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1

Heavy Lift Launch Vehicle Concept  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During the Space Shuttle development phase, Marshall plarners concluded a Heavy Lift Launch Vehicle (HLLV) would be needed for successful Space Industrialization. Shown here in this 1976's artist's conception is an early version of the HLLV during launch.

2004-01-01

2

Prosthetic Hand Lifts Heavy Loads  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Prosthetic hand designed to enable amputee to lift diverse heavy objects like rocks and logs. Has simple serrated end effector with no moving parts. Prosthesis held on forearm by system of flexible straps. Features include ruggedness, simplicity, and relatively low cost.

Carden, James R.; Norton, William; Belcher, Jewell G.; Vest, Thomas W.

1991-01-01

3

Advanced heavy lift launch vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The performance requirements of advanced technology-incorporating, next-generation heavy lift launch vehicles (HLLVs) for LEO missions are discussed, and the configurational features facilitated by those technologies are evaluated. These 1990s 'cargo' vehicles will capitalize on advanced avionics, software and automation, novel hot structure and thermal insulation materials, and more powerful liquid-fuel rockets employing either hydrogen or hydrocarbons. The configurations considered include a winged booster. The use of Space Shuttle components is a major cost-minimization strategy in many of these HLLV design efforts.

Shelton, Billy W.

4

Heavy-lift airship dynamics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The basic aerodynamic and dynamic properties of an example heavy-lift airship (HLA) configuration are analyzed using a nonlinear, multibody, 6-degrees-of-freedom digital simulation. The slung-payload model is described, and a preliminary analysis of the coupled vehicle-payload dynamics is presented. Trim calculations show the importance of control mixing selection and suggest performance deficiencies in crosswind stationkeeping for the unloaded example HLA. Numerically linearized dynamics of the unloaded vehicle exhibit a divergent yaw mode and an oscillatory pitch mode whose stability characteristic is sensitive to flight speed. An analysis of the vehicle-payload dynamics shows significant coupling of the payload dynamics with those of the basic HLA. It is shown that significant improvement in the vehicle's dynamic behavior can be achieved with the incorporation of a simple flight controller having proportional, rate, and integral-error feedbacks.

Tischler, M. B.; Ringland, R. F.; Jex, H. R.

1983-01-01

5

NASA Heavy Lift Rotorcraft Systems Investigation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Heavy Lift Rotorcraft Systems Investigation examined in depth several rotorcraft configurations for large civil transport, designed to meet the technology goals of the NASA Vehicle Systems Program. The investigation identified the Large Civil Tiltrotor as the configuration with the best potential to meet the technology goals. The design presented was economically competitive, with the potential for substantial impact on the air transportation system. The keys to achieving a competitive aircraft were low drag airframe and low disk loading rotors; structural weight reduction, for both airframe and rotors; drive system weight reduction; improved engine efficiency; low maintenance design; and manufacturing cost comparable to fixed-wing aircraft. Risk reduction plans were developed to provide the strategic direction to support a heavy-lift rotorcraft development. The following high risk areas were identified for heavy lift rotorcraft: high torque, light weight drive system; high performance, structurally efficient rotor/wing system; low noise aircraft; and super-integrated vehicle management system.

Johnson, Wayne; Yamauchi, Gloria K.; Watts, Michael E.

2005-01-01

6

Variable-Compliance Couplings For Heavy Lifting  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

New coupling devices contain manual or electronically controlled, motorized drives that vary stiffnesses. Short, clamped lengths of cable provide compliance. Using threaded rods, cables stretched, relaxed, or folded to make coupling more or less stiff. In more-advanced device, brackets holding cables moved by stepping motor via gearbox and ball screw. Motor operates under computer control with position feedback. Control computer commands greater stiffness during operations requiring precise positioning, and greater compliance to accommodate manufacturing tolerances. Intended for use in wrist joints of robotic manipulators and other industrial equipment that must lift heavy objects.

Kerley, James; Eklund, Wayne; Burkhardt, Raymond; Richardson, George W.

1992-01-01

7

Heavy Lift Launch Capability with a New Hydrocarbon Engine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Advanced Concepts Office at NASA's George C. Marshall Space Flight Center was tasked to define the thrust requirement of a new liquid oxygen rich staged combustion cycle hydrocarbon engine that could be utilized in a launch vehicle to meet NASA s future heavy lift needs. Launch vehicle concepts were sized using this engine for different heavy lift payload classes. Engine out capabilities for one of the heavy lift configurations were also analyzed for increased reliability that may be desired for high value payloads or crewed missions. The applicability for this engine in vehicle concepts to meet military and commercial class payloads comparable to current ELV capability was also evaluated.

Threet, Grady E., Jr.; Holt, James B.; Philips, Alan D.; Garcia, Jessica A.

2011-01-01

8

Civil markets for buoyant heavy-lift vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Worldwide civil markets for heavy lift airships were investigated. Substantial potential market demand was identified for payloads of from 13 to 800 tons. The largest markets appear to be in applications to relieve port congestion, construction of power generating plants, and, most notably, logging. Because of significant uncertainties both in vehicle and market characteristics, further analysis will be necessary to verify the identified market potential of heavy lift airship concepts.

Mettam, P. J.; Hansen, D.; Ardema, M. D.

1981-01-01

9

Heavy Lift Launch Capability with a New Hydrocarbon Engine (NHE)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Advanced Concepts Office (ACO) at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center has analyzed over 2000 Ares V and other heavy lift concepts in the last 3 years. These concepts were analyzed for Lunar Exploration Missions, heavy lift capability to Low Earth Orbit (LEO) as well as exploratory missions to other near earth objects in our solar system. With the pending retirement of the Shuttle fleet, our nation will be without a civil heavy lift launch capability, so the future development of a new heavy lift capability is imperative for the exploration and large science missions our Agency has been tasked to deliver. The majority of the heavy lift concepts analyzed by ACO during the last 3 years have been based on liquid oxygen / liquid hydrogen (LOX/LH2) core stage and solids booster stage propulsion technologies (Ares V / Shuttle Derived and their variants). These concepts were driven by the decisions made from the results of the Exploration Systems Architecture Study (ESAS), which in turn, led to the Ares V launch vehicle that has been baselined in the Constellation Program. Now that the decision has been made at the Agency level to cancel Constellation, other propulsion options such as liquid hydrocarbon fuels are back in the exploration trade space. NASA is still planning exploration missions with the eventual destination of Mars and a new heavy lift launch vehicle is still required and will serve as the centerpiece of our nation s next exploration architecture s infrastructure. With an extensive launch vehicle database already developed on LOX/LH2 based heavy lift launch vehicles, ACO initiated a study to look at using a new high thrust (> 1.0 Mlb vacuum thrust) hydrocarbon engine as the primary main stage propulsion in such a launch vehicle.

Threet, Grady E., Jr.; Holt, James B.; Philips, Alan D.; Garcia, Jessica A.

2011-01-01

10

Weight and cost estimating relationships for heavy lift airships  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Weight and cost estimating relationships, including additional parameters that influence the cost and performance of heavy-lift airships (HLA), are discussed. Inputs to a closed loop computer program, consisting of useful load, forward speed, lift module positive or negative thrust, and rotors and propellers, are examined. Detail is given to the HLA cost and weight program (HLACW), which computes component weights, vehicle size, buoyancy lift, rotor and propellar thrust, and engine horse power. This program solves the problem of interrelating the different aerostat, rotors, engines and propeller sizes. Six sets of 'default parameters' are left for the operator to change during each computer run enabling slight data manipulation without altering the program.

Gray, D. W.

1979-01-01

11

Designs and Technology Requirements for Civil Heavy Lift Rotorcraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Heavy Lift Rotorcraft Systems Investigation examined in depth several rotorcraft configurations for large civil transport, designed to meet the technology goals of the NASA Vehicle Systems Program. The investigation identified the Large Civil Tiltrotor as the configuration with the best potential to meet the technology goals. The design presented was economically competitive, with the potential for substantial impact on the air transportation system. The keys to achieving a competitive aircraft were low drag airframe and low disk loading rotors; structural weight reduction, for both airframe and rotors; drive system weight reduction; improved engine efficiency; low maintenance design; and manufacturing cost comparable to fixed-wing aircraft. Risk reduction plans were developed to provide the strategic direction to support a heavy-lift rotorcraft development. The following high risk areas were identified for heavy lift rotorcraft: high torque, light weight drive system; high performance, structurally efficient rotor/wing system; low noise aircraft; and super-integrated vehicle management system.

Johnson, Wayne; Yamauchi, Gloria K.; Watts, Michael E.

2006-01-01

12

Small helicopter could find niche in remote heavy lift operations  

SciTech Connect

A new helicopter specifically designed for external vertical lift operations, such as moving transportable rig components or seismic equipment in remote locations, operates more efficiently than most other medium or heavy-lift helicopters, according to manufacturer Kaman Aerospace. The single-pilot helicopter was designed as an aerial truck for efficient lifting of heavy loads but with the operating costs of a light-lift craft. The K-Max helicopter can lift more pounds of cargo per gallon of fuel consumed than other similar helicopters, according to Kaman. For example, to transport a 5,000-lb load at an elevation of 8,000 ft, the K-Max helicopter consumes 85 gal of fuel/hr. Under the same load conditions, the next most efficient commercially available helicopter consumes 160 gal of fuel/hr and requires two pilots. The 4,500-lb helicopter can lift 5,000 lb to an altitude of 8,000 ft or about 6,000 lb at low altitudes.

Not Available

1994-02-21

13

Heavy Lifting at Work and Risk of Ischemic Heart Disease: Protocol for a Register-Based Prospective Cohort Study  

PubMed Central

Background There are theoretical grounds to suspect that heavy lifting at work is an important risk factor for ischemic heart disease (IHD). However the relationship has not been sufficiently acknowledged by empirical studies. Positive and statistically significant associations have been found in studies that utilize self-reported exposure data. Such studies are, however, prone to reporting bias. All else equal, people with a poor cardiovascular fitness/health may have a higher propensity to perceive their work environment as heavy. Objective The study described in the present protocol aims to investigate the relationship between heavy lifting at work and IHD by use of material and methods that are free from reporting bias. Methods This is a register-based prospective cohort study. Male blue-collar workers in Denmark will be identified and followed through national registers, from 2001-2010, for hospital treatment or death due to IHD. Relative rates of IHD between “workers in occupations likely to involve heavy lifting” and “other blue-collar workers” will be estimated through Poisson regression. Results Results are expected to be ready in mid-2015. Conclusions Since this is not a randomized study, it cannot confirm etiological hypotheses. It may, however, confirm that employment in occupations that involve heavy lifting is a predictor for IHD and thereby lend support to the hypothesis of a causal relationship. PMID:25164612

2014-01-01

14

Current developments lighter than air systems. [heavy lift airships  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Lighter than air aircraft (LTA) developments and research in the United States and other countries are reviewed. The emphasis in the U.S. is on VTOL airships capable of heavy lift, and on long endurance types for coastal maritime patrol. Design concepts include hybrids which combine heavier than air and LTA components and characteristics. Research programs are concentrated on aerodynamics, flight dynamics, and control of hybrid types.

Mayer, N. J.

1981-01-01

15

Heavy Lift Vehicle (HLV) Avionics Flight Computing Architecture Study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A NASA multi-Center study team was assembled from LaRC, MSFC, KSC, JSC and WFF to examine potential flight computing architectures for a Heavy Lift Vehicle (HLV) to better understand avionics drivers. The study examined Design Reference Missions (DRMs) and vehicle requirements that could impact the vehicles avionics. The study considered multiple self-checking and voting architectural variants and examined reliability, fault-tolerance, mass, power, and redundancy management impacts. Furthermore, a goal of the study was to develop the skills and tools needed to rapidly assess additional architectures should requirements or assumptions change.

Hodson, Robert F.; Chen, Yuan; Morgan, Dwayne R.; Butler, A. Marc; Sdhuh, Joseph M.; Petelle, Jennifer K.; Gwaltney, David A.; Coe, Lisa D.; Koelbl, Terry G.; Nguyen, Hai D.

2011-01-01

16

Occupational health impacts: offshore crane lifts in life cycle assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background, Aim, and Scope  The identification and assessment of environmental tradeoffs is a strongpoint of life cycle assessment (LCA). A tradeoff made\\u000a in many product systems is the exchange of potential for occupational accidents with the additional use of energy and materials.\\u000a Net benefits of safety measures with respect to human health are best illustrated if the consequences avoided and health

Johan Pettersen; Edgar G. Hertwich

2008-01-01

17

Heavy Lift Launch Vehicles for 1995 and Beyond  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A Heavy Lift Launch Vehicle (HLLV) designed to deliver 300,000 lb to a 540 n mi circular polar orbit may be required to meet national needs for 1995 and beyond. The vehicle described herein can accommodate payload envelopes up to 50 ft diameter by 200 ft in length. Design requirements include reusability for the more expensive components such as avionics and propulsion systems, rapid launch turnaround time, minimum hardware inventory, stage and component flexibility and commonality, and low operational costs. All ascent propulsion systems utilize liquid propellants, and overall launch vehicle stack height is minimized while maintaining a reasonable vehicle diameter. The ascent propulsion systems are based on the development of a new liquid oxygen/hydrocarbon booster engine and liquid oxygen/liquid hydrogen upper stage engine derived from today's SSME technology. Wherever possible, propulsion and avionics systems are contained in reusable propulsion/avionics modules that are recovered after each launch.

Toelle, R. (compiler)

1985-01-01

18

Study of Civil Markets for Heavy-Lift Airships  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The civil markets for heavy lift airships (HLAs) were defined by first identifying areas of most likely application. The operational suitability of HLAs for the applications identified were then assessed. The operating economics of HLAs were established and the market size for HLA services estimated by comparing HLA operating and economic characteristics with those of competing modes. The sensitivities of the market size to HLA characteristics were evaluated and the number and sizes of the vehicles required to service the more promising markets were defined. Important characteristics for future HLAs are discussed that were derived from the study of each application, including operational requirements, features enhancing profitability, military compatibility, improved design requirements, approach to entry into service, and institutional implications for design and operation.

Mettam, P. J.; Hansen, D.; Chabot, C.; Byrne, R.

1978-01-01

19

Heavy lift launch vehicles for 1995 and beyond  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A Heavy Lift Launch Vehicle (HLLV) designed to deliver 300,000 lb to a 540 n mi circular polar orbit may be required to meet national needs for 1995 and beyond. The vehicle described herein can accommodate payload envelopes up to 50 ft diameter by 200 ft in length. Design requirements include reusability for the more expensive components such as avionics and propulsion systems, rapid launch turnaround time, minimum hardware inventory, stage and component flexibility and commonality, and low operational costs. All ascent propulsion systems utilize liquid propellants, and overall launch vehicle stack height is minimized while maintaining a reasonable vehicle diameter. The ascent propulsion systems are based on the development of a new liquid oxygen/hydrocarbon booster engine and liquid oxygen/liquid hydrogen upper stage engine derived from today's SSME technology. Wherever possible, propulsion and avionics systems are contained in reusable propulsion/avionics modules that are recovered after each launch.

Toelle, R.

1985-09-01

20

Minor heavy metal: A review on occupational and environmental intoxication  

PubMed Central

Heavy metal is widely used in industries and presents as a problematic environmental pollution. Some heavy metals, especially lead and mercury, are well described for their occupational and environmental intoxication whereas the other minor heavy metals are less concerned. In this article, the author will present the details of occupational and environmental minor heavy metal intoxication. This review focuses mainly on aluminum, tin, copper, manganese, chromium, cadmium and nickel. PMID:20040969

Wiwanitkit, Viroj

2008-01-01

21

Force control of heavy lift manipulators for high precision insertion tasks  

E-print Network

The inherent strength of robotic manipulators can be used to assist humans in performing heavy lifting tasks. These robots reduce manpower, reduce fatigue, and increase productivity. This thesis deals with the development ...

DiCicco, Matthew A. (Matthew Adam)

2005-01-01

22

High-precision position control of a heavy-lift manipulator in a dynamic environment  

E-print Network

This thesis considers the control of a heavy-lift serial manipulator operating on the deck of a large ocean vessel. This application presents a unique challenge for high- precision control because the system must contend ...

Garretson, Justin R. (Justin Richard)

2005-01-01

23

The design of a control architecture for a heavy-lift precision manipulator for use in contact with the environment  

E-print Network

Robotic manipulators can be used to enhance the strength and dexterity of a human user. This thesis considers the design of a controller for a heavy-lift manipulator for lifting and inserting payloads onto aircraft on the ...

Becker, William T. (William Theodore Leroy)

2006-01-01

24

Feasibility study of modern airships, phase 2. Volume 1: Heavy lift airship vehicle. Book 1: Overall study results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A Heavy Lift Airship combining buoyant lift derived from a conventional helium-filled non-rigid airship hull with propulsive lift derived from conventional helicopter rotors was investigated. The buoyant lift essentially offsets the empty weight of the vehicle; thus the rotor thrust is available for useful load and to maneuver and control the vehicle. Such a vehicle is capable of providing a quantum increase in current vertical lifting capability. Certain critical deficiencies of past airships are significantly minimized or eliminated.

1976-01-01

25

The relative importance of whole body vibration and occupational lifting as risk factors for low-back pain  

PubMed Central

Aims: To explore the impact of occupational exposure to whole body vibration (WBV) on low back pain (LBP) in the general population and to estimate the burden of LBP attributable to occupational WBV in comparison with that due to occupational lifting. Methods: A questionnaire including sections on WBV at work, LBP, and potential risk factors was mailed to a community sample of 22 194 men and women of working age. Sources and durations of exposure to occupational WBV were ascertained for the past week and personal vibration doses (eVDV) were estimated. Analysis was confined to subjects reporting exposures in the past week as typical of their work. Associations of LBP with eVDV, driving industrial vehicles, and occupational lifting were explored by logistic regression and attributable numbers were calculated. Results: Significant associations were found between daily lifting of weights greater than 10 kg at work and LBP, troublesome LBP (which made it difficult to put on hosiery), and sciatica (prevalence ratios 1.3 to 1.7); but the risk of these outcomes in both sexes varied little by eVDV and only weak associations were found with riding on industrial vehicles. Assuming causal associations, the numbers of cases of LBP in Britain attributable to occupational WBV were estimated to be 444 000 in men and 95 000 in women. This compared with an estimated 940 000 male cases and 370 000 female cases of LBP from occupational lifting. Conclusions: The burden of LBP in Britain from occupational exposure to WBV is smaller than that attributable to lifting at work. PMID:14504358

Palmer, K; Griffin, M; Syddall, H; Pannett, B; Cooper, C; Coggon, D

2003-01-01

26

Shuttle Derived In-Line Heavy Lift Vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper introduces an evolvable Space Shuttle derived family of launch vehicles. It details the steps in the evolution of the vehicle family, noting how the evolving lift capability compares with the evolving lift requirements. A system description is given for each vehicle. The cost of each development stage is described. Also discussed are demonstration programs, the merits of the SSME vs. an expendable rocket engine (RS-68), and finally, the next steps needed to refine this concept.

Greenwood, Terry; Twichell, Wallace; Ferrari, Daniel; Kuck, Frederick

2005-01-01

27

Engine-Out Capabilities Assessment of Heavy Lift Launch Vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Engine-out (EO) is a condition that might occur during flight due to the failure of one or more engines. Protection against this occurrence can be called engine-out capability (EOC) whereupon significantly improved loss of mission may occur, in addition to reduction in performance and increased cost. A standardized engine-out capability has not been studied exhaustively as it pertains to space launch systems. This work presents results for a specific vehicle design with specific engines, but also uniquely provides an approach to realizing the necessity of EOC for any launch vehicle system design. A derived top-level approach to engine-out philosophy for a heavy lift launch vehicle is given herein, based on an historical assessment of launch vehicle capabilities. The methodology itself is not intended to present a best path forward, but instead provides three parameters for assessment of a particular vehicle. Of the several parameters affected by this EOC, the three parameters of interest in this research are reliability (Loss of Mission (LOM) and Loss of Crew (LOC)), vehicle performance, and cost. The intent of this effort is to provide insight into the impacts of EO capability on these parameters. The effects of EOC on reliability, performance and cost are detailed, including how these important launch vehicle metrics can be combined to assess what could be considered overall launch vehicle affordability. In support of achieving the first critical milestone (Mission Concept Review) in the development of the Space Launch System (SLS), a team assessed two-stage, large-diameter vehicles that utilized liquid oxygen (LOX)-RP propellants in the First Stage and LOX/LH2 propellant in the Upper Stage. With multiple large thrust-class engines employed on the stages, engine-out capability could be a significant driver to mission success. It was determined that LOM results improve by a factor of five when assuming EOC for both Core Stage (CS) (first stage) and Upper Stage (US) EO, assuming a reference launch vehicle with 5 RP engines on the CS and 3 LOX/LH2 engines on the US. The benefit of adding both CS and US engine-out capability is significant. When adding EOC for either first or second stages, there is less than a 20% benefit. Performance analysis has shown that if the vehicle is not protected for EO during the first part of the flight and only protected in the later part of the flight, there is a diminishing performance penalty, as indicated by failures occurring in the first stage at different times. This work did not consider any options to abort. While adding an engine for EOC drives cost upward, the impact depends on the number of needed engines manufactured per year and the launch manifest. There is a significant cost savings if multiple flights occur within one year. Flying two flights per year would cost approximately $4,000 per pound less than the same configuration with one flight per year, assuming both CS and US EOC. The cost is within 15% of the cost of one flight per year with no engine-out capability for the same vehicle. This study can be extended to other launch vehicles. While the numbers given in this paper are specific to a certain vehicle configuration, the process requires only a high level of data to allow an analyst to draw conclusions. The weighting of each of the identified parameters will determine the optimization of each launch vehicle. The results of this engine-out assessment provide a means to understand this optimization while maintaining an unbiased perspective.

Holladay, Jon; Baggett, Keithe; Thrasher, Chad; Bellamy, K. Scott; Feldman, Stuart

2012-01-01

28

Aeromechanical stability analysis of a multirotor vehicle with application to hybrid heavy lift helicopter dynamics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Hybrid Heavy Lift Helicopter (HHLH) is a potential candidate vehicle aimed at providing heavy lift capability at low cost. This vehicle consists of a buoyant envelope attached to a supporting structure. Four rotor systems are also attached to the supporting structure. Nonlinear equations of motion capable of modeling the dynamics of this multi-rotor/support frame/vehicle system have been developed and used to study the fundamental aeromechanical stability characteristics of this class of vehicles. The mechanism of coupling between the blades, supporting structure and rigid body modes is identified and the effect of buoyancy ratio (buoyant lift/total weight) on the vehicle dynamics is studied. It is shown that dynamics effects have a major role in the design of such vehicles. The analytical model developed is also useful for studying the aeromechanical stability of single rotor and tandem rotor coupled rotor/fuselage systems.

Venkatesan, C.; Friedmann, P. P.

1984-01-01

29

Aeromechanical stability analysis of a multirotor vehicle model representing a hybrid heavy lift airship (HHLA)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Hybrid Heavy Lift Airship (HHLA) is a proposed candidate vehicle aimed at providing heavy lift capability at low cost. This vehicle consists of a buoyant envelope attached to a supporting structure to which four rotor systems, taken from existing helicopters are attached. Nonlinear equations of motion capable of modelling the dynamics of this coupled multi-rotor/support frame/vehicle system have been developed. Using these equations of motion the aeroelastic and aeromechanical stability analysis is performed aimed at identifying potential instabilities which could occur for this type of vehicle. The coupling between various blade, supporting structure and rigid body modes is identified. Furthermore, the effects of changes in buoyancy ratio (Buoyant lift/total weight) on the dynamic characteristics of the vehicle are studied. The dynamic effects found are of considerable importance for the design of such vehicles. The analytical model developed is also useful for studying the aeromechanical stability of single rotor and tandem rotor coupled rotor/fuselage systems.

Venkatesan, C.; Friedmann, P. P.

1984-01-01

30

From The Boston Globe, February 22, 2008 Dance troupe is game for some heavy lifting  

E-print Network

From The Boston Globe, February 22, 2008 Dance troupe is game for some heavy lifting From left Byrne Boston Globe Correspondent / February 22, 2008 A collection of playground equipment, including Reza, co-artistic director of Pittsburgh-based Attack Theatre, which brings "Games of Steel

Machery, Edouard

31

The effects of atmospheric turbulence on a quadrotor heavy lift airship  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The response of a quadrotor heavy lift airship to atmospheric turbulence is evaluated using a four-point input model. Results show interaction between gust inputs and the characteristic modes of the vehicle's response. Example loop closures demonstrate tradeoffs between response regulation and structural loads. Vehicle responses to a tuned discrete wave front compare favorably with the linear results and illustrate characteristic HLA motion.

Tischler, M. B.; Jex, H. R.

1982-01-01

32

A Longitudinal Study of Low-Back Pain as Associated with Occupational Weight Lifting Factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

A review of the biomechanics of weight lifting as it relates to low-back stresses is presented first. This serves as the basis for the development of a Lifting Strength Rating (LSR) methodology. Then a study is reported wherein the LSR methodology is used to evaluate 103 jobs having various amounts of required two-handed load lifting. The 411 people populating these

DON B. CHAFFIN; KYUNG S. PARK

1973-01-01

33

Performance of Advanced Heavy-Lift, High-Speed Rotorcraft Configurations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The aerodynamic performance of rotorcraft designed for heavy-lift and high-speed cruise is examined. Configurations considered include the tiltrotor, the compound helicopter, and the lift-offset rotor. Design conditions are hover and 250-350 knot cruise, at 5k/ISA+20oC (civil) or 4k/95oF (military); with cruise conditions at 4000 or 30,000 ft. The performance was calculated using the comprehensive analysis CAMRAD II, emphasizing rotor optimization and performance, including wing-rotor interference. Aircraft performance was calculated using estimates of the aircraft drag and auxiliary propulsion efficiency. The performance metric is total power, in terms of equivalent aircraft lift-to-drag ratio L/D = WV/P for cruise, and figure of merit for hover.

Johnson, Wayne; Yeo, Hyeonsoo; Acree, C. W., Jr.

2007-01-01

34

Lunar Lander Offloading Operations Using a Heavy-Lift Lunar Surface Manipulator System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This study investigates the feasibility of using a heavy-lift variant of the Lunar Surface Manipulator System (LSMS-H) to lift and handle a 12 metric ton payload. Design challenges and requirements particular to handling heavy cargo were examined. Differences between the previously developed first-generation LSMS and the heavy-lift version are highlighted. An in-depth evaluation of the tip-over risk during LSMS-H operations has been conducted using the Synergistic Engineering Environment and potential methods to mitigate that risk are identified. The study investigated three specific offloading scenarios pertinent to current Lunar Campaign studies. The first involved offloading a large element, such as a habitat or logistics module, onto a mobility chassis with a lander-mounted LSMS-H and offloading that payload from the chassis onto the lunar surface with a surface-mounted LSMS-H. The second scenario involved offloading small pressurized rovers with a lander-mounted LSMS-H. The third scenario involved offloading cargo from a third-party lander, such as the proposed ESA cargo lander, with a chassis-mounted LSMS-H. In all cases, the analyses show that the LSMS-H can perform the required operations safely. However, Chariot-mounted operations require the addition of stabilizing outriggers, and when operating from the Lunar surface, LSMS-H functionality is enhanced by adding a simple ground anchoring system.

Jefferies, Sharon A.; Doggett, William R.; Chrone, Jonathan; Angster, Scott; Dorsey, John T.; Jones, Thomas C.; Haddad, Michael E.; Helton, David A.; Caldwell, Darrell L., Jr.

2010-01-01

35

Ares V: Designing the Heavy Lift Capability to Explore the Moon  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's Vision for Exploration requires a safe, efficient, reliable, and versatile launch vehicle capable ofplacing large payloads into Earth orbit for transfer to the Moon and destinations beyond. The Ares V Cargo Launch Vehicle (CaLV) will provide this heavy lift capability. The Ares V launch concept is shown. When it stands on the launch pad at Kennedy Space Center late in the next decade, the Ares V stack will be almost 360 feet fall. As currently envisioned, it will lift 136 metric tons (300,000 pounds) to a 30-by-160 nautical mile orbit at 28.5-degrees inclination, or 55 metric tons (120,000 pounds) to trans-lunar injection. This paper will cover the latest developments in the Ares V project in 2007 and discuss future activities.

Sumrall, John P.; McArthur, Craig

2007-01-01

36

Exploration Launch Projects RS-68B Engine Requirements for NASA's Heavy Lift Ares V  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's Vision for Exploration requires a safe, efficient, reliable, and versatile launch vehicle capable of placing large payloads into Earth orbit for transfer to the Moon and destinations beyond. The Ares V Cargo Launch Vehicle (CaLV) will provide this heavy lift capability. The Ares V launch concept is shown in Fig. 1. When it stands on the launch pad at Kennedy Space Center late in the next decade, the Ares V stack will be almost 360 feet tall. As currently envisioned, it will lift 133,000 to 144,000 pounds to trans-lunar injection, depending on the length of loiter time on Earth orbit. This presentation will provide an overview of the Constellation architecture, the Ares launch vehicles, and, specifically, the latest developments in the RS-68B engine for the Ares V.

Sumrall, John P.; McArthur, J. Craig; Lacey, Matt

2007-01-01

37

Generic multi-body formulation of heavy lift airship equations of motion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes the formulation of a comprehensive set of equations which describe the dynamic behavior of a generic heavy lift airship (HLA). They are being used in a digital computer simulation to investigate the response dynamics and flying qualities of HLAs operating with various payloads in a variety of operational environments. A key feature is the separate treatment of each component body making up the HLA. This allows the analyst to vary the configuration (e.g., number of lift-propulsion units, presence or absence of slung payload, etc.) without rewriting the equations. It further provides measures of key structural and control loads acting on the HLA and eases the task of modeling wind disturbances.

Ringland, R. F.; Tischler, M. B.; Ashkenas, I. L.; Jex, H. R.

1980-01-01

38

Foundation for Heavy Lift: Early Developments in the Ares V Cargo Launch Vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Ares V Cargo Launch Vehicle (CaLV) is NASA's primary vessel for safe, reliable delivery of the Lunar Surface Access Module (LSAM) and other resources into Earth orbit, as articulated in the U.S. Vision for Space Exploration.' The Ares V launch concept is shown. The foundation for this heavy-lift companion to the Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV) is taking shape within NASA and with its government and industry partners. This paper will address accomplishments in the Ares V Launch Vehicle during 2006 and 2007 and offer a preview of future activities.

Sumrall, John P.; McArthur, J. Craig

2007-01-01

39

Foundation for Heavy Lift - Early Developments in the Ares V Launch Vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Ares V Cargo Launch Vehicle (CaLV) is NASA's primary vessel for safe, reliable delivery of the Lunar Surface Access Module (LSAM) and other resources into Earth orbit, as articulated in the U.S. Vision for Space Exploration. The Ares V launch concept is shown. The foundation for this heavy-lift companion to the Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV) is taking shape within NASA and with its government and industry partners. This paper will address accomplishments in the Ares V Launch Vehicle during 2006 and 2007 and offer a preview of future activities.

McArthur, J. Craig; Pannell, Bill; Lacey, Matt

2007-01-01

40

NASA's Space Launch System: A Heavy-Lift Platform for Entirely New Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Space Launch System (SLS) will contribute a new capability for human space flight and scientific missions beyond low-Earth orbit (LEO). The SLS Program, managed at NASA s Marshall Space Flight Center, will develop the heavy-lift vehicle that will launch the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV), equipment, supplies, and major science missions for exploration and discovery. Orion will carry crews to space, provide emergency abort capability, sustain the crew during space travel, and provide safe reentry from deep-space return velocities. Supporting Orion s first autonomous flight to lunar orbit and back in 2017 and its first crewed flight in 2021, the SLS ultimately offers a flexible platform for both human and scientific exploration. The SLS plan leverages legacy infrastructure and hardware in NASA s inventory, as well as continues with advanced technologies now in development, to deliver an initial 70 metric ton (t) lift capability in 2017, evolving to a 130-t capability, using a block upgrade approach. This paper will give an overview of the SLS design and management approach against a backdrop of the missions it will support. It will detail the plan to deliver the initial SLS capability to the launch pad in the near term, as well as summarize the innovative approaches the SLS team is applying to deliver a safe, affordable, and sustainable long-range capability for entirely new missions-opening a new realm of knowledge and a world of possibilities for multiple partners. Design reference missions that the SLS is being planned to support include Mars, Jupiter, Lagrange Points, and near-Earth asteroids (NEAs), among others. The Agency is developing its mission manifest in parallel with the development of a heavy-lift flagship that will dramatically increase total lift and volume capacity beyond current launch vehicle options, reduce trip times, and provide a robust platform for conducting new missions destined to rewrite textbooks with the information they deliver, while creating a framework for further collaboration among domestic and international partners, and potentially spurring economic expansion into new markets.

Creech, Stephen D.

2012-01-01

41

NASA's Space Launch System: A Heavy-Lift Platform for Entirely New Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration s (NASA's) Space Launch System (SLS) will contribute a new capability for human space flight and scientific missions beyond low-Earth orbit. The SLS Program, managed at NASA s Marshall Space Fight Center, will develop the heavy-lift vehicle that will launch the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV), equipment, supplies, and major science missions. Orion will carry crews to space, provide emergency abort capability, sustain the crew during space travel, and provide safe reentry from deep-space return velocities. Supporting Orion s first autonomous flight to lunar orbit and back in 2017 and its first crewed flight in 2021, the SLS ultimately offers a flexible platform for both human and scientific exploration. The SLS plan leverages legacy infrastructure and hardware in NASA s inventory, as well as continues with advanced propulsion technologies now in development, to deliver an initial 70 metric ton (t) lift capability in 2017, evolving to a 130-t capability after 2021, using a block upgrade approach. This paper will give an overview of the SLS design and management approach against a backdrop of the missions it will support. It will detail the plan to deliver the initial SLS capability to the launch pad in the near term, as well as summarize the innovative approaches the SLS team is applying to deliver a safe, affordable, and sustainable long-range capability for entirely new missions opening a new realm of knowledge and a world of possibilities for multiple partners. Design reference missions that the SLS is being planned to support include asteroids, Lagrange Points, and Mars, among others. The Agency is developing its mission manifest in parallel with the development of a heavy-lift flagship that will dramatically increase total lift and volume capacity beyond current launch vehicle options, reduce trip times, and provide a robust platform for conducting new missions destined to rewrite textbooks with the information they deliver, while creating a framework for further collaboration among domestic and international partners, and potentially spurring economic expansion into new markets.

Creech, Stephen A.

2012-01-01

42

Next Generation Heavy-Lift Launch Vehicle: Large Diameter, Hydrocarbon-Fueled Concepts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

With the passage of the 2010 NASA Authorization Act, NASA was directed to begin the development of the Space Launch System (SLS) as a follow-on to the Space Shuttle Program. The SLS is envisioned as a heavy lift launch vehicle that will provide the foundation for future large-scale, beyond low Earth orbit (LEO) missions. Supporting the Mission Concept Review (MCR) milestone, several teams were formed to conduct an initial Requirements Analysis Cycle (RAC). These teams identified several vehicle concept candidates capable of meeting the preliminary system requirements. One such team, dubbed RAC Team 2, was tasked with identifying launch vehicles that are based on large stage diameters (up to the Saturn V S-IC and S-II stage diameters of 33 ft) and utilize high-thrust liquid oxygen (LOX)/RP engines as a First Stage propulsion system. While the trade space for this class of LOX/RP vehicles is relatively large, recent NASA activities (namely the Heavy Lift Launch Vehicle Study in late 2009 and the Heavy Lift Propulsion Technology Study of 2010) examined specific families within this trade space. Although the findings from these studies were incorporated in the Team 2 activity, additional branches of the trade space were examined and alternative approaches to vehicle development were considered. Furthermore, Team 2 set out to define a highly functional, flexible, and cost-effective launch vehicle concept. Utilizing this approach, a versatile two-stage launch vehicle concept was chosen as a preferred option. The preferred vehicle option has the capability to fly in several different configurations (e.g. engine arrangements) that gives this concept an inherent operational flexibility which allows the vehicle to meet a wide range of performance requirements without the need for costly block upgrades. Even still, this concept preserves the option for evolvability should the need arise in future mission scenarios. The foundation of this conceptual design is a focus on low cost and effectiveness rather than efficiency or cutting-edge technology. This paper details the approach and process, as well as the trade space analysis, leading to the preferred vehicle concept.

Holliday, Jon; Monk, Timothy; Adams, Charles; Campbell, Ricky

2012-01-01

43

Heavy-lift vehicle-launched Space Station method and apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Methods and apparatus are provided for a single heavy-lift launch to place a complete, operational space station on-orbit. A payload including the space station takes the place of a shuttle orbiter using the launch vehicle of the shuttle orbiter. The payload includes a forward shroud, a core module, a propulsion module, and a transition module between the core module and the propulsion module. The essential subsystems are preintegrated and verified on Earth. The core module provides means for attaching international modules with minimum impact to the overall design. The space station includes six control moment gyros for selectably operating in either LVLH (local-vertical local-horizontal) or SI (solar inertial) flight modes.

Wade, Donald C. (inventor); Delafuente, Horacio M. (inventor); Berka, Reginald B. (inventor); Rickman, Steven L. (inventor); Castro, Edgar O. (inventor); Nagy, Kornel (inventor); Wesselski, Clarence J. (inventor); Pelischek, Timothy E. (inventor); Schliesing, John A. (inventor)

1995-01-01

44

The Business Case for Spiral Development in Heavy Lift Launch Vehicle Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Performance capabilities of a specific combination of the Space Shuttle external tank and various liquid engines in an in-line configuration, two-stage core vehicle with multiple redesigned solid rocket motor strap-ons are reexamined. This concept proposes using existing assets, hardware, and capabilities that are already crew-rated, flight certified, being manufactured under existing contracts, have a long history of component and system ground testing, and have been flown for over 20 yr. This paper goes beyond describing potential performance capabilities of specific components to discuss the overall system feasibility-from end to end, start to finish-describing the inherent cost advantages of the Spiral Development concept, which builds on existing capabilities and assets, as opposed to starting up a "fresh sheet" heavy-lift launch vehicle program from scratch.

Farr, Rebecca A.; Christensen, David L.; Keith, Edward L.

2005-01-01

45

Simulation of Heavy Lift Airship dynamics over large ranges of incidence and speed  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A nonlinear, multibody, six-degrees-of-freedom digital simulation has been developed to study generic Heavy Lift Airship (HLA) dynamics and control. The basic aerodynamic functions developed to model the hull, tail, and rotor loads continuously over all incidence ranges are reviewed and applied to a Quadrotor HLA with a low fineness ratio hull and a small vee-tail. Trim calculations for a test vehicle suggest control power deficiencies in crosswind stationkeeping for the unloaded vehicle. Gust responses show the importance of correctly calculating loads due to accelerated relative motion of air and hull. Numerically linearized dynamics for the test vehicle show the existence of a divergent yaw mode, and an oscillatory pitch mode whose stability characteristics are sensitive to flight speed. A considerable improvement in the vehicle's stability and response results from a simple multi-axis closed-loop control system operating on the rotors and propeller blades.

Tischler, M. B.; Jex, H. R.; Ringland, R. F.

1981-01-01

46

A New Heavy-Lift Capability for Space Exploration: NASA's Ares V Cargo Launch Vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is developing new launch systems and preparing to retire the Space Shuttle by 2010, as directed in the United States (U.S.) Vision for Space Exploration. The Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV) and the Ares V heavy-lift Cargo Launch Vehicle (CaLV) systems will build upon proven, reliable hardware derived from the Apollo-Saturn and Space Shuttle programs to deliver safe, reliable, affordable space transportation solutions. This approach leverages existing aerospace talent and a unique infrastructure, as well as legacy knowledge gained from nearly 50 years' experience developing space hardware. Early next decade, the Ares I will launch the new Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) to the International Space Station (ISS) or to low-Earth orbit for trips to the Moon and, ultimately, Mars. Late next decade, the Ares V's Earth Departure Stage will carry larger payloads such as the lunar lander into orbit, and the Crew Exploration Vehicle will dock with it for missions to the Moon, where astronauts will explore new territories and conduct science and technology experiments. Both Ares I and Ares V are being designed to support longer future trips to Mars. The Exploration Launch Projects Office is designing, developing, testing, and evaluating both launch vehicle systems in partnership with other NASA Centers, Government agencies, and industry contractors. This paper provides top-level information regarding the genesis and evolution of the baseline configuration for the Ares V heavy-lift system. It also discusses riskbased, management strategies, such as building on powerful hardware and promoting common features between the Ares I and Ares V systems to reduce technical, schedule, and cost risks, as well as development and operations costs. Finally, it summarizes several notable accomplishments since October 2005, when the Exploration Launch Projects effort officially kicked off, and looks ahead at work planned for 2007 and beyond.

Sumrall, John P.; McArthur, J. Craig

2007-01-01

47

Occup Environ Med . Author manuscript Heavy manual work, exposure to vibration and Dupuytrens disease?'  

E-print Network

Surveillance ; Prevalence ; Questionnaires ; Risk Factors ; Vibration ; adverse effects ; Work Author KeywordsOccup Environ Med . Author manuscript Page /1 8 Heavy manual work, exposure to vibration, and especially to distinguish heavy manual work with and without significant use of vibrating tools by using data

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

48

Spacely's rockets: Personnel launch system/family of heavy lift launch vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During 1990, numerous questions were raised regarding the ability of the current shuttle orbiter to provide reliable, on demand support of the planned space station. Besides being plagued by reliability problems, the shuttle lacks the ability to launch some of the heavy payloads required for future space exploration, and is too expensive to operate as a mere passenger ferry to orbit. Therefore, additional launch systems are required to complement the shuttle in a more robust and capable Space Transportation System. In December 1990, the Report of the Advisory Committee on the Future of the U.S. Space Program, advised NASA of the risks of becoming too dependent on the space shuttle as an all-purpose vehicle. Furthermore, the committee felt that reducing the number of shuttle missions would prolong the life of the existing fleet. In their suggestions, the board members strongly advocated the establishment of a fleet of unmanned, heavy lift launch vehicles (HLLV's) to support the space station and other payload-intensive enterprises. Another committee recommendation was that a space station crew rotation/rescue vehicle be developed as an alternative to the shuttle, or as a contingency if the shuttle is not available. The committee emphasized that this vehicle be designed for use as a personnel carrier, not a cargo carrier. This recommendation was made to avoid building another version of the existing shuttle, which is not ideally suited as a passenger vehicle only. The objective of this project was to design both a Personnel Launch System (PLS) and a family of HLLV's that provide low cost and efficient operation in missions not suited for the shuttle.

1991-01-01

49

Transportation of floating structures by using newly built heavy lifting semi vessel HYSY278  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Transportation of floating structures for long distance has always been associated with the use of heavy semi transport vessel. The requirements of this type of vessel are always special, and its availability is limited. To prepare for the future development of the South China Sea deepwater projects, COOEC has recently built a heavy lift transport vessel — Hai Yang Shi You 278 (HYSY278). This semi-submersible vessel has displacement capacity of 50k DWT, and a breath of 42 m. Understanding the vessel's applicability and preparing its use for future deepwater projects are becoming imminent need. This paper reviews the critical issues associated with the floating structure transportation and performs detailed analysis of two designed floating structures during transportation. The newly built COOEC transportation vessel HYSY278 will be used to dry transport the floating structures from COOEC fabrication yard in Qingdao to the oil field in the South China Sea. The entire process will start with load-out/float-off the floating structures from the construction sites, offload the platform from the vessel if needed, dry transport floating structures through a long distance, and finally offload the platform. Both hydrodynamic and structural analyses are performed to evaluate transport vessel and floating structures. Critical issues associated with the transportation and offloading of platform from the vessel will be studied in detail. Detailed study is performed to evaluate the response of the system during this phase and additional work needed to make the vessel feasible for use of this purpose. The results demonstrate that with proper modifications, HYSY278 can effectively be used for transporting structures with proper arrangement and well-prepared operation. The procedure and details are presented on the basis of study results. Special attentions associated with future use will also be discussed based on the results from analysis.

