.

  9. Lift generation by the avian tail.

    PubMed

    Maybury, W J; Rayner, J M; Couldrick, L B

    2001-07-22

    Variation with tail spread of the lift generated by a bird tail was measured on mounted, frozen European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) in a wind tunnel at a typical air speed and body and tail angle of attack in order to test predictions of existing aerodynamic theories modelling tail lift. Measured lift at all but the lowest tail spread angles was significantly lower than the predictions of slender wing, leading edge vortex and lifting line models of lift production. Instead, the tail lift coefficient based on tail area was independent of tail spread, tail aspect ratio and maximum tail span. Theoretical models do not predict bird tail lift reliably and, when applied to tail morphology, may underestimate the aerodynamic optimum tail feather length. Flow visualization experiments reveal that an isolated tail generates leading edge vortices as expected for a low-aspect ratio delta wing, but that in the intact bird body-tail interactions are critical in determining tail aerodynamics: lifting vortices shed from the body interact with the tail and degrade tail lift compared with that of an isolated tail. PMID:11454286

  10. Artificial lift: Many new developments are emerging

    SciTech Connect

    Lea, J.F.

    1984-03-01

    Methods of artificially lifting oil production are almost countless, testifying to the ingenuity of inventors, engineers, technicians, etc., that have worked in this area. And, artificial lift improvements continue to be important, especially now that product prices are nearly constant and production costs are under closer scruitiny. Some methods of artificial lift thought to be new to industry are mentioned in this article, including: Aluminum sucker rods, Graphite composite lift system, Unique pumping unit geometry, Chain drive pumping unit, Two types of pump-off control, Downhole gas pump, Hydraulic-centrifugal pump, Improvements in submersible pumps, and Submersible pump gas separators.

  11. Optimizing production with artificial lift systems

    SciTech Connect

    Patton, L.D. )

    1989-07-01

    There are four basic artificial lift systems in use today; gas-lift (GL), sucker rod pumping (SRP), electric subsurface centrifugal pumps (ESP), and subsurface hydraulic (SSHP). All of these systems are time proven and will satisfactorily perform the task for which they were designed. Once the factors that will influence the operation of a lift system have been defined, the design engineer must consider the advantages of the basic systems. The more common oil field problems which affect artificial lift are listed. The {ital relative} merits of each system with these problems are noted; however, the severity of any one of the adverse conditions may dictate the optimum system.

  12. Development of computational methods for heavy lift launch vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yoon, Seokkwan; Ryan, James S.

    1993-01-01

    The research effort has been focused on the development of an advanced flow solver for complex viscous turbulent flows with shock waves. The three-dimensional Euler and full/thin-layer Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations for compressible flows are solved on structured hexahedral grids. The Baldwin-Lomax algebraic turbulence model is used for closure. The space discretization is based on a cell-centered finite-volume method augmented by a variety of numerical dissipation models with optional total variation diminishing limiters. The governing equations are integrated in time by an implicit method based on lower-upper factorization and symmetric Gauss-Seidel relaxation. The algorithm is vectorized on diagonal planes of sweep using two-dimensional indices in three dimensions. A new computer program named CENS3D has been developed for viscous turbulent flows with discontinuities. Details of the code are described in Appendix A and Appendix B. With the developments of the numerical algorithm and dissipation model, the simulation of three-dimensional viscous compressible flows has become more efficient and accurate. The results of the research are expected to yield a direct impact on the design process of future liquid fueled launch systems.

  13. Ground cloud related weather modification effects. [heavy lift launch vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, J.

    1980-01-01

    The principal concerns about inadvertent weather modification by the solar power satellite system rocket effluents are discussed, namely the possibility that the ground cloud might temporarily modify local weather and the cumulative effects of nearly 500 launches per year. These issues are discussed through the consideration of (1) the possible alteration of the microphysical processes of clouds in the general area due to rocket effluents and debris and cooling water entrained during the launch and (2) the direct dynamical and thermodynamical responses to the inputs of thermal energy and moisture from the rocket exhaust for given ambient meteorological conditions. The huge amount of thermal energy contained in the exhaust of the proposed launch vehicle would in some situations induce a saturated, wet convective cloud or enhance an existing convective activity. Nevertheless, the effects would be limited to the general area of the launch site. The observed long lasting high concentrations of cloud condensation nuclei produced during and after a rocket launch may appreciably affect the frequency of occurrence and persistence of fogs and haze. In view of the high mission frequency proposed for the vehicle launches, a potential exists for a cumulative effect.

  14. Remaking Teacher Evaluation: A Heavy Lift for State Education Policymakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGuinn, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    The "Race to the Top" competitive grant program initiated a wave of teacher evaluation reform, which scholars and policymakers have long identified as critical to improving teacher quality and student performance. State boards of education (SBEs) and state education agencies (SEAs) took different approaches to these reforms, and as a

  15. Remaking Teacher Evaluation: A Heavy Lift for State Education Policymakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGuinn, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    The "Race to the Top" competitive grant program initiated a wave of teacher evaluation reform, which scholars and policymakers have long identified as critical to improving teacher quality and student performance. State boards of education (SBEs) and state education agencies (SEAs) took different approaches to these reforms, and as a…

  16. Impact of Aerodynamics and Structures Technology on Heavy Lift Tiltrotors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acree, C. W., Jr.

    2006-01-01

    Rotor performance and aeroelastic stability are presented for a 124,000-lb Large Civil Tilt Rotor (LCTR) design. It was designed to carry 120 passengers for 1200 nm, with performance of 350 knots at 30,000 ft altitude. Design features include a low-mounted wing and hingeless rotors, with a very low cruise tip speed of 350 ft/sec. The rotor and wing design processes are described, including rotor optimization methods and wing/rotor aeroelastic stability analyses. New rotor airfoils were designed specifically for the LCTR; the resulting performance improvements are compared to current technology airfoils. Twist, taper and precone optimization are presented, along with the effects of blade flexibility on performance. A new wing airfoil was designed and a composite structure was developed to meet the wing load requirements for certification. Predictions of aeroelastic stability are presented for the optimized rotor and wing, along with summaries of the effects of rotor design parameters on stability.

  17. HL-10 pilots assist with pilot entry into lifting body

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Not every moment of a test pilot's day is serious business. In a moment of levity, NASA pilots Bill Dana (left) and John A. Manke try to drag Air Force test pilot Peter Hoag away from the HL-10 lifting body while Air Force Major Jerauld R. Gentry helps from the cockpit. These four men were the principal pilots for the HL-10 program. This was not the only prank involving the HL-10 and its pilots. Once 'Captain Midnight' (Gentry) and the 'Midnight skulkers' sneaked into the NASA hangar and put 'U.S. Air Force' on the aircraft using stick-on letters. Later, while Gentry was making a lifting-body flight, his 1954 Ford was 'borrowed' from the parking lot, painted with yellow-green zinc-chromate primer, and decorated with large stick-on flowers about one foot in diameter. After Gentry returned from the flight, he was surprised to see what had happened to his car. The HL-10 was one of five heavyweight lifting-body designs flown at NASA's Flight Research Center (FRC--later Dryden Flight Research Center), Edwards, California, from July 1966 to November 1975 to study and validate the concept of safely maneuvering and landing a low lift-over-drag vehicle designed for reentry from space. Northrop Corporation built the HL-10 and M2-F2, the first two of the fleet of 'heavy' lifting bodies flown by the NASA Flight Research Center. The contract for construction of the HL-10 and the M2-F2 was $1.8 million. 'HL' stands for horizontal landing, and '10' refers to the tenth design studied by engineers at NASA's Langley Research Center, Hampton, Va. After delivery to NASA in January 1966, the HL-10 made its first flight on Dec. 22, 1966, with research pilot Bruce Peterson in the cockpit. Although an XLR-11 rocket engine was installed in the vehicle, the first 11 drop flights from the B-52 launch aircraft were powerless glide flights to assess handling qualities, stability, and control. In the end, the HL-10 was judged to be the best handling of the three original heavy-weight lifting bodies (M2-F2/F3, HL-10, X-24A). The HL-10 was flown 37 times during the lifting body research program and logged the highest altitude and fastest speed in the Lifting Body program. On Feb. 18, 1970, Air Force test pilot Peter Hoag piloted the HL-10 to Mach 1.86 (1,228 mph). Nine days later, NASA pilot Bill Dana flew the vehicle to 90,030 feet, which became the highest altitude reached in the program. Some new and different lessons were learned through the successful flight testing of the HL-10. These lessons, when combined with information from it's sister ship, the M2-F2/F3, provided an excellent starting point for designers of future entry vehicles, including the Space Shuttle.

  18. 33 CFR 118.85 - Lights on vertical lift bridges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Lights on vertical lift bridges... BRIDGES BRIDGE LIGHTING AND OTHER SIGNALS § 118.85 Lights on vertical lift bridges. (a) Lift span lights. The vertical lift span of every vertical lift bridge shall be lighted so that the center of...

  19. 33 CFR 118.85 - Lights on vertical lift bridges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Lights on vertical lift bridges... BRIDGES BRIDGE LIGHTING AND OTHER SIGNALS § 118.85 Lights on vertical lift bridges. (a) Lift span lights. The vertical lift span of every vertical lift bridge shall be lighted so that the center of...

  20. 33 CFR 118.85 - Lights on vertical lift bridges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Lights on vertical lift bridges... BRIDGES BRIDGE LIGHTING AND OTHER SIGNALS § 118.85 Lights on vertical lift bridges. (a) Lift span lights. The vertical lift span of every vertical lift bridge shall be lighted so that the center of...

  1. 33 CFR 118.85 - Lights on vertical lift bridges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Lights on vertical lift bridges... BRIDGES BRIDGE LIGHTING AND OTHER SIGNALS § 118.85 Lights on vertical lift bridges. (a) Lift span lights. The vertical lift span of every vertical lift bridge shall be lighted so that the center of...

  2. The Selection of a Van Lift or a Scooter.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, John H.

    1990-01-01

    This newsletter issue describes 3-wheeled scooters and van lifts that can assist a person with a disability to drive independently or have access to transportation. The section on van lifts compares hydraulic lifts and electric lifts, lists manufacturers, and offers an "assessment quiz" outlining factors to consider in selecting a van lift. In the

  3. What's new in artificial lift

    SciTech Connect

    Lea, J.F.; Winker, H.W.

    1989-05-01

    New developments might be expected to decline as oil, and thus equipment and service, prices decrease. However, there is no indication that this is occurring. In fact, several new and innovative developments are covered in this article. Of the more unique are a new geometry pumping unit and a hydraulic powered sucker and rod system. Other items described in this article include: New pump-off controller; Automatic balancing for air balanced pumping units; New rod couplings; New pump plunger; Sucker rod pulsation dampener; Stripper type BOP; Rod coupling tool; ESP cable protectors; New ESP motor; VSD communications interface; ESP gas separator; Portable hydraulic production test unit; Casing gas lift plunger; Production shut-of valve; Ceramic material for pump parts; Pressure transmitter; and New versatile packer.

  4. Soccer Ball Lift Coefficients via Trajectory Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goff, John Eric; Carre, Matt J.

    2010-01-01

    We performed experiments in which a soccer ball was launched from a machine while two high-speed cameras recorded portions of the trajectory. Using the trajectory data and published drag coefficients, we extracted lift coefficients for a soccer ball. We determined lift coefficients for a wide range of spin parameters, including several spin…

  5. 49 CFR 37.203 - Lift maintenance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lift maintenance. 37.203 Section 37.203 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation TRANSPORTATION SERVICES FOR INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES (ADA) Over-the-Road Buses (OTRBs) § 37.203 Lift maintenance. (a) The entity shall establish...

  6. 49 CFR 37.203 - Lift maintenance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Lift maintenance. 37.203 Section 37.203 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation TRANSPORTATION SERVICES FOR INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES (ADA) Over-the-Road Buses (OTRBs) § 37.203 Lift maintenance. (a) The entity shall establish...

  7. 29 CFR 1926.453 - Aerial lifts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies may be obtained from the American National...) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Scaffolds § 1926.453 Aerial lifts. (a) General... conform with the applicable design and construction requirements of ANSI A92.2-1969. Aerial lifts...

  8. 46 CFR 64.43 - Lifting fittings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lifting fittings. 64.43 Section 64.43 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MARINE PORTABLE TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Standards for an MPT 64.43 Lifting fittings. Each MPT must have attached...

  9. 46 CFR 64.43 - Lifting fittings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Lifting fittings. 64.43 Section 64.43 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MARINE PORTABLE TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Standards for an MPT 64.43 Lifting fittings. Each MPT must have attached...

  10. 46 CFR 64.43 - Lifting fittings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Lifting fittings. 64.43 Section 64.43 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MARINE PORTABLE TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Standards for an MPT 64.43 Lifting fittings. Each MPT must have attached...

  11. 46 CFR 64.43 - Lifting fittings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Lifting fittings. 64.43 Section 64.43 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MARINE PORTABLE TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Standards for an MPT 64.43 Lifting fittings. Each MPT must have attached...

  12. Soccer Ball Lift Coefficients via Trajectory Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goff, John Eric; Carre, Matt J.

    2010-01-01

    We performed experiments in which a soccer ball was launched from a machine while two high-speed cameras recorded portions of the trajectory. Using the trajectory data and published drag coefficients, we extracted lift coefficients for a soccer ball. We determined lift coefficients for a wide range of spin parameters, including several spin

  13. Improving Grading Consistency through Grade Lift Reporting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millet, Ido

    2010-01-01

    We define Grade Lift as the difference between average class grade and average cumulative class GPA. This metric provides an assessment of how lenient the grading was for a given course. In 2006, we started providing faculty members individualized Grade Lift reports reflecting their position relative to an anonymously plotted school-wide

  14. Training Guidelines: Fork Lift Truck Driving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ceramics, Glass, and Mineral Products Industry Training Board, Harrow (England).

    This manual of operative training guidelines for fork lift truck driving has been developed by the Ceramics, Glass and Mineral Products Industry Training Board (Great Britain) in consultation with a number of firms which manufacture fork lift trucks or which already have training--programs for their use. The purpose of the guidelines is to assist…

  15. Occupational asthma.

    PubMed Central

    Chan-Yeung, M.; Grzybowski, S.

    1976-01-01

    Occupational asthma is probably much more common than is generally realized. Though many causes have been described, undoubtedly many more are yet to be recognized. One of the diagnostic difficulties lies in the fact that in most forms of this disease a late asthmatic reaction occurs in the evening rather than at work. The pathogenetic mechanisms differ in various forms of occupational asthma. In some, an immunologic mechanism is likely; in others, a "pharmacologic" action of the offending agent is implicated. Asthma due to inhalation of dusts of western red cedar, isocyanates, detergent enzymes and textiles is considered in detail. Periodic examination of workers at risk is of value for early diagnosis and prevention of irrversible airway obstruction. PMID:766943

  16. Method for calculating wing characteristics by lifting-line theory using nonlinear section lift data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sivells, James C; Neely, Robert H

    1947-01-01

    A method is presented for calculating wing characteristics by lifting-line theory using nonlinear section lift data. Material from various sources is combined with some original work into the single complete method described. Multhopp's systems of multipliers are employed to obtain the induced angle of attack directly from the spanwise lift distribution. Equations are developed for obtaining these multipliers for any even number of spanwise stations, and values are tabulated for 10 stations along the semispan for asymmetrical, symmetrical, and antisymmetrical lift distributions. In order to minimize the computing time and to illustrate the procedures involved, simplified computing forms containing detailed examples are given for symmetrical lift distributions. Similar forms for asymmetrical and antisymmetrical lift distributions, although not shown, can be readily constructed in the same manner as those given. The adaptation of the method for use with linear section lift data is also illustrated. The adaptation has been found to require less computing time than most existing methods.

  17. View of West end of central lift span truss web ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of West end of central lift span truss web of Tensaw River Bridge, showing web brace of lift girder superstructure, looking west - Tensaw River Lift Bridge, Spanning Tensaw River at U.S. Highway 90, Mobile, Mobile County, AL

  18. 9. VIEW LOOKING SOUTHWEST SHOWING TOP OF LIFT SPAN AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. VIEW LOOKING SOUTHWEST SHOWING TOP OF LIFT SPAN AND MACHINERY HOUSE; ADJACENT RAILROAD LIFT-BRIDGE TO THE RIGHT. - Carter Road Lift Bridge, Spanning Cuyahoga River at Carter Road, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  19. View north; detail of lifting points at south end of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View north; detail of lifting points at south end of lift span. - Naval Base Philadelphia-Philadelphia Naval Shipyard, Lift Bridge, Mouth of Reserve Basin, League Island, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  20. Lift-Enhancing Tabs on Multielement Airfoils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, James C.; Storms, Bruce L.; Carrannanto, Paul G.

    1995-01-01

    The use of flat-plate tabs (similar to Gurney flaps) to enhance the lift of multielement airfoils is extended here by placing them on the pressure side and near the trailing edge of the main element rather than just on the furthest downstream wing element. The tabs studied range in height from 0.125 to 1.25% of the airfoil reference chord. In practice, such tabs would be retracted when the high-lift system is stowed. The effectiveness of the concept was demonstrated experimentally and computationally on a two-dimensional NACA 63(sub 2)-215 Mod B airfoil with a single-slotted, 30%-chord flap. Both the experiments and computations showed that the tabs significantly increase the lift at a given angle of attack and the maximum lift coefficient of the airfoil. The computational results showed that the increased lift was a result of additional turning of the flow by the tab that reduced or eliminated now separation on the flap. The best configuration tested, a 0.5%-chord tab placed 0.5% chord upstream of the trailing edge of the main element, increased the maximum lift coefficient of the airfoil by 12% and the maximum lift-to-drag ratio by 40%.

  1. Rotating cylinder design as a lifting generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asrokin, Azharrudin; Rizal Ramly, Mohammad; Halim Ahmad, Abdul

    2013-12-01

    The airfoil shape of a wing has always been the design to generate lift. But few realized that a simple rotating cylinder can also create lift. However, the explanation and study of how a rotating cylinder creates lift are still complex. In remote area where it is difficult for air vehicle to access, the exploration and discovery of different configuration for design concept is rather important. Due to this reason, there is a need to think of a lift generator that can produce better lift (few fold better than conventional airfoil) at lower speed to take off in a short distance of time. This paper will explain the conditions and the design of such a wing using the rotating cylinder concept that will take off in a short time and requires little takeoff and landing strip. Spokes will be attached to the cylinder to force the surrounding air to rotate along with the cylinder. This will create a vortex that hastens the speed of the air on top of the cylinder and at the same time retarding the speed of air below the cylinder. From the results, the rougher surface cylinder produces more lift when rotating and also, higher speed rotation of the cylinder greatly changes the speed of the surrounding air, thus better lift.

  2. Variations in hydraulic lift with diamond bits

    SciTech Connect

    Winters, W.J.

    1982-09-01

    The total pressure beneath natural diamond bits often exceeds 1000 psi. This results in a sizable lifting force on the bit face. The true bottomhole load between the bit and rock can be less than half of the weight-on-bit indicated at the surface. Hydraulic lift is a significant force that must be accounted for in both laboratory and field evaluations of diamond bits. A review of the literature showed that no convenient, reliable method had been developed for measuring or estimating hydraulic lift. Two practical methods for determining hydraulic lift were developed in a laboratory drilling study, and are described in this paper. The ''drill-off'' method is well-adapted for routine application at the rig site. The ''drilling'' method yields additional details about hydraulic lift under controlled laboratory conditions. Sizable differences in hydraulic lift with similar bits are explained. It is shown that each diamond bit may be characterized by its ''effective pump-off'' and ''apparent nozzle'' areas. These are design-related characteristics that may be determined from directly measurable drilling parameters. Variations in hydraulic lift may then be predicted under a wide range of conditions.

  3. Lifting tasks are associated with injuries during the early portion of a deployment to Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Roy, Tanja C; Ritland, Bradley M; Knapik, Joseph J; Sharp, Marilyn A

    2012-06-01

    U.S. Army soldiers spend months at a time working in austere environments during deployments. The numerous physical demands placed on them during deployment can lead to musculoskeletal injuries. These injuries account for the majority of medical evacuations and lost duty days, seriously affecting mission readiness. Because of limited electronic injury data, little research has been done on physical demands associated with injury in deployed environments. To this end, this study conducted a survey on 263 soldiers in a Stryker Brigade Combat Team during their third month of deployment to Afghanistan. In the third month, 23% sustained an injury and 43% of injuries affected the low-back, shoulder, or knee. Dismounted patrolling and lifting were reported to account for 36% of injuries. Wearing heavy loads and lifting tasks were identified as injury risk factors. Wearing heavier equipment and lifting objects higher may increase physical demands and may result in injury. PMID:22730849

  4. Wingless Flight: The Lifting Body Story

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, R. Dale; Lister, Darlene (Editor); Huntley, J. D. (Editor)

    1997-01-01

    Wingless Flight tells the story of the most unusual flying machines ever flown, the lifting bodies. It is my story about my friends and colleagues who committed a significant part of their lives in the 1960s and 1970s to prove that the concept was a viable one for use in spacecraft of the future. This story, filled with drama and adventure, is about the twelve-year period from 1963 to 1975 in which eight different lifting-body configurations flew. It is appropriate for me to write the story, since I was the engineer who first presented the idea of flight-testing the concept to others at the NASA Flight Research Center. Over those twelve years, I experienced the story as it unfolded day by day at that remote NASA facility northeast of los Angeles in the bleak Mojave Desert. Benefits from this effort immediately influenced the design and operational concepts of the winged NASA Shuttle Orbiter. However, the full benefits would not be realized until the 1990s when new spacecraft such as the X-33 and X-38 would fully employ the lifting-body concept. A lifting body is basically a wingless vehicle that flies due to the lift generated by the shape of its fuselage. Although both a lifting reentry vehicle and a ballistic capsule had been considered as options during the early stages of NASA's space program, NASA initially opted to go with the capsule. A number of individuals were not content to close the book on the lifting-body concept. Researchers including Alfred Eggers at the NASA Ames Research Center conducted early wind-tunnel experiments, finding that half of a rounded nose-cone shape that was flat on top and rounded on the bottom could generate a lift-to-drag ratio of about 1.5 to 1. Eggers' preliminary design sketch later resembled the basic M2 lifting-body design. At the NASA Langley Research Center, other researchers toyed with their own lifting-body shapes. Meanwhile, some of us aircraft-oriented researchers at the, NASA Flight Research Center at Edwards Air Force Base (AFB) in California were experiencing our own fascination with the lifting-body concept. A model-aircraft builder and private pilot on my own time, I found the lifting-body idea intriguing. I built a model based on Eggers' design, tested it repeatedly, made modifications in its control and balance characteristics along the way, then eventually presented the concept to others at the Center, using a film of its flights that my wife, Donna and I had made with our 8-mm home camera.

  5. Remote lift fan study program, volume 4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    A study program to select and conduct preliminary design of advanced technology lift fan systems to meet low noise goals of future V/STOL transport aircraft is discussed. This volume contains results of additional studies conducted to support the main preliminary design effort done under the Remote Lift Fan Study Program (Contract NAS3-14406) and a companion effort, the Integral Lift Fan Study (NAS3-14404). These results cover engine emission study, a review of existing engines for research aircraft application and support data for aircraft studies.

  6. More Americans Opting for Butt Implants, Lifts

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Opting for Butt Implants, Lifts New data on plastic surgery trends also finds men increasingly undergoing breast ... front of the line when it comes to plastic surgery, a new report finds. Butt implants and ...

  7. How good is jet lift VTOL technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, S. B.; Petersen, R. H.

    1977-01-01

    The status of technologies for jet-lift V/STOL aircraft is examined, and a critical review of the performance of jet-lift VTOL aircraft built to date is made. Most jet-lift aircraft have suffered from adverse propulsion-induced effects during takeoff and landing. Flight dynamics of jet-lift aircraft have suffered from shortcomings in static and dynamic stability, control characteristics, and flight path control. Some of the main problems to be considered during the selection of a propulsion system arrangement for a V/STOL fighter are discussed. At present, experimental and analytical data on supersonic V/STOL configurations are insufficient to permit evaluating propulsion system arrangements.

