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1

Structure of Obsessive-Compulsive Symptoms in Pediatric OCD  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The investigation of the structure of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) symptoms observed in adults is similar to those observed in children is presented. This investigation indicates the structure of OCD symptoms is the same across the entire lifespan as compared to pediatric OCD and adulthood OCD.

Mataix-Cols, David; Nakatani, Eriko; Micali, Nadia; Heyman, Isobel

2008-01-01

2

Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD)  

MedlinePLUS

... Disorders A detailed booklet that describes the symptoms, causes, and treatments of the major anxiety disorders, with information on getting help and coping More Publications About Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD)

3

Insight into Obsessive-Compulsive Symptoms and Awareness of Illness in Adolescent Schizophrenia Patients with and without OCD  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A substantial proportion of adolescent schizophrenia patients also has obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). As the reliability of OCD identification in schizophrenia has been challenged, we evaluated insight into OCD symptoms and awareness of schizophrenia, using the Brown Assessment of Beliefs Scale and the Scale to Assess Unawareness of Mental…

Faragian, Sarit; Kurs, Rena; Poyurovsky, Michael

2008-01-01

4

Hoarding and Obsessive-Compulsive Symptoms.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Researches the relation between hoarding and obsessive-compulsive disorders (OCD). In both college student and community samples, hoarding was associated with higher scores on the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale. Hoarding also was associated with higher levels of general psychopathology as measured by the Brief Symptom Inventory. Results…

Frost, Randy O.; And Others

1996-01-01

5

Insight into Obsessive-Compulsive Symptoms and Awareness of Illness in Adolescent Schizophrenia Patients with and without OCD  

Microsoft Academic Search

A substantial proportion of adolescent schizophrenia patients also has obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). As the reliability\\u000a of OCD identification in schizophrenia has been challenged, we evaluated insight into OCD symptoms and awareness of schizophrenia,\\u000a using the Brown Assessment of Beliefs Scale and the Scale to Assess Unawareness of Mental Disorder respectively, in 22 adolescent\\u000a inpatients who met DSM-IV criteria for both

Sarit Faragian; Rena Kurs; Michael Poyurovsky

2008-01-01

6

The relationships between obsessive-compulsive symptom dimensions and cognitions in obsessive-compulsive disorder.  

PubMed

Several studies have linked obsessive-compulsive symptoms to specific obsessive-compulsive cognitions, however methodologies have varied, and no study has determined obsessive-compulsive symptoms using the most widely used clinician rating scale, the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS). Considering that almost all studies that used factor analysis to ascertain OCD symptom dimensions were based on the Y-BOCS and that self-report instruments assessing obsessive-compulsive symptoms correlate poorly with the Y-BOCS, there is a need to use the Y-BOCS to examine the relationship between obsessive-compulsive cognitions and obsessive-compulsive symptom dimensions. This study examined the relationship between five Y-BOCS-derived obsessive-compulsive symptom dimensions and the three obsessive-compulsive cognitive domains identified by the obsessive-beliefs questionnaire (OBQ). The symmetry/ordering symptom dimension was associated with increased perfectionism/intolerance of uncertainty, the unacceptable/taboo thoughts symptom dimension was associated with increased importance/control of thoughts and the doubt/checking symptom dimension was associated with increased responsibility/threat estimation. There was no statistical evidence of an association between any OBQ belief sub-scale and the hoarding symptom dimension nor the contamination/cleaning symptom dimension. The findings encourage symptom-based approaches to cognitive-behavioural therapy for some OCD symptoms and call for further research on cognitions associated with contamination/cleaning symptoms and hoarding. PMID:24142072

Brakoulias, Vlasios; Starcevic, Vladan; Berle, David; Milicevic, Denise; Hannan, Anthony; Martin, Andrew

2014-06-01

7

Obsessive–compulsive symptom dimensions in schizophrenia patients with comorbid obsessive–compulsive disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

A substantial proportion of schizophrenia patients also exhibit obsessive–compulsive symptoms (OCS). We sought to determine whether the revealed symptom dimensions in OCD exist in schizophrenia patients with comorbid OCD. One hundred and ten patients who met DSM-IV criteria for both schizophrenia and OCD were recruited. Exploratory factor analysis of the Yale–Brown Obsessive–Compulsive Scale (Y–BOCS) checklist was conducted. The inter-relationship between

Sarit Faragian; Artashes Pashinian; Camil Fuchs; Michael Poyurovsky

2009-01-01

8

Neuropsychological Impairments and Their Association with Obsessive-Compulsive Symptom Severity in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neurobiological research in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) consistently demonstrates an association between abnormal brain activity and symptom severity. Conversely, research addressing the corresponding neuropsychological impairments in OCD and their associ- ation with symptom severity has produced inconsistent results. This study reexamines neuropsychological performance and its association with symptom severity in 30 participants with OCD while controlling for confounding variables. We used

Amitai Abramovitch; Reuven Dar; Avraham Schweiger; Haggai Hermesh

2011-01-01

9

Comorbid obsessive–compulsive personality disorder in obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD): A marker of severity  

Microsoft Academic Search

IntroductionComorbid obsessive–compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) is well-described in obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD). It remains unclear, however, whether OCPD in OCD represents a distinct subtype of OCD or whether it is simply a marker of severity in OCD.

Christine Lochner; Paul Serebro; Lize van der Merwe; Sian Hemmings; Craig Kinnear; Soraya Seedat; Dan J. Stein

2011-01-01

10

Delayed Bedtimes and Obsessive Compulsive Symptoms  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is increasing recognition of an important interplay between psychiatric disorders and sleep. Clinical observations and several empirical studies have shown that later bedtimes are associated with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The current study examined the relationship of delayed bedtimes and symptoms of OCD. Two-hundred and sixty-six undergraduates completed a battery of questionnaires assessing sleep patterns, mood, and OC symptoms. Results

Meredith E. Coles; Jessica R. Schubert; Katherine M. Sharkey

2012-01-01

11

Obsessive-compulsive disorder and obsessive-compulsive symptoms in Japanese inpatients with chronic schizophrenia – A possible schizophrenic subtype  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate the prevalence of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCS) and their association with demographic and clinical factors, 92 inpatients with chronic schizophrenia participated in this study. Demographic factors, severity of psychiatric symptoms as determined by Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale and OCS by Yale–Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale, general functioning, extrapyramidal symptoms, and dose of antipsychotics were compared between

Toshimi Owashi; Arimitsu Ota; Tempei Otsubo; Yuko Susa; Kunitoshi Kamijima

2010-01-01

12

Differences in obsessional beliefs and emotion appraisal in obsessive compulsive symptom presentation  

E-print Network

t Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a heterogeneous condition with symptom presentation that includes. Introduction Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a debilitating disorder characterized by recurring November 2011 Keywords: Obsessive-compulsive disorder Obsessional beliefs Emotions Subtypes a b s t r a c

O'Toole, Alice J.

13

The Brief Obsessive–Compulsive Scale (BOCS): A self-report scale for OCD and obsessive–compulsive related disorders  

PubMed Central

Background The Brief Obsessive Compulsive Scale (BOCS), derived from the Yale–Brown Obsessive–Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS) and the children’s version (CY-BOCS), is a short self-report tool used to aid in the assessment of obsessive–compulsive symptoms and diagnosis of obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD). It is widely used throughout child, adolescent and adult psychiatry settings in Sweden but has not been validated up to date. Aim The aim of the current study was to examine the psychometric properties of the BOCS amongst a psychiatric outpatient population. Method The BOCS consists of a 15-item Symptom Checklist including three items (hoarding, dysmorphophobia and self-harm) related to the DSM-5 category “Obsessive–compulsive related disorders”, accompanied by a single six-item Severity Scale for obsessions and compulsions combined. It encompasses the revisions made in the Y-BOCS-II severity scale by including obsessive–compulsive free intervals, extent of avoidance and excluding the resistance item. 402 adult psychiatric outpatients with OCD, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, autism spectrum disorder and other psychiatric disorders completed the BOCS. Results Principal component factor analysis produced five subscales titled “Symmetry”, “Forbidden thoughts”, “Contamination”, “Magical thoughts” and “Dysmorphic thoughts”. The OCD group scored higher than the other diagnostic groups in all subscales (P < 0.001). Sensitivities, specificities and internal consistency for both the Symptom Checklist and the Severity Scale emerged high (Symptom Checklist: sensitivity = 85%, specificities = 62–70% Cronbach’s ? = 0.81; Severity Scale: sensitivity = 72%, specificities = 75–84%, Cronbach’s ? = 0.94). Conclusions The BOCS has the ability to discriminate OCD from other non-OCD related psychiatric disorders. The current study provides strong support for the utility of the BOCS in the assessment of obsessive–compulsive symptoms in clinical psychiatry. PMID:24568661

Edman, Gunnar; Anckarsäter, Henrik; Berglund, Gunilla; Gillberg, Christopher; Hofvander, Björn; Humble, Mats B.; Mörtberg, Ewa; Rĺstam, Maria; Stĺhlberg, Ola; Frisén, Louise

2014-01-01

14

Relationship Between Obsessive Beliefs and Obsessive–Compulsive Symptoms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between symptom presentation in obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) and dysfunctional beliefs hypothesized to relate to OCD. Five-hundred sixty two undergraduates completed self-report measures of OCD symptoms and OCD-related beliefs, as well as measures of social anxiety and depression. The tendency to overestimate threat significantly predicted the OCD symptom domains of washing,

David F. Tolin; Carol M. Woods; Jonathan S. Abramowitz

2003-01-01

15

In clinical samples, tics, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder  

E-print Network

In clinical samples, tics, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and attention- Prospective, Longitudinal Study of Tic, Obsessive- Compulsive, and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorders, ED.D. ABSTRACT Objective: Understanding the interrelatedness of tics, obsessive-compulsive disorder

16

The Dimensional Yale–Brown Obsessive–Compulsive Scale (DY-BOCS): an instrument for assessing obsessive–compulsive symptom dimensions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) encompasses a broad range of symptoms representing multiple domains. This complex phenotype can be summarized using a few consistent and temporally stable symptom dimensions. The objective of this study was to assess the psychometric properties of the Dimensional Yale–Brown Obsessive–Compulsive Scale (DY-BOCS). This scale measures the presence and severity of obsessive–compulsive (OC) symptoms within six distinct dimensions

M C Rosario-Campos; E C Miguel; S Quatrano; P Chacon; Y Ferrao; D Findley; L Katsovich; L Scahill; R A King; S R Woody; D Tolin; E Hollander; Y Kano; J F Leckman

2006-01-01

17

The structure of obsessive-compulsive symptoms  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study, the structure of obsessive-compulsive symptoms was investigated by means of the Padua Inventory (PI). Simultaneous Components Analysis on data from obsessive-compulsives (n = 206), patients with other anxiety disorders (n = 222), and a non clinical sample (n = 430) revealed a five-factor solution. These factors are: (I) impulses; (II) washing; (III) checking; (IV) rumination; and

Patricia Van Oppen; Rense J. Hoekstra; Paul M. G. Emmelkamp

1995-01-01

18

Clinical features of children and adolescents with obsessive-compulsive disorder and hoarding symptoms  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveThis study was conducted to examine whether pediatric patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and hoarding symptoms differed in terms of clinical characteristics from pediatric OCD patients without hoarding symptoms.