Sun, Wei-ying; Zhang, Da-gang; Fan, Zhi-xia

2013-06-01

50

Advanced Transportation System Studies Technical Area 2 (TA-2) Heavy Lift Launch Vehicle Development Contract. Volume 2; Technical Results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The sections in this report include: Single Stage to Orbit (SSTO) Design Ground-rules; Operations Issues and Lessons Learned; Vertical-Takeoff/Landing Versus Vertical-Takeoff/Horizontal-Landing; SSTO Design Results; SSTO Simulation Results; SSTO Assessment Results; SSTO Sizing Tool User's Guide; SSto Turnaround Assessment Report; Ground Operations Assessment First Year Executive Summary; Health Management System Definition Study; Major TA-2 Presentations; First Lunar Outpost Heavy Lift Launch Vehicle Design and Assessment; and the section, Russian Propulsion Technology Assessment Reports.

1995-01-01

51

A study of aeroelastic and structural dynamic effects in multi-rotor systems with application to hybrid heavy lift vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An aeroelastic model suitable for the study of aeroelastic and structural dynamic effects in multirotor vehicles simulating a hybrid heavy lift vehicle was developed and applied to the study of a number of diverse problems. The analytical model developed proved capable of modeling a number of aeroelastic problems, namely: (1) isolated blade aeroelastic stability in hover and forward flight, (2) coupled rotor/fuselage aeromechanical problem in air or ground resonance, (3) tandem rotor coupled rotor/fuselage problems, and (4) the aeromechanical stability of a multirotor vehicle model representing a hybrid heavy lift airship (HHLA). The model was used to simulate the ground resonance boundaries of a three bladed hingeless rotor model, including the effect of aerodynamic loads, and the theoretical predictions compared well with experimental results. Subsequently the model was used to study the aeromechanical stability of a vehicle representing a hybrid heavy lift airship, and potential instabilities which could occur for this type of vehicle were identified. The coupling between various blade, supporting structure and rigid body modes was identified.

Friedmann, P. P.

1984-01-01

52

One Engine Inoperative (OEI) and Autorotation For Heavy Lift Rotorcraft Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Federal Aviation Administration will certainly require the Heavy Lift Rotorcraft to be operated under Category A performance and operations requirements. Because of the weight, no operation will be allowed except Category A according to FAA Part 29.1(c). This means that any where along the flight path, the aircraft must be able to land safely following an engine failure or continue flight. A repeatable flight profile must be developed and executed to ensure that the aircraft can be safely landed or flown away depending on its location on the flight profile. This means that there will be no Height-Velocity testing required as is currently required for Part 29 Category B. Since all the configurations shown to date are different than existing rotorcraft, each type would have to develop their individual requirements under existing special conditions FAA Part 21.17(b). This means the FAA will take the opportunity to negotiate additional requirements or change requirements to ensure safety. For example, since the tiltrotor did not fit normal rotorcraft category, new rules were negotiated between the applicant and the FAA. As a result of this negotiation, performance requirements for Category A were increased. The rules were written in terms of guaranteed performance instead of Category A requirements. Detailed discussion will follow later. The proposed tiltrotor would likely follow along with the current tiltrotor rules with the possibility of increase Category A performance requirements. Compounding with addition of wing and auxiliary thrust to both the tandem and coaxial rotor would result in new special condition aircraft. To my knowledge, no compound tandem or compound coaxial rotor has ever been certified by FAA.

Wood, Tom

2012-01-01

53

SPUTUM CYTOLOGY IN OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE TO HEAVY METALS - A PRELIMINARY STUDY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our study aimed the early detection of respiratory injuries afflicted with occupational exposure to chromium, cadmium, nickel and their compounds, with a known high carcinogenic risk. 23 platers (average of exposure 15.57±5.05 years) and matched controls have been investigated by clinical examination (including otolaryngology exam) completed by sputum cytology and an individual questionnaire. Heavy metals concentration, as well as the

Irina Anca Popescu; Doina Popa; Irina Alexandrescu

54

Occupational lifting tasks as a risk factor in low back pain: a case-control study in a Mexican population.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to quantify and assess whether lifting tasks in the workplace are a risk factor in lumbar spondyloarthrosis etiology. A case-control study was performed with 231 workers, 18-55 years old, insured by the Mexican Social Security Institute (IMSS, according to its designation in Spanish). A multivariate analysis using conditional logistical regression showed that lifting tasks, combined with driving tasks, are associated with this illness (OR = 7.3; 95% CI 1.7-31.4). The daily frequency of lifting as it interacts with work as a driver resulted in a greater risk (OR = 10.4; 95% CI 2.0-52.5). The load weight, daily task-hours and cumulative time showed a dose-response relationship. The attributable risk for lifting tasks was 0.83, suggesting that 83% of lumbar spondyloarthrosis development could be prevented if risk factors were eliminated by ergonomic redesign of the task. PMID:16131740

Prado-Leon, Lilia R; Celis, Alfredo; Avila-Chaurand, Rosalio

2005-01-01

55

Performance and Design Investigation of Heavy Lift Tiltrotor with Aerodynamic Interference Effects  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The aerodynamic interference effects on tiltrotor performance in cruise are investigated using comprehensive calculations, to better understand the physics and to quantify the effects on the aircraft design. Performance calculations were conducted for 146,600-lb conventional and quad tiltrotors, which are to cruise at 300 knots at 4000 ft/95 deg F condition. A parametric study was conducted to understand the effects of design parameters on the performance of the aircraft. Aerodynamic interference improves the aircraft lift-to-drag ratio of the baseline conventional tiltrotor. However, interference degrades the aircraft performance of the baseline quad tiltrotor, due mostly to the unfavorable effects from the front wing to the rear wing. A reduction of rotor tip speed increased the aircraft lift-to-drag ratio the most among the design parameters investigated.

Yeo, Yyeonsoo; Johnson, Wayne

2007-01-01

56

Gender specific analysis of occupational diseases of the low back caused by carrying, lifting or extreme trunk flexion—use of a prevention index to identify occupations with high prevention needs  

PubMed Central

Background Gender specific analysis of the occupational disease of the lumbar spine caused by carrying, lifting, or extreme trunk flexion in Germany (OD No.2108) with the aim to identify areas of focus for prevention and research with a prevention index (PI). Methods Data from the German Statutory Accident Insurance stratified by gender are shown. Results From 2002 until 2009 there were 2,877 confirmed cases of an OD No. 2108 (40.1% male and 59.1% female). The PI indicated the highest prevention need for female nursing/midwifery associate professionals and male building frame and related trades workers. Patient transfer and working in extremely bent posture were the most frequent exposures. Conclusions The identified occupations with high need for prevention among men come from nearly all major occupational groups whereas women cluster in occupational groups from the health and care sectors. Am. J. Ind. Med. 57:233–244, 2014. © 2013 The Authors. American Journal of Industrial Medicine Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24243091

Thiede, Markus; Liebers, Falk; Seidler, Andreas; Gravemeyer, Stefan; Latza, Ute

2014-01-01

57

The effect of lifting during work on low back pain: a health impact assessment based on a meta-analysis.  

PubMed

Lifting at work is considered an important risk factor for low back pain (LBP). However, contradictory findings have been reported, partly because frequency, duration and intensity (ie, the weight of the load) of lifting have not been systematically considered. This has hampered developments of threshold values for lifting. The aims of this study were: to assess the effect of lifting during work (quantified in duration, frequency or intensity) on the incidence of LBP and to quantify the impact of these relationships on the occurrence of LBP in occupational populations exposed to lifting. We searched in PubMed and EMBASE.com for longitudinal studies assessing the effect of occupational lifting on LBP incidence. For each study, the exposure-response slope of the association was estimated by loglinear regression analysis. When possible, a meta-analysis on these slopes was conducted. In a health impact assessment, the effects of the pooled exposure-response relationships on LBP incidence was assessed. Eight longitudinal studies were included. Pooled estimates resulted in ORs of 1.11 (1.05 to 1.18) per 10?kg lifted and 1.09 (1.03 to 1.15) per 10 lifts/day. Duration of lifting could not be pooled. Using these ORs, we estimated that lifting loads over 25?kg and lifting at a frequency of over 25 lifts/day will increase the annual incidence of LBP by 4.32% and 3.50%, respectively, compared to the incidence of not being exposed to lifting. Intensity and frequency of lifting significantly predict the occurrence of LBP. Exposure-response relationships show that lifting heavy loads may have a substantial impact on musculoskeletal health of the working population. This information may direct the development of occupational lifting guidelines and workplace design for LBP prevention. PMID:25165395

Coenen, Pieter; Gouttebarge, Vincent; van der Burght, Aafje S A M; van Dieën, Jaap H; Frings-Dresen, Monique H W; van der Beek, Allard J; Burdorf, Alex

2014-12-01

58

Advanced transportation system studies technical area 2(TA-2): Heavy lift launch vehicle development. volume 1; Executive summary  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of the TA-2 contract was to provide advanced launch vehicle concept definition and analysis to assist NASA in the identification of future launch vehicle requirements. Contracted analysis activities included vehicle sizing and performance analysis, subsystem concept definition, propulsion subsystem definition (foreign and domestic), ground operations and facilities analysis, and life cycle cost estimation. This document is part of the final report for the TA-2 contract. The final report consists of three volumes: Volume 1 is the Executive Summary, Volume 2 is Technical Results, and Volume 3 is Program Cost Estimates. The document-at-hand, Volume 1, provides a summary description of the technical activities that were performed over the entire contract duration, covering three distinct launch vehicle definition activities: heavy-lift (300,000 pounds injected mass to low Earth orbit) launch vehicles for the First Lunar Outpost (FLO), medium-lift (50,000-80,000 pounds injected mass to low Earth orbit) launch vehicles, and single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) launch vehicles (25,000 pounds injected mass to a Space Station orbit).

McCurry, J.

1995-01-01

59

Individual and occupational risk factors for knee osteoarthritis: results of a case-control study in Germany  

Microsoft Academic Search

INTRODUCTION: A number of occupational risk factors are discussed in relation to the development and progress of knee joint diseases (for example, working in a kneeling or squatting posture, lifting and carrying heavy weights). Besides the occupational factors, a number of individual risk factors are important. The distinction between work-related and other factors is crucial in assessing the risk and

André Klussmann; Hansjürgen Gebhardt; Matthias Nübling; Falk Liebers; Emilio Quirós Perea; Wolfgang Cordier; Lars V von Engelhardt; Markus Schubert; Andreas Dávid; Bertil Bouillon; Monika A Rieger

2010-01-01

60

Aeroelastic effects in multi-rotor vehicles with application to a hybrid heavy lift system. Part 1: Formulation of equations of motion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report presents a set of governing coupled differential equations for a model of a hybrid aircraft. The model consists of multiple rotor systems connected by an elastic interconnecting structure, with options to add any combination of or all of the following components; i.e., thrusters, a buoyant hull, and an underslung weight. The dynamic equations are written for the individual blade with hub motions, for the rigid body motions of the whole model, and also for the flexible modes of the interconnecting structure. One of the purposes of this study is to serve as the basis of a numerical study aimed at determining the aeroelastic stability and structural response characteristics of a Hybrid Heavy Lift Airship (HHLA). It is also expected that the formulation may be applicable to analyzing stability and responses of dual rotor helicopters such as a Heavy Lift Helicopter (HLH). Futhermore, the model is capable of representing coupled rotor/body aeromechanical problems of single rotor helicopters.

Venkatesan, C.; Friedman, P.

1984-01-01

61

Advanced transportation system studies technical area 2 (TA-2): Heavy lift launch vehicle development. volume 3; Program Cost estimates  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of the TA-2 contract was to provide advanced launch vehicle concept definition and analysis to assist NASA in the identification of future launch vehicle requirements. Contracted analysis activities included vehicle sizing and performance analysis, subsystem concept definition, propulsion subsystem definition (foreign and domestic), ground operations and facilities analysis, and life cycle cost estimation. The basic period of performance of the TA-2 contract was from May 1992 through May 1993. No-cost extensions were exercised on the contract from June 1993 through July 1995. This document is part of the final report for the TA-2 contract. The final report consists of three volumes: Volume 1 is the Executive Summary, Volume 2 is Technical Results, and Volume 3 is Program Cost Estimates. The document-at-hand, Volume 3, provides a work breakdown structure dictionary, user's guide for the parametric life cycle cost estimation tool, and final report developed by ECON, Inc., under subcontract to Lockheed Martin on TA-2 for the analysis of heavy lift launch vehicle concepts.

McCurry, J. B.

1995-01-01

62

Occupational Exposure to Mineral Turpentine and Heavy Fuels: A Possible Risk Factor for Alzheimer's Disease  

PubMed Central

Background The association between solvents and Alzheimer's disease (AD) has been the subject of several studies. Yet, only few studies have examined the various solvents separately, and the controls have rarely been monitored long enough. For these reasons and others, we believe that further studies are required. Objectives The objective of this study was to identify solvents associated with the clinicoradiological diagnostic of AD or mixed-type dementia (MD). Methods A retrospective case-control study was performed in 156 patients followed up at the Memory Diagnostic Center of Bertinot Juel Hospital (France). The inclusion criteria were known occupation(s), a Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score ?10 at the first visit, a neuropsychological evaluation performed and a diagnosis established in our Memory Diagnostic Center. The diagnostics were crossed with 9 solvents belonging to two classes of solvents. Exposure was evaluated using French national job-exposure matrices. Results Certain petroleum-based solvents and fuels (i.e. mineral turpentine, diesel fuel, fuel oil and kerosene) were associated with a diagnosis of AD or MD. This association was still significant after adjustment for age, sex and education (adjusted OR: 6.5; 95% CI: 2-20). Conclusion Occupational exposure to mineral turpentine and heavy fuels may be a risk factor for AD and MD. PMID:25028582

Helou, Rafik; Jaecker, Pierre

2014-01-01

63

A comparative study and application of continuously variable transmission to a single main rotor heavy lift helicopter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rotorcraft transmission design is limited by empirical weight trends that are proportional to the power/torque raised to the two-thirds coupled with the relative inexperience industry has with the employment of variable speed transmission to heavy lift helicopters of the order of 100,000 lbs gross weight and 30,000 installed horsepower. The advanced rotorcraft transmission program objectives are to reduce transmission weight by at least 25%, reduce sound pressure levels by at least 10 dB, have a 5000 hr mean time between removal, and also incorporate the use of split torque technology in rotorcraft drivetrains of the future. The major obstacle that challenges rotorcraft drivetrain design is the selection, design, and optimization of a variable speed transmission in the goal of achieving a 50% reduction in rotor speed and its ability to handle high torque with light weight gears, as opposed to using a two-speed transmission which has inherent structural problems and is highly unreliable due to the embodiment of the traction type transmission, complex clutch and brake system. This thesis selects a nontraction pericyclic continuously variable transmission (P-CVT) as the best approach for a single main rotor heavy lift helicopter. The objective is to target and overcome the above mentioned obstacle for drivetrain design. Overcoming this obstacle provides advancement in the state of the art of drivetrain design over existing planetary and split torque transmissions currently used in helicopters. The goal of the optimization process was to decrease weight, decrease noise, increase efficiency, and increase safety and reliability. The objective function utilized the minimization of the weight and the major constraint is the tooth bending stress of the facegears. The most important parameters of the optimization process are weight, maintainability, and reliability which are cross-functionally related to each other, and these parameters are related to the torques and operating speeds. The analysis of the split torque type P-CVT achieved a weight reduction of 42.5% and 40.7% over planetary and split torque transmissions respectively. In addition, a 19.5 dB sound pressure level reduction was achieved using active gear struts, and also the use of fabricated steel truss like housing provided a higher maintainability and reliability, low cost, and low weight over cast magnesium housing currently employed in helicopters. The static finite element analysis of the split torque type P-CVT, both 2-D and 3-D, yielded stresses below the allowable bending stress of the material. The goal of the finite element analysis is to see if the designed product has met its functional requirements. The safety assessment of the split torque type P-CVT yielded a 99% probability of mission success based on a Monte Carlo simulation using stochastic-petri net analysis and a failure hazard analysis. This was followed by an FTA/RBD analysis which yielded an overall system failure rate of 140.35 failures per million hours, and a preliminary certification and time line of certification was performed. The use of spherical facegears and pericyclic kinematics has advanced the state of the art in drivetrain design primarily in the reduction of weight and noise coupled with high safety, reliability, and efficiency.

Hameer, Sameer

64

Tornado lift  

E-print Network

It is shown that one of the causes for tornado is Tornado Lift. At increasing vortex diameter its kinetic energy decreases to keep the moment of momentum constant. A kinetic energy gradient of such vortex is Tornado Lift. Evaluation shows that contribution of Tornado Lift in air lifting in a tornado is comparable to buoyancy according to the order of magnitude.

Alexander Ivanchin

2010-02-06

65

Tornado lift  

E-print Network

It is shown that one of the causes for tornado is Tornado Lift. At increasing vortex diameter its kinetic energy decreases to keep the moment of momentum constant. A kinetic energy gradient of such vortex is Tornado Lift. Evaluation shows that contribution of Tornado Lift in air lifting in a tornado is comparable to buoyancy according to the order of magnitude.

Ivanchin, Alexander

2010-01-01

66

Eyelid lift  

MedlinePLUS

... blood pressure for about 3 weeks. This includes lifting, bending, and rigorous sports. Your doctor will remove ... 16. Fratila A, Moody BR. Blepharoplasty and brow lifting. In: Robinson JK, Hanke CW, Siegel DM, Fratila ...

67

Advanced underwater lift device  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Flexible underwater lift devices ('lift bags') are used in underwater operations to provide buoyancy to submerged objects. Commercially available designs are heavy, bulky, and awkward to handle, and thus are limited in size and useful lifting capacity. An underwater lift device having less than 20 percent of the bulk and less than 10 percent of the weight of commercially available models was developed. The design features a dual membrane envelope, a nearly homogeneous envelope membrane stress distribution, and a minimum surface-to-volume ratio. A proof-of-concept model of 50 kg capacity was built and tested. Originally designed to provide buoyancy to mock-ups submerged in NASA's weightlessness simulators, the device may have application to water-landed spacecraft which must deploy flotation upon impact, and where launch weight and volume penalties are significant. The device may also be useful for the automated recovery of ocean floor probes or in marine salvage applications.

Flanagan, David T.; Hopkins, Robert C.

1993-01-01

68

Does that look heavy to you? Perceived weight judgment in lifting actions in younger and older adults  

PubMed Central

When interpreting other people's movements or actions, observers may not only rely on the visual cues available in the observed movement, but they may also be able to “put themselves in the other person's shoes” by engaging brain systems involved in both “mentalizing” and motor simulation. The ageing process brings changes in both perceptual and motor abilities, yet little is known about how these changes may affect the ability to accurately interpret other people's actions. Here we investigated the effect of ageing on the ability to discriminate the weight of objects based on the movements of actors lifting these objects. Stimuli consisted of videos of an actor lifting a small box weighing 0.05–0.9 kg or a large box weighting 3–18 kg. In a four-alternative forced-choice task, younger and older participants reported the perceived weight of the box in each video. Overall, older participants were less sensitive than younger participants in discriminating the perceived weight of lifted boxes, an effect that was especially pronounced in the small box condition. Weight discrimination performance was better for the large box compared to the small box in both groups, due to greater saliency of the visual cues in this condition. These results suggest that older adults may require more salient visual cues to interpret the actions of others accurately. We discuss the potential contribution of age-related changes in visual and motor function on the observed effects and suggest that older adults' decline in the sensitivity to subtle visual cues may lead to greater reliance on visual analysis of the observed scene and its semantic context. PMID:24324423

Maguinness, Corrina; Setti, Annalisa; Roudaia, Eugenie; Kenny, Rose Anne

2013-01-01

69

Large Spun Formed Friction-Stir Welded Tank Domes for Liquid Propellant Tanks Made from AA2195: A Technology Demonstration for the Next Generation of Heavy Lift Launchers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Improving structural efficiency while reducing manufacturing costs are key objectives when making future heavy-lift launchers more performing and cost efficient. The main enabling technologies are the application of advanced high performance materials as well as cost effective manufacture processes. This paper presents the status and main results of a joint industrial research & development effort to demonstrate TRL 6 of a novel manufacturing process for large liquid propellant tanks for launcher applications. Using high strength aluminium-lithium alloy combined with the spin forming manufacturing technique, this development aims at thinner wall thickness and weight savings up to 25% as well as a significant reduction in manufacturing effort. In this program, the concave spin forming process is used to manufacture tank domes from a single flat plate. Applied to aluminium alloy, this process allows reaching the highest possible material strength status T8, eliminating numerous welding steps which are typically necessary to assemble tank domes from 3D-curved panels. To minimize raw material costs for large diameter tank domes for launchers, the dome blank has been composed from standard plates welded together prior to spin forming by friction stir welding. After welding, the dome blank is contoured in order to meet the required wall thickness distribution. For achieving a material state of T8, also in the welding seams, the applied spin forming process allows the required cold stretching of the 3D-curved dome, with a subsequent ageing in a furnace. This combined manufacturing process has been demonstrated up to TRL 6 for tank domes with a 5.4 m diameter. In this paper, the manufacturing process as well as test results are presented. Plans are shown how this process could be applied to future heavy-lift launch vehicles developments, also for larger dome diameters.

Stachulla, M.; Pernpeinter, R.; Brewster J.; Curreri, P.; Hoffman, E.

2010-01-01

70

Lift Experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this experiment, learners investigate how the size of a wing affects lift. Learners count the number of pennies an egg crate plane wing can hold until the plane will no longer fly. Learners calculate the amount of weight/mass added to plane and conduct two more trials to find the average weight/mass lifted. This lesson guide includes a data table, conclusion questions, and extension ideas.

Ricles, Shannon; Locke, Dan; Livingston, John

2013-01-30

71

Levers That Lift  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students are introduced to three of the six simple machines used by many engineers: lever, pulley, and wheel-and-axle. In general, engineers use the lever to magnify the force applied to an object, the pulley to lift heavy loads over a vertical path, and the wheel-and-axle to magnify the torque applied to an object. The mechanical advantage of these machines helps determine their ability to make work easier or make work faster.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

72

Lift Off!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity (on page 2 of the PDF) is a full inquiry investigation into the engineering challenges of sending scientific sensors into space. Groups of learners will develop sensors to be deployed on model rockets to measure or indicate selected properties encountered during each rocket’s flight, test launching and modifying as necessary to gather data. Relates to linked video, DragonflyTV: Lift Off!

Twin Cities Public Television, Inc.

2005-01-01

73

Buckling of a Longitudinally Jointed Curved Composite Panel Arc Segment for Next Generation of Composite Heavy Lift Launch Vehicles: Verification Testing Analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this work, an all-bonded out-of-autoclave (OoA) curved longitudinal composite joint concept, intended for use in the next generation of composite heavy lift launch vehicles, was evaluated and verified through finite element (FE) analysis, fabrication, testing, and post-test inspection. The joint was used to connect two curved, segmented, honeycomb sandwich panels representative of a Space Launch System (SLS) fairing design. The overall size of the resultant panel was 1.37 m by 0.74 m (54 in by 29 in), of which the joint comprised a 10.2 cm (4 in) wide longitudinal strip at the center. NASTRAN and ABAQUS were used to perform linear and non-linear analyses of the buckling and strength performance of the jointed panel. Geometric non-uniformities (i.e., surface contour imperfections) were measured and incorporated into the FE model and analysis. In addition, a sensitivity study of the specimens end condition showed that bonding face-sheet doublers to the panel's end, coupled with some stress relief features at corner-edges, can significantly reduce the stress concentrations near the load application points. Ultimately, the jointed panel was subjected to a compressive load. Load application was interrupted at the onset of buckling (at 356 kN 80 kips). A post-test non-destructive evaluation (NDE) showed that, as designed, buckling occurred without introducing any damage into the panel or the joint. The jointed panel was further capable of tolerating an impact damage to the same buckling load with no evidence of damage propagation. The OoA cured all-composite joint shows promise as a low mass factory joint for segmented barrels.

Farrokh, Babak; Segal, Kenneth N.; Akkerman, Michael; Glenn, Ronald L.; Rodini, Benjamin T.; Fan, Wei-Ming; Kellas, Sortiris; Pineda, Evan J.

2014-01-01

74

An assessment of dermal exposure to heavy fuel oil (HFO) in occupational settings.  

PubMed

Heavy fuel oil (HFO) components are a group of heavy petroleum streams produced in oil refineries from crude oil. Due to its physicochemical properties, the dermal route is an important route of exposure. However, no information on dermal exposure levels for HFO has previously been published. A method for measuring dermal HFO levels was developed using wipe sampling and measuring phenanthrene and naphthalene as markers of HFO exposure. Measurement surveys were carried out in four different types of facilities: oil refineries, distribution terminals, energy providers, and an engine building and repair company. Dermal wipe samples were collected from different anatomical regions: neck, hands, and forearms. The frequency of tasks with potential for dermal HFO exposure was generally low at these facilities, with the exception of the distribution terminals and the engine building and repair site. The geometric mean (GM) dermal load on the hands was ?0.1 ?g cm(-2) for both left and right hand and 0.013 and 0.019 ?g cm(-2) for the left and right forearm, respectively. With one exception, all results from the neck samples were below the limit of detection. The highest dermal loads for the hands and forearms were found in the engine building and repair facility (hands: GM = 1.6 ?g cm(-2); forearms: GM = 0.41 ?g cm(-2)). The tasks with the highest dermal loads were the maintenance (hands: GM = 1.7 ?g cm(-2)) and cleaning tasks (hands: GM = 0.24 ?g cm(-2)). Actual dermal loads were low when compared with workplace dermal exposure measurements reported by other researchers for similar scenarios with other substances. This may be explained by high compliance of gloves use by workers during HFO handling tasks and likely avoidance of contact with HFO due to its high viscosity and the requirement to keep HFO at elevated temperatures during storage, transport, and use. PMID:21402869

Christopher, Yvette; Van Tongeren, Martie; Urbanus, Jan; Cherrie, John W

2011-04-01

75

Occupational Physical Loading Tasks and Knee Osteoarthritis: A Review of the Evidence  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Purpose: To perform a systematic review with best evidence synthesis examining the literature on the relationship between occupational loading tasks and knee osteoarthritis (OA). Methods: Two databases were searched to identify articles published between 1946 and April, 2011. Eligible studies were those that (1) included adults reporting on their employment history; (2) measured individuals' exposure to work-related activities with heavy loading in the knee joint; and (3) identified presence of knee OA (determined by X-ray), cartilage defects associated with knee OA (identified by magnetic resonance imaging), or joint replacement surgery. Results: A total of 32 articles from 31 studies met the inclusion criteria. We found moderate evidence that combined heavy lifting and kneeling is a risk factor for knee OA, with odds ratios (OR) varying from 1.8 to 7.9, and limited evidence for heavy lifting (OR=1.4–7.3), kneeling (OR=1.5–6.9), stair climbing (OR=1.6–5.1), and occupational groups (OR=1.4–4.7) as risk factors. When examined by sex, moderate level evidence of knee OA was found in men; however, the evidence in women was limited. Conclusions: Further high-quality prospective studies are warranted to provide further evidence on the role of occupational loading tasks in knee OA, particularly in women. PMID:24719516

Ezzat, Allison M.

2014-01-01

76

H? control of a twin lift helicopter system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two H? controller designs are presented for a twin lift helicopter system (TLHS). The TLHS configuration consists of two US-60A Sikorsky Blackhawk helicopters jointly lifting a heavy payload. The first design presented considers the case in which the tethers connecting each helicopter to the load are equal in length, and the second considers the case in which the lengths are

H. Keath Reynolds; Armando A. Rodriguez

1992-01-01

77

Catwalk grate lifting tool  

DOEpatents

A device for lifting catwalk grates comprising an elongated bent member with a handle at one end and a pair of notched braces and a hook at the opposite end that act in conjunction with each other to lock onto the grate and give mechanical advantage in lifting the grate.

Gunter, Larry W. (615 Sandpit Rd., Leesville, SC 29070)

1992-01-01

78

Portable Lifting Seat  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Portable lifting machine assists user in rising from seated position to standing position, or in sitting down. Small and light enough to be carried like briefcase. Used on variety of chairs and benches. Upholstered aluminum box houses mechanism of lifting seat. Springs on outer shaft-and-arm subassembly counterbalance part of user's weight to assist motor.

Weddendorf, Bruce

1993-01-01

79

Catwalk grate lifting tool  

DOEpatents

A device is described for lifting catwalk grates comprising an elongated bent member with a handle at one end and a pair of notched braces and a hook at the opposite end that act in conjunction with each other to lock onto the grate and give mechanical advantage in lifting the grate. 10 figs.

Gunter, L.W.

1992-08-11

80

Samus Counter Lifting Fixture  

SciTech Connect

A lifting fixture has been designed to handle the Samus counters. These counters are being removed from the D-zero area and will be transported off site for further use at another facility. This fixture is designed specifically for this particular application and will be transferred along with the counters. The future use of these counters may entail installation at a facility without access to a crane and therefore a lift fixture suitable for both crane and/or fork lift usage has been created The counters weigh approximately 3000 lbs. and have threaded rods extended through the counter at the top comers for lifting. When these counters were first handled/installed these rods were used in conjunction with appropriate slings and handled by crane. The rods are secured with nuts tightened against the face of the counter. The rod thread is M16 x 2({approx}.625-inch dia.) and extends 2-inch (on average) from the face of the counter. It is this cantilevered rod that the lift fixture engages with 'C' style plates at the four top comers. The strongback portion of the lift fixture is a steel rectangular tube 8-inch (vertical) x 4-inch x .25-inch wall, 130-inch long. 1.5-inch square bars are welded perpendicular to the long axis of the rectangular tube at the appropriate lift points and the 'C' plates are fastened to these bars with 3/4-10 high strength bolts -grade 8. Two short channel sections are positioned-welded-to the bottom of the rectangular tube on 40 feet centers, which are used as locators for fork lift tines. On the top are lifting eyes for sling/crane usage and are rated at 3500 lbs. safe working load each - vertical lift only.

Stredde, H.; /Fermilab

1998-05-27

81

FREIGHT CONTAINER LIFTING STANDARD  

SciTech Connect

This standard details the correct methods of lifting and handling Series 1 freight containers following ISO-3874 and ISO-1496. The changes within RPP-40736 will allow better reading comprehension, as well as correcting editorial errors.

POWERS DJ; SCOTT MA; MACKEY TC

2010-01-13

82

Nail Lifting (Onycholysis)  

MedlinePLUS

... rise up like a hood. Nail lifting creates space under the nail that gathers dirt and debris ... 2006-2013 Logical Images, Inc. All rights reserved. Advertising Notice This Site and third parties who place ...

83

Lifting Bell inequalities  

E-print Network

A Bell inequality defined for a specific experimental configuration can always be extended to a situation involving more observers, measurement settings or measurement outcomes. In this article, such "liftings" of Bell inequalities are studied. It is shown that if the original inequality defines a facet of the polytope of local joint outcome probabilities then the lifted one also defines a facet of the more complex polytope.

Stefano Pironio

2005-03-21

84

A hypersonic lift mechanism with decoupled lift and drag surfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present study, we propose a novel lift mechanism for which the lifting surface produces only lift. This is achieved by mounting a two-dimensional shock-shock interaction generator below the lifting surface. The shock-shock interaction theory in conjunction with a three dimensional correction and checked with computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is used to analyze the lift and drag forces as function of the geometrical parameters and inflow Mach number. Through this study, though limited to only inviscid flow, we conclude that it is possible to obtain a high lift to drag ratio by suitably arranging the shock interaction generator.

Xu, YiZhe; Xu, ZhiQi; Li, ShaoGuang; Li, Juan; Bai, ChenYuan; Wu, ZiNiu

2013-05-01

85

Musculoskeletal disorders and occupational exposures: how should we judge the evidence concerning the causal association?  

PubMed

Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) affecting the back, upper and lower extremities are widespread in the general population, implying a variety of causal factors. Multiple causes are not mutually exclusive, and a high background rate does not preclude associations with specific factors that are uncommon in the general population. MSDs have well-documented associations with occupational ergonomic stressors such as repetitive motion, heavy lifting, non-neutral postures, and vibration. Organizational features of the work environment, such as time pressure and low decision latitude, may also play a role, at least by potentiating the effects of physical loading. Numerous systematic reviews have mostly concurred with these overall findings. Nevertheless, some continue to debate whether MSDs are sometimes work-related, even for those performing jobs with repetitive and routinized tasks, heavy lifting, and/or pronounced postural strain. This article discusses (1) some epidemiologic features of MSDs that underlie that debate; and (2) the question of what should appropriately be considered a gold standard for scientific evidence on an etiological question such as the health effects of a non-voluntary exposure, such as an occupational or environmental agent. In particular, randomized clinical trials have little relevance for determining the health effects of non-therapeutic risk factors. PMID:24553854

Punnett, Laura

2014-03-01

86

Affordable Heavy Lift Capability: 2000-2004  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This custom bibliography from the NASA Scientific and Technical Information Program lists a sampling of records found in the NASA Aeronautics and Space Database. The scope of this topic includes technologies to allow robust, affordable access of cargo, particularly to low-Earth orbit. This area of focus is one of the enabling technologies as defined by NASA s Report of the President s Commission on Implementation of United States Space Exploration Policy, published in June 2004.

2004-01-01

87

Lifting the Myth Off Hernias  

MedlinePLUS

... hernia. But is there really a link between lifting or straining and hernias or is it just ... and Association It's understandable how the connection between lifting and hernias got started, but just because it's ...

88

Drag and lift  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity introduces students to the aerodynamic basics of lift and drag. The materials needed are pieces of cardboard 20 x 30 inches and other size cardboard pieces. This would be a suitable activity for small groups. Copyright 2005 International Technology Education Association

Aerospace, Cislunar

1997-01-01

89

Lifting Sample Return Capsule  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's Stardust sample return capsule successfully landed at the U.S. Air Force Utah Test and Training Range at 2:10 a.m. Pacific time (3:10 a.m. Mountain time). The capsule contains cometary and interstellar samples gathered by the Stardust spacecraft.

Here, the capsule is being lifted at the landing site.

2006-01-01

90

Lifting as You Climb  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article addresses leadership themes and answers leadership questions presented to "Exchange" by the Panel members who attended the "Exchange" Panel of 300 Reception in Dallas, Texas, last November. There is an old proverb that encourages people to lift as they climb: "While you climb a mountain, you must not forget others along the way." With…

Sullivan, Debra R.

2009-01-01

91

JWST Lifting System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A document describes designing, building, testing, and certifying a customized crane (Lifting Device LD) with a strong back (cradle) to facilitate the installation of long wall panels and short door panels for the GHe phase of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). The LD controls are variable-frequency drive controls designed to be adjustable for very slow and very-short-distance movements throughout the installation. The LD has a lift beam with an electric actuator attached at the end. The actuator attaches to a rectangular strong back (cradle) for lifting the long wall panels and short door panels from a lower angle into the vertical position inside the chamber, and then rotating around the chamber for installation onto the existing ceiling and floor. The LD rotates 360 (in very small increments) in both clockwise and counterclockwise directions. Eight lifting pads are on the top ring with 2-in. (.5-cm) eye holes spaced evenly around the ring to allow for the device to be suspended by three crane hoists from the top of the chamber. The LD is operated by remote controls that allow for a single, slow mode for booming the load in and out, with slow and very slow modes for rotating the load.

Tolleson, William

2012-01-01

92

Hydraulic lifting device  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A piston and cylinder assembly is disclosed which is constructed of polyvinyl chloride that uses local water pressure to perform small lifting tasks. The chamber is either pressurized to extend the piston or depressurized to retract the piston. The present invention is best utilized for raising and lowering toilet seats.

Terrell, Kyle (inventor)

1990-01-01

93

Helicopter Toy and Lift Estimation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A $1 plastic helicopter toy (called a Wacky Whirler) can be used to demonstrate lift. Students can make basic measurements of the toy, use reasonable assumptions and, with the lift formula, estimate the lift, and verify that it is sufficient to overcome the toy's weight. (Contains 1 figure.)

Shakerin, Said

2013-01-01

94

Occupational Asthma  

MedlinePLUS

Share | Occupational Asthma: Tips to Remember Occupational asthma is caused by inhaling fumes, gases, dust or other potentially harmful substances while "on the job." Often, your symptoms are worse during the ...

95

Occupational Myths  

E-print Network

the functions outweigh the dysfunctions? Conclusions The study of occupational myths has not been of central concern to the oc cupational sociologist. In fact, the number of studies done with this explicit focus can be counted on one hand. Nevertheless...OCCUPATIONAL MYTHS George Ritzer University of Kansas Myths abound in occupational life, but the topic of myths has generally been neglected by occupational sociologists. This paper attempts to rectify the omission. It is contended that we find...

Ritzer, George

1971-04-01

96

Occupational Dermatitis  

PubMed Central

This article attempts to define the term ‘occupational dermatitis’. A step by step approach to the management of possible occupational dermatitis is outlined under the following headings: Suspicion, Identification, Elimination or Reduction, and Treatment. Many other factors, in addition to the identification of occupational hazards, play a role in causation of occupational dermatitis and if not kept in mind may confuse or mislead the physician in his diagnosis and management. PMID:21301507

Rosenthal, D.

1978-01-01

97

Occupational and leisure time physical activity in contrasting relation to ambulatory blood pressure  

PubMed Central

Background While moderate and vigorous leisure time physical activities are well documented to decrease the risk for cardiovascular disease, several studies have demonstrated an increased risk for cardiovascular disease in workers with high occupational activity. Research on the underlying causes to the contrasting effects of occupational and leisure time physical activity on cardiovascular health is lacking. The aim of this study was to examine the relation of objective and self-report measures of occupational and leisure time physical activity with 24-h ambulatory systolic blood pressure (BP). Methods Results for self-reported physical activity are based on observations in 182 workers (60% male, mean age 51 years), while valid objective physical activity data were available in 151 participants. The usual level of physical activity was assessed by 5 items from the Job Content Questionnaire (high physical effort, lifting heavy loads, rapid physical activity, awkward body positions and awkward positions of head or arms at work) and one item asking about the general level of physical activity during non-working time. On a regular working day, participants wore an ambulatory BP monitor and an accelerometer physical activity monitor during 24 h. Associations were examined by means of Analysis of Covariance. Results Workers with an overall high level of self-reported occupational physical activity as well as those who reported to often lift heavy loads at work had a higher mean systolic BP at work, at home and during sleep. However, no associations were observed between objectively measured occupational physical activity and BP. In contrast, those with objectively measured high proportion of moderate and vigorous leisure time physical activity had a significantly lower mean systolic BP during daytime, while no differences were observed according to self-reported level of leisure time physical activity. Conclusions These findings suggest that workers reporting static occupational physical activities, unlike general physically demanding tasks characterized by dynamic movements of large muscle groups, are related to a higher daily systolic BP, while high objective levels of moderate and vigorous leisure time physical activity are related to lower daytime systolic BP. Ambulatory systolic BP may be a physiological explanatory factor for the contrasting effects of occupational and leisure time physical activity. PMID:23164344

2012-01-01

98

Occupational Outlook Handbook: Healthcare Occupations  

MedlinePLUS

... a nurse or other healthcare practitioner. Less than high school $20,820 Licensed Practical and Licensed Vocational Nurses ... workers, property, the environment, and the general public. High school diploma or equivalent $47,440 Occupational Therapists Occupational ...

99

Enhanced Rescue Lift Capability  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The evolving and ever-increasing demands of emergency response and disaster relief support provided by rotorcraft dictate, among other things, the development of enhanced rescue lift capability for these platforms. This preliminary analysis is first-order in nature but provides considerable insight into some of the challenges inherent in trying to effect rescue using a unique form of robotic rescue device deployed and operated from rotary-wing aerial platforms.

Young, Larry A.

2007-01-01

100

Lifting Body Flight Vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA has a technology program in place to build the X-33 test vehicle and then the full sized Reusable Launch Vehicle, VentureStar. VentureStar is a Lifting Body (LB) flight vehicle which will carry our future payloads into orbit, and will do so at a much reduced cost. There were three design contenders for the new Reusable Launch Vehicle: a Winged Vehicle, a Vertical Lander, and the Lifting Body(LB). The LB design won the competition. A LB vehicle has no wings and derives its lift solely from the shape of its body, and has the unique advantages of superior volumetric efficiency, better aerodynamic efficiency at high angles-of-attack and hypersonic speeds, and reduced thermal protection system weight. Classically, in a ballistic vehicle, drag has been employed to control the level of deceleration in reentry. In the LB, lift enables the vehicle to decelerate at higher altitudes for the same velocity and defines the reentry corridor which includes a greater cross range. This paper outlines our LB heritage which was utilized in the design of the new Reusable Launch Vehicle, VentureStar. NASA and the U.S. Air Force have a rich heritage of LB vehicle design and flight experience. Eight LB's were built and over 225 LB test flights were conducted through 1975 in the initial LB Program. Three LB series were most significant in the advancement of today's LB technology: the M2-F; HL-1O; and X-24 series. The M2-F series was designed by NASA Ames Research Center, the HL-10 series by NASA Langley Research Center, and the X-24 series by the Air Force. LB vehicles are alive again today.

Barret, Chris

1998-01-01

101

Back lift versus leg lift: an index and visualization of dynamic lifting strategies.  

PubMed

The description of a lifting strategy is typically provided in qualitative terms. A quantitative static descriptor or index differentiates the starting postures but not the primary moving segments. This technical note proposes an index that quantitatively characterizes different dynamic postural strategies employed during sagittal plane lifting. Dynamic lifting strategies are modeled in the velocity domain as different schemes of partitioning postural changes between the torso and leg segments. The index consists of two parameters, assigned to two leg segments, quantifying their contributions relative to the torso. Given a measured lifting movement, its index parameters values, ranging from 0.1 to 10, are estimated through an enumeration search process with the objective of minimizing the fitting error. The use of this index is illustrated by applying it to 24 lifting movements performed by six subjects assuming either a back-lift or a leg-lift strategy. Results indicate that a lifting strategy, in terms of whether the leg or the back is generally the prime mover, can be differentiated and visualized using this simple two-parameter index. In addition, indistinct intermediate strategies are also discerned, as the involvement of each segment in a lifting movement is quantified. The index is however limited in that it does not accommodate arm motion contributions to a lift nor possible time-dependent strategic changes during a lift. Potential future applications include time-efficient movement prediction and simulation for computerized biomechanical or ergonomic analysis. PMID:10808001

Zhang, X; Nussbaum, M A; Chaffin, D B

2000-06-01

102

Catalytic Generation of Lift Gases for Balloons  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A lift-gas cracker (LGC) is an apparatus that generates a low-molecular-weight gas (mostly hydrogen with smaller amounts of carbon monoxide and/or carbon dioxide) at low gauge pressure by methanol reforming. LGCs are undergoing development for use as sources of buoyant gases for filling zero-gauge-pressure meteorological and scientific balloons in remote locations where heavy, high-pressure helium cylinders are not readily available. LGCs could also be used aboard large, zero-gauge-pressure, stratospheric research balloons to extend the duration of flight.

Zubrin, Robert; Berggren, Mark

2011-01-01

103

Review of occupational hazards associated with aquaculture.  

PubMed

Aquaculture is an emerging sector that is associated with most of the same hazards that are present in agriculture generally, but many fish farming tasks entail added danger, including working around water and working at night. Comprehensive studies of these hazards have not been conducted, and substantial uncertainty exists as to the extent of these hazards. The question addressed in this investigation was, "What is known about potential hazardous occupational exposures to aquatic plant and animal farmers?" In this review, causes of death included drowning, electrocution, crushing-related injury, hydrogen sulfide poisoning, and fatal head injury. Nonfatal injuries were associated with slips, trips, and falls; machines; strains and sprains; chemicals; and fires. Risk factors included cranes (tip over and power line contact), tractors and sprayer-equipped all-terrain vehicles (overturn), heavy loads (lifting), high-pressure sprayers, slippery surfaces, rotting waste (hydrogen sulfide production), eroding levees (overturn hazard), storm-related rushing water, diving conditions (bends and drowning), nighttime conditions, working alone, lack of training, lack of or failure to use personal flotation devices, and all-terrain vehicle speeding. Other hazards included punctures or cuts from fish teeth or spines, needlesticks, exposure to low temperatures, and bacterial and parasitic infections . PMID:20954037

Myers, Melvin L

2010-10-01

104

Detail of lift wire rope attachment to lift span at ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Detail of lift wire rope attachment to lift span at southeast corner. Note rope-adjustment turnbuckle with strap keepers to prevent its rotation, which could pull the bridge out of alignment. A single rope and light-gauge attachment at each corner were adequate for lifting the span because most of its weight was balanced by the two counterweights. - Potomac Edison Company, Chesapeake & Ohio Canal Bridge, Spanning C & O Canal South of U.S. 11, Williamsport, Washington County, MD

105

Chair Lift Challenge  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners explore the unique challenges in transportation engineering, such as devising a method for skiers or hikers to get to the top of a mountain. Students work in teams to design a chair lift made out of everyday materials that can carry a tennis ball up a rope line and back down in a controlled manner so that the ball does not fall out of the cup. They sketch their plans, consider material selection, build their system, test it, reflect on the challenge, and present their experiences to their class.

