Sample records for ocd obsessive-compulsive symptoms

  1. Structure of Obsessive-Compulsive Symptoms in Pediatric OCD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mataix-Cols, David; Nakatani, Eriko; Micali, Nadia; Heyman, Isobel

    2008-01-01

    The investigation of the structure of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) symptoms observed in adults is similar to those observed in children is presented. This investigation indicates the structure of OCD symptoms is the same across the entire lifespan as compared to pediatric OCD and adulthood OCD.

  2. Insight into Obsessive-Compulsive Symptoms and Awareness of Illness in Adolescent Schizophrenia Patients with and without OCD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faragian, Sarit; Kurs, Rena; Poyurovsky, Michael

    2008-01-01

    A substantial proportion of adolescent schizophrenia patients also has obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). As the reliability of OCD identification in schizophrenia has been challenged, we evaluated insight into OCD symptoms and awareness of schizophrenia, using the Brown Assessment of Beliefs Scale and the Scale to Assess Unawareness of Mental…

  3. Perfectionism, responsibility and Obsessive-Compulsive symptoms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Josée Rhéaume; Mark H. Freeston; Michel J. Dugas; Hélène Letarte; Robert Ladouceur

    1995-01-01

    Although both perfectionism and responsibility have been associated with OCD at a theoretical level, responsibility has been the focus of a number of recent articles. This study was conducted in order to empirically test the relative importance of perfectionism and responsibility in Obsessive-Compulsive symptoms. Perfectionism and two measures of responsibility showed moderate correlations with Obsessive-Compulsive symptoms. A hierarchical regression analysis

  4. The relationships between obsessive-compulsive symptom dimensions and cognitions in obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    PubMed

    Brakoulias, Vlasios; Starcevic, Vladan; Berle, David; Milicevic, Denise; Hannan, Anthony; Martin, Andrew

    2014-06-01

    Several studies have linked obsessive-compulsive symptoms to specific obsessive-compulsive cognitions, however methodologies have varied, and no study has determined obsessive-compulsive symptoms using the most widely used clinician rating scale, the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS). Considering that almost all studies that used factor analysis to ascertain OCD symptom dimensions were based on the Y-BOCS and that self-report instruments assessing obsessive-compulsive symptoms correlate poorly with the Y-BOCS, there is a need to use the Y-BOCS to examine the relationship between obsessive-compulsive cognitions and obsessive-compulsive symptom dimensions. This study examined the relationship between five Y-BOCS-derived obsessive-compulsive symptom dimensions and the three obsessive-compulsive cognitive domains identified by the obsessive-beliefs questionnaire (OBQ). The symmetry/ordering symptom dimension was associated with increased perfectionism/intolerance of uncertainty, the unacceptable/taboo thoughts symptom dimension was associated with increased importance/control of thoughts and the doubt/checking symptom dimension was associated with increased responsibility/threat estimation. There was no statistical evidence of an association between any OBQ belief sub-scale and the hoarding symptom dimension nor the contamination/cleaning symptom dimension. The findings encourage symptom-based approaches to cognitive-behavioural therapy for some OCD symptoms and call for further research on cognitions associated with contamination/cleaning symptoms and hoarding. PMID:24142072

  5. Comorbid obsessive–compulsive personality disorder in obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD): A marker of severity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christine Lochner; Paul Serebro; Lize van der Merwe; Sian Hemmings; Craig Kinnear; Soraya Seedat; Dan J. Stein

    2011-01-01

    IntroductionComorbid obsessive–compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) is well-described in obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD). It remains unclear, however, whether OCPD in OCD represents a distinct subtype of OCD or whether it is simply a marker of severity in OCD.

  6. The Brief Obsessive–Compulsive Scale (BOCS): A self-report scale for OCD and obsessive–compulsive related disorders

    PubMed Central

    Edman, Gunnar; Anckarsäter, Henrik; Berglund, Gunilla; Gillberg, Christopher; Hofvander, Björn; Humble, Mats B.; Mörtberg, Ewa; Råstam, Maria; Ståhlberg, Ola; Frisén, Louise

    2014-01-01

    Background The Brief Obsessive Compulsive Scale (BOCS), derived from the Yale–Brown Obsessive–Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS) and the children’s version (CY-BOCS), is a short self-report tool used to aid in the assessment of obsessive–compulsive symptoms and diagnosis of obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD). It is widely used throughout child, adolescent and adult psychiatry settings in Sweden but has not been validated up to date. Aim The aim of the current study was to examine the psychometric properties of the BOCS amongst a psychiatric outpatient population. Method The BOCS consists of a 15-item Symptom Checklist including three items (hoarding, dysmorphophobia and self-harm) related to the DSM-5 category “Obsessive–compulsive related disorders”, accompanied by a single six-item Severity Scale for obsessions and compulsions combined. It encompasses the revisions made in the Y-BOCS-II severity scale by including obsessive–compulsive free intervals, extent of avoidance and excluding the resistance item. 402 adult psychiatric outpatients with OCD, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, autism spectrum disorder and other psychiatric disorders completed the BOCS. Results Principal component factor analysis produced five subscales titled “Symmetry”, “Forbidden thoughts”, “Contamination”, “Magical thoughts” and “Dysmorphic thoughts”. The OCD group scored higher than the other diagnostic groups in all subscales (P < 0.001). Sensitivities, specificities and internal consistency for both the Symptom Checklist and the Severity Scale emerged high (Symptom Checklist: sensitivity = 85%, specificities = 62–70% Cronbach’s ? = 0.81; Severity Scale: sensitivity = 72%, specificities = 75–84%, Cronbach’s ? = 0.94). Conclusions The BOCS has the ability to discriminate OCD from other non-OCD related psychiatric disorders. The current study provides strong support for the utility of the BOCS in the assessment of obsessive–compulsive symptoms in clinical psychiatry. PMID:24568661

  7. Differences in obsessional beliefs and emotion appraisal in obsessive compulsive symptom presentation

    E-print Network

    O'Toole, Alice J.

    Differences in obsessional beliefs and emotion appraisal in obsessive compulsive symptom November 2011 Keywords: Obsessive-compulsive disorder Obsessional beliefs Emotions Subtypes a b s t r a c t Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a heterogeneous condition with symptom presentation that includes

  8. The relationship between obsessive compulsive and posttraumatic stress symptoms

    E-print Network

    Liu, Taosheng

    disorder (OCD) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), results from large- scale epidemiological the significance of the relationship between OCD and PTSD. Utilizing the Obsessive­Compulsive Inventory [OCI], this study examined the relationship between OCD and PTSD symptoms in 128 patients diagnosed with OCD, 109

  9. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and women and knows no geographic, ethnic, or economic boundaries. Obsessions Obsessions are recurrent and persistent thoughts, ... enjoy relationships and pursue leisure activities. Other conditions sharing some features of OCD occur more frequently in ...

  10. Relationship Between Obsessive Beliefs and Obsessive–Compulsive Symptoms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David F. Tolin; Carol M. Woods; Jonathan S. Abramowitz

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between symptom presentation in obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) and dysfunctional beliefs hypothesized to relate to OCD. Five-hundred sixty two undergraduates completed self-report measures of OCD symptoms and OCD-related beliefs, as well as measures of social anxiety and depression. The tendency to overestimate threat significantly predicted the OCD symptom domains of washing,

  11. The Dimensional Yale–Brown Obsessive–Compulsive Scale (DY-BOCS): an instrument for assessing obsessive–compulsive symptom dimensions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M C Rosario-Campos; E C Miguel; S Quatrano; P Chacon; Y Ferrao; D Findley; L Katsovich; L Scahill; R A King; S R Woody; D Tolin; E Hollander; Y Kano; J F Leckman

    2006-01-01

    Obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) encompasses a broad range of symptoms representing multiple domains. This complex phenotype can be summarized using a few consistent and temporally stable symptom dimensions. The objective of this study was to assess the psychometric properties of the Dimensional Yale–Brown Obsessive–Compulsive Scale (DY-BOCS). This scale measures the presence and severity of obsessive–compulsive (OC) symptoms within six distinct dimensions

  12. The structure of obsessive-compulsive symptoms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patricia Van Oppen; Rense J. Hoekstra; Paul M. G. Emmelkamp

    1995-01-01

    In the present study, the structure of obsessive-compulsive symptoms was investigated by means of the Padua Inventory (PI). Simultaneous Components Analysis on data from obsessive-compulsives (n = 206), patients with other anxiety disorders (n = 222), and a non clinical sample (n = 430) revealed a five-factor solution. These factors are: (I) impulses; (II) washing; (III) checking; (IV) rumination; and

  13. Treatment for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and OCD-related disorders using GVG

    DOEpatents

    Dewey, Stephen L. (Manorville, NY); Brodie, Jonathan D. (Cos Cob, CT); Ashby, Jr., Charles R. (Miller Place, NY)

    2002-01-01

    The present invention relates to the use of gamma vinyl-GABA (GVG) to treat obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and OCD-related disorders, and to reduce or eliminate behaviors associated with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and OCD-related disorders.

  14. Screening for Obsessive and Compulsive Symptoms: Validation of the Clark-Beck Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, David A.; Antony, Martin M.; Beck, Aaron T.; Swinson, Richard P.; Steer, Robert A.

    2005-01-01

    The 25-item Clark-Beck Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory (CBOCI) was developed to assess the frequency and severity of obsessive and compulsive symptoms. The measure uses a graded-response format to assess core symptom features of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) based on Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.; American…

  15. Symptom dimensions in obsessive-compulsive disorder: prediction of cognitive-behavior therapy outcome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Rufer; S. Fricke; S. Moritz; M. Kloss; I. Hand

    2006-01-01

    Objective: A significant number of patients with obsessive- compulsive disorder (OCD) fail to benefit sufficiently from treatments. This study aimed to evaluate whether certain OCD symptom dimensions were associated with cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) outcome. Method: Symptoms of 104 CBT-treated in-patients with OCD were assessed with the clinician-rated Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale symptom checklist. Logistic regression analyses examined outcome predictors. Results: The

  16. Hoarding and Obsessive-Compulsive Symptoms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Randy O. Frost; Meredith S. Krause; Gail Steketee

    1996-01-01

    The present study attempts to extend recent research on the relation between hoarding and obsessive-compulsive experiences. In both college student and community samples, hoarding was associated with higher scores on the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (YBOCS). The relationship was stronger among the community sample, in which there was a greater range of compulsive symptoms and hoarding behavior. Hoarding was also associated

  17. Postpartum Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... symptoms. Symptoms Symptoms of perinatal OCD can include: Obsessions, also called intrusive thoughts, which are persistent, repetitive ... and over again to reduce her fears and obsessions. This may include things like needing to clean ...

  18. Latent Class Analysis of YBOCS Symptoms in Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Delucchi, Kevin L.; Katerberg, Hilga; Stewart, S. Evelyn; Denys, Damiaan A.J.P.; Lochner, Christine; Stack, Denise E.; den Boer, Johan A.; van Balkom, Anton J.L.M.; Jenike, Michael A.; Stein, Dan J.; Cath, Danielle C.; Mathews, Carol A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is phenomenologically heterogeneous, and findings of underlying structure classification based on symptom grouping have been ambiguous to date. Variable-centered approaches, primarily factor analysis, have been used to identify homogeneous groups of symptoms, but person-centered latent methods have seen little use. This study was designed to uncover sets of homogeneous groupings within 1611 individuals with OCD, based on symptoms. Method Latent class analysis (LCA) models using 61 obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCS) collected from the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale were fit. Relationships between latent class membership and treatment response, gender, symptom severity and comorbid tic disorders were tested for relationship to class membership. Results LCA models of best fit yielded three classes. Classes differed only in frequency of symptom endorsement. Classes with higher symptom endorsement were associated with earlier age of onset, being male, higher YBOCS symptom severity scores, and comorbid tic disorders. There were no differences in treatment response between classes. Conclusions These results provide support for the validity of a single underlying latent OCD construct, in addition to the distinct symptom factors identified previously via factor analyses. PMID:21145539

  19. Patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder and hoarding symptoms: A distinctive clinical subtype?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leonardo F. Fontenelle; Mauro V. Mendlowicz; Isabela D. Soares; Márcio Versiani

    2004-01-01

    We investigated whether patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and hoarding symptoms can be differentiated from their counterparts with other types of obsessions and compulsions in terms of sociodemographic and clinical features. Ninety-seven patients with OCD were assessed with a sociodemographic and clinical questionnaire, the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID-I), the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI),

  20. Further support for five dimensions of obsessive-compulsive symptoms.

    PubMed

    Brakoulias, Vlasios; Starcevic, Vladan; Berle, David; Sammut, Peter; Milicevic, Denise; Moses, Karen; Hannan, Anthony; Martin, Andrew

    2013-06-01

    Attempts to explain the phenotypic heterogeneity of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) have resulted in three to six OCD symptom dimensions. This study aimed to clarify the nature of these symptom dimensions using a self-report instrument (Vancouver Obsessional Compulsive Inventory [VOCI]) in addition to the clinician-rated Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale-Symptom Checklist (YBOCS-SC). Participants (N = 154) were recruited to a study designed to specifically assess OCD symptom dimensions. Symptoms assessed via the YBOCS-SC and the VOCI were subjected to principal components analysis (PCA). Linear regression was used to assess the relationship between the YBOCS-SC-derived symptom dimensions and the VOCI symptom subscales. PCA of the YBOCS-SC and the VOCI revealed five OCD symptom dimensions that explained 68% and 60% of the variance, respectively. The results also supported a distinction between the doubt/checking symptom dimension and the unacceptable/taboo thoughts dimension that includes mental rituals. The YBOCS-SC-derived symptom components were predicted by their respective VOCI symptom subscale scores. PMID:23686154

  1. Clinical and Cognitive Correlates of Depressive Symptoms among Youth with Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peris, Tara S.; Bergman, R. Lindsey; Asarnow, Joan R.; Langley, Audra; McCracken, James T.; Piacentini, John

    2010-01-01

    Depression is the most common comorbidity among adults with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), yet little is known about depressive symptoms in childhood OCD. This study examined clinical and cognitive variables associated with depressive symptomatology in 71 youths (62% male, M age = 12.7 years) with primary OCD. Youths presented with a range…

  2. Perfectionism and Obsessive-Compulsive Symptoms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kenneth G. Rice; Steven L. Pence

    2006-01-01

    This study was designed to determine whether perfectionism, as assessed by the revised almost perfect scale (APS-R; R. B.\\u000a Slaney, M. Mobley, J. Trippi, J. S. Ashby, & D. G. Johnson, 1996), was a significant predictor of obsessive-compulsive (OC)\\u000a symptoms in a non-clinical sample of 308 university students. Perfectionistic discrepancy emerged as a general predictor of\\u000a obsessive thought difficulties and

  3. Aripiprazole Improved Obsessive Compulsive Symptoms in Asperger's Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Tahiroglu, Aysegul Yolga; Firat, Sunay; Avci, Ay?e

    2011-01-01

    There are many comorbid disorders associated with autism spectrum disorders in child and adolescent population. Although obsessive compulsive disorder and autism spectrum disorders (ASD) comorbidity has common in clinical practice, there are few reports about psychopharmacological treatment for obsessive compulsive symptoms in children with ASD in the literacy. We report a successful treatment case with aripiprazole in Asperger's Disorder with obsessive compulsive symptoms. The Yale Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale was performed to assess symptom variety. This case report supports the effectiveness of aripiprazole in treatment of obsessive compulsive symptoms in Asperger's Disorder or ASDs. Aripiprazole may be beneficial to obsessive compulsive disorder comorbid autism spectrum disorders in child and adolescent age group. PMID:23429759

  4. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder. [Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strock, Margaret

    This booklet provides an overview of the causes, symptoms, and incidence of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and addresses the key features of OCD, including obsessions, compulsions, realizations of senselessness, resistance, and shame and secrecy. Research findings into the causes of OCD are reviewed which indicate that the brains of…

  5. Symptom structure in obsessive-compulsive disorder: a confirmatory factor-analytic study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laura J Summerfeldt; Margaret A Richter; Martin M Antony; Richard P Swinson

    1999-01-01

    Although obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has long been a unitary diagnosis, there is much recent interest in its potential heterogeneity, as manifested by symptom subgroups. This study evaluated existing models of symptom structure in a sample of 203 individuals with OCD. Using confirmatory factor analysis, we examined the ability of each model to account for two levels of data: a priori

  6. Obsessional Beliefs and Symptoms of Obsessive–Compulsive Disorder in a Clinical Sample

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David F. Tolin; Robert E. Brady; Scott Hannan

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationships among a broad range of obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD)\\u000a symptoms and obsessional beliefs in a clinical sample of OCD patients. Ninety-nine treatment-seeking adult OCD patients completed\\u000a the Obsessive Beliefs Questionnaire and the Obsessive–Compulsive Inventory-Revised. Hierarchical regression analyses, controlling\\u000a for comorbid symptoms, suggested that washing was predicted by responsibility\\/threat estimation beliefs.

  7. Obsessive–compulsive personality traits: How are they related to OCD severity?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chad T. Wetterneck; Tannah E. Little; Gregory S. Chasson; Angela H. Smith; John M. Hart; Melinda A. Stanley; Thröstur Björgvinsson

    2011-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that comorbid obsessive–compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) in patients with obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) is associated with greater overall OCD severity, functional impairment, and poorer treatment outcomes (Coles et al., 2008; Lochner et al., 2010; Pinto, 2009). However, research has only examined the effects of OCPD categorically and has yet to thoroughly examine the impact of individual OCPD

  8. Gilles de la Tourette's syndrome with and without obsessive-compulsive disorder compared with obsessive-compulsive disorder without tics: which symptoms discriminate?

    PubMed

    Cath, D C; Spinhoven, P; van Woerkom, T C; van de Wetering, B J; Hoogduin, C A; Landman, A D; Roos, R A; Rooijmans, H G

    2001-04-01

    Stereotyped repetitive behaviors occur in Gilles de la Tourette's Syndrome (GTS) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The present study was undertaken to compare the distribution of obsessive-compulsive and Tourette-related impulsive behaviors in GTS with (+) OCD, GTS without (-) OCD, tic-free OCD, and control subjects. Fourteen GTS + OCD, 18 GTS-OCD, 21 OCD-tic, and 29 control subjects were evaluated using a semistructured interview designed to assess GTS and OCD-related repetitive behaviors. Each reported item was evaluated on the presence of anxiety and goal-directedness. This information was subsequently used to define whether the repetitive behavior was an (anxiety-related) obsession or compulsion, or a (non-anxiety-related) OC-like behavior, impulsion. GTS + OCD subjects reported more overall Tourette-related impulsions than OCD-tic subjects, i.e., more mental play, echophenomena, and touching behaviors but similar frequencies of typical obsessive-compulsive behaviors. Further, GTS + OCD subjects exhibited more overall repetitive behaviors than GTS-OCD subjects, i.e., more Tourette-related impulsions as well as more obsessive-compulsive behaviors. The distribution of symptoms is similar in GTS with and without OCD, and differs from tic-free OCD. These differences suggest that GTS with OCD constitutes a form of GTS, not of OCD, although the possibility that GTS + OCD patients constitute a subgroup distinct from GTS and from OCD can not be excluded by this phenomenological study. Specific non-anxiety-related impulsions seem to discriminate between GTS and OCD-tic individuals. These impulsions possibly reflect differences in underlying mechanisms between GTS and OCD-tics. PMID:11339317

  9. Peer Victimization in Children with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: Relations with Symptoms of Psychopathology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Storch, Eric A.; Ledley, Deborah Roth; Lewin, Adam B.; Murphy, Tanya K.; Johns, Natalie B.; Goodman, Wayne K.; Geffken, Gary R.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the frequency of peer victimization and psychological symptom correlates among youth with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The Schwartz Peer Victimization Scale, Children's Depression Inventory, and Asher Loneliness Scale were administered to 52 children and adolescents diagnosed with OCD. The child's parent or guardian…

  10. Four-Factor Structure of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Symptoms in Children, Adolescents, and Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, S. Evelyn; Rosario, Maria C.; Baer, Lee; Carter, Alice S.; Brown, Timothy A.; Scharf, Jeremiah M.; Illmann, Cornelia; Leckman, James F.; Sukhodolsky, Denis; Katsovich, Lilya; Rasmussen, Steven; Goodman, Wayne; Delorme, Richard; Leboyer, Marion; Chabane, Nadia; Jenike, Michael A.; Geller, Daniel A.; Pauls, David L.

    2008-01-01

    A study was conducted to establish the efficacy of four-factor obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) symptom structure for use in child, adolescent and adult groups. Results indicated that the four-factor OCD structure is inadequate for use in children, adolescent and adult age groups.

  11. General and Maladaptive Personality Dimensions in Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aelterman, Nathalie; De Clercq, Barbara; De Bolle, Marleen; De Fruyt, Filip

    2011-01-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a chronic and impairing clinical disorder in childhood, often characterized by a heterogeneous symptomatic profile and high co-occurrence with other disorders. The present study introduces a new perspective on the description of OCD symptoms in youth, and empirically examines the value of a personality…

  12. Screening for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Mobile Apps Helping Others Children Spouse or Partner Older Adults Friends and Relatives College Students Self-Help Publications & ... News and Research Pregnancy and Medication Postpartum Depression Older Adults News and Research Symptoms Treatment Tips for Family ...

  13. Assessing Older Adults’ Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Symptoms: Psychometric Characteristics of the Obsessive Compulsive Inventory-Revised

    PubMed Central

    Calamari, John E.; Woodard, John L.; Armstrong, Kerrie M.; Molino, Alma; Pontarelli, Noelle K.; Socha, Jami; Longley, Susan L.

    2014-01-01

    The lack of Obsessive-Compulsive disorder (OCD) symptom measures validated for use with older adults has hindered research and treatment development for the age group. We evaluated the Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory-Revised (OCI-R; Foa et al., 2002) with participants aged 65 and older (N = 180) to determine if the measure was an effective tool for evaluating obsessional symptoms. Participants completed the OCI-R and a comprehensive assessment battery up to four times over approximately 18 months. Results supported the well-replicated latent structure of the OCI-R (i.e., Washing, Checking, Ordering, Obsessing, Hoarding, and Neutralizing.). OCI-R total score was robustly associated with OCD symptoms assessed 18 months later by clinical interview, while scores on self-report measures of worry, general anxiety, and depression were not. Results indicate the OCI-R is an effective OCD symptom measure for older adults, although replication with additional older adult samples is needed. PMID:24949284

  14. Pareidolias in obsessive-compulsive disorder: Neglected symptoms that may respond to serotonin reuptake inhibitors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leonardo F. Fontenelle

    2008-01-01

    Background: Obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) is a multifaceted and treatable condition. We describe a patient with OCD whose main complaint was the experience of pareidolias (i.e., ‘images seen out of shapes’), a symptom that responded to treatment with a serotonin reuptake inhibitor.Method: Single case report.Results: Mrs A, a 38-year-old married white woman with a history of OCD, reported visualizing faces of

  15. Revision of the Padua Inventory of obsessive compulsive disorder symptoms: Distinctions between worry, obsessions, and compulsions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Leonard Burns; Susan G. Keortge; Gina M. Formea; Lee G. Sternberger

    1996-01-01

    The Padua Inventory (PI), a self-report measure of obsessive and compulsive symptoms, is increasingly used in obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) research. Freeston, Ladouceur, Rheaume, Letarte, Gagnon and Thibodeau (1994) [Behaviour Research and Therapy, 32, 29–36], however, recently showed that the PI measures worry in addition to obsessions. In an attempt to solve this measurement problem, this study used a content

  16. Positive schizotypal symptoms predict treatment outcome in obsessive–compulsive disorder

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steffen Moritz; Susanne Fricke; Dirk Jacobsen; Martin Kloss; Christian Wein; Michael Rufer; Birgit Katenkamp; Roschan Farhumand; Iver Hand

    2004-01-01

    Previous research has suggested that the presence of schizotypal personality disorder may represent a risk factor for treatment failure in obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD). Relying on a dimensional approach, the present study investigated whether the predictive importance of schizotypal personality is shared by all of its features to the same extent or whether it is confined to a subset of symptoms.

  17. Assessment of Obsessive-Compulsive Symptom Dimensions: Development and Evaluation of the Dimensional Obsessive-Compulsive Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abramowitz, Jonathan S.; Deacon, Brett J.; Olatunji, Bunmi O.; Wheaton, Michael G.; Berman, Noah C.; Losardo, Diane; Timpano, Kiara R.; McGrath, Patrick B.; Riemann, Bradley C.; Adams, Thomas; Bjorgvinsson, Throstur; Storch, Eric A.; Hale, Lisa R.

    2010-01-01

    Although several measures of obsessive-compulsive (OC) symptoms exist, most are limited in that they are not consistent with the most recent empirical findings on the nature and dimensional structure of obsessions and compulsions. In the present research, the authors developed and evaluated a measure called the Dimensional Obsessive-Compulsive

  18. PREDICTING GENETIC LOADING FROM SYMPTOM PATTERNS IN OBSESSIVE- COMPULSIVE DISORDER: A LATENT VARIABLE ANALYSIS

    PubMed Central

    Schooler, Carmi; Revell, Andrew J.; Timpano, Kiara R.; Wheaton, Michael; Murphy, Dennis L.

    2009-01-01

    Background Some symptom dimensions in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) patients have a familial and putative genetic foundation, based on replicated findings in studies of sib-pairs with OCD. However, these symptom dimensions are all from exploratory factor analyses of Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale Symptom Checklist ratings based on non-empirically derived symptom categories, rather than individual symptoms. Methods In this study, we used a novel latent variable mixture model analysis to identify meaningful patient subgroupings. This was preceded by a confirmatory factor analysis of a 65-item OCD symptom inventory from 398 OCD probands, which yielded a five-factor solution. Data from all five symptom factors were used in a latent variable mixture model analysis, which identified two statistically separate OCD subpopulations. Results One group of probands had a significantly higher proportion of OCD-affected afflicted relatives (parents or close parental relatives), whereas the other group had a less prevalent familial OCD. The group with the more familial OCD was also found to have an earlier age of OCD onset, more severe OCD symptoms, and greater psychiatric comorbidity and impairment. Conclusions Especially if the results are verified in other samples, this research paradigm, which identified characteristics of individuals with familial OCD, should prove useful in carrying out genome-wide linkage and association studies of OCD and may provide a model for other symptom-based studies of additional medical disorders. PMID:18729144

  19. Phenomenological and Pharmacological Study of Provoked Obsessive\\/Anxiety Symptoms in Obsessive–Compulsive Disorder: A Preliminary Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Suck Won Kim; Maurice W Dysken; Matt G Kushner; Michael A Kuskowski; Kathy M Hoover; Kate W Klein; Patricia L Faris; Boyd K Hartman

    1997-01-01

    Background: Inclusion of obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) as an anxiety disorder in DSM-IV assumes that anxiety is the primary symptom of OCD; however, persuasive empirical evidence in support of this view has not been presented yet. In the present study we hypothesized that provoked anxiety symptoms respond better to intravenous diazepam than would provoked obsessions. We, therefore, reasoned that anxiety symptoms

  20. Test Review: C. R. Reynolds and B. Livingston "CMOCS--Children's Measure of Obsessive-Compulsive Symptoms." Los Angeles, CA: Western Psychological Services, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lund, Emily M.; Dennison, Andrea; Ewing, Heidi K.; de Carvalho, Catharina F.

    2011-01-01

    This article presents a review of the Children's Measure of Obsessive-Compulsive Symptoms (CMOCS), a self-report screening measure of obsessive and compulsive thoughts and behaviors in children and adolescents aged 8 through 19 years. Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is estimated to affect 1% to 3% of the population over their lifetime. The…

  1. Connections among symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder: a case series.

    PubMed

    Gershuny, Beth S; Baer, Lee; Radomsky, Adam S; Wilson, Kimberly A; Jenike, Michael A

    2003-09-01

    Theoretical, clinical, and empirical implications of the functional connections between symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are abundant. As such, four cases are presented here of men and women who met criteria for comorbid OCD and PTSD. All had been diagnosed with treatment-resistant OCD and were seeking treatment from an OCD specialty clinic or institute, all reported a history of traumatic experiences prior to the onset of OCD, and all appeared to demonstrate negative treatment outcomes. Upon examination, it appeared that symptoms of OCD and PTSD were connected such that decreases in OCD-specific symptoms related to increases in PTSD-specific symptoms, and increases in OCD-specific symptoms related to decreases in PTSD-specific symptoms. Speculations about the function of OCD symptoms in relation to post-traumatic psychopathology are put forth; and theoretical, research, and treatment implications are discussed. PMID:12914805

  2. Relations between a ruminative thinking style and obsessive-compulsive symptoms in non-clinical samples.

    PubMed

    Wahl, Karina; Ertle, Andrea; Bohne, Antje; Zurowski, Bartosz; Kordon, Andreas

    2011-03-01

    There is tremendous interest in understanding the cognitive processes behind obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Whereas previous research on cognitive OCD models has focused on the dysfunctional content of obsessional thinking, processes and styles of thinking have not yet been investigated. The present study investigated the relationship between a ruminative response style and obsessive-compulsive (OC) symptomatology in two non-clinical samples. In Sample 1, 261 students completed the Ruminative Response Scale, the Padua-Inventory, Revised, and the Beck Depression Inventory. Tendency to ruminate was positively correlated with the severity of OC symptoms and particularly with obsessive rumination, even after controlling for depression. Results were replicated in Sample 2 (211 students). Data indicate that a ruminative response style and obsessive rumination share common processual features. Understanding the interaction between rumination and obsessional thinking might help to further elucidate the role of cognitive vulnerability factors in OCD and to expand cognitive and metacognitive models of OCD. PMID:20425658

  3. Obsessive-compulsive symptoms in childhood and adolescence.

    PubMed

    Honjo, S; Hirano, C; Murase, S; Kaneko, T; Sugiyama, T; Ohtaka, K; Aoyama, T; Takei, Y; Inoko, K; Wakabayashi, S

    1989-07-01

    We investigated 61 patients (38 boys and 23 girls) under 18 years of age with obsessive-compulsive symptoms seen in the Department of Psychiatry, Nagoya University Hospital, from 1982 until 1986. In this period, a total of 1293 patients under 18 years of age visited the clinic. The percentage of patients with obsessive-compulsive symptoms was 5%. The earliest onset of symptoms was at age 3 years, and the average age of onset was 11.6 years. We found no particular tendency in terms of the number of siblings and the birth order of the patients. Obsessive traits were the fundamental personality traits of patients. Moreover, according to the other characteristics of personality, the patients were subdivided into schizothymic, viscous temperament, and cyclothymic. Parents of the patients were more apt than usual to have obsessive-compulsive personalities. Psychiatric disturbances and occupations were also investigated. Incidents related to school situations commonly triggered obsessive-compulsive symptoms. The most frequently noted obsessive thought was dirt phobia, and the most common compulsive behavior was washing. School refusal and violence at home were especially common as associated symptoms of obsessive-compulsive symptoms. We also describe the treatment regimen and the outcomes of the patients. PMID:2763863

  4. To discard or not to discard: the neural basis of hoarding symptoms in obsessive-compulsive disorder

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. K. An; D. Mataix-Cols; N. S. Lawrence; S. Wooderson; V. Giampietro; A. E. M. Speckens; M. J. Brammer; M. L. Phillips

    2009-01-01

    Preliminary neuroimaging studies suggest that patients with the ‘compulsive hoarding syndrome’ may be a neurobiologically distinct variant of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) but further research is needed. A total of 29 OCD patients (13 with and 16 without prominent hoarding symptoms) and 21 healthy controls of both sexes participated in two functional magnetic resonance imaging experiments consisting of the provocation of

  5. Obsessive-Compulsive Spectrum Disorder Symptoms in College Students

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael L. Sulkowski; Amy Mariaskin; Eric A. Storch

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study investigated the occurrence of obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorders (OCSDs) and associated symptomology in college students. Participants: Participants included 358 undergraduate students. Results: Results suggest that clinically significant levels of OCSD symptoms are relatively common. Additionally, OCSD symptoms co-occurred with each other and anxiety symptoms in general, yet not significantly with impulsivity symptoms. Conclusions: Given their prevalence in college

  6. Is impaired response inhibition independent of symptom dimensions in obsessive-compulsive disorder? Evidence from ERPs

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Hui; Zhu, Xiongzhao; Fan, Jie; Dong, Jiaojiao; Zhou, Cheng; Zhang, Xiaocui; Zhong, Mingtian

    2015-01-01

    Impaired response inhibition has been consistently reported in patients diagnosed with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). This clinically heterogeneous disorder is characterized by several symptom dimensions that may have distinct, but partially overlapping, neural correlates. The present study examined whether alterations in response inhibition may be related to symptom severity and symptom dimensions. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded in a group of 42 medication-free OCD patients as well as 42 healthy controls during a stop-signal task. Symptom dimension scores were obtained using the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale symptom checklist. OCD patients showed longer stop-signal reaction times (SSRT, p?symptom severity or present or lifetime OCD symptoms in OCD patients. These results indicate that deficient response inhibition is a common occurrence in OCD patients that is independent of global symptom severity and symptom dimensions. These data support the notion that impaired response inhibition may be a general attribute of patients with OCD. PMID:25990063

  7. Rates for tic disorders and obsessive compulsive symptomatology in families of children and adolescents with Gilles de la Tourette syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Johannes Hebebrand; Birgit Klug; Rolf Fimmers; Susanne A. Seuchter; Roswitha Wettke-Schäfer; Felicitas Deget; Astrid Camps; Sonja Lisch; Kathrin Hebebrand; Alexander Von Gontard; Gerd Lehmkuhl; Fritz Poustka; Martin Schmidt; Max P. Baur; Helmut Remschmidt

    1997-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess rates for tic disorders and obsessive compulsive psychopathology in families of children and adolescents with Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (TS). Diagnoses were based on the DSM III-R criteria. Obsessive compulsive psychopathology, that did not fulfill the criteria for obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) was additionally assessed and termed obsessive compulsive symptoms (OCS).

  8. Obsessive-Compulsive Spectrum Disorder Symptoms in College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sulkowski, Michael L.; Mariaskin, Amy; Storch, Eric A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study investigated the occurrence of obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorders (OCSDs) and associated symptomology in college students. Participants: Participants included 358 undergraduate students. Results: Results suggest that clinically significant levels of OCSD symptoms are relatively common. Additionally, OCSD symptoms

  9. Error-Related Hyperactivity of the Anterior Cingulate Cortex in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    E-print Network

    Gehring, William J.

    Error-Related Hyperactivity of the Anterior Cingulate Cortex in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Kate) in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has been shown to increase with symptom provocation of symptom expression in patients with OCD. Key Words: Obsessive-compulsive disorder, anterior cingulate, er

  10. Group versus individual cognitive treatment for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: changes in non-OCD symptoms and cognitions at post-treatment and one-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Belloch, Amparo; Cabedo, Elena; Carrió, Carmen; Fernández-Alvarez, Héctor; García, Fernando; Larsson, Christina

    2011-05-15

    Current cognitive approaches postulate that obsessions and compulsions are caused and/or maintained by misinterpretations about their meaning. This assumption has led to the development of cognitive therapeutic (CT) procedures designed to challenge the dysfunctional appraisals and beliefs patients have about their obsessions. Nonetheless, few studies have compared the efficacy of individual and group CT in changing the dysfunctional cognitions that hypothetically underlie Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD). In this study, 44 OCD patients were assigned to individual (n=18) or group (n=24) CT. Sixteen completed the individual CT, and 22 completed the group CT. The effects of the two CT conditions on depression and worry tendencies were comparable. Individual treatment was more effective than group treatment in decreasing scores on dysfunctional beliefs (responsibility, overestimation of threat, and intolerance to uncertainty) and the use of suppression as a thought control strategy. The post-treatment changes were maintained one year later. The correlations between symptom improvement (OCD severity change) and belief changes were moderate: in the individual treatment the greatest associations were with beliefs about thoughts (importance and control), whereas in the group treatment the greatest associations were with beliefs related to anxiety in general (threat overestimation and intolerance to uncertainty). PMID:21075455

  11. Symptom Dimensions are Associated with Age of Onset and Clinical Course of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Kichuk, Stephen A.; Torres, Albina R.; Fontenelle, Leonardo F.; Rosário, Maria Conceição; Shavitt, Roseli G.; Miguel, Eurípedes C.; Pittenger, Christopher; Bloch, Michael H.

    2013-01-01

    Meta-analysis of the heterogeneous symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has found a four-factor structure of symptom dimensions consisting of cleaning, forbidden thoughts, symmetry, and hoarding. Research into age of onset of symptom dimensions has yielded inconsistent results, and it is unknown whether symptoms along these dimensions differ in their clinical course. We assessed age of onset and clinical course of different OCD symptom dimensions in a large cohort of adult patients. Nine-hundred fifty-five subjects were assessed using the Dimensional Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale. For age of onset analysis, we tested across three methods of classification: (1) primary (more severe) symptom dimension (2) clinically significant symptoms within a dimension or (3) any symptoms within a dimension. Age of onset was defined as the earliest age of onset reported for any individual item within a symptom dimension. For analysis of different types of clinical course, we used chi-square tests to assess for differences between primary symptom dimensions. OCD symptoms in the symmetry dimension had an earlier age of onset than other OCD symptom dimensions. These findings remained significant across all three methods of classification and controlling for gender and comorbid tics. No significant differences were found between the other dimensions. Subjects with primary OCD symptoms in the forbidden thoughts dimension were more likely to report a waxing-and-waning course, whereas symmetry symptoms were less likely to be associated with a waxing-and-waning course. PMID:23410525

  12. No Evidence for Object Alternation Impairment in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moritz, Steffen; Jelinek, Lena; Hottenrott, Birgit; Klinge, Ruth; Randjbar, Sarah

    2009-01-01

    Recent neuroimaging studies have consistently ascribed the orbito-frontal cortex (OFC) a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Cognitive tests presumed sensitive to this region, such as the Object Alternation Task (OAT), are considered important tools to verify this assumption and to investigate the impact of…

  13. Dissociative symptoms and dissociative disorder comorbidity in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    PubMed

    Belli, Hasan; Ural, Cenk; Vardar, Melek Kanarya; Yes?lyurt, Sema; Oncu, Fat?h

    2012-10-01

    The present study attempted to assess the dissociative symptoms and overall dissociative disorder comorbidity in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). In addition, we examined the relationship between the severity of obsessive-compulsive symptoms and dissociative symptoms. All patients admitted for the first time to the psychiatric outpatient unit were included in the study. Seventy-eight patients had been diagnosed as having OCD during the 2-year study period. Patients had to meet the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition criteria for OCD. Most (76.9%; n = 60) of the patients were female, and 23.1% (n = 18) of the patients were male. Dissociation Questionnaire was used to measure dissociative symptoms. The Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition Dissociative Disorders interviews and Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Checklist and Severity Scale were used. Eleven (14%) of the patients with OCD had comorbid dissociative disorder. The most prevalent disorder in our study was dissociative depersonalization disorder. Dissociative amnesia and dissociative identity disorder were common as well. The mean Yale-Brown score was 23.37 ± 7.27 points. Dissociation Questionnaire scores were between 0.40 and 3.87 points, and the mean was 2.23 ± 0.76 points. There was a statistically significant positive correlation between Yale-Brown points and Dissociation Questionnaire points. We conclude that dissociative symptoms among patients with OCD should alert clinicians for the presence of a chronic and complex dissociative disorder. Clinicians may overlook an underlying dissociative process in patients who have severe symptoms of OCD. However, a lack of adequate response to cognitive-behavioral and drug therapy may be a consequence of dissociative process. PMID:22425531

  14. Clinical and cognitive correlates of depressive symptoms among youth with obsessive compulsive disorder.

    PubMed

    Peris, Tara S; Bergman, R Lindsey; Asarnow, Joan R; Langley, Audra; McCracken, James T; Piacentini, John

    2010-01-01

    Depression is the most common comorbidity among adults with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), yet little is known about depressive symptoms in childhood OCD. This study examined clinical and cognitive variables associated with depressive symptomatology in 71 youths (62% male, M age = 12.7 years) with primary OCD. Youths presented with a range of depressive symptoms, with 21% scoring at or above the clinical cutoff on the self-report measure of depression. Higher levels of depressive symptoms were associated with higher levels of cognitive distortions assessed on measures of insight, perceived control, competence, and contingencies. Depressive symptoms were also linked to older age and more severe OCD. Low perceived control and self-competence and high OCD severity independently predicted depression scores. PMID:20706915

  15. Perceived Stress in Obsessive–Compulsive Disorder is Related with Obsessive but Not Compulsive Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Morgado, P.; Freitas, D.; Bessa, J. M.; Sousa, N.; Cerqueira, João José

    2013-01-01

    Obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) is achronic psychiatric disorder characterized by recurrent intrusive thoughts and/or repetitive compulsory behaviors. This psychiatric disorder is known to be stress responsive, as symptoms increase during periods of stress but also because stressful events may precede the onset of OCD. However, only a few and inconsistent reports have been published about the stress perception and the stress-response in these patients. Herein, we have characterized the correlations of OCD symptoms with basal serum cortisol levels and scores in a stress perceived questionnaire (PSS-10). The present data reveals that cortisol levels and the stress scores in the PSS-10 were significantly higher in OCD patients that in controls. Moreover, stress levels self-reported by patients using the PSS-10 correlated positively with OCD severity in the Yale–Brown Obsessive–Compulsive Scale (Y–BOCS). Interestingly, PSS-10 scores correlated with the obsessive component, but not with the compulsive component, of Y–BOCS. These results confirm that stress is relevant in the context of OCD, particularly for the obsessive symptomatology. PMID:23565098

  16. Obsessive–Compulsive Symptoms and Body Checking in Women and Men

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lenny R. VartanianJessica; Jessica R. Grisham

    The present study examined the association between obsessive–compulsive symptoms and body checking behavior in a non-clinical\\u000a sample of women and men. We also examined whether perfectionism and negative affect would account for a significant proportion\\u000a of the variance in that association. Participants (n = 303; 45% women) completed measures of obsessive–compulsive symptoms, perfectionism, negative affect, body checking, and\\u000a body dissatisfaction. Obsessive–compulsive symptoms

  17. An examination of obsessive-compulsive symptoms and dimensions using profile analysis via multidimensional scaling (PAMS).

    PubMed

    McKay, Dean; Kim, Se-Kang; Taylor, Steven; Abramowitz, Jonathan S; Tolin, David; Coles, Meredith; Timpano, Kiara R; Olatunji, Bunmi

    2014-05-01

    Contemporary cognitive models of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) emphasize the importance of various types of dysfunctional beliefs in contributing to OC symptoms, such as beliefs about excessive personal responsibility, perfectionism, and intolerance for uncertainty. The present study seeks to further our understanding of the role of these beliefs by identifying the common profiles of such beliefs, using profile analysis via multidimensional scaling (PAMS). In Study 1, a large student sample (N=4079) completed the 44-item obsessive beliefs questionnaire. One major profile, control of thoughts and perfectionism, was extracted. Study 2 examined profiles of the 87-item obsessive beliefs questionnaire in people with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD; n=398), other anxiety disorders (n=104), and a sample of undergraduate students (n=285). Inflated responsibility was a prominent subscale in the profiles of all three groups. Only control over thoughts was a unique subscale in the profile obtained for the OCD group, with this group having lower scores compared to the other groups. The results suggest that while inflated responsibility is a significant subscale in the profile of individuals with OCD, it is not a unique contributor; instead, control over thoughts is unique to OCD. The data, as well as recent research investigating obsessive beliefs, suggest the need to revise the contemporary cognitive model of OCD. PMID:24786360

  18. Symptom dimensions and subtypes of obsessive-compulsive disorder: a developmental perspective

    PubMed Central

    Leckman, James F.; Bloch, Michael H.; King, Robert A.

    2009-01-01

    In the absence of definitive etiological markers for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), obsessive-compulsive (OC) symptom dimensions may offer a fruitful point of orientation. These dimensions can be understood as defining potentially overlapping clinical features that may be continuous with “normal” worries first evident in childhood. Although the understanding of the dimensional structure of OC symptoms is still imperfect, a recent large-scale meta-analysis has confirmed the presence of at least four separable symptom dimensions in children, as well as adults, with OCD, A dimensional approach does not exclude other methods to parse OCD. Thus far, a pediatric age of onset, the presence of other family members with OCD, and the individual's “ticrelated” status appear to be potentially useful categorical distinctions. Although the OC symptom dimensions appear to be valid for all ages, it is unlikely that the underlying genetic vulnerability factors and neurobiological substrates for each of these symptom dimensions are the same across the course of development. PMID:19432385

  19. Cognitive bias to symptom and obsessive belief threat cues in obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    PubMed

    Laposa, Judith M; Rector, Neil A

    2009-08-01

    The current study examined the extent to which patients with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) demonstrate cognitive biases to OCD symptom or inflated responsibility threat cues. Participants with either primary contamination-washing or doubting/harming-checking OCD, non-OCD anxiety disorders, and student controls completed a primed lexical decision task. Following either neutral or OCD-threat priming conditions, participants made lexical decisions regarding different sets of word stimuli: nonwords, OCD symptoms, OCD inflated responsibility, and depression. Following the OCD primes, the primary contamination-washing symptom subgroup showed increased interference on OCD symptom words compared with the harming symptom and student groups. The primary contamination-washing subgroup also showed increased interference on responsibility words compared with the harming, non-OCD anxious and student groups. However, subsidiary analyses comparing patients with contamination obsessions with and without associated fears of harming others through the spreading of contaminants, demonstrated that it was the latter group that evidenced cognitive biases to responsibility threat cues. These results are considered in relation to cognitive models of OCD. PMID:19684497

  20. Taboo thoughts and doubt\\/checking: A refinement of the factor structure for obsessive–compulsive disorder symptoms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anthony Pinto; Jane L. Eisen; Maria C. Mancebo; Benjamin D. Greenberg; Robert L. Stout; Steven A. Rasmussen

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this report was to improve upon earlier factor analyses of obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) symptom categories by minimizing the heterogeneity in the aggressive obsessions category. An exploratory factor analysis was conducted on data from 293 adults with primary OCD. The resulting five factors (Symmetry\\/Ordering, Hoarding, Doubt\\/Checking, Contamination\\/Cleaning, and Taboo Thoughts) are phenomenologically more homogeneous than prior category-based factors

  1. Quetiapine and obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCS): case report and review of atypical antipsychotic-induced OCS.

    PubMed Central

    Khullar, A; Chue, P; Tibbo, P

    2001-01-01

    The atypical antipsychotics have advanced the treatment of schizophrenia and have proved to be effective agents in treating other disorders with or without psychotic features. We review the literature concerning an increasingly reported and interesting adverse effect, atypical antipsychotic-induced obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCS). The first known report of quetiapine exacerbating OCS in a 43-year-old man with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), trichotillomania, delusional disorder and bipolar II disorder is presented. Mechanisms, including 5-HT2A and 5-HT2C antagonism, serotonergic regulation of dopamine systems and putative dopaminergic subtypes of OCS and OCD, are discussed. Given the paradoxical efficacy of the atypical antipsychotics in pure OCD, the neurobiology and comorbidity of OCD and schizophrenia, as well as the increasing use of atypical antipsychotics, a cautious and rational pharmacotherapeutic treatment approach is recommended. PMID:11212595

  2. Case Series: Transformation Obsession in Young People with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Volz, Chloe; Heyman, Isobel

    2007-01-01

    This article presents a previously unreported symptom of obsessive-compulsive disorder. The young people reported describe a fear of turning into someone or something else or taking on unwanted characteristics. We have called this transformation obsession. The bizarre nature of this obsession had led to misdiagnosis and inappropriate treatments in…

  3. Association of metacognitive beliefs, obsessive beliefs and symptom severity with quality of life in obsessive-compulsive patients.

    PubMed

    Barahmand, Usha; Tavakolian, Ehsan; Alaei, Sarah

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of obsessive beliefs, obsessive-compulsive disorder severity and metacognitive beliefs to the quality of life in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Sixty one adults with a principal diagnosis of OCD were recruited for the study. Participants were assessed by trained clinicians using an unstructured clinical interview, the Obsessive Beliefs Questionnaire, the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale, the Metacognitive Beliefs Questionnaire and the WHO Quality of Life Questionnaire. Data were analyzed using Pearson's of correlation coefficients and multiple regression analyses. Findings indicate that obsessive beliefs, severity total OCD and metacognitive beliefs were associated with total quality of life scores. Regression analysis revealed that while OCD total severity explained 40.1% of the variance in total quality of life, obsessive beliefs (perfectionism/certainty domain) and metacognitions (cognitive self-consciousness and negative beliefs about thoughts in general) explained an additional 13.7%, 7.7% and 5.4% of the variance in QoL. Findings indicate that the metacognitive beliefs associated with OCD symptom severity are different from that associated with quality of life. The implications are that metacognitive therapy aimed at symptom reduction may not necessarily result in improved QoL in OCD patients. PMID:25439977

  4. Understanding Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder in Students: Symptoms and School-Based Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyches, Tina Taylor; Leininger, Melissa; Heath, Melissa Allen; Prater, Mary Anne

    2010-01-01

    This article provides current information relevant to school social workers who serve students with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), including how OCD is defined in children and adolescents, the impact of OCD on schooling, issues in identifying students with OCD, and effective interventions. The authors offer suggestions for collaboration…

  5. Children' Florida Obsessive Compulsive Inventory: Psychometric Properties and Feasibility of a Self-Report Measure of Obsessive-Compulsive Symptoms in Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Storch, Eric A.; Khanna, Muniya; Merlo, Lisa J.; Loew, Benjamin A.; Franklin, Martin; Reid, Jeannette M.; Goodman, Wayne K.; Murphy, Tanya K.

    2009-01-01

    This report describes the development and psychometric properties of the Children's Florida Obsessive Compulsive Inventory (C-FOCI). Designed specifically as a brief measure for assessing obsessive-compulsive symptoms, the C-FOCI was created for use in both clinical and community settings. Study 1 included 82 children and adolescents diagnosed…

  6. Associations between obsessive-compulsive symptoms, revenge, and the perception of interpersonal transgressions.

    PubMed

    Fatfouta, Ramzi; Merkl, Angela

    2014-10-30

    Anger and aggression have only recently gained center stage in research on obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). An investigation of obsessive-compulsive (OC) symptoms focusing on the outcome of unresolved anger (i.e., revenge), however, is absent from the literature. The objective of the present research was therefore to provide a first step towards filling this gap and, hence, to systematically examine the associations between OC symptoms and different aspects of revenge (i.e., attitudes, dispositions, motivations). In three independent studies with nonclinical participants (N=504), we tested the hypothesis that OC symptoms relate to greater revenge. Individuals high in OC symptoms reported more positive attitudes toward revenge (Study 1), scored higher on a measure of trait revenge (Study 2), and reported increased revenge motivation regarding a real-life transgressor (Study 3). Furthermore, Study 4 (N=175) demonstrated that individuals high in OC symptoms perceived interpersonal transgressions more frequently in their daily lives. OC symptoms were positively related to the number of transgressions that respondents disclosed. Our results suggest that revenge and interpersonal hurt play a significant role in OCD. PMID:24928759

  7. Clinical features associated to refractory obsessive–compulsive disorder

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ygor A. Ferrão; Roseli G. Shavitt; Nádia R. Bedin; Maria Eugênia de Mathis; Antônio Carlos Lopes; Leonardo F. Fontenelle; Albina R. Torres; Eurípedes C. Miguel

    2006-01-01

    Some patients with obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) exhibit an unsatisfactory reduction in symptom severity despite being treated with all the available therapeutic alternatives. The clinical variables associated with treatment-refractoriness in OCD are inconsistently described in the literature.