Eric A. Storch; Caleb W. Lack; Lisa J. Merlo; Gary R. Geffken; Marni L. Jacob; Tanya K. Murphy; Wayne K. Goodman

2007-01-01

19

Lower levels of whole blood serotonin in obsessive-compulsive disorder and in schizophrenia with obsessive-compulsive symptoms  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been reported that some schizophrenic patients suffer from obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCS), and clozapine treatment is quite often associated with an occurrence\\/increase of OCS in schizophrenic patients. The aim of the study was to explore whether differences would exist in the clinical symptomatology and the whole blood serotonin (5-HT) concentrations in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), schizophrenic patients with

Ning Ma; Li-wen Tan; Qiang Wang; Ze-xuan Li; Ling-jiang Li

2007-01-01

20

Characteristics of obsessive–compulsive symptoms in Tourette's syndrome, obsessive–compulsive disorder, and Parkinson's disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

A high incidence of obsessions and compulsions is documented in basal ganglia disorders, especially in patients with Tourette's syndrome (TS). A comparison of patients with obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD), TS, and Parkinson's disease (PD) revealed significantly higher total scores in both OCD and TS patients than in a healthy control group on the Maudsley obsessive–compulsive inventory (MOCI) and the Hamburg obsessive–compulsive

Norbert Müller; Alexander Putz; Norbert Kathmann; Rudolf Lehle; Wilfried Günther; Andreas Straube

1997-01-01

21

Treatment for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and OCD-related disorders using GVG  

DOEpatents

The present invention relates to the use of gamma vinyl-GABA (GVG) to treat obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and OCD-related disorders, and to reduce or eliminate behaviors associated with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and OCD-related disorders.

Dewey, Stephen L. (Manorville, NY); Brodie, Jonathan D. (Cos Cob, CT); Ashby, Jr., Charles R. (Miller Place, NY)

2002-01-01

22

Eating disorders and obsessive-compulsive disorder: an examination of overlapping symptoms, obsessive beliefs, and associated cognitive dimensions.  

E-print Network

??For over half a century, researchers and practitioners have documented the statistical comorbidity and overlapping symptom presentation between eating disorders and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Recent… (more)

Schembri, A

2010-01-01

23

Screening for Obsessive and Compulsive Symptoms: Validation of the Clark-Beck Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The 25-item Clark-Beck Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory (CBOCI) was developed to assess the frequency and severity of obsessive and compulsive symptoms. The measure uses a graded-response format to assess core symptom features of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) based on Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.; American…

Clark, David A.; Antony, Martin M.; Beck, Aaron T.; Swinson, Richard P.; Steer, Robert A.

2005-01-01

24

Symptom dimensions in obsessive-compulsive disorder: prediction of cognitive-behavior therapy outcome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: A significant number of patients with obsessive- compulsive disorder (OCD) fail to benefit sufficiently from treatments. This study aimed to evaluate whether certain OCD symptom dimensions were associated with cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) outcome. Method: Symptoms of 104 CBT-treated in-patients with OCD were assessed with the clinician-rated Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale symptom checklist. Logistic regression analyses examined outcome predictors. Results: The

M. Rufer; S. Fricke; S. Moritz; M. Kloss; I. Hand

2006-01-01

25

Hoarding and Obsessive-Compulsive Symptoms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study attempts to extend recent research on the relation between hoarding and obsessive-compulsive experiences. In both college student and community samples, hoarding was associated with higher scores on the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (YBOCS). The relationship was stronger among the community sample, in which there was a greater range of compulsive symptoms and hoarding behavior. Hoarding was also associated

Randy O. Frost; Meredith S. Krause; Gail Steketee

1996-01-01

26

Treatment seeking for obsessive-compulsive disorder: Role of obsessive-compulsive disorder symptoms and comorbid psychiatric diagnoses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous research has indicated that individuals afflicted with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) have a very low rate of seeking help from mental health professionals. From standardized psychiatric interviews of 7,214 residents of Edmonton, Canada, we identified 172 subjects with a lifetime diagnosis of OCD; 63 (36.6%) had consulted a doctor about their symptoms. Total number of OCD symptoms (odds ratio [OR

Jamie I. Mayerovitch; Guillaume Galbaud du Fort; Ritsuko Kakuma; Roger C. Bland; Stephen C. Newman; Gilbert Pinard

2003-01-01

27

Latent Class Analysis of YBOCS Symptoms in Obsessive Compulsive Disorder  

PubMed Central

Objective Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is phenomenologically heterogeneous, and findings of underlying structure classification based on symptom grouping have been ambiguous to date. Variable-centered approaches, primarily factor analysis, have been used to identify homogeneous groups of symptoms, but person-centered latent methods have seen little use. This study was designed to uncover sets of homogeneous groupings within 1611 individuals with OCD, based on symptoms. Method Latent class analysis (LCA) models using 61 obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCS) collected from the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale were fit. Relationships between latent class membership and treatment response, gender, symptom severity and comorbid tic disorders were tested for relationship to class membership. Results LCA models of best fit yielded three classes. Classes differed only in frequency of symptom endorsement. Classes with higher symptom endorsement were associated with earlier age of onset, being male, higher YBOCS symptom severity scores, and comorbid tic disorders. There were no differences in treatment response between classes. Conclusions These results provide support for the validity of a single underlying latent OCD construct, in addition to the distinct symptom factors identified previously via factor analyses. PMID:21145539

Delucchi, Kevin L.; Katerberg, Hilga; Stewart, S. Evelyn; Denys, Damiaan A.J.P.; Lochner, Christine; Stack, Denise E.; den Boer, Johan A.; van Balkom, Anton J.L.M.; Jenike, Michael A.; Stein, Dan J.; Cath, Danielle C.; Mathews, Carol A.

2010-01-01

28

Mood in relation to subclinical obsessive-compulsive symptoms.  

PubMed

Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is considered an anxiety disorder, but shows comorbidity with other disorders in the affective and impulsive-compulsive spectra, including anxiety disorders, major depression, and drug addictions. Subclinical OCD symptoms are relatively common in nonclinical populations and share common neurobiological substrates with clinical OCD. In this nonclinical community sample, the relationship between the severity of obsessions and compulsions, as measured by the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale, related to the intensity of negative emotions (anger, depression, tension, confusion, and fatigue) but not positive emotion (vigor), as measured by the Profile of Mood States. These relationships were independent of demographic influences and psychoactive drug use frequency (alcohol, cannabis, opioid, major stimulants, MDMA, and hallucinogens). These likely reflect common neurobiological substrates for emotional and behavioral regulation in prefrontal-subcortical/limbic circuits, which show normal variations in the general population. PMID:15809213

Spinella, Marcello

2005-04-01

29

The Maudsley Obsessive–Compulsive Stimuli Set: Validation of a standardized paradigm for symptom-specific provocation in obsessive–compulsive disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes and further validates a standardized symptom-provocation procedure that combines symptom-specific audio instructions and pictures to reliably provoke different kinds of symptom-specific anxiety in obsessive–compulsive disorder, corresponding to its four major symptom dimensions: contamination\\/washing, obsessions\\/checking, hoarding and symmetry\\/order. The Maudsley Obsessive–Compulsive Stimuli Set has excellent convergent and discriminant validity, and it will be a useful resource for OCD

David Mataix-Cols; Natalia S. Lawrence; Sarah Wooderson; Anne Speckens; Mary L. Phillips

2009-01-01

30

Latent class analysis of the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale symptoms in obsessive-compulsive disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveObsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is phenomenologically heterogeneous, and findings of underlying structure classification based on symptom grouping have been ambiguous to date. Variable-centered approaches, primarily factor analysis, have been used to identify homogeneous groups of symptoms; but person-centered latent methods have seen little use. This study was designed to uncover sets of homogeneous groupings within 1611 individuals with OCD based on

Kevin L. Delucchi; Hilga Katerberg; S. Evelyn Stewart; Damiaan A. J. P. Denys; Christine Lochner; Denise E. Stack; Johan A. den Boer; Michael A. Jenike; Dan J. Stein; Danielle C. Cath; Carol A. Mathews

2011-01-01

31

Associations between miscellaneous symptoms and symptom dimensions in adults with obsessive-compulsive disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a debilitating psychiatric condition with a heterogeneous array of obsessions and compulsions. Although factor analytic studies have identified symptom dimensions comprising the clinical presentation of OCD, many frequently reported miscellaneous symptoms are not considered in factor analytic studies because they do not fit conceptually within a particular symptom category, despite being functionally related. In the present

Eric A. Storch; Joseph McNamara; Cary Jordan; Wendi E. Marien; Marni L. Jacob; Tanya K. Murphy; Wayne K. Goodman; Gary R. Geffken