Ieee

2014-05-22

106

Effect of lifting belts on trunk muscle activation during a suddenly applied load.  

PubMed

The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health suggests there is insufficient biomechanical or epidemiological evidence to recommend the use of back belts in industry. From a biomechanical perspective, previous work suggests that lifting belts stiffen the torso, particularly in the frontal and transverse planes. To determine whether lifting belts stiffen the torso and alter the trunk muscle response during a sudden loading event, we tested the hypotheses that (a) lifting belts alter peak muscle activity recorded with electromyography (EMG) during sudden loading and (b) lifting belts have a larger impact on trunk muscle response when sudden loads are applied asymmetric to the torso's midsagittal plane. A sudden load was delivered to 10 men and 10 women without history of low back disorder via a cable attached to a thoracic harness; motion was restricted to the lumbar spine. Results indicate that gender was not a significant factor in this study. The lifting belt reduced the peak normalized EMG of the erector spinae muscles on average by 3% during asymmetric loading, though peak normalized EMG was increased by 2% during symmetric loading. Lifting belts have been shown to slightly reduce peak erector spinae activity during asymmetric sudden loading events in a constrained paradigm; however, the effects of lifting belts are too small to provide effective protection of workers. Actual or potential applications include the assessment of lifting belts as protective devices in workers based on the effects of lifting belts on the trunk muscle activity. PMID:10774136

Thomas, J S; Lavender, S A; Corcos, D M; Andersson, G B

1999-12-01

107

Initiating Piloted Mars Expeditions with Medium-Lift Launch Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A method of accomplishing manned expeditions to Mars with existing medium-lift launch systems is discussed. In this architecture, 20-tonne propulsion stages are placed individually in low-Earth orbit, where they are mated to Mars-bound payloads and ignited at successive perigees to execute trans-Mars injection. Spacecraft follow conjunction-class trajectories to the red planet and utilize aerobraking for orbital capture and descent. Return vehicles are fuelled with methane/oxygen bipropellant synthesized primarily from Martian resources. Dispatching expeditions from orbit with individual, high-energy stages - rather than directly from the Earth's surface - allows for the division of mission mass into more manageable components, which can be launched by vehicles that exist today. This plan does not require the development of heavy-lift launch technology: an effective yet costly proposition that may otherwise hinder current space exploration initiatives. Without the need for heavy-lift boosters, manned missions to Mars can be undertaken presently, and within the constraints of today's space exploration budgets. It is concluded that the mission design herein represents a less robust, though more economically viable method for initiating manned Mars exploration than proposals which require heavy-lift technology - an alternative method by which a new planet could be opened to humanity.

Bonin, G. R.

108

Shape memory alloy resetable spring lift for pedestrian protection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pedestrian protection has become an increasingly important aspect of automotive safety with new regulations taking effect around the world. Because it is increasingly difficult to meet these new regulations with traditional passive approaches, active lifts are being explored that increase the "crush zone" between the hood and rigid under-hood components as a means of mitigating the consequences of an impact with a non-occupant. Active lifts, however, are technically challenging because of the simultaneously high forces, stroke and quick timing resulting in most of the current devices being single use. This paper introduces the SMArt (Shape Memory Alloy ReseTable) Spring Lift, an automatically resetable and fully reusable device, which couples conventional standard compression springs to store the energy required for a hood lift, with Shape Memory Alloys actuators to achieve both an ultra high speed release of the spring and automatic reset of the system for multiple uses. Each of the four SMArt Device subsystems, lift, release, lower and reset/dissipate, are individually described. Two identical complete prototypes were fabricated and mounted at the rear corners of the hood, incorporated within a full-scale vehicle testbed at the SMARTT (Smart Material Advanced Research and Technology Transfer) lab at University of Michigan. Full operational cycle testing of a stationary vehicle in a laboratory setting confirms the ultrafast latch release, controlled lift profile, gravity lower to reposition the hood, and spring recompression via the ratchet engine successfully rearming the device for repeat cycles. While this is only a laboratory demonstration and extensive testing and development would be required for transition to a fielded product, this study does indicate that the SMArt Lift has promise as an alternative approach to pedestrian protection.

Barnes, Brian M.; Brei, Diann E.; Luntz, Jonathan E.; Strom, Kenneth; Browne, Alan L.; Johnson, Nancy

2008-03-01

109

What's happening in artificial lift  

SciTech Connect

New developments reported this year are primarily in the areas of electrical submersible pumps (ESPs), beam pumps, and gas lift. The available information includes new products, techniques for extending run life, controllers, monitors and various other products. Specific topics in this article include: ESP turn key leases for temporary lifting; Horizontal pumps; Gas diffusion coatings for ESP bushings and sleeves; ESP variable rate current-voltage recording monitor; Power tubing ESP status; Low volume, high efficiency ESP stage; ESP improvements for horizontal and abrasive conditions; ESP computer design program effort; Well analyzer; Beam pump controller with variable frequency drive; Hydraulic pumping units; Mobile swab unit for marginal wells; Device for unseating downhole pumps; Gas lift valve test stand; Plunger lift controllers; Resettable ESP packer; Power generation from wellhead gas; and Artificial lift PC design program.

Lea, J.F. (Amoco Production Research Co., Tulsa, OK (US)); Winkler, H.W.

1991-05-01

110

Summary of Lift and Lift/Cruise Fan Powered Lift Concept Technology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A summary is presented of some of the lift and lift/cruise fan technology including fan performance, fan stall, ground effects, ingestion and thrust loss, design tradeoffs and integration, control effectiveness and several other areas related to vertical short takeoff and landing (V/STOL) aircraft conceptual design. The various subjects addressed, while not necessarily pertinent to specific short takeoff/vertical landing (STOVL) supersonic designs being considered, are of interest to the general field of lift and lift/cruise fan aircraft designs and may be of importance in the future. The various wind tunnel and static tests reviewed are: (1) the Doak VZ-4 ducted fan, (2) the 0.57 scale model of the Bell X-22 ducted fan aircraft, (3) the Avrocar, (4) the General Electric lift/cruise fan, (5) the vertical short takeoff and landing (V/STOL) lift engine configurations related to ingestion and consequent thrust loss, (6) the XV-5 and other fan-in-wing stall consideration, (7) hybrid configurations such as lift fan and lift/cruise fan or engines, and (8) the various conceptual design studies by air-frame contractors. Other design integration problems related to small and large V/STOL transport aircraft are summarized including lessons learned during more recent conceptual design studies related to a small executive V/STOL transport aircraft.

Cook, Woodrow L.

1993-01-01

111

Occupational Health  

MedlinePLUS

Occupational health problems occur at work or because of the kind of work you do. These problems can include ... by exposure to radiation Exposure to germs in health care settings Good job safety and prevention practices ...

112

Occupational Diseases in Korea  

PubMed Central

Korea has industrialized since the 1970s. Pneumoconiosis in coal miners was the most common occupational disease in the 1970s to 1980s. With the industrialization, the use of many chemicals have increased since the 1970s. As a consequence, there were outbreaks of occupational diseases caused by poisonous chemicals, such as heavy metal poisoning, solvent poisoning and occupational asthma in the late 1980s and early 1990s with civil movement for democracy. Many actions have been taken for prevention by the government, employers and employees or unions. In the 1990s most chemical related diseases and pneumoconiosis have rapidly decreased due to improving work environment. In the late 1990s, cerebro-cardiovascular diseases related to job stress or work overloads have abruptly increased especially after the economic crisis in 1998. After the year 2000, musculoskeletal disorders became a major problem especially in assembly lines in the manufacturing industry and they were expanded to the service industry. Mental diseases related to job stress have increased. Infectious diseases increased in health care workers and afforestation workers. Occupational cancers are increasing because of their long latency, although the use of carcinogenic substances are reduced, limited, and even banned. PMID:21258589

Kim, Eun A

2010-01-01

113

Fuel Cell-Powered Lift Truck Fleet Deployment Projects Final Technical Report May 2014  

SciTech Connect

The overall objectives of this project were to evaluate the performance, operability and safety of fork lift trucks powered by fuel cells in large distribution centers. This was accomplished by replacing the batteries in over 350 lift trucks with fuel cells at five distribution centers operated by GENCO. The annual cost savings of lift trucks powered by fuel cell power units was between $2,400 and $5,300 per truck compared to battery powered lift trucks, excluding DOE contributions. The greatest savings were in fueling labor costs where a fuel cell powered lift truck could be fueled in a few minutes per day compared to over an hour for battery powered lift trucks which required removal and replacement of batteries. Lift truck operators where generally very satisfied with the performance of the fuel cell power units, primarily because there was no reduction in power over the duration of a shift as experienced with battery powered lift trucks. The operators also appreciated the fast and easy fueling compared to the effort and potential risk of injury associated with switching heavy batteries in and out of lift trucks. There were no safety issues with the fueling or operation of the fuel cells. Although maintenance costs for the fuel cells were higher than for batteries, these costs are expected to decrease significantly in the next generation of fuel cells, making them even more cost effective.

Klingler, James J [GENCO Infrastructure Solutions, Inc.] [GENCO Infrastructure Solutions, Inc.

2014-05-06

114

The Fast Lifting Wavelet Transform  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A tutorial on wavelet filters aimed at engineers. Focusses on "lifting," a technique for creating a general framework to design filters for every possible wavelet transform. May be read online or downloaded in PostScript format.

Valens, C.

115

Occupational neurology.  

PubMed Central

The nervous system is vulnerable to the effects of certain chemicals and physical conditions found in the work environment. The activities of an occupational neurologist focus on the evaluation of patients with neurological disorders caused by occupational or environmental conditions. When one is making a differential diagnosis in patients with neurological disorders, the possibility of toxic exposure or encounters with physical factors in the workplace must not be overlooked. Central to an accurate clinical diagnosis is the patient's history. A diagnosis of an occupational or environmental neurological problem requires a careful assessment of the clinical abnormalities and confirmation of these disabilities by objective tests such as nerve conduction velocity, evoked potentials, electroencephalogram, neuropsychological batteries, or nerve biopsy. On the basis of information about hazards in the workplace, safety standards and environmental and biological monitoring can be implemented in the workplace to reduce the risks of undue injury. Clinical manifestations of headache, memory disturbance, and peripheral neuropathy are commonly encountered presentations of the effects of occupational hazards. Physicians in everyday clinical practice must be aware of the signs and symptoms associated with exposure to possible neurotoxins and work methods. Occupational and environmental circumstances must be explored when evaluating patients with neurologic disorders. PMID:3577214

Feldman, R. G.

1987-01-01

116

Occupational asthma.  

PubMed

Occupational asthma is becoming an increasingly common problem worldwide. To date however, the impact of this disorder in Ireland has not been evaluated. In this present study we document 39 cases of occupational asthma presenting to St. Vincent's Hospital between 1978 and 1988 and evaluate the patient characteristics, the occupationals involved, the causative agents and clinical course and outcome. The characteristics of the occupational asthma group were striking when compared to traditional occupational lung diseases, such as the pneumoconioses. These features were (i) the relatively young age--30 patients (77%) developed their disease by the age of 35, (ii) the presence of a substantial group of women--31% of the study group, and (iii) the relatively rapid onset of asthma after taking up employment--56% had asthma within three years of exposure. In contrast the pneumoconioses affect older, preponderantly male workers who manifest clinically symptomatic disease after decades of exposure. Long standing traditional industries were well represented ranging from milling and the bakery trade to textiles and printing. However, there was an even larger contribution from the more modern, high technology sector particularily the chemical, electronic and plastic industries. PMID:2045262

Kidney, J; Fitzgerald, M

1991-03-01

117

Occupational neurotoxic diseases in taiwan.  

PubMed

Occupational neurotoxic diseases have become increasingly common in Taiwan due to industrialization. Over the past 40 years, Taiwan has transformed from an agricultural society to an industrial society. The most common neurotoxic diseases also changed from organophosphate poisoning to heavy metal intoxication, and then to organic solvent and semiconductor agent poisoning. The nervous system is particularly vulnerable to toxic agents because of its high metabolic rate. Neurological manifestations may be transient or permanent, and may range from cognitive dysfunction, cerebellar ataxia, Parkinsonism, sensorimotor neuropathy and autonomic dysfunction to neuromuscular junction disorders. This study attempts to provide a review of the major outbreaks of occupational neurotoxins from 1968 to 2012. A total of 16 occupational neurotoxins, including organophosphates, toxic gases, heavy metals, organic solvents, and other toxic chemicals, were reviewed. Peer-reviewed articles related to the electrophysiology, neuroimaging, treatment and long-term follow up of these neurotoxic diseases were also obtained. The heavy metals involved consisted of lead, manganese, organic tin, mercury, arsenic, and thallium. The organic solvents included n-hexane, toluene, mixed solvents and carbon disulfide. Toxic gases such as carbon monoxide, and hydrogen sulfide were also included, along with toxic chemicals including polychlorinated biphenyls, tetramethylammonium hydroxide, organophosphates, and dimethylamine borane. In addition we attempted to correlate these events to the timeline of industrial development in Taiwan. By researching this topic, the hope is that it may help other developing countries to improve industrial hygiene and promote occupational safety and health care during the process of industrialization. PMID:23251841

Liu, Chi-Hung; Huang, Chu-Yun; Huang, Chin-Chang

2012-12-01

118

Occupational Neurotoxic Diseases in Taiwan  

PubMed Central

Occupational neurotoxic diseases have become increasingly common in Taiwan due to industrialization. Over the past 40 years, Taiwan has transformed from an agricultural society to an industrial society. The most common neurotoxic diseases also changed from organophosphate poisoning to heavy metal intoxication, and then to organic solvent and semiconductor agent poisoning. The nervous system is particularly vulnerable to toxic agents because of its high metabolic rate. Neurological manifestations may be transient or permanent, and may range from cognitive dysfunction, cerebellar ataxia, Parkinsonism, sensorimotor neuropathy and autonomic dysfunction to neuromuscular junction disorders. This study attempts to provide a review of the major outbreaks of occupational neurotoxins from 1968 to 2012. A total of 16 occupational neurotoxins, including organophosphates, toxic gases, heavy metals, organic solvents, and other toxic chemicals, were reviewed. Peer-reviewed articles related to the electrophysiology, neuroimaging, treatment and long-term follow up of these neurotoxic diseases were also obtained. The heavy metals involved consisted of lead, manganese, organic tin, mercury, arsenic, and thallium. The organic solvents included n-hexane, toluene, mixed solvents and carbon disulfide. Toxic gases such as carbon monoxide, and hydrogen sulfide were also included, along with toxic chemicals including polychlorinated biphenyls, tetramethylammonium hydroxide, organophosphates, and dimethylamine borane. In addition we attempted to correlate these events to the timeline of industrial development in Taiwan. By researching this topic, the hope is that it may help other developing countries to improve industrial hygiene and promote occupational safety and health care during the process of industrialization. PMID:23251841

Liu, Chi-Hung; Huang, Chu-Yun

2012-01-01

119

Serrated-Planform Lifting-Surfaces  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A novel set of serrated-planform lifting surfaces produce unexpectedly high lift coefficients at moderate to high angles-of-attack. Each serration, or tooth, is designed to shed a vortex. The interaction of the vortices greatly enhances the lifting capability over an extremely large operating range. Variations of the invention use serrated-planform lifting surfaces in planes different than that of a primary lifting surface. In an alternate embodiment, the individual teeth are controllably retractable and deployable to provide for active control of the vortex system and hence lift coefficient. Differential lift on multiple serrated-planform lifting surfaces provides a means for vehicle control. The important aerodynamic advantages of the serrated-planform lifting surfaces are not limited to aircraft applications but can be used to establish desirable performance characteristics for missiles, land vehicles, and/or watercraft.

McGrath, Brian E. (Inventor); Wood, Richard M. (Inventor)

1999-01-01

120

Lumbar-pelvic range and coordination during lifting tasks  

E-print Network

Page 1 of 22 Lumbar-Pelvic Range and Coordination During Lifting Tasks A. Maduri, M.S. 1 B.L. Pearson, B.S. 2 S.E. Wilson, Ph.D. 3 1 National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health, Morgantown, WV 2 Burns and Mc... flexion postures as well as the possibility that lumbar 4 posture could be adjusted with training [Scannell et al.,2003]. 5 Lumbar-pelvic coordination experiments measure the relationship between 6 lumbar curvature and torso flexion in various tasks. A...

Maduri, Anupama; Pearson, Bethany L.; Wilson, Sara E.

2008-01-01

121

Normalized Lift: An Energy Interpretation of the Lift Coefficient Simplifies Comparisons of the Lifting Ability of Rotating and Flapping Surfaces  

E-print Network

For a century, researchers have used the standard lift coefficient CL to evaluate the lift, L, generated by fixed wings over an area S against dynamic pressure, ½?v2, where v is the effective velocity of the wing. Because the lift coefficient...

Burgers, Phillip; Alexander, David E.

2012-05-21

122

Powered-Lift Aerodynamics and Acoustics. [conferences  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Powered lift technology is reviewed. Topics covered include: (1) high lift aerodynamics; (2) high speed and cruise aerodynamics; (3) acoustics; (4) propulsion aerodynamics and acoustics; (5) aerodynamic and acoustic loads; and (6) full-scale and flight research.

1976-01-01

123

Lifting characteristics of functionally limited elders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract—Background . The purpose of this study was to investigate the lifting characteristics of elders with functional limitations using burden lifting smoothness, trunk angular momentum, and back and hip torque, and to correlate these characteristics with strength and functional measures. Methods. Thirty elders (65-89 years old) consented to bio- mechanical analysis of lifting, gait, and chair rise, and to maxi-

Michael S. Puniello; Chris A. McGibbon; David E. Krebs

124

46 CFR 64.43 - Lifting fittings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lifting fittings. 64.43 Section 64.43 Shipping...SYSTEMS Standards for an MPT § 64.43 Lifting fittings. Each MPT must have attached lifting fittings so that the tank remains...

2010-10-01

125

Protect Your Back: Guidelines for Safer Lifting.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines back injury in teachers and child care providers; includes statistics, common causes of back pain (improper alignment, improper posture, improper lifting, and carrying), and types of back pain (acute and chronic). Focuses on preventing back injury, body mechanics for lifting and carrying, and proper lifting and carrying of children. (SD)

Cantu, Carolyn O.

2002-01-01

126

Occupational asthma.  

PubMed

Substantial epidemiologic and clinical evidence indicates that agents inhaled at work can induce asthma. In industrialized countries, occupational factors have been implicated in 9 to 15% of all cases of adult asthma. Work-related asthma includes (1) immunologic occupational asthma (OA), characterized by a latency period before the onset of symptoms; (2) nonimmunologic OA, which occurs after single or multiple exposures to high concentrations of irritant materials; (3) work-aggravated asthma, which is preexisting or concurrent asthma exacerbated by workplace exposures; and (4) variant syndromes. Assessment of the work environment has improved, making it possible to measure concentrations of several high- and low-molecular-weight agents in the workplace. The identification of host factors, polymorphisms, and candidate genes associated with OA is in progress and may improve our understanding of mechanisms involved in OA. A reliable diagnosis of OA should be confirmed by objective testing early after its onset. Removal of the worker from exposure to the causal agent and treatment with inhaled glucocorticoids lead to a better outcome. Finally, strategies for preventing OA should be implemented and their cost-effectiveness examined. PMID:15860754

Mapp, Cristina E; Boschetto, Piera; Maestrelli, Piero; Fabbri, Leonardo M

2005-08-01

127

Occupational asthma.  

PubMed

Occupational asthma (OA) is one of the most common forms of occupational lung disease in many industrialized countries, having been implicated in 9 to 15% of adult-onset asthma. Work-related asthma includes: 1. immunologic OA, characterized by a latency period before the onset of symptoms; 2. nonimmunologic OA, which occurs after single or multiple exposures to high concentrations of irritants; 3. work-aggravated asthma, which is pre-existing or concurrent asthma exacerbated by workplace exposures; and 4. variant syndromes. OA is important to recognize clinically, because it has serious medical and socioeconomic consequences. Diagnosis of OA should be confirmed by objective testing early after its onset. Removal of the worker from exposure to the causal agent and early treatment with anti-inflammatory drugs lead to a better outcome. Assessment of the work environment and identification of host factors may provide us with useful information about the mechanisms involved in OA. Another issue concerns strategies for preventing OA which should be implemented. PMID:17017377

Mapp, Cristina E; Miotto, Deborah; Boschetto, Piera

2006-01-01

128

Generalised Eisenhart lift of the Toda chain  

SciTech Connect

The Toda chain of nearest neighbour interacting particles on a line can be described both in terms of geodesic motion on a manifold with one extra dimension, the Eisenhart lift, or in terms of geodesic motion in a symmetric space with several extra dimensions. We examine the relationship between these two realisations and discover that the symmetric space is a generalised, multi-particle Eisenhart lift of the original problem that reduces to the standard Eisenhart lift. Such generalised Eisenhart lift acts as an inverse Kaluza-Klein reduction, promoting coupling constants to momenta in higher dimension. In particular, isometries of the generalised lift metric correspond to energy preserving transformations that mix coordinates and coupling constants. A by-product of the analysis is that the lift of the Toda Lax pair can be used to construct higher rank Killing tensors for both the standard and generalised lift metrics.

Cariglia, Marco, E-mail: marco@iceb.ufop.br [DEFIS, Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto, Campus Morro do Cruzeiro, 35400-000 Ouro Preto, MG (Brazil)] [DEFIS, Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto, Campus Morro do Cruzeiro, 35400-000 Ouro Preto, MG (Brazil); Gibbons, Gary, E-mail: g.w.gibbons@damtp.cam.ac.uk [DAMTP, University of Cambridge, Wilberforce Road, Cambridge CB3 0WA (United Kingdom)] [DAMTP, University of Cambridge, Wilberforce Road, Cambridge CB3 0WA (United Kingdom)

2014-02-15

129

Generalised Eisenhart lift of the Toda chain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Toda chain of nearest neighbour interacting particles on a line can be described both in terms of geodesic motion on a manifold with one extra dimension, the Eisenhart lift, or in terms of geodesic motion in a symmetric space with several extra dimensions. We examine the relationship between these two realisations and discover that the symmetric space is a generalised, multi-particle Eisenhart lift of the original problem that reduces to the standard Eisenhart lift. Such generalised Eisenhart lift acts as an inverse Kaluza-Klein reduction, promoting coupling constants to momenta in higher dimension. In particular, isometries of the generalised lift metric correspond to energy preserving transformations that mix coordinates and coupling constants. A by-product of the analysis is that the lift of the Toda Lax pair can be used to construct higher rank Killing tensors for both the standard and generalised lift metrics.

Cariglia, Marco; Gibbons, Gary

2014-02-01

130

OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY  

E-print Network

OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Department of Occupational Health and Safety Revised December 2009 #12;Occupational Health and Safety (OHS) Management System 1. Introduction.............................................................................................................. 3 2.2 Management of Health and Safety

131

Transonic flow about lifting configurations.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A transonic flow solution is presented for configurations with span-to-length ratios of order one. The angles of attack are sufficiently large to produce lift effects that are either dominant or comparable to the thickness effects. The analysis is performed with the aid of the method of matched asymptotic expansions. The results obtained are compared with data reported by Cheng and Hafez (1972).

Barnwell, R. W.

1973-01-01

132

Quiet powered-lift propulsion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Latest results of programs exploring new propulsion technology for powered-lift aircraft systems are presented. Topics discussed include results from the 'quiet clean short-haul experimental engine' program and progress reports on the 'quiet short-haul research aircraft' and 'tilt-rotor research aircraft' programs. In addition to these NASA programs, the Air Force AMST YC 14 and YC 15 programs were reviewed.

1979-01-01

133

Lifting of Discovery in VAB  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Inside the cavernous Vehicle Assembly Building, workers carry out the meticulous process of lifting the orbiter Discovery from a horizontal to a vertical position. Once upright, Discovery will be transferred into a high bay for mating with the external tank/solid rocket booster assembly already mounted on the mobile launcher platform. Completing the assembly takes about five working days. Discovery's next destination: Launch Pad 39B, and final preparations for liftoff on Mission STS-70 in early June.

1995-01-01

134

Allometry of hummingbird lifting performance  

PubMed Central

Vertical lifting performance in 67 hummingbird species was studied across a 4000 m elevational gradient. We used the technique of asymptotic load-lifting to elicit maximum sustained muscle power output during loaded hovering flight. Our analysis incorporated direct measurements of maximum sustained load and simultaneous wingbeat kinematics, together with aerodynamic estimates of mass-specific mechanical power output, all within a robust phylogenetic framework for the Trochilidae. We evaluated key statistical factors relevant to estimating slopes for allometric relationships by performing analyses with and without phylogenetic information, and incorporating species-specific measurement error. We further examined allometric relationships at different elevations because this gradient represents a natural experiment for studying physical challenges to animal flight mechanics. Maximum lifting capacity (i.e. vertical force production) declined with elevation, but was either isometric or negatively allometric with respect to both body and muscle mass, depending on elevational occurrence of the corresponding taxa. Maximum relative muscle power output exhibited a negative allometry with respect to muscle mass, supporting theoretical predictions from muscle mechanics. PMID:20154187

Altshuler, D. L.; Dudley, R.; Heredia, S. M.; McGuire, J. A.

2010-01-01

135

Occupational Classification System Manual  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Researchers may gain insight into the Bureau of Labor Statistics and Census Bureau occupational codes via the Occupational Classification System Manual (OCSM). A list of Major Occupation Group titles (MOGs) is provided as well as links to the Census Occupation Index--an alphabetical list of approximately 30,000 occupational titles. Further guidance in locating the proper occupation classification for research queries is outlined in the articles "Using the OCSM" and "Using the Census Index."

136

Occupational Performance and Metacognition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides definitions of metacognition and explores its relationship to occupational performance. Emphasizes the importance of integrating metacognitive components into occupational therapy theory and practice. (Author)

Katz, Noomi; Hartman-Maier, Adina

1997-01-01

137

Effects of Injector Conditions on the Flame Lift-Off Length of DI Diesel Sprays  

SciTech Connect

The effects of injection pressure and orifice diameter on the lift-off length of a direct-injection (DI) diesel spray (defined as the farthest upstream location of high temperature combustion) were investigated using a natural light emission imaging technique. The lift-off length experiments were conducted in a constant-volume combustion vessel under quiescent, heavy-duty DI diesel engine conditions using a Phillips research grade No.2 diesel fuel. The results show that natural light emission at 310 nm provides an excellent marker of the lift-off length. At this location, natural light emission at 310 nm is dominated by OH chemiluminescence generated by high-temperature combustion chemistry. Lift-off lengths determined from images of natural light emission at 310 nm show that as either injection pressure (i.e., injection velocity) or orifice diameter increase, the lift-off length increases. The observed lift-off length increase was linearly dependent on injection velocity, the same dependency as previously noted for gas jets. The lift-off length increase with increasing orifice diameter, however, is different than the independence of lift-off length on orifice diameter noted for gas jets An important overall observation was made by considering the lift-off length data in conjunction with data from recent investigations of liquid-phase fuel penetration and spray development. The combined data suggests that a systematic evolution of the relationship and interaction between various processes in a DI diesel spray has been occurring over time, as injection pressures have been increased and orifice diameters reduced as part of efforts to meet emissions regulations. The trends observed may eventually help explain effects of parameters such as injection pressure and orifice diameter on emissions.

D. L. Siebers; B. S. Higgins

2000-07-01

138

Prevention of disabling back injuries in nurses by the use of mechanical patient lift systems.  

PubMed

Occupational back pain in nurses (OBPN) constitutes a major source of morbidity in the health care environment. According to the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), occupational back injury is the second leading occupational injury in the United States. Among health care personnel, nurses have the highest rate of back pain, with an annual prevalence of 40-50% and a lifetime prevalence of 35-80%. The American Nursing Association believes that manual patient handling is unsafe and is directly responsible for musculoskeletal disorders encountered in nurses. It has been well documented that patient handling can be done safely with the use of assistive equipment and devices that eliminate these hazards to nurses that invite serious back injuries. The benefit of assistive patient handling equipment is characterized by the simultaneous reduction of the risk of musculoskeletal injury to the nursing staff and improvement in the quality of care for patient populations. To understand the cause of disabling injuries in health care workers, several factors must be considered, including the following: (1) anatomy/physiology of the back, (2) risk factors, (3) medical legal implications, and (4) prevention. Among nurses, back, neck, and shoulder injuries are commonly noted as the most prevalent and debilitating. While mostly associated with dependant patient care, the risk for musculoskeletal injury secondary to manual patient handling crosses all specialty areas of nursing. The skeletal defects of an abnormal back make the back more susceptible to occupational injury, even under normal stress conditions. Workers compensation guidelines for occupational back injury differ in public and private health care sectors from state to state. Nursing personnel should be reminded that the development of back pain following occupational activities in the hospital should be reported immediately to the Occupational Health Department. A nurse's failure to report OBPN immediately has resulted in numerous denials of claims for rehabilitation and compensation that nurses deserve. Experts believe that training in proper body mechanics does not prevent back injury. Consequently, focus has been placed on other innovative injury prevention programs, including the use of engineering controls as well as the "lift team" method. Ergonomics involves the use of mechanical devices (e.g., walking belt and mechanical hoist) to aid in patient lifting and transferring tasks. Guldmann Inc. has devised ceiling lift systems and slings during the past 20 years. They have successfully completed thousands of installations worldwide, covering a wide range of challenging conditions and complex environments. The Guldmann ceiling-mounted hoist system consists of a wide range of lifting units, rail components, and a complete assortment of lifting slings and accessories. Its sling is made of polyester, which is characterized by its strength and elasticity. It retains its shape and is dirt repellent and easy to maintain. The Guldmann network has one of the largest and indisputably most experienced group of certified installers in the United States. The "lift team" method was devised to remove nursing personnel from the everyday task of moving patients. This type of intervention assumes that lifting is a specialized skill to be performed only by expert professional patient movers who have been thoroughly trained in the latest lifting device techniques. PMID:15698378

Edlich, Richard F; Winters, Kathryne L; Hudson, Mary Anne; Britt, L D; Long, William B

2004-01-01

139

Modeling, simulation, and graphical visualization of a twin lift helicopter system under automatic control: an educational tool  

Microsoft Academic Search

This educational research endeavor describes the development of a Windows\\/C++ PC environment designed to visualize and evaluate the performance of a Twin Lift Helicopter System (TWS) under automatic control. The TLHS consists of two Sikorsky UH-60A Blackhawk helicopters, jointly lifting a heavy payload. The program-user interface permits users to change critical model and control law parameters in real-time. TLHS and

Armando A. Rodriguez; Mark F. DeHerrera

1996-01-01

140

Influence of Lift Offset on Rotorcraft Performance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The influence of lift offset on the performance of several rotorcraft configurations is explored. A lift-offset rotor, or advancing blade concept, is a hingeless rotor that can attain good efficiency at high speed by operating with more lift on the advancing side than on the retreating side of the rotor disk. The calculated performance capability of modern-technology coaxial rotors utilizing a lift offset is examined, including rotor performance optimized for hover and high-speed cruise. The ideal induced power loss of coaxial rotors in hover and twin rotors in forward flight is presented. The aerodynamic modeling requirements for performance calculations are evaluated, including wake and drag models for the high-speed flight condition. The influence of configuration on the performance of rotorcraft with lift-offset rotors is explored, considering tandem and side-by-side rotorcraft as well as wing-rotor lift share.

Johnson, Wayne

2009-01-01

141

Influence of Lift Offset on Rotorcraft Performance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The influence of lift offset on the performance of several rotorcraft configurations is explored. A lift-offset rotor, or advancing blade concept, is a hingeless rotor that can attain good efficiency at high speed, by operating with more lift on the advancing side than on the retreating side of the rotor disk. The calculated performance capability of modern-technology coaxial rotors utilizing a lift offset is examined, including rotor performance optimized for hover and high-speed cruise. The ideal induced power loss of coaxial rotors in hover and twin rotors in forward flight is presented. The aerodynamic modeling requirements for performance calculations are evaluated, including wake and drag models for the high speed flight condition. The influence of configuration on the performance of rotorcraft with lift-offset rotors is explored, considering tandem and side-by-side rotorcraft as well as wing-rotor lift share.

Johnson, Wayne

2008-01-01

142

Occupant Protection Project  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Topics include occupant protection overview with a focus on crew protection during dynamic phases of flight; occupant protection collaboration; modeling occupant protection; occupant protection considerations; project approach encompassing analysis tools, injury criteria, and testing program development; injury criteria update methodology, unique effects of pressure suits and other factors; and a summary.

Bopp, Genie; Somers, Jeff; Granderson, Brad; Gernhardt, Mike; Currie, Nancy; Lawrence, Chuck

2010-01-01

143

Occupational Therapy Assistant.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document, which is designed for use in developing a tech prep competency profile for the occupation of occupational therapy assistant, lists technical competencies and competency builders for 16 units pertinent to the health technologies cluster in general as well as those specific to the occupation of occupational therapy assistant. The…

Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center on Education and Training for Employment.

144

Aerodynamic lift effect on satellite orbits  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Numerical quadrature is employed to obtain orbit perturbation results from the general perturbation equations. Both aerodynamic lift and drag forces are included in the analysis of the satellite orbit. An exponential atmosphere with and without atmospheric rotation is used. A comparison is made of the perturbations which are caused by atmospheric rotation with those caused by satellite aerodynamic effects. Results indicate that aerodynamic lift effects on the semi-major axis and orbit inclination can be of the same order as the effects of atmosphere rotation depending upon the orientation of the lift vector. The results reveal the importance of including aerodynamic lift effects in orbit perturbation analysis.

Karr, G. R.; Cleland, J. G.; Devries, L. L.

1975-01-01

145

ETHNIC OCCUPATIONAL STATUSES  

E-print Network

of the divergence in degree of involvement among these occupations, they often come to possess auxiliary ethnic traits. This can be largely explained by examining the important characteristics which these occupational statuses share. 1. They are service occupations...a ETHNIC OCCUPATIONAL STATUSES Lewis A. Mennerick University ofKansas As Everett C. Hughes has pointed out, every status, including occupational statuses, has both specifically determining traits and "auxiliary traits which have come to be expected...

Mennerick, Lewis A.

1968-04-01

146

Underestimation of object mass in lifting does not increase the load on the low back.  

PubMed

Sudden, unexpected loading on the low back is associated with a high incidence of low back pain. Experiments in which sudden loading was applied during standing revealed increased compression forces on the spine and increased trunk angle, which may cause injury to the spine and hence explain this association. During a more dynamic daily activity, i.e. lifting, this could not be demonstrated, which may be due to experimental constraints. We therefore reinvestigated the loading of the low back when subjects were lifting an unexpectedly heavy object. Ten males lifted boxes, weighing 1.6 or 6.6 kg, at a self-selected lifting velocity. In some trials the mass of these boxes was unexpectedly increased by 10 kg. The ground reaction forces, body movements and trunk muscle activity were measured and from these, the L5/S1 torques and compression forces were estimated. Underestimation of the mass did not lead to an increase in low back loading. This finding was independent of the mass the subjects were expecting to lift. In conclusion, no evidence was found to support inference regarding causality of the association between sudden loading and low back pain during whole body lifting movements. PMID:11672719

van der Burg, J C; van Dieën, J H

2001-11-01

147

49 CFR 178.975 - Top lift test.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Lifted by each pair of diagonally opposite lifting devices, so that the hoisting forces...Lifted by each pair of diagonally opposite lifting devices so that the hoisting forces are...Suspend the flexible Large Packaging by its lifting devices. (iii) Apply a...

2010-10-01

148

49 CFR 178.812 - Top lift test.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Lifted by each pair of diagonally opposite lifting devices, so that the hoisting forces...Lifted by each pair of diagonally opposite lifting devices, so that the hoisting forces...ii) Suspend the flexible IBC by its lifting devices. (iii) Apply a...

2010-10-01

149

May the Force Be with You: Lift  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students revisit Bernoulli's principle (presented in lesson 1 of the Airplanes unit) and learn how engineers use this principle to design airplane wings. Airplane wings create lift by changing the pressure of the air around them. This is the first of four lessons exploring the four key forces in flight: lift, weight, thrust and drag.

2014-09-18

150

Soccer Ball Lift Coefficients via Trajectory Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We performed experiments in which a soccer ball was launched from a machine while two high-speed cameras recorded portions of the trajectory. Using the trajectory data and published drag coefficients, we extracted lift coefficients for a soccer ball. We determined lift coefficients for a wide range of spin parameters, including several spin…

Goff, John Eric; Carre, Matt J.

2010-01-01

151

Gas lift systems make ideal offshore workers  

SciTech Connect

With a low initial installation cost and small footprint, gas lift systems are well suited for offshore installations where compressed gas is usually already available. These systems are used on multiple and slimhole completions and handle sandy conditions well. They are also used to kick off wells that will flow naturally once the heavier completion fluids leave the production string. Gas lift itself is a mature workaday technology. Measurement and control of gas flow is an area of intense development in gas lift technology. One new control method involves production of multiple completions through a single wellbore. Typically, gas lift valves are opened and closed through tubing pressure. But downhole measurement technology does not yet yield information good enough for stable gas lift control of multiple completions. Gas lift is proving to be a useful AL technique in conjunction with electric submersible pumps (ESP). Located above the ESP pump, the gas lift can reduce the head and allow greater flow. This is helpful when small casing restricts the size of the downhole ESP pump. Wells can usually be produced by the gas lift alone in case of ESP failure, or by replacing the ESP where schedules, high repair costs or low prices rule out repair.

NONE

1999-05-01

152

Solar water pump for lift irrigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two types of solar water pumps for lift irrigation have been developed and tested. In this paper the thermodynamic and design aspects of the pumps are discussed. The pumps have no moving parts except for the check valves. No auxilliary power source or technical skill is required to run the pumps making both designs extremely suitable for rural lift irrigation.

D. P. Rao; K. S. Rao

1976-01-01

153

View of West end of central lift span truss web ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View of West end of central lift span truss web of Tensaw River Bridge, showing web brace of lift girder superstructure, looking west - Tensaw River Lift Bridge, Spanning Tensaw River at U.S. Highway 90, Mobile, Mobile County, AL

154

14 CFR 25.697 - Lift and drag devices, controls.  

...Lift and drag devices, controls. 25.697 Section...Design and Construction Control Systems § 25.697 Lift and drag devices, controls. (a) Each lift device...movement produced by an automatic positioning or load...

2014-01-01

155

21 CFR 880.5500 - AC-powered patient lift.  

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false AC-powered patient lift. 880.5500 Section 880...Therapeutic Devices § 880.5500 AC-powered patient lift. (a) Identification. An AC-powered lift is an electrically powered...

2014-04-01

156

21 CFR 880.5500 - AC-powered patient lift.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false AC-powered patient lift. 880.5500 Section 880...Therapeutic Devices § 880.5500 AC-powered patient lift. (a) Identification. An AC-powered lift is an electrically powered...

2011-04-01

157

21 CFR 880.5500 - AC-powered patient lift.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false AC-powered patient lift. 880.5500 Section 880...Therapeutic Devices § 880.5500 AC-powered patient lift. (a) Identification. An AC-powered lift is an electrically powered...

2012-04-01

158

21 CFR 880.5500 - AC-powered patient lift.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false AC-powered patient lift. 880.5500 Section 880...Therapeutic Devices § 880.5500 AC-powered patient lift. (a) Identification. An AC-powered lift is an electrically powered...

2013-04-01

159

21 CFR 880.5500 - AC-powered patient lift.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false AC-powered patient lift. 880.5500 Section 880...Therapeutic Devices § 880.5500 AC-powered patient lift. (a) Identification. An AC-powered lift is an electrically powered...

2010-04-01

160

14 CFR 29.551 - Auxiliary lifting surfaces.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Auxiliary lifting surfaces. 29.551 Section 29.551 Aeronautics...Component Requirements § 29.551 Auxiliary lifting surfaces. Each auxiliary lifting surface must be designed to withstand—...

2010-01-01

161

Occupational Health and Safety Manual  

E-print Network

Occupational Health and Safety Manual #12;1 Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 York University Occupational Health and Safety Policy and Programs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Occupational Health and Safety Legislation

162

Occupational skin diseases.  

PubMed

Occupational skin diseases are the most commonly reported notifiable occupational diseases. In Germany, 23 596 out of a total of 71 263 reported occupational diseases in 2010 were classified as occupational skin diseases (BK No. 5101: "severe or recurrent skin diseases which have forced the person to discontinue all occupational activities that caused or could cause the development, worsening, or recurrence of the disease"). Contact dermatitis (allergic, irritant) of the hands is the most common skin disease and atopic skin diathesis is often an important co-factor. The number of work-related skin diseases is many times higher than the number of notified occupational dermatoses. This CME article explains the legal framework of occupational diseases, the tasks and obligations of the legal statutory work insurance. Typical allergens and irritants of high risk professions are also presented as are the important steps from diagnosis to compensation. Early prevention of occupational skin diseases is very important to avoid severe chronic hand eczema. Therefore the "dermatologist's report" is crucial. Other occupational dermatoses (outside of BK 5101) are briefly mentioned. In recent years the number of notifications of occupational skin cancer due to occupational UV-irradiation has increased. According to recent epidemiological findings, there is a significant and consistent positive association between occupational UV-irradiation and squamous cell carcinoma. Therefore, an important criterion for a new occupational disease is fulfilled. PMID:22455666

Diepgen, Thomas L

2012-05-01

163

Impact of Aerodynamics and Structures Technology on Heavy Lift Tiltrotors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Rotor performance and aeroelastic stability are presented for a 124,000-lb Large Civil Tilt Rotor (LCTR) design. It was designed to carry 120 passengers for 1200 nm, with performance of 350 knots at 30,000 ft altitude. Design features include a low-mounted wing and hingeless rotors, with a very low cruise tip speed of 350 ft/sec. The rotor and wing design processes are described, including rotor optimization methods and wing/rotor aeroelastic stability analyses. New rotor airfoils were designed specifically for the LCTR; the resulting performance improvements are compared to current technology airfoils. Twist, taper and precone optimization are presented, along with the effects of blade flexibility on performance. A new wing airfoil was designed and a composite structure was developed to meet the wing load requirements for certification. Predictions of aeroelastic stability are presented for the optimized rotor and wing, along with summaries of the effects of rotor design parameters on stability.

Acree, C. W., Jr.

2006-01-01

164

Heavy lift crane/derrick barge stability analysis  

E-print Network

. This flow rate exceeded that which would be expected from downflooding in the prototype through its stern hawse pipes (six 34 Table 6. Model Experiment Results in Nondimensional Form Aus LA/L NW$ H/A 8/A P/KA H/KA SW/A SWL/A HL/A SI /A 10 12 13 14... Encounter Frequency H/A = Vessel Heave/Wave amplitude S/A = Vessel Surge/Wave amplitude P/KA = Vessel Pitch (Degrees or Radians)/(Wave amplitude 8 wave number) K = (2*PI)/L = Wave Number R/KA = Vessel Roll (radians)/(wave amplitude * wave number) SW...

