Sample records for occupational heavy lifting

  1. Heavy Lifting

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Deborah A. Shearer

    2012-06-26

    In this activity, learners work in NASA teams to build balloon-powered rockets using identical parts and compete to launch the greatest number of paper clips to "space" (the ceiling). The rockets learners build model the Ares V heavy lift launchers that carry heavy payloads into orbit. This lesson plan includes background information, tips, discussion questions and answers, and a "Mission Report" sheet for learners.

  2. Prosthetic Hand Lifts Heavy Loads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carden, James R.; Norton, William; Belcher, Jewell G.; Vest, Thomas W.

    1991-01-01

    Prosthetic hand designed to enable amputee to lift diverse heavy objects like rocks and logs. Has simple serrated end effector with no moving parts. Prosthesis held on forearm by system of flexible straps. Features include ruggedness, simplicity, and relatively low cost.

  3. Heavy-lift airship dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tischler, M. B.; Ringland, R. F.; Jex, H. R.

    1983-01-01

    The basic aerodynamic and dynamic properties of an example heavy-lift airship (HLA) configuration are analyzed using a nonlinear, multibody, 6-degrees-of-freedom digital simulation. The slung-payload model is described, and a preliminary analysis of the coupled vehicle-payload dynamics is presented. Trim calculations show the importance of control mixing selection and suggest performance deficiencies in crosswind stationkeeping for the unloaded example HLA. Numerically linearized dynamics of the unloaded vehicle exhibit a divergent yaw mode and an oscillatory pitch mode whose stability characteristic is sensitive to flight speed. An analysis of the vehicle-payload dynamics shows significant coupling of the payload dynamics with those of the basic HLA. It is shown that significant improvement in the vehicle's dynamic behavior can be achieved with the incorporation of a simple flight controller having proportional, rate, and integral-error feedbacks.

  4. NASA Heavy Lift Rotorcraft Systems Investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Wayne; Yamauchi, Gloria K.; Watts, Michael E.

    2005-01-01

    The NASA Heavy Lift Rotorcraft Systems Investigation examined in depth several rotorcraft configurations for large civil transport, designed to meet the technology goals of the NASA Vehicle Systems Program. The investigation identified the Large Civil Tiltrotor as the configuration with the best potential to meet the technology goals. The design presented was economically competitive, with the potential for substantial impact on the air transportation system. The keys to achieving a competitive aircraft were low drag airframe and low disk loading rotors; structural weight reduction, for both airframe and rotors; drive system weight reduction; improved engine efficiency; low maintenance design; and manufacturing cost comparable to fixed-wing aircraft. Risk reduction plans were developed to provide the strategic direction to support a heavy-lift rotorcraft development. The following high risk areas were identified for heavy lift rotorcraft: high torque, light weight drive system; high performance, structurally efficient rotor/wing system; low noise aircraft; and super-integrated vehicle management system.

  5. Variable-Compliance Couplings For Heavy Lifting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerley, James; Eklund, Wayne; Burkhardt, Raymond; Richardson, George W.

    1992-01-01

    New coupling devices contain manual or electronically controlled, motorized drives that vary stiffnesses. Short, clamped lengths of cable provide compliance. Using threaded rods, cables stretched, relaxed, or folded to make coupling more or less stiff. In more-advanced device, brackets holding cables moved by stepping motor via gearbox and ball screw. Motor operates under computer control with position feedback. Control computer commands greater stiffness during operations requiring precise positioning, and greater compliance to accommodate manufacturing tolerances. Intended for use in wrist joints of robotic manipulators and other industrial equipment that must lift heavy objects.

  6. Current Status of NASA's Heavy Lift Plans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Creech, Steve

    2010-01-01

    Numerous studies since the Apollo Program of the 1960s have highlighted the benefits of - and the need for - a national heavy lift launch capability to support human exploration, science, national security, and commercial development of space. NASA's most recent and most refined effort to develop that heavy lift capability is the Ares V. Ares V is a key element of NASA's Constellation Program. It s overall goal s part of approved national space policy is to retire the Space Shuttle and develop its successor, complete the International Space Station, and resume human exploration beyond low Earth orbit (LEO), beginning with exploration of the Moon as a step to other destinations in the Solar System. Ares V s first role is that of cargo vehicle to carry a lunar lander into Earth orbit, rendezvous with astronauts launched on the smaller Ares I crew launch vehicle, and perform the trans lunar injection (TLI) mission to send the mated crew and lander vehicles to the Moon. The design reference missions (DRMs) envisioned for it also include direct lunar cargo flights and a human Mars mission. Although NASA's priority from the start of the Constellation Program to the present has been development of the Ares I and Orion crew vehicle to replace the retiring Shuttle fleet, the Ares team has made significant progress in understanding the performance, design trades, technology needs, mission scenarios, ground and flight operations, cost, and other factors associated with heavy lift development. The current reference configuration was selected during the Lunar Capabilities Concept Review (LCCR) in fall 2008. That design has served since then as a point of departure for further refinements and trades among five participating NASA field centers. Ares V development to date has benefited from progress on the Ares I due to commonality between the vehicles. The Ares I first stage completed a successful firing of a 5-segment solid rocket motor. The Ares I-X launch Numerous studies since the Apollo Program of the 1960s have highlighted the benefits of and the need for - a national heavy lift launch capability to support human exploration, science, national security, and commercial development of space. NASA s most recent and most refined effort to develop that heavy lift capability is the Ares V. Ares V is a key element of NASA s Constellation Program. It s overall goal s part of approved national space policy is to retire the Space Shuttle and develop its successor, complete the International Space Station, and resume human exploration beyond low Earth orbit (LEO), beginning with exploration of the Moon as a step to other destinations in the Solar System. Ares V s first role is that of cargo vehicle to carry a lunar lander into Earth orbit, rendezvous with astronauts launched on the smaller Ares I crew launch vehicle, and perform the trans lunar injection (TLI) mission to send the mated crew and lander vehicles to the Moon. The design reference missions (DRMs) envisioned for it also include direct lunar cargo flights and a human Mars mission. Although NASA s priority from the start of the Constellation Program to the present has been development of the Ares I and Orion crew vehicle to replace the retiring Shuttle fleet, the Ares team has made significant progress in understanding the performance, design trades, technology needs, mission scenarios, ground and flight operations, cost, and other factors associated with heavy lift development. The current reference configuration was selected during the Lunar Capabilities Concept Review (LCCR) in fall 2008. That design has served since then as a point of departure for further refinements and trades among five participating NASA field centers. Ares V development to date has benefited from progress on the Ares I due to commonality between the vehicles. The Ares I first stage completed a successful firing of a 5-segment solid rocket motor. The Ares I-X launch successfully demonstrated in suborbital flighhe ability to assemble, prepare, launch, control and recover the Ares I configuration and compare

  7. Heavy Lift Launch Capability with a New Hydrocarbon Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Threet, Grady E., Jr.; Holt, James B.; Philips, Alan D.; Garcia, Jessica A.

    2011-01-01

    The Advanced Concepts Office at NASA's George C. Marshall Space Flight Center was tasked to define the thrust requirement of a new liquid oxygen rich staged combustion cycle hydrocarbon engine that could be utilized in a launch vehicle to meet NASA s future heavy lift needs. Launch vehicle concepts were sized using this engine for different heavy lift payload classes. Engine out capabilities for one of the heavy lift configurations were also analyzed for increased reliability that may be desired for high value payloads or crewed missions. The applicability for this engine in vehicle concepts to meet military and commercial class payloads comparable to current ELV capability was also evaluated.

  8. Heavy lift crane/derrick barge stability analysis

    E-print Network

    Loesch, Robert Morrison

    1988-01-01

    HEAVY LIFT CRANE/DERRICK BARGE STABILITY ANALYSIS A Thesis by ROBERT MORRISON LOESCH Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1988 Major... Subject; Ocean Engineering HEAVY LIFT CRANE/DERRICK BARGE STABILITY ANALYSIS A Thesis by ROBERT MORRISON LOESCH Approved as to style and content by: C eung . Kim (Chai an of Committee) Jack Y. Lou (Member) John B. Herbich (Member) Jam . Nelson...

  9. Civil markets for buoyant heavy-lift vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mettam, P. J.; Hansen, D.; Ardema, M. D.

    1981-01-01

    Worldwide civil markets for heavy lift airships were investigated. Substantial potential market demand was identified for payloads of from 13 to 800 tons. The largest markets appear to be in applications to relieve port congestion, construction of power generating plants, and, most notably, logging. Because of significant uncertainties both in vehicle and market characteristics, further analysis will be necessary to verify the identified market potential of heavy lift airship concepts.

  10. Weight and cost estimating relationships for heavy lift airships

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gray, D. W.

    1979-01-01

    Weight and cost estimating relationships, including additional parameters that influence the cost and performance of heavy-lift airships (HLA), are discussed. Inputs to a closed loop computer program, consisting of useful load, forward speed, lift module positive or negative thrust, and rotors and propellers, are examined. Detail is given to the HLA cost and weight program (HLACW), which computes component weights, vehicle size, buoyancy lift, rotor and propellar thrust, and engine horse power. This program solves the problem of interrelating the different aerostat, rotors, engines and propeller sizes. Six sets of 'default parameters' are left for the operator to change during each computer run enabling slight data manipulation without altering the program.

  11. Designs and Technology Requirements for Civil Heavy Lift Rotorcraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Wayne; Yamauchi, Gloria K.; Watts, Michael E.

    2006-01-01

    The NASA Heavy Lift Rotorcraft Systems Investigation examined in depth several rotorcraft configurations for large civil transport, designed to meet the technology goals of the NASA Vehicle Systems Program. The investigation identified the Large Civil Tiltrotor as the configuration with the best potential to meet the technology goals. The design presented was economically competitive, with the potential for substantial impact on the air transportation system. The keys to achieving a competitive aircraft were low drag airframe and low disk loading rotors; structural weight reduction, for both airframe and rotors; drive system weight reduction; improved engine efficiency; low maintenance design; and manufacturing cost comparable to fixed-wing aircraft. Risk reduction plans were developed to provide the strategic direction to support a heavy-lift rotorcraft development. The following high risk areas were identified for heavy lift rotorcraft: high torque, light weight drive system; high performance, structurally efficient rotor/wing system; low noise aircraft; and super-integrated vehicle management system.

  12. Small helicopter could find niche in remote heavy lift operations

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-21

    A new helicopter specifically designed for external vertical lift operations, such as moving transportable rig components or seismic equipment in remote locations, operates more efficiently than most other medium or heavy-lift helicopters, according to manufacturer Kaman Aerospace. The single-pilot helicopter was designed as an aerial truck for efficient lifting of heavy loads but with the operating costs of a light-lift craft. The K-Max helicopter can lift more pounds of cargo per gallon of fuel consumed than other similar helicopters, according to Kaman. For example, to transport a 5,000-lb load at an elevation of 8,000 ft, the K-Max helicopter consumes 85 gal of fuel/hr. Under the same load conditions, the next most efficient commercially available helicopter consumes 160 gal of fuel/hr and requires two pilots. The 4,500-lb helicopter can lift 5,000 lb to an altitude of 8,000 ft or about 6,000 lb at low altitudes.

  13. An economic comparison of three heavy lift airborne systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carson, B. H.

    1975-01-01

    Current state of art trends indicate that a 50-ton payload helicopter could be built by the end of the decade. However, alternative aircraft that employ LTA principles are shown to be more economically attractive, both in terms of investment and operating costs for the ultra-heavy lift role. Costing methodology follows rationale developed by airframe manufacturers, and includes learning curve factors.

  14. Heavy Lifting at Work and Risk of Ischemic Heart Disease: Protocol for a Register-Based Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background There are theoretical grounds to suspect that heavy lifting at work is an important risk factor for ischemic heart disease (IHD). However the relationship has not been sufficiently acknowledged by empirical studies. Positive and statistically significant associations have been found in studies that utilize self-reported exposure data. Such studies are, however, prone to reporting bias. All else equal, people with a poor cardiovascular fitness/health may have a higher propensity to perceive their work environment as heavy. Objective The study described in the present protocol aims to investigate the relationship between heavy lifting at work and IHD by use of material and methods that are free from reporting bias. Methods This is a register-based prospective cohort study. Male blue-collar workers in Denmark will be identified and followed through national registers, from 2001-2010, for hospital treatment or death due to IHD. Relative rates of IHD between “workers in occupations likely to involve heavy lifting” and “other blue-collar workers” will be estimated through Poisson regression. Results Results are expected to be ready in mid-2015. Conclusions Since this is not a randomized study, it cannot confirm etiological hypotheses. It may, however, confirm that employment in occupations that involve heavy lifting is a predictor for IHD and thereby lend support to the hypothesis of a causal relationship. PMID:25164612

  15. Current developments lighter than air systems. [heavy lift airships

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayer, N. J.

    1981-01-01

    Lighter than air aircraft (LTA) developments and research in the United States and other countries are reviewed. The emphasis in the U.S. is on VTOL airships capable of heavy lift, and on long endurance types for coastal maritime patrol. Design concepts include hybrids which combine heavier than air and LTA components and characteristics. Research programs are concentrated on aerodynamics, flight dynamics, and control of hybrid types.

  16. Heavy Lift Vehicle (HLV) Avionics Flight Computing Architecture Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodson, Robert F.; Chen, Yuan; Morgan, Dwayne R.; Butler, A. Marc; Sdhuh, Joseph M.; Petelle, Jennifer K.; Gwaltney, David A.; Coe, Lisa D.; Koelbl, Terry G.; Nguyen, Hai D.

    2011-01-01

    A NASA multi-Center study team was assembled from LaRC, MSFC, KSC, JSC and WFF to examine potential flight computing architectures for a Heavy Lift Vehicle (HLV) to better understand avionics drivers. The study examined Design Reference Missions (DRMs) and vehicle requirements that could impact the vehicles avionics. The study considered multiple self-checking and voting architectural variants and examined reliability, fault-tolerance, mass, power, and redundancy management impacts. Furthermore, a goal of the study was to develop the skills and tools needed to rapidly assess additional architectures should requirements or assumptions change.

  17. Heavy Lift for National Security: The Ares V

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sumrall, Phil

    2009-01-01

    The NASA Ares Projects Office is developing the launch vehicles to move the United States and humanity beyond low earth orbit. Ares I is a crewed vehicle, and Ares V is a heavy lift vehicle being designed to launch cargo into LEO and transfer cargo and crews to the Moon. This is a snapshot of development and capabilities. Ares V is early in the requirements formulation stage of development pending the outcome of the Review of U.S. Human Space Flight Plans Committee and White House action. The Ares V vehicle will be considered a national asset, creating unmatched opportunities for human exploration, science, national security, and space business.

  18. Ares V: Progress Toward a Heavy Lift Capability for the Heavy Lift Capability for the Moon and Beyond

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sumrall, Phil

    2008-01-01

    The NASA Ares Projects are developing the launch vehicles to move the United States and humanity beyond low earth orbit. Ares 1 is a crewed vehicle, and Ares V is a heavy-lift vehicle being designed to send crews and cargo to the Moon. The Ares V design is evolving and maturing toward an authority-to-proceed milestone in 2011. The Ares V vehicle will be considered a national asset, opening new worlds and creating unmatched opportunities for human exploration, science, national security, and space business.

  19. Heavy Lift Launch Vehicles for 1995 and Beyond

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toelle, R. (compiler)

    1985-01-01

    A Heavy Lift Launch Vehicle (HLLV) designed to deliver 300,000 lb to a 540 n mi circular polar orbit may be required to meet national needs for 1995 and beyond. The vehicle described herein can accommodate payload envelopes up to 50 ft diameter by 200 ft in length. Design requirements include reusability for the more expensive components such as avionics and propulsion systems, rapid launch turnaround time, minimum hardware inventory, stage and component flexibility and commonality, and low operational costs. All ascent propulsion systems utilize liquid propellants, and overall launch vehicle stack height is minimized while maintaining a reasonable vehicle diameter. The ascent propulsion systems are based on the development of a new liquid oxygen/hydrocarbon booster engine and liquid oxygen/liquid hydrogen upper stage engine derived from today's SSME technology. Wherever possible, propulsion and avionics systems are contained in reusable propulsion/avionics modules that are recovered after each launch.

  20. Study of Civil Markets for Heavy-Lift Airships

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mettam, P. J.; Hansen, D.; Chabot, C.; Byrne, R.

    1978-01-01

    The civil markets for heavy lift airships (HLAs) were defined by first identifying areas of most likely application. The operational suitability of HLAs for the applications identified were then assessed. The operating economics of HLAs were established and the market size for HLA services estimated by comparing HLA operating and economic characteristics with those of competing modes. The sensitivities of the market size to HLA characteristics were evaluated and the number and sizes of the vehicles required to service the more promising markets were defined. Important characteristics for future HLAs are discussed that were derived from the study of each application, including operational requirements, features enhancing profitability, military compatibility, improved design requirements, approach to entry into service, and institutional implications for design and operation.

  1. Ares V: Refining a New Heavy Lift Capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Creech, Steve; Sumrall, Phil

    2008-01-01

    The Ares V cargo launch vehicle represents a significant new national commitment to expand human space exploration beyond low Earth orbit. Viewed more broadly, this new heavy-lift rocket will be an advancement over the national strategic capability lost when the Saturn V program ended more than three decades ago. The Ares V is one of two new launch vehicles being designed by NASA to support U.S. Space Exploration Policy. NASA selected the Ares I crew launch vehicle and the Ares V (Figure 1) during extensive independent and internal architecture and vehicle trade studies to complete the International Space Station, retire the current Space Shuttle fleet, return to the Moon by 2020, and journey to destinations beyond. These vehicles share components derived from the Apollo-era Saturn, Space Shuttle, and contemporary launch vehicle programs to provide safe, affordable, reliable, versatile sustainable space transportation to support national space goals for decades to come.

  2. Ground and Range Operations for a Heavy-Lift Vehicle: Preliminary Thoughts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rabelo, Luis; Zhu, Yanshen; Compton, Jeppie; Bardina, Jorge

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses the ground and range operations for a Shuttle derived Heavy-Lift Vehicle being launched from the Kennedy Space Center on the Eastern range. Comparisons will be made between the Shuttle and a heavy lift configuration (SLS-ETF MPCV April 2011) by contrasting their subsystems. The analysis will also describe a simulation configuration with the potential to be utilized for heavy lift vehicle processing/range simulation modeling and the development of decision-making systems utilized by the range. In addition, a simple simulation model is used to provide the required critical thinking foundations for this preliminary analysis.

  3. Performance, Loads and Stability of Heavy Lift Tiltrotors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acree, Cecil W., Jr.; Johnson, Wayne

    2006-01-01

    Summaries of rotor performance are presented for a 124,000-lb Large Civil Tilt Rotor (LCTR) design, along with isolated-rotor and fully-coupled wing/rotor aeroelastic stability. A major motivation of the present research is the effect of size on rotor dynamics. Simply scaling up existing rotor designs to the vehicle size under study would result in unacceptable rotor weight. The LCTR was the most promising of several large rotorcraft concepts produced by the NASA Heavy Lift Rotorcraft Systems Investigation. It was designed to carry 120 passengers for 1200 nm, with performance of 350 knots at 30,000 ft altitude. Design features included a low-mounted wing and hingeless rotors, with a very low cruise tip speed of 350 ft/sec. The LCTR was sized by the'RC code developed by the U. S. Army Aeroflightdynamics Directorate. The rotor was then optimized using the CAMRAD II comprehensive analysis code. The blade and wing structures were designed by Pennsylvania State University to meet the rotor loads calculated by CAMRAD II and wing loads required for certification. Aeroelastic stability was confirmed by further CAMRAD II analysis, based on the optimized rotor and wing designs.

  4. High-precision position control of a heavy-lift manipulator in a dynamic environment

    E-print Network

    Garretson, Justin R. (Justin Richard)

    2005-01-01

    This thesis considers the control of a heavy-lift serial manipulator operating on the deck of a large ocean vessel. This application presents a unique challenge for high- precision control because the system must contend ...

  5. Force control of heavy lift manipulators for high precision insertion tasks

    E-print Network

    DiCicco, Matthew A. (Matthew Adam)

    2005-01-01

    The inherent strength of robotic manipulators can be used to assist humans in performing heavy lifting tasks. These robots reduce manpower, reduce fatigue, and increase productivity. This thesis deals with the development ...

  6. Designing sustainable heavy lift launch vehicle architectures adaptability, lock-in, and system evolution

    E-print Network

    Silver, Matthew Robin

    2005-01-01

    Long term human space exploration depends on the development of a sustainable heavy lift launch vehicle (HLLV). But what exactly is sustainability in the context of launch systems and how can it addressed in the design ...

  7. Heavy Lift & Propulsion Technology (HL&PT) - Duration: 30:40.

    NASA Video Gallery

    Cris Guidi delivers a presentation from the Heavy Lift & Propulsion Technology (HL&PT) study team on May 25, 2010, at the NASA Exploration Enterprise Workshop held in Galveston, TX. The purpose of ...

  8. The design of a control architecture for a heavy-lift precision manipulator for use in contact with the environment

    E-print Network

    Becker, William T. (William Theodore Leroy)

    2006-01-01

    Robotic manipulators can be used to enhance the strength and dexterity of a human user. This thesis considers the design of a controller for a heavy-lift manipulator for lifting and inserting payloads onto aircraft on the ...

  9. Feasibility study of modern airships, phase 2. Volume 1: Heavy lift airship vehicle. Book 1: Overall study results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    A Heavy Lift Airship combining buoyant lift derived from a conventional helium-filled non-rigid airship hull with propulsive lift derived from conventional helicopter rotors was investigated. The buoyant lift essentially offsets the empty weight of the vehicle; thus the rotor thrust is available for useful load and to maneuver and control the vehicle. Such a vehicle is capable of providing a quantum increase in current vertical lifting capability. Certain critical deficiencies of past airships are significantly minimized or eliminated.

  10. Shuttle Derived In-Line Heavy Lift Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenwood, Terry; Twichell, Wallace; Ferrari, Daniel; Kuck, Frederick

    2005-01-01

    This paper introduces an evolvable Space Shuttle derived family of launch vehicles. It details the steps in the evolution of the vehicle family, noting how the evolving lift capability compares with the evolving lift requirements. A system description is given for each vehicle. The cost of each development stage is described. Also discussed are demonstration programs, the merits of the SSME vs. an expendable rocket engine (RS-68), and finally, the next steps needed to refine this concept.

  11. The effect of heavy rain on an airfoil at high lift

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donaldson, Coleman DUP.; Sullivan, Roger D.

    1987-01-01

    No serious studies of the relationship of heavy rain to aircraft safety were made until 1981 when it was suggested that the torrential rain which often occurs at the time of severe wind shear might substantially increase the danger to aircraft operating at slow speeds and high lift in the vicinity of airports. While these data were not published until early 1983, appropriate measures were taken by NASA to study the effect of heavy rain on the lift of wings typical of commercial aircraft. One of the aspects of these tests that seemed confirmed by the data was the existence of a velocity effect on the lift data. The data seemed to indicate that when all the normal non-dimensional aerodynamic parameters were used to sort out the data, the effect of velocity was not accounted for, as it usually is, by the effect of dynamic pressure. Indeed, the measured lift coefficients at high lift indicated a dropoff in lift coefficient for the same free-stream water content as velocity was increased. indicated a drop-off in lift coefficient for the same free-stream water content as velocity was increased.

  12. Engine-Out Capabilities Assessment of Heavy Lift Launch Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holladay, Jon; Baggett, Keithe; Thrasher, Chad; Bellamy, K. Scott; Feldman, Stuart

    2012-01-01

    Engine-out (EO) is a condition that might occur during flight due to the failure of one or more engines. Protection against this occurrence can be called engine-out capability (EOC) whereupon significantly improved loss of mission may occur, in addition to reduction in performance and increased cost. A standardized engine-out capability has not been studied exhaustively as it pertains to space launch systems. This work presents results for a specific vehicle design with specific engines, but also uniquely provides an approach to realizing the necessity of EOC for any launch vehicle system design. A derived top-level approach to engine-out philosophy for a heavy lift launch vehicle is given herein, based on an historical assessment of launch vehicle capabilities. The methodology itself is not intended to present a best path forward, but instead provides three parameters for assessment of a particular vehicle. Of the several parameters affected by this EOC, the three parameters of interest in this research are reliability (Loss of Mission (LOM) and Loss of Crew (LOC)), vehicle performance, and cost. The intent of this effort is to provide insight into the impacts of EO capability on these parameters. The effects of EOC on reliability, performance and cost are detailed, including how these important launch vehicle metrics can be combined to assess what could be considered overall launch vehicle affordability. In support of achieving the first critical milestone (Mission Concept Review) in the development of the Space Launch System (SLS), a team assessed two-stage, large-diameter vehicles that utilized liquid oxygen (LOX)-RP propellants in the First Stage and LOX/LH2 propellant in the Upper Stage. With multiple large thrust-class engines employed on the stages, engine-out capability could be a significant driver to mission success. It was determined that LOM results improve by a factor of five when assuming EOC for both Core Stage (CS) (first stage) and Upper Stage (US) EO, assuming a reference launch vehicle with 5 RP engines on the CS and 3 LOX/LH2 engines on the US. The benefit of adding both CS and US engine-out capability is significant. When adding EOC for either first or second stages, there is less than a 20% benefit. Performance analysis has shown that if the vehicle is not protected for EO during the first part of the flight and only protected in the later part of the flight, there is a diminishing performance penalty, as indicated by failures occurring in the first stage at different times. This work did not consider any options to abort. While adding an engine for EOC drives cost upward, the impact depends on the number of needed engines manufactured per year and the launch manifest. There is a significant cost savings if multiple flights occur within one year. Flying two flights per year would cost approximately $4,000 per pound less than the same configuration with one flight per year, assuming both CS and US EOC. The cost is within 15% of the cost of one flight per year with no engine-out capability for the same vehicle. This study can be extended to other launch vehicles. While the numbers given in this paper are specific to a certain vehicle configuration, the process requires only a high level of data to allow an analyst to draw conclusions. The weighting of each of the identified parameters will determine the optimization of each launch vehicle. The results of this engine-out assessment provide a means to understand this optimization while maintaining an unbiased perspective.

  13. Aeromechanical stability analysis of a multirotor vehicle model representing a hybrid heavy lift airship (HHLA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venkatesan, C.; Friedmann, P. P.

    1984-01-01

    Hybrid Heavy Lift Airship (HHLA) is a proposed candidate vehicle aimed at providing heavy lift capability at low cost. This vehicle consists of a buoyant envelope attached to a supporting structure to which four rotor systems, taken from existing helicopters are attached. Nonlinear equations of motion capable of modelling the dynamics of this coupled multi-rotor/support frame/vehicle system have been developed. Using these equations of motion the aeroelastic and aeromechanical stability analysis is performed aimed at identifying potential instabilities which could occur for this type of vehicle. The coupling between various blade, supporting structure and rigid body modes is identified. Furthermore, the effects of changes in buoyancy ratio (Buoyant lift/total weight) on the dynamic characteristics of the vehicle are studied. The dynamic effects found are of considerable importance for the design of such vehicles. The analytical model developed is also useful for studying the aeromechanical stability of single rotor and tandem rotor coupled rotor/fuselage systems.

  14. Final design report of a personnel launch system and a family of heavy lift launch vehicles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James Tupa; Debbie Merritt; David Riha; Lee Burton; Russell Kubinski; Kerry Drake; Darrin Mann; Ken Turner

    1991-01-01

    The objective was to design both a Personnel Launch System (PLS) and a family of Heavy Lift Launch Vehicles (FHLLVs) that provide low cost and efficient operation in missions not suited for the Shuttle. The PLS vehicle is designed primarily for space station crew rotation and emergency crew return. The final design of the PLS vehicle and its interior is

  15. The effects of atmospheric turbulence on a quadrotor heavy lift airship

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tischler, M. B.; Jex, H. R.

    1982-01-01

    The response of a quadrotor heavy lift airship to atmospheric turbulence is evaluated using a four-point input model. Results show interaction between gust inputs and the characteristic modes of the vehicle's response. Example loop closures demonstrate tradeoffs between response regulation and structural loads. Vehicle responses to a tuned discrete wave front compare favorably with the linear results and illustrate characteristic HLA motion.

  16. Two-axis hydraulic joint for high speed, heavy lift robotic operations

    SciTech Connect

    Vaughn, M.R.; Robinett, R.D.; Phelan, J.R.; VanZuiden, D.M.

    1994-04-01

    A hydraulically driven universal joint was developed for a heavy lift, high speed nuclear waste remediation application. Each axis is driven by a simple hydraulic cylinder controlled by a jet pipe servovalve. Servovalve behavior is controlled by a force feedback control system, which damps the hydraulic resonance. A prototype single joint robot was built and tested. A two joint robot is under construction.

  17. United States commitment to heavy lift launch vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gabris, Edward A.

    1991-01-01

    Progress made to date on a United States commitment to the development of heavy launch vehicles is reviewed. The involvement of the Executive Branch operating through the National Space Council, the Legislative Branch, the DOD, and NASA are addressed. The evolution of launch system requirements and the form, content, and rationale for the various decisions that have been made to date are discussed.

  18. Baggage handler seniority and musculoskeletal symptoms: is heavy lifting in awkward positions associated with the risk of pain?

    PubMed Central

    Bern, Stine Hvid; Brauer, Charlotte; Møller, Karina Lauenborg; Koblauch, Henrik; Thygesen, Lau Caspar; Simonsen, Erik Bruun; Alkjær, Tine; Bonde, Jens Peter; Mikkelsen, Sigurd

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Heavy lifting is associated with musculoskeletal disorders but it is unclear whether it is related to acute reversible effects or to chronic effects from cumulated exposure. The aim of this study was to examine whether musculoskeletal symptoms in Danish airport baggage handlers were associated with their seniority as baggage handler, indicating chronic effects from cumulated workload. Methods We established a group of baggage handlers employed at Copenhagen Airport during the period 1983–2012 (n=3092) and a reference group of men in other unskilled occupations with less heavy work (n=2478). Data regarding work history, lifestyle and musculoskeletal symptoms were collected using a self-administered questionnaire (response rate 70.1% among baggage handlers and 68.8% among the reference group). Results The ORs of self-reported musculoskeletal symptoms during the last 12?months in the neck/upper back, lower back, shoulders, elbows, wrists, hips and knees were significantly higher in baggage handlers than in the reference group. These differences were explained by significant linear effects of baggage handler seniority for six anatomical regions. Adjustment for age, body mass index, smoking and leisure-time physical activity did not change these results. The findings were stable over age strata and among present and former baggage handlers. Conclusions The risk of musculoskeletal symptoms in six anatomical regions increased with increasing seniority as a baggage handler. This is consistent with the assumption that cumulated heavy lifting may cause chronic or long-lasting musculoskeletal symptoms. However, we cannot exclude that other factors related to baggage handler seniority may explain some of the associations. PMID:24293209

  19. Performance of Advanced Heavy-Lift, High-Speed Rotorcraft Configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Wayne; Yeo, Hyeonsoo; Acree, C. W., Jr.

    2007-01-01

    The aerodynamic performance of rotorcraft designed for heavy-lift and high-speed cruise is examined. Configurations considered include the tiltrotor, the compound helicopter, and the lift-offset rotor. Design conditions are hover and 250-350 knot cruise, at 5k/ISA+20oC (civil) or 4k/95oF (military); with cruise conditions at 4000 or 30,000 ft. The performance was calculated using the comprehensive analysis CAMRAD II, emphasizing rotor optimization and performance, including wing-rotor interference. Aircraft performance was calculated using estimates of the aircraft drag and auxiliary propulsion efficiency. The performance metric is total power, in terms of equivalent aircraft lift-to-drag ratio L/D = WV/P for cruise, and figure of merit for hover.

  20. Lunar Lander Offloading Operations Using a Heavy-Lift Lunar Surface Manipulator System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jefferies, Sharon A.; Doggett, William R.; Chrone, Jonathan; Angster, Scott; Dorsey, John T.; Jones, Thomas C.; Haddad, Michael E.; Helton, David A.; Caldwell, Darrell L., Jr.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the feasibility of using a heavy-lift variant of the Lunar Surface Manipulator System (LSMS-H) to lift and handle a 12 metric ton payload. Design challenges and requirements particular to handling heavy cargo were examined. Differences between the previously developed first-generation LSMS and the heavy-lift version are highlighted. An in-depth evaluation of the tip-over risk during LSMS-H operations has been conducted using the Synergistic Engineering Environment and potential methods to mitigate that risk are identified. The study investigated three specific offloading scenarios pertinent to current Lunar Campaign studies. The first involved offloading a large element, such as a habitat or logistics module, onto a mobility chassis with a lander-mounted LSMS-H and offloading that payload from the chassis onto the lunar surface with a surface-mounted LSMS-H. The second scenario involved offloading small pressurized rovers with a lander-mounted LSMS-H. The third scenario involved offloading cargo from a third-party lander, such as the proposed ESA cargo lander, with a chassis-mounted LSMS-H. In all cases, the analyses show that the LSMS-H can perform the required operations safely. However, Chariot-mounted operations require the addition of stabilizing outriggers, and when operating from the Lunar surface, LSMS-H functionality is enhanced by adding a simple ground anchoring system.

  1. Generic multi-body formulation of heavy lift airship equations of motion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ringland, R. F.; Tischler, M. B.; Ashkenas, I. L.; Jex, H. R.

    1980-01-01

    This paper describes the formulation of a comprehensive set of equations which describe the dynamic behavior of a generic heavy lift airship (HLA). They are being used in a digital computer simulation to investigate the response dynamics and flying qualities of HLAs operating with various payloads in a variety of operational environments. A key feature is the separate treatment of each component body making up the HLA. This allows the analyst to vary the configuration (e.g., number of lift-propulsion units, presence or absence of slung payload, etc.) without rewriting the equations. It further provides measures of key structural and control loads acting on the HLA and eases the task of modeling wind disturbances.

  2. Definition of avionics concepts for a heavy lift cargo vehicle, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    A cost effective, multiuser simulation, test, and demonstration facility to support the development of avionics systems for future space vehicles is defined. The technology needs and requirements of future Heavy Lift Cargo Vehicles (HLCVs) are analyzed and serve as the basis for sizing of the avionics facility although the lab is not limited in use to support of HLCVs. Volume 2 is the technical volume and provides the results of the vehicle avionics trade studies, the avionics lab objectives, the lab's functional requirements and design, physical facility considerations, and a summary cost estimate.

  3. Definition of avionics concepts for a heavy lift cargo vehicle. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    A cost effective, multiuser simulation, test, and demonstration facility to support the development of avionics systems for future space vehicles is examined. The technology needs and requirements of future Heavy Lift Cargo Vehicles (HLCVs) are analyzed and serve as the basis for sizing of the avionics facility, although the lab is not limited in use to support of HLCVs. Volume 1 provides a summary of the vehicle avionics trade studies, the avionics lab objectives, a summary of the lab's functional requirements and design, physical facility considerations, and cost estimates.

  4. Foundation for Heavy Lift: Early Developments in the Ares V Cargo Launch Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sumrall, John P.; McArthur, J. Craig

    2007-01-01

    The Ares V Cargo Launch Vehicle (CaLV) is NASA's primary vessel for safe, reliable delivery of the Lunar Surface Access Module (LSAM) and other resources into Earth orbit, as articulated in the U.S. Vision for Space Exploration.' The Ares V launch concept is shown. The foundation for this heavy-lift companion to the Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV) is taking shape within NASA and with its government and industry partners. This paper will address accomplishments in the Ares V Launch Vehicle during 2006 and 2007 and offer a preview of future activities.

  5. Drinking habits and prevalence of heavy drinking among occupational healthcare patients

    PubMed Central

    Kaarne, Tiina; Aalto, Mauri; Kuokkanen, Martti; Seppä, Kaija

    2009-01-01

    Objective To estimate the proportion of heavy drinkers among occupational healthcare patients and evaluate their characteristics. Design Patients visiting their doctor in six occupational health clinics were asked to complete a questionnaire containing the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) and other questions concerning health. Setting Occupational health services. Subjects A total of 757 patients participated in the study. Main outcome measure Heavy drinking was defined as having a score of 10 or more (men) or 8 or more (women) in the AUDIT questionnaire. Results Of the men 114 (29%) and of the women 48 (13%) were heavy drinkers. Only smoking differentiated both male and female heavy drinkers from moderate drinkers among the clinically relevant characteristics. Conclusion There are a considerable number of heavy drinkers among occupational healthcare patients. Heavy drinkers do not have any particularly specific characteristics except for the drinking that distinguish them from other patients. Thus, screening is necessary to identify heavy drinkers in occupational healthcare settings. PMID:19065452

  6. A Near-Term, High-Confidence Heavy Lift Launch Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothschild, William J.; Talay, Theodore A.

    2009-01-01

    The use of well understood, legacy elements of the Space Shuttle system could yield a near-term, high-confidence Heavy Lift Launch Vehicle that offers significant performance, reliability, schedule, risk, cost, and work force transition benefits. A side-mount Shuttle-Derived Vehicle (SDV) concept has been defined that has major improvements over previous Shuttle-C concepts. This SDV is shown to carry crew plus large logistics payloads to the ISS, support an operationally efficient and cost effective program of lunar exploration, and offer the potential to support commercial launch operations. This paper provides the latest data and estimates on the configurations, performance, concept of operations, reliability and safety, development schedule, risks, costs, and work force transition opportunities for this optimized side-mount SDV concept. The results presented in this paper have been based on established models and fully validated analysis tools used by the Space Shuttle Program, and are consistent with similar analysis tools commonly used throughout the aerospace industry. While these results serve as a factual basis for comparisons with other launch system architectures, no such comparisons are presented in this paper. The authors welcome comparisons between this optimized SDV and other Heavy Lift Launch Vehicle concepts.

  7. Occupational requirements as compared to worker capabilities with respect to total weight lifted per day

    E-print Network

    Narvaez, Angela Marae

    1998-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine if the amount of weight an employee was required to lift per day would affect the capabilities of that employee in terms of anthropometrics, aerobic capacity, dynamic strength and grip strength. In addition...

  8. NASA's Space Launch System: A Heavy-Lift Platform for Entirely New Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Creech, Stephen A.

    2012-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration s (NASA's) Space Launch System (SLS) will contribute a new capability for human space flight and scientific missions beyond low-Earth orbit. The SLS Program, managed at NASA s Marshall Space Fight Center, will develop the heavy-lift vehicle that will launch the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV), equipment, supplies, and major science missions. Orion will carry crews to space, provide emergency abort capability, sustain the crew during space travel, and provide safe reentry from deep-space return velocities. Supporting Orion s first autonomous flight to lunar orbit and back in 2017 and its first crewed flight in 2021, the SLS ultimately offers a flexible platform for both human and scientific exploration. The SLS plan leverages legacy infrastructure and hardware in NASA s inventory, as well as continues with advanced propulsion technologies now in development, to deliver an initial 70 metric ton (t) lift capability in 2017, evolving to a 130-t capability after 2021, using a block upgrade approach. This paper will give an overview of the SLS design and management approach against a backdrop of the missions it will support. It will detail the plan to deliver the initial SLS capability to the launch pad in the near term, as well as summarize the innovative approaches the SLS team is applying to deliver a safe, affordable, and sustainable long-range capability for entirely new missions opening a new realm of knowledge and a world of possibilities for multiple partners. Design reference missions that the SLS is being planned to support include asteroids, Lagrange Points, and Mars, among others. The Agency is developing its mission manifest in parallel with the development of a heavy-lift flagship that will dramatically increase total lift and volume capacity beyond current launch vehicle options, reduce trip times, and provide a robust platform for conducting new missions destined to rewrite textbooks with the information they deliver, while creating a framework for further collaboration among domestic and international partners, and potentially spurring economic expansion into new markets.

  9. NASA's Space Launch System: A Heavy-Lift Platform for Entirely New Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Creech, Stephen D.

    2012-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Space Launch System (SLS) will contribute a new capability for human space flight and scientific missions beyond low-Earth orbit (LEO). The SLS Program, managed at NASA s Marshall Space Flight Center, will develop the heavy-lift vehicle that will launch the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV), equipment, supplies, and major science missions for exploration and discovery. Orion will carry crews to space, provide emergency abort capability, sustain the crew during space travel, and provide safe reentry from deep-space return velocities. Supporting Orion s first autonomous flight to lunar orbit and back in 2017 and its first crewed flight in 2021, the SLS ultimately offers a flexible platform for both human and scientific exploration. The SLS plan leverages legacy infrastructure and hardware in NASA s inventory, as well as continues with advanced technologies now in development, to deliver an initial 70 metric ton (t) lift capability in 2017, evolving to a 130-t capability, using a block upgrade approach. This paper will give an overview of the SLS design and management approach against a backdrop of the missions it will support. It will detail the plan to deliver the initial SLS capability to the launch pad in the near term, as well as summarize the innovative approaches the SLS team is applying to deliver a safe, affordable, and sustainable long-range capability for entirely new missions-opening a new realm of knowledge and a world of possibilities for multiple partners. Design reference missions that the SLS is being planned to support include Mars, Jupiter, Lagrange Points, and near-Earth asteroids (NEAs), among others. The Agency is developing its mission manifest in parallel with the development of a heavy-lift flagship that will dramatically increase total lift and volume capacity beyond current launch vehicle options, reduce trip times, and provide a robust platform for conducting new missions destined to rewrite textbooks with the information they deliver, while creating a framework for further collaboration among domestic and international partners, and potentially spurring economic expansion into new markets.

  10. Next Generation Heavy-Lift Launch Vehicle: Large Diameter, Hydrocarbon-Fueled Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holliday, Jon; Monk, Timothy; Adams, Charles; Campbell, Ricky

    2012-01-01

    With the passage of the 2010 NASA Authorization Act, NASA was directed to begin the development of the Space Launch System (SLS) as a follow-on to the Space Shuttle Program. The SLS is envisioned as a heavy lift launch vehicle that will provide the foundation for future large-scale, beyond low Earth orbit (LEO) missions. Supporting the Mission Concept Review (MCR) milestone, several teams were formed to conduct an initial Requirements Analysis Cycle (RAC). These teams identified several vehicle concept candidates capable of meeting the preliminary system requirements. One such team, dubbed RAC Team 2, was tasked with identifying launch vehicles that are based on large stage diameters (up to the Saturn V S-IC and S-II stage diameters of 33 ft) and utilize high-thrust liquid oxygen (LOX)/RP engines as a First Stage propulsion system. While the trade space for this class of LOX/RP vehicles is relatively large, recent NASA activities (namely the Heavy Lift Launch Vehicle Study in late 2009 and the Heavy Lift Propulsion Technology Study of 2010) examined specific families within this trade space. Although the findings from these studies were incorporated in the Team 2 activity, additional branches of the trade space were examined and alternative approaches to vehicle development were considered. Furthermore, Team 2 set out to define a highly functional, flexible, and cost-effective launch vehicle concept. Utilizing this approach, a versatile two-stage launch vehicle concept was chosen as a preferred option. The preferred vehicle option has the capability to fly in several different configurations (e.g. engine arrangements) that gives this concept an inherent operational flexibility which allows the vehicle to meet a wide range of performance requirements without the need for costly block upgrades. Even still, this concept preserves the option for evolvability should the need arise in future mission scenarios. The foundation of this conceptual design is a focus on low cost and effectiveness rather than efficiency or cutting-edge technology. This paper details the approach and process, as well as the trade space analysis, leading to the preferred vehicle concept.

  11. Final design report of a personnel launch system and a family of heavy lift launch vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tupa, James; Merritt, Debbie; Riha, David; Burton, Lee; Kubinski, Russell; Drake, Kerry; Mann, Darrin; Turner, Ken

    1991-01-01

    The objective was to design both a Personnel Launch System (PLS) and a family of Heavy Lift Launch Vehicles (FHLLVs) that provide low cost and efficient operation in missions not suited for the Shuttle. The PLS vehicle is designed primarily for space station crew rotation and emergency crew return. The final design of the PLS vehicle and its interior is given. The mission of the FHLLVs is to place large, massive payloads into Earth orbit with payload flexibility being considered foremost in the design. The final design of three launch vehicles was found to yield a payload capacity range from 20 to 200 mt. These designs include the use of multistaged, high thrust liquid engines mounted on the core stages of the rocket.

  12. Structure and properties of polyethylene films used in heavy lift balloons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khoury, F.; Crissman, J. M.; Fanconi, B. M.; Wagner, H. L.; Botz, L. H.