2008-01-01

32

Connections among symptoms of obsessive–compulsive disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder: a case series  

Microsoft Academic Search

Theoretical, clinical, and empirical implications of the functional connections between symptoms of obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are abundant. As such, four cases are presented here of men and women who met criteria for comorbid OCD and PTSD. All had been diagnosed with treatment-resistant OCD and were seeking treatment from an OCD specialty clinic or institute, all

Beth S Gershuny; Lee Baer; Adam S Radomsky; Kimberly A Wilson; Michael A Jenike

2003-01-01

33

Mood, personality disorder symptoms and disability in obsessive compulsive hoarders: a comparison with clinical and nonclinical controls  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hoarding is a symptom of obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), as well as a diagnostic criterion for obsessive compulsive personality disorder (OCPD). One recent study suggests that people who suffer from compulsive hoarding report more general psychopathology than people who do not [Frost, R.O., Krause, M.S., & Steketee, G. (1996). Hoarding and obsessive compulsive symptoms. Behavior Modification, 20, 116–132]. The present

Randy O. Frost; Gail Steketee; Lauren F. Williams; Ricks Warren

2000-01-01

34

Relationship between obsessive–compulsive symptoms and smoking habits amongst schizophrenic patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rate of smoking is especially high among patients with schizophrenia (SCH) and schizoaffective disorder (SCHAFF). Patients with obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) smoke less than the general population. OCD symptoms are more frequent among patients with SCH or SCHAFF than in the general population, but it is still unclear whether schizophrenia patients with OC symptoms suffer from SCH and comorbid OCD,

Peter Dome; Zsofia Teleki; Xenia Gonda; Gabor Gaszner; Peter Mandl; Zoltan Rihmer

2006-01-01

35

Efficacy of a prevention program for postpartum obsessive–compulsive symptoms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Obsessive–Compulsive Disorder (OCD) has emerged as a common and impairing postpartum condition. Prospective studies have identified psychological vulnerabilities for the emergence of postpartum obsessive–compulsive symptoms (OCS), including general anxiety symptoms, pre-existing OCS, and specific cognitive distortions. The identification of these factors makes feasible the development of prevention programs that could reduce the impact of postpartum OCS. The present investigation examined

Kiara R. Timpano; Jonathan S. Abramowitz; Brittain L. Mahaffey; Melissa A. Mitchell; Norman B. Schmidt

2011-01-01

36

Obsessive–compulsive disorder symptom dimensions show specific relationships to psychiatric comorbidity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goals of this study were to examine relationships among symptom categories in obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD), to establish OCD symptom dimensions by factor- and cluster-analytic analyses, and to explore associations between OCD symptom dimensions and comorbid neuropsychiatric conditions. A total of 317 OCD participants underwent a systematic diagnostic interview using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV. OCD symptoms assessed by

Gregor Hasler; V. Holland LaSalle-Ricci; Jonne G. Ronquillo; Sarah A. Crawley; Lauren W. Cochran; Diane Kazuba; Benjamin D. Greenberg; Dennis L. Murphy

2005-01-01

37

Clinical and Cognitive Correlates of Depressive Symptoms among Youth with Obsessive Compulsive Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Depression is the most common comorbidity among adults with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), yet little is known about depressive symptoms in childhood OCD. This study examined clinical and cognitive variables associated with depressive symptomatology in 71 youths (62% male, M age = 12.7 years) with primary OCD. Youths presented with a range…

Peris, Tara S.; Bergman, R. Lindsey; Asarnow, Joan R.; Langley, Audra; McCracken, James T.; Piacentini, John

2010-01-01

38

Memory bias in obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD)  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a memory bias associated with depression, and good reason to expect a memory bias associated with anxiety. However, the results of studies reported to date have been ambiguous. Accordingly, an experiment was conducted to assess memory for contamination in people with different types of anxiety.Memory for contaminated stimuli among participants who met DSM-IV criteria for obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD)

Adam S Radomsky; S Rachman

1999-01-01

39

Case Study: Acute Basal Ganglia Enlargement and Obsessive-Compulsive Symptoms in an Adolescent Boy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infections (PANDAs) may arise when antibodies directed against invading bacteria cross-react with basal ganglia structures, resulting in exacerbations of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) or tic disorders. This is a report of severe worsening of obsessive-compulsive symptoms In an adolescent boy following infection with group A ?-hemolytic streptococci for whom serial magnetic resonance imaging scans

JAY N. GIEDD; JUDITH L. RAPOPORT; HENRIETTA L. LEONARD; DANIEL RICHTER; SUSAN E. SWEDO

1996-01-01

40

Technology and Obsessive Compulsive Disorder: An Interactive Self-Help Website for OCD  

Microsoft Academic Search

Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) is a neurobiological illness characterized by unwanted thoughts and\\/or images followed by repetitive rituals. About 5 million Americans live with Obsessive Compulsive Disorder. OCD is a manageable illness when proper interventions are utilized. Treatment for OCD is limited due to the lack of adequately trained professionals and the high costs of treatment. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT)

Elizabeth McIngvale; Christine Bakos-Block; John Hart; Patrick S. Bordnick

2012-01-01

41

Perfectionism and Obsessive-Compulsive Symptoms  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was designed to determine whether perfectionism, as assessed by the revised almost perfect scale (APS-R; R. B.\\u000a Slaney, M. Mobley, J. Trippi, J. S. Ashby, & D. G. Johnson, 1996), was a significant predictor of obsessive-compulsive (OC)\\u000a symptoms in a non-clinical sample of 308 university students. Perfectionistic discrepancy emerged as a general predictor of\\u000a obsessive thought difficulties and

Kenneth G. Rice; Steven L. Pence

2006-01-01

42

Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder. [Revised.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet provides an overview of the causes, symptoms, and incidence of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and addresses the key features of OCD, including obsessions, compulsions, realizations of senselessness, resistance, and shame and secrecy. Research findings into the causes of OCD are reviewed which indicate that the brains of…

Strock, Margaret

43

A critical evaluation of obsessive–compulsive disorder subtypes: Symptoms versus mechanisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, experts have suggested that obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD), a highly heterogeneous condition, is actually composed of distinct subtypes. Research to identify specific subtypes of OCD has focused primarily on symptom presentation. Subtype models have been proposed using factor analyses that yield dimensional systems of symptom categories, but not necessarily distinct subtypes. Other empirical work has considered the role of neuropsychological

Dean McKay; Jonathan S. Abramowitz; John E. Calamari; Michael Kyrios; Adam Radomsky; Debbie Sookman; Steven Taylor; Sabine Wilhelm

2004-01-01

44

Symptom structure in obsessive-compulsive disorder: a confirmatory factor-analytic study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has long been a unitary diagnosis, there is much recent interest in its potential heterogeneity, as manifested by symptom subgroups. This study evaluated existing models of symptom structure in a sample of 203 individuals with OCD. Using confirmatory factor analysis, we examined the ability of each model to account for two levels of data: a priori

Laura J Summerfeldt; Margaret A Richter; Martin M Antony; Richard P Swinson

1999-01-01

45

Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder  

MedlinePLUS

OCPD has some of the same symptoms as obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). But people with OCD have unwanted thoughts, while people with OCPD believe that their thoughts are correct. In addition, OCD often ...

46

Postpartum Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD)  

MedlinePLUS

Frequently Asked Questions Depression During Pregnancy & Postpartum Anxiety During Pregnancy & Postpartum Pregnancy or Postpartum OCD Postpartum Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Bipolar Mood Disorders Postpartum Psychosis Useful ...

47

Effects of Obsessive-Compulsive Symptoms on Neuropsychological Test Performance: Complicating an Already Complicated Story  

Microsoft Academic Search

Theoretical models of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) implicate neurocognitive dysfunction, particularly deficits in nonverbal memory and executive functioning, in the pathogenesis of the disorder. The opposite hypothesis (poor performance in neuropsychological test as an epiphenomenon of OCD symptoms) has rarely been contemplated although checking behavior, obsessional doubt, lack of motivation, and slowness as well as preoccupation with touching objects may result

Steffen Moritz; Birgit Hottenrott; Lena Jelinek; Amanda M. Brooks; Armin Scheurich

2012-01-01

48

Effects of Obsessive-Compulsive Symptoms on Neuropsychological Test Performance: Complicating an Already Complicated Story  

Microsoft Academic Search

Theoretical models of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) implicate neurocognitive dysfunction, particularly deficits in nonverbal memory and executive functioning, in the pathogenesis of the disorder. The opposite hypothesis (poor performance in neuropsychological test as an epiphenomenon of OCD symptoms) has rarely been contemplated although checking behavior, obsessional doubt, lack of motivation, and slowness as well as preoccupation with touching objects may result

Steffen Moritz; Birgit Hottenrott; Lena Jelinek; Amanda M. Brooks; Armin Scheurich

2011-01-01

49

Symptom Presentation and Outcome of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous researchers have classified obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) patients by the themes of their obsessions and compulsions (e.g., washing, checking); however, mental compulsions have not been adequately assessed in these studies. The authors conducted 2 studies using a large sample of OCD patients (N = 132). In the 1st study, they categorized patients on the basis of symptom presentation, giving adequate

Jonathan S. Abramowitz; Martin E. Franklin; Stefanie A. Schwartz; Jami M. Furr

2003-01-01

50

Relationship of Exposure to Clinically Irrelevant Emotion Cues and Obsessive-Compulsive Symptoms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research has highlighted the role of emotion regulation as a common factor underlying emotional disorders. The current study examined the relationship of emotion regulation skills to obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) symptoms. Seven participants with a principal diagnosis of OCD in a multiple-baseline across subjects design were taught the skill…

Allen, Laura B.; Barlow, David H.

2009-01-01

51

Peer Victimization in Children with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: Relations with Symptoms of Psychopathology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the frequency of peer victimization and psychological symptom correlates among youth with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The Schwartz Peer Victimization Scale, Children's Depression Inventory, and Asher Loneliness Scale were administered to 52 children and adolescents diagnosed with OCD. The child's parent or guardian…

Storch, Eric A.; Ledley, Deborah Roth; Lewin, Adam B.; Murphy, Tanya K.; Johns, Natalie B.; Goodman, Wayne K.; Geffken, Gary R.