Loesch, Robert Morrison

2012-06-07

165

Development of computational methods for heavy lift launch vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The research effort has been focused on the development of an advanced flow solver for complex viscous turbulent flows with shock waves. The three-dimensional Euler and full/thin-layer Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations for compressible flows are solved on structured hexahedral grids. The Baldwin-Lomax algebraic turbulence model is used for closure. The space discretization is based on a cell-centered finite-volume method augmented by a variety of numerical dissipation models with optional total variation diminishing limiters. The governing equations are integrated in time by an implicit method based on lower-upper factorization and symmetric Gauss-Seidel relaxation. The algorithm is vectorized on diagonal planes of sweep using two-dimensional indices in three dimensions. A new computer program named CENS3D has been developed for viscous turbulent flows with discontinuities. Details of the code are described in Appendix A and Appendix B. With the developments of the numerical algorithm and dissipation model, the simulation of three-dimensional viscous compressible flows has become more efficient and accurate. The results of the research are expected to yield a direct impact on the design process of future liquid fueled launch systems.

Yoon, Seokkwan; Ryan, James S.

1993-01-01

166

Occupational Clusters. Occupational Investigation Guide. First Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This occupational investigation guide contains learning activities for instruction in fifteen occupational clusters: (1) agribusiness and natural resources, (2) business and office, (3) communications and media, (4) construction, (5) consumer and homemaking, (6) environment, (7) fine arts and humanities, (8) health, (9) hospitality and recreation,…

East Texas State Univ., Commerce. Occupational Curriculum Lab.

167

Occupational Radiation Exposures  

Cancer.gov

DCEG researchers are studying cancer risks among populations who are occupationally exposed to radiation. Chernobyl Clean-up Workers Mayak Nuclear Facility Workers U.S. Radiologic Technologists Interventional Fluoroscopists Print This Page Occupational

168

Lift-Enhancing Tabs on Multielement Airfoils  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The use of flat-plate tabs (similar to Gurney flaps) to enhance the lift of multielement airfoils is extended here by placing them on the pressure side and near the trailing edge of the main element rather than just on the furthest downstream wing element. The tabs studied range in height from 0.125 to 1.25% of the airfoil reference chord. In practice, such tabs would be retracted when the high-lift system is stowed. The effectiveness of the concept was demonstrated experimentally and computationally on a two-dimensional NACA 63(sub 2)-215 Mod B airfoil with a single-slotted, 30%-chord flap. Both the experiments and computations showed that the tabs significantly increase the lift at a given angle of attack and the maximum lift coefficient of the airfoil. The computational results showed that the increased lift was a result of additional turning of the flow by the tab that reduced or eliminated now separation on the flap. The best configuration tested, a 0.5%-chord tab placed 0.5% chord upstream of the trailing edge of the main element, increased the maximum lift coefficient of the airfoil by 12% and the maximum lift-to-drag ratio by 40%.

Ross, James C.; Storms, Bruce L.; Carrannanto, Paul G.

1995-01-01

169

Hiatal Hernia  

MedlinePLUS

... to eating a heavy meal, bending forward or lifting heavy objects. Your doctor may suspect that you ... factors (age, obesity, smoking, occupation that requires heavy lifting). To confirm the diagnosis, your doctor may order ...

170

Occupational health in the People's Republic of China.  

PubMed Central

China's drive to modernize its economy will produce new occupational health problems even as it resolves earlier ones. Well aware of this, Chinese occupational health experts are intensifying efforts to improve workers' health and establish a modern occupational health program. Occupational lung disease, occupational cancer, heavy metal poisoning, industrial chemical poisoning, and physical factor-induced diseases (noise and heat) have all been targeted for expanded research which will serve as a basis for standard setting. Hazard control efforts include engineering controls, particularly in new construction, limited use of personal protective equipment, and expansion of environmental and medical monitoring. Worker education and professional activities have been expanded. International exchanges have been initiated and will prove occupational health a promising area of scientific cooperation. PMID:6228153

Christiani, D C

1984-01-01

171

Geometry program for aerodynamic lifting surface theory  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A computer program that provides the geometry and boundary conditions appropriate for an analysis of a lifting, thin wing with control surfaces in linearized, subsonic, steady flow is presented. The kernel function method lifting surface theory is applied. The data which is generated by the program is stored on disk files or tapes for later use by programs which calculate an influence matrix, plot the wing planform, and evaluate the loads on the wing. In addition to processing data for subsequent use in a lifting surface analysis, the program is useful for computing area and mean geometric chords of the wing and control surfaces.

Medan, R. T.

1973-01-01

172

Calculating the Lifting Condensation Level (LCL)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Javascript calculator was designed to calculate lifting condensation level (LCL) conditions using only three atmospheric input parameters that are commonly measured and reported during most local televised weather forecasts: surface temperature, surface dewpoint, and surface pressure. Output is pressure and parcel temperature at LCL. Though this calculator was designed to calculate the lifting condensation level for a parcel of air lifted from the surface, you calculate the LCL conditions for an air parcel at any other pressure level by substituting values appropriately. There is also a link to a calculator that will convert temperature reading from Celsius to Fahrenheit to Kelvin units.

1996-01-01

173

Occupational rhinitis: an update.  

PubMed

Occupational rhinitis is characterized by nasal congestion, rhinorrhea, nasal itching, and/or sneezing that occur secondary to exposures in the workplace. This disease can be classified into allergic or nonallergic subgroups based upon the underlying disease pathogenesis as well as the type of causative agent. While the true prevalence of occupational rhinitis is unknown, there are certain professions and occupational exposures that place workers at a higher risk for developing the disease. Additionally, occupational rhinitis can be associated with occupational asthma and upper airway symptoms may precede those of the lower respiratory tract. Taken together, occupational rhinitis is an important disease for study given its medical as well as socioeconomic implications. This review will focus on the classification of occupational rhinitis as well the prevalence, diagnosis, and treatment strategies. PMID:25430949

Stevens, Whitney W; Grammer, Leslie C

2015-01-01

174

Occupational Employment Statistics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

US occupations are featured in this information-rich resources from the Bureau of Labor Statistics. The 1996 Occupational Employment Statistics Survey differs from previous surveys in that it includes wage data by occupation for the first time. The site contains a description of the survey and complete national and state data for 760 occupations in seven major areas. Included are occupation title, number of employees, hourly mean and median wage, and an OES code number that provides information about the occupation and its employment distribution by wage range where surveyed (distribution is for the national survey only). An occupational search engine is forthcoming. The site also contains information about previous OES surveys back to 1988.

175

Dust Lifting Processes in GM3  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We are currently working on the dust lifting processes in the Mars general circulation model GM3 (the Global Mars multiscale model) developed at York University. The dust lifting initiated by surface wind stresses and convective processes has been used to simulate Martian dust cycle, for example, by Newman et al. [2002] and Basu et al. [2004]. For the surface wind based dust lifting, we apply the dust mobilization and dry deposition schemes from DEAD (The mineral Dust Entrainment And Deposition [Zender at al., 2003]) model to GM3. The dust mobilization scheme is based on near-surface wind stress and saltation sandblasting using the boundary layer meteorology conditions from GM3. The fine dust particles can be ejected into the atmosphere as a result of saltating sand size particles on the surface. Dust in the Martian atmosphere can also be lifted by dust devils. For our next work, we will add dust devils based on thermal convective scheme into GM3.

Wu, D.; McConnell, J. C.; Kaminski, J.; Akingunola, A.

2009-05-01

176

A lifting surface theory in rotational flow  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The partial differential equation for small disturbance steady rotational flow in three dimensions is solved through an integral equation approach. The solution is obtained by using the method of weighted residuals. Specific applications are directed to wings in nonuniform subsonic parallel streams with velocity varying in vertical and spanwise directions and to airfoils in nonuniform freestream. Comparison with limited known results indicates that the present method is reasonably accurate. Numerical results for the lifting pressure of airfoil, lift, induced drag, and pitching moments of airfoil, lift, induced drag, and pitching moments of elliptic, rectangular, and delta wings in a jet, wake, or monotonic sheared stream are presented. It is shown that, in addition to the effect of local dynamic pressures, a positive velocity gradient tends to enhance the lift.

Shiau, M. J.; Lan, C. E.

1983-01-01

177

Lifted Partially Premixed Flames in Microgravity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Lifted Double and Triple flames are established in the UIC-NASA Partially Premixed microgravity rig. The flames examined in this paper are established above a coannular burner because its axisymmetric geometry allows for future implementation of other non-intrusive optical diagnostic techniques easily. Both burner-attached stable flames and lifted flames are established at normal and microgravity conditions in the drop tower facility.

Lock, Andrew J.; Ganguly, Ranjan; Puri, Ishwar K.; Aggarwal, Suesh K.; Hegde, Uday

2004-01-01

178

A Method for Calculation of Hydrodynamic Lift for Submerged and Planing Rectangular Lifting Surfaces  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method is presented for the calculation of lift coefficients for rectangular lifting surfaces of aspect ratios from 0.125 to 10 operating at finite depths beneath the water surface, including the zero depth or planing condition. Theoretical values are compared with experimental values obtained at various depths of submergence with lifting surfaces of aspect ratios from 0.125 to 10. The method can also be applied to hydrofoils with dihedral. Lift coefficients computed by this method are in good agreement with existing experimental data for aspect ratios from 0.125 to 10 and dihedral angles up to 10 degrees.

Wadlin, Kenneth L; Christopher, Kenneth W

1958-01-01

179

A Method for Calculation of Hydrodynamic Lift for Submerged and Planing Rectangular Lifting Surfaces  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method is presented for the calculation of lift coefficients for rectangular lifting surfaces of aspect ratios from 0.125 to 10 operating at finite depths beneath the water surface, including the zero depth or planing condition. Theoretical values are compared with experimental values obtained at various depths of submergence with lifting surfaces of aspect ratios from 0.125 to 10. The method can also be applied to hydrofoils with dihedral. Lift coefficients computed by this method are in good agreement with existing experimental data for aspect ratios from 0.125 to 10 and dihedral angles up to 30 deg.

Wadlin, Kenneth L.; Christopher, Kenneth W.

1959-01-01

180

14 CFR 25.697 - Lift and drag devices, controls.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Lift and drag devices, controls. 25.697 Section...Control Systems § 25.697 Lift and drag devices, controls. (a) Each lift...established under § 25.101(d). Lift and drag devices must maintain the selected...

2012-01-01

181

14 CFR 25.697 - Lift and drag devices, controls.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Lift and drag devices, controls. 25.697 Section...Control Systems § 25.697 Lift and drag devices, controls. (a) Each lift...established under § 25.101(d). Lift and drag devices must maintain the selected...

2013-01-01

182

14 CFR 25.697 - Lift and drag devices, controls.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Lift and drag devices, controls. 25.697 Section...Control Systems § 25.697 Lift and drag devices, controls. (a) Each lift...established under § 25.101(d). Lift and drag devices must maintain the selected...

2011-01-01

183

33 CFR 118.85 - Lights on vertical lift bridges.  

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Lights on vertical lift bridges. 118.85 Section...LIGHTING AND OTHER SIGNALS § 118.85 Lights on vertical lift bridges. (a) Lift span lights. The vertical lift span of every...

2014-07-01

184

Survey of lift-fan aerodynamic technology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Representatives of NASA Ames Research Center asked that a summary of technology appropriate for lift-fan powered short takeoff/vertical landing (STOVL) aircraft be prepared so that new programs could more easily benefit from past research efforts. This paper represents one of six prepared for that purpose. The authors have conducted or supervised the conduct of research on lift-fan powered STOVL designs and some of their important components for decades. This paper will first address aerodynamic modeling requirements for experimental programs to assure realistic, trustworthy results. It will next summarize the results or efforts to develop satisfactory specialized STOVL components such as inlets and flow deflectors. It will also discuss problems with operation near the ground, aerodynamics while under lift-fan power, and aerodynamic prediction techniques. Finally, results of studies to reduce lift-fan noise will be presented. The paper will emphasize results from large scale experiments, where available, for reasons that will be brought out in the discussion. Some work with lift-engine powered STOVL aircraft is also applicable to lift-fan technology and will be presented herein. Small-scale data will be used where necessary to fill gaps.

Hickey, David H.; Kirk, Jerry V.

1993-01-01

185

Lift and wakes of flying snakes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flying snakes use a unique method of aerial locomotion: they jump from tree branches, flatten their bodies, and undulate through the air to produce a glide. The shape of their body cross-section during the glide plays an important role in generating lift. This paper presents a computational investigation of the aerodynamics of the cross-sectional shape. Two-dimensional simulations of incompressible flow past the anatomically correct cross-section of the species Chrysopelea paradisi show that a significant enhancement in lift appears at a 35° angle of attack, above Reynolds numbers 2000. Previous experiments on physical models also obtained an increased lift, at the same angle of attack. The flow is inherently three-dimensional in physical experiments, due to fluid instabilities, and it is thus intriguing that the enhanced lift also appears in the two-dimensional simulations. The simulations point to the lift enhancement arising from the early separation of the boundary layer on the dorsal surface of the snake profile, without stall. The separated shear layer rolls up and interacts with secondary vorticity in the near-wake, inducing the primary vortex to remain closer to the body and thus cause enhanced suction, resulting in higher lift.

Krishnan, Anush; Socha, John J.; Vlachos, Pavlos P.; Barba, L. A.

2014-03-01

186

Influence of gravity and lift on particle velocity statistics and transfer rates in turbulent vertical channel flow  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study reports detailed statistics for velocity and transfer rates of heavy particles dispersed in turbulent boundary layers. Statistics have been extracted from a homogeneous source of data covering a large target parameter space and are used here to analyze the effects of gravity and lift on particle dispersion and deposition in a systematic way. Datasets were obtained performing

Cristian Marchioli; Maurizio Picciotto; Alfredo Soldati

2007-01-01

187

The risk of occupational rhinitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective?Reports on the aetiology and risk of occupational rhinitis in different occupations are scarce. Method:?The purpose of this study was to find the occupations with an increased risk of occupational rhinitis. Age and gender differences\\u000a in occupational rhinitis and occupational asthma were also compared, and the most common causes of occupational rhinitis were\\u000a analysed. Design:?This study covered the cases of

M. Hytönen; Lasse Kanerva; Henrik Malmberg; Rami Martikainen; Pertti Mutanen; Jouni Toikkanen

1997-01-01

188

Good Occupation – Bad Occupation? The Quality of Apprenticeship Training  

Microsoft Academic Search

Small average wage effects of employer and\\/or occupation changes after apprenticeship training mask large differences between occupation groups and apprentices with different schooling back-grounds. Apprentices in commerce and trading occupations strongly profit from an employer change. Employer and occupation changers in industrial occupations face large wage disadvantages, however. We are the first to analyse these differences while those quality differences

Kathrin Goeggel; Thomas Zwick

2009-01-01

189

77 FR 20558 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Platform Lifts for Motor Vehicles; Platform Lift...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...multipurpose passenger vehicle other than a motor home with a gross vehicle weight rating (GVWR...each lift-equipped vehicle with a GVWR of 4...requirements apply to vehicles with public use lifts...locations remote from the driver's seating...

2012-04-05

190

Occupational lung cancer  

SciTech Connect

The author addresses the attribution of lung cancer to cigarette smoking and the problems of confounding synergistic effects of occupational and other carcinogenic risk factors, as well as the divergent trends of declining smoking rates and increasing rates of lung cancer. He also reviews the existing literature to document associations between lung cancer and occupational exposures. Finally, interventions for prevention of occupational lung cancer are discussed.

Cone, J.E.

1987-04-01

191

Advances in occupational asthma.  

PubMed

Clinical and research interests in occupational asthma increased dramatically in the 1980s. Advances in our knowledge base have led to improved recognition, management, and methods for preventing this disorder. An accelerated pace of basic and clinical research is anticipated in the 1990s. These efforts will likely lead to a more complete understanding of the disease (and pay dividends in understanding asthma itself). Occupational asthma is predicted to be the preeminent occupational lung disease in the next decade. PMID:1387352

Alberts, W M; Brooks, S M

1992-06-01

192

The association of trunk muscle cross-sectional area and magnetic resonance image parameters with isokinetic and psychophysical lifting strength and static back muscle endurance in men.  

PubMed

The relationship between trunk muscle morphology as measured on transverse magnetic resonance images and isokinetic lifting, psychophysical lifting, and static back muscle endurance testing was examined in 110 men, ages 35-67 years (mean, 48 years), who had been chosen based on their exposure to a wide variety of occupational and leisure-time physical activities. The computed T2-relaxation times and the T2-weighted and proton density-weighted signal intensities of the erector spinae, quadratus lumborum, and psoas major muscles had almost no association with any of the strength tests. The cross-sectional areas of the muscles had good correlations with isokinetic lifting strength (r = 0.46-0.53). They did not correlate well with psychophysical lifting and static back muscle endurance. Other characteristics or neurological or psychological factors may have more influence on those tests. PMID:9355056

Gibbons, L E; Latikka, P; Videman, T; Manninen, H; Battié, M C

1997-10-01

193

Welding. Occupational Competency Analysis Profile.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Occupational Competency Analysis Profile (OCAP), which is one of a series of OCAPs developed to identify the skills that Ohio employers deem necessary to entering a given occupation/occupational area, lists the occupational, academic, and employability skills required of individuals entering the occupation of welder. The introduction explains…

Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Vocational Instructional Materials Lab.

194

Noise impact of advanced high lift systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The impact of advanced high lift systems on aircraft size, performance, direct operating cost and noise were evaluated for short-to-medium and medium-to-long range aircraft with high bypass ratio and very high bypass ratio engines. The benefit of advanced high lift systems in reducing noise was found to be less than 1 effective-perceived-noise decibel level (EPNdB) when the aircraft were sized to minimize takeoff gross weight. These aircraft did, however, have smaller wings and lower engine thrusts for the same mission than aircraft with conventional high lift systems. When the advanced high lift system was implemented without reducing wing size and simultaneously using lower flap angles that provide higher L/D at approach a cumulative noise reduction of as much as 4 EPNdB was obtained. Comparison of aircraft configurations that have similar approach speeds showed cumulative noise reduction of 2.6 EPNdB that is purely the result of incorporating advanced high lift system in the aircraft design.

Elmer, Kevin R.; Joshi, Mahendra C.

1995-03-01

195

Design of a portable powered seat lift  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

People suffering from degenerative hip or knee joints find sitting and rising from a seated position very difficult. These people can rely on large stationary chairs at home, but must ask others for assistance when rising from any other chair. An orthopedic surgeon identified to the MSFC Technology Utilization Office the need for development of a portable device that could perform a similar function to the stationary lift chairs. The MSFC Structural Development Branch answered the Technology Utilization Office's request for design of a portable powered seat lift. The device is a seat cushion that opens under power, lifting the user to near-standing positions. The largest challenge was developing a mechanism to provide a stable lift over the large range of motion needed, and fold flat enough to be comfortable to sit on. CAD 3-D modeling was used to generate complete drawings for the prototype, and a full-scale working model of the Seat lift was made based on the drawings. The working model is of low strength, but proves the function of the mechanism and the concept.

Weddendorf, Bruce

1993-01-01

196

Noise impact of advanced high lift systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The impact of advanced high lift systems on aircraft size, performance, direct operating cost and noise were evaluated for short-to-medium and medium-to-long range aircraft with high bypass ratio and very high bypass ratio engines. The benefit of advanced high lift systems in reducing noise was found to be less than 1 effective-perceived-noise decibel level (EPNdB) when the aircraft were sized to minimize takeoff gross weight. These aircraft did, however, have smaller wings and lower engine thrusts for the same mission than aircraft with conventional high lift systems. When the advanced high lift system was implemented without reducing wing size and simultaneously using lower flap angles that provide higher L/D at approach a cumulative noise reduction of as much as 4 EPNdB was obtained. Comparison of aircraft configurations that have similar approach speeds showed cumulative noise reduction of 2.6 EPNdB that is purely the result of incorporating advanced high lift system in the aircraft design.

Elmer, Kevin R.; Joshi, Mahendra C.

1995-01-01

197

Design of a Versatile, Teleoperable, Towable Lifting Machine with Robotic Capabilities for Use in Nasa's Lunar Base Operations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The lifting machine will assist in lifting cargo off of landers sent to the Moon and in the construction of a lunar base. Three possible designs were considered for the overall configuration of the lifting machine: the variable angle crane, the tower crane, and the gantry crane. Alternate designs were developed for the major components of the lifting machine. A teleoperable, variable angle crane was chosen as its final design. The design consists of a telescoping boom mounted to a chassis that is supported by two conical wheels for towing and four outriggers for stability. Attached to the end of the boom is a seven degree of freedom robot arm for light, dexterous, lifting operations. A cable and hook suspends from the end of the boom for heavy, gross, lifting operations. Approximate structural sizes were determined for the lifter and its components. However, further analysis is needed to determine the optimum design dimensions. The design team also constructed a model of the design which demonstrates its features and operating principals.

Harris, Elizabeth; Ogle, James; Schoppe, Dean

1989-01-01

198

Can electrostatic field lift spin degeneracy?  

E-print Network

There are two well known mechanisms which lead to lifting of energy spin degeneracy of single electron systems - magnetic field and spin-orbit coupling. We investigate the possibility for existence of a third mechanism in which electrostatic field can lead to lifting of spin-degeneracy directly without the mediation of spin-orbit coupling. A novel argument is provided for the need of spin-orbit coupling different from the usual relativistic considerations. It is shown that due to preserved translational invariance spin splitting purely by electrostatic field is not possible for Bloch states. A possible lifting of spin degeneracy by electrostatic field characterized by broken inversion and translational invariance is considered.

Tihomir G. Tenev; Nikolay V. Vitanov

2014-08-07

199

Measuring Lift with the Wright Airfoils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this laboratory or demonstration exercise, we mount a small airfoil with its long axis vertical at one end of a nearly frictionless rotating platform. Air from a leaf blower2 produces a sidewise lift force L on the airfoil and a drag force D in the direction of the air flow (Fig. 1). The rotating platform is kept in equilibrium by adding weights (the measured values of L) to the lower end of a string passing over a pulley and connected to the other end of the rotating platform (Fig. 2). Our homemade airfoils are similar to those tested by the Wright brothers in 1901. From our lift plots in Fig. 3, we can draw the same conclusions as the Wrights about the influence of an airfoil's curvature and shape on lift.

Heavers, Richard M.; Soleymanloo, Arianne

2011-11-01

200

Bricklayer. Occupational Analyses Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This analysis covers tasks performed by a bricklayer, an occupational title some provinces and territories of Canada have also identified as bricklayer-mason, brick and stone mason, and mason. A guide to analysis discusses development, structure, and validation method; scope of the occupation; trends; and safety. To facilitate understanding the…

Cap, Orest; Cap, Ihor; Semenovych, Viktor

201

Cabinetmaker. Occupational Analysis Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains the analysis of the occupation of cabinetmaker, or joiner, that is accepted by the Canadian Council of Directors as the national standard for the occupation. The front matter preceding the analysis includes exploration of the development of the analysis, structure of the analysis, validation method, scope of the cabinetmaker…

Chinien, Chris; Boutin, France

202

The Heath Occupational Model.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Career development programs must identify occupational needs of adults. A model based on Maslow's hierarchy develops occupational questions related to individual motivations (physiology, safety, love, esteem, and self-actualization). Individual needs are then compared with characteristics and benefits of proposed jobs, companies, or careers. (SK)

Heath, William E.

1990-01-01

203

Occupational Stress among Teachers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two studies were conducted to investigate the degree to which occupational stress among teachers could be attributed to personal characteristics of the individuals themselves. The first study developed dispositional stress scales. The second examined correlations between these scales, occupational stress scales, and teachers' attitudes toward…

Albertson, Larry M.; Kagan, Dona M.

1987-01-01

204

Frequency response of lift control in Drosophila.  

PubMed

The flight control responses of the fruitfly represent a powerful model system to explore neuromotor control mechanisms, whose system level control properties can be suitably characterized with a frequency response analysis. We characterized the lift response dynamics of tethered flying Drosophila in presence of vertically oscillating visual patterns, whose oscillation frequency we varied between 0.1 and 13 Hz. We justified these measurements by showing that the amplitude gain and phase response is invariant to the pattern oscillation amplitude and spatial frequency within a broad dynamic range. We also showed that lift responses are largely linear and time invariant (LTI), a necessary condition for a meaningful analysis of frequency responses and a remarkable characteristic given its nonlinear constituents. The flies responded to increasing oscillation frequencies with a roughly linear decrease in response gain, which dropped to background noise levels at about 6 Hz. The phase lag decreased linearly, consistent with a constant reaction delay of 75 ms. Next, we estimated the free-flight response of the fly to generate a Bode diagram of the lift response. The limitation of lift control to frequencies below 6 Hz is explained with inertial body damping, which becomes dominant at higher frequencies. Our work provides the detailed background and techniques that allow optomotor lift responses of Drosophila to be measured with comparatively simple, affordable and commercially available techniques. The identification of an LTI, pattern velocity dependent, lift control strategy is relevant to the underlying motion computation mechanisms and serves a broader understanding of insects' flight control strategies. The relevance and potential pitfalls of applying system identification techniques in tethered preparations is discussed. PMID:20462877

Graetzel, Chauncey F; Nelson, Bradley J; Fry, Steven N

2010-11-01

205

Lift and Drag of Wings with Small Span  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The lift coefficient of!a wing of small span at first shows a linear increase for the increasing angle of attack, but to a lesser degree then was to be expected according to the theory of the lifting line; thereafter the lift coefficient increases more rapidly than linearity, as contrasted with the the theory of the lifting line. The induced drag coefficient for a given lift coefficient, on the other hand, is obviously much smaller than it would be according to the theory. A mall change in the theory of the lifting line will cover these deviations.

Weinig, F.

1947-01-01

206

Occupational infection in Korea.  

PubMed

Occupational infection is a human disease caused by work-associated exposure to microbial agents through human and environmental contact. According to the literature, occupational infection was the third leading cause of occupational disease (861 cases, 8.0%), and health care, agricultural, forestry, and fishery workers were risk groups in Korea. In addition, most high-risk groups have not been protected by workers' compensation, which could lead to underestimation of the exact spectrum and magnitude of the problem, and may also result in a lack of development and implementation of occupational infection management. Through a review of national guidelines and documentations on prevention and control of occupational infection, a management strategy would promote adherence to worker safety regulations if it is explicit with regard to the agent and mode of infection in each of the high-risk groups. PMID:21258592

Chung, Yun Kyung; Ahn, Yeon-Soon; Jeong, Jae Sim

2010-12-01

207

Perspectives in Occupational Dermatology  

PubMed Central

Because large surface areas of the skin are exposed directly to the environment, skin is an organ particularly vulnerable to occupationally induced disease. Statistics show that, excluding accidental injury, nearly half of all occupational illnesses occur in this organ; a fourth of all workers suffering from occupational skin disease lose an average of 10 to 12 workdays. The constant evolution of new industrial chemicals and methods of manufacture continue to bring new skin hazards and disease into the workplace. Occupational health physicians and practitioners, who usually have minimal training in dermatology, must diagnose and treat unfamiliar diseases in a setting of even less familiar, often overwhelming, technology. A thorough understanding of cutaneous defense mechanisms, clinical patterns of occupational skin disease and methods for establishing accurate diagnoses is essential. PMID:6219498

Mathias, C. G. Toby; Maibach, Howard I.

1982-01-01

208

Drag induced lift in granular media  

E-print Network

Laboratory experiments and numerical simulation reveal that a submerged intruder dragged horizontally at constant velocity within a granular medium experiences a lift force whose sign and magnitude depend on the intruder shape. Comparing the stress on a flat plate at varied inclination angle with the local surface stress on the intruders at regions with the same orientation demonstrates that intruder lift forces are well approximated as the sum of contributions from flat-plate elements. The plate stress is deduced from the force balance on the flowing media near the plate.

Yang Ding; Nick Gravish; Daniel I. Goldman

2011-08-09

209

An electromyographic analysis of seated and standing lifting tasks.  

PubMed

The objective of this project was to compare the muscular effort exerted during manual lifting tasks performed in standing versus seated posture. Six male undergraduate and graduate students performed 12 different static and dynamic lifts in both sitting and standing positions. During each effort electromyographic (EMG) data were collected on four muscles groups (low back, upper back, shoulder, and abdominals). Four contractions were designed to elicit maximum muscular effort in the four groups being monitored. The remaining data were then expressed as a percentage of maximum EMG. Each subject performed the following: maximum static lift when sitting; maximum static lift when standing; sitting, static lift with 15.9 kg; standing, static lift with 15.9 kg; dynamic sit-forward lift with 15.9 kg, dynamic stand-forward lift with 15.9 kg, dynamic sit-twist with 15.9 kg, dynamic stand-vertical lift with 15.9 kg. Each of the lifts was performed with a wooden tray with slotted handles. Root mean square (RMS) values of the EMG data were calculated for three second periods. EMG activity in the low back, upper back, and shoulder was greater during sitting lifting than during standing lifting. The sit-twist lift resulted in the highest EMG in the abdominal muscles. Dynamic lifts resulted in more muscle activity than did static lifts. From these data it was concluded that sitting-lifting results in greater stress in the low back, upper back, and shoulders than does lifting while standing. PMID:1633795

Yates, J W; Karwowski, W

1992-01-01

210

The lift-fan powered-lift aircraft concept: Lessons learned  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This is one of a series of reports on the lessons learned from past research related to lift-fan aircraft concepts. An extensive review is presented of the many lift-fan aircraft design studies conducted by both government and industry over the past 45 years. Mission applications and design integration including discussions on manifolding hot gas generators, hot gas dusting, and energy transfer control are addressed. Past lift-fan evaluations of the Avrocar are discussed. Lessons learned from these past efforts are identified.

Deckert, Wallace H.

1993-01-01

211

The evaluation of team lifting on physical work demands and workload in ironworkers.  

PubMed

Lifting and carrying heavy loads occur frequently among ironworkers and result in high prevalence and incidence rates of low back complaints, injuries and work-disability. From a health perspective, little information is available on the effect of team lifting on work demands and workload. Therefore, the objective of this study was to compare the effects of team lifting of maximally 50 kg by two ironworkers (T50) with team lifting of maximally 100 kg by four ironworkers (T100). This study combined a field and laboratory study with the following outcome measures: duration and frequency of tasks and activities, energetic workload, perceived discomfort and maximal compression forces (Fc peak) on the low back. The physical work demands and workload of an individual iron worker during manual handling of rebar materials of 100 kg with four workers did not differ from the manual handling of rebar materials of 50 kg with two workers, with the exception of low back discomfort and Fc peak. The biomechanical workload of the low back exceeded for both T50 and T100 the NIOSH threshold limit of 3400N. Therefore, mechanical transport or other effective design solutions should be considered to reduce the biomechanical workload of the low back and the accompanying health risks among iron workers. PMID:22317295

van der Molen, Henk F; Visser, Steven; Kuijer, P Paul F M; Faber, Gert; Hoozemans, Marco J M; van Dieën, Jaap H; Frings-Dresen, Monique H W

2012-01-01

212

[Occupational medicine insight into the problem of occupational stress in the construction industry].  

PubMed

According to the present study, in addition to the high accident rate, work in the building trade is characterized by intense muscle strain and constrained physical posture. In bricklaying, for example, a worker moves by hand up to seven tons of stone per shift. Consequently, various health complaints occur far more frequently in this occupation than in the other occupational groups, for instance, back complaints (71%), severe fatigue (58%), pain in the arms and hands (42%), headache (40%) and leg pain (34%). The most complained of factors include effects of the weather (74%), draft (50%), noise (55%), air pollution via dust (53%), skin contact with dirt and harmful substances (47%), moving heavy objects by hand (53%), adverse posture during work (47%), and a high risk of accidents (47%). Besides technical and organizational measures, the prevention of health impairments in employees in the building trade should be promoted by purposive care by works services of occupational medicine. PMID:3687226

Buchberger, J; Nemecek, J; Fahrni, M

1987-01-01

213

Mechanisms of occupational asthma.  

PubMed

Inhalation of agents in the workplace can induce asthma in a relatively small proportion of exposed workers. Like nonoccupational asthma, occupational asthma is probably the result of multiple genetic, environmental, and behavioral influences. It is important that occupational asthma be recognized clinically because it has serious medical and socioeconomic consequences. Environmental factors that can affect the initiation of occupational asthma include the intrinsic characteristics of causative agents as well as the influence of the level and route of exposure at the workplace. The identification of host factors, polymorphisms, and candidate genes associated with occupational asthma may improve our understanding of mechanisms involved in asthma. High-molecular-weight compounds from biological sources and low-molecular-weight chemicals cause occupational asthma after a latent period of exposure. Although the clinical, functional, and pathologic features of occupational asthma caused by low-molecular-weight agents resemble those of allergic asthma, the failure to detect specific IgE antibodies against most low-molecular-weight agents has resulted in a search for alternative or complementary physiopathologic mechanisms leading to airway sensitization. Recent advances have been made in the characterization of the immune response to low-molecular-weight agents. In contrast, the mechanism of the type of occupational asthma that occurs without latency after high-level exposure to irritants remains undetermined. PMID:19281901

Maestrelli, Piero; Boschetto, Piera; Fabbri, Leonardo M; Mapp, Cristina E

2009-03-01

214

View of central lift span truss web of Tensaw River ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View of central lift span truss web of Tensaw River Bridge, showing support girders for life house, looking east - Tensaw River Lift Bridge, Spanning Tensaw River at U.S. Highway 90, Mobile, Mobile County, AL

215

Design of a Thermally-Actuated Gas Lift Safety Valve  

E-print Network

Gas-lifted oil wells are susceptible to failure through malfunction of gas lift valve assemblies (GLV). One failure mode occurs when the GLV check valve fails and product passes into the well annulus, potentially reaching ...

Gilbertson, Eric W.

216

Design of an electronically-actuated gas lift safety valve  

E-print Network

Gas lift valves are widely used in oil production fields to pump recycled gas and nitrogen into the production tubing, to sustain production by aerating the oil and lifting it to the ground or sea surface. Today's industry ...

Yu, Changkuan, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2013-01-01

217

3. GENERAL VIEW LOOKING WEST, SHOWING LIFT BRIDGE. COUNTER WEIGHTS ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. GENERAL VIEW LOOKING WEST, SHOWING LIFT BRIDGE. COUNTER WEIGHTS ARE LARGE SQUARES VISIBLE ABOVE BRIDGE. - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Fort Point Channel Rolling Lift Bridge, Spanning Fort Point Channel, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

218

2. AERIAL VIEW OF ROLLING LIFT BRIDGE. DORCHESTER AVENUE IN ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. AERIAL VIEW OF ROLLING LIFT BRIDGE. DORCHESTER AVENUE IN BACKGROUND. SOUTH STATION VISIBLE AT TOP LEFT. - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Fort Point Channel Rolling Lift Bridge, Spanning Fort Point Channel, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

219

GENERAL VIEW LOOKING WEST SHOWING LIFT BRIDGE. COUNTER WEIGHTS ARE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

GENERAL VIEW LOOKING WEST SHOWING LIFT BRIDGE. COUNTER WEIGHTS ARE LARGE SQUARES VISIBLE ABOVE BRIDGE - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Fort Point Channel Rolling Lift Bridge, Spanning Fort Point Channel, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

220

Complexity Spaces: Lifting & Directedness M. Schellekens  

E-print Network

Complexity Spaces: Lifting & Directedness M. Schellekens Abstract The theory of complexity spaces Analysis. The topological study of these spaces has been continued in the context of the theory of upper weightable spaces ([Sch96]), while the specific properties of total boundedness and Smyth completeness have

Schellekens, Michel P.

221

LIFTED INEQUALITIES FOR A SOFTDRINK LOTSCHEDULING MODEL  

E-print Network

derived using a lifting procedure into a lot scheduling model applied to the soft-drink production) associated with the production planning of soft drinks. Several mathematical formulations are proposed state of the art commercial solvers are used. In the context of soft drink production, Defalque et al

Clark, Alistair

222

Evolution of curvature invariants and lifting integrability  

E-print Network

Evolution of curvature invariants and lifting integrability Elizabeth L. Mansfield and Peter H. van. These define the curvature and evolution invariants that are associated to curves moving in the given geometry. The syzygy between the curvature and evolution invariants is obtained as a zero curvature relation

Kamp, Peter H. van der

223

Shear flow aerodynamics - Lifting surface theory  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A lifting surface theory based on a parallel shear flow model is presented for steady, incompressible flows. The theory is intended to account approximately for the presence of a boundary layer. The method of Fourier transforms is used to calculate the pressure on a surface of infinite extent and arbitrary contour. Immediately above the surface is a region of sheared flow (the boundary layer), outside of which the flow velocity is constant. The Fourier transform of the pressure on this surface is used to derive the shear flow equivalent to the kernel function of classical potential flow lifting surface theory. The kernel function provides an integral relation between the upwash at a given point on the surface and the pressure everywhere on the surface. This relation is treated as an integral equation for the pressure, and is solved numerically. Computations are presented for the lift and pitching moment on a flat plate in two-dimensional flow, and for flat, rectangular wings of aspect ratio 1, 2, and 5. As expected, the shear layer decreases the lift curve slope; however, the shear layer (whose thickness is constant along the wing chord) has little effect on the center of pressure.

Ventres, C. S.

1975-01-01

224

Titan/Cassini: lifting module into stand  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Lower Equipment Module of the Cassini spacecraft is lifted into a workstand in the Payload Hazardous Servicing Facility (PHSF). Cassini will explore the Saturnian system, including the planet's rings and its moon, Titan. Launch of the Cassini mission to Saturn is scheduled for Oct. 6 from Launch Complex 40, Cape Canaveral Air Station, aboard a Titan IVB unmanned vehicle.

1997-01-01

225

Computation of Lifting Wing-Flap Configurations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Research has been carried out on the computation of lifting wing-flap configurations. The long term goal of the research is to develop improved computational tools for the analysis and design of high lift systems. Results show that state-of-the-art computational methods are sufficient to predict time-averaged lift and overall flow field characteristics on simple high-lift configurations. Recently there has been an increased interest in the problem of airframe generated noise and experiments carried out in the 7 x 10 wind tunnel at NASA Ames have identified the flap edge as an important source of noise. A follow-on set of experiments will be conducted toward the end of 1995. The computations being carried out under this project are coordinated with these experiments. In particular, the model geometry being used in the computations is the same as that in the experiments. The geometry consists of a NACA 63-215 Mod B airfoil section which spans the 7 x lO tunnel. The wing is unswept and has an aspect ratio of two. A 30% chord Fowler flap is deployed modifications of the flap edge geometry have been shown to be effective in reducing noise and the existing code is currently being used to compute the effect of a modified geometry on the edge flow.

Cantwell, Brian; Kwak, Dochan

1996-01-01

226

Complications of lower blepharoplasty and midface lifting.  

PubMed

Lower eyelid blepharoplasty and midface lifting share a complex anatomy, which should be mastered before attempting these types of surgeries. In recent years, there have been significant contributions to rejuvenating this area. A thorough understanding of the rejuvenative approaches and their outcomes is imperative. Thus, the problem must be preoperatively evaluated to offer the appropriate technique and minimize complications. PMID:25440742

Schwarcz, Robert M; Kotlus, Brett

2015-01-01

227

Evaluation of hydraulic lift in cotton germplasm  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Hydraulic lift (HL) in plants is defined as the redistribution of water from wetter to drier soil through the plant roots in response to soil water potential gradients. Water is released from the roots into the dry soil when transpiration is low (night) and reabsorbed by the plant when higher transp...

228

Measuring Lift with the Wright Airfoils  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this laboratory or demonstration exercise, we mount a small airfoil with its long axis vertical at one end of a nearly frictionless rotating platform. Air from a leaf blower produces a sidewise lift force L on the airfoil and a drag force D in the direction of the air flow (Fig. 1). The rotating platform is kept in equilibrium by adding weights…

Heavers, Richard M.; Soleymanloo, Arianne

2011-01-01

229

An Evidence-Based Multidisciplinary Practice Guideline to Reduce the Workload due to Lifting for Preventing Work-Related Low Back Pain  

PubMed Central

We developed an evidence-based practice guideline to support occupational safety and health (OSH) professionals in assessing the risk due to lifting and in selecting effective preventive measures for low back pain (LBP) in the Netherlands. The guideline was developed at the request of the Dutch government by a project team of experts and OSH professionals in lifting and work-related LBP. The recommendations for risk assessment were based on the quality of instruments to assess the risk on LBP due to lifting. Recommendations for interventions were based on a systematic review of the effects of worker- and work directed interventions to reduce back load due to lifting. The quality of the evidence was rated as strong (A), moderate (B), limited (C) or based on consensus (D). Finally, eight experts and twenty-four OSH professionals commented on and evaluated the content and the feasibility of the preliminary guideline. For risk assessment we recommend loads heavier than 25 kg always to be considered a risk for LBP while loads less than 3 kg do not pose a risk. For loads between 3–25 kg, risk assessment shall be performed using the Manual handling Assessment Charts (MAC)-Tool or National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) lifting equation. Effective work oriented interventions are patient lifting devices (Level A) and lifting devices for goods (Level C), optimizing working height (Level A) and reducing load mass (Level C). Ineffective work oriented preventive measures are regulations to ban lifting without proper alternatives (Level D). We do not recommend worker-oriented interventions but consider personal lift assist devices as promising (Level C). Ineffective worker-oriented preventive measures are training in lifting technique (Level A), use of back-belts (Level A) and pre-employment medical examinations (Level A). This multidisciplinary evidence-based practice guideline gives clear criteria whether an employee is at risk for LBP while lifting and provides an easy-reference for (in)effective risk reduction measures based on scientific evidence, experience, and consensus among OSH experts and practitioners. PMID:24999432

2014-01-01

230

Clinical application of palatal lift appliance in velopharyngeal incompetence.  

PubMed

The presence of nasal air leak in cleft palate patients with velopharyngeal incompetence leads to characteristic nasal snort. The efficacy of the palatal lift appliance in patients with adequate velopharyngeal tissue with incompetence was tested. Speech quality improved after the wearing of palatal lift appliance. Palatal lift appliances are simple and efficient in reducing the nasal air leak. Ongoing speech therapy is necessary and advised for patients receiving palatal lift. PMID:22169842

Premkumar, S

2011-12-01

231

14 CFR 25.699 - Lift and drag device indicator.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Lift and drag device indicator. 25.699 Section...Control Systems § 25.699 Lift and drag device indicator. (a) There must...the pilots the position of each lift or drag device having a separate control...

2011-01-01

232

14 CFR 25.699 - Lift and drag device indicator.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Lift and drag device indicator. 25.699 Section...Control Systems § 25.699 Lift and drag device indicator. (a) There must...the pilots the position of each lift or drag device having a separate control...

2012-01-01

233

14 CFR 25.699 - Lift and drag device indicator.  

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Lift and drag device indicator. 25.699 Section...Control Systems § 25.699 Lift and drag device indicator. (a) There must...the pilots the position of each lift or drag device having a separate control...

2014-01-01

234

14 CFR 25.699 - Lift and drag device indicator.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Lift and drag device indicator. 25.699 Section...Control Systems § 25.699 Lift and drag device indicator. (a) There must...the pilots the position of each lift or drag device having a separate control...

2013-01-01

235

46 CFR 98.30-6 - Lifting a portable tank.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lifting a portable tank. 98.30-6 Section 98.30-6 Shipping...DANGEROUS CARGOES IN BULK Portable Tanks § 98.30-6 Lifting a portable tank. No person may lift a portable tank...

2010-10-01

236

On lifting line analysis of horizontal axis windturbines  

Microsoft Academic Search

A convergent iteration scheme for lifting line performance analysis of horizontal axis windturbines is presented. Lifting line correction factors are introduced and compared with those of Prandtl and Goldstein. Lifting line and strip theory formulations are applied for the calculation of performance for two windturbines. Differences of engineering importance are shown to exist in the prediction of the Power coefficient.

G. K. Politis; T. A. Loukakis

1984-01-01

237

American Occupational Therapy Association  

MedlinePLUS

... the latest products and opportunities --only in Nashville's Music City Center! Annual Conference & Expo Calendar Occupational Therapy ... Annual Conference 03/01/2015 - 03/01/2015 Technology Special Interest Section Virtual Chat 03/10/2015 - ...

238

Occupational Therapy (For Parents)  

MedlinePLUS

... from OT: birth injuries or birth defects sensory processing disorders traumatic injuries (brain or spinal cord) learning ... skills, visual-perceptual skills, cognitive skills, and sensory-processing deficits. Occupational Therapy Practitioners There are two professional ...