    1985-01-01

    The following features of five polyethylene films used by NASA in the construction of heavy lift balloons have been examined: molecular weight, molecular weight distribution, branching, melting behavior, density, surface texture, birefringence, orientation of crystalline regions, unlaxial deformation in the machine and transverse directions, and the effect of sample geometry and strain rate on deformation behavior. The goal of this exploratory study was to determine whether there are significant differences in any of the above mentioned features, or combination of features between the films. The acquisition of such information is a first step towards determining whether there are any specific correlations between film characteristics and the incidence of catastrophic failure of balloons during ascent through the troposphere. This exploratory study has resulted in the identification of similarities and differences between various features of the films.

  13. Final design report of a personnel launch system and a family of heavy lift launch vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tupa, James; Merritt, Debbie; Riha, David; Burton, Lee; Kubinski, Russell; Drake, Kerry; Mann, Darrin; Turner, Ken

    1991-05-01

    The objective was to design both a Personnel Launch System (PLS) and a family of Heavy Lift Launch Vehicles (FHLLVs) that provide low cost and efficient operation in missions not suited for the Shuttle. The PLS vehicle is designed primarily for space station crew rotation and emergency crew return. The final design of the PLS vehicle and its interior is given. The mission of the FHLLVs is to place large, massive payloads into Earth orbit with payload flexibility being considered foremost in the design. The final design of three launch vehicles was found to yield a payload capacity range from 20 to 200 mt. These designs include the use of multistaged, high thrust liquid engines mounted on the core stages of the rocket.

  14. Simulation of Heavy Lift Airship dynamics over large ranges of incidence and speed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tischler, M. B.; Jex, H. R.; Ringland, R. F.

    1981-01-01

    A nonlinear, multibody, six-degrees-of-freedom digital simulation has been developed to study generic Heavy Lift Airship (HLA) dynamics and control. The basic aerodynamic functions developed to model the hull, tail, and rotor loads continuously over all incidence ranges are reviewed and applied to a Quadrotor HLA with a low fineness ratio hull and a small vee-tail. Trim calculations for a test vehicle suggest control power deficiencies in crosswind stationkeeping for the unloaded vehicle. Gust responses show the importance of correctly calculating loads due to accelerated relative motion of air and hull. Numerically linearized dynamics for the test vehicle show the existence of a divergent yaw mode, and an oscillatory pitch mode whose stability characteristics are sensitive to flight speed. A considerable improvement in the vehicle's stability and response results from a simple multi-axis closed-loop control system operating on the rotors and propeller blades.

  15. Heavy-lift vehicle-launched Space Station method and apparatus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wade, Donald C.; Delafuente, Horacio M.; Berka, Reginald B.; Rickman, Steven L.; Castro, Edgar O.; Nagy, Kornel; Wesselski, Clarence J.; Pelischek, Timothy E.; Schliesing, John A.

    1995-08-01

    Methods and apparatus are provided for a single heavy-lift launch to place a complete, operational space station on-orbit. A payload including the space station takes the place of a shuttle orbiter using the launch vehicle of the shuttle orbiter. The payload includes a forward shroud, a core module, a propulsion module, and a transition module between the core module and the propulsion module. The essential subsystems are preintegrated and verified on Earth. The core module provides means for attaching international modules with minimum impact to the overall design. The space station includes six control moment gyros for selectably operating in either LVLH (local-vertical local-horizontal) or SI (solar inertial) flight modes.

  16. The Business Case for Spiral Development in Heavy Lift Launch Vehicle Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farr, Rebecca A.; Christensen, David L.; Keith, Edward L.

    2005-01-01

    Performance capabilities of a specific combination of the Space Shuttle external tank and various liquid engines in an in-line configuration, two-stage core vehicle with multiple redesigned solid rocket motor strap-ons are reexamined. This concept proposes using existing assets, hardware, and capabilities that are already crew-rated, flight certified, being manufactured under existing contracts, have a long history of component and system ground testing, and have been flown for over 20 yr. This paper goes beyond describing potential performance capabilities of specific components to discuss the overall system feasibility-from end to end, start to finish-describing the inherent cost advantages of the Spiral Development concept, which builds on existing capabilities and assets, as opposed to starting up a "fresh sheet" heavy-lift launch vehicle program from scratch.

  17. A New Heavy-Lift Capability for Space Exploration: NASA's Ares V Cargo Launch Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sumrall, John P.; McArthur, J. Craig

    2007-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is developing new launch systems and preparing to retire the Space Shuttle by 2010, as directed in the United States (U.S.) Vision for Space Exploration. The Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV) and the Ares V heavy-lift Cargo Launch Vehicle (CaLV) systems will build upon proven, reliable hardware derived from the Apollo-Saturn and Space Shuttle programs to deliver safe, reliable, affordable space transportation solutions. This approach leverages existing aerospace talent and a unique infrastructure, as well as legacy knowledge gained from nearly 50 years' experience developing space hardware. Early next decade, the Ares I will launch the new Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) to the International Space Station (ISS) or to low-Earth orbit for trips to the Moon and, ultimately, Mars. Late next decade, the Ares V's Earth Departure Stage will carry larger payloads such as the lunar lander into orbit, and the Crew Exploration Vehicle will dock with it for missions to the Moon, where astronauts will explore new territories and conduct science and technology experiments. Both Ares I and Ares V are being designed to support longer future trips to Mars. The Exploration Launch Projects Office is designing, developing, testing, and evaluating both launch vehicle systems in partnership with other NASA Centers, Government agencies, and industry contractors. This paper provides top-level information regarding the genesis and evolution of the baseline configuration for the Ares V heavy-lift system. It also discusses riskbased, management strategies, such as building on powerful hardware and promoting common features between the Ares I and Ares V systems to reduce technical, schedule, and cost risks, as well as development and operations costs. Finally, it summarizes several notable accomplishments since October 2005, when the Exploration Launch Projects effort officially kicked off, and looks ahead at work planned for 2007 and beyond.

  18. Heavy lift vehicles for transportation to a low earth orbit Space Station for assembly of a Human to Mars Mission

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frank E. Swalley

    1989-01-01

    Heavy lift vehicle configurations are proposed which will meet the requirements for transporting the elements of a Human to Mars Mission to a low earth orbit Space Station for assembly. Both near term derivative type vehiles as well as advanced technology vehicles are considered. The capability of these vehicles to accommodate the precursor missions are also examined. The implications on

  19. Hydrocarbons and heavy metals fixed to the lift station sediment of the Paris combined sewer network.

    PubMed

    Gasperi, J; Rocher, V; Celaudon, T; Moilleron, R; Chebbo, G

    2005-01-01

    This work aims to characterise the pollutant loads fixed to the Lift Station (LS) sediments. Firstly, levels of n-alkanes, PAH and heavy metals (Fe, Zn, Cu, Pb and Cd) of LS sediments were assessed, and were found of the same order of magnitude as those reported for street runoff. In addition, investigations on LS sediment reveal that n-alkane distributions reflect the combination of biologic and petrogenic inputs, while PAH distributions indicate a major pyrolytic origin with traces of petrogenic contaminations. The metallic fingerprints also attest to the important contribution of road traffic emissions. Secondly, a comparison between LS sediment and the Gross Bed Sediment (GBS) pollutant contamination was established in order to optimize the in-sewer deposits management. For hydrocarbons, a similar contamination between both sediments is found. For the heavy metals, this comparison indicates a similar Fe and Zn content, while Pb, Cu and Cd contents differ. Indeed, LS sediment shows a higher Cu content, linked to the occurrence of intensive brake lining abrasion, compared with GBS, which reflects a higher Pb and Cd content, owing to the contribution of roof runoff. This result reveals the impact of specific inputs such as road traffic or roof runoff on the in-sewer sediments contamination, and provides a complete overview of the LS sediment contamination. This database could be used by the municipality to optimize their contaminated in-sewer sediment management. PMID:16206851

  20. A New Heavy-Lift Capability for Space Exploration: NASA's Ares V Cargo Launch Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sumrall, John P.

    2006-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is developing new launch systems in preparation for the retirement of the Space Shuttle by 2010, as directed in the United States (U.S.) Vision for Space Exploration. The Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV) and the Ares V heavy-lift Cargo Launch Vehicle (CaLV) systems will build upon proven, reliable hardware derived from the Apollo Saturn (1961 to 1975) and Space Shuttle (1972 to 2010) programs to deliver safe, reliable, affordable space transportation solutions. This approach leverages existing aerospace talent and a unique infrastructure, as well as the vast amount of legacy knowledge gained from almost a half-century of hard-won experience in the space enterprise. Beginning early next decade, the Ares I will launch the new Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) to the International Space Station (ISS) or to low-Earth orbit for trips to the Moon and, ultimately, Mars. Late next decade, the Ares V's Earth Departure Stage will carry larger payloads such as the lunar lander into orbit, and the Crew Exploration Vehicle will dock with it for missions to the Moon, where astronauts will explore new territories and conduct science and technology experiments. Both the Ares I and Ares V systems are being designed to support longer future trips to Mars. The Exploration Launch Projects Office, located at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center, is designing, developing, testing, and evaluating both launch vehicle systems in partnership with other NASA Centers, Government agencies, and industry contractors. This paper provides top-level information regarding the genesis and evolution of the baseline configuration for the Ares V heavy-lift system. It also touches on risk-based management strategies, such as building on powerful hardware and promoting common features between the Ares I and Ares V systems to reduce technical, schedule, and cost risks, as well as development and operations costs. Finally, it gives a summary of several notable accomplishments over the past year, since the Exploration Launch Projects effort officially kicked off in October 2005, and looks ahead at work planned for 2007 and beyond.

  1. Spacely's rockets: Personnel launch system/family of heavy lift launch vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    During 1990, numerous questions were raised regarding the ability of the current shuttle orbiter to provide reliable, on demand support of the planned space station. Besides being plagued by reliability problems, the shuttle lacks the ability to launch some of the heavy payloads required for future space exploration, and is too expensive to operate as a mere passenger ferry to orbit. Therefore, additional launch systems are required to complement the shuttle in a more robust and capable Space Transportation System. In December 1990, the Report of the Advisory Committee on the Future of the U.S. Space Program, advised NASA of the risks of becoming too dependent on the space shuttle as an all-purpose vehicle. Furthermore, the committee felt that reducing the number of shuttle missions would prolong the life of the existing fleet. In their suggestions, the board members strongly advocated the establishment of a fleet of unmanned, heavy lift launch vehicles (HLLV's) to support the space station and other payload-intensive enterprises. Another committee recommendation was that a space station crew rotation/rescue vehicle be developed as an alternative to the shuttle, or as a contingency if the shuttle is not available. The committee emphasized that this vehicle be designed for use as a personnel carrier, not a cargo carrier. This recommendation was made to avoid building another version of the existing shuttle, which is not ideally suited as a passenger vehicle only. The objective of this project was to design both a Personnel Launch System (PLS) and a family of HLLV's that provide low cost and efficient operation in missions not suited for the shuttle.

  2. Navier-Stokes Simulation of a Heavy Lift Slowed-Rotor Compound Helicopter Configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allan, Brian G.; Jenkins, Luther N.; Yao, Chung-Sheng; Bartram, Scott M.; Hallissy, Jim B.; Harris, Jerome; Noonan, Kevin W.; Wong, Oliver D.; Jones, Henry E.; Malovrh, Brendon D.; reis, Deane G.; Mace, W. Derry

    2009-01-01

    Time accurate numerical simulations were performed using the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) flow solver OVERFLOW for a heavy lift, slowed-rotor, compound helicopter configuration, tested at the NASA Langley 14- by 22-Foot Subsonic Tunnel. The primary purpose of these simulations is to provide support for the development of a large field of view Particle Imaging Velocimetry (PIV) flow measurement technique supported by the Subsonic Rotary Wing (SRW) project under the NASA Fundamental Aeronautics program. These simulations provide a better understanding of the rotor and body wake flows and helped to define PIV measurement locations as well as requirements for validation of flow solver codes. The large field PIV system can measure the three-dimensional velocity flow field in a 0.914m by 1.83m plane. PIV measurements were performed upstream and downstream of the vertical tail section and are compared to simulation results. The simulations are also used to better understand the tunnel wall and body/rotor support effects by comparing simulations with and without tunnel floor/ceiling walls and supports. Comparisons are also made to the experimental force and moment data for the body and rotor.

  3. Update on the Ares V to Support Heavy Lift for U.S. Space Exploration Policy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sumrall, John P.; Creech, Steve

    2008-01-01

    When NASA's Ares V cargo launch vehicle begins flying late next decade, its capabilities will significantly exceed the 1960s-era Saturn V. It will send more crew and cargo to more places on the lunar surface than Apollo and provide ongoing support to a permanent lunar outpost that will open the Moon to greater exploration, science and adventure than ever before. Moreover, it will restore the United States heavy-lift capability, which can support human and robotic exploration for decades to come. Ares V remains in a pre-design analysis cycle stage pending a planned Authority to Proceed (ATP) in late 2010. Ares V benefits from the decision to draw from heritage hardware and its commonality with the Ares I crew launch vehicle, which completed its preliminary design review (PDR) in September 2008. Most of the work on Ares V to date has been focused on refining the vehicle design through a variety of internal studies. This paper will provide background information on the Ares V evolution, emphasizing the vehicle configuration as it exists today.

  4. Advanced Transportation System Studies Technical Area 2 (TA-2) Heavy Lift Launch Vehicle Development Contract. Volume 2; Technical Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The sections in this report include: Single Stage to Orbit (SSTO) Design Ground-rules; Operations Issues and Lessons Learned; Vertical-Takeoff/Landing Versus Vertical-Takeoff/Horizontal-Landing; SSTO Design Results; SSTO Simulation Results; SSTO Assessment Results; SSTO Sizing Tool User's Guide; SSto Turnaround Assessment Report; Ground Operations Assessment First Year Executive Summary; Health Management System Definition Study; Major TA-2 Presentations; First Lunar Outpost Heavy Lift Launch Vehicle Design and Assessment; and the section, Russian Propulsion Technology Assessment Reports.

  5. Advanced grid-stiffened composite shells for applications in heavy-lift helicopter rotor blade spars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayanan Nampy, Sreenivas

    Modern rotor blades are constructed using composite materials to exploit their superior structural performance compared to metals. Helicopter rotor blade spars are conventionally designed as monocoque structures. Blades of the proposed Heavy Lift Helicopter are envisioned to be as heavy as 800 lbs when designed using the monocoque spar design. A new and innovative design is proposed to replace the conventional spar designs with light weight grid-stiffened composite shell. Composite stiffened shells have been known to provide excellent strength to weight ratio and damage tolerance with an excellent potential to reduce weight. Conventional stringer--rib stiffened construction is not suitable for rotor blade spars since they are limited in generating high torsion stiffness that is required for aeroelastic stability of the rotor. As a result, off-axis (helical) stiffeners must be provided. This is a new design space where innovative modeling techniques are needed. The structural behavior of grid-stiffened structures under axial, bending, and torsion loads, typically experienced by rotor blades need to be accurately predicted. The overall objective of the present research is to develop and integrate the necessary design analysis tools to conduct a feasibility study in employing grid-stiffened shells for heavy-lift rotor blade spars. Upon evaluating the limitations in state-of-the-art analytical models in predicting the axial, bending, and torsion stiffness coefficients of grid and grid-stiffened structures, a new analytical model was developed. The new analytical model based on the smeared stiffness approach was developed employing the stiffness matrices of the constituent members of the grid structure such as an arch, helical, or straight beam representing circumferential, helical, and longitudinal stiffeners. This analysis has the capability to model various stiffening configurations such as angle-grid, ortho-grid, and general-grid. Analyses were performed using an existing state-of-the-art and newly developed model to predict the torsion, bending, and axial stiffness of grid and grid-stiffened structures with various stiffening configurations. These predictions were compared to results generated using finite element analysis (FEA) to observe excellent correlation (within 6%) for a range of parameters for grid and grid-stiffened structures such as grid density, stiffener angle, and aspect ratio of the stiffener cross-section. Experimental results from cylindrical grid specimen testing were compared with analytical prediction using the new analysis. The new analysis predicted stiffness coefficients with nearly 7% error compared to FEA results. From the parametric studies conducted, it was observed that the previous state-of-the-art analysis on the other hand exhibited errors of the order of 39% for certain designs. Stability evaluations were also conducted by integrating the new analysis with established stability formulations. A design study was conducted to evaluate the potential weight savings of a simple grid-stiffened rotor blade spar structure compared to a baseline monocoque design. Various design constraints such as stiffness, strength, and stability were imposed. A manual search was conducted for design parameters such as stiffener density, stiffener angle, shell laminate, and stiffener aspect ratio that provide lightweight grid-stiffened designs compared to the baseline. It was found that a weight saving of 9.1% compared to the baseline is possible without violating any of the design constraints.

  6. Lift truck safety review

    SciTech Connect

    Cadwallader, L.C.

    1997-03-01

    This report presents safety information about powered industrial trucks. The basic lift truck, the counterbalanced sit down rider truck, is the primary focus of the report. Lift truck engineering is briefly described, then a hazard analysis is performed on the lift truck. Case histories and accident statistics are also given. Rules and regulations about lift trucks, such as the US Occupational Safety an Health Administration laws and the Underwriter`s Laboratories standards, are discussed. Safety issues with lift trucks are reviewed, and lift truck safety and reliability are discussed. Some quantitative reliability values are given.

  7. One Engine Inoperative (OEI) and Autorotation For Heavy Lift Rotorcraft Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Tom

    2012-01-01

    Federal Aviation Administration will certainly require the Heavy Lift Rotorcraft to be operated under Category A performance and operations requirements. Because of the weight, no operation will be allowed except Category A according to FAA Part 29.1(c). This means that any where along the flight path, the aircraft must be able to land safely following an engine failure or continue flight. A repeatable flight profile must be developed and executed to ensure that the aircraft can be safely landed or flown away depending on its location on the flight profile. This means that there will be no Height-Velocity testing required as is currently required for Part 29 Category B. Since all the configurations shown to date are different than existing rotorcraft, each type would have to develop their individual requirements under existing special conditions FAA Part 21.17(b). This means the FAA will take the opportunity to negotiate additional requirements or change requirements to ensure safety. For example, since the tiltrotor did not fit normal rotorcraft category, new rules were negotiated between the applicant and the FAA. As a result of this negotiation, performance requirements for Category A were increased. The rules were written in terms of guaranteed performance instead of Category A requirements. Detailed discussion will follow later. The proposed tiltrotor would likely follow along with the current tiltrotor rules with the possibility of increase Category A performance requirements. Compounding with addition of wing and auxiliary thrust to both the tandem and coaxial rotor would result in new special condition aircraft. To my knowledge, no compound tandem or compound coaxial rotor has ever been certified by FAA.

  8. Observing how others lift light or heavy objects: time-dependent encoding of grip force in the primary motor cortex.

    PubMed

    Alaerts, Kaat; de Beukelaar, Toon T; Swinnen, Stephan P; Wenderoth, Nicole

    2012-07-01

    During movement observation, corticomotor excitability of the observer's primary motor cortex (M1) is modulated according to the force requirements of the observed action. Here, we explored the time course of observation-induced force encoding. Force-related changes in M1-excitability were assessed by delivering transcranial magnetic stimulations at distinct temporal phases of an observed reach-grasp-lift action. Temporal changes in force-related electromyographic activity were also assessed during active movement execution. In observation conditions in which a heavy object was lifted, M1-excitability was higher compared to conditions in which a light object was lifted. Both during observation and execution, differential force encoding tended to gradually increase from the grasping phase until the late lift phase. Surprisingly, however, during observation, force encoding was already present at the early reach phase: a time point at which no visual cues on the object's weight were available to the observer. As the observer was aware that the same weight condition was presented repeatedly, this finding may indicate that prior predictions concerning the upcoming weight condition are reflected by M1 excitability. Overall, findings may provide indications that the observer's motor system represents motor predictions as well as muscular requirements to infer the observed movement goal. PMID:21932074

  9. Ultra-heavy vertical lift system: The Heli-Stat. [helicopter - airship combination for materials handling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piasecki, F. N.

    1975-01-01

    A hybrid VTOL airship which is combined with helicopters is evaluated. The static lift of the airship supports approximately the full empty weight of the entire assembly. The helicopter rotors furnish the lift to support the payload as well as the propulsion and control about all axes. Thus existing helicopters, with no new technology required, can be made to lift payloads of ten times the capacity of each one alone, and considerably more than that of any airship built so far. A vehicle is described which has a 75-ton payload, based on four existing CH-53D helicopters and an airship of 3,600,000 cu. ft. The method of interconnection is described along with discussion of control, instrumentation, drive system and critical design conditions. The vertical lift and positioning capabilities of this vehicle far exceed any other means available today, yet can be built with a minimum of risk, development cost and time.

  10. Spontaneous abortion and occupation.

    PubMed

    McDonald, A D; Armstrong, B; Cherry, N M; Delorme, C; Diodati-Nolin, A; McDonald, J C; Robert, D

    1986-12-01

    Occupational factors in spontaneous abortion were studied in the current and previous pregnancies of 56,012 women interviewed in 11 Montreal maternity departments, 1982 to 1984. Ratios of observed to expected abortions (RR), after allowance for nonoccupational confounders, were significantly increased (P less than .05) among nursing assistants and attendants (RR 1.24 in current and 1.13 in previous pregnancies), food and beverage servers (RR 1.31 in current and 1.11 in previous pregnancies) and sales persons (RR 1.18 in current and 1.12 in previous pregnancies). Women whose work entailed heavy lifting, other physical effort, long hours, exposure to noise, and exposure to cold had also significantly increased risk ratios. However, when occupational groups were ranked according to work demands, thus avoiding potential bias from prior knowledge of outcome, increased risks were associated consistently only with heavy lifting and other physical effort. PMID:3806263

  11. Performance and Design Investigation of Heavy Lift Tiltrotor with Aerodynamic Interference Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yeo, Yyeonsoo; Johnson, Wayne

    2007-01-01

    The aerodynamic interference effects on tiltrotor performance in cruise are investigated using comprehensive calculations, to better understand the physics and to quantify the effects on the aircraft design. Performance calculations were conducted for 146,600-lb conventional and quad tiltrotors, which are to cruise at 300 knots at 4000 ft/95 deg F condition. A parametric study was conducted to understand the effects of design parameters on the performance of the aircraft. Aerodynamic interference improves the aircraft lift-to-drag ratio of the baseline conventional tiltrotor. However, interference degrades the aircraft performance of the baseline quad tiltrotor, due mostly to the unfavorable effects from the front wing to the rear wing. A reduction of rotor tip speed increased the aircraft lift-to-drag ratio the most among the design parameters investigated.

  12. Advanced transportation system studies technical area 2(TA-2): Heavy lift launch vehicle development. volume 1; Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCurry, J.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of the TA-2 contract was to provide advanced launch vehicle concept definition and analysis to assist NASA in the identification of future launch vehicle requirements. Contracted analysis activities included vehicle sizing and performance analysis, subsystem concept definition, propulsion subsystem definition (foreign and domestic), ground operations and facilities analysis, and life cycle cost estimation. This document is part of the final report for the TA-2 contract. The final report consists of three volumes: Volume 1 is the Executive Summary, Volume 2 is Technical Results, and Volume 3 is Program Cost Estimates. The document-at-hand, Volume 1, provides a summary description of the technical activities that were performed over the entire contract duration, covering three distinct launch vehicle definition activities: heavy-lift (300,000 pounds injected mass to low Earth orbit) launch vehicles for the First Lunar Outpost (FLO), medium-lift (50,000-80,000 pounds injected mass to low Earth orbit) launch vehicles, and single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) launch vehicles (25,000 pounds injected mass to a Space Station orbit).

  13. Gender specific analysis of occupational diseases of the low back caused by carrying, lifting or extreme trunk flexion—use of a prevention index to identify occupations with high prevention needs

    PubMed Central

    Thiede, Markus; Liebers, Falk; Seidler, Andreas; Gravemeyer, Stefan; Latza, Ute

    2014-01-01

    Background Gender specific analysis of the occupational disease of the lumbar spine caused by carrying, lifting, or extreme trunk flexion in Germany (OD No.2108) with the aim to identify areas of focus for prevention and research with a prevention index (PI). Methods Data from the German Statutory Accident Insurance stratified by gender are shown. Results From 2002 until 2009 there were 2,877 confirmed cases of an OD No. 2108 (40.1% male and 59.1% female). The PI indicated the highest prevention need for female nursing/midwifery associate professionals and male building frame and related trades workers. Patient transfer and working in extremely bent posture were the most frequent exposures. Conclusions The identified occupations with high need for prevention among men come from nearly all major occupational groups whereas women cluster in occupational groups from the health and care sectors. Am. J. Ind. Med. 57:233–244, 2014. © 2013 The Authors. American Journal of Industrial Medicine Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24243091

  14. University of Sheffield Staff Occupational Health Service

    E-print Network

    Li, Yi

    University of Sheffield Staff Occupational Health Service Guidance for University Drivers Health) such as tractors, land rovers, Heavy Goods Vehicles (HGVs) and Fork Lift Trucks (FLTs) Drivers of University to commercial drivers. For the purpose of health assessment the following categories apply: Category A Drivers

  15. Increased hair cadmium in newborns of women occupationally exposed to heavy metals

    SciTech Connect

    Huel, G.; Everson, R.B.; Menger, I.

    1984-10-01

    Newborn and maternal hair samples were obtained from subjects occupationally exposed to heavy metals and from matched controls. The geometric means of levels of cadmium and lead in hair from exposed mothers and cadmium in hair from transplacentally exposed newborns were twice as high as levels present in samples from controls. There was a positive correlation between levels of cadmium in maternal and newborn's hair, but no such correlation for lead. Despite statistically significant evidence of increased exposure to cadmium, no adverse health effects were documented in the small group of exposed newborns included in this study. Problems associated with exogenous contamination of hair by heavy metals and potential advantages of hair sampling for measuring fetal exposures to heavy metals are discussed.

  16. Aeroelastic effects in multi-rotor vehicles with application to a hybrid heavy lift system. Part 1: Formulation of equations of motion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venkatesan, C.; Friedman, P.

    1984-01-01

    This report presents a set of governing coupled differential equations for a model of a hybrid aircraft. The model consists of multiple rotor systems connected by an elastic interconnecting structure, with options to add any combination of or all of the following components; i.e., thrusters, a buoyant hull, and an underslung weight. The dynamic equations are written for the individual blade with hub motions, for the rigid body motions of the whole model, and also for the flexible modes of the interconnecting structure. One of the purposes of this study is to serve as the basis of a numerical study aimed at determining the aeroelastic stability and structural response characteristics of a Hybrid Heavy Lift Airship (HHLA). It is also expected that the formulation may be applicable to analyzing stability and responses of dual rotor helicopters such as a Heavy Lift Helicopter (HLH). Futhermore, the model is capable of representing coupled rotor/body aeromechanical problems of single rotor helicopters.

  17. Advanced transportation system studies technical area 2 (TA-2): Heavy lift launch vehicle development. volume 3; Program Cost estimates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCurry, J. B.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of the TA-2 contract was to provide advanced launch vehicle concept definition and analysis to assist NASA in the identification of future launch vehicle requirements. Contracted analysis activities included vehicle sizing and performance analysis, subsystem concept definition, propulsion subsystem definition (foreign and domestic), ground operations and facilities analysis, and life cycle cost estimation. The basic period of performance of the TA-2 contract was from May 1992 through May 1993. No-cost extensions were exercised on the contract from June 1993 through July 1995. This document is part of the final report for the TA-2 contract. The final report consists of three volumes: Volume 1 is the Executive Summary, Volume 2 is Technical Results, and Volume 3 is Program Cost Estimates. The document-at-hand, Volume 3, provides a work breakdown structure dictionary, user's guide for the parametric life cycle cost estimation tool, and final report developed by ECON, Inc., under subcontract to Lockheed Martin on TA-2 for the analysis of heavy lift launch vehicle concepts.

  18. Advanced Transportation System Studies Technical Area 2 (TA-2) Heavy Lift Launch Vehicle Development Contract. Volume 2; Technical Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of the Advanced Transportation System Studies (ATSS) Technical Area 2 (TA-2) Heavy Lift Launch Vehicle Development contract was to provide advanced launch vehicle concept definition and analysis to assist NASA in the identification of future launch vehicle requirements. Contracted analysis activities included vehicle sizing and performance analysis, subsystem concept definition, propulsion subsystem definition (foreign and domestic), ground operations and facilities analysis, and life cycle cost estimation. This document is Volume 2 of the final report for the contract. It provides documentation of selected technical results from various TA-2 analysis activities, including a detailed narrative description of the SSTO concept assessment results, a user's guide for the associated SSTO sizing tools, an SSTO turnaround assessment report, an executive summary of the ground operations assessments performed during the first year of the contract, a configuration-independent vehicle health management system requirements report, a copy of all major TA-2 contract presentations, a copy of the FLO launch vehicle final report, and references to Pratt & Whitney's TA-2 sponsored final reports regarding the identification of Russian main propulsion technologies.

  19. A logistics and potential hazard study of propellant systems for a Saturn 5 derived heavy lift (three-stage core) launch vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitney, E. Dow

    1992-01-01

    The Bush Administration has directed NASA to prepare for a return to the Moon and on to Mars - the Space Exploration Initiative. To meet this directive, powerful rocket boosters will be required in order to lift payloads that may reach the half-million pound range into low earth orbit. In this report an analysis is presented on logistics and potential hazards of the propellant systems envisioned for future Saturn 5 derived heavy lift launch vehicles. In discussing propellant logistics, particular attention has been given to possible problems associated with procurement, transportation, and storage of RP-1, HL2, and LOX, the heavy lift launch vehicle propellants. Current LOX producing facilities will need to be expanded and propellant storage and some support facilities will require relocation if current Launch Pads 39A and/or 39B are to be used for future heavy noise-abatement measures. Included in the report is a discussion of suggested additional studies, primarily economic and environmental, which should be undertaken in support of the goals of the Space Exploration Initiative.

  20. Tornado lift

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexander Ivanchin

    2010-01-01

    It is shown that one of the causes for tornado is Tornado Lift. At increasing vortex diameter its kinetic energy decreases to keep the moment of momentum constant. A kinetic energy gradient of such vortex is Tornado Lift. Evaluation shows that contribution of Tornado Lift in air lifting in a tornado is comparable to buoyancy according to the order of

  1. Satellite Power Systems (SPS) concept definition study. Volume 5: Transportation and operations analysis. [heavy lift launch and orbit transfer vehicles for orbital assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanley, G.

    1978-01-01

    The development of transportation systems to support the operations required for the orbital assembly of a 5-gigawatt satellite is discussed as well as the construction of a ground receiving antenna (rectenna). Topics covered include heavy lift launch vehicle configurations for Earth-to LEO transport; the use of chemical, nuclear, and electric orbit transfer vehicles for LEO to GEO operations; personnel transport systems; ground operations; end-to-end analysis of the construction, operation, and maintenance of the satellite and rectenna; propellant production and storage; and payload packaging.

  2. Advanced underwater lift device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flanagan, David T.; Hopkins, Robert C.

    1993-01-01

    Flexible underwater lift devices ('lift bags') are used in underwater operations to provide buoyancy to submerged objects. Commercially available designs are heavy, bulky, and awkward to handle, and thus are limited in size and useful lifting capacity. An underwater lift device having less than 20 percent of the bulk and less than 10 percent of the weight of commercially available models was developed. The design features a dual membrane envelope, a nearly homogeneous envelope membrane stress distribution, and a minimum surface-to-volume ratio. A proof-of-concept model of 50 kg capacity was built and tested. Originally designed to provide buoyancy to mock-ups submerged in NASA's weightlessness simulators, the device may have application to water-landed spacecraft which must deploy flotation upon impact, and where launch weight and volume penalties are significant. The device may also be useful for the automated recovery of ocean floor probes or in marine salvage applications.

  3. Lifting the Myth Off Hernias

    MedlinePLUS

    ... My father used to ask me and my siblings to help him lift anything heavy, saying he didn't want to get a hernia. But is there really a link between lifting or straining and hernias or is it just ...

  4. Does that look heavy to you? Perceived weight judgment in lifting actions in younger and older adults

    PubMed Central

    Maguinness, Corrina; Setti, Annalisa; Roudaia, Eugenie; Kenny, Rose Anne

    2013-01-01

    When interpreting other people's movements or actions, observers may not only rely on the visual cues available in the observed movement, but they may also be able to “put themselves in the other person's shoes” by engaging brain systems involved in both “mentalizing” and motor simulation. The ageing process brings changes in both perceptual and motor abilities, yet little is known about how these changes may affect the ability to accurately interpret other people's actions. Here we investigated the effect of ageing on the ability to discriminate the weight of objects based on the movements of actors lifting these objects. Stimuli consisted of videos of an actor lifting a small box weighing 0.05–0.9 kg or a large box weighting 3–18 kg. In a four-alternative forced-choice task, younger and older participants reported the perceived weight of the box in each video. Overall, older participants were less sensitive than younger participants in discriminating the perceived weight of lifted boxes, an effect that was especially pronounced in the small box condition. Weight discrimination performance was better for the large box compared to the small box in both groups, due to greater saliency of the visual cues in this condition. These results suggest that older adults may require more salient visual cues to interpret the actions of others accurately. We discuss the potential contribution of age-related changes in visual and motor function on the observed effects and suggest that older adults' decline in the sensitivity to subtle visual cues may lead to greater reliance on visual analysis of the observed scene and its semantic context. PMID:24324423

  5. Large Spun Formed Friction-Stir Welded Tank Domes for Liquid Propellant Tanks Made from AA2195: A Technology Demonstration for the Next Generation of Heavy Lift Launchers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stachulla, M.; Pernpeinter, R.; Brewster J.; Curreri, P.; Hoffman, E.

    2010-01-01

    Improving structural efficiency while reducing manufacturing costs are key objectives when making future heavy-lift launchers more performing and cost efficient. The main enabling technologies are the application of advanced high performance materials as well as cost effective manufacture processes. This paper presents the status and main results of a joint industrial research & development effort to demonstrate TRL 6 of a novel manufacturing process for large liquid propellant tanks for launcher applications. Using high strength aluminium-lithium alloy combined with the spin forming manufacturing technique, this development aims at thinner wall thickness and weight savings up to 25% as well as a significant reduction in manufacturing effort. In this program, the concave spin forming process is used to manufacture tank domes from a single flat plate. Applied to aluminium alloy, this process allows reaching the highest possible material strength status T8, eliminating numerous welding steps which are typically necessary to assemble tank domes from 3D-curved panels. To minimize raw material costs for large diameter tank domes for launchers, the dome blank has been composed from standard plates welded together prior to spin forming by friction stir welding. After welding, the dome blank is contoured in order to meet the required wall thickness distribution. For achieving a material state of T8, also in the welding seams, the applied spin forming process allows the required cold stretching of the 3D-curved dome, with a subsequent ageing in a furnace. This combined manufacturing process has been demonstrated up to TRL 6 for tank domes with a 5.4 m diameter. In this paper, the manufacturing process as well as test results are presented. Plans are shown how this process could be applied to future heavy-lift launch vehicles developments, also for larger dome diameters.

  6. Lift Experiment

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Shannon Ricles

    2013-01-30

    In this experiment, learners investigate how the size of a wing affects lift. Learners count the number of pennies an egg crate plane wing can hold until the plane will no longer fly. Learners calculate the amount of weight/mass added to plane and conduct two more trials to find the average weight/mass lifted. This lesson guide includes a data table, conclusion questions, and extension ideas.

  7. Levers That Lift

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2014-09-18

    Students are introduced to three of the six simple machines used by many engineers: lever, pulley, and wheel-and-axle. In general, engineers use the lever to magnify the force applied to an object, the pulley to lift heavy loads over a vertical path, and the wheel-and-axle to magnify the torque applied to an object. The mechanical advantage of these machines helps determine their ability to make work easier or make work faster.

  8. Sinus Lift

    MedlinePLUS

    ... last 15 years as more people get dental implants to replace missing teeth. Preparation The bone used in a sinus lift may come from your own body (autogenous bone), from a cadaver (allogeneic bone) or from cow bone (xenograft). If your own bone will be ...

  9. Buckling of a Longitudinally Jointed Curved Composite Panel Arc Segment for Next Generation of Composite Heavy Lift Launch Vehicles: Verification Testing Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farrokh, Babak; Segal, Kenneth N.; Akkerman, Michael; Glenn, Ronald L.; Rodini, Benjamin T.; Fan, Wei-Ming; Kellas, Sortiris; Pineda, Evan J.

    2014-01-01

    In this work, an all-bonded out-of-autoclave (OoA) curved longitudinal composite joint concept, intended for use in the next generation of composite heavy lift launch vehicles, was evaluated and verified through finite element (FE) analysis, fabrication, testing, and post-test inspection. The joint was used to connect two curved, segmented, honeycomb sandwich panels representative of a Space Launch System (SLS) fairing design. The overall size of the resultant panel was 1.37 m by 0.74 m (54 in by 29 in), of which the joint comprised a 10.2 cm (4 in) wide longitudinal strip at the center. NASTRAN and ABAQUS were used to perform linear and non-linear analyses of the buckling and strength performance of the jointed panel. Geometric non-uniformities (i.e., surface contour imperfections) were measured and incorporated into the FE model and analysis. In addition, a sensitivity study of the specimens end condition showed that bonding face-sheet doublers to the panel's end, coupled with some stress relief features at corner-edges, can significantly reduce the stress concentrations near the load application points. Ultimately, the jointed panel was subjected to a compressive load. Load application was interrupted at the onset of buckling (at 356 kN 80 kips). A post-test non-destructive evaluation (NDE) showed that, as designed, buckling occurred without introducing any damage into the panel or the joint. The jointed panel was further capable of tolerating an impact damage to the same buckling load with no evidence of damage propagation. The OoA cured all-composite joint shows promise as a low mass factory joint for segmented barrels.

  10. Total facelift: forehead lift, midface lift, and neck lift.

    PubMed

    Park, Dong Man

    2015-03-01

    Patients with thick skin mainly exhibit the aging processes of sagging, whereas patients with thin skin develop wrinkles or volume loss. Asian skin is usually thicker than that of Westerners; and thus, the sagging of skin due to aging, rather than wrinkling, is the chief problem to be addressed in Asians. Asian skin is also relatively large in area and thick, implying that the weight of tissue to be lifted is considerably heavier. These factors account for the difficulties in performing a facelift in Asians. Facelifts can be divided into forehead lift, midface lift, and lower face lift. These can be performed individually or with 2-3 procedures combined. PMID:25798381

  11. Total Facelift: Forehead Lift, Midface Lift, and Neck Lift

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Patients with thick skin mainly exhibit the aging processes of sagging, whereas patients with thin skin develop wrinkles or volume loss. Asian skin is usually thicker than that of Westerners; and thus, the sagging of skin due to aging, rather than wrinkling, is the chief problem to be addressed in Asians. Asian skin is also relatively large in area and thick, implying that the weight of tissue to be lifted is considerably heavier. These factors account for the difficulties in performing a facelift in Asians. Facelifts can be divided into forehead lift, midface lift, and lower face lift. These can be performed individually or with 2-3 procedures combined.

  12. Revised NIOSH equation for the design and evaluation of manual lifting tasks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    THOMAS R. WATERS; VERN PUTZ-ANDERSON; ARUN GARG; LAWRENCE J. FINE

    1993-01-01

    In 1985, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) convened an ad hoc committee of experts who reviewed the current literature on lifting, recommend criteria for defining lifting capacity, and in 1991 developed a revised lifting equation. Subsequently, NIOSH developed the documentation for the equation and played a prominent role in recommending methods for interpreting the results of

  13. A shadowgraph study of the National Launch System's 1 1/2 stage vehicle configuration and Heavy Lift Launch Vehicle configuration. [Using the Marshall Space Flight Center's 14-Inch Trisonic Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pokora, Darlene C.; Springer, Anthony M.

    1994-01-01

    A shadowgraph study of the National Launch System's (NLS's) 1 1/2 stage and heavy lift launch vehicle (HLLV) configurations is presented. Shadowgraphs are shown for the range of Mach numbers from Mach 0.6 to 5.0 at various angles-of-attack and roll angles. Since the 1 1/2 stage configuration is generally symmetric, no shadowgraphs of any roll angle are shown for this configuration. The major flow field phenomena over the NLS 1 1/2 stage and HLLV configurations are shown in the shadowgraphs. These shadowgraphs are used in the aerothermodynamic analysis of the external flow conditions the launch vehicle would encounter during the ascent stage of flight. The shadowgraphs presented in this study were obtained from configurations tested in the Marshall Space Flight Center's 14-Inch Trisonic Wind Tunnel during 1992.

  14. Occupational Physical Loading Tasks and Knee Osteoarthritis: A Review of the Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Ezzat, Allison M.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: To perform a systematic review with best evidence synthesis examining the literature on the relationship between occupational loading tasks and knee osteoarthritis (OA). Methods: Two databases were searched to identify articles published between 1946 and April, 2011. Eligible studies were those that (1) included adults reporting on their employment history; (2) measured individuals' exposure to work-related activities with heavy loading in the knee joint; and (3) identified presence of knee OA (determined by X-ray), cartilage defects associated with knee OA (identified by magnetic resonance imaging), or joint replacement surgery. Results: A total of 32 articles from 31 studies met the inclusion criteria. We found moderate evidence that combined heavy lifting and kneeling is a risk factor for knee OA, with odds ratios (OR) varying from 1.8 to 7.9, and limited evidence for heavy lifting (OR=1.4–7.3), kneeling (OR=1.5–6.9), stair climbing (OR=1.6–5.1), and occupational groups (OR=1.4–4.7) as risk factors. When examined by sex, moderate level evidence of knee OA was found in men; however, the evidence in women was limited. Conclusions: Further high-quality prospective studies are warranted to provide further evidence on the role of occupational loading tasks in knee OA, particularly in women. PMID:24719516

  15. Occupational Clusters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pottawattamie County School System, Council Bluffs, IA.

    The 15 occupational clusters (transportation, fine arts and humanities, communications and media, personal service occupations, construction, hospitality and recreation, health occupations, marine science occupations, consumer and homemaking-related occupations, agribusiness and natural resources, environment, public service, business and office…

  16. Feasibility study of modern airships, phase 1. Volume 2: Parametric analysis (task 3). [lift, weight (mass)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lancaster, J. W.

    1975-01-01

    Various types of lighter-than-air vehicles from fully buoyant to semibuoyant hybrids were examined. Geometries were optimized for gross lifting capabilities for ellipsoidal airships, modified delta planform lifting bodies, and a short-haul, heavy-lift vehicle concept. It is indicated that: (1) neutrally buoyant airships employing a conservative update of materials and propulsion technology provide significant improvements in productivity; (2) propulsive lift for VTOL and aerodynamic lift for cruise significantly improve the productivity of low to medium gross weight ellipsoidal airships; and (3) the short-haul, heavy-lift vehicle, consisting of a simple combination of an ellipsoidal airship hull and existing helicopter componentry, provides significant potential for low-cost, near-term applications for ultra-heavy lift missions.

  17. Predicint lifting capacity.

    PubMed

    Ayoub, M M; Dryden, R; McDaniel, J; Knipfer, R; Dixon, D

    1979-12-01

    As science and technology become more sophisticated and with the rapid computation capabilities of the modern computer available, it becomes both possible and economically feasible to scientifically study man and his interaction with his working environment. It is now possible for a person seeking employment to expect and obtain a position which will not be unnecessarily hazardous to his immediate health or have detrimental effects over the long run. Manual materials handling is the contributor of over 400,000 back injuries suffered in the U.S. each year. This research is directed at determining the appropriate operator variables to measure for predicting the permissible weight of lift for three ranges of lift: floor to knuckle height, knuckle height to shoulder height, and shoulder height to reach height. A modified psychophysical procedure was used during which the subjects were instructed to adjust the weight in a tote box to the maximum weight they could lift repetitively without excessive strain or fatique. The task consisted of lifting loads under different conditions of task variables, namely, height of lift, frequency of lift, and load size. Industrial workers as well as students of both sexes were used as subjects. Based on the data obtained, the lifting capacity of the worker was determined for the different ranges of lift. In addition, predictive models were developed based on the operator variables and the task variables investigated. PMID:539547

  18. Plunger lift system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Isaacks

    1980-01-01

    A plunger lift system used in wells having a tubing string disposed within casing. An improved plunger catcher and trip assembly is provided within the wellhead to hold the plunger in its upper position while lift gas escapes from the tubing string through the wellhead and formation fluids form a new slug in the lower end of the tubing string.