  8. Aripirazole augmentation in clozapine-associated obsessive-compulsive symptoms in schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objective Patients with schizophrenia often experience comorbid obsessive-compulsive symptoms. Within these patients, a significant subgroup developed secondary obsessive-compulsive symptoms during treatment with clozapine. Method In this paper, we report on four cases in which adjunctive therapy with aripiprazole was tested to alleviate obsessive-compulsive symptoms in schizophrenia. Results All four patients had a significant improvement in obsessive-compulsive symptoms. The combination of clozapine and aripiprazole was well tolerated. Conclusion This case series demonstrates the clinical efficacy of aripiprazole adjunctive therapy with clozapine in schizophrenic patients with comorbid obsessive-compulsive symptoms. Larger-sampled and controlled studies are required in order to test and confirm these observations. PMID:24330737

  9. Obsessive-compulsive symptoms in primary focal dystonia: a controlled study.

    PubMed

    Barahona-Corrêa, Bernardo; Bugalho, Paulo; Guimarães, João; Xavier, Miguel

    2011-10-01

    Primary focal dystonia is an idiopathic neurological disorder causing involuntary muscle contraction. Its pathophysiology probably involves the basal ganglia and cortical-basal pathways. Primary dystonia appears to be associated with significant obsessive-compulsive symptoms, but evidence remains scarce and contradictory. We addressed the following research questions: (1) Do primary dystonia patients have high obsessive-compulsive symptom scores? (2) Are these symptoms more severe in dystonia than in controls with equivalent peripheral neurological disorders? and (3) Is psychopathology different in botulinum toxin-treated and -untreated dystonia patients? This work was a cross-sectional, descriptive, controlled study comprising 45 consecutive patients with primary focal dystonia (i.e., blepharospasm, spasmodic torticollis, or writer's cramp) 46 consecutive patients with hemifacial spasm, cervical spondylarthropathy, or carpal tunnel syndrome, and 30 healthy volunteers. Assessment included the DSM-IV based psychiatric interview, Symptom Checklist 90R, Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale and Checklist, and the Unified Dystonia Rating Scale. Dystonia patients had higher Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Symptom scores than both control groups. Dystonia patients with obsessive-compulsive symptom scores above cut-off for clinical significance predominantly developed hygiene-related symptoms. Major depression and generalized anxiety disorder were the most frequent psychiatric diagnoses in primary focal dystonia. Obsessive-compulsive disorder frequency was 6.7%. Primary focal dystonia patients have higher obsessive-compulsive symptom scores than individuals with similar functional disabilities resulting from other neurological disorders, suggesting that obsessive-compulsive symptoms in dystonia are not reactive to chronic disability. Dystonic muscle contractions and obsessive-compulsive symptoms may share a common neurobiological basis related to cortical-basal dysfunction. Psychopathology, especially obsessive-compulsive symptoms, should be actively explored and treated in primary focal dystonia. PMID:21830232

  10. The relationship between obsessive beliefs and symptom dimensions in obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    PubMed

    Wheaton, Michael G; Abramowitz, Jonathan S; Berman, Noah C; Riemann, Bradley C; Hale, Lisa R

    2010-10-01

    Research findings on the specific relationships between beliefs and OCD symptoms have been inconsistent, yet the existing studies vary in their approach to measuring the highly heterogeneous symptoms of this disorder. The Dimensional Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (DOCS) is a new measure that allows for the assessment of OCD symptom dimensions, rather than types of obsessions and compulsions per se. The present study examined the relationship between OCD symptom dimensions and dysfunctional (obsessive) beliefs believed to underlie these symptom dimensions using a large clinical sample of treatment-seeking adults with OCD. Results revealed that certain obsessive beliefs predicted certain OCD symptom dimensions in a manner consistent with cognitive-behavioral conceptual models. Specifically, contamination symptoms were predicted by responsibility/threat estimation beliefs, symmetry symptoms were predicted by perfectionism/certainty beliefs, unacceptable thoughts were predicted by importance/control of thoughts beliefs and symptoms related to being responsible for harm were predicted by responsibility/threat estimation beliefs. Implications for cognitive conceptualizations of OCD symptom dimensions are discussed. PMID:20800750

  11. The relation between symptoms of bulimia nervosa and obsessive-compulsive disorder: a startle investigation.

    PubMed

    Altman, Sarah E; Campbell, Miranda L; Nelson, Brady D; Faust, Julianne P; Shankman, Stewart A

    2013-11-01

    Bulimia nervosa (BN) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) co-occur at greater rates than chance and may have shared mechanisms of dysfunction. One of these proposed mechanisms is a hyper-responsive aversive system as indicated by heightened startle response to aversive stimuli. The present study examined this hypothesis using 2 types of aversive stimuli: disorder specific (e.g., high-caloric food pictures for BN, contamination pictures for OCD) and nondisorder specific (e.g., knife). Temporal parameters of aversive responding were also examined by assessing startle response in anticipation of and following picture presentation. The sample consisted of 114 undergraduate women selected to have a broad range of BN and/or OCD symptomatology. OCD symptoms were associated with increased startle potentiation during the anticipation and presentation of contamination pictures, and BN symptoms were associated with increased startle potentiation during disorder-related contamination pictures (e.g., sink, toilet). BN symptoms were also associated with increased startle potentiation during and following the presentation of food pictures (though the former effect was only a trend). Additionally, the interaction of BN and OCD symptoms was associated with elevated startle responding during the presentation of contamination and threat stimuli. Overall, the present study provides evidence that BN and OCD symptoms are associated with heightened aversive responding to disorder-specific stimuli, and comorbid BN and OCD symptoms are associated with heightened aversive responding across disorder-specific and nonspecific aversive stimuli. Clinical and theoretical implications are discussed. PMID:24364616

  12. Autism and ADHD Symptoms in Patients with OCD: Are They Associated with Specific OC Symptom Dimensions or OC Symptom Severity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anholt, Gideon E.; Cath, Danielle C.; van Oppen, Patricia; Eikelenboom, Merijn; Smit, Johannes H.; van Megen, Harold; van Balkom, Anton J. L. M.

    2010-01-01

    In obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), the relationship between autism spectrum disorders (ASD), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptom, and obsessive-compulsive (OC) symptom dimensions and severity has scarcely been studied. Therefore, 109 adult outpatients with primary OCD were compared to 87 healthy controls on OC, ADHD and…

  13. Treatment Response, Symptom Remission and Wellness in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Farris, Samantha G.; McLean, Carmen P.; Van Meter, Page E.; Simpson, H. Blair; Foa, Edna B.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is defined both by intrusive, unwanted thoughts, images or impulses and by repetitive behavioral or mental acts that are often performed to try to alleviate anxiety. The ultimate goal of treatment for OCD is to reduce the symptoms, as well as help patients achieve “wellness”, however currently there are no widely accepted, empirically supported criteria for determining wellness in OCD. Method Building on previous research, the current study pooled data from four OCD treatment trials (N = 288) that took place between 1990–2011to examine the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Scale (Y-BOCS) score that most reliably identified patients who responded to treatment, those who achieved symptom remission and those who achieved wellness. Results Signal detection analyses showed that a pre- to post-treatment reduction of ? 35% on the Y-BOCS was most predictive of treatment response, as defined by the Clinical Global Impressions (CGI-Improvement). A post-treatment Y-BOCS score of ? 14 was the best predictor of symptom remission, where a score of ? 12 was the best predictor of wellness, as defined by symptom remission defined by the CGI-Severity, good quality of life as measured by the Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire (QLES-Q) and a high-level of adaptive function as assessed by the Social Adjustment Scale (SAS-SR). Conclusions Empirically supported criteria for defining wellness in OCD can facilitate comparisons across treatment outcome studies and inform clinical treatment planning. PMID:23945445

  14. Dissociative symptoms and dissociative disorders comorbidity in obsessive compulsive disorder: Symptom screening, diagnostic tools and reflections on treatment

    PubMed Central

    Belli, Hasan

    2014-01-01

    Borderline personality disorder, conversion disorder and obsessive compulsive disorder frequently have dissociative symptoms. The literature has demonstrated that the level of dissociation might be correlated with the severity of obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) and that those not responding to treatment had high dissociative symptoms. The structured clinical interview for DSM-IV dissociative disorders, dissociation questionnaire, somatoform dissociation questionnaire and dissociative experiences scale can be used for screening dissociative symptoms and detecting dissociative disorders in patients with OCD. However, a history of neglect and abuse during childhood is linked to a risk factor in the pathogenesis of dissociative psychopathology in adults. The childhood trauma questionnaire-53 and childhood trauma questionnaire-40 can be used for this purpose. Clinicians should not fail to notice the hidden dissociative symptoms and childhood traumatic experiences in OCD cases with severe symptoms that are resistant to treatment. Symptom screening and diagnostic tools used for this purpose should be known. Knowing how to treat these pathologies in patients who are diagnosed with OCD can be crucial. PMID:25133142

  15. Dissociative symptoms and dissociative disorders comorbidity in obsessive compulsive disorder: Symptom screening, diagnostic tools and reflections on treatment.

    PubMed

    Belli, Hasan

    2014-08-16

    Borderline personality disorder, conversion disorder and obsessive compulsive disorder frequently have dissociative symptoms. The literature has demonstrated that the level of dissociation might be correlated with the severity of obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) and that those not responding to treatment had high dissociative symptoms. The structured clinical interview for DSM-IV dissociative disorders, dissociation questionnaire, somatoform dissociation questionnaire and dissociative experiences scale can be used for screening dissociative symptoms and detecting dissociative disorders in patients with OCD. However, a history of neglect and abuse during childhood is linked to a risk factor in the pathogenesis of dissociative psychopathology in adults. The childhood trauma questionnaire-53 and childhood trauma questionnaire-40 can be used for this purpose. Clinicians should not fail to notice the hidden dissociative symptoms and childhood traumatic experiences in OCD cases with severe symptoms that are resistant to treatment. Symptom screening and diagnostic tools used for this purpose should be known. Knowing how to treat these pathologies in patients who are diagnosed with OCD can be crucial. PMID:25133142

  16. Autism and ADHD Symptoms in Patients with OCD: Are They Associated with Specific OC Symptom Dimensions or OC Symptom Severity?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gideon E. Anholt; Danielle C. Cath; Patricia van Oppen; Merijn Eikelenboom; Johannes H. Smit; Harold van Megen

    2010-01-01

    In obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), the relationship between autism spectrum disorders (ASD), attention-deficit\\/hyperactivity\\u000a disorder (ADHD) symptom, and obsessive-compulsive (OC) symptom dimensions and severity has scarcely been studied. Therefore,\\u000a 109 adult outpatients with primary OCD were compared to 87 healthy controls on OC, ADHD and ASD symptoms. OCD patients showed\\u000a increased ADHD and autism symptom frequencies, OCD + ADHD patients reporting more autism symptoms

  17. Paediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder and Depressive Symptoms: Clinical Correlates and CBT Treatment Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Brown, H M; Lester, K J; Jassi, A; Heyman, I; Krebs, G

    2015-07-01

    Depression frequently co-occurs with paediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), yet the clinical correlates and impact of depression on CBT outcomes remain unclear. The prevalence and clinical correlates of depression were examined in a paediatric specialist OCD-clinic sample (N?=?295; Mean?=?15 [7 - 18] years, 42 % female), using both dimensional (Beck Depression Inventory-youth; n?=?261) and diagnostic (Development and Wellbeing Assessment; n?=?127) measures of depression. The impact of depressive symptoms and suspected disorders on post-treatment OCD severity was examined in a sub-sample who received CBT, with or without SSRI medication (N?=?100). Fifty-one per-cent of patients reported moderately or extremely elevated depressive symptoms and 26 % (95 % CI: 18 - 34) met criteria for a suspected depressive disorder. Depressive symptoms and depressive disorders were associated with worse OCD symptom severity and global functioning prior to CBT. Individuals with depression were more likely to be female, have had a psychiatric inpatient admission and less likely to be attending school (ps?OCD and depressive symptom severity significantly decreased after CBT. Depressive symptoms and depressive disorders predicted worse post-treatment OCD severity (?s?=?0.19 and 0.26, ps?OCD severity (?s?=?0.05 and 0.13, ns). Depression is common in paediatric OCD and is associated with more severe OCD and poorer functioning. However, depression severity decreases over the course of CBT for OCD and is not independently associated with worse outcomes, supporting the recommendation for treatment as usual in the presence of depressive symptoms. PMID:25301176

  18. OCD? Not Me! Protocol for the development and evaluation of a web-based self-guided treatment for youth with obsessive-compulsive disorder

    PubMed Central

    Rees, Clare S; Anderson, Rebecca A

    2015-01-01

    Background OCD? Not Me! is a novel, web-based, self-guided intervention designed to treat obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) in young people aged 12–18, using the principles of exposure and response prevention. The current paper presents the protocol for the development of the programme and for an open trial that will evaluate the effectiveness of this programme for OCD in young people, and associated distress and symptom accommodation in their parents and caregivers. Methods We will measure the impact of the OCD? Not Me! programme on OCD symptoms using the Children's Florida Obsessive Compulsive Inventory (C-FOCI), and both the self-report and parent report of the Children's Obsessional Compulsive Inventory—Revised (ChOCI-R). The impact of the programme on OCD-related functional impairment will be measured using the parent report of the Child Obsessive-Compulsive Impact Scale—Revised (COIS-R). Secondary outcome measures include the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and the Youth Quality of Life—Short Form (YQoL-SF). The 21-item Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS-21) will be used to measure the impact of the programme on parent/caregiver distress, while the Family Accommodation Scale (FAS) will be used to measure change in family accommodation of OCD symptoms. Multilevel mixed effects linear regression will be used to analyse the impact of the intervention on the outcome measures. Ethics and dissemination This study has been approved by the Curtin University Human Research Ethics Committee. The results of the study will be reported in international peer-reviewed journals. Trial registration number Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry: ACTRN12613000152729. PMID:25926148

  19. Predictors of fluvoxamine response in contamination-related obsessive compulsive disorder: a PET symptom provocation study.

    PubMed

    Rauch, Scott L; Shin, Lisa M; Dougherty, Darin D; Alpert, Nathaniel M; Fischman, Alan J; Jenike, Michael A

    2002-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify neuroimaging predictors of medication response in contamination-related obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). Prior studies of OCD had indicated that glucose metabolic rates within orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) were inversely correlated with subsequent response to serotonergic reuptake inhibitors (SRIs) and that glucose metabolic rates within posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) were positively correlated with subsequent response to cingulotomy. Nine subjects with contamination-related OCD underwent a 12-week open trial of treatment with the SRI fluvoxamine. Percent change in Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale score, from pre- to post-treatment, served as the index of treatment response. Positron emission tomography (PET) measurements of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) were obtained prior to treatment, in the context of a symptom provocation paradigm. Statistical parametric mapping was used to identify brain loci where pre-treatment rCBF was significantly correlated with subsequent treatment response. Consistent with a priori hypotheses, lower rCBF values in OFC and higher rCBF values in PCC predicted better treatment response. This same pattern of associations was present regardless of whether the imaging data were acquired during a provoked or neutral state. These findings are consistent with prior studies of OCD, indicating that PET indices of brain activity within OFC are inversely correlated with subsequent response to SRIs. In addition, similar to findings regarding cingulotomy for OCD, indices of activity within PCC appear to be positively correlated with response to fluvoxamine as well. Finally, this pattern is sufficiently robust as to be relatively independent of symptomatic state at the time of tracer uptake. PMID:12431852

  20. Associations of obsessive-compulsive symptoms with clinical and neurocognitive features in schizophrenia according to stage of illness.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung-Wan; Jeong, Bo-Ok; Kim, Jae-Min; Shin, Il-Seon; Hwang, Michael Y; Paul Amminger, G; Nelson, Barnaby; Berk, Michael; McGorry, Patrick; Yoon, Jin-Sang

    2015-03-30

    This study aimed to investigate the association of obsessive-compulsive symptoms with clinical and neurocognitive features in patients with schizophrenia. This study enrolled 163 people with schizophrenia who were receiving risperidone monotherapy. Comorbid obsessive-compulsive symptoms were assessed using the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale, and subjects with a score ? 10 constituted the obsessive-compulsive symptom group (n=30, 18.4%). The learning index was significantly higher in patients with obsessive-compulsive symptoms than in those without such symptoms after adjusting for age, stage (early and chronic), duration of illness, and CDSS score. However, there was no significant interaction between obsessive-compulsive symptoms and stage of illness. Scores on Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia, and Beck Depression Inventory were significantly higher in the obsessive-compulsive symptom group. In addition, the Subjective Well-being under Neuroleptic Treatment score was significantly lower in the obsessive-compulsive symptom group. In conclusion, comorbid obsessive-compulsive symptoms in patients with schizophrenia were associated with a higher learning ability without a significant interaction with stage of illness. However, schizophrenia patients with obsessive-compulsive symptoms had more severe psychotic and depressive symptoms and poorer quality of life. PMID:25681006

  1. The familial phenotype of obsessive-compulsive disorder in relation to tic disorders: the Hopkins OCD family study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marco A Grados; Mark A Riddle; Jack F Samuels; Kung-Yee Liang; Rudolf Hoehn-Saric; O. Joseph Bienvenu; John T Walkup; DongHo Song; Gerald Nestadt

    2001-01-01

    Background: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and tic disorders have phenomenological and familial-genetic overlaps. An OCD family study sample that excludes Tourette’s syndrome in probands is used to examine whether tic disorders are part of the familial phenotype of OCD.Methods: Eighty case and 73 control probands and their first-degree relatives were examined by experienced clinicians using the Schedule for Affective Disorders and

  2. The contribution of perceived control of stressful life events and thought suppression to the symptoms of obsessive–compulsive disorder in both non-clinical and clinical samples

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sallee McLaren; Simon F. Crowe

    2003-01-01

    The two studies presented in this paper investigated the impact of controllable versus uncontrollable stressful life events (SLE) and low versus high thought suppression upon symptoms of obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) in both a non-clinical sample (Study 1) and a clinical sample (Study 2). The sample for Study 1 consisted of 269 undergraduate university students and the sample for Study 2

  3. Symptom Dimensions in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: Phenomenology and Treatment Outcomes with Exposure and Ritual Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Monnica T.; Mugno, Beth; Franklin, Martin; Faber, Sonya

    2014-01-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a severe condition with varied symptom presentations. The cognitive-behavioral treatment with the most empirical support is currently exposure and ritual prevention (EX/RP); however, clinical impression and some empirical data suggest that certain OCD symptoms are more responsive to treatment than others. Prior work identifying symptom dimensions within OCD is discussed, including epidemiological findings, factor analytic studies, and biological findings. Symptom dimensions most reliably identified include contamination/cleaning, doubt about harm/checking, symmetry/ordering, and unacceptable thoughts/mental rituals. The phenomenology of each of these subtypes is described and research literature is summarized, emphasizing the differential effects of EX/RP and its variants on each of these primary symptom dimensions. To date it appears that EX/RP is an effective treatment for the various OCD dimensions, although not all dimensions have been adequately studied (i.e., symmetry and ordering). Modifications to treatment may be warranted for some types of symptoms. Clinical implications and directions for future research are discussed. PMID:23615340

  4. Inferential confusion, obsessive beliefs, and obsessive-compulsive symptoms: a replication and extension.

    PubMed

    Wu, Kevin D; Aardema, Frederick; O'Connor, Kieron P

    2009-08-01

    This study replicated and extended previous research regarding utility of an inference-based approach (IBA) to the study of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD). The IBA is a model for the development of OCD symptoms through false reasoning. One of its key features is inferential confusion-a form of processing information in which an individual accepts a remote possibility based only on subjective evidence. In a nonclinical sample, this study examined the specificity of relations between the expanded Inferential Confusion Questionnaire (ICQ-EV) and OC symptoms. Results were that the ICQ-EV significantly predicted OC symptoms after controlling for general distress, anxiety, and depression. This finding supports the unique association between inferential confusion and OCD. Further, the ICQ-EV was a stronger predictor of certain OC symptoms than scales from the Obsessive Beliefs Questionnaire, which itself has shown strong relations with OC symptoms. Thus, both inference-based and cognitive appraisal models appear useful for understanding OCD. PMID:19345557

  5. Basal Ganglia MR Relaxometry in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: T2 Depends Upon Age of Symptom Onset

    PubMed Central

    Hubbard, Emily; Hassenstab, Jason; Yip, Agustin; Vymazal, Josef; Herynek, Vit; Giedd, Jay; Murphy, Dennis L.; Greenberg, Benjamin D.

    2010-01-01

    Dysfunction in circuits linking frontal cortex and basal ganglia (BG) is strongly implicated in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). On MRI studies, neuropsychiatric disorders with known BG pathology have abnormally short T2 relaxation values (a putative biomarker of elevated iron) in this region. We asked if BG T2 values are abnormal in OCD. We measured volume and T2 and T1 relaxation rates in BG of 32 adults with OCD and 33 matched controls. There were no group differences in volume or T1 values in caudate, putamen, or globus pallidus (GP). The OCD group had lower T2 values (suggesting higher iron content) in the right GP, with a trend in the same direction for the left GP. This effect was driven by patients whose OCD symptoms began from around adolescence to early adulthood. The results suggest a possible relationship between age of OCD onset and iron deposition in the basal ganglia. PMID:20503112

  6. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder in Late Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calamari, John E.; Pontarelli, Noelle K.; Armstrong, Kerrie M.; Salstrom, Seoka A.

    2012-01-01

    Although obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has received increasing attention, the study and treatment of OCD in late life has been neglected. The obsessions and compulsions seen with older adults do not appear to differ from the symptoms experienced by other age groups, although developmental issues might influence symptom focus (e.g., memory…

  7. Children's Florida Obsessive Compulsive Inventory: psychometric properties and feasibility of a self-report measure of obsessive-compulsive symptoms in youth.

    PubMed

    Storch, Eric A; Khanna, Muniya; Merlo, Lisa J; Loew, Benjamin A; Franklin, Martin; Reid, Jeannette M; Goodman, Wayne K; Murphy, Tanya K

    2009-09-01

    This report describes the development and psychometric properties of the Children's Florida Obsessive Compulsive Inventory (C-FOCI). Designed specifically as a brief measure for assessing obsessive-compulsive symptoms, the C-FOCI was created for use in both clinical and community settings. Study 1 included 82 children and adolescents diagnosed with primary Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder, and their parents. The Children's Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (CY-BOCS) was administered to assess symptom severity. Thereafter, parents completed the Child Obsessive-Compulsive Impact Scale-Parent Version and Child Behavior Checklist, and youth completed the C-FOCI, Child Obsessive-Compulsive Impact Scale-Child Version, Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children, and Children's Depression Inventory-Short Form. A subgroup of 21 individuals was retested with the C-FOCI after completing 14 sessions of intensive cognitive-behavioral therapy. Construct validity of the C-FOCI was supported vis-à-vis evidence of treatment sensitivity, and moderate relations with clinician-rated symptom severity, the CY-BOCS Symptom Checklist, child- and parent-rated functional impairment, child-rated anxiety, and parent-rated internalizing symptoms. Discriminant validity was evidenced by weak relationships with parent-reports of externalizing symptoms. For Study 2, 191 non-clinical adolescents completed the C-FOCI to assess the feasibility of internet administration. Overall, internal consistency was acceptable for the C-FOCI Symptom Checklist and Severity Scale, and respondents were able to complete the measure with little difficulty. Taken together, the findings of Studies 1 and 2 provide initial support for the reliability and validity of the C-FOCI for the assessment of pediatric obsessive-compulsive symptoms. PMID:19326209

  8. Managing Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Weston, Christina G.

    2007-01-01

    Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) in children and adolescents is much the same as in adults with regard to symptoms and basic treatment modalities. There are some distinct considerations to note in the approach to treatment methods. Empirically supported treatments include both medications and cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). It is important that psychotherapeutic treatment be tailored to the developmental level of the child. In this article, we will present, through case example, samples of varying the psychotherapeutic approach used for both child and adolescent cases of OCD. We will focus on exposure and response prevention techniques. PMID:20806030

  9. Visual, tactile, and auditory "not just right" experiences: associations with obsessive-compulsive symptoms and perfectionism.

    PubMed

    Summers, Berta J; Fitch, Kristin E; Cougle, Jesse R

    2014-09-01

    "Not just right" experiences (NJREs), or uncomfortable sensations associated with the immediate environment not feeling "right," are thought to contribute to obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) symptomatology. The literature suggests that NJREs are experienced across sensory modalities; however, existing in vivo measures have been restricted to visual inductions (e.g., viewing and/or rearranging a cluttered table). The present study used a large undergraduate sample (N=284) to examine 4 in vivo tasks designed to elicit and assess NJREs across separate sensory modalities (i.e., visual, tactile, and auditory). Task ratings (discomfort evoked, and urge to counteract task-specific stimuli) were uniquely associated with self-report measures of NJREs, OC symptoms (ordering/arranging, checking, and washing), and certain maladaptive domains of perfectionism (doubts about actions, and organization). Findings have implications for experimental research and clinical work targeting NJREs specific to particular senses. PMID:25022778

  10. A Review of the Pharmacotherapy of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder and Schizophrenia: The Case of Sam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randhawa, Ramandeep S.

    2005-01-01

    Obsessive-compulsive symptoms are a common feature of schizophrenia, and high rates of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) have been reported in schizophrenic patients. Effective pharmacotherapeutic options are available for both OCD and schizophrenia, and for some patients combining medications targeted at both conditions may be a helpful…

  11. The Presentation of Childhood Obsessive--Compulsive Disorder across Home and School Settings: A Preliminary Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabuncuoglu, Osman; Berkem, Meral

    2006-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the exact pattern of obsessive--compulsive disorder (OCD) symptoms in children displayed across school and home settings. Twenty-six school children (aged 7 through 17) with OCD were tested using the Children's Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (CY-BOCS), the Clinical Global Impression (CGI)--severity subscale and…

  12. Title: Prediction of treatment response and the effect of independent component neurofeedback in obsessive-compulsive disorder: a randomized, sham-controlled, and double-blind study

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    in obsessive-compulsive disorder: a randomized, sham-controlled, and double-blind study Authors: Ja a Kopi o á.cz #12;53 Key-words: Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder; Neurofeedback; Independent Component Analysis neurofeedback (NFB) on EEG and clinical symptoms in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD

  13. Psilocybin and Obsessive Compulsive Disorder.

    PubMed

    Wilcox, James Allen

    2014-01-01

    Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) is a psychiatric disorder with considerable morbidity and mortality. This condition disables many individuals and is often refractory to treatment. Research suggests that serotonin plays a role in OCD symptom reduction. We present a case of an individual who successfully used psilocybin, a serotonergic agent, to reduce the core symptoms of OCD for several years. Although not endorsing this form of treatment, we feel that the successful use of this agent highlights the role of serotonergic factors in OCD and the need for further, legitimate research into the value of psilocybin in the treatment of anxiety disorders. PMID:25364991

  14. Obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorders

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Andrea; King, Audrey; Hollander, Eric

    2003-01-01

    The obsessive-compulsive spectrum is an important concept referring to a number of disorders drawn from several diagnostic categories that share core obsessive-compulsive features. These disorders can be grouped by the focus of their symptoms: bodily preoccupation, impulse control, or neurological disorders. Although the disorders are clearly distinct from one another, they have intriguing similarities in phenomenology, etiology, pathophysiology, patient characteristics, and treatment response. In combination with the knowledge gained through many years of research on obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), the concept of a spectrum has generated much fruitful research on the spectrum disorders. It has become apparent that these disorders can also be viewed as being on a continuum of compulsivity to impulsivity, characterized by harm avoidance at the compulsive end and risk seeking at the impulsive end. The compulsive and impulsive disorders differ in systematic ways that are just beginning to be understood. Here, we review these concepts and several representative obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorders including both compulsive and impulsive disorders, as well as the three different symptom clusters: OCD, body dysmorphic disorder, pathological gambling, sexual compulsivity, and autism spectrum disorders. PMID:22033547

  15. Variations in symptom prevalence and clinical correlates in younger versus older youth with obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    PubMed

    Selles, Robert R; Storch, Eric A; Lewin, Adam B

    2014-12-01

    Few studies have examined the phenomenology of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) in younger children. A sample of 292 treatment seeking youth with a primary diagnosis of OCD was divided into the young child (3-9 years old) and older child (10-18 years old) groups. Overall OCD severity did not differ between groups. However, older youth demonstrated stronger intensity of obsessive and compulsive symptoms, while younger children were rated as having less resistance and control of compulsions. Older youth exhibited increased occurrence of comorbid depression, and an increased occurrence of sexual, magical thinking, and somatic obsessions, as well as, checking, counting and magical thinking compulsions. Conversely, the group of younger children exhibited significantly poorer insight, increased incidence of hoarding compulsions, higher rates of comorbid attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, disruptive behavior, and parent-rated anxiety, and more frequently exhibited hoarding compulsions. These differences suggest domains to consider when screening for OCD among younger/older pediatric cohorts. PMID:24549726

  16. The Children's Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale: Reliability and Validity for Use among 5 to 8 Year Olds with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, Jennifer; Flessner, Christopher A.; Garcia, Abbe

    2011-01-01

    The Children's Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (CY-BOCS) is the instrument of choice for assessing symptom severity in older children (i.e., 8-18 years) diagnosed with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The reliability and validity of this measure for use among younger children (i.e., 5-8 years of age), however, has never been examined.…

  17. Comorbid obsessive-compulsive symptoms in schizophrenia: contributions of pharmacological and genetic factors

    PubMed Central

    Schirmbeck, Frederike; Zink, Mathias

    2013-01-01

    A large subgroup of around 25% of schizophrenia patients suffers from obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCS) and about 12% fulfill the diagnostic criteria of an obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The additional occurrence of OCS is associated with high subjective burden of disease, additional neurocognitive impairment, poorer social and vocational functioning, greater service utilization and high levels of anxiety and depression. Comorbid patients can be assigned to heterogeneous subgroups. One hypothesis assumes that second generation antipsychotics (SGAs), most importantly clozapine, might aggravate or even induce second-onset OCS. Several arguments support this assumption, most importantly the observed chronological order of first psychotic manifestation, start of treatment with clozapine and onset of OCS. In addition, correlations between OCS-severity and dose and serum levels and duration of clozapine treatment hint toward a dose-dependent side effect. It has been hypothesized that genetic risk-factors dispose patients with schizophrenia to develop OCS. One study in a South Korean sample reported associations with polymorphisms in the gene SLC1A1 (solute carrier family 1A1) and SGA-induced OCS. However, this finding could not be replicated in European patients. Preliminary results also suggest an involvement of polymorphisms in the BDNF gene (brain-derived neurotrophic factor) and an interaction between markers of SLC1A1 and the gene DLGAP3 (disc large associated protein 3) as well as GRIN2B (N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subunit 2B). Further research of well-defined samples, in particular studies investigating possible interactions of genetic risk-constellations and pharmacodynamic properties, are needed to clarify the assumed development of SGA-induced OCS. Results might improve pathogenic concepts and facilitate the definition of at risk populations, early detection and monitoring of OCS as well as multimodal therapeutic interventions. PMID:23950745

  18. Comorbid obsessive-compulsive symptoms in schizophrenia: contributions of pharmacological and genetic factors.

    PubMed

    Schirmbeck, Frederike; Zink, Mathias

    2013-01-01

    A large subgroup of around 25% of schizophrenia patients suffers from obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCS) and about 12% fulfill the diagnostic criteria of an obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The additional occurrence of OCS is associated with high subjective burden of disease, additional neurocognitive impairment, poorer social and vocational functioning, greater service utilization and high levels of anxiety and depression. Comorbid patients can be assigned to heterogeneous subgroups. One hypothesis assumes that second generation antipsychotics (SGAs), most importantly clozapine, might aggravate or even induce second-onset OCS. Several arguments support this assumption, most importantly the observed chronological order of first psychotic manifestation, start of treatment with clozapine and onset of OCS. In addition, correlations between OCS-severity and dose and serum levels and duration of clozapine treatment hint toward a dose-dependent side effect. It has been hypothesized that genetic risk-factors dispose patients with schizophrenia to develop OCS. One study in a South Korean sample reported associations with polymorphisms in the gene SLC1A1 (solute carrier family 1A1) and SGA-induced OCS. However, this finding could not be replicated in European patients. Preliminary results also suggest an involvement of polymorphisms in the BDNF gene (brain-derived neurotrophic factor) and an interaction between markers of SLC1A1 and the gene DLGAP3 (disc large associated protein 3) as well as GRIN2B (N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subunit 2B). Further research of well-defined samples, in particular studies investigating possible interactions of genetic risk-constellations and pharmacodynamic properties, are needed to clarify the assumed development of SGA-induced OCS. Results might improve pathogenic concepts and facilitate the definition of at risk populations, early detection and monitoring of OCS as well as multimodal therapeutic interventions. PMID:23950745

  19. Development and Psychometric Evaluation of the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale--Second Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Storch, Eric A.; Rasmussen, Steven A.; Price, Lawrence H.; Larson, Michael J.; Murphy, Tanya K.; Goodman, Wayne K.

    2010-01-01

    The Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS; Goodman, Price, Rasmussen, Mazure, Delgado, et al., 1989) is acknowledged as the gold standard measure of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) symptom severity. A number of areas where the Y-BOCS may benefit from revision have emerged in past psychometric studies of the Severity Scale and Symptom

  20. Deep brain stimulation for the obsessive-compulsive and Tourette-like symptoms of Kleefstra syndrome.

    PubMed

    Segar, David J; Chodakiewitz, Yosef G; Torabi, Radmehr; Cosgrove, G Rees

    2015-06-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has been reported to have beneficial effects in severe, treatment-refractory cases of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and Tourette syndrome (TS). In this report, the authors present the first case in which DBS was used to treat the neuropsychiatric symptoms of Kleefstra syndrome, a rare genetic disorder characterized by childhood hypotonia, intellectual disability, distinctive facial features, and myriad psychiatric and behavioral disturbances. A 24-year-old female patient with childhood hypotonia, developmental delay, and diagnoses of autism spectrum disorder, OCD, and TS refractory to medical management underwent the placement of bilateral ventral capsule/ventral striatum (VC/VS) DBS leads, with clinical improvement. Medical providers and family observed gradual and progressive improvement in the patient's compulsive behaviors, coprolalia, speech, and social interaction. Symptoms recurred when both DBS electrodes failed because of lead fracture and dislodgement, although the clinical benefits were restored by lead replacement. The symptomatic and functional improvements observed in this case of VC/VS DBS for Kleefstra syndrome suggest a novel indication for DBS worthy of further investigation. PMID:26030700

  1. Neurohemodynamic Correlates of Washing Symptoms in Obsessive-compulsive Disorder: A Pilot fMRI Study Using Symptom Provocation Paradigm

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Sri Mahavir; Jose, Dania; Baruah, Upasana; Shivakumar, Venkataram; Kalmady, Sunil Vasu; Venkatasubramanian, Ganesan; Mataix-Cols, David; Reddy, Yemmigannur Chandrashekhar Janardhan

    2013-01-01

    Background: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is increasingly being viewed as a multidimensional heterogeneous disorder caused due to the dysfunction of several closely related, overlapping frontostriatal circuits. A study investigating the dimensional construct in treatment naïve, co-morbidity free patients with identical handedness is likely to provide the necessary homogeneity and power to elicit neural correlates of the various symptom dimensions, and overcome the limitations of previous studies. Materials and Methods: Nine DSM-IV OCD patients with predominant contamination-related obsessive-compulsive symptoms (age=29.8±7.1 years; five males: four females; years-of-education=13.9±1.6, YBOCS total score=28.8±4.7, DYBOCS Contamination dimension score=10.7±1.8) and nine healthy controls matched one to one with the patients for age, sex, and years of education (age=27.8±5.4, five males: four females; years-of-education=14.9±3.0), were examined during symptom provocation task performance in 3TMRI. Paired samples t test of brain activation differences (contamination relevant pictures – neutral pictures), limited to apriori regions of interest was done using SPM8 (uncorrected P<0.005). Results: Patients found significantly more pictures to be anxiety provoking in comparison to healthy controls. Patients were found to have deficient activation in the following areas in comparison with healthy controls: bilateral anterior prefrontal, dorsolateral prefrontal, orbitofrontal, anterior cingulate, insular and parietal cortices, precuneus, and caudate. Conclusions: Results underscore the importance of frontal, striatal, parietal, and occipital areas in the pathophysiology of OCD. Divergence of findings from previous studies might be attributed to the absence of confounding factors in the current study and may be due to production of intense anxiety in patients. PMID:23833345

  2. Seasonal obsessive-compulsive disorder

    PubMed Central

    Sinha, Prakriti; Bakhla, Ajay Kumar; Patnaik, Ashok Kumar; Chaudhury, Suprakash

    2014-01-01

    A case of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) with seasonal variation in symptoms of 10-years duration is reported because of its rarity. The phenomenology of the observed disorder was obsessions related to dirt and contamination resulting in washing compulsions with onset in October and complete resolution in April-May every year. The patient responded to phototherapy along with exposure and response prevention therapy and pharmacotherapy. PMID:25788807

  3. The relationship between adverse childhood experience and obsessive-compulsive symptoms and beliefs: the role of anxiety, depression, and experiential avoidance.

    PubMed

    Briggs, Eric S; Price, Ian R

    2009-12-01

    Current cognitive-behavioral models of the etiology of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) suggest that maladaptive appraisal of otherwise normal intrusive thoughts have their origins in early learning experiences. The present study investigated the relationship between adverse childhood experience and OCD symptoms and related dysfunctional beliefs in a general population using a structural equation modeling approach. The role of experiential avoidance and anxiety and depression were also explored in the model. Results indicated that adverse childhood experience was strongly associated with OCD symptoms and beliefs, but after controlling for anxiety and depression the relationship with OCD symptoms became non-significant and only a weak relationship with OCD beliefs remained. Experiential avoidance was significantly associated with OCD symptoms and beliefs and remained significant after controlling for anxiety and depression. Implications of these results in the context of a complete model of the development of OCD are discussed. PMID:19635653

  4. Understanding Obsessive–Compulsive Disorder: Focus on Decision Making

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paolo Cavedini; Alessandra Gorini; Laura Bellodi

    2006-01-01

    Current approaches to obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) have suggested that neurobiological abnormalities play a crucial role in the etiology and course of this psychiatric illness. In particular, a fronto-subcortical circuit, including the orbitofrontal cortex, basal ganglia and thalamus appears to be involved in the expression of OCD symptoms. Neuropsychological studies have also shown that patients with OCD show deficits in cognitive

  5. Further development of YBOCS dimensions in the OCD Collaborative Genetics Study: Symptoms vs. categories

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anthony Pinto; Benjamin D. Greenberg; Marco A. Grados; O. Joseph Bienvenu III; Jack F. Samuels; Dennis L. Murphy; Gregor Hasler; Robert L. Stout; Scott L. Rauch; Yin Y. Shugart; David L. Pauls; James A. Knowles; Abby J. Fyer; James T. McCracken; John Piacentini; Ying Wang; Virginia L. Willour; Bernadette Cullen; Kung-Yee Liang; Rudolf Hoehn-Saric; Mark A. Riddle; Steven A. Rasmussen; Gerald Nestadt

    2008-01-01

    Despite progress in identifying homogeneous subphenotypes of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) through factor analysis of the Yale Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale Symptom Checklist (YBOCS-SC), prior solutions have been limited by a reliance on presupposed symptom categories rather than discrete symptoms. Furthermore, there have been few attempts to evaluate the familiality of OCD symptom dimensions. The purpose of this study was to extend

  6. Cognitive behavior therapy for obsessive-compulsive and related disorders.

    PubMed

    Lewin, Adam B; Wu, Monica S; McGuire, Joseph F; Storch, Eric A

    2014-09-01

    Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) is considered a first-line intervention for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) across the lifespan. Efficacy studies of CBT with exposure and response prevention suggest robust symptom reduction, often with sustained remission. Acceptability of CBT is high, and the treatment is devoid of adverse side effects. The primary mechanism of CBT is based on operant principles, specifically extinction learning. The efficacy of extinction-based treatments such as CBT is being shown for other obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorders. This article reviews the theoretic basis, clinical application, and relevant treatment outcome research for CBT and related therapies for several obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorders. PMID:25150570

  7. Automatic Avoidance Tendencies in Individuals with Contamination-Related Obsessive-Compulsive Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Najmi, Sadia; Kuckertz, Jennie M.; Amir, Nader

    2010-01-01

    We used an Approach-Avoidance Task (AAT) to examine response to threatening stimuli in 20 individuals high in contamination-related obsessive-compulsive symptoms (HCs) and 21 individuals low in contamination-related obsessive-compulsive symptoms (LCs). Participants were instructed to respond to contamination-related and neutral pictures by pulling a joystick towards themselves or by pushing it away from themselves. Moving the joystick changed the size of the image to simulate approaching or distancing oneself from the object. Consistent with our hypothesis, the HC group was significantly slower in pulling contamination-related pictures than in pulling neutral pictures, whereas in the LC group there was no difference between speed of pulling contamination-related pictures and neutral pictures. Contrary to our hypothesis, we did not find support for faster pushing away of contamination-related pictures than neutral pictures by the HC group. Moreover, the degree of avoidance of contamination-related stimuli when pulling – but not when pushing – was significantly correlated with self-reported contamination-related obsessive-compulsive symptoms. These results suggest a biased behavioral response for threatening objects in individuals high in contamination fears only when inhibiting the prepotent response to avoid threatening stimuli and not when performing a practiced avoidance response. Thus, our results validate the use of the AAT as a measure of inhibited and uninhibited automatic avoidance reactions to emotional information in individuals with contamination-related obsessive-compulsive symptoms. PMID:20650448

  8. Cognitive Predictors of Obsessive?Compulsive Symptoms in Adolescence: A Preliminary Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mather, Alison; Cartwright-Hatton, Sam

    2004-01-01

    This study examined relations among responsibility attitudes, metacognitive beliefs, and obsessive?compulsive (O?C) symptoms in youth. One hundred sixty-six nonclinical youth (ages 13 to 17 years) completed the following: Responsibility Attitude Scale (RAS; Salkovskis et al., 2000); Meta-Cognitions Questionnaire?Adolescent Version (MCQ?A;…

  9. Three cases of symptom change in Tourette's syndrome and obsessive-compulsive disorder associated with paediatric cerebral malignancies.

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, B S; Bronen, R A; Duncan, C C

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To correlate behaviour manifestations with tumour location in three children who had Gilles de la Tourette's syndrome (GTS), obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and primary cerebral malignancies. METHOD: Cases were ascertained from a chart review in a GTS and OCD specialty clinic. For each case the temporal progression of change in neuropsychiatric symptoms was qualitatively correlated with radiographic documentation of tumour progression. RESULTS: The change in symptom severities during tumour progression and treatment, together with prior neurobiological studies of GTS, suggest that the ventral striatum, corpus callosum, thalamus, and midbrain are potentially important neural substrates in the formation or modulation of tic symptoms. The limbic system, including the hypothalamus and cingulate, and the caudate nucleus, seem to be important in the neurobiology of OCD. All structures are neuroanatomically and functionally related to the corticostriato-thalamocortical circuitry that is thought to subserve symptom generation in both GTS and OCD. CONCLUSION: Although the malignancies were not likely to have caused the tic and OCD symptoms in these children, the locations of these intracranial lesions provide important clues in identifying brain regions that may contribute to the determination of tic and OCD severities. Images PMID:8937345

  10. Validation of a classification system of obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorder symptoms in a non-clinical sample.

    PubMed

    Sulkowski, Michael L; Mancil, Twyla L; Jordan, Cary; Reid, Adam; Chakoff, Elisa; Storch, Eric A

    2011-06-30

    Controversy surrounds the classification of obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorder (OCSD) symptoms. In this study, we tested whether a broad OCSD symptoms model consisting of obsessive-compulsive, body dysmorphic, health anxiety, trichotillomania, pathological skin picking, impulsivity, and anxiety symptoms displayed sufficient data fit. Alternatively, we tested whether a reduced OCSD symptoms model consisting of obsessive-compulsive, body dysmorphic, health anxiety, trichotillomania, and pathological skin picking symptoms demonstrated superior fit. The reduced OCSD symptoms model demonstrated good data fit. However, the broader OCSD symptoms model only displayed marginal data fit. In context with other findings, results of this study support an OCSD symptoms dimension that includes obsessive-compulsive, body dysmorphic, health anxiety, trichotillomania, and pathological skin picking symptoms. Implications of these findings are discussed as they relate to proposed changes in the forthcoming edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual. PMID:21315456

  11. Correlates of Insight among Youth with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewin, Adam B.; Bergman, R. Lindsey; Peris, Tara S.; Chang, Susanna; McCracken, James T.; Piacentini, John

    2010-01-01

    Background: Individuals with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) may lack insight into the irrational nature of their symptoms. Among adults with OCD, poor insight has been linked to greater symptom severity, increased likelihood of comorbid symptoms, lower adaptive functioning, and worse treatment outcomes. Parallel work regarding insight among…

  12. Assessment of Quality of Life (QOL) in Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) and Dysthymic Disorder (DD): A Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Vasudev, Roopesh Gopal Nariyandada; Yallappa, Sudarshan Chikkanayakanahalli

    2015-01-01

    Introduction There is paucity of data on Quality of Life (QOL) in non-psychotic mental disorders. Aim To assess the Quality of Life (QOL) in Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) and compare it with Dysthymic Disorder (DD). Materials and Methods This hospital based cross-sectional study was conducted in 30 patients each diagnosed to have OCD and DD during October 2009 to September 2011 in a medical institution in Davanagere, Karnataka, India. DSM-IV-TR (Diagnostic statistical manual-IV-Text Revised) criteria was used for diagnosis of OCD and DD. Yale Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS) and WHO QOL BREF (brief form) scales were used. Data was analysed by independent sample t-test. Results Overall QOL score was 51.07(SD=11.47) and 50.91(SD=7.41) in OCD and DD groups respectively. QOL score was comparatively low in psychological domain with score of 44.12(SD=14.14) and 45.10(12.35) in OCD and DD respectively. There was no significant difference in the QOL score of the two groups with respect to socio demographic variables in OCD group, but it was different with respect to place of residence in DD group (p<0.05). In Q1(perception on quality of life) and Q2 (perception on quality of health) domain, QOL score was marginally higher than average in both the groups. In Y-BOCS scale, no statistical significant association was found between severity of OCD and QOL score in each of the domains (p>0.05). Conclusion Overall QOL score was average and there was no significant difference of QOL score between the OCD and DD groups implying that both these non-psychotic mental disorders may have same influence or effect on QOL of the subjects. Further analytical studies will explore the associated factors of QOL in OCD and DD.

  13. Let me check that for you: symptom accommodation in romantic partners of adults with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder.

    PubMed

    Boeding, Sara E; Paprocki, Christine M; Baucom, Donald H; Abramowitz, Jonathan S; Wheaton, Michael G; Fabricant, Laura E; Fischer, Melanie S

    2013-06-01

    Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) is typically considered from the perspective of the individual, yet symptoms often occur within an interpersonal context. Family members often engage in accommodation, assisting patients with rituals in order to alleviate anxiety, prevent conflict, or "help out" with time-consuming compulsive behaviors. Prior research has primarily examined accommodation in parents of children with OCD or in adult caregiver relationships, where caregivers can include various family members (e.g., parents, romantic partners). The current study examined accommodation behaviors in romantic partners of adults with OCD. As part of a treatment study, 20 couples were assessed for accommodation behaviors, OCD symptoms, and relationship functioning before and after 16-sessions of cognitive-behavioral treatment. Accommodation was associated with the patient's OCD symptoms at pre-treatment, and negatively associated with the partners', but not the patients', self-reported relationship satisfaction. Post-treatment partner accommodation was also associated with poorer response to treatment. The implications of these findings are discussed within an interpersonal framework, and the benefits of including partners in the treatment of OCD are described. PMID:23567474

  14. Social skills training in a case of obsessive-compulsive disorder with schizotypal personality disorder

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dean Mckay; Fugen Neziroglu

    1996-01-01

    The present study illustrates a case of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) with schizotypal personality treated by social skills training. Prior research suggests that OCD with schizotypal personality predicts poor treatment outcome using exposure-based treatments. Following social skills treatment and at 6-month follow-up, the patient had considerable obsessive-compulsive symptom reduction, although he was still symptomatic for OCD, anxiety and depression. Controlled trials

  15. Obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    PubMed

    Bokor, Gyula; Anderson, Peter D

    2014-04-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a common heterogeneous psychiatric disorder manifesting with obsessions and compulsions. Obsessions are intrusive, recurrent, and persistent unwanted thoughts. Compulsions are repetitive behaviors or mental acts that an individual feels driven to perform in response to the obsessions. The heterogeneity of OCD includes themes of obsessions, types of rituals, presence or absence of tics, etiology, genetics, and response to pharmacotherapy. Complications of OCD include interpersonal difficulties, unemployment, substance abuse, criminal justice issues, and physical injuries. Areas of the brain involved in the pathophysiology include the orbitofrontal cortex, anterior cingulate gyrus, and basal ganglia. Overall, OCD may be due to a malfunction in the cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical circuit in the brain. Neurotransmitters implicated in OCD include serotonin, dopamine, and glutamate. Numerous drugs such as atypical antipsychotics and dopaminergic agents can cause or exacerbate OCD symptoms. The etiology includes genetics and neurological insults. Treatment of OCD includes psychotherapy, pharmacotherapy, electroconvulsive therapy, transcranial magnetic simulation, and in extreme cases surgery. Exposure and response prevention is the most effective form of psychotherapy. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are the preferred pharmacotherapy. Higher doses than listed in the package insert and a longer trial are often needed for SSRIs than compared to other psychiatric disorders. Alternatives to SSRIs include clomipramine and serotonin/norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors. Treatment of resistant cases includes augmentation with atypical antipsychotics, pindolol, buspirone, and glutamate-blocking agents. PMID:24576790

  16. Obsessive-Compulsive Behavior as a Symptom of Dementia in Progressive Supranuclear Palsy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Fukui; E. Lee; H. Hosoda; K. Okita

    2010-01-01

    Aims: To describe obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCS) as under-recognized behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia of progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) and to discuss possible mechanisms based on MRI and SPECT findings. Methods: We studied 74 PSP patients. OCS are defined as persistent and unreasonable, but non-delusional\\/hallucinatory, ideas and behaviors. Demography, cognition, the widths of middle cerebellar peduncles (MCP) and the inter-caudate

  17. Predictive value of obsessive compulsive symptoms involving the skin on quality of life in patients with acne vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Bez, Yasin; Yesilova, Yavuz; Ar?, Mustafa; Kaya, Mehmet Cemal; Alpak, Gokay; Bulut, Mahmut

    2013-11-01

    Acne is one of the most common dermatological diseases, and obsessive compulsive disorder is among the most frequent psychiatric conditions seen in dermatology clinics. Comorbidity of these conditions may therefore be expected. The aim of this study was to measure obsessive compulsive symptoms and quality of life in patients with acne vulgaris, compare them with those of healthy control subjects, and determine whether there is any predictive value of obsessive compulsive symptoms for quality of life in patients with acne. Obsessive compulsive symptoms and quality of life measurements of 146 patients with acne vulgaris and 94 healthy control subjects were made using the Maudsley Obsessive Compulsive Questionnaire and Short Form-36 in a cross-sectional design. Patients with acne vulgaris had lower scores for physical functioning, physical role dysfunction, general health perception, vitality, and emotional role dysfunction. They also had higher scores for checking, slowness, and rumination. The only predictor of physical functioning and vitality dimensions of health-related quality of life in these patients was rumination score. Obsessive compulsive symptoms in patients with acne vulgaris are higher than in controls, and this may correlate with both disease severity and quality of life for patients. PMID:23572177

  18. Psychometric Properties of a Behavioral Test of Contamination-Related Obsessive–Compulsive Symptoms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sadia Najmi; Anastacia C. Tobin; Nader Amir

    In this study, we evaluated the psychometric properties of a Behavioral Approach Task (BAT) for contamination-related obsessive–compulsive\\u000a symptoms. We adapted the BAT from Cougle et al’s. (2007) design, which comprised three tests corresponding to three different contamination-related stimuli and a hierarchy of six\\u000a steps of approach within each test. We obtained anxiety and disgust ratings at each BAT step. Participants

  19. Compulsive checking behavior of quinpirole-sensitized rats as an animal model of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder(OCD): form and control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Henry Szechtman; Michael J Eckert; Wai S Tse; Jonathan T Boersma; Carlo A Bonura; Jessica Z McClelland; Kirsten E Culver; David Eilam

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A previous report showed that the open field behavior of rats sensitized to the dopamine agonist quinpirole satisfies 5 performance criteria for compulsive checking behavior. In an effort to extend the parallel between the drug-induced phenomenon and human obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), the present study investigated whether the checking behavior of quinpirole rats is subject to interruption, which is an

  20. Psychosocial Stress Predicts Future Symptom Severities in Children and Adolescents with Tourette Syndrome and/or Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Haiqun; Katsovich, Liliya; Ghebremichael, Musie; Findley, Diane B.; Grantz, Heidi; Lombroso, Paul J.; King, Robert A.; Zhang, Heping; Leckman, James F.

    2007-01-01

    Background: The goals of this prospective longitudinal study were to monitor levels of psychosocial stress in children and adolescents with Tourette syndrome (TS) and/or obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) compared to healthy control subjects and to examine the relationship between measures of psychosocial stress and fluctuations in tic,…

  1. Perfectionism and Peer Relations among Children with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ye, Huan J.; Rice, Kenneth G.; Storch, Eric A.