239

Occupational hearing loss  

MedlinePLUS

Over time, repeated exposure to loud noise and music can cause hearing loss. Occupational hearing loss is ... Airline ground maintenance Construction Farming Jobs involving loud music or machinery In the U.S., the maximum job ...

240

Paternal occupation and anencephaly  

SciTech Connect

It has been suggested that paternal occupational exposures to pesticides and solvents increase the risk of neural tube defects in offspring. With the use of Texas livebirth, fetal death, and linked livebirth-death records, the authors conducted a population-based case-control study among 1981-1986 Texas births to examine the association between paternal occupation and anencephalic births. Fathers employed in occupations associated with solvent exposure were more likely to have offspring with anencephaly (odds ratio (OR) = 2.53), with painters having the highest risk (OR = 3.43). A lesser association was found for fathers employed in occupations involving pesticide exposure (OR = 1.28). Further studies are indicated to clarify these associations.

Brender, J.D.; Suarez, L. (Texas Department of Health, Austin (USA))

1990-03-01

241

Occupational Safety and Health Aspects of Voice and Speech Professions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A well-functioning voice is an essential tool for one third of the labour force. Vocal demands vary to a great extent between the different voice and speech professions. In professions with heavy vocal loading (e.g. school and kindergarten teachers), occupational voice disorders threatening working ability are common. Vocal loading is a combination of prolonged voice use and additional loading factors

Erkki Vilkman

2004-01-01

242

Occupational cancer in Spain.  

PubMed Central

The knowledge of specific problems of occupational cancer in Spain is scarce. The environment of the workplace has improved over the last few years after a long period distinguished by bad working conditions, incomplete legislation, and insufficient safety measures and control. It has been estimated that 3,083,479 workers (25.4% of employees) were exposed to carcinogens. The most common occupational exposures to carcinogenic agents were solar radiation, environmental tobacco smoke, silica, and wood dust. The highest number of employees were exposed to silica crystalline (404,729), diesel engine exhaust (274,321), rubber products (99,804), benzene (89,932), ethylene dibromide (81,336), agents used in furniture and cabinet making (72,068), and formaldehyde (71,189). The percentage of total cancer deaths attributed to occupational exposure was 4% (6% in men, 0.9% in women). Compared with other European countries, the incidence of lung cancer and leukemia in Spain are one of the lowest, but it is rapidly increasing. The incidence of urinary bladder and larynx cancer, on the contrary, are one of the highest. Few studies on occupational cancer have been conducted in Spain. The main problems are the availability of death certificates and the quality of the information on occupation in mortality of statistics. It is necessary to improve methods of assessment of exposures using expert hygienists and biologic markers of exposure and diseases. Reduction of cancer by limiting or avoiding exposure to known occupational carcinogens is still necessary. PMID:10350510

González, C A; Agudo, A

1999-01-01

243

Occupational cancer in Spain.  

PubMed

The knowledge of specific problems of occupational cancer in Spain is scarce. The environment of the workplace has improved over the last few years after a long period distinguished by bad working conditions, incomplete legislation, and insufficient safety measures and control. It has been estimated that 3,083,479 workers (25.4% of employees) were exposed to carcinogens. The most common occupational exposures to carcinogenic agents were solar radiation, environmental tobacco smoke, silica, and wood dust. The highest number of employees were exposed to silica crystalline (404,729), diesel engine exhaust (274,321), rubber products (99,804), benzene (89,932), ethylene dibromide (81,336), agents used in furniture and cabinet making (72,068), and formaldehyde (71,189). The percentage of total cancer deaths attributed to occupational exposure was 4% (6% in men, 0.9% in women). Compared with other European countries, the incidence of lung cancer and leukemia in Spain are one of the lowest, but it is rapidly increasing. The incidence of urinary bladder and larynx cancer, on the contrary, are one of the highest. Few studies on occupational cancer have been conducted in Spain. The main problems are the availability of death certificates and the quality of the information on occupation in mortality of statistics. It is necessary to improve methods of assessment of exposures using expert hygienists and biologic markers of exposure and diseases. Reduction of cancer by limiting or avoiding exposure to known occupational carcinogens is still necessary. PMID:10350510

González, C A; Agudo, A

1999-05-01

244

Occupant thermal comfort evaluation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Throughout the automotive industry there has been an increasing concern and focus on the thermal comfort of occupants. Manufacturers are continuously striving to improve heating and air conditioning performance to comply with expanding customer needs. To optimize these systems, the technology to acquire data must also be enhanced. In this evaluation, the standard use of isolated thermocouple location technology is compared to utilizing infrared thermal vision in an air conditioning performance assessment. Infrared data on an actual occupant is correlated to breath and air conditioning output temperatures measured by positioned thermocouples. The use of infrared thermal vision highlights various areas of comfort and discomfort experienced by the occupant. The evaluation involves utilizing an infrared thermal vision camera to film an occupant in the vehicle as the following test procedure is run. The vehicle is soaked in full sun load until the interior temperature reaches a minimum of 150 degrees F (65.6 degrees Celsius). The occupant enters the vehicle and takes an initial temperature reading. The air conditioning is turned on to full cold, full fan speed, and recirculation mode. While being filmed, the driver drives for sixty minutes at 30 miles per hour (48.3 kph). The thermocouples acquire data in one minute intervals while the infrared camera films the cooling process of the occupant.

Ghiardi, Gena L.

1999-03-01

245

Effects of related sensory inputs on motor performances in man studied through changes in perceived heaviness  

PubMed Central

1. The perception of the heaviness of lifted objects was studied using a weight-matching task when sensory inputs from parts related to the lifting task were altered. 2. A weight lifted by flexing the index finger feels heavier when the thumb is anaesthetized and lighter when the thumb is electrically stimulated. A weight lifted by flexing the distal joint of the thumb feels heavier when the sensory input from the skin and joint of the thumb is abolished by anaesthesia. It also feels heavier when the index (but not the little) finger is anaesthetized, and lighter when the index (but not the little) finger is electrically stimulated. 3. A weight lifted by extending the thumb feels lighter when the sensory input from the thumb is abolished. 4. The perceived heaviness of a weight lifted by flexing the thumb is increased during anaesthesia of the thumb when the flexor of the thumb is the prime mover but not when it is acting simply as a postural fixator to support the weight. 5. The sensation of the heaviness of lifted objects derives from the effort or centrally generated voluntary motor command employed in the lift. Our results indicate that the motor commands to either thumb or index finger flexors are facilitated by sensory inputs arising from a wide sensory field usually involved in co-operative motor performances carried out by both muscle groups together. PMID:592207

Gandevia, S. C.; McCloskey, D. I.

1977-01-01

246

Occup Environ Med . Author manuscript Occupation and occupational exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals  

E-print Network

Occup Environ Med . Author manuscript Page /1 12 Occupation and occupational exposure to endocrine. Lifetime work history was obtained during in-person interviews. Occupational exposures to endocrine elevated risk of male breast cancer observed in motor vehicle mechanics. Endocrine disruptors

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

247

Static Thrust Analysis of the Lifting Airscrew  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report presents the results of a combined theoretical and experimental investigation conducted at the Georgia School of Technology on the static thrust of the lifting air screw of the type used in modern autogiros and helicopters. The theoretical part of this study is based on Glauert's analysis but certain modifications are made that further clarify and simplify the problem. Of these changes the elimination of the solidity as an independent parameter is the most important. The experimental data were obtained from tests on four rotor models of two, four, and five blades and, in general, agree quite well with the theoretical calculations. The theory indicates a method of evaluating scale effects on lifting air screws, and these corrections have been applied to the model results to derive general full-scale static thrust, torque, and figure-of-merit curves for constant-chord, constant-incidence rotors. Convenient charts are included that enable hovering flight performance to be calculated rapidly.

Knight, Montgomery; Hefner, Ralph A

1937-01-01

248

LIFT Tenant Is Off and Running  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Lewis Incubator for Technology (LIFT) tenant, Analiza Inc., graduated from the incubator July 2000. Analiza develops technology and products for the early diagnosis of diseases, quality control of bio-pharmaceutical therapeutics, and other applications involving protein analyses. Technology links with NASA from existing and planned work are in areas of microfluidics and laser light scattering. Since their entry in LIFT in May, 1997, Analiza has: Received a $750,000 grant from the National Institutes of Health. Collaborated with a Nobel Prize winner on drug design. Collaborated with Bristol-Myers Squibb on the characterization of biological therapeutics. Added a Ph.D. senior scientist and several technicians. Received significant interest from major pharmaceutical companies about collaborating and acquiring Analiza technology.

Steele, Gynelle C.

2001-01-01

249

Lifting equipment for an offshore construction  

SciTech Connect

An offshore construction in which a floatable platform is supported through raisable and lowerable support legs directly or indirectly on the sea bed. At least two cable winches for each support leg are arranged as lifting equipment on the platform. One cable winch is connected through a single cable line with the lower end of a support leg. The other cable winch displays a multiple cable line guided around two pulley blocks. One of these pulley blocks is arranged on the support leg. In order to be able to employ the lifting equipment even in the case of great support leg lengths, the other pulley block is arranged on a ring. This ring surrounds the support leg and is detachably connected through a locking device with the platform.

Mayr, H.

1984-01-24

250

Respiratory Symptoms and Occupational Dust Exposure In US Veterans  

PubMed Central

PROBLEM Occupational exposure to organic and inorganic dusts may result in symptoms of chronic respiratory disease. METHOD To investigate the utility of obtaining a history of occupational exposure to dust in US veterans, a respiratory health survey was conducted between 1988 and 1992. They were asked for history of cough, phlegm, and wheeze, and occupational dust exposures Information on cigarette use and other possible confounders was also obtained. RESULTS In 2,617 white males, after adjusting for cigarette smoking, age, distance to the nearest major roadway, and chronic respiratory disease, there was an overall 2-fold increased risk of all three respiratory symptoms attributable to occupational dust exposure. The odds ratio (OR) increased based on exposure intensity. CONCLUSIONS After considering possible confounders, dust exposure was associated with respiratory symptoms, with the greatest risk attributable to heavy intensity exposure. PMID:15368060

Garshick, Eric; Laden, Francine; Hart, Jaime; Moy, Marilyn L.

2007-01-01

251

Factoring wavelet transforms into lifting steps  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article is essentially tutorial in nature. We show how any discrete wavelet transform or two band subband filtering with\\u000a finite filters can be decomposed into a finite sequence of simple filtering steps, which we call lifting steps but that are\\u000a also known as ladder structures. This decomposition corresponds to a factorization of the polyphase matrix of the wavelet\\u000a or

Ingrid Daubechies; Wim Sweldens

1998-01-01

252

Lift production in the hovering hummingbird  

PubMed Central

Aerodynamic theory and empirical observations of animals flying at similar Reynolds numbers (Re) predict that airflow over hummingbird wings will be dominated by a stable, attached leading edge vortex (LEV). In insects exhibiting similar kinematics, when the translational movement of the wing ceases (as at the end of the downstroke), the LEV is shed and lift production decreases until the energy of the LEV is re-captured in the subsequent half-cycle translation. We here show that while the hummingbird wing is strongly influenced by similar sharp-leading-edge aerodynamics, leading edge vorticity is inconsistent, varying from 0.7 to 26 per cent (mean 16%) of total lift production, is always generated within 3 mm of the dorsal surface of the wing, showing no retrograde (trailing to leading edge) flow, and does not increase from proximal to distal wing as would be expected with a conical vortex (class III LEV) described for hawkmoths. Further, the bound circulation is not shed as a vortex at the end of translation, but instead remains attached and persists after translation has ceased, augmented by the rotation (pronation, supination) of the wing that occurs between the wing-translation half-cycles. The result is a near-continuous lift production through wing turn-around, previously unknown in vertebrates, able to contribute to weight support as well as stability and control during hovering. Selection for a planform suited to creating this unique flow and nearly-uninterrupted lift production throughout the wingbeat cycle may help explain the relatively narrow hummingbird wing. PMID:19656789

Warrick, Douglas R.; Tobalske, Bret W.; Powers, Donald R.

2009-01-01

253

Flame Stabilization Mechanisms in Lifted Flames  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flame stabilization and the mechanisms that govern the dynamics at the flame base of lifted flames have been subject to numerous\\u000a studies in recent years. A combined Large Eddy Simulation-Conditional Moment Closure (LES-CMC) approach has been successful\\u000a in predicting flame ignition and stabilization by auto-ignition, but accurate modelling of the competition between turbulent\\u000a quenching and laminar and turbulent flame propagation

Salvador Navarro-Martinez; Andreas Kronenburg

254

Heating Analysis of the Lockheed Lifting Body  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Computational fluid dynamic (CFD) analysis is performed on the Lockheed Lifting Body Single-Stage-to-Orbit vehicle to determine the heat transfer to the vehicle during its descent trajectory. Seven species, chemical nonequilibriurn computations using the GASP code will be completed at several trajectory points to assess the thermal protection requirements of the vehicle. Sophisticated surface boundary conditions including in-depth conduction, catalycity, and a variable temperature wall have been incorporated into the flow solver.

Palmer, Grant; Henline, Bill; Olynick, Dave; Edwards, Thomas A. (Technical Monitor)

1994-01-01

255

Analysis of particulates on tape lift samples  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Particle counts on tape lift samples taken from a hardware surface exceeded threshold requirements in six successive tests despite repeated cleaning of the surface. Subsequent analysis of the particle size distributions of the failed tests revealed that the handling and processing of the tape lift samples may have played a role in the test failures. In order to explore plausible causes for the observed size distribution anomalies, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) were employed to perform chemical analysis on collected particulates. SEM/EDX identified Na and S containing particles on the hardware samples in a size range identified as being responsible for the test failures. ToF-SIMS was employed to further examine the Na and S containing particulates and identified the molecular signature of sodium alkylbenzene sulfonates, a common surfactant used in industrial detergent. The root cause investigation suggests that the tape lift test failures originated from detergent residue left behind on the glass slides used to mount and transport the tape following sampling and not from the hardware surface.

Moision, Robert M.; Chaney, John A.; Panetta, Chris J.; Liu, De-Ling

2014-09-01

256

LiftingWiSe: A Lifting-Based Efficient Data Processing Technique in Wireless Sensor Networks  

PubMed Central

Monitoring thousands of objects which are deployed over large-hard-to-reach areas, is an important application of the wireless sensor networks (WSNs). Such an application requires disseminating a large amount of data within the WSN. This data includes, but is not limited to, the object's location and the environment conditions at that location. WSNs require efficient data processing and dissemination processes due to the limited storage, processing power, and energy available in the WSN nodes. The aim of this paper is to propose a data processing technique that can work under constrained storage, processing, and energy resource conditions. The proposed technique utilizes the lifting procedure in processing the disseminated data. Lifting is usually used in discrete wavelet transform (DWT) operations. The proposed technique is referred to as LiftingWiSe, which stands for Lifting-based efficient data processing technique for Wireless Sensor Networks. LiftingWiSe has been tested and compared to other relevant techniques from the literature. The test has been conducted via a simulation of the monitored field and the deployed wireless sensor network nodes. The simulation results have been analyzed and discussed. PMID:25116902

Aboelela, Emad

2014-01-01

257

LiftingWiSe: a lifting-based efficient data processing technique in wireless sensor networks.  

PubMed

Monitoring thousands of objects which are deployed over large-hard-to-reach areas, is an important application of the wireless sensor networks (WSNs). Such an application requires disseminating a large amount of data within the WSN. This data includes, but is not limited to, the object's location and the environment conditions at that location. WSNs require efficient data processing and dissemination processes due to the limited storage, processing power, and energy available in the WSN nodes. The aim of this paper is to propose a data processing technique that can work under constrained storage, processing, and energy resource conditions. The proposed technique utilizes the lifting procedure in processing the disseminated data. Lifting is usually used in discrete wavelet transform (DWT) operations. The proposed technique is referred to as LiftingWiSe, which stands for Lifting-based efficient data processing technique for Wireless Sensor Networks. LiftingWiSe has been tested and compared to other relevant techniques from the literature. The test has been conducted via a simulation of the monitored field and the deployed wireless sensor network nodes. The simulation results have been analyzed and discussed. PMID:25116902

Aboelela, Emad

2014-01-01

258

Superficial shoulder muscle co-activations during lifting tasks: Influence of lifting height, weight and phase.  

PubMed

This study aimed to assess the level of co-activation of the superficial shoulder muscles during lifting movement. Boxes containing three different loads (6, 12, and 18kg) were lifted by fourteen subjects from the waist to shoulder or eye level. The 3D kinematics and electromyograms of the three deltoids, latissimus dorsi and pectoralis major were recorded. A musculoskeletal model was used to determine direction of the moment arm of these muscles. Finally an index of muscle co-activation named the muscle focus was used to evaluate the effects of lifting height, weight lifted and phase (pulling, lifting and dropping phases) on superficial shoulder muscle coactivation. The muscle focus was lower (more co-contraction) during the dropping phase compared to the two other phases (-13%, p<0.001). This was explained by greater muscle activations and by a change in the direction of the muscle moment arm as a function of glenohumeral joint position. Consequently, the function of the shoulder superficial muscles varied with respect to the glenohumeral joint position. To increase the superficial muscle coactivation during the dropping phase may be a solution to increase glenohumeral joint stiffness. PMID:25483204

Blache, Y; Dal Maso, F; Desmoulins, L; Plamondon, A; Begon, M

2014-11-25

259

Occupational health in Singapore.  

PubMed

Singapore, a newly industrializing country in Southeast Asia, has a resident population of 3 million and a work force of 1.75 million. Most workers are employed in the manufacturing, services, and commerce sectors. Agricultural and mining activities are negligible. In 1996 the infant mortality rate was 3.8 per 1,000 live births and the life expectancy at birth was 77 years. In 1996 the total industrial accident rate was 2.7 per million man-hours worked and the severity rate was 353 industrial man-days lost per million man-hours worked. The shipbuilding and construction industries had the most frequent and most severe accidents. In the same year, 1,521 cases of occupational disease were notified to, and confirmed by, the Ministry of Labor. The majority of cases involved noise-induced hearing loss. There is substantial underreporting of cases. New cases that are expected to appear will be work-related illnesses such as musculoskeletal or psychosocial disorders. The principal occupational health legislation in Singapore is the Factories Act. Although it selectively targets workers at highest risk of developing occupational illness, its main limitation is the exclusion of nonfactory workers, who comprise 63% of the working population. Labor regulations are enforced by the Ministry of Labor. Workmen's compensation paid in 1995 amounted to S $46.6 million (U.S. $1=S $1.75). Education and training in occupational health is provided by employer federations, employee unions, and various government agencies. Occupational health is taught to medical students during their undergraduate training. Postgraduate-diploma and Masters programs in occupational medicine are also available. About 600 doctors in Singapore have some form of postgraduate training in occupational health. Health care for workers is offered either through the private sector or through government clinics and hospitals. Although Singapore has made great strides in protecting and promoting the health of its workers, it must constantly strive to strengthen its commitment to occupational health and safety. New problems in the next century must be anticipated and solutions, implemented. Improved training and development of health professionals is needed such that they be better prepared to deliver optimal occupational health care. Finally, labor legislation must be appropriate and responsive to protect the health of all workers. PMID:9749967

Koh, D; Jeyaratnam, J

1998-07-01

260

Occupation and gastric cancer  

PubMed Central

Gastric cancer is a cause of significant morbidity and mortality. There are several risk factors, with occupation emerging as one of these. There is considerable evidence that occupations in coal and tin mining, metal processing, particularly steel and iron, and rubber manufacturing industries lead to an increased risk of gastric cancer. Other "dusty" occupations—for example, wood processing, or work in high temperature environments have also been implicated but the evidence is not strong. The mechanism of pathogenesis of gastric cancer is unclear and the identification of causative agents can be difficult. Dust is thought to be a contributor to the pathological process, but well known carcinogens such as N-nitroso compounds have been detected in some environments. Further research on responsible agents is necessary and screening for detection of precursor gastric cancer lesions at the workplace merits consideration. PMID:12782770

Raj, A; Mayberry, J; Podas, T

2003-01-01

261

Occupational asthma in Korea.  

PubMed

Occupational asthma (OA) is the leading occupational respiratory disease. Cases compensated as OA by the Korea Workers' Compensation and Welfare Service (COMWEL) (218 cases), cases reported by a surveillance system (286 cases), case reports by related scientific journals and cases confirmed by the Occupational Safety and Health Research Institute (OSHRI) over 15 yr from 1992 to 2006 were analyzed. Annual mean incidence rate was 1.6 by compensation and 3.5 by surveillance system, respectively. The trend appeared to increase according to the surveillance system. Incidence was very low compared with other countries. The most frequently reported causative agent was isocyanate followed by reactive dye in dyeing factories. Other chemicals, metals and dust were also found as causative agents. OA was underreported according to compensation and surveillance system data. In conclusion, a more effective surveillance system is needed to evaluate OA causes and distribution, and to effectively prevent newly developing OA. PMID:21258586

Oh, Sung Soo; Kim, Kyoo Sang

2010-12-01

262

Occupational lung cancer  

SciTech Connect

The overall importance of occupational agents as a cause of lung cancer has been a controversial subject since the 1970s. A federal report, released in the late 1970s, projected a surprisingly high burden of occupational lung cancer; for asbestos and four other agents, from 61,000 to 98,000 cases annually were attributed to these agents alone. Many estimates followed, some much more conservative. For example, Doll and Peto estimated that 15% of lung cancer in men and 5% in women could be attributed to occupational exposures. A number of population-based case-control studies also provide relevant estimates. In a recent literature review, Vineis and Simonato cited attributable risk estimates for occupation and lung cancer that ranged from 4% to 40%; for asbestos alone, the estimates ranged from 1% to 5%. These estimates would be expected to vary across locations and over time. Nevertheless, these recent estimates indicate that occupation remains an important cause of lung cancer. Approaches to Prevention. Prevention of lung cancer mortality among workers exposed to agents or industrial processes that cause lung cancer may involve several strategies, including eliminating or reducing exposures, smoking cessation, screening, and chemo-prevention. For example, changes in industrial processes that have eliminated or reduced exposures to chloromethyl ethers and nickel compounds have provided evidence of reduced risk of lung cancer following these changes. Although occupational exposures are important causes of lung cancer, cigarette smoking is the most important preventable cause of lung cancer. For adults, the work site offers an important location to target smoking cessation efforts. In fact, the work site may be the only place to reach many smokers.

Coultas, D.B.; Samet, J.M. (Department of Medicine, University of New Mexico School of Medicine, Albuquerque (United States))

1992-06-01

263

Michigan State University Occupational Health  

E-print Network

Occupational Safety and Health Administration Enforcement Policy and Procedures for Occupational Exposure. Blood testing for TB may be used in place of Mantoux test or symptom review. V. Frequency of Examination

264

Environmental Studies & Ecology Sample Occupations  

E-print Network

Environmental Studies & Ecology Sample Occupations Agricultural Engineer Agronomist Animal Biologist Animal Occupations Biologist Business Owner Chemical Technician Chemist Civil Engineer Hydrologist Industrial Hygienist Intelligence Officer Journalist Land Management Specialist Land Use Analyst

Ronquist, Fredrik

265

Aerodynamic characteristics of a propeller powered high lift semispan wing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An experimental investigation was conducted on the engine/airframe integration aerodynamics for potential high-lift aircraft configurations. The model consisted of a semispan wing with a double-isolated flap system and a Krueger leading edge device. The advanced propeller and the powered nacelle were tested and aerodynamic characteristics of the combined system are presented. It was found that the lift coefficient of the powered wing could be increased by the propeller slipstream when the rotational speed was increased and high-lift devices were deployed. Moving the nacelle/propeller closer to the wing in the vertical direction indicated higher lift augmentation than a shift in the longitudinal direction. A pitch-down nacelle inclination enhanced the lift performance of the system much better than vertical and horizontal variation of the nacelle locations and showed that the powered wing can sustain higher angles of attack near maximum lift performance.

Takallu, M. A.; Gentry, G. L., Jr.

1992-01-01

266

Health Occupations Cluster.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These instructional materials consist of a series of curriculum worksheets that cover tasks to be mastered by students in health occupations cluster programs. Covered in the curriculum worksheets are diagnostic procedures; observing/recording/reporting/planning; safety; nutrition/elimination; hygiene/personal care/comfort;…

Walraven, Catherine; And Others

267

OCCUPATIONAL THERAPY PROFESSION DROPOUTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The emotional process of clinical practice and the loss of expected rewards may offer an explanation for short clinical careers. Occupational therapists as they develop in their careers may experience unconscious, aversive, affective responses to the difficulties encountered with those who have severe, chronic disabilities. Additionally, they may acquire \\

Sandra Burnett-Beaulieu

1982-01-01

268

Building Industries Occupations: Syllabus.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Building Industries Occupations course is a two-year program of approximately 160 three-period teaching days per year. The required course content is designed to be effectively taught in 80 percent of the total course time, thus allowing 20 percent of the time for instruction adapted to such local conditions as employment prospects, student…

New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Secondary Curriculum Development.

269

Sleepiness of Occupational Drivers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drowsiness and sleeping at the wheel are now identified as the reasons behind fatal crashes and highway accidents caused by occupational drivers. For many years, fatigue has been associated to risk of accidents but the causes of this symptom were unclear. Extensive or nocturnal driving was associated to accidents but few reports differentiated fatigue from sleepiness. In the early nineties,

Pierre PHILIP

2005-01-01

270

Occupational Orientation in Virginia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the development, implementation, and field testing of Virginia's three-year Clusters Approach to Career Orientation (CACO) Project designed to generate an activity-based, across-the-board curriculum for pre-exploratory students relating to appropriateness in occupational choice. (TA)

Ressler, Ralph

1978-01-01

271

British Communicator Occupations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Occupations and organizations within the British press and broadcasting systems are examined in this paper. Its sections summarize recent British research on media communicators and discuss characteristics of craft unions and other media organizations; the historical development of the British press; the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) and…

Tunstall, Jeremy

272

Hospitality Occupations. Curriculum Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This curriculum guide on the hospitality occupations was developed to help secondary and postsecondary home economics teachers prepare individuals for entry-level jobs in the hospitality industry. The content is in seven sections. The first section presents organizational charts of a medium-size hotel, food and beverage division, housekeeping and…

California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento. Bureau of Homemaking Education.

273

Evaluating Occupational Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Stresses the importance of evaluating occupational programs on a regular basis. Offers a brief explanation of the approaches to program evaluation taken at the Dallas County Community College District (TX), South Puget Sound Community College (WA), and Triton College (IL). Offers a list of references on program evaluation. (CBC)

Long, James P.

1987-01-01

274

The Lifting Body Legacy...X-33  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA has a technology program in place to enable the development of a next generation Reusable Launch Vehicle that will carry our future payloads into orbit at a much-reduced cost. The VentureStar, Lifting Body (LB) flight vehicle, is one of the potential reusable launch vehicle configurations being studied. A LB vehicle has no wings and derives its lift solely from the shape of its body, and has the unique advantages of superior volumetric efficiency, better aerodynamic efficiency at high angles-of-attack and hypersonic speeds, and reduced thermal protection system weight. Classically, in a ballistic vehicle, drag has been employed to control the level of deceleration in reentry. In the LB, lift enables the vehicle to decelerate at higher altitudes for the same velocity and defines the reentry corridor which includes a greater cross range. This paper outlines the flight stability and control aspects of our LB heritage which was utilized in the design of the VentureStar LB and its test version, the X-33. NASA and the U.S. Air Force have a rich heritage of LB vehicle design and flight experience. In the initial LB Program, eight LB's were built and over 225 LB test flights were conducted through 1975. Three LB series were most significant in the advancement of today's LB technolocy: the M2-F; the HL-10; and the X-24 series. The M2-F series was designed by NASA Ames Research Center, the HL-10 series by NASA Langley Research Center, and the X-24 series by the U. S. Air Force. LB vehicles are alive again today with the X- 33, X-38, and VentureStar.

Barret, Chris

1999-01-01

275

Occupational cancer in Britain  

PubMed Central

To estimate the current occupational cancer burden due to past exposures in Britain, estimates of the number of exposed workers at different levels are required, as well as risk estimates of cancer due to the exposures. This paper describes the methods and results for estimating the historical exposures. All occupational carcinogens or exposure circumstances classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer as definite or probable human carcinogens and potentially to be found in British workplaces over the past 20–40 years were included in this study. Estimates of the number of people exposed by industrial sector were based predominantly on two sources of data, the CARcinogen EXposure (CAREX) database and the UK Labour Force Survey. Where possible, multiple and overlapping exposures were taken into account. Dose–response risk estimates were generally not available in the epidemiological literature for the cancer–exposure pairs in this study, and none of the sources available for obtaining the numbers exposed provided data by different levels of exposure. Industrial sectors were therefore assigned using expert judgement to ‘higher'- and ‘lower'-exposure groups based on the similarity of exposure to the population in the key epidemiological studies from which risk estimates had been selected. Estimates of historical exposure prevalence were obtained for 41 carcinogens or occupational circumstances. These include exposures to chemicals and metals, combustion products, other mixtures or groups of chemicals, mineral and biological dusts, physical agents and work patterns, as well as occupations and industries that have been associated with increased risk of cancer, but for which the causative agents are unknown. There were more than half a million workers exposed to each of six carcinogens (radon, solar radiation, crystalline silica, mineral oils, non-arsenical insecticides and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin); other agents to which a large number of workers are exposed included benzene, diesel engine exhaust and environmental tobacco smoke. The study has highlighted several industrial sectors with large proportions of workers potentially exposed to multiple carcinogens. The relevant available data have been used to generate estimates of the prevalence of past exposure to occupational carcinogens to enable the occupational cancer burden in Britain to be estimated. These data are considered adequate for the present purpose, but new data on the prevalence and intensity of current occupational exposure to carcinogens should be collected to ensure that future policy decisions be based on reliable evidence. PMID:22710674

Van Tongeren, Martie; Jimenez, Araceli S; Hutchings, Sally J; MacCalman, Laura; Rushton, Lesley; Cherrie, John W

2012-01-01

276

Transonic Lifting Flows of Pressurized Gases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider two-dimensional, steady, inviscid transonic flows of pressurized gases over both lifting and nonlifting airfoils. To account for deviations from the ideal gas law we have incorporated a state of the art equation of state known as the Martin-Hou equation. Numerical Solutions are generated through use of a conventional finite volume scheme. Our computations reveal marked qualitative differences with the conventional transonic theory. Result of particular interest include the existence of multiple sonic points, significant decreases in the strength of compression shocks and critical mach numbers well in excess of 0.95 for NACA 0012 cross sections.

Cramer, Mark; Morrison, Michael

1997-11-01

277

HSR High Lift Program and PCD2 Update  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The mission of High-Lift Technology is to develop technology allowing the design of practical high lift concepts for the High-Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) in order to: 1) operate safely and efficiently; and 2) reduce terminal control area and community noise. In fulfilling this mission, close and continuous coordination will be maintained with other High-Speed Research (HSR) technology elements in order to support optimization of the overall airplane (rather than just the high lift system).

Kemmerly, Guy T.; Coen, Peter; Meredith, Paul; Clark, Roger; Hahne, Dave; Smith, Brian

1999-01-01

278

Sectional lift coefficient of a flapping wing in hovering motion  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate the behavior of sectional lift coefficient of a flapping wing of a fruit-fly in hovering motion. Through three-dimensional numerical simulations, we show that during the stroke, the sectional lift coefficient significantly varies in time as well as in the spanwise direction owing to complex interactions between the wing and vortices in the wake. However, the time-averaged sectional lift

Jihoon Kweon; Haecheon Choi

2010-01-01

279

Instructional Materials for Occupational Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The resource guide of instructional materials is one of two guides developed by 84 occupational education teachers in the State of New York, each experienced with the designated high school population. The assessment instrument developed to evaluate the occupational education materials is included. The occupational education materials are grouped…

State Univ. of New York, Ithaca. Cornell Inst. for Research and Development in Occupational Education.

280

Anthropometric differences among occupational groups  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increasing demands for anthropometric information for the design of machinery and personal protective equipment to prevent occupational injuries has necessitated an understanding of the anthropometric differences to be found among occupations. This study identified differences in various body measurements between occupational groups in the USA, as determined in the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Approximately 16,000 of

Hongwei Hsiao; Daniel Long; Karl Snyder

2002-01-01

281

Masonry. Occupational Competency Analysis Profile.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Occupational Competency Analysis Profile (OCAP) for masonry occupations contains a competency list verified by expert workers and developed through a modified DACUM (Developing a Curriculum) involving business, industry, labor, and community agency representatives from Ohio. This OCAP identifies the occupational, academic, and employability…

Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Vocational Instructional Materials Lab.

282

Experiences with optimizing airfoil shapes for maximum lift over drag  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The goal was to find airfoil shapes which maximize the ratio of lift over drag for given flow conditions. For a fixed Mach number, Reynolds number, and angle of attack, the lift and drag depend only on the airfoil shape. This then becomes a problem in optimization: find the shape which leads to a maximum value of lift over drag. The optimization was carried out using a self contained computer code for finding the minimum of a function subject to constraints. To find the lift and drag for each airfoil shape, a flow solution has to be obtained. This was done using a two dimensional Navier-Stokes code.

Doria, Michael L.

1991-01-01

283

Gas lift design and production optimisation offshore Trinidad  

SciTech Connect

By means of a variety of field examples, this paper describes how increased production rates were obtained from gas lift wells. These results were achieved through a wide range of activities including, special training for production operators, optimising gas injection rates, modifying surface piping systems, identifying and replacing defective wireline-retrievable gas lift valves, and improving gas lift design techniques. A major modification of a standard gas lift design technique is discussed in detail. The modification optimizes the depth of gas injection throughout the life of a well. An empirically derived chart, which relates valve spacing to the productivity index of a well, is also presented.

Laing, C.M.

1986-01-01

284

Sectional lift coefficient of a flapping wing in hovering motion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the behavior of sectional lift coefficient of a flapping wing of a fruit-fly in hovering motion. Through three-dimensional numerical simulations, we show that during the stroke, the sectional lift coefficient significantly varies in time as well as in the spanwise direction owing to complex interactions between the wing and vortices in the wake. However, the time-averaged sectional lift force coefficient is inversely proportional to the spanwise distance from the rotation center except very near the wing-tip region. This is because the wing-tip vortex significantly decreases the lift force on the wing-tip region during and after midstroke.

Kweon, Jihoon; Choi, Haecheon

2010-07-01

285

Health Occupations. Education for Employment Task Lists.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The duties and tasks found in these task lists form the basis of instructional content for secondary, postsecondary, and adult occupational training programs for health occupations. The health occupations are divided into five clusters. The clusters and occupations are: health occupations, nursing occupations (home health aide, geriatric aide,…

Lake County Area Vocational Center, Grayslake, IL.

286

Lift Every Voice: Music in American Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The University of Virginia Library is hosting a special exhibition called Lift Every Voice, named after a hymn composed by two African-American brothers in the days of the Jim Crow South and aiming to inspire the struggle for equal rights. The Lift Every Voice exhibition commemorates and celebrates a variety of songs that were a part of everyday American life through the centuries. No time to visit Virginia? Then visit the exhibition's Website and enjoy reading about the history behind our country's ballads, hymns, patriotic anthems, minstrels, musicals, and protest songs while listening to audio clips of selected songs (QuickTime, MP3). The text is enriched by digital images of historical papers, compiled by Virginia's Albert H. Small Special Collections Library, including musical scores, photos of musicians, and printed lyrics. The site also contains a section on Thomas Jefferson's relationship to music in the Old South, with digital images of texts from Jefferson's library and, of course, a sample of "Carry Me Back to Old Virginny."

2001-01-01

287

Modification of integrated partial payload lifting assembly  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Integrated Partial Payload Lifting Assembly (IPPLA) is currently used to transport and load experimental payloads into the cargo bay of the Space Shuttle. It is unable to carry the astronaut/passenger tunnel without a structural modification. The purpose of this design is to create a removalbe modification that will allow the IPPLA to lift and carry the passenger tunnel. Modifications evaluated were full-length insert beams which would extend through the existing strongback arms. These beam proposals were eliminated because of high cost and weight. Other proposals evaluated were attachments of cantilever beams to the existing strongback areas. The cantilever proposals reduced cost and weight compared to the full-length modifications. A third method evaluated was to simply make modifications to one side of the IPPLA therefore reducing the materials of the cantilever proposals by 40 percent. The design of the modification selected was completed with two channel beams jointly welded to a centered steel plate. The extension arm modification is inserted into the existing strongback channel beams and bolted into place. Two extension arms are added to one side of the IPPLA to provide the extra length needed to accommodate the passenger tunnel. The center counterbalance will then be offset about 20 inches to center gravity and therefore maintain horizontal status. The extension arm modification was selected because of minimum cost, low weight, and minimal installation time.

Groah, Melodie; Haddock, Michael; Woodworth, Warren

1986-01-01

288

Modification of integrated partial payload lifting assembly  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Integrated Partial Payload Lifting Assembly (IPPLA) is currently used to transport and load experimental payloads into the cargo bay of the Space Shuttle. It is unable to carry the astronaut/passenger tunnel without a structural modification. The purpose of this design is to create a removalbe modification that will allow the IPPLA to lift and carry the passenger tunnel. Modifications evaluated were full-length insert beams which would extend through the existing strongback arms. These beam proposals were eliminated because of high cost and weight. Other proposals evaluated were attachments of cantilever beams to the existing strongback areas. The cantilever proposals reduced cost and weight compared to the full-length modifications. A third method evaluated was to simply make modifications to one side of the IPPLA therefore reducing the materials of the cantilever proposals by 40 percent. The design of the modification selected was completed with two channel beams jointly welded to a centered steel plate. The extension arm modification is inserted into the existing strongback channel beams and bolted into place. Two extension arms are added to one side of the IPPLA to provide the extra length needed to accommodate the passenger tunnel. The center counterbalance will then be offset about 20 inches to center gravity and therefore maintain horizontal status. The extension arm modification was selected because of minimum cost, low weight, and minimal installation time.

Groah, Melodie; Haddock, Michael; Woodworth, Warren

289

Lift-based paddling in diving grebe.  

PubMed

To examine the hydrodynamic propulsion mechanism of a diving great crested grebe (Podiceps cristatus), the three-dimensional kinematics was determined by digital analysis of sequential video images of dorsal and lateral views. During the acceleration phase of this foot-propelled bird, the feet move through an arc in a plane nearly normal to the bird's line of motion through the water, i.e. the toes move dorsally and medially but not caudally relative to the water. The kinematics of the grebe's lobed feet is different from that in anseriforms, whose feet move in a plane mostly parallel to the bird's line of progress through the water. Our results suggest that the foot-propelled locomotor mechanism of grebes is based primarily on a lift-producing leg and foot stroke, in contrast to the drag-based locomotion assumed previously. We suggest that the lift-based paddling of grebes considerably increases both maximum swimming speed and energetic efficiency over drag-based propulsion. Furthermore, the results implicate a new interpretation of the functional morphology of these birds, with the toes serving as a self-stabilizing multi-slotted hydrofoil during the power phase. PMID:11316488

Johansson, L C; Lindhe Norberg, U M

2001-05-01

290

Lift augmentation for highly swept wing aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A pair of spaced slots, disposed on each side of an aircraft centerline and spaced well inboard of the wing leading edges, are provided in the wing upper surfaces and directed tangentially spanwise toward thin sharp leading wing edges of a highly swept, delta wing aircraft. The slots are individually connected through separate plenum chambers to separate compressed air tanks and serve, collectively, as a system for providing aircraft lift augmentation. A compressed air supply is tapped from the aircraft turbojet power plant. Suitable valves, under the control of the aircraft pilot, serve to selective provide jet blowing from the individual slots to provide spanwise sheets of jet air closely adjacent to the upper surfaces and across the aircraft wing span to thereby create artificial vortices whose suction generate additional lift on the aircraft. When desired, or found necessary, unequal or one-side wing blowing is employed to generate rolling moments for augmented lateral control. Trailing flaps are provided that may be deflected differentially, individually, or in unison, as needed for assistance in take-off or landing of the aircraft.

Rao, Dhanvada M. (Inventor)

1993-01-01

291

Lifting Mechanism for the Mars Explorer Rover  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A report discusses the design of a rover lift mechanism (RLM) -- a major subsystem of each of the Mars Exploration Rover vehicles, which were landed on Mars in January 2004. The RLM had to satisfy requirements to (1) be foldable as part of an extremely dense packing arrangement and (2) be capable of unfolding itself in a complex, multistep process for disengaging the rover from its restraints in the lander, lifting the main body of the rover off its landing platform, and placing the rover wheels on the platform in preparation for driving the rover off the platform. There was also an overriding requirement to minimize the overall mass of the rover and lander. To satisfy the combination of these and other requirements, it was necessary to formulate an extremely complex design that integrated components and functions of the RLM with those of a rocker-bogie suspension system, the aspects of which have been described in several prior NASA Tech Briefs articles. In this design, suspension components also serve as parts of a 4- bar linkage in the RLM.

Melko, Joseph; Iskenderian, Theodore; Harrington, Brian; Voorhees, Christopher

2005-01-01

292

Twisted absolute instability in lifted flames  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The theory of resonant modes is extended to finite length systems containing pinch points of complex axial wavenumber k0 and frequency ?0 with arbitrary ?kk0=?2? /?k2. The quantity ?kk0 is shown to be an important indicator of how streamwise boundary conditions modify the local absolute mode at (k0,?0). In particular, when Im(?kk0)>0, the pinch point is twisted, and resonant modes owing to streamwise boundary conditions may then have growth rates greater than that of the unbounded absolute mode. In this case, global instability may occur while the flow is only convectively unstable. The premixing zone between the nozzle and a lifted flame on a variable-density jet is an example of a streamwise-confined system containing a twisted pinch point. For this system, linear stability analysis is employed to locate resonant modes along a solution curve in the complex k and ? planes. The orientation of the solution curve predicts destabilization owing to streamwise confinement as well as increasing global frequency with decreasing lift-off height as observed in previous direct numerical simulations. The theory also suggests that low-frequency fluctuations observed in the simulations may be explained by beating between two resonant modes of slightly differing frequencies.

Nichols, Joseph W.; Chomaz, Jean-Marc; Schmid, Peter J.

2009-01-01

293

Strength-limiting factors for the determination of frequent and infrequent lifting capacities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main objective of this study was to investigate different limiting factors in psychophysically determined maximum acceptable weight of lift (MAWL) for frequent and infrequent tasks. Seven isometric strengths were tested to obtain various muscular strength scores. They were: back lift (BL), leg lift (LL), and pulling backward strength (PB), arm lift (AL), shoulder lift (SL), and vertical pulling up

Yung-Hui Lee; Yi-Lang Chen

1996-01-01

294

High-Lift Systems on Commercial Subsonic Airliners  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The early breed of slow commercial airliners did not require high-lift systems because their wing loadings were low and their speed ratios between cruise and low speed (takeoff and landing) were about 2:1. However, even in those days the benefit of high-lift devices was recognized. Simple trailing-edge flaps were in use, not so much to reduce landing speeds, but to provide better glide-slope control without sideslipping the airplane and to improve pilot vision over the nose by reducing attitude during low-speed flight. As commercial-airplane cruise speeds increased with the development of more powerful engines, wing loadings increased and a real need for high-lift devices emerged to keep takeoff and landing speeds within reasonable limits. The high-lift devices of that era were generally trailing-edge flaps. When jet engines matured sufficiently in military service and were introduced commercially, airplane speed capability had to be increased to best take advantage of jet engine characteristics. This speed increase was accomplished by introducing the wing sweep and by further increasing wing loading. Whereas increased wing loading called for higher lift coefficients at low speeds, wing sweep actually decreased wing lift at low speeds. Takeoff and landing speeds increased on early jet airplanes, and, as a consequence, runways worldwide had to be lengthened. There are economical limits to the length of runways; there are safety limits to takeoff and landing speeds; and there are speed limits for tires. So, in order to hold takeoff and landing speeds within reasonable limits, more powerful high-lift devices were required. Wing trailing-edge devices evolved from plain flaps to Fowler flaps with single, double, and even triple slots. Wing leading edges evolved from fixed leading edges to a simple Krueger flap, and from fixed, slotted leading edges to two- and three-position slats and variable-camber (VC) Krueger flaps. The complexity of high-lift systems probably peaked on the Boeing 747, which has a VC Krueger flap and triple-slotted, inboard and outboard trailing-edge flaps. Since then, the tendency in high-lift system development has been to achieve high levels of lift with simpler devices in order to reduce fleet acquisition and maintenance costs. The intent of this paper is to: (1) review available high-lift devices, their functions, and design criteria; (2) appraise high-lift systems presently in service on commercial air liners; (3) present personal study results on high-lift systems; (4) develop a weight and cost model for high-lift systems; and (5) discuss the development tendencies of future high-lift systems.