  19. Portable seat lift

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weddendorf, Bruce (inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A portable seat lift that can help individuals either (1) lower themselves to a sitting position or (2) raise themselves to a standing position is presented. The portable seat lift consists of a seat mounted on a base with two levers, which are powered by a drive unit.

  20. Catwalk grate lifting tool

    DOEpatents

    Gunter, Larry W. (615 Sandpit Rd., Leesville, SC 29070)

    1992-01-01

    A device for lifting catwalk grates comprising an elongated bent member with a handle at one end and a pair of notched braces and a hook at the opposite end that act in conjunction with each other to lock onto the grate and give mechanical advantage in lifting the grate.

  1. Catwalk grate lifting tool

    DOEpatents

    Gunter, L.W.

    1992-08-11

    A device is described for lifting catwalk grates comprising an elongated bent member with a handle at one end and a pair of notched braces and a hook at the opposite end that act in conjunction with each other to lock onto the grate and give mechanical advantage in lifting the grate. 10 figs.

  2. Understanding Wing Lift

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silva, J.; Soares, A. A.

    2010-01-01

    The conventional explanation of aerodynamic lift based on Bernoulli's equation is one of the most common mistakes in presentations to school students and is found in children's science books. The fallacies in this explanation together with an alternative explanation for aerofoil lift have already been presented in an excellent article by Babinsky…

  3. Lifting a Lion

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Texas Instruments

    2012-08-03

    "Students will work in groups to solve a real-world problem presented by the book: How Do You Lift A Lion? Using a toy lion and a lever, students will discover how much work is needed to raise the toy lion. They will use proportions to determine the force needed to lift a real lion" from TI World Math.

  4. Inter-Rater Reliability of Assessed Prenatal Maternal Occupational Exposures to Solvents, Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons, and Heavy Metals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carissa M. Rocheleau; Christina C. Lawson; Martha A. Waters; Misty J. Hein; Patricia A. Stewart; Adolfo Correa; Diana Echeverria; Jennita Reefhuis

    2011-01-01

    Because direct measurements of past occupational exposures are rarely available in population-based case-control studies, exposure assessment of job histories by multiple expert raters is frequently used; however, the subjective nature of this method makes measuring reliability an important quality control step. We evaluated inter-rater reliability of 7729 retrospective jobs reported in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study. Jobs were classified

  5. Interior of lift mechanism area of eastern lift span, looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior of lift mechanism area of eastern lift span, looking northwest. - Arlington Memorial Bridge, Spanning Potomac River between Lincoln Memorial & Arlington National Cemetery, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  6. Understanding wing lift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, J.; Soares, A. A.

    2010-05-01

    The conventional explanation of aerodynamic lift based on Bernoulli's equation is one of the most common mistakes in presentations to school students and is found in children's science books. The fallacies in this explanation together with an alternative explanation for aerofoil lift have already been presented in an excellent article by Babinsky (2003 Phys. Educ. 38 497-503). However, in Babinsky's explanation, the air friction forces are ignored and the flow-field curvature introduced by the aerofoil shape is understood intuitively. In this article, a simple analysis of the lift with friction forces incorporated is presented to give a more precise qualitative explanation.

  7. FREIGHT CONTAINER LIFTING STANDARD

    SciTech Connect

    POWERS DJ; SCOTT MA; MACKEY TC

    2010-01-13

    This standard details the correct methods of lifting and handling Series 1 freight containers following ISO-3874 and ISO-1496. The changes within RPP-40736 will allow better reading comprehension, as well as correcting editorial errors.

  8. Wind tower service lift

    DOEpatents

    Oliphant, David; Quilter, Jared; Andersen, Todd; Conroy, Thomas

    2011-09-13

    An apparatus used for maintaining a wind tower structure wherein the wind tower structure may have a plurality of legs and may be configured to support a wind turbine above the ground in a better position to interface with winds. The lift structure may be configured for carrying objects and have a guide system and drive system for mechanically communicating with a primary cable, rail or other first elongate member attached to the wind tower structure. The drive system and guide system may transmit forces that move the lift relative to the cable and thereby relative to the wind tower structure. A control interface may be included for controlling the amount and direction of the power into the guide system and drive system thereby causing the guide system and drive system to move the lift relative to said first elongate member such that said lift moves relative to said wind tower structure.

  9. Aerodynamic Lifting Force.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weltner, Klaus

    1990-01-01

    Describes some experiments showing both qualitatively and quantitatively that aerodynamic lift is a reaction force. Demonstrates reaction forces caused by the acceleration of an airstream and the deflection of an airstream. Provides pictures of demonstration apparatus and mathematical expressions. (YP)

  10. Human exposure to heavy metals. Rare earth pneumoconiosis in occupational workers. [From Carbon arc lamps in photoengraving

    SciTech Connect

    Vocaturo, G.; Colombo, F.; Zanoni, M.; Rodi, F.; Sabbioni, E.; Pietra, R.

    1983-05-01

    A male subject exposed for many years to rare earth (RE)-containing fumes and dusts emitted from carbon arc lamps in photoengraving laboratories was investigated to rule out RE pneumoconiosis. While chest x-ray films showed a severe pulmonary fibrosis, clinical analysis showed obvious high RE concentrations in the pulmonary and lymph node biopsy specimens compared with the corresponding tissues of 11 unexposed subjects. In addition to other elements, levels of thorium (Th), which is generally present as an impurity of RE compounds, were also determined to estimate the radiation dose which may be involved in inducing pneumoconiosis. The results show that the levels of Th are more than two orders of magnitude lower than the maximum permissible concentration for occupational exposure to natural 232Th, suggesting that the long-term accumulation of RE in the lungs played a role in the pathogenesis of the observed pulmonary fibrosis of the worker.

  11. Occupational Science & Occupational Therapy Master of Occupational Therapy

    E-print Network

    Michelson, David G.

    Occupational Science & Occupational Therapy Master of Occupational Therapy 2013 - 2014 STUDENT of Occupational Therapy 11 Professional Organizations 11 College of Occupational Therapists of British Columbia Therapists (WFOT) 12 Canadian Occupational Therapy Foundation (COTF) 13 Canadian Society of Occupational

  12. Plunger lift system

    SciTech Connect

    Isaacks, K.M.

    1980-07-08

    A plunger lift system used in wells having a tubing string disposed within casing. An improved plunger catcher and trip assembly is provided within the wellhead to hold the plunger in its upper position while lift gas escapes from the tubing string through the wellhead and formation fluids form a new slug in the lower end of the tubing string. The new system incorporates a conventional mechanical timer or controller to allow simple adjustments to obtain the most efficient product rate from each individual well. The controller determines the time interval during which lift gas is injected into the annulus between the casing and tubing and the time interval during which the plunger is held within the wellhead by the catcher and trip assembly.

  13. Interior view of lift mechanism area of eastern lift span, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of lift mechanism area of eastern lift span, showing trunion gears at left and right, and counterweight above. - Arlington Memorial Bridge, Spanning Potomac River between Lincoln Memorial & Arlington National Cemetery, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  14. Interior view of lift mechanism area of eastern lift span ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of lift mechanism area of eastern lift span looking south, showing trunion gears at left and right, and counterweight above. - Arlington Memorial Bridge, Spanning Potomac River between Lincoln Memorial & Arlington National Cemetery, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  15. Ares V: Progress Toward Unprecedented Heavy Lift

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sumrall, Phil

    2010-01-01

    Ares V represents the vehicle that will again make possible human exploration beyond low Earth orbit. The Ares V is part of NASA s Constellation Program architecture developed to support the International Space Station (ISS), establish a permanent human presence on the Moon, and explore it to an extent far greater than was possible with the Apollo Program. Ares V will carry the lunar lander to orbit where it will join the Orion crew spacecraft, launched by the smaller Ares I launch vehicle. Then the Ares V upper stage will send the Orion and lander to the Moon. Ares V is also intended to launch automated cargo landers to the Moon. The Ares vehicles are designed to employ the proven technologies and experience from the Space Shuttle, Delta IV, and earlier U.S. programs, as well as sharing common components where feasible. The Ares V is in an early stage of concept development. However, commonality allows it to benefit from development work already under way on the Ares I, including the first stage booster, and upper stage, J-2X upper stage engine. This paper will discuss progress to date on the Ares V and its potential for freeing payload designers from current mass and volume constraints. Progress includes development progress on Ares I elements that will be shared by the two launch vehicles. The Ares I first stage recently completed a successful test firing of Development Motor 1 (DM-1). The J-2X engine is proceeding with manufacturing of components for the first development engines that will be used for testing. Several component-level tests have been completed or are under way that will help verify designs and confirm solutions to design challenges. The Ares V Earth departure stage will benefit from the Ares I upper stage development, including design, manufacturing, and materials testing. NASA is also working with government and industry to collect data on flights and testing of the operational RS-68 engine and potential upgrades. The Ares V team continues to evaluate technical options, vehicle configurations, and operations concepts for the Ares V. The team recently completed a Fall Face-to-Face meeting that served as a stepping-stone to the Systems Requirements Review (SRR). This four-day meeting served as an information exchange for the various teams at several NASA field centers and supporting contractors.

  16. Affordable Heavy Lift Capability: 2000-2004

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This custom bibliography from the NASA Scientific and Technical Information Program lists a sampling of records found in the NASA Aeronautics and Space Database. The scope of this topic includes technologies to allow robust, affordable access of cargo, particularly to low-Earth orbit. This area of focus is one of the enabling technologies as defined by NASA s Report of the President s Commission on Implementation of United States Space Exploration Policy, published in June 2004.

  17. Impact of Technology on Heavy Lift Tiltrotors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. W. Acree

    Rotor performance and aeroelastic stability are presented for a 124,000-lb Large Civil Tilt Rotor (LCTR) design. It was designed to carry 120 passengers for 1200 nm, with performance of 350 knots at 30,000 ft altitude. Design features include a low-mounted wing and hingeless rotors, with a very low cruise tip speed of 350 ft\\/sec. The rotor and wing design processes

  18. Lifting as You Climb

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Debra R.

    2009-01-01

    This article addresses leadership themes and answers leadership questions presented to "Exchange" by the Panel members who attended the "Exchange" Panel of 300 Reception in Dallas, Texas, last November. There is an old proverb that encourages people to lift as they climb: "While you climb a mountain, you must not forget others along the way." With…

  19. JWST Lifting System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tolleson, William

    2012-01-01

    A document describes designing, building, testing, and certifying a customized crane (Lifting Device LD) with a strong back (cradle) to facilitate the installation of long wall panels and short door panels for the GHe phase of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). The LD controls are variable-frequency drive controls designed to be adjustable for very slow and very-short-distance movements throughout the installation. The LD has a lift beam with an electric actuator attached at the end. The actuator attaches to a rectangular strong back (cradle) for lifting the long wall panels and short door panels from a lower angle into the vertical position inside the chamber, and then rotating around the chamber for installation onto the existing ceiling and floor. The LD rotates 360 (in very small increments) in both clockwise and counterclockwise directions. Eight lifting pads are on the top ring with 2-in. (.5-cm) eye holes spaced evenly around the ring to allow for the device to be suspended by three crane hoists from the top of the chamber. The LD is operated by remote controls that allow for a single, slow mode for booming the load in and out, with slow and very slow modes for rotating the load.

  20. Hydraulic lifting device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Terrell, Kyle (inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A piston and cylinder assembly is disclosed which is constructed of polyvinyl chloride that uses local water pressure to perform small lifting tasks. The chamber is either pressurized to extend the piston or depressurized to retract the piston. The present invention is best utilized for raising and lowering toilet seats.

  1. Drag and lift

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Cislunar Aerospace

    1997-01-01

    This activity introduces students to the aerodynamic basics of lift and drag. The materials needed are pieces of cardboard 20 x 30 inches and other size cardboard pieces. This would be a suitable activity for small groups. Copyright 2005 International Technology Education Association

  2. Occupational Science & Occupational Therapy Master of Occupational Therapy

    E-print Network

    Ollivier-Gooch, Carl

    Occupational Science & Occupational Therapy Master of Occupational Therapy 2014 - 2015 STUDENT and Therapy Equipment 10 Definition of Occupational Therapy 11 Professional Organizations 11 College) 11 World Federation of Occupational Therapists (WFOT) 12 Canadian Occupational Therapy Foundation

  3. Occupational Science & Occupational Therapy Master of Occupational Therapy

    E-print Network

    Michelson, David G.

    Occupational Science & Occupational Therapy Master of Occupational Therapy 2013 - 2014 STUDENT and Therapy Equipment 10 Definition of Occupational Therapy 11 Professional Organizations 11 College) 11 World Federation of Occupational Therapists (WFOT) 12 Canadian Occupational Therapy Foundation

  4. Occupational Science & Occupational Therapy Master of Occupational Therapy

    E-print Network

    Handy, Todd C.

    Occupational Science & Occupational Therapy Master of Occupational Therapy 2012 - 2013 STUDENT HANDBOOK #12;2012-2013 MOT Student Handbook Master of Occupational Therapy Program Department of Occupational Science & Occupational Therapy University of British Columbia Page | 1 CONTENTS Part I

  5. Lift and JavaScript

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Derek Chen-Becker; Marius Danciu; Tyler Weir

    \\u000a In this chapter, we’ll be discussing some of the techniques that Lift provides for simplifying and abstracting access to JavaScript\\u000a on the client side. Using these facilities follows Lift’s model of separating code from presentation by allowing you to essentially\\u000a write JavaScript code in Scala. Lift also provides a layer that allows you to use advanced JavaScript functionality via either

  6. Helicopter Toy and Lift Estimation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shakerin, Said

    2013-01-01

    A $1 plastic helicopter toy (called a Wacky Whirler) can be used to demonstrate lift. Students can make basic measurements of the toy, use reasonable assumptions and, with the lift formula, estimate the lift, and verify that it is sufficient to overcome the toy's weight. (Contains 1 figure.)

  7. Helicopter Toy and Lift Estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shakerin, Said

    2013-05-01

    A1 plastic helicopter toy (called a Wacky Whirler) can be used to demonstrate lift. Students can make basic measurements of the toy, use reasonable assumptions and, with the lift formula, estimate the lift, and verify that it is sufficient to overcome the toy's weight.

  8. Occupational Therapy Occupational Therapy

    E-print Network

    Saldin, Dilano

    people function in their homes after illness or injury. In industrial settings, you could aid disabled and possibilities are endless! Program The UWM OT program has a rich history in Occupational Therapy education centers Nursing homes Adult day care centers Mental health settings Private practice Corporations

  9. Occupational Myths

    E-print Network

    Ritzer, George

    1971-04-01

    OCCUPATIONAL MYTHS George Ritzer University of Kansas Myths abound in occupational life, but the topic of myths has generally been neglected by occupational sociologists. This paper attempts to rectify the omission. It is contended that we find... myths at points of occupational stress and the myths are used by workers to cope with the stress. Six broad occupational types are discussed in this paper: pro fessions, semi-professions, managers, white collar clerical workers, low status employees...

  10. Lift and multiple equilibrium positions of a single particle in Newtonian and Oldroyd-B fluids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Taehwan Ko; Neelesh A. Patankar; Daniel D. Joseph

    2006-01-01

    A heavy particle is lifted from the bottom of a channel in a plane Poiseuille flow when the Reynolds number is larger than a critical value. In this paper we obtain correlations for lift-off of particles in Oldroyd-B fluids. The fluid elasticity reduces the critical shear Reynolds number for lift-off. The effect of the gap size between the particle and

  11. Simulations of optical lift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simpson, Stephen H.; Swartzlander, Grover A., Jr.; Hanna, Simon

    2011-10-01

    In a recent article [Swartzlander et al. Nature Photonics, 5, 4851 (2010)], the optical analogue of conventional, aerodynamic lift was experimentally demonstrated. When exposed to quasi-plane wave illumination, a dielectric hemicylinder rotates into a stable configuration in which its cylindrical axis is perpendicular to the direction of propagation and its flat surface angled to it. In this configuration the body forces experienced by the particle contain a component perpendicular to the momentum flux of the incident field. This phenomenon can be meaningfully termed "optical lift", and the hemicylinder acts as a "light foil". Here, we present rigorous, full wave vector simulations of this effect for light foils of varying dimensions and composition. We investigate the general form of the forces and torques experienced by light foils, as a function of their orientation. The influence of the linear dimensions and the refractive indices of the hemicylinders is also investigated.

  12. Enhanced Rescue Lift Capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Larry A.

    2007-01-01

    The evolving and ever-increasing demands of emergency response and disaster relief support provided by rotorcraft dictate, among other things, the development of enhanced rescue lift capability for these platforms. This preliminary analysis is first-order in nature but provides considerable insight into some of the challenges inherent in trying to effect rescue using a unique form of robotic rescue device deployed and operated from rotary-wing aerial platforms.

  13. Catalytic Generation of Lift Gases for Balloons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zubrin, Robert; Berggren, Mark

    2011-01-01

    A lift-gas cracker (LGC) is an apparatus that generates a low-molecular-weight gas (mostly hydrogen with smaller amounts of carbon monoxide and/or carbon dioxide) at low gauge pressure by methanol reforming. LGCs are undergoing development for use as sources of buoyant gases for filling zero-gauge-pressure meteorological and scientific balloons in remote locations where heavy, high-pressure helium cylinders are not readily available. LGCs could also be used aboard large, zero-gauge-pressure, stratospheric research balloons to extend the duration of flight.

  14. Occupational Asthma

    MedlinePLUS

    Share | Occupational Asthma: Tips to Remember Occupational asthma is caused by inhaling fumes, gases, dust or other potentially harmful substances while "on the job." Often, your symptoms are worse during the ...

  15. Occupational Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... et al [2003]. Priorities for development of research methods in occupational cancer. Environ Health Perspect 111:1-12. Boffetta P [2004]. Epidemiology of environmental and occupational cancer. Oncogene. 23:6392- ...

  16. Occupational Employment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Occupational Outlook Quarterly, 2010

    2010-01-01

    When choosing a career, jobseekers often want to know which occupations offer the best prospects. Generally, occupations that have rapid job growth, many new jobs, or many job openings--and good wages--promise better opportunities. This article shows how employment in particular occupations is projected to change over the 2008-2018 decade. The…

  17. Occupational Employment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Occupational Outlook Quarterly, 2012

    2012-01-01

    When choosing a career, jobseekers often want to know which occupations offer the best prospects. Generally, occupations that have rapid job growth, many new jobs, or many job openings--and good wages--promise better opportunities. This paper shows how employment in particular occupations is projected to change from 2010 to 2020. It presents…

  18. Chair Lift Challenge

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    IEEE

    2014-05-22

    In this activity, learners explore the unique challenges in transportation engineering, such as devising a method for skiers or hikers to get to the top of a mountain. Students work in teams to design a chair lift made out of everyday materials that can carry a tennis ball up a rope line and back down in a controlled manner so that the ball does not fall out of the cup. They sketch their plans, consider material selection, build their system, test it, reflect on the challenge, and present their experiences to their class.

  19. Air Lift: Ski Jump

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2010-01-01

    The following resource is from Lessonopoly, which has created student activities and lesson plans to support the video series, Science of the Olympic Winter Games, created by NBC Learn and the National Science Foundation. Featuring exclusive footage from NBC Sports and contributions from Olympic athletes and NSF scientists, the series will help teach your students valuable scientific concepts. In this lesson, Students will learn about the ski-jumping competition in the Winter Olympics, to explore concepts about gravity, drag and lift. Students will create their own version of a ski jump complete with jumpers.

  20. Dynamic Lifting by Whole Body Motion of Humanoid Robots Hitoshi Arisumi, Sylvain Miossec, Jean-Rmy Chardonnet, and Kazuhito Yokoi, Member, IEEE

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Dynamic Lifting by Whole Body Motion of Humanoid Robots Hitoshi Arisumi, Sylvain Miossec, Jean to a higher position with humanoid robots is developed. The key issue of lifting motion is how to reduce realize a motion of lifting a heavy object dynamically with the humanoid robot HRP-2 through experiment

  1. Review of occupational hazards associated with aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Myers, Melvin L

    2010-10-01

    Aquaculture is an emerging sector that is associated with most of the same hazards that are present in agriculture generally, but many fish farming tasks entail added danger, including working around water and working at night. Comprehensive studies of these hazards have not been conducted, and substantial uncertainty exists as to the extent of these hazards. The question addressed in this investigation was, "What is known about potential hazardous occupational exposures to aquatic plant and animal farmers?" In this review, causes of death included drowning, electrocution, crushing-related injury, hydrogen sulfide poisoning, and fatal head injury. Nonfatal injuries were associated with slips, trips, and falls; machines; strains and sprains; chemicals; and fires. Risk factors included cranes (tip over and power line contact), tractors and sprayer-equipped all-terrain vehicles (overturn), heavy loads (lifting), high-pressure sprayers, slippery surfaces, rotting waste (hydrogen sulfide production), eroding levees (overturn hazard), storm-related rushing water, diving conditions (bends and drowning), nighttime conditions, working alone, lack of training, lack of or failure to use personal flotation devices, and all-terrain vehicle speeding. Other hazards included punctures or cuts from fish teeth or spines, needlesticks, exposure to low temperatures, and bacterial and parasitic infections . PMID:20954037

  2. Initiating Piloted Mars Expeditions with Medium-Lift Launch Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonin, G. R.

    A method of accomplishing manned expeditions to Mars with existing medium-lift launch systems is discussed. In this architecture, 20-tonne propulsion stages are placed individually in low-Earth orbit, where they are mated to Mars-bound payloads and ignited at successive perigees to execute trans-Mars injection. Spacecraft follow conjunction-class trajectories to the red planet and utilize aerobraking for orbital capture and descent. Return vehicles are fuelled with methane/oxygen bipropellant synthesized primarily from Martian resources. Dispatching expeditions from orbit with individual, high-energy stages - rather than directly from the Earth's surface - allows for the division of mission mass into more manageable components, which can be launched by vehicles that exist today. This plan does not require the development of heavy-lift launch technology: an effective yet costly proposition that may otherwise hinder current space exploration initiatives. Without the need for heavy-lift boosters, manned missions to Mars can be undertaken presently, and within the constraints of today's space exploration budgets. It is concluded that the mission design herein represents a less robust, though more economically viable method for initiating manned Mars exploration than proposals which require heavy-lift technology - an alternative method by which a new planet could be opened to humanity.

  3. Comparison of measured and calculated aircraft lift generated pressures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Findley, D. S.

    1975-01-01

    Lift generated pressures produced by large, heavy aircraft at low altitudes were investigated due to concern over their possible effects on ground objects. Aircraft lift generated pressures were calculated using elementary airfoil theory, and these values were compared with ground level measurements made during an overflight program. The predicted and the measured values were in relatively good agreement. Due to lack of experimental investigations of this phenomenon, opportunity was taken during an overflight program to use a specially instrumented test range to measure the ground pressures produced for a range of aircraft weights and distances.

  4. Project LIFT: Year 1 Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norton, Michael; Piccinino, Kelly

    2014-01-01

    Research for Action (RFA) is currently in the second year of a five-year external evaluation of the Project Leadership and Investment for Transformation (LIFT) Initiative in the Charlotte-Mecklenburg School District (CMS). Project LIFT is a public-private partnership between CMS and the local philanthropic and business communities in Charlotte,…

  5. Maximal aerobic capacity for repetitive lifting: comparison with three standard exercise testing modes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. A. Sharp; E. Harman; J. A. Vogel; J. J. Knapik; S. J. Legg

    1988-01-01

    Summary  A multi-stage, repetitive lifting maximal oxygen uptake (\\u000a$$\\\\dot V_{O_{2max} }$$\\u000a) test was developed to be used as an occupational research tool which would parallel standard ergometric\\u000a$$\\\\dot V_{O_{2max} }$$\\u000a testing procedures. The repetitive lifting\\u000a$$\\\\dot V_{O_{2max} }$$\\u000a test was administered to 18 men using an automatic repetitive lifting device. An intraclass reliability coefficient of 0.91 was obtained with

  6. Individual and occupational risk factors for knee osteoarthritis: results of a case-control study in Germany

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction A number of occupational risk factors are discussed in relation to the development and progress of knee joint diseases (for example, working in a kneeling or squatting posture, lifting and carrying heavy weights). Besides the occupational factors, a number of individual risk factors are important. The distinction between work-related and other factors is crucial in assessing the risk and in deriving preventive measures in occupational health. Methods In a case-control study, patients with and without symptomatic knee osteoarthritis (OA) were questioned by means of a standardised questionnaire complemented by a semi-standardised interview. Controls were matched and assigned to the cases by gender and age. Conditional logistic regression was used in analysing data. Results In total, 739 cases and 571 controls were included in the study. In women and men, several individual and occupational predictors for knee OA could be described: obesity (odds ratio (OR) up to 17.65 in women and up to 12.56 in men); kneeling/squatting (women, OR 2.52 (>8,934 hours/life); men, 2.16 (574 to 12,244 hours/life), 2.47 (>12,244 hours/life)); genetic predisposition (women, OR 2.17; men, OR 2.37); and sports with a risk of unapparent trauma (women, OR 2.47 (?1,440 hours/life); men, 2.58 (?3,232 hours/life)). In women, malalignment of the knee (OR 11.54), pain in the knee already in childhood (OR 2.08), and the daily lifting and carrying of loads (?1,088 tons/life, OR 2.13) were related to an increased OR; sitting and smoking led to a reduced OR. Conclusions The results support a dose-response relationship between kneeling/squatting and symptomatic knee OA in men and, for the first time, in women. The results concerning general and occupational predictors for knee OA reflect the findings from the literature quite well. Yet occupational risks such as jumping or climbing stairs/ladders, as discussed in the literature, did not correlate with symptomatic knee OA in the present study. With regards to occupational health, prevention measures should focus on the reduction of kneeling activities and the lifting and carrying of loads as well as general risk factors, most notably the reduction of obesity. More intervention studies of the effectiveness of tools and working methods for reducing knee straining activities are needed. PMID:20470400

  7. Occupational asthma.

    PubMed

    Voelter-Mahlknecht, S F

    2011-04-01

    Occupational asthma is defined as "a disease of variable airflow limitations and/or airway hyper-responsiveness due to causes and conditions attributable to a particular occupational environment and not stimuli that are being encountered outside the workplace." An analysis of general population-based studies published up to 2007 showed that 17.6% of all adult-onset asthma is due to workplace exposures. In this article, Different aspects of occupational asthma are briefly reviewed. PMID:23022823

  8. LBNL/ Fall Protection Requirements for Boom Lift 2010 Requirements for boom lift operations is to tether an adjustable 6' lanyard to 3ft

    E-print Network

    Eisen, Michael

    stipulated minimum anchor point elevation of 18½ feet precludes the use of a shock absorbing lanyard precludes the use of a shock absorbing lanyard in an aerial lift. Occupational Safety & Health a manufacturer-stipulated minimum anchor point elevation of 18½ feet precludes the use of a shock absorbing

  9. Summary of Lift and Lift/Cruise Fan Powered Lift Concept Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, Woodrow L.

    1993-01-01

    A summary is presented of some of the lift and lift/cruise fan technology including fan performance, fan stall, ground effects, ingestion and thrust loss, design tradeoffs and integration, control effectiveness and several other areas related to vertical short takeoff and landing (V/STOL) aircraft conceptual design. The various subjects addressed, while not necessarily pertinent to specific short takeoff/vertical landing (STOVL) supersonic designs being considered, are of interest to the general field of lift and lift/cruise fan aircraft designs and may be of importance in the future. The various wind tunnel and static tests reviewed are: (1) the Doak VZ-4 ducted fan, (2) the 0.57 scale model of the Bell X-22 ducted fan aircraft, (3) the Avrocar, (4) the General Electric lift/cruise fan, (5) the vertical short takeoff and landing (V/STOL) lift engine configurations related to ingestion and consequent thrust loss, (6) the XV-5 and other fan-in-wing stall consideration, (7) hybrid configurations such as lift fan and lift/cruise fan or engines, and (8) the various conceptual design studies by air-frame contractors. Other design integration problems related to small and large V/STOL transport aircraft are summarized including lessons learned during more recent conceptual design studies related to a small executive V/STOL transport aircraft.

  10. Hoisting and Rigging: Lift Planning and Control for Ordinary Lifts

    E-print Network

    Wechsler, Risa H.

    the crane to take the slack out of the rigging without actually lifting the item. Allow the rigging gear system by watching that the load does not sink. If load is not balanced, lower the load and adjust

  11. Gas lift valve

    SciTech Connect

    Decker, K.L.

    1991-11-19

    This patent describes a gas lift device for controlling the flow of gas between the exterior and the interior of a well tubing. It comprises body means, the body means having inlet means, an outlet, a flow course extending between the inlet means and the outlet, means on the body for attachment to means for securing the same to the well tubing; main valve means; a main chamber in the body means for containing a volume of compressible liquid; pilot valve means in the body means between the main chamber and the main valve means, the pilot valve means including a variable volume chamber for containing a compressible liquid, a restricted fluid passage for fluidly communicating the variable volume chamber with the main chamber, and pressure responsive means for moving the pilot valve means from a closed position to an open position responsive to a differential pressure across the pressure responsive means from a closed position to an open position responsive to a differential pressure across the pressure responsive means as a result of an increase in pressure exterior of the well tubing for controlling admission of fluid pressure from the exterior of the tubing to the pressure responsive area of the main valve member for moving the same to open position; and means for sealing between the main valve and the body.

  12. Gas lift valve

    SciTech Connect

    Hamm, E.J.

    1986-06-03

    A gas lift valve is described which consists of: a body, a main valve seat in the body, a main valve member cooperable with the seat to control flow through the body, a pressure dome including a depending bellows connected to the valve member, the bellows being exposed to pressure within the dome urging the valve member toward the seat and to pressure exterior of the body urging the valve member away from the seat, an internal valve seat between the bellows and the remainder of the dome, an internal valve member separate from and movable relative to and supported on the main valve member and cooperable with the internal valve seat to control flow therethrough, one of the internal valve member and seat constructed of polyimide material, hydraulic fluid in the dome extending to a level above the internal valve seat, and a sleeve of polyimide material having a sliding engagement with the interior of the bellows and supporting the bellows against distortion when subjected to a differential pressure thereacross.

  13. The Fast Lifting Wavelet Transform

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Valens, C.

    A tutorial on wavelet filters aimed at engineers. Focusses on "lifting," a technique for creating a general framework to design filters for every possible wavelet transform. May be read online or downloaded in PostScript format.

  14. Fuel Cell-Powered Lift Truck Fleet Deployment Projects Final Technical Report May 2014

    SciTech Connect

    Klingler, James J [GENCO Infrastructure Solutions, Inc.] [GENCO Infrastructure Solutions, Inc.

    2014-05-06

    The overall objectives of this project were to evaluate the performance, operability and safety of fork lift trucks powered by fuel cells in large distribution centers. This was accomplished by replacing the batteries in over 350 lift trucks with fuel cells at five distribution centers operated by GENCO. The annual cost savings of lift trucks powered by fuel cell power units was between $2,400 and $5,300 per truck compared to battery powered lift trucks, excluding DOE contributions. The greatest savings were in fueling labor costs where a fuel cell powered lift truck could be fueled in a few minutes per day compared to over an hour for battery powered lift trucks which required removal and replacement of batteries. Lift truck operators where generally very satisfied with the performance of the fuel cell power units, primarily because there was no reduction in power over the duration of a shift as experienced with battery powered lift trucks. The operators also appreciated the fast and easy fueling compared to the effort and potential risk of injury associated with switching heavy batteries in and out of lift trucks. There were no safety issues with the fueling or operation of the fuel cells. Although maintenance costs for the fuel cells were higher than for batteries, these costs are expected to decrease significantly in the next generation of fuel cells, making them even more cost effective.

  15. Occupational Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Sheppard, Dean

    1982-01-01

    Bronchospasm is a common cause of morbidity in the workplace. More than 100 agents are now recognized as occupational causes of asthma and numerous agents can cause exacerbations of preexisting asthma. Because of the large number of potential causative agents and the complexity of modern industrial processes, knowledge of the characteristic clinical features of occupational asthma is the key to recognizing this disease. Early diagnosis of occupational asthma is important in preventing long-term morbidity. Present evidence that prolonged exposure to some work-encountered agents can cause asthma that persists for years after the end of exposure suggests that avoidance is the only acceptable countermeasure against this disease. PMID:7164429

  16. Occupational Stress among University Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blix, Arlene Gray; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Responses from 40% of 400 university teachers indicated that most felt a good fit between motivational style (altruistic-nurturing, assertive-directive, analytic-autonomizing) and job rewards. Females had higher misfit scores. Two-thirds of teachers perceived occupational stress at least half the time. Heavy workload was the most significant…

  17. Occupational Diseases in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eun A

    2010-01-01

    Korea has industrialized since the 1970s. Pneumoconiosis in coal miners was the most common occupational disease in the 1970s to 1980s. With the industrialization, the use of many chemicals have increased since the 1970s. As a consequence, there were outbreaks of occupational diseases caused by poisonous chemicals, such as heavy metal poisoning, solvent poisoning and occupational asthma in the late 1980s and early 1990s with civil movement for democracy. Many actions have been taken for prevention by the government, employers and employees or unions. In the 1990s most chemical related diseases and pneumoconiosis have rapidly decreased due to improving work environment. In the late 1990s, cerebro-cardiovascular diseases related to job stress or work overloads have abruptly increased especially after the economic crisis in 1998. After the year 2000, musculoskeletal disorders became a major problem especially in assembly lines in the manufacturing industry and they were expanded to the service industry. Mental diseases related to job stress have increased. Infectious diseases increased in health care workers and afforestation workers. Occupational cancers are increasing because of their long latency, although the use of carcinogenic substances are reduced, limited, and even banned. PMID:21258589

  18. Occupational Health

    MedlinePLUS

    Occupational health problems occur at work or because of the kind of work you do. These problems can include ... by exposure to radiation Exposure to germs in health care settings Good job safety and prevention practices ...

  19. Occupational Therapists

    MedlinePLUS

    ... More Info Summary Occupational therapists carry out treatment plans to help patients with a variety of daily ... a patient's condition and needs Develop a treatment plan for patients, laying out the types of activities ...

  20. Normalized Lift: An Energy Interpretation of the Lift Coefficient Simplifies Comparisons of the Lifting Ability of Rotating and Flapping Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Burgers, Phillip; Alexander, David E.

    2012-01-01

    For a century, researchers have used the standard lift coefficient CL to evaluate the lift, L, generated by fixed wings over an area S against dynamic pressure, ½?v2, where v is the effective velocity of the wing. Because the lift coefficient was developed initially for fixed wings in steady flow, its application to other lifting systems requires either simplifying assumptions or complex adjustments as is the case for flapping wings and rotating cylinders. This paper interprets the standard lift coefficient of a fixed wing slightly differently, as the work exerted by the wing on the surrounding flow field (L/?·S), compared against the total kinetic energy required for generating said lift, ½v2. This reinterpreted coefficient, the normalized lift, is derived from the work-energy theorem and compares the lifting capabilities of dissimilar lift systems on a similar energy footing. The normalized lift is the same as the standard lift coefficient for fixed wings, but differs for wings with more complex motions; it also accounts for such complex motions explicitly and without complex modifications or adjustments. We compare the normalized lift with the previously-reported values of lift coefficient for a rotating cylinder in Magnus effect, a bat during hovering and forward flight, and a hovering dipteran. The maximum standard lift coefficient for a fixed wing without flaps in steady flow is around 1.5, yet for a rotating cylinder it may exceed 9.0, a value that implies that a rotating cylinder generates nearly 6 times the maximum lift of a wing. The maximum normalized lift for a rotating cylinder is 1.5. We suggest that the normalized lift can be used to evaluate propellers, rotors, flapping wings of animals and micro air vehicles, and underwater thrust-generating fins in the same way the lift coefficient is currently used to evaluate fixed wings. PMID:22629326

  1. Mist lift analysis summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Davenport, R.L.

    1980-09-01

    The mist flow open-cycle OTEC concept proposed by S.L. Ridgway has much promise, but the fluid mechanics of the mist flow are not well understood. The creation of the mist and the possibility of droplet growth leading to rainout (when the vapor can no longer support the mist) are particularly troublesome. This report summarizes preliminary results of a numerical analysis initiated at SERI in FY79 to study the mist-lift process. The analysis emphasizes the mass transfer and fluid mechanics of the steady-state mist flow and is based on one-dimensional models of the mist flow developed for SERI by Graham Wallis. One of Wallis's models describes a mist composed of a single size of drops and another considers several drop sizes. The latter model, further developed at SERI, considers a changing spectrum of discrete drop sizes and incorporates the mathematics describing collisions and growth of the droplets by coalescence. The analysis results show that under conditions leading to maximum lift in the single-drop-size model, the multigroup model predicts significantly reduced lift because of the growth of droplets by coalescence. The predicted lift height is sensitive to variations in the mass flow rate and inlet pressure. Inclusion of a coasting section, in which the drops would rise ballistically without change in temperature, may lead to increased lift within the existing range of operation.

  2. Serrated-Planform Lifting-Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGrath, Brian E. (Inventor); Wood, Richard M. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A novel set of serrated-planform lifting surfaces produce unexpectedly high lift coefficients at moderate to high angles-of-attack. Each serration, or tooth, is designed to shed a vortex. The interaction of the vortices greatly enhances the lifting capability over an extremely large operating range. Variations of the invention use serrated-planform lifting surfaces in planes different than that of a primary lifting surface. In an alternate embodiment, the individual teeth are controllably retractable and deployable to provide for active control of the vortex system and hence lift coefficient. Differential lift on multiple serrated-planform lifting surfaces provides a means for vehicle control. The important aerodynamic advantages of the serrated-planform lifting surfaces are not limited to aircraft applications but can be used to establish desirable performance characteristics for missiles, land vehicles, and/or watercraft.

  3. New F-theory lifts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collinucci, Andrés

    2009-08-01

    In this note, a procedure is developed to explicitly construct non-trivial F-theory lifts of perturbative IIB orientifold models on Calabi-Yau complete intersections in toric varieties. This procedure works on Calabi-Yau orientifolds where the involution coordinate can have arbitrary projective weight, as opposed to the well-known hypersurface cases where it has half the weight of the equation defining the CY threefold. This opens up the possibility of lifting more general setups, such as models that have O3-planes.

  4. [Occupational epidemiology].

    PubMed

    Ahrens, W; Behrens, T; Mester, B; Schmeisser, N

    2008-03-01

    The aim of occupational epidemiology is to describe workplace-related diseases and to identify their underlying causes. Its primary goal is to protect workers from hazardous effects of the working process by applying work-related primary and secondary prevention measures. To assess health risks different study designs and a wide array of complex study instruments and methods are frequently employed that cannot be replaced by toxicological investigations. This paper primarily addresses health risks by agent exposures. In this context a central task of occupational epidemiology is careful assessment of exposure. Different data sources, such as work site measurements, register data, archive material, experts' opinion, and the workers' personal estimates of exposure may be used during this process. In addition, biological markers can complement exposure assessment. Since thorough occupational epidemiologic studies allow assessment of disease risks under realistic exposure conditions, their results should be more frequently used to derive workplace-related threshold limit values. PMID:18311483

  5. Occupational Neurotoxic Diseases in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chi-Hung; Huang, Chu-Yun

    2012-01-01

    Occupational neurotoxic diseases have become increasingly common in Taiwan due to industrialization. Over the past 40 years, Taiwan has transformed from an agricultural society to an industrial society. The most common neurotoxic diseases also changed from organophosphate poisoning to heavy metal intoxication, and then to organic solvent and semiconductor agent poisoning. The nervous system is particularly vulnerable to toxic agents because of its high metabolic rate. Neurological manifestations may be transient or permanent, and may range from cognitive dysfunction, cerebellar ataxia, Parkinsonism, sensorimotor neuropathy and autonomic dysfunction to neuromuscular junction disorders. This study attempts to provide a review of the major outbreaks of occupational neurotoxins from 1968 to 2012. A total of 16 occupational neurotoxins, including organophosphates, toxic gases, heavy metals, organic solvents, and other toxic chemicals, were reviewed. Peer-reviewed articles related to the electrophysiology, neuroimaging, treatment and long-term follow up of these neurotoxic diseases were also obtained. The heavy metals involved consisted of lead, manganese, organic tin, mercury, arsenic, and thallium. The organic solvents included n-hexane, toluene, mixed solvents and carbon disulfide. Toxic gases such as carbon monoxide, and hydrogen sulfide were also included, along with toxic chemicals including polychlorinated biphenyls, tetramethylammonium hydroxide, organophosphates, and dimethylamine borane. In addition we attempted to correlate these events to the timeline of industrial development in Taiwan. By researching this topic, the hope is that it may help other developing countries to improve industrial hygiene and promote occupational safety and health care during the process of industrialization. PMID:23251841

  6. Occupational stress among tunnel workers in Sikkim

    PubMed Central

    Basnet, Pragyan; Gurung, Shoyeta; Pal, Ranabir; Kar, Sumit; Bharati, Dharamvir Ranjan

    2010-01-01

    Background: Job stress has been linked to a wide range of adverse effects on mental, physical and organizational health. Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the impact of job stress on mental, physical and social health of the underground construction workers in Sikkim. Materials and Methods: The study population comprised of tunnel workers and a comparable group of controls. Using the interview technique, data was collected using the SF-36 General Health Survey Questionnaire. Results: The study population comprised of individuals of whom more than half were below 40 years of age and was comparable to the group of controls. Majority reported good health, while poor health was reported by 22 % of the subjects under study Compared to their health status last year, 52% rated their health as somewhat worse. Majority reported that their physical health problems limited them in activities of daily life, viz., running, lifting heavy objects, participation in strenuous sports, climbing several flights of stairs, bending, stooping or kneeling and walking more than a mile, during the past four weeks. More than half of them had severe body ache in the past four weeks that interfered with both work outside home and housework. This was true for emotional problems also, which interfered with their normal social activities involving family, friends, neighbors or groups. The associations of occupational stress with physical, emotional and social life and with limitation of day-to-day activities among tunnel workers were found to be statistically significant. Conclusion: The results emphasize the importance of assessment of the effects of job stress and of fulfilling the need of underground workers for optimum preventive measures. PMID:21694786

  7. MR-BD Lift Off

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1961-01-01

    The Mercury-Redstone Booster Development vehicle (MR-BD) lifts off from Cape Canaveral March 24, 1961. This test flight evaluated changes incorporated in the booster designed to reduce vehicle oscillations and vibrations. The Mercury-Redstone launch vehicle was developed by Dr. Wernher von Braun and the rocket team in Huntsville, Alabama.

  8. LIFTED LAMINAR JET DIFFUSION FLAMES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    AMABLE LIÑÁN; EDUARDO FERNÁNDEZ-TARRAZO; MARCOS VERA; ANTONIO L. SÁNCHEZ

    2005-01-01

    This paper addresses the numerical description of lifted flames in axisymmetric laminar coflow jets. The analysis considers moderately large values of the Reynolds number, when the boundary-layer approximation can be used to describe the slender mixing region that extends between the jet exit and the flame, providing the profiles of velocity and mixture fraction that exist immediately upstream from the

  9. Powered-Lift Aerodynamics and Acoustics. [conferences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Powered lift technology is reviewed. Topics covered include: (1) high lift aerodynamics; (2) high speed and cruise aerodynamics; (3) acoustics; (4) propulsion aerodynamics and acoustics; (5) aerodynamic and acoustic loads; and (6) full-scale and flight research.