2006-01-01

52

General and Maladaptive Personality Dimensions in Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Symptoms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a chronic and impairing clinical disorder in childhood, often characterized by a heterogeneous symptomatic profile and high co-occurrence with other disorders. The present study introduces a new perspective on the description of OCD symptoms in youth, and empirically examines the value of a personality…

Aelterman, Nathalie; De Clercq, Barbara; De Bolle, Marleen; De Fruyt, Filip

2011-01-01

53

Four-Factor Structure of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Symptoms in Children, Adolescents, and Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study was conducted to establish the efficacy of four-factor obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) symptom structure for use in child, adolescent and adult groups. Results indicated that the four-factor OCD structure is inadequate for use in children, adolescent and adult age groups.

Stewart, S. Evelyn; Rosario, Maria C.; Baer, Lee; Carter, Alice S.; Brown, Timothy A.; Scharf, Jeremiah M.; Illmann, Cornelia; Leckman, James F.; Sukhodolsky, Denis; Katsovich, Lilya; Rasmussen, Steven; Goodman, Wayne; Delorme, Richard; Leboyer, Marion; Chabane, Nadia; Jenike, Michael A.; Geller, Daniel A.; Pauls, David L.

2008-01-01

54

History of trauma and dissociative symptoms among patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder and social anxiety disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

We aimed to compare the history of trauma and the profile and severity of dissociative symptoms of patients with obsessive-compulsive\\u000a disorder (OCD) to those of patients with social anxiety disorder (SAD). Patients with OCD (n = 34) and patients with SAD (n = 30) were examined with the following instruments: Trauma History Questionnaire (THQ), Dissociative Experience Scale (DES),\\u000a Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory (OCI), Liebowitz Social Anxiety

Leonardo F. Fontenelle; Aline M. Domingues; Wanderson F. Souza; Mauro V. Mendlowicz; Gabriela B. de Menezes; Ivan L. Figueira; Marcio Versiani

2007-01-01

55

The relationship between obsessive–compulsive and posttraumatic stress symptoms in clinical and non-clinical samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although case reports suggest the existence of a unique relationship between obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), results from large-scale epidemiological and clinical studies have been more equivocal. Furthermore, symptom overlap may artificially inflate the significance of the relationship between OCD and PTSD. Utilizing the Obsessive–Compulsive Inventory [OCI; Psychol. Assess. 10 (1998) 206] and the Posttraumatic Diagnostic Scale

Jonathan D. Huppert; Jason S. Moser; Beth S. Gershuny; David S. Riggs; Megan Spokas; Jennifer Filip; Greg Hajcak; Holly A. Parker; Lee Baer; Edna B. Foa

2005-01-01

56

Desire for Control, Sense of Control and Obsessive-Compulsive Symptoms  

Microsoft Academic Search

While control-related cognitions have often been implicated in discussions of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD), empirical\\u000a investigations of the relationship between control-constructs and OCD symptoms have been relatively limited. In this article\\u000a it was hypothesized that OCD symptoms may be linked with a higher desire to control (DC), but a lower sense of control (SC)\\u000a over the self and environment, leading

Richard Moulding; Michael Kyrios

2007-01-01

57

Assessing Older Adults' Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Symptoms: Psychometric Characteristics of the Obsessive Compulsive Inventory-Revised.  

PubMed

The lack of Obsessive-Compulsive disorder (OCD) symptom measures validated for use with older adults has hindered research and treatment development for the age group. We evaluated the Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory-Revised (OCI-R; Foa et al., 2002) with participants aged 65 and older (N = 180) to determine if the measure was an effective tool for evaluating obsessional symptoms. Participants completed the OCI-R and a comprehensive assessment battery up to four times over approximately 18 months. Results supported the well-replicated latent structure of the OCI-R (i.e., Washing, Checking, Ordering, Obsessing, Hoarding, and Neutralizing.). OCI-R total score was robustly associated with OCD symptoms assessed 18 months later by clinical interview, while scores on self-report measures of worry, general anxiety, and depression were not. Results indicate the OCI-R is an effective OCD symptom measure for older adults, although replication with additional older adult samples is needed. PMID:24949284

Calamari, John E; Woodard, John L; Armstrong, Kerrie M; Molino, Alma; Pontarelli, Noelle K; Socha, Jami; Longley, Susan L

2014-04-01

58

General and Maladaptive Personality Dimensions in Pediatric Obsessive–Compulsive Symptoms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) is a chronic and impairing clinical disorder in childhood, often characterized by a heterogeneous\\u000a symptomatic profile and high co-occurrence with other disorders. The present study introduces a new perspective on the description\\u000a of OCD symptoms in youth, and empirically examines the value of a personality framework (e.g. Five Factor of Personality;\\u000a FFM) for understanding early OCD symptomatology

Nathalie Aelterman; Barbara De Clercq; Marleen De Bolle; Filip De Fruyt

2011-01-01

59

Revision of the Padua Inventory of obsessive compulsive disorder symptoms: Distinctions between worry, obsessions, and compulsions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Padua Inventory (PI), a self-report measure of obsessive and compulsive symptoms, is increasingly used in obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) research. Freeston, Ladouceur, Rheaume, Letarte, Gagnon and Thibodeau (1994) [Behaviour Research and Therapy, 32, 29–36], however, recently showed that the PI measures worry in addition to obsessions. In an attempt to solve this measurement problem, this study used a content

G. Leonard Burns; Susan G. Keortge; Gina M. Formea; Lee G. Sternberger

1996-01-01

60

Obsessive–compulsive disorder subgroups: a symptom-based clustering approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) is often considered a heterogeneous condition, there is no generally accepted subtype typology. Cluster analysis was used to identify definitive symptom-based groupings of 106 OCD patients. A stable cluster solution was achieved and five patient subgroups were identified based on their pattern of symptoms on the Yale-Brown (Y-BOCS) symptom checklist: harming, hoarding, contamination, certainty and obsessionals.

John E Calamari; Pamela S Wiegartz; Amy S Janeck

1999-01-01

61

Different brain areas involved in either idiopathic or acquired Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD).  

E-print Network

??Abstract Introduction: Knowledge about Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) is accumulating through neuro?imaging research investigating involved brain circuits, most notably the CorticoStriatoThalamoCortical (CSTC) circuit. Somewhat hidden… (more)

Wielaard, I.

2011-01-01

62

Decision Making and Set Shifting Impairments Are Associated With Distinct Symptom Dimensions in Obsessive–Compulsive Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) is clinically heterogeneous. The authors examined how specific OCD symptom dimensions were related to neuropsychological functions using multiple regression analyses. A total of 39 OCD patients and 40 controls completed the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT; A. Bechara, A. R. Damasio, H. Damasio, & S. W. Anderson, 1994), which is a test of decision making, and the Wisconsin

Natalia S. Lawrence; Sarah Wooderson; David Mataix-Cols; Rhodri David; Anne Speckens; Mary L. Phillips

2006-01-01

63

PREDICTING GENETIC LOADING FROM SYMPTOM PATTERNS IN OBSESSIVE- COMPULSIVE DISORDER: A LATENT VARIABLE ANALYSIS  

PubMed Central

Background Some symptom dimensions in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) patients have a familial and putative genetic foundation, based on replicated findings in studies of sib-pairs with OCD. However, these symptom dimensions are all from exploratory factor analyses of Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale Symptom Checklist ratings based on non-empirically derived symptom categories, rather than individual symptoms. Methods In this study, we used a novel latent variable mixture model analysis to identify meaningful patient subgroupings. This was preceded by a confirmatory factor analysis of a 65-item OCD symptom inventory from 398 OCD probands, which yielded a five-factor solution. Data from all five symptom factors were used in a latent variable mixture model analysis, which identified two statistically separate OCD subpopulations. Results One group of probands had a significantly higher proportion of OCD-affected afflicted relatives (parents or close parental relatives), whereas the other group had a less prevalent familial OCD. The group with the more familial OCD was also found to have an earlier age of OCD onset, more severe OCD symptoms, and greater psychiatric comorbidity and impairment. Conclusions Especially if the results are verified in other samples, this research paradigm, which identified characteristics of individuals with familial OCD, should prove useful in carrying out genome-wide linkage and association studies of OCD and may provide a model for other symptom-based studies of additional medical disorders. PMID:18729144

Schooler, Carmi; Revell, Andrew J.; Timpano, Kiara R.; Wheaton, Michael; Murphy, Dennis L.

2009-01-01

64

Predicting Changes in Obsessive Compulsive Symptoms Over a Six-Month Follow-Up: A Prospective Test of Cognitive Models of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cognitive models of obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) propose that OCD-related beliefs (e.g., inflated responsibility) and\\u000a negative life events should predict changes in OC symptoms over time (Rachman, 1997, Behaviour Research and Therapy, 35, 793–802; Rachman, 1998, Behaviour Research and Therapy, 36, 385–401; Rachman, 2002, Behaviour Research and Therapy, 40, 625–639; Salkovskis, 1985, Behaviour Research and Therapy, 23, 571–583; Salkovskis &

Meredith E. Coles; Ashley S. Pietrefesa; Casey A. Schofield; Laura M. Cook

2008-01-01

65

Test Review: C. R. Reynolds and B. Livingston "CMOCS--Children's Measure of Obsessive-Compulsive Symptoms." Los Angeles, CA: Western Psychological Services, 2010  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents a review of the Children's Measure of Obsessive-Compulsive Symptoms (CMOCS), a self-report screening measure of obsessive and compulsive thoughts and behaviors in children and adolescents aged 8 through 19 years. Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is estimated to affect 1% to 3% of the population over their lifetime. The…

Lund, Emily M.; Dennison, Andrea; Ewing, Heidi K.; de Carvalho, Catharina F.