Rudolph, Peter K. C.

1996-01-01

295

AFC-Enabled Simplified High-Lift System Integration Study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The primary objective of this trade study report is to explore the potential of using Active Flow Control (AFC) for achieving lighter and mechanically simpler high-lift systems for transonic commercial transport aircraft. This assessment was conducted in four steps. First, based on the Common Research Model (CRM) outer mold line (OML) definition, two high-lift concepts were developed. One concept, representative of current production-type commercial transonic transports, features leading edge slats and slotted trailing edge flaps with Fowler motion. The other CRM-based design relies on drooped leading edges and simply hinged trailing edge flaps for high-lift generation. The relative high-lift performance of these two high-lift CRM variants is established using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) solutions to the Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations for steady flow. These CFD assessments identify the high-lift performance that needs to be recovered through AFC to have the CRM variant with the lighter and mechanically simpler high-lift system match the performance of the conventional high-lift system. Conceptual design integration studies for the AFC-enhanced high-lift systems were conducted with a NASA Environmentally Responsible Aircraft (ERA) reference configuration, the so-called ERA-0003 concept. These design trades identify AFC performance targets that need to be met to produce economically feasible ERA-0003-like concepts with lighter and mechanically simpler high-lift designs that match the performance of conventional high-lift systems. Finally, technical challenges are identified associated with the application of AFC-enabled highlift systems to modern transonic commercial transports for future technology maturation efforts.

Hartwich, Peter M.; Dickey, Eric D.; Sclafani, Anthony J.; Camacho, Peter; Gonzales, Antonio B.; Lawson, Edward L.; Mairs, Ron Y.; Shmilovich, Arvin

2014-01-01

296

Occupational Contact Dermatitis  

PubMed Central

Occupational contact dermatitis accounts for 90% of all cases of work-related cutaneous disorders. It can be divided into irritant contact dermatitis, which occurs in 80% of cases, and allergic contact dermatitis. In most cases, both types will present as eczematous lesions on exposed parts of the body, notably the hands. Accurate diagnosis relies on meticulous history taking, thorough physical examination, careful reading of Material Safety Data Sheets to distinguish between irritants and allergens, and comprehensive patch testing to confirm or rule out allergic sensitization. This article reviews the pathogenesis and clinical manifestations of occupational contact dermatitis and provides diagnostic guidelines and a rational approach to management of these often frustrating cases. PMID:20525126

2008-01-01

297

On optimizing over lift-and-project closures Pierre Bonami  

E-print Network

On optimizing over lift-and-project closures Pierre Bonami Laboratoire d'Informatique Fondamentale-and-project closure is the relaxation obtained by computing all lift-and-project cuts from the initial formulation is that of elementary closures. Sim- ply put, the elementary closure of a given family of cuts is the relaxation

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

298

14 CFR 23.345 - High lift devices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...345 High lift devices. (a) If flaps or similar high lift devices are to be...approach or landing, the airplane, with the flaps fully extended at VF , is assumed to...VS is the computed stalling speed with flaps retracted at the design weight; and...

2010-01-01

299

A modified lifting line theory for wing-propeller interference  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An inviscid incompressible model for the interaction of a wing with a single propeller slipstream is presented. The model allows the perturbation quantities to be potential even though the undisturbed flow is rotational. The governing equations for the spanwise lift distribution are derived and a simple method of solving these is indicated. Spanwise lift and induced drag distribution for two cases are computed.

Prabhu, R. K.; Tiwari, S. N.

1983-01-01

300

A lifting line theory for a three-dimensional hydrofoil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Prandtl's lifting line theory was generalized to the lifting problem of a three-dimensional hydrofoil in the presence of a free surface. Similar to the classical lifting theory, the singularity distribution method was utilized to solve two-dimensional lifting problems for the hydrofoil beneath the free surface at the air-water interface, and a lifting line theory was developed to correct three-dimensional effects of the hydrofoil with a large aspect ratio. Differing from the classical lifting theory, the main focus was on finding the three-dimensional Green function of the free surface induced by the steady motion of a system of horseshoe vortices under the free surface. Finally, numerical examples were given to show the relationship between the lift coefficient and submergence Froude numbers for 2-D and 3-D hydrofoils. If the submergence Froude number is small free surface effect will be significant registered as the increase of lift coefficient. The validity of these approaches was examined in comparison with the results calculated by other methods.

Liang, Hui; Zong, Zhi

2011-06-01

301

Hydraulic lift inner barrel in a drill string coring tool  

Microsoft Academic Search

An automatically operable hydraulic lift inner barrel is devised to lift the inner tube of the core barrel on a drill string. An inner mandrel is axially disposed within the outer tube of the coring tool. An outer piston which is selectively locked to the inner mandrel is telescopically and concentrically disposed about the inner mandrel. Fluid is selectively diverted

1985-01-01

302

Solid state lift for micrometering in a fuel injector  

DOEpatents

A fuel injector performs main fuel injection by raising fuel pressure in a nozzle chamber to lift a check valve member to a fully open position, and performs preinjection or microinjection by operating a solid state motor to lift the check valve member a much smaller distance.

Milam, David M. (Metamora, IL); Carroll, Thomas S. (Peoria, IL); Lee, Chien-Chang (Rochester Hills, MI); Miller, Charles R. (Metamora, IL)

2002-01-01

303

Fuel effects on flame lift-off under diesel conditions  

SciTech Connect

An apparent relation between the lift-off length under diesel conditions and the ignition quality of a fuel has previously been reported. To cast light on the underlying mechanism, the current study aims to separate flame lift-off effects of the chemical ignition delay from those of other fuel properties under diesel conditions. Flame lift-off was measured in an optical diesel engine by high-speed video imaging of OH-chemiluminescence. Fuel and ambient-gas properties were varied during the experiment. Only a weak correlation was found between ignition delay and lift-off length. The data indicate that this correlation is due to a common, stronger correlation with the ambient oxygen concentration. The chemical ignition delay and the fuel type had similar, weak effects on the lift-off length. A recently proposed mechanism for lift-off stabilization was used to interpret the results. It assumes that reactants approaching the lift-off position of the jet are mixed with high-temperature products found along the edges of the flame, which trigger autoignition. In this picture, the fuel effect is most likely due to differences in the amount of mixing with high-temperature products that is required for autoignition. In the current experiment, all lift-off effects seem to arise from variations in the reactant and product temperatures, induced by fuel and ambient properties. (author)

Persson, Helena; Andersson, Oeivind; Egnell, Rolf [Lund University (Sweden). Dept. of Energy Sciences

2011-01-15

304

View of lifting girder and tower support superstructure on Tensaw ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View of lifting girder and tower support superstructure on Tensaw River Bridge, looking north west. Showing rope connectors and welding cut from tower removal. - Tensaw River Lift Bridge, Spanning Tensaw River at U.S. Highway 90, Mobile, Mobile County, AL

305

42 CFR 493.1810 - Imposition and lifting of alternative sanctions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Imposition and lifting of alternative sanctions. 493.1810...Procedures § 493.1810 Imposition and lifting of alternative sanctions. (a) Notice...certificate becomes effective. (e) Lifting of alternative sanctions —(1)...

2010-10-01

306

Correlation of Puma airloads: Lifting-line and wake calculation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A cooperative program undertaken by organizations in the United States, England, France, and Australia has assessed the strengths and weaknesses of four lifting-line/wake methods and three CFD methods by comparing their predictions with the data obtained in flight trials of a research Puma. The Puma was tested in two configurations: a mixed bladed rotor with instrumented rectangular tip blades, and a configuration with four identical swept tip blades. The results are examined of the lifting-line predictions. The better lifting-line methods show good agreement with lift at the blade tip for the configuration with four swept tips; the moment is well predicted at 0.92 R, but deteriorates outboard. The predictions for the mixed bladed rotor configuration range from fair to good. The lift prediction is better for the swept tip blade than for the rectangular tip blade, but the reasons for this cannot be determined because of the unmodeled effects of the mixed bladed rotor.

Bousman, William G.; Young, Colin; Gilbert, Neil; Toulmay, Francois; Johnson, Wayne; Riley, M. J.

1989-01-01

307

Development and flight testing of the HL-10 lifting body  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Horizontal Lander 10 (HL-10) lifting body successfully completed 37 flights, achieved the highest Mach number and altitude of this class of vehicle, and contributed to the technology base used to develop the space shuttle and future generations of lifting bodies. Design, development, and flight testing of this low-speed, air-launched, rocket-powered, lifting body was part of an unprecedented effort by NASA and the Northrop Corporation. This paper describes the evolution of the HL-10 lifting body from theoretical design, through development, to selection as one of two low-speed flight vehicles chosen for fabrication and piloted flight testing. Interesting and unusual events which occurred during the program and flight tests, review of significant problems encountered during the first flight, and discussion of how these problems were solved are presented. In addition, impressions of the pilots who flew the HL-10 lifting body are given.

Kempel, Robert W.; Painter, Weneth D.

1993-01-01

308

Operational experience with a powered-lift STOL aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The experience gained in over four years of STOL operations with the augmentor wing research aircraft and the background of operation of other STOL powered-lift aircraft indicate that the use and percent of lift achieved by powered lift have significant effects on the operational characteristics of STOL aircraft and, therefore, on the performance that can be achieved. A brief description of the augmentor wing including the means by which it achieves its powered lift is presented. Specific problem areas relating to the control of longitudinal flight path are discussed as well as the consequences these might have on the design and operation of this class of aircraft. Particular emphasis is given to the approach and landing phase of flight where the consequences of the powered lift are most pronounced, and the resultant characteristics most different from those of conventional aircraft.

Innis, R. C.; Quigley, H. C.

1976-01-01

309

Transport properties of epitaxial lift off films  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Transport properties of epitaxially lifted-off (ELO) films were characterized using conductivity, Hall, and Shubnikov-de Haas measurements. A 10-15 percent increase in the 2D electron gas concentration was observed in these films as compared with adjacent conventional samples. We believe this result to be caused by a backgating effect produced by a charge build up at the interface of the ELO film and the quartz substrate. This increase results in a substantial decrease in the quantum lifetime in the ELO samples, by 17-30 percent, but without a degradation in carrier mobility. Under persistent photoconductivity, only one subband was populated in the conventional structure, while in the ELO films the population of the second subband was clearly visible. However, the increase of the second subband concentration with increasing excitation is substantially smaller than anticipated due to screening of the backgating effect.

Mena, R. A.; Schacham, S. E.; Young, P. G.; Haugland, E. J.; Alterovitz, S. A.

1993-01-01

310

Force-controlled lifting of molecular wires  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lifting a single molecular wire off the surface with a combined frequency-modulated atomic force and tunneling microscope it is possible to monitor the evolution of both the wire configuration and the contacts simultaneously with the transport conductance experiment. In particular, critical points where individual bonds to the surface are broken and instabilities where the wire is prone to change its contact configuration can be identified in the force gradient and dissipation responses of the junction. This additional mechanical information can be used to unambiguously determine the conductance of a true molecular wire, that is, of a molecule that is contacted via a pointlike “crocodile clip” to each of the electrodes but is otherwise free.

Fournier, N.; Wagner, C.; Weiss, C.; Temirov, R.; Tautz, F. S.

2011-07-01

311

Oblique waves lift the flapping flag.  

PubMed

The flapping of the flag is a classical model problem for the understanding of fluid-structure interaction: How does the flat state lose stability? Why do the nonlinear effects induce hysteretic behavior? We show in this Letter that, in contrast with the commonly studied model, the full three-dimensional flag with gravity has no stationary state whose stability can be formally studied: The waves are oblique and must immediately be of large amplitude. The remarkable structure of these waves results from the interplay of weight, geometry, and aerodynamic forces. This pattern is a key element in the force balance which allows the flag to hold and fly in the wind: Large amplitude oblique waves are responsible for lift. PMID:22181612

Hœpffner, Jérôme; Naka, Yoshitsugu

2011-11-01

312

Oblique Waves Lift the Flapping Flag  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The flapping of the flag is a classical model problem for the understanding of fluid-structure interaction: How does the flat state lose stability? Why do the nonlinear effects induce hysteretic behavior? We show in this Letter that, in contrast with the commonly studied model, the full three-dimensional flag with gravity has no stationary state whose stability can be formally studied: The waves are oblique and must immediately be of large amplitude. The remarkable structure of these waves results from the interplay of weight, geometry, and aerodynamic forces. This pattern is a key element in the force balance which allows the flag to hold and fly in the wind: Large amplitude oblique waves are responsible for lift.

Hœpffner, Jérôme; Naka, Yoshitsugu

2011-11-01

313

Aerothermochemistry Testing for Lifting Reentry Vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dedicated ground testing is a fundamental requirement for TPS design since nowadays spacecraft, which have stringent mass budget, need more and more precise and specific testing conditions. Plasma wind tunnels are commonly used for the suitable dissociated flow environments they provide for stagnation point testing. This paper explores the capabilities that such facilities could offer also for off- stagnation point testing to complement aerothermodynamic databases related to lifting reentry vehicles. A methodology for simulating reacting boundary layers in off-stagnation point conditions is assessed with numerical computations. The VKI Plasmatron facility and the measurement techniques developed for the new testing configuration are presented. A testing campaign is run for the CMC materials corresponding to the windward side and the body flap of the IXV. The first experimental results are processed to analyze the testing methodology and its application to flight extrapolation.

Chazot, O.; Panerai, F.; van der Haegen, V.

2011-08-01

314

In-Flight Subsonic Lift and Drag Characteristics Unique to Blunt-Based Lifting Reentry Vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Lift and drag measurements have been analyzed for subsonic flight conditions for seven blunt-based reentry-type vehicles. Five of the vehicles are lifting bodies (M2-F1, M2-F2, HL-10, X-24A, and X-24B) and two are wing-body configurations (the X-15 and the Space Shuttle Enterprise). Base pressure measurements indicate that the base drag for full-scale vehicles is approximately three times greater than predicted by Hoerner's equation for three-dimensional bodies. Base drag and forebody drag combine to provide an optimal overall minimum drag (a drag "bucket") for a given configuration. The magnitude of this optimal drag, as well as the associated forebody drag, is dependent on the ratio of base area to vehicle wetted area. Counter-intuitively, the flight-determined optimal minimum drag does not occur at the point of minimum forebody drag, but at a higher forebody drag value. It was also found that the chosen definition for reference area for lift parameters should include the projection of planform area ahead of the wing trailing edge (i.e., forebody plus wing). Results are assembled collectively to provide a greater understanding of this class of vehicles than would occur by considering them individually.

Saltzman, Edwin J.; Wang, K. Charles; Iliff, Kenneth W.

2007-01-01

315

Aerodynamic characteristics of a large-scale lift-engine fighter model with external swiveling lift-engines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The aerodynamic characteristics of a six-engine (four lift, two lift-cruise) lift-engine model obtained in the Ames 40- by 80-foot wind tunnel are presented. The model was an approximate one-half scale representation of a lift-engine VTOL fighter aircraft with a variable-sweep wing. The four lift-engines were housed in the aft fuselage with the inlets located above the wing. Longitudinal and lateral-directional force and moment data are presented for a range of exhaust gas momentum ratios (thrust coefficients). Wind tunnel forward speed was varied from 0 to 140 knots corresponding to a maximum Reynolds number of 6.7 million. The data are presented without analysis.

Barrack, J. P.; Kirk, J. V.

1972-01-01

316

Occupational Therapy General Information: What is Occupational Therapy? The occupational therapist is a highly specialized health care  

E-print Network

, cleaning, and dressing. Occupational therapists also assist individuals with reentry into the work is not necessarily physical. In addition to assisting stroke, heart attack victims, or accident victims, occupationalOccupational Therapy General Information: What is Occupational Therapy? The occupational therapist

Walker, Lawrence R.

317

Occupational Sex Segregation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is used in a Sociology class for undergraduate students. This activity looks as gender and occupation over time in the United States. This activity uses one customized data sets made from combining census information from 1970-1990. It guides students through data manipulation using WebCHIP software found at DataCounts!. To open WebCHIP with the dataset for the activity, please see instructions and links in the exercise documents under teaching materials. For more information on how to use WebCHIP, see the How To section on DataCounts!

Theodore Fuller

318

Occupational skin diseases in Korea.  

PubMed

Skin disease is the most common occupational disease, but the reported number is small in Korea due to a difficulty of detection and diagnosis in time. We described various official statistics and data from occupational skin disease surveillance system, epidemiological surveys and cases published in scientific journals. Until 1981, 2,222 cases of occupational skin disease were reported by Korean employee's regular medical check-up, accounting for 4.9% of the total occupational diseases. There was no subsequent official statistics to figure out occupational skin diseases till 1998. From 1999, the Korea Occupational Safety and Health Agency (KOSHA) published the number of occupational skin diseases through the statistics of Cause Investigation for Industrial Accidents. A total of 301 cases were reported from 1999 to 2007. Recent one study showed the figures of compensated occupational skin diseases. Many of them belonged to daily-paid workers in the public service, especially forestry workers. Also, it described the interesting cases such as vitiligo and trichloroethylene-induced Stevens-Johnson Syndrome. Skin diseases are still important though the number of cases has decreased, and therefore it is recommended to grasp the status of occupational skin diseases through continuous surveillance system and to make policy protecting high-risk group. PMID:21258591

Ahn, Yeon-Soon; Kim, Min-Gi

2010-12-01

319

Occupational Health for Healthcare Providers  

MedlinePLUS

... prevention practices. They can reduce your risk of health problems. Use protective equipment, follow infection control guidelines, ... manage stress. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health

320

Occupational asthma and occupational rhinitis: The united airways disease model revisited  

E-print Network

1 Occupational asthma and occupational rhinitis: The united airways disease model revisited Jacques number: +33147107754; Fax number:+33147107768 Key words: occupational asthma, occupational rhinitis, high) Objectives: Whereas accumulating evidence indicates close associations between rhinitis and asthma, little

Boyer, Edmond

321

Precision Machining Technologies. Occupational Competency Analysis Profile.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Occupational Competency Analysis Profile (OCAP), which is one of a series of OCAPs developed to identify the skills that Ohio employers deem necessary to entering a given occupation/occupational area, lists the occupational, academic, and employability skills required of individuals entering the occupation of precision machinist. The…

Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Vocational Instructional Materials Lab.

322

Instructional Support System--Occupational Education. Building Industries Occupations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The modules which make up the bulk of this report are the result of a two-week workshop at which thirteen building industries occupations teachers worked toward the development of a student outcome oriented curriculum. These modules are divided into the following occupational units: (1) carpentry (containing hand tools; portable power tools;…

Abramson, Theodore; And Others

323

Occupational Mental Health, Labor Accidents and Occupational Diseases  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The article discusses the relationship between mental health and labor accidents as it pertains to accident prevention, treatment of accident victims, and their rehabilitation. It also comments briefly on mental health and occupational diseases and the scope of the field of occupational mental health from a Chilean perspective. (AG)

Naveillan, F. Pedro

1973-01-01

324

Application of electrical submersible pumps in heavy crude oil in Boscan Field  

SciTech Connect

During recent years optimization of artificial lift methods has been applied in the oil industry, in order to evaluate the effect on oil well production and to establish a company`s optimal investment policies. Higher costs on new artificial lifting equipment and facilities for new fields have created the necessity to review the latest available technology of different lifting methods and specially that related to electrical submersible pumps (ESP). Few studies in the area of heavy crude oil production optimization using ESP as a lifting method have been published. This paper discusses the results of an ESP pilot project performed in 24 wells in Boscan field, and analyzes the performance of the equipment and its application range. The ESP equipment was installed in completions at depths ranging from 7000 to 9000 feet, with a 10{degrees}API gravity crude and bottomhole temperature of 180{degrees}F. It was concluded that despite a reduction of the pump`s efficiency, the ESP equipment does qualify as a good alternative lifting method for heavy oil production. It is also possible to obtain higher production rates. The results obtained in this pilot project, confirm that submersible pumps are an alternative method for lifting heavy crude oil from relatively deep reservoirs.

Bortolin, L.L. [Maraven S.A., Lagunillas (Venezuela)

1995-12-31

325

Occupational Physical Activity, Overweight, and Mortality: A Follow-Up Study of 47,405 Norwegian Women and Men  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This population-based 24-year follow-up study evaluated the association of occupational physical activity (OPA) with overweight and mortality in 47,405 men and women, healthy at baseline, and reporting OPA as sedentary (reference), light, moderately heavy, or heavy. The adjusted odds ratio for overweight was slightly less than 1 for all categories…

Graff-Iversen, Sidsel; Selmer, Randi; Sorensen, Marit; Skurtveit, Svetlana

2007-01-01

326

Hydrofoils: optimum lift-off speed for sailboats.  

PubMed

For a hydrofoil sailboat there is a unique optimum lift-off speed. Before this speed is reached, if there are no parasitic vertical hydrofoil appendages, the submerged or partially submerged hydrofoils increase drag and degrade performance. As soon as this speed is reached and the hydrofoils are fully and promptly deployed, the performance of a hydrofoil-borne craft is significantly improved. At speeds exceeding optimum lift-off speed, partially submerged hydrofoils impair performance if there is no significant effect of loading on the hydrofoil lift-to-drag ratio. PMID:17756335

Baker, R M

1968-12-13

327

Nonlinear Stability and Response of Lifting Surfaces Via Volterra Series  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This investigation concerns the time and frequency formulations of non-linear two-dimensional lifting surfaces exposed to an incompressible flow field and subjected to an external pressure pulse. In order to address this problem, Volterra series approach in conjunction with the multidimensional Laplace transform is used. This methodology enabling one to solve the aeroelastic governing equations of lifting surfaces opens the way to connect this methodology with that based on neural networks and NARMAX/NARX networks models. Moreover, this extended way to address this problem constitutes a good basis for treatment of the theory of 3D lifting surfaces.

Marzocca, Piergiovanni; Librescu, Liviu; Silva, Walter A.

2001-01-01

328

An Exploration of the Role of Occupation in School-Based Occupational Therapy Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to explore the role of occupation in school-based occupational therapy practice. The research questions were (1) How do school-based occupational therapists describe the role of occupation during intervention? (2) Which theories of occupation do school-based occupational therapists associate with their own practice?…

Benson, Jeryl DiSanti

2010-01-01

329

US to Lift Cuba Trade Embargo  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

For the first time in four decades, the United States will allow export sales of food and medicine to Cuba. This new agreement, which was drafted by House Republicans, will also allow the export of goods to formerly blacklisted countries including Lybia, North Korea, Sudan, and Iran. Unlike the other four countries, Cuba will not be allowed to export products to the US, nor will it be able to secure American private financing. In the first year after the new rulings go into effect, John Kavulich, president of the U.S.-Cuba Trade and Economic Council, has estimated that exports of American food products could reach between $25 million and $45 million. However the proposed bill has fallen short of the expectations of the Cuban government, which has demanded a complete lifting of the trade embargo. Cuban-American activists on both sides of the issues also find the proposal flawed, stating concerns including the lack of guarantee that the food and medicine will reach the Cubans who need the supplies the most.

Missner, Emily D.

330

Space Shuttle Discovery lifts off successfully  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Clouds of exhaust seem to fill the marsh near Launch Pad 39B as Space Shuttle Discovery lifts off at 2:19 p.m. EST Oct. 29 on mission STS-95. Making his second voyage into space after 36 years is Payload Specialist John H. Glenn Jr., senator from Ohio. Other crew members are Mission Commander Curtis L. Brown Jr., Pilot Steven W. Lindsey, Payload Specialist Chiaki Mukai, (M.D., Ph.D.), with the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA), Mission Specialist Stephen K. Robinson, Mission Specialist Pedro Duque of Spain, representing the European Space Agency (ESA), and Mission Specialist Scott E. Parazynski. The STS-95 mission includes research payloads such as the Spartan solar-observing deployable spacecraft, the Hubble Space Telescope Orbital Systems Test Platform, the International Extreme Ultraviolet Hitchhiker, as well as the SPACEHAB single module with experiments on space flight and the aging process. Discovery is expected to return to KSC at 11:49 a.m. EST on Nov. 7.

1998-01-01

331

Dignitaries Await Apollo 11 Lift Off  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

From the right, NASA administrator, Dr. Thomas O. Paine talks with U.S. Vice President Spiro T. Agnew while awaiting the launch of Saturn V (AS-506) that carried the Apollo 11 spacecraft to the Moon for man's historic first landing on the lunar surface. At center is astronaut William Anders, a member of the first crew to orbit the moon during the Apollo 8 mission. At left is Lee B. James, director of Program Management at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) where the Saturn V was developed. The craft lifted off from launch pad 39 at Kennedy Space Flight Center (KSC) on July 16, 1969. The moon bound crew included astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot; and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module (M) pilot. The mission finalized with splashdown in the Pacific Ocean on July 24, 1969. With the success of Apollo 11, the national objective to land men on the Moon and return them safely to Earth had been accomplished.

1969-01-01

332

Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) Lifts Off  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

At 7:43 a.m. EDT an Atlas V launch vehicle, 19 stories tall, with a two-ton Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) on top, lifts off the pad on Launch Complex 41 at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida. All systems performed nominally for NASA's first launch of an Atlas V on an interplanetary mission. MRO established radio contact with controllers 61 minutes after launch and within four minutes of separation from the upper stage. Initial contact came through an antenna at the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency's Uchinoura Space Center in southern Japan. Mars is 72 million miles from Earth today, but the spacecraft will travel more than four times that distance on its outbound-arc trajectory to intercept the red planet on March 10, 2006. The orbiter carries six scientific instruments for examining the surface, atmosphere and subsurface of Mars in unprecedented detail from low orbit. NASA expects to get several times more data about Mars from MRO than from all previous Martian missions combined. Researchers will use the instruments to learn more about the history and distribution of Mars' water. That information will improve understanding of planetary climate change and will help guide the quest to answer whether Mars ever supported life. The orbiter will also evaluate potential landing sites for future missions.

2005-01-01

333

Space Shuttle Discovery lifts off successfully  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Clouds of exhaust and blazing light fill Launch Pad 39B as Space Shuttle Discovery lifts off at 2:19 p.m. EST Oct. 29 on mission STS-95. Making his second voyage into space after 36 years is Payload Specialist John H. Glenn Jr., senator from Ohio. Other crew members are Mission Commander Curtis L. Brown Jr., Pilot Steven W. Lindsey, Payload Specialist Chiaki Mukai, (M.D., Ph.D.), with the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA), Mission Specialist Stephen K. Robinson, Mission Specialist Pedro Duque of Spain, representing the European Space Agency (ESA), and Mission Specialist Scott E. Parazynski. The STS-95 mission includes research payloads such as the Spartan solar-observing deployable spacecraft, the Hubble Space Telescope Orbital Systems Test Platform, the International Extreme Ultraviolet Hitchhiker, as well as the SPACEHAB single module with experiments on space flight and the aging process. Discovery is expected to return to KSC at 11:49 a.m. EST on Nov. 7.

1998-01-01

334

Space Shuttle Discovery lifts off successfully  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thousands of gallons of water released as part of the sound suppression system at the launch pad create clouds of steam and exhaust as Space Shuttle Discovery lifts off from Launch Pad 39B at 2:19 p.m. EST Oct. 29 on mission STS-95. Making his second voyage into space after 36 years is Payload Specialist John H. Glenn Jr., senator from Ohio. Other crew members are Mission Commander Curtis L. Brown Jr., Pilot Steven W. Lindsey, Payload Specialist Chiaki Mukai, (M.D., Ph.D.), with the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA), Mission Specialist Stephen K. Robinson, Mission Specialist Pedro Duque of Spain, representing the European Space Agency (ESA), and Mission Specialist Scott E. Parazynski. The STS-95 mission includes research payloads such as the Spartan solar-observing deployable spacecraft, the Hubble Space Telescope Orbital Systems Test Platform, the International Extreme Ultraviolet Hitchhiker, as well as the SPACEHAB single module with experiments on space flight and the aging process. Discovery is expected to return to KSC at 11:49 a.m. EST on Nov. 7.

1998-01-01

335

Space Shuttle Discovery lifts off successfully  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Framed by the foliage of the Canaveral National Sea Shore, Space Shuttle Discovery soars through bright blue skies as it lifts off from Launch Pad 39B at 2:19 p.m. EST Oct. 29 on mission STS-95. Making his second voyage into space after 36 years is Payload Specialist John H. Glenn Jr., senator from Ohio. Other crew members are Mission Commander Curtis L. Brown Jr., Pilot Steven W. Lindsey, Payload Specialist Chiaki Mukai, (M.D., Ph.D.), with the National agency for Space Development (NASDA), Mission Specialist Stephen K. Robinson, Mission Specialist Pedro Duque of Spain, representing the European Space Agency (ESA), and Mission Specialist Scott E. Parazynski. The STS-95 mission includes research payloads such as the Spartan solar-observing deployable spacecraft, the Hubble Space Telescope Orbital Systems Test Platform, the International Extreme Ultraviolet Hitchhiker, as well as the SPACEHAB single module with experiments on space flight and the aging process. Discovery is expected to return to KSC at 11:49 a.m. EST on Nov. 7.

1998-01-01

336

Space Shuttle Discovery lifts off successfully  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space Shuttle Discovery clears Launch Pad 39B at 2:19 p.m. EST Oct. 29 as it lifts off on mission STS-95. Making his second voyage into space after 36 years is Payload Specialist John H. Glenn Jr., senator from Ohio. Other crew members are Mission Commander Curtis L. Brown Jr., Pilot Steven W. Lindsey, Payload Specialist Chiaki Mukai, (M.D., Ph.D.), with the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA), Mission Specialist Stephen K. Robinson, Mission Specialist Pedro Duque of Spain, representing the European Space Agency (ESA), and Mission Specialist Scott E. Parazynski. The STS-95 mission includes research payloads such as the Spartan solar-observing deployable spacecraft, the Hubble Space Telescope Orbital Systems Test Platform, the International Extreme Ultraviolet Hitchhiker, as well as the SPACEHAB single module with experiments on space flight and the aging process. Discovery is expected to return to KSC at 11:49 a.m. EST on Nov. 7.

1998-01-01

337

Space Shuttle Discovery lifts off successfully  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As if sprung from the rolling exhaust clouds below, Space Shuttle Discovery shoots into the heavens over the blue Atlantic Ocean from Launch Pad 39B on mission STS-95. Lifting off at 2:19 p.m. EST, Discovery carries a crew of six, including Payload Specialist John H. Glenn Jr., senator from Ohio, who is making his second voyage into space after 36 years. Other crew members are Mission Commander Curtis L. Brown Jr., Pilot Steven W. Lindsey, Payload Specialist Chiaki Mukai, (M.D., Ph.D.), with the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA), Mission Specialist Stephen K. Robinson, Mission Specialist Pedro Duque of Spain, representing the European Space Agency (ESA), and Mission Specialist Scott E. Parazynski. The STS-95 mission includes research payloads such as the Spartan solar-observing deployable spacecraft, the Hubble Space Telescope Orbital Systems Test Platform, the International Extreme Ultraviolet Hitchhiker, as well as the SPACEHAB single module with experiments on space flight and the aging process. Discovery is expected to return to KSC at 11:49 a.m. EST on Nov. 7.

1998-01-01

338

Space Shuttle Discovery lifts off successfully  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Against a curtain of blue sky, the Space Shuttle Discovery spews clouds of exhaust as it lifts off from Launch Pad 39B at 2:19 p.m. EST Oct. 29 on the 9-day mission STS-95. On board Discovery are Mission Commander Curtis L. Brown Jr., Pilot Steven W. Lindsey, Payload Specialist Chiaki Mukai, (M.D., Ph.D.), with the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA), Payload Specialist John H. Glenn Jr., senator from Ohio, Mission Specialist Stephen K. Robinson, Mission Specialist Pedro Duque of Spain, representing the European Space Agency (ESA), and Mission Specialist Scott E. Parazynski. The STS-95 mission includes research payloads such as the Spartan solar-observing deployable spacecraft, the Hubble Space Telescope Orbital Systems Test Platform, the International Extreme Ultraviolet Hitchhiker, as well as the SPACEHAB single module with experiments on space flight and the aging process. Discovery is expected to return to KSC at 11:49 a.m. EST on Nov. 7.

1998-01-01

339

Space Shuttle Discovery lifts off successfully  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Clouds of exhaust fill Launch Pad 39B as Space Shuttle Discovery lifts off at 2:19 p.m. EST Oct. 29 on mission STS-95. Making his second voyage into space after 36 years is Payload Specialist John H. Glenn Jr., senator from Ohio. Other crew members are Mission Commander Curtis L. Brown Jr., Pilot Steven W. Lindsey, Payload Specialist Chiaki Mukai, (M.D., Ph.D.), with the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA), Mission Specialist Stephen K. Robinson, Mission Specialist Pedro Duque of Spain, representing the European Space Agency (ESA), and Mission Specialist Scott E. Parazynski. The STS-95 mission includes research payloads such as the Spartan solar-observing deployable spacecraft, the Hubble Space Telescope Orbital Systems Test Platform, the International Extreme Ultraviolet Hitchhiker, as well as the SPACEHAB single module with experiments on space flight and the aging process. Discovery is expected to return to KSC at 11:49 a.m. EST on Nov. 7.

1998-01-01

340

Occupational Interstitial Lung Disease Update  

Microsoft Academic Search

Overview Occupational exposures produce a wide range of interstitial lung disorders. Occupational etiologies account for a significant portion of all interstitial lung disease (ILD), and new causes continue to be described. All of these disorders are preventable with the reduction or elimination of workplace exposure. This chapter highlights the common, persistent diseases that continue to plague workers globally, as well

Lee S. Newman

341

Manpower in Oklahoma: Health Occupations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a survey of Oklahoma business designed to develop occupational data for the present and future, 300 occupations were selected and 11 schedules prepared to reflect various types of firms. The schedule concerning medical and other health services facilities was sent to nearly 200 firms and institutions and usable information was received from…

DeSpain, Don

342

NATIONAL OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE SURVEY (NOES)  

EPA Science Inventory

From 1981 to 1983, NIOSH conducted the National Occupational Exposure Survey (NOES) that collected data on potential occupational exposures to chemical, physical, and biological agents. The survey involved on-site visits to 4,490 establishments in 522 industry types [OMB 1972] em...

343

Suicide and Occupation: A Review.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined the literature dealing with the relation of occupation to suicide for three occupational categories: health care providers, managerial and professional persons, and military and paramilitary personnel. Presents evidence relating to group differences in suicidal behavior. Considers theories explaining variations in incidence of suicide.…

Bedeian, Arthur G.

1982-01-01

344

NATIONAL TRAUMATIC OCCUPATIONAL FATALITIES (NTOF)  

EPA Science Inventory

The National Traumatic Occupational Fatalities (NTOF) surveillance system is a death certificate-based census of occupational injury deaths. Death certificates are obtained from the 50 States, New York City, and the District of Columbia for decedent's ages 16 years or older with ...

345

Electronics. Occupational Competency Analysis Profile.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Occupational Competency Analysis Profile (OCAP) contains a competency list verified by expert workers and developed through a modified DACUM (Developing a Curriculum) involving business, industry, labor, and community agency representatives from Ohio. This OCAP identifies the occupational, academic, and employability skills (competencies)…

Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Vocational Instructional Materials Lab.

346

Agricultural Occupations Program Planning Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The major program objectives of agricultural occupations courses are (1) to develop agricultural competencies needed by individuals engaged in or preparing to engage in production agriculture, and in agricultural occupations other than production agriculture; (2) to develop an understanding of the career opportunities in agriculture; (3) to…

Hemp, Paul E.; Mayer, Leon

347

Carpentry. Occupational Competency Analysis Profile.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Occupational Competency Analysis Profile (OCAP) contains a competency list verified by expert workers and developed through a modified DACUM (Developing a Curriculum) involving business, industry, labor, and community agency representatives from Ohio. This OCAP identifies the occupational, academic, and employability skills (competencies)…

Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Vocational Instructional Materials Lab.

348

CAREER GUIDE FOR DEMAND OCCUPATIONS.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THIS PUBLICATION UPDATES THE "CAREER GUIDE FOR DEMAND OCCUPATIONS" PUBLISHED IN 1959 AND PROVIDES COUNSELORS WITH INFORMATION ABOUT OCCUPATIONS IN DEMAND IN MANY AREAS WHICH REQUIRE PREEMPLOYMENT TRAINING. IT PRESENTS, IN COLUMN FORM, THE EDUCATION AND OTHER TRAINING USUALLY REQUIRED BY EMPLOYERS, HIGH SCHOOL SUBJECTS OF PARTICULAR PERTINENCE TO…

LEE, E.R.; WELCH, JOHN L.

349

Occupational factors and pancreatic cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relation between occupational factors and pancreatic cancer has been studied by two different approaches: a population based case-control study with two series of controls and a retrospective cohort study based on register data. With both approaches, some support was found for an association with occupational exposure to petroleum products. Associations were also indicated with exposure to paint thinner (case-control

S Norell; A Ahlbom; R Olin; R Erwald; G Jacobson; I Lindberg-Navier; K L Wiechel

1986-01-01

350

Twenty year development of occupational diseases in the Czech Republic: medical and geographical aspects.  

PubMed

The study analysed occupational diseases in the Czech Republic from the viewpoint of occupational medicine and medical geography. It used a dataset consisting of 32,646 cases of occupational diseases reported during the period of 1994-2013. The descriptive part of the study analysed occupational diseases according to their spatial distribution, occurrence in different branches of economic activities, employees' gender, and according to chapters of the List of occupational diseases. The incidence of occupational diseases showed an overall decreasing trend, which can be related to several factors--transformation of the national economy (shift from heavy industry to manufacturing industry and services), an improvement in access to occupational healthcare services, increased responsibility of employers for safe working conditions, but also a concealment of health problems by employees for fear of losing job. An exception to the decreasing trend is the automotive industry, in which the upward trend in occupational diseases occurrence was noted. The analytical part of the study focused on the relation between unemployment and occupational diseases incidence rates in different regions of the Czech Republic. In most regions, a statistically significant inverse association was shown between the rate of unemployment and occupational disease incidence. The situation is described in more detail for the Moravia-Silesia and Ustí nad Labem Regions and the Capital City of Prague, wherein a statistically significant inverse association was shown between the rate of unemployment and occupational disease incidence. The theory of marginal utility can explain the phenomenon. To certain degree of health problems, employees tend to prefer employment stability, especially if the unemployment is on rise in their region. On the other hand, if losing their job, they often try to claim benefits connected with occupational diseases. PMID:25622483

Jarolímek, Jan; Urban, Pavel

2014-12-01

351

76 FR 20489 - Occupational Radiation Protection  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...RIN 1992-AA-45 Occupational Radiation Protection...in appendix C to its Occupational Radiation Protection...FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Dr. Judith Foulke...10 CFR part 835), Occupational Radiation Protection...Immersion in a Cloud of Airborne Radioactive...

2011-04-13

352

76 FR 4258 - Occupational Radiation Protection; Revision  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...RIN 1901-AA-95 Occupational Radiation Protection...an appendix to its Occupational Radiation Protection...FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Judith Foulke...10 CFR part 835), Occupational Radiation Protection...Immersion in a Cloud of Airborne Radioactive...

2011-01-25

353

Department of Epidemiology, Biostatistics Occupational Health  

E-print Network

Department of Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Occupational Health Student Handbook Regulations contained in this brochure pertain to the Graduate Programs in Epidemiology, Biostatistics, Public Health & Occupational Health 2014/2015 #12;Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Occupational Health 2014-2015 Student

Shoubridge, Eric

354

Department of Epidemiology, Biostatistics Occupational Health  

E-print Network

Department of Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Occupational Health Student Handbook Regulations contained in this brochure pertain to the Graduate Programs in Epidemiology, Biostatistics & Occupational Health 2010-2011 #12;Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Occupational Health 2010-2011 Student Handbook TABLE

Barthelat, Francois

355

Aerostructural Optimization of Nonplanar Lifting Surfaces Peter W. Jansen  

E-print Network

cross section of spar, in. h = projected wing height, ft i = ith lifting-surface segment j = jth vortex accounts for about 40% of the total drag. One way to reduce induced drag is to increase the wingspan

Papalambros, Panos

356

Detail view of fourth level platform winch used to lift ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Detail view of fourth level platform winch used to lift platform segments away from the Shuttle assembly during testing. - Marshall Space Flight Center, Saturn V Dynamic Test Facility, East Test Area, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

357

Effects of jets, wakes, and vortices on lifting surfaces  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The interaction of jets, wakes, and vortices on lifting bodies represents a broad spectrum of aerodynamic flow phenomena. A literature survey is presented of 79 research activities in related aerodynamic situations.

Margason, R. J.

1976-01-01

358

Service network design optimization for Army Aviation lift planning  

E-print Network

The need for optimized aviation lift planning is becoming increasingly important as the United States and her allies participate in the Global War on Terror (GWOT). As part of a comprehensive effort, our nation's fighting ...

Mogensen, Matthew D. (Matthew David)

2014-01-01

359

Control of turbofan lift engines for VTOL aircraft.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents the results of an analytical study of the dynamics and control of turbofan lift engines, and proposes methods of meeting the response requirements imposed by the VTOL aircraft application. Two types of lift fan engines are discussed: the integral and remote. The integral engine is a conventional two-spool, high bypass ratio turbofan designed for low noise and short length. The remote engine employs a gas generator and a lift fan which are separated by a duct, and which need not be coaxial. For the integral engine, a control system design is presented which satisfies the VTOL response requirements. For the remote engine, two unconventional methods of control involving flow transfer between lift units are discussed.

Sellers, J. F.; Szuch, J. R.

1973-01-01

360

4. DETAIL OF LIFT SPAN SECTION ON EASTERN SIDE LOOKING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. DETAIL OF LIFT SPAN SECTION ON EASTERN SIDE LOOKING WEST; OLDER SPAN IN THE FOREGROUND - Vancouver-Portland Interstate Bridge, Interstate Route 5 Spanning Columbia River, Vancouver, Clark County, WA

361

Object size effects on initial lifting forces under microgravity conditions.  

PubMed

Individuals usually report for two objects of equal mass but different volume that the larger object feels lighter. This so-called size-weight illusion has been investigated for more than a century. The illusion is accompanied by increased forces, used to lift the larger object, resulting in a higher initial lifting speed and acceleration. The illusion holds when subjects know that the mass of the two objects is equal and it is likely that this also counts for the enlarged initial effort in lifting a larger box. Why should this happen? Under microgravity, subjects might be able to eliminate largely the weight-related component of the lifting force. Then, if persistent upward scaling of the weight-related force component had been the main cause of the elevated initial lifting force under normal gravity, this elevated force might disappear under microgravity. On the other hand, the elevated initial lifting effort in the large box would be preserved if it had been caused mainly by a persistent upward scaling of the force component, necessary to accelerate the object. To test whether the elevated initial lifting effort either persists or disappears under microgravity, a lifting experiment was carried out during brief periods of microgravity in parabolic flights. Subjects performed whole-body lifting movements with their feet strapped to the floor of the aircraft, using two 8-kg boxes of different volume. The subjects were aware of the equality of the box masses. The peak lifting forces declined almost instantaneously with approx. a factor 9 in the first lifting movements under microgravity compared with normal gravity, suggesting a rapid adaptation to the loss of weight. Though the overall speed of the lifting movement decreased under microgravity, the mean initial acceleration of the box over the first 200 ms of the lifting movement remained higher (P=0.030) in the large box (1.87+/-0.127 m/s2) compared with the small box (1.47+/-0.122 m/s2). Under normal gravity these accelerations were 3.30+/-0.159 m/s2 and 2.67+/-0.159 m/s2, respectively (P=0.008). A comparable trend was found in the initial lifting forces, being significant in the pooled gravity conditions (P=0.036) but not in separate tests on the normal gravity (P=0.109) and microgravity (P=0.169) condition. It is concluded that the elevated initial lifting effort with larger objects holds during short-term exposure to microgravity. This suggests that upward scaling of the force component, required to accelerate the larger box, is an important factor in the elevated initial lifting effort (and the associated size-weight illusion) under normal gravity. PMID:10090654

Kingma, I; Savelsbergh, G J; Tousaint, H M

1999-02-01

362

Evaluation of liquid lift approach to dual gradient  

E-print Network

of using the liquid lift method over the other methods of achieving dual gradient drilling was determined. A computer program was developed to simulate the wellbore hydraulics under static and dynamic conditions, injection rate and base fluid density...