  10. OCCUPATIONAL CANCERS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nazmi Bilir

    Environmental factors play a big role in the formation of cancer. According to what we know today, 80% of cases of cancer are caused by the effects of environmental factors. Included among the environmental factors are those that can be found in the workplace and occupational factors. The first comprehensive investigation in this field was conducted by R. Doll and

  11. OCCUPATIONAL ENDORSEMENTS

    E-print Network

    Ickert-Bond, Steffi

    human services), then the credits you earn from each UA institution will be counted toward fulfillment residency requirements are the minimum number of credits you must earn from the campus where you earn occupational training in a specific field. These programs are 9­29 credit hours and will be posted

  12. OCCUPATIONAL ENDORSEMENTS

    E-print Network

    Ickert-Bond, Steffi

    human services), then the credits you earn from each UA institution will be counted toward fulfillment residency requirements are the minimum number of credits you must earn from the campus where you earn occupational training in a specific field. These programs are 9 ­ 30 credit hours and will be posted

  13. Numerical modeling of turbulent nonpremixed lifted flames

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hoojoong Kim; Yongmo Kim; Kook-young Ahn

    2004-01-01

    The present study has focused on numerical investigation on the flame structure, flame lift-off and stabilization in the partially\\u000a premixed turbulent lifted jet flames. Since the lifted jet flames have the partially premixed nature in the flow region between\\u000a nozzle exit and flame base, level set approach is applied to simulate the partially premixed turbulent lifted jet flames for\\u000a various

  14. Insect Flight: Using Drag for Lift

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Z. Jane Wang

    2002-01-01

    Airplanes and helicopters are airborne via aerodynamic lift, not drag. So is a hovering insect which beats its wing along a horizontal plane. Consequently, a central focus in the studies of flight is the search for steady and unsteady lift enhancement mechanisms. But it is not apriori clear that an insect should use only lift to hover, especially at low

  15. Vertical Lift - Not Just For Terrestrial Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Larry A

    2000-01-01

    Autonomous vertical lift vehicles hold considerable potential for supporting planetary science and exploration missions. This paper discusses several technical aspects of vertical lift planetary aerial vehicles in general, and specifically addresses technical challenges and work to date examining notional vertical lift vehicles for Mars, Titan, and Venus exploration.

  16. Lift distribution in a rectangular jet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jameson, A.

    1971-01-01

    Computer programs predict effect of slipstream-wing flow interaction on aerodynamic characteristics of deflected slipstream and tilt aircraft. One program calculates lift distribution, lift, and drag of wing in wide slipstream. Results permit development of simplified lifting surface theory for circular jet.

  17. Occupational asthma.

    PubMed Central

    Chan-Yeung, M.; Grzybowski, S.

    1976-01-01

    Occupational asthma is probably much more common than is generally realized. Though many causes have been described, undoubtedly many more are yet to be recognized. One of the diagnostic difficulties lies in the fact that in most forms of this disease a late asthmatic reaction occurs in the evening rather than at work. The pathogenetic mechanisms differ in various forms of occupational asthma. In some, an immunologic mechanism is likely; in others, a "pharmacologic" action of the offending agent is implicated. Asthma due to inhalation of dusts of western red cedar, isocyanates, detergent enzymes and textiles is considered in detail. Periodic examination of workers at risk is of value for early diagnosis and prevention of irrversible airway obstruction. PMID:766943

  18. Occupational asthma.

    PubMed

    Chan-Yeung, M; Grzybowski, S

    1976-03-01

    Occupational asthma is probably much more common than is generally realized. Though many causes have been described, undoubtedly many more are yet to be recognized. One of the diagnostic difficulties lies in the fact that in most forms of this disease a late asthmatic reaction occurs in the evening rather than at work. The pathogenetic mechanisms differ in various forms of occupational asthma. In some, an immunologic mechanism is likely; in others, a "pharmacologic" action of the offending agent is implicated. Asthma due to inhalation of dusts of western red cedar, isocyanates, detergent enzymes and textiles is considered in detail. Periodic examination of workers at risk is of value for early diagnosis and prevention of irrversible airway obstruction. PMID:766943

  19. Generalised Eisenhart lift of the Toda chain

    SciTech Connect

    Cariglia, Marco, E-mail: marco@iceb.ufop.br [DEFIS, Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto, Campus Morro do Cruzeiro, 35400-000 Ouro Preto, MG (Brazil)] [DEFIS, Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto, Campus Morro do Cruzeiro, 35400-000 Ouro Preto, MG (Brazil); Gibbons, Gary, E-mail: g.w.gibbons@damtp.cam.ac.uk [DAMTP, University of Cambridge, Wilberforce Road, Cambridge CB3 0WA (United Kingdom)] [DAMTP, University of Cambridge, Wilberforce Road, Cambridge CB3 0WA (United Kingdom)

    2014-02-15

    The Toda chain of nearest neighbour interacting particles on a line can be described both in terms of geodesic motion on a manifold with one extra dimension, the Eisenhart lift, or in terms of geodesic motion in a symmetric space with several extra dimensions. We examine the relationship between these two realisations and discover that the symmetric space is a generalised, multi-particle Eisenhart lift of the original problem that reduces to the standard Eisenhart lift. Such generalised Eisenhart lift acts as an inverse Kaluza-Klein reduction, promoting coupling constants to momenta in higher dimension. In particular, isometries of the generalised lift metric correspond to energy preserving transformations that mix coordinates and coupling constants. A by-product of the analysis is that the lift of the Toda Lax pair can be used to construct higher rank Killing tensors for both the standard and generalised lift metrics.

  20. Quiet powered-lift propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Latest results of programs exploring new propulsion technology for powered-lift aircraft systems are presented. Topics discussed include results from the 'quiet clean short-haul experimental engine' program and progress reports on the 'quiet short-haul research aircraft' and 'tilt-rotor research aircraft' programs. In addition to these NASA programs, the Air Force AMST YC 14 and YC 15 programs were reviewed.

  1. Allometry of hummingbird lifting performance

    PubMed Central

    Altshuler, D. L.; Dudley, R.; Heredia, S. M.; McGuire, J. A.

    2010-01-01

    Vertical lifting performance in 67 hummingbird species was studied across a 4000 m elevational gradient. We used the technique of asymptotic load-lifting to elicit maximum sustained muscle power output during loaded hovering flight. Our analysis incorporated direct measurements of maximum sustained load and simultaneous wingbeat kinematics, together with aerodynamic estimates of mass-specific mechanical power output, all within a robust phylogenetic framework for the Trochilidae. We evaluated key statistical factors relevant to estimating slopes for allometric relationships by performing analyses with and without phylogenetic information, and incorporating species-specific measurement error. We further examined allometric relationships at different elevations because this gradient represents a natural experiment for studying physical challenges to animal flight mechanics. Maximum lifting capacity (i.e. vertical force production) declined with elevation, but was either isometric or negatively allometric with respect to both body and muscle mass, depending on elevational occurrence of the corresponding taxa. Maximum relative muscle power output exhibited a negative allometry with respect to muscle mass, supporting theoretical predictions from muscle mechanics. PMID:20154187

  2. Numerous methods of lifting and lowering objects from the seabed have been developed throughout the history of ocean engineering and exploration.

    E-print Network

    Sóbester, András

    system A. Buoyancy chambers B. Main valves C. Cryogenic Dewar D. Fins E. Free flood grilles F. Load attachment Figure 2 The central part of the device is the cryogenic Dewar and gasification system of a lightweight cryogenic marine heavy lift buoyancy system. · The objective is to be able to lift or lower large

  3. Automation of Workplace Lifting Hazard Assessment for Musculoskeletal Injury Prevention

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Existing methods for practically evaluating musculoskeletal exposures such as posture and repetition in workplace settings have limitations. We aimed to automate the estimation of parameters in the revised United States National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) lifting equation, a standard manual observational tool used to evaluate back injury risk related to lifting in workplace settings, using depth camera (Microsoft Kinect) and skeleton algorithm technology. Methods A large dataset (approximately 22,000 frames, derived from six subjects) of simultaneous lifting and other motions recorded in a laboratory setting using the Kinect (Microsoft Corporation, Redmond, Washington, United States) and a standard optical motion capture system (Qualysis, Qualysis Motion Capture Systems, Qualysis AB, Sweden) was assembled. Error-correction regression models were developed to improve the accuracy of NIOSH lifting equation parameters estimated from the Kinect skeleton. Kinect-Qualysis errors were modelled using gradient boosted regression trees with a Huber loss function. Models were trained on data from all but one subject and tested on the excluded subject. Finally, models were tested on three lifting trials performed by subjects not involved in the generation of the model-building dataset. Results Error-correction appears to produce estimates for NIOSH lifting equation parameters that are more accurate than those derived from the Microsoft Kinect algorithm alone. Our error-correction models substantially decreased the variance of parameter errors. In general, the Kinect underestimated parameters, and modelling reduced this bias, particularly for more biased estimates. Use of the raw Kinect skeleton model tended to result in falsely high safe recommended weight limits of loads, whereas error-corrected models gave more conservative, protective estimates. Conclusions Our results suggest that it may be possible to produce reasonable estimates of posture and temporal elements of tasks such as task frequency in an automated fashion, although these findings should be confirmed in a larger study. Further work is needed to incorporate force assessments and address workplace feasibility challenges. We anticipate that this approach could ultimately be used to perform large-scale musculoskeletal exposure assessment not only for research but also to provide real-time feedback to workers and employers during work method improvement activities and employee training. PMID:24987523

  4. New and expected developments in artificial lift

    SciTech Connect

    Lea, J.F.; Winkler, H.W.

    1994-12-31

    Artificial lift is a broad subject. This paper discusses some of the new developments in the major areas of artificial lift. These are (1) beam lift, (2) electrical submersible pumping, (3) gas lift, (4) hydraulic pumping and (5) miscellaneous topics. The beam lift discussion concerns a new rod material, downhole measurements for rod loading, unit design and some miscellaneous topics. The ESP (Electrical Submersible Pump) section includes a discussion on solids handling, downhole sensor technology, new motor temperature limitations, motor efficiency, and other topics. The gas lift discussion includes mention of coiled tubing with gas lift valves internal, a surface controlled gas lift valve concept, and gas lift valve testing and modeling. Hydraulic pumping is used in many locations with deep pay and fairly small production rates. New hydraulic developments include a wider availability of power fluid pumps other than positive displacement pumps, and small jet pumps specifically designed for de-watering gas wells. Some miscellaneous developments include an insertable PC (progressing cavity) pump and improved plunger lift algorithms and equipment.

  5. Effects of Injector Conditions on the Flame Lift-Off Length of DI Diesel Sprays

    SciTech Connect

    D. L. Siebers; B. S. Higgins

    2000-07-01

    The effects of injection pressure and orifice diameter on the lift-off length of a direct-injection (DI) diesel spray (defined as the farthest upstream location of high temperature combustion) were investigated using a natural light emission imaging technique. The lift-off length experiments were conducted in a constant-volume combustion vessel under quiescent, heavy-duty DI diesel engine conditions using a Phillips research grade No.2 diesel fuel. The results show that natural light emission at 310 nm provides an excellent marker of the lift-off length. At this location, natural light emission at 310 nm is dominated by OH chemiluminescence generated by high-temperature combustion chemistry. Lift-off lengths determined from images of natural light emission at 310 nm show that as either injection pressure (i.e., injection velocity) or orifice diameter increase, the lift-off length increases. The observed lift-off length increase was linearly dependent on injection velocity, the same dependency as previously noted for gas jets. The lift-off length increase with increasing orifice diameter, however, is different than the independence of lift-off length on orifice diameter noted for gas jets An important overall observation was made by considering the lift-off length data in conjunction with data from recent investigations of liquid-phase fuel penetration and spray development. The combined data suggests that a systematic evolution of the relationship and interaction between various processes in a DI diesel spray has been occurring over time, as injection pressures have been increased and orifice diameters reduced as part of efforts to meet emissions regulations. The trends observed may eventually help explain effects of parameters such as injection pressure and orifice diameter on emissions.

  6. Portrait of Occupational Therapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sandra Rogers

    2005-01-01

    The profession of occupational therapy promotes individuals to achieve health and wellness through engagement in meaningful occupations of daily living. This occupation focused profession plays a critical role in health care in a multitude of settings with a wide range of clients. This paper highlights a global overview of the philosophies of occupational therapy, the current international practices in occupational

  7. Influence of Lift Offset on Rotorcraft Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Wayne

    2009-01-01

    The influence of lift offset on the performance of several rotorcraft configurations is explored. A lift-offset rotor, or advancing blade concept, is a hingeless rotor that can attain good efficiency at high speed by operating with more lift on the advancing side than on the retreating side of the rotor disk. The calculated performance capability of modern-technology coaxial rotors utilizing a lift offset is examined, including rotor performance optimized for hover and high-speed cruise. The ideal induced power loss of coaxial rotors in hover and twin rotors in forward flight is presented. The aerodynamic modeling requirements for performance calculations are evaluated, including wake and drag models for the high-speed flight condition. The influence of configuration on the performance of rotorcraft with lift-offset rotors is explored, considering tandem and side-by-side rotorcraft as well as wing-rotor lift share.

  8. Optical lift from dielectric semicylinders.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Stephen H; Hanna, Simon; Peterson, Timothy J; Swartzlander, Grover A

    2012-10-01

    A wave optics numerical analysis of the force and torque on a semicylindrical optical wing is presented. Comparisons with a recently reported ray optics analysis indicate good agreement when the radius is large compared with the wavelength of light, as expected. Surprisingly, we find that the dominant rotationally stable angle of attack at ??-15° is relatively invariant to changes in radius and refractive index. However, the torsional stiffness at the equilibrium point is found to increase, approximately, as the cubic power of the radius. Quasi-resonant internal modes of light produce complex size-dependent variations of the angle and magnitude of the optical lift force. PMID:23027271

  9. OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY

    E-print Network

    OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Department of Occupational Health and Safety Revised December 2009 #12;Occupational Health and Safety (OHS) Management System 1. Introduction.............................................................................................................. 3 2.2 Management of Health and Safety

  10. About Occupational Therapy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of conditions to other professionals. Occupational Therapy and Ethics 4 4 Find information about ethical occupational therapy ... Industry Manage Your Practice Evidence-Based Practice & Research Ethics Occupational Therapy Assistants Advocacy & Policy Congressional Affairs AOTPAC ...

  11. The lift-fan aircraft: Lessons learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deckert, Wallace H.

    1995-01-01

    This report summarizes the highlights and results of a workshop held at NASA Ames Research Center in October 1992. The objective of the workshop was a thorough review of the lessons learned from past research on lift fans, and lift-fan aircraft, models, designs, and components. The scope included conceptual design studies, wind tunnel investigations, propulsion systems components, piloted simulation, flight of aircraft such as the SV-5A and SV-5B and a recent lift-fan aircraft development project. The report includes a brief summary of five technical presentations that addressed the subject The Lift-Fan Aircraft: Lessons Learned.

  12. HL-10 pilots assist with pilot entry into lifting body

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Not every moment of a test pilot's day is serious business. In a moment of levity, NASA pilots Bill Dana (left) and John A. Manke try to drag Air Force test pilot Peter Hoag away from the HL-10 lifting body while Air Force Major Jerauld R. Gentry helps from the cockpit. These four men were the principal pilots for the HL-10 program. This was not the only prank involving the HL-10 and its pilots. Once 'Captain Midnight' (Gentry) and the 'Midnight skulkers' sneaked into the NASA hangar and put 'U.S. Air Force' on the aircraft using stick-on letters. Later, while Gentry was making a lifting-body flight, his 1954 Ford was 'borrowed' from the parking lot, painted with yellow-green zinc-chromate primer, and decorated with large stick-on flowers about one foot in diameter. After Gentry returned from the flight, he was surprised to see what had happened to his car. The HL-10 was one of five heavyweight lifting-body designs flown at NASA's Flight Research Center (FRC--later Dryden Flight Research Center), Edwards, California, from July 1966 to November 1975 to study and validate the concept of safely maneuvering and landing a low lift-over-drag vehicle designed for reentry from space. Northrop Corporation built the HL-10 and M2-F2, the first two of the fleet of 'heavy' lifting bodies flown by the NASA Flight Research Center. The contract for construction of the HL-10 and the M2-F2 was $1.8 million. 'HL' stands for horizontal landing, and '10' refers to the tenth design studied by engineers at NASA's Langley Research Center, Hampton, Va. After delivery to NASA in January 1966, the HL-10 made its first flight on Dec. 22, 1966, with research pilot Bruce Peterson in the cockpit. Although an XLR-11 rocket engine was installed in the vehicle, the first 11 drop flights from the B-52 launch aircraft were powerless glide flights to assess handling qualities, stability, and control. In the end, the HL-10 was judged to be the best handling of the three original heavy-weight lifting bodies (M2-F2/F3, HL-10, X-24A). The HL-10 was flown 37 times during the lifting body research program and logged the highest altitude and fastest speed in the Lifting Body program. On Feb. 18, 1970, Air Force test pilot Peter Hoag piloted the HL-10 to Mach 1.86 (1,228 mph). Nine days later, NASA pilot Bill Dana flew the vehicle to 90,030 feet, which became the highest altitude reached in the program. Some new and different lessons were learned through the successful flight testing of the HL-10. These lessons, when combined with information from it's sister ship, the M2-F2/F3, provided an excellent starting point for designers of future entry vehicles, including the Space Shuttle.

  13. Occupational Classification System Manual

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Researchers may gain insight into the Bureau of Labor Statistics and Census Bureau occupational codes via the Occupational Classification System Manual (OCSM). A list of Major Occupation Group titles (MOGs) is provided as well as links to the Census Occupation Index--an alphabetical list of approximately 30,000 occupational titles. Further guidance in locating the proper occupation classification for research queries is outlined in the articles "Using the OCSM" and "Using the Census Index."

  14. Occupational reactions to foods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matthew Aresery; Samuel B. Lehrer

    2002-01-01

    The spectrum of occupational diseases most commonly seen in the food industry includes occupational asthma, rhinitis, conjunctivitis,\\u000a dermatitis, and hypersensitivity pneumonitis. Occupational asthma represents between 3% and 20% of all asthma cases and is\\u000a the most common form of occupational lung disease. Occupational skin diseases may represent between 10% and 15% of all occupational\\u000a diseases, and they have significant economic

  15. LIFTING OF OPERATIONS MODULAR MONADIC SEMANTICS

    E-print Network

    Hutton, Graham

    , which uses monad transformers to build up the desired monad one effect at a time. However, a limitation, and consequently, the lifted operations are non-uniform. Moreover, the number of liftings needed in a system grows thankful to them. Without them, this thesis would not have been possible. I would like to mention: My

  16. Lifts for Emergency Evacuation in Apartment Buildings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    THAN SINGH SHARMA; YAPING HE; MAHEN MAHENDRAN

    2009-01-01

    A research project was undertaken to investigate whether the lifts can be used as an alternate emergency evacuation route in apartment buildings. The important parameters in relation to the issues were divided into three categories: human behavioural response, fire hazards and lift operational mechanism. The parameters relating to human behavioural response were modelled and analysed as a stochastic process. The

  17. Soccer Ball Lift Coefficients via Trajectory Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goff, John Eric; Carre, Matt J.

    2010-01-01

    We performed experiments in which a soccer ball was launched from a machine while two high-speed cameras recorded portions of the trajectory. Using the trajectory data and published drag coefficients, we extracted lift coefficients for a soccer ball. We determined lift coefficients for a wide range of spin parameters, including several spin…

  18. May the Force Be with You: Lift

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2014-09-18

    Students revisit Bernoulli's principle (presented in lesson 1 of the Airplanes unit) and learn how engineers use this principle to design airplane wings. Airplane wings create lift by changing the pressure of the air around them. This is the first of four lessons exploring the four key forces in flight: lift, weight, thrust and drag.

  19. Lift-off Processes with Photoresists

    E-print Network

    Yoo, S. J. Ben

    . The main criteria for the choice of a photoresist best-suited for a certain lift-off process are mask-design requires positive resists for lift-off, it is recommended to use resists with i) a high remains. UV Mask Resist Substrate 1. Exposure of the re- sist part which later should NOT be devel- oped

  20. Constructing and Forbidding Automorphisms in Lifted Maps

    E-print Network

    Archdeacon, Dan

    Constructing and Forbidding Automorphisms in Lifted Maps Dan Archdeacon Department of Mathematics an algebraic description of surfaces with boundary to study covering maps. The focus is on the relationship between automor­ phisms in the base and lifted maps. We show how to introduce and/or prohibit additional

  1. Principal component analysis of lifting waveforms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Allan T. Wrigley; Wayne J. Albert; Kevin J. Deluzio; Joan M. Stevenson

    2006-01-01

    Background. One limiting factor in lifting research design has been the inability to effectively analyze waveform data, especially when differences in body mass, height, and load magnitude influence the derived kinetic variables. The purpose of this study was to demon- strate the sensitivity of principal component analysis to quantify clinically relevant differences in kinetic lifting waveforms over three load magnitudes

  2. Hydrostatic force used to handle outsized, heavy objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Craft, G. W.; Starkey, A. W.

    1967-01-01

    Specially fitted barge is used to load and transport large, heavy objects to a dock side site. There the barge itself can lift, rotate, and position the objects. Typical functions are economically accomplished by water buoyancy.

  3. Bisimulation-based Approximate Lifted Inference

    E-print Network

    Sen, Prithviraj; Getoor, Lise

    2012-01-01

    There has been a great deal of recent interest in methods for performing lifted inference; however, most of this work assumes that the first-order model is given as input to the system. Here, we describe lifted inference algorithms that determine symmetries and automatically lift the probabilistic model to speedup inference. In particular, we describe approximate lifted inference techniques that allow the user to trade off inference accuracy for computational efficiency by using a handful of tunable parameters, while keeping the error bounded. Our algorithms are closely related to the graph-theoretic concept of bisimulation. We report experiments on both synthetic and real data to show that in the presence of symmetries, run-times for inference can be improved significantly, with approximate lifted inference providing orders of magnitude speedup over ground inference.

  4. View of West end of central lift span truss web ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of West end of central lift span truss web of Tensaw River Bridge, showing web brace of lift girder superstructure, looking west - Tensaw River Lift Bridge, Spanning Tensaw River at U.S. Highway 90, Mobile, Mobile County, AL

  5. 14 CFR 25.697 - Lift and drag devices, controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...Lift and drag devices, controls. 25.697 Section...Design and Construction Control Systems § 25.697 Lift and drag devices, controls. (a) Each lift device...drag devices intended for ground operation only must...

  6. Occupant Protection Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bopp, Genie; Somers, Jeff; Granderson, Brad; Gernhardt, Mike; Currie, Nancy; Lawrence, Chuck

    2010-01-01

    Topics include occupant protection overview with a focus on crew protection during dynamic phases of flight; occupant protection collaboration; modeling occupant protection; occupant protection considerations; project approach encompassing analysis tools, injury criteria, and testing program development; injury criteria update methodology, unique effects of pressure suits and other factors; and a summary.

  7. Occupation and Divorce

    Microsoft Academic Search

    THEODORE N. GREENSTEIN

    1985-01-01

    Analyses of the combined General Social Surveys for 1972-1983 are used to estimate propensity to divorce (proportion of ever-married persons who have ever been divorced or legally separated) for major occupational categories and for selected occupations. Separate analyses for males and females show significant estimated effects of occupation on propensity to divorce even when occupational prestige, age, age at first

  8. Occup Environ Med . Author manuscript Occupational asthma and occupational rhinitis: the united airways disease

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    effects ; chemistry ; Asthma, Occupational ; epidemiology ; etiology ; Female ; FrancOccup Environ Med . Author manuscript Page /1 8 Occupational asthma and occupational rhinitis associations between rhinitis and asthma, little is known about the relationships between occupational rhinitis

  9. Ground cloud related weather modification effects. [heavy lift launch vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, J.

    1980-01-01

    The principal concerns about inadvertent weather modification by the solar power satellite system rocket effluents are discussed, namely the possibility that the ground cloud might temporarily modify local weather and the cumulative effects of nearly 500 launches per year. These issues are discussed through the consideration of (1) the possible alteration of the microphysical processes of clouds in the general area due to rocket effluents and debris and cooling water entrained during the launch and (2) the direct dynamical and thermodynamical responses to the inputs of thermal energy and moisture from the rocket exhaust for given ambient meteorological conditions. The huge amount of thermal energy contained in the exhaust of the proposed launch vehicle would in some situations induce a saturated, wet convective cloud or enhance an existing convective activity. Nevertheless, the effects would be limited to the general area of the launch site. The observed long lasting high concentrations of cloud condensation nuclei produced during and after a rocket launch may appreciably affect the frequency of occurrence and persistence of fogs and haze. In view of the high mission frequency proposed for the vehicle launches, a potential exists for a cumulative effect.

  10. Performance, Loads and Stability of Heavy Lift Tiltrotors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. W. Acree; Wayne Johnson

    Summaries of rotor performance are presented for a 124,000-lb Large Civil Tilt Rotor (LCTR) design, along with isolated-rotor and fully-coupled wing\\/rotor aeroelastic stability. A major motivation of the present research is the effect of size on rotor dynamics. Simply scaling up existing rotor designs to the vehicle size under study would result in unacceptable rotor weight. The LCTR was the

  11. Impact of Aerodynamics and Structures Technology on Heavy Lift Tiltrotors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acree, C. W., Jr.

    2006-01-01

    Rotor performance and aeroelastic stability are presented for a 124,000-lb Large Civil Tilt Rotor (LCTR) design. It was designed to carry 120 passengers for 1200 nm, with performance of 350 knots at 30,000 ft altitude. Design features include a low-mounted wing and hingeless rotors, with a very low cruise tip speed of 350 ft/sec. The rotor and wing design processes are described, including rotor optimization methods and wing/rotor aeroelastic stability analyses. New rotor airfoils were designed specifically for the LCTR; the resulting performance improvements are compared to current technology airfoils. Twist, taper and precone optimization are presented, along with the effects of blade flexibility on performance. A new wing airfoil was designed and a composite structure was developed to meet the wing load requirements for certification. Predictions of aeroelastic stability are presented for the optimized rotor and wing, along with summaries of the effects of rotor design parameters on stability.

  12. Development of computational methods for heavy lift launch vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yoon, Seokkwan; Ryan, James S.

    1993-01-01

    The research effort has been focused on the development of an advanced flow solver for complex viscous turbulent flows with shock waves. The three-dimensional Euler and full/thin-layer Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations for compressible flows are solved on structured hexahedral grids. The Baldwin-Lomax algebraic turbulence model is used for closure. The space discretization is based on a cell-centered finite-volume method augmented by a variety of numerical dissipation models with optional total variation diminishing limiters. The governing equations are integrated in time by an implicit method based on lower-upper factorization and symmetric Gauss-Seidel relaxation. The algorithm is vectorized on diagonal planes of sweep using two-dimensional indices in three dimensions. A new computer program named CENS3D has been developed for viscous turbulent flows with discontinuities. Details of the code are described in Appendix A and Appendix B. With the developments of the numerical algorithm and dissipation model, the simulation of three-dimensional viscous compressible flows has become more efficient and accurate. The results of the research are expected to yield a direct impact on the design process of future liquid fueled launch systems.

  13. Lift-Enhancing Tabs on Multielement Airfoils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, James C.; Storms, Bruce L.; Carrannanto, Paul G.

    1995-01-01

    The use of flat-plate tabs (similar to Gurney flaps) to enhance the lift of multielement airfoils is extended here by placing them on the pressure side and near the trailing edge of the main element rather than just on the furthest downstream wing element. The tabs studied range in height from 0.125 to 1.25% of the airfoil reference chord. In practice, such tabs would be retracted when the high-lift system is stowed. The effectiveness of the concept was demonstrated experimentally and computationally on a two-dimensional NACA 63(sub 2)-215 Mod B airfoil with a single-slotted, 30%-chord flap. Both the experiments and computations showed that the tabs significantly increase the lift at a given angle of attack and the maximum lift coefficient of the airfoil. The computational results showed that the increased lift was a result of additional turning of the flow by the tab that reduced or eliminated now separation on the flap. The best configuration tested, a 0.5%-chord tab placed 0.5% chord upstream of the trailing edge of the main element, increased the maximum lift coefficient of the airfoil by 12% and the maximum lift-to-drag ratio by 40%.

  14. Wingless Flight: The Lifting Body Story

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, R. Dale; Lister, Darlene (Editor); Huntley, J. D. (Editor)

    1997-01-01

    Wingless Flight tells the story of the most unusual flying machines ever flown, the lifting bodies. It is my story about my friends and colleagues who committed a significant part of their lives in the 1960s and 1970s to prove that the concept was a viable one for use in spacecraft of the future. This story, filled with drama and adventure, is about the twelve-year period from 1963 to 1975 in which eight different lifting-body configurations flew. It is appropriate for me to write the story, since I was the engineer who first presented the idea of flight-testing the concept to others at the NASA Flight Research Center. Over those twelve years, I experienced the story as it unfolded day by day at that remote NASA facility northeast of los Angeles in the bleak Mojave Desert. Benefits from this effort immediately influenced the design and operational concepts of the winged NASA Shuttle Orbiter. However, the full benefits would not be realized until the 1990s when new spacecraft such as the X-33 and X-38 would fully employ the lifting-body concept. A lifting body is basically a wingless vehicle that flies due to the lift generated by the shape of its fuselage. Although both a lifting reentry vehicle and a ballistic capsule had been considered as options during the early stages of NASA's space program, NASA initially opted to go with the capsule. A number of individuals were not content to close the book on the lifting-body concept. Researchers including Alfred Eggers at the NASA Ames Research Center conducted early wind-tunnel experiments, finding that half of a rounded nose-cone shape that was flat on top and rounded on the bottom could generate a lift-to-drag ratio of about 1.5 to 1. Eggers' preliminary design sketch later resembled the basic M2 lifting-body design. At the NASA Langley Research Center, other researchers toyed with their own lifting-body shapes. Meanwhile, some of us aircraft-oriented researchers at the, NASA Flight Research Center at Edwards Air Force Base (AFB) in California were experiencing our own fascination with the lifting-body concept. A model-aircraft builder and private pilot on my own time, I found the lifting-body idea intriguing. I built a model based on Eggers' design, tested it repeatedly, made modifications in its control and balance characteristics along the way, then eventually presented the concept to others at the Center, using a film of its flights that my wife, Donna and I had made with our 8-mm home camera.

  15. Occupational Health and Safety Manual

    E-print Network

    Occupational Health and Safety Manual #12;1 Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 York University Occupational Health and Safety Policy and Programs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Occupational Health and Safety Legislation

  16. Experimental determination of baseball spin and lift.

    PubMed

    Alaways, L W; Hubbard, M

    2001-05-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a new method for the determination of lift on spinning baseballs. Inertial trajectories of (a) ball surface markers during the first metre of flight and (b) the centre of mass trajectory near home-plate were measured in a pitch using high-speed video. A theoretical model was developed, incorporating aerodynamic Magnus-Robins lift, drag and cross forces, which predicts the centre of mass and marker trajectories. Parameters including initial conditions and aerodynamic coefficients were estimated iteratively by minimizing the error between predicted and measured trajectories. We compare the resulting lift coefficients and spin parameter values with those of previous studies. Lift on four-seam pitches can be as much as three times that of two-seam pitches, although this disparity is reduced for spin parameters greater than 0.4. PMID:11354614

  17. Bernoulli's Law and Aerodynamic Lifting Force.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weltner, Klaus

    1990-01-01

    Explains the lifting force based on Bernoulli's law and as a reaction force. Discusses the interrelation of both explanations. Considers accelerations in line with stream lines and perpendicular to stream lines. (YP)

  18. Lifted Probabilistic Inference with Counting Formulas

    E-print Network

    Haimes, Michael M.

    Lifted inference algorithms exploit repeated structure in probabilistic models to answer queries efficiently. Previous work such as de Salvo Braz et al.'s first-order variable elimination (FOVE) has focused on the sharing ...

  19. Lifted Probabilistic Inference with Counting Formulas

    E-print Network

    Milch, Brian

    2008-01-01

    Lifted inference algorithms exploit repeated structure in probabilistic models to answer queries efficiently. Previous work such as de Salvo Braz et al.'s first-order variable elimination (FOVE) has focused on the sharing ...

  20. Determination of the lifting force and rational form of vertical lift-falling gates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. V. Balanin; V. A. Krivoshei

    1987-01-01

    Conclusions 1.The investigation performed and the method of calculations developed make it possible to determine with an accuracy sufficient for practice the lifting force of lift-falling gates with a flat inclined deflector for practically any combinations of the main parameters determining this quantity.2.For determining the lifting force by the given method there is no need for costly and labor-intensive experimental

  1. The effects of horizontal load speed and lifting frequency on lifting technique and biomechanics.

    PubMed

    Dai, Boyi; Jin, Sangeun; Ning, Xiaopeng; Mirka, Gary A

    2010-08-01

    Lifting loads that have a horizontal velocity (e.g. lifting from a conveyor) is often seen in industry and it was hypothesised that the inertial characteristics of these loads may influence lifting technique and low back stress. Seventeen male participants were asked to perform lifting tasks under conditions of four horizontal load speeds (0 m/s, 0.7 m/s, 1.3 m/s and 2.4 m/s) and two lifting frequencies (10 and 20 lifts/min) while trunk motions and trunk muscle activation levels were monitored. Results revealed that increasing horizontal load speed from 0 m/s to 2.4 m/s resulted in an increase in peak sagittal angle (73 degrees vs. 81 degrees ) but lower levels of peak sagittal plane angular acceleration (480 degrees /s(2) vs. 420 [corrected] degrees /s(2)) and peak transverse plane angular acceleration (200 degrees /s per s vs. 140 degrees /s per s) and a consistent increase in trunk muscle co-activation. Participants used the inertia of the load to reduce the peak dynamics of the lifting motion at a cost of increased trunk flexion and higher muscle activity. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: Conveyors are ubiquitous in industry and understanding the effects of horizontal load speed on the lifting motions performed by workers lifting items from these conveyors may provide some insight into low back injury risk posed by these tasks. PMID:20658396

  2. A Method for Calculation of Hydrodynamic Lift for Submerged and Planing Rectangular Lifting Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wadlin, Kenneth L; Christopher, Kenneth W

    1958-01-01

    A method is presented for the calculation of lift coefficients for rectangular lifting surfaces of aspect ratios from 0.125 to 10 operating at finite depths beneath the water surface, including the zero depth or planing condition. Theoretical values are compared with experimental values obtained at various depths of submergence with lifting surfaces of aspect ratios from 0.125 to 10. The method can also be applied to hydrofoils with dihedral. Lift coefficients computed by this method are in good agreement with existing experimental data for aspect ratios from 0.125 to 10 and dihedral angles up to 10 degrees.

  3. Newsletter of The Department of Occupational Science & Occupational Therapy

    E-print Network

    Handy, Todd C.

    OT LENS Newsletter of The Department of Occupational Science & Occupational Therapy Autumn 2013 Mentors Four dedicated and enthusiastic Occupational Therapy Fieldwork Educators were nominated back to her profession and was described by occupational therapy students as an excellent fieldwork

  4. Lift and wakes of flying snakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnan, Anush; Socha, John J.; Vlachos, Pavlos P.; Barba, L. A.

    2014-03-01

    Flying snakes use a unique method of aerial locomotion: they jump from tree branches, flatten their bodies, and undulate through the air to produce a glide. The shape of their body cross-section during the glide plays an important role in generating lift. This paper presents a computational investigation of the aerodynamics of the cross-sectional shape. Two-dimensional simulations of incompressible flow past the anatomically correct cross-section of the species Chrysopelea paradisi show that a significant enhancement in lift appears at a 35° angle of attack, above Reynolds numbers 2000. Previous experiments on physical models also obtained an increased lift, at the same angle of attack. The flow is inherently three-dimensional in physical experiments, due to fluid instabilities, and it is thus intriguing that the enhanced lift also appears in the two-dimensional simulations. The simulations point to the lift enhancement arising from the early separation of the boundary layer on the dorsal surface of the snake profile, without stall. The separated shear layer rolls up and interacts with secondary vorticity in the near-wake, inducing the primary vortex to remain closer to the body and thus cause enhanced suction, resulting in higher lift.

  5. Survey of lift-fan aerodynamic technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hickey, David H.; Kirk, Jerry V.

    1993-01-01

    Representatives of NASA Ames Research Center asked that a summary of technology appropriate for lift-fan powered short takeoff/vertical landing (STOVL) aircraft be prepared so that new programs could more easily benefit from past research efforts. This paper represents one of six prepared for that purpose. The authors have conducted or supervised the conduct of research on lift-fan powered STOVL designs and some of their important components for decades. This paper will first address aerodynamic modeling requirements for experimental programs to assure realistic, trustworthy results. It will next summarize the results or efforts to develop satisfactory specialized STOVL components such as inlets and flow deflectors. It will also discuss problems with operation near the ground, aerodynamics while under lift-fan power, and aerodynamic prediction techniques. Finally, results of studies to reduce lift-fan noise will be presented. The paper will emphasize results from large scale experiments, where available, for reasons that will be brought out in the discussion. Some work with lift-engine powered STOVL aircraft is also applicable to lift-fan technology and will be presented herein. Small-scale data will be used where necessary to fill gaps.

  6. The Saito-Kurokawa Lifting and Functoriality Ralf Schmidt

    E-print Network

    Schmidt, Ralf

    The Saito-Kurokawa Lifting and Functoriality Ralf Schmidt Abstract. Certain non-tempered liftings. The resulting representations on PGSp(4) are the Saito­Kurokawa representations. The lifting is shown). Introduction The classical Saito­Kurokawa lifting associates to each eigenform f S2k-2(SL(2, Z)) with even k

  7. 14 CFR 25.697 - Lift and drag devices, controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Lift and drag devices, controls. 25.697 Section...Control Systems § 25.697 Lift and drag devices, controls. (a) Each lift...established under § 25.101(d). Lift and drag devices must maintain the selected...

  8. Heavy Equipment. Trade and Industrial Education Trade Preparatory Training Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nebraska State Dept. of Education, Lincoln. Div. of Vocational Education.

    One of a series of curriculum guides prepared for the building occupations cluster of the construction/fabrication occupational group, this guide identifies the essentials of the heavy equipment trade as recommended by the successful heavy equipment operator. An instructional program based upon the implementation of the guide is expected to…

  9. Illinois Occupational Skill Standards: Occupational Therapy Cluster.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Occupational Skill Standards and Credentialing Council, Carbondale.

    This document, which is intended to serve as a guide for work force preparation program providers, details the Illinois occupational skill standards for programs preparing students for employment in jobs in occupational therapy. Agency partners involved in this project include: the Illinois State board of Education, Illinois Community College…

  10. VLSI architecture of wavelet transform based on basic lifting elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Jie; Li, Yunsong; Wang, Keyan; Wu, Chengke

    2009-08-01

    In this paper, we propose a lifting architecture based on a basic lifting unit, whose structure performs lifting operations in a repetitive way. By analyzing computational processes in lifting in detail, the reusable Basic Lifting Element (BLE) is presented. The BLE structure is designed and optimized from the viewpoint of hardware implementation. The proposed lifting processor can be executed by arranging BLEs repeatedly. Experimental results show that the proposed architecture can transform any size of tiles with 9/7 filter and 5/3 filter for lossy and lossless compression, respectively. The lifting processor is designed in Verilog HDL and synthesized into Xilinx FPGA, which can run up to 130MHz.

  11. Occupational Noise Exposure Facts

    MedlinePLUS

    ... noise to end it. Occupational Noise Facts Noise + Music Facts Recreational Noise Facts Airport Noise Facts Noise ... noise to end it. Occupational Noise Facts Noise + Music Facts Recreational Noise Facts Airport Noise Facts Noise ...

  12. Occupational Radiation Exposures

    Cancer.gov

    DCEG researchers are studying cancer risks among populations who are occupationally exposed to radiation. Chernobyl Clean-up Workers Mayak Nuclear Facility Workers U.S. Radiologic Technologists Interventional Fluoroscopists Print This Page Occupational

  13. Lift-off of a single particle in an Oldroyd-B fluid

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Ko; N. A. Patankar; D. D. Joseph

    In this paper we study the lift-off of a single circular particle in an Oldroyd-B fluid by two-dimensional direct numerical simulation. A heavy particle, placed on the bottom of the channel, is driven forward by a plane Poiseuille flow. At a certain critical shear Reynolds number the buoyant weight of the particle just balances the upward thrust from the hydrodynamic

  14. Occupational health in the People's Republic of China.

    PubMed Central

    Christiani, D C

    1984-01-01

    China's drive to modernize its economy will produce new occupational health problems even as it resolves earlier ones. Well aware of this, Chinese occupational health experts are intensifying efforts to improve workers' health and establish a modern occupational health program. Occupational lung disease, occupational cancer, heavy metal poisoning, industrial chemical poisoning, and physical factor-induced diseases (noise and heat) have all been targeted for expanded research which will serve as a basis for standard setting. Hazard control efforts include engineering controls, particularly in new construction, limited use of personal protective equipment, and expansion of environmental and medical monitoring. Worker education and professional activities have been expanded. International exchanges have been initiated and will prove occupational health a promising area of scientific cooperation. PMID:6228153

  15. Debbie Rand Department of Occupational

    E-print Network

    Rizzo, Albert "Skip"

    Debbie Rand Department of Occupational Therapy University of Haifa Haifa, Israel Rachel Kizony Department of Occupational Therapy University of Haifa Haifa, Israel & School of Occupational Therapy Hadassah-Hebrew University Jerusalem, Israel Uri Feintuch School of Occupational Therapy Hadassah

  16. 75 FR 31803 - Notice of Issuance of Final Determination Concerning a Lift Unit for an Overhead Patient Lift System

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-04

    ...DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border...a Lift Unit for an Overhead Patient Lift System AGENCY: U.S...Protection, Department of Homeland Security. ACTION: Notice of final...a lift unit for an overhead patient lift system. Based upon...

  17. 75 FR 33320 - Notice of Issuance of Final Determination Concerning a Lift Unit for an Overhead Patient Lift...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-11

    ...DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border...a Lift Unit for an Overhead Patient Lift System; Correction AGENCY...Protection, Department of Homeland Security. ACTION: Notice of final...a lift unit for an overhead patient lift system. The...

  18. Occupational Hearing Loss in Korea

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    In this article, current status of noise exposure in workplaces, trend of workers with noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL), and prevalence of NIHL in workers by industry and job category in Korea were reviewed. In addition, trends of research on the audiological effects such as hearing loss from noise and occupational hearing loss from non-noise in Korea were addressed through reports in industrial audiology. Though noise exposure level has improved, noise still shows the highest rate of cases exceeding exposure limit among workplace hazards. NIHL is the most common occupational disease except work-related disease such as musculoskeletal disorders and cerebrovascular diseases, and NIHL prevalence is thought to be much higher than reported in official publications. Noise affecting hearing comes from various sources such as workplaces, military settings, areas with exposure to high noise, and specific noise sources. There is also occupational hearing loss by non-noise including chemicals such as organic solvents and heavy metals, barotrauma, and trauma due to welding spark. Noise affects daily life through audiological effects such as hearing loss and tinnitus, non-audiological physical effects (e.g., cardiovascular), and psychosocial and behavioral effects. Development of systematic and comprehensive hearing conservation programs for lowering the noise level in workplaces and preventing the NIHL, and preparation of technological, administrative system for its settlement at workplace are urgently needed. PMID:21258593

  19. Health Occupations Cluster Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon State Dept. of Education, Salem.

    Intended to assist the vocational teacher in designing and implementing a cluster program in health occupations, this guide suggests ideas for teaching the specific knowledge and skills that qualify students for entry-level employment in the health occupations field. The knowledge and skills are applicable to 12 occupations: dental assistant;…

  20. Assessment of occupational injuries among Addis Ababa city municipal solid waste collectors: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Collection of household waste is a job which requires repeated heavy physical activities such as lifting, carrying, pulling, and pushing. Like many developing countries, in Ethiopia municipal solid waste is collected manually. Therefore, this study is aimed to assess the extent of occupational injuries and associated factors among solid waste collectors in Addis Ababa City. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among 876 respondents sampled from 92 unions. A pre-tested structured questionnaire and observation check list were used to collect data. Crude odds ratio with 95% CI was computed to see the presence of association between selected independent variables and occupational injury. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was made to see the relative effect of independent variable on the dependent variable by controlling the effect of other variables. To maintain stability, only variables that have a p-value less than 0.30 in the binary logistic regression analysis were kept in the subsequent model. Enter method was used hierarchically. Results The response rate of this study was 97.9%. Female respondents accounted 71.2%. The median age of the study subjects was 33 year (with 52 inter quartile range). The overall occupational injury prevalence rate in the last 12 months was 383 (43.7%). Utilization of personal protective devices and family size in the household were statistically associated with injury. As compared to workers who used personal protective equipments while being on duty, odds of injury among workers not used personal protective equipments were 2.62 higher (AOR?=?2.62, 95% CI: 1.48-4.63). As compared to those who had five and more children, odds of injuries among those who had 3-4 children was reduced by half (AOR?=?0.52, 95% CI: 0.30-0.93). Conclusion The extent of occupational injuries among Addis Ababa city solid waste collectors is present in a level that needs immediate public health action. Implementation of basic occupational health and safety services including training on occupational health and safety, ensuring the provision and use of personal protective devices are highly advisable. PMID:24528849

  1. Insect Flight: Using Drag for Lift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Z. Jane

    2002-11-01

    Airplanes and helicopters are airborne via aerodynamic lift, not drag. So is a hovering insect which beats its wing along a horizontal plane. Consequently, a central focus in the studies of flight is the search for steady and unsteady lift enhancement mechanisms. But it is not apriori clear that an insect should use only lift to hover, especially at low Reynolds numbers where lift and drag are of comparable magnitude. Here I show that a dragonfly, which employs asymmetric strokes along an inclined stroke plane, effectively uses drag to stay aloft. This not only explains the oddity of dragonfly strokes, but also offers a method for creating downward jets of varying widths and speeds, thereby reducing the undesirable horizontal oscillation during hovering. I further suggest that the more familiar symmetric strokes, such as a figure of eight, can be viewed, conceptually, as pairs of dragonfly strokes. Thus most insects can also exploit drag for lift, which highlights an important difference between an insect and a helicopter.