2011-01-01

66

Effects of Tryptophan Depletion on Cognitive Functioning, Obsessive-Compulsive Symptoms and Mood in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: Preliminary Results  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Previous studies suggest that obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is associated with moderate cognitive deficits. There is also evidence for altered serotonergic transmission in OCD. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of rapid plasma tryptophan depletion on cognitive functioning in OCD. Methods: A double-blind crossover study was conducted to explore the effects of tryptophan depletion on cognitive

Anne Katrin Külz; Sandra Meinzer; Marta Kopasz; Ulrich Voderholzer

2007-01-01

67

Perfectionism dimensions as predictors of symptom dimensions of obsessive-compulsive disorder.  

PubMed

The correlation between obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and perfectionism is well documented, yet it remains unclear if dimensions of perfectionism vary as a function of OCD symptom dimensions. To this end, the present study investigated the unique associations between dimensions of perfectionism (i.e., concern over mistakes, doubts about actions, personal standards, parental criticism, parental expectations, and organization) and OCD symptom dimensions (i.e., hoarding, washing, checking, ordering, obsessing, and neutralizing). The study included adult patients with OCD (N = 46) from a residential OCD treatment program. Consistent with previous research, doubts about actions was a significant predictor of overall OCD severity and OCD checking symptoms. The organization dimension of perfectionism was a significant predictor of OCD ordering symptoms. The current study provides evidence for the unique relationships between OCD symptoms and perfectionism dimensions that encourage a movement toward greater phenotypic specificity within existing models of OCD. PMID:24870847

Martinelli, Mary; Chasson, Gregory S; Wetterneck, Chad T; Hart, John M; Björgvinsson, Thröstur

2014-01-01

68

Connections among symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder: a case series.  

PubMed

Theoretical, clinical, and empirical implications of the functional connections between symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are abundant. As such, four cases are presented here of men and women who met criteria for comorbid OCD and PTSD. All had been diagnosed with treatment-resistant OCD and were seeking treatment from an OCD specialty clinic or institute, all reported a history of traumatic experiences prior to the onset of OCD, and all appeared to demonstrate negative treatment outcomes. Upon examination, it appeared that symptoms of OCD and PTSD were connected such that decreases in OCD-specific symptoms related to increases in PTSD-specific symptoms, and increases in OCD-specific symptoms related to decreases in PTSD-specific symptoms. Speculations about the function of OCD symptoms in relation to post-traumatic psychopathology are put forth; and theoretical, research, and treatment implications are discussed. PMID:12914805

Gershuny, Beth S; Baer, Lee; Radomsky, Adam S; Wilson, Kimberly A; Jenike, Michael A

2003-09-01

69

Inferential confusion, obsessive beliefs, and obsessive-compulsive symptoms: A replication and extension  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study replicated and extended previous research regarding utility of an inference-based approach (IBA) to the study of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD). The IBA is a model for the development of OCD symptoms through false reasoning. One of its key features is inferential confusion—a form of processing information in which an individual accepts a remote possibility based only on subjective evidence.

Kevin D. Wu; Frederick Aardema; Kieron P. O’Connor

2009-01-01

70

Subthreshold symptoms and obsessive-compulsive disorder: evaluating the diagnostic threshold  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: In this study we compared subjects with obsessive and\\/or compulsive symptoms who did not meet all criteria for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) (subthreshold subjects) to subjects with full-blown OCD and also to subjects without obsessions or compulsions. METHOD: The data were derived from the Netherlands Mental Health Survey and Incidence Study (NEMESIS), a large representative sample of the general Dutch

C. de Bruijn; S. Beun; R. de Graaf; M. ten Have; D. Denys

2010-01-01

71

Associations between miscellaneous symptoms and symptom dimensions in adults with obsessive-compulsive disorder.  

PubMed

Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a debilitating psychiatric condition with a heterogeneous array of obsessions and compulsions. Although factor analytic studies have identified symptom dimensions comprising the clinical presentation of OCD, many frequently reported miscellaneous symptoms are not considered in factor analytic studies because they do not fit conceptually within a particular symptom category, despite being functionally related. In the present study, we examined the associations between miscellaneous symptoms and OCD symptom dimensions in a sample of 111 adults with OCD. Overall, most miscellaneous symptoms were associated with one or more symptom dimensions in previously identified four- (14 of the 22 symptoms) and five-factor models (12 of the 22 symptoms). In both models, Contamination/Cleaning was the only dimension not related to any miscellaneous symptom. The present results provide information about which miscellaneous symptoms may be related to particular symptom dimensions, which will assist in clinical evaluations and help planning behavioral psychotherapy (e.g., hierarchy development). PMID:18350397

Storch, Eric A; McNamara, Joseph; Jordan, Cary; Marien, Wendi E; Jacob, Marni L; Murphy, Tanya K; Goodman, Wayne K; Geffken, Gary R

2008-04-01

72

Sensitive domains of self-concept in obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD): Further evidence for a multidimensional model of OCD  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aspects of self-concept have been implicated in recent empirical and theoretical investigations of obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD). This article extends previous theory and research by investigating the proposal that specific self-structures may be linked with OCD [e.g., Doron, G., & Kyrios, M. (2005). Obsessive–compulsive disorder: a review of possible specific internal representations within a broader cognitive theory. Clinical Psychology Review, 25,

Guy Doron; Michael Kyrios; Richard Moulding

2007-01-01

73

Obsessive-compulsive disorder : serotonergic and dopaminergic system involvement in symptom generation and treatment response.  

E-print Network

??ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Investigations into the neurobiology of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) have provided useful insights into this prevalent and disabling disorder in recent decades. Encouraging advances… (more)

Carey, Paul D. (Paul Dermot)

2008-01-01

74

The Role of the Looming Cognitive Style as a Cognitive Vulnerability to Obsessive - Compulsive Symptoms .  

E-print Network

??Cognitive models of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) posit that obsessions and compulsions develop from maladaptive beliefs and catastrophic interpretations of intrusive thoughts. These cognitive models… (more)

Scott, Megan N.

2010-01-01

75

Comparative neuropsychological function in obsessive-compulsive disorder and schizophrenia with and without obsessive-compulsive symptoms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Executive function deficits are seen in both schizophrenia and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), but research suggests that dorsolateral prefrontal (DLPF) dysfunction is associated with schizophrenia and orbitofrontal (OBF) dysfunction is associated with OCD. As part of a comprehensive europsychological assessment, the Bechara Gambling Task (BGT) was used to assess OBF function and the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) was used to

Kriscinda A Whitney; Philip S Fastenau; Jovier D Evans; Paul H Lysaker

2004-01-01

76

To discard or not to discard: the neural basis of hoarding symptoms in obsessive-compulsive disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Preliminary neuroimaging studies suggest that patients with the ‘compulsive hoarding syndrome’ may be a neurobiologically distinct variant of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) but further research is needed. A total of 29 OCD patients (13 with and 16 without prominent hoarding symptoms) and 21 healthy controls of both sexes participated in two functional magnetic resonance imaging experiments consisting of the provocation of

S. K. An; D. Mataix-Cols; N. S. Lawrence; S. Wooderson; V. Giampietro; A. E. M. Speckens; M. J. Brammer; M. L. Phillips

2009-01-01

77

Obsessive-Compulsive Spectrum Disorder Symptoms in College Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: This study investigated the occurrence of obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorders (OCSDs) and associated symptomology in college students. Participants: Participants included 358 undergraduate students. Results: Results suggest that clinically significant levels of OCSD symptoms are relatively common. Additionally, OCSD symptoms co-occurred with each other and anxiety symptoms in general, yet not significantly with impulsivity symptoms. Conclusions: Given their prevalence in college

Michael L. Sulkowski; Amy Mariaskin; Eric A. Storch

2011-01-01

78

Symptom dimensions, clinical course and comorbidity in men and women with obsessive-compulsive disorder.  

PubMed

The study aimed to compare male and female patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) across symptom dimensions, clinical course and comorbidity. A cross-sectional study was undertaken with 858 adult OCD patients (DSM-IV) from the Brazilian Research Consortium on Obsessive-Compulsive Spectrum Disorders. Patients were evaluated using structured interviews, including the Dimensional Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (DY-BOCS) and the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I disorders (SCID-I). The sample was composed of 504 women (58.7%) and 354 men (41.3%) with a mean age of 35.4 years-old (range: 18-77). Men were younger, more frequently single and presented more tics, social phobia and alcohol use disorders. Among men, symptom interference occurred earlier and symptoms of the sexual/religious dimension were more common and more severe. Conversely, women were more likely to present symptoms of the aggressive, contamination/cleaning and hoarding dimension and comorbidity with specific phobias, anorexia nervosa, bulimia, trichotillomania, skin picking and "compulsive" buying. In the logistic regression, female gender remained independently associated with the aggressive and contamination/cleaning dimensions. In both genders the aggressive dimension remained associated with comorbid post-traumatic stress disorder, the sexual/religious dimension with major depression and the hoarding dimension with tic disorders. Gender seems to be relevant in the determination of OCD clinical presentation and course and should be considered an important aspect when defining more homogeneous OCD subgroups. PMID:23298952

Torresan, Ricardo C; Ramos-Cerqueira, Ana Teresa A; Shavitt, Roseli G; do Rosário, Maria Conceiçăo; de Mathis, Maria Alice; Miguel, Euripedes C; Torres, Albina R

2013-09-30

79

Obsessive–Compulsive Symptoms and the Expression of Anger  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study investigates the association between Obsessive–Compulsive (OC) symptoms and the expression of anger in a sample of 131 undergraduates. Participants were divided into two groups based on their self-reported OC symptoms and compared on their tendency to suppress anger inwardly, express anger outwardly, and control their anger. In addition, the associations between anger and specific OC symptoms were

Stephen P. Whiteside; Jonathan S. Abramowitz

2004-01-01

80

Rates for tic disorders and obsessive compulsive symptomatology in families of children and adolescents with Gilles de la Tourette syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to assess rates for tic disorders and obsessive compulsive psychopathology in families of children and adolescents with Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (TS). Diagnoses were based on the DSM III-R criteria. Obsessive compulsive psychopathology, that did not fulfill the criteria for obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) was additionally assessed and termed obsessive compulsive symptoms (OCS).