    2008-01-01

    The study examined perfectionism, symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and depression, and peer relationships among a clinical sample of 31 youth (age range 7-18 years) diagnosed with OCD. Using a correlational design, perfectionistic beliefs accounted for significant variance in OCD symptoms, depressive symptoms, and difficulties in…

  2. Subtypes of obsessive-compulsive disorder: Implications for specialized cognitive behavior therapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Debbie Sookman; Jonathan S. Abramowitz; John E. Calamari; Sabine Wilhelm; Dean McKay

    2005-01-01

    Although obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a heterogeneous condition, OCD subtypes have received limited attention in trials of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT). Because many patients with OCD do not respond optimally to CBT, it is important for clinicians to consider whether variability in treatment response is related to symptom presentation. Treatment modifications for patients without overt compulsions or with hoarding symptoms

  3. Obsessive-Compulsive Spectrum Disorders in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder and Other Anxiety Disorders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christine Lochner; Dan J. Stein

    2010-01-01

    Background: There has been debate about whether obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) should be classified as one of the anxiety disorders, or should rather be categorized with obsessive-compulsive spectrum conditions. Sampling and Methods: The question of where OCD should be located in the diagnostic system was addressed by investigating the relationship of OCD, obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorders (OCSDs), and anxiety disorders. We administered

  4. Second generation antipsychotic-induced obsessive-compulsive symptoms in schizophrenia: a review of the experimental literature.

    PubMed

    Fonseka, Trehani M; Richter, Margaret A; Müller, Daniel J

    2014-11-01

    Second generation antipsychotics (SGAs) have been implicated in the de novo emergence and exacerbation of obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCS) in patients with schizophrenia. Among SGAs, clozapine, olanzapine, and risperidone are the most prominent agents associated with these sequelae, according to case reports. Comorbid OCS can impede recovery by compromising treatment benefits, medication compliance, and clinical prognoses. Previous reviews of SGA-induced OCS have predominantly focused on descriptive case reports, with limited attention paid toward experimental findings. To address this paucity of data, we sought to review the effects of SGAs on OCS in schizophrenia in the experimental literature, while addressing the role of different treatment (duration, dose, serum levels) and pharmacogenetic factors. Our findings suggest that clozapine confers the greatest risk of OCS in schizophrenia, with 20 to 28% of clozapine-treated patients experiencing de novo OCS, in addition to 10 to 18% incurring an exacerbation of pre-existing OCS. Clozapine can also yield full threshold obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), in some cases. Olanzapine is another high risk drug for secondary OCS which occurs in 11 to 20% of schizophrenic patients receiving olanzapine therapy. At this time, there is insufficient experimental evidence to characterize the effects of other SGAs on OCS. Despite some experimental support for the involvement of longer treatment duration and genetic factors in mediating drug-induced OCS, more research is needed to clearly elucidate these associations. Based on these results, schizophrenic patients should be routinely monitored for OCS throughout the course of SGA treatment, particularly when clozapine or olanzapine is administered. PMID:25256097

  5. Relationship between obsessive-compulsive personality disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Giuseppina Diaferia; Ivonne Bianchi; Maria Laura Bianchi; Paolo Cavedini; Stefano Erzegovesi; Laura Bellodi

    1997-01-01

    This study investigated the presence of obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) in a group of 277 patients (88 with obsessive-compulsive disorder [OCD], 58 with major depressive disorder [MDD], and 131 with panic disorder [Panic)) to test the specificity of the relationship between OCPD and OCD. OCPD is statistically significantly more frequent in patients with OCD than in those with Panic and

  6. Responsibility attitudes and interpretations are characteristic of obsessive compulsive disorder

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. M. Salkovskis; A. L. Wroe; A. Gledhill; N. Morrison; E. Forrester; C. Richards; M Reynolds; S Thorpe

    2000-01-01

    The cognitive–behavioural theory of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) proposes that a key factor influencing obsessional behaviour is the way in which the intrusive cognitions are interpreted. The present paper reports an investigation of links between clinical symptoms (of anxiety, depression and obsessionality) and responsibility beliefs. These beliefs include not only measures of general responsibility attitudes (assumptions) but also more specific

  7. Action-Monitoring Dysfunction in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William J. Gehring; Joseph Himle; Laura G. Nisenson

    2000-01-01

    Evidence suggests that a hyperactive frontal-striatal- thalamic-frontal circuit is associated with the symptoms of obsessive- compulsive disorder (OCD), but there is little agreement about the function of the exaggerated activity. We report electrophysiological evidence suggesting that part of this system monitors events and gen- erates error signals when the events conflict with an individual's internal standards or goals. Nine individuals

  8. Aberrant error processing in relation to symptom severity in obsessive–compulsive disorder: A multimodal neuroimaging study

    PubMed Central

    Agam, Yigal; Greenberg, Jennifer L.; Isom, Marlisa; Falkenstein, Martha J.; Jenike, Eric; Wilhelm, Sabine; Manoach, Dara S.

    2014-01-01

    Background Obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) is characterized by maladaptive repetitive behaviors that persist despite feedback. Using multimodal neuroimaging, we tested the hypothesis that this behavioral rigidity reflects impaired use of behavioral outcomes (here, errors) to adaptively adjust responses. We measured both neural responses to errors and adjustments in the subsequent trial to determine whether abnormalities correlate with symptom severity. Since error processing depends on communication between the anterior and the posterior cingulate cortex, we also examined the integrity of the cingulum bundle with diffusion tensor imaging. Methods Participants performed the same antisaccade task during functional MRI and electroencephalography sessions. We measured error-related activation of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and the error-related negativity (ERN). We also examined post-error adjustments, indexed by changes in activation of the default network in trials surrounding errors. Results OCD patients showed intact error-related ACC activation and ERN, but abnormal adjustments in the post- vs. pre-error trial. Relative to controls, who responded to errors by deactivating the default network, OCD patients showed increased default network activation including in the rostral ACC (rACC). Greater rACC activation in the post-error trial correlated with more severe compulsions. Patients also showed increased fractional anisotropy (FA) in the white matter underlying rACC. Conclusions Impaired use of behavioral outcomes to adaptively adjust neural responses may contribute to symptoms in OCD. The rACC locus of abnormal adjustment and relations with symptoms suggests difficulty suppressing emotional responses to aversive, unexpected events (e.g., errors). Increased structural connectivity of this paralimbic default network region may contribute to this impairment. PMID:25057466

  9. Inflated responsibility in obsessive-compulsive disorder: Psychometric studies of a semiidiographic measure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Josée Rhéaume; Robert Ladouceur; Mark H. Freeston; Hélène Letarte

    1994-01-01

    An excessive sense of responsibility has been attributed a key role in recent models of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). This study presents the development and initial validation of the Responsibility Questionnaire. Three hundred ninety-seven volunteer adults participated in the study. The Responsibility Questionnaire demonstrated adequate stability over a 6-week interval. Correlation analysis showed that responsibility was significantly related to obsessive-compulsive symptoms,

  10. Obsessive compulsive symptom dimensions and neuroticism: An examination of shared genetic and environmental risk.

    PubMed

    Bergin, Jocilyn; Verhulst, Brad; Aggen, Steven H; Neale, Michael C; Kendler, Kenneth S; Bienvenu, Oscar J; Hettema, John M

    2014-12-01

    Individuals with obsessive compulsive disorder can display diverse and heterogeneous patterns of symptoms. Little is known about the relationship between obsessive-compulsive symptom (OCS) dimensions and normal personality traits, particularly those that increase risk for other internalizing disorders. In this study of 1,382 individuals from female-female twin pairs, we examined the relationship between self-report OCS dimensions derived from the Padua Inventory and Eysenck's personality traits neuroticism and extraversion. We conducted factor analysis to determine their phenotypic structure followed by twin analyses to determine their genetic and environmental sources of covariation. A three-factor solution, with dimensions corresponding to checking, aggressive obsessions, and contamination, was the best fit for the Padua OCS items. These dimensions were significantly and somewhat variably associated with neuroticism but negligibly associated with extraversion. The genetic correlations between neuroticism and these three OCS dimensions were moderate to high (0.66 with checking, 0.89 with aggressive obsessions, and 0.40 with contamination). However, the estimated genetic correlation between neuroticism and a unified latent OCS construct was smaller (0.32). Overall this study suggests that genetic, and to a smaller extent environmental, factors underlying neuroticism may act differentially as risk factors for OCS dimensions. PMID:25231027

  11. The impact of tics, obsessive-compulsive symptoms, and impulsivity on global functioning in Tourette syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kano, Yukiko; Kono, Toshiaki; Matsuda, Natsumi; Nonaka, Maiko; Kuwabara, Hitoshi; Shimada, Takafumi; Shishikura, Kurie; Konno, Chizue; Ohta, Masataka

    2015-03-30

    This study investigated the relationships between tics, obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCS), and impulsivity, and their effects on global functioning in Japanese patients with Tourette syndrome (TS), using the dimensional approach for OCS. Fifty-three TS patients were assessed using the Yale Global Tic Severity Scale, the Dimensional Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale, the Impulsivity Rating Scale, and the Global Assessment of Functioning Scale. Although tic severity scores were significantly and positively correlated with OCS severity scores, impulsivity severity scores were not significantly correlated with either. The global functioning score was significantly and negatively correlated with tic and OCS severity scores. Of the 6 dimensional OCS scores, only aggression scores had a significant negative correlation with global functioning scores. A stepwise multiple regression analysis showed that only OCS severity scores were significantly associated with global functioning scores. Despite a moderate correlation between tic severity and OCS severity, the impact of OCS on global functioning was greater than that of tics. Of the OCS dimensions, only aggression had a significant impact on global functioning. Our findings suggest that it is important to examine OCS using a dimensional approach when analyzing global functioning in TS patients. PMID:25618473

  12. Streptococcal Upper Respiratory Tract Infections and Exacerbations of Tic and Obsessive-Compulsive Symptoms: A Prospective Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leckman, James F.; King, Robert A.; Gilbert, Donald L.; Coffey, Barbara J.; Singer, Harvey S.; Dure, Leon S., IV; Grantz, Heidi; Katsovich, Liliya; Lin, Haiqun; Lombroso, Paul J.; Kawikova, Ivana; Johnson, Dwight R.; Kurlan, Roger M.; Kaplan, Edward L.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this blinded, prospective, longitudinal study was to determine whether new group A beta hemolytic streptococcal (GABHS) infections are temporally associated with exacerbations of tic or obsessive-compulsive (OC) symptoms in children who met published criteria for pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders…

  13. Characterization of SLITRK1 Variation in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Characterization of SLITRK1 Variation in Obsessive- Compulsive Disorder Uzoezi Ozomaro1,2 , Guiqing, Maryland, United States of America, 11 Division of Tics, Obsessive-Compulsive and Related Disorders, New York, United States of America Abstract Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) is a syndrome

  14. CLARIFYING THE CONVERGENCE BETWEEN OBSESSIVE COMPULSIVE PERSONALITY DISORDER CRITERIA AND OBSESSIVE COMPULSIVE DISORDER

    PubMed Central

    Eisen, Jane L.; Coles, Meredith E.; Shea, M. Tracie; Pagano, Maria E.; Stout, Robert L.; Yen, Shirley; Grilo, Carlos M.; Rasmussen, Steven A.

    2008-01-01

    In this study we examined the convergence between obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) criteria and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Baseline assessments of 629 participants of the Collaborative Longitudinal Personality Disorders Study were used to examine the associations between OCPD criteria and diagnoses of OCD. Three of the eight OCPD criteria—hoarding, perfectionism, and preoccupation with details—were significantly more frequent in subjects with OCD (n = 89) than in subjects without OCD (n = 540). Logistic regressions were used to predict the probability of each OCPD criterion as a function of Axis I diagnoses (OCD, additional anxiety disorders, and major depressive disorder). Associations between OCD and these three OCPD criteria remained significant in the logistic regressions, showing unique associations with OCD and odds ratios ranging from 2.71 to 2.99. In addition, other anxiety disorders and major depressive disorder showed few associations with specific OCPD criteria. This study suggests variability in the strength of the relationships between specific OCPD criteria and OCD. The findings also support a unique relationship between OCPD symptoms and OCD, compared to other anxiety disorders or major depression. Future efforts to explore the link between Axis I and Axis II disorders may be enriched by conducting analyses at the symptom level. PMID:16776557

  15. Expectancy bias for disgust and emotional responding in contamination-related obsessive-compulsive disorder

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bunmi O. Olatunji; Jeffrey M. Lohr; Jeffrey L. Willems; Craig N. Sawchuk

    2006-01-01

    The present study examines the relation between disgust and contamination-related obsessive-compulsive disorder symptoms (OCD) in an analog sample. The results showed that disgust sensitivity is significantly correlated with contamination-related OCD. Participants high in contamination OCD (HOCD) generally report significantly more disgust than low contamination-related OCD (LOCD) participants. We also examined if differential disgust UCS expectancies exists in contamination OCD using

  16. Obsessive Compulsive Disorder with Bipolar Mood Disorder: A Rare Comorbidity in India

    PubMed Central

    Annigeri, Bindu; Raman, Rajesh; Appaji, Rashmi

    2011-01-01

    Obsessive compulsive features occurring in mania have been well documented. Though there have been some studies on obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) comorbid with mania in the western countries, there are very few case reports and studies in India. Our aim is to report one such case here, who presented with OC features which are not typical of the symptom cluster of the OCD commonly seen with mania in earlier reports. Also, the comorbidities in OCD should be recognized as this can have important diagnostic and therapeutic implications. PMID:22021961

  17. A Structural Equation Analysis of Family Accommodation in Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caporino, Nicole E.; Morgan, Jessica; Beckstead, Jason; Phares, Vicky; Murphy, Tanya K.; Storch, Eric A.

    2012-01-01

    Family accommodation of symptoms is counter to the primary goals of cognitive-behavioral therapy for pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and can pose an obstacle to positive treatment outcomes. Although increased attention has been given to family accommodation in pediatric OCD, relatively little is known about associated child and…

  18. Early-Onset Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: A Subgroup with a Specific Clinical and Familial Pattern?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chabane, Nadia; Delorme, Richard; Millet, Bruno; Mouren, Marie-Christine; Leboyer, Marion; Pauls, David

    2005-01-01

    Background: The familial nature of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has been previously demonstrated. The identification of candidate symptoms such as age at onset may help to disentangle the clinical and genetic heterogeneity of the disorder. In this study, the specificity of early-onset OCD was investigated, focusing on the effect of gender,…

  19. Evidence-Based Assessment of Child Obsessive Compulsive Disorder: Recommendations for Clinical Practice and Treatment Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewin, Adam B.; Piacentini, John

    2010-01-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) presents heterogeneously and can be difficult to assess in youth. This review focuses on research-supported assessment approaches for OCD in childhood. Content areas include pre-visit screening, diagnostic establishment, differential diagnosis, assessment of comorbid psychiatric conditions, tracking symptom

  20. Effectiveness of psychological and pharmacological treatments for obsessive-compulsive disorder: A quantitative Review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jonathan S. Abramowitz

    1997-01-01

    Quantitative review of the controlled treatment outcome literature for obsessivecompulsive disorder (OCD) showed that exposure with response prevention was highly effective in reducing OCD symptoms. Cognitive approaches were also found to be at least as effective as exposure procedures. It appears that both cognitive and exposure interventions involve some overlapping procedures and capitalize on similar mechanisms of change. Serotonergic

  1. Safety, Tolerability, and Efficacy of Psilocybin in 9 Patients With Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Francisco A. Moreno; Christopher B. Wiegand; E. Keolani Taitano; Pedro L. Delgado

    2006-01-01

    Background: Anecdotal reports suggest that psychedelic agents may relieve symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). This modi- fied double-blind study investigated the safety, tol- erability, and clinical effects of psilocybin, a potent 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A\\/2C agonist, in patients with OCD.

  2. Temper Outbursts in Paediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder and Their Association with Depressed Mood and Treatment Outcome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krebs, Georgina; Bolhuis, Koen; Heyman, Isobel; Mataix-Cols, David; Turner, Cynthia; Stringaris, Argyris

    2013-01-01

    Background: Temper outbursts in youth with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) are a common source of concern, but remain poorly understood. This study examined a set of hypotheses related to: (a) the prevalence of temper outbursts in paediatric OCD, (b) the associations of temper outbursts with OCD severity and depressive symptoms; and (c) the…

  3. Clinical Treatment of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Pittenger, Christopher; Kelmendi, Ben; Bloch, Michael; Krystal, John H.

    2005-01-01

    Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) was once thought to be extremely rare, but recent epidemiological studies have shown it to be the fourth most common psychiatric disorder (after substance abuse, specific phobias, and major depression). OCD is often a chronic disorder that produces significant morbidity when not properly diagnosed and treated. The mainstay of treatment includes cognitive behavioral therapy and medication management. The use of clomipramine in the 1960s and then the introduction of serotonin reuptake inhibitors in the 1980s represented important advances in the pharmacologic treatment of OCD. Despite effective treatment modalities, many patients demonstrate only a partial response or are resistant to available medications. SRI-resistant OCD is one of the few diagnoses in modern psychiatry for which invasive neurosurgical procedures remain part of the established treatment armamentarium. We review current treatment strategies used in the management of OCD symptoms. PMID:21120095

  4. Obsessive-compulsive disorder spectrum as a scientific "metaphor".

    PubMed

    Pallanti, Stefano; Hollander, Eric

    2008-09-01

    As a result of clinical, epidemiological, neuroimaging, and therapy studies that took place in the late 1980s, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has been well-characterized in the field of anxiety disorders. Other disorders attracted attention for their similarities to OCD, and were located in the orbit of the disorder. OCD has become known as the "primary domain" of a scientific "metaphor" comprising the putative cluster of OCD-related disorders (OCRDs). It is a "paradigm" with which to explore basal ganglia dysfunction. The OCRDs share common phenomenology, comorbidities, lifetime course, demographics, possible genetics, and frontostriatal dysfunction (particularly caudate hyperactivity.) The adoption of this metaphor analogy has proven useful. However, 15 years since its emergence, the spectrum of obsessive-compulsive disorders remains controversial. Questions under debate include whether OCD is a unitary or split condition, whether it is an anxiety disorder, and whether there exists only one spectrum or several possible spectrums. Further work is needed to clarify obsessive-compulsive symptoms, subtypes, and endophenotypes. There is need to integrate existing databases, better define associated symptom domains, and create a more comprehensive endophenotyping protocol for OCRDs. There is also a need to integrate biological and psychological perspectives, concepts, and data to drive this evolution. By increasing research in this field, the OCD spectrum may evolve from a fragmented level of conceptualization as a "metaphor" to one that is more comprehensive and structured. PMID:18849906

  5. Deep Brain Stimulation for Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Reduces Symptoms of Irritable Bowel Syndrome in a Single Patient.

    PubMed

    Langguth, Berthold; Sturm, Kornelia; Wetter, Thomas C; Lange, Max; Gabriels, Loes; Mayer, Emeran A; Schlaier, Juergen

    2015-07-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a frequent gastrointestinal disorder that is difficult to treat. We describe findings from evaluation of a woman (55 years old) with obsessive compulsive disorder, which was treated with bilateral deep brain stimulation in the anterior limb of the internal capsule, and IBS. After the brain stimulation treatment she reported substantial relief of her IBS symptoms. This reduction depended on specific stimulation parameters, was reproducible over time, and was not directly associated with improvements in obsessive compulsive disorder symptoms. These observations indicate a specific effect of deep brain stimulation on IBS. This observation confirms involvement of specific brain structures in the pathophysiology of IBS and shows that symptoms can be reduced through modulation of neuronal activity in the central nervous system. Further studies of the effects of brain stimulation on IBS are required. PMID:25638586

  6. Rapid, illegible handwriting as a symptom of obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    PubMed

    Bavle, Amar; Andrade, Chittaranjan; Vidhyavathi, M

    2014-04-01

    This is a case report of a 13 year male child who had co-morbid OCD and trichotillomania. On evaluation, he had rapid, illegible handwriting as a symptom of OCD, which has hitherto not been reported. PMID:24891714

  7. Obsessive-compulsive disorder and related disorders: a comprehensive survey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michele Fornaro; Filippo Gabrielli; Claudio Albano; Stefania Fornaro; Salvatore Rizzato; Chiara Mattei; Paola Solano; Valentina Vinciguerra; Pantaleo Fornaro

    2009-01-01

    Our aim was to present a comprehensive, updated survey on obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and obsessive-compulsive related disorders (OCRDs) and their clinical management via literature review, critical analysis and synthesis. Information on OCD and OCRD current nosography, clinical phenomenology and etiology, may lead to a better comprehension of their management. Clinicians should become familiar with the broad spectrum of OCD disorders,

  8. Evidence for a Shared Etiological Mechanism of Psychotic Symptoms and Obsessive-Compulsive Symptoms in Patients with Psychotic Disorders and Their Siblings

    PubMed Central

    Roza, Sabine; Schoevers, Robert; Myin-Germeys, Inez; de Haan, Lieuwe

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of obsessive-compulsive disorder in subjects with psychotic disorder is much higher than in the general population. The higher than chance co-occurrence has also been demonstrated at the level of subclinical expression of both phenotypes. Both extended phenotypes have been shown to cluster in families. However, little is known about the origins of their elevated co-occurrence. In the present study, evidence for a shared etiological mechanism was investigated in 3 samples with decreasing levels of familial psychosis liability: 987 patients, 973 of their unaffected siblings and 566 healthy controls. The association between the obsessive-compulsive phenotype and the psychosis phenotype c.q. psychosis liability was investigated. First, the association was assessed between (subclinical) obsessive-compulsive symptoms and psychosis liability. Second, in a cross-sib cross-trait analysis, it was examined whether (subclinical) obsessive-compulsive symptoms in the patient were associated with (subclinical) psychotic symptoms in the related unaffected sibling. Evidence was found for both associations, which is compatible with a partially shared etiological pathway underlying obsessive-compulsive and psychotic disorder. This is the first study that used a cross-sib cross-trait design in patients and unaffected siblings, thus circumventing confounding by disease-related factors present in clinical samples. PMID:26061170

  9. Frequency and correlates of suicidal ideation in pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    PubMed

    Storch, Eric A; Bussing, Regina; Jacob, Marni L; Nadeau, Joshua M; Crawford, Erika; Mutch, P Jane; Mason, Dana; Lewin, Adam B; Murphy, Tanya K

    2015-02-01

    This study examined the frequency and sociodemographic and clinical correlates of suicidal ideation in a sample of children and adolescents with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Fifty-four youth with OCD and their parent(s) were administered the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children-Present and Lifetime, Children's Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale, and Children's Depression Rating Scale-Revised. Children completed the Suicidal Ideation Questionnaire-Junior (SIQ-JR), Child Obsessive Compulsive Impact Scale-Child, and Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children; parents completed the Child Obsessive Compulsive Impact Scale-Parent, Swanson, Nolan, and Pelham-IV Parent Scale, and Young Mania Rating Scale-Parent Version. Seven youth endorsed clinically significant levels of suicidal ideation on the SIQ-JR. Suicidal ideation was significantly related to clinician-rated depressive symptoms, age, child-rated impairment and anxiety symptoms, and symmetry, sexuality/religiosity and miscellaneous symptom dimensions. There was no significant association between suicidal ideation and obsessive-compulsive symptom severity, comorbidity patterns, or several parent-rated indices (e.g., impairment, impulsivity). These results provide initial information regarding the frequency and correlates of suicidal ideation in treatment-seeking youth with OCD. Clinical implications are discussed, as well as directions for future research. PMID:24682580

  10. The Evolutionary Psychology of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: the role of cognitive metarepresentation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin Brune

    2006-01-01

    Repetitive unpleasant thoughts and ritualized behaviors are the key features of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD).The classical neuroethological mod- els of OCD rely largely on behavioral similarities between animal stereotypies and human compulsive rituals and are unable to account for the cognitive component of OCD.The cognitive symptoms of OCD need to be addressed in an evolutionary psy- chological context that incorporates information

  11. Interpersonal functioning in obsessive-compulsive personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Cain, Nicole M; Ansell, Emily B; Simpson, H Blair; Pinto, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    The core symptoms of obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) often lead to interpersonal difficulties. However, little research has explored interpersonal functioning in OCPD. This study examined interpersonal problems, interpersonal sensitivities, empathy, and systemizing, the drive to analyze and derive underlying rules for systems, in a sample of 25 OCPD individuals, 25 individuals with comorbid OCPD and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and 25 healthy controls. We found that OCPD individuals reported hostile-dominant interpersonal problems and sensitivities with warm-dominant behavior by others, whereas OCPD+OCD individuals reported submissive interpersonal problems and sensitivities with warm-submissive behavior by others. Individuals with OCPD, with and without OCD, reported less empathic perspective taking relative to healthy controls. Finally, we found that OCPD males reported a higher drive to analyze and derive rules for systems than OCPD females. Overall, results suggest that there are interpersonal deficits associated with OCPD and the clinical implications of these deficits are discussed. PMID:25046040

  12. Late-onset obsessive-compulsive disorder: a case series.

    PubMed

    Weiss, A P; Jenike, M A

    2000-01-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a common and potentially disabling illness with onset usually in the second or third decade of life. Onset after age 50 is relatively rare and may be more likely to have an organic etiology. Out of an OCD patient population of over 1,000, the authors found 5 cases in which symptoms of OCD first developed late in life. Four of the 5 patients had intracerebral lesions in the frontal lobes and caudate nuclei, findings consistent with current theories about the pathogenesis of "idiopathic" OCD. PMID:11001607

  13. Symptom Dimensions in OCD: Item-Level Factor Analysis and Heritability Estimates

    E-print Network

    Katerberg, Hilga

    To reduce the phenotypic heterogeneity of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) for genetic, clinical and translational studies, numerous factor analyses of the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale checklist (YBOCS-CL) have ...

  14. Comorbidity of obsessive–compulsive disorder with obsessive–compulsive personality disorder: Does it imply a specific subtype of obsessive–compulsive disorder?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    George Garyfallos; Konstantinos Katsigiannopoulos; Aravela Adamopoulou; Georgios Papazisis; Anastasia Karastergiou; Vasilios P. Bozikas

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined whether the comorbidity of obsessive–compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) and obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) constitute a specific subtype of OCD. The study sample consisted of 146 consecutive outpatients with a DSM-IV diagnosis of OCD. Diagnoses were established using MINI, IPDE, YBOCS and YBOCS-SC. OCD patients with comorbid OCPD were compared with OCD patients without OCPD on various sociodemographic

  15. Obsessive compulsive personality disorder as a predictor of exposure and ritual prevention outcome for obsessive compulsive disorder

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anthony Pinto; Michael R. Liebowitz; Edna B. Foa; H. Blair Simpson

    2011-01-01

    Despite elevated rates of obsessive compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) in patients with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), no study has specifically examined comorbid OCPD as a predictor of exposure and ritual prevention (EX\\/RP) outcome. Participants were adult outpatients (n = 49) with primary OCD and a Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (YBOCS) total score ? 16 despite a therapeutic serotonin reuptake inhibitor dose for at least

  16. Delorme et al. 1 Platelet Serotonergic Markers as Endophenotypes for Obsessive-Compulsive

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Delorme et al. 1 Platelet Serotonergic Markers as Endophenotypes for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder that obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has a strong genetic component, its genetic basis remains-00109585,version1 #12;Delorme et al. 3 Introduction Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a severe

  17. Performance monitoring in obsessive-compulsive disorder Sander Nieuwenhuisa,T,1

    E-print Network

    Nieuwenhuis, Sander

    Performance monitoring in obsessive-compulsive disorder Sander Nieuwenhuisa,T,1 , Marjan M. Nielenb in revised form 17 December 2004; accepted 10 February 2005 Abstract Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD; Feedback; Error processing; Event-related potentials 1. Introduction Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD

  18. A group-based treatment for clients with Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) in a secondary care mental health setting: Integrating new developments within cognitive behavioural interventions – An exploratory study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hamilton Fairfax; Jane Barfield

    2010-01-01

    Aims: This paper presents a model of a group-based intervention for the treatment of clients with Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) referred to secondary mental health care services, which has been developed by the authors over the last five years. Method: Groups are not a common form of treatment design for this client group, however the available literature is briefly reviewed

  19. Altered cingulate sub-region activation accounts for task-related dissociation in ERN amplitude as a function of obsessive-compulsive symptoms.

    PubMed

    Cavanagh, James F; Gründler, Theo O J; Frank, Michael J; Allen, John J B

    2010-06-01

    Larger error-related negativities (ERNs) have been consistently found in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) patients, and are thought to reflect the activities of a hyperactive cortico-striatal circuit during action monitoring. We previously observed that obsessive-compulsive (OC) symptomatic students (non-patients) have larger ERNs during errors in a response competition task, yet smaller ERNs in a reinforcement learning task. The finding of a task-specific dissociation suggests that distinct yet partially overlapping medio-frontal systems underlie the ERN in different tasks, and that OC symptoms are associated with functional differences in these systems. Here, we used EEG source localization to identify why OC symptoms are associated with hyperactive ERNs to errors yet hypoactive ERNs when selecting maladaptive actions. At rest, OC symptomatology predicted greater activity in rostral anterior cingulate cortex (rACC) and lower activity in dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC). When compared to a group with low OC symptom scores, the high OC group had greater rACC reactivity during errors in the response competition task and less deactivation of dACC activity during errors in the reinforcement learning task. The degree of activation in these areas correlated with ERN amplitudes during both tasks in the high OC group, but not in the low group. Interactive anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) systems associated avoidance of maladaptive actions were intact in the high OC group, but were related to poorer performance on a third task: probabilistic reversal learning. These novel findings link both tonic and phasic activities in the ACC to action monitoring alterations, including dissociation in performance deficits, in OC symptomatic participants. PMID:20381506

  20. Symptom Overlap between Autism Spectrum Disorder, Generalized Social Anxiety Disorder and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder in Adults: A Preliminary Case-Controlled Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Danielle C. Cath; Natalie Ran; Johannes H. Smit; Hannie C. Comijs

    2008-01-01

    Background: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and social anxiety disorder (SAD) frequently co-occur in persons with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We studied which features distinguish ‘pure’ anxiety disordered patients from those with co-morbid ASD. Method: In a case-controlled design in which groups were matched for age, sex and educational level, patients with OCD or SAD and co-morbid ASD were compared with patients

  1. Affect Regulation and Attachment Focused Treatment of a Husband with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder and His Wife

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Margaret K. Keiley

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, the author presents an overview of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD), an affect regulation and attachment framework for treatment of couples and families, and a case study illustrating how this framework can be used to work with a couple in which the husband has OCD symptoms.

  2. Localized Orbitofrontal and Subcortical Metabolic Changes and Predictors of Response to Paroxetine Treatment in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sanjaya Saxena; Arthur L Brody; Karron M Maidment; Jennifer J Dunkin; Mark Colgan; Shervin Alborzian; Michael E Phelps; Lewis R Baxter

    1999-01-01

    Previous positron emission tomography (PET) studies of patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) have found elevated glucose metabolic rates in the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and caudate nuclei that normalize with response to treatment. Furthermore, OCD symptom provocation differentially activates specific subregions of the OFC, which have distinct patterns of connectivity and serve different functions. Therefore, we sought to determine the role

  3. Behavioral versus Cognitive Treatment of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: An Examination of Outcome and Mediators of Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olatunji, Bunmi O.; Rosenfield, David; Tart, Candyce D.; Cottraux, Jean; Powers, Mark B.; Smits, Jasper A. J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To examine symptom change over time, the effect of attrition on treatment outcome, and the putative mediators of cognitive therapy (CT) versus behavior therapy (BT) for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) using archival data. Method: Sixty-two adults with OCD were randomized to 20 sessions of CT (N = 30) or BT (N = 32) that consisted of…

  4. Teaching Students with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leininger, Melissa; Dyches, Tina Taylor; Prater, Mary Anne; Heath, Melissa Allen

    2010-01-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a neurobiological condition affecting 1 of every 200 school-age children. OCD greatly affects students' academic, behavioral, and social functioning, and it can lead to additional problem such as depression. To effectively collaborate with other individuals providing appropriate support to students with OCD,…

  5. Obsessive-compulsive disorder with poor insight

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Matsunaga; N. Kiriike; T. Matsui; K. Oya; Y. Iwasaki; K. Koshimune; A. Miyata; D. J. Stein

    2002-01-01

    Although a diagnosis of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) can be made with the specification [ldquo ]poor insight[rdquo ] (PI), this subtype remains understudied. To investigate the subtype, 78 OCD patients were characterized by degree of insight, reevaluated after treatment, and compared with 20 schizophrenics with OCD (OCD+S). At the pretreatment assessments in OCD patients, 28 subjects with poor or delusional insight

  6. Nicotine treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    PubMed

    Lundberg, Stefan; Carlsson, Arvid; Norfeldt, Per; Carlsson, Maria L

    2004-11-01

    Following initial observations of marked effects of nicotine self-medication in a patient with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), another four OCD patients were treated with nicotine for eight weeks in an open label fashion. Patients fulfilling DSM-IV criteria for OCD and with initial Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (YBOCS) score>15 were included in the study. The patients were scored with YBOCS, Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), NIMH Global Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (NIMH) and Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF). Four of five patients receiving nicotine treatment displayed a favourable response with reductions in YBOCS scores. For these four patients, the nicotine chewing gum enabled a more adequate behaviour in stressful, OCD-eliciting, situations. We feel that these results are encouraging enough to warrant a larger, controlled study on nicotine treatment of OCD. PMID:15610934

  7. Disgust sensitivity as a predictor of obsessive-compulsive contamination symptoms and associated cognitions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Melanie W. Moretz; Dean McKay

    2008-01-01

    Disgust sensitivity has been hypothesized to play a key role in the etiology and maintenance of several anxiety disorders. The association between disgust sensitivity, trait anxiety, and washing and contamination-related concerns was tested using two different measures of obsessive-compulsive contamination fears using linear structural modeling. Two different models were tested, one where trait anxiety mediated the relationship between disgust sensitivity

  8. The Semantic Simon Effect in Tourette's Syndrome and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rankins, D.; Bradshaw, J. L.; Georgiou-Karistianis, N.

    2006-01-01

    Core symptoms of Tourette's syndrome (TS) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) may be attributed to an impairment in inhibitory control. Neuropsychological studies have addressed inhibition in both disorders, but findings have been inconsistent. The aim of this study was to examine cognitive inhibition, using a semantic Simon effect paradigm,…

  9. Development and Validation of a Child Version of the Obsessive Compulsive Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foa, Edna B.; Coles, Meredith; Huppert, Jonathan D.; Pasupuleti, Radhika V.; Franklin, Martin E.; March, John

    2010-01-01

    Surprisingly, only 3 self-report measures that directly assess pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) have been developed. In addition, these scales have typically been developed in small samples and fail to provide a quick assessment of symptoms across multiple domains. Therefore, the current paper presents initial psychometric data for a…

  10. Children with Very Early Onset Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: Clinical Features and Treatment Outcome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakatani, Eriko; Krebs, Georgina; Micali, Nadia; Turner, Cynthia; Heyman, Isobel; Mataix-Cols, David

    2011-01-01

    Background: There is emerging evidence that early onset obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) may be a phenomenologically distinct subtype of the disorder. Previous research has shown that individuals who report an early onset display greater severity and persistence of symptoms, and they may be less responsive to treatment. To date, this question…

  11. Incorporating Play Therapy Into Evidence-Based Treatment With Children Affected by Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amie C. Myrick; Eric J. Green

    2012-01-01

    This article outlines the etiology, symptoms, and two of the most current evidence-based psychotherapeutic interventions associated with children diagnosed with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). Research demonstrates that a combination of cognitive–behavioral therapy with exposure treatment, along with psychopharmacological treatment, is the \\

  12. Hypnotically Facilitated Treatment of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: Can it Be Evidence-Based?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Claire Frederick

    2007-01-01

    There are extensive evidence-based guidelines for the treatment of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) with medication, behavior therapy, and cognitive therapy. Nevertheless, there remain a significant percentage of patients whose symptoms are more or less refractory to standardized treatments. This situation could be rooted in the phenotypic heterogeneity of the disorder as well as in its high rates of comorbid psychopathology. Studies

  13. Clinical predictors of response to cognitive-behavioral therapy for obsessive–compulsive disorder

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mary L. Keeley; Eric A. Storch; Lisa J. Merlo; Gary R. Geffken

    2008-01-01

    This paper reviews predictors of treatment response in open and controlled trials of cognitive-behavioral therapy for obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD). We focus on demographic characteristics, aspects of OCD symptoms, comorbidity, family factors, cognitive influences, and treatment-specific characteristics as predictor variables. Although inconsistent findings characterize much of the literature, several relatively consistent and salient predictors have emerged, including symptom severity, symptom subtype,

  14. When cancer is associated with illness but no longer with animal or zodiac sign: investigation of biased semantic networks in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD).

    PubMed

    Jelinek, Lena; Hottenrott, Birgit; Moritz, Steffen

    2009-12-01

    Building upon semantic network models, it is proposed that individuals with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) process ambiguous words (e.g., homographs such as cancer) preferably in the context of the OC meaning (i.e., illness) and connect them to a lesser degree to other (neutral) cognitions (e.g., animal). To investigate this assumption, a new task was designed requiring participants to generate up to five associations for different cue words. Cue words were either emotionally neutral, negative or OC-relevant. Two thirds of the items were homographs, while the rest was unambiguous. Twenty-five OCD and 21 healthy participants were recruited via internet. Analyses reveal that OCD participants produced significantly more negative and OC-relevant associations than controls, supporting the assumption of biased associative networks in OCD. The findings support the use of psychological interventions such as Association Splitting that aim at restructuring associative networks in OCD by broadening the semantic scope of OC cognitions. PMID:19640676

  15. Functional Neuroimaging of Avoidance Habits in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    E-print Network

    Gillan, Claire M.; Apergis-Schoute, Annemieke M.; Morein-Zamir, Sharon; Urcelay, Gonzalo P.; Sule, Akeem; Fineberg, Naomi A.; Sahakian, Barbara J.; Robbins, Trevor W.

    Objective: The goal of this study was to determine the neural correlates of excessive habit formation in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). We aimed to (i) test for neurobiological convergence with the known pathophysiology of OCD and (ii) infer...

  16. Trauma-related obsessive–compulsive disorder: a review

    PubMed Central

    Dykshoorn, Kristy L.

    2014-01-01

    Obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) is a highly researched and conceptualized disorder, and yet it remains one of the most debilitating, widespread, and expensive disorders one can be afflicted with [Real, E., Labad, J., Alonso, P., Segalas, C., Jimenez-Murcia, S., Bueno, B.,?…?Menchon, J. M. (2011). Stressful life events at onset of obsessive–compulsive disorder are associated with a distinct clinical pattern. Depression and Anxiety, 28, 367–376. doi:10.1002/da.20792]. Exposure treatments and cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) have been largely accepted as best practice for those with OCD, and yet there are still many who are left with “treatment-resistant OCD” [Rowa, K., Antony, M., & Swinson, R. (2007). Exposure and response prevention. In C. Purdon, M. Antony, & L. J. Summerfeldt (Eds.), Psychological treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder: Fundamentals and beyond (pp. 79–109). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association; Foa, E. B. (2010). Cognitive behavioural therapy of obsessive–compulsive disorder. Dialogues of Clinical Neuroscience, 12, 199–207]. Similarly, exposure treatments and CBT have been accepted as best practice for trauma-related distress (i.e. post-traumatic stress disorder; Foa, E. B., Keane, T. M., Friedman, M. J., & Cohen, J. A. (2009). Effective treatments for PTSD: Practice guidelines from the international society for traumatic studies (2nd ed.). New York, NY: The Guilford Press). From a literature review, evidence has been provided that demonstrates a high prevalence rate (30–82%) of OCD among individuals with a traumatic history in comparison to the prevalence rate of the general population (1.1–1.8%; [Cromer, K. R., Schmidt, N. B., & Murphy, D. L. (2006). An investigation of traumatic life events and obsessive–compulsive disorder. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 45, 1683–1691. doi:10.1016/j.brat.2006.08.018; Fontenelle, L. F., Cocchi, L., Harrison, B. J., Shavitt, R. G., do Rosario, M. C., Ferrao, Y. A.,?…?Torres, A. R. (2012). Towards a post-traumatic subtype of obsessive–compulsive disorder. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 26, 377–383. doi:10.1016/j.janxdis.2011.12.001; Gershuny, B. S., Baer, L., Parker, H., Gentes, E. L., Infield, A. L., & Jenike, M. A. (2008). Trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder in treatment-resistant obsessive–compulsive disorder. Depression and Anxiety, 25, 69–71. doi:10.1002/da.20284]). Evidence was collected for a post-traumatic OCD and treatments of trauma-related OCD were considered. OCD and traumatic histories have a significant enough overlap that trauma should be a consideration when treating an individual with OCD. Given the overlap of the client base with OCD and traumatic histories, as well as the overlap in treatment options for those who experience OCD and trauma-induced symptoms, the author will discuss the importance of assessing for traumatic history in clients with OCD as well as approaching treatment from a dual-focus orientation. PMID:25750799

  17. Genetic and Environmental Contributions to Self-Report Obsessive-Compulsive Symptoms in Dutch Adolescents at Ages 12, 14, and 16

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Grootheest, Daniel S.; Bartels, Meike; Van Beijsterveldt, Catarina E. M.; Cath, Danielle C.; Beekman, Aartjan T.; Hudziak, James J.; Boomsma, Dorret I.

    2008-01-01

    The involvement of genetic and environmental factors to the development of obsessive compulsion symptoms during the adolescent period is examined. Study revealed that individual differences in OC symptoms are heritable during puberty and shared environmental influences played a role only in the beginning of adolescence but no sex differences in…

  18. Abnormalities of White Matter Microstructure in Unmedicated Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder and

    E-print Network

    Abnormalities of White Matter Microstructure in Unmedicated Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder of myelin integrity have been reported in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) using multi- parameter maps Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder and Changes after Medication. PLoS ONE 7(4): e35889. doi:10.1371/journal

  19. An update on obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    PubMed

    Jenike, M A

    2001-01-01

    It is now recognized that obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) affects almost 3% of the world's population and is a major worldwide health problem. Much has been learned in the past 2 decades about the treatment of these disorders. Recent developments in neuroimaging techniques have led to a better understanding of the biology of OCD and the brain circuits that may be involved in the production of symptoms. The most effective treatment approaches, based on controlled data, are behavior therapy consisting of exposure and response prevention and specific medications. Although controversial, more invasive neurosurgical and neurostimulation approaches may hold some promise for severely disabled patients. Despite impressive research efforts, a small minority of patients remain refractory to treatment. Future clinical research should focus on this refractory group. PMID:11280957

  20. Anxiety Sensitivity and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calamari, John E.; Rector, Neil A.; Woodard, John L.; Cohen, Robyn J.; Chik, Heather M.

    2008-01-01

    Anxiety sensitivity (AS), a cognitive risk factor for anxiety disorders, was evaluated in a homogeneous obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) sample. A total of 280 individuals with OCD completed measures. Evaluation of the Anxiety Sensitivity Index revealed a latent structure that was congruent with previous studies showing a single higher order…

  1. Understudied Clinical Dimensions in Pediatric Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewin, Adam B.; Caporino, Nicole; Murphy, Tanya K.; Geffken, Gary R.; Storch, Eric A.

    2010-01-01

    The present study aimed to assess the phenomenology and treatment sensitivity of insight, avoidance, indecisiveness, overvalued responsibility, pervasive slowness, and pathological doubting among youth with Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) using the ancillary items on the Children's Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (CY-BOCS). These factors…

  2. The relation between obsessive-compulsive personality traits and subtypes of compulsive behavior

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Natalie A. Gibbs; Thomas F. Oltmanns

    1995-01-01

    The nature of the relationship between obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has been the subject of considerable debate. The current study examined the hypothesis of a differential association of compulsive checking and washing behaviours with obsessive-compulsive personality traits within a nonclincal sample utilizing the Checking and Washing subscales of the Maudsley Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory (MOCI). Since checking behavior

  3. The Obsessive Compulsive Scale of the Child Behavior Checklist predicts obsessive-compulsive disorder: a receiver operating characteristic curve analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James J. Hudziak; Robert R. Althoff; Catherine Stanger; Beijsterveldt van C. E. M; Elliot C. Nelson; Gregory L. Hanna; Dorret I. Boomsma; Richard D. Todd

    2006-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to determine a score on the Obsessive Compulsive Scale (OCS) from the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) to screen for obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) in children and to rigorously test the specificity and sensitivity of a single cutpoint. Methods: A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was applied to data from 61 patients with

  4. Psychometric Properties of the Obsessive Compulsive Inventory: Child Version in Children and Adolescents with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Anna M.; De Nadai, Alessandro S.; Arnold, Elysse B.; McGuire, Joseph F.; Lewin, Adam B.; Murphy, Tanya K.; Storch, Eric A.

    2013-01-01

    The psychometric properties of the Obsessive Compulsive Inventory-Child Version (OCI-CV) were examined in ninety-six youth with a primary/co-primary diagnosis of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). A confirmatory factor analysis revealed an acceptable model of fit with factors consisting of doubting/checking, obsessing, hoarding, washing,…

  5. The Obsessive Compulsive Scale of the Child Behavior Checklist Predicts Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: A Receiver Operating Characteristic Curve Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudziak, James J.; Althoff, Robert R.; Stanger, Catherine; van Beijsterveldt, C. E. M.; Nelson, Elliot C.; Hanna, Gregory L.; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Todd, Richard D.

    2006-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to determine a score on the Obsessive Compulsive Scale (OCS) from the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) to screen for obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) in children and to rigorously test the specificity and sensitivity of a single cutpoint. Methods: A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis…

  6. Early Alliance, Alliance Ruptures, and Symptom Change in a Nonrandomized Trial of Cognitive Therapy for Avoidant and Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strauss, Jennifer L.; Hayes, Adele M.; Johnson, Sheri L.; Newman, Cory F.; Brown, Gregory K.; Barber, Jaques P.; Lawrenceau, Jean-Philippe; Beck, Aaron T.

    2006-01-01

    Participants were 30 adult outpatients diagnosed with avoidant personality disorder or obsessive-compulsive personality disorder who enrolled in an open trial of cognitive therapy for personality disorders. Treatment consisted of up to 52 weekly sessions. Symptom evaluations were conducted at intake, at Sessions 17 and 34, and at the last…

  7. Early Alliance, Alliance Ruptures, and Symptom Change in a Nonrandomized Trial of Cognitive Therapy for Avoidant and Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jennifer L. Strauss; Adele M. Hayes; Sheri L. Johnson; Cory F. Newman; Gregory K. Brown; Jacques P. Barber; Jean-Philippe Laurenceau; Aaron T. Beck

    2006-01-01

    Participants were 30 adult outpatients diagnosed with avoidant personality disorder or obsessive-compulsive personality disorder who enrolled in an open trial of cognitive therapy for personality disorders. Treatment consisted of up to 52 weekly sessions. Symptom evaluations were conducted at intake, at Sessions 17 and 34, and at the last session. Alliance variables were patients' first alliance rating and \\

  8. Obsessive Beliefs and Dimensions of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: An Examination of Specific Associations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Megan A. ViarSarah; Sarah A. Bilsky; Thomas Armstrong; Bunmi O. Olatunji

    2011-01-01

    Although current cognitive-behavioral models have highlighted a central role of dysfunctional “obsessive beliefs” about threat,\\u000a responsibility, uncertainty, perfectionism, importance and control of thoughts in the development of obsessive-compulsive\\u000a disorder (OCD), empirical evidence in support of this notion has been inconsistent. The present investigation further examines\\u000a the association between obsessive beliefs and OCD symptoms among nonclinical (Study 1) and clinical samples

  9. Evidence-Based Assessment of Child Obsessive Compulsive Disorder: Recommendations for Clinical Practice and Treatment Research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adam B. Lewin; John Piacentini

    2010-01-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) presents heterogeneously and can be difficult to assess in youth. This review focuses\\u000a on research-supported assessment approaches for OCD in childhood. Content areas include pre-visit screening, diagnostic establishment,\\u000a differential diagnosis, assessment of comorbid psychiatric conditions, tracking symptom severity, determining psychosocial\\u000a functioning, and evaluating clinical improvement. Throughout this review, similarities and differences between assessment\\u000a approaches geared towards clinical

  10. A Structural Equation Analysis of Family Accommodation in Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicole Elise Caporino; Jessica Morgan; Jason Beckstead; Vicky Phares; Tanya K. Murphy; Eric A. Storch

    2011-01-01

    Family accommodation of symptoms is counter to the primary goals of cognitive-behavioral therapy for pediatric obsessive-compulsive\\u000a disorder (OCD) and can pose an obstacle to positive treatment outcomes. Although increased attention has been given to family\\u000a accommodation in pediatric OCD, relatively little is known about associated child and parent characteristics, and their mediating\\/moderating\\u000a effects. This study examined a structural equation model

  11. A Prospective Test of Cognitive Vulnerability to Obsessive-compulsive Disorder

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Meredith E. Coles; Betty Horng

    2006-01-01

    Cognitive models of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder [OCD; e.g., Rachman, 1997, Behaviour Research and Therapy, 35, 793–802; Salkovskis, 1985, Behaviour Research and Therapy, 23, 571–583] propose that negative interpretations of intrusive thoughts and images are central to the development and maintenance\\u000a of OCD. Despite consistent findings that specific interpretations (e.g., heightened responsibility) contribute to the maintenance\\u000a of OC symptoms [see Salkovskis &

  12. Obsessive-compulsive disorder and related disorders: a comprehensive survey

    PubMed Central

    Fornaro, Michele; Gabrielli, Filippo; Albano, Claudio; Fornaro, Stefania; Rizzato, Salvatore; Mattei, Chiara; Solano, Paola; Vinciguerra, Valentina; Fornaro, Pantaleo

    2009-01-01

    Our aim was to present a comprehensive, updated survey on obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and obsessive-compulsive related disorders (OCRDs) and their clinical management via literature review, critical analysis and synthesis. Information on OCD and OCRD current nosography, clinical phenomenology and etiology, may lead to a better comprehension of their management. Clinicians should become familiar with the broad spectrum of OCD disorders, since it is a pivotal issue in current clinical psychiatry. PMID:19450269

  13. Distinct Neural Correlates of Washing, Checking, and Hoarding Symptom Dimensions in Obsessive-compulsive Disorder

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Mataix-Cols; Sarah Wooderson; Natalia Lawrence; Michael J. Brammer; Anne Speckens; Mary L. Phillips

    2004-01-01

    Results: Both patients and control subjects experi- enced increased subjective anxiety during symptom provocation (patients significantly more so) and acti- vated neural regions previously linked to OCD. Analy- ses of covariance, controlling for depression, showed a distinct pattern of activation associated with each symp- tom dimension. Patients demonstrated significantly greater activation than controls in bilateral ventromedial pre- frontal regions and

  14. A multi-modal investigation of the roles of distress tolerance and emotional reactivity in obsessive-compulsive symptoms.

    PubMed

    Cougle, Jesse R; Timpano, Kiara R; Sarawgi, Shivali; Smith, Christian M; Fitch, Kristin E

    2013-09-01

    Emerging evidence implicates important roles of poor distress tolerance and heightened emotional reactivity in obsessive-compulsive disorder. To date, investigations have relied mostly on self-report measures, and we sought to extend the literature by examining the relationship between OC symptoms and distress tolerance, as well as emotional reactivity, using three laboratory assessments. Nonclinical participants (N=167) viewed emotional films associated with four different negative emotions and also completed mirror tracing and handgrip persistence tasks. Greater obsessions scores were predictive of poorer emotional tolerance for a sad film and shorter persistence on the mirror tracing task. Among men only, obsessions were negatively correlated with persistence on the handgrip task. Associations between increased emotional reactivity and washing symptoms also emerged. These findings provide further evidence for the role of poor distress tolerance in obsessions and suggest heightened emotional reactivity may play a role in compulsive washing. PMID:22762458

  15. [Development of sexuality and motivational aspects of sexual behavior in men with obsessive-compulsive disorders].