  8. Bernoulli's Law and Aerodynamic Lifting Force.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weltner, Klaus

    1990-01-01

    Explains the lifting force based on Bernoulli's law and as a reaction force. Discusses the interrelation of both explanations. Considers accelerations in line with stream lines and perpendicular to stream lines. (YP)

  9. Lift/cruise fan VTOL aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quigley, H. C.; Franklin, J. A.

    1977-01-01

    The paper gives an overview of the technology related to lift/cruise fan VTOL aircraft, covering propulsion systems, thrust deflection, flight dynamics, controls, displays, aerodynamics, and configurations. Piloting problems are discussed, and the need for integration of power management and thrust-vector controls is pointed out. Major components for a high-bypass-ratio lift/cruise fan propulsion system for VTOL aircraft have been tested.

  10. Reduction of wing lift by the drag

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Betz, A; Lotz, J

    1932-01-01

    Drag and loss of lift of a wing are attributable to the same cause, wake formation, thus indicating that there is some relation between both. The analysis of measurements on Joukowsky sections revealed a typical course of curves for the interdependence between drag and loss of lift. The shape of the curves apparently depends quite regularly on the mean camber and on the thickness of the profile.

  11. Integrated lift/drag controller for aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olcott, J. W.; Seckel, E.; Ellis, D. R. (inventors)

    1974-01-01

    A system for altering the lift/drag characteristics of powered aircraft to provide a safe means of glide path control includes a control device integrated for coordination action with the aircraft throttle. Such lift/drag alteration devices as spoilers, dive brakes, and the like are actuated by manual operation of a single lever coupled with the throttle for integrating, blending or coordinating power control. Improper operation of the controller is inhibited by safety mechanisms.

  12. Estimating Occupational Prestige.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chartrand, Judy M.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Drew from the occupational prestige literature in describing the development of prestige estimates for occupations contained in the Minnesota Occupational Classification System III (MOCS III). Results provided estimates for 60 occupations and a comparison of prestige scores for eight benchmark occupations. Devised equation for estimating

  13. Novice lifters exhibit a more kyphotic lifting posture than experienced lifters in straight-leg lifting.

    PubMed

    Riley, A E; Craig, T D; Sharma, N K; Billinger, S A; Wilson, S E

    2015-07-16

    As torso flexion and repetitive lifting are known risk factors for low back pain and injury, it is important to investigate lifting techniques that might reduce injury during repetitive lifting. By normalizing lumbar posture to a subject's range of motion (ROM), as a function of torso flexion, this research examined when subjects approached their range of motion limits during dynamic lifting tasks. For this study, it was hypothesized that experienced lifters would maintain a more neutral lumbar angle relative to their range of motion, while novice lifters would approach the limits of their lumbar ROM during the extension phase of a straight-leg lift. The results show a statistically significant difference in lifting patterns for these two groups supporting this hypothesis. The novice group maintained a much more kyphotic lumbar angle for both the flexion (74% of the lumbar angle ROM) and extension phases (86% of the lumbar angle ROM) of the lifting cycle, while the experienced group retained a more neutral curvature throughout the entire lifting cycle (37% of lumbar angle ROM in flexion and 48% of lumbar angle ROM in extension). By approaching the limits of their range of motion, the novice lifters could be at greater risk of injury by placing greater loads on the supporting soft tissues of the spine. Future research should examine whether training subjects to assume more neutral postures during lifting could indeed lower injury risks. PMID:26077846

  14. A Method for Calculation of Hydrodynamic Lift for Submerged and Planing Rectangular Lifting Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wadlin, Kenneth L; Christopher, Kenneth W

    1958-01-01

    A method is presented for the calculation of lift coefficients for rectangular lifting surfaces of aspect ratios from 0.125 to 10 operating at finite depths beneath the water surface, including the zero depth or planing condition. Theoretical values are compared with experimental values obtained at various depths of submergence with lifting surfaces of aspect ratios from 0.125 to 10. The method can also be applied to hydrofoils with dihedral. Lift coefficients computed by this method are in good agreement with existing experimental data for aspect ratios from 0.125 to 10 and dihedral angles up to 10 degrees.

  15. Comparison of several lift-line feeders

    SciTech Connect

    Knowlton, T.; Aquino, C.

    1981-01-01

    In many chemical processes, pneumatic conveying transfer lines are used as dilute-phase reactors. Smooth, controlled feeding of solids into these reactors is essential for optimum operation. For example, if solids are fed into a conveying line nonuniformly in slugs, gas-solids contacting may be reduced and loss of reaction efficiency may result. In this investigation, tests were conducted to determine how well several devices fed solids into a pneumatic conveying line. Seven nonmechanical valves and lift-line feeders were tested. These devices have the potential advantages of requiring no mechanical valves and/or expansion joints. Conclusions from this study are: (1) Lift-pots and nonmechanical valves both can satisfactorily feed pneumatic conveying lines. (2) The Lift-Pot I device was the simplest and best pneumatic conveying line feeder of all the lift pots tested. (3) The nonmechanical valves generally used less gas to feed solids into the lift line than the lift-pot devices. (4) The L-valve was the most aeration-efficient of all the feeders tested.

  16. Survey of lift-fan aerodynamic technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hickey, David H.; Kirk, Jerry V.

    1993-01-01

    Representatives of NASA Ames Research Center asked that a summary of technology appropriate for lift-fan powered short takeoff/vertical landing (STOVL) aircraft be prepared so that new programs could more easily benefit from past research efforts. This paper represents one of six prepared for that purpose. The authors have conducted or supervised the conduct of research on lift-fan powered STOVL designs and some of their important components for decades. This paper will first address aerodynamic modeling requirements for experimental programs to assure realistic, trustworthy results. It will next summarize the results or efforts to develop satisfactory specialized STOVL components such as inlets and flow deflectors. It will also discuss problems with operation near the ground, aerodynamics while under lift-fan power, and aerodynamic prediction techniques. Finally, results of studies to reduce lift-fan noise will be presented. The paper will emphasize results from large scale experiments, where available, for reasons that will be brought out in the discussion. Some work with lift-engine powered STOVL aircraft is also applicable to lift-fan technology and will be presented herein. Small-scale data will be used where necessary to fill gaps.

  17. Lifting Safety: Tips To Help Prevent Back Injuries

    MedlinePLUS

    MENU Return to Web version Lifting Safety: Tips to Help Prevent Back Injuries Lifting Safety: Tips to Help Prevent Back Injuries Have you checked the object before you try to lift it? Test every load before you lift by pushing the object lightly with your hands or feet to see how easily ...

  18. 49 CFR 178.1050 - Top lift test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Top lift test. 178.1050 Section 178.1050... Containers 178.1050 Top lift test. (a) General. The top lift test must be conducted for the qualification of all of Flexible Bulk Containers design types to be lifted from the top. (b) Special...

  19. 49 CFR 178.812 - Top lift test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Top lift test. 178.812 Section 178.812... Top lift test. (a) General. The top lift test must be conducted for the qualification of all IBC design types designed to be lifted from the top or, for flexible IBCs, from the side. (b)...

  20. 49 CFR 178.812 - Top lift test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Top lift test. 178.812 Section 178.812... Testing of IBCs 178.812 Top lift test. (a) General. The top lift test must be conducted for the qualification of all IBC design types designed to be lifted from the top or, for flexible IBCs, from the...

  1. 49 CFR 178.1050 - Top lift test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Top lift test. 178.1050 Section 178.1050... Containers 178.1050 Top lift test. (a) General. The top lift test must be conducted for the qualification of all of Flexible Bulk Containers design types to be lifted from the top. (b) Special...

  2. 49 CFR 178.975 - Top lift test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Top lift test. 178.975 Section 178.975... Packagings 178.975 Top lift test. (a) General. The top lift test must be conducted for the qualification of all of Large Packagings design types to be lifted from the top or, for flexible Large Packagings,...

  3. 49 CFR 178.812 - Top lift test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Top lift test. 178.812 Section 178.812... Top lift test. (a) General. The top lift test must be conducted for the qualification of all IBC design types designed to be lifted from the top or, for flexible IBCs, from the side. (b)...

  4. 49 CFR 178.812 - Top lift test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Top lift test. 178.812 Section 178.812... Top lift test. (a) General. The top lift test must be conducted for the qualification of all IBC design types designed to be lifted from the top or, for flexible IBCs, from the side. (b)...

  5. 49 CFR 178.812 - Top lift test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Top lift test. 178.812 Section 178.812... Top lift test. (a) General. The top lift test must be conducted for the qualification of all IBC design types designed to be lifted from the top or, for flexible IBCs, from the side. (b)...

  6. 49 CFR 178.975 - Top lift test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Top lift test. 178.975 Section 178.975... Packagings 178.975 Top lift test. (a) General. The top lift test must be conducted for the qualification of all of Large Packagings design types to be lifted from the top or, for flexible Large Packagings,...

  7. 49 CFR 178.975 - Top lift test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Top lift test. 178.975 Section 178.975... Packagings 178.975 Top lift test. (a) General. The top lift test must be conducted for the qualification of all of Large Packagings design types to be lifted from the top or, for flexible Large Packagings,...

  8. 49 CFR 178.975 - Top lift test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Top lift test. 178.975 Section 178.975... Packagings 178.975 Top lift test. (a) General. The top lift test must be conducted for the qualification of all of Large Packagings design types to be lifted from the top or, for flexible Large Packagings,...

  9. 21 CFR 880.5500 - AC-powered patient lift.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false AC-powered patient lift. 880.5500 Section 880.5500... Devices 880.5500 AC-powered patient lift. (a) Identification. An AC-powered lift is an electrically powered device either fixed or mobile, used to lift and transport patients in the horizontal or...

  10. 14 CFR 25.697 - Lift and drag devices, controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... conditions of airspeed, engine power, and airplane attitude. (d) The lift device control must be designed to... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Lift and drag devices, controls. 25.697....697 Lift and drag devices, controls. (a) Each lift device control must be designed so that the...

  11. 14 CFR 25.697 - Lift and drag devices, controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... conditions of airspeed, engine power, and airplane attitude. (d) The lift device control must be designed to... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Lift and drag devices, controls. 25.697....697 Lift and drag devices, controls. (a) Each lift device control must be designed so that the...

  12. 14 CFR 25.697 - Lift and drag devices, controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... conditions of airspeed, engine power, and airplane attitude. (d) The lift device control must be designed to... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Lift and drag devices, controls. 25.697....697 Lift and drag devices, controls. (a) Each lift device control must be designed so that the...

  13. 21 CFR 880.5500 - AC-powered patient lift.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false AC-powered patient lift. 880.5500 Section 880.5500... Devices 880.5500 AC-powered patient lift. (a) Identification. An AC-powered lift is an electrically powered device either fixed or mobile, used to lift and transport patients in the horizontal or...

  14. 49 CFR 178.970 - Bottom lift test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bottom lift test. 178.970 Section 178.970... Testing of Large Packagings 178.970 Bottom lift test. (a) General. The bottom lift test must be...) Special preparation for the bottom lift test. The Large Packaging must be loaded to 1.25 times its...

  15. 49 CFR 178.811 - Bottom lift test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bottom lift test. 178.811 Section 178.811... Testing of IBCs 178.811 Bottom lift test. (a) General. The bottom lift test must be conducted for the... bottom lift test. The IBC must be loaded to 1.25 times its maximum permissible gross mass, the load...

  16. Occupational asthma.

    PubMed Central

    Newman Taylor, A. J.

    1988-01-01

    Occupational asthma is important both as a potentially curable and preventable cause of asthma and as a model of adult onset asthma. It is induced by sensitization to a specific agent inhaled at work; for many of its causes, including inhaled proteins and the low molecular weight chemicals acid anhydrides and reactive dyes, it is probably IgE dependent. The risk of developing specific IgE and associated asthma is markedly increased in cigarette smokers, probably as a consequence of non-specific damage to the respiratory mucosa. Asthma caused by several agents, which include some of its most frequent causes, isocyanates, colophony and plicatic acid (Western Red Cedar) persists in some 50% of cases for years, and possibly indefinitely, after avoidance of exposure. The development of chronic symptomatic asthma seems particularly to occur in those with longer duration of symptomatic exposure. PMID:3074282

  17. Heavy Equipment. Trade and Industrial Education Trade Preparatory Training Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nebraska State Dept. of Education, Lincoln. Div. of Vocational Education.

    One of a series of curriculum guides prepared for the building occupations cluster of the construction/fabrication occupational group, this guide identifies the essentials of the heavy equipment trade as recommended by the successful heavy equipment operator. An instructional program based upon the implementation of the guide is expected to…

  18. [Phlebopathies and occupation].

    PubMed

    Sancini, A; Tomei, G; Schifano, M P; Nardone, N; Andreozzi, G; Scimitto, L; Fiaschetti, M; De Sio, S; Scala, B; Capozzella, A; Suppi, A; Cetica, C; Tomei, F; Ciarrocca, M

    2012-01-01

    Chronic venous disorder is a public health problem that affects the western industrialized countries. The aim of this study is to evaluate the etiology and prevalence of venous disease of the lower limb in workers, and to identify some risk factors using a detailed and systematic analysis of the literature from 1964 to 2011. There is an important relationship between standing position at work and venous disease. The prolonged orthostatic position of the body implies: venostasis, high pressure and risks of blood clots and thrombosis; in standing workers there is an overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) with oxidation of the components of cell membranes, endothelial damage and increase in vascular permeability. Other risk factors were investigated: sitting during work time, weight lifting-moving and exposure to heat sources, the data suggest that this risk factors are less important than orthostatic body position. Age, sex and familiarity are relevant as the extra-occupational risk factors. For a more accurate study of the role of the prolonged orthostatic position on the development of venous disease in the lover limb all authors should define exactly the population, the role and the length of standing time at work. They should also set a universal language to define the correct standing position (ie. within 1 m2 or steps) and time (ie. one hour or 50%-70% of work time). Attention should be given to prevention, to use early therapeutic measures in view of mortality as a consequence of venous disease, of the high social costs related to the loss of working days, of medical care and of residual disability. PMID:22755500

  19. Noise impact of advanced high lift systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elmer, Kevin R.; Joshi, Mahendra C.

    1995-01-01

    The impact of advanced high lift systems on aircraft size, performance, direct operating cost and noise were evaluated for short-to-medium and medium-to-long range aircraft with high bypass ratio and very high bypass ratio engines. The benefit of advanced high lift systems in reducing noise was found to be less than 1 effective-perceived-noise decibel level (EPNdB) when the aircraft were sized to minimize takeoff gross weight. These aircraft did, however, have smaller wings and lower engine thrusts for the same mission than aircraft with conventional high lift systems. When the advanced high lift system was implemented without reducing wing size and simultaneously using lower flap angles that provide higher L/D at approach a cumulative noise reduction of as much as 4 EPNdB was obtained. Comparison of aircraft configurations that have similar approach speeds showed cumulative noise reduction of 2.6 EPNdB that is purely the result of incorporating advanced high lift system in the aircraft design.

  20. Design of a portable powered seat lift

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weddendorf, Bruce

    1993-01-01

    People suffering from degenerative hip or knee joints find sitting and rising from a seated position very difficult. These people can rely on large stationary chairs at home, but must ask others for assistance when rising from any other chair. An orthopedic surgeon identified to the MSFC Technology Utilization Office the need for development of a portable device that could perform a similar function to the stationary lift chairs. The MSFC Structural Development Branch answered the Technology Utilization Office's request for design of a portable powered seat lift. The device is a seat cushion that opens under power, lifting the user to near-standing positions. The largest challenge was developing a mechanism to provide a stable lift over the large range of motion needed, and fold flat enough to be comfortable to sit on. CAD 3-D modeling was used to generate complete drawings for the prototype, and a full-scale working model of the Seat lift was made based on the drawings. The working model is of low strength, but proves the function of the mechanism and the concept.

  1. Coriolis effects enhance lift on revolving wings.

    PubMed

    Jardin, T; David, L

    2015-03-01

    At high angles of attack, an aircraft wing stalls. This dreaded event is characterized by the development of a leading edge vortex on the upper surface of the wing, followed by its shedding which causes a drastic drop in the aerodynamic lift. At similar angles of attack, the leading edge vortex on an insect wing or an autorotating seed membrane remains robustly attached, ensuring high sustained lift. What are the mechanisms responsible for both leading edge vortex attachment and high lift generation on revolving wings? We review the three main hypotheses that attempt to explain this specificity and, using direct numerical simulations of the Navier-Stokes equations, we show that the latter originates in Coriolis effects. PMID:25871040

  2. Unsteady lifting-line theory with applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahmadi, A. R.; Widnall, S. E.

    1982-01-01

    Unsteady lifting-line theory is developed for a flexible unswept wing of large aspect ratio oscillating at low frequency in inviscid incompressible flow. The theory is formulated in terms of the acceleration potential and treated by the method of matched asymptotic expansions. The wing displacements are prescribed and the pressure field, airloads, and unsteady induced downwash are obtained in closed form. Sample numerical calculations are presented. The present work identifies and resolves errors in the unsteady lifting-line theory of James and points out a limitation in that of Van Holten. Comparison of the results of Reissner's approximate unsteady lifting-surface theory with those of the present work shows favorable agreement. The present work thus provides some formal justification for Reissner's ad hoc theory. For engineering purposes, the region of applicability of the theory in the reduced frequency-aspect ratio domain is identified approximately and found to cover most cases of practical interest.

  3. Coriolis effects enhance lift on revolving wings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jardin, T.; David, L.

    2015-03-01

    At high angles of attack, an aircraft wing stalls. This dreaded event is characterized by the development of a leading edge vortex on the upper surface of the wing, followed by its shedding which causes a drastic drop in the aerodynamic lift. At similar angles of attack, the leading edge vortex on an insect wing or an autorotating seed membrane remains robustly attached, ensuring high sustained lift. What are the mechanisms responsible for both leading edge vortex attachment and high lift generation on revolving wings? We review the three main hypotheses that attempt to explain this specificity and, using direct numerical simulations of the Navier-Stokes equations, we show that the latter originates in Coriolis effects.

  4. Frequency response of lift control in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Graetzel, Chauncey F.; Nelson, Bradley J.; Fry, Steven N.

    2010-01-01

    The flight control responses of the fruitfly represent a powerful model system to explore neuromotor control mechanisms, whose system level control properties can be suitably characterized with a frequency response analysis. We characterized the lift response dynamics of tethered flying Drosophila in presence of vertically oscillating visual patterns, whose oscillation frequency we varied between 0.1 and 13 Hz. We justified these measurements by showing that the amplitude gain and phase response is invariant to the pattern oscillation amplitude and spatial frequency within a broad dynamic range. We also showed that lift responses are largely linear and time invariant (LTI), a necessary condition for a meaningful analysis of frequency responses and a remarkable characteristic given its nonlinear constituents. The flies responded to increasing oscillation frequencies with a roughly linear decrease in response gain, which dropped to background noise levels at about 6 Hz. The phase lag decreased linearly, consistent with a constant reaction delay of 75 ms. Next, we estimated the free-flight response of the fly to generate a Bode diagram of the lift response. The limitation of lift control to frequencies below 6 Hz is explained with inertial body damping, which becomes dominant at higher frequencies. Our work provides the detailed background and techniques that allow optomotor lift responses of Drosophila to be measured with comparatively simple, affordable and commercially available techniques. The identification of an LTI, pattern velocity dependent, lift control strategy is relevant to the underlying motion computation mechanisms and serves a broader understanding of insects' flight control strategies. The relevance and potential pitfalls of applying system identification techniques in tethered preparations is discussed. PMID:20462877

  5. Occupational Therapy Assistant.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center on Education and Training for Employment.

    This document, which is designed for use in developing a tech prep competency profile for the occupation of occupational therapy assistant, lists technical competencies and competency builders for 16 units pertinent to the health technologies cluster in general as well as those specific to the occupation of occupational therapy assistant. The…

  6. Occupational Therapy Assistant.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center on Education and Training for Employment.

    This document, which is designed for use in developing a tech prep competency profile for the occupation of occupational therapy assistant, lists technical competencies and competency builders for 16 units pertinent to the health technologies cluster in general as well as those specific to the occupation of occupational therapy assistant. The

  7. Occupant Protection Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bopp, Genie; Somers, Jeff; Granderson, Brad; Gernhardt, Mike; Currie, Nancy; Lawrence, Chuck

    2010-01-01

    Topics include occupant protection overview with a focus on crew protection during dynamic phases of flight; occupant protection collaboration; modeling occupant protection; occupant protection considerations; project approach encompassing analysis tools, injury criteria, and testing program development; injury criteria update methodology, unique effects of pressure suits and other factors; and a summary.

  8. Health Occupations Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willett, Lynn H.

    A survey was conducted to determine the need for health occupations personnel in the Moraine Valley Community College district, specifically to: (1) describe present employment for selected health occupations; (2) project health occupation employment to 1974; (3) identify the supply of applicants for the selected occupations; and (4) identify…

  9. [Anesthetic maintenance during circular face lifting].

    PubMed

    Parshin, V I; Pastukhova, N K

    2010-01-01

    The paper deals with the specific features of anesthetic maintenance (ketamine, diprivan, dormicum, perfalgan, promedol) during circular face lifting without artificial ventilation. All intravenous anesthesia procedures have yielded good results. Narcotic analgesics may be removed from the anesthetic maintenance scheme, ruling out the necessity of their licensing, storing, and recording. The use of perfalgan causes no hallucinogenic reactions and offers the optimum level of anesthesia. During face lifting, 2.3 +/- 0.6-hour anesthesia with spontaneous breathing is possible, safe, and warranted. PMID:20524331

  10. Industrial hygiene of selected heavy metals

    SciTech Connect

    Woodring, J.L.

    1993-08-01

    The industrial hygiene of heavy metals consists of recognition, evaluation, and control of exposures in the occupational environment. Several of these metals have been in use since ancient times. Reports of health effects and poisonings from overexposures also have a long history. This report discusses the industrial hygiene of the heavy metals, lead, cadmium, mercury, and manganese.

  11. Design of a Versatile, Teleoperable, Towable Lifting Machine with Robotic Capabilities for Use in Nasa's Lunar Base Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, Elizabeth; Ogle, James; Schoppe, Dean

    1989-01-01

    The lifting machine will assist in lifting cargo off of landers sent to the Moon and in the construction of a lunar base. Three possible designs were considered for the overall configuration of the lifting machine: the variable angle crane, the tower crane, and the gantry crane. Alternate designs were developed for the major components of the lifting machine. A teleoperable, variable angle crane was chosen as its final design. The design consists of a telescoping boom mounted to a chassis that is supported by two conical wheels for towing and four outriggers for stability. Attached to the end of the boom is a seven degree of freedom robot arm for light, dexterous, lifting operations. A cable and hook suspends from the end of the boom for heavy, gross, lifting operations. Approximate structural sizes were determined for the lifter and its components. However, further analysis is needed to determine the optimum design dimensions. The design team also constructed a model of the design which demonstrates its features and operating principals.

  12. Gas lift utilizing a liquefiable gas introduced into a well

    SciTech Connect

    Kalina, A.

    1983-08-09

    A gas lift method is disclosed for lifting a well fluid from a well, the method comprising feeding liquid lifting medium into a first well conduit of the well to maintain a liquid column of liquid lifting medium in the first well conduit to provide a significant liquid column pressure at the downhole region of the well for lifting medium to pass into a second well conduit to mix with well fluid therein and cause lifting of well fluid in the second well conduit.

  13. The lift-fan powered-lift aircraft concept: Lessons learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deckert, Wallace H.

    1993-01-01

    This is one of a series of reports on the lessons learned from past research related to lift-fan aircraft concepts. An extensive review is presented of the many lift-fan aircraft design studies conducted by both government and industry over the past 45 years. Mission applications and design integration including discussions on manifolding hot gas generators, hot gas dusting, and energy transfer control are addressed. Past lift-fan evaluations of the Avrocar are discussed. Lessons learned from these past efforts are identified.

  14. Titan/Cassini: lifting module into stand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The Lower Equipment Module of the Cassini spacecraft is lifted into a workstand in the Payload Hazardous Servicing Facility (PHSF). Cassini will explore the Saturnian system, including the planet's rings and its moon, Titan. Launch of the Cassini mission to Saturn is scheduled for Oct. 6 from Launch Complex 40, Cape Canaveral Air Station, aboard a Titan IVB unmanned vehicle.