Johannes Hebebrand; Birgit Klug; Rolf Fimmers; Susanne A. Seuchter; Roswitha Wettke-Schäfer; Felicitas Deget; Astrid Camps; Sonja Lisch; Kathrin Hebebrand; Alexander Von Gontard; Gerd Lehmkuhl; Fritz Poustka; Martin Schmidt; Max P. Baur; Helmut Remschmidt

1997-01-01

81

Escitalopram in Obsessive Compulsive Disorder: Escitalopram in Obsessive Compulsive Disorder: Escitalopram in Obsessive Response of Symptom Dimensions to Compulsive Disorder: of Symptom Dimensions to Compulsive Disorder: Response of Symptom Dimensions to Response Pharmacotherapy of Symptom Dimensions to Pharmacotherapy of Symptom Dimensions to  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: There is a substantial body of evi- dence that obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) symptoms can be grouped into a series of dis- crete dimensions, and some evidence that not all OCD symptom dimensions respond equally well to pharmacologic or psychotherapeutic interven- tion. The response of OCD symptom dimensions to 12 weeks of treatment with escitalopram or placebo was investigated. Methods:

Dan J. Stein; Paul D. Carey; Christine Lochner; Soraya Seedat; Naomi Fineberg; Elisabeth Wreford Andersen

82

Error-Related Hyperactivity of the Anterior Cingulate Cortex in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder  

E-print Network

) in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has been shown to increase with symptom provocation of symptom expression in patients with OCD. Key Words: Obsessive-compulsive disorder, anterior cingulate, erError-Related Hyperactivity of the Anterior Cingulate Cortex in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Kate

Gehring, William J.

83

Obsessive-Compulsive Spectrum Disorder Symptoms in College Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: This study investigated the occurrence of obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorders (OCSDs) and associated symptomology in college students. Participants: Participants included 358 undergraduate students. Results: Results suggest that clinically significant levels of OCSD symptoms are relatively common. Additionally, OCSD symptoms

Sulkowski, Michael L.; Mariaskin, Amy; Storch, Eric A.

2011-01-01

84

Inflated perceptions of responsibility and obsessive–compulsive symptoms  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Salkovskis' [Salkovskis, P. (1985). Obsessional–compulsive problems: a cognitive-behavioural analysis. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 28, 571–588; Salkovskis P. (1989) Cognitive-behavioural factors and the persistence of intrusive thoughts in obsessional problems. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 27, 677–682] cognitive model for obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD), inflated perception of responsibility is highlighted as the critical feature that maintains the disorder. In the current study,

Kimberly A Wilson; Dianne L Chambless

1999-01-01

85

Meta-analysis: hoarding symptoms associated with poor treatment outcome in obsessive-compulsive disorder.  

PubMed

DSM-5 recognizes hoarding disorder as distinct from obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), codifying a new consensus. Hoarding disorder was previously classified as a symptom of OCD and patients received treatments designed for OCD. We conducted a meta-analysis to determine whether OCD patients with hoarding symptoms responded differently to traditional OCD treatments compared with OCD patients without hoarding symptoms. An electronic search was conducted for eligible studies in PubMed. A trial was eligible for inclusion if it (1) was a randomized controlled trial, cohort or case-control study; (2) compared treatment response between OCD patients with and those without hoarding symptoms, or examined response to treatment between OCD symptom dimensions (which typically include hoarding) and (3) examined treatment response to pharmacotherapy, behavioral therapy or their combination. Our primary outcome was differential treatment response between OCD patients with and those without hoarding symptoms, expressed as an odds ratio (OR). Twenty-one studies involving 3039 total participants including 304 with hoarding symptoms were included. Patients with OCD and hoarding symptoms were significantly less likely to respond to traditional OCD treatments than OCD patients without hoarding symptoms (OR=0.50 (95% confidence interval 0.42-0.60), z=-7.5, P<0.0001). This finding was consistent across treatment modalities. OCD patients with hoarding symptoms represent a population in need of further treatment research. OCD patients with hoarding symptoms may benefit more from interventions specifically targeting their hoarding symptoms. PMID:24912494

Bloch, M H; Bartley, C A; Zipperer, L; Jakubovski, E; Landeros-Weisenberger, A; Pittenger, C; Leckman, J F

2014-09-01

86

Functional and structural neural indices of risk aversion in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD).  

PubMed

Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) patients suffer from risk aversion, which may be mediated by their exaggerated response to threat and diminished response to reward. In this study, 13 OCD patients and 13 healthy matched controls underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while playing an interactive risky choice game encompassing distinct intervals of threat and reward; as well as anatomical diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Compared to healthy controls OCD patients were reluctant to make risky choices during the game. Furthermore, they displayed higher amygdala activation to threat; lower nucleus accumbens (Nacc) activation to reward and reduced functional connectivity of the amygdala and Nacc to two frontal regions, the orbito-frontal cortex (OFC) and the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC), respectively. OCD patients also displayed reduced structural integrity in clusters within the uncinate and cingulum fiber tracts. Finally, these deficits in limbic-frontal connectivity pathways, both at the functional and structural level, were associated with severity of OCD symptoms, as well as with each other. Our results thus suggest that risk aversion in OCD is mediated by abnormal limbic responses to threatening and rewarding stimuli, as well as by deficient functional and structural limbic-frontal connectivity. Such deficiency characterization may aid in identifying neural predictors for treatment response and localizing individual targets for direct neural intervention treatments. PMID:22959813

Admon, Roee; Bleich-Cohen, Maya; Weizmant, Ronit; Poyurovsky, Michael; Faragian, Sarit; Hendler, Talma

2012-01-01

87

Dissociative symptoms and dissociative disorder comorbidity in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder.  

PubMed

The present study attempted to assess the dissociative symptoms and overall dissociative disorder comorbidity in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). In addition, we examined the relationship between the severity of obsessive-compulsive symptoms and dissociative symptoms. All patients admitted for the first time to the psychiatric outpatient unit were included in the study. Seventy-eight patients had been diagnosed as having OCD during the 2-year study period. Patients had to meet the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition criteria for OCD. Most (76.9%; n = 60) of the patients were female, and 23.1% (n = 18) of the patients were male. Dissociation Questionnaire was used to measure dissociative symptoms. The Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition Dissociative Disorders interviews and Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Checklist and Severity Scale were used. Eleven (14%) of the patients with OCD had comorbid dissociative disorder. The most prevalent disorder in our study was dissociative depersonalization disorder. Dissociative amnesia and dissociative identity disorder were common as well. The mean Yale-Brown score was 23.37 ± 7.27 points. Dissociation Questionnaire scores were between 0.40 and 3.87 points, and the mean was 2.23 ± 0.76 points. There was a statistically significant positive correlation between Yale-Brown points and Dissociation Questionnaire points. We conclude that dissociative symptoms among patients with OCD should alert clinicians for the presence of a chronic and complex dissociative disorder. Clinicians may overlook an underlying dissociative process in patients who have severe symptoms of OCD. However, a lack of adequate response to cognitive-behavioral and drug therapy may be a consequence of dissociative process. PMID:22425531

Belli, Hasan; Ural, Cenk; Vardar, Melek Kanarya; Yes?lyurt, Sema; Oncu, Fat?h

2012-10-01

88

History of trauma and dissociative symptoms among patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder and social anxiety disorder.  

PubMed

We aimed to compare the history of trauma and the profile and severity of dissociative symptoms of patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) to those of patients with social anxiety disorder (SAD). Patients with OCD (n = 34) and patients with SAD (n = 30) were examined with the following instruments: Trauma History Questionnaire (THQ), Dissociative Experience Scale (DES), Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory (OCI), Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI). Patients with OCD reported significantly lower rates of exposure to traumatic events. Nevertheless, the severity of dissociative symptoms was not significantly different between the groups. Regression analyses showed that, while the OCI scores better predicted the variance on DES scores in the OCD sample, the LSAS and the BAI better predicted the variance on the DES among patients with SAD. Patients with OCD are probably less vulnerable to some types of traumatic experiences. Dissociative symptoms may cut across different anxiety disorders. PMID:17453345

Fontenelle, Leonardo F; Domingues, Aline M; Souza, Wanderson F; Mendlowicz, Mauro V; de Menezes, Gabriela B; Figueira, Ivan L; Versiani, Marcio

2007-09-01

89

No Evidence for Object Alternation Impairment in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent neuroimaging studies have consistently ascribed the orbito-frontal cortex (OFC) a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Cognitive tests presumed sensitive to this region, such as the Object Alternation Task (OAT), are considered important tools to verify this assumption and to investigate the impact of…

Moritz, Steffen; Jelinek, Lena; Hottenrott, Birgit; Klinge, Ruth; Randjbar, Sarah

2009-01-01

90

Obsessive–compulsive symptoms in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goals of this work were to: (1) determine the prevalence of clinically significant obsessive–compulsive (OC) symptoms in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), (2) characterize the differences in self-reported OC symptoms in patients with TLE and a normative control group, and (3) compare the severity of OC symptoms in right and left hemisphere TLE patients. Patients with TLE (n=30)

Keren L. Isaacs; John W. Philbeck; William B. Barr; Orrin Devinsky; Kenneth Alperb

2004-01-01

91

Sudden Gains in the Treatment of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The present study examined sudden gains during treatment for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and their relationship to short- and long-term outcome. Methods: Ninety-one individuals (age 19–64) completed either cognitive treatment, exposure treatment, or their combination with fluvoxamine for OCD. Participants’ obsessive-compulsive symptoms were assessed before each weekly treatment session. In addition, obsessive-compulsive and depressive symptoms were assessed pre treatment and

Idan M. Aderka; Gideon E. Anholt; Johannes H. Smit; Haggai Hermesh; Patricia van Oppen

2012-01-01

92

Obsessive compulsive symptoms at initial presentation of adolescent eating disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