    PubMed

    2014-09-01

    Sexual behavior and formation of sexuality in men with obsessive-compulsive disorder is one of the pressing issues in contemporary medicine. Obsessive-compulsive disorder is characterized by the development of intrusive thoughts, memories, movements and actions, as well as a variety of pathological fears (phobias). Increase in the number of patients with this pathology in modern clinical practice of neurotic disorders, the young age of the patients and as a result violation of interpersonal, communicational and sexual nature is quite apparent. The study involved 35 men aged 23 to 47 years with clinical signs of OCD. We determined the severity of obsessive-compulsive symptoms using the Yale-Brown scale. We established the presence of a mild degree of disorder in 34,3% of cases; in 48,6% of cases disorder of moderate severity was diagnosed; remaining 17.1% were assessed subclinical condition of OCD at the applicable scale. The system of motivational maintenance of sexual behavior in men with obsessive-compulsive disorders is investigated. Motives of sexual behavior of the investigated men with the pathology are determined. The presented research in men with OCD have established multidimensionality and complexity of motivational ensuring of sexual behavior. PMID:25341245

  16. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy in Adults with Obsessive–Compulsive Disorder and Borderline Intellectual Functioning: A Case Series of Three Patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven L. Pence Jr; Mirela A. Aldea; Michael L. Sulkowski; Eric A. Storch

    2011-01-01

    Cognitive-behavior therapy (CBT) is widely accepted as the most effective psychological treatment for obsessive–compulsive\\u000a disorder (OCD). Although this modality flexibly treats a variety of OCD symptom subtypes, it is unclear how CBT should be\\u000a adapted to meet the needs of individuals with OCD and limitations in their cognitive functioning. In this paper, we report\\u000a on three adults with borderline intellectual

  17. The Relationship between Restrictive and Repetitive Behaviors in Individuals with Autism and Obsessive Compulsive Symptoms in Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abramson, R. K.; Ravan, S. A.; Wright, H. H.; Wieduwilt, K.; Wolpert, C. M.; Donnelly, S. A.; Pericak-Vance, M. A.; Cuccaro, M. L.

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between repetitive behaviors in individuals with autism and obsessive-compulsive behaviors in parents. We hypothesized that repetitive behaviors in probands with autism would be associated with increased obsessive-compulsive behaviors in parents in sporadic families (1 known case of autism per family and no…

  18. Are stressful life events causally related to the severity of obsessive-compulsive symptoms? A monozygotic twin difference study

    PubMed Central

    Vidal-Ribas, P.; Stringaris, A.; Rück, C.; Serlachius, E.; Lichtenstein, P.; Mataix-Cols, D.

    2015-01-01

    Traumatic or stressful life events have long been hypothesized to play a role in causing or precipitating obsessive-compulsive symptoms but the impact of these environmental factors has rarely been investigated using genetically informative designs. We tested whether a wide range of retrospectively-reported stressful life events (SLEs) influence the lifetime presence and severity of obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCS) in a large Swedish population-based cohort of 22,084 twins. Multiple regression models examined whether differences in SLEs within twin pairs were significantly associated with differences in OCS. In the entire sample (i.e., both monozygotic [MZ] and dizygotic twin pairs), two SLEs factors, “abuse and family disruption” and “sexual abuse”, were significantly associated with the severity of OCS even after controlling for depressive symptoms. Other SLEs factors were either not associated with OCS (“loss”, “non-sexual assault”) or were no longer associated with OCS after controlling for depression (“illness/injury”). Within MZ pair analyses, which effectively control for genetic and shared environmental effects, showed that only the “abuse and family disruption” factor remained independently related to within-pair differences in OCS severity, even after controlling for depressive symptoms. Despite being statistically significant, the magnitude of the associations was small; “abuse and family disruption” explained approximately 3% of the variance in OCS severity. We conclude that OCS are selectively associated with certain types of stressful life events. In particular, a history of interpersonal abuse, neglect and family disruption may make a modest but significant contribution to the severity of OCS. Further replication in longitudinal cohorts is essential before causality can be firmly established. PMID:25511316

  19. Obsessive-compulsive disorder and its related disorders: a reappraisal of obsessive-compulsive spectrum concepts

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Dennis L.; Timpano, Kiara R.; Wheaton, Michael G.; Greenberg, Benjamin D.; Miguel, Euripedes C.

    2010-01-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a clinical syndrome whose hallmarks are excessive, anxiety-evoking thoughts and compulsive behaviors that are generally recognized as unreasonable, but which cause significant distress and impairment. When these are the exclusive symptoms, they constitute uncomplicated OCD. OCD may also occur in the context of other neuropsychiatric disorders, most commonly other anxiety and mood disorders. The question remains as to whether these combinations of disorders should be regarded as independent, cooccurring disorders or as different manifestations of an incompletely understood constellation of OCD spectrum disorders with a common etiology. Additional considerations are given here to two potential etiology-based subgroups: (i) an environmentally based group in which OCD occurs following apparent causal events such as streptococcal infections, brain injury, or atypical neuroleptic treatment; and (ii) a genomically based group in which OCD is related to chromosomal anomalies or specific genes. Considering the status of current research, the concept of OCD and OCD-related spectrum conditions seems fluid in 2010, and in need of ongoing reappraisal. PMID:20623919

  20. Controlled Comparison of Family Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and Psychoeducation/Relaxation Training for Child Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piacentini, John; Bergman, R. Lindsey; Chang, Susanna; Langley, Audra; Peris, Tara; Wood, Jeffrey J.; McCracken, James

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine the efficacy of exposure-based cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) plus a structured family intervention (FCBT) versus psychoeducation plus relaxation training (PRT) for reducing symptom severity, functional impairment, and family accommodation in youths with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Method: A total of 71…

  1. Cognitive Performance in a Subclinical Obsessive-Compulsive Sample 1: Cognitive Functions

    PubMed Central

    Johansen, Thomas; Dittrich, Winand H.

    2013-01-01

    Individuals who are not clinically diagnosed with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) but still display obsessive-compulsive (OC) tendencies may show cognitive impairments. The present study investigated whether there are subgroups within a healthy group showing characteristic cognitive and emotional performance levels similar to those found in OCD patients and whether they differ from OCD subgroups regarding performance levels. Of interest are those cases showing subclinical symptomatology. The results revealed no impairments in the subclinical OC participants on the neuropsychological tasks, while evidence suggests that there exist high and low scores on two standardised clinical instruments (Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale and Cognitive Assessment Instrument of Obsessions and Compulsions) in a healthy sample. OC symptoms may diminish the quality of life and prolong sustainable return to work. It may be that occupational rehabilitation programmes are more effective in rectifying subclinical OC tendencies compared to the often complex symptoms of diagnosed OCD patients. The relationship between cognitive style and subclinical OC symptoms is discussed in terms of how materials and information might be processed. Although subclinical OC tendencies would not seem to constitute a diagnosis of OCD, the quality of treatment programmes such as cognitive behavioural therapy can be improved based on the current investigation. PMID:24236282

  2. [Explicative psychopathology in obsessive-compulsive disorder: a postrationalist viewpoint].

    PubMed

    Mannino, Gherardo

    2011-01-01

    While descriptive psychopathology of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is now well-established, there is still a lack of a satisfying model of explicative psychopathology that explains the mechanisms that generate obsessive phenomenology. The main attempts to delineate such a model are based on cognitive therapy: according to this approach OCD is a consequence of dysfunctional beliefs (i.e. overestimation of the risk or of the influence of one's own mind on the reality). On the contrary, according to postrationalist cognitive approach, OCD would be based on a characteristic personality structure, which could be identified not only in patients with OCD but also in those who will never develop symptoms. In symptomatic individuals this organization ("Obsessive" Personal Meaning Organization) is more rigidly structured. In particular, there is crystallization of so-called diachronic attitude, which is the key to explain most of the symptoms. PMID:22322688

  3. Brain Imaging in Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacMaster, Frank P.; O'Neill, Joseph; Rosenberg, David R.

    2008-01-01

    Neuroimaging findings support the frontal-striatal-thalamic model of pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder. Glutamate is also implicated in the pathological finding of the disease. Implications for pediatric OCD treatments are discussed.

  4. Further development of YBOCS dimensions in the OCD Collaborative Genetics Study: Symptoms vs Categories

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, Anthony; Greenberg, Benjamin D.; Grados, Marco A.; Bienvenu, O. Joseph; Samuels, Jack F.; Murphy, Dennis L.; Hasler, Gregor; Stout, Robert L.; Rauch, Scott L.; Shugart, Yin Y.; Pauls, David L.; Knowles, James A.; Fyer, Abby J.; McCracken, James T.; Piacentini, John; Wang, Ying; Willour, Virginia L.; Cullen, Bernadette; Liang, Kung-Yee; Hoehn-Saric, Rudolf; Riddle, Mark A.; Rasmussen, Steven A.; Nestadt, Gerald

    2008-01-01

    Despite progress in identifying homogeneous subphenotypes of obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) through factor analysis of the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale Symptom Checklist (YBOCS-SC), prior solutions have been limited by a reliance on presupposed symptom categories rather than discrete symptoms. Furthermore, there have been only limited attempts to evaluate the familiality of OCD symptom dimensions. The purpose of this study was to extend prior work by this collaborative group in category-based dimensions by conducting the first-ever exploratory dichotomous factor analysis using individual OCD symptoms, comparing these results to a refined category-level solution, and testing the familiality of derived factors. Participants were 485 adults in the six-site OCD Collaborative Genetics Study, diagnosed with lifetime OCD using semi-structured interviews. YBOCS-SC data were factor analyzed at both the individual item and symptom category levels. Factor score intraclass correlations were calculated using a subsample of 145 independent affected sib pairs. The item- and category-level factor analyses yielded nearly identical 5-factor solutions. While significant sib-sib associations were found for 4 of the 5 factors, Hoarding and Taboo Thoughts were the most robustly familial (rICC ? 0.2). This report presents considerable converging evidence for a 5-factor structural model of OCD symptoms, including separate factor analyses employing individual symptoms and symptom categories, as well as sibling concordance. The results support investigation of this multidimensional model in OCD genetic linkage studies. PMID:18514325

  5. Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder traits and personality dimensions in parents of children with obsessive-compulsive disorder

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rosa Calvo; Luisa Lázaro; Josefina Castro-Fornieles; Elena Moreno; J. Toro

    2009-01-01

    PurposeTo compare patterns of temperament and character and the prevalence of Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder (OCPD) and OCPD traits in parents of children with OCD and parents of healthy controls.

  6. Defining Treatment Response and Remission in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: A Signal Detection Analysis of the Children's Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Storch, Eric A.; Lewin, Adam B.; De Nadai, Alessandro S.; Murphy, Tanya K.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To examine the optimal Children's Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (CY-BOCS) percent reduction cutoffs for predicting treatment response and clinical remission among children and adolescents with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Method: Youth with OCD (N = 109; range 7 to 19 years) received 14 sessions of weekly or intensive…

  7. Development and psychometric evaluation of the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale--Second Edition.

    PubMed

    Storch, Eric A; Rasmussen, Steven A; Price, Lawrence H; Larson, Michael J; Murphy, Tanya K; Goodman, Wayne K

    2010-06-01

    The Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS; Goodman, Price, Rasmussen, Mazure, Delgado, et al., 1989) is acknowledged as the gold standard measure of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) symptom severity. A number of areas where the Y-BOCS may benefit from revision have emerged in past psychometric studies of the Severity Scale and Symptom Checklist. Therefore, we created the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale-Second Edition (Y-BOCS-II) by revising the Severity Scale item content and scoring framework, integrating avoidance into the scoring of Severity Scale items, and modifying the Symptom Checklist content and format. One hundred thirty treatment-seeking adults with OCD completed a battery of measures assessing OCD symptom severity and typology and depressive and anxious symptomology. Interrater and test-retest reliability were assessed on a subsample of participants. The Y-BOCS-II showed strong internal consistency for the Symptom Checklist (Kuder-Richardson-20 = .91) and Severity Scale (alpha = .89). Test-retest and interrater reliabilities were both high (intraclass correlations > .85). Confirmatory factor analyses did not show adequate fit with previous models of the Y-BOCS. Exploratory factor analysis revealed a two-factor solution generally consistent with the Obsession and Compulsion Severity subscales. Construct validity was supported by strong correlations with clinician-rated measures of OCD symptom severity and moderate correlations with measures of worry and depressive symptoms. Taken together, the Y-BOCS-II has excellent psychometric properties in assessing the presence and severity of obsessive-compulsive symptoms. Although the Y-BOCS remains a reliable and valid measure, the Y-BOCS-II may provide an alternative method of assessing symptom presence and severity. PMID:20528050

  8. BRAIN IMAGING IN PEDIATRIC OBSESSIVE COMPULSIVE DISORDER

    PubMed Central

    MacMaster, Frank P.; O’Neill, Joseph; Rosenberg, David R.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To review progress in understanding pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The focus is on the frontal-striatal-thalamic model of OCD, neurobiological and genetic studies of the disorder and their influence on recent advances in treatment. Method Computerized literature searches were conducted with the keywords “obsessive-compulsive disorder” in conjunction with ‘pediatric”, “genetics” and “imaging”. Results Neuroimaging studies find evidence to support the frontal-striatal-thalamic model. Genetic and neurochemical studies also implicate glutamate in the pathology of OCD. This has led to application of glutamate modulating agents to treat OCD. Conclusions Studies of pediatric OCD have led to a refined frontal-striatal-thalamic model of pathogenesis and are having an evidence-based impact on treatment. Despite this progress, fully explanatory models are still needed that would allow for accurate prognosis and the development of targeted and efficacious treatments. PMID:18827717

  9. Treatment of obsessive compulsive disorder.

    PubMed

    Franklin, Martin E; Foa, Edna B

    2011-01-01

    Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) is characterized by the presence of intrusive, anxiety-provoking thoughts, images, or impulses along with repetitive behaviors or mental acts designed to reduce obsessional distress. OCD is associated with significant functional impairment, psychiatric comorbidity, and compromised quality of life. Fortunately, substantive progress has been made in the past several decades in the development and empirical evaluation of treatments for OCD across the developmental spectrum. The current review begins with a discussion of the clinical presentation of OCD and psychological theories regarding its etiology and maintenance. A detailed discussion follows of exposure plus response prevention, the psychosocial treatment that has garnered the most evidence for its efficacy. A summary of the extant treatment outcome literature related to exposure plus response prevention as well as cognitive therapies, pharmacotherapies, and combined approaches is then presented. Recommendations for future clinical and research directions are then provided. PMID:21443448

  10. Aripiprazole in depersonalization disorder comorbid with major depression and obsessive-compulsive disorder: 3 cases.

    PubMed

    Uguz, Faruk; Sahingoz, Mine

    2014-01-01

    Depersonalization is a frequent symptom in depression and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), but sometimes, it may be severe and concurrently diagnosed as a disorder. The treatment of depersonalization disorder both alone and comorbid with other psychiatric disorders is as yet unclear. This report presents the successful treatment with aripiprazole of concurrent depersonalization disorder in 3 patients with depression or OCD. The psychiatric disorders were diagnosed through structured clinical interviews. Assessments were by means of Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale, the Clinical Global Impression-Improvement Scale, and the 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression. Aripiprazole may be a beneficial psychotropic drug in the treatment of depersonalization disorder comorbid with OCD or depression, which is an important problem in clinical practice. PMID:24992087

  11. Manualized cognitive-behavioral psychotherapy for obsessive-compulsive disorder in childhood: A preliminary single case study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John S. March; Karen Mulle

    1995-01-01

    Using a within-subject multiple baseline design plus global ratings across treatment weeks, the authors conducted a preliminary evaluation of the effectiveness of manualized cognitive-behavioral psychotherapy in an eight-year-old girl with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Eleven weeks of treatment produced complete resolution in OCD symptoms; treatment gains were maintained at six-month follow-up. Symptom reduction within each baseline was specific to the exposure

  12. Obsessive-compulsive disorder in schizophrenia: epidemiologic and biologic overlap.

    PubMed Central

    Tibbo, P; Warneke, L

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the co-existence of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) with schizophrenia in terms of epidemiology and overlapping biologic substrates. METHODS: Review of the relevant literature. RESULTS: There appears to be a significant prevalence of OCD in schizophrenia--higher than what would be expected on the basis of calculated comorbidity figures. There is significant overlap in the proposed functional circuits of OCD and schizophrenia, which may lead to co-expression of symptoms. Although there is overlap in neurotransmitter dysfunction, the interactions are complex, especially in regard to the serotonin and dopamine systems. CONCLUSION: The expression of OCD in schizophrenia is complex but very intriguing. Theoretical hypotheses of the pathology of the 2 disorders now need to be tested in larger controlled trials. PMID:9987204

  13. Cognitive behavioral therapy of obsessive-compulsive disorder

    PubMed Central

    Foa, Edna B.

    2010-01-01

    Until the mid-1960s, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) was considered to be treatment-resistant, as both psychodynamic psychotherapy and medication had been unsuccessful in significantly reducing OCD symptoms. The first real breakthrough came in 1966 with the introduction of exposure and ritual prevention. This paper will discuss the cognitive behavioral conceptualizations that influenced the development of cognitive behavioral treatments for OCD. There will be a brief discussion of the use of psychodynamic psychotherapy and early behavioral therapy, neither of which produced successful outcomes with OCD. The main part of the paper will be devoted to current cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) with an emphasis on variants of exposure and ritual or response prevention (EX/RP) treatments, the therapy that has shown the most empirical evidence of its efficacy. PMID:20623924

  14. Predictive value of Obsessive–Compulsive Personality Disorder in antiobsessional pharmacological treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paolo Cavedini; Stefano Erzegovesi; Paolo Ronchi; Laura Bellodi

    1997-01-01

    Previous reports have stressed the implication of Personality Disorders as predictors of a poorer treatment outcome in Obsessive–Compulsive Disorder (OCD). The aim of this study was to see whether or not Obsessive–Compulsive Personality Disorder in Obsessive–Compulsive Disorder may be predictive for a poorer outcome to antiobsessive pro-serotonergic pharmacological treatment. For this purpose, 30 OCD patients were divided into two groups

  15. Factor Structure of the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amir, Nader; Foa, Edna B.; Coles, Meredith E.

    1997-01-01

    The dimensions underlying the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS) (W. Goodman and others, 1989) were examined by performing a confirmatory factor analysis of the scale using responses from 404 patients. Results support a two-factor model of obsessive-compulsive symptoms, reflecting degree of disturbance and severity of symptoms. (SLD)

  16. Exploring the role of obsessive-compulsive relevant self-worth contingencies in obsessive-compulsive disorder patients.

    PubMed

    García-Soriano, Gemma; Belloch, Amparo

    2012-06-30

    This article examines whether self-worth contingencies in the personal domains of cleanliness, morality, hoarding, certainty, accuracy, religion and respect for others have specific associations with obsessive symptoms and cognitions in individuals with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Fifty-seven patients with a primary diagnosis of OCD completed the Obsessional Concerns and Self Questionnaire (OCSQ), designed to assess the extent to which respondents consider OCD content domains relevant to their self-worth, along with a battery of other instruments. Results indicate that the OCSQ is more associated with OCD than with non-OCD anxiety symptoms, and that it is also associated with comorbid depressive symptoms in OCD patients. Moreover, the OCSQ-Order and Cleanliness and Hoarding dimensions are associated with their symptom counterparts (i.e., contamination, checking, order, hoarding and neutralizing). OCSQ domains were highly associated with dysfunctional beliefs about obsessions. However, only the OCSQ scores, but not the dysfunctional beliefs, predicted OCD symptoms. These results support cognitive conceptualizations implicating self-concept in OCD development, and they suggest the need to further analyze the influence of self-worth in OCD development and maintenance. PMID:22386566

  17. Family-Based Treatment of Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: Clinical Considerations and Application.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Lindsay M; Freeman, Jennifer B; Franklin, Martin E; Sapyta, Jeffrey J

    2015-07-01

    Pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) can be effectively treated with family-based intervention by expanding and enhancing family members' behavioral repertoire to more effectively manage OCD symptoms and affected family interactions. This article provides an overview and practical understanding of the implementation of family-based treatment of pediatric OCD. Special attention is given to relevant contextual family processes that influence symptom presentation, current empirical support for family-based treatment, and the clinical application of family-based cognitive-behavioral therapy. Case vignettes illustrate important clinical considerations for providers. PMID:26092738

  18. Tic or Compulsion? It's Tourettic OCD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mansueto, Charles; Keuler, David

    2005-01-01

    A subgroup of individuals suffering from obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) frequently present to treatment with an atypical yet distinguishable array of symptoms akin to both Tourettes disorder (TD) and OCD. These individuals often receive standard treatments for OCD (or less likely, TD) that fail to address the blended features of their…

  19. Obsessive–compulsive disorder and personality disorder

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Albina R. Torres; Paul Moran; Paul Bebbington; Traolach Brugha; Dinesh Bhugra; Jeremy W. Coid; Michael Farrell; Rachel Jenkins; Glyn Lewis; Howard Meltzer; Martin Prince

    2006-01-01

    Background  Previous studies indicate that most individuals with obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) have comorbid personality disorders\\u000a (PDs), particularly from the anxious cluster. However, the nature and strength of this association remains unclear, as the\\u000a majority of previous studies have relied heavily on clinical populations. We analysed the prevalence of screen positive personality\\u000a disorder in a representative sample of adults with OCD living

  20. Management of obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    PubMed

    Seibell, Phillip J; Hollander, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a common, often debilitating disorder characterized by the presence of obsessions and compulsions. Obsessions are repetitive thoughts or images which are experienced as intrusive and unwanted; they cause marked anxiety and distress. Compulsions (also known as rituals) are repetitive behaviors or mental acts that individuals with OCD perform in an attempt to decrease their anxiety. Patients tend to hide their symptoms due to shame; the amount of time between onset of symptoms and appropriate treatment is often many years. The disorder likely results from several etiological variables; functional imaging studies have consistently shown hyperactivity in the orbitofrontal cortex, anterior cingulate, thalamus, and striatum. The mainstays of treatment include cognitive-behavioral therapy in the form of exposure and response prevention (ERP) and serotonin reuptake inhibiting medications. Several pharmacological augmentation strategies exist for treatment-resistant OCD, with addition of antipsychotics being most commonly employed. Radio and neurosurgical procedures, including gamma knife radiation and deep brain stimulation, are reserved for severe, treatment-refractory disease that has not responded to multiple treatments, and some patients may benefit from transcranial magnetic stimulation. PMID:25165567

  1. Cognitive behavior therapy in treatment-naive children and adolescents with obsessive-compulsive disorder: an open trial

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. R. Benazon; J. Ager; D. R. Rosenberg

    2002-01-01

    This work aims is to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) in pediatric patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) who had not previously been treated with either pharmacotherapy or psychotherapy and who remained medication-free during CBT. Sixteen OCD outpatients, 8–17 years of age, were treated in a 12-week open trial with manualized CBT. Target symptoms were rated at

  2. Worries and obsessions in individuals with obsessive–compulsive disorder with and without comorbid generalized anxiety disorder

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jonathan S Abramowitz; Edna B Foa

    1998-01-01

    Participants from the DSM-IV field trial for OCD (N=381) were divided into two groups based on the SCID interview: those who met current criteria for obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) but not generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and those who met current diagnostic criteria for both. The groups were compared on their severity of obsessive and compulsive symptoms, as well as on the

  3. Dimensions of Perfectionism in Children and Adolescents with Obsessive-compulsive Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Soreni, Noam; Streiner, David; McCabe, Randi; Bullard, Carrie; Swinson, Richard; Greco, Alessia; Pires, Paulo; Szatmari, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Objective To measure the association of perfectionism with obsessive-compulsive and depressive symptoms in children and adolescents with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Method: Sample consisted of 94 youth (44 boys, 49 girls; mean age = 13.2 y, SD = 2.5 y) with a DSM-IV diagnosis of OCD. Perfectionism beliefs were measured with both the Adaptive/Maladaptive Perfectionism Scale (AMPS) and a 14-item version of the Child and Adolescents Perfectionism Scale (CAPS-14). Using a hierarchical linear-regression model, we measured the association of perfectionist beliefs with severity of OCD and depressive symptoms. Results: Both AMPS and CAPS-14 scores were associated with the severity of OCD symptoms in our sample. In addition, CAPS-14 scores were associated with the severity of depressive symptoms, even when OCD symptoms were taken into account. Conclusions: Our findings lend further support to the hypothesis that perfectionism in youth with OCD is associated with variation in the severity of OCD and depressive symptoms. PMID:24872829

  4. [Obsessive compulsive disorder--intrusive thoughts, impulses and repetitive behaviours as an expression of a significant disease].

    PubMed

    Weidt, Steffi; Rufer, Michael; Brühl, Annette; Baumann-Vogel, Heide; Delsignore, Aba

    2013-07-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is common and associated with marked impairment and reduced quality of life. In the general practitioner's office as well as in the specialist's consultation, patients with OCD usually present intrusive thoughts (obsessions) and repetitive behaviours (compulsions). OCD sufferers generally recognize their obsessions and compulsions as irrational. Without treatment, OCD often takes a chronic course. Some basic aspects can help to identify patients suffering from OCD earlier and to initiate sufficient therapy. With evidence-based treatment with cognitive-behavioral therapy and adequate psychopharmacotherapy, many patients can achieve complete symptom remission. Initial treatment can be initiated in the general practitioner's office. PMID:23823684

  5. Obsessive-compulsive disorder and trichotillomania: a phenomenological comparison

    PubMed Central

    Lochner, Christine; Seedat, Soraya; du Toit, Pieter L; Nel, Daniel G; Niehaus, Dana JH; Sandler, Robin; Stein, Dan J

    2005-01-01

    Background Similarities between obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and trichotillomania (TTM) have been widely recognized. Nevertheless, there is evidence of important differences between these two disorders. Some authors have conceptualized the disorders as lying on an OCD spectrum of conditions. Methods Two hundred and seventy eight OCD patients (n = 278: 148 male; 130 female) and 54 TTM patients (n = 54; 5 male; 49 female) of all ages were interviewed. Female patients were compared on select demographic and clinical variables, including comorbid axis I and II disorders, and temperament/character profiles. Results OCD patients reported significantly more lifetime disability, but fewer TTM patients reported response to treatment. OCD patients reported higher comorbidity, more harm avoidance and less novelty seeking, more maladaptive beliefs, and more sexual abuse. OCD and TTM symptoms were equally likely to worsen during menstruation, but OCD onset or worsening was more likely associated with pregnancy/puerperium. Conclusions These findings support previous work demonstrating significant differences between OCD and TTM. The classification of TTM as an impulse control disorder is also problematic, and TTM may have more in common with conditions characterized by stereotypical self-injurious symptoms, such as skin-picking. Differences between OCD and TTM may reflect differences in underlying psychobiology, and may necessitate contrasting treatment approaches. PMID:15649315

  6. Relationship between obsessive-compulsive disorder and chaos.

    PubMed

    Kubota, S; Sakai, K

    2002-07-01

    Pharmacological treatment using serotonin reuptake inhibitors is often useful for patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Brain imaging studies indicated that hyperactivity of the striatum observed in OCD patients is normalized after successful pharmacological treatment. But, so far, there is no available model, which can explain both of these phenomena. This report proposes a hypothesis that serotonin reuptake inhibitors can induce chaos in the activity of striatal neurons and this chaotic behavior is essential to improve OCD symptoms and normalize the hyperactivity in the striatum. Moreover, it can be explained also by this model that there exists a subtype of patients for whom pharmacological treatment is not useful. As a method, simulation using the Hodgkin-Huxley equations and the chaotic neural network, which can reproduce the chaotic behavior in the real neuron, are used. PMID:12160676

  7. Obsessive-compulsive disorder in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Krebs, Georgina; Heyman, Isobel

    2015-05-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) in childhood and adolescence is an impairing condition, associated with a specific set of distressing symptoms incorporating repetitive, intrusive thoughts (obsessions) and distressing, time-consuming rituals (compulsions). This review considers current knowledge of causes and mechanisms underlying OCD, as well as assessment and treatment. Issues relating to differential diagnosis are summarised, including the challenges of distinguishing OCD from autism spectrum disorders and tic disorders in youth. The recommended treatments, namely cognitive behaviour therapy and serotonin reuptake inhibiting/selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor medications, are outlined along with the existing evidence-based and factors associated with treatment resistance. Finally, novel clinical developments that are emerging in the field and future directions for research are discussed. PMID:25398447

  8. Obsessive Compulsive Disorder: What an Educator Needs to Know

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaturvedi, Amrita; Murdick, Nikki L.; Gartin, Barbara C.

    2014-01-01

    The presence of obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) impairs social, emotional and academic functioning. Individuals with OCD may have co-morbid disorders including attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, depression, oppositional defiant disorder, or Tourette syndrome. Challenges occur when students with OCD become a part of the general education…

  9. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder in Adults with Down's Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prasher, V. P.; Day, S.

    1995-01-01

    This study investigated demographic and phenomenological characteristics of obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) in nine adults with Down syndrome (DS), and possible effects on adaptive behavior. Results suggest OCD is more common in the DS population than the non-DS population. Ordering and tidiness was the most common form of OCD found, and…

  10. Attributions for Thought Suppression Failure in Obsessive–Compulsive Disorder

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David F. Tolin; Jonathan S. Abramowitz; Constance Hamlin; Edna B. Foa; Demetrius S. Synodi

    2002-01-01

    Cognitive–behavioral models of obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) posit that OCD is mediated, in part, by the paradoxical effects of thought suppression. This theory is based largely on research using nonclinical participants indicating that attempting to suppress thoughts may cause a paradoxical increase in the frequency of that thought. Previous research using OCD patients (OCs) suggests that OCs are more likely than

  11. The Epidemiology of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication

    PubMed Central

    Ruscio, A. M.; Stein, D. J.; Chiu, W. T.; Kessler, R. C.

    2009-01-01

    Despite significant advances in the study of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), important questions remain about the disorder's public health significance, appropriate diagnostic classification, and clinical heterogeneity. These issues were explored using data from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication (NCS-R), a nationally representative survey of U.S. adults. A subsample of 2073 respondents was assessed for lifetime DSM-IV OCD. More than one-quarter of respondents reported experiencing obsessions or compulsions at some time in their lives. While conditional probability of OCD was strongly associated with the number of obsessions and compulsions reported, only small proportions of respondents met full DSM-IV criteria for lifetime (2.3%) or 12-month (1.2%) OCD. OCD is associated with substantial comorbidity, not only with anxiety and mood disorders but also with impulse-control and substance use disorders. Severity of OCD, assessed by an adapted version of the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS), is associated with poor insight, high comorbidity, high role impairment, and high probability of seeking treatment. The high prevalence of subthreshold OCD symptoms may help explain past inconsistencies in prevalence estimates across surveys and suggests that the public health burden of OCD may be greater than its low prevalence implies. Evidence of a preponderance of early-onset cases in males, high comorbidity with a wide range of disorders, and reliable associations between disorder severity and key outcomes may have implications for how OCD is classified in DSM-V. PMID:18725912

  12. The neuropsychological profile of a subclinical obsessive-compulsive sample.

    PubMed

    Kim, Myung-Sun; Jang, Kyoung-Mi; Kim, Bit-Na

    2009-03-01

    We investigated the neuropsychological profile of subjects in a subclinical obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) sample. Psychometrically defined subclinical obsessive-compulsive (n = 21) and control (n = 22) subjects were examined. Comprehensive neuropsychological tests evaluating verbal/nonverbal memory, attention, and executive function were administered. The subclinical obsessive-compulsive group showed poorer performances on the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST), F(1, 41) = 13.80, p < .001, and Trail-Making Test (TMT), F(1, 41) = 5.48, p < .05, compared with the control group. The subclinical obsessive-compulsive group showed higher rates of total errors, perseverative errors, and perseverative responses. In addition, the subclinical obsessive-compulsive group committed a greater number of errors in the TMT. However, the groups showed no performance differences in the TMT after controlling for the effects of depression and anxiety, F(1, 39) = 0.11, p = .739. These results suggest that subclinical obsessive-compulsives seemed to display deficits in executive functioning. This neuropsychological profile is consistent with current theories proposing that executive dysfunction may serve as the pathophysiological mechanism underlying the development of obsessive-compulsive disorder. PMID:19203429

  13. Children and Adolescents with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: A Primer for Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Gail B.; Burke, Robert W.

    1999-01-01

    Defines obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) as an anxiety disorder characterized by the presence of mental obsessions or repetitive behaviors based on psychological fears. Lists warning signs for teachers and suggestions for educational services for children with OCD. (LBT)

  14. Using direct-to-consumer marketing strategies with obsessive-compulsive disorder in the nonprofit sector.

    PubMed

    Szymanski, Jeff

    2012-06-01

    Three to four million individuals struggle with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) in the United States at any given time. OCD can be a debilitating disorder associated with significant quality-of-life and occupational impairment. First-line treatments for OCD (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and exposure and response prevention therapy) have been shown to be effective; yet, many individuals suffering from OCD experience multiple barriers to accessing these treatments. In fact, it can take as many as 17 years from onset of symptoms to effective treatment. Given the need to increase access to and utilization of effective treatments, direct-to-consumer marketing in the context of OCD appears crucial. The International OCD Foundation (formerly the Obsessive Compulsive Foundation) was established as a nonprofit organization with a mission to educate the public and mental health professionals about appropriate practice guidelines, raise awareness of the disorder, and ensure that individuals looking for treatment find the necessary resources. This paper reviews the obstacles those struggling with OCD face in their attempts to alleviate suffering, as well as the direct-to-consumer strategies and tactics used by the International OCD Foundation to improve access to empirically supported, effective treatment. PMID:22440063

  15. The utilization of nonpatient samples in the study of obsessive compulsive disorder

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Leonard Burns; Gina M. Formea; Susan Keortge; Lee G. Sternberger

    1995-01-01

    Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) is increasingly studied in nonpatients, primarily through the selection of individuals who score high on a self-report measure of OCD. The usefulness of this methodology for understanding OCD presupposes that some of the individuals in the high-scoring group meet diagnostic criteria for OCD, that the obsessive-compulsive behaviors in the high-scoring individuals are stable across time to

  16. Symptom Dimensions in OCD: Item-Level Factor Analysis and Heritability Estimates

    PubMed Central

    Katerberg, Hilga; Delucchi, Kevin L.; Stewart, S. Evelyn; Lochner, Christine; Denys, Damiaan A. J. P.; Stack, Denise E.; Andresen, J. Michael; Grant, J. E.; Kim, Suck W.; Williams, Kyle A.; den Boer, Johan A.; van Balkom, Anton J. L. M.; Smit, Johannes H.; van Oppen, Patricia; Polman, Annemiek; Jenike, Michael A.; Stein, Dan J.; Mathews, Carol A.

    2010-01-01

    To reduce the phenotypic heterogeneity of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) for genetic, clinical and translational studies, numerous factor analyses of the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale checklist (YBOCS-CL) have been conducted. Results of these analyses have been inconsistent, likely as a consequence of small sample sizes and variable methodologies. Furthermore, data concerning the heritability of the factors are limited. Item and category-level factor analyses of YBOCS-CL items from 1224 OCD subjects were followed by heritability analyses in 52 OCD-affected multigenerational families. Item-level analyses indicated that a five factor model: (1) taboo, (2) contamination/cleaning, (3) doubts, (4) superstitions/rituals, and (5) symmetry/hoarding provided the best fit, followed by a one-factor solution. All 5 factors as well as the one-factor solution were found to be heritable. Bivariate analyses indicated that the taboo and doubts factor, and the contamination and symmetry/hoarding factor share genetic influences. Contamination and symmetry/hoarding show shared genetic variance with symptom severity. Nearly all factors showed shared environmental variance with each other and with symptom severity. These results support the utility of both OCD diagnosis and symptom dimensions in genetic research and clinical contexts. Both shared and unique genetic influences underlie susceptibility to OCD and its symptom dimensions. PMID:20361247

  17. Symptom dimensions in OCD: item-level factor analysis and heritability estimates.

    PubMed

    Katerberg, Hilga; Delucchi, Kevin L; Stewart, S Evelyn; Lochner, Christine; Denys, Damiaan A J P; Stack, Denise E; Andresen, J Michael; Grant, J E; Kim, Suck W; Williams, Kyle A; den Boer, Johan A; van Balkom, Anton J L M; Smit, Johannes H; van Oppen, Patricia; Polman, Annemiek; Jenike, Michael A; Stein, Dan J; Mathews, Carol A; Cath, Danielle C

    2010-07-01

    To reduce the phenotypic heterogeneity of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) for genetic, clinical and translational studies, numerous factor analyses of the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale checklist (YBOCS-CL) have been conducted. Results of these analyses have been inconsistent, likely as a consequence of small sample sizes and variable methodologies. Furthermore, data concerning the heritability of the factors are limited. Item and category-level factor analyses of YBOCS-CL items from 1224 OCD subjects were followed by heritability analyses in 52 OCD-affected multigenerational families. Item-level analyses indicated that a five factor model: (1) taboo, (2) contamination/cleaning, (3) doubts, (4) superstitions/rituals, and (5) symmetry/hoarding provided the best fit, followed by a one-factor solution. All 5 factors as well as the one-factor solution were found to be heritable. Bivariate analyses indicated that the taboo and doubts factor, and the contamination and symmetry/hoarding factor share genetic influences. Contamination and symmetry/hoarding show shared genetic variance with symptom severity. Nearly all factors showed shared environmental variance with each other and with symptom severity. These results support the utility of both OCD diagnosis and symptom dimensions in genetic research and clinical contexts. Both shared and unique genetic influences underlie susceptibility to OCD and its symptom dimensions. PMID:20361247

  18. Depression in comorbid obsessive-compulsive disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    Merrill, Anna; Gershuny, Beth; Baer, Lee; Jenike, Michael A

    2011-06-01

    Previous findings suggested a unique role that depression symptoms might play in the comorbid relationship between obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, the nature of this role remains unclear. Thus, the current study examined ways in which OCD and PTSD symptoms vary as a function of depression, as well as the mediating role of depression in the OCD-PTSD relationship, in 104 individuals seeking treatment for refractory OCD. Findings revealed that depressed individuals in the treatment-refractory OCD sample report higher levels of overall obsessing and greater severity of PTSD. In addition, depression appeared to mediate the relation between OCD and PTSD. Implications of findings are discussed. PMID:21404272

  19. A clinical case study of the use of ecological momentary assessment in obsessive compulsive disorder

    PubMed Central

    Tilley, P. J. Matt; Rees, Clare S.

    2014-01-01

    Accurate assessment of obsessions and compulsions is a crucial step in treatment planning for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD). In this clinical case study, we sought to determine if the use of Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) could provide additional symptom information beyond that captured during standard assessment of OCD. We studied three adults diagnosed with OCD and compared the number and types of obsessions and compulsions captured using the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS) compared to EMA. Following completion of the Y-BOCS interview, participants then recorded their OCD symptoms into a digital voice recorder across a 12-h period in reply to randomly sent mobile phone SMS prompts. The EMA approach yielded a lower number of symptoms of obsessions and compulsions than the Y-BOCS but produced additional types of obsessions and compulsions not previously identified by the Y-BOCS. We conclude that the EMA-OCD procedure may represent a worthy addition to the suite of assessment tools used when working with clients who have OCD. Further research with larger samples is required to strengthen this conclusion. PMID:24860521

  20. Children's Yale–Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale in Autism Spectrum Disorder: Component Structure and Correlates of Symptom Checklist

    PubMed Central

    Scahill, Lawrence; Dimitropoulos, Anastasia; McDougle, Christopher J.; Aman, Michael G.; Feurer, Irene D.; McCracken, James T.; Tierney, Elaine; Pu, Jie; White, Susan; Lecavalier, Luc; Hallett, Victoria; Bearss, Karen; King, Bryan; Arnold, L. Eugene; Vitiello, Benedetto

    2014-01-01

    Objective Repetitive behaviors in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) range from motor stereotypy to immersion in restricted interests. The modified Children's Yale–Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale for children with autism spectrum disorder (CYBOCS-ASD) includes a Symptom Checklist (behavior present or absent) and five severity scales (Time Spent, Interference, Distress, Resistance and Control). Method We assembled CYBOCS-ASD data from 3 Research Units on Pediatric Psychopharmacology Autism Network trials to explore the component structure of repetitive behaviors in children with ASD. Raters trained to reliability conducted the CYBOCS-ASD in 272 medication-free subjects. Fifteen Checklist items were endorsed for less than 5% of the sample and were dropped. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was used to explore the clustering of 23 checklist items. Component scores computed for each subject were correlated with other measures. We also examined the distribution of severity scales. Results The subjects (229 boys, 43 girls; mean age = 7.8±2.6 years) met criteria for an ASD; half were intellectually disabled. The PCA resulted in a 5-component solution to classify repetitive behaviors (34.4% of the variance): Hoarding and Ritualistic Behavior; Sensory and Arranging Behavior; Sameness and Self-injurious Behavior; Stereotypy; Restricted Interests. Sensory and Arranging and Stereotypy components were associated with lower adaptive functioning (Pearson r ranged from .2 to .3; p < 0.003). The Resistance scale showed little variation with over 60% of sample with the highest score. Conclusions Rarely endorsed checklist items can be dropped. The Resistance item does not appear relevant for children with ASD. PMID:24342389

  1. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder in Childhood and Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGough, James J.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Reviews literature on Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) in children and adolescents, emphasizing clinical presentation, evaluation, and treatment options. Notes that patients with OCD show remarkable similarities in clinical presentations, and have distinct profiles on cognitive, behavioral, and psychological measures. Concludes that advances in…

  2. Intolerance of uncertainty in obsessive-compulsive disorder

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David F. Tolin; Jonathan S. Abramowitz; Bartholomew D. Brigidi; Edna B. Foa

    2003-01-01

    Pathological doubt, a prominent feature of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), may be related to difficulty tolerating ambiguous or uncertain situations. This is thought to be particularly true of those patients with checking compulsions. Intolerance of uncertainty (IU) has been studied extensively within the domains of worry and generalized anxiety; however, it has received relatively little empirical attention in OCD patients. We

  3. Pharmacotherapy for obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    PubMed

    Dougherty, Darin D; Rauch, Scott L; Jenike, Michael A

    2004-11-01

    Pharmacotherapeutic options for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) have expanded over the past half-century since medications were first found to be effective for the treatment of OCD. Currently, the serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SRIs) represent the first-line pharmacotherapy for OCD. High dosages and long trials of the SRIs are needed for adequate treatment of OCD. The use of SRIs for the treatment of OCD is reviewed, then other pharmacotherapeutic treatment options, including SRI augmentation and alternative monotherapies, are discussed. The preponderance of data demonstrates that SRI augmentation with neuroleptics is efficacious for treatment-refractory OCD. There is substantially less evidence supporting other alternative strategies. Finally, neurosurgical and device-based approaches for treatment-refractory OCD are reviewed. PMID:15389617

  4. Factor Analytic Study of the Children's Yale?Brown Obsessive?Compulsive Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Storch, Eric A.; Murphy, Tanya K.; Geffken, Gary R.; Bagner, Daniel M.; Soto, Ohel; Sajid, Muhammad; Allen, Pam; Killiany, Erin M.; Goodman, Wayne K.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the psychometric properties of the Children's Yale?Brown Obsessive?Compulsive Scale (CY?BOCS; Scahill et al., 1997). Participants were 82 children and adolescents diagnosed with obsessive?compulsive disorder (OCD). Confirmatory factor analyses of 2 previously found models (Obsessions and Compulsions; Disturbance and Severity)…

  5. Should Nonsuicidal Self-Injury Be a Putative Obsessive-Compulsive-Related Condition? A Critical Appraisal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKay, Dean; Andover, Margaret

    2012-01-01

    Nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) has many behavioral and cognitive features that would make it appear to be closely tied to obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Obsessive-compulsive-related disorders (OCRDs) have been described in the literature as conditions that share a common phenomenology, neurobiology, and treatment response. The authors…

  6. Home-based behavior therapy for obsessive-compulsive disorder: a case series with data.

    PubMed

    Rosqvist, J; Egan, D; Manzo, P; Baer, L; Jenike, M A; Willis, B S

    2001-01-01

    The effectiveness of "home-based" exposure and response prevention was assessed in a series of 11 subjects with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Patients received 24 treatment sessions in a range of natural settings and situations. Sixty-four percent of the patients responded to behavior therapy in these settings, and 36% achieved lasting improvements in their OCD symptoms. Implications for the impact on consumers of this seldom-used application of behavior therapy are discussed and some recommendations for future research are made. PMID:11583072

  7. Sex differences in the phenotypic expression of obsessive-compulsive disorder: an exploratory study from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Torresan, Ricardo Cezar; Ramos-Cerqueira, Ana Teresa de Abreu; de Mathis, Maria Alice; Diniz, Juliana Belo; Ferrão, Ygor Arzeno; Miguel, Euripedes Constantino; Torres, Albina Rodrigues

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies have shown differences in clinical features of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) between men and women, including mean age at onset of obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCS), types of OCS, comorbid disorders, course, and prognosis. The aim of this study was to compare male and female Brazilian patients with OCD on several demographic and clinical characteristics. Three hundred thirty outpatients with OCD (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition [DSM-IV], criteria) who sought treatment at 3 Brazilian public universities and at 2 private practice clinics in the city of São Paulo were evaluated. The assessment instruments used were the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale to evaluate OCD severity and symptoms, the Beck Depression and Anxiety Inventories, the Yale Global Tic Severity Scale, and the Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Axis I Disorders to assess psychiatric comorbidity. Fifty-five percent of the patients (n = 182) were men who were significantly more likely than women to be single and to present sexual, religious, and symmetry obsessions and mental rituals. They also presented earlier onset of OCS and earlier symptom interference in functioning, and significantly more comorbid tic disorders and posttraumatic stress disorder. Women, besides showing significantly higher mean scores in the Beck Depression and Anxiety Inventories, were more likely to present comorbid simple phobias, eating disorders in general and anorexia in particular, impulse control disorders in general, and compulsive buying and skin picking in particular. No significant differences were observed between sexes concerning family history of OCS or OCD, and global symptoms severity, either in obsession or compulsive subscale. The present study confirms the presence of sex-related differences described in other countries and cultures. The fact that the OCS start earlier and probably have a worse impact in men can eventually lead to more specific and efficacious treatment approaches for these patients. PMID:19059516

  8. A controlled study of sensory tics in Gilles de 1a Tourette syndrome and obsessive-compulsive disorder using a structured interview.

    PubMed Central

    Chee, K Y; Sachdev, P

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence and characteristics of sensory tics in the Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS), and a matched population of patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) using a structured assessment. METHODS: 50 subjects each of GTS, OCD, and healthy controls were studied to determine the prevalence and phenomenology of sensory tics, and diagnose tic disorders, OCD, and affective disorders according to DSM-III-R criteria. The severity of tics and obsessive-compulsive symptoms were quantified using the Tourette syndrome global scale (TSGS) and Yale-Brown obsessive-compulsive scale (Y-BOCS) respectively. RESULTS: The GTS group (28%) had significantly-greater life-time prevalence of sensory tics than the OCD (10%) and healthy (8%) groups (P < 0.05). The sensory tics in both the GTS and OCD groups were predominantly located in rostral anatomical sites. Multiple sensory tics occurred in some patients with GTS or OCD, but not in healthy subjects. Within the OCD group, those who had sensory tics had significantly higher TSGS scores (P < 0.0001), and a higher prevalence of GTS (P < 0.005). CONCLUSIONS: Sensory tics seem to be a common and distinctive feature of GTS and that subpopulation of patients with OCD predisposed to tic disorders. Neurophysiologically, a possible explanation for sensory tics is that they represent the subjectively experienced component of neural dysfunction below the threshold for motor and vocal tic production. Images PMID:9048721

  9. Group Cognitive-Behavior Therapy with Family Involvement for Middle-School-Age Children with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: A Pilot Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin L. Jacqueline; Thienemann Margo

    2005-01-01

    Objective. Middle-school-aged children with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) are poised in development between the dependency of elementary-school-aged children and growing independence of adolescence. OCD patients of this age group may differ from older ones in the quality of symptoms and level of insight. We report the results of a naturalistic, pilot study of group Cognitive-behavior Therapy (CBT) for school-aged children with

  10. Glutamatergic Synaptic Dysfunction and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Ting, Jonathan T; Feng, Guoping

    2008-01-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a debilitating neuropsychiatric condition estimated to afflict 1-3% of the world population. The estimated financial impact in the treatment and management of OCD is in the billions of dollars annually in the US alone. At present there is a marked lack of evidence on the specific causes of OCD. Current hypotheses largely focus on the serotonin (5-HT) system on the basis of the effectiveness of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) in alleviating symptoms of patients with OCD, yet a considerable fraction of patients are non-responsive or minimally responsive to these agents. Despite this fact, SSRIs have remained the primary pharmacological treatment avenue for OCD. In recent years, multiple lines of evidence have implicated glutamatergic synaptic dysfunction within the cortico-striatal-thalamo-cortical (CSTC) brain circuit in the etiology of OCD and related disorders, thereby prompting intensified effort in the development and evaluation of agents that modulate glutamatergic neurotransmission for the treatment of OCD. With this in mind, here we review the following topics with respect to synaptic dysfunction and the neural circuitry underlying OCD: (1) evidence supporting the critical involvement of the CSTC circuit, (2) genetic studies supporting the involvement of glutamatergic dysfunction, (3) insights from genetic animal models of OCD, and (4) preliminary findings with glutamatergic neurotransmission-modulating agents in the treatment of OCD. Given the putative mechanistic overlap between OCD and the broader OC-spectrum of disorders, unraveling the synaptic basis of OCD has potential to translate into more effective treatments for an array of poorly understood human disorders. PMID:19768139

  11. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder and Anorexia Nervosa in a High School Athlete: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Gee, Rebecca L.; Telew, Nicholas

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To describe the case of a basketball and track athlete who presented with both anorexia nervosa and obsessive- compulsive disorder (OCD). Background: OCD is a psychiatric condition known to appear with significant frequency among those with anorexia. Although treatable with drug and behavioral therapy, it must be specifically sought because some of its symptoms are similar to those of anorexia nervosa. Differential Diagnosis: Obsessive-compulsive disorder, anxiety disorder. Treatment: Behavioral therapy involves exposure to the obsessive fears without allowing the patient to ritualize. This is best used in combination with drugs that selectively block the reuptake of serotonin in the brain. Uniqueness: Anorexia nervosa is notoriously difficult to treat. In our patient, anorexic symptoms all but disappeared along with the OCD in a matter of weeks, once treatment of the OCD began. Lengthy treatment for anorexia alone had been unsuccessful. Conclusions: OCD occurs frequently in patients with anorexia, and successful treatment requires that both conditions be specifically identified and managed. Athletic trainers may be the first to recognize key signs and symptoms of this illness; by referring the individual for psychiatric evaluation, they can be instrumental in helping the patient to obtain appropriate treatment. PMID:16558592

  12. Dissociation as a Predictor of Cognitive Behavior Therapy Outcome in Patients with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Rufer; Dada Held; Julia Cremer; Susanne Fricke; Steffen Moritz; Helmut Peter; Iver Hand

    2006-01-01

    Background: Previous studies have found a strong association between dissociation and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The purpose of the present study was to evaluate whether dissociation is a predictor of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) outcome in patients with OCD. Methods: Fifty-two patients with OCD were assessed using the Dissociative Experience Scale (DES), the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale and the Beck Depression Inventory.

  13. Characterization of SLITRK1 variation in obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    PubMed

    Ozomaro, Uzoezi; Cai, Guiqing; Kajiwara, Yuji; Yoon, Seungtai; Makarov, Vladimir; Delorme, Richard; Betancur, Catalina; Ruhrmann, Stephan; Falkai, Peter; Grabe, Hans Jörgen; Maier, Wolfgang; Wagner, Michael; Lennertz, Leonhard; Moessner, Rainald; Murphy, Dennis L; Buxbaum, Joseph D; Züchner, Stephan; Grice, Dorothy E

    2013-01-01

    Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) is a syndrome characterized by recurrent and intrusive thoughts and ritualistic behaviors or mental acts that a person feels compelled to perform. Twin studies, family studies, and segregation analyses provide compelling evidence that OCD has a strong genetic component. The SLITRK1 gene encodes a developmentally regulated stimulator of neurite outgrowth and previous studies have implicated rare variants in this gene in disorders in the OC spectrum, specifically Tourette syndrome (TS) and trichotillomania (TTM). The objective of the current study was to evaluate rare genetic variation in SLITRK1 in risk for OCD and to functionally characterize associated coding variants. We sequenced SLITRK1 coding exons in 381 individuals with OCD as well as in 356 control samples and identified three novel variants in seven individuals. We found that the combined mutation load in OCD relative to controls was significant (p?=?0.036). We identified a missense N400I change in an individual with OCD, which was not found in more than 1000 control samples (P<0.05). In addition, we showed the the N400I variant failed to enhance neurite outgrowth in primary neuronal cultures, in contrast to wildtype SLITRK1, which enhanced neurite outgrowth in this assay. These important functional differences in the N400I variant, as compared to the wildtype SLITRK1 sequence, may contribute to OCD and OC spectrum symptoms. A synonymous L63L change identified in an individual with OCD and an additional missense change, T418S, was found in four individuals with OCD and in one individual without an OCD spectrum disorder. Examination of additional samples will help assess the role of rare SLITRK1 variation in OCD and in related psychiatric illness. PMID:23990902

  14. Characterization of SLITRK1 Variation in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Ozomaro, Uzoezi; Yoon, Seungtai; Makarov, Vladimir; Delorme, Richard; Betancur, Catalina; Ruhrmann, Stephan; Falkai, Peter; Grabe, Hans Jörgen; Maier, Wolfgang; Wagner, Michael; Lennertz, Leonhard; Moessner, Rainald; Murphy, Dennis L.; Buxbaum, Joseph D.; Züchner, Stephan; Grice, Dorothy E.