Okafor, Ugochukwu Nnamdi

2009-05-15

363

Energetics of oscillating lifting surfaces using integral conservation laws  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The energetics of oscillating flexible lifting surfaces in two and three dimensions is calculated by the use of integral conservation laws in inviscid incompressible flow for general and harmonic transverse oscillations. Total thrust is calculated from the momentum theorem and energy loss rate due to vortex shedding in the wake from the principle of conservation of mechanical energy. Total power required to maintain the oscillations and hydrodynamic efficiency are also determined. In two dimensions, the results are obtained in closed form. In three dimensions, the distribution of vorticity on the lifting surface is also required as input to the calculations. Thus, unsteady lifting-surface theory must be used as well. The analysis is applicable to oscillating lifting surfaces of arbitrary planform, aspect ratio, and reduced frequency and does not require calculation of the leading-edge thrust.

Ahmadi, Ali R.; Widnall, Sheila E.

1987-01-01

364

Lifting Integrity Constraints in Binary Aggregation Umberto Grandi  

E-print Network

Lifting Integrity Constraints in Binary Aggregation Umberto Grandi and Ulle Endriss Institute umberto.uni@gmail.com, ulle.endriss@uva.nl Abstract We consider problems in which several individuals each

Endriss, Ulle

365

Occupational cyanide poisoning.  

PubMed

Cyanide poisoning has existed for centuries. In most cases, cyanide is combined with other toxic substances; for example with carbon monoxide in fire smoke. Cases of pure cyanide poisoning are rare, and usually due to accidental exposure. Their treatment is based on oxygenation and the infusion of hydroxocobalamin. The seriousness of this type of poisoning calls for a rapid and specific response, which demonstrates the usefulness of non-hospital based medical treatment. The authors report here the case of a man who was the victim of occupational poisoning with sodium cyanide and who was treated at the workplace by fire-fighters and the Service Mobile d'Urgence et Reanimation emergency ambulance service. PMID:22674698

Amizet, Loic; Pruvot, Gauthier; Remy, Sophie; Kfoury, Michel

2011-01-01

366

Gender, Occupation and Earnings  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is used in a Problems in American Institutions class for undergraduate students. This activity explores impacts of gender on occupation and earnings in the United States. This activity uses a customized data set made from the 2000 Census. It provides students with data tables to analyze. There are two handouts to introduce second module used in class: Hand-out 1 is given at beginning of class; students discuss tables and write brief summaries -entire class period spent teaching how to talk and write about findings; develop idea of control variable. Hand-out 2 is passed out at end of class. Students are asked to review write-up following day, given a quiz asking them to describe set of tables; module distributed afterward.

Bouma, Jill

367

Occupational ergonomics in space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ergonomics is often defined simply as the study of work. Related or synonymous terms include human factors, human engineering, engineering psychology, and others. Occupational ergonomics is a term that has been proposed to describe the study of the working environment, including the physical consequences resulting from having an improperly designed workplace. The routine space working environment presents some problems not found in the typical Earthbound workplace. These include radiation, intravehicular contamination/pollution, temperature extremes, impact with other objects, limited psychosocial relationships, sensory deprivation, and reduced gravity. These are important workplace considerations, and may affect astronauts either directly at work or at some point during their life as a result of their work under these conditions. Some of the major issues associated with each of these hazards are presented.

Stramler, J.

1992-01-01

368

[Chronic occupational metallic mercurialism].  

PubMed

This is a review on current knowledge of chronic occupational mercurialism syndrome. Major scientific studies and reviews on clinical manifestation and physiopathology of mercury poisoning were evaluated. The search was complemented using Medline and Lilacs data. Erethism or neuropsychological syndrome, characterized by irritability, personality change, loss of self-confidence, depression, delirium, insomnia, apathy, loss of memory, headaches, general pain, and tremors, is seen after exposure to metallic mercury. Hypertension, renal disturbances, allergies and immunological conditions are also common. Mercury is found in many different work processes: industries, gold mining, and dentistry. As prevention measures are not often adopted there is an increasing risk of mercury poisoning. The disease has been under diagnosed even though 16 clinical forms of mercury poisoning are described by Brazilian regulations. Clinical diagnosis is important, especially because abnormalities in the central nervous, renal and immunological systems can be detected using current medical technology, helping to develop the knowledge and control measures for mercurialism. PMID:12488928

Faria, Marcília de Araújo Medrado

2003-02-01

369

Occupational cyanide poisoning  

PubMed Central

Cyanide poisoning has existed for centuries. In most cases, cyanide is combined with other toxic substances; for example with carbon monoxide in fire smoke. Cases of pure cyanide poisoning are rare, and usually due to accidental exposure. Their treatment is based on oxygenation and the infusion of hydroxocobalamin. The seriousness of this type of poisoning calls for a rapid and specific response, which demonstrates the usefulness of non-hospital based medical treatment. The authors report here the case of a man who was the victim of occupational poisoning with sodium cyanide and who was treated at the workplace by fire-fighters and the Service Mobile d’Urgence et Reanimation emergency ambulance service. PMID:22674698

Amizet, Loic; Pruvot, Gauthier; Remy, Sophie; Kfoury, Michel

2011-01-01

370

Wave drag due to lift for transonic airplanes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Lift dominated pointed aircraft configurations are considered in the transonic range. These are treated as lifting wings of zero thickness with an aspect ratio of order one. An inner expansion which starts as Jones' theory is matched to a nonlinear outer transonic theory as in Barnwell's earlier work. Expressions for the wave drag due to the equivalent body are derived. Some examples of numerical calculations for different configurations are presented.

Cole, Julian D.; Malmuth, Norman D.

1989-01-01

371

NASA safety standard for lifting devices and equipment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NASA's minimum safety requirements are established for the design, testing, inspection, maintenance, certification, and use of overhead and gantry cranes (including top running monorail, underhung, and jib cranes), mobile cranes, derrick hoists, and special hoist supported personnel lifting devices (these do not include elevators, ground supported personnel lifts, or powered platforms). Minimum requirements are also addressed for the testing, inspection, and use of Hydra-sets, hooks, and slings. Safety standards are thoroughly detailed.

1990-09-01

372

Helical-mode excitation of lifted flames using piezoelectric actuators  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiments of helical excitation using piezoelectric actuators on jet flows and lifted flames are performed to enhance the\\u000a understanding of the effects of vortical structures of various instability modes on the stabilization mechanism of the lifted\\u000a flame. In addition to the common ring and braid structures, five or seven azimuthal fingers (or lobes) can be identified in\\u000a the transverse image

Y.-C. Chao; Y.-C. Jong; H.-W. Sheu

2000-01-01

373

NASA safety standard for lifting devices and equipment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's minimum safety requirements are established for the design, testing, inspection, maintenance, certification, and use of overhead and gantry cranes (including top running monorail, underhung, and jib cranes), mobile cranes, derrick hoists, and special hoist supported personnel lifting devices (these do not include elevators, ground supported personnel lifts, or powered platforms). Minimum requirements are also addressed for the testing, inspection, and use of Hydra-sets, hooks, and slings. Safety standards are thoroughly detailed.

1990-01-01

374

Object size effects on initial lifting forces under microgravity conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Individuals usually report for two objects of equal mass but different volume that the larger object feels lighter. This so-called\\u000a size-weight illusion has been investigated for more than a century. The illusion is accompanied by increased forces, used\\u000a to lift the larger object, resulting in a higher initial lifting speed and acceleration. The illusion holds when subjects\\u000a know that the

Idsart Kingma; Geert J. P. Savelsbergh; H. M. Toussaint

1999-01-01

375

Moving base simulation of an ASTOVL lift-fan aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Using a generalized simulation model, a moving-base simulation of a lift-fan short takeoff/vertical landing fighter aircraft was conducted on the Vertical Motion Simulator at Ames Research Center. Objectives of the experiment were to (1) assess the effects of lift-fan propulsion system design features on aircraft control during transition and vertical flight including integration of lift fan/lift/cruise engine/aerodynamic controls and lift fan/lift/cruise engine dynamic response, (2) evaluate pilot-vehicle interface with the control system and head-up display including control modes for low-speed operational tasks and control mode/display integration, and (3) conduct operational evaluations of this configuration during takeoff, transition, and landing similar to those carried out previously by the Ames team for the mixed-flow, vectored thrust, and augmentor-ejector concepts. Based on results of the simulation, preliminary assessments of acceptable and borderline lift-fan and lift/cruise engine thrust response characteristics were obtained. Maximum pitch, roll, and yaw control power used during transition, hover, and vertical landing were documented. Control and display mode options were assessed for their compatibility with a range of land-based and shipboard operations from takeoff to cruise through transition back to hover and vertical landing. Flying qualities were established for candidate control modes and displays for instrument approaches and vertical landings aboard an LPH assault ship and DD-963 destroyer. Test pilot and engineer teams from the Naval Air Warfare Center, Boeing, Lockheed, McDonnell Douglas, and the British Defence Research Agency participated in the program.

Chung, William W. Y.; Borchers, Paul F.; Franklin, James A.

1995-01-01

376

The Six Track Scherzer Rolling Lift Bridge?Two double track spans ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

The Six Track Scherzer Rolling Lift Bridge?Two double track spans closed. One double-track span open. Photocopy of plate xvi in Scherzer Rolling Lift Bridge Company, Scherzer Rolling Lift Bridges. - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Fort Point Channel Rolling Lift Bridge, Spanning Fort Point Channel, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

377

Occupation and multiple myeloma: an occupation and industry analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Multiple myeloma (MM) is an incurable plasma cell malignancy with a poorly understood etiology. The purpose of our research was to examine relationships between lifetime occupations and MM in a relatively large case-control study. Methods MM cases (n=180) were identified through cancer registries in the Seattle-Puget Sound area and Detroit. Population-based controls (n=481) were identified using random digit dialing and Medicare and Medicaid Services files. In-person interviews were conducted to ascertain occupational histories. Standard occupational classification (SOC) and standard industrial classification (SIC) codes were assigned to each job held by each participant. Unconditional logistic regression was used to generate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for associations between MM and having ever worked in each occupation/industry and according to duration of employment in an occupation/industry. Results The risk of MM was associated with several manufacturing occupations and industries, including machine operators and tenders, not elsewhere classified (SOC 76) (OR=1.8, CI=1.0–3.3); textile, apparel, and furnishing machine operators and tenders (SOC 765) (OR=6.0, CI=1.7–21); and machinery manufacturing, except electrical (SIC 35) (OR=3.3, CI=1.7–6.7). Several service occupations and industries, such as food and beverage preparation (SOC 521) (OR=2.0, CI=1.1–3.8), were also associated with MM. One occupation that has been associated with MM in several previous studies, painters, paperhangers, and plasterers (SOC 644), was associated with a non–significantly elevated risk (OR=3.6, CI=0.7–19). Conclusions We found associations between the risk of MM and employment in several manufacturing and service-related occupations and industries. PMID:20623662

Gold, Laura S; Milliken, Kevin; Stewart, Patricia; Purdue, Mark; Severson, Richard; Seixas, Noah; Blair, Aaron; Davis, Scott; Hartge, Patricia; De Roos, Anneclaire J

2011-01-01

378

FEB (Multifilter Electronics Box) lifting device analysis, revision A  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is to determine the mechanical loads produced when the FEB is either lifted manually with handles or by a sling and overhead hoist. 2. Relevant Documents 2.1 JA418 2.2 ES-MAS-DS-003 MAS Ground Support Equipment Specification 2.3 An Introduction to the Design and Behavior of Bolted Joints John H. Bickford, MARCEL DEKKER, New York 3. Lifting Apparatus 3.1 For the lifting of FEB by either handles or a sling from an overhead hoist, four eyebolts are attached to the top mounting edge, through the top cover and into the top flange of the sidewalls. When the FEB is to be lifted manually without mechanical assistance, two long stainless steel rods are inserted lengthwise through the upright eyebolts. A small collar is then slipped over the rod so that the rod cannot shift lengthwise. The rod ends which extend beyond the eyebolt positions serve as handles for two people to lift the FEB. When an overhead hoist is to be used, the rods are not used. Instead a wire-rope sling is attached to each eyebolt. The four sling arms meet at a center jump ring which is lifted by the hook of the overhead crane. A spreader frame is used just above the eye-bolt attachments so that the load transfered to the bolts is strictly vertical.

Croskey, Charles L.

1988-02-01

379

Control of turbofan lift engines for VTOL aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The use of turbofan engines as lift units for VTOL aircraft poses new engine control problems. At low flight speeds, the lift units must provide the fast thrust response needed for aircraft attitude and height control. The results are presented of an analytical study of the dynamics and control of turbofan lift engines, and methods are proposed for meeting the response requirements imposed by the VTOL aircraft application. Two types of lift fan engines are discussed: the integral and remote. The integral engine is a conventional two-spool, high bypass ratio turbofan designed for low noise and short length. The remote engine employs a gas generator and a lift fan which are separated by a duct, and which need not be coaxial. For the integral engine, a control system design is presented which satisfies the VTOL response requirements. For the remote engine, two unconventional methods of control involving flow transfer between lift units are discussed. Both methods are shown to have thrust response near the required levels.

Sellers, J. F.; Szuch, J. R.

1973-01-01

380

Linearized Lifting-Surface and Lifting-line Evaluations of Sidewash Behind Rolling Triangular Wings at Supersonic Speeds  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The lifting-surface sidewash behind rolling triangular wings has been derived for a range of supersonic Mach numbers for which the wing leading edges remain swept behind the mark cone emanating from the wing apex. Variations of the sidewash with longitudinal distance in the vertical plane of symmetry are presented in graphical form. An approximate expression for the sidewash has been developed by means of an approach using a horseshoe-vortex approximate-lifting-line theory. By use of this approximate expression, sidewash may be computed for wings of arbitrary plan form and span loading. A comparison of the sidewash computed by lifting-surface and lifting-line expressions for the triangular wing showed good agreement except in the vicinity of the trailing edge when the leading edge approached the sonic condition. An illustrative calculation has been made of the force induced by the wing sidewash on a vertical tail located in various longitudinal positions.

Bobbitt, Percy J

1957-01-01

381

Insulation-Testing Cryostat With Lifting Mechanism  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The figure depicts selected aspects of an apparatus for testing thermal-insulation materials for cryogenic systems at temperatures and under vacuum or atmospheric conditions representative of those encountered in use. This apparatus, called "Cryostat-100," is based on the established cryogen-boil-off calorimeter method, according to which the amount of heat that passes through an insulation specimen to a cryogenic fluid in a container, and thus the effective thermal conductance of the specimen, is taken to be proportional to the amount of the cryogenic fluid that boils off from the container. The design of Cryostat-100 is based partly on, and incorporates improvements over, the design of a similar prior apparatus called "Cryostat-1" described in "Improved Methods of Testing Cryogenic Insulation Materials" (KSC-12107 & KSC- 12108), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 24, No. 12 (December 2000), page 46. The design of Cryostat-100 also incorporates the best features of two other similar prior apparatuses called "Cryostat-2" (also described in the cited prior article) and "Cryostat- 4." Notable among the improvements in Cryostat-100 is the addition of a lifting mechanism that enables safe, rapid, reliable insertion and removal of insulation specimens and facilitates maintenance operations that involve lifting. As in Cryostat-1, the cold mass is a vertical stainless-steel cylindrical vessel subdivided into a larger measurement vessel with smaller thermal-guard vessels at both ends. During operation, all three vessels are kept filled with liquid nitrogen near saturation at ambient pressure (temperature .77.4 K). The cold mass of Cryostat-100 has a length of 1 m and diameter of 168 mm. Each specimen has a corresponding nominal length and inner diameter and a nominal thickness of 25.4 mm. Specimens that are shorter and have thicknesses between 0 and 50 mm are also acceptable. Bulk-fill, foam, clam-shell, multilayer insulation, and layered materials can be tested over a very wide range of thermal transmission: apparent thermal conductivity from 0.01 to 60 mW/m-K and heat flux from 0.1 to 500 W/sq m. A test in Cryostat-100 can be conducted at any desired gas pressure between ambient atmospheric pressure at one extreme and a vacuum with residual pressure <10(exp -5) torr (<1.33 10(exp -3) Pa) at the other extreme. The residual gas (and purge gas) is typically nitrogen, but can be any suitable purge gas (e.g., helium, argon, or carbon dioxide). Usually, the temperature on the warm boundary of the insulation specimen is maintained near the ambient value (approximately 293 K), while the boiling of liquid nitrogen at atmospheric pressure in the cold mass maintains the temperature on the cold boundary of the specimen at approximately 77 K.

Fesmire, James; Dokos, Adam; Scholtens, Brekke; Nagy, Zoltan; Augustynowicz, Stanislaw

2010-01-01

382

Stabilization mechanism of lifted jet diffusion flames  

SciTech Connect

Flame lift and stabilization are studied using numerical simulations of diffusion flames resulting from a methane jet injected into an air background. The numerical model solves the time-dependent, axisymmetric, multidimensional Navier-Stokes equations coupled to submodels for chemical reaction and heat release, soot formation and radiation transport. Simulations are conducted for an undiluted methane jet and for two nitrogen-diluted jets (CH{sub 4}:N{sub 2}/3:1 and CH{sub 4}:N{sub 2}/1:1). The jet exit velocities range from 20 to 50 m/s through a 1-cm-diameter nozzle, coflowing into a 30-cm/s air stream. The flame liftoff height increases linearly with jet exit velocity and the stabilization height increases as the nitrogen dilution of the jet increases. The computations show that the flame is stabilized on a vortical structure in the inner shear layer, which is on the stoichiometric surface at a height where the local axial velocity is approximately equal to the turbulent burning velocity. There is no appreciable chemical heat release in the region below the stabilization point, although a stoichiometric surface exists in that region. The flame base moves upward with the vortical structure to which it is attached, and then quickly jumps down to attach to a new, lower vortex, resulting in an oscillating (1--2 cm) flame liftoff height. The results corroborate parts of both the premixedness and extinction stabilization theories, and suggest that the liftoff mechanisms is a result of complex fluid-chemical interactions, parts of which are incorporated in the simplified theories.

Kaplan, C.R.; Oran, E.S. [Naval Research Lab., Washington, DC (United States); Baek, S.W. [Korea Advanced Inst. of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Aerospace Engineering

1994-12-31

383

Occupation and cancer in Britain  

PubMed Central

Background: Prioritising control measures for occupationally related cancers should be evidence based. We estimated the current burden of cancer in Britain attributable to past occupational exposures for International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) group 1 (established) and 2A (probable) carcinogens. Methods: We calculated attributable fractions and numbers for cancer mortality and incidence using risk estimates from the literature and national data sources to estimate proportions exposed. Results: 5.3% (8019) cancer deaths were attributable to occupation in 2005 (men, 8.2% (6362); women, 2.3% (1657)). Attributable incidence estimates are 13?679 (4.0%) cancer registrations (men, 10?063 (5.7%); women, 3616 (2.2%)). Occupational attributable fractions are over 2% for mesothelioma, sinonasal, lung, nasopharynx, breast, non-melanoma skin cancer, bladder, oesophagus, soft tissue sarcoma, larynx and stomach cancers. Asbestos, shift work, mineral oils, solar radiation, silica, diesel engine exhaust, coal tars and pitches, occupation as a painter or welder, dioxins, environmental tobacco smoke, radon, tetrachloroethylene, arsenic and strong inorganic mists each contribute 100 or more registrations. Industries and occupations with high cancer registrations include construction, metal working, personal and household services, mining, land transport, printing/publishing, retail/hotels/restaurants, public administration/defence, farming and several manufacturing sectors. 56% of cancer registrations in men are attributable to work in the construction industry (mainly mesotheliomas, lung, stomach, bladder and non-melanoma skin cancers) and 54% of cancer registrations in women are attributable to shift work (breast cancer). Conclusion: This project is the first to quantify in detail the burden of cancer and mortality due to occupation specifically for Britain. It highlights the impact of occupational exposures, together with the occupational circumstances and industrial areas where exposures to carcinogenic agents occurred in the past, on population cancer morbidity and mortality; this can be compared with the impact of other causes of cancer. Risk reduction strategies should focus on those workplaces where such exposures are still occurring. PMID:20424618

Rushton, L; Bagga, S; Bevan, R; Brown, T P; Cherrie, J W; Holmes, P; Fortunato, L; Slack, R; Van Tongeren, M; Young, C; Hutchings, S J

2010-01-01

384

Concise guidance: Pregnancy - occupational aspects of management  

PubMed Central

Summary Most pregnant women are exposed to some physical activity at work. This guidance is aimed at doctors advising healthy women with uncomplicated singleton pregnancies about the risks arising from five common workplace exposures (prolonged working hours, shift work, lifting, standing and heavy physical workload). The adverse outcomes considered are: miscarriage, preterm delivery, small-for-gestational age, low birthweight, pre-eclampsia and gestational hypertension. Systematic review of the literature indicates that these exposures are unlikely to carry much of an increased risk for any of the outcomes, since small apparent effects may be explicable in terms of chance, bias, or confounding, while larger and better studies yield lower estimated risks than smaller and weaker studies. In general, patients may be reassured that such work is associated with little, if any, adverse effect on pregnancy. Moreover, moderate physical exercise is thought to be healthy in pregnancy and most pregnant women undertake some physical work at home. The guidelines provide risk estimates and advice on counselling. PMID:23472500

Palmer, Keith T; Bonzini, Matteo; Bonde, Jens-Peter

2013-01-01

385

Occupancy Models to Study Wildlife  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Many wildlife studies seek to understand changes or differences in the proportion of sites occupied by a species of interest. These studies are hampered by imperfect detection of these species, which can result in some sites appearing to be unoccupied that are actually occupied. Occupancy models solve this problem and produce unbiased estimates of occupancy and related parameters. Required data (detection/non-detection information) are relatively simple and inexpensive to collect. Software is available free of charge to aid investigators in occupancy estimation.

Bailey, Larissa; Adams, Michael John

2005-01-01

386

Wanted: entrepreneurs in occupational therapy.  

PubMed

The American Occupational Therapy Association (AOTA) has challenged occupational therapy practitioners to advance the profession so that we may become more "powerful" and "widely recognized" by the year 2017 (AOTA, 2007a). To fully achieve this vision, this article argues that the profession should encourage occupational therapy entrepreneurship. As Herz, Bondoc, Richmond, Richman, and Kroll (2005, p.2) stated, "Entrepreneurship may provide us with the means to achieve the outcomes we need to succeed in the current health care environment." This article also argues the urgency of seizing the many opportunities that entrepreneurship offers and recommends specific actions to be taken by AOTA and by therapists. PMID:21476371

Anderson, Kristin M; Nelson, David L

2011-01-01

387

Heavy periodane.  

PubMed

The potential energy surface of the hypothetical NaMgAlSiPSCl system (heavy periodane) is exhaustively analyzed via the gradient embedded genetic algorithm (GEGA) in combination with density functional theory (DFT) computations. The electronegativity differences among the elements in both the second and third rows of the periodic table indicate that low-energy heavy periodane structures are obtained when highly electronegative and electropositive elements are bound together, but the global minimum of the heavy periodane system is completely different to its second-row analog (LiBeBCNOF). PMID:22903586

Azpiroz, Jon M; Moreno, Diego; Ramirez-Manzanares, Alonso; Ugalde, Jesus M; Mendez-Rojas, Miguel Angel; Merino, Gabriel

2013-05-01

388

Lift force acting on a cylindrical body in a fluid near the boundary of a cavity performing translational vibrations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The averaged lift force acting on a cylindrical body near the boundary of a cavity with a fluid performing translational vibrations was studied. Experiments were performed with variation the viscosity of the fluid, the size and relative density of the body, and vibration parameters were varied. The lift force was measured by the method of dynamic suspension of a body in a gravitational field in the case where the body performed inertial vibrations without touching the walls. It was found that the vibrations generated a repulsion force which held the heavy body over the bottom of the cavity, and the light body at a certain distance from the top wall. It was shown that the effect of the repulsion forces manifested itself at a distance comparable to the thickness of the Stokes layer and increased with approach to the wall. A description of the mechanism of generation of the lift force is given. It is shown that in the case of high dimensionless frequencies, the experimental and theoretical results are in agreement.

Ivanova, A. A.; Kozlov, V. G.; Shchipitsyn, V. D.

2014-09-01

389

[News on occupational contact dermatitis].  

PubMed

Contact dermatitis--irritant contact dermatitis, allergic contact dermatitis and protein contact dermatitis--are the most common occupational skin diseases, most often localized to the hands. Contact urticaria is rarer The main occupational irritants are wet work, detergents and disinfectants, cutting oils, and solvents. The main occupational allergens are rubber additives, metals (chromium, nickel, cobalt), plastics (epoxy resins, acrylic), biocides and plants. Diagnosis is based on clinical examination, medical history and allergy testing. For a number of irritating or sensitizing agents, irritant or allergic dermatitis can be notified as occupational diseases. The two main prevention measures are reducing skin contact with irritants and complete avoidance of skin contact with offending allergens. PMID:24851370

Crépy, Marie-Noëlle; Bensefa-Colas, Lynda

2014-03-01

390

Occupational cancer in developed countries  

PubMed Central

Abstract Studies of occupational exposures have made major contributions to our understanding of human carcinogenesis. About one third of the factors identified as definite or probable human carcinogens were first investigated in the workplace and these exposures exact a considerable toll on working populations. There are many additional workplace exposures that are suspect carcinogens that require further evaluation to ensure a safe work environment. Information from occupational investigations is also relevant to the general population because many occupational exposures can be found outside the workplace. Much of our understanding about occupational cancer has been obtained from studies largely composed of white men in developed countries. The movement of industry from developed to developing countries underscores the need for future investigations to include more diverse populations. PMID:21489219

2011-01-01

391

Teaching Occupational Health to Physicians  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A comprehensive training program is described that prepares students to identify and prevent occupational disease, emphasizing public health. Content areas include epidemiology and biostatistics, toxicology, industrial hygiene, safety and ergonomics, policy issues, administration, and clinical aspects. (Author/LBH)

Wegman, David H.; And Others

1978-01-01

392

Microcomputer Activities and Occupational Therapy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Directed to occupational therapists, the article focuses on the applications of microcomputers to services for developmentally disabled persons. Noted are computer devices (input, output, software, and firmware); computer programs (basic and sophisticated instruction, graphics); and LOGO, a computer language.

Wall, Nancy

1984-01-01

393

Environmental Occupational Health Protection Laws  

E-print Network

The manufacturing, processing, and use of chemicals and materials in industrial, workplaces are often accompanied by environmental, health, and safety hazards and risks. Occupational and environmental factors cause or ...

Ashford, Nicholas

2008-01-01

394

Agricultural Occupations. Education for Employment Task Lists.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The duties and tasks found in these task lists form the basis of instructional content for secondary, postsecondary, and adult occupational training programs for agricultural occupations. The agricultural occupations are divided into three clusters. The clusters and occupations are: agricultural business and management cluster…

Lake County Area Vocational Center, Grayslake, IL.

395

Industrial Occupations. Education for Employment Task Lists.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The duties and tasks found in these task lists form the basis of instructional content for secondary, postsecondary, and adult occupational training programs for industrial occupations. The industrial occupations are divided into eight clusters. The clusters and occupations are: construction cluster (bricklayer, carpenter, building maintenance…

Lake County Area Vocational Center, Grayslake, IL.

396

Emergy of the Occupations. Chapter 43  

EPA Science Inventory

In this paper we calculated the emergy contributed to the economy of the United States in the work done by the workers of 558 occupations in 2008. We determined the empower (semj/yr) delivered by an individual engaged in each occupation, the transformity of the occupation?s work ...

397

Values and Work Environment: Mapping 32 Occupations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study addresses the relationship between values and occupations. Israeli workers (N = 652; mean age = 47; 43% male) in 32 occupations reported their values using the Portrait Value Questionnaire (Schwartz, Melech, Lehmann, Burgess, Harris, & Owens, 2001), and value scores were aggregated within occupations. Occupations were classified…

Knafo, Ariel; Sagiv, Lilach

2004-01-01

398

Occupational Information 1990/91. Volume II.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Nebraska Occupational Information books (volumes I and II) contain information about 386 different occupations in the state and answer questions about specific occupations in detail. The descriptions are arranged according to a U.S. Department of Labor classification system, with occupational titles clustered in general groups of selected…

Nebraska Univ., Lincoln. Nebraska Career Information System.

399

Heavy Flavors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This is a summary report of the working group on Heavy Flavors. Discussions at the workshop were centered on B physics and on the signals for heavy quarks and leptons at the SSC. The Working Group Members were: V. Barger, H.-U. Bengtsson, C. Buchanan, I. Bigi, M. Block, B. Cox, N. Glover, J. Hewett, W.Y. Keung, B. Margolis, T. Rizzo, M. Suzuki, A. Soni, D. Stork, and S. Willenbrock.

Cox, B.; Soni, A.

400

Occupational safety and health aspects of voice and speech professions.  

PubMed

A well-functioning voice is an essential tool for one third of the labour force. Vocal demands vary to a great extent between the different voice and speech professions. In professions with heavy vocal loading (e.g. school and kindergarten teachers), occupational voice disorders threatening working ability are common. Vocal loading is a combination of prolonged voice use and additional loading factors (e.g. background noise, acoustics, air quality) affecting the fundamental frequency, type and loudness of phonation or the vibratory characteristics of the vocal folds as well as the external frame of the larynx. The prevention and treatment of occupational voice disorders calls for improved occupational safety and health (OSH) arrangements for voice and speech professionals. On the basis of epidemiological and acoustic-physiological research, the presence of risk to vocal health can be substantiated. From the point of view of the physical load on the vocal apparatus, loading-related physiological changes (adaptation) may play a role in the occupational risk. Environmental factors affect vocal loading changes. In teaching professions, the working environment is shared with children, who benefit from amendments of OSH legislation concerning their teachers. PMID:15258436

Vilkman, Erkki

2004-01-01

401

1998-99 Occupational Outlook Handbook  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

US occupations are featured in this information-rich resource from the Bureau of Labor Statistics. The 1998-9 Occupational Outlook Handbook provides the latest edition of a guide to 250 occupations from able seaman to zoologist. Users can browse an alphabetical index or any of eleven occupational clusters, or search the resource by keyword. Each occupation contains a thumbnail sketch of important features as well as information about the nature of the work, working conditions, employment, training, the job outlook, earnings, and related occupations. This is an excellent source of relevant, condensed occupational information.

Statistics., United S.

1998-01-01

402

Radar sensor for remote control of track occupancy and railway cars speed  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of development of low cost radar sensors for remote control of track occupancy and railway cars' speed over the territory of hump yards under heavy weather conditions are presented. The radar sensor feature is application of autodyne transmitting-receiving module for linear frequency modulation and digital systems for forming sounding signal and spectral processing of received signals. Sensor is

G. P. Ermak; I. V. Popov; A. V. Varavin; A. S. Vasilev

2009-01-01

403

Wing rotation and lift in SUEX flapping wing mechanisms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research presents detailed modeling and experimental testing of wing rotation and lift in the LionFly, a low cost and mass producible flapping wing mechanism fabricated monolithically from SUEX dry film and powered by piezoelectric bimorph actuators. A flexure hinge along the span of the wing allows the wing to rotate in addition to flapping. A dynamic model including aerodynamics is developed and validated using experimental testing with a laser vibrometer in air and vacuum, stroboscopic photography and high definition image processing, and lift measurement. The 112 mg LionFly produces 46° flap and 44° rotation peak to peak with 12° phase lag, which generates a maximum average lift of 71 ?N in response to an applied sinusoidal voltage of 75 V AC and 75 V DC at 37 Hz. Simulated wing trajectories accurately predict measured wing trajectories at small voltage amplitudes, but slightly underpredict amplitude and lift at high voltage amplitudes. By reducing the length of the actuator, reducing the mechanism amplification and tuning the rotational hinge stiffness, a redesigned device is simulated to produce a lift to weight ratio of 1.5.

Mateti, Kiron; Byrne-Dugan, Rory A.; Tadigadapa, Srinivas A.; Rahn, Christopher D.

2013-01-01

404

Toward a new nanoLIFT transfer process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Laser Induced Forward Transfer (LIFT) is a direct-write technique used to print biological materials such as living cells or molecules. During the LIFT process, the biomaterial to be printed is deposited on a target submitted to a nanosecond laser shot, and the ejecta are collected onto a receiving substrate. Despite the several advantages of this technique (control of the propelled quantity, no spoiling of the substrate), it remains difficult to be employed due to the high sensitivity of its control parameters. Recently, Duocastella published some experimental results which exhibit the real-time jet formation process, under conditions similar to those present in the LIFT process [1]. In the first Section, a typical experimental setup for LIFT process is presented. Then, simulations of Duocastella's and Guillemot's [2] experiments are carried out to model the jet formation in water when irradiated by an ultraviolet nanosecond laser pulse. The 2D axisymmetric hydrodynamic code CHIC (Code d'Hydrodynamique et d'Implosion du CELIA) [3] is used for these simulations with included equations of state (EOS) to take into account the behavior of water under standard conditions. Finally, an improvement of the LIFT technique which consists in using femtosecond lasers instead of nanosecond ones, is presented. It would allow to process smaller bioelements and to control the jet diameter, as it is directly related to the laser beam waist.

Mézel, C.; Hallo, L.; Souquet, A.; Bourgeade, A.; Breil, J.; Hébert, D.; Guillemot, F.; Saut, O.

2010-02-01

405

Metalworking Occupations. Reprinted from the Occupational Outlook Handbook, 1978-79 Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Focusing on metalworking occupations, this document is one in a series of forty-one reprints from the Occupational Outlook Handbook providing current information and employment projections for individual occupations and industries through 1985. The specific occupations covered in this document include blacksmiths, forge shop occupations, welders,…

Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

406

Laithwaite's Heavy Spinning Disk Demonstration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 1974, Professor Eric Laithwaite demonstrated an unusually heavy gyroscope at a Royal Institution lecture in London. The demonstration was televised and can be viewed on YouTube.1 A recent version of the same experiment, together with partial explanations, attracted two million YouTube views in the first few months.2 In both cases, the gyroscope consisted of a 40-lb (18-kg) spinning disk on the end of a 3-ft (0.91-m) long axle. The most remarkable feature of the demonstration was that Laithwaite was able to lift the disk over his head with one hand, holding onto the far end of the axle. The impression was given that the 40-lb disk was almost weightless, or "as light as a feather" according to Laithwaite.

Cross, Rod

2014-09-01

407

Intra-abdominal Pressure Changes Associated with Lifting: Implications for Postoperative Activity Restrictions  

PubMed Central

Objective To describe the effect of lifting maneuver and quantity of weight lifted on the generation of intra-abdominal pressure. Study Design Forty-one women undergoing urodynamic evaluation performed four lifting maneuvers, each while lifting 0, 2.5, 5, 10, and 15 kg. The lifting maneuvers were routine activities including squatting with and without assistance, lifting from a counter and receiving weight. Pressure was recorded with a rectal microtip catheter. Each lift was performed twice and the average pressure change was analyzed. Results Controlling for potential confounding variables, repeated-measures ANOVA revealed a significant interaction between lift weight and lift maneuver (p= <0.001). Squatting was associated with generation of higher intra-abdominal pressure than lifting from a counter or receiving weights into outstretched arms (p= <0.001). Lifting ?2.5 kg resulted in significant changes in intra-abdominal pressure regardless of lift maneuver (p= <0.001). Conclusions Both lifting maneuver and quantity of weight should be considered when counseling patients regarding postoperative lifting. PMID:18068145

Gerten, Kimberly A.; Richter, Holly E.; Wheeler, Thomas L.; Pair, Lisa S.; Burgio, Kathryn L.; Redden, David T.; Edward Varner, R.; Hibner, Michael

2015-01-01

408

Occupational exposure in MRI  

PubMed Central

This article reviews occupational exposure in clinical MRI; it specifically considers units of exposure, basic physical interactions, health effects, guideline limits, dosimetry, results of exposure surveys, calculation of induced fields and the status of the European Physical Agents Directive. Electromagnetic field exposure in MRI from the static field B0, imaging gradients and radiofrequency transmission fields induces electric fields and currents in tissue, which are responsible for various acute sensory effects. The underlying theory and its application to the formulation of incident and induced field limits are presented. The recent International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) Bundesministerium für Arbeit und Soziales and Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers limits for incident field exposure are interpreted in a manner applicable to MRI. Field measurements show that exposure from movement within the B0 fringe field can exceed ICNIRP reference levels within 0.5 m of the bore entrance. Rate of change of field dB/dt from the imaging gradients is unlikely to exceed the new limits, although incident field limits can be exceeded for radiofrequency (RF) exposure within 0.2–0.5 m of the bore entrance. Dosimetric surveys of routine clinical practice show that staff are exposed to peak values of 42±24% of B0, with time-averaged exposures of 5.2±2.8 mT for magnets in the range 0.6–4 T. Exposure to time-varying fields arising from movement within the B0 fringe resulted in peak dB/dt of approximately 2 T s?1. Modelling of induced electric fields from the imaging gradients shows that ICNIRP-induced field limits are unlikely to be exceeded in most situations; however, movement through the static field may still present a problem. The likely application of the limits is discussed with respect to the reformulation of the European Union (EU) directive and its possible implications for MRI. PMID:22457400

Mcrobbie, D W

2012-01-01

409

Occupant Protection at NASA  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This slide presentation reviews NASA's efforts to arrive at protection of occupants of the ORION space craft on landing. An Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) has been developed, it is an anatomically-based, consensus-derived, global severity scoring system that classifies each injury by body region according to its relative importance on a 6-point ordinal scale. It reviews an Operationmally Relevant Injury Scale (ORIS), a classification methodology, and shows charts that detail the results of applying this ORIS to the injury databases. One chart uses NASCAR injury classification. It discusses providing a context for the level of risk inherent in the Orion landings in terms that people understand and have a sense for. For example is the risk of injury during an Orion landing roughly the same, better or worse than: An aircraft carrier landing, a NASCAR crash, or a helicopter crash, etc? The data for NASCAR and Indy Racing league (IRL) racing crash and injury data was reviewed. The risk from the Air Force, Navy, and Army injury data was also reviewed. Past NASA and the Soyuz programs injury risks are also reviewed. The work is an attempt to formulate a recommendation to the Orion Project for an acceptable level of injury risk associated with Nominal and Off-Nominal landing cases. The presentation also discusses the data mining and use of the data to Validate NASA Operationally-Relevant Injury Scale (NORIS) / Military Operationally-Relevant Injury Scale (MORIS), developing injury risk criteria, the types of data that are required, NASCAR modeling techniques and crash data, and comparison with the Brinkley model. The development of injury risk curves for each biodynamic response parameter is discussed. One of the main outcomes of this work is to establish an accurate Automated Test Dummy (ATD) that can be used to measure human tolerances.

Somers, Jeffrey; Granderson, Brad; Scheuring, Rick

2010-01-01

410

A comparison of isometric strength and dynamic lifting capacity in men with work-related low back injuries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Job classification, return to work status, and job placement are determined by the results of lifting capacity tests. Lifting capacity is often assessed by maximum static or dynamic physical exertions. The purpose of this study was to compare maximum isometric lifting strength with maximum dynamic lifting capacity in subjects with work-related low back injury. Twenty-seven men performed five dynamic lifting

John C. Rosecrance; Thomas M. Cook; Nina S. Golden

1991-01-01

411

An investigation of a two-dimensional propulsive lifting system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Several aspects of the nonhomogeneous flow associated with a system combining lifting and propulsive requirements of an aircraft are considered by analytical and experimental methods. The basic geometry of the problem is that of two lifting surfaces with an actuator disk located between them. The principles governing flow with energy addition are examined. Basic equations and boundary conditions are developed for the complete inviscid and incompressible analysis for the two-dimensional case. The corresponding flow singularities are discussed and the integral equations which completely specify the system are derived. The two special cases of small and large energy addition are considered in detail including solutions. A numerical procedure is developed to solve the full problem including allowance for the wake deflection. Appropriate vorticity forms are used to represent the entire system. An iterative scheme is presented which rapidly converges to a solution for the magnitude and location of the system vorticity distributions. Forces and moments are evaluated on the propulsive lift system.

Shollenberger, C. A.

1973-01-01

412

Hydrodynamic lift of vesicles under shear flow in microgravity  

E-print Network

The dynamics of a vesicle suspension in a shear flow between parallel plates has been investigated under microgravity conditions, where vesicles are only submitted to hydrodynamic effects such as lift forces due to the presence of walls and drag forces. The temporal evolution of the spatial distribution of the vesicles has been recorded thanks to digital holographic microscopy, during parabolic flights and under normal gravity conditions. The collected data demonstrates that vesicles are pushed away from the walls with a lift velocity proportional to $\\dot{\\gamma} R^3/z^2$ where $\\dot{\\gamma}$ is the shear rate, $R$ the vesicle radius and $z$ its distance from the wall. This scaling as well as the dependence of the lift velocity upon vesicle aspect ratio are consistent with theoretical predictions by Olla [J. Phys. II France {\\bf 7}, 1533--1540 (1997)].

Natacha Callens; Christophe Minetti; Maud-Alix Mader; Gwennou Coupier; Frank Dubois; Chaouqi Misbah; Thomas Podgorski

2008-04-04

413

Experimental and simulated control of lift using trailing edge devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two active aerodynamic load control (AALC) devices coupled with a control algorithm are shown to decrease the change in lift force experienced by an airfoil during a change in freestream velocity. Microtabs are small (1% chord) surfaces deployed perpendicular to an airfoil, while microjets are pneumatic jets with flow perpendicular to the surface of the airfoil near the trailing edge. Both devices are capable of producing a rapid change in an airfoil's lift coefficient. A control algorithm for microtabs has been tested in a wind tunnel using a modified S819 airfoil, and a microjet control algorithm has been simulated for a NACA 0012 airfoil using OVERFLOW. In both cases, the AALC devices have shown the ability to mitigate the changes in lift during a gust.

Cooperman, A.; Blaylock, M.; van Dam, C. P.

2014-12-01

414

RF Properties of Epitaxial Lift-Off HEMT Devices  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Epitaxial layers containing GaAs HEMT and P-HEMT structures have been lifted-off the GaAs substrate and attached to other host substrates using an AlAs parting layer. The devices were on-wafer RF probed before and after the lift-off step showing no degradation in the measured S-parameters. The maximum stable gain indicates a low frequency enhancement of the gain of 1-2 dB with some devices showing an enhancement of F(sub max)F(sub T) consistently shows an increase of 12-20% for all lifted-off HEMT structures. Comparison of the Hall measurements and small signal models show that the gain is improved and this is most probably associated with an enhanced carrier concentration.

Young, Paul G.; Alterovitz, Samuel A.; Mena, Rafael A.; Smith, Edwyn D.

1993-01-01

415

Uncovering your hidden occupancy costs.  

PubMed

Senior managers at large companies may not believe that they can have much impact on the "bricks and mortar" of their cost structure. They may even think that occupancy costs are too insignificant to worry about, too technical to analyze, and too fixed to control. But as real estate consultant Mahlon Apgar argues, occupancy costs can hurt a company's earnings, share value, and overall performance. On the other hand, every dollar saved drops straight to the bottom line. Shearson Lehman Brothers, for example, has found that it can save as much as $20 million annually by reducing occupancy costs in its branch offices and headquarters. Managing occupancy costs isn't easy. But it is timely. As companies strive to improve productivity by consolidating functions and downsizing staff, they are saddled with excess office space. Expansions abroad present completely different market conditions that put a premium on reducing occupancy costs. At the same time, the changing nature of work is challenging deeply held beliefs about the workplace, and, consequently, traditional expectations of office space are giving way to innovations that are less costly and more productive. To manage occupancy costs, managers must be able to identify their components, measure their impact, understand what drives them, and develop options to change them. Four basic tools help diagnose problems: a cost history, a loss analysis, a component analysis, and a lease aging profile. Understanding cost drivers like leasing, location, and layout can give executives the insights they need to reduce occupancy costs while improving the effectiveness of facilities to support day-to-day operations. PMID:10126151

Apgar, M

1993-01-01

416

Transonic flow about lifting wing-body combinations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Calculations for transonic flow about wing-body combinations at angles of attack of the order of the body thickness-to-length ratio are presented. These calculations show that lift can alter the flow drastically at near-sonic speeds in this angle-of-attack range so that the area rule must be modified. This effect of lift is explained from simple physical considerations. The computational procedure is based on slender-wing theory and a two-variable method of relaxation solution. A small perturbation analysis is used to show that this simple procedure is adequate for these transonic wing-body flow fields.