An association between obsessive compulsive disorder and eating disorders has often been reported in the literature. It has\\u000a been suggested that the association may be accounted for by depression, starvation or family factors but the literature remains\\u000a inconclusive. In this study self-report scales were used to measure eating attitudes, obsessional symptoms, depressive symptoms\\u000a and family functioning in an eating disordered

E. Cassidy; M. Allsopp; T. Williams

1999-01-01

93

Perceived Stress in Obsessive–Compulsive Disorder is Related with Obsessive but Not Compulsive Symptoms  

PubMed Central

Obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) is achronic psychiatric disorder characterized by recurrent intrusive thoughts and/or repetitive compulsory behaviors. This psychiatric disorder is known to be stress responsive, as symptoms increase during periods of stress but also because stressful events may precede the onset of OCD. However, only a few and inconsistent reports have been published about the stress perception and the stress-response in these patients. Herein, we have characterized the correlations of OCD symptoms with basal serum cortisol levels and scores in a stress perceived questionnaire (PSS-10). The present data reveals that cortisol levels and the stress scores in the PSS-10 were significantly higher in OCD patients that in controls. Moreover, stress levels self-reported by patients using the PSS-10 correlated positively with OCD severity in the Yale–Brown Obsessive–Compulsive Scale (Y–BOCS). Interestingly, PSS-10 scores correlated with the obsessive component, but not with the compulsive component, of Y–BOCS. These results confirm that stress is relevant in the context of OCD, particularly for the obsessive symptomatology. PMID:23565098

Morgado, P.; Freitas, D.; Bessa, J. M.; Sousa, N.; Cerqueira, Joăo José

2013-01-01

94

Perceived Stress in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder is Related with Obsessive but Not Compulsive Symptoms.  

PubMed

Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is achronic psychiatric disorder characterized by recurrent intrusive thoughts and/or repetitive compulsory behaviors. This psychiatric disorder is known to be stress responsive, as symptoms increase during periods of stress but also because stressful events may precede the onset of OCD. However, only a few and inconsistent reports have been published about the stress perception and the stress-response in these patients. Herein, we have characterized the correlations of OCD symptoms with basal serum cortisol levels and scores in a stress perceived questionnaire (PSS-10). The present data reveals that cortisol levels and the stress scores in the PSS-10 were significantly higher in OCD patients that in controls. Moreover, stress levels self-reported by patients using the PSS-10 correlated positively with OCD severity in the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS). Interestingly, PSS-10 scores correlated with the obsessive component, but not with the compulsive component, of Y-BOCS. These results confirm that stress is relevant in the context of OCD, particularly for the obsessive symptomatology. PMID:23565098

Morgado, P; Freitas, D; Bessa, J M; Sousa, N; Cerqueira, Joăo José

2013-01-01

95

Electroconvulsive therapy on severe obsessive-compulsive disorder comorbid depressive symptoms.  

PubMed

Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is not currently used as a first-line treatment for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). However, several related case reports have demonstrated that ECT seems to be effective for severe OCD, especially when first-line therapies have failed. In this study, we describe the courses, detailed parameters, effects, and follow-up information relating to three patients with severe OCD who were treated by modified bifrontal ECT after their first-line anti-OCD treatments pharmacotherapy, behavioral therapy, and cognitive behavioral therapy failed. The number of ECT procedures administered in each case is as follows: Case 1, eight; Case 2, three; and Case 3, four. In all three cases, the patients' depressive symptoms improved considerably after the ECT procedures. In addition, the condition of all three patients' OCD significantly improved and remained stable at regular follow-ups. ECT may play an effective role in treating severe OCD. PMID:24843380

Liu, Xiaohui; Cui, Hong; Wei, Qiang; Wang, Ying; Wang, Keyong; Wang, Chen; Zhu, Chunyan; Xie, Xinhui

2014-04-01

96

Obsessive–Compulsive Symptoms and Body Checking in Women and Men  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study examined the association between obsessive–compulsive symptoms and body checking behavior in a non-clinical\\u000a sample of women and men. We also examined whether perfectionism and negative affect would account for a significant proportion\\u000a of the variance in that association. Participants (n = 303; 45% women) completed measures of obsessive–compulsive symptoms, perfectionism, negative affect, body checking, and\\u000a body dissatisfaction. Obsessive–compulsive symptoms

Lenny R. VartanianJessica; Jessica R. Grisham

97

Neurological soft signs in schizophrenia and obsessive compulsive disorder spectrum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Obsessive compulsive symptoms are more frequent in patients with schizophrenia compared to normal population. Patients with obsessive compulsive disorder may also exhibit psychosis-like symptoms. Based on these findings, it has been suggested that there is a spectrum of disorders between OCD and schizophrenia. We compared two OCD groups (with good and poor insight) and two schizophrenia groups (with and without

S. Tumkaya; F. Karadag; N. K. Oguzhanoglu

2010-01-01

98

Symptom dimensions and subtypes of obsessive-compulsive disorder: a developmental perspective  

PubMed Central

In the absence of definitive etiological markers for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), obsessive-compulsive (OC) symptom dimensions may offer a fruitful point of orientation. These dimensions can be understood as defining potentially overlapping clinical features that may be continuous with “normal” worries first evident in childhood. Although the understanding of the dimensional structure of OC symptoms is still imperfect, a recent large-scale meta-analysis has confirmed the presence of at least four separable symptom dimensions in children, as well as adults, with OCD, A dimensional approach does not exclude other methods to parse OCD. Thus far, a pediatric age of onset, the presence of other family members with OCD, and the individual's “ticrelated” status appear to be potentially useful categorical distinctions. Although the OC symptom dimensions appear to be valid for all ages, it is unlikely that the underlying genetic vulnerability factors and neurobiological substrates for each of these symptom dimensions are the same across the course of development. PMID:19432385

Leckman, James F.; Bloch, Michael H.; King, Robert A.

2009-01-01

99

Children’s Florida Obsessive Compulsive Inventory: Psychometric Properties and Feasibility of a Self-Report Measure of Obsessive–Compulsive Symptoms in Youth  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report describes the development and psychometric properties of the Children’s Florida Obsessive Compulsive Inventory\\u000a (C-FOCI). Designed specifically as a brief measure for assessing obsessive–compulsive symptoms, the C-FOCI was created for\\u000a use in both clinical and community settings. Study 1 included 82 children and adolescents diagnosed with primary Obsessive–Compulsive\\u000a Disorder, and their parents. The Children’s Yale-Brown Obsessive–Compulsive Scale (CY-BOCS) was

Eric A. Storch; Muniya Khanna; Lisa J. Merlo; Benjamin A. Loew; Martin Franklin; Jeannette M. Reid; Wayne K. Goodman; Tanya K. Murphy

2009-01-01

100

Stressful life events and obsessive-compulsive disorder: clinical features and symptom dimensions.  

PubMed

The potential role of stressful life events (SLEs) in the genesis of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has been suggested by several authors, but whether the number or the severity or the type of SLEs preceding the onset of OCD has a triggering effect is unclear. Further, sociodemographic and clinical features of OCD preceded by SLEs, and the relationship between type of SLEs and type of obsessive-compulsive symptomatology remain mainly unexplored. The aims of this study were to compare the clinical features of OCD with and without SLEs preceding it and to examine the relationship between type of SLEs and OCD symptom dimensions. The number and type of SLEs which occurred before the onset of OCD were determined in 329 patients: the raters had to decide whether an occurrence 12 months before the onset of OCD would fit any of the 61 items on Paykel's list, and each event reported was carefully investigated in order to determine the exact time of occurrence. At least one event preceded the onset of OCD in 200 patients (60.8%), and this was significantly associated with female gender, abrupt onset of the disorder and somatic obsessions. Moreover, LogReg Analysis identified three specific traumatic events ("hospitalization of a family member", "major personal physical illness", "loss of personally valuable object") significantly associated with a symptom dimension (symmetry obsessions, repeating, ordering/arranging, counting, and checking compulsions). Additional evidence regarding the association among SLE-preceded OCD, female gender, somatic obsessions and symmetry/ordering symptoms should be obtained to advance the understanding of OCD. PMID:22370150

Rosso, Gianluca; Albert, Umberto; Asinari, Giovanni Francesco; Bogetto, Filippo; Maina, Giuseppe

2012-05-30

101

Thought-Focused Attention and Obsessive–Compulsive Symptoms: An Evaluation of Cognitive Self-Consciousness in a Nonclinical Sample  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cognitive self-consciousness (CSC), the tendency to focus attention on and be aware of one's thoughts, has differentiated individuals with obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) from individuals with other anxiety disorders and from normal controls. A self-report measure of CSC was administered to a nonclinical sample (N = 323) and the relationship to OCD symptoms and intrusive thought appraisals was evaluated. Evaluation of

Robyn J. Cohen; John E. Calamari

2004-01-01

102

[Advantage of obsessive-compulsive symptoms from the aspect of individual selection and group selection: an evolutionary psychological approach to obsessive-compulsive disorder].  

PubMed

Psychiatric disorders are difficult to explain from an evolutionary aspect, since it is hard to reason how a characteristic carrying a reproductive disadvantage survives through natural selection. There are several evolution-based papers concerning obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), which aim at resolving this contradiction. Recent studies provided considerable evidence in support for the evolutionary theories of OCD. Research confirmed an important role for genetic factors in the background of OCD, and neuroanatomic studies supported that neuroanatomical structures playing a role in OCD are those areas which are activated during the processing of danger and threat. From the evolutionary aspect OCD can be explained both from the individual and group selection aspect. According to the theory of individual selection, OCD symptoms are based on such behaviors which are by themselves advantageous serving individual survival and reproduction and therefore carry on through natural selection. According to group selection theory, although OCD is disadvantageous for the individual, it is adaptive for the survival of the group. In our paper we review the individual and group selection theories of OCD, and we also outline the continuity and discontinuity theories which show a significant overlap with the evolutionary theories. We review characteristic age and gender differences related to OCD from this aspect. The evolutionary approach to OCD is important in understanding the background factors, development and symptoms of OCD, which mean new tools in the prevention and treatment of this disorder. PMID:19213201

Gonda, Xénia; Jekkel, Eva; Varga, Anna; Miklósi, Mónika; Forintos, Dóra Perczel

2008-10-01

103

Overactive performance monitoring in obsessive-compulsive disorder is independent of symptom expression.  