    2013-01-01

    Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) is a syndrome characterized by recurrent and intrusive thoughts and ritualistic behaviors or mental acts that a person feels compelled to perform. Twin studies, family studies, and segregation analyses provide compelling evidence that OCD has a strong genetic component. The SLITRK1 gene encodes a developmentally regulated stimulator of neurite outgrowth and previous studies have implicated rare variants in this gene in disorders in the OC spectrum, specifically Tourette syndrome (TS) and trichotillomania (TTM). The objective of the current study was to evaluate rare genetic variation in SLITRK1 in risk for OCD and to functionally characterize associated coding variants. We sequenced SLITRK1 coding exons in 381 individuals with OCD as well as in 356 control samples and identified three novel variants in seven individuals. We found that the combined mutation load in OCD relative to controls was significant (p?=?0.036). We identified a missense N400I change in an individual with OCD, which was not found in more than 1000 control samples (P<0.05). In addition, we showed the the N400I variant failed to enhance neurite outgrowth in primary neuronal cultures, in contrast to wildtype SLITRK1, which enhanced neurite outgrowth in this assay. These important functional differences in the N400I variant, as compared to the wildtype SLITRK1 sequence, may contribute to OCD and OC spectrum symptoms. A synonymous L63L change identified in an individual with OCD and an additional missense change, T418S, was found in four individuals with OCD and in one individual without an OCD spectrum disorder. Examination of additional samples will help assess the role of rare SLITRK1 variation in OCD and in related psychiatric illness. PMID:23990902

  15. No Impact of Deep Brain Stimulation on Fear-Potentiated Startle in Obsessive–Compulsive Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Baas, Johanna M. P.; Klumpers, Floris; Mantione, Mariska H.; Figee, Martijn; Vulink, Nienke C.; Schuurman, P. Richard; Mazaheri, Ali; Denys, Damiaan

    2014-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the ventral internal capsule is effective in treating therapy refractory obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD). Given the close proximity of the stimulation site to the stria terminalis (BNST), we hypothesized that the striking decrease in anxiety symptoms following DBS could be the result of the modulation of contextual anxiety. However, the effect of DBS in this region on contextual anxiety is as of yet unknown. Thus, the current study investigated the effect of DBS on contextual anxiety in an experimental threat of shock paradigm. Eight patients with DBS treatment for severe OCD were tested in a double-blind crossover design with randomly assigned 2-week periods of active and sham stimulation. DBS resulted in significant decrease of obsessive–compulsive symptoms, anxiety, and depression. However, even though the threat manipulation resulted in a clear context-potentiated startle effect, none of the parameters derived from the startle recordings was modulated by the DBS. This suggests that DBS in the ventral internal capsule is effective in treating anxiety symptoms of OCD without modulating the startle circuitry. We hypothesize that the anxiety symptoms present in OCD are likely distinct from the pathological brain circuits in defensive states of other anxiety disorders. PMID:25249953

  16. A Psychological and Neuroanatomical Model of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Huey, Edward D.; Zahn, Roland; Krueger, Frank; Moll, Jorge; Kapogiannis, Dimitrios; Wassermann, Eric M.; Grafman, Jordan

    2009-01-01

    Imaging, surgical, and lesion studies suggest that the prefrontal cortex (orbitofrontal and anterior cingulate cortexes), basal ganglia, and thalamus are involved in the pathogenesis of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). On the basis of these findings several models of OCD have been developed, but have had difficulty fully integrating the psychological and neuroanatomical findings of OCD. Recent research in the field of cognitive neuroscience on the normal function of these brain areas demonstrates the role of the orbitofrontal cortex in reward, the anterior cingulate cortex in error detection, the basal ganglia in affecting the threshold for activation of motor and behavioral programs, and the prefrontal cortex in storing memories of behavioral sequences (called “structured event complexes” or SECs). The authors propose that the initiation of these SECs can be accompanied by anxiety that is relieved with completion of the SEC, and that a deficit in this process could be responsible for many of the symptoms of OCD. Specifically, the anxiety can form the basis of an obsession, and a compulsion can be an attempt to receive relief from the anxiety by repeating parts of, or an entire, SEC. The authors discuss empiric support for, and specific experimental predictions of, this model. The authors believe that this model explains the specific symptoms, and integrates the psychology and neuroanatomy of OCD better than previous models. PMID:19196924

  17. Mechanisms of change in cognitive therapy for obsessive compulsive disorder: role of maladaptive beliefs and schemas.

    PubMed

    Wilhelm, Sabine; Berman, Noah C; Keshaviah, Aparna; Schwartz, Rachel A; Steketee, Gail

    2015-02-01

    The present study aimed to identify mechanisms of change in individuals with moderately severe obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) receiving cognitive therapy (CT). Thirty-six adults with OCD received CT over 24 weeks. At weeks 0, 4/6, 12, 16/18, and 24, independent evaluators assessed OCD severity, along with obsessive beliefs and maladaptive schemas. To examine mechanisms of change, we utilized a time-varying lagged regression model with a random intercept and slope. Results indicated that perfectionism and certainty obsessive beliefs and maladaptive schemas related to dependency and incompetence significantly mediated (improved) treatment response. In conclusion, cognitive changes in perfectionism/certainty beliefs and maladaptive schemas related to dependency/incompetence precede behavioral symptom reduction for OCD patients. Targeting these mechanisms in future OCD treatment trials will emphasize the most relevant processes and facilitate maximum improvement. PMID:25544403

  18. Chronic catatonia with obsessive compulsive disorder symptoms treated with lorazepam, memantine, aripiprazole, fluvoxamine and neurosurgery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yuki Mukai; Aimee Two; Michel Jean-Baptiste

    2011-01-01

    Catatonia is a syndrome with protean manifestations and multiple aetiologies. In this report, the authors describe the case of a young woman who presented for care after a 13-year period of catatonia-like symptoms, including mutism, refusal to eat and persistent neck flexion. Medical management included placement of a percutaneous endoscopic gastric tube for nutritional support. A thorough medical investigation later

  19. Correlates of comorbid anxiety and externalizing disorders in childhood obsessive compulsive disorder.

    PubMed

    Langley, Audra K; Lewin, Adam B; Bergman, R Lindsey; Lee, Joyce C; Piacentini, John

    2010-08-01

    The present study examines the influence of diagnostic comorbidity on the demographic, psychiatric, and functional status of youth with a primary diagnosis of obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). Two hundred and fifteen children (ages 5-17) referred to a university-based OCD specialty clinic were compared based on DSM-IV diagnostic profile: OCD without comorbid anxiety or externalizing disorder, OCD plus anxiety disorder, and OCD plus externalizing disorder. No age or gender differences were found across groups. Higher OCD severity was found for the OCD + ANX group, while the OCD + EXT group reported greater functional impairment than the other two groups. Lower family cohesion was reported by the OCD + EXT group compared to the OCD group and the OCD + ANX group reported higher family conflict compared to the OCD + EXT group. The OCD + ANX group had significantly lower rates of tic disorders while rates of depressive disorders did not differ among the three groups. The presence of comorbid anxiety and externalizing psychopathology are associated with greater symptom severity and functional and family impairment and underscores the importance of a better understanding of the relationship of OCD characteristics and associated disorders. Results and clinical implications are further discussed. PMID:20349255

  20. Early Childhood OCD: Preliminary Findings from a Family-Based Cognitive-Behavioral Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, Jennifer B.; Garcia, Abbe M.; Coyne, Lisa; Ale, Chelsea; Prezeworski, Amy; Himle, Michael; Compton, Scott; Leonard, Henrietta L.

    2008-01-01

    A study was conducted to compare the relative usefulness of family-based cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) against family-based relaxation treatment for children with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Results showed that children with early childhood-onset OCD benefited from the CBT program as it effectively decreased OCD symptoms and helped…

  1. Obsessive-compulsive disorder associated with parietal white matter multiple sclerosis plaques.

    PubMed

    Douzenis, Athanassios; Michalopoulou, Panayiota G; Voumvourakis, Constantine; Typaldou, Maria; Michopoulos, Ioannis; Lykouras, Lefteris

    2009-01-01

    We report the case of a patient who developed obsessive-compulsive symptoms after being diagnosed with multiple sclerosis. In this patient, obsessive-compulsive symptoms deteriorated with the emergence of a right parietal white matter multiple sclerosis plaque. The involvement of parietal white matter abnormalities in the pathophysiology of obsessive-compulsive disorder remains largely unexplored. Our case report raises the possibility that parietal lobe white matter microstructure plays a role in mediating obsessions and compulsions through disruptions of the functional connectivity between cortical-cortical and/or cortical-subcortical brain regions implicated in the pathophysiology of obsessive-compulsive disorder. PMID:19995223

  2. A Preliminary Study on the Effects of Attachment-based Intervention on Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Rezvan, Shiva; Bahrami, Fatemeh; Abedi, Mohamadreza; Macleod, Colin; Doost, Hamid Taher Neshat; Ghasemi, Vahid

    2013-01-01

    Background: Research on attachment has shed new light on understanding one of the underlying mechanisms of psychopathology in children. The aim of this study was to investigate the therapeutic efficacy of attachment-based intervention in a pediatric sample with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Methods: Twelve participants, 10-12 years of age, were treated across an eight-week period. They had not been treated with either pharmacotherapy or psychotherapy previously and remained medication-free during the attachment-based therapy. This study comprised two groups of children: The experimental group, who received attachment-based intervention, and the control group, who did not receive treatment. All participants were assessed in terms of severity of OCD symptoms by administrating the Children's Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale before and after the experimental group had received the therapeutic sessions. The children were assessed again one month later. The level of children's depression, and attachment insecurity, as well as their mothers’ depression, OCD symptoms, and attachment insecurity, were statistically controlled in this study. Results: Multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) indicated that the OCD symptoms in children decreased significantly over the course of the therapy, and this gain was maintained at follow-up. The results of this study demonstrated that the attachment-based intervention was efficacious in alleviating the OCD symptoms. Conclusion: It is suggested that parental instruction in attachment-based relationships may help prevent young children from developing OCD symptoms in middle-childhood and adulthood. PMID:23413047

  3. Effect of Prefrontal Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: A Preliminary Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Benjamin D. Greenberg; Mark S. George; Juliet D. Martin; Jonathan Benjamin; Thomas E. Schlaepfer; Margaret Altemus; Eric M. Wassermann; Robert M. Post; Dennis L. Murphy

    1997-01-01

    Objective: Prefrontal mechanisms are implicated in obsessive-compulsive disorder. The authors investigated whether prefrontal repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation influenced obsessive-compulsive disorder symptoms. Method: Twelve patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder were given repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (80% motor threshold, 20 Hz\\/2 seconds per minute for 20 minutes) to a right lateral prefrontal, a left lateral prefrontal, and a midoccipital (control) site on separate

  4. Extinction retention and fear renewal in a lifetime obsessive-compulsive disorder sample.

    PubMed

    McLaughlin, N C R; Strong, D; Abrantes, A; Garnaat, S; Cerny, A; O'Connell, C; Fadok, R; Spofford, C; Rasmussen, S A; Milad, M R; Greenberg, B D

    2015-03-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), like other illnesses with prominent anxiety, may involve abnormal fear regulation and consolidation of safety memories. Impaired fear extinction memory (extinction recall, ER) has been shown in individuals with current symptoms of OCD [1]. However, contrary to expectations, the only previous study investigating this phenomenon showed a positive correlation between extinction recall abilities and OCD symptomology (i.e., as OCD symptoms worsened, extinction memory improved). The purpose of the current study was to determine if patients with a lifetime diagnosis of OCD (not necessarily currently symptomatic) also demonstrate impairments in extinction memory, and the relationship between OCD symptomology and extinction memory in this type of sample. In addition, we also examined fear renewal, which has never been investigated in an OCD sample. We enrolled 37 patients with OCD, the majority of whom were on serotonin reuptake inhibitors, and 18 healthy control participants in a 2-day paradigm assessing fear conditioning and extinction (Day 1) and extinction retention and renewal (Day 2). Skin conductance responses (SCRs) were the dependent measure. Results, as in the prior study, indicated that the only between-group difference was impaired ER in OCD patients relative to controls. Contrary to our prediction, OCD symptom severity was not correlated with the magnitude of extinction recall. There were no differences in fear renewal between OCD patients and controls. PMID:25446749

  5. Individual versus group cognitive–behavioral treatment for obsessive–compulsive disorder: a controlled pilot study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nuria Jaurrieta; Susana Jimenez-Murcia; José Manuel Menchón; M. Del Pino Alonso; Cinto Segalas; Eva M. ÁLvarez-Moya; Javier Labad; Roser Granero; Julio Vallejo

    2008-01-01

    This study sought to examine the effectiveness of group and individual cognitive–behavioral treatment (CBT) and to compare the results with those of a wait-list control group among a sample of patients with obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD). Fifty-seven individuals diagnosed with OCD were evaluated pre- and posttreatment with the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale and the Hamilton Rating Scales for Anxiety and Depression.

  6. Different patterns of local field potentials from limbic DBS targets in patients with major depressive and obsessive compulsive disorder.

    PubMed

    Neumann, W-J; Huebl, J; Brücke, C; Gabriëls, L; Bajbouj, M; Merkl, A; Schneider, G-H; Nuttin, B; Brown, P; Kühn, A A

    2014-11-01

    The role of distinct limbic areas in emotion regulation has been largely inferred from neuroimaging studies. Recently, the opportunity for intracranial recordings from limbic areas has arisen in patients undergoing deep brain stimulation (DBS) for neuropsychiatric disorders including major depressive disorder (MDD) and obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). Here we test the hypothesis that distinct temporal patterns of local field potential (LFP) activity in the human limbic system reflect disease state and symptom severity in MDD and OCD patients. To this end, we recorded LFPs via implanted DBS electrodes from the bed nucleus of stria terminalis (BNST area) in 12 patients (5 OCD, 7 MDD) and from the subgenual cingulate cortex in 7 MDD patients (CG25 area). We found a distinct pattern of oscillatory activity with significantly higher ?-power in MDD compared with OCD in the BNST area (broad ?-band 8-14?Hz; P<0.01) and a similar level of ?-activity in the CG25 area as in the BNST area in MDD patients. The mean ?-power correlated with severity of depressive symptoms as assessed by the Beck depression inventory in MDD (n=14, r=0.55, P=0.042) but not with severity of obsessive compulsive symptoms in OCD. Here we show larger ?-band activity in MDD patients compared with OCD recorded from intracranial DBS targets. Our results suggest that ?-activity in the limbic system may be a signature of symptom severity in MDD and may serve as a potential state biomarker for closed loop DBS in MDD. PMID:24514569

  7. Patient-reported outcomes in obsessive-compulsive disorder

    PubMed Central

    Subramaniam, Mythily; Soh, Pauline; Ong, Clarissa; Esmond Seow, Lee Seng; Picco, Louisa; Vaingankar, Janhavi Ajit; Chong, Siow Ann

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the article was to provide an overview of patient-reported outcomes (PROs) and related measures that have been examined in the context of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The current review focused on patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) that evaluated three broad outcome domains: functioning, health-related quality of life (HRQoL), and OCD-related symptoms. The present review ultimately included a total of 155 unique articles and 22 PROMs. An examination of the PROs revealed that OCD patients tend to suffer from significant functional disability, and report lower HRQoL than controls. OCD patients report greater symptom severity than patients with other mental disorders and evidence indicates that PROMs are sensitive to change and may be even better than clinician-rated measures at predicting treatment outcomes. Nonetheless, it should be noted that the measures reviewed lacked patient input in their development. Future research on PROMs must involve patient perspectives and include rigorous psychometric evaluation of these measures. PMID:25152661

  8. Personality Disorder in Obsessive Compulsive Disorder: A controlled study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rocco D. Crino; Gavin Andrews

    1996-01-01

    In order to assess Axis II pathology in Obsessive Compulsive Disorder patients as compared to other anxiety disorder patients, the Personality Disorder Examination was administered to 258 anxiety disorder patients. In contrast to a number of recent reports, a low rate of personality disorder diagnoses were found in the OCD sample as well as the anxiety disorder control subjects. The

  9. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder in School-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helbing, Mary-Lee C.; Ficca, Michelle

    2009-01-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is an anxiety disorder characterized by disturbing thoughts, impulses, or images (obsessions); repetitive or ritualistic behaviors (compulsions); or the presence of both. Although some may believe this disorder is isolated to the adult population, it affects anywhere from 1% to 4% of children in the United…

  10. Thought-action fusion in obsessive compulsive disorder

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roz Shafran; Dana S. Thordarson; S. Rachman

    1996-01-01

    Recent psychometric results suggested that the phenomenon of thought-action fusion (TAF) is implicated in obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). The construct of TAF has two components: (a) the belief that thinking about an unacceptable or disturbing event makes it more likely to happen and (b) the belief that having an unacceptable thought is the moral equivalent of carrying out the unacceptable

  11. The correlates of obsessive-compulsive, schizotypal, and borderline personality disorders in obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    PubMed

    Melca, Isabela A; Yücel, Murat; Mendlowicz, Mauro V; de Oliveira-Souza, Ricardo; Fontenelle, Leonardo F

    2015-06-01

    We assessed correlates of obsessive-compulsive (OCPD), schizotypal (SPD) and borderline (BPD) personality disorders in 110 obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) patients. We found OCD patients with OCPD (20.9%) to exhibit higher rates of hoarding and bipolar disorders, increased severity of hoarding and symmetry, lower prevalence of unacceptable thoughts involving sex and religion and less non-planning impulsivity. Conversely, OCD patients with SPD (13.6%) displayed more frequently bipolar disorder, increased severity of depression and OCD neutralization, greater prevalence of "low-order" behaviors (i.e., touching), lower low-planning impulsivity and greater "behavioral" compulsivity. Finally, in exploratory analyses, OCD patients with BPD (21.8%) exhibited lower education, higher rates of several comorbid psychiatric disorders, greater frequency of compulsions involving interpersonal domains (e.g. reassurance seeking), increased severity of depression, anxiety and OCD dimensions other than symmetry and hoarding, more motor and non-planning impulsivity, and greater "cognitive" compulsivity. These findings highlight the importance of assessing personality disorders in OCD samples. PMID:25956558

  12. Rituals, Stereotypies, and Obsessive-Compulsive Behavior

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joel E. Ringdahl

    \\u000a Rituals, stereotypies, and obsessive-compulsive behavior are all terms used to describe one of the core symptoms of autistic\\u000a disorder and autism spectrum disorders (ASDs; Militerni, Bravaccio, Falco, Fico, & Palermo, 2002). Their inclusion in the\\u000a symptomatology related to ASDs can be traced back to Kanner’s (1943) description of the disorder, which included various forms\\u000a of repetition such as rituals, motor

  13. Hoarding behavior among young children with obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    PubMed

    Frank, Hannah; Stewart, Elyse; Walther, Michael; Benito, Kristen; Freeman, Jennifer; Conelea, Christ; Garci, Abbe

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has shown that among the various subtypes of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), adults (e.g. Frost, Krause & Steketee, 1996) and older children and adolescents (Bloch et al., 2009; Storch et al., 2007) with problematic hoarding have distinct features and a poor treatment prognosis. However, there is limited information on the phenomenology and prevalence of hoarding behaviors in young children. The present study characterizes children ages 10 and under who present with OCD and hoarding behaviors. Sixty-eight children received a structured interview-determined diagnosis of OCD. Clinician administered, parent-report, and child-report measures on demographic, symptomatic, and diagnostic variables were completed. Clinician ratings of hoarding symptoms and parent and child endorsement of the hoarding item on the CY-BOCS checklist (Scahill, Riddle, McSwiggin-Hardin, & Ort, 1997) determined inclusion in the hoarding group (n=33). Compared to children without hoarding symptoms (n=35), the presence of hoarding symptoms was associated with an earlier age of primary diagnosis onset and a higher proportion of ADHD and provisional anxiety diagnoses. These results are partially consistent with the adult literature and with findings in older children (Storch et al., 2007). Additional data on clinical presentation and phenomenology of hoarding are needed to form a developmentally appropriate definition of the behavior. PMID:24860725

  14. The Role of the Orbitofrontal Cortex in Normally Developing Compulsive-Like Behaviors and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, David W.; Lewis, Marc D.; Iobst, Emily

    2004-01-01

    Mounting evidence concerning obsessive-compulsive disorders points to abnormal functioning of the orbitofrontal cortices. First, patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) perform poorly on tasks that rely on response suppression/motor inhibition functions mediated by the orbitofrontal cortex relative to both normal and clinical controls.…

  15. The cognitive-affective neuroscience of obsessive-compulsive disorder

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dan J. Stein; Wayne K. Goodman; Scott L. Rauch

    2000-01-01

    There is substantial evidence that obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is mediated by specific cortico-striatalthalamic-cortical\\u000a (CTSC) circuits. Here we discuss very recent publications that address the following questions: How does damage to CSTC circuitry\\u000a come about?; What are the neurochemical systems involved in mediating this circuitry?; and What are the implications of such\\u000a damage for understanding the pathogenesis and management of OCD?

  16. A controlled single case study with repeated fMRI measurements during the treatment of a patient with obsessive-compulsive disorder: Testing the nonlinear dynamics approach to psychotherapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Günter Schiepek; Igor Tominschek; Susanne Karch; Jürgen Lutz; Christoph Mulert; Thomas Meindl; Oliver Pogarell

    2009-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is associated with a dysfunction of cortico-striato- thalamo-cortical neuronal circuits. In order to examine treatment-related changes in neuronal processes, a drug-naive female patient with OCD (subtype: washing\\/contamination fear) and an age- and gender-matched healthy control were repeatedly tested using functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) during the presentation of a symptom provocation task.

  17. Tourette's syndrome, trichotillomania, and obsessive-compulsive disorder: how closely are they related?

    PubMed

    Ferrão, Ygor Arzeno; Miguel, Euripedes; Stein, Dan Joseph

    2009-11-30

    The question of whether Tourette's syndrome (TS) and trichotillomania (TTM) are best conceptualized as obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorders was raised by family studies demonstrating a close relationship between TS and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and by psychopharmacological research indicating that both TTM and OCD respond more robustly to clomipramine than to desipramine. A range of studies have subsequently allowed comparison of the phenomenology, psychobiology, and management of TS and TTM, with that of OCD. Here we briefly review this literature. The data indicate that there is significant psychobiological overlap between TS and OCD, supporting the idea that TS can be conceptualized as an OCD spectrum disorder. TTM and OCD have only partial overlap in their phenomenology and psychobiology, but there are a number of reasons for why it may be useful to classify TTM and other habit disorders as part of the obsessive-compulsive spectrum of disorders. PMID:19801170

  18. DSM-IV obsessive-compulsive personality disorder: Prevalence in patients with anxiety disorders and in healthy comparison subjects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Umberto Albert; Giuseppe Maina; Federica Forner; Filippo Bogetto

    2004-01-01

    The relationship between obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) has not yet been fully clarified. The aim of the present study was to analyze DSM-IV OCPD prevalence rates in OCD and panic disorder (PD) patients to test for the specificity of the OCPD-OCD link, and to compare them to OCPD prevalence in a control group of subjects without

  19. Repetitive behaviors in Tourette's syndrome and OCD with and without tics: what are the differences?

    PubMed

    Cath, D C; Spinhoven, P; Hoogduin, C A; Landman, A D; van Woerkom, T C; van de Wetering, B J; Roos, R A; Rooijmans, H G

    2001-03-25

    Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome (GTS) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) share obsessive-compulsive phenomena. The aims of this study were to compare the OC symptom distribution between GTS and OCD and to investigate whether a subdivision of these phenomena into obsessions, compulsions and 'impulsions' is useful in distinguishing GTS and OCD patients. Thirty-two GTS, 31 OCD (10 with tics, 21 without tics) and 29 control subjects were studied using the Leiden repetitive behaviors semi-structured interview to assess GTS as well as OCD-related behaviors. Each reported repetitive thought or action was evaluated on the presence of anxiety and on goal-directedness. This information was used to define whether the behavior was an obsession, compulsion, or 'impulsion'. Both the GTS and OCD study groups showed higher scores than control subjects on rating scales measuring depression, OC behavior and anxiety. In GTS, Y-BOCS severity scores and trait anxiety were lower than in the OCD groups. Furthermore, GTS patients differed from OCD patients in the distribution of symptoms. Aggressive repetitive thoughts, contamination worries and washing behaviors were reported more frequently by tic-free OCD, while mental play, echophenomena, touching and (self)-injurious behaviors were reported more frequently by GTS. OCD individuals with tics were intermediate, but closer to tic-free OCD. GTS individuals reported significantly more 'impulsions' and fewer obsessions and compulsions than OCD individuals with and without tics. Factor analysis revealed three factors accounting for 44% of the variance, resulting in an 'impulsive' factor related to GTS, a 'compulsive' factor related to OCD and an 'obsessive' factor related to tic-free OCD. In conclusion, OCD individuals reported more anxiety and goal-directedness associated with their behaviors than did GTS subjects. The distinction between obsessions, compulsions and impulsions is of importance in identifying Tourette-related vs. non-Tourette-related repetitions. PMID:11286820

  20. Neural response in obsessive-compulsive washers depends on individual fit of triggers

    PubMed Central

    Baioui, Ali; Pilgramm, Juliane; Merz, Christian J.; Walter, Bertram; Vaitl, Dieter; Stark, Rudolf

    2013-01-01

    Background: Patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) have highly idiosyncratic triggers. To fully understand which role this idiosyncrasy plays in the neurobiological mechanisms behind OCD, it is necessary to elucidate the impact of individualization regarding the applied investigation methods. This functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study explores the neural correlates of contamination/washing-related OCD with a highly individualized symptom provocation paradigm. Additionally, it is the first study to directly compare individualized and standardized symptom provocation. Methods: Nineteen patients with washing compulsions created individual OCD hierarchies, which later served as instructions to photograph their own individualized stimulus sets. The patients and 19 case-by-case matched healthy controls participated in a symptom provocation fMRI experiment with individualized and standardized stimulus sets created for each patient. Results: OCD patients compared to healthy controls displayed stronger activation in the basal ganglia (nucleus accumbens, nucleus caudatus, pallidum) for individualized symptom provocation. Using standardized symptom provocation, this group comparison led to stronger activation in the nucleus caudatus. The direct comparison of between-group effects for both symptom provocation approaches revealed stronger activation of the orbitofronto-striatal network for individualized symptom provocation. Conclusions: The present study provides insight into the differential impact of individualized and standardized symptom provocation on the orbitofronto-striatal network of OCD washers. Behavioral and neural responses imply a higher symptom-specificity of individualized symptom provocation. PMID:23630478

  1. Comparison of Knowledge of Obsessive-Compulsive Behavior between Counseling Students and School Administration Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Sandy

    Obsessive-compulsive adolescence behavior in the classroom environment can be disruptive, affecting the teacher and other students. Certain personality traits of the obsessive-compulsive are obvious, while other symptoms are frequently misdiagnosed. As school staff are often the first step in the primary diagnosis process, the purpose of this…

  2. A randomized clinical trial of a brief family intervention to reduce accommodation in obsessive-compulsive disorder: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Thompson-Hollands, Johanna; Abramovitch, Amitai; Tompson, Martha C; Barlow, David H

    2015-03-01

    Accommodation consists of changes in family members' behavior to prevent or reduce patients' obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) rituals or distress. High levels of family accommodation are associated with more severe symptoms and functional impairment in patients, and may also interfere with exposure-based treatment. The purpose of this study was to develop and test an intervention to reduce accommodation in the family members of adult OCD patients. Patients (N=18, mean age=35.44, 33% male, 94% Caucasian) received a course of standard individual exposure and ritual prevention (ERP) for OCD. Family members (N=18, mean age=41.72, 56% male, 94% Caucasian) were randomized to either receive or not receive the adjunctive intervention, consisting of two sessions of psychoeducation and skills training in reducing accommodation. Results revealed that the intervention successfully reduced scores on the clinician-rated Family Accommodation Scale (Week 8: d=1.05). Patients whose family members received the intervention showed greater reductions in Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale scores across treatment than patients whose family members had not (Week 8: d=1.27), and hierarchical regression analyses revealed that change in family accommodation from baseline accounted for a significant amount of variance in later OCD symptoms (?=.45, p=.02). Results from this preliminary study suggest that adjunctive intervention produces more rapid treatment response compared with traditional ERP alone. Accommodation is a potentially important target for improving treatment in OCD and other diagnostic groups where accommodation is likely to occur. PMID:25645170

  3. Circulating lymphocyte subsets in obsessive compulsive disorder, major depression and normal controls

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arun V Ravindran; Jenna Griffiths; Zul Merali; Hymie Anisman

    1999-01-01

    Background: Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) shares several features with depressive illness (e.g., comorbidity, early escape from dexamethasone suppression, effectiveness of serotonergic pharmacotherapy). It was of interest to establish whether OCD, like major depression, was also associated with immune alterations, notably elevations of circulating natural killer (NK) cells. Method: Circulating lymphocytes were determined from morning blood samples taken from OCD and

  4. Thought-Action Fusion and Inflated Responsibility Beliefs in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Leary, Emily Marie; Rucklidge, Julia Jane; Blampied, Neville

    2009-01-01

    In obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), inflated responsibility (IR) beliefs and thought-action fusion (TAF) are two cognitive schema argued to contribute to obsessions and compulsions. We investigated whether IR and TAF are OCD-specific or whether they occur in other anxiety disorders. Adults diagnosed with OCD (n = 20) or other anxiety disorders…

  5. Obsessive compulsive disorder: A review of possible specific internal representations within a broader cognitive theory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guy Doron; Michael Kyrios

    2005-01-01

    Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) is one of the most incapacitating of anxiety disorders, and is rated as a leading cause of disability by the World Health Organization (1996). Current cognitive models of OCD have focused on beliefs and management strategies involved in the development, maintenance, and exacerbation of OCD. However, despite evidence of their association to psychopathology, few researchers have

  6. Reliability and validity of the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sheila R. Woody; Gail Steketee; Dianne L. Chambless

    1995-01-01

    The reliability and validity of the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale were examined according to a multi-trait multi-method approach in a sample of 54 outpatients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Internal consistency was acceptable but was improved by deletion of items concerning resistance to obsessions and compulsions. Inter-rater reliability was excellent, but test-retest reliability over an average interval of 48.5 days was lower

  7. Should Nonsuicidal Self-Injury Be a Putative Obsessive-Compulsive-Related Condition? A Critical Appraisal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dean McKay; Margaret S Andover

    2012-01-01

    Nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) has many behavioral and cognitive features that would make it appear to be closely tied to obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Obsessive-compulsive-related disorders (OCRDs) have been described in the literature as conditions that share a common phenomenology, neurobiology, and treatment response. The authors reviewed the literature describing the degree that NSSI is similar to, and distinct from, OCRDs based

  8. Brief report: exposure and response prevention for obsessive compulsive disorder in a 12-year-old with autism.

    PubMed

    Lehmkuhl, Heather D; Storch, Eric A; Bodfish, James W; Geffken, Gary R

    2008-05-01

    Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) involves exaggerated or excessive worry about threatening and non-threatening stimuli coupled with impairing rituals believed to reduce anxiety. Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) are characterized by impairment in social and communicative activities as well as restricted and repetitive behaviors. Approximately 2% of children with ASD are also diagnosed with OCD. Although there is extensive research demonstrating the effectiveness of behavioral interventions for pediatric OCD, little is known about how effective these treatments are for children who have a dual diagnosis of OCD and ASD. This report describes a 12-year-old male with Autism who was treated successfully with cognitive behavioral therapy with exposure and response prevention. This case study provides initial support that cognitive-behavioral therapy is effective in symptom reduction for children with comorbid autism and OCD. PMID:17885801

  9. [A review of the researches focusing on the heterogeneity of obsessive-compulsive disorder and its potential subtypes].

    PubMed

    Matsunaga, Hisato; Maebayashi, Kensei; Kiriike, Nobuo

    2008-01-01

    Recently, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is often conceptualized as a heterogeneous disorder. To verify and more fully understand this OCD heterogeneity, more homogeneous and potentially valid phenotypic methods are needed. If OCD subtypes can be characterized using distinct features of psychobiology, then this would account for the variance in clinical and neurobiological studies on biological markers, and would potentially impact on treatment strategies for each patient. Most of the work on OCD subtypes has taken a categorical approach. For instance, it has been suggested that some forms of OCD are etiologically related to tic disorders, and OCD with comorbid tics has been characterized by specific phenomenological, genetic, and neuro-imaging features and a differential treatment response. There have been other attempts to subdivide OCD categorically based on predominant compulsions (e.g., cleaning or checking), age at onset (e.g., early-or late-onset), gender, impulsive features, comorbidity, or insight. The dimensional approach regards OCD as being composed of sets of obsessive-compulsive symptom dimensions. In recent studies, factor analyses have provided consistent evidence that distinct obsessive-compulsive symptom dimensions exist, including obsessions/ checking, contamination/washing, symmetry/ordering, and hoarding. It has been hypothesized that each symptom dimension may be underpinned by a distinctive set of bio-behavioral mechanisms. Indeed, neuroimaging studies have suggested particular neural correlates for different symptom dimensions, and some genetic and family studies are also consistent with such a hypothesis. Further, symptom dimensions may predict treatment responses; for example, a higher hoarding dimension level has consistently been associated with a poorer treatment response to selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors and cognitive-behavioral therapy. However, the dimensional structure of OCD symptoms is still not definitive, and the further standardization of methodological and analytic processes is also required. Thus, the relevance and limitations of each approach still remain to be discussed, and there is probably not one but several heuristic strategies that can be employed to identify more homogeneous OCD subtypes, which, when combined, may be, the most reasonable and useful method. PMID:18464496

  10. Cognitive-behavioral family treatment for childhood obsessive-compulsive disorder: a 7-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    O'Leary, Emily Marie McHugh; Barrett, Paula; Fjermestad, Krister W

    2009-10-01

    This study evaluated the long-term durability of individual and group cognitive-behavioral family-based therapy (CBFT) for childhood obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Thirty-eight participants (age 13-24 years) from a randomized controlled trial of individual or group CBFT for childhood OCD were assessed 7 years post-treatment. Diagnostic, symptom severity interviews and self-report measures of OCD, anxiety, and depression were administered. Seven years after treatment, 79% of participants from individual therapy and 95% from group therapy had no diagnosis of OCD. These results are near identical to results found at 12 and 18 months follow-ups of the same sample. No significant differences were found between treatment conditions, self-reports of symptom severity, except that depressive symptoms were significantly more pronounced for individual treatment condition, and those in the older age group (19-24 years of age). Results suggest that CBFT for obsessive-compulsive disorder is effective 7 years post-treatment. PMID:19640677

  11. A comparative study of obsessive beliefs in obsessive-compulsive disorder, anxiety disorder patients and a normal group.

    PubMed

    Shams, Giti; Milosevic, Irena

    2015-05-01

    Cognitive models of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) posit that specific kinds of dysfunctional beliefs underlie the development of this disorder. The aim of present study was to determine whether these beliefs are endorsed more strongly by OCD patients than by those with other anxiety disorders and by community samples. A battery of questionnaires, including the OBQ-44, MOCI, BDI-II, BAI, STAI, used to assess obsessive-compulsive symptoms, depression and anxiety in 39 OCD patients (OC), 46 anxious patients (AC) and 41 community controls (CC). Compared to CCs and ACs, OC patients more strongly endorsed beliefs related to importance and control of thoughts. Both OC and AC patients scored higher than CC participants did on belief domains about responsibility/threat estimation and perfectionism/certainty. Therefore, the domain that seems to be specific to OCD is a set of beliefs that revolves around the contention that it is possible and necessary to control one's thoughts. Results regarding group differences on particular items of the OBQ-44 indicated that 21 items discriminated between the OC and CC groups and 7 items discriminated between the OC and AC groups, suggesting that these items are more specific to the OC group. Additional research warranted because it is plausible that these cognitive factors relate differently to OCD phenomena across different cultures. PMID:26024706

  12. A structural equation analysis of family accommodation in pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    PubMed

    Caporino, Nicole E; Morgan, Jessica; Beckstead, Jason; Phares, Vicky; Murphy, Tanya K; Storch, Eric A

    2012-01-01

    Family accommodation of symptoms is counter to the primary goals of cognitive-behavioral therapy for pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and can pose an obstacle to positive treatment outcomes. Although increased attention has been given to family accommodation in pediatric OCD, relatively little is known about associated child and parent characteristics, and their mediating/moderating effects. This study examined a structural equation model of parent and child variables related to parent reports of family accommodation. Sixty-one children with OCD (ages 6-17 years, 39% female) and their parents were recruited from a university-based clinic. They were administered clinician- and parent-rated measures of child OCD symptom severity, OCD-specific impairment, internalizing problems, and externalizing problems as well as parent anxiety, depression, empathy, consideration of future consequences, and accommodation. Results generally supported the hypothesized model. Family accommodation mediated the relationship between OCD symptom severity and parent-rated functional impairment; child internalizing problems mediated the relationship between parent anxiety and family accommodation; and parent empathy and consideration of future consequences interacted to predict family accommodation. Child externalizing problems were significantly associated with family accommodation but neither of these two variables was associated with parent depression. Findings suggest that reductions in family accommodation might be maximized by routinely screening for comorbid psychopathology in children with OCD and their parents, and using prescriptive or modular approaches to intervention. Directions for future research are discussed. PMID:21842196

  13. Treating obsessive-compulsive disorder in intimate relationships: a pilot study of couple-based cognitive-behavior therapy.

    PubMed

    Abramowitz, Jonathan S; Baucom, Donald H; Boeding, Sara; Wheaton, Michael G; Pukay-Martin, Nicole D; Fabricant, Laura E; Paprocki, Christine; Fischer, Melanie S

    2013-09-01

    Although cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) involving exposure and response prevention (ERP) is an established treatment for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), not all patients respond optimally, and some show relapse upon discontinuation. Research suggests that for OCD patients in close relationships, targeting relationship dynamics enhances the effects of CBT. In the present study, we developed and pilot tested a 16-session couple-based CBT program for patients with OCD and their romantic partners. This program included (a) partner-assisted ERP, (b) techniques targeting maladaptive relationship patterns focal to OCD (e.g., symptom accommodation), and (c) techniques targeting non OCD-related relationship stressors. OCD, related symptoms, and relationship functioning were assessed at baseline, immediately following treatment (posttest), and at 6- and 12-month follow-up. At posttest, substantial improvements in OCD symptoms, relationship functioning, and depression were observed. Improvements in OCD symptoms were maintained up to 1year. Results are compared to findings from studies of individual CBT for OCD and discussed in terms of the importance of addressing interpersonal processes that maintain OCD symptoms. PMID:23768667

  14. Obsessionality & compulsivity: a phenomenology of obsessive-compulsive disorder

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Progress in psychiatry depends on accurate definitions of disorders. As long as there are no known biologic markers available that are highly specific for a particular psychiatric disorder, clinical practice as well as scientific research is forced to appeal to clinical symptoms. Currently, the nosology of obsessive-compulsive disorder is being reconsidered in view of the publication of DSM-V. Since our diagnostic entities are often simplifications of the complicated clinical profile of patients, definitions of psychiatric disorders are imprecise and always indeterminate. This urges researchers and clinicians to constantly think and rethink well-established definitions that in psychiatry are at risk of being fossilised. In this paper, we offer an alternative view to the current definition of obsessive-compulsive disorder from a phenomenological perspective. Translation This article is translated from Dutch, originally published in [Handbook Obsessive-compulsive disorders, Damiaan Denys, Femke de Geus (Eds.), (2007). De Tijdstroom uitgeverij BV, Utrecht. ISBN13: 9789058980878.] PMID:21284843

  15. Increased Maintenance of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Remission after Integrated Serotonergic Treatment and Cognitive Psychotherapy Compared with Medication Alone

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Massimo Biondi; Angelo Picardi

    2005-01-01

    Background: Both medication and psychotherapy are effective in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). However, they both have disadvantages. We aimed at studying the long-term effectiveness of integrated treatment compared with medication alone. Methods: A private practice sample of 20 consecutive patients with OCD (DSM-III-R) who achieved remission or marked improvement [Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (YBOCS) score ?10 and Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF)

  16. Autism Spectrum and Obsessive–Compulsive Disorders: OC Behaviors, Phenotypes and Genetics

    PubMed Central

    Jacob, Suma; Landeros-Weisenberger, Angeli; Leckman, James F.

    2014-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are a phenotypically and etiologically heterogeneous set of disorders that include obsessive–compulsive behaviors (OCB) that partially overlap with symptoms associated with obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD). The OCB seen in ASD vary depending on the individual’s mental and chronological age as well as the etiology of their ASD. Although progress has been made in the measurement of the OCB associated with ASD, more work is needed including the potential identification of heritable endophenotypes. Likewise, important progress toward the understanding of genetic influences in ASD has been made by greater refinement of relevant phenotypes using a broad range of study designs, including twin and family-genetic studies, parametric and nonparametric linkage analyses, as well as candidate gene studies and the study of rare genetic variants. These genetic analyses could lead to the refinement of the OCB phenotypes as larger samples are studied and specific associations are replicated. Like ASD, OCB are likely to prove to be multidimensional and polygenic. Some of the vulnerability genes may prove to be generalist genes influencing the phenotypic expression of both ASD and OCD while others will be specific to subcomponents of the ASD phenotype. In order to discover molecular and genetic mechanisms, collaborative approaches need to generate shared samples, resources, novel genomic technologies, as well as more refined phenotypes and innovative statistical approaches. There is a growing need to identify the range of molecular pathways involved in OCB related to ASD in order to develop novel treatment interventions. PMID:20029829

  17. Obsessive–compulsive spectrum of disorders: a defensible construct?

    PubMed Central

    Castle, David J.; Phillips, Katharine A.

    2006-01-01

    Objective To explore critically whether there is a robust basis for the concept of an obsessive–compulsive (OC) spectrum of disorders, and if so, which disorders should be included. Method Selective literature review concentrating on three proposed members of the OC spectrum, namely body dysmorphic disorder, hypochondriasis and trichotillomania. Results Obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) itself is a heterogeneous condition or group of conditions, and this needs to be appreciated in any articulation of a ‘spectrum’ of OC disorders. The basis for ‘membership’ of the spectrum is inconsistent and varied, with varying level of support for inclusion in the putative spectrum. Conclusion A more fruitful approach may be to consider behaviours and dimensions in OCD and OC spectrum disorders, and that this should be encompassed in further developments of the OC spectrum model. PMID:16476128

  18. Clinical characteristics of comorbid obsessive-compulsive disorder and bipolar disorder in children and adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Gagan; Wozniak, Janet; Petty, Carter; Vivas, Fe; Yorks, Dayna; Biederman, Joseph; Geller, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Objective To explore bidirectional comorbidity between bipolar disorder (BPD) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) in youth and to examine the symptom profile and clinical correlates of both the disorders in the context of reciprocal comorbidity and ascertainment status. Methods Two samples of consecutively referred youth (ages 6–17 years) ascertained contemporaneously for respective studies of BPD and OCD were compared using clinical and scalar assessment and structured diagnostic interviews. Results A total of 21% (17/82) of the BPD subjects and 15% (19/125) of the OCD subjects met DSM-III-R diagnostic criteria for both disorders. In the presence of BPD, youth with OCD more frequently experienced hoarding/saving obsessions and compulsions along with a clinical profile of greater comorbidity, poorer global functioning and higher rate of hospitalization that is characteristic of BPD. Multiple anxiety disorders (?3), especially generalized anxiety disorder and social phobia, were present at a higher frequency when OCD and BPD were comorbid than otherwise. In subjects with comorbid OCD and BPD, the primary disorder of ascertainment was associated with an earlier onset and more severe impairment. Conclusions An unexpectedly high rate of comorbidity between BPD and OCD was observed in youth irrespective of primary ascertainment diagnosis. In youth with comorbid OCD and BPD, the clinical characteristics of each disorder run true and are analogues to their clinical presentation in youth without reciprocal comorbidity, with the exception of increased risk for obsessions and compulsions of hoarding/saving and comorbidity with other anxiety disorders. PMID:20402711

  19. Corpus callosal morphology in treatment-naive pediatric obsessive compulsive disorder.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, D R; Keshavan, M S; Dick, E L; Bagwell, W W; MacMaster, F P; Birmaher, B

    1997-11-01

    1. Abnormalities in association circuits have been described in Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) and may reflect neurodevelopmental abnormalities. Primary and association cortices are topographically mapped in the corpus callosum (CC). The authors hypothesized alterations in CC subdivisions that connect association, but not primary cortices in pediatric OCD. The authors predicted that normal age-related increases in CC area would be absent in OCD. 2. The authors compared the midsagittal magnetic resonance images of 21 psychotropic-naive, nondepressed OCD patients, 7.2-17.7 years, and 21 case-matched healthy controls. Total CC area as well as that of the anterior, middle and posterior genu, anterior and posterior bodies, isthmus, and the anterior, middle and the posterior splenii were measured. 3. All of the CC regions except the isthmus were significantly larger in OCD patients than in controls. CC area correlated significantly with OCD symptom severity but not illness duration. The age-related increase in CC size seen in normal subjects was absent in OCD patients. 4. These findings support theories of abnormal association cortex development in OCD but also suggest possible abnormalities of other primary cortical regions as well. PMID:9460091

  20. Probing striatal function in obsessive-compulsive disorder: a PET study of implicit sequence learning.

    PubMed

    Rauch, S L; Savage, C R; Alpert, N M; Dougherty, D; Kendrick, A; Curran, T; Brown, H D; Manzo, P; Fischman, A J; Jenike, M A

    1997-01-01

    Positron emission tomography was employed to contrast the brain activation pattern in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) to that of matched control subjects while they performed an implicit learning task. Although patients and control subjects evidenced comparable learning, imaging data from control subjects indicated bilateral inferior striatal activation, whereas OCD patients did not activate right or left inferior striatum and instead showed bilateral medial temporal activation. The findings further implicate corticostriatal dysfunction in obsessive-compulsive disorder. Furthermore, when OCD patients are confronted with stimuli that call for recruitment of corticostriatal systems, they instead appear to access brain regions normally associated with explicit (conscious) information processing. PMID:9447498

  1. Sleep and Quality of Life in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alain Nicolas

    Patients suffering from obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) scarcely complain primarily of insomnia. However, sleep disturbance\\u000a is very common in this population as shown by epidemiological and polysomnographic studies. Clinical psychiatrists have to\\u000a check for sleep disruptions through a careful medical history of the patient. Special attention will be paid to patients with\\u000a checking of washing rituals who can delay their sleep

  2. Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James C. Overholser

    1999-01-01

    Cognitive-behavioral therapy can be effective for many clients who have obsessive-compulsive disorder. Despite its effectiveness, many treatment guidelines fail to describe cognitive-behavioral therapy procedures in adequate detail. The present paper will review the literature on cognitive-behavioral therapy for OCD in an attempt to provide concise, meaningful guidelines for the psychological treatment of this disorder. Cognitive-behavioral therapy includes four general components:

  3. Perfectionism and Treatment Outcome in Obsessive-compulsive Disorder

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Heather M. Chik; Maureen L. Whittal; Melanie L. O’Neill

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between perfectionism, as measured by the Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale (MPS;\\u000a [R. O. Frost et al. (1990) Cognitive Therapy and Research, 14, 449–468], and treatment outcome in obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). Patients (n = 118) participated in group [McLean et al. (2001) Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 69, 205–214] or individual [Whittal et al. (2005) Behaviour Research and Therapy, 43,

  4. The Neural Bases of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder in Children and Adults

    PubMed Central

    Maia, Tiago V.; Cooney, Rebecca E.; Peterson, Bradley S.

    2011-01-01

    Functional imaging studies have reported with remarkable consistency hyperactivity in the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), and caudate nucleus of patients with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD). These findings have often been interpreted as evidence that abnormalities in cortico-basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical loops involving the OFC and ACC are causally related to OCD. This interpretation remains controversial, however, because such hyperactivity may represent either a cause or a consequence of the symptoms. This article analyzes the evidence for a causal role of these loops in producing OCD in children and adults. The article first reviews the strong evidence for anatomical abnormalities in these loops in patients with OCD. These findings are not sufficient to establish causality, however, because anatomical alterations may themselves be a consequence rather than a cause of the symptoms. The article then reviews three lines of evidence that, despite their own limitations, permit stronger causal inferences: the development of OCD following brain injury, pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infection, and neurosurgical lesions that attenuate OCD. Converging evidence from these various lines of research supports a causal role for the cortico-basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical loops that involve the OFC and ACC in the pathogenesis of OCD in children and adults. PMID:18838041

  5. Genetics of obsessive-compulsive disorder and related disorders.

    PubMed

    Browne, Heidi A; Gair, Shannon L; Scharf, Jeremiah M; Grice, Dorothy E

    2014-09-01

    Twin and family studies support a significant genetic contribution to obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and related disorders, such as chronic tic disorders, trichotillomania, skin-picking disorder, body dysmorphic disorder, and hoarding disorder. Recently, population-based studies and novel laboratory-based methods have confirmed substantial heritability in OCD. Genome-wide association studies and candidate gene association studies have provided information on specific gene variations that may be involved in the pathobiology of OCD, though a substantial portion of the genetic risk architecture remains unknown. PMID:25150565

  6. Neuronal antibody biomarkers for Sydenham's chorea identify a new group of children with chronic recurrent episodic acute exacerbations of tic and obsessive compulsive symptoms following a streptococcal infection.

    PubMed

    Singer, Harvey S; Mascaro-Blanco, Adda; Alvarez, Kathy; Morris-Berry, Christina; Kawikova, Ivana; Ben-Pazi, Hilla; Thompson, Carol B; Ali, Syed F; Kaplan, Edward L; Cunningham, Madeleine W

    2015-01-01

    Several autoantibodies (anti-dopamine 1 (D1R) and 2 (D2R) receptors, anti-tubulin, anti-lysoganglioside-GM1) and antibody-mediated activation of calcium calmodulin dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) signaling activity are elevated in children with Sydenham's chorea (SC). Recognizing proposed clinical and autoimmune similarities between SC and PANDAS (pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorder associated with a streptococcal infection), we sought to identify serial biomarker changes in a slightly different population. Antineuronal antibodies were measured in eight children (mean 11.3 years) with chronic, dramatic, recurrent tics and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) associated with a group A ?-hemolytic streptococcal (GABHS) respiratory tract infection, but differing because they lacked choreiform movements. Longitudinal serum samples in most subjects included two pre-exacerbation samples, Exac), one midst Exac (abrupt recurrence of tic/OCD; temporally association with a GABHS infection in six of eight subjects), and two post-Exac. Controls included four groups of unaffected children (n = 70; mean 10.8 years) obtained at four different institutions and published controls. Clinical exacerbations were not associated with a significant rise in antineuronal antibody titers. CaMKII activation was increased at the GABHS exacerbation point in 5/6 subjects, exceeded combined and published control's 95th percentile at least once in 7/8 subjects, and median values were elevated at each time point. Anti-tubulin and anti-D2R titers did not differ from published or combined control group's 95th percentile or median values. Differences in anti-lysoganglioside-GM1 and anti-D1R titers were dependent on the selected control. Variances in antibody titers and CaMKII activation were identified among the institutional control groups. Based on comparisons to published studies, results identify two groups of PANDAS: 1) a cohort, represented by this study, which lacks choreiform movements and elevated antibodies against D2R; 2) the originally reported group with choreiform movements and elevated anti-D2R antibodies, similar to SC. Increased antibody mediated CaMKII activation was found in both groups and requires further study as a potential biomarker. PMID:25793715

  7. Information Processing and Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: Comorbidity of Delusions, Overvalued Ideas, and Schizophrenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKay, Dean; McKiernan, Kevin

    2005-01-01

    Schizophrenia, in conjunction with obsessive-compulsive symptoms, presents significant barriers to treatment. This is true even if the obsessive-compulsive symptoms would ordinarily be considered straightforward for cognitive-behavioral treatment. These many limitations in treatment are considered here in light of the information processing…

  8. Early-onset obsessive–compulsive disorder and personality disorders in adulthood

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Giuseppe Maina; Umberto Albert; Virginio Salvi; Enrico Pessina; Filippo Bogetto

    2008-01-01

    Obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) often emerges in childhood or adolescence. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether adult patients with prepuberal onset differ from subjects with later onset in terms of personality disorder comorbidity. The Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis II Disorders was used to assess 148 patients with a principal diagnosis of OCD according to the

  9. Changes in personality disorders following behavior therapy for obsessive-compulsive disorder

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dean McKay; Fugen Neziroglu; John Todaro; Jose A. Yaryura-Tobias

    1996-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the effect of behavior therapy on personality disorders when treatment focused on an Axis I diagnosis of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Twenty-one patients diagnosed with OCD participated. At pretest, the mean number of personality disorders was approximately four, whereas the posttest number was approximately three. Analyses suggest that this change, although apparently small, is clinically

  10. Dysfunctional brain circuitry in obsessive–compulsive disorder: Source and coherence analysis of EEG rhythms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Svetla Velikova; Marco Locatelli; Chiara Insacco; Enrico Smeraldi; Giancarlo Comi; Letizia Leocani

    2010-01-01

    BackgroundMorphological and functional studies suggested involvement of several cortical and subcortical circuitries in patients with obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD). The aim of the present study was to investigate networks involved in OCD pathophysiology, using power (coupling of EEG bands, low-resolution electromagnetic tomography—LORETA) and coherence analysis in drug naïve patients.