Barnwell, R. W.

1974-01-01

417

Aerodynamic development of a lifting body launch vehicle  

SciTech Connect

The Lockheed Martin Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) and X-33 demonstrator vehicle incorporate a lifting body aerodynamic design. This design originated from the X-24, HL-20 and ACRV lifting body database. It evolved rapidly through successive wind tunnel tests using stereolithography generated plastic models and rapid data acquisition and analysis. The culmination of this work is a configuration that is close to meeting a goal of at least neutral stability about all axes throughout the operating Mach spectrum. The development process and aerodynamic evolution are described. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

Reaser, J.S. [Lockheed Martin Skunk Works 1011 Lockheed Way Palmdale, California93599 (United States)

1997-01-01

418

Numerical simulation of a powered-lift landing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The flow field about a delta wing equipped with thrust reverse jets in slow speed flight near the ground has been computed. Results include the prediction of the flow about the delta wing at four fixed heights above the ground, and simulated landing, in which the delta wing descends towards the ground. Comparison of computed and experimental lift coefficients indicates that the simulations can capture at least the qualitative trends in lift-loss encountered by thrust-vectoring aircraft operating in ground effect.

Chawla, Kalpana; Vandalsem, William R.

1993-01-01

419

Velocity vector control system augmented with direct lift control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A pilot-controlled stability control system that employs direct lift control (spoiler control) with elevator control to control the flight path angle of an aircraft is described. A computer on the aircraft generates an elevator control signal and a spoiler control signal, using a pilot-controlled pitch control signal and pitch rate, vertical velocity, roll angle, groundspeed, engine pressure ratio and vertical acceleration signals which are generated on the aircraft. The direct lift control by the aircraft spoilers improves the response of the aircraft flight path angle and provides short term flight path stabilization against environmental disturbances.

Tisdale, H. F., Sr.; Kelly, W. W. (inventors)

1981-01-01

420

[Occupational cardiovascular diseases and phlebopathies].  

PubMed

The focus of the occupational physician to diseases of the cardiovascular system has always been high in relation to the presence in the work of specific risk factors, but also because of the high incidence and prevalence of disease in the general population cardiology chronic-degenerative diseases. The non-specificity and multifactorial diseases of the cardiovascular system, make an etiologic diagnosis of occupational disease extremely difficult. For this reason, increasingly, the occupational physician is faced with the specialist cardiologist on diseases that can be defined as work-related. Among the clinical conditions most frequently encountered by the occupational physician, considered to include hypertension, ischemic heart disease and arrhythmias. Exposure to work risk factors such as: high or low temperatures, the MMC, exposure to electromagnetic fields, and also those related to organization and psycho-social, including night work and work-related stress related, or exposure to chemicals such as organic solvents, especially halogenated, or nitrates, or carbon monoxide, are an aggravating factor in the clinical context of cardiovascular disease primarily unrelated to the etiology. All this underlines also the issue of fitness to work with high risk of accidents for the worker himself and to others, especially the suspension work, driving of vehicles in general, the roles of monitoring and oversight to senior management. From the above, the importance of careful assessment by the occupational physician and the need for good cooperation with the specialist cardiologist, for the formulation of the assessment of suitability for specific tasks. PMID:21438248

Picciotto, D

2010-01-01

421

49 CFR 213.235 - Inspection of switches, track crossings, and lift rail assemblies or other transition devices on...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...of switches, track crossings, and lift rail assemblies or other transition devices...of switches, track crossings, and lift rail assemblies or other transition devices...track crossing, and moveable bridge lift rail assembly or other transition device...

2010-10-01

422

49 CFR 213.235 - Inspection of switches, track crossings, and lift rail assemblies or other transition devices on...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...of switches, track crossings, and lift rail assemblies or other transition devices...of switches, track crossings, and lift rail assemblies or other transition devices...track crossing, and moveable bridge lift rail assembly or other transition device...

2012-10-01

423

49 CFR 213.235 - Inspection of switches, track crossings, and lift rail assemblies or other transition devices on...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...of switches, track crossings, and lift rail assemblies or other transition devices...of switches, track crossings, and lift rail assemblies or other transition devices...track crossing, and moveable bridge lift rail assembly or other transition device...

2013-10-01

424

49 CFR 213.235 - Inspection of switches, track crossings, and lift rail assemblies or other transition devices on...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...of switches, track crossings, and lift rail assemblies or other transition devices...of switches, track crossings, and lift rail assemblies or other transition devices...track crossing, and moveable bridge lift rail assembly or other transition device...

2011-10-01

425

76 FR 61750 - Vehicle-Mounted Elevating and Rotating Work Platforms (Aerial Lifts); Extension of the Office of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Vehicle-Mounted Elevating and Rotating Work Platforms (Aerial Lifts); Extension...Vehicle-Mounted Elevating and Rotating Work Platforms (Aerial Lifts) (29 CFR 1910...Vehicle-Mounted Elevating and Rotating Work Platforms (Aerial Lifts) (29 CFR...

2011-10-05

426

Occupant restraint use in Canada.  

PubMed

Legislation regarding seat belt use in Canada is a provincial/territorial responsibility. Each of the 13 jurisdictions has enacted legislation and set the penalties regarding non-use of seat belts and appropriate child restraint systems. The federal government regulates occupant restraint systems and child restraints. In addition, Transport Canada (TC) gathers annual survey data on the use of seat belts and child restraints on Canadian roads and provides research support. National coordination toward the Canadian Road Safety Vision 2010 goal of a 40% reduction in fatalities and serious injuries related to non-belt/child restraint use and a 95% restraint usage rate is provided by the Canadian Council of Motor Transport Administrators' (CCMTA) National Occupant Restraint Program (NORP). The paper examines the history of legislation, provincial/territorial penalties, NORP, and TC involvement in promoting the use of occupant restraints. PMID:15178242

Boase, Paul; Jonah, Brian A; Dawson, Nancy

2004-01-01

427

[Occupation and lumbar disk prolapse].  

PubMed

All Danish occupational groups were screened for an increased risk of hospitalization due to a prolapsed lumbar intervertebral disc (PLID) (ICD-8: 725.11). A cohort of all gainfully employed Danes aged 20 to 59 years in 1981 was followed-up for 10 years for first hospitalization with PLID. A Standardized Hospitalization Ratio was calculated using all economically active persons as the reference group. Male groups with an elevated risk were found in building and construction, the iron and metal industry, in the food and nutrition sector and in occupational driving. Almost all groups of professional drivers had an elevated risk. Female groups with an elevated risk were mainly found in the same industries, but home helps, service workers in the private sector and sewing machine operators also had an elevated risk. We conclude that there are significant and systematic differences between occupational groups as concerns the risk of hospital admission due to PLID. PMID:7725550

Jensen, M V; Tüchsen, F

1995-03-13

428

78 FR 38782 - Lifting of Chemical and Biological Weapons (CBW) Proliferation Sanctions Against Chinese Entities  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Lifting of Chemical and Biological Weapons (CBW) Proliferation Sanctions Against Chinese Entities AGENCY: Department of State. ACTION...Security determined and certified to Congress that lifting sanctions on the following Chinese entities, their sub-units...

2013-06-27

429

An unconventional mechanism of lift production during the downstroke in a hovering bird ( Zosterops japonicus)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An unconventional mechanism of ventral clap is exploited by hovering passerines to produce lift. Quantitative visualization of the wake flow, analysis of kinematics and evaluation of the transient lift force was conducted to dissect the biomechanical role of the ventral clap in the asymmetrical hovering flight of passerines. The ventral clap can first abate and then augment lift production during the downstroke; the net effect of the ventral clap on lift production is, however, positive because the extent of lift augmentation is greater than the extent of lift abatement. Moreover, the ventral clap is inferred to compensate for the zero lift production of the upstroke because the clapping wings induce a substantial elevation of the lift force at the end of the downstroke. Overall, our observations shed light on the aerodynamic function of the ventral clap and offer biomechanical insight into how a bird hovers without kinematically mimicking hovering hummingbirds.

Chang, Yu-Hung; Ting, Shang-Chieh; Liu, Chieh-Cheng; Yang, Jing-Tang; Soong, Chyi-Yeou

2011-11-01

430

29 CFR 1926.705 - Requirements for lift-slab construction operations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Concrete and Masonry Construction § 1926.705 Requirements for lift-slab construction operations. (a) Lift-slab...

2012-07-01

431

46 CFR 28.545 - Intact stability when using lifting gear.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Intact stability when using lifting gear. 28.545 Section...REQUIREMENTS FOR COMMERCIAL FISHING INDUSTRY VESSELS Stability § 28.545 Intact stability when using lifting gear. (a)...

2012-10-01

432

46 CFR 28.545 - Intact stability when using lifting gear.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Intact stability when using lifting gear. 28.545 Section...REQUIREMENTS FOR COMMERCIAL FISHING INDUSTRY VESSELS Stability § 28.545 Intact stability when using lifting gear. (a)...

2011-10-01

433

Effects of Spanwise Flexibility on Lift and Rolling Moment of a Wingsail  

E-print Network

Several authors have considered the optimization of spanwise loading on a wing, subject to different constraints. Jones (1) calculated the optimum spanwise lift distribution for a wing subject to a constraint on lift and ...

Widnall, Sheila E.

2014-01-01

434

Maximal and sub-maximal functional lifting performance at different platform heights.  

PubMed

Introducing valid physical employment tests requires identifying and developing a small number of practical tests that provide broad coverage of physical performance across the full range of job tasks. This study investigated discrete lifting performance across various platform heights reflective of common military lifting tasks. Sixteen Australian Army personnel performed a discrete lifting assessment to maximal lifting capacity (MLC) and maximal acceptable weight of lift (MAWL) at four platform heights between 1.30 and 1.70 m. There were strong correlations between platform height and normalised lifting performance for MLC (R(2) = 0.76 ± 0.18, p < 0.05) and MAWL (R(2) = 0.73 ± 0.21, p < 0.05). The developed relationship allowed prediction of lifting capacity at one platform height based on lifting capacity at any of the three other heights, with a standard error of < 4.5 kg and < 2.0 kg for MLC and MAWL, respectively. PMID:25420678

Savage, Robert J; Jaffrey, Mark A; Billing, Daniel C; Ham, Daniel J

2014-11-24

435

29 CFR 1926.705 - Requirements for lift-slab construction operations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... (n) Load transfer from jacks/lifting units to building columns shall not be executed until the welds on the column shear plates (weld blocks) are cooled to air temperature. (o) Jacks/lifting units shall be positively secured...

2013-07-01

436

29 CFR 1926.705 - Requirements for lift-slab construction operations.  

... (n) Load transfer from jacks/lifting units to building columns shall not be executed until the welds on the column shear plates (weld blocks) are cooled to air temperature. (o) Jacks/lifting units shall be positively secured...

2014-07-01

437

29 CFR 1926.705 - Requirements for lift-slab construction operations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... (n) Load transfer from jacks/lifting units to building columns shall not be executed until the welds on the column shear plates (weld blocks) are cooled to air temperature. (o) Jacks/lifting units shall be positively secured...

2011-07-01

438

Sudden loading during a dynamic lifting task: a simulation study.  

PubMed

It is believed that nurses risk the development of back pain as a consequence of sudden loadings during tasks in which they are handling patients. Forward dynamics simulations of sudden loads (applied to the arms) during dynamic lifting tasks were performed on a two-dimensional whole-body model. Loads were in the range of -80 kg to 80 kg, with the initial load being 20 kg. Loading the arm downwards with less than that which equals a mass of 20 kg did not change the compressive forces on the spine when compared to a normal lifting motion with a 20 kg mass in the hands. However when larger loads (40 kg to 80 kg extra in the hands) were simulated, the compressive forces exceeded 13,000 N (above 3400 N is generally considered a risk factor). Loading upwards led to a decrease in the compressive forces but to a larger backwards velocity at the end of the movement. In the present study, it was possible to simulate a fast lifting motion. The results showed that when loading the arms downwards with a force that equals 40 kg or more, the spine was severely compressed. When loading in the opposite direction (unloading), the spine was not compressed more than during a normal lifting motion. In practical terms, this indicates that if a nursing aide tries to catch a patient who is falling, large compressive forces are applied to the spine. PMID:15868793

Andersen, T Bull; Simonsen, E B

2005-02-01

439

Lifting force in a soil-eroding water flow  

Microsoft Academic Search

An equation for the lifting force of a water flow was proposed within the framework of the hydraulic approach to the description\\u000a of water erosion mechanisms. The equation was derived for the threshold water flow velocity corresponding to the beginning\\u000a of erosion with due account for the interaggregate cohesion; methods were proposed for calculating its arguments.

V. M. Gendugov; G. P. Glazunov

2009-01-01

440

13. WEIGHING ROOM Fish were lifted up from tower by ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

13. WEIGHING ROOM Fish were lifted up from tower by conveyor, controlled by buttons above the two sets of vertical electrical conduits. They entered the weighing room through the shielded window on the left (shielding missing from the window on the right), were weighed and then transported to the holding tanks. - Hovden Cannery, 886 Cannery Row, Monterey, Monterey County, CA

441

14 CFR 25.697 - Lift and drag devices, controls.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...attitude. (d) The lift device control must be designed to retract the surfaces from the fully extended position, during steady flight at maximum continuous engine power at any speed below V F +9.0 (knots). [Amdt. 25-23, 35...

2010-01-01

442

Running versus Weight Lifting in the Treatment of Depression.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compared effectiveness of aerobic and nonaerobic exercise in treatment of clinical depression in women. Forty women with a depressive disorder were randomly assigned to eight-week running (aerobic), weight-lifting (nonaerobic), or wait-list control condition. Both exercise conditions significantly reduced depression; exercise conditions appeared…

Doyne, Elizabeth J.; And Others

1987-01-01

443

Large-Eddy Simulations of Lifted Turbulent Diffusion Flames  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years laminar flamelet models for turbulent non-premixed combustion have been successfully applied in Large-Eddy Simulations (LES). However, these models cannot describe premixed or partially premixed flame propagation, which is known to be of great importance in the stabilization region of lifted diffusion flames. In the present work a model proposed by Peters for Reynolds averaged models has been

Heinz Pitsch; Laurent Duchamp de Lageneste

2001-01-01

444

14 CFR 25.345 - High lift devices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... High lift devices. (a) If wing flaps are to be used during takeoff, approach, or landing, at the design flap speeds established for these stages of...under § 25.335(e) and with the wing flaps in the corresponding positions,...

2010-01-01

445

Large xray room from crane ladder showing scissor lift for ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Large x-ray room from crane ladder showing scissor lift for x-ray equipment, view facing west-northwest - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Industrial X-Ray Building, Off Sixth Street, adjacent to and south of Facility No. 11, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

446

Customized lifting multiwavelet packet information entropy for equipment condition identification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Condition identification of mechanical equipment from vibration measurement data is significant to avoid economic loss caused by unscheduled breakdowns and catastrophic accidents. However, this task still faces challenges due to the complexity of equipment and the harsh environment. This paper provides a possibility for equipment condition identification by proposing a method called customized lifting multiwavelet packet information entropy. Benefiting from the properties of multi-resolution analysis and multiple wavelet basis functions, the multiwavelet method has advantages in characterizing non-stationary vibration signals. In order to realize the accurate detection and identification of the condition features, a customized lifting multiwavelet packet is constructed via a multiwavelet lifting scheme. Then the vibration signal from the mechanical equipment is processed by the customized lifting multiwavelet packet transform. The relative energy in each frequency band of the multiwavelet packet transform coefficients that equals a percentage of the whole signal energy is taken as the probability. The normalized information entropy is obtained based on the relative energy to describe the condition of a mechanical system. The proposed method is applied to the condition identification of a rolling mill and a demountable disk-drum aero-engine. The results support the feasibility of the proposed method in equipment condition identification.

Chen, Jinglong; Zuo, Ming J.; Zi, Yanyang; He, Zhengjia; Yuan, Jing; Chen, Xuefeng

2013-09-01

447

Overview of NASA HSR high-lift program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The viewgraphs and discussion of the NASA High-Speed Research (HSR) Program being conducted to develop the technologies essential for the successful U.S. development of a commercial supersonic air transport in the 2005 timeframe are provided. The HSR program is being conducted in two phases, with the first phase stressing technology to ensure environmental acceptability and the second phase stressing technology to make the vehicle economically viable (in contrast to the current Concorde design). During Phase 1 of the program, a key element of the environmental emphases is minimization of community noise through effective engine nozzle noise suppression technology and through improving the performance of high-lift systems. An overview of the current Phase 1 High-Lift Program, directed at technology for community noise reduction, is presented. The total target for takeoff engine noise reduction to meet expected regulations is believed to be about 20 EPNdB. The high-lift research is stressing the exploration of innovative high-lift concepts and advanced flight operations procedures to achieve a substantial (approximately 6 EPNdB) reduction in community noise to supplement the reductions expected from engine nozzle noise suppression concepts; primary concern is focused on the takeoff and climbout operations where very high engine power settings are used. Significant reductions in aerodynamic drag in this regime will allow substantial reductions in the required engine thrust levels and therefore reductions in the noise generated.

Gilbert, William P.

1992-01-01

448

Estimates of nitric oxide production for lifting spacecraft reentry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The amount of nitric oxide which may be produced by heating of air during an atmospheric reentry of a lifting spacecraft is estimated by three different methods. Two assume nitrogen fixation by the process of sudden freezing, and the third is a computer calculation using chemical rate equations.

Park, C.

1971-01-01

449

Optimal boundary control problems related to high-lift configurations  

E-print Network

functions belonging to L2 ( ) under an integral state constraint. We de- rive optimality conditions. Here, a linear- quadratic integral functional expressing the lift is to be maximized under an integral, 11, 12, 13, 14, 32, 34]. Optimal flow control problems with state constraints were studied in [10, 24

Tröltzsch, Fredi

450

On-sky validation of LIFT on GEMS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laser assisted adaptive optics systems rely on Laser Guide Star (LGS) Wave-Front Sensors (WFS) for high order aberration measurements, and rely on Natural Guide Stars (NGS) WFS to complement the measurements on low orders such as tip-tilt and focus. The sky-coverage of the whole system is therefore related to the limiting magnitude of the NGS WFS. LIFT is a novel WFS based on the analysis of a well corrected full aperture short exposure image, simply with a small astigmatism offset. It allows a 1 magnitude gain over the usually used 2x2 Shack-Hartmann WFS. Its noise propagation is comparable to a 4-pixel pyramid sensor without modulation. Besides, it requires a much more simple hardware, making it a reliable and easy to set up solution. Early this year, LIFT came out of the lab and has been tested on GEMS, the multiconjugate adaptive optics system of Gemini South. We present here the first on-sky IR wave-front sensing data obtained with LIFT. We show that these results constitute a clear on-sky demonstration of the LIFT concept.

Plantet, Cedric; Meimon, Serge; Conan, Jean-Marc; Neichel, Benoit; Fusco, Thierry

2013-12-01

451

Detail of counterweight wire rope attachment to lift span at ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Detail of counterweight wire rope attachment to lift span at southwest corner. The plates with three pins serve to equalize the forces on the counterweight ropes. - Potomac Edison Company, Chesapeake & Ohio Canal Bridge, Spanning C & O Canal South of U.S. 11, Williamsport, Washington County, MD

452

Hydro-resistive measurement of dynamic lifting strength.  

PubMed

A device is described for measuring strength and power outputs of dynamic vertical lifts between heights of 0.4 and 2.2 m. The device is safe, robust, and easily transportable. It consists of a water-filled tube 2 m high and 200 mm internal diameter. The subject pulls vertically on a handle which is connected with flexible wire rope via a series of pulleys to a piston suspended inside the tube. The piston has holes which can be closed with bungs. The drag force is proportional to the square of the velocity. The constant of proportionality can be chosen over a more than 100-fold range and is independent of temperature. Manual force is measured using a strain gauged cantilever over which the rope passes. Rope movement is monitored with a shaft encoder. These devices are sampled synchronously by an interfaced computer. Velocity and power are derived from the measurements of displacement, time and force. The device is highly accurate. Power measurements are not significantly different on two separate days although repetitions on one day show a warming-up effect. This device allows the study of dynamic lifts ranging from slow, high force, quasi-isokinetic lifts to lifts where high velocities and accelerations occur. PMID:9075010

Pinder, A D; Grieve, D W

1997-04-01

453

Department of Mechanical Engineering Fall 2009 Modified Tire Lifting Aid  

E-print Network

the components. Objectives Create a pneumatically powered system that safely, easily, and reliably lifts a 100lbs of a pneumatic cylinder and air motor was adapted to power these movements. Manual valves were used to control tire in a timely manner. Approach A site visit was made to the tire testing facility in Akron, Ohio

Demirel, Melik C.

454

Semantic Lifting of Business Process models Mario Lezoche1  

E-print Network

Semantic Lifting of Business Process models Mario Lezoche1 , Antonio De Nicola1 , Tania Di Mascio1, Italy tania@ing.univaq.it Abstract. Business Process modeling is constantly acquiring attention in modern enterprises. Today, BP editor tools support modelers in building correct diagrams only from

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

455

Lift and power requirements of hovering flight in Drosophila virilis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lift and power requirements for hovering flight in Drosophila virilis were studied using the method of computational fluid dynamics. The Navier-Stokes equations were solved numerically. The solution provided the flow velocity and pressure fields, from which the unsteady aerodynamic forces and moments were obtained. The inertial torques due to the acceleration of the wing mass were computed analytically. On

Mao Sun; Jian Tang

2002-01-01

456

Corticospinal Control during Reach, Grasp, and Precision Lift in Man  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transcranial magnetic brain stimulation (TMS) was used to assess the influence of the corticospinal system on motor output in seven human subjects during a task in which they had to reach out, grasp, and lift an object. Stimuli, directed at the hand area of the motor cortex, were delivered at eight defined points during the task: during reach, at grip

R. N. Lemon; R. S. Johanss; G. Westling

1995-01-01

457

Endoscopic lift of the maxillary sinus floor in Beagles.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to introduce a modified endoscopic lift of the floor of the maxillary sinus in Beagles. Twelve operations (bilateral and randomly chosen) were done in 6 Beagles each in the test group (modified endoscopic operation), and the control group, in which the operation was done with an osteotome. All operations were evaluated by two indices of safety (perforation of the sinus membrane and nasal bleeding) and 3 effective indices (the intraoperative height after lifting, volume of bone grafts, and dislocation of the sinus grafts). The sinus membrane was not perforated and there were no nasal bleeds in either group. The intraoperative height after lifting was 13.7 (0.8) mm in the test group and 9.1 (0.5) mm in the control group, so it was significantly higher in the test group than the control group (p=0.0001). Similarly, the volume of bone graft was 0.9 (0.04) ml in the test group and 0.5 (0.02) ml in the control group (p=0.0001). The volume of the anterior and posterior bone grafts in the implant cavity in the test group did not differ significantly (p=0.102), while there were significant differences in the control group (p=0.002). Endoscopic lifting of the floor of the maxillary sinus is a safe and effective approach based on direct observation in Beagles. PMID:25174319

Zheng, JiSi; Zhang, ShanYong; Lu, ErYi; Yang, Chi; Zhang, WenJie; Zhao, JingYang

2014-11-01

458

Lift-off of large-scale ultrathin nanomembranes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ultrathin silicon-based nanomembranes hold significant promise for advancements in applications ranging from separations to tissue engineering. Widespread application of these membranes has been hindered by their small active area, which typically ranges from square micrometers to square millimeters. These membranes are typically supported on silicon chips as small windows as a result of a time-consuming through-wafer etch process. This approach results in a relatively low active area and can be challenging to integrate into devices because of the rigid silicon support. In this paper, a lift-off approach is demonstrated wherein the membrane is supported by a polymeric scaffold and separated from the wafer to enable fabrication of membrane sheets (>75?cm2) with >80% active area. The wafer-scale lift-off process is demonstrated with 50?nm thick microporous and nanoporous silicon nitride (SiN) membranes. Release of large-scale SiN membranes is accomplished with both wet and dry lift-off techniques. The dry approach uses XeF2 gas to etch a sacrificial silicon film, while the wet etch uses buffered oxide etchant to remove a silicon dioxide sacrificial layer. Finally, it is demonstrated that lift-off membranes have excellent optical properties and can be used to support cell culture on a conventional scale.

Miller, Joshua J.; Carter, Robert N.; McNabb, Kelly B.; DesOrmeaux, Jon-Paul S.; Striemer, Christopher C.; Winans, Joshua D.; Gaborski, Thomas R.

2015-01-01

459

Evaluating Training Approaches for the Revised NIOSH Lifting Equation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The goal of this study was to determine whether the Revised NIOSH Lifting Equation (RNLE) CD-ROM training program, when used without an instructor, could adequately train RNLE users to properly understand and correctly apply the RNLE. If so, then it can be used to fill a current gap in delivering training to both health and safety professionals,…

Bowles, William, Jr.

2012-01-01

460

Lifting Body Single-Stage-to-Orbit RLV Concept  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Pictured here is an artist's depiction of Lockheed Martin's Lifting Body Single-Stage-to-Orbit (SSTO) Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) concept servicing the International Space Station. The development of the RLV is essential in the cost reduction of future space travel.

1995-01-01

461

A Classification of Lifts in Dance: Terminology and Biomechanical Principles  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite the importance of lifts in Western theatrical dance, few reports have been published on the subject and few techniques established as good practice. Dancers usually learn partnering by trial and error, an approach that elicits both spectacular and inefficient results. To establish safer partnering practices, more efficient use of rehearsal…

Lafortune, Sylvain

2008-01-01

462

New fire-fighting water bucket is lifted by helicopter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A NASA helicopter lifts a high-impact-resistant flexible plastic bucket that will be used for fire protection on property and buildings at Kennedy Space Center. Known as the 'Bambi' bucket, the 324-gallon container will also support the Fish and Wildlife Service for controlled burns plus any wild fires in the area.

2000-01-01

463

6. DETAIL OF LIFTING MACHINERY HOUSED UNDER THE APPROACH ROADWAY; ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. DETAIL OF LIFTING MACHINERY HOUSED UNDER THE APPROACH ROADWAY; 38 HORSEPOWER ELECTRIC MOTOR IN RIGHT-CENTER, RACK AND PINION GEAR TO THE LEFT - Chicago River Bascule Bridge, West Cortland Street, Spanning North Branch of Chicago River at West Cortland Street, Chicago, Cook County, IL

464

7. DETAIL OF LIFTING MACHINERY HOUSED UNDER THE APPROACH ROADWAY; ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

7. DETAIL OF LIFTING MACHINERY HOUSED UNDER THE APPROACH ROADWAY; 38 HORSEPOWER ELECTRIC MOTOR IN LEFT-CENTER, RACK AND PINION GEAR TO THE RIGHT - Chicago River Bascule Bridge, West Cortland Street, Spanning North Branch of Chicago River at West Cortland Street, Chicago, Cook County, IL

465

Combination gas lift/ESP system increases flexibility  

SciTech Connect

Most ESP systems are installed in high-rate wells, and failure can result in significant downtime and revenue loss. This paper reports that by combining ESP with continuous-flow gas lift in certain wells, a smaller ESP can be used, and the wells can stay on production even with downhole equipment failure.

Divine, D.L.; Eads, P.T.; Lea, J.F.; Winkler, H.W.

1990-10-01

466

33 CFR 118.85 - Lights on vertical lift bridges.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...shall conform with this paragraph. (b) Pier lights. Every vertical lift bridge shall be lighted so that each end of every pier in or adjacent to navigable channels under...span, or each end of every protection pier when provided, will be marked by a...

2010-07-01

467

33 CFR 118.85 - Lights on vertical lift bridges.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...shall conform with this paragraph. (b) Pier lights. Every vertical lift bridge shall be lighted so that each end of every pier in or adjacent to navigable channels under...span, or each end of every protection pier when provided, will be marked by a...

2011-07-01

468

Wavelet Lifting for Speckle Noise Reduction in Ultrasound Images  

E-print Network

. The efficacy of this filter is demonstrated on both simulated and real medical ultrasound images. The result of research has been done for medical ultrasound speckle de-noising [2][8][10] using different typesWavelet Lifting for Speckle Noise Reduction in Ultrasound Images Yuan Chen, and Amar Raheja

Raheja, Amar

469

Aircraft wind measurement considering lift-induced upwash  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flow distortion is a universal consideration in the measurement of wind. Usually the distortion results from deflection of the flow by the support. Instruments mounted on airplanes, however, experience an additional deflection associated with lift, which changes rapidly and continuously during flight. In front of the airplane, this deflection appears as upwash. Characteristic upwash contamination ranges from 0.5 to 2.5

Timothy L. Crawford; Ronald J. Dobosy; Edward J. Dumas

1996-01-01

470

OPTIMUM UPDATE STEP FOR MOTION-COMPENSATED LIFTED WAVELET CODING  

E-print Network

methods have been compared to compute backward motion fields for the update step [5], and some authors (eOPTIMUM UPDATE STEP FOR MOTION-COMPENSATED LIFTED WAVELET CODING (Invited Paper) Bernd Girod, the update step typically reverses the motion vectors from the prediction step. Where motion compensation

Girod, Bernd

471

Occupational exposure and lung cancer  

PubMed Central

Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death for male and the second most usual cancer for women after breast cancer. Currently there are available several non-specific cytotoxic agents and several targeted agents for lung cancer therapy. However; early stage diagnosis is still unavailable and several efforts are being made towards this direction. Novel biomarkers are being investigated along with new biopsy techniques. The occupational and environmental exposure to carcinogenic agents is an everyday phenomenon. Therefore until efficient early diagnosis is available, avoidance of exposure to carcinogenic agents is necessary. In the current mini-review occupational and environmental carcinogenic agents will be presented. PMID:24102018

Spyratos, Dionysios; Porpodis, Konstantinos; Tsakiridis, Kosmas; Machairiotis, Nikolaos; Katsikogiannis, Nikolaos; Kougioumtzi, Ioanna; Dryllis, Georgios; Kallianos, Anastasios; Rapti, Aggeliki; Li, Chen; Zarogoulidis, Konstantinos

2013-01-01

472

Job-Occupation Misfit as an Occupational Stressor  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Drawing from theory on met expectations, person-environment fit, and social information processing, misfit between the pressure and autonomy experienced by workers and that which would be expected given their occupational roles was examined as a predictor of job satisfaction, perceived support, and depression. Results from a nationally (U.S.)…

Ford, Michael T.

2012-01-01

473

Injury Prevention for Ski-Area Employees: A Physiological Assessment of Lift Operators, Instructors, and Patrollers  

PubMed Central

Background. Momentary lapses in concentration contribute to workplace accidents. Given that blood glucose (BG) and hydration levels have been shown to affect vigilance, this study proposed to investigate these parameters and functional movement patterns of ski-resort workers and to determine whether an educational program to stabilize BG and hydration and encourage joint stability had an effect in decreasing occupational injuries. Methods. Seventy-five instructors, patrollers and, lift-operators at five snowsport resorts were evaluated for BG, vigilance, workload, dietary/hydration practices, and functional-movement patterns. Injury rates were tabulated before and after an educational program for nutrition and functional-movement awareness and compared to other resorts. Results. Workers showed poor stability at the lumbar spine, knee, and shoulder. BG levels were normal but variable (%CV?=?14 ± 6). Diets were high in sugar and fat and low in water and many nutrients. Medical Aid and Lost Time claims declined significantly by 65.1 ± 20.0% (confidence interval ?90.0%??? ? ?40.2%) in resorts that used the educational program whereas four control resorts not using the program experienced increases of 33.4 ± 42.9% (confidence interval ?19.7%??? ? ?86.7%; F[2,12]?=?21.35, P < 0.0001 ) over the same season. Conclusion. Provision of snowsport resort workers with educational programs encouraging hydration, diet to stabilize BG, and functional-movement awareness was effective in reducing worksite injuries in this population. PMID:23998119

2013-01-01

474

Cost-Effective Integration of Efficient Low-Lift Base Load Cooling Equipment  

SciTech Connect

The long-term goal of DOE’s Commercial Buildings Integration subprogram is to develop cost-effective technologies and building practices that will enable the design and construction of net Zero Energy Buildings — commercial buildings that produce as much energy as they use on an annual basis — by 2025. To support this long-term goal, DOE further called for — as part of its FY07 Statement of Needs — the development by 2010 of “five cost-effective design technology option sets using highly efficient component technologies, integrated controls, improved construction practices, streamlined commissioning, maintenance and operating procedures that will make new and existing commercial buildings durable, healthy and safe for occupants.” In response, PNNL proposed and DOE funded a scoping study investigation of one such technology option set, low-lift cooling, that offers potentially exemplary HVAC energy performance relative to ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2004. The primary purpose of the scoping study was to estimate the national technical energy savings potential of this TOS.

Jiang, Wei; Winiarski, David W.; Katipamula, Srinivas; Armstrong, Peter R.

2008-01-14

475

Lack of Relationship Between Occupational Workload and Microscopic Alterations in Lumbar Intervertebral Disc Disease  

PubMed Central

Objectives : The study investigated the impact of occupational workloads on disc surgery specimens. We report the relationship between workload and histological features. Methods : Specimens were collected prospectively from patients suffering from lumbar disc prolapse (n=90) or spinal osteochondrosis (n=19). Histomorphology and occupational workload data and histomorphological features were evaluated. Occupational data were collected in a structured, standardized patient interview assessing lifting and carrying loads. In this way the exposure was assessed for each test subject's entire working life up to surgery. Results : There was no association between cumulative workload and histological patterns. In a subgroup of patients with a workload period of 12 months prior to surgery a relevant formation of chondrocyte clusters (p=0.055) was apparent. Chondrocyte cluster formation was found in 83% (n=74) of the prolapse patients and in 58% (n=11) of the osteochondrosis patients (p=0.02). Fibrocyte mediated scar formation was found in 55% of the prolapse patients and in 45% of the spinal stenosis patients. Chondrocyte clusters and their de novo collagen matrix did not integrate biomechanically sufficient with collagen fibers of the disc. Disintegration of clusters from disc matrix and formation of intra-discal sequesters were observed. Conclusion : Matrix degeneration was common but displayed no relationship to occupational workload or other histological features. Scar formation was observed in every second specimen. Regenerative chondrocyte cluster proliferation was a common feature in disc specimens and tended to be associated in patients with a workload one year before surgery. PMID:25136392

Huschak, Gerald; Holzhausen, Hans-Jürgen; Beier, Andre; Meisel, Hans Jörg; Hoell, Thomas

2014-01-01

476

Occupational driving as a risk factor in low back pain: a case-control study in a Mexican population.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to assess and quantify the degree to which interaction between occupational driving and lifting tasks is a risk factor in lumbar spondyloarthrosis etiology. A case-control study was performed with 231 workers, 18-55 years old, insured by the Mexican Social Security Institute (IMSS, according to its designation in Spanish). A multivariate analysis using conditional logistical regression showed that driving tasks, when combined with lifting tasks, are associated with this illness (OR = 7.3; 95% CI 1.7-31.4). Occupational driving as it interacted with daily lifting frequency resulted in a greater risk (OR = 10.4; 95% CI 2.0-52.5). No exposure-response relationship was found with daily hours spent working as a driver. The attributable risk for driving tasks was 0.86, suggesting that 86% of lumbar spondyloarthrosis could be decreased if risk factors were reduced through ergonomic redesign of the workplace and Manual Materials Handling (MMH) tasks, along with development of educational programs. PMID:19127009

Prado-León, Lilia R; Aceves-González, Carlos; Avila-Chaurand, Rosalío

2008-01-01

477

Role of physical work capacity and load weight on psychophysical lift ratings  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the effect of load weight, and physical work capacity (PWC) on psychophysical lift ratings of 33 men and 58 women. Each subject lifted seven boxes that ranged in weight from 6.8 kg to 40.9 kg and rated each lift with Borg's CR-10 scale. The lift components were a vertical distance of the hands to the floor of

A. S. Jackson; G. Borg; J. J. Zhang; K. R. Laughery; J. Chen

1997-01-01

478

[C-type scaphoid fracture in a elite power lifting].  

PubMed

Power lifting injuries most often involve shoulder injuries with an injury rate of 0.57 to 0.71/1000 hours of power lifting. Wrist injuries are less common in power lifters with 0.05/1000 hours exposure vs. 0.23/1000 h in elite weight lifting men. Often, two contributing factors causing wrist injuries are encountered: a) loss of balance causing the barbell to drift back behind the head of the power lifter, which hyperextends the wrist and b) the maximal weight. We report on an elite power lifting athlete preparing for the World Masters Bench press championships suffering two months of persisting pain during bench press exercise and rest in the snuff-box area following a loss of balance of the bar-bell during bench press with 280 kg load. Following prolonged presentation 2 months after the initial injury with training in the meantime, CT-scan was performed revealing a C-type scaphoid fracture. Surgery was performed as Herbert screw fixation and bone grafting according to the technique of Matti-Russe, followed by an immobilisation of twelve weeks with a plaster. We recommended ending the athletes' power lifting career, however he further exercised with the plaster with consecutive re-operation 3months later and 2nd Matti-Russe and Herbert screw re-do. One year later he became national champion with 240 kg bench pressing. Given the limited scaphoid blood supply and the high complication rate especially among C-type scaphoid fractures, a surgical procedure with bone grafting, Herbert screw fixation and sufficient plaster immobilisation is advocated in scaphoid fractures in elite athletes. PMID:18543166

Heckmann, A; Lahoda, L U; Alkandari, Q; Vogt, P M; Knobloch, K

2008-06-01

479

Germanium Lift-Off Masks for Thin Metal Film Patterning  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A technique has been developed for patterning thin metallic films that are, in turn, used to fabricate microelectronics circuitry and thin-film sensors. The technique uses germanium thin films as lift-off masks. This requires development of a technique to strip or undercut the germanium chemically without affecting the deposited metal. Unlike in the case of conventional polymeric lift-off masks, the substrate can be exposed to very high temperatures during processing (sputter deposition). The reason why polymeric liftoff masks cannot be exposed to very high temperatures (greater than 100 C) is because (a) they can become cross linked, making lift-off very difficult if not impossible, and (b) they can outgas nitrogen and oxygen, which then can react with the metal being deposited. Consequently, this innovation is expected to find use in the fabrication of transition edge sensors and microwave kinetic inductance detectors, which use thin superconducting films deposited at high temperature as their sensing elements. Transition edge sensors, microwave kinetic inductance detectors, and their circuitry are comprised of superconducting thin films, for example Nb and TiN. Reactive ion etching can be used to pattern these films; however, reactive ion etching also damages the underlying substrate, which is unwanted in many instances. Polymeric lift-off techniques permit thin-film patterning without any substrate damage, but they are difficult to remove and the polymer can outgas during thin-film deposition. The outgassed material can then react with the film with the consequence of altered and non-reproducible materials properties, which, in turn, is deleterious for sensors and their circuitry. The purpose of this innovation was to fabricate a germanium lift-off mask to be used for patterning thin metal films.

Brown, Ari

2012-01-01

480

A single layer hydrogen silsesquioxane (HSQ) based lift-off process for germanium and platinum  

E-print Network

A single layer hydrogen silsesquioxane (HSQ) based lift-off process for germanium and platinum V silsesquioxane, a negative tone electron beam resist, is used to make lift-off of germanium and platinum. Removal into germanium and platinum layers. Keywords: electron beam lithography, hydrogen silsesquioxane (HSQ), lift

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

481

RESEARCH ARTICLE Drag and lift reduction of a 3D bluff-body using active vortex  

E-print Network

RESEARCH ARTICLE Drag and lift reduction of a 3D bluff-body using active vortex generators Jean forces (drag and lift) induced on the bluff- body is investigated. The high sensitivity to many geo demonstrated. The maximum drag reduction is -12%, while the maximum global lift reduc- tion can reach more than

Wesfreid, José Eduardo

482

Comparison of Lifting and B-spline DWT Implementations for Implantable Neuroprosthetics.  

E-print Network

Comparison of Lifting and B-spline DWT Implementations for Implantable Neuroprosthetics. Awais M, this paper identifies and compares optimal implementations of the lifting and B- spline architectures where of the lifting and B-spline DWT schemes for multi-level, multi-channel DWT and analyzes their performance

Mason, Andrew

483

10 CFR 71.45 - Lifting and tie-down standards for all packages.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Lifting and tie-down standards for all packages. 71...Approval Standards § 71.45 Lifting and tie-down standards for all packages...required for lifting attachments. (b) Tie-down devices: (1) If there is a...

2013-01-01

484

10 CFR 71.45 - Lifting and tie-down standards for all packages.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Lifting and tie-down standards for all packages. 71...Approval Standards § 71.45 Lifting and tie-down standards for all packages...required for lifting attachments. (b) Tie-down devices: (1) If there is a...

2011-01-01

485

10 CFR 71.45 - Lifting and tie-down standards for all packages.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Lifting and tie-down standards for all packages. 71...Approval Standards § 71.45 Lifting and tie-down standards for all packages...required for lifting attachments. (b) Tie-down devices: (1) If there is a...

2012-01-01

486

10 CFR 71.45 - Lifting and tie-down standards for all packages.  

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Lifting and tie-down standards for all packages. 71...Approval Standards § 71.45 Lifting and tie-down standards for all packages...required for lifting attachments. (b) Tie-down devices: (1) If there is a...

2014-01-01

487

Optimal quantized lifting coefficients for the 9\\/7 wavelet [image compression applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lifting structure has been shown to be computationally efficient for implementing filter banks. The hardware implementation of a filter bank requires that the lifting coefficients be quantized. The quantization method determines compression performance, hardware size, hardware speed and energy. We investigate the implementation of two lifting coefficient sets, rational and irrational, for the biorthogonal 9\\/7 wavelet. Six different approaches

S. Barua; K. A. Kotteri; A. E. Bell; J. E. Carletta

2004-01-01

488

29 CFR 1915.114 - Chain falls and pull-lifts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Chain falls and pull-lifts. 1915.114 Section...Materials Handling § 1915.114 Chain falls and pull-lifts. The provisions of...shipbuilding and shipbreaking. (a) Chain falls and pull-lifts shall be clearly...

2011-07-01

489

29 CFR 1915.114 - Chain falls and pull-lifts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Chain falls and pull-lifts. 1915.114 Section...Materials Handling § 1915.114 Chain falls and pull-lifts. The provisions of...shipbuilding and shipbreaking. (a) Chain falls and pull-lifts shall be clearly...

2010-07-01

490

14 CFR 61.163 - Aeronautical experience: Powered-lift category rating.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Aeronautical experience: Powered-lift category rating. 61.163 ...61.163 Aeronautical experience: Powered-lift category rating. (a) A person...airline transport pilot certificate with a powered-lift category rating must have at...

2010-01-01

491

14 CFR 61.163 - Aeronautical experience: Powered-lift category rating.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Aeronautical experience: Powered-lift category rating. 61.163 ...61.163 Aeronautical experience: Powered-lift category rating. (a) A person...airline transport pilot certificate with a powered-lift category rating must have at...

2013-01-01

492

14 CFR 61.163 - Aeronautical experience: Powered-lift category rating.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Aeronautical experience: Powered-lift category rating. 61.163 ...61.163 Aeronautical experience: Powered-lift category rating. (a) A person...airline transport pilot certificate with a powered-lift category rating must have at...

2011-01-01

493

14 CFR 61.163 - Aeronautical experience: Powered-lift category rating.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false Aeronautical experience: Powered-lift category rating. 61.163 ...61.163 Aeronautical