  15. Computation of Lifting Wing-Flap Configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cantwell, Brian; Kwak, Dochan

    1996-01-01

    Research has been carried out on the computation of lifting wing-flap configurations. The long term goal of the research is to develop improved computational tools for the analysis and design of high lift systems. Results show that state-of-the-art computational methods are sufficient to predict time-averaged lift and overall flow field characteristics on simple high-lift configurations. Recently there has been an increased interest in the problem of airframe generated noise and experiments carried out in the 7 x 10 wind tunnel at NASA Ames have identified the flap edge as an important source of noise. A follow-on set of experiments will be conducted toward the end of 1995. The computations being carried out under this project are coordinated with these experiments. In particular, the model geometry being used in the computations is the same as that in the experiments. The geometry consists of a NACA 63-215 Mod B airfoil section which spans the 7 x lO tunnel. The wing is unswept and has an aspect ratio of two. A 30% chord Fowler flap is deployed modifications of the flap edge geometry have been shown to be effective in reducing noise and the existing code is currently being used to compute the effect of a modified geometry on the edge flow.

  16. Evaluation of hydraulic lift in cotton germplasm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hydraulic lift (HL) in plants is defined as the redistribution of water from wetter to drier soil through the plant roots in response to soil water potential gradients. Water is released from the roots into the dry soil when transpiration is low (night) and reabsorbed by the plant when higher transp...

  17. Measuring Lift with the Wright Airfoils

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heavers, Richard M.; Soleymanloo, Arianne

    2011-01-01

    In this laboratory or demonstration exercise, we mount a small airfoil with its long axis vertical at one end of a nearly frictionless rotating platform. Air from a leaf blower produces a sidewise lift force L on the airfoil and a drag force D in the direction of the air flow (Fig. 1). The rotating platform is kept in equilibrium by adding weights

  18. Measuring Lift with the Wright Airfoils

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heavers, Richard M.; Soleymanloo, Arianne

    2011-01-01

    In this laboratory or demonstration exercise, we mount a small airfoil with its long axis vertical at one end of a nearly frictionless rotating platform. Air from a leaf blower produces a sidewise lift force L on the airfoil and a drag force D in the direction of the air flow (Fig. 1). The rotating platform is kept in equilibrium by adding weights…

  19. 2. DETAIL OF CONTROL GATE ADJACENT TO LIFT LOCK NO. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. DETAIL OF CONTROL GATE ADJACENT TO LIFT LOCK NO. 7; THIS CONTROL GATE IS A 1980s RECONSTRUCTION. - Illinois & Michigan Canal, Lift Lock No. 7 & Control Gate, East side of DuPage River, Channahon, Will County, IL

  20. View uphill of single chair lift, tower 15 in foreground, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View uphill of single chair lift, tower 15 in foreground, TOWERS 16 and 17 in the distance, LOOKING SOUTH. - Mad River Glen, Single Chair Ski Lift, 62 Mad River Glen Resort Road, Fayston, Washington County, VT

  1. Interior view of eastern lift span, with decking above, looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of eastern lift span, with decking above, looking back from center of span, toward lift mechanism area. - Arlington Memorial Bridge, Spanning Potomac River between Lincoln Memorial & Arlington National Cemetery, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  2. View of lifting girder and tower support superstructure on Tensaw ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of lifting girder and tower support superstructure on Tensaw River Bridge truss No. 2, looking northwest. Showing rope connectors and deflector sheaves. - Tensaw River Lift Bridge, Spanning Tensaw River at U.S. Highway 90, Mobile, Mobile County, AL

  3. 6. DETAIL VIEW OF 210' 9' LIFT SPAN TOWER SHEAVES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. DETAIL VIEW OF 210' 9' LIFT SPAN TOWER SHEAVES AND BEARINGS WITH HOUSING AND SHEAVE HOODS REMOVED - Central Railroad of New Jersey, Newark Bay Lift Bridge, Spanning Newark Bay, Newark, Essex County, NJ

  4. 39. DETAIL AERIAL VIEW LOOKING AT 210' 9' LIFT SPAN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    39. DETAIL AERIAL VIEW LOOKING AT 210' 9' LIFT SPAN TOWER SHEAVES SHOWING 1 SET WITH AND 1 SET WITHOUT SHEAVE HOODS - Central Railroad of New Jersey, Newark Bay Lift Bridge, Spanning Newark Bay, Newark, Essex County, NJ

  5. 1. VIEW OF LIFT STATION (#1774), AND SHED (#1775) BEYOND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW OF LIFT STATION (#1774), AND SHED (#1775) BEYOND AT LEFT, LOOKING SOUTHWEST - Presidio Water Treatment Plant, Lift Station, East of Lobos Creek at Baker Beach, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  6. 6. DETAIL OF VERTICAL LIFT SPAN AND FIXED SPAN IMMEDIATELY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. DETAIL OF VERTICAL LIFT SPAN AND FIXED SPAN IMMEDIATELY NORTH OF VERTICAL LIFT SPAN, LOOKING SOUTHEAST. - Shippingsport Bridge, Spanning Illinois River at State Route 51, La Salle, La Salle County, IL

  7. View of central lift span truss web of Tensaw River ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of central lift span truss web of Tensaw River Bridge, showing support girders for life house, looking east - Tensaw River Lift Bridge, Spanning Tensaw River at U.S. Highway 90, Mobile, Mobile County, AL

  8. 2. AERIAL VIEW OF ROLLING LIFT BRIDGE. DORCHESTER AVENUE IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. AERIAL VIEW OF ROLLING LIFT BRIDGE. DORCHESTER AVENUE IN BACKGROUND. SOUTH STATION VISIBLE AT TOP LEFT. - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Fort Point Channel Rolling Lift Bridge, Spanning Fort Point Channel, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  9. GENERAL VIEW LOOKING WEST SHOWING LIFT BRIDGE. COUNTER WEIGHTS ARE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GENERAL VIEW LOOKING WEST SHOWING LIFT BRIDGE. COUNTER WEIGHTS ARE LARGE SQUARES VISIBLE ABOVE BRIDGE - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Fort Point Channel Rolling Lift Bridge, Spanning Fort Point Channel, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  10. 3. GENERAL VIEW LOOKING WEST, SHOWING LIFT BRIDGE. COUNTER WEIGHTS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. GENERAL VIEW LOOKING WEST, SHOWING LIFT BRIDGE. COUNTER WEIGHTS ARE LARGE SQUARES VISIBLE ABOVE BRIDGE. - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Fort Point Channel Rolling Lift Bridge, Spanning Fort Point Channel, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  11. Efficacy of the Revised NIOSH Lifting Equation to Predict Risk of Low-Back Pain Associated With Manual Lifting: A One-Year Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Ming-Lun; Waters, Thomas R.; Krieg, Edward; Werren, Dwight

    2015-01-01

    Objective The objective was to evaluate the efficacy of the Revised National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) lifting equation (RNLE) to predict risk of low-back pain (LBP). Background In 1993, NIOSH published the RNLE as a risk assessment method for LBP associated with manual lifting. To date, there has been little research evaluating the RNLE as a predictor of the risk of LBP using a prospective design. Methods A total of 78 healthy industrial workers' baseline LBP risk exposures and self-reported LBP at one-year follow-up were investigated. The composite lifting index (CLI), the outcome measure of the RNLE for analyzing multiple lifting tasks, was used as the main risk predictor. The risk was estimated using the mean and maximum CLI variables at baseline and self-reported LBP during the follow-up. Odds ratios (ORs) were calculated using a logistic regression analysis adjusted for covariates that included personal factors, physical activities outside of work, job factors, and work-related psychosocial characteristics. Results The one-year self-reported LBP incidence was 32.1%. After controlling for history of prior LBP, supervisory support, and job strain, the categorical mean and maximum CLI above 2 had a significant relationship (OR = 5.1–6.5) with self-reported LBP, as compared with the CLI below or equal to 1. The correlation between the continuous CLI variables and LBP was unclear. Conclusions The CLI > 2 threshold may be useful for predicting self-reported LBP. Research with a larger sample size is needed to clarify the exposure–response relationship between the CLI and LBP. PMID:24669544

  12. Analysis of lifting beam and redesigned lifting lugs for 241-AZ-01A decant pump

    SciTech Connect

    Coverdell, B.L.

    1994-11-29

    This supporting document details calculations for the proper design of a lifting beam and redesigned lifting lugs for the 241AZO1A decant pump. This design is in accordance with Standard Architectural-Civil Design Criteria, Design Loads for Facilities (DOE-RL 1989) and is safety class three. The design and fabrication is in accordance with American Institute of Steel Construction, Manual of Steel Construction, (AISC, 1989) and the Hanford Hoisting and Rigging Manual (DOE-RL 1993).

  13. The steady lifting surface theory with a free-surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leclerc, J.; Salauen, P.

    A method to solve the unsteady lifting surface problem is applied to steady surfaces with a free-surface. The local lifting coefficient appears as a solution to an integral equation of the first kind whose kernel, deduced from the Havelock source potential, is expanded in a Fourier series, with respect to the azimuth angle. Numerical applications such as the calculation of the lift and drag of a lifting wing, and hydrodynamic pressures in the case of turn of a ship are given.

  14. 33 CFR 118.85 - Lights on vertical lift bridges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lights on vertical lift bridges. 118.85 Section 118.85 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES BRIDGE LIGHTING AND OTHER SIGNALS § 118.85 Lights on vertical lift bridges. (a) Lift span...

  15. 14 CFR 25.697 - Lift and drag devices, controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... conditions of airspeed, engine power, and airplane attitude. (d) The lift device control must be designed to... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Control Systems § 25.697 Lift and drag devices, controls. (a) Each lift device control must be designed so that the...

  16. 46 CFR 98.30-6 - Lifting a portable tank.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Lifting a portable tank. 98.30-6 Section 98.30-6 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS SPECIAL... Lifting a portable tank. No person may lift a portable tank with another portable tank....

  17. 14 CFR 29.551 - Auxiliary lifting surfaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Auxiliary lifting surfaces. 29.551 Section 29.551 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT....551 Auxiliary lifting surfaces. Each auxiliary lifting surface must be designed to withstand (a)...

  18. 14 CFR 29.551 - Auxiliary lifting surfaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Auxiliary lifting surfaces. 29.551 Section 29.551 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT....551 Auxiliary lifting surfaces. Each auxiliary lifting surface must be designed to withstand (a)...

  19. 46 CFR 98.30-6 - Lifting a portable tank.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lifting a portable tank. 98.30-6 Section 98.30-6 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS SPECIAL... Lifting a portable tank. No person may lift a portable tank with another portable tank....

  20. 14 CFR 29.551 - Auxiliary lifting surfaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Auxiliary lifting surfaces. 29.551 Section 29.551 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT....551 Auxiliary lifting surfaces. Each auxiliary lifting surface must be designed to withstand (a)...

  1. 14 CFR 29.551 - Auxiliary lifting surfaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Auxiliary lifting surfaces. 29.551 Section 29.551 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT....551 Auxiliary lifting surfaces. Each auxiliary lifting surface must be designed to withstand (a)...

  2. 14 CFR 25.699 - Lift and drag device indicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Lift and drag device indicator. 25.699....699 Lift and drag device indicator. (a) There must be means to indicate to the pilots the position of each lift or drag device having a separate control in the cockpit to adjust its position. In...

  3. 46 CFR 98.30-6 - Lifting a portable tank.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Lifting a portable tank. 98.30-6 Section 98.30-6... CONSTRUCTION, ARRANGEMENT, AND OTHER PROVISIONS FOR CERTAIN DANGEROUS CARGOES IN BULK Portable Tanks § 98.30-6 Lifting a portable tank. No person may lift a portable tank with another portable tank....

  4. Lifting a familiar object: visual size analysis, not memory for object weight, scales lift force.

    PubMed

    Cole, Kelly J

    2008-07-01

    The brain can accurately predict the forces needed to efficiently manipulate familiar objects in relation to mechanical properties such as weight. These predictions involve memory or some type of central representation, but visual analysis of size also yields accurate predictions of the needed fingertip forces. This raises the issue of which process (weight memory or visual size analysis) is used during everyday life when handling familiar objects. Our aim was to determine if subjects use a sensorimotor memory of weight, or a visual size analysis, to predictively set their vertical lift force when lifting a recently handled object. Two groups of subjects lifted an opaque brown bottle filled with water (470 g) during the first experimental session, and then rested for 15 min in a different room. Both groups were told that they would lift the same bottle in their next session. However, the experimental group returned to lift a slightly smaller bottle filled with water (360 g) that otherwise was identical in appearance to the first bottle. The control group returned to lift the same bottle from the first session, which was only partially filled with water so that it also weighed 360 g. At the end of the second session subjects were asked if they observed any changes between sessions, but no subject indicated awareness of a specific change. An acceleration ratio was computed by dividing the peak vertical acceleration during the first lift of the second session by the average peak acceleration of the last five lifts during the first session. This ratio was >1 for the control subjects 1.30 (SEM 0.08), indicating that they scaled their lift force for the first lift of the second session based on a memory of the (heavier) bottle from the first session. In contrast, the acceleration ratio was 0.94 (0.10) for the experimental group (P < 0.011). We conclude that the experimental group processed visual cues concerning the size of the bottle. These findings raise the possibility that even with familiar objects we predict fingertip forces using an on-line visual analysis of size (along with memory of density), rather than accessing memory related to object weight. PMID:18443767

  5. Occupational Hearing Loss in Korea

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    In this article, current status of noise exposure in workplaces, trend of workers with noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL), and prevalence of NIHL in workers by industry and job category in Korea were reviewed. In addition, trends of research on the audiological effects such as hearing loss from noise and occupational hearing loss from non-noise in Korea were addressed through reports in industrial audiology. Though noise exposure level has improved, noise still shows the highest rate of cases exceeding exposure limit among workplace hazards. NIHL is the most common occupational disease except work-related disease such as musculoskeletal disorders and cerebrovascular diseases, and NIHL prevalence is thought to be much higher than reported in official publications. Noise affecting hearing comes from various sources such as workplaces, military settings, areas with exposure to high noise, and specific noise sources. There is also occupational hearing loss by non-noise including chemicals such as organic solvents and heavy metals, barotrauma, and trauma due to welding spark. Noise affects daily life through audiological effects such as hearing loss and tinnitus, non-audiological physical effects (e.g., cardiovascular), and psychosocial and behavioral effects. Development of systematic and comprehensive hearing conservation programs for lowering the noise level in workplaces and preventing the NIHL, and preparation of technological, administrative system for its settlement at workplace are urgently needed. PMID:21258593

  6. Kinematics Simulation and Structure Optimization of Tilting and Lifting Mechanism of ITER Tractor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xiuqing; Mei, Tao; Luo, Minzhou; Yao, Damao

    2008-10-01

    The ITER (international thermonuclear experimental reactor) tractor is an in-cask remote handling equipment, its tilting and lifting mechanism is important for the tractor operated with forty-five-ton plug in front of the ports of Hot Cell and VV (vacuum vessel) successfully. In order to better analyse the movement of this mechanism and decide the key design parameters accurately, a mathematical model of 7-link complicated plane mechanism was built up, and the calculation of design and kinematics simulation were implemented. The established mathematical model was proved to be valid by comparing the calculated result with that of kinematics simulation. Finally, the structure analysis and the optimization of its key part, tilting and lifting frame, were performed to guarantee the frame's strength in bearing the heavy load of plug.

  7. Occupational Radiation Exposures

    Cancer.gov

    DCEG researchers are studying cancer risks among populations who are occupationally exposed to radiation. Chernobyl Clean-up Workers Mayak Nuclear Facility Workers U.S. Radiologic Technologists Interventional Fluoroscopists Print This Page Occupational

  8. Occupational Therapy (For Parents)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... 5 Ways to Prepare for an Allergy Emergency Cerebral Palsy: Caring for Your Child Occupational Therapy KidsHealth > For ... traumatic amputations cancer severe hand injuries multiple sclerosis, cerebral palsy , and other chronic illnesses Occupational therapists might: help ...

  9. Occupational health in the People's Republic of China.

    PubMed Central

    Christiani, D C

    1984-01-01

    China's drive to modernize its economy will produce new occupational health problems even as it resolves earlier ones. Well aware of this, Chinese occupational health experts are intensifying efforts to improve workers' health and establish a modern occupational health program. Occupational lung disease, occupational cancer, heavy metal poisoning, industrial chemical poisoning, and physical factor-induced diseases (noise and heat) have all been targeted for expanded research which will serve as a basis for standard setting. Hazard control efforts include engineering controls, particularly in new construction, limited use of personal protective equipment, and expansion of environmental and medical monitoring. Worker education and professional activities have been expanded. International exchanges have been initiated and will prove occupational health a promising area of scientific cooperation. PMID:6228153

  10. LIFT Tenant Is Off and Running

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steele, Gynelle C.

    2001-01-01

    Lewis Incubator for Technology (LIFT) tenant, Analiza Inc., graduated from the incubator July 2000. Analiza develops technology and products for the early diagnosis of diseases, quality control of bio-pharmaceutical therapeutics, and other applications involving protein analyses. Technology links with NASA from existing and planned work are in areas of microfluidics and laser light scattering. Since their entry in LIFT in May, 1997, Analiza has: Received a $750,000 grant from the National Institutes of Health. Collaborated with a Nobel Prize winner on drug design. Collaborated with Bristol-Myers Squibb on the characterization of biological therapeutics. Added a Ph.D. senior scientist and several technicians. Received significant interest from major pharmaceutical companies about collaborating and acquiring Analiza technology.

  11. Lifting surface theory for rectangular wings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dejarnette, F. R.

    1976-01-01

    A new incompressible lifting-surface theory is developed for thin rectangular wings. The solution requires the downwash equation to be in the form of Cauchy-type integrals. Lan's method is employed for the chordwise integrals since it properly accounts for the leading-edge singularity, Cauchy singularity and Kutta condition. The Cauchy singularity in the spanwise integral is also accounted for by using the midpoint trapezoidal rule and theory of Chebychev polynomials. The resulting matrix equation, formed by satisfying the boundary condition at control points, is simpler and quicker to compute than other lifting surface theories. Solutions were found to converge with only a small number of control points and to compare favorably with results from other methods.

  12. Hydraulic lift can solve many production problems

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, P.G. )

    1990-05-01

    For over five decades, hydraulic pumping systems have offered creative solutions for operators faced with a wide array of producing problems. Today, the well-developed and proven capabilities of this lift method continue to provide innovative approaches in dealing with oil well production, testing and evaluation requirements. The performance characteristics of the system give it unique adaptability to a wide range of changing well conditions, to effective use in shallow to extreme lifting depths, along with the convenient ability to install and retrieve the downhole pump through fluid circulation versus the use of a pulling unit. Hydraulic piston pumps are used in producing from low volumes up to 8,000 bpd. Jet pumps are used to produce up to 80,000 bpd.

  13. Clamp usable as jig and lifting clamp

    DOEpatents

    Tsuyama, Yoshizo

    1976-01-01

    There is provided a clamp which is well suited for use as a lifting clamp for lifting and moving materials of assembly in a shipyard, etc. and as a pulling jig in welding and other operations. The clamp comprises a clamp body including a shackle for engagement with a pulling device and a slot for receiving an article, and a pair of jaws provided on the leg portions of the clamp body on the opposite sides of the slot to grip the article in the slot, one of said jaws consisting of a screw rod and the other jaw consisting of a swivel jaw with a spherical surface, whereby when the article clamped in the slot by the pair of jaws tends to slide in any direction with respect to the clamp body, the article is more positively gripped by the pair of jaws.

  14. Lifted tensors and Hamilton-Jacobi separability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waeyaert, G.; Sarlet, W.

    2014-12-01

    Starting from a bundle τ : E → R, the bundle π :J1τ∗ → E, which is the dual of the first jet bundle J1 τ and a sub-bundle of T∗ E, is the appropriate manifold for the geometric description of time-dependent Hamiltonian systems. Based on previous work, we recall properties of the complete lifts of a type (1 , 1) tensor R on E to both T∗ E and J1τ∗. We discuss how an interplay between both lifted tensors leads to the identification of related distributions on both manifolds. The integrability of these distributions, a coordinate free condition, is shown to produce exactly Forbat's conditions for separability of the time-dependent Hamilton-Jacobi equation in appropriate coordinates.

  15. Induction factor optimization through variable lift control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooney, John; Corke, Thomas; Nelson, Robert; Williams, Theodore

    2011-11-01

    Due to practical design limitations coupled with the detrimental effects posed by complex wind regimes, modern wind turbines struggle to maintain or even reach ideal operational states. With additional gains through traditional approaches becoming more difficult and costly, active lift control represents a more attractive option for future designs. Here, plasma actuators have been explored experimentally in trailing edge applications for use in attached flow regimes. This authority would be used to drive the axial induction factor toward the ideal given by the Betz limit through distributed lift control thereby enhancing energy capture. Predictions of power improvement achievable by this methodology are made with blade - element momentum theory but will eventually be demonstrated in the field at the Laboratory for Enhanced Wind Energy Design, currently under construction at the University of Notre Dame.

  16. What's new in artificial lift; Part 2

    SciTech Connect

    Lea, J.F. ); Winkler, H.W. , Lubbock, TX )

    1994-04-01

    In the first article of this two-part series, new developments were presented for electrical submersible pumps and accessories, gas lift, and controls and measurement. This concluding article extends the review of artificial lift innovations to include beam pumping and progressive cavity (PC) pumps. Described here are improvements in beam pumping which include advanced sucker rods and pumping units, fluid level instruments, pump-off control (POC) and efficiency monitoring/management systems, pump sand control, surface pollution containment and a shared-motor for multiple wells. For progressive cavity pump improvements, three companies have introduced new rod guides, a modified tubing anchor catcher, round continuous rods, a PC variable frequency drive and a multilobe pump system. And status of a 20-company sponsored project for PC pump improvement is outlined.

  17. Static Thrust Analysis of the Lifting Airscrew

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knight, Montgomery; Hefner, Ralph A

    1937-01-01

    This report presents the results of a combined theoretical and experimental investigation conducted at the Georgia School of Technology on the static thrust of the lifting air screw of the type used in modern autogiros and helicopters. The theoretical part of this study is based on Glauert's analysis but certain modifications are made that further clarify and simplify the problem. Of these changes the elimination of the solidity as an independent parameter is the most important. The experimental data were obtained from tests on four rotor models of two, four, and five blades and, in general, agree quite well with the theoretical calculations. The theory indicates a method of evaluating scale effects on lifting air screws, and these corrections have been applied to the model results to derive general full-scale static thrust, torque, and figure-of-merit curves for constant-chord, constant-incidence rotors. Convenient charts are included that enable hovering flight performance to be calculated rapidly.

  18. Recommendations and comparisons for selecting artificial-lift methods

    SciTech Connect

    Bucaram, S.M. ); Clegg, J.D.; Hein, N.W. Jr.

    1993-12-01

    Selecting the proper artificial-lift method is critical to the long-term profitability of most producing oil and gas wells. This paper compares the main selection attributes for the current eight major artificial-lift methods and provides practical guidelines, based on practical and proven technology, on the performance and operating capabilities of the methods. This paper covers beam pumping, progressing cavity pumping, electric submersible pumping, hydraulic reciprocating pumping, hydraulic jet systems, continuous gas-lift systems, intermittent gas-lift systems, and plunger lift.

  19. Agricultural Occupations Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lark, Floyd J.; Henderson, Billie

    This agricultural occupations handbook was developed from the Dictionary of Occupational Titles (DOT) and the U.S. Departments of Health, Education, and Welfare, and Labor publication, Vocational Education and Occupations. It includes the U.S. Office of Education coding for the instructional area of agriculture and the cluster coding for the

  20. Health Occupations Cluster Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon State Dept. of Education, Salem.

    Intended to assist the vocational teacher in designing and implementing a cluster program in health occupations, this guide suggests ideas for teaching the specific knowledge and skills that qualify students for entry-level employment in the health occupations field. The knowledge and skills are applicable to 12 occupations: dental assistant;…

  1. HSCT high lift system aerodynamic requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paulson, John A.

    1992-01-01

    The viewgraphs and discussion of high lift system aerodynamic requirements are provided. Low speed aerodynamics has been identified as critical to the successful development of a High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT). The airplane must takeoff and land at a sufficient number of existing or projected airports to be economically viable. At the same time, community noise must be acceptable. Improvements in cruise drag, engine fuel consumption, and structural weight tend to decrease the wing size and thrust required of engines. Decreasing wing size increases the requirements for effective and efficient low speed characteristics. Current design concepts have already been compromised away from better cruise wings for low speed performance. Flap systems have been added to achieve better lift-to-drag ratios for climb and approach and for lower pitch attitudes for liftoff and touchdown. Research to achieve improvements in low speed aerodynamics needs to be focused on areas most likely to have the largest effect on the wing and engine sizing process. It would be desirable to provide enough lift to avoid sizing the airplane for field performance and to still meet the noise requirements. The airworthiness standards developed in 1971 will be the basis for performance requirements for an airplane that will not be critical to the airplane wing and engine size. The lift and drag levels that were required to meet the performance requirements of tentative airworthiness standards established in 1971 and that were important to community noise are identified. Research to improve the low speed aerodynamic characteristics of the HSCT needs to be focused in the areas of performance deficiency and where noise can be reduced. Otherwise, the wing planform, engine cycle, or other parameters for a superior cruising airplane would have to be changed.