  11. Local-Global Processing in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder and Comorbid Tourette's Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rankins, D.; Bradshaw, J. L.; Georgiou-Karistianis, N.

    2005-01-01

    Neuropsychological and neuroimaging studies implicate attentional difficulties in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), but results are inconsistent due possibly to sample heterogeneity and lack of control of comorbid disorders, such as Tourette's syndrome (TS). Nevertheless, it has been suggested that OCD symptomatology may be a result of…

  12. Obsessive compulsive disorder, response to serotonin reuptake inhibitors and the serotonin transporter gene

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E A Billett; M A Richter; N King; A Heils; K P Lesch; J L Kennedy

    1997-01-01

    Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) is a common illness, characterized by anxiety- provoking thoughts and the need to perform rituals. OCD is most commonly treated with a class of pharmacological agents known as serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SRIs). SRIs block the reuptake of serotonin (5-HT) into the presynaptic neuron, a process mediated by the serotonin transporter (5-HTT). The successful use of SRIs

  13. A School-Based Treatment Model for Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sloman, Glenn M.; Gallant, Jason; Storch, Eric A.

    2007-01-01

    School psychologists have expertise in the realm of school-based assessment and intervention for behavioral, educational, and psychological difficulties. Recent evidence indicates that many school psychologists lack evidenced based knowledge about assessment and treatment of pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD). Pediatric OCD is a…

  14. An Autistic Dimension: A Proposed Subtype of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bejerot, Susanne

    2007-01-01

    This article focuses on the possibility that autism spectrum disorder (ASD: Asperger syndrome, autism and atypical autism) in its milder forms may be clinically important among a substantial proportion of patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and discusses OCD subtypes based on this proposition. The hypothesis derives from extensive…

  15. Parent-Child Agreement in the Assessment of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canavera, Kristin E.; Wilkins, Kendall C.; Pincus, Donna B.; Ehrenreich-May, Jill T.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to extend research regarding parent-child agreement in the assessment of anxiety disorders to include youth with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Ninety-three children and adolescents with OCD (50 female, 43 male), ages 6 to 17 years, and their parents were administered the Anxiety Disorders Interview…

  16. Patient Adherence Predicts Outcome from Cognitive Behavioral Therapy in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Helen Blair; Maher, Michael J.; Wang, Yuanjia; Bao, Yuanyuan; Foa, Edna B.; Franklin, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine the effects of patient adherence on outcome from exposure and response prevention (EX/RP) therapy in adults with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Method: Thirty adults with OCD were randomized to EX/RP (n = 15) or EX/RP augmented by motivational interviewing strategies (n = 15). Both treatments included 3 introductory…

  17. Cognitive Inflexibility and Frontal-Cortical Activation in Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Britton, Jennifer C.; Rauch, Scott L.; Rosso, Isabelle M.; Killgore, William D. S.; Price, Lauren M.; Ragan, Jennifer; Chosak, Anne; Hezel, Dianne M.; Pine, Daniel S.; Leibenluft, Ellen; Pauls, David L.; Jenike, Michael A.; Stewart, S. Evelyn

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Deficits in cognitive flexibility and response inhibition have been linked to perturbations in cortico-striatal-thalamic circuitry in adult obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Although similar cognitive deficits have been identified in pediatric OCD, few neuroimaging studies have been conducted to examine its neural correlates in the…

  18. Using Motivational Interviewing to Enhance Treatment Outcome in People with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Helen Blair; Zuckoff, Allan

    2011-01-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a leading cause of health-related disability. There are two evidence-based treatments for OCD, pharmacotherapy and cognitive-behavioral therapy consisting of exposure and response prevention (EX/RP). Although effective, outcome from both treatments is often limited by patient lack of adherence to the…

  19. Clinical Considerations when Tailoring Cognitive Behavioral Treatment for Young Children with Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choate-Summers, Molly L.; Freeman, Jennifer B.; Garcia, Abbe M.; Coyne, Lisa; Przeworski, Amy; Leonard, Henrietta L.

    2008-01-01

    Research on the effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral therapy, and in particular, exposure with response prevention for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD), has only been systematically evaluated in children and adolescents ages 7-17. These treatments do not address the unique characteristics of young children with OCD. This paper discusses…

  20. Repetitive Behaviour in Children with High Functioning Autism and Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zandt, Fiona; Prior, Margot; Kyrios, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) and children with Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) were compared on a range of repetitive behaviours. Parents reported similar levels of sameness behaviour and repetitive movements in the clinical groups, although children with OCD engaged in more repetitive behaviour focussed around routines and…

  1. Treating Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder and Schizophrenia: The Case of Sam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peasley-Miklus, Catherine; Massie, Elise; Baslett, Gaston; Carmin, Cheryl

    2005-01-01

    This article describes the case of Sam, a 22-year-old male with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and schizophrenia. The patient's background, the development and characteristics of his OCD and schizophrenia, and the history of what became a rather complicated treatment are described. In addition, four problem areas of therapy are identified.

  2. Rage Attacks in Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: Phenomenology and Clinical Correlates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Storch, Eric A.; Jones, Anna M.; Lack, Caleb W.; Ale, Chelsea M.; Sulkowski, Michael L.; Lewin, Adam B.; De Nadai, Alessandro S.; Murphy, Tanya K.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Rage attacks have been documented in youth with varied psychiatric disorders, but few data have been reported on the clinical characteristics and correlates of rage attacks among children with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Method: Participants were 86 children (ages 6-16 years) with a primary diagnosis of OCD. Patients and their…

  3. Meta-Analysis of Randomized, Controlled Treatment Trials for Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Hunna J.; Rees, Clare S.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To conduct a meta-analysis on randomized, controlled treatment trials of pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Method: Studies were included if they employed randomized, controlled methodology and treated young people (19 years or under) with OCD. A comprehensive literature search identified 13 RCTs containing 10…

  4. Obsessive-compulsive disorder across developmental trajectory: Cognitive processing of threat in children, adolescents and adults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lara Farrell; Paula Barrett

    2006-01-01

    Background. While the cognitive theory of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is one of the most widely accepted accounts of the maintenance of the disorder in adults, no study to date has systematically evaluated the theory across children, adolescence and adults with OCD. Method. This paper investigated developmental differences in the cognitive processing of threat in a sample of children, adolescents and

  5. Cognitive Deficits in Obsessive–Compulsive Disorder on Tests of Frontal–Striatal Function

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rosemary Purcell; Paul Maruff; Michael Kyrios; Christos Pantelis

    1998-01-01

    Background: Although neuropsychological and neuroimaging studies of obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) have implicated the frontal cortex and subcortical structures in the pathophysiology of the disorder, few studies have examined cognitive function in patients with OCD on tasks validated in the assessment of frontal lobe and subcortical dysfunction.Methods: The accuracy and latency of executive and visual memory function was assessed in 23

  6. Orbital Frontal and Amygdala Volume Reductions in Obsessive-compulsive Disorder

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Philip R. Szeszko; Delbert Robinson; Jose Ma; J. Alvir; Robert M. Bilder; Todd Lencz; Manzar Ashtari; Houwei Wu; Bernhard Bogerts

    1999-01-01

    Background: Functional neuroimaging studies have implicated the frontal lobes and the hippocampus- amygdala complex in the pathophysiology of obsessive- compulsive disorder (OCD). These brain regions have not been well investigated in patients with OCD, how- ever, using magnetic resonance imaging. Methods: Volumes of the superior frontal gyrus, ante- rior cingulate gyrus, orbital frontal region, hippocampus, and amygdala were computed from

  7. Neuropsychology of obsessive-compulsive disorder: a review and treatment implications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Scott Greisberg; Dean McKay

    2003-01-01

    The existing literature examining neuropsychological features of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is reviewed. The accumulated research points to a deficit in organizational strategies in general, suggesting problems in executive functioning. The available research is inconsistent in identifying memory deficits in OCD. However, memory problems are most evident when tests are used that require an implicit organizational strategy. While the majority of

  8. Error-Related Negativity and Tic History in Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanna, Gregory L.; Carrasco, Melisa; Harbin, Shannon M.; Nienhuis, Jenna K.; LaRosa, Christina E.; Chen, Poyu; Fitzgerald, Kate D.; Gehring, William J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The error-related negativity (ERN) is a negative deflection in the event-related potential after an incorrect response, which is often increased in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). However, the relation of the ERN to comorbid tic disorders has not been examined in patients with OCD. This study compared ERN amplitudes…

  9. Ethnic Identification Biases Responses to the Padua Inventory for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Monnica; Turkheimer, Eric; Schmidt, Karen; Oltmanns, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    The authors report differential item functioning (DIF) between Black and White participants completing the 60-item Padua Inventory (PI) for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The authors use an Internet-generated sample that included 105 Blacks, 67 Hispanics, 582 Whites, and 136 additional participants reporting an OCD diagnosis. Factor analysis…

  10. Is Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder a Disturbance of Security Motivation? Comment on Szechtman and Woody (2004)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven Taylor; Dean McKay; Jonathan S. Abramowitz

    2005-01-01

    H. Szechtman and E. Woody (2004) proposed that obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is caused by a malfunctioning brain security motivation system. In the current article, the authors' review of the model suggests that it is limited in the following ways: (a) It is built on a selective review of the empirical literature, (b) it offers no explanation for many important OCD

  11. High ceruloplasmin levels are associated with obsessive compulsive disorder: a case control study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Osman Virit; Salih Selek; Mahmut Bulut; Haluk Asuman Savas; Hakim Celik; Ozcan Erel; Hasan Herken

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Alterations in ceruloplasmin are currently assumed as one of the mechanisms underlying the development of a number of neurodegenerative disorders. Several studies indicate that elevated serum ceruloplasmin levels may play a role in schizophrenia by exacerbating or perpetuating dopaminergic dysregulation. No study investigating the relationship between ceruloplasmin and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has been published to date. Nowadays OCD is

  12. Optimizing Treatment for Complex Cases of Childhood Obsessive Compulsive Disorder: A Preliminary Trial

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tara S. Peris; John Piacentini

    2012-01-01

    Family factors such as conflict, blame, and poor cohesion have been found to attenuate response to cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) for pediatric obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). This study examined the feasibility and acceptability of a brief, personalized intervention for cases of pediatric OCD complicated by these family features. Twenty youth with a primary Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders

  13. Obsessive Beliefs Predict Cognitive Behavior Therapy Outcome for Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas G. Adams Jr; Bradley C. Riemann; Chad T. Wetterneck; Josh M. Cisler

    2012-01-01

    Cognitive accounts of obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) assert that core beliefs are crucial to the development, maintenance, and treatment of the disorder. There are a number of obsessive beliefs that are considered fundamental to OCD, including personal responsibility, threat estimation, perfectionism, need for certainty, importance of thoughts, and thought control. The present study investigated if pretreatment severity of obsessive beliefs,

  14. Search for copy number variants in chromosomes 15q11-q13 and 22q11.2 in obsessive compulsive disorder

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a clinically and etiologically heterogeneous syndrome. The high frequency of obsessive-compulsive symptoms reported in subjects with the 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (DiGeorge/velocardiofacial syndrome) or Prader-Willi syndrome (15q11-13 deletion of the paternally derived chromosome), suggests that gene dosage effects in these chromosomal regions could increase risk for OCD. Therefore, the aim of this study was to search for microrearrangements in these two regions in OCD patients. Methods We screened the 15q11-13 and 22q11.2 chromosomal regions for genomic imbalances in 236 patients with OCD using multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA). Results No deletions or duplications involving 15q11-13 or 22q11.2 were identified in our patients. Conclusions Our results suggest that deletions/duplications of chromosomes 15q11-13 and 22q11.2 are rare in OCD. Despite the negative findings in these two regions, the search for copy number variants in OCD using genome-wide array-based methods is a highly promising approach to identify genes of etiologic importance in the development of OCD. PMID:20565924

  15. CATATONIA IN OBSESSIVE COMPULSIVE DISORDER

    PubMed Central

    Jagadheesan, K.; Nizamie, Haque S.; Thakur, Anupam

    2002-01-01

    Catatonia occurs in a wide range of neuropsychiatric conditions. Among the psychiatric disorders, occurrence of catatonia has rarely been documented in obsessive-complsive disorder. Given the paucity of reports, we report two cases of obsessive compulsive disorder that presented as catatonia. PMID:21206567

  16. Management of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martine A. Bouvard; Maud Milliery; Jean Cottraux

    2004-01-01

    The patient is a 35-year-old married woman with an obsessive compulsive disorder. She had a 21-year history of obsessive thoughts and ritualistic behaviors including compulsive checking which had become persistent since the birth of her first child. There is no evidence of comorbidity, except for a mild generalized anxiety disorder. She wants to know which treatment is right for her

  17. Obsessive-compulsive disorder apparently related to abortion.

    PubMed

    McCraw, R K

    1989-04-01

    This case study presents a young woman who developed a severe obsessive-compulsive disorder after a routine medical procedure. It is suggested that this procedure brought back repressed guilt from three abortions and thus led to the onset of symptoms. The case is discussed in relationship to available research and theory. PMID:2751012

  18. Brief Treatment of the Symptomatic Obsessive-Compulsive Style.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Thomas V.

    The poor self-image of many collegiate high achievers is due to the development of an obsessive-compulsive personality. Typical of this psychological maladjustment is the concept that external achievements are directly related to internal personal worth in a linear and absolute fashion. Characteristic symptoms include physical as well as emotional…

  19. Substance Use Disorders in an Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Clinical Sample

    PubMed Central

    Mancebo, Maria C.; Grant, Jon E.; Pinto, Anthony; Eisen, Jane L.; Rasmussen, Steven A.

    2009-01-01

    The prevalence and clinical correlates of substance use disorders (SUDs) were examined in a clinical sample of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD). As part of their intake interview into an observational study of the course of OCD, 323 participants completed a battery of standardized measures. Twenty-seven percent of the sample met lifetime criteria for a SUD. 70% of participants with comorbid SUDs reported that OCD preceded SUD onset by at least one year. Younger age at OCD onset and presence of Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) were each associated with increased risk of alcohol use disorders but only BPD was associated with increased risk of drug use disorders. SUDs affect more than one-quarter of individuals who seek treatment for OCD. Individuals with a juvenile-onset of OCD or comorbid BPD may be especially vulnerable to SUDs. Further research is needed to identify risk factors for SUDs and to better understand their impact on OCD course. PMID:18954963

  20. Strategic processing and episodic memory impairment in obsessive compulsive disorder.

    PubMed

    Savage, C R; Deckersbach, T; Wilhelm, S; Rauch, S L; Baer, L; Reid, T; Jenike, M A

    2000-01-01

    There is evidence that nonverbal memory problems in obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) are mediated by impaired strategic processing. Although many studies have found verbal memory to be normal in OCD, these studies did not use tests designed to stress organizational strategies. This study examined verbal and nonverbal memory performance in 33 OCD patients and 30 normal control participants with the Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test and the California Verbal Learning Test. OCD patients were impaired on verbal and nonverbal measures of organizational strategy and free recall. Multiple regression modeling indicated that free recall problems in OCD were mediated by impaired organizational strategies used during learning trials. Therefore, verbal and nonverbal episodic memory deficits in OCD are affected by impaired strategic processing. Results are consistent with neurobiological models proposing frontal-striatal system dysfunction in OCD. PMID:10674806

  1. Developmental Aspects of Error and High-Conflict-Related Brain Activity in Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: A FMRI Study with a Flanker Task before and after CBT

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huyser, Chaim; Veltman, Dick J.; Wolters, Lidewij H.; de Haan, Else; Boer, Frits

    2011-01-01

    Background: Heightened error and conflict monitoring are considered central mechanisms in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and are associated with anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) function. Pediatric obsessive-compulsive patients provide an opportunity to investigate the development of this area and its associations with psychopathology.…

  2. Artificial neural network model for the prediction of obsessive-compulsive disorder treatment response.

    PubMed

    Salomoni, Giuliana; Grassi, Massimiliano; Mosini, Paola; Riva, Patrizia; Cavedini, Paolo; Bellodi, Laura

    2009-08-01

    Several patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) who are refractory to adequate treatment with first-line treatments are considered treatment-resistant. Further surveys were to be implemented to explore the outcome predictors of the antiobsessional response. Such study was aimed at building a model suitable to predict the final outcome of a mixed OCD pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic treatment approaches. We studied 130 subjects with OCD who underwent pharmacologic (with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors alone or with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and risperidone at low dosage) and/or behavioral therapy (using exposure and response prevention techniques). The following variables were used as predictors: symptoms dimension, as resulting from the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale items factor analysis; neuropsychologic performances; and epidemiologic variables. The treatment response arising from 3 to 6 months of therapy was used as dependent variable. A conventional logistic regression was used to define a previsional model of treatment response and multilayer perceptrons and to supervise an artificial neural network technique. The 46.9% of the sample resulted to be refractory to treatment. Results obtained with the logistic regression model showed that the only predictors of treatment outcome are hoarding symptoms, repeating rituals, and counting compulsions. Furthermore, using all the variables considered in the models, multilayer perceptrons showed highly better predictive performance as compared with the logistic regression models (93.3% vs 61.5%, respectively, of correct classification of cases). Complex interactions between different clinical and neuropsychologic variables are involved in defining OCD treatment response profile, and nonlinear and interactive modeling strategies, that is, supervised artificial neural networks, seem to be more suitable to investigate this complexity than linear techniques. PMID:19593173

  3. An examination of the common and unique processes associated with early symptom change as a function of cognitive therapy for avoidant and obsessive-compulsive personality disorders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jamie Lewis-Smith

    2007-01-01

    Personality disorders are chronic, inflexible, and maladaptive patterns of thoughts, emotions, and behaviors that impact almost every aspect of an individual's life. The disorders found within Cluster C of the DSM-IV Axis II are especially prevalent in outpatient psychotherapy samples, and avoidant and obsessive-compulsive personality disorders (AVPD and OCPD, respectively) have been reported to be among the most frequently occurring

  4. Efficacy of cognitive-behavioral therapy for obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    PubMed

    McKay, Dean; Sookman, Debbie; Neziroglu, Fugen; Wilhelm, Sabine; Stein, Dan J; Kyrios, Michael; Matthews, Keith; Veale, David

    2015-05-30

    Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), which encompasses exposure with response prevention (ERP) and cognitive therapy (CT), has demonstrated efficacy in the treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). However, the samples studied (reflecting the heterogeneity of OCD), the interventions examined (reflecting the heterogeneity of CBT), and the definitions of treatment response vary considerably across studies. This review examined the meta-analyses conducted on ERP and cognitive therapy (CT) for OCD. Also examined was the available research on long-term outcome associated with ERP and CT. The available research indicates that ERP is the first line evidence based psychotherapeutic treatment for OCD and that concurrent administration of cognitive therapy that targets specific symptom-related difficulties characteristic of OCD may improve tolerance of distress, symptom-related dysfunctional beliefs, adherence to treatment, and reduce drop out. Recommendations are provided for treatment delivery for OCD in general practice and other service delivery settings. The literature suggests that ERP and CT may be delivered in a wide range of clinical settings. Although the data are not extensive, the available research suggests that treatment gains following ERP are durable. Suggestions for future research to refine therapeutic outcome are also considered. PMID:25937054

  5. Challenges using motivational interviewing as an adjunct to exposure therapy for obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Helen Blair; Zuckoff, Allan M; Maher, Michael J; Page, Jessica R; Franklin, Martin E; Foa, Edna B; Schmidt, Andrew B; Wang, Yuanjia

    2010-10-01

    Exposure and response prevention (EX/RP) is an efficacious treatment for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). However, patients often do not adhere fully to EX/RP procedures. Motivational interviewing (MI) has been shown to improve treatment adherence in other disorders. This pilot study used a randomized controlled design to examine whether MI can be successfully added to EX/RP and whether this intervention (EX/RP+MI) could improve patient adherence to between-session EX/RP procedures relative to EX/RP alone. Thirty adults with OCD were randomized to 18 sessions of EX/RP or EX/RP+MI. Therapists rated patient adherence at each exposure session. Independent evaluators assessed change in OCD and depressive symptoms, and patients completed self-report measures of readiness for change and quality of life. The two treatment conditions differed in degree of congruence with MI but not in conduct of EX/RP procedures. Both groups experienced clinically significant improvement in OCD symptoms, without significant group differences in patient adherence. There are several possible reasons why EX/RP+MI had no effect on patient adherence compared to standard EX/RP, each of which has important implications for the design of future MI studies in OCD. We recommend that MI be further evaluated in OCD by exploring alternative modes of delivery and by focusing on patients less ready for change than the current sample. PMID:20609435

  6. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and to slowly but surely conquer OCD. What's Behavior Therapy Like? Lots of mental health specialists, psychiatrists, ... it. When kids practice what they learn in behavior therapy, they find out it actually works! Kids ...

  7. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    MedlinePLUS

    ... have OCD, you have frequent, upsetting thoughts called obsessions. To try to control the thoughts, you feel ... or behaviors. These are called compulsions. Examples of obsessions are a fear of germs or a fear ...

  8. DSM-5 obsessive-compulsive and related disorders: clinical implications of new criteria.

    PubMed

    Van Ameringen, Michael; Patterson, Beth; Simpson, William

    2014-06-01

    For the publication of DSM-5, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) was the subject of significant revisions to its classification and diagnostic criteria. One of these significant changes was the placement of OCD in a new category, "Obsessive-Compulsive and Related Disorders (OCRDs)," which also includes body dysmorphic disorder (BDD), trichotillomania (hair-pulling disorder), excoriation (skin-picking) disorder, hoarding disorder, substance/medication-induced OCRD, OCRD due to another medical condition, and other specified OCRDs. Changes in the diagnostic criteria and grouping of these disorders may have significant clinical implications, and will be reviewed in this article. PMID:24616177

  9. The comparative effectiveness of treatments for obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    PubMed

    Greist, J H

    1998-01-01

    With the exception of neurosurgery, treatments for obsessive-compulsive disorder were largely ineffective until 1996. That year, clomipramine became available and the first article describing modern behavior therapy was published. Potent serotonin reuptake inhibitors and behavior therapy involving exposure and ritual prevention have been established as the cornerstones of effective treatment for obsessive-compulsive disorder. Methods for optimizing effectiveness of these two main modalities are more widely recognized, although overdosing may hamper effective pharmacotherapy. The comparative efficacies of pharmacotherapy and behavior therapy remain in dispute, although all meta-analyses have identified behavior therapy as more effective both in terms of magnitude of improvement short term and lasting gains long term. Finally, neurosurgery still merits consideration for the tiny minority of patients who are incapacitated by OCD and unresponsive to serotonin reuptake inhibitors and behavior therapy. PMID:9810778

  10. Predictors of Parental Accommodation in Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: Findings from the Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Treatment Study (POTS) Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flessner, Christopher A.; Freeman, Jennifer B.; Sapyta, Jeffrey; Garcia, Abbe; Franklin, Martin E.; March, John S.; Foa, Edna

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Few studies have examined predictors of parental accommodation (assessed with the Family Accommodation Scale-Parent Report) among families of children with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). No studies have examined this phenomenon using empirically derived subscales of the Family Accommodation Scale-Parent Report (i.e., Caregiver…

  11. Slitrk5 deficiency impairs corticostriatal circuitry and leads to obsessive-compulsive–like behaviors in mice

    PubMed Central

    Shmelkov, Sergey V; Hormigo, Adília; Jing, Deqiang; Proenca, Catia C; Bath, Kevin G; Milde, Till; Shmelkov, Evgeny; Kushner, Jared S; Baljevic, Muhamed; Dincheva, Iva; Murphy, Andrew J; Valenzuela, David M; Gale, Nicholas W; Yancopoulos, George D; Ninan, Ipe; Lee, Francis S; Rafii, Shahin

    2010-01-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a common psychiatric disorder defined by the presence of obsessive thoughts and repetitive compulsive actions, and it often encompasses anxiety and depressive symptoms1,2. Recently, the corticostriatal circuitry has been implicated in the pathogenesis of OCD3,4. However, the etiology, pathophysiology and molecular basis of OCD remain unknown. Several studies indicate that the pathogenesis of OCD has a genetic component5–8. Here we demonstrate that loss of a neuron-specific transmembrane protein, SLIT and NTRK-like protein-5 (Slitrk5), leads to OCD-like behaviors in mice, which manifests as excessive self-grooming and increased anxiety-like behaviors, and is alleviated by the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor fluoxetine. Slitrk5?/? mice show selective overactivation of the orbitofrontal cortex, abnormalities in striatal anatomy and cell morphology and alterations in glutamate receptor composition, which contribute to deficient corticostriatal neurotransmission. Thus, our studies identify Slitrk5 as an essential molecule at corticostriatal synapses and provide a new mouse model of OCD-like behaviors. PMID:20418887

  12. Prediction of remission in obsessive compulsive disorder using a novel machine learning strategy.

    PubMed

    Askland, Kathleen D; Garnaat, Sarah; Sibrava, Nicholas J; Boisseau, Christina L; Strong, David; Mancebo, Maria; Greenberg, Benjamin; Rasmussen, Steve; Eisen, Jane

    2015-06-01

    The study objective was to apply machine learning methodologies to identify predictors of remission in a longitudinal sample of 296 adults with a primary diagnosis of obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). Random Forests is an ensemble machine learning algorithm that has been successfully applied to large-scale data analysis across vast biomedical disciplines, though rarely in psychiatric research or for application to longitudinal data. When provided with 795 raw and composite scores primarily from baseline measures, Random Forest regression prediction explained 50.8% (5000-run average, 95% bootstrap confidence interval [CI]: 50.3-51.3%) of the variance in proportion of time spent remitted. Machine performance improved when only the most predictive 24 items were used in a reduced analysis. Consistently high-ranked predictors of longitudinal remission included Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS) items, NEO items and subscale scores, Y-BOCS symptom checklist cleaning/washing compulsion score, and several self-report items from social adjustment scales. Random Forest classification was able to distinguish participants according to binary remission outcomes with an error rate of 24.6% (95% bootstrap CI: 22.9-26.2%). Our results suggest that clinically-useful prediction of remission may not require an extensive battery of measures. Rather, a small set of assessment items may efficiently distinguish high- and lower-risk patients and inform clinical decision-making. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25994109

  13. High-Dose Glycine Treatment of Refractory Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder and Body Dysmorphic Disorder in a 5-Year Period

    PubMed Central

    Cleveland, W. Louis; DeLaPaz, Robert L.; Fawwaz, Rashid A.; Challop, Roger S.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes an individual who was diagnosed with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) at age 17 when education was discontinued. By age 19, he was housebound without social contacts except for parents. Adequate trials of three selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, two with atypical neuroleptics, were ineffective. Major exacerbations following ear infections involving Group A ?-hemolytic streptococcus at ages 19 and 20 led to intravenous immune globulin therapy, which was also ineffective. At age 22, another severe exacerbation followed antibiotic treatment for H. pylori. This led to a hypothesis that postulates deficient signal transduction by the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR). Treatment with glycine, an NMDAR coagonist, over 5 years led to robust reduction of OCD/BDD signs and symptoms except for partial relapses during treatment cessation. Education and social life were resumed and evidence suggests improved cognition. Our findings motivate further study of glycine treatment of OCD and BDD. PMID:20182547

  14. The Genetics of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder and Tourette Syndrome: An Epidemiological and Pathway-Based Approach for Gene Discovery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grados, Marco A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To provide a contemporary perspective on genetic discovery methods applied to obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and Tourette syndrome (TS). Method: A review of research trends in genetics research in OCD and TS is conducted, with emphasis on novel approaches. Results: Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) are now in progress in OCD

  15. A Randomized Clinical Trial of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy versus Progressive Relaxation Training for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Twohig, Michael P.; Hayes, Steven C.; Plumb, Jennifer C.; Pruitt, Larry D.; Collins, Angela B.; Hazlett-Stevens, Holly; Woidneck, Michelle R.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Effective treatments for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) exist, but additional treatment options are needed. The effectiveness of 8 sessions of acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) for adult OCD was compared with progressive relaxation training (PRT). Method: Seventy-nine adults (61% female) diagnosed with OCD (mean age = 37…

  16. The neuropsychology of obsessive compulsive disorder: the importance of failures in cognitive and behavioural inhibition as candidate endophenotypic markers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. R. Chamberlain; A. D. Blackwell; N. A. Fineberg; T. W. Robbins; B. J. Sahakian

    2005-01-01

    Summary Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) is a highly debilitating neuropsychiatric condition with estimated lifetime prevalence of 2-3%, more than twice that of schizophrenia. However, in contrast to other neuropsychiatric conditions of a comparable or lesser prevalence, relatively little is understood about the aetiology, neural substrates and cognitive profile of OCD. Despite strong evidence for OCD being familial, with risk to

  17. Moving Beyond an Exclusive Focus on Harm Avoidance in Obsessive Compulsive Disorder: Considering the Role of Incompleteness

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ashley S. Pietrefesa; Meredith E. Coles

    2008-01-01

    Cognitive-behavioral conceptualizations of obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) have predominantly viewed compulsions as being motivated by harm avoidance. However, sensations of things being incomplete or not “just right” may also underlie compulsions in OCD. Preliminary research suggests that distinguishing between harm avoidance and incompleteness in OCD may have practical utility, but the research on this topic is very limited to date.

  18. Double conflicts model and anxiety ratification therapy hypotheses of obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhong-Ming; Zhang, Zhong-Liang; Li, Hong

    2010-12-01

    In-depth researches on the psychopathology of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) have been made in the cognitive-behavioral domain. However, some questions about the symptoms have not been properly answered yet. Studies from other domains also shed light on the psychopathology of OCD. The most inspiring ones are studies on psychological trauma which have probed into the mechanism of intrusions, and studies on emotion regulation which have investigated how behavioral emotion expressions are shaped. In this paper, we analyze the roles of psychological trauma and emotion regulation in OCD and propose a double conflicts model. In the model, it is hypothesized that information conflict and motivational conflict, which are called "core conflicts", are key factors in the psychopathology of OCD, and that obsessions and compulsions arise within two associated loops. Anxiety ratification therapy hypothesis is further put forward, which emphasizes the acceptance of all aspects of anxiety, including the behavioral responses and the accompanying new information, and sets the modification of the basic assumptions as the goal of treatment. Although the model provides comprehensive explanation for many symptoms, the assumptions on which the model is based are in need of confirmation. The therapy is tailored for OCD, but its operability and effect should be monitored closely. PMID:20719437

  19. The OCD Collaborative Genetics Study: Methods and Sample Description

    PubMed Central

    Samuels, Jack F.; Riddle, Mark A.; Greenberg, Benjamin D.; Fyer, Abby J.; McCracken, James T.; Rauch, Scott L.; Murphy, Dennis L.; Grados, Marco A.; Pinto, Anthony; Knowles, James A.; Piacentini, John; Cannistraro, Paul A.; Cullen, Bernadette; Bienvenu, O. Joseph; Rasmussen, Steven A.; Pauls, David L.; Willour, Virginia L.; Shugart, Yin Y.; Liang, Kung-yee; Hoehn-Saric, Rudolf; Nestadt, Gerald

    2008-01-01

    Results from twin and family studies suggest that obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) may be transmitted in families but, to date, genes for the disorder have not been identified. The OCD Collaborative Genetics Study (OCGS) is a six-site collaborative genetic linkage study of OCD. Specimens and blinded clinical data will be made available through the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) cell repository. In this initial report, we describe the methods of the study and present clinical characteristics of affected individuals for researchers interested in this valuable resource for genetic studies of OCD. The project clinically evaluated and collected blood specimens from 238 families containing 299 OCD-affected sibling pairs and their parents, and additional affected relative pairs, for a genome-wide linkage study. Of the 999 individuals interviewed to date, 624 were diagnosed with “definite” OCD. The mean age of subjects was 36 years (range 7-95). The majority of affected individuals (66%) were female. The mean age at onset of obsessive-compulsive symptoms was 9.5 years. Specific mood disorders, anxiety disorders, eating disorders, and skin picking were more prevalent in female cases, whereas tics, Tourette disorder, and alcohol dependence were more prevalent in male cases. Compared to “definite” cases of OCD, “probable” cases (n=82) had, on average, later age at onset of obsessive-compulsive symptoms, lower severity score, and fewer numbers of different categories of obsessions and compulsions, and they were less likely to have received treatment for their symptoms. PMID:16511842

  20. Obsessive–Compulsive Disorder Comorbidity: Clinical Assessment and Therapeutic Implications

    PubMed Central

    Pallanti, Stefano; Grassi, Giacomo; Sarrecchia, Elisa Dinah; Cantisani, Andrea; Pellegrini, Matteo

    2011-01-01

    Obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) is a neuropsychiatric disorder affecting approximately 1–3% of the population. OCD is probably an etiologically heterogeneous condition. Individuals with OCD frequently have additional psychiatric disorders concomitantly or at some time during their lifetime. Recently, some authors proposed an OCD sub-classification based on comorbidity. An important issue in assessing comorbidity is the fact that the non-response to treatment often involves the presence of comorbid conditions. Non-responsive patients are more likely to meet criteria for comorbid axis I or axis II disorders and the presence of a specific comorbid condition could be a distinguishing feature in OCD, with influence on the treatment adequacy and outcome. PMID:22203806

  1. Dimensional structure of the Yale–Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steffen Moritz; Beat Meier; Martin Kloss; Dirk Jacobsen; Christian Wein; Susanne Fricke; Iver Hand

    2002-01-01

    The Yale–Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS) is a widely used instrument to assess obsessive–compulsive symptomatology. The present study provides evidence that the Y-BOCS is best represented by a three-dimensional model comprising severity of obsessions (factor 1), severity of compulsions (factor 2) and resistance to symptoms (factor 3). On the basis of exploratory factor analysis, this structure was found for both baseline

  2. Open-label study of high (30 mg) and moderate (20 mg) dose escitalopram for the treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    PubMed

    Dougherty, Darin D; Jameson, Mariko; Deckersbach, Thilo; Loh, Rebecca; Thompson-Hollands, Johanna; Jenike, Michael; Keuthen, Nancy J

    2009-11-01

    This study sought to investigate the efficacy of escitalopram at different dosages for the treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Thirty individuals were enrolled in a 16-week, open-label trial of escitalopram and randomly assigned to the 20 or 30 mg study arm. Study measures assessing OCD symptoms, anxiety, depression, and quality of life were administered at baseline and weeks 2, 4, 8, 12, and 16. For the 23 study completers, pretreatment and posttreatment analyses revealed significant improvements (P<0.05) on clinician-rated and self-rated measures of OCD symptoms, quality of life, anxiety, and depression. Approximately half of the sample (n = 12) satisfied full medication response criteria and less than one-quarter (n = 5) were partial medication responders. Intention-to-treat analyses showed similar improvements (P<0.05) on all study measures. At study completion, a superior responder rate and more improvement on the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (P<0.05) was reported for those in the 30 versus 20 mg study arm. The difference between the two groups, however, disappeared when initial differences in baseline depression and anxiety scores were used as analysis covariates. These results suggest that the 30 mg (vs. 20 mg) dose of escitalopram may provide a superior reduction in OCD symptoms for those sufferers with comorbid depression and/or anxiety. PMID:19730388

  3. Potential role of anticonvulsants in the treatment of obsessive-compulsive and related disorders.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hee Ryung; Woo, Young Sup; Bahk, Won-Myong

    2014-10-01

    We reviewed the extant literature to evaluate the current evidence regarding the efficacy and safety of anticonvulsants in the treatment of obsessive-compulsive and related disorders. Relevant literature was accessed using the Cochrane database, embase and PubMed on 29 October 2013. Prospective studies examining the efficacy of anticonvulsants in obsessive-compulsive and related disorders were included. Case reports, case series, and retrospective studies were excluded. A total of 10 studies were included in this review. The studies of obsessive-compulsive disorder, except for two negative studies, showed favorable efficacy results of anticonvulsants. In one study on body dysmorphic disorder, levetiracetam showed favorable efficacy. In two lamotrigine studies for pathologic skin-picking, the efficacy findings were inconsistent. In one trichotillomania study, topiramate had reduced hair-pulling symptoms. Despite limited evidence, our review suggests that anticonvulsants have a potential role in the treatment of obsessive-compulsive and related disorders. PMID:24735021

  4. Comorbidity of obsessive-compulsive disorder and substance use disorder: a new heuristic.

    PubMed

    Cuzen, Natalie L; Stein, Dan J; Lochner, Christine; Fineberg, Naomi A

    2014-01-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and substance use disorder share several aspects of phenomenology and may be underpinned by a common mechanism with compulsivity at the core. Despite this overlap, the two disorders show a variable pattern of comorbidity. Here, we review the current evidence for comorbidity across clinical and epidemiological studies, and propose a new heuristic for substance use comorbidity in OCD, based on a hypothetical threshold of OCD severity. PMID:24424710

  5. The clinical impact of bipolar and unipolar affective comorbidity on obsessive–compulsive disorder

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Giulio Perugi; Hagop S Akiskal; Chiara Pfanner; Silvio Presta; Alfredo Gemignani; Alessandro Milanfranchi; Patrizia Lensi; Susanna Ravagli; Giovanni B Cassano

    1997-01-01

    Previous studies on the comorbidity of Obsessive–Compulsive Disorder (OCD) have largely focused on comorbidity with major depressive and anxiety disorders. The present investigation deals with a more complex pattern of comorbidity involving bipolarity. Indeed, in a consecutive series of 315 OCD outpatients, 15.7% had such comorbidity (mostly with bipolar II disorder). Unlike non-bipolar OCD patients, these had a more gradual

  6. Metacognitive beliefs in obsessive-compulsive patients: A comparison with healthy and schizophrenia participants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steffen Moritz; Maarten J. V. Peters; Frank Larøi; Tania M. Lincoln

    2010-01-01

    Introduction. Distorted metacognitive beliefs are increasingly considered in theoretical models of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). However, so far no consensus has emerged regarding the specific metacognitive profile of OCD.Methods. Participants with OCD (n=55), schizophrenia (n=39), and nonclinical controls (n=49) were assessed with the Metacognitions Questionnaire (MCQ-30).Results. Except for positive beliefs about worry, both patient samples exceeded nonclinical controls on all MCQ

  7. Quality of Life in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: The Different Impact of Obsessions and Compulsions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Katarina Stengler-Wenzke; Michael Kroll; Steffi Riedel-Heller; Herbert Matschinger; Matthias C. Angermeyer

    2007-01-01

    Background: Patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) are troubled by repeated obsessions and\\/or compulsions, which seem senseless and frequently repugnant. Objective: The study examines the differential impact of obsessions and compulsions on the quality of life (QoL) of patients with OCD. Methods: Seventy-five patients (43 females, 32 males) between 21 and 62 years old with OCD (ICD 10 F42.0–F42.2) were recruited

  8. The psychobiology of obsessive-compulsive disorder: How important is the role of disgust?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dan J. Stein; Yijun Liu; Nathan A. Shapira; Wayne K. Goodman

    2001-01-01

    Psychobiologic models of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) have focused on cortico-striatal-thalamic-cortical (CTSC) circuits,\\u000a noting normal function in cognitive and motoric procedural strategies. Such models have relied on the classification of OCD\\u000a as an anxiety disorder, seldom exploring other relevant emotions. Based on the hypothesis that a central emotion in OCD is\\u000a disgust, the authors review the literature on its psychobiology and

  9. The Draw-A-Person: group differences among individuals with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Tourette Syndrome, and normal controls 

    E-print Network

    Burch, Wendy A.

    2005-11-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the differences among the human figure drawings (HFDs) of individuals diagnosed with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD), Tourette Syndrome (TS), Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD...

  10. The Draw-A-Person: group differences among individuals with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Tourette Syndrome, and normal controls

    E-print Network

    Burch, Wendy A.

    2005-11-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the differences among the human figure drawings (HFDs) of individuals diagnosed with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD), Tourette Syndrome (TS), Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD...

  11. Outcomes of cognitive behaviour therapy for obsessive-compulsive disorder in young people with and without autism spectrum disorders: A case controlled study.

    PubMed

    Murray, Kim; Jassi, Amita; Mataix-Cols, David; Barrow, Faye; Krebs, Georgina

    2015-07-30

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are highly co-morbid. It is suggested that youth with ASD will respond less well to cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT), as compared to their typically developing counterparts. To date there is no empirical evidence to support this view. The current study sought to compare CBT for OCD outcomes among youth with and without ASD. 22 young people with ICD-10 diagnoses of OCD and ASD (OCD+ASD) were matched with 22 youth with OCD, but no ASD (OCD+NoASD) according to base line OCD symptom severity, age, and gender. Outcomes were assessed for the two groups following a course of individually tailored, but protocol-driven CBT for OCD. While both groups responded to treatment the OCD+ASD group?s outcomes were inferior to the OCD+NoASD group, as indicated by a significantly smaller decrease in symptoms over treatment (38.31% vs. 48.20%) and lower remission rates at post-treatment (9% vs. 46%). Overall, young people experiencing OCD in the context of ASD benefitted from CBT, but to a lesser extent than typically developing children. Recent efforts to modifying standard CBT protocols for OCD in ASD should continue in order to optimise outcomes among youth with this particular dual psychopathology. PMID:25935374

  12. Agomelatine augmentation in obsessive compulsive disorder: a preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Tzavellas, E; Karaiskos, D; Ilias, I; Liappas, I; Paparrigopoulos, T

    2014-01-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is often the anxiety disorder that affects approximately 2% of the population. This disorder is associated with significant morbidity and dysfunction, and is included in the World Health Organization list of the ten most disabling medical illnesses. The therapeutic response of patients with OCD is relatively poor compared with that of other mental disorders. Pharmacological interventions for OCD have focused on modulating primarily serotonin function and secondarily dopamine neurotransmission. Augmentation treatment has been the subject of several studies in treatment-resistant obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). We hypothesized that medications with a dual action on the melatoninergic and serotoninergic systems may be of use in treatment-resistant OCD. In this open label study we investigated the efficacy and safety of agomelatine augmentation in treatment-resistant OCD. Twelve patients, aged 18-50, fulfilling OCD criteria, having failed to respond to adequate treatment with a Serotonine Reuptake Inhibitor for at least 16 weeks, were assigned to receive agomelatine augmentation. Subjects were assessed with the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS), and were screened for treatment-emergent side effects at baseline and week 16 of treatment. We excluded patients with comorbid psychopathology, serious medical comorbidity, current or past history of substance abuse and severe personality disorders as well as patients receiving psychotherapy in addition to psychopharmacological treatment. Agomelatine augmentation lead to net improvement in Y-BOCS and its obsession and compulsion subscales after 16 weeks of treatment (all p<0.005). Agomelatine augmentation was well-tolerated and none of the patients dropped-out. Treatment-related adverse events were recorded as follows: (n, %): nausea: 1 (8.3%), headache 4 (33.3%), dizziness: 3 (25%) and somnolence: 2 (16.7%). The present case series study has several limitations due to its open-label design and the absence of a placebo or active control group. The small number of patients further limits the impact of our findings. The present case series study showed that a 16 week add-on treatment with agomelatine, achieved on average a 25% improvement in Y-BOCS in refractory to treatment OCD patients; side effects were mild, and none of the patients dropped out throughout the 16-week study period. Agomelatine could be efficacious and well tolerated as an augmenting agent in refractory to treatment OCD. The unique pharmacological profile of agomelatine and its dual action on serotoninergic and melatoninergic receptors may be of interest in this difficult-to-treat illness. Further controlled studies are warranted to explore the efficacy of agomelatine, as well as the potential role of circadian rhythm modulation both in the pathophysiology and treatment of OCD. PMID:25367661

  13. Scurvy induced by obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Amanda A O; Minicucci, Marcos Ferreira; Gaiolla, Rafael D; Okoshi, Marina P; Duarte, Daniella R; Matsubara, Luiz S; Inoue, Roberto M T; Azevedo, Paula S; Polegato, Bertha F; Zornoff, Leonardo A M; Paiva, Sergio A R

    2009-01-01

    Historically, scurvy has been associated with sailors of great navigational epochs. This disease has been known since ancient Egypt, but nowadays it is almost forgotten. Although its prevalence has decreased over the centuries, scurvy is still present in developed countries. A 61-year-old man was referred to hospital with a 30-day history of anorexia, fatigue, gingival bleeding and ecchymosis of the arms and legs. On physical examination he presented gingival hypertrophic lesions, signs of chronic periodontitis and petechial rash, and several bruises on his arms and legs. A food frequency questionnaire revealed a long history of poor diet, with no vegetables or fruit. The patient had ingested only chocolate milk and cookies for the last 10 years due to fear of pesticides being present in foods of vegetable origin. A diagnosis of scurvy induced by obsessive-compulsive disorder was suspected, and after vitamin C supplementation there was a marked improvement of symptoms. PMID:21686798

  14. Treatment of Refractory Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: The St. Louis Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanDyke, Melanie M.; Pollard, C. Alec

    2005-01-01

    In this article, we describe a cognitive behavioral treatment approach to cases of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) that have not responded to standard outpatient evidence-based treatment. The approach begins with an assessment of the reasons why patients have not responded to treatment, which can be grouped into two categories: (a)…

  15. An Inference-Based Approach to Treating Obsessive-Compulsive Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, Kieron; Koszegi, Natalia; Aardema, Frederick; van Niekerk, Jan; Taillon, Annie

    2009-01-01

    This article outlines the conceptual and empirical basis for an inference-based approach (IBA) to treating obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The IBA considers that in most cases the obsessional process begins with an initial doubt (e.g., "Maybe my hands are not clean"; "Perhaps the door was not locked"; "There's a chance I made an error"; "I…

  16. Cognitive-Behavioral Family Treatment of Childhood Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: A Controlled Trial.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, Paula; Healy-Farrell, Lara; March, John S.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the relative efficacy of (1) individual cognitive-behavioral family-based therapy (CBFT); (2) group CBFT; and (3) a waitlist control group in the treatment of childhood obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Method: This study, conducted at a university clinic in Brisbane, Australia, involved 77 children and adolescents with…

  17. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy as a Treatment for Scrupulosity in Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dehlin, John P.; Morrison, Kate L.; Twohig, Michael P.

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) for scrupulosity-based obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). Five adults were treated with eight sessions of ACT, without in-session exposure, in a multiple baseline across participants design. Daily monitoring of compulsions and avoided valued activities were tracked throughout the…

  18. School Psychologists' Views and Management of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder in Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallant, Jason; Storch, Eric A.; Valderhaug, Robert; Geffken, Gary R.

    2007-01-01

    Over the past decade, an increasing body of research has been conducted on evidence-based psychological and psychiatric treatment for pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Despite this improved understanding, however, these treatments are not being performed. This study descriptively examined the practices and views of school…

  19. Cognitive Control of a Simple Mental Image in Patients with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kocak, Orhan Murat; Ozpolat, Aysegul Yilmaz; Atbasoglu, Cem; Cicek, Metehan

    2011-01-01

    The nature of obsessions has led researchers to try to determine if the main problem in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is impaired inhibitory control. Previous studies report that the effort to suppress is one of the factors that increase the frequency of obsessive thoughts. Based on these results and those of the present study that suggest…

  20. Decreased Family Accommodation Associated with Improved Therapy Outcome in Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merlo, Lisa J.; Lehmkuhl, Heather D.; Geffken, Gary R.; Storch, Eric A.

    2009-01-01

    Pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a chronic, disabling condition that affects both patients and their families. Despite the identification of efficacious treatments (e.g., cognitive-behavioral therapy and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor medications), not all patients respond fully. The purpose of the present study was to…

  1. Family Factors Predict Treatment Outcome for Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peris, Tara S.; Sugar, Catherine A.; Bergman, R. Lindsey; Chang, Susanna; Langley, Audra; Piacentini, John

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine family conflict, parental blame, and poor family cohesion as predictors of treatment outcome for youths receiving family-focused cognitive behavioral therapy (FCBT) for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Method: We analyzed data from a sample of youths who were randomized to FCBT (n = 49; 59% male; M age = 12.43 years) as…

  2. D-Cycloserine for Treatment Nonresponders with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: A Case Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norberg, Melissa M.; Gilliam, Christina M.; Villavicencio, Anna; Pearlson, Godfrey D.; Tolin, David F.

    2012-01-01

    Despite being the most effective treatment available, as many as one third of patients who receive exposure and response prevention (ERP) for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) do not initially respond to treatment. Recent research suggests that the n-methyl d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor partial agonist D-Cycloserine (DCS) may speed up the course…

  3. The Application of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy to Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Twohig, Michael P.

    2009-01-01

    This paper is part of a case series illustrating the application of different therapies to a case of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). It describes the hypothetical application of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT). This paper covers the philosophy and basic research on language and cognition that inform ACT. It also provides an ACT-based…

  4. The Effectiveness of Treatment for Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abramowitz, Jonathan S.; Whiteside, Sephen P.; Deacon, Brett J.

    2005-01-01

    The last decade has seen a noticeable increase in the number of treatment outcome studies for pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The present article describes a meta-analysis of this literature with the aim of quantifying treatment effects and examining the extent to which various patient or treatment variables are related to outcome.…

  5. Organizational strategies mediate nonverbal memory impairment in obsessive–compulsive disorder

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cary R Savage; Lee Baer; Nancy J Keuthen; Halle D Brown; Scott L Rauch; Michael A Jenike

    1999-01-01

    Background: Previous neuropsychological studies of obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) have indicated impaired executive functioning and nonverbal memory. The extent to which impaired executive functioning impacts nonverbal memory has not been established. The current study investigated the mediating effects of organizational strategies used when copying a figure on subsequent nonverbal memory for that figure.Methods: We examined neuropsychological performance in 20 unmedicated subjects

  6. Cognitive therapy and exposure in vivo in the treatment of obsessive compulsive disorder

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patricia Van Oppen; Else De Haan; Philip Spinhoven; Kees Hoogduin; Richard Van Dyck

    1995-01-01

    The present study is the first controlled study that evaluates the effects of cognitive therapy along the lines of Beck (1976) [Cognitive therapy and the emotional disorder. New York: International University Press] and Salkovskis (1985) [Behaviour Research and Therapy, 23, 571–583] in obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) and compares these effects with those of self-controlled exposure in vivo with response prevention.