  2. Design of a portable powered seat lift

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weddendorf, Bruce

    1993-01-01

    People suffering from degenerative hip or knee joints find sitting and rising from a seated position very difficult. These people can rely on large stationary chairs at home, but must ask others for assistance when rising from any other chair. An orthopedic surgeon identified to the MSFC Technology Utilization Office the need for development of a portable device that could perform a similar function to the stationary lift chairs. The MSFC Structural Development Branch answered the Technology Utilization Office's request for design of a portable powered seat lift. The device is a seat cushion that opens under power, lifting the user to near-standing positions. The largest challenge was developing a mechanism to provide a stable lift over the large range of motion needed, and fold flat enough to be comfortable to sit on. CAD 3-D modeling was used to generate complete drawings for the prototype, and a full-scale working model of the Seat lift was made based on the drawings. The working model is of low strength, but proves the function of the mechanism and the concept.

  3. Occupational Employment Statistics

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    US occupations are featured in this information-rich resources from the Bureau of Labor Statistics. The 1996 Occupational Employment Statistics Survey differs from previous surveys in that it includes wage data by occupation for the first time. The site contains a description of the survey and complete national and state data for 760 occupations in seven major areas. Included are occupation title, number of employees, hourly mean and median wage, and an OES code number that provides information about the occupation and its employment distribution by wage range where surveyed (distribution is for the national survey only). An occupational search engine is forthcoming. The site also contains information about previous OES surveys back to 1988.

  4. Health Occupations Curriculum. Skills for Nursing Assistant. Volume 3, Unit 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona State Dept. of Education, Phoenix.

    Part of a health occupations program, this instructional unit contains 13 learning modules for use in training nursing assistants. Covered in the modules are (1) making beds, bathing patients, and measuring intake and output; (2) body mechanics, moving and lifting patients, range of motion exercises, and caring for patients in casts or traction;…

  5. Space shuttle lift-off dynamic model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christian, D.

    1976-01-01

    Previously developed dynamic models for the calculation of lift-off dynamic response of the space shuttle vehicle can handle only response of the vehicle with eight holddown arms attached or with all holddown arms detached. The new model developed in the referenced report takes into account the transition period between holddown and lift-off by giving the model the ability to vary holddown point separation as a function of vehicle flexible body and rigid body motion. This report documents a study made to verify the new model's capability to simulate vehicle response at lift-off. To do this, a finite element model of the skirt is made and coupled to the free-free modes of the vehicle and cantilevered modes calculated and compared with the previously developed model. Results indicate that the new model will be able to predict accurate vehicle loads.

  6. Coriolis effects enhance lift on revolving wings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jardin, T.; David, L.

    2015-03-01

    At high angles of attack, an aircraft wing stalls. This dreaded event is characterized by the development of a leading edge vortex on the upper surface of the wing, followed by its shedding which causes a drastic drop in the aerodynamic lift. At similar angles of attack, the leading edge vortex on an insect wing or an autorotating seed membrane remains robustly attached, ensuring high sustained lift. What are the mechanisms responsible for both leading edge vortex attachment and high lift generation on revolving wings? We review the three main hypotheses that attempt to explain this specificity and, using direct numerical simulations of the Navier-Stokes equations, we show that the latter originates in Coriolis effects.

  7. Design of a Versatile, Teleoperable, Towable Lifting Machine with Robotic Capabilities for Use in Nasa's Lunar Base Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, Elizabeth; Ogle, James; Schoppe, Dean

    1989-01-01

    The lifting machine will assist in lifting cargo off of landers sent to the Moon and in the construction of a lunar base. Three possible designs were considered for the overall configuration of the lifting machine: the variable angle crane, the tower crane, and the gantry crane. Alternate designs were developed for the major components of the lifting machine. A teleoperable, variable angle crane was chosen as its final design. The design consists of a telescoping boom mounted to a chassis that is supported by two conical wheels for towing and four outriggers for stability. Attached to the end of the boom is a seven degree of freedom robot arm for light, dexterous, lifting operations. A cable and hook suspends from the end of the boom for heavy, gross, lifting operations. Approximate structural sizes were determined for the lifter and its components. However, further analysis is needed to determine the optimum design dimensions. The design team also constructed a model of the design which demonstrates its features and operating principals.

  8. Implementing a resident lifting system in an extended care hospital. Demonstrating cost-benefit.

    PubMed

    Spiegel, Jerry; Yassi, Analee; Ronald, Lisa A; Tate, Robert B; Hacking, Penny; Colby, Teresa

    2002-03-01

    1. Implemeting mechanical resident lifting equipment in an extended care facility produced a payback from direct savings alone within 4 years. Payback occurred more quickly when the effect of indirect savings or the trend to rising compensation costs was considered. 2. Combining the observations of the occupational health nurses related to staff well being with relevant cost-benefit data is useful in influencing decision makers and in securing funding for prevention measures. 3. Clear identification of a viewpoint is an important part of an economic evaluation and cost-benefit analysis. PMID:11917340

  9. Frequency response of lift control in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Graetzel, Chauncey F.; Nelson, Bradley J.; Fry, Steven N.

    2010-01-01

    The flight control responses of the fruitfly represent a powerful model system to explore neuromotor control mechanisms, whose system level control properties can be suitably characterized with a frequency response analysis. We characterized the lift response dynamics of tethered flying Drosophila in presence of vertically oscillating visual patterns, whose oscillation frequency we varied between 0.1 and 13 Hz. We justified these measurements by showing that the amplitude gain and phase response is invariant to the pattern oscillation amplitude and spatial frequency within a broad dynamic range. We also showed that lift responses are largely linear and time invariant (LTI), a necessary condition for a meaningful analysis of frequency responses and a remarkable characteristic given its nonlinear constituents. The flies responded to increasing oscillation frequencies with a roughly linear decrease in response gain, which dropped to background noise levels at about 6 Hz. The phase lag decreased linearly, consistent with a constant reaction delay of 75 ms. Next, we estimated the free-flight response of the fly to generate a Bode diagram of the lift response. The limitation of lift control to frequencies below 6 Hz is explained with inertial body damping, which becomes dominant at higher frequencies. Our work provides the detailed background and techniques that allow optomotor lift responses of Drosophila to be measured with comparatively simple, affordable and commercially available techniques. The identification of an LTI, pattern velocity dependent, lift control strategy is relevant to the underlying motion computation mechanisms and serves a broader understanding of insects' flight control strategies. The relevance and potential pitfalls of applying system identification techniques in tethered preparations is discussed. PMID:20462877

  10. Listing Occupational Carcinogens

    PubMed Central

    Siemiatycki, Jack; Richardson, Lesley; Straif, Kurt; Latreille, Benoit; Lakhani, Ramzan; Campbell, Sally; Rousseau, Marie-Claude; Boffetta, Paolo

    2004-01-01

    The occupational environment has been a most fruitful one for investigating the etiology of human cancer. Many recognized human carcinogens are occupational carcinogens. There is a large volume of epidemiologic and experimental data concerning cancer risks in different work environments. It is important to synthesize this information for both scientific and public health purposes. Various organizations and individuals have published lists of occupational carcinogens. However, such lists have been limited by unclear criteria for which recognized carcinogens should be considered occupational carcinogens, and by inconsistent and incomplete information on the occupations and industries in which the carcinogenic substances may be found and on their target sites of cancer. Based largely on the evaluations published by the International Agency for Research on Cancer, and augmented with additional information, the present article represents an attempt to summarize, in tabular form, current knowledge on occupational carcinogens, the occupations and industries in which they are found, and their target organs. We have considered 28 agents as definite occupational carcinogens, 27 agents as probable occupational carcinogens, and 113 agents as possible occupational carcinogens. These tables should be useful for regulatory or preventive purposes and for scientific purposes in research priority setting and in understanding carcinogenesis. PMID:15531427

  11. Heavy-Duty Rescue Straps For Coveralls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waddell, Henry M.

    1988-01-01

    New type of strap on coveralls helps rescuers lift victims of industrial accidents. Made of heavy twill. New material, 1 in. wide and has breaking strength of 600 lb, sewn to coveralls with polyester thread in box "X" stitching. Reinforcing nylon webbing, 1 3/4 in. wide sewn with strap at attachment points.

  12. The lift-fan powered-lift aircraft concept: Lessons learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deckert, Wallace H.

    1993-01-01

    This is one of a series of reports on the lessons learned from past research related to lift-fan aircraft concepts. An extensive review is presented of the many lift-fan aircraft design studies conducted by both government and industry over the past 45 years. Mission applications and design integration including discussions on manifolding hot gas generators, hot gas dusting, and energy transfer control are addressed. Past lift-fan evaluations of the Avrocar are discussed. Lessons learned from these past efforts are identified.

  13. Department of Occupational Science and Occupational Therapy Faculty of Medicine

    E-print Network

    Sokolowski, Marla

    1 Department of Occupational Science and Occupational Therapy Faculty of Medicine Master of Science in Occupational Therapy GRADUATE STUDENT HANDBOOK 2013-2014 Revision: October 2013 Information in this Handbook to welcome you to the MScOT program in the Department of Occupational Science and Occupational Therapy

  14. Estimation of an Occupational Choice Model when Occupations Are Misclassified

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Paul

    2009-01-01

    This paper develops an empirical occupational choice model that corrects for misclassification in occupational choices and measurement error in occupation-specific work experience. The model is used to estimate the extent of measurement error in occupation data and quantify the bias that results from ignoring measurement error in occupation codes…

  15. Screening Charged Impurities and Lifting the Orbital Degeneracy in Graphene by Populating Landau Levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luican-Mayer, Adina; Kharitonov, Maxim; Li, Guohong; Lu, Chih-Pin; Skachko, Ivan; Gonçalves, Alem-Mar B.; Watanabe, K.; Taniguchi, T.; Andrei, Eva Y.

    2014-01-01

    We report the observation of an isolated charged impurity in graphene and present direct evidence of the close connection between the screening properties of a 2D electron system and the influence of the impurity on its electronic environment. Using scanning tunneling microscopy and Landau level spectroscopy, we demonstrate that in the presence of a magnetic field the strength of the impurity can be tuned by controlling the occupation of Landau-level states with a gate voltage. At low occupation the impurity is screened, becoming essentially invisible. Screening diminishes as states are filled until, for fully occupied Landau levels, the unscreened impurity significantly perturbs the spectrum in its vicinity. In this regime we report the first observation of Landau-level splitting into discrete states due to lifting the orbital degeneracy.

  16. Industrial hygiene of selected heavy metals

    SciTech Connect

    Woodring, J.L.

    1993-08-01

    The industrial hygiene of heavy metals consists of recognition, evaluation, and control of exposures in the occupational environment. Several of these metals have been in use since ancient times. Reports of health effects and poisonings from overexposures also have a long history. This report discusses the industrial hygiene of the heavy metals, lead, cadmium, mercury, and manganese.

  17. Occupational lung cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Cone, J.E.

    1987-04-01

    The author addresses the attribution of lung cancer to cigarette smoking and the problems of confounding synergistic effects of occupational and other carcinogenic risk factors, as well as the divergent trends of declining smoking rates and increasing rates of lung cancer. He also reviews the existing literature to document associations between lung cancer and occupational exposures. Finally, interventions for prevention of occupational lung cancer are discussed.

  18. Occupational cancer in Italy.

    PubMed Central

    Merler, E; Vineis, P; Alhaique, D; Miligi, L

    1999-01-01

    This article is a discussion of occupational cancer in Italy. The introduction provides the necessary context of Italian industrialization and occupational health regulation. This is followed by a review of Italian epidemiologic studies of occupational cancer risks considered in terms of relative measures of risk and attributable risk of carcinogenic agents or exposure circumstances. We attempt to establish the number of workers exposed to carcinogens in Italy and the intensity of their exposures. Finally, the Italian system of compensation for occupational cancer is discussed. Several cohort and case-control studies have addressed the issue of occupational risks, mostly among male workers. The results of these studies suggest that the growing incidence of and mortality by mesothelioma is explained by the widespread and intense exposure to asbestos in some Italian industrial settings. A high attributable risk of lung tumors among male populations in industrial areas of northern Italy is explained by occupational exposures. However, insufficient data are available for clear definition of the extent and intensity of occupational exposure to carcinogenic substances. In Italy, we must prioritize and maximize resources in occupational cancer epidemiology and revitalize the role of national institutions. Recent legislation has established new regulations on the handling of carcinogenic substances in industrial settings, a new list of occupational diseases, and a national registry of mesothelioma linked to asbestos exposure. These legislative changes are expected to have positive effects. PMID:10350509

  19. The Four Faces of Lifting for the

    E-print Network

    Silverman, Joseph H.

    Brown University 11th Workshop on Elliptic Curve Cryptography Shannon Institute, Dublin, IrelandThe Four Faces of Lifting for the Elliptic Curve Discrete Logarithm Problem Joseph H. Silverman September 5­7, 2007 0 #12;The Elliptic Curve Discrete Logarithm Problem The Elliptic Curve Discrete

  20. Lifts of Convex Sets and Cone Factorizations

    E-print Network

    Parrilo, Pablo A.

    In this paper, we address the basic geometric question of when a given convex set is the image under a linear map of an affine slice of a given closed convex cone. Such a representation or lift of the convex set is especially ...

  1. Multi-Row Cuts Integer Lifting

    E-print Network

    Cornuejols, Gerard P.

    inequality. #12;References on Integer Lifting This talk Conforti, Cornu´ejols and Zambelli Operations Research 2011 Basu, Conforti, Campelo, Cornu´ejols and Zambelli IPCO 2010 Basu, Conforti, Campelo, Cornu 2009 On Qq (extension to Rq due to Basu, Conforti, Cornu´ejols, Zambelli) Let f Rq \\ Zq. If : Rq R

  2. Variable valve lift\\/timing mechanism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. D. Giampa; D. K. Mehaffey

    1988-01-01

    This patent describes variable lift, valve train for an internal combustion engine of the type having a body means defining a cylinder with a port. The valve train includes a valve with an axially extending valve stem located for axial movement between a valve closed an a valve open position relative to the port and normally biased to a valve

  3. The Monoplane as a Lifting Vortex Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blenk, Hermann

    1947-01-01

    In Prandtl's airfoil theory the monoplane was replaced by a single lifting vortex line and yielded fairly practical results. However, the theory remained restricted to the straight wing. Yawed wings and those curved in flight direction could not be computed with this first approximation; for these the chordwise lift distribution must be taken into consideration. For the two-dimensional problem the transition from the lifting line to the lifting surface has been explained by Birnbaum. In the present report the transition to the three-dimensional problem is undertaken. The first fundamental problem involves the prediction of flow, profile, and drag for prescribed circulation distribution on the straight rectangular wing, the yawed wing for lateral boundaries parallel to the direction of flight, the swept-back wing, and the rectangular wing in slipping, with the necessary series developments for carrying through the calculations, the practical range of convergence of which does not comprise the wing tips or the break point of the swept-back wing. The second problem concerns the calculation of the circulation distribution with given profile for a slipping rectangular monoplane with flat profile and aspect ratio 6, and a rectangular wing with cambered profile and variable aspect ratio-the latter serving as check of the so-called conversion formulas of the airfoil theory.

  4. Resugaring: Lifting Evaluation Sequences through Syntactic Sugar

    E-print Network

    Krishnamurthi, Shriram

    Resugaring: Lifting Evaluation Sequences through Syntactic Sugar Justin Pombrio Brown University justinpombrio@cs.brown.edu Shriram Krishnamurthi Brown University sk@cs.brown.edu Abstract Syntactic sugar-specific lan- guages; and even to let programmers extend their language. Un- fortunately, syntactic sugar

  5. A new finite element lifting surface technique

    E-print Network

    Kocurek, James David

    1973-01-01

    for Arbitrary Lifting-Surface Arrangements at Subsonic Speeds, " TN D-5335, July 1969, NASA. Jones, W. P. and Rao, B. M. , "Airloads and Moments on an Aircraft Flying Over a Pair of Inclined Trailing Vortices, " Aircraft Wake Turbulence, Plenum Publishing...

  6. Evolution of curvature invariants and lifting integrability

    E-print Network

    Kamp, Peter H. van der

    Evolution of curvature invariants and lifting integrability Elizabeth L. Mansfield and Peter H. van. These define the curvature and evolution invariants that are associated to curves moving in the given geometry. The syzygy between the curvature and evolution invariants is obtained as a zero curvature relation

  7. View of central lift span truss web of Tensaw River ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of central lift span truss web of Tensaw River Bridge, showing support girders for life house, looking east - Tensaw River Lift Bridge, Spanning Tensaw River at U.S. Highway 90, Mobile, Mobile County, AL

  8. Design of a Thermally-Actuated Gas Lift Safety Valve

    E-print Network

    Gilbertson, Eric W.

    Gas-lifted oil wells are susceptible to failure through malfunction of gas lift valve assemblies (GLV). One failure mode occurs when the GLV check valve fails and product passes into the well annulus, potentially reaching ...

  9. Failure Mode and Sensitivity Analysis of Gas Lift Valves

    E-print Network

    Gilbertson, Eric W.

    Gas-lifted oil wells are susceptible to failure through malfunction of gas lift valves. This is a growing concern as offshore wells are drilled thousands of meters below the ocean floor in extreme temperature and pressure ...

  10. View southeast; west side of lift bridge with reserve basin ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View southeast; west side of lift bridge with reserve basin in background. - Naval Base Philadelphia-Philadelphia Naval Shipyard, Lift Bridge, Mouth of Reserve Basin, League Island, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  11. View southwest; general context of lift bridge from ships in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View southwest; general context of lift bridge from ships in reserve basin. - Naval Base Philadelphia-Philadelphia Naval Shipyard, Lift Bridge, Mouth of Reserve Basin, League Island, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  12. Interior view of eastern lift span, with decking above, looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of eastern lift span, with decking above, looking back from center of span, toward lift mechanism area. - Arlington Memorial Bridge, Spanning Potomac River between Lincoln Memorial & Arlington National Cemetery, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  13. Design of an electronically-actuated gas lift safety valve

    E-print Network

    Yu, Changkuan, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2013-01-01

    Gas lift valves are widely used in oil production fields to pump recycled gas and nitrogen into the production tubing, to sustain production by aerating the oil and lifting it to the ground or sea surface. Today's industry ...

  14. Welding. Occupational Competency Analysis Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Vocational Instructional Materials Lab.

    This Occupational Competency Analysis Profile (OCAP), which is one of a series of OCAPs developed to identify the skills that Ohio employers deem necessary to entering a given occupation/occupational area, lists the occupational, academic, and employability skills required of individuals entering the occupation of welder. The introduction explains…

  15. OCCUPATIONAL ASPIRATION SCALE FOR FEMALES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    JEFFS, GEORGE A.

    OCCUPATIONAL TITLES USABLE IN ASSESSING OCCUPATIONAL GOALS OFSENIOR HIGH SCHOOL FEMALES WERE SELECTED AS THE FIRST STEP IN ESTABLISHING AN OCCUPATIONAL ASPIRATION SCALE FOR FEMALES. A LIST OF 117 OCCUPATIONAL TITLES, COMPILED FROM THREE PREVIOUS STUDIES AND "THE DICTIONARY OF OCCUPATIONAL TITLES," WAS RATED ON A SIX-LEVEL SCALE AS TO ITS GENERAL…

  16. The UBC Department of Occupational Science & Occupational Therapy

    E-print Network

    Handy, Todd C.

    The UBC Department of Occupational Science & Occupational Therapy in conjunction with Celebrate Learning Week presents a Conversations on Occupation Café Wednesday,November 2,2011 from 7:30 to 9:30 pm

  17. Occupational cancer in europe

    PubMed

    Boffetta; Kogevinas

    1999-05-01

    This monograph summarizes the current research on the epidemiology and prevention of occupational cancer in Europe. Eleven peer-reviewed articles offer a composite view of the current status and future perspectives of this discipline at a time of major economic and political changes in Europe. The monograph includes a brief history of occupational cancer research in Europe and the current burden of cancer from occupational exposure. A large portion of the monograph is devoted to reviews of occupational cancer in various European countries or groups of countries. The first two reviews describe those regions with the strongest tradition of research in the field: the Nordic countries and the United Kingdom. These countries are characterized by high-quality cancer registries and routinely collected information on occupation, e.g., on the occasion of censuses, allowing record linkage studies. Four articles address the situation in the remaining large Western European countries--France, Germany, Italy, and Spain. Although these countries have a strong tradition in occupational health research, with the possible exception of Spain, their epidemiologic research dates back only to the 1970s and 1980s; in recent years, however, research on occupational cancer has expanded considerably. The last two articles of the geographic overview describe the occupational cancer research in the Central European countries and the European territories of the Commonwealth of Independent States. The authors of these two articles critically review the available data on occupational cancer from former Socialist countries and provide reliable information on the extent and amount of occupational exposure to carcinogens. The two final articles of the monograph address specific thematic issues: the importance of asbestos as an occupational carcinogen in Europe and the use of routinely collected data to investigate occupational cancer in women, based on the experience in England and Wales. Despite the heterogeneity of these articles, which reflects to a large extent the differences in quality and completeness of the available data on occupational cancer, they represent an original attempt to provide a systematic overview of occupational cancer research in Europe. This publication is originally a partial result of two projects on occupational cancer in Europe funded by the European Commission, Directorate General XII (grants BMH1-CT92-1110 and BMH1-CT95-1100) and has been expanded to include non-European Union countries. PMID:10350503

  18. Detection of Dynamic Power Quality Disturbance Based on Lifting Wavelet

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jian-ping Zhou; Zhi-ping Wang

    2010-01-01

    Lifting wavelet is a useful method to analyze the abrupt signal because lifting wavelet can simultaneously show the local characteristic of time domain signal and frequency domain signal. The dynamic power quality disturbance in modern power supply can usually engender the fault signal such as voltage sag, voltage swell and voltage interruption. Lifting wavelet and Fourier transform are used respectively

  19. 21 CFR 880.5500 - AC-powered patient lift.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 2010-04-01 false AC-powered patient lift. 880.5500 Section 880.5500...Devices § 880.5500 AC-powered patient lift. (a) Identification. An...or mobile, used to lift and transport patients in the horizontal or other...

  20. 14 CFR 25.699 - Lift and drag device indicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Lift and drag device indicator. 25.699 Section...Control Systems § 25.699 Lift and drag device indicator. (a) There must...the pilots the position of each lift or drag device having a separate control...

  1. 14 CFR 25.699 - Lift and drag device indicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Lift and drag device indicator. 25.699 Section...Control Systems § 25.699 Lift and drag device indicator. (a) There must...the pilots the position of each lift or drag device having a separate control...

  2. An Evidence-Based Multidisciplinary Practice Guideline to Reduce the Workload due to Lifting for Preventing Work-Related Low Back Pain.

    PubMed

    Kuijer, P Paul Fm; Verbeek, Jos Ham; Visser, Bart; Elders, Leo Am; Van Roden, Nico; Van den Wittenboer, Marion Er; Lebbink, Marian; Burdorf, Alex; Hulshof, Carel Tj

    2014-01-01

    We developed an evidence-based practice guideline to support occupational safety and health (OSH) professionals in assessing the risk due to lifting and in selecting effective preventive measures for low back pain (LBP) in the Netherlands. The guideline was developed at the request of the Dutch government by a project team of experts and OSH professionals in lifting and work-related LBP. The recommendations for risk assessment were based on the quality of instruments to assess the risk on LBP due to lifting. Recommendations for interventions were based on a systematic review of the effects of worker- and work directed interventions to reduce back load due to lifting. The quality of the evidence was rated as strong (A), moderate (B), limited (C) or based on consensus (D). Finally, eight experts and twenty-four OSH professionals commented on and evaluated the content and the feasibility of the preliminary guideline. For risk assessment we recommend loads heavier than 25 kg always to be considered a risk for LBP while loads less than 3 kg do not pose a risk. For loads between 3-25 kg, risk assessment shall be performed using the Manual handling Assessment Charts (MAC)-Tool or National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) lifting equation. Effective work oriented interventions are patient lifting devices (Level A) and lifting devices for goods (Level C), optimizing working height (Level A) and reducing load mass (Level C). Ineffective work oriented preventive measures are regulations to ban lifting without proper alternatives (Level D). We do not recommend worker-oriented interventions but consider personal lift assist devices as promising (Level C). Ineffective worker-oriented preventive measures are training in lifting technique (Level A), use of back-belts (Level A) and pre-employment medical examinations (Level A). This multidisciplinary evidence-based practice guideline gives clear criteria whether an employee is at risk for LBP while lifting and provides an easy-reference for (in)effective risk reduction measures based on scientific evidence, experience, and consensus among OSH experts and practitioners. PMID:24999432

  3. Occupations and the Farm.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ewert-Krocker, Laurie

    2001-01-01

    Describes "occupation" as a Montessori term, which the Hershey Montessori Farm School, in Huntsburg, Ohio, has adopted for any task arising from the needs of the farm that then generates a scientific or historic study. Includes lists of occupations pursued during 2000-2001 and samples of record forms students used to manage their work. (Author/KB)

  4. Occupational Health Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naval Medical Training Inst., Bethesda, MD.

    This manual is designed to be used for "Administrative Aspects of Occupational Medicine," one of two officer correspondence courses offered by the Naval Medical Training Institute. Part one comprises guidelines for setting up occupational health clinics, covering the areas of staffing, layout, equipment, other services, and records maintenance.…

  5. [Hand and occupational diseases].

    PubMed

    Bensefa-Colas, Lynda; Choudat, Dominique

    2013-12-01

    Hand is frequently the site of work accidents or occupational diseases. The musculoskeletal upper limb is the first recognized occupational disease and carpal tunnel syndrome is the most common of them. The most common location of occupational dermatoses is the hand. Their causes are often multifactorial, involving chemical irritants, physical, allergens and endogenous factors (mainly atopic dermatitis). Occupational exposure to microtrauma and iterative use of vibrating tools may also be the cause of hypothenar hammer syndrome and acrosyndromes. The frequent chronicity and functional impairment induced by these attacks can cause lasting disabilities, an inability to source workstation. Occupational physician is a focal point for helping to maintain the position and the prevention of socioprofessional disinsertion. Many pathologies of the hand related to professional activity may benefit from a statement in occupational disease and thus allow the patient to obtain compensation and employment protection. Prevention of occupational hand diseases should be made by all health actors, especially in occupations and industries at risk. PMID:24134812

  6. Testosterone and Occupational Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dabbs, James M., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Archival data on 4,462 military veterans linked higher levels of serum testosterone to lower-status occupations. A structural equation model was supported in which higher testosterone, mediated through lower intellectual ability, greater antisocial behavior, and lower education, leads away from white-collar occupations. Contains 49 references.…

  7. Occupational asthma: a review.

    PubMed Central

    Lombardo, L J; Balmes, J R

    2000-01-01

    Occupational asthma is the most common form of occupational lung disease in the developed world at the present time. In this review, the epidemiology, pathogenesis/mechanisms, clinical presentations, management, and prevention of occupational asthma are discussed. The population attributable risk of asthma due to occupational exposures is considerable. Current understanding of the mechanisms by which many agents cause occupational asthma is limited, especially for low-molecular-weight sensitizers and irritants. The diagnosis of occupational asthma is generally established on the basis of a suggestive history of a temporal association between exposure and the onset of symptoms and objective evidence that these symptoms are related to airflow limitation. Early diagnosis, elimination of exposure to the responsible agent, and early use of inhaled steroids may play important roles in the prevention of long-term persistence of asthma. Persistent occupational asthma is often associated with substantial disability and consequent impacts on income and quality of life. Prevention of new cases is the best approach to reducing the burden of asthma attributable to occupational exposures. Future research needs are identified. PMID:10931788

  8. Occupational activities and osteoarthritis of the knee

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, Keith T

    2012-01-01

    Background The prevalence of knee osteoarthritis (OA) is rising and the search for interventions to mitigate risk is intensifying. This review considers the contribution of occupational activities to disease occurrence and the lessons for prevention. Sources Systematic search in Embase and Medline covering the period 1996 to November 2011. Areas of agreement Reasonably good evidence exists that physical work activities (especially kneeling, squatting, lifting, and climbing) can cause and/or aggravate knee OA. These exposures should be reduced where possible. Obese workers with such exposures are at additional risk of knee OA and should therefore particularly be encouraged to lose weight. Areas of uncertainty/research need Workplace interventions and policies to prevent knee OA have seldom been evaluated. Moreover, their implementation can be problematic. However, the need for research to optimise the design of work in relation to knee OA is pressing, given population trends towards extended working life. PMID:22544778

  9. Occupational infection in Korea.

    PubMed

    Chung, Yun Kyung; Ahn, Yeon-Soon; Jeong, Jae Sim

    2010-12-01

    Occupational infection is a human disease caused by work-associated exposure to microbial agents through human and environmental contact. According to the literature, occupational infection was the third leading cause of occupational disease (861 cases, 8.0%), and health care, agricultural, forestry, and fishery workers were risk groups in Korea. In addition, most high-risk groups have not been protected by workers' compensation, which could lead to underestimation of the exact spectrum and magnitude of the problem, and may also result in a lack of development and implementation of occupational infection management. Through a review of national guidelines and documentations on prevention and control of occupational infection, a management strategy would promote adherence to worker safety regulations if it is explicit with regard to the agent and mode of infection in each of the high-risk groups. PMID:21258592

  10. Occupational Infection in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Yeon-Soon; Jeong, Jae Sim

    2010-01-01

    Occupational infection is a human disease caused by work-associated exposure to microbial agents through human and environmental contact. According to the literature, occupational infection was the third leading cause of occupational disease (861 cases, 8.0%), and health care, agricultural, forestry, and fishery workers were risk groups in Korea. In addition, most high-risk groups have not been protected by workers' compensation, which could lead to underestimation of the exact spectrum and magnitude of the problem, and may also result in a lack of development and implementation of occupational infection management. Through a review of national guidelines and documentations on prevention and control of occupational infection, a management strategy would promote adherence to worker safety regulations if it is explicit with regard to the agent and mode of infection in each of the high-risk groups. PMID:21258592

  11. Perspectives in Occupational Dermatology

    PubMed Central

    Mathias, C. G. Toby; Maibach, Howard I.

    1982-01-01

    Because large surface areas of the skin are exposed directly to the environment, skin is an organ particularly vulnerable to occupationally induced disease. Statistics show that, excluding accidental injury, nearly half of all occupational illnesses occur in this organ; a fourth of all workers suffering from occupational skin disease lose an average of 10 to 12 workdays. The constant evolution of new industrial chemicals and methods of manufacture continue to bring new skin hazards and disease into the workplace. Occupational health physicians and practitioners, who usually have minimal training in dermatology, must diagnose and treat unfamiliar diseases in a setting of even less familiar, often overwhelming, technology. A thorough understanding of cutaneous defense mechanisms, clinical patterns of occupational skin disease and methods for establishing accurate diagnoses is essential. PMID:6219498

  12. Liposuction-Assisted Medial Thigh Lift in Obese and Non Obese Patients

    PubMed Central

    Aboueldahab, Abdelmohsen Khalaf

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The abdomen, thighs and buttocks are often the areas of greatest concern to patients following massive weight loss due to bariatric surgery. The typical appearance of the patient who has lost a massive amount of weight derives from a combination of factors, including gender-dependent body morphology and a change in body mass index, which lead to skin and soft-tissue excess and poor skin tone. Thigh laxity and redundancy represents a great challenge to both patients and surgeons. Not only because of the difficulty to satisfy the patients, but also due to the higher incidence of complications especially, with those obese patients who have not undergone bariatric surgery before. The problems with such patients are due to the heavy thighs that require both debulking and tight anchorage to prevent scar migration or labial distortion. Aim of the Work: The aim of the present study is to improve the aesthetic outcome and avoid the complications of medial thigh lifting with simultaneous liposuction in obese and non-obese. Patients and Methods: A total of 25 female patients presented during the period from January 2007 to July 2011 complaining of moderate to severe thigh laxity with or without lipodystrophy. In 20 patients medial transverse thigh lift was performed, to treat medial thigh friction and laxity particularly in the upper half. Whereas, in the other five patients were suffering from upper and lower medial thigh bulkiness, vertical thigh lift was performed. Results: All patients recovered well in 2 weeks and showed improvement of thigh contour. Scar downward displacement in one patient. No skin necrosis or seroma. No labial distortion or separation encountered. Conclusion: Simultaneous liposuction and thigh lift gave good results provided proper patients selection, appropriate technique to each patient, meticulous, cautious liposuction and handling of the tissues and most importantly is the deep tight anchorage sutures to guard against the effect of heavy skin flaps. PMID:24470720

  13. Occupations: Military--Civilian Occupational Source Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armed Forces Vocational Testing Group, Universal City, TX.

    Information on enlisted military occupations is offered in the source book to arrive at a comprehensive statement of job tasks in the military service and their similarities to jobs in civilian life. Basic information about five areas of the U.S. military services (Army, Navy, Air Force, Marine Corps, and Coast Guard) focuses on their military…

  14. Static Thrust Analysis of the Lifting Airscrew

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knight, Montgomery; Hefner, Ralph A

    1937-01-01

    This report presents the results of a combined theoretical and experimental investigation conducted at the Georgia School of Technology on the static thrust of the lifting air screw of the type used in modern autogiros and helicopters. The theoretical part of this study is based on Glauert's analysis but certain modifications are made that further clarify and simplify the problem. Of these changes the elimination of the solidity as an independent parameter is the most important. The experimental data were obtained from tests on four rotor models of two, four, and five blades and, in general, agree quite well with the theoretical calculations. The theory indicates a method of evaluating scale effects on lifting air screws, and these corrections have been applied to the model results to derive general full-scale static thrust, torque, and figure-of-merit curves for constant-chord, constant-incidence rotors. Convenient charts are included that enable hovering flight performance to be calculated rapidly.

  15. Lifted tensors and Hamilton-Jacobi separability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waeyaert, G.; Sarlet, W.

    2014-12-01

    Starting from a bundle ? : E ? R, the bundle ? :J1?? ? E, which is the dual of the first jet bundle J1 ? and a sub-bundle of T? E, is the appropriate manifold for the geometric description of time-dependent Hamiltonian systems. Based on previous work, we recall properties of the complete lifts of a type (1 , 1) tensor R on E to both T? E and J1??. We discuss how an interplay between both lifted tensors leads to the identification of related distributions on both manifolds. The integrability of these distributions, a coordinate free condition, is shown to produce exactly Forbat's conditions for separability of the time-dependent Hamilton-Jacobi equation in appropriate coordinates.

  16. Lifted tensors and Hamilton-Jacobi separability

    E-print Network

    G. Waeyaert; W. Sarlet

    2014-07-18

    Starting from a bundle E over R, the dual of the first jet bundle, which is a co-dimension 1 sub-bundle of the cotangent bundle of E, is the appropriate manifold for the geometric description of time-dependent Hamiltonian systems. Based on previous work, we recall properties of the complete lifts of a type (1,1) tensor R on E to both of these manifolds. We discuss how an interplay between these lifted tensors leads to the identification of related distributions on both manifolds. The integrability of these distributions, a coordinate free condition, is shown to produce exactly Forbat's conditions for separability of the time-dependent Hamilton-Jacobi equation in appropriate coordinates.

  17. LIFT Tenant Is Off and Running

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steele, Gynelle C.

    2001-01-01

    Lewis Incubator for Technology (LIFT) tenant, Analiza Inc., graduated from the incubator July 2000. Analiza develops technology and products for the early diagnosis of diseases, quality control of bio-pharmaceutical therapeutics, and other applications involving protein analyses. Technology links with NASA from existing and planned work are in areas of microfluidics and laser light scattering. Since their entry in LIFT in May, 1997, Analiza has: Received a $750,000 grant from the National Institutes of Health. Collaborated with a Nobel Prize winner on drug design. Collaborated with Bristol-Myers Squibb on the characterization of biological therapeutics. Added a Ph.D. senior scientist and several technicians. Received significant interest from major pharmaceutical companies about collaborating and acquiring Analiza technology.

  18. Theta lifting for some cohomologicaly induced representations

    E-print Network

    Cossutta, Mathieu

    2009-01-01

    In his paper 'Theta lifting for representations with non zero cohomlogy', Jian-Shu Li proved that a certain kind of cohomological representations of $U(a,b)$ is automorphic. In this paper, this result is generalized to a more general class of cohomological representations of this group. It comes from the fact that these cohomological representations are the image by the theta correspondance of some representations obtained by cohomological induction. In proving this theorem, we also prove some cases of Adams conjecture.

  19. Lift production in the hovering hummingbird

    PubMed Central

    Warrick, Douglas R.; Tobalske, Bret W.; Powers, Donald R.

    2009-01-01

    Aerodynamic theory and empirical observations of animals flying at similar Reynolds numbers (Re) predict that airflow over hummingbird wings will be dominated by a stable, attached leading edge vortex (LEV). In insects exhibiting similar kinematics, when the translational movement of the wing ceases (as at the end of the downstroke), the LEV is shed and lift production decreases until the energy of the LEV is re-captured in the subsequent half-cycle translation. We here show that while the hummingbird wing is strongly influenced by similar sharp-leading-edge aerodynamics, leading edge vorticity is inconsistent, varying from 0.7 to 26 per cent (mean 16%) of total lift production, is always generated within 3 mm of the dorsal surface of the wing, showing no retrograde (trailing to leading edge) flow, and does not increase from proximal to distal wing as would be expected with a conical vortex (class III LEV) described for hawkmoths. Further, the bound circulation is not shed as a vortex at the end of translation, but instead remains attached and persists after translation has ceased, augmented by the rotation (pronation, supination) of the wing that occurs between the wing-translation half-cycles. The result is a near-continuous lift production through wing turn-around, previously unknown in vertebrates, able to contribute to weight support as well as stability and control during hovering. Selection for a planform suited to creating this unique flow and nearly-uninterrupted lift production throughout the wingbeat cycle may help explain the relatively narrow hummingbird wing. PMID:19656789

  20. Factoring wavelet transforms into lifting steps

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ingrid Daubechies; Wim Sweldens

    1998-01-01

    This article is essentially tutorial in nature. We show how any discrete wavelet transform or two band subband filtering with\\u000a finite filters can be decomposed into a finite sequence of simple filtering steps, which we call lifting steps but that are\\u000a also known as ladder structures. This decomposition corresponds to a factorization of the polyphase matrix of the wavelet\\u000a or

  1. Flame Stabilization Mechanisms in Lifted Flames

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Salvador Navarro-Martinez; Andreas Kronenburg

    Flame stabilization and the mechanisms that govern the dynamics at the flame base of lifted flames have been subject to numerous\\u000a studies in recent years. A combined Large Eddy Simulation-Conditional Moment Closure (LES-CMC) approach has been successful\\u000a in predicting flame ignition and stabilization by auto-ignition, but accurate modelling of the competition between turbulent\\u000a quenching and laminar and turbulent flame propagation

  2. Unified treatment of lifting atmospheric entry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nachtsheim, P. R.; Lehman, L. L.

    1980-01-01

    This paper presents a unified treatment of the effect of lift on peak acceleration during atmospheric entry. Earlier studies were restricted to different regimes because of approximations invoked to solve the same transcendental equation. This paper shows the connection between the earlier studies by employing a general expression for the peak acceleration and obtains solutions to the transcendental equation without invoking the earlier approximations. Results are presented and compared with earlier studies where appropriate.

  3. Analysis of particulates on tape lift samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moision, Robert M.; Chaney, John A.; Panetta, Chris J.; Liu, De-Ling

    2014-09-01

    Particle counts on tape lift samples taken from a hardware surface exceeded threshold requirements in six successive tests despite repeated cleaning of the surface. Subsequent analysis of the particle size distributions of the failed tests revealed that the handling and processing of the tape lift samples may have played a role in the test failures. In order to explore plausible causes for the observed size distribution anomalies, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) were employed to perform chemical analysis on collected particulates. SEM/EDX identified Na and S containing particles on the hardware samples in a size range identified as being responsible for the test failures. ToF-SIMS was employed to further examine the Na and S containing particulates and identified the molecular signature of sodium alkylbenzene sulfonates, a common surfactant used in industrial detergent. The root cause investigation suggests that the tape lift test failures originated from detergent residue left behind on the glass slides used to mount and transport the tape following sampling and not from the hardware surface.

  4. Trimming high lift for STOL fighters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paulson, J. W., Jr.; Quinto, P. F.; Banks, D. W.; Gatlin, G. M.

    1983-01-01

    The results of investigations of three different approaches to obtaining longitudinal trim for advanced fighter configurations with STOL performance are presented. The first, a differential thrust vectoring/reverser nozzle on an F-15 model, was very effective with an increment in pitching moment generated by the 90 deg/50 deg nozzle at military power equal to that which would be produced by a change in horizontal tail deflection of 20 deg. This trim pitching moment was accompanied by a modest loss in lift. The second method involved a nose jet on a supersonic cruise fighter configuration which, when combined with some canard deflection and longitudinal instability, provided trim capability for the configuration with military power setting and main nozzles deflected 43 degrees. Finally, a blown-high-lift canard on an advanced fighter configuration indicated that trim could be obtained across the complete angle-of-attack range tested with thrust set at military power and the main nozzles deflected 40 degrees. There was no loss in configuration lift and a slight increase in longitudinal stability.