  2. Unified treatment of lifting atmospheric entry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nachtsheim, P. R.; Lehman, L. L.

    1980-01-01

    This paper presents a unified treatment of the effect of lift on peak acceleration during atmospheric entry. Earlier studies were restricted to different regimes because of approximations invoked to solve the same transcendental equation. This paper shows the connection between the earlier studies by employing a general expression for the peak acceleration and obtains solutions to the transcendental equation without invoking the earlier approximations. Results are presented and compared with earlier studies where appropriate.

  3. Heating Analysis of the Lockheed Lifting Body

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palmer, Grant; Henline, Bill; Olynick, Dave; Edwards, Thomas A. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Computational fluid dynamic (CFD) analysis is performed on the Lockheed Lifting Body Single-Stage-to-Orbit vehicle to determine the heat transfer to the vehicle during its descent trajectory. Seven species, chemical nonequilibriurn computations using the GASP code will be completed at several trajectory points to assess the thermal protection requirements of the vehicle. Sophisticated surface boundary conditions including in-depth conduction, catalycity, and a variable temperature wall have been incorporated into the flow solver.

  4. Lift production in the hovering hummingbird

    PubMed Central

    Warrick, Douglas R.; Tobalske, Bret W.; Powers, Donald R.

    2009-01-01

    Aerodynamic theory and empirical observations of animals flying at similar Reynolds numbers (Re) predict that airflow over hummingbird wings will be dominated by a stable, attached leading edge vortex (LEV). In insects exhibiting similar kinematics, when the translational movement of the wing ceases (as at the end of the downstroke), the LEV is shed and lift production decreases until the energy of the LEV is re-captured in the subsequent half-cycle translation. We here show that while the hummingbird wing is strongly influenced by similar sharp-leading-edge aerodynamics, leading edge vorticity is inconsistent, varying from 0.7 to 26 per cent (mean 16%) of total lift production, is always generated within 3 mm of the dorsal surface of the wing, showing no retrograde (trailing to leading edge) flow, and does not increase from proximal to distal wing as would be expected with a conical vortex (class III LEV) described for hawkmoths. Further, the bound circulation is not shed as a vortex at the end of translation, but instead remains attached and persists after translation has ceased, augmented by the rotation (pronation, supination) of the wing that occurs between the wing-translation half-cycles. The result is a near-continuous lift production through wing turn-around, previously unknown in vertebrates, able to contribute to weight support as well as stability and control during hovering. Selection for a planform suited to creating this unique flow and nearly-uninterrupted lift production throughout the wingbeat cycle may help explain the relatively narrow hummingbird wing. PMID:19656789

  5. Trimming high lift for STOL fighters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paulson, J. W., Jr.; Quinto, P. F.; Banks, D. W.; Gatlin, G. M.

    1983-01-01

    The results of investigations of three different approaches to obtaining longitudinal trim for advanced fighter configurations with STOL performance are presented. The first, a differential thrust vectoring/reverser nozzle on an F-15 model, was very effective with an increment in pitching moment generated by the 90 deg/50 deg nozzle at military power equal to that which would be produced by a change in horizontal tail deflection of 20 deg. This trim pitching moment was accompanied by a modest loss in lift. The second method involved a nose jet on a supersonic cruise fighter configuration which, when combined with some canard deflection and longitudinal instability, provided trim capability for the configuration with military power setting and main nozzles deflected 43 degrees. Finally, a blown-high-lift canard on an advanced fighter configuration indicated that trim could be obtained across the complete angle-of-attack range tested with thrust set at military power and the main nozzles deflected 40 degrees. There was no loss in configuration lift and a slight increase in longitudinal stability.

  6. Analysis of particulates on tape lift samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moision, Robert M.; Chaney, John A.; Panetta, Chris J.; Liu, De-Ling

    2014-09-01

    Particle counts on tape lift samples taken from a hardware surface exceeded threshold requirements in six successive tests despite repeated cleaning of the surface. Subsequent analysis of the particle size distributions of the failed tests revealed that the handling and processing of the tape lift samples may have played a role in the test failures. In order to explore plausible causes for the observed size distribution anomalies, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) were employed to perform chemical analysis on collected particulates. SEM/EDX identified Na and S containing particles on the hardware samples in a size range identified as being responsible for the test failures. ToF-SIMS was employed to further examine the Na and S containing particulates and identified the molecular signature of sodium alkylbenzene sulfonates, a common surfactant used in industrial detergent. The root cause investigation suggests that the tape lift test failures originated from detergent residue left behind on the glass slides used to mount and transport the tape following sampling and not from the hardware surface.

  7. Progress in high-lift aerodynamic calculations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, Stuart E.

    1993-01-01

    The current work presents progress in the effort to numerically simulate the flow over high-lift aerodynamic components, namely, multi-element airfoils and wings in either a take-off or a landing configuration. The computational approach utilizes an incompressible flow solver and an overlaid chimera grid approach. A detailed grid resolution study is presented for flow over a three-element airfoil. Two turbulence models, a one-equation Baldwin-Barth model and a two equation k-omega model are compared. Excellent agreement with experiment is obtained for the lift coefficient at all angles of attack, including the prediction of maximum lift when using the two-equation model. Results for two other flap riggings are shown. Three-dimensional results are presented for a wing with a square wing-tip as a validation case. Grid generation and topology is discussed for computing the flow over a T-39 Sabreliner wing with flap deployed and the initial calculations for this geometry are presented.

  8. Dynamic response of Hovercraft lift fans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moran, D. D.

    1981-08-01

    Hovercraft lift fans are subjected to varying back pressure due to wave action and craft motions when these vehicles are operating in a seaway. The oscillatory back pressure causes the fans to perform dynamically, exhibiting a hysteresis type of response and a corresponding degradation in mean performance. Since Hovercraft motions are influenced by variations in lift fan pressure and discharge, it is important to understand completely the nature of the dynamic performance of lift fans in order to completely solve the Hovercraft seakeeping problem. The present study was performed to determine and classify the instabilities encountered in a centrifugal fan operating against time-varying back pressure. A model-scale experiment was developed in which the fan discharge was directed into a flow-measuring device, terminating in a rotating valve which produced an oscillatory back pressure superimposed upon a mean aerodynamic resistance. Pressure and local velocity were measured as functions of time at several locations in the fan volute. The measurements permitted the identification of rotating (or propagating) stall in the impeller. One cell and two cell configurations were classified and the transient condition connecting these two configurations was observed. The mechanisms which lead to rotating stall in a centrifugal compressor are presented and discussed with specific reference to Hovercraft applications.

  9. Laboratory study of diamond-bit hydraulic lift

    SciTech Connect

    Winters, W.J.; Warren, T.M.

    1986-08-01

    Hydraulic lift can have a major effect on the operation of diamond drill bits. The actual weight on bit (WOB) is less than the measured weight by the amount of hydraulic lift, or pumpoff force, acting beneath the bit. Pumpoff forces greater than 15,000 lbf (66.7 kN) have been recorded. Historically, hydraulic lift has been recognized but not understood well enough to be accounted for reliably. The current hydraulic-lift theory has been developed and validated through a series of laboratory tests. Measurement techniques have been reduced to simple procedures for determining any bit's hydraulic-lift effect. Laboratory studies show that under identical conditions, the amount of hydraulic lift varies widely with bit design. Two parameters-the effective pumpoff area and apparent nozzle area-characterize a bit's pumpoff effect and are used to explain and to predict variations in hydraulic lift with diamond bits.

  10. Health Occupations Curriculum. Skills for Nursing Assistant. Volume 3, Unit 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona State Dept. of Education, Phoenix.

    Part of a health occupations program, this instructional unit contains 13 learning modules for use in training nursing assistants. Covered in the modules are (1) making beds, bathing patients, and measuring intake and output; (2) body mechanics, moving and lifting patients, range of motion exercises, and caring for patients in casts or traction;…

  11. An Evidence-Based Multidisciplinary Practice Guideline to Reduce the Workload due to Lifting for Preventing Work-Related Low Back Pain

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    We developed an evidence-based practice guideline to support occupational safety and health (OSH) professionals in assessing the risk due to lifting and in selecting effective preventive measures for low back pain (LBP) in the Netherlands. The guideline was developed at the request of the Dutch government by a project team of experts and OSH professionals in lifting and work-related LBP. The recommendations for risk assessment were based on the quality of instruments to assess the risk on LBP due to lifting. Recommendations for interventions were based on a systematic review of the effects of worker- and work directed interventions to reduce back load due to lifting. The quality of the evidence was rated as strong (A), moderate (B), limited (C) or based on consensus (D). Finally, eight experts and twenty-four OSH professionals commented on and evaluated the content and the feasibility of the preliminary guideline. For risk assessment we recommend loads heavier than 25 kg always to be considered a risk for LBP while loads less than 3 kg do not pose a risk. For loads between 325 kg, risk assessment shall be performed using the Manual handling Assessment Charts (MAC)-Tool or National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) lifting equation. Effective work oriented interventions are patient lifting devices (Level A) and lifting devices for goods (Level C), optimizing working height (Level A) and reducing load mass (Level C). Ineffective work oriented preventive measures are regulations to ban lifting without proper alternatives (Level D). We do not recommend worker-oriented interventions but consider personal lift assist devices as promising (Level C). Ineffective worker-oriented preventive measures are training in lifting technique (Level A), use of back-belts (Level A) and pre-employment medical examinations (Level A). This multidisciplinary evidence-based practice guideline gives clear criteria whether an employee is at risk for LBP while lifting and provides an easy-reference for (in)effective risk reduction measures based on scientific evidence, experience, and consensus among OSH experts and practitioners. PMID:24999432

  12. Texas passes first law for safe patient handling in America: landmark legislation protects health-care workers and patients from injury related to manual patient lifting.

    PubMed

    Hudson, Mary Anne

    2005-01-01

    On June 17,2005, Texas Governor Rick Perry (R) signed into law Senate Bill 1525, making Texas the first state in the nation to require hospitals and nursing homes to implement safe patient handling and movement programs. Governor Perry is to be commended for this heroic first stand for safe patient handling in America. The landmark legislation will take effect January 1, 2006, requiring the establishment of policy to identify, assess, and develop methods of controlling the risk of injury to patients and nurses associated with lifting, transferring, repositioning, and movement of patients; evaluation of alternative methods from manual lifting to reduce the risk of injury from patient lifting, including equipment and patient care environment; restricting, to the extent feasible with existing equipment, manual handling of all or most of a patient's weight to emergency, life-threatening, or exceptional circumstances; and provision for refusal to perform patient handling tasks believed to involve unacceptable risks of injury to a patient or nurse. Manually lifting patients has been called deplorable, inefficient, dangerous to nurses, and painful and brutal to patients; manual lifting can cause needless suffering and injury to patients, with dangers including pain, bruising, skin tears, abrasions, tube dislodgement, dislocations, fractures, and being dropped by nursing staff during attempts to manually lift. Use of safe, secure, mechanical lift equipment and gentle friction-reducing devices for patient maneuvering tasks could eliminate such needless brutality. Research has proven that manual patient lifting is extremely hazardous to health-care workers, creating substantial risk of low-back injury, whether with one or two patient handlers. Studies on the use of mechanical patient lift equipment, by either nursing staff or lift teams, have proven repeatedly that most nursing staff back injury is preventable, leading to substantial savings to employers on medical and compensation costs. Because the health-care industry has relied on people to do the work of machines, nursing work remains the most dangerous occupation for disabling back injury. Back injury from patient lifting may be the single largest contributor to the nursing shortage, with perhaps 12% of nurses leaving or being terminated because of back injury. The US health-care industry has not kept pace with other industries, which provide mechanical lift equipment for lifting loads equivalent to the weight of patients, or with other countries, such as Australia and England, which are more advanced in their use of modern technology for patient lifting and with no-lifting practices in compliance with government regulations and nursing policies banning manual lifting. With Texas being the first state to succeed in passing legislation for safe patient handling, other states are working toward legislative protection against injury with manual patient lifting. California re-introduced safe patient handling legislation on February 17, 2005, with CA SB 363, Hospitals: Lift Teams, following the September 22, 2004, veto of CA AB 2532 by Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger, who said he believes existing statutory protection and workplace safety standards are sufficient to protect health care workers from injury. Massachusetts HB 2662, Relating to Safe Patient Handling in Certain Health Facilities, was introduced December 1, 2004. Ohio HB 67, signed March 21, 2005 by Governor Bob Taft (R), creates a program for interest-free loans to nursing homes for implementation of a no-manual-lift program. New York companion bills AB 7641 and SB 4029 were introduced in April, 2005, calling for creation of a 2-year study to establish safe patient handling programs and collect data on nursing staff and patient injury with manual patient handling versus lift equipment, to determine best practices for improving health and safety of health-care workers and patients during patient handling. Washington State is planning re-introduction of safe patient handling legislation, after WA HB 1672, Relating to red

  13. LiftingWiSe: a lifting-based efficient data processing technique in wireless sensor networks.

    PubMed

    Aboelela, Emad

    2014-01-01

    Monitoring thousands of objects which are deployed over large-hard-to-reach areas, is an important application of the wireless sensor networks (WSNs). Such an application requires disseminating a large amount of data within the WSN. This data includes, but is not limited to, the object's location and the environment conditions at that location. WSNs require efficient data processing and dissemination processes due to the limited storage, processing power, and energy available in the WSN nodes. The aim of this paper is to propose a data processing technique that can work under constrained storage, processing, and energy resource conditions. The proposed technique utilizes the lifting procedure in processing the disseminated data. Lifting is usually used in discrete wavelet transform (DWT) operations. The proposed technique is referred to as LiftingWiSe, which stands for Lifting-based efficient data processing technique for Wireless Sensor Networks. LiftingWiSe has been tested and compared to other relevant techniques from the literature. The test has been conducted via a simulation of the monitored field and the deployed wireless sensor network nodes. The simulation results have been analyzed and discussed. PMID:25116902

  14. LiftingWiSe: A Lifting-Based Efficient Data Processing Technique in Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Aboelela, Emad

    2014-01-01

    Monitoring thousands of objects which are deployed over large-hard-to-reach areas, is an important application of the wireless sensor networks (WSNs). Such an application requires disseminating a large amount of data within the WSN. This data includes, but is not limited to, the object's location and the environment conditions at that location. WSNs require efficient data processing and dissemination processes due to the limited storage, processing power, and energy available in the WSN nodes. The aim of this paper is to propose a data processing technique that can work under constrained storage, processing, and energy resource conditions. The proposed technique utilizes the lifting procedure in processing the disseminated data. Lifting is usually used in discrete wavelet transform (DWT) operations. The proposed technique is referred to as LiftingWiSe, which stands for Lifting-based efficient data processing technique for Wireless Sensor Networks. LiftingWiSe has been tested and compared to other relevant techniques from the literature. The test has been conducted via a simulation of the monitored field and the deployed wireless sensor network nodes. The simulation results have been analyzed and discussed. PMID:25116902

  15. Occupation, occupational exposure to chemicals and rheumatological disease. A register based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Lundberg, I; Alfredsson, L; Plato, N; Sverdrup, B; Klareskog, L; Kleinau, S

    1994-01-01

    The cumulative incidence of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) was compared between different occupations, and between different exposure groups based on a job-exposure matrix (JEM). The study population comprised those subjects who in 1980 lived in one of 13 Swedish counties, were born between 1905 and 1945, and who had stated the same occupation in the censuses of 1960 and 1970, a total of 375,035 men and 140,139 women. The study population was followed concerning hospital care for rheumatoid arthritis in 1981-1983 by lineage to the Swedish Hospital Discharge Register. In general there were rather small differences in the relative risk of RA in different exposure groups and different occupations. Most of the occupations associated with an increased risk of RA were occupations in which it was possible to work when the disease was present, i.e. cost accountants, estimating clerks and working proprietors in the retail trade. However, an increased relative risk of RA was also observed in some occupations where selection of RA patients out of heavy work should have biased genuinely increased relative risks towards unity. Such occupations were farmers, upholsterers, lacquerers, concrete workers, and hair-dressers. Substantial handling of organic solvents, according to the JEM, was associated with an increased relative risk. PMID:7801054

  16. Group Lifting Structures For Multirate Filter Banks, I: Uniqueness Of Lifting Factorizations

    SciTech Connect

    Brislawn, Christopher M

    2008-01-01

    This paper studies two-channel finite impulse response (FIR) perfect reconstruction filter banks. The connection between filter banks and wavelet transforms is well-known and will not be treated here. Figure 1 depicts the polyphase-with-advance representation of a filter bank [6]. A lifting factorization, is a factorization of polyphase matrices into upper and lower triangular lifting matrices. The existence of such decompositions via the Euclidean algorithm was shown for general FIR perfect reconstruction filter banks in [9] and was subsequently refined for linear phase filter banks in [10], [6]. These latter works were motivated by the ISO JPEG 2000 image coding standard [11], [12], [10], which specifies whole-sample symmetric (WS, or FIR type 1 linear phase) filter banks, as in Figure 2(a), in terms of half-sample symmetric (RS, or FIR type 2) lifting filters.

  17. Investigation of intermittent gas lift by using mechanistic modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Liao, T.; Schmidt, Z.; Doty, D.R.

    1995-12-31

    Intermittent gas lift is a cyclic process which can be divided into four stages. This paper describes a mechanistic model for the intermittent gas lift system based on fundamental physical principles. The model accounts for reservoir inflow performance, fluid properties, two-phase flow in the tubing, gas flow in the tubing-casing annulus, the performance of a gas-lift valve and a surface gas injection choke, and various intermittent gas-lift control mechanisms. The mathematical model consists of a system of ordinary and partial differential equations for each of the four stages. The resulting system of equations is numerically solved. The model is capable of generating the detailed cyclic characteristics and the overall performance of an intermittent gas-lift system. The model is validated using experimental data collected by a number of previous investigators. These data cover a wide range of operating conditions for intermittent gas lift. The model`s predictions compare well with the experimental measurements. The effects of various system parameters on the performance of the intermittent gas-lift system are studied using the model, and the most important controlling parameters are identified. The ability to identify these controlling parameters and their optimum values for a given system allows one to operate an intermittent gas-lift system more efficiently. Finally, the performance of intermittent and continuous gas lift are compared, and qualitative guidelines are outlined for selecting between intermittent and continuous gas-lift methods.

  18. Listing Occupational Carcinogens

    PubMed Central

    Siemiatycki, Jack; Richardson, Lesley; Straif, Kurt; Latreille, Benoit; Lakhani, Ramzan; Campbell, Sally; Rousseau, Marie-Claude; Boffetta, Paolo

    2004-01-01

    The occupational environment has been a most fruitful one for investigating the etiology of human cancer. Many recognized human carcinogens are occupational carcinogens. There is a large volume of epidemiologic and experimental data concerning cancer risks in different work environments. It is important to synthesize this information for both scientific and public health purposes. Various organizations and individuals have published lists of occupational carcinogens. However, such lists have been limited by unclear criteria for which recognized carcinogens should be considered occupational carcinogens, and by inconsistent and incomplete information on the occupations and industries in which the carcinogenic substances may be found and on their target sites of cancer. Based largely on the evaluations published by the International Agency for Research on Cancer, and augmented with additional information, the present article represents an attempt to summarize, in tabular form, current knowledge on occupational carcinogens, the occupations and industries in which they are found, and their target organs. We have considered 28 agents as definite occupational carcinogens, 27 agents as probable occupational carcinogens, and 113 agents as possible occupational carcinogens. These tables should be useful for regulatory or preventive purposes and for scientific purposes in research priority setting and in understanding carcinogenesis. PMID:15531427

  19. The Lifting Body Legacy...X-33

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barret, Chris

    1999-01-01

    NASA has a technology program in place to enable the development of a next generation Reusable Launch Vehicle that will carry our future payloads into orbit at a much-reduced cost. The VentureStar, Lifting Body (LB) flight vehicle, is one of the potential reusable launch vehicle configurations being studied. A LB vehicle has no wings and derives its lift solely from the shape of its body, and has the unique advantages of superior volumetric efficiency, better aerodynamic efficiency at high angles-of-attack and hypersonic speeds, and reduced thermal protection system weight. Classically, in a ballistic vehicle, drag has been employed to control the level of deceleration in reentry. In the LB, lift enables the vehicle to decelerate at higher altitudes for the same velocity and defines the reentry corridor which includes a greater cross range. This paper outlines the flight stability and control aspects of our LB heritage which was utilized in the design of the VentureStar LB and its test version, the X-33. NASA and the U.S. Air Force have a rich heritage of LB vehicle design and flight experience. In the initial LB Program, eight LB's were built and over 225 LB test flights were conducted through 1975. Three LB series were most significant in the advancement of today's LB technolocy: the M2-F; the HL-10; and the X-24 series. The M2-F series was designed by NASA Ames Research Center, the HL-10 series by NASA Langley Research Center, and the X-24 series by the U. S. Air Force. LB vehicles are alive again today with the X- 33, X-38, and VentureStar.

  20. Orbital Emphysema Occurring During Weight Lifting.

    PubMed

    Ozdemir, Ozdemir

    2015-12-01

    Although orbital emphysema is a recognized complication of orbital fractures involving any of the paranasal sinuses, it may develop without any fracture. A 23-year-old man presented with sudden left periorbital swelling during weight lifting in a fitness facility. On the left side, there was periorbital swelling with crepitus in palpation of subcutaneous tissue and conjunctival congestion. Computed tomography showed no fractures in the orbit. The patient was hospitalized. He was treated with empiric antibiotics and non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs. In three days, the swelling and crepitus had almost disappeared. Seven days later, orbital emphysema had completely resolved. PMID:24475915

  1. Labyrinth seal testing for lift fan engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dobek, L. J.

    1973-01-01

    An abradable buffered labyrinth seal for the control of turbine gas path leakage in a tip-turbine driven lift fan was designed, tested, and analyzed. The seal configuration was not designed to operate in any specific location but was sized to be evaluated in an existing test rig. The final sealing diameter selected was 28 inches. Results of testing indicate that the flow equations predicted seal air flows consistent with measured values. Excellent sealing characteristics of the abradable coating on the stator land were demonstrated when a substantial seal penetration of .030 inch into the land surface was encountered without appreciable wear on the labyrinth knife edges.

  2. APOLLO 14: Lift off from lunar surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    APOLLO 14: The lunar module 'Falcon' lifts off from the lunar surface From the film documentary 'APOLLO 14: 'Mission to Fra Mauro'', part of a documentary series on the APOLLO missions made in the early '70's and narrated by Burgess Meredith. APOLO 14: Third manned lunar landing with Alan B. Shepard, Jr.,Stuart A. Roosa, and Edgar D. Mitchell. Landed in the Fra Mauro area on Ferurary 5, 1971; performed EVA, deployed lunar experiments, returned lunar samples. Mission Duration 216 hrs 1 min 58 sec

  3. Circulation control lift generation experiment: Hardware development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Panontin, T. L.

    1985-01-01

    A circulation control airfoil and its accompanying hardware were developed to allow the investigation of lift generation that is independent of airfoil angle of attack and relative flow velocity. The test equipment, designed for use in a water tunnel, includes the blown airfoil, the support systems for both flow visualization and airfoil load measurement, and the fluid control system, which utilizes hydraulic technology. The primary design tasks, the selected solutions, and the unforseen problems involved in the development of these individual components of hardware are described.

  4. Lifting flat directions in lattice supersymmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catterall, Simon; Schaich, David

    2015-07-01

    We present a procedure to improve the lattice definition of supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory. The lattice construction necessarily involves U(1) flat directions, and we show how these can be lifted without violating the exact lattice supersymmetry. The basic idea is to modify the equations of motion of an auxiliary field, which determine the moduli space of the system. Applied to numerical calculations, the resulting improved lattice action leads to dramatically reduced violations of supersymmetric Ward identities and much more rapid approach to the continuum limit.