  7. The Role of the Family in Childhood Obsessive–Compulsive Disorder

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tracey L. Waters; Paula M. Barrett

    2000-01-01

    While obsessive–compulsive disorder is widely recognized to have a strong genetic component, psychosocial factors are also acknowledged to be important. The primary focus of this paper is on familial factors associated with OCD in children and adolescents. It explores the family context as a possible risk factor in the development and maintenance of the disorder, including parental modeling, expressed emotion,

  8. The Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Treatment Study II: rationale, design and methods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jennifer B Freeman; Molly L Choate-Summers; Abbe M Garcia; Phoebe S Moore; Jeffrey J Sapyta; Muniya S Khanna; John S March; Edna B Foa; Martin E Franklin

    2009-01-01

    : This paper presents the rationale, design, and methods of the Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Treatment Study II (POTS II), which investigates two different cognitive-behavior therapy (CBT) augmentation approaches in children and adolescents who have experienced a partial response to pharmacotherapy with a serotonin reuptake inhibitor for OCD. The two CBT approaches test a \\

  9. Treatment of obsessive–compulsive disorder: Cognitive behavior therapy vs. exposure and response prevention

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maureen L. Whittal; Dana S. Thordarson; Peter D. McLean

    2005-01-01

    The efficacy of contemporary cognitive therapy for obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) has only recently been investigated. The current study compares exposure and response prevention (ERP) and cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) delivered in an individual format. Participants were randomly assigned to the 12 consecutive-week CBT or ERP treatment. Based on 59 treatment completers, there was no significant difference in YBOCS scores between

  10. Personality dimensions in obsessive-compulsive disorder: Relation to clinical variables

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pino Alonso; José M. Menchón; Susana Jiménez; Jacint Segalàs; David Mataix-Cols; Nuria Jaurrieta; Javier Labad; Julio Vallejo; Narcís Cardoner; Jesús Pujol

    2007-01-01

    Research on the relationship between personality factors and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has proved difficult to interpret due to conceptual problems including a lack of consensus on the model of personality employed as a framework as well as a failure to consider the clinical heterogeneity of the disorder. The aim of this study was to examine the dimensional personality profile associated

  11. The Application of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy to Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael P. Twohig

    2009-01-01

    This paper is part of a case series illustrating the application of different therapies to a case of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). It describes the hypothetical application of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT). This paper covers the philosophy and basic research on language and cognition that inform ACT. It also provides an ACT-based case conceptualization of this case and examples of

  12. Dysfunctional belief domains related to obsessive-compulsive disorder: a further examination of their dimensionality and specificity.

    PubMed

    Belloch, Amparo; Morillo, Carmen; Luciano, Juan V; García-Soriano, Gemma; Cabedo, Elena; Carrió, Carmen

    2010-05-01

    International consensus has been achieved on the existence of several dysfunctional beliefs underlying the development and/ or maintenance of the Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD). Nevertheless, questions such as the dimensionality of the belief domains and the existence of OCD-specific dysfunctional beliefs still remain inconclusive. The present paper addresses these topics through two different studies. Study 1: A series of confirmatory factor analyses (N = 573 non-clinical subjects) were carried out on the Obsessive Beliefs Spanish Inventory-Revised (OBSI-R), designed to assess dysfunctional beliefs hypothetically related to OCD. An eight-factor model emerged as the best factorial solution: responsibility, over-importance of thoughts, thought-action fusion-likelihood, thought action fusion-morality, importance of thought control, overestimation of threat, intolerance of uncertainty and perfectionism. Study 2: The OBSI-R and other symptom measures were administered to 75 OCD patients, 22 depressed patients, and 25 non-OCD anxious patients. Results indicated that, although OCD patients differed from their non-clinical counterparts on all of the OBSI-R subscales, no evidence of OCD-specificity emerged for any of the belief domains measured, as the OCD subjects did not differ from the other two clinical groups of patients. PMID:20480704

  13. Relationship of Obsessive-Compulsive Personality to Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: A Review of the Literature

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jerrold Pollak

    1987-01-01

    The nature of the relationship between obsessive-compulsive personality and obsessive-compulsive disorder has been the subject of considerable debate. The present article dealt with clinical opinion and reviewed empirical data bearing on this issue. It was concluded that, although the two clinical entities bear a surface similarity in terms of shared behavioral features and defenses, obsessive-compulsive personality is neither a necessary

  14. Family-Based Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: Comparison of Intensive and Weekly Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Storch, Eric A.; Geffken, Gary R.; Merlo, Lisa J.; Mann, Giselle; Duke, Danny; Munson, Melissa; Adkins, Jennifer; Grabill, Kristen M.; Murphy, Tanya K.; Goodman, Wayne K.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To examine the relative efficacy of intensive versus weekly cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for children and adolescents with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Method: Forty children and adolescents with OCD (range 7-17 years) were randomized to receive 14 sessions of weekly or intensive (daily psychotherapy sessions) family-based…

  15. Moving beyond an Exclusive Focus on Harm Avoidance in Obsessive Compulsive Disorder: Considering the Role of Incompleteness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pietrefesa, Ashley S.; Coles, Meredith E.

    2008-01-01

    Cognitive-behavioral conceptualizations of obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) have predominantly viewed compulsions as being motivated by harm avoidance. However, sensations of things being incomplete or not "just right" may also underlie compulsions in OCD. Preliminary research suggests that distinguishing between harm avoidance and…

  16. Adapting Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction for the Treatment of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: A Case Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patel, Sapana R.; Carmody, James; Simpson, H. Blair

    2007-01-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is an illness characterized by intrusive and distressing thoughts, images, or impulses (i.e., obsessions) and by repetitive mental or behavioral acts (i.e., compulsions) performed to prevent or reduce distress. Efficacious treatments for OCD include psychotropic medications and exposure and response prevention…

  17. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging during Planning before and after Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy in Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huyser, Chaim; Veltman, Dick J.; Wolters, Lidewij H.; de Haan, Else; Boer, Frits

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Pediatric obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) has been associated with cognitive abnormalities, in particular executive impairments, and dysfunction of frontal-striatal-thalamic circuitry. The aim of this study was to investigate if planning as an executive function is compromised in pediatric OCD and is associated with…

  18. Marital adjustment and obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    PubMed

    Emmelkamp, P M; de Haan, E; Hoogduin, C A

    1990-01-01

    Fifty obsessive-compulsives were treated by behavioural therapy (self-exposure in vivo and response prevention) either with their partner directly involved in all aspects of treatment or without their partner. The two treatment formats were equally effective. Although a substantial number of obsessive-compulsives were found to have marital problems, behavioural treatment directed at the obsessive-compulsive disorder resulted in improvement irrespective of marital quality and partner involvement in the therapy. The effects of treatment led neither to a deterioration of the marriage nor to adjustment problems in the partner. PMID:1967545

  19. Assessment of obsessive beliefs: Comparing individuals with obsessive-compulsive disorder to a medical sample.

    PubMed

    Baptista, Makilim Nunes; Magna, Luiz Alberto; McKay, Dean; Del-Porto, José Alberto

    2011-03-01

    Cognitive behavior models for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) are based currently on the presence of specific beliefs associated with the disorder. Among these beliefs are inflated responsibility, concerns over thought-action fusion, and overimportance of thoughts. The aim of this study was to compare scores from the subscales of the Obsessive Beliefs Questionnaire (OBQ-87), developed by the Obsessive-Compulsive Cognitions Working Group (OCCWG, 2001), in 24 patients from an OCD clinic (OCD) and 24 patients from a Medical Clinic (MC) for ambulatory and chronic diseases. All OCD patients were diagnosed using the SCID, and the OCD portion of the SCID was used to rule out patients with OCD from the MC group. The Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (YBOCS) and Dysfunctional Attitudes Scale (DAS) were also administered. The results indicated that, contrary to predictions, in the domains of Tolerance for Uncertainty, Threat estimation, Responsibility and Perfectionism, the MC group presented higher scores than the OCD group. The same findings occurred with DAS, which was significantly correlated with the OBQ. Possible explanations for these findings are discussed, as well as suggestions for future research with both groups. PMID:21073999

  20. A Singapore study of obsessive compulsive disorder.

    PubMed

    Chia, B H

    1996-08-01

    This is a study of 283 consecutive patients diagnosed as suffering from obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) who had sought treatment in a private psychiatric clinic. This represents 4.5% of all patients treated in the clinic. Ninety-four percent were Chinese, 3% were Indians and 0.4% were Malays. The mean age of onset of illness was 27, SD 11.9. Fifty-one percent of patients developed their illness prior to age 25. There were more male than female patients. The male to female ratio was 1.4:1. A high percentage of patients had attained higher educational level and were economically active. The main forms of the obsession were idea, impulse and image; and the main contents were contamination, illness, aggression, exactness, sex, death and religion. The main compulsions were cleaning, checking, repetitive behaviour, need for symmetry and precision and hoarding. The co-morbidity diagnoses were depressive, general anxiety, phobia, panic and psychotic disorder. In the patients who were followed-up for more than one year, it was found that 78% improved with treatment given. However, 22% remained unwell or deteriorated. In this series, it was noted that 17% of patients were severely incapacitated by the illness. Six percent had admission to mental hospital and 1% (3 cases) committed suicide. PMID:8993143

  1. Tourette's disorder with and without obsessive-compulsive disorder in adults: are they different?

    PubMed

    Coffey, B J; Miguel, E C; Biederman, J; Baer, L; Rauch, S L; O'Sullivan, R L; Savage, C R; Phillips, K; Borgman, A; Green-Leibovitz, M I; Moore, E; Park, K S; Jenike, M A

    1998-04-01

    Clinical research has documented a bidirectional overlap between Tourette's disorder (TD) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) from familial-genetic, phenomenological, comorbidity, and natural history perspectives. Patients with Tourette's disorder plus obsessive-compulsive disorder (TD + OCD), a putative subtype, share features of both. The purpose of this exploratory study was to evaluate correlates of patients with TD, OCD, and TD + OCD to determine whether TD + OCD is a subtype of TD, OCD, or an additive form of both. Sixty-one subjects with TD, OCD, or TD + OCD were evaluated with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R supplemented with additional modules. The three groups differed in the rates of bipolar disorder (p < .04), social phobia (p < .02), body dysmorphic disorder (p < .002), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (p < .03), and substance use disorders (p < .04). These findings were accounted for by the elevated rates of the disorders in the TD + OCD group compared with the TD and OCD groups. These finding are most consistent with the hypothesis that TD + OCD is a more severe disorder than TD and OCD and may be more etiologically linked to TD than to OCD. These findings highlight the importance of assessment of the full spectrum of psychiatric comorbidity in patients with TD and OCD. PMID:9569887

  2. Late-onset obsessive-compulsive disorder associated with left cerebellar lesion.

    PubMed

    Tonna, Matteo; Ottoni, Rebecca; Ossola, Paolo; De Panfilis, Chiara; Marchesi, Carlo

    2014-08-01

    The onset of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) after age 50 is rare and generally related to an organic etiology. An involvement of fronto-striatal circuits has been strongly suggested, whereas cerebellum remains so far scarcely explored. We present here the description of a "pure" late-onset OCD associated with a cerebellar lesion, neither comorbid with other mental disorders nor with neurological syndromes. To our knowledge, this condition was not previously described in literature. The patient is a 62-year-old woman who developed a late-onset OCD associated with a left cerebellar lesion due to an arachnoid cyst in the left posterior fossa. We debate the possible role of the cerebellar lesion in favoring a transition from a predisposing liability (namely an obsessive-compulsive personality disorder and a depressive status) to the onset of OCD in this woman. PMID:24771488

  3. Exploring the role of external criticism in Obsessive Compulsive Disorder: a narrative review.

    PubMed

    Pace, Sonia M; Thwaites, Richard; Freeston, Mark H

    2011-04-01

    The concept of external criticism has been associated with different aspects of Obsessive Compulsive phenomena. The various threads of evidence highlight the potential role of criticism within different areas of the cognitive model of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) with often overlapping ideas. However, the fragmented nature of the findings makes it difficult to identify how or why criticism impacts on OCD. This review collates the existing findings and maps these onto the cognitive model of OCD to provide a better understanding of the potential role of criticism. It proposes criticism could play a role in OCD as a vulnerability factor, but also as a perpetuating factor. Furthermore potential research questions have been generated which could help inform future understanding. Future research should consider the complexity of the concept when defining criticism as well as developing methodological designs which could answer questions of causality. PMID:21334284

  4. Genetic Polymorphism of the Serotonin Transporter Gene, SLC6A4 rs16965628, Is Associated with Obsessive Compulsive Disorder.

    PubMed

    Cengiz, Mujgan; Okutan, Saide Nur; Bayoglu, Burcu; Sakalli Kani, Ayse; Bayar, Reha; Kocabasoglu, Nese

    2015-05-01

    Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) is a psychiatric disorder characterized by obsessive ideas and compulsive behaviors. Genetic studies have centered on candidate genes involved in OCD etiology related to serotonergic and dopaminergic systems. In this study, the relationship between cathechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) -287A/G (rs2097063), serotonin transporters 5-HTTLPR I/D, and SLC6A4 rs16965628 polymorphisms in 80 OCD patients and 100 healthy controls was determined. Patients and controls were genotyped for COMT rs2097063 and SLC6A4 rs16965628 polymorphisms by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The 5-HTTLPR I/D polymorphism was genotyped using PCR and agarose gel electrophoresis. Severity of symptoms was checked with a Yale-Brown Obsession Compulsion Scale (Y-BOCS). When the OCD group and controls were compared, no significant difference was found between COMT -287A/G (rs2097063), 5-HTTLPR I/D polymorphisms, and OCD. However, a significant difference was found between 5-HTT rs16965628 polymorphism and OCD (p=0.025, OR=3.43, 95% CI 1.41-10.35). In addition, the G allele frequency was found to be higher for rs16965628 in the OCD group. No significant difference was observed between COMT -287A/G (rs2097063), SLC6A4 rs16965628, and 5-HTTLPR I/D polymorphisms and Y-BOCS scores (p>0.05). There was also lack of correlation between Yale-Brown scores and gender of OCD patients. On the other hand, combined genotypes of SLC6A4 rs16965628 GG+GC were found to be risk factors for OCD development (p=0.02, OR=3.464; 95% CI 1.214-9.883) in logistic regression analysis adjusted for age and gender. Our findings suggest that subjects carrying the G allele of rs16965628 have genetic susceptibility to OCD. These data are the first to suggest that polymorphism in serotonin transporter (rs16965628) is associated with the development of OCD in the Turkish population. PMID:25751280

  5. Comorbidity Between Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Across the Lifespan: A Systematic and Critical Review.

    PubMed

    Abramovitch, Amitai; Dar, Reuven; Mittelman, Andrew; Wilhelm, Sabine

    2015-01-01

    The concept of comorbidity between attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has been discussed for two decades. No review, however, has examined this question in light of the stark contrast in disorder-specific phenomenology and neurobiology. We review reported prevalence rates and the methodological, phenomenological, and theoretical issues concerning concomitant ADHD-OCD. Reported co-occurrence rates are highly inconsistent in the literature. Studies aimed at examining the potential for comorbidity have suffered from various methodological problems, including the existence of very few community samples, highly variable exclusionary criteria, and possible clinical misinterpretation of symptoms. Despite numerous studies suggesting an ADHD-OCD comorbidity, thus far etiological (i.e., genetic) backing has been provided only for a pediatric comorbidity. Additionally, inflated rates of ADHD-OCD co-occurrence may be mediated by the presence of tic disorders, and evidence of impaired neuronal maturational processes in pediatric OCD may lead to possibly transient phenotypical expressions that resemble ADHD symptomatology. Thus, clinicians are encouraged to consider the possibility that ADHD-like symptoms resulting from OCD-specific symptomatology may be misdiagnosed as ADHD. This suggestion may account for the lower co-occurrence rates reported in adolescents and adults and for the lack of a theoretical account for comorbidity in these age groups. Existing literature is summarized and critically reviewed, and recommendations are made for future research. PMID:26052877

  6. Comorbidity Between Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Across the Lifespan: A Systematic and Critical Review

    PubMed Central

    Abramovitch, Amitai; Dar, Reuven; Mittelman, Andrew; Wilhelm, Sabine

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The concept of comorbidity between attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has been discussed for two decades. No review, however, has examined this question in light of the stark contrast in disorder-specific phenomenology and neurobiology. We review reported prevalence rates and the methodological, phenomenological, and theoretical issues concerning concomitant ADHD-OCD. Reported co-occurrence rates are highly inconsistent in the literature. Studies aimed at examining the potential for comorbidity have suffered from various methodological problems, including the existence of very few community samples, highly variable exclusionary criteria, and possible clinical misinterpretation of symptoms. Despite numerous studies suggesting an ADHD-OCD comorbidity, thus far etiological (i.e., genetic) backing has been provided only for a pediatric comorbidity. Additionally, inflated rates of ADHD-OCD co-occurrence may be mediated by the presence of tic disorders, and evidence of impaired neuronal maturational processes in pediatric OCD may lead to possibly transient phenotypical expressions that resemble ADHD symptomatology. Thus, clinicians are encouraged to consider the possibility that ADHD-like symptoms resulting from OCD-specific symptomatology may be misdiagnosed as ADHD. This suggestion may account for the lower co-occurrence rates reported in adolescents and adults and for the lack of a theoretical account for comorbidity in these age groups. Existing literature is summarized and critically reviewed, and recommendations are made for future research. PMID:26052877

  7. A multidimensional meta-analysis of psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy for obsessive-compulsive disorder

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kamryn T. Eddya

    A number of qualitative and meta-analytic reviews point to the efficacy of psychotherapeutic and pharmacological interventions for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). In this article, we report a multidimen- sional meta-analysis of psychological and pharmacological treatment studies for OCD published between 1980 and 2001, examining a range of variables not previously meta-analyzed, including exclusion rates and exclusion criteria, percent of patients improved

  8. A multidimensional meta-analysis of psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy for obsessive-compulsive disorder

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kamryn T. Eddy; Lissa Dutra; Rebekah Bradley; Drew Westen

    2004-01-01

    A number of qualitative and meta-analytic reviews point to the efficacy of psychotherapeutic and pharmacological interventions for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). In this article, we report a multidimensional meta-analysis of psychological and pharmacological treatment studies for OCD published between 1980 and 2001, examining a range of variables not previously meta-analyzed, including exclusion rates and exclusion criteria, percent of patients improved or

  9. A neuropsychiatric review of pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder: etiology and efficacious treatments

    PubMed Central

    Lewin, Adam B; Storch, Eric A; Geffken, Gary R; Goodman, Wayne K; Murphy, Tanya K

    2006-01-01

    Pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a chronic neuropsychiatric condition associated with broad impairments in functioning. This paper outlines current etiological theories of OCD, providing a review of neuroanatomical, neurochemical, neuroimmunological, and cognitive–behavioral explanations. Subsequently, first-line treatment modalities are discussed (serotonin reuptake inhibitors [SRIs] and cognitive–behavioral therapy [CBT] with exposure and response prevention [E/RP]) in the context of recent pharmacological, CBT, and combined trials. PMID:19412443

  10. Cerebral glucose metabolism in childhood-onset obsessive-compulsive disorder

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. E. Swedo; M. B. Schapiro; C. L. Grady; D. L. Cheslow; H. L. Leonard; A. Kumar; R. Friedland; S. I. Rapoport; J. L. Rapoport

    1989-01-01

    The cerebral metabolic rate for glucose was studied in 18 adults with childhood-onset obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and in age- and sex-matched controls using positron emission tomography and fludeoxyglucose F 18. Both groups were scanned during rest, with reduced auditory and visual stimulation. The group with OCD showed an increased glucose metabolism in the left orbital frontal, right sensorimotor, and bilateral

  11. The Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale: Interview versus self-report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gail Steketee; Randy Frost; Karen Bogart

    1996-01-01

    Several studies have demonstrated the reliability and validity of the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (YBOCS) conducted by trained interviewers. The present study examined several aspects of a self-report YBOCS version relative to the usual interview format in two non-clinical samples (ns = 46 and 70) and in a clinical OCD sample (n = 36) and a clinical non-OCD group (n

  12. The Psychopathology of Parents of Children and Adolescents with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Magda Liakopoulou; Sofia Korlou; Katerina Sakellariou; Vassiliki Kondyli; Efi Kapsimali; Jasmin Sarafidou; Dimitris Anagnostopoulos

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Our purpose was to determine the rates of psychopathology in parents of children and adolescents with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and compare these with that found in parents of children with learning disorders of reading and written expression. Method: Thirty-one children with OCD, aged 8–15 years, and their parents (n = 62), aged 43–48 years, were studied and compared to

  13. Patient Adherence Predicts Outcome From Cognitive Behavioral Therapy in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Helen Blair Simpson; Michael J. Maher; Yuanjia Wang; Yuanyuan Bao; Edna B. Foa; Martin Franklin

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine the effects of patient adherence on outcome from exposure and response prevention (EX\\/RP) therapy in adults with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Method: Thirty adults with OCD were randomized to EX\\/RP (n = 15) or EX\\/RP augmented by motivational interviewing strategies (n = 15). Both treatments included 3 introductory sessions and 15 exposure sessions. Because there were no significant

  14. Management of treatment-resistant obsessive-compulsive disorder: An update on therapeutic strategies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Biswaranjan Mishra; Saddichha Sahoo; Baikunthanath Mishra

    2008-01-01

    Background: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a chronic psychiatric disorder characterized by recurrent, persistent thoughts and\\/or repetitive compulsive behaviors that cause anxiety or distress, are time-consuming, and cause significant socio-occupational dysfunction. Although OCD can be alleviated with pharmacological and behavioral treatments, up to 40-60% of patients do not have a satisfactory outcome. This paper aims to review the operational definitions and

  15. A Randomized Controlled Trial of Cognitive Therapy versus Intensive Behavior Therapy in Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jean Cottraux; Sai Nan Yao; Sylviane Lafont; Evelyne Mollard; Martine Bouvard; Alain Sauteraud; Marc Bourgeois; Jean-François Dartigues

    2001-01-01

    Background: The study was designed to compare cognitive therapy (CT) with intensive behavior therapy (BT) in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and to study their change process. Methods: Sixty-five outpatients with DSM-4 OCD were randomized into 2 groups for 16 weeks of individual treatment in 3 centers. Group 1 received 20 sessions of CT. Group 2 received a BT program of 20

  16. The use of computers in the assessment and treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Caleb W. Lack; Eric A. Storch

    2008-01-01

    This article reviews the empirical literature related to the use of computer-administered, cogni- tive-behaviorally based assessment and treatment for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Such research has increased steadily over the years, and has shown that treatments such as BT STEPS are effective at both assessing for and treating OCD. More large-scale studies examining the utility of such programs are needed, but

  17. Obsessive-compulsive behavior induced by levetiracetam.

    PubMed

    Fujikawa, Mayu; Kishimoto, Yuri; Kakisaka, Yosuke; Jin, Kazutaka; Kato, Kazuhiro; Iwasaki, Masaki; Nakasato, Nobukazu

    2015-06-01

    A novel antiepileptic drug, levetiracetam, has been reported to cause several psychiatric adverse effects in spite of its effectiveness on epilepsy. However, a possible relationship between levetiracetam and obsessive-compulsive behavior has only been reported in a few studies with adult epilepsy patients. We treated a pediatric patient with epilepsy without past or family history of psychiatric disorder. Levetiracetam was started to control generalized tonic-clonic seizure. Two months after initiation of levetiracetam with favorable seizure control, she started to show an obsessive-compulsive behavior such as repetitive checking of her back, pants, and chair. Based on the course of its appearance, levetiracetam administration was identified as a possible cause. After termination of levetiracetam, her obsessive-compulsive behavior completely disappeared with reappearance of seizures. This case provides clear evidence that levetiracetam may cause obsessive-compulsive behavior even in a pediatric epilepsy patient without psychiatric background, possibly mediated by modulation of the glutamate system by levetiracetam. PMID:25008911

  18. The Cost of Illness Associated with Stepped Care for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Diefenbach, Gretchen J.; Tolin, David F.

    2013-01-01

    Stepped care for obsessive-compulsive disorders (OCD) is a promising approach for improving the accessibility and cost-effectiveness of exposure and response prevention (ERP). Previous research has shown that stepped care is less costly compared with standard, therapist-directed ERP, owing largely to the roughly one-third of patients who respond to lower intensity guided self-help (GSH). The aim of this study was to recalculate the costs of treatment in stepped versus standard care when also including the cost of illness; defined as costs related to functional disability in work, school, and home functioning attributed to OCD symptoms. It was found that the cost savings of stepped care was reduced to a moderate effect (d = 0.66) when the cost of illness was included. Data also indicated substantial potential cost savings if patient-to-treatment matching variables are identified. Exploratory analyses suggested that problems with attention may be an important variable to investigate as a potential treatment moderator in future GSH treatment outcome research. These data highlight the importance of including the cost of illness in cost-effectiveness analyses, and of identifying predictors that will facilitate matched care and prevent unnecessary treatment delay for the roughly two-thirds of patients who will not respond to GSH for OCD. PMID:23525502

  19. Is serotonin transporter polymorphism (5-HTTLPR) allele status a predictor for obsessive-compulsive disorder? A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Mak, Lauren; Streiner, David L; Steiner, Meir

    2015-06-01

    The serotonin transporter polymorphism has been implicated in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). However, molecular genetic association studies have yielded inconsistent results. Variation may be due to lack of OCD subtype classification. The goal of this systematic review is to investigate the association of the S-allele of the serotonin transporter polymorphism with OCD and OCD subtypes. A total of 69 studies were initially found through a systematic search of the literature but only 13 with sufficient information to compute odds ratios were suitable for review. A total of 1991 participants with OCD and their 5-HTTLPR allele status were examined. The primary outcome measures were allele frequency and OCD diagnosis. A full meta-analysis was completed comparing the L- and S-alleles using a random effects model in RevMan 5.2.1. Further, a secondary meta-analysis stratified by sex and late-onset was conducted for S- versus L-allele frequency. In the primary meta-analysis, OCD was not associated with the S-allele of the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism (Z?=?0.07, p?=?0.94). Moreover, late-onset OCD was not associated with the S-allele (Z?=?1.45, p?=?0.15). However, when stratified by sex, there is an emerging sex-specific relationship. There was a trending association between the S-allele and OCD status in females (Z?=?1.62, p?=?0.10) but not in males (Z?=?0.69, p?=?0.49). The findings provide further support for the need of subtype classification of this heterogeneous disorder. Future studies should clearly examine sex differences and OCD age-of-onset. In particular, emphasis should be placed on the effect of female reproductive milestones on OCD onset and symptom exacerbation. PMID:25896187

  20. Biased Processing of Threat-Related Information Rather than Knowledge Deficits Contributes to Overestimation of Threat in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moritz, Steffen; Pohl, Rudiger F.

    2009-01-01

    Overestimation of threat (OET) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The present study deconstructed this complex concept and looked for specific deviances in OCD relative to controls. A total of 46 participants with OCD and 51 nonclinical controls were asked: (a) to estimate the incidence rate for 20…

  1. Clinical predictors of response to pharmacotherapy with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors in obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    PubMed

    Tükel, Ra?it; Bozkurt, Oya; Polat, Aslihan; Genç, Aysun; Atli, Hatice

    2006-08-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the clinical predictors of response to treatment with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) in a sample of patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). A total of 55 patients diagnosed as OCD according to revised 3rd edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders criteria underwent a 12-week standardized SSRI treatment. According to 'treatment response', defined as at least a 35% drop in the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale total score, OCD patients were divided into two groups. A total of 32 (58.2%) patients who responded to treatment and 23 (41.8%) who did not, were compared in terms of sociodemographic and clinical characteristics. The authors' findings demonstrated that the severity of obsession-compulsions and disability in work, social and family lives at the beginning of treatment were significantly higher in OCD patients who did not respond to treatment in comparison to those who did. Linear regression analysis, however, revealed that Sheehan Disability Scale-work score at baseline was a predictor of response to SSRI treatment. The higher levels of disability at the beginning of treatment in patients with OCD are associated with a poorer response to SSRI. PMID:16884439

  2. Delusional misidentification syndromes in obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    PubMed

    Melca, Isabela A; Rodrigues, Clarissa L; Serra-Pinheiro, Maria A; Pantelis, Christos; Velakoulis, Dennis; Mendlowicz, Mauro V; Fontenelle, Leonardo F

    2013-06-01

    Delusional misidentification syndromes (DMS) have been rarely reported in patients with conditions other than schizophrenia-related disorders, diffuse brain disease (dementia) and focal neurological illness. In this report, we describe DMS (i.e. Capgras and Fregoli syndromes) in two patients with severe and treatment resistant obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), one with paranoid personality disorder (PPD) and the other with a pervasive developmental disorder (PDD) not otherwise specified. While our findings highlight an interesting phenomenon (the occurrence of DMS in OCD), it is presently unclear whether this association is rare or underreported. Misidentification syndromes might be the ultimate result of a combination of obsessive fears and preexisting cognitive bias/deficits, such as mistrustfulness (in PPD) or poor theory of mind (in PDD). PMID:22922811

  3. [Hungarian translation of the Dimensional Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale and our first experiences with the test].

    PubMed

    Harsányi, András; Csigó, Katalin; Demeter, Gyula; Rajnai, Csaba; Németh, Attila; Racsmány, Mihály

    2009-01-01

    According to the dimensional approach of the obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), it is possible to identify phenotypic subtypes--so called dimensions--within the heterogeneous clinical manifestations of OCD by statistical techniques (principal component analysis). The Dimensional Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (DY-BOCS) measures the presence of the obsessive-compulsive symptoms within the phenotype. The scale is a semi-structured instrument, which includes a symptom list divided into six dimensions for the patients and a part reserved for the clinician. The authors gave their written permission for the translation of the DY-BOCS test into Hungarian, revised the back-translation of the Hungarian version and the final, revised version is published for the first time, in Hungary. The Hungarian DY-BOCS was administered to seventeen OCD patients at 2nd Department of Psychiatry, Nyírô Gyula Hospital. The reliability analysis produced strong correlation coefficients. The internal consistency (Cronbach alpha) scores were high, ranging from 0.97 to 0.99. The scores of the validity scales were also good. There was a strong convergent validity between the gold standard, Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS) global severity scores and the DY-BOCS global severity scores (p=0.001 / r=0.744). The examination of the internal validity showed that the DY-BOCS global score and the aggressive and miscellaneous dimension severity rating scores are strongly correlated. We also experienced strong correlation between the DY-BOCS global score and the component scores of the global severity ratings (time, distress, interference, and impairment), the Pearson's r ranged from 0.815 to 0.960. There was no significant inter-correlation between the dimensions, which supports the assumption that these dimensions are independent constructs. In the divergent validity measures, we used the Hamilton Depression Scale (HAM-D) to compare OCD dimensions with the most common comorbid disorder (depression) symptoms. The severity scores of the HAM-D were correlated with the severity scores of the DY-BOCS dimensions. In this latter validity test, we found only one significant correlation between the aggressive dimension and the severity of the depression. In the case of the remaining dimensions, there was no significant correlation between the dimensions and the severity of depression; thus, it seems that the two tests examine widely different psychological phenomena . The evaluating scores of the Hungarian version of the DY-BOCS are very close to the original published scores. These results indicate that the Hungarian version of the DY-BOCS is a reliable and a valid clinical tool and we hope that by using the test, Hungarian professionals will become familiar with and accept the dimensional approach of OCD. PMID:19542567

  4. Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder and Eating Disorders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Katherine A. Halmi

    2004-01-01

    Obsessions, compulsions, and personality traits such as perfectionism and inflexibility are commonly described in eating disorder patients. A lack of precise clarification has existed in defining the presence of obsessive-compulsive disorder and obsessive-compulsive personality disorder in the various eating disorder subtypes. Research clarifying these definitions and the components of perfectionism as it pertains to eating disorders is reviewed in this

  5. ORIGINAL ARTICLE Genomewide linkage scan for obsessive-compulsive

    E-print Network

    Murphy, Dennis L.

    ORIGINAL ARTICLE Genomewide linkage scan for obsessive-compulsive disorder: evidence and Pediatrics, School of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA Obsessive-compulsive disorder; published online 6 June 2006 Keywords: obsessive-compulsive disorder; genome-wide scan; covariate based

  6. Anger attacks in obsessive compulsive disorder

    PubMed Central

    Painuly, Nitesh Prakash; Grover, Sandeep; Mattoo, Surendra Kumar; Gupta, Nitin

    2011-01-01

    Background: Research on anger attacks has been mostly limited to depression, and only a few studies have focused on anger attacks in obsessive compulsive disorder. Materials and Methods: In a cross-sectional study all new obsessive compulsive disorder patients aged 20-60 years attending an outpatient clinic were assessed using the anger attack questionnaire, irritability, depression and anxiety scale (for the direction of the aggressive behavior) and quality of life (QOL). Results: The sample consisted of 42 consecutive subjects with obsessive compulsive disorder, out of which 21 (50%) had anger attacks. The obsessive compulsive disorder subjects with and without anger attacks did not show significant differences in terms of sociodemographic variables, duration of illness, treatment, and family history. However, subjects with anger attacks had significantly higher prevalence of panic attacks and comorbid depression. Significantly more subjects with anger attacks exhibited aggressive acts toward spouse, parents, children, and other relatives in the form of yelling and threatening to hurt, trying to hurt, and threatening to leave. However, the two groups did not differ significantly in terms of QOL, except for the psychological domain being worse in the subjects with anger attacks. Conclusion: Anger attacks are present in half of the patients with obsessive compulsive disorder, and they correlate with the presence of comorbid depression. PMID:23271866

  7. Personality Disorders in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: A Comparative Study versus Other Anxiety Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Pena-Garijo, Josep; Edo Villamón, Silvia; Ruipérez, M. Ángeles

    2013-01-01

    Objective. The purpose of this paper is to provide evidence for the relationship between personality disorders (PDs), obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), and other anxiety disorders different from OCD (non-OCD) symptomatology. Method. The sample consisted of a group of 122 individuals divided into three groups (41 OCD; 40 non-OCD, and 41 controls) matched by sex, age, and educational level. All the individuals answered the IPDE questionnaire and were evaluated by means of the SCID-I and SCID-II interviews. Results. Patients with OCD and non-OCD present a higher presence of PD. There was an increase in cluster C diagnoses in both groups, with no statistically significant differences between them. Conclusions. Presenting anxiety disorder seems to cause a specific vulnerability for PD. Most of the PDs that were presented belonged to cluster C. Obsessive Compulsive Personality Disorder (OCPD) is the most common among OCD. However, it does not occur more frequently among OCD patients than among other anxious patients, which does not confirm the continuum between obsessive personality and OCD. Implications for categorical and dimensional diagnoses are discussed. PMID:24453917

  8. Association of a glutamate (NMDA) subunit receptor gene (GRIN2B) with obsessive-compulsive disorder: a preliminary study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul D. Arnold; David R. Rosenberg; Emanuela Mundo; Subi Tharmalingam; James L. Kennedy; Margaret A. Richter

    2004-01-01

    Rationale Recent investigation suggests that a reversible glutamatergically mediated thalamocortical-striatal dysfunction may serve as a reliable pathophysiological and treatment response marker for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). We postulated that N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors were involved in OCD, and specifically that polymorphisms in the 3? untranslated region of GRIN2B (glutamate receptor, ionotropic, N-methyl-d-aspartate 2B) were associated with OCD in affected families. Objectives The

  9. Treatment Responses of Inpatient Eating Disorder Women with and without Co-occurring Obsessive-compulsive Disorder

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edward J. Cumella; Zina Kally; A. David Wall

    2007-01-01

    We analyzed the influence of co-occurring obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) on response to eating disorder (ED) treatment among 2,971 female inpatients. We assessed treatment response using Eating Disorder Inventory-2 and DSM-IV ED criteria. Multivariate analyses included sociodemographics, illness severity, and co-occurring Axis I\\/II diagnoses. ED inpatients with OCD had greater ED severity than those without OCD. However, no differences occurred in

  10. Animal models of obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Camilla d'Angelo, Laure-Sophie; Eagle, Dawn M; Grant, Jon E; Fineberg, Naomi A; Robbins, Trevor W; Chamberlain, Samuel R

    2014-02-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and related conditions (trichotillomania, pathological skin-picking, pathological nail-biting) are common and disabling. Current treatment approaches fail to help a significant proportion of patients. Multiple tiers of evidence link these conditions with underlying dysregulation of particular cortico-subcortical circuitry and monoamine systems, which represent targets for treatment. Animal models designed to capture aspects of these conditions are critical for several reasons. First, they help in furthering our understanding of neuroanatomical and neurochemical underpinnings of the obsessive-compulsive (OC) spectrum. Second, they help to account for the brain mechanisms by which existing treatments (pharmacotherapy, psychotherapy, deep brain stimulation) exert their beneficial effects on patients. Third, they inform the search for novel treatments. This article provides a critique of key animal models for selected OC spectrum disorders, beginning with initial work relating to anxiety, but moving on to recent developments in domains of genetic, pharmacological, cognitive, and ethological models. We find that there is a burgeoning literature in these areas with important ramifications, which are considered, along with salient future lines of research. PMID:24093759

  11. A cross-sectional study of insight and family accommodation in pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Factors predicting treatment outcome in pediatric patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) include disease severity, functional impairment, comorbid disorders, insight, and family accommodation (FA). Treatment of pediatric OCD is often only partly successful as some of these predictors are not targeted with conventional therapy. Among these, insight and FA were identified to be modifiable predictors of special relevance to pediatric OCD. Despite their clinical relevance, insight and FA remain understudied in youth with OCD. This study examined the clinical correlates of insight and FA and determined whether FA mediates the relationship between symptom severity and functional impairment in pediatric OCD. Methods This was a cross-sectional, outpatient study. Thirty-five treatment-naive children and adolescentswith DSM-IV diagnosis of OCD (mean age: 13.11?±?3.16; 54.3% males) were included. Standard questionnaires were administered for assessing the study variables. Insight and comorbidities were assessed based on clinician’s interview. Subjects were categorized as belonging to a high insight or a low insight group, and the differences between these two groups were analyzed using ANOVA. Pearson’s correlation coefficients were calculated for the remaining variables of interest. Mediation analysis was carried out using structural equation modeling. Results Relative to those in the high insight group, subjects in the low insight group were younger, had more severe disease and symptoms, and were accommodated to a greater extent by their families. In addition, comorbid depression was more frequent in subjects belonging to the low insight group. Family accommodation was positively related to disease severity, symptom severity, and functional impairment. Family accommodation totally mediated the relationship between symptom severity and functional impairment. Conclusions Results support the differences in the diagnostic criteria between adult and pediatric patients with OCD with respect to the requirement of insight. Subjects with low insight displayed clinical characteristics of increased severity compared with their high insight counterparts, suggesting that subjects with low insight may require multimodal approach to treatment. Family accommodation was found to mediate the relationship between symptom severity and functional impairment; the use of family-based approaches to cognitive behavioral therapy, with one of the aims of reducing/mitigating FA, may provide better treatment outcomes in pediatric OCD. PMID:23786761

  12. Decreased blood levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    PubMed

    Monteleone, P; Catapano, F; Fabrazzo, M; Tortorella, A; Maj, M

    1998-01-01

    To investigate immune system function in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) we measured plasma levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in 14 drug-free obsessive-compulsive patients and 14 matched healthy controls. No significant differences were observed between patients and controls in plasma levels of IL-1 beta and IL-6, whereas plasma levels of TNF-alpha were significantly lower (p = 0.001) in the former. Blood levels of prolactin did not differ between the two groups, whereas plasma cortisol concentrations were significantly higher in patients than in healthy subjects (p = 0.02). No significant correlation was found between immune parameters, on the one hand, and endocrine or psychopathological measures on the other. These results suggest that OCD is associated with a decreased production in TNF-alpha, but normal synthesis of IL-1 beta and IL-6. PMID:9648125

  13. Outcome predictors for severe obsessive-compulsive patients in intensive residential treatment.

    PubMed

    Stewart, S Evelyn; Yen, Chen-Hsing; Stack, Denise Egan; Jenike, Michael A

    2006-09-01

    Intensive residential treatment (IRT) is an effective management approach for those with severe obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). This study aimed to identify IRT response predictors for clinical and research use. Consecutive subjects admitted to the Massachusetts General Hospital/McLean OCD Institute (OCDI) between February 1997 and June 2003 were included (N=476). IRT responder and non-responder group characteristics were compared using t-tests and chi(2) analyses. Multiple regression analysis modeled relationships between final OCD severity (Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive scale scores) and predictor variables, while accounting for multicollinearity and potential outliers. Treatment responders comprised 59.3% of the treatment sample. Responders had significantly fewer males (p=0.02), lower depression severity (p=0.03), poorer psychosocial functioning (p=0.03) and fewer tic disorders (0.04), but were not different with respect to admission length, age, marital or employment status, OCD onset, family OCD history, treatment or admission history. In the final regression model, decreased initial OCD severity (p<0.001), female gender (p=0.003) and better initial psychosocial functioning (Work and Social Adjustment scale scores) (p=0.003) were predictors of less severe OCD at discharge (adjusted R-square=0.28). Depression severity (Beck Depression Inventory scores) and insight were not predictive of treatment outcome. Future research is necessary to elucidate putative relationships between gender and OCD psychopathology, and to understand the interplay of psychosocial factors, OCD severity and treatment outcome. PMID:16229857

  14. Obsessive Compulsive Disorder in Children and Adolescents: The Role of the School Psychologist in Identification, Assessment, and Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Gail B.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Describes the major phenomena that characterize obsessive compulsive disorders (OCD) in children and adolescents. Provides examples of behavioral manifestations of these disorders in the school setting. Discusses the school psychologist's role, with particular emphasis placed on a behavioral consultative approach for assessing and treating…

  15. Brief Report: Exposure and Response Prevention for Obsessive Compulsive Disorder in a 12-Year-Old with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehmkuhl, Heather D.; Storch, Eric A.; Bodfish, James W.; Geffken, Gary R.

    2008-01-01

    Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) involves exaggerated or excessive worry about threatening and non-threatening stimuli coupled with impairing rituals believed to reduce anxiety. Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) are characterized by impairment in social and communicative activities as well as restricted and repetitive behaviors. Approximately 2%…

  16. Prospective, Longitudinal Study of Tic, Obsessive-Compulsive, and Attention-Deficit\\/Hyperactivity Disorders in an Epidemiological Sample

    Microsoft Academic Search

    BRADLEY S. PETERSON; DANIEL S. PINE; PATRICIA COHEN; JUDITH S. BROOK

    2001-01-01

    ObjectiveUnderstanding the interrelatedness of tics, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and attention-deficit\\/ hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been complicated by studying only cross-sectional samples of clinically referred subjects. The authors report the cross-sectional and longitudinal associations of these disorders in an epidemiological sample of children followed prospectively into early adulthood.

  17. A Prospective Study of Alexithymia in Obsessive-Compulsive Patients Treated with Multimodal Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Rufer; Iver Hand; Anne Braatz; Heike Alsleben; Susanne Fricke; Helmut Peter

    2004-01-01

    Background: Alexithymia as a predictor of treatment outcome in psychotherapy has often been discussed but rarely evaluated in prospective studies. The present study evaluated the absolute and relative stability of alexithymia in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and the predictive value of alexithymia for the outcome of treatment. Methods: We conducted a prospective study with 42 inpatients receiving intensive, multimodal

  18. Larger than life: Overestimation of object size is moderated by personal relevance in obsessive–compulsive disorder

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steffen Moritz; Georg W. Alpers; Lisa Schilling; Lena Jelinek; Amanda Brooks; Bastian Willenborg; Matthias Nagel

    2011-01-01

    Background and ObjectivesAlong with other cognitive biases overestimation of threat (OET) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD). The present study investigated whether OET would not only manifest in cognitive distortions but, also in overestimations of the object size of disorder-related visual objects.

  19. Attitudes of psychiatrists toward obsessive–compulsive disorder patients

    PubMed Central

    Kusalaruk, Pichaya; Saipanish, Ratana; Hiranyatheb, Thanita

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Negative attitudes from doctors and the resulting stigmatization have a strong impact on psychiatric patients’ poor access to treatment. There are various studies centering on doctors’ attitudes toward psychiatric patients, but rarely focusing on the attitudes to specific disorders, such as obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD). This research aimed to focus on psychiatrists’ attitudes toward OCD patients. Patients and methods The participants were actual psychiatrists who signed a form of consent. The main tool used in this study was a questionnaire developed from a focus group interview of ten psychiatrists about their attitudes toward OCD patients. Results More than 80% of the participating psychiatrists reported a kindhearted attitude toward OCD patients in the form of pity, understanding, and empathy. Approximately one-third of the respondents thought that OCD patients talk too much, waste a lot of time, and need more patience when compared with other psychiatric disorder sufferers. More than half of the respondents thought that OCD patients had poor compliance with behavioral therapy. The number of psychiatrists who had confidence in treating OCD patients with medications (90.1%) was much higher than those expressing confidence in behavioral therapy (51.7%), and approximately 80% perceived that OCD patients were difficult to treat. Although 70% of the respondents chose medications combined with behavioral therapy as the most preferred mode of treatment, only 7.7% reported that they were proficient in exposure and response prevention. Conclusion Even though most psychiatrists had a more positive than negative attitude toward OCD patients, they still thought OCD patients were difficult to treat and had poor compliance with behavioral therapy. Only a small number of the participating psychiatrists reported proficiency in exposure and response prevention.

  20. Response inhibition and interference control in obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    van Velzen, Laura S; Vriend, Chris; de Wit, Stella J; van den Heuvel, Odile A

    2014-01-01

    Over the past 20?years, motor response inhibition and interference control have received considerable scientific effort and attention, due to their important role in behavior and the development of neuropsychiatric disorders. Results of neuroimaging studies indicate that motor response inhibition and interference control are dependent on cortical-striatal-thalamic-cortical (CSTC) circuits. Structural and functional abnormalities within the CSTC circuits have been reported for many neuropsychiatric disorders, including obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and related disorders, such as attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, Tourette's syndrome, and trichotillomania. These disorders also share impairments in motor response inhibition and interference control, which may underlie some of their behavioral and cognitive symptoms. Results of task-related neuroimaging studies on inhibitory functions in these disorders show that impaired task performance is related to altered recruitment of the CSTC circuits. Previous research has shown that inhibitory performance is dependent upon dopamine, noradrenaline, and serotonin signaling, neurotransmitters that have been implicated in the pathophysiology of these disorders. In this narrative review, we discuss the common and disorder-specific pathophysiological mechanisms of inhibition-related dysfunction in OCD and related disorders. PMID:24966828

  1. Suicidio e disturbo ossessivo-compulsivo Suicide and obsessive-compulsive disorder

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. MAINA; U. ALBERT; S. RIGARDETTO; M. N. TIEZZI; F. BOGETTO

    2006-01-01

    Summary Objectives Literature data on suicide (suicidal ideation and\\/or attempts) and Obsessive- Compulsive Disorder (OCD) are contradictory, with some Authors reporting rates for suicide attempts and suicide as low as 0.4% and 0.08%, respectively (Khan et al., 2002), and others referring a lifetime rate for suicide attempts of 11% and for suicidal ideation as high as 62% (Sørensen et al.,

  2. The normalcy of neurosis: Evolutionary origins of obsessive–compulsive disorder and related behaviors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Diana L. Feygin; James E. Swain; James F. Leckman

    2006-01-01

    One of the most curious questions plaguing subscribers of evolutionary theory is how natural selection’s fine-tuned editing function could allow disease to persist. For evolutionary psychiatrists, the existence of psychopathology is thus perplexing. To illustrate a potential answer to one instance of this broad question, we examine the correlates of obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) within our normal repertoire of thought and

  3. An Inference-Based Approach to Treating Obsessive-Compulsive Disorders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kieron O'Connor; Natalia Koszegi; Frederick Aardema; Jan van Niekerk; Annie Taillon

    2009-01-01

    This article outlines the conceptual and empirical basis for an inference-based approach (IBA) to treating obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The IBA considers that in most cases the obsessional process begins with an initial doubt (e.g., “Maybe my hands are not clean”; “Perhaps the door was not locked”; “There's a chance I made an error”; “I could have harmed someone”) and that

  4. Treatment of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder in Young Children: An Intervention Model and Case Series

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Golda S. Ginsburg; Marcy Burstein; Kimberly D. Becker; Kelly L. Drake

    2011-01-01

    This article presents an intervention model for young children with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The intervention, designed to reduce compulsive behavior and improve parenting practices, was tested using a multiple baseline design with 7 children (M = 6 years old; 57% female) in which participants were randomly assigned to 1, 2, or 3 weeks of baseline (i.e., no treatment). All children were diagnosed

  5. Should Non-Suicidal Self-Injury Be A Putative Obsessive-Compulsive Related Condition? A Critical Appraisal

    PubMed Central

    McKay, Dean; Andover, Margaret

    2013-01-01

    Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) has many behavioral and cognitive features that would make it appear to be closely tied to obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Obsessive-compulsive related disorders (OCRDs) have been described in the literature as conditions that share a common phenomenology, neurobiology, and treatment response. We reviewed the literature describing the degree that NSSI is similar to, and distinct from, OCRDs based on these hypothesized common areas. We conclude with recommendations for conceptualization that draws partly on that from the OCRD literature and from cognitive-behavioral models of rumination. PMID:21885469

  6. P wave dispersion in obsessive-compulsive disorder

    PubMed Central

    Yavuzkir, Mustafa F.; Atmaca, Murad; Gurok, M. Gurkan; Adiyaman, Sahin

    2015-01-01

    Background: P wave dispersion (Pd) is defined as the difference between the maximum and the minimum P wave duration. It has recently been associated with increased anxiety levels, thereby predisposing affected individuals to fatal heart disease. Despite of evidence of this autonomous nervous system (ANS) relationship, there are no electrocardiography (ECG) studies in the patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Thus, in this study, we aimed to evaluate the Pd in OCD patients. Materials and Methods: The study consisted of a total of 25 patients with OCD and same number of physically and mentally healthy age- and gender-matched controls. For psychological testing, Yale-Brown Obsession and Compulsion (Y-BOCS) was administered. Results: Pmax was found to be significantly higher in the patients compared to controls. Pmin did not differ between groups. Left atrium sizes were not different between groups. As for the main parameter investigated in the present study, it was found that Pd was significantly increased in the OCD patients than the controls. Y-BOCS scores for the patient group was positively correlated with Pd (r = 0.73, P < 0.01). Conclusions: In conclusion, our results suggest that Pd may be associated with OCD though our sample is too small to allow us to obtain a clear conclusion. Future studies with larger sample evaluating the effects of treatment are required.

  7. An Open Trial of Intensive Family Based Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy in Youth with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Who Are Medication Partial Responders or Nonresponders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Storch, Eric A.; Lehmkuhl, Heather D.; Ricketts, Emily; Geffken, Gary R.; Marien, Wendi; Murphy, Tanya K.

    2010-01-01

    This study reports an open-trial of family-based cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) in children and adolescents with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Thirty primarily Caucasian youth with OCD (range = 7-19 years; 15 girls) who were partial responders or nonresponders to two or more medication trials that were delivered either serially or…

  8. Intensive Family-Based Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: Applications for Treatment of Medication Partial- or Nonresponders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marien, Wendi E.; Storch, Eric A.; Geffken, Gary R.; Murphy, Tanya K.

    2009-01-01

    Serotonin reuptake inhibitor medications and cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) are both effective treatments for pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Despite recommendations that youth with OCD be treated with CBT alone or together with serotonin reuptake inhibitor medication, many youth are treated with medication alone or with non-CBT…

  9. When Too Much Is Not Enough: Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder as a Pathology of Stopping, Rather than Starting

    PubMed Central

    Hinds, Andrea L.; Woody, Erik Z.; Van Ameringen, Michael; Schmidt, Louis A.; Szechtman, Henry

    2012-01-01

    Background In obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), individuals feel compelled to repeatedly perform security-related behaviors, even though these behaviours seem excessive and unwarranted to them. The present research investigated two alternative ways of explaining such behavior: (1) a dysfunction of activation—a starting problem—in which the level of excitation in response to stimuli suggesting potential danger is abnormally strong; versus (2) a dysfunction of termination—a stopping problem—in which the satiety-like process for shutting down security-related thoughts and actions is abnormally weak. Method In two experiments, 70 patients with OCD (57 with washing compulsions, 13 with checking compulsions) and 72 controls were exposed to contamination cues—immersing a hand in wet diapers —and later allowed to wash their hands, first limited to 30 s and then for as long as desired. The intensity of activation of security motivation was measured objectively by change in respiratory sinus arrythmia. Subjective ratings (e.g., contamination) and behavioral measures (e.g., duration of hand washing) were also collected. Results Compared to controls, OCD patients with washing compulsions did not differ significantly in their levels of initial activation to the threat of contamination; however, they were significantly less able to reduce this activation by engaging in the corrective behavior of hand-washing. Further, the deactivating effect of hand-washing in OCD patients with checking compulsions was similar to that for controls, indicating that the dysfunction of termination in OCD is specific to the patient's symptom profile. Conclusions These results are the first to show that OCD is characterized by a reduced ability of security-related behavior to terminate motivation evoked by potential danger, rather than a heightened initial sensitivity to potential threat. They lend support to the security-motivation theory of OCD (Szechtman & Woody, 2004) and have important implications both for research into the biological mechanisms underlying OCD and for the development of new treatment approaches. PMID:22291994

  10. Conscientiousness and Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Douglas B. Samuel; Thomas A. Widiger

    2011-01-01

    A dimensional perspective on personality disorder hypothesizes that the current diagnostic categories represent maladaptive variants of general personality traits. However, a fundamental foundation of this viewpoint is that dimensional models can adequately account for the pathology currently described by these categories. While most of the personality disorders have well established links to dimensional models that buttress this hypothesis, obsessive–compulsive personality

  11. A Case of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Twohig, Michael P.; Whittal, Maureen L.

    2009-01-01

    This article presents the case of a 51-year old woman with obsessive-compulsive disorder. "Caroline" reported obsessions of harming people secondary to spreading her "bad energy," which is experienced as dust on her hands and in her mouth. To prevent harm coming to others she mentally "vacuums" the dust, creates mental protective barriers around…

  12. Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Treatment in Patients with Down Syndrome: A Case Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutor, Bruce; Hansen, Mark R.; Black, John L.