  5. Occupational cancer in Britain

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yiqun; Osman, John

    2012-01-01

    Although only a relatively small proportion of cancer is attributable to occupational exposure to carcinogenic agents, the estimated number of deaths due to occupational cancer is high when compared to other deaths due to work-related ill health and injury. However, risk from occupational exposure to carcinogens can be minimised through proportionate but effective risk management. The Health and Safety Executive (HSE) is the regulator of workplace health and safety in Great Britain. As part of its aim to reduce ill health arising from failures to control properly exposure to hazards at work, HSE commissioned the research presented elsewhere in this supplement to enable it to identify priorities for preventing occupational cancer. The research has shown that occupational cancer remains a key health issue and that low-level exposure of a large number of workers to carcinogens is important. The finding that a small number of carcinogens have been responsible for the majority of the burden of occupational cancer provides key evidence in the development of priorities for significant reduction of occupational cancer. Although the research presented in this supplement reflects the consequences of past exposures to carcinogens, occupational cancer remains a problem. The potential for exposure to the agents considered in this research is still present in the workplace and the findings are relevant to prevention of future disease. In this article, the principle approaches for risk reduction are described. It provides supporting information on some of the initiatives already being undertaken, or those being put in place, to reduce occupational cancer in Great Britain. The need also for systematic collection of exposure information and the importance of raising awareness and changing behaviours are discussed. PMID:22710673

  6. Superficial shoulder muscle co-activations during lifting tasks: Influence of lifting height, weight and phase.

    PubMed

    Blache, Y; Dal Maso, F; Desmoulins, L; Plamondon, A; Begon, M

    2015-04-01

    This study aimed to assess the level of co-activation of the superficial shoulder muscles during lifting movement. Boxes containing three different loads (6, 12, and 18kg) were lifted by fourteen subjects from the waist to shoulder or eye level. The 3D kinematics and electromyograms of the three deltoids, latissimus dorsi and pectoralis major were recorded. A musculoskeletal model was used to determine direction of the moment arm of these muscles. Finally an index of muscle co-activation named the muscle focus was used to evaluate the effects of lifting height, weight lifted and phase (pulling, lifting and dropping phases) on superficial shoulder muscle coactivation. The muscle focus was lower (more co-contraction) during the dropping phase compared to the two other phases (-13%, p<0.001). This was explained by greater muscle activations and by a change in the direction of the muscle moment arm as a function of glenohumeral joint position. Consequently, the function of the shoulder superficial muscles varied with respect to the glenohumeral joint position. To increase the superficial muscle coactivation during the dropping phase may be a solution to increase glenohumeral joint stiffness. PMID:25483204

  7. LiftingWiSe: a lifting-based efficient data processing technique in wireless sensor networks.

    PubMed

    Aboelela, Emad

    2014-01-01

    Monitoring thousands of objects which are deployed over large-hard-to-reach areas, is an important application of the wireless sensor networks (WSNs). Such an application requires disseminating a large amount of data within the WSN. This data includes, but is not limited to, the object's location and the environment conditions at that location. WSNs require efficient data processing and dissemination processes due to the limited storage, processing power, and energy available in the WSN nodes. The aim of this paper is to propose a data processing technique that can work under constrained storage, processing, and energy resource conditions. The proposed technique utilizes the lifting procedure in processing the disseminated data. Lifting is usually used in discrete wavelet transform (DWT) operations. The proposed technique is referred to as LiftingWiSe, which stands for Lifting-based efficient data processing technique for Wireless Sensor Networks. LiftingWiSe has been tested and compared to other relevant techniques from the literature. The test has been conducted via a simulation of the monitored field and the deployed wireless sensor network nodes. The simulation results have been analyzed and discussed. PMID:25116902

  8. LiftingWiSe: A Lifting-Based Efficient Data Processing Technique in Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Aboelela, Emad

    2014-01-01

    Monitoring thousands of objects which are deployed over large-hard-to-reach areas, is an important application of the wireless sensor networks (WSNs). Such an application requires disseminating a large amount of data within the WSN. This data includes, but is not limited to, the object's location and the environment conditions at that location. WSNs require efficient data processing and dissemination processes due to the limited storage, processing power, and energy available in the WSN nodes. The aim of this paper is to propose a data processing technique that can work under constrained storage, processing, and energy resource conditions. The proposed technique utilizes the lifting procedure in processing the disseminated data. Lifting is usually used in discrete wavelet transform (DWT) operations. The proposed technique is referred to as LiftingWiSe, which stands for Lifting-based efficient data processing technique for Wireless Sensor Networks. LiftingWiSe has been tested and compared to other relevant techniques from the literature. The test has been conducted via a simulation of the monitored field and the deployed wireless sensor network nodes. The simulation results have been analyzed and discussed. PMID:25116902

  9. Occupational Titles Including Job Descriptions for Health Occupations Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    East Texas State Univ., Commerce. Occupational Curriculum Lab.

    This alphabetical compilation of 80 occupational titles for health occupations education is taken from the Dictionary of Occupational Titles, (DOT), 4th edition, 1977. An index shows the arrangement of the occupational titles (together with instructional program and DOT code) according to the United States Office of Education code numbers. For…

  10. Health Occupation Drilldowns for Milwaukee County

    E-print Network

    Saldin, Dilano

    Licensed Practical Nurses Dental Hygienists Occupational Therapists Occupational Therapy Assistants nurses, dental hygienists, occupational therapists, occupational therapy assistants, physical therapistsHealth Occupation Drilldowns for Milwaukee County Registered Nurses by Year License Granted

  11. Group Lifting Structures For Multirate Filter Banks, I: Uniqueness Of Lifting Factorizations

    SciTech Connect

    Brislawn, Christopher M [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    This paper studies two-channel finite impulse response (FIR) perfect reconstruction filter banks. The connection between filter banks and wavelet transforms is well-known and will not be treated here. Figure 1 depicts the polyphase-with-advance representation of a filter bank [6]. A lifting factorization, is a factorization of polyphase matrices into upper and lower triangular lifting matrices. The existence of such decompositions via the Euclidean algorithm was shown for general FIR perfect reconstruction filter banks in [9] and was subsequently refined for linear phase filter banks in [10], [6]. These latter works were motivated by the ISO JPEG 2000 image coding standard [11], [12], [10], which specifies whole-sample symmetric (WS, or FIR type 1 linear phase) filter banks, as in Figure 2(a), in terms of half-sample symmetric (RS, or FIR type 2) lifting filters.

  12. Occupational hearing loss

    MedlinePLUS

    Over time, repeated exposure to loud noise and music can cause hearing loss. Occupational hearing loss is ... Airline ground maintenance Construction Farming Jobs involving loud music or machinery In the U.S., the maximum job ...

  13. American Occupational Therapy Association

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Industry Manage Your Practice Evidence-Based Practice & Research Ethics Occupational Therapy Assistants Advocacy & Policy Federal Affairs Update ... healthy—while having fun. Patients & Clients For Professionals Ethics Home -A +A Listen Stop the Cap Conference ...

  14. Determining safe limits for significant task parameters during manual lifting.

    PubMed

    Singh, Ravindra Pratrap; Batish, Ajay; Singh, Tejinder Pal

    2014-04-01

    This experimental study investigated the effect of lifting task parameters (i.e., lifting weight, frequency, coupling, asymmetric angle, and vertical, horizontal, and travel distances) for various dynamic human lifting activities on the ground reaction forces of workers. Ten male workers loaded containers from different levels asymmetrically during experimental trials. The experimental design evolved using Taguchi's Fractional Factorial Experiments. Three factors (lifting weight, frequency, and vertical distance) were observed to be significant. The results showed that vertical reaction forces increase when workers lift weight from floor to shoulder height frequently. It was also observed that instantaneous loading rate increases with more weight, vertical distance, and frequency; a significant extra loading rate is required to change the lower level of load, frequency, and vertical distance to higher levels. Safe limits for significant factors were determined to result in optimal performance of the manual lifting task. PMID:24702682

  15. Lift enhancement by dynamically changing wingspan in forward flapping flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shizhao; Zhang, Xing; He, Guowei; Liu, Tianshu

    2014-06-01

    Dynamically stretching and retracting wingspan has been widely observed in the flight of birds and bats, and its effects on the aerodynamic performance particularly lift generation are intriguing. The rectangular flat-plate flapping wing with a sinusoidally stretching and retracting wingspan is proposed as a simple model for biologically inspired dynamic morphing wings. Numerical simulations of the low-Reynolds-number flows around the flapping morphing wing are conducted in a parametric space by using the immersed boundary method. It is found that the instantaneous and time-averaged lift coefficients of the wing can be significantly enhanced by dynamically changing wingspan in a flapping cycle. The lift enhancement is caused by both changing the lifting surface area and manipulating the flow structures responsible to the vortex lift generation. The physical mechanisms behind the lift enhancement are explored by examining the three-dimensional flow structures around the flapping wing.

  16. Aerodynamic characteristics of a propeller powered high lift semispan wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takallu, M. A.; Gentry, G. L., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted on the engine/airframe integration aerodynamics for potential high-lift aircraft configurations. The model consisted of a semispan wing with a double-isolated flap system and a Krueger leading edge device. The advanced propeller and the powered nacelle were tested and aerodynamic characteristics of the combined system are presented. It was found that the lift coefficient of the powered wing could be increased by the propeller slipstream when the rotational speed was increased and high-lift devices were deployed. Moving the nacelle/propeller closer to the wing in the vertical direction indicated higher lift augmentation than a shift in the longitudinal direction. A pitch-down nacelle inclination enhanced the lift performance of the system much better than vertical and horizontal variation of the nacelle locations and showed that the powered wing can sustain higher angles of attack near maximum lift performance.

  17. Back injury prevention: a lift team success story.

    PubMed

    Hefti, Kelly S; Farnham, Richard J; Docken, Lisa; Bentaas, Ruth; Bossman, Sharon; Schaefer, Jill

    2003-06-01

    Work related back injuries among hospital personnel account for high volume, high cost workers' compensation claims. These injuries can be life altering experiences, affecting both the personal and professional lives of injured workers. Lifting must be viewed as a skill involving specialized training and mandated use of mechanical equipment, rather than as a random task performed by numerous health care providers. The use of a lift team specially trained in body mechanics, lifting techniques, and the use of mandated mechanical equipment can significantly affect injury data, financial outcomes, and employee satisfaction. The benefits of a lift team extend beyond the effect on injury and financial outcomes--they can be used for recruitment and retention strategies, and team members serve as mentors to others by demonstrating safe lifting techniques. Ultimately, a lift team helps protect a valuable resource--the health care worker. PMID:12846457

  18. An ergonomics approach model to prevention of occupational musculoskeletal injuries.

    PubMed

    Koltan, Altan

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to prevent occupational musculoskeletal injuries. Our workers stacked boxes of ceramics weighing 10-27 kg, making low back pain common in our enterprise. In all the stacking stations, recommended weight limits (RWL) were separately calculated using the revised National Institute for Occupational Health lifting equation. Since the boxes weighed significantly more than the RWL, we developed a new ergonomic design that completely changed the stacking process. The load put on the workers' waist vertebrae in the new and the old stacking methods was compared to evaluate the success of the new ergonomic design, using Newton's third law of motion. Thanks to the new ergonomic design, the load on the workers' vertebrae decreased by 80%. Due to its simple technology and its very low cost compared to robots, the new ergonomic design can be commonly used in enterprises with repeated and constraining stacking. PMID:19272245

  19. Analysis of interacting dual lifting ejector systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lund, T. S.; Tavella, D. A.; Roberts, L.

    1986-01-01

    An analytical treatment is presented for a flowfield generated by a pair of interacting, two-dimensional parallel jets, representative of the two exhaust streams issuing from the thrust augmentor nozzles of dual lifting jet VTOL aircraft propulsion systems. Predictions of the analysis for the ratio of primary to secondary velocity are in close agreement with experimentally observed values, if the spreading rate parameter is allowed to assume a value greater than that which applies to a free jet. Theoretical results are combined with existing experimental data for unventilated jets, in order to arrive at an estimate of the thrust augmentation produced by a jet pair with an arbitrary degree of ventilation.

  20. Labyrinth seal testing for lift fan engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dobek, L. J.

    1973-01-01

    An abradable buffered labyrinth seal for the control of turbine gas path leakage in a tip-turbine driven lift fan was designed, tested, and analyzed. The seal configuration was not designed to operate in any specific location but was sized to be evaluated in an existing test rig. The final sealing diameter selected was 28 inches. Results of testing indicate that the flow equations predicted seal air flows consistent with measured values. Excellent sealing characteristics of the abradable coating on the stator land were demonstrated when a substantial seal penetration of .030 inch into the land surface was encountered without appreciable wear on the labyrinth knife edges.

  1. The structural optimization of a spreader bar for twin lift helicopter operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dobyns, A.

    1984-01-01

    An optimization study was performed to develop a minimum weight spreader bar to allow two helicopters to lift the same payload. With this arrangement, the maximum payload that can be lifted is almost doubled without the expense of designing and building a new helicopter. The concept has had some limited use by civil helicopter operators using small helicopters and has been demonstrated in large scale by two CH-54's which successfully lifted a total load of 20 ton. To this point, rather heavy available beams or tower structures have been used for the spreader bar. Since the weight of the bar not only detracts from payload but also adds to the logistics problem, there are more than the usual incentives to minimize weight. Since the design requirement is for classic beam column with uniform side loads resulting from bar weight and aerodynamic drag, the design problem is particularly amenable to optimization. A study has been performed at Sikorsky to establish the minimum weight for a spreader bar sized to carry a load equal to the capacity of two Army BLACK HAWK helicopters. Toward this end, a computer program was written to analyze the spreader bar deflections and stresses and coupled to the NASA developed CONMIN optimization routines.

  2. Field application of diamond-bit hydraulic-lift principles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. J. Winters; T. M. Warren

    1986-01-01

    Hydraulic lift can have a major effect on the operation of diamond drill bits. The actual weight on bit (WOB) is less than the measured weight by the amount of hydraulic lift, or pumpoff force, acting beneath the bit. Pumpoff forces in excess of 15,000 lbf (67 kN) have been recorded. Historically, the hydraulic-lift effect has been recognized but not

  3. Lift Fan Nozzle for Joint Strike Fighter Tested in NASA Lewis' Powered Lift Rig

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lam, David W.

    1998-01-01

    Under a nonreimbursable space act agreement between the NASA Lewis Research Center and the Allison Advanced Development Company, Allison tested a lift fan nozzle in Lewis' Powered Lift Rig. This test was in support of the Joint Strike Fighter program (formerly the Joint Advanced Strike Technology) sponsored by the Department of Defense, which will develop and field an affordable, multirole, next-generation, strike fighter aircraft for the Navy, Air Force, Marine Corps, and foreign allies. Allison, along with Pratt & Whitney Company, is part of the Lockheed Martin Corporation team that is scheduled to build a concept demonstrator aircraft by fiscal year 2001. The test was initiated in April and successfully completed in mid-July of 1997. Allison supplied a one-third-scale model of the lift fan nozzle, and Lewis provided the facility and the necessary support team. Various configurations, including pitching vectored angles ranging from 15deg forward to 60deg backward, were tested over a range of nozzle pressure ratios. Nozzle flow rates, thrust, and static pressures were measured for each of the configurations. Results from the test met the design requirements for the Joint Strike Fighter program and were in agreement with Allison's internal computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analyses. Data obtained from this test will also be used in the full-scale design of the lift fan system.

  4. Interior room within eastern lift span, showing auxiliary electric generator. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior room within eastern lift span, showing auxiliary electric generator. - Arlington Memorial Bridge, Spanning Potomac River between Lincoln Memorial & Arlington National Cemetery, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  5. Gas lift valve utilizing a diaphragm pilot

    SciTech Connect

    Kilgore, M.D.

    1991-12-03

    This patent describes a gas lift valve for use in a gas lift well having a well tubing. It includes: body means having a low passage therethrough having inlet means at one end thereof and outlet means at the other end thereof, the inlet means including first and second spaced apart inlet openings; means on the body for attachment to means for securing the same in the well tubing such that the outlet means is in fluid communication with the interior of the well tubing and the inlet means is in fluid communication with the exterior of the well tubing; main valve seat means in the body means located between the first and second inlet openings; main valve means including an annular main valve member in the body means having a bore therethrough and a seat surface thereon and being movable between a first closed position of engagement of its seat surface with the main valve seat means for preventing fluid flow through its bore and a second open position wherein the main valve member is spaced from the main valve seat for permitting fluid flow therethrough.

  6. Modification of integrated partial payload lifting assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Groah, Melodie; Haddock, Michael; Woodworth, Warren

    1986-01-01

    The Integrated Partial Payload Lifting Assembly (IPPLA) is currently used to transport and load experimental payloads into the cargo bay of the Space Shuttle. It is unable to carry the astronaut/passenger tunnel without a structural modification. The purpose of this design is to create a removalbe modification that will allow the IPPLA to lift and carry the passenger tunnel. Modifications evaluated were full-length insert beams which would extend through the existing strongback arms. These beam proposals were eliminated because of high cost and weight. Other proposals evaluated were attachments of cantilever beams to the existing strongback areas. The cantilever proposals reduced cost and weight compared to the full-length modifications. A third method evaluated was to simply make modifications to one side of the IPPLA therefore reducing the materials of the cantilever proposals by 40 percent. The design of the modification selected was completed with two channel beams jointly welded to a centered steel plate. The extension arm modification is inserted into the existing strongback channel beams and bolted into place. Two extension arms are added to one side of the IPPLA to provide the extra length needed to accommodate the passenger tunnel. The center counterbalance will then be offset about 20 inches to center gravity and therefore maintain horizontal status. The extension arm modification was selected because of minimum cost, low weight, and minimal installation time.

  7. Lift augmentation for highly swept wing aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rao, Dhanvada M. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A pair of spaced slots, disposed on each side of an aircraft centerline and spaced well inboard of the wing leading edges, are provided in the wing upper surfaces and directed tangentially spanwise toward thin sharp leading wing edges of a highly swept, delta wing aircraft. The slots are individually connected through separate plenum chambers to separate compressed air tanks and serve, collectively, as a system for providing aircraft lift augmentation. A compressed air supply is tapped from the aircraft turbojet power plant. Suitable valves, under the control of the aircraft pilot, serve to selective provide jet blowing from the individual slots to provide spanwise sheets of jet air closely adjacent to the upper surfaces and across the aircraft wing span to thereby create artificial vortices whose suction generate additional lift on the aircraft. When desired, or found necessary, unequal or one-side wing blowing is employed to generate rolling moments for augmented lateral control. Trailing flaps are provided that may be deflected differentially, individually, or in unison, as needed for assistance in take-off or landing of the aircraft.

  8. Lift Every Voice: Music in American Life

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2001-01-01

    The University of Virginia Library is hosting a special exhibition called Lift Every Voice, named after a hymn composed by two African-American brothers in the days of the Jim Crow South and aiming to inspire the struggle for equal rights. The Lift Every Voice exhibition commemorates and celebrates a variety of songs that were a part of everyday American life through the centuries. No time to visit Virginia? Then visit the exhibition's Website and enjoy reading about the history behind our country's ballads, hymns, patriotic anthems, minstrels, musicals, and protest songs while listening to audio clips of selected songs (QuickTime, MP3). The text is enriched by digital images of historical papers, compiled by Virginia's Albert H. Small Special Collections Library, including musical scores, photos of musicians, and printed lyrics. The site also contains a section on Thomas Jefferson's relationship to music in the Old South, with digital images of texts from Jefferson's library and, of course, a sample of "Carry Me Back to Old Virginny."

  9. Occupation and gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Raj, A; Mayberry, J; Podas, T

    2003-01-01

    Gastric cancer is a cause of significant morbidity and mortality. There are several risk factors, with occupation emerging as one of these. There is considerable evidence that occupations in coal and tin mining, metal processing, particularly steel and iron, and rubber manufacturing industries lead to an increased risk of gastric cancer. Other "dusty" occupations—for example, wood processing, or work in high temperature environments have also been implicated but the evidence is not strong. The mechanism of pathogenesis of gastric cancer is unclear and the identification of causative agents can be difficult. Dust is thought to be a contributor to the pathological process, but well known carcinogens such as N-nitroso compounds have been detected in some environments. Further research on responsible agents is necessary and screening for detection of precursor gastric cancer lesions at the workplace merits consideration. PMID:12782770

  10. Occupational Asthma in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyoo Sang

    2010-01-01

    Occupational asthma (OA) is the leading occupational respiratory disease. Cases compensated as OA by the Korea Workers' Compensation and Welfare Service (COMWEL) (218 cases), cases reported by a surveillance system (286 cases), case reports by related scientific journals and cases confirmed by the Occupational Safety and Health Research Institute (OSHRI) over 15 yr from 1992 to 2006 were analyzed. Annual mean incidence rate was 1.6 by compensation and 3.5 by surveillance system, respectively. The trend appeared to increase according to the surveillance system. Incidence was very low compared with other countries. The most frequently reported causative agent was isocyanate followed by reactive dye in dyeing factories. Other chemicals, metals and dust were also found as causative agents. OA was underreported according to compensation and surveillance system data. In conclusion, a more effective surveillance system is needed to evaluate OA causes and distribution, and to effectively prevent newly developing OA. PMID:21258586

  11. Occupational lung cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Coultas, D.B.; Samet, J.M. (Department of Medicine, University of New Mexico School of Medicine, Albuquerque (United States))

    1992-06-01

    The overall importance of occupational agents as a cause of lung cancer has been a controversial subject since the 1970s. A federal report, released in the late 1970s, projected a surprisingly high burden of occupational lung cancer; for asbestos and four other agents, from 61,000 to 98,000 cases annually were attributed to these agents alone. Many estimates followed, some much more conservative. For example, Doll and Peto estimated that 15% of lung cancer in men and 5% in women could be attributed to occupational exposures. A number of population-based case-control studies also provide relevant estimates. In a recent literature review, Vineis and Simonato cited attributable risk estimates for occupation and lung cancer that ranged from 4% to 40%; for asbestos alone, the estimates ranged from 1% to 5%. These estimates would be expected to vary across locations and over time. Nevertheless, these recent estimates indicate that occupation remains an important cause of lung cancer. Approaches to Prevention. Prevention of lung cancer mortality among workers exposed to agents or industrial processes that cause lung cancer may involve several strategies, including eliminating or reducing exposures, smoking cessation, screening, and chemo-prevention. For example, changes in industrial processes that have eliminated or reduced exposures to chloromethyl ethers and nickel compounds have provided evidence of reduced risk of lung cancer following these changes. Although occupational exposures are important causes of lung cancer, cigarette smoking is the most important preventable cause of lung cancer. For adults, the work site offers an important location to target smoking cessation efforts. In fact, the work site may be the only place to reach many smokers.

  12. High-Lift Systems on Commercial Subsonic Airliners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudolph, Peter K. C.

    1996-01-01

    The early breed of slow commercial airliners did not require high-lift systems because their wing loadings were low and their speed ratios between cruise and low speed (takeoff and landing) were about 2:1. However, even in those days the benefit of high-lift devices was recognized. Simple trailing-edge flaps were in use, not so much to reduce landing speeds, but to provide better glide-slope control without sideslipping the airplane and to improve pilot vision over the nose by reducing attitude during low-speed flight. As commercial-airplane cruise speeds increased with the development of more powerful engines, wing loadings increased and a real need for high-lift devices emerged to keep takeoff and landing speeds within reasonable limits. The high-lift devices of that era were generally trailing-edge flaps. When jet engines matured sufficiently in military service and were introduced commercially, airplane speed capability had to be increased to best take advantage of jet engine characteristics. This speed increase was accomplished by introducing the wing sweep and by further increasing wing loading. Whereas increased wing loading called for higher lift coefficients at low speeds, wing sweep actually decreased wing lift at low speeds. Takeoff and landing speeds increased on early jet airplanes, and, as a consequence, runways worldwide had to be lengthened. There are economical limits to the length of runways; there are safety limits to takeoff and landing speeds; and there are speed limits for tires. So, in order to hold takeoff and landing speeds within reasonable limits, more powerful high-lift devices were required. Wing trailing-edge devices evolved from plain flaps to Fowler flaps with single, double, and even triple slots. Wing leading edges evolved from fixed leading edges to a simple Krueger flap, and from fixed, slotted leading edges to two- and three-position slats and variable-camber (VC) Krueger flaps. The complexity of high-lift systems probably peaked on the Boeing 747, which has a VC Krueger flap and triple-slotted, inboard and outboard trailing-edge flaps. Since then, the tendency in high-lift system development has been to achieve high levels of lift with simpler devices in order to reduce fleet acquisition and maintenance costs. The intent of this paper is to: (1) review available high-lift devices, their functions, and design criteria; (2) appraise high-lift systems presently in service on commercial air liners; (3) present personal study results on high-lift systems; (4) develop a weight and cost model for high-lift systems; and (5) discuss the development tendencies of future high-lift systems.

  13. AFC-Enabled Simplified High-Lift System Integration Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartwich, Peter M.; Dickey, Eric D.; Sclafani, Anthony J.; Camacho, Peter; Gonzales, Antonio B.; Lawson, Edward L.; Mairs, Ron Y.; Shmilovich, Arvin

    2014-01-01

    The primary objective of this trade study report is to explore the potential of using Active Flow Control (AFC) for achieving lighter and mechanically simpler high-lift systems for transonic commercial transport aircraft. This assessment was conducted in four steps. First, based on the Common Research Model (CRM) outer mold line (OML) definition, two high-lift concepts were developed. One concept, representative of current production-type commercial transonic transports, features leading edge slats and slotted trailing edge flaps with Fowler motion. The other CRM-based design relies on drooped leading edges and simply hinged trailing edge flaps for high-lift generation. The relative high-lift performance of these two high-lift CRM variants is established using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) solutions to the Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations for steady flow. These CFD assessments identify the high-lift performance that needs to be recovered through AFC to have the CRM variant with the lighter and mechanically simpler high-lift system match the performance of the conventional high-lift system. Conceptual design integration studies for the AFC-enhanced high-lift systems were conducted with a NASA Environmentally Responsible Aircraft (ERA) reference configuration, the so-called ERA-0003 concept. These design trades identify AFC performance targets that need to be met to produce economically feasible ERA-0003-like concepts with lighter and mechanically simpler high-lift designs that match the performance of conventional high-lift systems. Finally, technical challenges are identified associated with the application of AFC-enabled highlift systems to modern transonic commercial transports for future technology maturation efforts.

  14. Occupational Orientation: Personal and Public Service Occupations. Experimental Curriculum Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois State Office of Education, Springfield.

    These experimental curriculum materials for one of five clusters developed for the occupational orientation program in Illinois include a series of learning activity packages (LAPs) designed to acquaint the student with the wide range of occupational choices available in the personal and public service occupations field. The 29 LAPS, each focusing…

  15. Occupational Therapy and Occupational Science: Past and Future

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Don Gordon

    2004-01-01

    The history of occupational therapy as generally understood is conspicuously without any reference to the role of science in the founders’ vision of occupational therapy. However, the founders understood the clear need to delineate a scientific basis for understanding the healing power of occupation in terms of both the present and the future of the fledgling profession. This presentation will

  16. A current global view of environmental and occupational cancers.

    PubMed

    Yang, Mihi

    2011-07-01

    This review is focused on current information of avoidable environmental pollution and occupational exposure as causes of cancer. Approximately 2% to 8% of all cancers are thought to be due to occupation. In addition, occupational and environmental cancers have their own characteristics, e.g., specific chemicals and cancers, multiple factors, multiple causation and interaction, or latency period. Concerning carcinogens, asbestos/silica/wood dust, soot/polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons [benzo(a) pyrene], heavy metals (arsenic, chromium, nickel), aromatic amines (4-aminobiphenyl, benzidine), organic solvents (benzene or vinyl chloride), radiation/radon, or indoor pollutants (formaldehyde, tobacco smoking) are mentioned with their specific cancers, e.g., lung, skin, and bladder cancers, mesothelioma or leukemia, and exposure routes, rubber or pigment manufacturing, textile, painting, insulation, mining, and so on. In addition, nanoparticles, electromagnetic waves, and climate changes are suspected as future carcinogenic sources. Moreover, the aspects of environmental and occupational cancers are quite different between developing and developed countries. The recent follow-up of occupational cancers in Nordic countries shows a good example for developed countries. On the other hand, newly industrializing countries face an increased burden of occupational and environmental cancers. Developing countries are particularly suffering from preventable cancers in mining, agriculture, or industries without proper implication of safety regulations. Therefore, industrialized countries are expected to educate and provide support for developing countries. In addition, citizens can encounter new environmental and occupational carcinogen nominators such as nanomaterials, electromagnetic wave, and climate exchanges. As their carcinogenicity or involvement in carcinogenesis is not clearly unknown, proper consideration for them should be taken into account. For these purposes, new technologies with a balance of environment and gene are required. Currently, various approaches with advanced technologies--genomics, exposomics, etc.--have accelerated development of new biomarkers for biological monitoring of occupational and environmental carcinogens. These advanced approaches are promising to improve quality of life and to prevent occupational and environmental cancers. PMID:21929381

  17. Solid state lift for micrometering in a fuel injector

    SciTech Connect

    Milam, David M. (Metamora, IL); Carroll, Thomas S. (Peoria, IL); Lee, Chien-Chang (Rochester Hills, MI); Miller, Charles R. (Metamora, IL)

    2002-01-01

    A fuel injector performs main fuel injection by raising fuel pressure in a nozzle chamber to lift a check valve member to a fully open position, and performs preinjection or microinjection by operating a solid state motor to lift the check valve member a much smaller distance.

  18. Does hydraulic lift or nighttime transpiration facilitate nitrogen acquistion?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It has been proposed that plant species that hydraulically lift water to dry shallow soil layers should have improved nutrient relations. Yet, this idea has not been adequately tested. We choose ten Sarcobatus vermiculatus plants with different magnitudes of hydraulic lift to examine the hypothesis...

  19. UF{sub 6} cylinder lifting equipment enhancements

    SciTech Connect

    Hortel, J.M. [Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Piketon, OH (United States)

    1991-12-31

    This paper presents numerous enhancements that have been made to the Portsmouth lifting equipment to ensure the safe handling of cylinders containing liquid uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}). The basic approach has been to provide redundancy to all components of the lift path so that any one component failure would not cause the load to drop or cause any undesirable movement.

  20. Lifting girder details, 1941, drawn by Waddell and Hardesty, New ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Lifting girder details, 1941, drawn by Waddell and Hardesty, New York, New York. Drawing in collection of Caretaker Site Office, Philadelphia Naval Business Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. - Naval Base Philadelphia-Philadelphia Naval Shipyard, Lift Bridge, Mouth of Reserve Basin, League Island, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  1. Floor system of lift span, detail, 1941, drawn by Waddell ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Floor system of lift span, detail, 1941, drawn by Waddell and Hardesty, New York, New York. Drawing in collection of Caretaker Site Office, Philadelphia Naval Business Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. - Naval Base Philadelphia-Philadelphia Naval Shipyard, Lift Bridge, Mouth of Reserve Basin, League Island, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  2. Lift span trusses; plans, sections and elevations, 1941, drawn by ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Lift span trusses; plans, sections and elevations, 1941, drawn by Waddell and Hardesty, New York, New York. Drawing in collection of Caretaker Site Office, Philadelphia Naval Business Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. - Naval Base Philadelphia-Philadelphia Naval Shipyard, Lift Bridge, Mouth of Reserve Basin, League Island, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  3. Fuel effects on flame lift-off under diesel conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Persson, Helena; Andersson, Oeivind; Egnell, Rolf [Lund University (Sweden). Dept. of Energy Sciences

    2011-01-15

    An apparent relation between the lift-off length under diesel conditions and the ignition quality of a fuel has previously been reported. To cast light on the underlying mechanism, the current study aims to separate flame lift-off effects of the chemical ignition delay from those of other fuel properties under diesel conditions. Flame lift-off was measured in an optical diesel engine by high-speed video imaging of OH-chemiluminescence. Fuel and ambient-gas properties were varied during the experiment. Only a weak correlation was found between ignition delay and lift-off length. The data indicate that this correlation is due to a common, stronger correlation with the ambient oxygen concentration. The chemical ignition delay and the fuel type had similar, weak effects on the lift-off length. A recently proposed mechanism for lift-off stabilization was used to interpret the results. It assumes that reactants approaching the lift-off position of the jet are mixed with high-temperature products found along the edges of the flame, which trigger autoignition. In this picture, the fuel effect is most likely due to differences in the amount of mixing with high-temperature products that is required for autoignition. In the current experiment, all lift-off effects seem to arise from variations in the reactant and product temperatures, induced by fuel and ambient properties. (author)

  4. Stabilization mechanisms of lifted laminar flames in axisymmetric jet flows

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yung-Cheng Chen; Robert W. Bilger

    2000-01-01

    Stabilization mechanisms of lifted laminar propane flames are investigated in an axisymmetric jet flow configuration. Detailed mixing and flow fields upstream of the flame lift-off heights measured by Chung and coworkers [28–30] are calculated on a nonreacting flow basis. The local stoichiometric axial velocity, Ust, and scalar dissipation rate, ?st, are obtained at points that are upstream of the stabilization

  5. Stabilization mechanisms of lifted laminar flames in axisymmetric jet flows

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yung-Cheng Chen; Robert W. Bilger

    2000-01-01

    Stabilization mechanisms of lifted laminar propane flames are investigated in an axisymmetric jet flow configuration. Detailed mixing and flow fields upstream of the flame lift-off heights measured by Chung and coworkers are calculated on a nonreacting flow basis. Jet exit velocity, nozzle diameter, coflow air velocity as well as partial jet premixing with air are varied to obtain the local

  6. Comparison of combined versus separate lift\\/propulsion systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. M. Barrows

    1980-01-01

    The notion of using the magnetic attractive force of a single-sided linear induction motor (SLIM) for suspension of a vehicle has recently received some attention. There is, therefore, some interest in determining how such a combined suspension\\/propulsion system would compare to separate lift and propulsion. Weight requirements of transverse flux dc lift magnets are calculated as a function of vehicle

  7. Control of Variable Valve Lift Engine by Nonlinear MPC

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Akihiro Murayama; Masaki Yamakita

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we purpose a control system of engine torque for a V6 spark ignition engine with a variable valve lift system. We apply a nonlinear receding horizon control to a benchmark problem where we assume that the control inputs are throttle angle, variable valve lift and ignition timing. Moreover, a fuel injection control is also developed by estimating

  8. Correction of lift coefficient for tandem circular-cascade diffusers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Hayami; Y. Senoo; F. Kitayama

    1985-01-01

    The interaction between two rows of cascades is discussed quantitatively. The lift characteristics of each cascade of a tandem cascade are calculated numerically based on a two-dimensional potential theory, and the result is compared with the lift characteristics of the individual cascades without mutual interaction; then, the correction factors due to mutual interaction are obtained. The performance of a low-solidity

  9. Lifting force acting on a gate with high head

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiao-qing LIU; Lan-hao ZHAO; Hui-ying CAO; Xiao-peng SUN

    2011-01-01

    The hydrodynamic lifting force acting on a gate with high head is one of the key factors concerning the safety and reliability of gates. The lifting force is closely related to hydrodynamic pressure, and generally, is obtained through the model test. This work presents a method of numerical simulation based on the VOF method for the flow and FEM for

  10. Optimization of the lithographic performance for lift-off processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Wenyan; Fillmore, Ward; Dempsey, Kevin J.

    1999-06-01

    Shipley MICROPOSIT LOL lift-off technology exploits a develop rate difference in a resist, LOL1000 bi-layer system to generate retrograde profiles. This is an enabling technology for 'additive' processing. Deposition follows lithography and the resist is then 'lifted off' to generate a patterned layer.

  11. Unsteady Lift Suppression with a Robust Closed Loop Controller

    E-print Network

    Dabiri, John O.

    , Darabi & Wygnanski [6,7] on a 2D wing flap, and Williams, et al.[8] on a 3D wing. Relaxation timesUnsteady Lift Suppression with a Robust Closed Loop Controller David Williams1 , Wesley Kerstens1 to control lift in unsteady flows using active flow control is examined experimentally with a three

  12. Stochastic modeling of lift and drag dynamics under turbulent conditions

    E-print Network

    Peinke, Joachim

    of the lift and drag forces acting on rotor blades changes fundamentally compared to static, laminar flow on the operation of WECs especially in terms of highly dynamic loads. As one conse- quence, the behavior a stochastic lift and drag model is being developed with the goal to be integrated into aerodynamic models

  13. Tapping into social resources to address occupational health : a network analysis of Vietnamese-owned nail salons

    E-print Network

    Doan, Tam Minh-Thi, 1976-

    2004-01-01

    Social networks in the Vietnamese nail salon industry were studied for their utility in addressing occupational health risks. Major findings include heavy reliance on family networks for fundamental needs, an extensive ...

  14. Oblique waves lift the flapping flag.

    PubMed

    Hœpffner, Jérôme; Naka, Yoshitsugu

    2011-11-01

    The flapping of the flag is a classical model problem for the understanding of fluid-structure interaction: How does the flat state lose stability? Why do the nonlinear effects induce hysteretic behavior? We show in this Letter that, in contrast with the commonly studied model, the full three-dimensional flag with gravity has no stationary state whose stability can be formally studied: The waves are oblique and must immediately be of large amplitude. The remarkable structure of these waves results from the interplay of weight, geometry, and aerodynamic forces. This pattern is a key element in the force balance which allows the flag to hold and fly in the wind: Large amplitude oblique waves are responsible for lift. PMID:22181612

  15. Force-controlled lifting of molecular wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fournier, N.; Wagner, C.; Weiss, C.; Temirov, R.; Tautz, F. S.

    2011-07-01

    Lifting a single molecular wire off the surface with a combined frequency-modulated atomic force and tunneling microscope it is possible to monitor the evolution of both the wire configuration and the contacts simultaneously with the transport conductance experiment. In particular, critical points where individual bonds to the surface are broken and instabilities where the wire is prone to change its contact configuration can be identified in the force gradient and dissipation responses of the junction. This additional mechanical information can be used to unambiguously determine the conductance of a true molecular wire, that is, of a molecule that is contacted via a pointlike “crocodile clip” to each of the electrodes but is otherwise free.

  16. Breaking so(4) symmetry without degeneracy lift

    E-print Network

    Pallares-Rivera, A; Kirchbach, M

    2013-01-01

    On the example of the quantum motion on S3, perturbed by the trigonometric Scarf potential (Scarf I) with one quantized and one continuous parameter, we argue that the breakdown by external scales of a Lie-algebraic symmetry of a quantum system must not necessarily amount to a lift of the degeneracies in the spectrum. To be specific, we show that though the spectrum under discussion carries hydrogen-like degeneracies, the corresponding wave functions do not transform according to so(4) carrier spaces but are finite linear combinations of so(4) representation functions describing carrier spaces of different dimensionality. Alternatively, these decompositions are also expansions in powers of the symmetry breaking scale, and allow to quantitatively describe the order to which the symmetry is violated. We conclude on the general possibility to break perturbatively an intact Lie algebraic symmetry, so(4) in our case, by external scales, such as the continuous parameter of Scarf I, and without leaving trace in the ...

  17. Transport properties of epitaxial lift off films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mena, R. A.; Schacham, S. E.; Young, P. G.; Haugland, E. J.; Alterovitz, S. A.

    1993-01-01

    Transport properties of epitaxially lifted-off (ELO) films were characterized using conductivity, Hall, and Shubnikov-de Haas measurements. A 10-15 percent increase in the 2D electron gas concentration was observed in these films as compared with adjacent conventional samples. We believe this result to be caused by a backgating effect produced by a charge build up at the interface of the ELO film and the quartz substrate. This increase results in a substantial decrease in the quantum lifetime in the ELO samples, by 17-30 percent, but without a degradation in carrier mobility. Under persistent photoconductivity, only one subband was populated in the conventional structure, while in the ELO films the population of the second subband was clearly visible. However, the increase of the second subband concentration with increasing excitation is substantially smaller than anticipated due to screening of the backgating effect.

  18. Cluster Guide. Accounting Occupations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaverton School District 48, OR.

    Based on a recent task inventory of key occupations in the accounting cluster taken in the Portland, Oregon, area, this curriculum guide is intended to assist administrators and teachers in the design and implementation of high school accounting cluster programs. The guide is divided into four major sections: program organization and…

  19. Marketing occupational therapy.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, K

    1987-05-01

    Marketing is emerging as an important aspect of the delivery of health care services, including occupational therapy. An understanding of marketing and a knowledge of how to apply its principles will permit therapists to keep pace with the changing health care environment. This article introduces terminology, strategies, and applications of marketing. PMID:3688145

  20. Occupational Literacy: An Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Kathryn L.

    1987-01-01

    The functional literacy movement has emphasized the ability to read job-related materials as a major occupational/functional skill. Various studies, by the Educational Testing Service and others, have supported the contention that the ability to read is a fundamental vocational skill in American society. (CH)

  1. Pharmacist. Occupational Simulation Kit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsley, Nancy

    This career exploration instructional booklet on the pharmacist's occupation is one of several resulting from the rural southwestern Colorado CEPAC Project (Career Education Process of Attitude Change). Based on a job analysis and utilizing a programed instructional format, the following content is included: A brief description of two real…

  2. Chef. Occupational Simulation Kit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    San Juan Basin Area Vocational-Technical School, Cortez, CO.

    This career exploration instructional booklet on the chef's occupation is one of several resulting from the rural southwestern Colorado CEPAC Project (Career Education Process of Attitude Change). Based on a job analysis and utilizing a programed instructional format, the following content is included: A brief description of a chef's job…

  3. Nursing. Occupational Simulation Kit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robb, Mary Kaye

    This career exploration instructional booklet on nursing as an occupation is one of several resulting from the rural southwestern Colorado CEPAC Project (Career Education Process of Attitude Change). Based on a job analysis and utilizing a programed instructional format, the following content is included: A brief description of what nursing is; 14…

  4. Occupational Hazards of Farriers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ALBERT C. HOLLER

    1984-01-01

    A farrier is a specialist in the shoeing of horses. It has been estimated that in the United States over 8 million horses are ridden for show and pleasure. These horses need hoof and leg care. The farrier does give this care and in so doing is subject to occupational hazards. These hazards cover a wide range and include bites

  5. Rehabilitation Services Sample Occupations

    E-print Network

    Ronquist, Fredrik

    /Industries Correction Agencies Drug Treatment Centers Addiction Counselor Advocacy Occupations Art Therapist Behavioral Support Worker Licen. Mental Health Coun. Marriage/Family Counselor Medical Social Worker Music Therapist 21-1010 P4 Opportunities in Physical Therapy Careers ...........IIB 29-1123 K7 Opportunities

  6. Occupational Burnout among Librarians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haack, Mary; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Outlines stages of occupational burnout (enthusiasm, stagnation, frustration, apathy) and begins empirical assessment of burnout syndrome among librarians and other information professionals. Results of pilot survey conducted at one-day conference on reference service using two measures (Staff Burnout Scale for Health Professionals, projective…

  7. Occupational Training in Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stromsdorfer, Ernst W.; Barclay, Suzanne

    A significant amount of on-the-job occupational training is occurring in the private sector, though the data on its extent and nature are extremely sketchy. Estimates of total economic costs in the 1974-75 period range from a crude measure of 100 billion dollars to one that is somewhat more reliable of about 40 to 50 billion dollars. Most of this…

  8. Occupational Therapy and Neuropsychiatry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lorna Jean King

    1983-01-01

    It is suggested that increasing evidence of neurophysiological etiologies for mental illness must be taken into account in rationalizing the effectiveness of occupational therapy for psychiatric disorders. The role of activity in metabolizing stress hormones is describes as a possible mechanism of therapeutic effectiveness. The sensory integrative effects of certain activities are also postulated to contribute to improvement in selected

  9. Occupationally Oriented IA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Thurman L.

    1977-01-01

    The occupationally oriented industrial arts program at Lee's Summit Senior High School, Missouri, offers general shop exploratory courses in multiple-activity laboratories at the ninth grade level, leading to unit general laboratory programs in grades 10 through 12 in drafting, wood, metals, basic electricity/electronics, and graphic…

  10. Building Industries Occupations: Syllabus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Secondary Curriculum Development.

    The Building Industries Occupations course is a two-year program of approximately 160 three-period teaching days per year. The required course content is designed to be effectively taught in 80 percent of the total course time, thus allowing 20 percent of the time for instruction adapted to such local conditions as employment prospects, student…

  11. Evaluating Occupational Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, James P.

    1987-01-01

    Stresses the importance of evaluating occupational programs on a regular basis. Offers a brief explanation of the approaches to program evaluation taken at the Dallas County Community College District (TX), South Puget Sound Community College (WA), and Triton College (IL). Offers a list of references on program evaluation. (CBC)

  12. Hospitality Occupations. Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento. Bureau of Homemaking Education.

    This curriculum guide on the hospitality occupations was developed to help secondary and postsecondary home economics teachers prepare individuals for entry-level jobs in the hospitality industry. The content is in seven sections. The first section presents organizational charts of a medium-size hotel, food and beverage division, housekeeping and…

  13. Occupational Clothing Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraser, Annette J.

    Designed to provide individualized, hands-on experience for secondary or postsecondary students in gainful homemaking programs, this occupational clothing curriculum contains eight learning modules. The following topics are covered in the modules: plant production for the needle trades (needle trade structure and operation, terminology, history,…

  14. Occupational Disease in Connecticut, 2014

    E-print Network

    Oliver, Douglas L.

    ...........................................................................................................20 Respiratory Illness and Poisonings ...........................................................................................24 E. Occupational Disease Surveillance System: Physicians' Reports................................................................................................................30 Lung/Respiratory Diseases and Poisonings

  15. Field application of diamond-bit hydraulic-lift principles

    SciTech Connect

    Winters, W.J.; Warren, T.M.

    1986-08-01

    Hydraulic lift can have a major effect on the operation of diamond drill bits. The actual weight on bit (WOB) is less than the measured weight by the amount of hydraulic lift, or pumpoff force, acting beneath the bit. Pumpoff forces in excess of 15,000 lbf (67 kN) have been recorded. Historically, the hydraulic-lift effect has been recognized but not understood well enough to be accounted for reliably. Failure to account for hydraulic lift can adversely affect actual bit performance and interpretation of the results. It is now possible to determine hydraulic lift reliably with the practical techniques presented here. Field tests show that pumpoff force tends to double as the bit dulls. Appropriate WOB adjustments, determined through pumpoff tests run on the rig, are required to maintain bit performance. The applications to diamond bits run on mud motors are particularly advantageous.