  5. Deep plane face lifting for midface rejuvenation.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Neil A; Adam, Stewart I

    2015-01-01

    The deep-plane midface lift offers many advantages in midface rejuvenation. Anatomic analysis of aging and embryologic evidence both support surgical facial degloving in the sub-SMAS plane and resuspension of the platysma/SMAS unit. This approach offers more complete repositioning of facial soft tissue compared with nonsurgical techniques, delivering accurate, direct treatment of deeper anatomic aspects of facial aging. The well-vascularized deep-plane flap minimizes complications. Outcomes can be maximized because tension exists invisibly, only at the fascia level. Consistent, natural,and long-lasting aesthetic results are achieved. PMID:25440750

  6. Lift enhancement by dynamically changing wingspan in forward flapping flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shizhao; Zhang, Xing; He, Guowei; Liu, Tianshu

    2014-06-01

    Dynamically stretching and retracting wingspan has been widely observed in the flight of birds and bats, and its effects on the aerodynamic performance particularly lift generation are intriguing. The rectangular flat-plate flapping wing with a sinusoidally stretching and retracting wingspan is proposed as a simple model for biologically inspired dynamic morphing wings. Numerical simulations of the low-Reynolds-number flows around the flapping morphing wing are conducted in a parametric space by using the immersed boundary method. It is found that the instantaneous and time-averaged lift coefficients of the wing can be significantly enhanced by dynamically changing wingspan in a flapping cycle. The lift enhancement is caused by both changing the lifting surface area and manipulating the flow structures responsible to the vortex lift generation. The physical mechanisms behind the lift enhancement are explored by examining the three-dimensional flow structures around the flapping wing.

  7. Back injury prevention: a lift team success story.

    PubMed

    Hefti, Kelly S; Farnham, Richard J; Docken, Lisa; Bentaas, Ruth; Bossman, Sharon; Schaefer, Jill

    2003-06-01

    Work related back injuries among hospital personnel account for high volume, high cost workers' compensation claims. These injuries can be life altering experiences, affecting both the personal and professional lives of injured workers. Lifting must be viewed as a skill involving specialized training and mandated use of mechanical equipment, rather than as a random task performed by numerous health care providers. The use of a lift team specially trained in body mechanics, lifting techniques, and the use of mandated mechanical equipment can significantly affect injury data, financial outcomes, and employee satisfaction. The benefits of a lift team extend beyond the effect on injury and financial outcomes--they can be used for recruitment and retention strategies, and team members serve as mentors to others by demonstrating safe lifting techniques. Ultimately, a lift team helps protect a valuable resource--the health care worker. PMID:12846457

  8. The structural optimization of a spreader bar for twin lift helicopter operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dobyns, A.

    1984-01-01

    An optimization study was performed to develop a minimum weight spreader bar to allow two helicopters to lift the same payload. With this arrangement, the maximum payload that can be lifted is almost doubled without the expense of designing and building a new helicopter. The concept has had some limited use by civil helicopter operators using small helicopters and has been demonstrated in large scale by two CH-54's which successfully lifted a total load of 20 ton. To this point, rather heavy available beams or tower structures have been used for the spreader bar. Since the weight of the bar not only detracts from payload but also adds to the logistics problem, there are more than the usual incentives to minimize weight. Since the design requirement is for classic beam column with uniform side loads resulting from bar weight and aerodynamic drag, the design problem is particularly amenable to optimization. A study has been performed at Sikorsky to establish the minimum weight for a spreader bar sized to carry a load equal to the capacity of two Army BLACK HAWK helicopters. Toward this end, a computer program was written to analyze the spreader bar deflections and stresses and coupled to the NASA developed CONMIN optimization routines.

  9. 77 FR 20558 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Platform Lifts for Motor Vehicles; Platform Lift...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-05

    ... vehicles with lift systems must comply with objective safety requirements in order to be sold. \\1\\ 67 FR..., which scheduled the standards to become effective on December 27, 2004. \\3\\ 56 FR 45530. On October 1... device specifications.\\4\\ \\4\\ 69 FR 58843. On December 23, 2004, the agency published an interim...

  10. Lift Fan Nozzle for Joint Strike Fighter Tested in NASA Lewis' Powered Lift Rig

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lam, David W.

    1998-01-01

    Under a nonreimbursable space act agreement between the NASA Lewis Research Center and the Allison Advanced Development Company, Allison tested a lift fan nozzle in Lewis' Powered Lift Rig. This test was in support of the Joint Strike Fighter program (formerly the Joint Advanced Strike Technology) sponsored by the Department of Defense, which will develop and field an affordable, multirole, next-generation, strike fighter aircraft for the Navy, Air Force, Marine Corps, and foreign allies. Allison, along with Pratt & Whitney Company, is part of the Lockheed Martin Corporation team that is scheduled to build a concept demonstrator aircraft by fiscal year 2001. The test was initiated in April and successfully completed in mid-July of 1997. Allison supplied a one-third-scale model of the lift fan nozzle, and Lewis provided the facility and the necessary support team. Various configurations, including pitching vectored angles ranging from 15deg forward to 60deg backward, were tested over a range of nozzle pressure ratios. Nozzle flow rates, thrust, and static pressures were measured for each of the configurations. Results from the test met the design requirements for the Joint Strike Fighter program and were in agreement with Allison's internal computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analyses. Data obtained from this test will also be used in the full-scale design of the lift fan system.

  11. Occupational lung cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Cone, J.E.

    1987-04-01

    The author addresses the attribution of lung cancer to cigarette smoking and the problems of confounding synergistic effects of occupational and other carcinogenic risk factors, as well as the divergent trends of declining smoking rates and increasing rates of lung cancer. He also reviews the existing literature to document associations between lung cancer and occupational exposures. Finally, interventions for prevention of occupational lung cancer are discussed.

  12. HSR High Lift Program and PCD2 Update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kemmerly, Guy T.; Coen, Peter; Meredith, Paul; Clark, Roger; Hahne, Dave; Smith, Brian

    1999-01-01

    The mission of High-Lift Technology is to develop technology allowing the design of practical high lift concepts for the High-Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) in order to: 1) operate safely and efficiently; and 2) reduce terminal control area and community noise. In fulfilling this mission, close and continuous coordination will be maintained with other High-Speed Research (HSR) technology elements in order to support optimization of the overall airplane (rather than just the high lift system).

  13. Analysis of hydrodynamic lift on a bed sediment particle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dwivedi, Ambuj; Melville, Bruce W.; Shamseldin, Asaad Y.; Guha, Tushar K.

    2011-06-01

    An experimental study of lift force on a spherical sediment particle at different exposures was conducted in a laboratory flume. It is found that the functional form of the theoretical probability density function (pdf) of lift force similar to that of drag force is inadequate. An improved expression for the pdf based on the normal error law is provided which matches the measured data up to 3 times the standard deviation of lift force for all exposures. The skewness of the measured lift force is found to increase with increase in exposure. In addition, the kurtosis of the measured lift force is found to be higher than that for a normal distribution for all exposures, resulting in higher probability of occurrence of extreme events (beyond 3 times standard deviation). A spectral density function of lift force as a function of streamwise and stream-normal velocity is developed and validated using the measured lift force data. The spectrum predicted by the proposed model closely follows the measured spectrum for exposures 7.5 mm and 10 mm while it over predicts at frequencies below 1 Hz for exposures 0 mm and 2.5 mm because of poor coherence between lift force and streamwise velocity. The time history plots of measured lift at lower exposures showed that the high-frequency positive and negative fluctuations of lift correspond to strongly positive streamwise velocity fluctuations, a phenomenon not captured by the predictive model. Predominance of fluctuating Bernoulli's lift over lift due to stream-normal velocity fluctuations is observed at all exposures, more so in the case of lower exposures.

  14. What`s new in artificial lift. Part 2

    SciTech Connect

    Lea, J.F.; Winkler, H.W.

    1997-04-01

    Part 1 overviewed 14 new developments for sucker rod and progressing cavity pumping, and gas lift. Described here are several recently announced and/or applied innovations from three major suppliers of electrical submersible pumps (ESPs). Also presented are four other new developments related directly to artificial lift operations. The latter include: coiled tubing plunger lift equipment, an AC motor power controller, a new acoustic liquid level instrument and performance analyzer, and a gearmotor surface drive for PCPs.

  15. Estimation of an Occupational Choice Model when Occupations Are Misclassified

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Paul

    2009-01-01

    This paper develops an empirical occupational choice model that corrects for misclassification in occupational choices and measurement error in occupation-specific work experience. The model is used to estimate the extent of measurement error in occupation data and quantify the bias that results from ignoring measurement error in occupation codes

  16. [Occupational rhinitis and asthma].

    PubMed

    Scherer Hofmeier, K; Bircher, A; Tamm, M; Miedinger, D

    2012-04-01

    Allergic rhinoconjunctivits and asthma are frequent diseases. About one in ten asthma cases is caused by an occupational hazard, either by an allergic or a non-immunologic mechanism. Primary or secondary preventive measures should be able to prevent these cases. Often, occupational rhinitis precedes the development of occupational asthma. Important causative agents are flours, plant and enzyme powders, laboratory animals, latex, isocyanates and hardeners, epoxy resins, acrylates, formaldehyde and welding fumes. Early diagnosis and the installation of protective measures are decisive for the prognosis of occupational respiratory disease. PMID:22477666

  17. Occupational cancer in Italy.

    PubMed Central

    Merler, E; Vineis, P; Alhaique, D; Miligi, L

    1999-01-01

    This article is a discussion of occupational cancer in Italy. The introduction provides the necessary context of Italian industrialization and occupational health regulation. This is followed by a review of Italian epidemiologic studies of occupational cancer risks considered in terms of relative measures of risk and attributable risk of carcinogenic agents or exposure circumstances. We attempt to establish the number of workers exposed to carcinogens in Italy and the intensity of their exposures. Finally, the Italian system of compensation for occupational cancer is discussed. Several cohort and case-control studies have addressed the issue of occupational risks, mostly among male workers. The results of these studies suggest that the growing incidence of and mortality by mesothelioma is explained by the widespread and intense exposure to asbestos in some Italian industrial settings. A high attributable risk of lung tumors among male populations in industrial areas of northern Italy is explained by occupational exposures. However, insufficient data are available for clear definition of the extent and intensity of occupational exposure to carcinogenic substances. In Italy, we must prioritize and maximize resources in occupational cancer epidemiology and revitalize the role of national institutions. Recent legislation has established new regulations on the handling of carcinogenic substances in industrial settings, a new list of occupational diseases, and a national registry of mesothelioma linked to asbestos exposure. These legislative changes are expected to have positive effects. PMID:10350509

  18. Lift augmentation for highly swept wing aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rao, Dhanvada M. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A pair of spaced slots, disposed on each side of an aircraft centerline and spaced well inboard of the wing leading edges, are provided in the wing upper surfaces and directed tangentially spanwise toward thin sharp leading wing edges of a highly swept, delta wing aircraft. The slots are individually connected through separate plenum chambers to separate compressed air tanks and serve, collectively, as a system for providing aircraft lift augmentation. A compressed air supply is tapped from the aircraft turbojet power plant. Suitable valves, under the control of the aircraft pilot, serve to selective provide jet blowing from the individual slots to provide spanwise sheets of jet air closely adjacent to the upper surfaces and across the aircraft wing span to thereby create artificial vortices whose suction generate additional lift on the aircraft. When desired, or found necessary, unequal or one-side wing blowing is employed to generate rolling moments for augmented lateral control. Trailing flaps are provided that may be deflected differentially, individually, or in unison, as needed for assistance in take-off or landing of the aircraft.

  19. Lifting Mechanism for the Mars Explorer Rover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melko, Joseph; Iskenderian, Theodore; Harrington, Brian; Voorhees, Christopher

    2005-01-01

    A report discusses the design of a rover lift mechanism (RLM) -- a major subsystem of each of the Mars Exploration Rover vehicles, which were landed on Mars in January 2004. The RLM had to satisfy requirements to (1) be foldable as part of an extremely dense packing arrangement and (2) be capable of unfolding itself in a complex, multistep process for disengaging the rover from its restraints in the lander, lifting the main body of the rover off its landing platform, and placing the rover wheels on the platform in preparation for driving the rover off the platform. There was also an overriding requirement to minimize the overall mass of the rover and lander. To satisfy the combination of these and other requirements, it was necessary to formulate an extremely complex design that integrated components and functions of the RLM with those of a rocker-bogie suspension system, the aspects of which have been described in several prior NASA Tech Briefs articles. In this design, suspension components also serve as parts of a 4- bar linkage in the RLM.

  20. Modification of integrated partial payload lifting assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Groah, Melodie; Haddock, Michael; Woodworth, Warren

    1986-01-01

    The Integrated Partial Payload Lifting Assembly (IPPLA) is currently used to transport and load experimental payloads into the cargo bay of the Space Shuttle. It is unable to carry the astronaut/passenger tunnel without a structural modification. The purpose of this design is to create a removalbe modification that will allow the IPPLA to lift and carry the passenger tunnel. Modifications evaluated were full-length insert beams which would extend through the existing strongback arms. These beam proposals were eliminated because of high cost and weight. Other proposals evaluated were attachments of cantilever beams to the existing strongback areas. The cantilever proposals reduced cost and weight compared to the full-length modifications. A third method evaluated was to simply make modifications to one side of the IPPLA therefore reducing the materials of the cantilever proposals by 40 percent. The design of the modification selected was completed with two channel beams jointly welded to a centered steel plate. The extension arm modification is inserted into the existing strongback channel beams and bolted into place. Two extension arms are added to one side of the IPPLA to provide the extra length needed to accommodate the passenger tunnel. The center counterbalance will then be offset about 20 inches to center gravity and therefore maintain horizontal status. The extension arm modification was selected because of minimum cost, low weight, and minimal installation time.

  1. The Random Motion/ Lift-Off Simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1967-01-01

    The Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) played a crucial role in the development of the huge Saturn rockets that delivered humans to the moon in the 1960s. Many unique facilities existed at MSFC for the development and testing of the Saturn rockets. Affectionately nicknamed 'The Arm Farm', the Random Motion/ Lift-Off Simulator was one of those unique facilities. This facility was developed to test the swingarm mechanisms that were used to hold the rocket in position until lift-off. The Arm Farm provided the capability of testing the detachment and reconnection of various arms under brutally realistic conditions. The 18-acre facility consisted of more than a half dozen arm test positions and one position for testing access arms used by the Apollo astronauts. Each test position had two elements: a vehicle simulator for duplicating motions during countdown and launch; and a section duplicating the launch tower. The vehicle simulator duplicated the portion of the vehicle skin that contained the umbilical connections and personnel access hatches. Driven by a hydraulic servo system, the vehicle simulator produced relative motion between the vehicle and tower. On the Arm Farm, extreme environmental conditions (such as a launch scrub during an approaching Florida thunderstorm) could be simulated. The dramatic scenes that the Marshall engineers and technicians created at the Arm Farm permitted the gathering of crucial technical and engineering data to ensure a successful real time launch from the Kennedy Space Center.

  2. The Random Motion/ Lift-Off Simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1963-01-01

    The Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) played a crucial role in the development of the huge Saturn rockets that delivered humans to the moon in the 1960s. Many unique facilities existed at MSFC for the development and testing of the Saturn rockets. Affectionately nicknamed 'The Arm Farm', the Random Motion/ Lift-Off Simulator was one of those unique facilities. This facility was developed to test the swingarm mechanisms that were used to hold the rocket in position until lift-off. The Arm Farm provided the capability of testing the detachment and reconnection of various arms under brutally realistic conditions. The 18-acre facility consisted of more than a half dozen arm test positions and one position for testing access arms used by the Apollo astronauts. Each test position had two elements: a vehicle simulator for duplicating motions during countdown and launch; and a section duplicating the launch tower. The vehicle simulator duplicated the portion of the vehicle skin that contained the umbilical connections and personnel access hatches. Driven by a hydraulic servo system, the vehicle simulator produced relative motion between the vehicle and tower. On the Arm Farm, extreme environmental conditions (such as a launch scrub during an approaching Florida thunderstorm) could be simulated. The dramatic scenes that the Marshall engineers and technicians created at the Arm Farm permitted the gathering of crucial technical and engineering data to ensure a successful real time launch from the Kennedy Space Center.

  3. The Random Motion/Lift-Off Simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1967-01-01

    The Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) played a crucial role in the development of the huge Saturn rockets that delivered humans to the moon in the 1960s. Many unique facilities existed at MSFC for the development and testing of the Saturn rockets. Affectionately nicknamed 'The Arm Farm', the Random Motion/ Lift-Off Simulator was one of those unique facilities. This facility was developed to test the swingarm mechanisms that were used to hold the rocket in position until lift-off. The Arm Farm provided the capability of testing the detachment and reconnection of various arms under brutally realistic conditions. The 18-acre facility consisted of more than a half dozen arm test positions and one position for testing access arms used by the Apollo astronauts. Each test position had two elements: a vehicle simulator for duplicating motions during countdown and launch; and a section duplicating the launch tower. The vehicle simulator duplicated the portion of the vehicle skin that contained the umbilical connections and personnel access hatches. Driven by a hydraulic servo system, the vehicle simulator produced relative motion between the vehicle and tower. On the Arm Farm, extreme environmental conditions (such as a launch scrub during an approaching Florida thunderstorm) could be simulated. The dramatic scenes that the Marshall engineers and technicians created at the Arm Farm permitted the gathering of crucial technical and engineering data to ensure a successful real time launch from the Kennedy Space Center.

  4. Does Malleolus non-Lifting Tympanoplasty have any Advantage Over Malleus Lifting Techniques?

    PubMed Central

    Vahidi, Mohammad Reza; Mollasadeghi, Abolfazl; Shahbazian, Honeyeh; Behniafard, Nasim; Dadgarnia, Mohammad Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: In order to achieve a higher success rate for tympanoplasty, different techniques have been developed, and a wide variety of grafting materials have been developed. One of the techniques currently receiving considerable attention involves not lifting the remaining of eardrum from the malleus and embedding the graft underneath in order to repair the eardrum correctly in its original position, as well as minimizing graft lateralization leading to progression of hearing rehabilitation. We compared the effects of tympanoplasty with and without malleus lifting on hearing loss in patients with chronic otitis media. Materials and Methods: In this study, 30 consecutive patients diagnosed as having chronic otitis media without cholesteatoma were randomly assigned to two tympanoplasty groups; with or without malleus lifting. Air and bone conduction thresholds were recorded before and 45 days after the intervention. Results: In groups, except for 8000 Hz, the air conduction was significantly improved following surgery. According to air conduction there was no difference between the groups before surgery at different frequencies, although it was improved to a greater degree in the group without lifting at 250 Hz postoperatively. The average post-operative air-bone gap (ABG) gain was significantly higher in all study frequencies in the target group. One of the effects of this technique is inner-ear protection from physical trauma to the ossicular chain, and prevention of damage to bone conduction. Conclusion: A higher hearing threshold and also higher ABG gain can be achieved by not lifting the remaining eardrum from the malleus and embedding the graft undereath it, especially at lower frequencies. PMID:26877998

  5. Steady lifting surface theory with a free surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leclerc, J.; Salauen, P.

    1985-11-01

    Steady lifting surface theory with a free surface is developed by an integral equation method. The local lift coefficient appears as a solution to an integral equation of the first kind whose kernel, deduced from a Havelock source potential, is expanded in a Fourier series with respect to the azimuth angle. The coefficients of this series are definite integrals. The method of steepest descents gives asymptotic approximations to coefficients of large index terms, and the remainder can be evaluated approximately in all cases. Numerical applications such as the calculation of the lift and drag for a lifting wing, and the hydrodynamic pressures arising from the turn of a ship are given.

  6. Interior room within eastern lift span, showing auxiliary electric generator. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior room within eastern lift span, showing auxiliary electric generator. - Arlington Memorial Bridge, Spanning Potomac River between Lincoln Memorial & Arlington National Cemetery, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  7. Heavy flavors

    SciTech Connect

    Cox, B.; Gilman, F.J.; Gottschalk, T.D.

    1986-11-01

    A range of issues pertaining to heavy flavors at the SSC is examined including heavy flavor production by gluon-gluon fusion and by shower evolution of gluon jets, flavor tagging, reconstruction of Higgs and W bosons, and the study of rare decays and CP violation in the B meson system. A specific detector for doing heavy flavor physics and tuned to this latter study at the SSC, the TASTER, is described. 36 refs., 10 figs.

  8. Associations of occupational attributes and excessive drinking.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Andrew J; Zimmerman, Frederick J

    2013-09-01

    Numerous work-related drinking mechanisms have been posited and, oftentimes, examined in isolation. We combined data from over 100 occupational attributes into several factors and tested the association of these factors with measures of alcohol use. We used the NLSY79 2006 wave, a U.S. representative sample of 6426 workers ages 41 to 49 and the 2006 Occupational Information Network database (O*NET), a nationally representative sample of nearly 1000 occupations. We conducted exploratory factor analysis on 119 occupational attributes and found three independent workplace characteristics - physical demands, job autonomy, and social engagement - explained the majority of the variation. We then tested the association of these composite attributes with three drinking measures, before and after adjusting for gender, race/ethnicity, and a measure of human capital using count data models. We then stratified by gender and repeated our analyses. Men working in occupations with a one standard deviation higher level of physical demand (e.g. construction) reported a higher number of heavy drinking occasions (+20%, p < 0.05). Job autonomy was not significantly associated with measures of alcohol use and when the combined association of higher levels of physical demand and lower levels of job autonomy was examined, modest support for job strain as a mechanism for work-related alcohol consumption was found. In our pooled sample, working in occupations with one standard deviation higher levels of social engagement was associated with lower numbers of drinking days (-9%, p < 0.05) after adjustment. Physical demand and social engagement were associated with alcohol consumption measures but these relationships varied by workers' gender. Future areas of research should include confirmatory analyses using other waves of O*Net data and replicating the current analysis in other samples of workers. If our results are validated, they suggest male workers in high physical demand occupations could be targets for intervention. PMID:23849277

  9. Welding. Occupational Competency Analysis Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Vocational Instructional Materials Lab.

    This Occupational Competency Analysis Profile (OCAP), which is one of a series of OCAPs developed to identify the skills that Ohio employers deem necessary to entering a given occupation/occupational area, lists the occupational, academic, and employability skills required of individuals entering the occupation of welder. The introduction explains…

  10. Occupational activities and osteoarthritis of the knee

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, Keith T

    2012-01-01

    Background The prevalence of knee osteoarthritis (OA) is rising and the search for interventions to mitigate risk is intensifying. This review considers the contribution of occupational activities to disease occurrence and the lessons for prevention. Sources Systematic search in Embase and Medline covering the period 1996 to November 2011. Areas of agreement Reasonably good evidence exists that physical work activities (especially kneeling, squatting, lifting, and climbing) can cause and/or aggravate knee OA. These exposures should be reduced where possible. Obese workers with such exposures are at additional risk of knee OA and should therefore particularly be encouraged to lose weight. Areas of uncertainty/research need Workplace interventions and policies to prevent knee OA have seldom been evaluated. Moreover, their implementation can be problematic. However, the need for research to optimise the design of work in relation to knee OA is pressing, given population trends towards extended working life. PMID:22544778

  11. Occupation and Thyroid Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Aschebrook-Kilfoy, Briseis; Ward, Mary H.; Valle, Curt T. Della; Friesen, Melissa C.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Numerous occupational and environmental exposures have been shown to disrupt thyroid hormones, but much less is known about their relationships with thyroid cancer. Here we review the epidemiology studies of occupations and occupational exposures and thyroid cancer incidence to provide insight into preventable risk factors for thyroid cancer. Methods The published literature was searched using the Web of Knowledge database for all articles through August 2013 that had in their text “occupation” “job” ”employment” or “work” and “thyroid cancer”. After excluding 10 mortality studies and 4 studies with less than 5 exposed incident cases, we summarized the findings of 30 articles that examined thyroid cancer incidence in relation to occupations or occupational exposure. The studies were grouped by exposure/occupation category, study design, and exposure assessment approach. Where available, gender stratified results are reported. Results The most studied (19 of 30 studies) and the most consistent associations were observed for radiation-exposed workers and health care occupations. Suggestive, but inconsistent, associations were observed in studies of pesticide-exposed workers and agricultural occupations. Findings for other exposures and occupation groups were largely null. The majority of studies had few exposed cases and assessed exposure based on occupation or industry category, self-report, or generic (population-based) job exposure matrices. Conclusion The suggestive, but inconsistent findings for many of the occupational exposures reviewed here indicate that more studies with larger numbers of cases and better exposure assessment are necessary, particularly for exposures known to disrupt thyroid homeostasis. PMID:24604144

  12. High-Lift Systems on Commercial Subsonic Airliners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudolph, Peter K. C.