    2006-01-01

    In this case series we report four cases of patients with Down syndrome with symptoms consistent with obsessive compulsive disorder. Each patient experienced substantial reduction in compulsive behaviors with pharmacotherapy of an SSRI alone or with the addition of risperidone to SSRI therapy. None of the patients experienced significant side…

  13. Visuospatial abilities, memory, and executive functioning in trichotillomania and obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    PubMed

    Bohne, Antje; Savage, Cary R; Deckersbach, Thilo; Keuthen, Nancy J; Jenike, Michael A; Tuschen-Caffier, Brunna; Wilhelm, Sabine

    2005-05-01

    Few studies have compared neuropsychological functioning in trichotillomania (TTM) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). In OCD, most studies suggest abnormal visuospatial abilities, memory, and executive functioning. We compared 23 TTM, 21 OCD and 26 healthy control individuals on neuropsychological tasks assessing these abilities. Neither the TTM nor the OCD groups suffered from generalized neuropsychological deficits compared to the healthy control group. TTM participants showed increased perseveration on the Object Alternation Task suggesting difficulties with response flexibility. OCD participants showed impaired ability to learn from feedback on the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test. Other executive functions, as well as memory and visuospatial abilities were unimpaired in TTM and OCD. Our data suggest that TTM and OCD are characterized by different patterns of neuropsychological dysfunction. PMID:15962686

  14. Updated overview of the putative role of the serotoninergic system in obsessive-compulsive disorder

    PubMed Central

    Aouizerate, Bruno; Guehl, Dominique; Cuny, Emmanuel; Rougier, Alain; Burbaud, Pierre; Tignol, Jean; Bioulac, Bernard

    2005-01-01

    The pathophysiology of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) remains unknown. However, increasing attention has been paid to the putative role of the serotoninergic system, the strongest evidence being based on the widely demonstrated efficacy of serotonin (5HT) reuptake inhibitor antidepressants in the treatment of OCD. The therapeutic effects are correlated with changes in peripheral parameters of 5HT function, which have been found to be altered in OCD, suggesting the possibility of reduced 5HT reuptake capacity. This could reflect a compensatory mechanism presumably due to decreased availability of extracellular 5HT, as evidenced by data derived from direct assessment of central 5HT neurotransmission. The development of new neurochemical probes that explore the sensitivity of various 5HT receptor subtypes has provided precious information. m-Chlorophenylpyperazine (m-CPP), an agonist to 5HT1A, 5HT1D, and 5HT2C receptors, and which also blocks 5HT3 receptors, exacerbates OC symptoms. In contrast, neither MK-212 (6-chloro-2-[1-piperazinyl]-pyrazine), a 5HT1A and 5HT2C receptor agonist, nor ipsapirone or buspirone, which acts as an agonist to 5HT1A receptors, have any effect on OC symptom severity. This suggests the potential implication of the 5HT1D receptor, as shown by the aggravation of OC manifestations in response to sumatriptan, a selective 5HT1D receptor agonist. The 5HT3 plays no specific role, given the lack of influence of the 5HT3 antagonist ondansetron, on OC symptom intensity. Further studies are required to elucidate the pharmacological molecular determinants of the putative 5HT1D receptor dysfunction. PMID:18568072

  15. How to treat the untreated: effectiveness of a self-help metacognitive training program (myMCT) for obsessive-compulsive disorder

    PubMed Central

    Moritz, Steffen; Jelinek, Lena; Hauschildt, Marit; Naber, Dieter

    2010-01-01

    Despite advances in the understanding and treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), many patients undergoing interventions display incomplete symptom reduction. Our research group has developed a self-help manual entitled “My Metacognitive Training for OCD” (myMCT) aimed at raising patients' awareness about cognitive biases that seem to subserve OCD. The training is particularly intended for patients currently unable or unwilling to attend standard therapy, or in cases where such a treatment option is not available. For the present study, 86 individuals suffering from OCD were recruited over the Internet. Following the initial assessment participants were either immediately emailed the myMCT manual or allocated to a waitlist group. After 4 weeks, a second assessment was performed. The myMCT group showed significantly greater improvement for OCD symptoms according to the Y-BOCS total score compared with the waitlist group (d =.63), particularly for obsessions (d=.69). Medium to strong differences emerged for the OCI-R (d =.70) and the BDI-SF (d =.50). The investigation provides the first evidence for the effectiveness of the myMCT for OCD. PMID:20623925

  16. Intensive Family-Based Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: Applications for Treatment of Medication Partial- or Nonresponders

    PubMed Central

    Marien, Wendi E.; Storch, Eric A.; Geffken, Gary R.; Murphy, Tanya K.

    2011-01-01

    Serotonin reuptake inhibitor medications and cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) are both effective treatments for pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Despite recommendations that youth with OCD be treated with CBT alone or together with serotonin reuptake inhibitor medication, many youth are treated with medication alone or with non-CBT psychotherapy initially. Although effective, symptom remission with medication alone is rare (e.g., only 21.4% of youth achieved remission with sertraline in the Pediatric OCD Treatment Study, 2004) and residual symptoms often remain (e.g., 58% of subjects in the March et al. [1998] sertraline trial were not considered treatment responders). This paper reviews the literature on the efficacy of CBT for pediatric OCD, particularly as it relates to the treatment of youth with prior inadequate response to medication. It also describes an intensive, family-based CBT program for children and adolescents with OCD and support for its efficacy among those with prior partial- or nonresponse to medication. Finally, we present a case study of an adolescent girl with OCD who participated in the intensive treatment program after having limited benefit from medication and non-CBT psychotherapy and experienced a favorable response. PMID:24174866

  17. Treatment with Ziprasidone for schizophrenia patients with OCD.

    PubMed

    Juven-Wetzler, Alzbeta; Fostick, Leah; Cwikel-Hamzany, Shlomit; Balaban, Evgenya; Zohar, Joseph

    2014-09-01

    Comorbidity of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has been observed in about 15% of schizophrenic patients and has been associated with poor prognosis. Therefore, there is a need for specific treatment options for these patients (schizo-obsessive, ScOCD). This is an open, prospective study, aiming to test the efficacy of Ziprasidone (80-200mg/d) in ScOCD patients and comparing the response to the treatment between stable schizophrenic (N=16) and stable ScOCD (N=29) patients. Treatment effect with Ziprasidone was different in schizophrenic patients when stratified based on OCD comorbidity. Overall, the effect on OCD symptoms (as measured by the Yale Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale, YBOCS) was found to be bimodal-either no response or exacerbation (for 45% of the patients, n=13) or significant improvement of symptoms (55%, n=16). Those who improved in OCD symptoms, improved also in negative and general schizophrenia symptoms, while ScOCD-unimproved group worsened in all symptoms. Whereas schizophrenic patients without OCD responded in a modest Gaussian distribution, they improved in schizophrenia negative symptoms and in general anxiety. This data suggests that schizo-obsessive disorder is a distinct and complex condition with more than one underlying pathogenesis. Definition of these ScOCD subgroups defined by their response to Ziprasidone might contribute to personalized medicine within the OCD-schizophrenia spectrum. Moreover, this finding suggests that ScOCD may be considered as a special schizophrenic subtype and its inclusion in schizophrenia treatment studies need to be further explored due to its divergent response. PMID:25048540

  18. Brief Report: Exposure and Response Prevention for Obsessive Compulsive Disorder in a 12-year-old with Autism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Heather D. Lehmkuhl; Eric A. Storch; James W. Bodfish; Gary R. Geffken

    2008-01-01

    Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) involves exaggerated or excessive worry about threatening and non-threatening stimuli\\u000a coupled with impairing rituals believed to reduce anxiety. Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) are characterized by impairment\\u000a in social and communicative activities as well as restricted and repetitive behaviors. Approximately 2% of children with ASD\\u000a are also diagnosed with OCD. Although there is extensive research demonstrating the

  19. Onychophagia as a spectrum of obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    PubMed

    Pacan, Przemys?aw; Grzesiak, Magdalena; Reich, Adam; Szepietowski, Jacek C

    2009-01-01

    Onychophagia can be explained as a kind of a compulsion that may cause destruction of the nails. Habitual nail biting is a common behaviour among children and young adults. By the age of 18 years the frequency of this behaviour decreases, but it may persist in some adults. Nail biting is an under-recognized problem, which may occur on a continuum ranging from mild to severe. Nail biting has received little attention in the psychiatric and dermatological literature. Its position in widely accepted classifications of psychiatric disorders (ICD-10 and DSM-IV) remains unclear. This disorder seems to be related to obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorder. Here, we present three case reports of onychophagia and co-occurring psychopathological symptoms and discuss the close relationship of onychophagia to obsessive- compulsive spectrum disorder and possible treatment modalities. Psychiatric evaluation of co-occurring psycho pathological symptoms in patients with onychophagia, especially those with chronic, severe or complicated nail biting, may be helpful in making a choice of individual therapy. Serotonin re-uptake inhibitors seem to be the treatment of choice in severe onychophagia. PMID:19479125

  20. Neuronal Antibody Biomarkers for Sydenham’s Chorea Identify a New Group of Children with Chronic Recurrent Episodic Acute Exacerbations of Tic and Obsessive Compulsive Symptoms Following a Streptococcal Infection

    PubMed Central

    Singer, Harvey S.; Mascaro-Blanco, Adda; Alvarez, Kathy; Morris-Berry, Christina; Kawikova, Ivana; Ben-Pazi, Hilla; Thompson, Carol B.; Ali, Syed F.; Kaplan, Edward L.; Cunningham, Madeleine W.

    2015-01-01

    Several autoantibodies (anti-dopamine 1 (D1R) and 2 (D2R) receptors, anti-tubulin, anti-lysoganglioside-GM1) and antibody-mediated activation of calcium calmodulin dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) signaling activity are elevated in children with Sydenham’s chorea (SC). Recognizing proposed clinical and autoimmune similarities between SC and PANDAS (pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorder associated with a streptococcal infection), we sought to identify serial biomarker changes in a slightly different population. Antineuronal antibodies were measured in eight children (mean 11.3 years) with chronic, dramatic, recurrent tics and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) associated with a group A ?-hemolytic streptococcal (GABHS) respiratory tract infection, but differing because they lacked choreiform movements. Longitudinal serum samples in most subjects included two pre-exacerbation samples, Exac), one midst Exac (abrupt recurrence of tic/OCD; temporally association with a GABHS infection in six of eight subjects), and two post-Exac. Controls included four groups of unaffected children (n = 70; mean 10.8 years) obtained at four different institutions and published controls. Clinical exacerbations were not associated with a significant rise in antineuronal antibody titers. CaMKII activation was increased at the GABHS exacerbation point in 5/6 subjects, exceeded combined and published control’s 95th percentile at least once in 7/8 subjects, and median values were elevated at each time point. Anti-tubulin and anti-D2R titers did not differ from published or combined control group’s 95th percentile or median values. Differences in anti-lysoganglioside-GM1 and anti-D1R titers were dependent on the selected control. Variances in antibody titers and CaMKII activation were identified among the institutional control groups. Based on comparisons to published studies, results identify two groups of PANDAS: 1) a cohort, represented by this study, which lacks choreiform movements and elevated antibodies against D2R; 2) the originally reported group with choreiform movements and elevated anti-D2R antibodies, similar to SC. Increased antibody mediated CaMKII activation was found in both groups and requires further study as a potential biomarker. PMID:25793715

  1. Diagnosis and treatment of an obsessive–compulsive disorder following traumatic brain injury: A single case and review of the literature

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Helene Hofer; Susanna Frigerio; Eveline Frischknecht; Daniel Gassmann; Klemens Gutbrod; René M. Müri

    2012-01-01

    A 27-year-old patient with traumatic brain injury and neuropsychiatric symptoms fitting the obsessive–compulsive disorder was investigated. Brain CT-scan revealed left temporal and bilateral fronto-basal parenchymal contusions. Main Outcome Measure was the Yale–Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale at pre- and post-treatment and at 6 months follow-up. The combination of pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy resulted in lower intensity and frequency of symptoms. Our case

  2. The role of NMDA receptors in the signal attenuation rat model of obsessive–compulsive disorder

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Noa Albelda; Nitza Bar-On; Daphna Joel

    2010-01-01

    Rationale  In recent years, an increasing body of evidence points to the involvement of the glutamatergic system and specifically the\\u000a glutamatergic ionotropic N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor in the pathophysiology of obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Objectives  To test the role of NMDA receptors in compulsive behavior using the signal attenuation rat model of OCD. In this model, ‘compulsive’\\u000a behavior is induced by attenuating a signal

  3. Stress situations of daily living in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder: a retrospective case note study.

    PubMed

    Tarumi, Shin; Tashiiro, Nobutada

    2004-02-01

    About 40% of patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) are said to have treatment-refractory symptoms and chronic course of illness in spite of cognitive-behavior therapy and pharmacotherapy. The present purpose was to investigate factors relevant to OCD patients' chronic course and disturbed daily functions in view of human basic needs based on Maslow's hierarchy of five basic needs. Case notes of 101 outpatients with OCD (47 men and 54 women who were 18 to 55 years old) and seen on a psychiatry unit of a general hospital were studied to explore their stressful situations and identify thwarted basic needs. 84 of the 101 patients had Love Needs, and Esteem Needs (n = 47) and Safety Needs (n = 45) were next. The Poor-functioning group mainly had histories with problems of Safety Needs (70.8%), while the Good-functioning group tended to mainly have problems of Esteem Needs (51.5%) rather than Safety Needs (33.3%). 57 patients (23 men and 34 women) who were treated for more than three months were divided into two groups according to their Global Assessment of Functioning score at the final assessment (cut-off point: 61); patients in the Good-functioning group tended to have problems of higher needs. PMID:15077758

  4. The Pediatric Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Treatment Study for Young Children (POTS jr): Developmental Considerations in the Rationale, Design, and Methods

    PubMed Central

    Freeman, Jennifer; Garcia, Abbe; Benito, Kristen; Conelea, Christine; Sapyta, Jeffrey; Khanna, Muniya; March, John; Franklin, Martin

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the rationale, design, and methods of the Pediatric Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) Treatment Study for young children (POTS Jr). The study is a multi-site randomized controlled trial (RCT) of family-based Cognitive Behavioral Treatment (CBT) vs. family-based Relaxation Therapy (RT) for young children (ages 5–8) with OCD, which examines the effect of treatment on symptom reduction, functional impairment, and quality of life. Secondary aims evaluate: potential moderators and mediators of treatment response, differences in time course of response, retention rates, and maintenance of treatment gains over one year post-treatment. The sample included 127 children (53% female) and their parents. With regard to ethnicity, 89% of the sample described themselves as non-Hispanic, 5% Hispanic/Latino, and 6% did not endorse a category. In terms of race, the sample was predominantly (91%) White. Because the rationale and methods of the multi-site RCT have been well established, we emphasize here the methodological aspects of the study that were tailored to meet the developmental needs of young children with OCD. Aspects that are highlighted include: choice of control group, inclusion/exclusion criteria, assessment/measurement issues, treatment adaptations, training, and recruitment. PMID:23181244

  5. Genome-wide Association Study of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, S Evelyn; Yu, Dongmei; Scharf, Jeremiah M; Neale, Benjamin M; Fagerness, Jesen A; Mathews, Carol A; Arnold, Paul D; Evans, Patrick D; Gamazon, Eric R; Osiecki, Lisa; McGrath, Lauren; Haddad, Stephen; Crane, Jacquelyn; Hezel, Dianne; Illman, Cornelia; Mayerfeld, Catherine; Konkashbaev, Anuar; Liu, Chunyu; Pluzhnikov, Anna; Tikhomirov, Anna; Edlund, Christopher K; Rauch, Scott L; Moessner, Rainald; Falkai, Peter; Maier, Wolfgang; Ruhrmann, Stephan; Grabe, Hans-Jörgen; Lennertz, Leonard; Wagner, Michael; Bellodi, Laura; Cavallini, Maria Cristina; Richter, Margaret A; Cook, Edwin H; Kennedy, James L; Rosenberg, David; Stein, Dan J; Hemmings, Sian MJ; Lochner, Christine; Azzam, Amin; Chavira, Denise A; Fournier, Eduardo; Garrido, Helena; Sheppard, Brooke; Umaña, Paul; Murphy, Dennis L; Wendland, Jens R; Veenstra-VanderWeele, Jeremy; Denys, Damiaan; Blom, Rianne; Deforce, Dieter; Van Nieuwerburgh, Filip; Westenberg, Herman GM; Walitza, Susanne; Egberts, Karin; Renner, Tobias; Miguel, Euripedes Constantino; Cappi, Carolina; Hounie, Ana G; Conceição do Rosário, Maria; Sampaio, Aline S; Vallada, Homero; Nicolini, Humberto; Lanzagorta, Nuria; Camarena, Beatriz; Delorme, Richard; Leboyer, Marion; Pato, Carlos N; Pato, Michele T; Voyiaziakis, Emanuel; Heutink, Peter; Cath, Danielle C; Posthuma, Danielle; Smit, Jan H; Samuels, Jack; Bienvenu, O Joseph; Cullen, Bernadette; Fyer, Abby J; Grados, Marco A; Greenberg, Benjamin D; McCracken, James T; Riddle, Mark A; Wang, Ying; Coric, Vladimir; Leckman, James F; Bloch, Michael; Pittenger, Christopher; Eapen, Valsamma; Black, Donald W; Ophoff, Roel A; Strengman, Eric; Cusi, Daniele; Turiel, Maurizio; Frau, Francesca; Macciardi, Fabio; Gibbs, J Raphael; Cookson, Mark R; Singleton, Andrew; Hardy, John; Crenshaw, Andrew T; Parkin, Melissa A; Mirel, Daniel B; Conti, David V; Purcell, Shaun; Nestadt, Gerald; Hanna, Gregory L; Jenike, Michael A; Knowles, James A; Cox, Nancy; Pauls, David L

    2014-01-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a common, debilitating neuropsychiatric illness with complex genetic etiology. The International OCD Foundation Genetics Collaborative (IOCDF-GC) is a multi-national collaboration established to discover the genetic variation predisposing to OCD. A set of individuals affected with DSM-IV OCD, a subset of their parents, and unselected controls, were genotyped with several different Illumina SNP microarrays. After extensive data cleaning, 1,465 cases, 5,557 ancestry-matched controls and 400 complete trios remained, with a common set of 469,410 autosomal and 9,657 X-chromosome SNPs. Ancestry-stratified case-control association analyses were conducted for three genetically-defined subpopulations and combined in two meta-analyses, with and without the trio-based analysis. In the case-control analysis, the lowest two p-values were located within DLGAP1 (p=2.49×10-6 and p=3.44×10-6), a member of the neuronal postsynaptic density complex. In the trio analysis, rs6131295, near BTBD3, exceeded the genome-wide significance threshold with a p-value=3.84 × 10-8. However, when trios were meta-analyzed with the combined case-control samples, the p-value for this variant was 3.62×10-5, losing genome-wide significance. Although no SNPs were identified to be associated with OCD at a genome-wide significant level in the combined trio-case-control sample, a significant enrichment of methylation-QTLs (p<0.001) and frontal lobe eQTLs (p=0.001) was observed within the top-ranked SNPs (p<0.01) from the trio-case-control analysis, suggesting these top signals may have a broad role in gene expression in the brain, and possibly in the etiology of OCD. PMID:22889921

  6. Genome-wide association study of obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    PubMed

    Stewart, S E; Yu, D; Scharf, J M; Neale, B M; Fagerness, J A; Mathews, C A; Arnold, P D; Evans, P D; Gamazon, E R; Davis, L K; Osiecki, L; McGrath, L; Haddad, S; Crane, J; Hezel, D; Illman, C; Mayerfeld, C; Konkashbaev, A; Liu, C; Pluzhnikov, A; Tikhomirov, A; Edlund, C K; Rauch, S L; Moessner, R; Falkai, P; Maier, W; Ruhrmann, S; Grabe, H-J; Lennertz, L; Wagner, M; Bellodi, L; Cavallini, M C; Richter, M A; Cook, E H; Kennedy, J L; Rosenberg, D; Stein, D J; Hemmings, S M J; Lochner, C; Azzam, A; Chavira, D A; Fournier, E; Garrido, H; Sheppard, B; Umaña, P; Murphy, D L; Wendland, J R; Veenstra-VanderWeele, J; Denys, D; Blom, R; Deforce, D; Van Nieuwerburgh, F; Westenberg, H G M; Walitza, S; Egberts, K; Renner, T; Miguel, E C; Cappi, C; Hounie, A G; Conceição do Rosário, M; Sampaio, A S; Vallada, H; Nicolini, H; Lanzagorta, N; Camarena, B; Delorme, R; Leboyer, M; Pato, C N; Pato, M T; Voyiaziakis, E; Heutink, P; Cath, D C; Posthuma, D; Smit, J H; Samuels, J; Bienvenu, O J; Cullen, B; Fyer, A J; Grados, M A; Greenberg, B D; McCracken, J T; Riddle, M A; Wang, Y; Coric, V; Leckman, J F; Bloch, M; Pittenger, C; Eapen, V; Black, D W; Ophoff, R A; Strengman, E; Cusi, D; Turiel, M; Frau, F; Macciardi, F; Gibbs, J R; Cookson, M R; Singleton, A; Hardy, J; Crenshaw, A T; Parkin, M A; Mirel, D B; Conti, D V; Purcell, S; Nestadt, G; Hanna, G L; Jenike, M A; Knowles, J A; Cox, N; Pauls, D L

    2013-07-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a common, debilitating neuropsychiatric illness with complex genetic etiology. The International OCD Foundation Genetics Collaborative (IOCDF-GC) is a multi-national collaboration established to discover the genetic variation predisposing to OCD. A set of individuals affected with DSM-IV OCD, a subset of their parents, and unselected controls, were genotyped with several different Illumina SNP microarrays. After extensive data cleaning, 1465 cases, 5557 ancestry-matched controls and 400 complete trios remained, with a common set of 469,410 autosomal and 9657 X-chromosome single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Ancestry-stratified case-control association analyses were conducted for three genetically-defined subpopulations and combined in two meta-analyses, with and without the trio-based analysis. In the case-control analysis, the lowest two P-values were located within DLGAP1 (P=2.49 × 10(-6) and P=3.44 × 10(-6)), a member of the neuronal postsynaptic density complex. In the trio analysis, rs6131295, near BTBD3, exceeded the genome-wide significance threshold with a P-value=3.84 × 10(-8). However, when trios were meta-analyzed with the case-control samples, the P-value for this variant was 3.62 × 10(-5), losing genome-wide significance. Although no SNPs were identified to be associated with OCD at a genome-wide significant level in the combined trio-case-control sample, a significant enrichment of methylation QTLs (P<0.001) and frontal lobe expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs) (P=0.001) was observed within the top-ranked SNPs (P<0.01) from the trio-case-control analysis, suggesting these top signals may have a broad role in gene expression in the brain, and possibly in the etiology of OCD. PMID:22889921

  7. Homotypic versus Heterotypic Continuity of Anxiety Symptoms in Young Adolescents: Evidence for Distinctions between DSM-IV Subtypes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferdinand, Robert F.; Dieleman, Gwen; Ormel, Johan; Verhulst, Frank C.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate homotypic and heterotypic longitudinal patterns of symptoms of separation anxiety disorder (SAD), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), social phobia (SoPh), panic disorder (PD), and obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) in young adolescents from the Dutch general population. Method: 2,067 individuals (51.4% girls) from a…

  8. Psychotherapy for obsessive-compulsive disorder

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eric A. Storch; Amy Mariaskin; Tanya K. Murphy

    2009-01-01

    Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) with exposure and response prevention is a first-line intervention for adult and childhood\\u000a obsessive-compulsive disorder. Methodologically rigorous controlled trials have suggested that benefits from CBT exceed those\\u000a from placebo and attention-control conditions and have similar or greater efficacy than serotonergic monotherapy. This article\\u000a reviews the nature of CBT and associated outcome data, highlighting recent empiric findings in

  9. Developmental aspects of error and high-conflict-related brain activity in pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder: a fMRI study with a Flanker task before and after CBT

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Huyser; D. J. Veltman; L. H. Wolters; Haan de E; F. Boer

    2011-01-01

    Background:? Heightened error and conflict monitoring are considered central mechanisms in obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) and are associated with anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) function. Pediatric obsessive–compulsive patients provide an opportunity to investigate the development of this area and its associations with psychopathology. Methods:? Repeated measures were carried out using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during the performance of an interference task,

  10. OBSESSIVE–COMPULSIVE DISORDER: A REVIEW OF THE DIAGNOSTIC CRITERIA AND POSSIBLE SUBTYPES AND DIMENSIONAL SPECIFIERS FOR DSM-V

    PubMed Central

    Leckman, James F.; Denys, Damiaan; Simpson, H. Blair; Mataix-Cols, David; Hollander, Eric; Saxena, Sanjaya; Miguel, Euripedes C.; Rauch, Scott L.; Goodman, Wayne K.; Phillips, Katharine A.; Stein, Dan J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Since the publication of the DSM-IV in 1994, research on obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) has continued to expand. It is timely to reconsider the nosology of this disorder, assessing whether changes to diagnostic criteria as well as subtypes and specifiers may improve diagnostic validity and clinical utility. Methods The existing criteria were evaluated. Key issues were identified. Electronic databases of PubMed, ScienceDirect, and PsycINFO were searched for relevant studies. Results This review presents a number of options and preliminary recommendations to be considered for DSM-V. These include: (1) clarifying and simplifying the definition of obsessions and compulsions(criterion A); (2) possibly deleting the requirement that people recognize that their obsessions or compulsions are excessive or unreasonable (criterion B); (3) rethinking the clinical significance criterion (criterion C) and, in the interim, possibly adjusting what is considered “time-consuming” for OCD; (4) listing additional disorders to help with the differential diagnosis (criterion D); (5) rethinking the medical exclusion criterion (criterion E) and clarifying what is meant by a “general medical condition”; (6) revising the specifiers (i.e., clarifying that OCD can involve a range of insight, in addition to “poor insight,” and adding “tic-related OCD”); and (7) highlighting in the DSM-V text important clinical features of OCD that are not currently mentioned in the criteria (e.g., the major symptom dimensions). Conclusions A number of changes to the existing diagnostic criteria for OCD are proposed. These proposed criteria may change as the DSM-V process progresses. PMID:20217853

  11. Pharmacogenetics of antidepressant treatment in obsessive-compulsive disorder: an update and implications for clinicians.

    PubMed

    Zai, Gwyneth; Brandl, Eva J; Müller, Daniel J; Richter, Margaret A; Kennedy, James L

    2014-06-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a chronic neuropsychiatric disorder with high genetic influence. Antidepressants such as serotonin reuptake inhibitors, are widely accepted as the first-line medications for OCD; however, approximately 50% of OCD patients show poor response. Personalized medicine utilizing genetic testing has recently received much attention because the variability of antidepressant response and tolerability are partly due to an individual's genetic variations. This has led to researchers investigating the role of specific genetic factors on antidepressant response and utility of testing in the clinical realm. Genetic test panels are showing promise for guiding antidepressant treatment to improve outcomes in depression. This article will review the most recent findings in the pharmacogenetics of OCD and its related disorders. Promising results have been reported for several serotonergic and glutamatergic system genes and the cytochrome CYP450 liver enzyme genes, which appear to play an important role in OCD and antidepressant response. PMID:25084207

  12. Familiality of Tourette Syndrome, Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder, and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Heritability Analysis in a Large Sib-Pair Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathews, Carol A.; Grados, Marco A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Tourette syndrome (TS) is a neuropsychiatric disorder with a genetic component that is highly comorbid with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, the genetic relations between these disorders have not been clearly elucidated. This study examined the familial relations among TS,…

  13. Similarities and Differences between Children and Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Those with Obsessive Compulsive Disorder: Executive Functioning and Repetitive Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zandt, Fiona; Prior, Margot; Kyrios, Michael

    2009-01-01

    In order to examine hypothesized underlying neurocognitive processes in repetitive behaviour, children and adolescents (7-16 years) with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) were compared on a range of executive function (EF) measures. Performance on neuropsychological tests assessing executive functioning showed…

  14. Preliminary Findings of Antistreptococcal Antibody Titers and Basal Ganglia Volumes in Tic, Obsessive-compulsive, and Attention-Deficit\\/Hyperactivity Disorders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bradley S. Peterson; James F. Leckman; Daniel Tucker; Lawrence Scahill; Lawrence Staib; Heping Zhang; Robert King; Donald J. Cohen; John C. Gore; Paul Lombroso

    2000-01-01

    Background: Previous studies have provided prelimi- nary serological evidence supporting the theory that symp- toms of tic disorders or obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) may be sequelae of prior streptococcal infection. It is unclear, however, whether previously reported as- sociations with streptococcal infection were obscured by the presence of diagnostic comorbidities. It is also un- known whether streptococcal infection is associated in

  15. Randomized Controlled Trial of Full and Brief Cognitive-Behaviour Therapy and Wait-List for Paediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolton, Derek; Williams, Tim; Perrin, Sean; Atkinson, Linda; Gallop, Catherine; Waite, Polly; Salkovskis, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Background: Reviews and practice guidelines for paediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) recommend cognitive-behaviour therapy (CBT) as the psychological treatment of choice, but note that it has not been sufficiently evaluated for children and adolescents and that more randomized controlled trials are needed. The aim of this trial was to…

  16. No Effect of Adding Brief Dynamic Therapy to Pharmacotherapy in the Treatment of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder with Concurrent Major Depression

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Giuseppe Maina; Gianluca Rosso; Sylvia Rigardetto; Simone Chiadò Piat; Filippo Bogetto

    2010-01-01

    Background: Until now no studies have investigated the benefits of adding brief dynamic therapy (BDT) to medication in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), while a number of recent investigations have demonstrated the efficacy of supplemental BDT among patients with major depressive disorders (MDD). The objective of the present study was to explore the efficacy of BDT combined with pharmacotherapy in comparison with

  17. Association study between functional polymorphisms in the TNF-alpha gene and obsessive-compulsive disorder

    PubMed Central

    Cappi, Carolina; Muniz, Renan Kawano; Sampaio, Aline Santos; Cordeiro, Quirino; Brentani, Helena; Palácios, Selma A.; Marques, Andrea H.; Vallada, Homero; Miguel, Eurípedes Constantino; Guilherme, Luiza; Hounie, Ana Gabriela

    2013-01-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a prevalent psychiatric disorder of unknown etiology. However, there is some evidence that the immune system may play an important role in its pathogenesis. In the present study, two polymorphisms (rs1800795 and rs361525) in the promoter region of the cytokine tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFA) gene were genotyped in 183 OCD patients and in 249 healthy controls. The statistical tests were performed using the PLINK® software. We found that the A allele of the TNFA rs361525 polymorphism was significantly associated with OCD subjects, according to the allelic ?2 association test (p=0.007). The presence of genetic markers, such as inflammatory cytokines genes linked to OCD, may represent additional evidence supporting the role of the immune system in its pathogenesis. PMID:22311210

  18. An Examination of Rostral Anterior Cingulate Cortex Function and Neurochemistry in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder.

    PubMed

    Brennan, Brian P; Tkachenko, Olga; Schwab, Zachary J; Juelich, Richard J; Ryan, Erin M; Athey, Alison J; Pope, Harrison G; Jenike, Michael A; Baker, Justin T; Killgore, William Ds; Hudson, James I; Jensen, J Eric; Rauch, Scott L

    2015-07-01

    The anterior cingulate cortex is implicated in the neurobiology of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). However, few studies have examined functional and neurochemical abnormalities specifically in the rostral subdivision of the ACC (rACC) in OCD patients. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during an emotional counting Stroop task and single-voxel J-resolved proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) in the rACC to examine the function and neurochemistry of the rACC in individuals with OCD and comparison individuals without OCD. Between-group differences in rACC activation and glutamine/glutamate ratio (Gln/Glu), Glu, and Gln levels, as well as associations between rACC activation, Gln/Glu, Glu, Gln, behavioral, and clinical measures were examined using linear regression. In a sample of 30 participants with OCD and 29 age- and sex-matched participants without OCD, participants with OCD displayed significantly reduced rACC deactivation compared with those without OCD in response to OCD-specific words versus neutral words on the emotional counting Stroop task. However, Gln/Glu, Glu, and Gln in the rACC did not differ between groups nor was there an association between reduced rACC deactivation and Gln/Glu, Glu, or Gln in the OCD group. Taken together, these findings strengthen the evidence for rACC dysfunction in OCD, but weigh against an underlying association with abnormal rACC glutamatergic neurotransmission. PMID:25662837

  19. Genotype Determining Low Catechol-O-Methyltransferase Activity as a Risk Factor for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maria Karayiorgou; Margaret Altemus; Brandi L. Galke; David Goldman; Dennis L. Murphy; Jurg Ott; Joseph A. Gogos

    1997-01-01

    In the present study, we address the role of the gene for catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT), a key modulator of dopaminergic and noradrenergic neurotransmission, in the genetic predisposition to obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). We show that a common functional allele of this gene, which results in a 3- to 4-fold reduction in enzyme activity, is significantly associated in a recessive manner with susceptibility

  20. Impaired visuospatial associative memory and attention in obsessive compulsive disorder but no evidence for differential dopaminergic modulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sharon Morein-Zamir; Kevin J. Craig; Karen D. Ersche; Sanja Abbott; Ulrich Muller; Naomi A. Fineberg; Edward T. Bullmore; Barbara J. Sahakian; Trevor W. Robbins

    2010-01-01

    Rationale  Patients with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) demonstrate impaired cognition in some selected domains. Although serotoninergic\\u000a dysfunction has been implicated in OCD, recent evidence suggests that dopamine may play a role as well.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Objective  The aim of the study was to evaluate learning and working memory in OCD and to determine the effects of dopaminergic manipulations\\u000a on these capacities.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Visuospatial associative memory

  1. Parental Experiences of Having a Child with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: Associations with Clinical Characteristics and Caregiver Adjustment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eric A. Storch; Heather Lehmkuhl; Steven L. Pence Jr; Gary R. Geffken; Emily Ricketts; Jill F. Storch; Tanya K. Murphy

    2009-01-01

    We examined parental experience of having a child with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) in 62 parent–child dyads. Youth\\u000a with a primary diagnosis of OCD and their parent(s) were administered the CY-BOCS jointly by a trained clinician. Parents\\u000a completed several measures about their child’s OCD-related impairment and accommodation, emotional and behavioral functioning,\\u000a parental distress, caregiver stress, and parental experiences of having a

  2. Phenomenology of OCD: lessons from a large multicenter study and implications for ICD-11.

    PubMed

    Shavitt, Roseli G; de Mathis, Maria Alice; Oki, Fábio; Ferrao, Ygor A; Fontenelle, Leonardo F; Torres, Albina R; Diniz, Juliana B; Costa, Daniel L C; do Rosário, Maria Conceição; Hoexter, Marcelo Q; Miguel, Euripedes C; Simpson, H Blair

    2014-10-01

    This study aimed to investigate the phenomenology of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), addressing specific questions about the nature of obsessions and compulsions, and to contribute to the World Health Organization's (WHO) revision of OCD diagnostic guidelines. Data from 1001 patients from the Brazilian Research Consortium on Obsessive-Compulsive Spectrum Disorders were used. Patients were evaluated by trained clinicians using validated instruments, including the Dimensional Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale, the University of Sao Paulo Sensory Phenomena Scale, and the Brown Assessment of Beliefs Scale. The aims were to compare the types of sensory phenomena (SP, subjective experiences that precede or accompany compulsions) in OCD patients with and without tic disorders and to determine the frequency of mental compulsions, the co-occurrence of obsessions and compulsions, and the range of insight. SP were common in the whole sample, but patients with tic disorders were more likely to have physical sensations and urges only. Mental compulsions occurred in the majority of OCD patients. It was extremely rare for OCD patients to have obsessions without compulsions. A wide range of insight into OCD beliefs was observed, with a small subset presenting no insight. The data generated from this large sample will help practicing clinicians appreciate the full range of OCD symptoms and confirm prior studies in smaller samples the degree to which insight varies. These findings also support specific revisions to the WHO's diagnostic guidelines for OCD, such as describing sensory phenomena, mental compulsions and level of insight, so that the world-wide recognition of this disabling disorder is increased. PMID:25012187

  3. Understanding Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder in Adolescence: A Dimensional Personality Perspective

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nathalie Aelterman; Mieke Decuyper; Filip De Fruyt

    2010-01-01

    The validity of the Axis II Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder (OCPD) category and its position within the Cluster\\u000a C personality disorder (PDs) section of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV, APA 2000) continues to be a source of much debate. The present study examines the associations between general and maladaptive personality\\u000a traits and OCPD symptoms, prior to and

  4. A review of obsessive-compulsive disorder in children and adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Boileau, Bernard

    2011-01-01

    This article is a review of recent literature on obsessive-compulsive disorder in the pediatric population. Areas covered include: a brief historical perspective, clinical presentation in relation to symptoms found in different age groups, epidemiology, psychiatric comorbidity, etiology (with regards to genetics, neuroimaging, and familial factors), clinical course and prognosis, and treatment, with special emphasis on individual and family-based cognitive-behavioral therapy and psychopharmacology. PMID:22275846

  5. Salivary alpha-amylase and cortisol responsiveness following electrical stimulation stress in obsessive-compulsive disorder patients.

    PubMed

    Kawano, Aimi; Tanaka, Yoshihiro; Ishitobi, Yoshinobu; Maruyama, Yoshihiro; Ando, Tomoko; Inoue, Ayako; Okamoto, Shizuko; Imanaga, Junko; Kanehisa, Masayuki; Higuma, Haruka; Ninomiya, Taiga; Tsuru, Jusen; Akiyoshi, Jotaro

    2013-08-30

    Salivary ?-amylase (sAA) serves as a marker of sympathoadrenal medullary system (SAM) activity. Salivary AA has not been extensively studied in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) patients. In the current study, 45 OCD patients and 75 healthy volunteers were assessed with the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS), the Profile of Mood State (POMS), and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). Measures of heart rate variability (HRV), sAA, and salivary cortisol were also obtained following the application of electrical stimulation stress. The Y-BOCS and POMS Tension-Anxiety, Depression-Dejection, Anger-Hostility, Fatigue, and Confusion scores were significantly increased in patients with OCD compared with healthy controls. In contrast, Vigor scores were significantly decreased in patients with OCD relative to scores in healthy controls. There was no difference in HRV between the patients and the controls. Salivary AA levels in female and male OCD patients were significantly elevated relative to controls both before and after electrical stimulation. In contrast, there were no differences in salivary cortisol levels between OCD patients and controls. The elevated secretion of sAA before and after stimulation may suggest an increased responsiveness to novel and uncontrollable situations in patients with OCD. An increase in sAA might be a characteristic change of OCD. PMID:23266021

  6. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (For Parents)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... behaviors are, about your family's history of OCD, Tourette syndrome and other motor or vocal tic disorders, ... with OCD. OCD is common in people with Tourette syndrome. Other disorders that often occur with OCD ...

  7. The Relationship between Autistic Traits and Social Anxiety, Worry, Obsessive-Compulsive, and Depressive Symptoms: Specific and Non-Specific Mediators in a Student Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liew, Shi Min; Thevaraja, Nishta; Hong, Ryan Y.; Magiati, Iliana

    2015-01-01

    The high prevalence of anxiety symptoms in individuals with autism spectrum disorders has now been well documented. There is also a positive relationship between autistic traits and anxiety symptoms in unselected samples and individuals with anxiety disorders have more autistic traits compared to those without. Less is known, however, regarding…

  8. Signal attenuation as a rat model of obsessive compulsive disorder.

    PubMed

    Goltseker, Koral; Yankelevitch-Yahav, Roni; Albelda, Noa S; Joel, Daphna

    2015-01-01

    In the signal attenuation rat model of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), lever-pressing for food is followed by the presentation of a compound stimulus which serves as a feedback cue. This feedback is later attenuated by repeated presentations of the stimulus without food (without the rat emitting the lever-press response). In the next stage, lever-pressing is assessed under extinction conditions (i.e., no food is delivered). At this stage rats display two types of lever-presses, those that are followed by an attempt to collect a reward, and those that are not. The latter are the measure of compulsive-like behavior in the model. A control procedure in which rats do not experience the attenuation of the feedback cue serves to distinguish between the effects of signal attenuation and of extinction. The signal attenuation model is a highly validated model of OCD and differentiates between compulsive-like behaviors and behaviors that are repetitive but not compulsive. In addition the measures collected during the procedure eliminate alternative explanations for differences between the groups being tested, and are quantitative, unbiased and unaffected by inter-experimenter variability. The major disadvantages of this model are the costly equipment, the fact that it requires some technical know-how and the fact that it is time-consuming compared to other models of OCD (11 days). The model may be used for detecting the anti- or pro-compulsive effects of pharmacological and non-pharmacological manipulations and for studying the neural substrate of compulsive behavior. PMID:25650700

  9. Functional impairment in children and adolescents with obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    PubMed

    Piacentini, John; Bergman, R Lindsey; Keller, Melody; McCracken, James

    2003-01-01

    Although obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a chronic and oftentimes debilitating disorder, the specific impact of this illness on the psychosocial functioning of affected youngsters has not been systematically described. A total of 151 clinic-referred youngsters (mean age 11.8 years, 57% male, 83% Caucasian) with primary Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (fourth edition) OCD and a primary caretaker completed a checklist designed to assess the impact of OCD on school, social, and family functioning. The two most common OCD-related problems were concentrating on schoolwork and doing homework. Consistent with the heterogeneous nature of OCD, subjects exhibited a broad range of specific impairments. However, almost 90% of youngsters reported at least one significant OCD-related dysfunction, and close to half reported significant OCD-related problems at school, home, and socially. Parents were more likely to report significant impairments in home and school functioning than children. However, few systematic gender or age effects were noted. Impairment ratings were significantly correlated with clinician-generated measures of OCD severity. These results provide the most specific description to date of the adverse impact of OCD on child psychosocial functioning. Given the adverse developmental consequences of psychosocial dysfunction, treatment studies need to carefully track and address OCD-specific functional impairments in affected youngsters. PMID:12880501

  10. Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder in a Child with Asperger Syndrome: A Case Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reaven, Judy; Hepburn, Susan

    2003-01-01

    This case report outlines the cognitive-behavioral treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder in a 7-year-old female with Asperger syndrome. Interventions were based upon the work of March and Mulle and were adapted in light of the patient's cognitive, social, and linguistic characteristics. Symptoms improved markedly after 6 months of treatment.…

  11. The Impact of Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder on the Suicidal Risk of Patients with Mood Disorders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michele Raja; Antonella Azzoni

    2007-01-01

    Background: The association of mood disorders with personality disorder is frequent and relevant in terms of clinical and therapeutic aspects. Personality disorders may modify the phenomenology of axis I psychiatric disorders, generating atypical clinical features, uncommon behavior or unusual patient attitudes. Sampling and Methods: The paper describes the atypical symptoms of 7 patients affected by mood disorder associated with obsessive-compulsive

  12. Randomized Sham-Controlled Trial of Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation in Treatment-Resistant Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

    E-print Network

    Qian, Ning

    -Resistant Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Antonio Mantovani, MD, PhD Division of Brain Stimulation and Therapeutic (SMA) improved symptoms and normalized cortical hyper- excitability of patients with Obsessive completed the study. Response to treatment was defined as a 25% decrease on the Yale-Brown Obsessive

  13. Detecting pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcus in children with obsessive-compulsive disorder and tics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tanya K. Murphy; Muhammad Sajid; Ohel Soto; Nathan Shapira; Paula Edge; Mark Yang; Mark H. Lewis; Wayne K. Goodman

    2004-01-01

    BackgroundA subgroup of children with obsessive-compulsive and tic disorders are proposed to have an infectious trigger. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between group A streptococcal titers and symptom fluctuations in children with a clinical course resembling that described for pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcus.

  14. [Hoarding as a Disorder of the Obsessive-Compulsive Spectrum].

    PubMed

    Schön, Daniela; Wahl-Kordon, Andreas; Zurowski, Bartosz

    2015-06-01

    Hoarding often occurs without obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), it shows distinguishable neuropsychological and neurobiological correlates and a distinct comorbidity spectrum. Further, it occurs secondarily to other psychiatric and neurobiological disorders. Therefore hoarding disorder has been included as a distinct diagnosis in DSM-5.Neuroimaging studies point to functional and structural abnormalities of networks subserving decision making, attention, action planning and emotional regulation.The cognitive-behavioral model outlines the most important characteristics of pathological hoarding, comprising deficits of information processing, maladaptive beliefs about information processing deficits, maladaptive beliefs about posessions as well as emotional attachment to them accompanied with emotional distress and avoidance.Because of a low willingness for therapy plus a high rate of discontinuation of therapy, a manualized cognitive-behavioral therapy approach for pathological hoarding has been established. It builds on observational learning, cognitive strategies, graduated exposure, response prevention, training/coaching to sort out, and relapse prevention are key components of the treatment. Particularily in case of lacking motivation for any kind of behavioral therapy or other psychological treatments, a pharmacotherapy with SSRIs is recommended. PMID:26098085

  15. Executive functioning in people with obsessive-compulsive personality traits: evidence of modest impairment.

    PubMed

    García-Villamisar, Domingo; Dattilo, John

    2015-06-01

    Investigations of executive dysfunctions among people with obsessive-compulsive personality disorders (OCPD) have yielded inconsistent results. The authors speculate that obsessive-compulsive personality traits (OCPT) from a nonclinical population may be associated with specific executive dysfunctions relative to working memory, attentional set-shifting, and planning. A sample consisting of 79 adults (39 females, 40 males) was divided into high and low scorers on the Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire-4 (PDQ-4; Hyler, 1994). In addition, these participants were interviewed using the SCID-II (First, Spitzer, Gibbon & Williams, 1997) to confirm the presence of symptoms of obsessive-compulsive personality. Participants completed a battery of executive tasks associated with the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB), including Spatial Working Memory, Intradimensional/Extradimensional (ID/ED), Attentional Set-Shifting, and Stockings of Cambridge. Also, self-report measures of executive functions as well as of anxiety and depressive symptoms were administered. The analysis of covariance revealed significant differences between participants with OCPT and controls on the Spatial Working Memory tasks, ID/ED tasks, Stockings of Cambridge, and the Dysexecutive Questionnaire (DEX). Nevertheless, there were no significant differences in the number of problems solved in minimum movements. These results suggest that executive dysfunctions are present in people with prominent OCPT and that there is a high convergence between clinical and ecological measures of executive functions in people with obsessive personality traits. PMID:23445476

  16. Treatment with aripiprazole and topiramate in an obese subject with borderline personality disorder, obsessive-compulsive symptoms and bulimia nervosa: a case report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Antonio Bruno; Deborah Riganello; Antonio Marino

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Borderline personality disorder is a chronic mental disorder associated with severe psychosocial impairment and morbidity, greater usage of mental health resources, and a high mortality rate. Although there is no drug with an approved indication for this disorder, pharmacological treatment is a common practice based on the specific benefit of the drugs on the remission of the core symptoms

  17. Juvenile obsessive compulsive disorder in a paediatric dentistry set-up.

    PubMed

    Ahuja, Ruchi; Shigli, Anand L; Thakur, Gagan; Jain, Upendra

    2015-01-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is an anxiety disorder comprising uncontrollable thought processes and repetitive, ritualised behaviours that one feels compelled to perform. If an individual has OCD, he/she probably realises that his/her obsessive thoughts and compulsive behaviours are irrational but would still feel unable to resist them. Since a pedodontist's association with the child patient and parents is established at quite an early age, they should make good use of the opportunity to diagnose psychological disorders in child patients as well as adolescents. Prompt diagnosis in such cases would enable timely medical intervention and hence help in achieving a more cooperative dental patient to ensure instillation of a positive dental attitude. This endeavour highlights a case of a 10-year-old boy who had reported to a private dental set-up with dental problems and was concurrently diagnosed for OCD. PMID:26065550

  18. Excluding the typical patient: Thirty years of pharmacotherapy efficacy trials for obsessive-compulsive disorder

    PubMed Central

    Odlaug, Brian L.; Weinhandl, Eric; Mancebo, Maria C.; Mortensen, Erik L.; Eisen, Jane L.; Rasmussen, Steven A.; Schreiber, Liana R. N.; Grant, Jon E.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Over the past 30 years, clinical trials have resulted in several successful pharmacotherapies for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), yet patients in clinical settings often report inadequate response. This study compares clinical characteristics of treatment-seeking OCD patients to the inclusion/exclusion criteria used in pharmacotherapy trials. METHODS The sample consisted of 325 community members with a DSM-IV diagnosis of OCD who underwent systematic interviews with clinicians knowledgeable in the diagnosis and treatment of OCD. We compiled pharmacotherapy studies for OCD published between 1980 and 2010 using Medline, PubMed, and library resources, and estimated the proportion of patients in each decade satisfying the most common inclusion/exclusion criteria. RESULTS We included 39 clinical trials and found 72% of the 325 patients would have been excluded from trials conducted between 1980 and 2010. Exclusion was projected as dramatically lower for trials conducted between 1980 and 1989 (19.7%) compared with 74.8% for trials conducted between 1990 and 1999 and 76.9% for trials between 2000 and 2010. CONCLUSIONS The majority of treatment-seeking individuals with OCD would not qualify for OCD treatment studies due to comorbid psychiatric disorders, and failure to meet OCD severity threshold criteria. This illustrates the need to include a more community-representative sample of OCD patients in clinical trials examining pharmacotherapy efficacy. PMID:24501729

  19. Switching to zebrafish neurobehavioral models: The obsessive-compulsive disorder paradigm.

    PubMed

    D'Amico, Davide; Estivill, Xavier; Terriente, Javier

    2015-07-15

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is the tenth most disabling illness of any kind. OCD stands as a paradigm for complex neurobehavioral disorders due to its polygenic origin. It presents heterogenic clinical presentation, variable disease onset, progression and treatment responses, what makes its understanding a major neuropsychiatric challenge. Like with other neurobehavioral disorders, animal models are essential tools for decoding OCD genetic complexity, understanding its biological base and discovering novel treatments and diagnostic methods. 20 years of rodent OCD modeling have helped to understand the disease better, but multiple questions remain regarding OCD. Innovative whole genome sequencing (WGS) approaches might provide important answers on OCD risk associated genes. However, exploiting those large data sets through the use of traditional animal models is costly and time consuming. Zebrafish might be an appropriate animal model to streamline the pipeline of gene functional validation. This animal model shows several advantages versus rodent models, such as faster and cheaper genetic manipulation, strong impact on the 3Rs implementation, behavioral phenotypic reproducibility of OCD-like behaviors (obsessions and compulsions) and feasibility to develop high-throughput assays for novel OCD drug therapies discovery. In conclusion, zebrafish could be an innovative and relevant model for understanding OCD. PMID:25814246

  20. Trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder in treatment-resistant obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    PubMed

    Gershuny, Beth S; Baer, Lee; Parker, Holly; Gentes, Emily L; Infield, Alison L; Jenike, Michael A

    2008-01-01

    Prior research has indicated a seemingly unique relation between obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) that appears to relate to negative treatment outcome for OCD. However, to date, the prevalence of trauma and PTSD in individuals seeking treatment for OCD is unclear. To begin to address this gap, this study assessed history of traumatic experiences and current PTSD in individuals seeking treatment for treatment-resistant OCD. Trauma predictors of PTSD severity also were examined in this sample. Participants included 104 individuals diagnosed with treatment-resistant OCD who sought treatment over the course of 1 year from OCD specialty treatment facilities. Data were collected via naturalistic retrospective chart reviews of pre-treatment clinical intake files. Findings revealed that 82% of participants reported a history of trauma. Over 39% of the overall sample met criteria for PTSD, whereas almost 50% of individuals with a trauma history met criteria for PTSD. Interpersonal traumas and greater frequency of traumas were most predictive of PTSD severity, and individuals diagnosed with OCD and additional major depressive disorder (MDD) or borderline personality disorder (BPD) appeared at particular risk for a comorbid PTSD diagnosis. PTSD may be relatively common in individuals diagnosed with treatment-resistant OCD; and interpersonal traumas, MDD, and BPD may play a relatively strong predictive role in PTSD diagnosis and severity in such OCD patients. PMID:17318836