  16. Correlation of Puma airloads: Lifting-line and wake calculation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bousman, William G.; Young, Colin; Gilbert, Neil; Toulmay, Francois; Johnson, Wayne; Riley, M. J.

    1989-01-01

    A cooperative program undertaken by organizations in the United States, England, France, and Australia has assessed the strengths and weaknesses of four lifting-line/wake methods and three CFD methods by comparing their predictions with the data obtained in flight trials of a research Puma. The Puma was tested in two configurations: a mixed bladed rotor with instrumented rectangular tip blades, and a configuration with four identical swept tip blades. The results are examined of the lifting-line predictions. The better lifting-line methods show good agreement with lift at the blade tip for the configuration with four swept tips; the moment is well predicted at 0.92 R, but deteriorates outboard. The predictions for the mixed bladed rotor configuration range from fair to good. The lift prediction is better for the swept tip blade than for the rectangular tip blade, but the reasons for this cannot be determined because of the unmodeled effects of the mixed bladed rotor.

  17. An Ultrasonic Circulation Measurement Technique for Spatial Lift Distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Jiankun; Olinger, David J.

    1998-11-01

    An experimental investigation of the mean spanwise lift distribution for flow over inclined flat plates with sinusoidal trailing edges has been conducted. The stationary plates were vertically aligned in a low-speed wind tunnel with Reynolds number based on chord length of about 30,000. Three distinct flow patterns; streamlined flow, stalled flow and bluff body flow, were studied by varying plate angle of attack between 6 and 45 degrees. A novel ultrasonic technique based on determining the fluid circulation around a path enclosing the flat plate was utilized to measure the lift distribution. In order to correlate the measured lift distribution with wake structures, smoke-wire flow visualization was also performed. The lift distributions for the sinusoidal trailing edge case varied significantly from the nominal 2-D distributions based on local chord length. Preliminary extensions of the ultrasonic method to measure instantaneous lift distributions during an entire shedding cycle on vibrating plates and flexible cables are also discussed.

  18. Arterial blood pressure response to heavy resistance exercise

    E-print Network

    J. D. Macdougall; D. Tuxen; D. G. Sale; J. R. Moroz; J. R. Sutton; D. Tuxen; D. G. Sale; J. R. Moroz

    The purpose of this study was to record the blood pressure response to heavy weight-lifting exercise in five experienced body builders. Blood pressure was directly recorded by means of a capacitance transducer connected to a catheter in the brachial artery. Intrathoracic pressure with the Valsalva

  19. 78 FR 79599 - Airworthiness Directives; Various Aircraft Equipped With Wing Lift Struts

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-31

    ...aircraft equipped with wing lift struts. The list of affected airplanes in the Applicability...repetitively replacing the wing lift strut forks at...specified time for certain airplanes; and incorporating...placard on the wing lift strut. As...

  20. Masonry. Occupational Competency Analysis Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Vocational Instructional Materials Lab.

    This Occupational Competency Analysis Profile (OCAP) for masonry occupations contains a competency list verified by expert workers and developed through a modified DACUM (Developing a Curriculum) involving business, industry, labor, and community agency representatives from Ohio. This OCAP identifies the occupational, academic, and employability…

  1. Numerical simulation of a powered-lift landing, tracking flow features using overset grids, and simulation of high lift devices on a fighter-lift-and-control wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chawla, Kalpana

    1993-01-01

    Attached as appendices to this report are documents describing work performed on the simulation of a landing powered-lift delta wing, the tracking of flow features using overset grids, and the simulation of flaps on the Wright Patterson Lab's fighter-lift-and-control (FLAC) wing. Numerical simulation of a powered-lift landing includes the computation of flow about a delta wing at four fixed heights as well as a simulated landing, in which the delta wing descends toward the ground. Comparison of computed and experimental lift coefficients indicates that the simulations capture the qualitative trends in lift-loss encountered by thrust-vectoring aircraft operating in ground effect. Power spectra of temporal variations of pressure indicate computed vortex shedding frequencies close to the jet exit are in the experimentally observed frequency range; the power spectra of pressure also provide insights into the mechanisms of lift oscillations. Also, a method for using overset grids to track dynamic flow features is described and the method is validated by tracking a moving shock and vortices shed behind a circular cylinder. Finally, Chimera gridding strategies were used to develop pressure coefficient contours for the FLAC wing for a Mach no. of 0.18 and Reynolds no. of 2.5 million.

  2. In-Flight Subsonic Lift and Drag Characteristics Unique to Blunt-Based Lifting Reentry Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saltzman, Edwin J.; Wang, K. Charles; Iliff, Kenneth W.

    2007-01-01

    Lift and drag measurements have been analyzed for subsonic flight conditions for seven blunt-based reentry-type vehicles. Five of the vehicles are lifting bodies (M2-F1, M2-F2, HL-10, X-24A, and X-24B) and two are wing-body configurations (the X-15 and the Space Shuttle Enterprise). Base pressure measurements indicate that the base drag for full-scale vehicles is approximately three times greater than predicted by Hoerner's equation for three-dimensional bodies. Base drag and forebody drag combine to provide an optimal overall minimum drag (a drag "bucket") for a given configuration. The magnitude of this optimal drag, as well as the associated forebody drag, is dependent on the ratio of base area to vehicle wetted area. Counter-intuitively, the flight-determined optimal minimum drag does not occur at the point of minimum forebody drag, but at a higher forebody drag value. It was also found that the chosen definition for reference area for lift parameters should include the projection of planform area ahead of the wing trailing edge (i.e., forebody plus wing). Results are assembled collectively to provide a greater understanding of this class of vehicles than would occur by considering them individually.

  3. Load on knee joint structures and muscular activity during lifting.

    PubMed

    Ekholm, J; Nisell, R; Arborelius, U P; Hammerberg, C; Németh, G

    1984-01-01

    The load on the knee joints during lifting has been less studied than low back load. Healthy subjects lifted a 12.8-kg box from floor to table-level in three different ways; 1) with straight knees, 2) with bent knees and the box in front of the knees, and 3) with bent knees and the box between the knees. The loading moment of force about the bilateral knee axis was calculated by means of a computerized static sagittal plane model. Electromyography was recorded from quadriceps and ischiocrural muscles. The beginning of the flexed-knee lifts caused a flexing loading knee moment of about 50 Nm and a knee angle of 90 degrees. Straight-knee lifts gave all through the lift an extending loading moment. During the final phase of all lifts there was an extending loading knee moment of about 55 Nm and a knee angle of 0 degrees. The three lifts were compared and discussed from a biomechanical and ergonomical point of view. PMID:6710091

  4. Early Postoperative Pain After Keyless Abdominal Rope-Lifting Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Hüsey?no?lu, Ürfettin; Ç?çek, Melek

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Keyless abdominal rope-lifting surgery is a novel, gasless, single-incision laparoscopic surgical technique. In this study we aimed to compare the postoperative pain from keyless abdominal rope-lifting surgery with carbon dioxide laparoscopy performed for benign ovarian cysts. Methods: During a 20-month period, 77 women underwent surgery for a benign ovarian cyst. Keyless abdominal rope-lifting surgery and conventional carbon dioxide laparoscopy techniques were used for the operations in 32 women and 45 women, respectively. The 2 operative techniques were compared with regard to demographic characteristics; preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative data including early postoperative pain scores; and frequency of shoulder pain and analgesic requirements. Results: Data regarding demographic characteristics, preoperative findings, cyst diameters and rupture rates, intra-abdominal adhesions, intraoperative blood loss, and postoperative hospital stay did not differ between groups (P > .05). However, the mean operative and abdominal access times were significantly longer in the keyless abdominal rope-lifting surgery group (P < .05). Visual analog scale pain scores at initially and at the second, fourth, and 24th hours of the postoperative period were significantly lower in the keyless abdominal rope-lifting surgery group (P < .05). Similarly, keyless abdominal rope-lifting surgery caused significantly less shoulder pain and additional analgesic use (P < .05). Conclusion: Keyless abdominal rope-lifting surgery seems to cause less pain in the management of benign ovarian cysts in comparison with conventional carbon dioxide laparoscopy.

  5. Occupational health in Cuba.

    PubMed Central

    Gomez, M R

    1981-01-01

    Health and safety regulation, training, and research were practically non-existent in Cuba before the Revolution in 1959. Since that time important advances have been made. Specialized inspectors, occupational physicians, and other such personnel are now trained in Cuba. An Occupational Health Institute, founded in 1976, provides training and specialized technical services, and conducts research. In 1978, a far reaching "Work Safety and Health Law" was enacted which defines the rights and responsibility of government agencies, workplace administrators, unions, and workers. Comprehensive control of toxic substances in workplaces, still at an early stage, is likely to increase in light of the new law, the growing availability of qualified personnel, and the mounting concern of public health authorities with the increasingly "developed" health profile of the population. PMID:7212141

  6. Effect of floor slope on submaximal lifting capacity.

    PubMed

    Wickel, Eric E; Reiser, Raoul F

    2004-01-01

    In order to reduce injuries due to lifting a box from the floor, maximal acceptable weights of lift (MAWL) have been established for a level surface. However, an inclined surface condition may be encountered on a jobsite. The purpose of this investigation was to determine if facing up or down a sloped surface affects MAWL. After obtaining university-approved informed consent, 20 apparently healthy men (age = 22.4 +/- 1.4 yrs) and 20 women (age = 22.0 +/- 1.9 yrs) determined floor to knuckle height MAWL using the psychophysical approach. After a familiarization day, two data collection days were completed with the uphill and level (+20, +10 and 0 degree) or downhill and level (-20, -10 and 0 degree) lifting capacities determined. A cadence of four lifts/min was used after starting with an unknown load that participants adjusted after each lift. No differences (p > 0.05) in level MAWL were found on the downhill day compared to the uphill day. While the men lifted significantly more than the women in every condition (p < 0.001), no differences were found across the lifting conditions (p > 0.05). The men averaged a MAWL of 24.7 kg across the five conditions (average standard deviation (SD) = 7.4 kg), the women averaged 14.8 kg (average SD = 3.1 kg). While these findings would suggest no changes in lifting guidelines for a sloped surface within 20 degrees of level, other factors such as lifting technique and the stress placed on the low-back should be examined to assess risk of injury in these different conditions. PMID:15133972

  7. Lift evaluation of a two-dimensional pitching flat plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, X.; Mohseni, K.

    2013-09-01

    Several previous experimental and theoretical studies have shown that a leading edge vortex (LEV) on an airfoil or wing can provide lift enhancement. In this paper, unsteady two-dimensional (2D) potential flow theory is employed to model the flow field of a pitching flat plate wing. A multi-vortices model is developed to model both the leading edge and trailing edge vortices (TEVs), which offers improved accuracy compared with using only single vortex at each separation location. The lift is obtained by integrating the unsteady Blasius equation. It is found that the motion of vortices contributes significantly to the overall aerodynamic force on the flat plate. A Kutta-like condition is used to determine the vortex intensity and location at the leading edge for large angle of attack cases; however, it is proposed to relax this condition for small angle of attack cases and apply a 2D shear layer model to calculate the circulation of the new added vortex. The results of the simulation are then compared with classical numerical, theoretical, and experimental data for canonical unsteady flat plat problems. Good agreement with these data is observed. Moreover, these results suggested that the leading edge vortex shedding for small angles of attack should be modeled differently than that for large angles of attack. Finally, the results of vortex motion vs. lift indicate that the slow convection of the LEV creates less negative lift while the rapid shedding of the TEV creates more positive lift. The difference between these two contributions of lift results in a total positive lift that lasts for about two chord-length travel of the plate. It is therefore concluded that the lift enhancement during the LEV "stabilization" above the wing is a combined effect of both the LEV and TEV motion. This also provides the insights for future active flow control of micro aerial vehicles (MAVs) that the formation and shedding process of LEVs and TEVs can be manipulated to provide lift enhancement.

  8. Human occupancy detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, David A.

    1994-10-01

    In the area of security and surveillance technologies, the problem of the arrival in Canada of illegal and undesirable ship and truck cargo loads is steadily increasing. As the volumes of cargo arrivals increase so do the Immigration and Customs problems related to the determination of the validity of those cargo contents. Of special concern to Immigration Control Authorities around the world is the emerging and increasing trend of illegal smuggling of human beings hidden inside of shipping containers. Beginning in 1992, Immigration Control Authorities in Canada observed an escalation of alien people smuggling through the use of cargo shipping containers arriving in the Port of Montreal. This paper will present to the audience the recently completed Immigration Canada Human Occupancy Detection project by explaining the design, development and testing of human occupancy detectors. The devices are designed to electronically detect the presence of persons hiding inside of shipping containers, without the requirement of opening the container doors. The human occupancy detection concepts are based upon the presence of carbon dioxide or other human waste characteristics commonly found inside of shipping containers.

  9. Sentinel Event Notification System for Occupational Risks (SENSOR): Recommendations for control of silica exposure at Woodbridge Sanitary Pottery Corporation, Woodbridge, New Jersey

    SciTech Connect

    Caplan, P.E.; Valiante, D.; Cooper, T.C.; Crouch, K.G.; Gideon, J.A.

    1989-06-01

    An in-depth survey of exposure to silica dust at the Woodbridge Sanitary Pottery Corporation, Woodbridge, New Jersey was conducted as a part of the Sentinel Event Notification System for Occupational Risks (SENSOR) cooperative effort. The facility manufactured vitreous china products, including toilet bowls and lavatories. Personal and area atmospheric sampling showed that personal exposure to respirable crystalline silica dust ranged from 0.12 to 0.18 mg/m{sup 3} with at least half the samples exceeding the NIOSH recommended exposure limit of 0.05 mg/m{sup 3} for crystalline silica. The workers in the Slip House suffered the highest exposures, where area concentrations averaged 0.38 mg/m{sup 3}. Of the other three areas, casting, glaze spraying, and glaze preparation, the highest personal exposures were in the glaze-spraying areas where 67% of the personal samples exceeded the OSHA permissible exposure limits for respirable dust. Ergonomic evaluations were conducted to determine lifting hazards at several workstations. The authors conclude that there were excessive exposures to respirable silica dust and respirable dust. There was also a high risk of lost time in injuries from manual handling of heavy loads. Improvements should be made in the design and maintenance of ventilation control systems, work stations, and work practices.

  10. Exploration of Titan using Vertical Lift Aerial Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, L. A.

    2001-01-01

    Autonomous vertical lift aerial vehicles (such as rotorcraft or powered-lift vehicles) hold considerable potential for supporting planetary science and exploration missions. Vertical lift aerial vehicles would have the following advantages/attributes for planetary exploration: low-speed and low-altitude detailed aerial surveys; remote-site sample return to lander platforms; precision placement of scientific probes; soft landing capability for vehicle reuse (multiple flights) and remote-site monitoring; greater range, speed, and access to hazardous terrain than a surface rover; greater resolution of surface details than an orbiter or balloons. Exploration of Titan presents an excellent opportunity for the development and usage of such vehicles.

  11. EA-6B high-lift wing modifications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waggoner, E. G.; Allison, D. O.

    1987-01-01

    NASA-Langley has accomplished the computational design and experimental verification of EA-6B aircraft wing modifications for improved high lift capability. The modifications are comparatively simple, and attempt to improve low speed high lift performance while maintaining high speed cruise efficiency. Several two- and three-dimensional low speed and transonic computational techniques were employed, together with extensive wind tunnel tests. The modified inboard and outboard edge slat/flap system sections yielded efficiency improvements that were verified by three-dimensional wind tunnel experiments to amount to an 11-percent wing-body lift coefficient enhancement at low speed.

  12. Control aspects of a compressor station for gas lift

    SciTech Connect

    Saadawi, H.

    1983-01-01

    The type and characteristics of the control system to be used for a centrifugal compressor station depend on several factors such as the compressor driver, process requirements, and the conditions under which the compressor will be operated. Designing a compressor control system for gas lift applications present different types of problems than those of conventional pipeline applications. This paper describes the control philosophy of a compressor station used for lifting water in a closed-rotative gas lift installation in Bu Hasa field, Abu Dhabi.

  13. Insulation Test Cryostat with Lift Mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fesmire, James E. (Inventor); Dokos, Adam G. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A multi-purpose, cylindrical thermal insulation test apparatus is used for testing insulation materials and systems of materials using a liquid boil-off calorimeter system for absolute measurement of the effective thermal conductivity (k-value) and heat flux of a specimen material at a fixed environmental condition (cold-side temperature, warm-side temperature, vacuum pressure level, and residual gas composition). The apparatus includes an inner vessel for receiving a liquid with a normal boiling point below ambient temperature, such as liquid nitrogen, enclosed within a vacuum chamber. A cold mass assembly, including the upper and lower guard chambers and a middle test vessel, is suspended from a lid of the vacuum canister. Each of the three chambers is filled and vented through a single feedthrough. All fluid and instrumentation feedthroughs are mounted and suspended from a top domed lid to allow easy removal of the cold mass. A lift mechanism allows manipulation of the cold mass assembly and insulation test article.

  14. Space Shuttle Discovery lifts off successfully

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Framed by the foliage of the Canaveral National Sea Shore, Space Shuttle Discovery soars through bright blue skies as it lifts off from Launch Pad 39B at 2:19 p.m. EST Oct. 29 on mission STS-95. Making his second voyage into space after 36 years is Payload Specialist John H. Glenn Jr., senator from Ohio. Other crew members are Mission Commander Curtis L. Brown Jr., Pilot Steven W. Lindsey, Payload Specialist Chiaki Mukai, (M.D., Ph.D.), with the National agency for Space Development (NASDA), Mission Specialist Stephen K. Robinson, Mission Specialist Pedro Duque of Spain, representing the European Space Agency (ESA), and Mission Specialist Scott E. Parazynski. The STS-95 mission includes research payloads such as the Spartan solar-observing deployable spacecraft, the Hubble Space Telescope Orbital Systems Test Platform, the International Extreme Ultraviolet Hitchhiker, as well as the SPACEHAB single module with experiments on space flight and the aging process. Discovery is expected to return to KSC at 11:49 a.m. EST on Nov. 7.

  15. Microfluidic particle sorting utilizing inertial lift force.

    PubMed

    Nieuwstadt, Harm A; Seda, Robinson; Li, David S; Fowlkes, J Brian; Bull, Joseph L

    2011-02-01

    A simple passive microfluidic device that continuously separates microparticles is presented. Its development is motivated by the need for specific size micro perfluorocarbon (PFC) droplets to be used for a novel gas embolotherapy method. The device consists of a rectangular channel in which inertial lift forces are utilized to separate particles in lateral distance. At the entrance of the channel, particles are introduced at the center by focusing the flow from a center channel with flow from two side channels. Downstream, large particles will occupy a lateral equilibrium position in shorter axial distance than small particles. At the exit of the channel, flow containing large particles is separated from flow containing small particles. It is shown that 10.2-?m diameter microspheres can be separated from 3.0-?m diameter microspheres with a separation efficiency of 69-78% and a throughput in the order of 2 ·10? particles per minute. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) calculations were done to calculate flow fields and verify theoretical particle trajectories. Theory underlying this research shows that higher separation efficiencies for very specific diameter cut-off are possible. This microfluidic channel design has a simple structure and can operate without external forces which makes it feasible for lab-on-a-chip (LOC) applications. PMID:20865451

  16. Space Shuttle Discovery lifts off successfully

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    As if sprung from the rolling exhaust clouds below, Space Shuttle Discovery shoots into the heavens over the blue Atlantic Ocean from Launch Pad 39B on mission STS-95. Lifting off at 2:19 p.m. EST, Discovery carries a crew of six, including Payload Specialist John H. Glenn Jr., senator from Ohio, who is making his second voyage into space after 36 years. Other crew members are Mission Commander Curtis L. Brown Jr., Pilot Steven W. Lindsey, Payload Specialist Chiaki Mukai, (M.D., Ph.D.), with the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA), Mission Specialist Stephen K. Robinson, Mission Specialist Pedro Duque of Spain, representing the European Space Agency (ESA), and Mission Specialist Scott E. Parazynski. The STS-95 mission includes research payloads such as the Spartan solar-observing deployable spacecraft, the Hubble Space Telescope Orbital Systems Test Platform, the International Extreme Ultraviolet Hitchhiker, as well as the SPACEHAB single module with experiments on space flight and the aging process. Discovery is expected to return to KSC at 11:49 a.m. EST on Nov. 7.

  17. Space Shuttle Discovery lifts off successfully

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Thousands of gallons of water released as part of the sound suppression system at the launch pad create clouds of steam and exhaust as Space Shuttle Discovery lifts off from Launch Pad 39B at 2:19 p.m. EST Oct. 29 on mission STS-95. Making his second voyage into space after 36 years is Payload Specialist John H. Glenn Jr., senator from Ohio. Other crew members are Mission Commander Curtis L. Brown Jr., Pilot Steven W. Lindsey, Payload Specialist Chiaki Mukai, (M.D., Ph.D.), with the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA), Mission Specialist Stephen K. Robinson, Mission Specialist Pedro Duque of Spain, representing the European Space Agency (ESA), and Mission Specialist Scott E. Parazynski. The STS-95 mission includes research payloads such as the Spartan solar-observing deployable spacecraft, the Hubble Space Telescope Orbital Systems Test Platform, the International Extreme Ultraviolet Hitchhiker, as well as the SPACEHAB single module with experiments on space flight and the aging process. Discovery is expected to return to KSC at 11:49 a.m. EST on Nov. 7.

  18. Space Shuttle Discovery lifts off successfully

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Against a curtain of blue sky, the Space Shuttle Discovery spews clouds of exhaust as it lifts off from Launch Pad 39B at 2:19 p.m. EST Oct. 29 on the 9-day mission STS-95. On board Discovery are Mission Commander Curtis L. Brown Jr., Pilot Steven W. Lindsey, Payload Specialist Chiaki Mukai, (M.D., Ph.D.), with the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA), Payload Specialist John H. Glenn Jr., senator from Ohio, Mission Specialist Stephen K. Robinson, Mission Specialist Pedro Duque of Spain, representing the European Space Agency (ESA), and Mission Specialist Scott E. Parazynski. The STS-95 mission includes research payloads such as the Spartan solar-observing deployable spacecraft, the Hubble Space Telescope Orbital Systems Test Platform, the International Extreme Ultraviolet Hitchhiker, as well as the SPACEHAB single module with experiments on space flight and the aging process. Discovery is expected to return to KSC at 11:49 a.m. EST on Nov. 7.

  19. Space Shuttle Discovery lifts off successfully

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Clouds of exhaust seem to fill the marsh near Launch Pad 39B as Space Shuttle Discovery lifts off at 2:19 p.m. EST Oct. 29 on mission STS-95. Making his second voyage into space after 36 years is Payload Specialist John H. Glenn Jr., senator from Ohio. Other crew members are Mission Commander Curtis L. Brown Jr., Pilot Steven W. Lindsey, Payload Specialist Chiaki Mukai, (M.D., Ph.D.), with the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA), Mission Specialist Stephen K. Robinson, Mission Specialist Pedro Duque of Spain, representing the European Space Agency (ESA), and Mission Specialist Scott E. Parazynski. The STS-95 mission includes research payloads such as the Spartan solar-observing deployable spacecraft, the Hubble Space Telescope Orbital Systems Test Platform, the International Extreme Ultraviolet Hitchhiker, as well as the SPACEHAB single module with experiments on space flight and the aging process. Discovery is expected to return to KSC at 11:49 a.m. EST on Nov. 7.

  20. Space Shuttle Discovery lifts off successfully

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Clouds of exhaust and blazing light fill Launch Pad 39B as Space Shuttle Discovery lifts off at 2:19 p.m. EST Oct. 29 on mission STS-95. Making his second voyage into space after 36 years is Payload Specialist John H. Glenn Jr., senator from Ohio. Other crew members are Mission Commander Curtis L. Brown Jr., Pilot Steven W. Lindsey, Payload Specialist Chiaki Mukai, (M.D., Ph.D.), with the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA), Mission Specialist Stephen K. Robinson, Mission Specialist Pedro Duque of Spain, representing the European Space Agency (ESA), and Mission Specialist Scott E. Parazynski. The STS-95 mission includes research payloads such as the Spartan solar-observing deployable spacecraft, the Hubble Space Telescope Orbital Systems Test Platform, the International Extreme Ultraviolet Hitchhiker, as well as the SPACEHAB single module with experiments on space flight and the aging process. Discovery is expected to return to KSC at 11:49 a.m. EST on Nov. 7.

  1. Space Shuttle Discovery lifts off successfully

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Clouds of exhaust fill Launch Pad 39B as Space Shuttle Discovery lifts off at 2:19 p.m. EST Oct. 29 on mission STS-95. Making his second voyage into space after 36 years is Payload Specialist John H. Glenn Jr., senator from Ohio. Other crew members are Mission Commander Curtis L. Brown Jr., Pilot Steven W. Lindsey, Payload Specialist Chiaki Mukai, (M.D., Ph.D.), with the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA), Mission Specialist Stephen K. Robinson, Mission Specialist Pedro Duque of Spain, representing the European Space Agency (ESA), and Mission Specialist Scott E. Parazynski. The STS-95 mission includes research payloads such as the Spartan solar-observing deployable spacecraft, the Hubble Space Telescope Orbital Systems Test Platform, the International Extreme Ultraviolet Hitchhiker, as well as the SPACEHAB single module with experiments on space flight and the aging process. Discovery is expected to return to KSC at 11:49 a.m. EST on Nov. 7.

  2. Space Shuttle Discovery lifts off successfully

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Space Shuttle Discovery clears Launch Pad 39B at 2:19 p.m. EST Oct. 29 as it lifts off on mission STS-95. Making his second voyage into space after 36 years is Payload Specialist John H. Glenn Jr., senator from Ohio. Other crew members are Mission Commander Curtis L. Brown Jr., Pilot Steven W. Lindsey, Payload Specialist Chiaki Mukai, (M.D., Ph.D.), with the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA), Mission Specialist Stephen K. Robinson, Mission Specialist Pedro Duque of Spain, representing the European Space Agency (ESA), and Mission Specialist Scott E. Parazynski. The STS-95 mission includes research payloads such as the Spartan solar-observing deployable spacecraft, the Hubble Space Telescope Orbital Systems Test Platform, the International Extreme Ultraviolet Hitchhiker, as well as the SPACEHAB single module with experiments on space flight and the aging process. Discovery is expected to return to KSC at 11:49 a.m. EST on Nov. 7.

  3. US to Lift Cuba Trade Embargo

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Missner, Emily D.

    For the first time in four decades, the United States will allow export sales of food and medicine to Cuba. This new agreement, which was drafted by House Republicans, will also allow the export of goods to formerly blacklisted countries including Lybia, North Korea, Sudan, and Iran. Unlike the other four countries, Cuba will not be allowed to export products to the US, nor will it be able to secure American private financing. In the first year after the new rulings go into effect, John Kavulich, president of the U.S.-Cuba Trade and Economic Council, has estimated that exports of American food products could reach between $25 million and $45 million. However the proposed bill has fallen short of the expectations of the Cuban government, which has demanded a complete lifting of the trade embargo. Cuban-American activists on both sides of the issues also find the proposal flawed, stating concerns including the lack of guarantee that the food and medicine will reach the Cubans who need the supplies the most.

  4. Heavy flavors

    SciTech Connect

    Cox, B.; Gilman, F.J.; Gottschalk, T.D.

    1986-11-01

    A range of issues pertaining to heavy flavors at the SSC is examined including heavy flavor production by gluon-gluon fusion and by shower evolution of gluon jets, flavor tagging, reconstruction of Higgs and W bosons, and the study of rare decays and CP violation in the B meson system. A specific detector for doing heavy flavor physics and tuned to this latter study at the SSC, the TASTER, is described. 36 refs., 10 figs.

  5. 49 CFR 178.970 - Bottom lift test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...the qualification of all Large Packagings design types designed to be lifted...Test method. All Large Packaging design types must be raised and...passing the test. For all Large Packagings design types designed to be...

  6. 49 CFR 178.970 - Bottom lift test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...the qualification of all Large Packagings design types designed to be lifted...Test method. All Large Packaging design types must be raised and...passing the test. For all Large Packagings design types designed to be...

  7. 49 CFR 178.970 - Bottom lift test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...the qualification of all Large Packagings design types designed to be lifted...Test method. All Large Packaging design types must be raised and...passing the test. For all Large Packagings design types designed to be...

  8. 49 CFR 178.970 - Bottom lift test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...the qualification of all Large Packagings design types designed to be lifted...Test method. All Large Packaging design types must be raised and...passing the test. For all Large Packagings design types designed to be...

  9. 49 CFR 178.975 - Top lift test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...qualification of all of Large Packagings design types to be lifted from the...Metal and rigid plastic Large Packagings design types must be loaded to twice...mass. (2) Flexible Large Packaging design types must be filled to...

  10. 49 CFR 178.975 - Top lift test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...qualification of all of Large Packagings design types to be lifted from the...Metal and rigid plastic Large Packagings design types must be loaded to twice...mass. (2) Flexible Large Packaging design types must be filled to...

  11. 49 CFR 178.975 - Top lift test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...qualification of all of Large Packagings design types to be lifted from the...Metal and rigid plastic Large Packagings design types must be loaded to twice...mass. (2) Flexible Large Packaging design types must be filled to...

  12. 49 CFR 178.970 - Bottom lift test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...the qualification of all Large Packagings design types designed to be lifted...Test method. All Large Packaging design types must be raised and...passing the test. For all Large Packagings design types designed to be...

  13. 49 CFR 178.975 - Top lift test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...qualification of all of Large Packagings design types to be lifted from the...Metal and rigid plastic Large Packagings design types must be loaded to twice...mass. (2) Flexible Large Packaging design types must be filled to...

  14. 49 CFR 178.975 - Top lift test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...qualification of all of Large Packagings design types to be lifted from the...Metal and rigid plastic Large Packagings design types must be loaded to twice...mass. (2) Flexible Large Packaging design types must be filled to...

  15. A Kinetic Model of Intervertebral Stress During Lifting

    PubMed Central

    Wood, G. A.; Hayes, K. C.

    1974-01-01

    A biomechanical model of a simple lifting motion is presented in which the forces and moments of force acting about the L4-L5 vertebral articulation were determined from kinetic and kinematic data. Derivation of the forces due to motion permitted a unique method for estimating intervertebral stress during each phase of the lift and provided a logical extension to an earlier static model of intervertebral stress presented by Troup (13). The intervertebral force was found to have a maximum value of over 400 kg during the initial phase of the lift. By partitioning this force into its shearing and compressional components, it was possible to determine quantitatively the lumbar stress involved in lifting. The values are discussed briefly in relation to the aetiology of back injuries and some of the predictions and applications of the dynamic model are also considered.

  16. 4. DETAIL VIEW OF LIFTING GEAR ON MULE AND RACK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. DETAIL VIEW OF LIFTING GEAR ON MULE AND RACK ATTACHMENT BOOKS, LOOKING EAST - Nine Mile Hydroelectric Development, Powerhouse, State Highway 291 along Spokane River, Nine Mile Falls, Spokane County, WA

  17. Wind tunnel study of slot spoilers for direct lift control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andrisani, D., II; Gentry, G. L., Jr.; Stickle, J. W.

    1972-01-01

    An investigation was conducted in a 300-mph 7- by 10- foot tunnel to obtain data for a slot spoiler direct lift control system. Slot spoilers are believed to have advantages over flap-type direct lift control (DLC) systems because of the small amount of power required for actuation. These tests, run at a Reynolds number of 1,400,000 showed that up to 78 percent of the lift due to flap deflection could be spoiled by opening several spanwise slots within the flaps. For a given lift change the drag change was significantly less than that which would be obtained by a variable flap DLC system. A nozzle-shaped slot was the most effective of the slot shapes tested.

  18. Transonic wind-tunnel tests of a lifting parachute model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foughner, J. T., Jr.; Reed, J. F.; Wynne, E. C.

    1976-01-01

    Wind-tunnel tests have been made in the Langley transonic dynamics tunnel on a 0.25-scale model of Sandia Laboratories' 3.96-meter (13-foot), slanted ribbon design, lifting parachute. The lifting parachute is the first stage of a proposed two-stage payload delivery system. The lifting parachute model was attached to a forebody representing the payload. The forebody was designed and installed in the test section in a manner which allowed rotational freedom about the pitch and yaw axes. Values of parachute axial force coefficient, rolling moment coefficient, and payload trim angles in pitch and yaw are presented through the transonic speed range. Data are presented for the parachute in both the reefed and full open conditions. Time history records of lifting parachute deployment and disreefing tests are included.

  19. Energetics of oscillating lifting surfaces using integral conservation laws

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahmadi, Ali R.; Widnall, Sheila E.

    1987-01-01

    The energetics of oscillating flexible lifting surfaces in two and three dimensions is calculated by the use of integral conservation laws in inviscid incompressible flow for general and harmonic transverse oscillations. Total thrust is calculated from the momentum theorem and energy loss rate due to vortex shedding in the wake from the principle of conservation of mechanical energy. Total power required to maintain the oscillations and hydrodynamic efficiency are also determined. In two dimensions, the results are obtained in closed form. In three dimensions, the distribution of vorticity on the lifting surface is also required as input to the calculations. Thus, unsteady lifting-surface theory must be used as well. The analysis is applicable to oscillating lifting surfaces of arbitrary planform, aspect ratio, and reduced frequency and does not require calculation of the leading-edge thrust.

  20. Analysis of transonic flow about lifting wing-body configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnwell, R. W.

    1975-01-01

    An analytical solution was obtained for the perturbation velocity potential for transonic flow about lifting wing-body configurations with order-one span-length ratios and small reduced-span-length ratios and equivalent-thickness-length ratios. The analysis is performed with the method of matched asymptotic expansions. The angles of attack which are considered are small but are large enough to insure that the effects of lift in the region far from the configuration are either dominant or comparable with the effects of thickness. The modification to the equivalence rule which accounts for these lift effects is determined. An analysis of transonic flow about lifting wings with large aspect ratios is also presented.

  1. Interior room within eastern lift span, showing auxiliary electric and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior room within eastern lift span, showing auxiliary electric and gas generators. - Arlington Memorial Bridge, Spanning Potomac River between Lincoln Memorial & Arlington National Cemetery, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  2. Interior view of eastern lift span, looking south, showing internal ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of eastern lift span, looking south, showing internal truss work. - Arlington Memorial Bridge, Spanning Potomac River between Lincoln Memorial & Arlington National Cemetery, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  3. Interior view of eastern lift span, looking south, showing internal ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of eastern lift span, looking south, showing internal truss work. River visible below through chain-link fence. - Arlington Memorial Bridge, Spanning Potomac River between Lincoln Memorial & Arlington National Cemetery, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  4. Object size effects on initial lifting forces under microgravity conditions.

    PubMed

    Kingma, I; Savelsbergh, G J; Tousaint, H M

    1999-02-01

    Individuals usually report for two objects of equal mass but different volume that the larger object feels lighter. This so-called size-weight illusion has been investigated for more than a century. The illusion is accompanied by increased forces, used to lift the larger object, resulting in a higher initial lifting speed and acceleration. The illusion holds when subjects know that the mass of the two objects is equal and it is likely that this also counts for the enlarged initial effort in lifting a larger box. Why should this happen? Under microgravity, subjects might be able to eliminate largely the weight-related component of the lifting force. Then, if persistent upward scaling of the weight-related force component had been the main cause of the elevated initial lifting force under normal gravity, this elevated force might disappear under microgravity. On the other hand, the elevated initial lifting effort in the large box would be preserved if it had been caused mainly by a persistent upward scaling of the force component, necessary to accelerate the object. To test whether the elevated initial lifting effort either persists or disappears under microgravity, a lifting experiment was carried out during brief periods of microgravity in parabolic flights. Subjects performed whole-body lifting movements with their feet strapped to the floor of the aircraft, using two 8-kg boxes of different volume. The subjects were aware of the equality of the box masses. The peak lifting forces declined almost instantaneously with approx. a factor 9 in the first lifting movements under microgravity compared with normal gravity, suggesting a rapid adaptation to the loss of weight. Though the overall speed of the lifting movement decreased under microgravity, the mean initial acceleration of the box over the first 200 ms of the lifting movement remained higher (P=0.030) in the large box (1.87+/-0.127 m/s2) compared with the small box (1.47+/-0.122 m/s2). Under normal gravity these accelerations were 3.30+/-0.159 m/s2 and 2.67+/-0.159 m/s2, respectively (P=0.008). A comparable trend was found in the initial lifting forces, being significant in the pooled gravity conditions (P=0.036) but not in separate tests on the normal gravity (P=0.109) and microgravity (P=0.169) condition. It is concluded that the elevated initial lifting effort with larger objects holds during short-term exposure to microgravity. This suggests that upward scaling of the force component, required to accelerate the larger box, is an important factor in the elevated initial lifting effort (and the associated size-weight illusion) under normal gravity. PMID:10090654

  5. View from floating barracks west of lift bridge to reserve ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View from floating barracks west of lift bridge to reserve basin on psny. - Naval Base Philadelphia-Philadelphia Naval Shipyard, Reserve Basin & Marine Railway, League Island, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  6. Service network design optimization for Army Aviation lift planning

    E-print Network

    Mogensen, Matthew D. (Matthew David)

    2014-01-01

    The need for optimized aviation lift planning is becoming increasingly important as the United States and her allies participate in the Global War on Terror (GWOT). As part of a comprehensive effort, our nation's fighting ...

  7. 11. AVALON DAM GATE KEEPER'S COMPLEX: PUMPHOUSE AND LIFT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. AVALON DAM - GATE KEEPER'S COMPLEX: PUMPHOUSE AND LIFT FOR HOUSE WATER SUPPLY. VIEW TO EAST - Carlsbad Irrigation District, Avalon Dam, On Pecos River, 4 miles North of Carlsbad, Carlsbad, Eddy County, NM

  8. Trace metal residues in soil as markers of ancient site occupance in Greece

    SciTech Connect

    Davies, B.E.; Bintliff, J.L.; Gaffney, C.F.; Waters, A.T.

    1988-01-01

    Modern evidence shows that wherever people work or live the concentrations of heavy metals rise in nearby soils and these residues persist for many years. This paper reports similar accumulations of Cu and Pb in soils at sites of ancient occupation in Greece. It is proposed that such accumulations can act as markers of such occupation and complement evidence derived from other archaeological survey methods.

  9. Gas-lift valve performance testing and data correlation

    SciTech Connect

    Decker, K.L. (Otis Engineering Corp., Dallas, TX (United States))

    1993-05-01

    This paper presents a method for analyzing data from gas-lift valve performance tests. This method relies on the ability to determine the true dynamic stem position of the valve during flowing conditions. The types of tests required to obtain the data needed by this analysis method are explained. The data analysis method is applicable to any pressure-operated gas-lift valve and yields predictions within 10% of actual flow rate.

  10. Flight test measurements and theoretical lift prediction for flow energizers

    E-print Network

    Pradhan, Amit Aravind

    1986-01-01

    FLIGHT TEST MEASUREMENTS AND THEORETICAI. LIFT PREDICTION FOR FLOE ENERGIEERS A Thesis by AMIT ARAVIND PRADHAN Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas AAM University in partial fulfillment oi' the requirements For the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE May 1986 Major Subject: Aerospace Engineering FLIGHT TEST MEASUREMENTS AND THEORETICAL LIFT PREDICTION FOR FLOW ENERGIZERS A Thesis by AHIT ARAVIND PRADHAN Approved as to style and content by: Donald T. Mard (Chairman of Committee...

  11. Noise of fan designed to reduce stator lift fluctuations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dittmar, J. H.; Woodward, R. P.; Stakolich, E. G.

    1977-01-01

    An existing fan stage was redesigned to reduce stator lift fluctuations and was acoustically tested at three nozzle sizes for reduced noise generation. The lift fluctuations on the stator were reduced by increasing the stator cord, adjusting incidence angles, and adjusting the rotor velocity diagrams. Broadband noise levels were signficantly reduced in the middle to high frequencies. Blade passage tone sound power was not lessened, but decreases in the harmonics were observed. Aerodynamic improvements in both performance and efficiency were obtained.

  12. Moving base simulation of an ASTOVL lift-fan aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chung, William W. Y.; Borchers, Paul F.; Franklin, James A.

    1995-01-01

    Using a generalized simulation model, a moving-base simulation of a lift-fan short takeoff/vertical landing fighter aircraft was conducted on the Vertical Motion Simulator at Ames Research Center. Objectives of the experiment were to (1) assess the effects of lift-fan propulsion system design features on aircraft control during transition and vertical flight including integration of lift fan/lift/cruise engine/aerodynamic controls and lift fan/lift/cruise engine dynamic response, (2) evaluate pilot-vehicle interface with the control system and head-up display including control modes for low-speed operational tasks and control mode/display integration, and (3) conduct operational evaluations of this configuration during takeoff, transition, and landing similar to those carried out previously by the Ames team for the mixed-flow, vectored thrust, and augmentor-ejector concepts. Based on results of the simulation, preliminary assessments of acceptable and borderline lift-fan and lift/cruise engine thrust response characteristics were obtained. Maximum pitch, roll, and yaw control power used during transition, hover, and vertical landing were documented. Control and display mode options were assessed for their compatibility with a range of land-based and shipboard operations from takeoff to cruise through transition back to hover and vertical landing. Flying qualities were established for candidate control modes and displays for instrument approaches and vertical landings aboard an LPH assault ship and DD-963 destroyer. Test pilot and engineer teams from the Naval Air Warfare Center, Boeing, Lockheed, McDonnell Douglas, and the British Defence Research Agency participated in the program.

  13. Lift correlations from direct numerical simulation of solid liquid flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joseph, Daniel D.; Patankar, Neelesh; Ko, T.; Choi, H.

    2000-11-01

    We studied the levitation of 300 particles in a Poiseuille flow and created a data bank which when plotted on a log-log plot give rise to straight lines. This is to say that lift results for fluidized slurries are power laws in appropriate dimensionless parameters. This shows that fluidization of slurries by lift also fall into enabling correlations of the Richardson-Zaki type. The method of correlations is a link between direct simulation and engineering application.

  14. Helical-mode excitation of lifted flames using piezoelectric actuators

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y.-C. Chao; Y.-C. Jong; H.-W. Sheu

    2000-01-01

    Experiments of helical excitation using piezoelectric actuators on jet flows and lifted flames are performed to enhance the\\u000a understanding of the effects of vortical structures of various instability modes on the stabilization mechanism of the lifted\\u000a flame. In addition to the common ring and braid structures, five or seven azimuthal fingers (or lobes) can be identified in\\u000a the transverse image

  15. CT gas lift captures last of field reserves

    SciTech Connect

    Tran, T.B.; Miller, J.; Woodell, M.E.; Johnson, H.

    1996-06-01

    Texaco Exploration and Production Inc.`s (TEPI) Brookeland Field in Newton County, Texas, produces from 30, mostly dual-horizontal, wells in the Austin Chalk reservoir. The wells are typically drilled vertically and casing is set to the top of the Austin Chalk at about 10,000 ft. Building at 15{degree}/100 ft, 4,000-ft laterals are drilled to the northwest and southeast to intersect the natural fractures of the Austin Chalk. The horizontal sections of the wellbore are openhole completions that average 700 b/d of oil and 5 MMcfd of gas. Within 1 year of initial production, the wells require compression to sustain flow and conventional gas lift is used when the wells load up with fluid. Typically, when production declines to 200 Mcfd and 100 b/d of fluid, the gas lift injection point is at 8,000 ft and average gas lift usage is 500 Mcfd. Coiled tubing-conveyed artificial lift was suggested, but first other concerns had to be addressed. The long, horizontal lateral sections functioned as a natural gas and fluid separator, resulting in a distinct slug flow pattern. During a 24-hour period, slug flow caused the wells to produce 100% gas or 100% fluid. For cost reasons TEPI chose conventional, field-installed coiled tubing (CT) gas lift equipment over spoolable equipment. Texaco then formed a team alliance with McMurry-Macco Lift Systems and Dowell to evaluate and complete trial wells with coiled tubing gas lift equipment. This paper reviews the case history of the field, the design considerations of the coiled tubing gas lift, and the surface support equipment used.

  16. The effect of sound on the lift of an airfoil

    E-print Network

    Kitowski, John Victor

    1962-01-01

    THE EFFECT OF SOUND ON THE LIFT OF AN AIRFOIL By John Victor Kitowski A Thesis Submitted to the Graduate School of the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE May, 1962 Qepartment of Aeronautical Engineering Major Subject: Aeronautical Engineering THE EFFECT OF SOUND ON THE LIFT OF AN AIRFOIL A Thesis By John Victor Kitowski Approved as to style and content by: Chairman of Committee Head...