    1996-01-01

    The early breed of slow commercial airliners did not require high-lift systems because their wing loadings were low and their speed ratios between cruise and low speed (takeoff and landing) were about 2:1. However, even in those days the benefit of high-lift devices was recognized. Simple trailing-edge flaps were in use, not so much to reduce landing speeds, but to provide better glide-slope control without sideslipping the airplane and to improve pilot vision over the nose by reducing attitude during low-speed flight. As commercial-airplane cruise speeds increased with the development of more powerful engines, wing loadings increased and a real need for high-lift devices emerged to keep takeoff and landing speeds within reasonable limits. The high-lift devices of that era were generally trailing-edge flaps. When jet engines matured sufficiently in military service and were introduced commercially, airplane speed capability had to be increased to best take advantage of jet engine characteristics. This speed increase was accomplished by introducing the wing sweep and by further increasing wing loading. Whereas increased wing loading called for higher lift coefficients at low speeds, wing sweep actually decreased wing lift at low speeds. Takeoff and landing speeds increased on early jet airplanes, and, as a consequence, runways worldwide had to be lengthened. There are economical limits to the length of runways; there are safety limits to takeoff and landing speeds; and there are speed limits for tires. So, in order to hold takeoff and landing speeds within reasonable limits, more powerful high-lift devices were required. Wing trailing-edge devices evolved from plain flaps to Fowler flaps with single, double, and even triple slots. Wing leading edges evolved from fixed leading edges to a simple Krueger flap, and from fixed, slotted leading edges to two- and three-position slats and variable-camber (VC) Krueger flaps. The complexity of high-lift systems probably peaked on the Boeing 747, which has a VC Krueger flap and triple-slotted, inboard and outboard trailing-edge flaps. Since then, the tendency in high-lift system development has been to achieve high levels of lift with simpler devices in order to reduce fleet acquisition and maintenance costs. The intent of this paper is to: (1) review available high-lift devices, their functions, and design criteria; (2) appraise high-lift systems presently in service on commercial air liners; (3) present personal study results on high-lift systems; (4) develop a weight and cost model for high-lift systems; and (5) discuss the development tendencies of future high-lift systems.

  13. AFC-Enabled Simplified High-Lift System Integration Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartwich, Peter M.; Dickey, Eric D.; Sclafani, Anthony J.; Camacho, Peter; Gonzales, Antonio B.; Lawson, Edward L.; Mairs, Ron Y.; Shmilovich, Arvin

    2014-01-01

    The primary objective of this trade study report is to explore the potential of using Active Flow Control (AFC) for achieving lighter and mechanically simpler high-lift systems for transonic commercial transport aircraft. This assessment was conducted in four steps. First, based on the Common Research Model (CRM) outer mold line (OML) definition, two high-lift concepts were developed. One concept, representative of current production-type commercial transonic transports, features leading edge slats and slotted trailing edge flaps with Fowler motion. The other CRM-based design relies on drooped leading edges and simply hinged trailing edge flaps for high-lift generation. The relative high-lift performance of these two high-lift CRM variants is established using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) solutions to the Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations for steady flow. These CFD assessments identify the high-lift performance that needs to be recovered through AFC to have the CRM variant with the lighter and mechanically simpler high-lift system match the performance of the conventional high-lift system. Conceptual design integration studies for the AFC-enhanced high-lift systems were conducted with a NASA Environmentally Responsible Aircraft (ERA) reference configuration, the so-called ERA-0003 concept. These design trades identify AFC performance targets that need to be met to produce economically feasible ERA-0003-like concepts with lighter and mechanically simpler high-lift designs that match the performance of conventional high-lift systems. Finally, technical challenges are identified associated with the application of AFC-enabled highlift systems to modern transonic commercial transports for future technology maturation efforts.

  14. Utilities plan fish lifts for Susquehanna River Dams

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-02-01

    Pennsylvania Power Light Co., Baltimore Gas Electric Co., and Metropolitan Edison Co. will install fish lifts at three dams on the Susquehanna River to aid the spawning of American shad. The utilities estimate the lifts will cost a total of $15 million. PP L will install two lifts at its 108-MW Holtwood Dam, according to the utility's Bob Domermuth, a project scientist. One will be located at the spillway and the second in the tailrace. The two lifts will cost approximately $8 million. At the 417-MW Safe Harbor Dam, which PP L and BG E jointly own, one lift costing $5 million to $6 million will be built on the west side of the powerhouse. Met Ed will install a lift at its 20-MW York Haven Dam, the farthest upstream, at a cost of $3 million. Lifts at Holtwood and Safe Harbor will be completed in time for the spring 1997 shad run; York Haven's passage is to be completed no later than the spring of the year 2000. In 1991, Philadelphia Electric Co. completed a lift at its 512-MW Conowingo Dam, the first dam shad encounter as they swim upstream from the ocean. The utilities agreed with state and federal fish and wildlife agencies to build the lifts, after a decade of studying shad population and rebuilding stocks. Although the agreement is only in draft form, the utilities have begun studying fish movement to determine the best lift designs. While American shad is the species targeted by the effort, the lifts will open the river to all species, Comermuth said. The utilities also are preparing a bid package soliciting design and construction proposals.

  15. The American Occupational Structure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blau, Peter M.; Duncan, Otis Dudley

    The objective of this book is to present a systematic analysis of the American occupational structure, and, thus, of the major foundation of the stratification system in this society. Processes of social mobility from one generation to the next and from career beginnings to occupational destinations are considered to reflect the dynamics of the

  16. Occupational asthma: a review.

    PubMed Central

    Lombardo, L J; Balmes, J R

    2000-01-01

    Occupational asthma is the most common form of occupational lung disease in the developed world at the present time. In this review, the epidemiology, pathogenesis/mechanisms, clinical presentations, management, and prevention of occupational asthma are discussed. The population attributable risk of asthma due to occupational exposures is considerable. Current understanding of the mechanisms by which many agents cause occupational asthma is limited, especially for low-molecular-weight sensitizers and irritants. The diagnosis of occupational asthma is generally established on the basis of a suggestive history of a temporal association between exposure and the onset of symptoms and objective evidence that these symptoms are related to airflow limitation. Early diagnosis, elimination of exposure to the responsible agent, and early use of inhaled steroids may play important roles in the prevention of long-term persistence of asthma. Persistent occupational asthma is often associated with substantial disability and consequent impacts on income and quality of life. Prevention of new cases is the best approach to reducing the burden of asthma attributable to occupational exposures. Future research needs are identified. PMID:10931788

  17. Counselling for Occupational Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nwamuo, P. A.; Ugonna, C. E.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to ascertain the general attitude which senior secondary school students display towards counselling for occupational development while determining gender difference in students' attitude towards occupational information. It is also aimed at discovering whether these students seek vocational guidance in their choice of

  18. Bricklayer. Occupational Analyses Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cap, Orest; Cap, Ihor; Semenovych, Viktor

    This analysis covers tasks performed by a bricklayer, an occupational title some provinces and territories of Canada have also identified as bricklayer-mason, brick and stone mason, and mason. A guide to analysis discusses development, structure, and validation method; scope of the occupation; trends; and safety. To facilitate understanding the…

  19. The Heath Occupational Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heath, William E.

    1990-01-01

    Career development programs must identify occupational needs of adults. A model based on Maslow's hierarchy develops occupational questions related to individual motivations (physiology, safety, love, esteem, and self-actualization). Individual needs are then compared with characteristics and benefits of proposed jobs, companies, or careers. (SK)

  20. Canadian Occupational Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conger, D. Stuart

    Based upon the structure of Canadian Classification and Dictionary of Occupations, the volume presents highly condensed descriptions of classification clusters representing the universe of occupational groups in the Canadian economy. It is a useful tool for vocational counselors, students, and clients. Each cluster is assigned a number; the

  1. Occupations and the Farm.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ewert-Krocker, Laurie

    2001-01-01

    Describes "occupation" as a Montessori term, which the Hershey Montessori Farm School, in Huntsburg, Ohio, has adopted for any task arising from the needs of the farm that then generates a scientific or historic study. Includes lists of occupations pursued during 2000-2001 and samples of record forms students used to manage their work. (Author/KB)

  2. Testosterone and Occupational Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dabbs, James M., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Archival data on 4,462 military veterans linked higher levels of serum testosterone to lower-status occupations. A structural equation model was supported in which higher testosterone, mediated through lower intellectual ability, greater antisocial behavior, and lower education, leads away from white-collar occupations. Contains 49 references.…

  3. Cabinetmaker. Occupational Analysis Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chinien, Chris; Boutin, France

    This document contains the analysis of the occupation of cabinetmaker, or joiner, that is accepted by the Canadian Council of Directors as the national standard for the occupation. The front matter preceding the analysis includes exploration of the development of the analysis, structure of the analysis, validation method, scope of the cabinetmaker

  4. Occupational Health Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naval Medical Training Inst., Bethesda, MD.

    This manual is designed to be used for "Administrative Aspects of Occupational Medicine," one of two officer correspondence courses offered by the Naval Medical Training Institute. Part one comprises guidelines for setting up occupational health clinics, covering the areas of staffing, layout, equipment, other services, and records maintenance.

  5. [Hand and occupational diseases].

    PubMed

    Bensefa-Colas, Lynda; Choudat, Dominique

    2013-12-01

    Hand is frequently the site of work accidents or occupational diseases. The musculoskeletal upper limb is the first recognized occupational disease and carpal tunnel syndrome is the most common of them. The most common location of occupational dermatoses is the hand. Their causes are often multifactorial, involving chemical irritants, physical, allergens and endogenous factors (mainly atopic dermatitis). Occupational exposure to microtrauma and iterative use of vibrating tools may also be the cause of hypothenar hammer syndrome and acrosyndromes. The frequent chronicity and functional impairment induced by these attacks can cause lasting disabilities, an inability to source workstation. Occupational physician is a focal point for helping to maintain the position and the prevention of socioprofessional disinsertion. Many pathologies of the hand related to professional activity may benefit from a statement in occupational disease and thus allow the patient to obtain compensation and employment protection. Prevention of occupational hand diseases should be made by all health actors, especially in occupations and industries at risk. PMID:24134812

  6. 78 FR 3356 - Airworthiness Directives; Various Aircraft Equipped With Wing Lift Struts

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-16

    ...We propose to revise an existing airworthiness directive (AD) that applies to certain aircraft equipped with wing lift struts. The existing AD currently requires repetitively inspecting the wing lift struts for corrosion; repetitively inspecting the wing lift strut forks for cracks; replacing any corroded wing lift strut; replacing any cracked wing lift strut fork; and repetitively replacing......

  7. Perspectives in Occupational Dermatology

    PubMed Central

    Mathias, C. G. Toby; Maibach, Howard I.

    1982-01-01

    Because large surface areas of the skin are exposed directly to the environment, skin is an organ particularly vulnerable to occupationally induced disease. Statistics show that, excluding accidental injury, nearly half of all occupational illnesses occur in this organ; a fourth of all workers suffering from occupational skin disease lose an average of 10 to 12 workdays. The constant evolution of new industrial chemicals and methods of manufacture continue to bring new skin hazards and disease into the workplace. Occupational health physicians and practitioners, who usually have minimal training in dermatology, must diagnose and treat unfamiliar diseases in a setting of even less familiar, often overwhelming, technology. A thorough understanding of cutaneous defense mechanisms, clinical patterns of occupational skin disease and methods for establishing accurate diagnoses is essential. PMID:6219498

  8. OCCUPATIONAL ASPECTS OF COCCIDIOIDOMYCOSIS

    PubMed Central

    Levan, Norman E.

    1954-01-01

    Infections with coccidioides immitis have been frequently associated with circumstances suggesting the likelihood of occupational origin. Some cases have been accepted as compensable by insurance carriers, the Industrial Accident Commission, and the courts. The factors considered in determining whether or not infection is of occupational origin are reviewed under the following headings. 1. Laboratory infections. 2. Other infections due to exposure to contaminated articles, arising outside endemic areas. 3. Infections in employees entering endemic areas pursuant to their occupations. 4. Primary cutaneous inoculation. 5. Localization and/or aggravation of pre-existing coccidioidomycosis by occupational injury. 6. Infections in agricultural workers imported into endemic areas. 7. Infections in residents of endemic areas alleged to result from occupational exposures. PMID:13150196

  9. Occupational Infection in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Yeon-Soon; Jeong, Jae Sim

    2010-01-01

    Occupational infection is a human disease caused by work-associated exposure to microbial agents through human and environmental contact. According to the literature, occupational infection was the third leading cause of occupational disease (861 cases, 8.0%), and health care, agricultural, forestry, and fishery workers were risk groups in Korea. In addition, most high-risk groups have not been protected by workers' compensation, which could lead to underestimation of the exact spectrum and magnitude of the problem, and may also result in a lack of development and implementation of occupational infection management. Through a review of national guidelines and documentations on prevention and control of occupational infection, a management strategy would promote adherence to worker safety regulations if it is explicit with regard to the agent and mode of infection in each of the high-risk groups. PMID:21258592

  10. [Occupationally-induced pneumopathies].

    PubMed

    Regger, M

    1989-11-01

    Today chronic obstructive airways diseases rank amongst the most important occupational pneumopathies in Switzerland. As far as asthma is concerned, the baker's (flour) and the spray painter's (Isocyanates) types are the most important. Despite their frequent occurrence the two forms of asthma seem to differ in their pathogenetic mechanisms. Due to technical precautions another type of occupational pneumopathology namely pneumoconiosis was considerably reduced. Among asbestos induced diseases the cases of asbestosis are decreasing. However, there still are quite a lot of events of malignant mesotheliomas actually heading the list of occupational malignomas. The most numerous asbestos induced disturbances, however, are pleural plaques which seem to be of no considerable importance. Another group of occupational lung disorders is that of hypersensitivity pneumonitis (extrinsic allergic alveolitis), among which the "farmer's lung" and in more industrial settings the "humidifier lung" are most frequently seen. For the diagnosis and evaluation of occupational pneumopathies work related symptoms and individual work place exposure are of decisive importance. PMID:2688171

  11. Occupations: Military--Civilian Occupational Source Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armed Forces Vocational Testing Group, Universal City, TX.

    Information on enlisted military occupations is offered in the source book to arrive at a comprehensive statement of job tasks in the military service and their similarities to jobs in civilian life. Basic information about five areas of the U.S. military services (Army, Navy, Air Force, Marine Corps, and Coast Guard) focuses on their military

  12. Machining faces on gas-lift pipe

    SciTech Connect

    Golinets, Yu. L.

    1984-11-01

    The automation laboratory at the Mikopol New Tube Plant has developed, made, and delivered to plant shops two types of devices for use. The device mounted on the front support of a 9D152 tube cutting machine, consists of a housing, carriage, roller to copy the tube surface, face cutter, adjusting screw rubber shock absorbers, tension screw, cover, and clamping screw (illustrated). A similar device was installed on a/9K151S cutting machine, but for the convenience of adjustment it has its own support which permits translation of the cutter along the tube axis. The use of this equipment has made it possible to meet orders for gas-lift pipe without additional work on tube cutting.

  13. Takeoff predictions for powered-lift aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wardwell, Douglas A.; Sandlin, Doral R.; Hahn, Andrew S.

    1986-01-01

    Takeoff predictions for powered lift short takeoff (STO) aircraft have been added to NASA Ames Research Center's aircraft synthesis (ACSYNT) code. The new computer code predicts the aircraft engine and nozzle settings required to achieve the minimum takeoff roll. As a test case, it predicted takeoff around rolls and nozzle settings for the YAV-8B Harrier that were close to the actual values. Analysis of takeoff performance for an ejector-augmentor design and a vectoring-nozzle design indicated that ground roll can be decreased, for either configuration, by horizontally moving the rear thrust vector closer to the center of gravity, by increasing the vertical position of the ram drag-vector, or by moving the rear thrust vector farther below the center of gravity.

  14. Numerical simulation of powered-lift flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Dalsem, William R.; Chawla, Kalpana; Smith, Merritt H.; Abeloff, Patricia A.

    1990-01-01

    This article presents work performed at NASA's Ames Research Center involving the application of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) to the prediction of flows encountered by powered-lift aircraft operating in ground effect. These flows are characterized by jet and jet-induced flows interacting with the ground and aerodynamic surfaces. Over the last five years, work has progressed from simulating the interaction of a single jet impacting on a ground plane, through the simulation of a delta planform with multiple jets in ground effect, to an ongoing effort to simulate the complete flow about a Harrier AV-8B in ground effect. Efforts have also been made to predict the thermal interaction between hot propulsive jets and a landing surface of arbitrary thermal properties. Progress to date in each of these areas will be outlined.

  15. Transport properties of epitaxial lift off films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mena, R. A.; Schacham, S. E.; Young, P. G.; Haugland, E. J.; Alterovitz, S. A.

    1993-05-01

    Transport properties of epitaxially lifted-off (ELO) films were characterized using conductivity, Hall, and Shubnikov-de Haas measurements. A 10-15 percent increase in the 2D electron gas concentration was observed in these films as compared with adjacent conventional samples. We believe this result to be caused by a backgating effect produced by a charge build up at the interface of the ELO film and the quartz substrate. This increase results in a substantial decrease in the quantum lifetime in the ELO samples, by 17-30 percent, but without a degradation in carrier mobility. Under persistent photoconductivity, only one subband was populated in the conventional structure, while in the ELO films the population of the second subband was clearly visible. However, the increase of the second subband concentration with increasing excitation is substantially smaller than anticipated due to screening of the backgating effect.

  16. Force-controlled lifting of molecular wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fournier, N.; Wagner, C.; Weiss, C.; Temirov, R.; Tautz, F. S.

    2011-07-01

    Lifting a single molecular wire off the surface with a combined frequency-modulated atomic force and tunneling microscope it is possible to monitor the evolution of both the wire configuration and the contacts simultaneously with the transport conductance experiment. In particular, critical points where individual bonds to the surface are broken and instabilities where the wire is prone to change its contact configuration can be identified in the force gradient and dissipation responses of the junction. This additional mechanical information can be used to unambiguously determine the conductance of a true molecular wire, that is, of a molecule that is contacted via a pointlike “crocodile clip” to each of the electrodes but is otherwise free.

  17. Optimization of the lithographic performance for lift-off processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Wenyan; Fillmore, Ward; Dempsey, Kevin J.

    1999-06-01

    Shipley MICROPOSIT LOL lift-off technology exploits a develop rate difference in a resist, LOL1000 bi-layer system to generate retrograde profiles. This is an enabling technology for 'additive' processing. Deposition follows lithography and the resist is then 'lifted off' to generate a patterned layer.

  18. 49 CFR 37.165 - Lift and securement use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lift and securement use. 37.165 Section 37.165 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation TRANSPORTATION SERVICES FOR INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES (ADA) Provision of Service § 37.165 Lift and securement use. (a) This section applies to...

  19. View of lifting girder and tower support superstructure on Tensaw ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of lifting girder and tower support superstructure on Tensaw River Bridge, looking north west. Showing rope connectors and welding cut from tower removal. - Tensaw River Lift Bridge, Spanning Tensaw River at U.S. Highway 90, Mobile, Mobile County, AL

  20. UF{sub 6} cylinder lifting equipment enhancements

    SciTech Connect

    Hortel, J.M.

    1991-12-31

    This paper presents numerous enhancements that have been made to the Portsmouth lifting equipment to ensure the safe handling of cylinders containing liquid uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}). The basic approach has been to provide redundancy to all components of the lift path so that any one component failure would not cause the load to drop or cause any undesirable movement.

  1. Fuel effects on flame lift-off under diesel conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Persson, Helena; Andersson, Oeivind; Egnell, Rolf

    2011-01-15

    An apparent relation between the lift-off length under diesel conditions and the ignition quality of a fuel has previously been reported. To cast light on the underlying mechanism, the current study aims to separate flame lift-off effects of the chemical ignition delay from those of other fuel properties under diesel conditions. Flame lift-off was measured in an optical diesel engine by high-speed video imaging of OH-chemiluminescence. Fuel and ambient-gas properties were varied during the experiment. Only a weak correlation was found between ignition delay and lift-off length. The data indicate that this correlation is due to a common, stronger correlation with the ambient oxygen concentration. The chemical ignition delay and the fuel type had similar, weak effects on the lift-off length. A recently proposed mechanism for lift-off stabilization was used to interpret the results. It assumes that reactants approaching the lift-off position of the jet are mixed with high-temperature products found along the edges of the flame, which trigger autoignition. In this picture, the fuel effect is most likely due to differences in the amount of mixing with high-temperature products that is required for autoignition. In the current experiment, all lift-off effects seem to arise from variations in the reactant and product temperatures, induced by fuel and ambient properties. (author)

  2. Structural Assessment of Steel Waste Disposal Box Lifting Yoke

    SciTech Connect

    NORTHEY, M.D.

    2001-12-14

    Prepare a detailed structural analysis of the steel waste disposal box lifting yoke, sufficient to comply with the Hanford Site Hoisting & Rigging Manual (DOE/RL-92-36) Section II and the American National Standard for Below-the-Hook Lifting Devices.

  3. 662-E solid waste silo-plug lifting analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Mertz, G.E.

    1993-03-01

    The Intermediate Level Tritium Vault No. 1, 662-E, Cell No. 1 contains 140 waste silos. Each silo is approximately 25 feet deep, 30 inches in diameter at the top and covered by a reinforced concrete plug. Two No. 4 reinforcing bars project from the top of each plug for lifting. During lifting operations, the 1.5 inch concrete cover over the lifting bars spelled off 16% of the silo plugs. The No. 4 reinforcing bars were also distorted on many of the silo plugs. Thirteen of the plugs have been repaired to date. The existing silo plug lifting bars have a safe working load of 480 pounds per plug, which is less than 1/3 of the dead weight of the silo plug. The safe working load was calculated using the minimum design factor of 3 based on the yield strength or 5 based on the ultimate strength of the material, as per the Savannah River Site Hoisting and Rigging Manual. The existing design calculations were reviewed, and the following items are noted: (1) Adequate concrete cover was not provided over the horizontal portion of the lifting bars. (2) The lifting bars were allowed to yield in bending, which violates the requirements of the Savannah River Site Hoisting and Rigging Manual. (3) The ultimate strain of the lifting bars would be exceeded before the calculated ultimate strength was achieved. Alternative lifting devices are also identified.

  4. View of West end of central lift span truss web ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of West end of central lift span truss web of Tensaw River Bridge, showing operator's ladder and platform, diagonals and posts, looking southwest - Tensaw River Lift Bridge, Spanning Tensaw River at U.S. Highway 90, Mobile, Mobile County, AL

  5. 14 CFR 25.697 - Lift and drag devices, controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Lift and drag devices, controls. 25.697 Section 25.697 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Control Systems 25.697 Lift and drag devices, controls. (a)...

  6. Solid state lift for micrometering in a fuel injector

    DOEpatents

    Milam, David M. (Metamora, IL); Carroll, Thomas S. (Peoria, IL); Lee, Chien-Chang (Rochester Hills, MI); Miller, Charles R. (Metamora, IL)

    2002-01-01

    A fuel injector performs main fuel injection by raising fuel pressure in a nozzle chamber to lift a check valve member to a fully open position, and performs preinjection or microinjection by operating a solid state motor to lift the check valve member a much smaller distance.

  7. Atlantis is lifted from its transporter in the VAB

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, Fla. -- This closeup shows the workers, standing on lifts, who are checking the bolts on the apparatus holding the orbiter Atlantis. The orbiter will be rotated and lifted into high bay 1 where it will be stacked with its external tank and solid rocket boosters. Space Shuttle Atlantis is scheduled to launch on mission STS-104 in early July.

  8. 34. ALTERNATE DESIGN USING BATTERED AND UNSHEATHED LIFT TOWERS, WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. ALTERNATE DESIGN USING BATTERED AND UNSHEATHED LIFT TOWERS, WITH DEEPENED TRUSS ON LIFT SPAN. Pen-and-ink drawing by project architect Alfred Eichler, 1934. - Sacramento River Bridge, Spanning Sacramento River at California State Highway 275, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  9. A modified lifting line theory for wing-propeller interference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prabhu, R. K.; Tiwari, S. N.

    1983-01-01

    An inviscid incompressible model for the interaction of a wing with a single propeller slipstream is presented. The model allows the perturbation quantities to be potential even though the undisturbed flow is rotational. The governing equations for the spanwise lift distribution are derived and a simple method of solving these is indicated. Spanwise lift and induced drag distribution for two cases are computed.

  10. Does hydraulic lift or nighttime transpiration facilitate nitrogen acquistion?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It has been proposed that plant species that hydraulically lift water to dry shallow soil layers should have improved nutrient relations. Yet, this idea has not been adequately tested. We choose ten Sarcobatus vermiculatus plants with different magnitudes of hydraulic lift to examine the hypothesis...

  11. Mathematical analysis of actuator forces in a scissor lift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spackman, H.

    1994-05-01

    In 1985, NCCOSC began development of a tele-operated vehicle as part of the U.S. Marine Corps' Ground-Air Tele-Robotics Systems Program. One of the required vehicle components was a rigid, light-weight, and compact lift mechanism capable of deploying a surveillance package 10 feet above the vehicle bed. The lift mechanism that was eventually built and implemented was a 3-level scissor lift. In order to analyze the forces throughout the lift structure, a set of mathematical equations was derived. From these equations it was discovered that prudent placement of a lift's actuator can significantly reduce the forces required of the actuator and the stress levels in the adjacent scissor members. The purpose of this paper is to present the equations that were derived for analyzing the actuator forces. Using these equations, a designer can quickly determine the optimal locations for mounting an actuator and the resulting forces.

  12. Development and flight testing of the HL-10 lifting body

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kempel, Robert W.; Painter, Weneth D.

    1993-01-01

    The Horizontal Lander 10 (HL-10) lifting body successfully completed 37 flights, achieved the highest Mach number and altitude of this class of vehicle, and contributed to the technology base used to develop the space shuttle and future generations of lifting bodies. Design, development, and flight testing of this low-speed, air-launched, rocket-powered, lifting body was part of an unprecedented effort by NASA and the Northrop Corporation. This paper describes the evolution of the HL-10 lifting body from theoretical design, through development, to selection as one of two low-speed flight vehicles chosen for fabrication and piloted flight testing. Interesting and unusual events which occurred during the program and flight tests, review of significant problems encountered during the first flight, and discussion of how these problems were solved are presented. In addition, impressions of the pilots who flew the HL-10 lifting body are given.

  13. Correlation of Puma airloads: Lifting-line and wake calculation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bousman, William G.; Young, Colin; Gilbert, Neil; Toulmay, Francois; Johnson, Wayne; Riley, M. J.

    1989-01-01

    A cooperative program undertaken by organizations in the United States, England, France, and Australia has assessed the strengths and weaknesses of four lifting-line/wake methods and three CFD methods by comparing their predictions with the data obtained in flight trials of a research Puma. The Puma was tested in two configurations: a mixed bladed rotor with instrumented rectangular tip blades, and a configuration with four identical swept tip blades. The results are examined of the lifting-line predictions. The better lifting-line methods show good agreement with lift at the blade tip for the configuration with four swept tips; the moment is well predicted at 0.92 R, but deteriorates outboard. The predictions for the mixed bladed rotor configuration range from fair to good. The lift prediction is better for the swept tip blade than for the rectangular tip blade, but the reasons for this cannot be determined because of the unmodeled effects of the mixed bladed rotor.

  14. Field application of diamond-bit hydraulic-lift principles

    SciTech Connect

    Winters, W.J.; Warren, T.M.

    1986-08-01

    Hydraulic lift can have a major effect on the operation of diamond drill bits. The actual weight on bit (WOB) is less than the measured weight by the amount of hydraulic lift, or pumpoff force, acting beneath the bit. Pumpoff forces in excess of 15,000 lbf (67 kN) have been recorded. Historically, the hydraulic-lift effect has been recognized but not understood well enough to be accounted for reliably. Failure to account for hydraulic lift can adversely affect actual bit performance and interpretation of the results. It is now possible to determine hydraulic lift reliably with the practical techniques presented here. Field tests show that pumpoff force tends to double as the bit dulls. Appropriate WOB adjustments, determined through pumpoff tests run on the rig, are required to maintain bit performance. The applications to diamond bits run on mud motors are particularly advantageous.

  15. The center of ground reaction force during lifting.

    PubMed

    Tsuang, Y H; Cheng, C K; Wang, C L; Chen, P Q; Hang, Y S; Liu, T K

    1995-01-01

    The center locations of the ground reaction force were estimated when subjects assumed upright and bending postures as well as when they lifted at low and high speeds. Ten subjects participated in this study and were instructed to assume two postures and to perform two liftings sequentially in a random order. The center locations of the ground reaction force were calculated using a Computerized Dyno Graphic system (INFOTRONIC). The center of the ground reaction force in the full bending posture had a more anterior location than it did in the upright standing posture. When measured during the lifting activity, the center of the ground reaction force shifted forward and then backward during the whole activity. The center location shifted to a more anterior location during high-speed lifting than it did during low-speed lifting. PMID:7770552

  16. Heavy drinking in early adulthood and outcomes at mid life

    PubMed Central

    Sloan, F A; Costanzo, P R; Belsky, D; Holmberg, E; Malone, P S; Wang, Y; Kertesz, S

    2013-01-01

    Background Heavy drinking in early adulthood among Blacks, but not Whites, has been found to be associated with more deleterious health outcomes, lower labor market success and lower educational attainment at mid-life. This study analysed psychosocial pathways underlying racial differences in the impact of early heavy alcohol use on occupational and educational attainment at mid-life. Methods Outcomes in labor market participation, occupational prestige and educational attainment were measured in early and mid-adulthood. A mixture model was used to identify psychosocial classes that explain how race-specific differences in the relationship between drinking in early adulthood and occupational outcomes in mid-life operate. Data came from Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults, a longitudinal epidemiologic study. Results Especially for Blacks, heavy drinking in early adulthood was associated with a lower probability of being employed in mid-life. Among employed persons, there was a link between heavy drinking for both Whites and Blacks and decreased occupational attainment at mid-life. We grouped individuals into three distinct distress classes based on external stressors and indicators of internally generated stress. Blacks were more likely to belong to the higher distressed classes as were heavy drinkers in early adulthood. Stratifying the data by distress class, relationships between heavy drinking, race and heavy drinkingrace interactions were overall weaker than in the pooled analysis. Conclusions Disproportionate intensification of life stresses in Blacks renders them more vulnerable to long-term effects of heavy drinking. PMID:20713371

  17. In-Flight Subsonic Lift and Drag Characteristics Unique to Blunt-Based Lifting Reentry Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saltzman, Edwin J.; Wang, K. Charles; Iliff, Kenneth W.

    2007-01-01

    Lift and drag measurements have been analyzed for subsonic flight conditions for seven blunt-based reentry-type vehicles. Five of the vehicles are lifting bodies (M2-F1, M2-F2, HL-10, X-24A, and X-24B) and two are wing-body configurations (the X-15 and the Space Shuttle Enterprise). Base pressure measurements indicate that the base drag for full-scale vehicles is approximately three times greater than predicted by Hoerner's equation for three-dimensional bodies. Base drag and forebody drag combine to provide an optimal overall minimum drag (a drag "bucket") for a given configuration. The magnitude of this optimal drag, as well as the associated forebody drag, is dependent on the ratio of base area to vehicle wetted area. Counter-intuitively, the flight-determined optimal minimum drag does not occur at the point of minimum forebody drag, but at a higher forebody drag value. It was also found that the chosen definition for reference area for lift parameters should include the projection of planform area ahead of the wing trailing edge (i.e., forebody plus wing). Results are assembled collectively to provide a greater understanding of this class of vehicles than would occur by considering them individually.

  18. Numerical simulation of a powered-lift landing, tracking flow features using overset grids, and simulation of high lift devices on a fighter-lift-and-control wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chawla, Kalpana

    1993-01-01

    Attached as appendices to this report are documents describing work performed on the simulation of a landing powered-lift delta wing, the tracking of flow features using overset grids, and the simulation of flaps on the Wright Patterson Lab's fighter-lift-and-control (FLAC) wing. Numerical simulation of a powered-lift landing includes the computation of flow about a delta wing at four fixed heights as well as a simulated landing, in which the delta wing descends toward the ground. Comparison of computed and experimental lift coefficients indicates that the simulations capture the qualitative trends in lift-loss encountered by thrust-vectoring aircraft operating in ground effect. Power spectra of temporal variations of pressure indicate computed vortex shedding frequencies close to the jet exit are in the experimentally observed frequency range; the power spectra of pressure also provide insights into the mechanisms of lift oscillations. Also, a method for using overset grids to track dynamic flow features is described and the method is validated by tracking a moving shock and vortices shed behind a circular cylinder. Finally, Chimera gridding strategies were used to develop pressure coefficient contours for the FLAC wing for a Mach no. of 0.18 and Reynolds no. of 2.5 million.

  19. Occupational cancer in Britain

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yiqun; Osman, John

    2012-01-01

    Although only a relatively small proportion of cancer is attributable to occupational exposure to carcinogenic agents, the estimated number of deaths due to occupational cancer is high when compared to other deaths due to work-related ill health and injury. However, risk from occupational exposure to carcinogens can be minimised through proportionate but effective risk management. The Health and Safety Executive (HSE) is the regulator of workplace health and safety in Great Britain. As part of its aim to reduce ill health arising from failures to control properly exposure to hazards at work, HSE commissioned the research presented elsewhere in this supplement to enable it to identify priorities for preventing occupational cancer. The research has shown that occupational cancer remains a key health issue and that low-level exposure of a large number of workers to carcinogens is important. The finding that a small number of carcinogens have been responsible for the majority of the burden of occupational cancer provides key evidence in the development of priorities for significant reduction of occupational cancer. Although the research presented in this supplement reflects the consequences of past exposures to carcinogens, occupational cancer remains a problem. The potential for exposure to the agents considered in this research is still present in the workplace and the findings are relevant to prevention of future disease. In this article, the principle approaches for risk reduction are described. It provides supporting information on some of the initiatives already being undertaken, or those being put in place, to reduce occupational cancer in Great Britain. The need also for systematic collection of exposure information and the importance of raising awareness and changing behaviours are discussed. PMID:22710673

  20. 75 FR 31803 - Notice of Issuance of Final Determination Concerning a Lift Unit for an Overhead Patient Lift System

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-04

    .... Customs and Border Protection (``CBP'') has issued a final determination concerning the country of origin... in the final determination that Sweden is the country of origin of the lift unit for purposes of U.S... issued a final determination concerning the country of origin of the lift unit which may be offered...

  1. 7. 3/4 VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST SHOWING SIDE OF LIFT SPAN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. 3/4 VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST SHOWING SIDE OF LIFT SPAN AND THE ABUTMENT AND LIFT TOWER OF RAILROAD BRIDGE ADJACENT TO CARTER ROAD BRIDGE. - Carter Road Lift Bridge, Spanning Cuyahoga River at Carter Road, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  2. Occupational health in Egypt.

    PubMed

    El-Ata, Gehad Ahmed Abo; Arnaout, Said N

    2002-01-01

    This review aims to evaluate current occupational health services (OHS) in Egypt. The authors begin with a background on the geography, population, and economy, and then briefly describe the labor force. They discuss the legislative aspects of OHS (including health insurance) and the environment; OHS training and education; and activities such as research, inspection, environmental monitoring, and management of occupational diseases. Occupational accidents and diseases, registered during 2000, are analyzed. Problems with OHS administration in Egypt are presented, along with relevant countermeasures. Various promotion and support measures for administrative policy are prioritized and discussed. PMID:12028958

  3. Heavy Flavors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, B.; Soni, A.

    This is a summary report of the working group on Heavy Flavors. Discussions at the workshop were centered on B physics and on the signals for heavy quarks and leptons at the SSC. The Working Group Members were: V. Barger, H.-U. Bengtsson, C. Buchanan, I. Bigi, M. Block, B. Cox, N. Glover, J. Hewett, W.Y. Keung, B. Margolis, T. Rizzo, M. Suzuki, A. Soni, D. Stork, and S. Willenbrock.

  4. Occupational Peripheral Neuropathies

    PubMed Central

    Lotti, Marcello; Becker, Charles E.; Aminoff, Michael J.

    1982-01-01

    Neither clinical nor laboratory evaluation can distinguish occupational neuropathies from neuropathies due to other causes. A worker may suffer either from mechanical injury of individual nerves or from a toxic polyneuropathy that is usually axonal in type. A thorough occupational and environmental history and the recognition of clusters of cases are important in determining the diagnosis. Electrophysiologic studies are helpful in detecting neuropathies in patients who have been occupationally exposed to neurotoxins but have no symptoms. Prevention of occupational neuropathies depends on clinical vigilance, industrial hygiene surveys, biologic monitoring and periodic examination of workers exposed to neurotoxic chemicals. The development of more sophisticated methods of prevention and early detection of peripheral nerve involvement depend on understanding the mechanisms of action of toxins and the pathophysiology of the lesions they cause. PMID:6299013

  5. Occupational Therapy (For Parents)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Kids Up for Sports Pregnant? Your Baby's Growth Cerebral Palsy: Caring for Your Child All About Food Allergies ... traumatic amputations cancer severe hand injuries multiple sclerosis, cerebral palsy , and other chronic illnesses Occupational therapists might: help ...

  6. Occupational health in China.

    PubMed

    Christiani, David C; Tan, Xiaodong; Wang, Xiaorong

    2002-01-01

    China has been experiencing rapid industrialization and economic growth, resulting in a transformed industrial structure and expansion of the labor force. Occupational health and safety services, nonexistent before 1949, have made remarkable advances over the past decades. However, these services face greater challenges, consisting of both traditional and new occupational health problems. Poorly regulated work environments often lacking health services in recently developed and thriving small-scale industries and joint venture enterprises have created increasing risks for occupational diseases and work-related injuries. A special strategy based on cooperation among and contributions from the legal, administrative, social, economic, and scientific communities is critical to achieving the ultimate goal of control and prevention of these occupational health problems. PMID:12028948

  7. Paternal occupation and anencephaly

    SciTech Connect

    Brender, J.D.; Suarez, L. )

    1990-03-01

    It has been suggested that paternal occupational exposures to pesticides and solvents increase the risk of neural tube defects in offspring. With the use of Texas livebirth, fetal death, and linked livebirth-death records, the authors conducted a population-based case-control study among 1981-1986 Texas births to examine the association between paternal occupation and anencephalic births. Fathers employed in occupations associated with solvent exposure were more likely to have offspring with anencephaly (odds ratio (OR) = 2.53), with painters having the highest risk (OR = 3.43). A lesser association was found for fathers employed in occupations involving pesticide exposure (OR = 1.28). Further studies are indicated to clarify these associations.

  8. The Liquid Lift: Looking Natural Without Lumps

    PubMed Central

    de Felipe, Iigo; Redondo, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    Context: Hyaluronic acid (HA) is the most common filler used to rejuvenate. Today, a three-dimensional approach prevails over previous techniques in which this material was used in specific areas of the face such as the nasolabial fold, the marionette line, and the eye trough giving a strange appearance that does not look natural. Even with a volumizing purpose, the injection of HA can sometimes produce clinically detectable nodules or lumps where the filler is deposited. Aims: To develop a new technique of injecting HA that can provide more natural results and avoid the lumpiness and nodular appearance that sometimes occurs with the injection of HA. To detect whether mixing HA with diluted anesthetic agent modifies its behavior. Settings and Design: Prospective, case control, single-center study on a private clinic setting. Materials and Methods: Eighty six patients were enrolled in this study. All of them had a previous treatment with nondiluted HA using a needle at least a year before. Patients were injected with 8 mL of reticulated HA (RHA) mixed with 6 mL of saline and 2 mL of anesthetic agent. The mixture was administered through a cannula inserted in the face, one at mid-cheek and another at frontal-temporal point of entry. Owing to the lifting effect of this mixture we called this procedure liquid lift (LL). Patients were evaluated 1 month, 6 months, and a year later and asked to compare the LL with previous experiences in terms of natural look, pain, and appearance of nodules. Statistical Analysis Used: Student's t-test. Results: One month after the treatment, 83 out of 86 patients (96.5%) thought LL produced a more natural look than the previous treatment with the needle. Sixty two (72%) considered LL less painful than the previous treatment and only eight (9.3%) could detect lumps or nodules 1 month after LL was performed compared with 46 (53.5%) that described this problem with previous needle injections. The incidence of bruising was also clearly lower (7% with LL vs 17.4% with traditional needle). Conclusions: Injection of diluted HA with saline and anesthetic agents through a cannula all over the face or LL can provide more natural results and less lumps or nodules, and is less painful than traditional treatments involving needle injection of nondiluted HA. PMID:26644735

  9. Lifting kernel-based sprite codec

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dasu, Aravind R.; Panchanathan, Sethuraman

    2000-12-01

    The International Standards Organization (ISO) has proposed a family of standards for compression of image and video sequences, including the JPEG, MPEG-1 and MPEG-2. The latest MPEG-4 standard has many new dimensions to coding and manipulation of visual content. A video sequence usually contains a background object and many foreground objects. Portions of this background may not be visible in certain frames due to the occlusion of the foreground objects or camera motion. MPEG-4 introduces the novel concepts of Video Object Planes (VOPs) and Sprites. A VOP is a visual representation of real world objects with shapes that need not be rectangular. Sprite is a large image composed of pixels belonging to a video object visible throughout a video segment. Since a sprite contains all parts of the background that were at least visible once, it can be used for direct reconstruction of the background Video Object Plane (VOP). Sprite reconstruction is dependent on the mode in which it is transmitted. In the Static sprite mode, the entire sprite is decoded as an Intra VOP before decoding the individual VOPs. Since sprites consist of the information needed to display multiple frames of a video sequence, they are typically much larger than a single frame of video. Therefore a static sprite can be considered as a large static image. In this paper, a novel solution to address the problem of spatial scalability has been proposed, where the sprite is encoded in Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT). A lifting kernel method of DWT implementation has been used for encoding and decoding sprites. Modifying the existing lifting scheme while maintaining it to be shape adaptive results in a reduced complexity. The proposed scheme has the advantages of (1) avoiding the need for any extensions to image or tile border pixels and is hence superior to the DCT based low latency scheme (used in the current MPEG-4 verification model), (2) mapping the in place computed wavelet coefficients into a zero tree structure without actually rearranging them, thereby saving allocation of additional memory. The proposed solutions provide efficient implementation of the sprite coder making possible a VLSI realization with a reduced real estate.

  10. Early Postoperative Pain After Keyless Abdominal Rope-Lifting Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Hsey?no?lu, rfettin; ?ek, Melek

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Keyless abdominal rope-lifting surgery is a novel, gasless, single-incision laparoscopic surgical technique. In this study we aimed to compare the postoperative pain from keyless abdominal rope-lifting surgery with carbon dioxide laparoscopy performed for benign ovarian cysts. Methods: During a 20-month period, 77 women underwent surgery for a benign ovarian cyst. Keyless abdominal rope-lifting surgery and conventional carbon dioxide laparoscopy techniques were used for the operations in 32 women and 45 women, respectively. The 2 operative techniques were compared with regard to demographic characteristics; preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative data including early postoperative pain scores; and frequency of shoulder pain and analgesic requirements. Results: Data regarding demographic characteristics, preoperative findings, cyst diameters and rupture rates, intra-abdominal adhesions, intraoperative blood loss, and postoperative hospital stay did not differ between groups (P > .05). However, the mean operative and abdominal access times were significantly longer in the keyless abdominal rope-lifting surgery group (P < .05). Visual analog scale pain scores at initially and at the second, fourth, and 24th hours of the postoperative period were significantly lower in the keyless abdominal rope-lifting surgery group (P < .05). Similarly, keyless abdominal rope-lifting surgery caused significantly less shoulder pain and additional analgesic use (P < .05). Conclusion: Keyless abdominal rope-lifting surgery seems to cause less pain in the management of benign ovarian cysts in comparison with conventional carbon dioxide laparoscopy. PMID:25848177

  11. Occupational cancer in Spain.

    PubMed Central

    González, C A; Agudo, A

    1999-01-01

    The knowledge of specific problems of occupational cancer in Spain is scarce. The environment of the workplace has improved over the last few years after a long period distinguished by bad working conditions, incomplete legislation, and insufficient safety measures and control. It has been estimated that 3,083,479 workers (25.4% of employees) were exposed to carcinogens. The most common occupational exposures to carcinogenic agents were solar radiation, environmental tobacco smoke, silica, and wood dust. The highest number of employees were exposed to silica crystalline (404,729), diesel engine exhaust (274,321), rubber products (99,804), benzene (89,932), ethylene dibromide (81,336), agents used in furniture and cabinet making (72,068), and formaldehyde (71,189). The percentage of total cancer deaths attributed to occupational exposure was 4% (6% in men, 0.9% in women). Compared with other European countries, the incidence of lung cancer and leukemia in Spain are one of the lowest, but it is rapidly increasing. The incidence of urinary bladder and larynx cancer, on the contrary, are one of the highest. Few studies on occupational cancer have been conducted in Spain. The main problems are the availability of death certificates and the quality of the information on occupation in mortality of statistics. It is necessary to improve methods of assessment of exposures using expert hygienists and biologic markers of exposure and diseases. Reduction of cancer by limiting or avoiding exposure to known occupational carcinogens is still necessary. PMID:10350510

  12. Exploration of Titan using Vertical Lift Aerial Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, L. A.

    2001-01-01

    Autonomous vertical lift aerial vehicles (such as rotorcraft or powered-lift vehicles) hold considerable potential for supporting planetary science and exploration missions. Vertical lift aerial vehicles would have the following advantages/attributes for planetary exploration: low-speed and low-altitude detailed aerial surveys; remote-site sample return to lander platforms; precision placement of scientific probes; soft landing capability for vehicle reuse (multiple flights) and remote-site monitoring; greater range, speed, and access to hazardous terrain than a surface rover; greater resolution of surface details than an orbiter or balloons. Exploration of Titan presents an excellent opportunity for the development and usage of such vehicles.

  13. Two-dimensional unsteady lift problems in supersonic flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heaslet, Max A; Lomax, Harvard

    1949-01-01

    The variation of pressure distribution is calculated for a two-dimensional supersonic airfoil either experiencing a sudden angle-of-attack change or entering a sharp-edge gust. From these pressure distributions the indicial lift functions applicable to unsteady lift problems are determined for two cases. Results are presented which permit the determination of maximum increment in lift coefficient attained by an unrestrained airfoil during its flight through a gust. As an application of these results, the minimum altitude for safe flight through a specific gust is calculated for a particular supersonic wing of given strength and wing loading.

  14. Nonlinear Stability and Response of Lifting Surfaces Via Volterra Series

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marzocca, Piergiovanni; Librescu, Liviu; Silva, Walter A.

    2001-01-01

    This investigation concerns the time and frequency formulations of non-linear two-dimensional lifting surfaces exposed to an incompressible flow field and subjected to an external pressure pulse. In order to address this problem, Volterra series approach in conjunction with the multidimensional Laplace transform is used. This methodology enabling one to solve the aeroelastic governing equations of lifting surfaces opens the way to connect this methodology with that based on neural networks and NARMAX/NARX networks models. Moreover, this extended way to address this problem constitutes a good basis for treatment of the theory of 3D lifting surfaces.

  15. Insulation Test Cryostat with Lift Mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fesmire, James E. (Inventor); Dokos, Adam G. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A multi-purpose, cylindrical thermal insulation test apparatus is used for testing insulation materials and systems of materials using a liquid boil-off calorimeter system for absolute measurement of the effective thermal conductivity (k-value) and heat flux of a specimen material at a fixed environmental condition (cold-side temperature, warm-side temperature, vacuum pressure level, and residual gas composition). The apparatus includes an inner vessel for receiving a liquid with a normal boiling point below ambient temperature, such as liquid nitrogen, enclosed within a vacuum chamber. A cold mass assembly, including the upper and lower guard chambers and a middle test vessel, is suspended from a lid of the vacuum canister. Each of the three chambers is filled and vented through a single feedthrough. All fluid and instrumentation feedthroughs are mounted and suspended from a top domed lid to allow easy removal of the cold mass. A lift mechanism allows manipulation of the cold mass assembly and insulation test article.