  17. Occupational Therapy General Information: What is Occupational Therapy? The occupational therapist is a highly specialized health care

    E-print Network

    Walker, Lawrence R.

    Occupational Therapy General Information: What is Occupational Therapy? The occupational therapist is located at the American Occupational Therapy Association (AOTA) web site. http://www.aota.org. There is no specific undergraduate degree required for admission to Occupational Therapy Programs. Masters programs

  18. Profound Impacts of AN Arctic Face Lift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nghiem, Son

    Son Nghiem, son.v.nghiem@jpl.nasa.gov Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California, United States The ice cover on the Arctic Ocean has undergone a face lift that removes much of the older and thicker perennial ice and replaces it with the younger and thinner seasonal ice. Although the sea ice cover is a thin skin compared to the depth of the Arctic Ocean, this face lift exerts profound change in the Arctic environment. Here, we present scatterometer remote sensing of Arctic sea ice change and its implication on chemical processes from the ice surface to the troposphere extending into the internal continental land. In the context of a half century change, the extent of perennial ice declines at rate of 0.5 million km2 per decade in the 1970s-1990s while there is no discernable trend in the 1950s-1960s. Abruptly, the rate of decrease has tripled to 1.5 million km2 per decade in the 2000s. A record was set in the reduction of Arctic perennial ice extent in winter 2008. By 1 March 2008, perennial ice extent was reduced by one million km2 compared to that at the same time in 2007. On 1 May 2009, perennial ice extent was reduced to 2.1 million km2 , which is a virtual tie to 2.2 million km2 of perennial ice extent on 1 May 2008 given the uncertainty of ±0.2 million km2 . Although the extent of perennial ice extent is similar, its distribution is quite different, with a significant perennial ice pack in the Beaufort Sea in 2008, and in contrast a large expanse of perennial ice along the Transpolar Drift Stream in 2009. The continuing drastic reduction of perennial ice significantly decreases the overall surface albedo, resulting in enhanced solar heat absorption in spring and summer, which further decreases the Arctic ice pack through the ice-albedo feedback mechanism and ice melt from the underside due to oceanic thermodynamic interactions. Satellite maps of sea ice class distribution show the closely conformation with patterns of the regional bathymetry, which demonstrate effects of oceanic water masses controlled by bathymetry on sea ice formation. Sea ice information around the North Pole becomes more critical to support field measurement campaigns carried out by ice breakers or submarines. Results reveal a historical fact that the boundary of perennial sea ice crossed the North Pole in February 2008, leaving the area around this region occupied by seasonal sea ice. The shift of the state of Arctic sea ice cover to the dominance domain of seasonal ice can impact photochemical processes including bromine explosion, ozone depletion, and mercury deposition. Such implications, within the context of Arctic climatic change, are to be investigated in order to assess consequential changes in the Arctic habitat that may affect the health of people and wildlife. Opposing scenarios of Arctic chemical change have been hypothesized and fundamental science questions remain to be addressed.

  19. Insulation-Testing Cryostat With Lifting Mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fesmire, James; Dokos, Adam; Scholtens, Brekke; Nagy, Zoltan; Augustynowicz, Stanislaw

    2010-01-01

    The figure depicts selected aspects of an apparatus for testing thermal-insulation materials for cryogenic systems at temperatures and under vacuum or atmospheric conditions representative of those encountered in use. This apparatus, called "Cryostat-100," is based on the established cryogen-boil-off calorimeter method, according to which the amount of heat that passes through an insulation specimen to a cryogenic fluid in a container, and thus the effective thermal conductance of the specimen, is taken to be proportional to the amount of the cryogenic fluid that boils off from the container. The design of Cryostat-100 is based partly on, and incorporates improvements over, the design of a similar prior apparatus called "Cryostat-1" described in "Improved Methods of Testing Cryogenic Insulation Materials" (KSC-12107 & KSC- 12108), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 24, No. 12 (December 2000), page 46. The design of Cryostat-100 also incorporates the best features of two other similar prior apparatuses called "Cryostat-2" (also described in the cited prior article) and "Cryostat- 4." Notable among the improvements in Cryostat-100 is the addition of a lifting mechanism that enables safe, rapid, reliable insertion and removal of insulation specimens and facilitates maintenance operations that involve lifting. As in Cryostat-1, the cold mass is a vertical stainless-steel cylindrical vessel subdivided into a larger measurement vessel with smaller thermal-guard vessels at both ends. During operation, all three vessels are kept filled with liquid nitrogen near saturation at ambient pressure (temperature .77.4 K). The cold mass of Cryostat-100 has a length of 1 m and diameter of 168 mm. Each specimen has a corresponding nominal length and inner diameter and a nominal thickness of 25.4 mm. Specimens that are shorter and have thicknesses between 0 and 50 mm are also acceptable. Bulk-fill, foam, clam-shell, multilayer insulation, and layered materials can be tested over a very wide range of thermal transmission: apparent thermal conductivity from 0.01 to 60 mW/m-K and heat flux from 0.1 to 500 W/sq m. A test in Cryostat-100 can be conducted at any desired gas pressure between ambient atmospheric pressure at one extreme and a vacuum with residual pressure <10(exp -5) torr (<1.33 10(exp -3) Pa) at the other extreme. The residual gas (and purge gas) is typically nitrogen, but can be any suitable purge gas (e.g., helium, argon, or carbon dioxide). Usually, the temperature on the warm boundary of the insulation specimen is maintained near the ambient value (approximately 293 K), while the boiling of liquid nitrogen at atmospheric pressure in the cold mass maintains the temperature on the cold boundary of the specimen at approximately 77 K.

  20. Occupational Sex Segregation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Theodore Fuller

    This activity is used in a Sociology class for undergraduate students. This activity looks as gender and occupation over time in the United States. This activity uses one customized data sets made from combining census information from 1970-1990. It guides students through data manipulation using WebCHIP software found at DataCounts!. To open WebCHIP with the dataset for the activity, please see instructions and links in the exercise documents under teaching materials. For more information on how to use WebCHIP, see the How To section on DataCounts!

  1. Occupational hazards of farriers.

    PubMed

    Holler, A C

    1984-01-01

    A farrier is a specialist in the shoeing of horses. It has been estimated that in the United States over 8 million horses are ridden for show and pleasure. These horses need hoof and leg care. The farrier does give this care and in so doing is subject to occupational hazards. These hazards cover a wide range and include bites from horses and farmer's dogs, ergonomic problems, noise and exposure to metal and welding fumes. Many of the hazards he encounters are unique to his profession. PMID:6702595

  2. Occupational Health for Healthcare Providers

    MedlinePLUS

    ... prevention practices. They can reduce your risk of health problems. Use protective equipment, follow infection control guidelines, ... manage stress. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health

  3. Occupational Disease in Connecticut, 2011

    E-print Network

    Oliver, Douglas L.

    ...........................................................................................................18 Acute Respiratory Conditions, and Poisonings...........................................................................................23 E. Occupational Disease Surveillance System (Physicians' Reports................................................................................................................28 Lung/Respiratory Diseases and Poisonings

  4. Occupational Skin Diseases in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min-Gi

    2010-01-01

    Skin disease is the most common occupational disease, but the reported number is small in Korea due to a difficulty of detection and diagnosis in time. We described various official statistics and data from occupational skin disease surveillance system, epidemiological surveys and cases published in scientific journals. Until 1981, 2,222 cases of occupational skin disease were reported by Korean employee's regular medical check-up, accounting for 4.9% of the total occupational diseases. There was no subsequent official statistics to figure out occupational skin diseases till 1998. From 1999, the Korea Occupational Safety and Health Agency (KOSHA) published the number of occupational skin diseases through the statistics of Cause Investigation for Industrial Accidents. A total of 301 cases were reported from 1999 to 2007. Recent one study showed the figures of compensated occupational skin diseases. Many of them belonged to daily-paid workers in the public service, especially forestry workers. Also, it described the interesting cases such as vitiligo and trichloroethylene-induced Stevens-Johnson Syndrome. Skin diseases are still important though the number of cases has decreased, and therefore it is recommended to grasp the status of occupational skin diseases through continuous surveillance system and to make policy protecting high-risk group. PMID:21258591

  5. Identifying New and Emerging Occupations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Jill Frymier

    1982-01-01

    Outlines some of the methods available to educational planners for identifying new and emerging occupations. These include futures projections, trend analysis, employer surveys, and expert testimony. (SK)

  6. Occupational asthma and occupational rhinitis: The united airways disease model revisited

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    1 Occupational asthma and occupational rhinitis: The united airways disease model revisited Jacques number: +33147107754; Fax number:+33147107768 Key words: occupational asthma, occupational rhinitis, high) Objectives: Whereas accumulating evidence indicates close associations between rhinitis and asthma, little

  7. Occupational cancers with chemical exposure and their prevention in Korea: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Rim, Kyung-Taek

    2013-01-01

    The usage and types of chemicals being developed, with diversified new exposure of workers, are of natural concern to occupational disease. In Korea, with industrialization, application of many chemicals has increased. A large proportion of mortality and disease is due to cancer, and the causal hazardous agents include chemical agents, like heavy metals and so on. Due to the long latency period with malignancies and the fact they are usually found after workers' retirement, it is suggested that management policies must be established to prevent occupational cancers occurring among workers in Korea. To give a general description about the efforts to prevent the occupational cancer with exposure to chemicals, articles on the trends of occupational cancers were reviewed and summarized with related research and efforts for prevention in Korea. It is important to improve the understanding of occupational cancer and help to maintain sustainable and appropriate measures to guarantee workers safety and health. PMID:23886117

  8. Precision Machining Technologies. Occupational Competency Analysis Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Vocational Instructional Materials Lab.

    This Occupational Competency Analysis Profile (OCAP), which is one of a series of OCAPs developed to identify the skills that Ohio employers deem necessary to entering a given occupation/occupational area, lists the occupational, academic, and employability skills required of individuals entering the occupation of precision machinist. The…

  9. The 2010 Ruth Zemke Lecture in Occupational Science Occupational Therapy\\/Occupational Science\\/Occupational Justice: Moral Commitments and Global Assemblages

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gelya Frank

    2011-01-01

    Twenty years have passed since occupational science was founded. It is time to reassess the relationship of occupational science to its roots in occupational therapy and also to reopen a discussion of some foundational assumptions. In particular, we need to situate the profession, occupational therapy, and the discipline, occupational science, in relation to the phenomenon of globalization. The internationalization of

  10. The 2010 Ruth Zemke Lecture in Occupational Science Occupational Therapy\\/Occupational Science\\/Occupational Justice: Moral Commitments and Global Assemblages

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gelya Frank

    2012-01-01

    Twenty years have passed since occupational science was founded. It is time to reassess the relationship of occupational science to its roots in occupational therapy and also to reopen a discussion of some foundational assumptions. In particular, we need to situate the profession, occupational therapy, and the discipline, occupational science, in relation to the phenomenon of globalization. The internationalization of

  11. [Occupational risk according to occupational traumatism parameters in Russia].

    PubMed

    Tikhonova, G I; Churanova, A N; Gorchakova, T Iu

    2012-01-01

    The article covers analysis of occupational traumatism in Russia over 2009 in concern with economic activity types, with small enterprises accent. Based on method adapted to national information sources and assessing statistics reliability in countries with imperfect accounting, the authors demonstrated that with various hypotheses occupational accidents risk in Russian Federation is considerably higher than the registered one. PMID:22702129

  12. Professional Development for Occupational Specialist: Occupational Competency Testing. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purdue Univ., Lafayette, IN.

    The organization, scope, and activities of the Indiana Occupational Competency Testing Center were expanded to accommodate the requirements of the new Occupational Specialist Certificate for secondary vocational teacher credentialling. A pilot project involved three regional sites in the state. The director of the host area site acted as area…

  13. Occupational asthma: an overview.

    PubMed

    Tan, Jessica; Bernstein, Jonathan A

    2014-05-01

    Occupational asthma is a form of asthma that is often under-diagnosed and under-reported. Unrecognized occupational asthma can lead to progression of disease and increased morbidity. The medical history is a critical element for establishing a diagnosis of OA. The history should include a detailed assessment of the workplace environment, the work process, changes in symptoms in and away from the workplace, and a review of relevant material safety data sheets that may provide clues regarding exposure(s) and the potential cause(s). Objective testing including spirometry pre- and post-bronchodilators, peak expiratory flow rate monitoring in and out of the workplace, provocation testing (i.e., methacholine challenge) to assess for airway hyperresponsiveness, and, if feasible, specific provocation by experienced personnel in a controlled setting to a suspected inciting agent are necessary for confirming a diagnosis. Skin or serologic testing for specific IgE to aeroallergens to assess the worker's atopic status is useful especially when considering certain forms of OA where atopy is a risk factor. Specialized laboratory testing may be useful for specific OA causes. It is important to correctly make the diagnosis of OA as the impact on the worker's future employment and earning power can be significantly affected. PMID:24633615

  14. [Drugs and occupational accident].

    PubMed

    Bratzke, H; Albers, C

    1996-02-01

    In a case of a fatal occupational accident (construction worker, fall from roof, urine test positive for cocaine and THC, e.g. cannabis) the question arised to what extent those drug-related occupational accidents occur. In the literature only few cases, mainly dealing with cannabis influence, have been reported, however, a higher number is suspected. Cocaine and other stimulating drugs (amphetamine) are more often used to increase physical fitness. By direct or indirect interference with vigilance these compounds may provoke accidents. Due to the lack of a legal basis proving of the influence of drugs at the working place is still very limited, although highly sensitive chemical-toxicological assay procedures are available to detect even the chronic abuse (in hair). In the general conditions of accident insurances a compensation is excluded when alcohol is involved, but drugs are not mentioned. It is indeed difficult to establish a concentration limit for drugs like that existing for alcohol (1.1%). In each case the assay of the drug involved and exact knowledge of its specific effects is in an essential prerequisite to prove the causal relationship. PMID:8852068

  15. An Exploration of the Role of Occupation in School-Based Occupational Therapy Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Jeryl DiSanti

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the role of occupation in school-based occupational therapy practice. The research questions were (1) How do school-based occupational therapists describe the role of occupation during intervention? (2) Which theories of occupation do school-based occupational therapists associate with their own practice?…

  16. 2014OCCUPATIONAL & ENVIRONMENTAL MEDICINE SYMPOSIUM

    E-print Network

    Leistikow, Bruce N.

    for physicians, nurses, and other occupational and environmental health professionals practicing in clinics of Public Health Integrating Employee Assistance into Occupational Health and Wellness to Sustain Total Worker Health John Dillon Riley, MD Chevron Corporation Writing Ratable Medical Reports Tani Perez

  17. CAREER GUIDE FOR DEMAND OCCUPATIONS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LEE, E.R.; WELCH, JOHN L.

    THIS PUBLICATION UPDATES THE "CAREER GUIDE FOR DEMAND OCCUPATIONS" PUBLISHED IN 1959 AND PROVIDES COUNSELORS WITH INFORMATION ABOUT OCCUPATIONS IN DEMAND IN MANY AREAS WHICH REQUIRE PREEMPLOYMENT TRAINING. IT PRESENTS, IN COLUMN FORM, THE EDUCATION AND OTHER TRAINING USUALLY REQUIRED BY EMPLOYERS, HIGH SCHOOL SUBJECTS OF PARTICULAR PERTINENCE TO…

  18. Career and Occupational Development Items.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Commission of the States, Denver, CO. National Assessment of Educational Progress.

    The career and occupational development items contained in this document are part of a kit consisting of four documents which bring together different types of items that measure a number of career and occupational development (COD) objectives developed by the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). (NAEP--which completed a national…

  19. Occupational seafood allergy: a review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M F Jeebhay; T G Robins; S B Lehrer; A L Lopata

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUNDRecent years have seen increased levels of production and consumption of seafood, leading to more frequent reporting of allergic reactions in occupational and domestic settings. This review focuses on occupational allergy in the fishing and seafood processing industry.REVIEWWorkers involved in either manual or automated processing of crabs, prawns, mussels, fish, and fishmeal production are commonly exposed to various constituents of

  20. Occupational asthma due to formaldehyde

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P S Burge; M G Harries; W K Lam; I M OBrien; P A Patchett

    1985-01-01

    Bronchial provocation studies on 15 workers occupationally exposed to formaldehyde are described. The results show that formaldehyde exposure can cause asthmatic reactions, and suggest that these are sometimes due to hypersensitivity and sometimes to a direct irritant effect. Three workers had classical occupational asthma caused by formaldehyde fumes, which was likely to be due to hypersensitivity, with late asthmatic reactions

  1. Performance Specifications for Occupational Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maryland State Dept. of Education, Baltimore. Div. of Career Technology and Adult Learning.

    This document lists and discusses the development of Maryland's performance specifications for occupational programs. The introduction explains the process used to develop performance standards and specifications for 10 career cluster majors that were identified by a task force of educators and employers as high-demand occupational areas in…

  2. NATIONAL OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE SURVEY (NOES)

    EPA Science Inventory

    From 1981 to 1983, NIOSH conducted the National Occupational Exposure Survey (NOES) that collected data on potential occupational exposures to chemical, physical, and biological agents. The survey involved on-site visits to 4,490 establishments in 522 industry types [OMB 1972] em...

  3. NATIONAL TRAUMATIC OCCUPATIONAL FATALITIES (NTOF)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Traumatic Occupational Fatalities (NTOF) surveillance system is a death certificate-based census of occupational injury deaths. Death certificates are obtained from the 50 States, New York City, and the District of Columbia for decedent's ages 16 years or older with ...

  4. Pathways to STEMM Support Occupations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Scott Solberg; Linda G. Kimmel; Jon D. Miller

    2012-01-01

    The preceding articles in this issue of the Peabody Journal of Education have focused on preparation for and entry into professional positions in science, technology, engineering, mathematics, and medicine (STEMM). This article shifts the focus from professional positions to STEMM support occupations, focusing on the preparation necessary for entrance into this alternate STEMM field. As a group, STEMM support occupations

  5. Occupational therapy for multiple sclerosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. M. J. Steultjens; J. Dekker; L. M. Bouter; M. Cardol; J. C. M. van de Nes; C. H. M. van den Ende

    2003-01-01

    Background: Multiple sclerosis (MS) patients are referred to occupational therapy with complaints about fatigue, limb weakness, alteration of upper extremity fine motor coordination, loss of sensation and spasticity that causes limitations in performance of activities of daily living and social participation. The primary purpose of occupational therapy is to enable individuals to participate in self-care, work and leisure activities that

  6. Occupational therapy for rheumatoid arthritis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. M. J. Steultjens; J. Dekker; L. M. Bouter; D. J. van Schaardenburg; M. A. H. van Kuyk; C. H. M. van den Ende

    2004-01-01

    Background: For persons with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) the physical, personal, familial, social and vocational consequences are extensive. Occupational therapy (OT), with the aim to facilitate task performance and to decrease the consequences of rheumatoid arthritis for daily life activities, is considered to be a cornerstone in the management of rheumatoid arthritis. Till now the efficacy of occupational therapy for patients

  7. The purpose of occupational medicine.

    PubMed Central

    Raffle, P A

    1975-01-01

    The purposes of occupational medicine are described in terms of its clinical medical, environmental medical, research, and administrative content. Each of these components is essential in different proportions in comprehensive occupational health services for different industries, and can only be satisfactorily provided by occupational physicians and occupational health nurses who are an integral part of their organizations. Two-thirds of the working population in the United Kingdom are without the benefits of occupational medicine. The reorganization of the National Health Service and of local government presents the opportunity to extend occupational health services to many more workers who need them. It is suggested that area health authorities should provide occupational health services for all National Health Service staff and, on an agency basis, for local government and associated services, eventually extending to local industry. Such area health authority based services, merged with the Employment Medical Advisory Service, could conveniently then be part of the National Health Service, as recommended by the British Medical Association, the Society of Occupational Medicine, and the Medical Services Review Committee. PMID:1131336

  8. Occupational Segregation: Analysis and Recommendations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millsap, Mary Ann

    This paper presents an overview of occupational segregation, which keeps women in lower-paying job categories, especially as this segregation pertains to federal job programs. The first two sections of the paper survey occupational segregation in general, examining the statistics which show that women are heavily concentrated into a very limited…

  9. Business Financial Occupations: Skill Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vocational Technical Education Consortium of States, Decatur, GA.

    This report organizes the information provided by 71 individuals in finance-related occupations in 11 states into skills inventories for persons in these jobs. The skills inventories contain the following sections: (1) occupation-specific knowledge (communication, mathematics, science); (2) workplace behaviors (work ethics, interpersonal…

  10. Business Management Occupations: Skill Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vocational Technical Education Consortium of States, Decatur, GA.

    This report organizes the information provided by 77 individuals in business management occupations in 12 states into skills inventories for persons in these jobs. The skills inventories contain the following sections: (1) occupation-specific knowledge (communication, mathematics, science); (2) workplace behaviors (work ethics, interpersonal…

  11. 5 CFR 9701.211 - Occupational clusters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 false Occupational clusters. 9701.211 Section 9701.211...Structure § 9701.211 Occupational clusters. For the purpose of classifying...coordination with OPM, establish occupational clusters based on factors such as...

  12. 5 CFR 9701.211 - Occupational clusters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 false Occupational clusters. 9701.211 Section 9701.211...Structure § 9701.211 Occupational clusters. For the purpose of classifying...coordination with OPM, establish occupational clusters based on factors such as...

  13. 5 CFR 9701.211 - Occupational clusters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 false Occupational clusters. 9701.211 Section 9701.211...Structure § 9701.211 Occupational clusters. For the purpose of classifying...coordination with OPM, establish occupational clusters based on factors such as...

  14. 5 CFR 9701.211 - Occupational clusters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 false Occupational clusters. 9701.211 Section 9701.211...Structure § 9701.211 Occupational clusters. For the purpose of classifying...coordination with OPM, establish occupational clusters based on factors such as...

  15. [Results of epidemiological research in occupational morbidity].

    PubMed

    Retnev, V M; Shliakhetski?, N S; Bo?ko, I V; Ivanova, F A; Petruk, Iu A; Dedkova, L E; Gurevich, E P; Milutka, E V; Karulina, O A; Otniukov, O A; Arshinova, T I; Naumova, T M; Gerasimova, L B; Veselova, T G

    2001-01-01

    The authors present materials on real prevalence of occupational diseases, calculate the diseases' share per economically active population, demonstrate thorough analysis of occupational morbidity in major industrial city, prove positive role of Occupational Pathology Center. PMID:11715720

  16. Lift force acting on a cylindrical body in a fluid near the boundary of a cavity performing translational vibrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanova, A. A.; Kozlov, V. G.; Shchipitsyn, V. D.

    2014-09-01

    The averaged lift force acting on a cylindrical body near the boundary of a cavity with a fluid performing translational vibrations was studied. Experiments were performed with variation the viscosity of the fluid, the size and relative density of the body, and vibration parameters were varied. The lift force was measured by the method of dynamic suspension of a body in a gravitational field in the case where the body performed inertial vibrations without touching the walls. It was found that the vibrations generated a repulsion force which held the heavy body over the bottom of the cavity, and the light body at a certain distance from the top wall. It was shown that the effect of the repulsion forces manifested itself at a distance comparable to the thickness of the Stokes layer and increased with approach to the wall. A description of the mechanism of generation of the lift force is given. It is shown that in the case of high dimensionless frequencies, the experimental and theoretical results are in agreement.

  17. Achieving Quality in Occupational Health

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Donnell, Michele (Editor); Hoffler, G. Wyckliffe (Editor)

    1997-01-01

    The conference convened approximately 100 registered participants of invited guest speakers, NASA presenters, and a broad spectrum of the Occupational Health disciplines representing NASA Headquarters and all NASA Field Centers. Centered on the theme, "Achieving Quality in Occupational Health," conferees heard presentations from award winning occupational health program professionals within the Agency and from private industry; updates on ISO 9000 status, quality assurance, and information technologies; workshops on ergonomics and respiratory protection; an overview from the newly commissioned NASA Occupational Health Assessment Team; and a keynote speech on improving women's health. In addition, NASA occupational health specialists presented 24 poster sessions and oral deliveries on various aspects of current practice at their field centers.

  18. Occupational cyanide poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Amizet, Loic; Pruvot, Gauthier; Remy, Sophie; Kfoury, Michel

    2011-01-01

    Cyanide poisoning has existed for centuries. In most cases, cyanide is combined with other toxic substances; for example with carbon monoxide in fire smoke. Cases of pure cyanide poisoning are rare, and usually due to accidental exposure. Their treatment is based on oxygenation and the infusion of hydroxocobalamin. The seriousness of this type of poisoning calls for a rapid and specific response, which demonstrates the usefulness of non-hospital based medical treatment. The authors report here the case of a man who was the victim of occupational poisoning with sodium cyanide and who was treated at the workplace by fire-fighters and the Service Mobile d’Urgence et Reanimation emergency ambulance service. PMID:22674698

  19. Occupational ergonomics in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stramler, J.

    1992-01-01

    Ergonomics is often defined simply as the study of work. Related or synonymous terms include human factors, human engineering, engineering psychology, and others. Occupational ergonomics is a term that has been proposed to describe the study of the working environment, including the physical consequences resulting from having an improperly designed workplace. The routine space working environment presents some problems not found in the typical Earthbound workplace. These include radiation, intravehicular contamination/pollution, temperature extremes, impact with other objects, limited psychosocial relationships, sensory deprivation, and reduced gravity. These are important workplace considerations, and may affect astronauts either directly at work or at some point during their life as a result of their work under these conditions. Some of the major issues associated with each of these hazards are presented.

  20. Gender, Occupation and Earnings

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Jill Bouma

    This activity is used in a Problems in American Institutions class for undergraduate students. This activity explores impacts of gender on occupation and earnings in the United States. This activity uses a customized data set made from the 2000 Census. It provides students with data tables to analyze. There are two handouts to introduce second module used in class: Hand-out 1 is given at beginning of class; students discuss tables and write brief summaries -entire class period spent teaching how to talk and write about findings; develop idea of control variable. Hand-out 2 is passed out at end of class. Students are asked to review write-up following day, given a quiz asking them to describe set of tables; module distributed afterward.

  1. Lifts and stops in proficient and dysgraphic handwriting.

    PubMed

    Paz-Villagrán, Vietminh; Danna, Jérémy; Velay, Jean-Luc

    2014-02-01

    In this study, the handwriting performances of dysgraphic children were compared to those of proficient children and adults. The task consisted in writing a single word at normal and fast speeds. A distinction was made between two kinds of pauses, which are often confounded: pen lifts, when the pen is above the paper, and pen stops, when it is immobile on the paper. The number and duration of lifts and stops were analyzed, together with the mean velocity. No difference in the number of lifts was observed between the three groups of writers, but the lift durations were shorter for adults. While dysgraphic children were able to write as fast as proficient children, their stops were more numerous and longer than those of proficient children who, themselves, made more stops than adults. A distinction was made between short, normal, and long, abnormal, stops. The results of this study suggest that pen stops are more appropriate than pen lifts in differentiating the handwriting fluency of dysgraphic and proficient children. PMID:24321409

  2. Occupation and multiple myeloma: an occupation and industry analysis

    PubMed Central

    Gold, Laura S; Milliken, Kevin; Stewart, Patricia; Purdue, Mark; Severson, Richard; Seixas, Noah; Blair, Aaron; Davis, Scott; Hartge, Patricia; De Roos, Anneclaire J

    2011-01-01

    Background Multiple myeloma (MM) is an incurable plasma cell malignancy with a poorly understood etiology. The purpose of our research was to examine relationships between lifetime occupations and MM in a relatively large case-control study. Methods MM cases (n=180) were identified through cancer registries in the Seattle-Puget Sound area and Detroit. Population-based controls (n=481) were identified using random digit dialing and Medicare and Medicaid Services files. In-person interviews were conducted to ascertain occupational histories. Standard occupational classification (SOC) and standard industrial classification (SIC) codes were assigned to each job held by each participant. Unconditional logistic regression was used to generate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for associations between MM and having ever worked in each occupation/industry and according to duration of employment in an occupation/industry. Results The risk of MM was associated with several manufacturing occupations and industries, including machine operators and tenders, not elsewhere classified (SOC 76) (OR=1.8, CI=1.0–3.3); textile, apparel, and furnishing machine operators and tenders (SOC 765) (OR=6.0, CI=1.7–21); and machinery manufacturing, except electrical (SIC 35) (OR=3.3, CI=1.7–6.7). Several service occupations and industries, such as food and beverage preparation (SOC 521) (OR=2.0, CI=1.1–3.8), were also associated with MM. One occupation that has been associated with MM in several previous studies, painters, paperhangers, and plasterers (SOC 644), was associated with a non–significantly elevated risk (OR=3.6, CI=0.7–19). Conclusions We found associations between the risk of MM and employment in several manufacturing and service-related occupations and industries. PMID:20623662

  3. Occupational seafood allergy: a review

    PubMed Central

    Jeebhay, M; Robins, T; Lehrer, S; Lopata, A

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Recent years have seen increased levels of production and consumption of seafood, leading to more frequent reporting of allergic reactions in occupational and domestic settings. This review focuses on occupational allergy in the fishing and seafood processing industry.?REVIEW—Workers involved in either manual or automated processing of crabs, prawns, mussels, fish, and fishmeal production are commonly exposed to various constituents of seafood. Aerosolisation of seafood and cooking fluid during processing are potential occupational situations that could result in sensitisation through inhalation. There is great variability of aerosol exposure within and among various jobs with reported allergen concentrations ranging from 0.001 to 5.061(µg/m3). Occupational dermal exposure occurs as a result of unprotected handling of seafood and its byproducts. Occupational allergies have been reported in workers exposed to arthropods (crustaceans), molluscs, pisces (bony fish) and other agents derived from seafood. The prevalence of occupational asthma ranges from 7% to 36%, and for occupational protein contact dermatitis, from 3% to 11%. These health outcomes are mainly due to high molecular weight proteins in seafood causing an IgE mediated response. Cross reactivity between various species within a major seafood grouping also occurs. Limited evidence from dose-response relations indicate that development of symptoms is related to duration or intensity of exposure. The evidence for atopy as a risk factor for occupational sensitisation and asthma is supportive, whereas evidence for cigarette smoking is limited. Disruption of the intact skin barrier seems to be an important added risk factor for occupational protein contact dermatitis.?CONCLUSION—The range of allergic disease associated with occupational exposure to crab is well characterised, whereas for other seafood agents the evidence is somewhat limited. There is a need for further epidemiological studies to better characterise this risk. More detailed characterisation of specific protein antigens in aerosols and associated establishment of dose-response relations for acute and chronic exposure to seafood; the respective roles of skin contact and inhalational exposure in allergic sensitisation and cross reactivity; and the contribution of host associated factors in the development of occupational seafood allergies are important areas for future research.???Keywords: occupational seafood allergy; occupational asthma; protein contact dermatitis PMID:11511741

  4. Heavy Flavors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, B.; Soni, A.

    This is a summary report of the working group on Heavy Flavors. Discussions at the workshop were centered on B physics and on the signals for heavy quarks and leptons at the SSC. The Working Group Members were: V. Barger, H.-U. Bengtsson, C. Buchanan, I. Bigi, M. Block, B. Cox, N. Glover, J. Hewett, W.Y. Keung, B. Margolis, T. Rizzo, M. Suzuki, A. Soni, D. Stork, and S. Willenbrock.

  5. Association between Job Stressors and Heavy Drinking: Age Differences in Male Japanese Workers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hisanori HIRO; Norito KAWAKAMI; Katsutoshi TANAKA; Ken NAKAMURA

    2007-01-01

    The objective of the present study is to investigate the association between various occupational stressors and heavy drinking among male Japanese workers in different age groups. Using the Generic Job Stress Questionnaire, 13 occupational stressors and 2 workplace support indicators were assessed. The questionnaire survey was conducted of 25,104 workers, and the present study analyzed the data from 17,501 male

  6. Pregnancy: occupational aspects of management: concise guidance.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Keith T; Bonzini, Matteo; Bonde, Jens-Peter Ellekilde

    2013-02-01

    Most pregnant women are exposed to some physical activity at work. This Concise Guidance is aimed at doctors advising healthy women with uncomplicated singleton pregnancies about the risks arising from five common workplace exposures (prolonged working hours, shift work, lifting, standing and heavy physical workload). The adverse outcomes considered are: miscarriage, preterm delivery, small for gestational age, low birth weight, pre-eclampsia and gestational hypertension. Systematic review of the literature indicates that these exposures are unlikely to carry much of an increased risk for any of the outcomes, since small apparent effects might be explicable in terms of chance, bias, or confounding, while larger and better studies yield lower estimated risks compared with smaller and weaker studies. In general, patients can be reassured that such work is associated with little, if any, adverse effect on pregnancy. Moreover, moderate physical exercise is thought to be healthy in pregnancy and most pregnant women undertake some physical work at home. The guidelines provide risk estimates and advice on counselling. PMID:23472500

  7. Ankle joint load and leg muscle activity during lifting.

    PubMed

    Ekholm, J; Svensson, O; Arborelius, U P; Nemeth, G

    1984-01-01

    The load on the talocrural joint during three different ways of lifting was compared and discussed with biomechanical and ergonomical aspects. Healthy subjects lifted a 12.8-kg box from floor to table-level with bent and straight knees. The loading moment of force about the bilateral ankle axis was calculated by means of a computerized static sagittal plane model. Electromyography was recorded from the tibial anterior, gastrocnemius, and soleus muscles. The mean maximum loading moment was found to be 68 newton-meters with an estimated joint compressive force of 2.9 times body weight. The lowest loading moments obtained were associated with lifting the burden between bent knees and close to the pelvis. PMID:6735286

  8. RF Properties of Epitaxial Lift-Off HEMT Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Paul G.; Alterovitz, Samuel A.; Mena, Rafael A.; Smith, Edwyn D.

    1993-01-01

    Epitaxial layers containing GaAs HEMT and P-HEMT structures have been lifted-off the GaAs substrate and attached to other host substrates using an AlAs parting layer. The devices were on-wafer RF probed before and after the lift-off step showing no degradation in the measured S-parameters. The maximum stable gain indicates a low frequency enhancement of the gain of 1-2 dB with some devices showing an enhancement of F(sub max)F(sub T) consistently shows an increase of 12-20% for all lifted-off HEMT structures. Comparison of the Hall measurements and small signal models show that the gain is improved and this is most probably associated with an enhanced carrier concentration.

  9. A method for measuring external loads during dynamic lifting exertions.

    PubMed

    Granata, K P; Marras, W S; Fathallah, F A

    1996-09-01

    Biomechanical analyses of lifting exertions often require measured values of applied trunk moments and forces as baseline or validation data. Accurate measures of the trunk kinetic data are difficult to achieve from dynamic exertions without significant approximation, cost, or motion constraints. The purpose of this effort was to develop and validate a means to directly measure multi-dimensional, trunk moments which occur during dynamic lifting exertions. Force plate reaction loads coupled through a lower-body isolation structure designed to fasten the hips and legs into a known static position, were employed to compute the moment vectors about the lumbar spine. Results demonstrate the applied moments about the lumbo-sacral junction of the spine can be accurately measured from a single force plate, allowing biomechanical evaluation of dynamic lifting exertions without constraining the motions of the upper body. PMID:8872281

  10. Experimental and simulated control of lift using trailing edge devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooperman, A.; Blaylock, M.; van Dam, C. P.

    2014-12-01

    Two active aerodynamic load control (AALC) devices coupled with a control algorithm are shown to decrease the change in lift force experienced by an airfoil during a change in freestream velocity. Microtabs are small (1% chord) surfaces deployed perpendicular to an airfoil, while microjets are pneumatic jets with flow perpendicular to the surface of the airfoil near the trailing edge. Both devices are capable of producing a rapid change in an airfoil's lift coefficient. A control algorithm for microtabs has been tested in a wind tunnel using a modified S819 airfoil, and a microjet control algorithm has been simulated for a NACA 0012 airfoil using OVERFLOW. In both cases, the AALC devices have shown the ability to mitigate the changes in lift during a gust.

  11. Wind tunnel test results of heavy rain effects on airfoil performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bezos, G. M.; Dunham, R. E., Jr.; Gentry, G. L., Jr.; Melson, W. Edward, Jr.

    1987-01-01

    The effects of simulated heavy rain on the aerodynamic characteristics of a NACA 64-210 airfoil section equipped with high-lift devices were investigated in the NASA Langley 14- by 22-Foot Subsonic Tunnel. The experiment was part of an on-going NASA program to determine the effect of heavy rain on airplane performance, and was directed at providing insight into scaling laws for subscale model testing of rain effects. The model used in the investigation had a chord of 2.5 feet, a span of 8.0 feet, and was mounted on the tunnel centerline between two large endplates. A water spray distribution system was located 10 chord lengths upstream of the model. The sensitivity of test results to partial-span coverage of the model in the simulated rain environment as compared to full-span coverage was also investigated. The lift and drag data obtained for the high-lift configuration show excellent repeatability of results compared to the previous data. Results obtained for various spray concentrations and tunnel speeds showed significant losses in maximum lift capability, a decrease in the angle of attack for maximum lift, and an increase in drag as the stimulated rain rate was increased. The test results also indicated that the data were not strongly affected by surface tension effects for the high-lift configuration.

  12. Occupational Neurological Disorders in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Seong-Kyu

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this article was to provide a literature review of occupational neurological disorders and related research in Korea, focusing on chemical hazards. We reviewed occupational neurological disorders investigated by the Occupational Safety and Health Research Institute of Korean Occupational Safety and Health Agency between 1992 and 2009, categorizing them as neurological disorders of the central nervous system (CNS), of the peripheral nervous system (PNS) or as neurodegenerative disorders. We also examined peer-reviewed journal articles related to neurotoxicology, published from 1984 to 2009. Outbreaks of occupational neurological disorder of the CNS due to inorganic mercury and carbon disulfide poisoning had helped prompt the development of the occupational safety and health system of Korea. Other major neurological disorders of the CNS included methyl bromide intoxication and chronic toxic encephalopathy. Most of the PNS disorders were n-hexane-induced peripheral neuritis, reported from the electronics industry. Reports of manganese-induced Parkinsonism resulted in the introduction of neuroimaging techniques to occupational medicine. Since the late 1990s, the direction of research has been moving toward degenerative disorder and early effect of neurotoxicity. To understand the early effects of neurotoxic chemicals in the preclinical stage, more follow-up studies of a longer duration are necessary. PMID:21258587

  13. Laithwaite's Heavy Spinning Disk Demonstration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cross, Rod

    2014-09-01

    In 1974, Professor Eric Laithwaite demonstrated an unusually heavy gyroscope at a Royal Institution lecture in London. The demonstration was televised and can be viewed on YouTube.1 A recent version of the same experiment, together with partial explanations, attracted two million YouTube views in the first few months.2 In both cases, the gyroscope consisted of a 40-lb (18-kg) spinning disk on the end of a 3-ft (0.91-m) long axle. The most remarkable feature of the demonstration was that Laithwaite was able to lift the disk over his head with one hand, holding onto the far end of the axle. The impression was given that the 40-lb disk was almost weightless, or "as light as a feather" according to Laithwaite.

  14. LIFT: analysis of performance in a laser assisted adaptive optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plantet, Cedric; Meimon, Serge; Conan, Jean-Marc; Neichel, Benoît; Fusco, Thierry

    2014-08-01

    Laser assisted adaptive optics systems rely on Laser Guide Star (LGS) Wave-Front Sensors (WFS) for high order aberration measurements, and rely on Natural Guide Stars (NGS) WFS to complement the measurements on low orders such as tip-tilt and focus. The sky-coverage of the whole system is therefore related to the limiting magnitude of the NGS WFS. We have recently proposed LIFT, a novel phase retrieval WFS technique, that allows a 1 magnitude gain over the usually used 2×2 Shack-Hartmann WFS. After an in-lab validation, LIFT's concept has been demonstrated on sky in open loop on GeMS (the Gemini Multiconjugate adaptive optics System at Gemini South). To complete its validation, LIFT now needs to be operated in closed loop in a laser assisted adaptive optics system. The present work gives a detailed analysis of LIFT's behavior in presence of high order residuals and how to limit aliasing effects on the tip/tilt/focus estimation. Also, we study the high orders' impact on noise propagation. For this purpose, we simulate a multiconjugate adaptive optics loop representative of a GeMS-like 5 LGS configuration. The residual high orders are derived from a Fourier based simulation. We demonstrate that LIFT keeps a high performance gain over the Shack-Hartmann 2×2 whatever the turbulence conditions. Finally, we show the first simulation of a closed loop with LIFT estimating turbulent tip/tilt and focus residuals that could be induced by sodium layer's altitude variations.

  15. Velocity vector control system augmented with direct lift control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tisdale, H. F., Sr.; Kelly, W. W. (inventors)

    1981-01-01

    A pilot-controlled stability control system that employs direct lift control (spoiler control) with elevator control to control the flight path angle of an aircraft is described. A computer on the aircraft generates an elevator control signal and a spoiler control signal, using a pilot-controlled pitch control signal and pitch rate, vertical velocity, roll angle, groundspeed, engine pressure ratio and vertical acceleration signals which are generated on the aircraft. The direct lift control by the aircraft spoilers improves the response of the aircraft flight path angle and provides short term flight path stabilization against environmental disturbances.

  16. Control of Variable Valve Lift Engine by Nonlinear MPC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murayama, Akihiro; Yamakita, Masaki

    In this study, we purpose a control system of engine torque for a V6 spark ignition engine with a variable valve lift system. We apply a nonlinear receding horizon control to a benchmark problem where we assume that the control inputs are throttle angle, variable valve lift and ignition timing. Moreover, a fuel injection control is also developed by estimating the amount of air in the engine. We propose a vehicle speed tracking control by defining time derivative of input as new input and dealing with input constraint by transformation of input variables. Finally, we show some numerical simulation results to verify the proposed methods.

  17. Occupational Chemical Exposures Among Cosmetologists

    PubMed Central

    Pak, Victoria M.; Powers, Martha; Liu, Jianghong

    2014-01-01

    More research is needed to understand possible occupational reproductive risks for cosmetologists, specifically hairdressers and nail technicians, two occupations that often share workspace and exposure to hair dyes and nail polish. Cosmetologists are predominantly females of reproductive age; thus, they may be at higher risk for the effects of exposure to reproductive toxins. The purpose of this article is to inform nurses and public health professionals about occupational exposures for cosmetologists and discuss interventions to reduce the risks of reproductive disorders among susceptible worker populations. PMID:24328919

  18. Academic & Financial Awards Master of Occupational Therapy Program

    E-print Network

    Aamodt, Tor

    Academic & Financial Awards 2011-2012 Master of Occupational Therapy Program Department of Occupational Science & Occupational Therapy University of British Columbia Page | 1 Each year, the Department of Occupational Science & Occupational Therapy distributes academic and financial awards to deserving students

  19. Occupational exposure to manganese.

    PubMed Central

    Sari?, M; Marki?evi?, A; Hrusti?, O

    1977-01-01

    The relationship between the degree of exposure and biological effects of manganese was studied in a group of 369 workers employed in the production of ferroalloys. Two other groups of workers, from an electrode plant and from an aluminium rolling mill, served as controls. Mean manganese concentrations at work places where ferroalloys were produced varied from 0-301 to 20-442 mg/m3. The exposure level of the two control groups was from 2 to 30 microgram/m3 and from 0-05 to 0-07 microgram/m3, in the electrode plant and rolling mill respectively. Sixty-two (16-8%) manganese alloy workers showed some signs of neurological impairment. These signs were noticeably less in the two control groups (5-8% and 0%) than in the occupationally exposed group. Subjective symptoms, which are nonspecific but may be symptoms of subclinical manganism, were not markedly different in the three groups. However, in the manganese alloy workers some of the subjective symptoms occurred more frequently in heavier smokers than in light smokers or nonsmokers. Heavier smokers engaged in manganese alloy production showed some of the subjective symptoms more often than heavier smokers from the control groups. PMID:871441

  20. Occupational Injuries, Illnesses and Fatalities

    MedlinePLUS

    ... current research Comparing fatal work injuries in the United States and the European Union See more Monthly Labor ... counts ( PDF 111K) Fatal Occupational Injuries in the United States, 1995-1999: A Chartbook Use of Workers' Compensation ...