  16. Microfluidic particle sorting utilizing inertial lift force.

    PubMed

    Nieuwstadt, Harm A; Seda, Robinson; Li, David S; Fowlkes, J Brian; Bull, Joseph L

    2011-02-01

    A simple passive microfluidic device that continuously separates microparticles is presented. Its development is motivated by the need for specific size micro perfluorocarbon (PFC) droplets to be used for a novel gas embolotherapy method. The device consists of a rectangular channel in which inertial lift forces are utilized to separate particles in lateral distance. At the entrance of the channel, particles are introduced at the center by focusing the flow from a center channel with flow from two side channels. Downstream, large particles will occupy a lateral equilibrium position in shorter axial distance than small particles. At the exit of the channel, flow containing large particles is separated from flow containing small particles. It is shown that 10.2-?m diameter microspheres can be separated from 3.0-?m diameter microspheres with a separation efficiency of 69-78% and a throughput in the order of 2 10? particles per minute. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) calculations were done to calculate flow fields and verify theoretical particle trajectories. Theory underlying this research shows that higher separation efficiencies for very specific diameter cut-off are possible. This microfluidic channel design has a simple structure and can operate without external forces which makes it feasible for lab-on-a-chip (LOC) applications. PMID:20865451

  17. Space Shuttle Discovery lifts off successfully

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    As if sprung from the rolling exhaust clouds below, Space Shuttle Discovery shoots into the heavens over the blue Atlantic Ocean from Launch Pad 39B on mission STS-95. Lifting off at 2:19 p.m. EST, Discovery carries a crew of six, including Payload Specialist John H. Glenn Jr., senator from Ohio, who is making his second voyage into space after 36 years. Other crew members are Mission Commander Curtis L. Brown Jr., Pilot Steven W. Lindsey, Payload Specialist Chiaki Mukai, (M.D., Ph.D.), with the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA), Mission Specialist Stephen K. Robinson, Mission Specialist Pedro Duque of Spain, representing the European Space Agency (ESA), and Mission Specialist Scott E. Parazynski. The STS-95 mission includes research payloads such as the Spartan solar-observing deployable spacecraft, the Hubble Space Telescope Orbital Systems Test Platform, the International Extreme Ultraviolet Hitchhiker, as well as the SPACEHAB single module with experiments on space flight and the aging process. Discovery is expected to return to KSC at 11:49 a.m. EST on Nov. 7.

  18. Space Shuttle Discovery lifts off successfully

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Framed by the foliage of the Canaveral National Sea Shore, Space Shuttle Discovery soars through bright blue skies as it lifts off from Launch Pad 39B at 2:19 p.m. EST Oct. 29 on mission STS-95. Making his second voyage into space after 36 years is Payload Specialist John H. Glenn Jr., senator from Ohio. Other crew members are Mission Commander Curtis L. Brown Jr., Pilot Steven W. Lindsey, Payload Specialist Chiaki Mukai, (M.D., Ph.D.), with the National agency for Space Development (NASDA), Mission Specialist Stephen K. Robinson, Mission Specialist Pedro Duque of Spain, representing the European Space Agency (ESA), and Mission Specialist Scott E. Parazynski. The STS-95 mission includes research payloads such as the Spartan solar-observing deployable spacecraft, the Hubble Space Telescope Orbital Systems Test Platform, the International Extreme Ultraviolet Hitchhiker, as well as the SPACEHAB single module with experiments on space flight and the aging process. Discovery is expected to return to KSC at 11:49 a.m. EST on Nov. 7.

  19. Space Shuttle Discovery lifts off successfully

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Space Shuttle Discovery clears Launch Pad 39B at 2:19 p.m. EST Oct. 29 as it lifts off on mission STS-95. Making his second voyage into space after 36 years is Payload Specialist John H. Glenn Jr., senator from Ohio. Other crew members are Mission Commander Curtis L. Brown Jr., Pilot Steven W. Lindsey, Payload Specialist Chiaki Mukai, (M.D., Ph.D.), with the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA), Mission Specialist Stephen K. Robinson, Mission Specialist Pedro Duque of Spain, representing the European Space Agency (ESA), and Mission Specialist Scott E. Parazynski. The STS-95 mission includes research payloads such as the Spartan solar-observing deployable spacecraft, the Hubble Space Telescope Orbital Systems Test Platform, the International Extreme Ultraviolet Hitchhiker, as well as the SPACEHAB single module with experiments on space flight and the aging process. Discovery is expected to return to KSC at 11:49 a.m. EST on Nov. 7.

  20. Space Shuttle Discovery lifts off successfully

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Against a curtain of blue sky, the Space Shuttle Discovery spews clouds of exhaust as it lifts off from Launch Pad 39B at 2:19 p.m. EST Oct. 29 on the 9-day mission STS-95. On board Discovery are Mission Commander Curtis L. Brown Jr., Pilot Steven W. Lindsey, Payload Specialist Chiaki Mukai, (M.D., Ph.D.), with the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA), Payload Specialist John H. Glenn Jr., senator from Ohio, Mission Specialist Stephen K. Robinson, Mission Specialist Pedro Duque of Spain, representing the European Space Agency (ESA), and Mission Specialist Scott E. Parazynski. The STS-95 mission includes research payloads such as the Spartan solar-observing deployable spacecraft, the Hubble Space Telescope Orbital Systems Test Platform, the International Extreme Ultraviolet Hitchhiker, as well as the SPACEHAB single module with experiments on space flight and the aging process. Discovery is expected to return to KSC at 11:49 a.m. EST on Nov. 7.

  1. Space Shuttle Discovery lifts off successfully

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Thousands of gallons of water released as part of the sound suppression system at the launch pad create clouds of steam and exhaust as Space Shuttle Discovery lifts off from Launch Pad 39B at 2:19 p.m. EST Oct. 29 on mission STS-95. Making his second voyage into space after 36 years is Payload Specialist John H. Glenn Jr., senator from Ohio. Other crew members are Mission Commander Curtis L. Brown Jr., Pilot Steven W. Lindsey, Payload Specialist Chiaki Mukai, (M.D., Ph.D.), with the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA), Mission Specialist Stephen K. Robinson, Mission Specialist Pedro Duque of Spain, representing the European Space Agency (ESA), and Mission Specialist Scott E. Parazynski. The STS-95 mission includes research payloads such as the Spartan solar-observing deployable spacecraft, the Hubble Space Telescope Orbital Systems Test Platform, the International Extreme Ultraviolet Hitchhiker, as well as the SPACEHAB single module with experiments on space flight and the aging process. Discovery is expected to return to KSC at 11:49 a.m. EST on Nov. 7.

  2. Dignitaries Await Apollo 11 Lift Off

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    From the right, NASA administrator, Dr. Thomas O. Paine talks with U.S. Vice President Spiro T. Agnew while awaiting the launch of Saturn V (AS-506) that carried the Apollo 11 spacecraft to the Moon for man's historic first landing on the lunar surface. At center is astronaut William Anders, a member of the first crew to orbit the moon during the Apollo 8 mission. At left is Lee B. James, director of Program Management at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) where the Saturn V was developed. The craft lifted off from launch pad 39 at Kennedy Space Flight Center (KSC) on July 16, 1969. The moon bound crew included astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot; and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module (M) pilot. The mission finalized with splashdown in the Pacific Ocean on July 24, 1969. With the success of Apollo 11, the national objective to land men on the Moon and return them safely to Earth had been accomplished.

  3. Analysis of Stabilization Mechanisms in Lifted Flames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navarro-Martinez, S.; Kronenburg, A.

    2009-12-01

    Flame stabilization and the mechanisms that govern the dynamics at the flame base have been subject to numerous studies in recent years. Recent results using a combined Large Eddy Simulation-Conditional Moment Closure (LES-CMC) approach to model the turbulent flow field and the turbulence-chemistry interactions has been successful in predicting flame ignition and stabilization by auto-ignition, but LES-CMCs capability of the accurate modelling of the competition between turbulent quenching and laminar and turbulent flame propagation at the anchor point has not been resolved. This paper will consolidate LES-CMC results by analysing a wide range of lifted flame geometries with different prevailing stabilization mechanisms. The simulations allow a clear distinction of the prevailing stabilization mechanisms for the different flames, LES-CMC accurately predicts the competition between turbulence and chemistry during the auto-ignition process, however, the dynamics of the extinction process and turbulent flame propagation are not well captured. The averaging process inherent in the CMC methods does not allow for an instant response of the transported conditionally averaged reactive species to the changes in the flow conditions and any response of the scalars will therefore be delayed. Stationary or quasi-stationary conditions, however, can be well predicted for all flame configurations.

  4. An ergonomics approach model to prevention of occupational musculoskeletal injuries.

    PubMed

    Koltan, Altan

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to prevent occupational musculoskeletal injuries. Our workers stacked boxes of ceramics weighing 10-27 kg, making low back pain common in our enterprise. In all the stacking stations, recommended weight limits (RWL) were separately calculated using the revised National Institute for Occupational Health lifting equation. Since the boxes weighed significantly more than the RWL, we developed a new ergonomic design that completely changed the stacking process. The load put on the workers' waist vertebrae in the new and the old stacking methods was compared to evaluate the success of the new ergonomic design, using Newton's third law of motion. Thanks to the new ergonomic design, the load on the workers' vertebrae decreased by 80%. Due to its simple technology and its very low cost compared to robots, the new ergonomic design can be commonly used in enterprises with repeated and constraining stacking. PMID:19272245

  5. The unsteady lift of a wing of finite aspect ratio

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Robert T

    1940-01-01

    Unsteady-lift functions for wings of finite aspect ratio have been calculated by correcting the aerodynamic inertia and the angle of attack of the infinite wing. The calculations are based on the operational method.

  6. Detail view of fourth level platform winch used to lift ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail view of fourth level platform winch used to lift platform segments away from the Shuttle assembly during testing. - Marshall Space Flight Center, Saturn V Dynamic Test Facility, East Test Area, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  7. 49 CFR 37.165 - Lift and securement use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... larger or heavier than those to which the design standards for vehicles and equipment of 49 CFR part 38... DISABILITIES (ADA) Provision of Service § 37.165 Lift and securement use. Link to an amendment published at...

  8. 20. INTERIOR VIEW OF HEADHOUSE, SHOWING ROLLER GATE LIFTING MACHINERY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. INTERIOR VIEW OF HEADHOUSE, SHOWING ROLLER GATE LIFTING MACHINERY AND FREESTANDING ROLLER GATE GAUGE, LOOKING SOUTHEAST - Upper Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel Project, Lock & Dam No. 3, Red Wing, Goodhue County, MN

  9. 13. DETAIL OF CONCRETE TOWER AND SLIDE GATE LIFTING GEARS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. DETAIL OF CONCRETE TOWER AND SLIDE GATE LIFTING GEARS ON HEADWORKS OF DEER FLAT NAMPA CANAL ON UPPER EMBANKMENT. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Boise Project, Deer Flat Embankments, Lake Lowell, Nampa, Canyon County, ID

  10. 32. DETAIL OF CONCRETE TOWER AND SLIDE GATE LIFTING GEARS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. DETAIL OF CONCRETE TOWER AND SLIDE GATE LIFTING GEARS ON HEADWORKS OF DEER FLAT LOW LINE CANAL ON LOWER EMBANKMENT. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. - Boise Project, Deer Flat Embankments, Lake Lowell, Nampa, Canyon County, ID

  11. A simple and effective lift-off with positive photoresist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hyung Suk; Yoon, Jun-Bo

    2005-11-01

    This paper describes a simple and effective lift-off method which relies upon a single layer of positive photoresist and the insertion of a diffuser in the conventional lithography. The inserted diffuser randomizes the paths of incident ultraviolet light, which creates the re-entrant photoresist profile necessary for proper metal lift-off. This method was applied to photoresists, with different thicknesses from 1.3 m to 10 m, showing a uniform undercut of 0.3 m to 2.0 m, depending upon the photoresist thickness. The gold lift-off test was performed to show the suitability of the photoresist profile generated by the proposed method. We could obtain very neat gold sidewall patterns after evaporation onto the fabricated photoresist pattern. The simplicity and versatility of the proposed method will provide wider options for meeting the strong demands for a simple and effective lift-off method.

  12. Analysis of transonic flow about lifting wing-body configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnwell, R. W.

    1975-01-01

    An analytical solution was obtained for the perturbation velocity potential for transonic flow about lifting wing-body configurations with order-one span-length ratios and small reduced-span-length ratios and equivalent-thickness-length ratios. The analysis is performed with the method of matched asymptotic expansions. The angles of attack which are considered are small but are large enough to insure that the effects of lift in the region far from the configuration are either dominant or comparable with the effects of thickness. The modification to the equivalence rule which accounts for these lift effects is determined. An analysis of transonic flow about lifting wings with large aspect ratios is also presented.

  13. DETAIL VIEW OF BRIDGE CRANE USED TO LIFT DOMED LIDS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL VIEW OF BRIDGE CRANE USED TO LIFT DOMED LIDS OF THE ALTITUDE CHAMBERS, FACING SOUTHWEST - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Altitude Chambers, First Street, between Avenue D and Avenue E, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  14. Interior view of eastern lift span, looking south, showing internal ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of eastern lift span, looking south, showing internal truss work. River visible below through chain-link fence. - Arlington Memorial Bridge, Spanning Potomac River between Lincoln Memorial & Arlington National Cemetery, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  15. DETAIL OF CONNECTION BETWEEN LIFT CABLES AND CONCRETE COUNTERWEIGHT, SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF CONNECTION BETWEEN LIFT CABLES AND CONCRETE COUNTERWEIGHT, SHOWING PROXIMITY OF PAIR OF SPANS. - Lake Shore & Michigan Southern Railway, Bridge No. 6, Spanning Calumet River, east of Chicago Skyway (I-90), Chicago, Cook County, IL

  16. View from floating barracks west of lift bridge to reserve ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View from floating barracks west of lift bridge to reserve basin on psny. - Naval Base Philadelphia-Philadelphia Naval Shipyard, Reserve Basin & Marine Railway, League Island, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  17. Interior room within eastern lift span, showing auxiliary electric and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior room within eastern lift span, showing auxiliary electric and gas generators. - Arlington Memorial Bridge, Spanning Potomac River between Lincoln Memorial & Arlington National Cemetery, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  18. Interior view of eastern lift span, looking south, showing internal ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of eastern lift span, looking south, showing internal truss work. - Arlington Memorial Bridge, Spanning Potomac River between Lincoln Memorial & Arlington National Cemetery, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  19. South elevation of lift bridge, with tow path in foreground ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    South elevation of lift bridge, with tow path in foreground and U.S. Rt. 11 bridge in background. - Potomac Edison Company, Chesapeake & Ohio Canal Bridge, Spanning C & O Canal South of U.S. 11, Williamsport, Washington County, MD

  20. CUPOLA, CENTER RIGHT; GONDOLA LIFT MECHANISM, CENTER LEFT. NOTE PARTIAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CUPOLA, CENTER RIGHT; GONDOLA LIFT MECHANISM, CENTER LEFT. NOTE PARTIAL VIEW OF LAMELLA DOME FRAMING COMPRESSION RING AT CROWN AT LOWER RIGHT. - Houston Astrodome, 8400 Kirby Drive, Houston, Harris County, TX

  1. DETAIL OF CONNECTION BETWEEN LIFT CABLES AND CONCRETE COUNTERWEIGHT. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF CONNECTION BETWEEN LIFT CABLES AND CONCRETE COUNTERWEIGHT. - Lake Shore & Michigan Southern Railway, Bridge No. 6, Spanning Calumet River, east of Chicago Skyway (I-90), Chicago, Cook County, IL

  2. 14 CFR 25.699 - Lift and drag device indicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... each lift or drag device having a separate control in the cockpit to adjust its position. In addition... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Control Systems ...

  3. 14 CFR 25.699 - Lift and drag device indicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... each lift or drag device having a separate control in the cockpit to adjust its position. In addition... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Control Systems ...

  4. 14 CFR 25.699 - Lift and drag device indicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... each lift or drag device having a separate control in the cockpit to adjust its position. In addition... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Control Systems ...

  5. 14 CFR 25.699 - Lift and drag device indicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... each lift or drag device having a separate control in the cockpit to adjust its position. In addition... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Control Systems ...

  6. Physiological effects of back belt wearing during asymmetric lifting.

    PubMed

    Bobick, T G; Belard, J L; Hsiao, H; Wassell, J T

    2001-12-01

    This study investigated the effect of wearing a back belt on subjects' heart rate, oxygen consumption, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and respiratory frequency during asymmetric repetitive lifting. Thirty subjects with materials-handling experience utilized three different belts (ten subjects per belt). Subjects completed six 30-min lifting sessions--three while wearing a belt and three without. Data analyses were conducted on the second, third, and fourth lifting periods. A 9.4 kg box, without handles, was lifted 3 times/min, starting at 10 cm above the floor, ending at 79 cm, with a 60 degree twist to the right. Data analysis indicates that belt-wearing did not have a significant effect on the overall mean values for heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and respiratory frequency. Belt-wearing had a significant effect on the overall mean oxygen consumption of the subjects. PMID:11703040

  7. PRECAST CONCRETE WALL PANELS ARE LIFTED INTO PLACE ON MTR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PRECAST CONCRETE WALL PANELS ARE LIFTED INTO PLACE ON MTR STEEL FRAME STRUCTURE. INL NEGATIVE NO. 1330. Unknown Photographer, 1/1951 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  8. 4. DETAIL VIEW OF LIFTING GEAR ON MULE AND RACK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. DETAIL VIEW OF LIFTING GEAR ON MULE AND RACK ATTACHMENT BOOKS, LOOKING EAST - Nine Mile Hydroelectric Development, Powerhouse, State Highway 291 along Spokane River, Nine Mile Falls, Spokane County, WA

  9. Effects of jets, wakes, and vortices on lifting surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Margason, R. J.

    1976-01-01

    The interaction of jets, wakes, and vortices on lifting bodies represents a broad spectrum of aerodynamic flow phenomena. A literature survey is presented of 79 research activities in related aerodynamic situations.

  10. 99. GENERAL VIEW OF LIFT SPAN, LOOKING EASTSOUTHEAST, August 2, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    99. GENERAL VIEW OF LIFT SPAN, LOOKING EAST-SOUTHEAST, August 2, 1935. (Steamer Delta King is moored at River Lines Terminal.) - Sacramento River Bridge, Spanning Sacramento River at California State Highway 275, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  11. Control of turbofan lift engines for VTOL aircraft.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sellers, J. F.; Szuch, J. R.

    1973-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an analytical study of the dynamics and control of turbofan lift engines, and proposes methods of meeting the response requirements imposed by the VTOL aircraft application. Two types of lift fan engines are discussed: the integral and remote. The integral engine is a conventional two-spool, high bypass ratio turbofan designed for low noise and short length. The remote engine employs a gas generator and a lift fan which are separated by a duct, and which need not be coaxial. For the integral engine, a control system design is presented which satisfies the VTOL response requirements. For the remote engine, two unconventional methods of control involving flow transfer between lift units are discussed.

  12. Object size effects on initial lifting forces under microgravity conditions.

    PubMed

    Kingma, I; Savelsbergh, G J; Tousaint, H M

    1999-02-01

    Individuals usually report for two objects of equal mass but different volume that the larger object feels lighter. This so-called size-weight illusion has been investigated for more than a century. The illusion is accompanied by increased forces, used to lift the larger object, resulting in a higher initial lifting speed and acceleration. The illusion holds when subjects know that the mass of the two objects is equal and it is likely that this also counts for the enlarged initial effort in lifting a larger box. Why should this happen? Under microgravity, subjects might be able to eliminate largely the weight-related component of the lifting force. Then, if persistent upward scaling of the weight-related force component had been the main cause of the elevated initial lifting force under normal gravity, this elevated force might disappear under microgravity. On the other hand, the elevated initial lifting effort in the large box would be preserved if it had been caused mainly by a persistent upward scaling of the force component, necessary to accelerate the object. To test whether the elevated initial lifting effort either persists or disappears under microgravity, a lifting experiment was carried out during brief periods of microgravity in parabolic flights. Subjects performed whole-body lifting movements with their feet strapped to the floor of the aircraft, using two 8-kg boxes of different volume. The subjects were aware of the equality of the box masses. The peak lifting forces declined almost instantaneously with approx. a factor 9 in the first lifting movements under microgravity compared with normal gravity, suggesting a rapid adaptation to the loss of weight. Though the overall speed of the lifting movement decreased under microgravity, the mean initial acceleration of the box over the first 200 ms of the lifting movement remained higher (P=0.030) in the large box (1.87+/-0.127 m/s2) compared with the small box (1.47+/-0.122 m/s2). Under normal gravity these accelerations were 3.30+/-0.159 m/s2 and 2.67+/-0.159 m/s2, respectively (P=0.008). A comparable trend was found in the initial lifting forces, being significant in the pooled gravity conditions (P=0.036) but not in separate tests on the normal gravity (P=0.109) and microgravity (P=0.169) condition. It is concluded that the elevated initial lifting effort with larger objects holds during short-term exposure to microgravity. This suggests that upward scaling of the force component, required to accelerate the larger box, is an important factor in the elevated initial lifting effort (and the associated size-weight illusion) under normal gravity. PMID:10090654

  13. 58. AIR PRESSURIZATION TANK BEING LIFTED INTO PLACE ON THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    58. AIR PRESSURIZATION TANK BEING LIFTED INTO PLACE ON THE VAL BRIDGE STRUCTURE AT ISLIP CANYON, April 9, 1948. - Variable Angle Launcher Complex, Variable Angle Launcher, CA State Highway 39 at Morris Reservior, Azusa, Los Angeles County, CA

  14. 15. OVERALL VIEW OF UPSTREAM FACE OF LIFT GATE SECTION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. OVERALL VIEW OF UPSTREAM FACE OF LIFT GATE SECTION WITH TAINTER GATE SECTION OF SPILLWAY TO THE LEFT. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Starved Rock Locks & Dam, Illinois Waterway River mile 231, Peru, La Salle County, IL

  15. Energetics of oscillating lifting surfaces using integral conservation laws

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahmadi, Ali R.; Widnall, Sheila E.

    1987-01-01

    The energetics of oscillating flexible lifting surfaces in two and three dimensions is calculated by the use of integral conservation laws in inviscid incompressible flow for general and harmonic transverse oscillations. Total thrust is calculated from the momentum theorem and energy loss rate due to vortex shedding in the wake from the principle of conservation of mechanical energy. Total power required to maintain the oscillations and hydrodynamic efficiency are also determined. In two dimensions, the results are obtained in closed form. In three dimensions, the distribution of vorticity on the lifting surface is also required as input to the calculations. Thus, unsteady lifting-surface theory must be used as well. The analysis is applicable to oscillating lifting surfaces of arbitrary planform, aspect ratio, and reduced frequency and does not require calculation of the leading-edge thrust.

  16. 15. Perspective view of bascule and vertical lift spans, each ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Perspective view of bascule and vertical lift spans, each in open position, facing east - Sault Ste. Marie International Railroad Bridge, Spanning Soo Locks at St. Marys Falls Canal, Sault Ste. Marie, Chippewa County, MI

  17. 17. View of vertical lift span in open position with ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. View of vertical lift span in open position with ship passing beneath, facing southwest - Sault Ste. Marie International Railroad Bridge, Spanning Soo Locks at St. Marys Falls Canal, Sault Ste. Marie, Chippewa County, MI

  18. 19. Vertical lift span in closed position and north tower, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. Vertical lift span in closed position and north tower, facing north - Sault Ste. Marie International Railroad Bridge, Spanning Soo Locks at St. Marys Falls Canal, Sault Ste. Marie, Chippewa County, MI

  19. 1. Perspective view of Warren truss, bascule, and lift spans, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Perspective view of Warren truss, bascule, and lift spans, facing southeast - Sault Ste. Marie International Railroad Bridge, Spanning Soo Locks at St. Marys Falls Canal, Sault Ste. Marie, Chippewa County, MI

  20. 20. Vertical lift span, north tower, bascule span, and Warren ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. Vertical lift span, north tower, bascule span, and Warren truss spans, facing north - Sault Ste. Marie International Railroad Bridge, Spanning Soo Locks at St. Marys Falls Canal, Sault Ste. Marie, Chippewa County, MI