PubMed

Overactive performance monitoring has been consistently reported in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). OCD is a clinically heterogeneous disorder and is characterized by several symptom dimensions that may have partially distinct neural correlates. We examined whether performance-monitoring alterations are related to symptom severity and symptom dimensions. Electrocortical correlates of performance monitoring were assessed in 72 OCD patients and 72 matched healthy comparison participants during a flanker task. Amplitudes of the error- and correct-related negativity as well as delta and theta power were used to quantify performance-monitoring activity, and a composite measure was derived using factor analysis. Symptom dimension scores were obtained from the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale symptom checklist. OCD patients showed increased electrocortical responses associated with correct and erroneous responses compared to healthy comparison participants. In patients, no correlations were obtained between performance monitoring and global symptom severity as well as lifetime symptom dimension scores. Only a statistical trend was found that higher symmetry/hoarding scores were associated with reduced performance-monitoring activity. For present symptom dimensions scores, an association with rituals/superstitious symptoms was obtained such that higher scores were associated with greater performance-monitoring activity. However, for both dimensions, subjects with low scores or high scores on each dimension were characterized by overactive performance monitoring compared to healthy controls. Overactive brain processes during performance monitoring are a neural correlate of OCD that is independent of global symptom severity and can be observed for all symptom dimensions. This supports the notion of overactive performance monitoring being a candidate endophenotype for OCD. PMID:24676800

Riesel, Anja; Kathmann, Norbert; Endrass, Tanja

2014-12-01

104

Case Series: Transformation Obsession in Young People With Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents a previously unreported symptom of obsessive-compulsive disorder. The young people reported describe a fear of turning into someone or something else or taking on unwanted characteristics. We have called this transformation obsession. The bizarre nature of this obsession had led to misdiagnosis and inappropriate treatments in a number of these patients. Recognition of this symptom as an

ISOBEL HEYMAN

2007-01-01

105

Relations between a ruminative thinking style and obsessive–compulsive symptoms in non-clinical samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is tremendous interest in understanding the cognitive processes behind obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD). Whereas previous research on cognitive OCD models has focused on the dysfunctional content of obsessional thinking, processes and styles of thinking have not yet been investigated. The present study investigated the relationship between a ruminative response style and obsessive–compulsive (OC) symptomatology in two non-clinical samples. In Sample

Karina Wahl; Andrea Ertle; Antje Bohne; Bartosz Zurowski; Andreas Kordon

2011-01-01

106

[The obsessive compulsive disorder].  

PubMed

The obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) is a frequent disease with a high comorbidity. The usual treatment is a combination of pharmacological and psychotherapeutic treatment. However, 30% of patients still have persistent and severe symptoms, with an important functional impact. These last years, the integration of the new neuroanatomical, neurochemical, neuropsychological, genetic and phenomenological data, allows a better understanding of the physiopathology and the development of new treatments for OCD, as neuromodulation for the severe and refractory cases. PMID:24356141

Flores Alves Dos Santos, Joăo; Mallet, Luc

2013-12-01

107

Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) 12-month Prevalence: 1.0% of U.S. adult  

E-print Network

Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) Prevalence · 12-month Prevalence: 1.0% of U.S. adult population 0.5 1.5 2.5 3.5 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 PercentofU.S.AdultPopulation 12-month Prevalence1 12-month Prevalence Classified as Severe2 Lifetime Prevalence3 0.5 1.0 1.6 Demographics (for lifetime prevalence)5

Baker, Chris I.

108

Children' Florida Obsessive Compulsive Inventory: Psychometric Properties and Feasibility of a Self-Report Measure of Obsessive-Compulsive Symptoms in Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report describes the development and psychometric properties of the Children's Florida Obsessive Compulsive Inventory (C-FOCI). Designed specifically as a brief measure for assessing obsessive-compulsive symptoms, the C-FOCI was created for use in both clinical and community settings. Study 1 included 82 children and adolescents diagnosed…

Storch, Eric A.; Khanna, Muniya; Merlo, Lisa J.; Loew, Benjamin A.; Franklin, Martin; Reid, Jeannette M.; Goodman, Wayne K.; Murphy, Tanya K.

2009-01-01

109

Understanding Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder in Students: Symptoms and School-Based Interventions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article provides current information relevant to school social workers who serve students with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), including how OCD is defined in children and adolescents, the impact of OCD on schooling, issues in identifying students with OCD, and effective interventions. The authors offer suggestions for collaboration…

Dyches, Tina Taylor; Leininger, Melissa; Heath, Melissa Allen; Prater, Mary Anne

2010-01-01

110

The relationship between adverse childhood experience and obsessive-compulsive symptoms and beliefs: The role of anxiety, depression, and experiential avoidance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current cognitive-behavioral models of the etiology of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) suggest that maladaptive appraisal of otherwise normal intrusive thoughts have their origins in early learning experiences. The present study investigated the relationship between adverse childhood experience and OCD symptoms and related dysfunctional beliefs in a general population using a structural equation modeling approach. The role of experiential avoidance and anxiety

Eric S. Briggs; Ian R. Price

2009-01-01

111

Case Series: Transformation Obsession in Young People with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents a previously unreported symptom of obsessive-compulsive disorder. The young people reported describe a fear of turning into someone or something else or taking on unwanted characteristics. We have called this transformation obsession. The bizarre nature of this obsession had led to misdiagnosis and inappropriate treatments in…

Volz, Chloe; Heyman, Isobel

2007-01-01

112

Psychosis with obsessive-compulsive symptoms in tuberous sclerosis.  

PubMed

We present a case of tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) diagnosed in adulthood in a man initially referred for specialist neuropsychiatric assessment with psychosis and obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCS) on a background of epilepsy and intellectual disability. To our knowledge, this is the first reported patient with TSC featuring both psychosis and OCS. This patient highlights the importance of comprehensive re-evaluation of atypical presentations of intellectual disability, epilepsy and associated neuropsychiatric symptoms, even in adulthood. This is particularly relevant in the context of significant advances in genetics, neuroscience, imaging and treatments for heritable neurogenetic disorders. PMID:24211143

Hassan, Islam K; Looi, Jeffrey C L; Velakoulis, Dennis; Gaillard, Frank; Lui, Elaine H; O'Brien, Terence J; French, Chris; Le Heron, Campbell; Adams, Sophia J

2014-05-01

113

Amygdala hyperactivation during symptom provocation in obsessive–compulsive disorder and its modulation by distraction  

PubMed Central

Anxiety disorders have been linked to a hyperactivated cortico-amygdalar circuitry. Recent findings highlight the amygdala's role in mediating elevated anxiety in obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD). However, modulation of amygdala hyperactivation by attentional distraction – an effective emotion regulation strategy in healthy individuals – has not yet been examined. While undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging twenty-one unmedicated OCD patients and 21 controls performed an evaluation and a distraction task during symptom provocation with individually tailored OCD-relevant pictures. To test the specificity of responses, additional aversive and neutral stimuli were included. Significant group-by-picture type interactions were observed within fronto–striato–limbic circuits including the amygdala. In these regions patients showed increased BOLD responses during processing of OCD triggers relative to healthy controls. Amygdala hyperactivation was present across OCD symptom dimensions indicating that it represents a common neural correlate. During distraction, we observed dampening of patients' amygdala hyperactivity to OCD-relevant stimuli. Augmented amygdala involvement in patients during symptom provocation, present across OCD symptom dimensions, might constitute a correlate of fear expression in OCD linking it to other anxiety disorders. Attentional distraction seemed to dampen emotional processing of disorder-relevant stimuli via amygdala downregulation. The clinical impact of this strategy to manage anxiety in OCD should be further elucidated. PMID:24818080

Simon, Daniela; Adler, Nele; Kaufmann, Christian; Kathmann, Norbert

2014-01-01

114

The relationship between magical thinking, inferential confusion and obsessive-compulsive symptoms.  

PubMed

Inferential confusion is an under-researched faulty reasoning process in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Based on an overreliance on imagined possibilities, it shares similarities with the extensively researched construct of thought-action fusion (TAF). While TAF has been proposed as a specific subset of the broader construct of magical thinking, the relationship between inferential confusion and magical thinking is unexplored. The present study investigated this relationship, and hypothesised that magical thinking would partially mediate the relationship between inferential confusion and obsessive-compulsive symptoms. A non-clinical sample of 201 participants (M = 34.94, SD = 15.88) were recruited via convenience sampling. Regression analyses found the hypothesised mediating relationship was supported, as magical thinking did partially mediate the relationship between inferential confusion and OC symptoms. Interestingly, inferential confusion had the stronger relationship with OC symptoms in comparison to the other predictor variables. Results suggest that inferential confusion can both directly and indirectly (via magical thinking) impact on OC symptoms. Future studies with clinical samples should further investigate these constructs to determine whether similar patterns emerge, as this may eventually inform which cognitive errors to target in treatment of OCD. PMID:25265223

Goods, N A R; Rees, C S; Egan, S J; Kane, R T

2014-12-01

115

Comparison of clinical features among youth with tic disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and both conditions  

PubMed Central

The comorbidity of Tic Disorders (TD) and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) has long been recognized in the clinical literature and appears to be bidirectional, affecting 20% to 60% of individuals with each disorder. Coffey et al. (1998) found that adults with TD+OCD had a more severe comorbidity profile than adults with OCD or TD alone. This exploratory study in children attempts to evaluate whether heightened diagnostic severity, increased comorbidity load, and lower functioning is more commonplace in youth with TD+OCD in comparison to either syndrome alone. Participants were 306 children (seeking clinical evaluation) with TD, OCD, or TD+OCD. Assessment consisted of a diagnostic battery (including structured diagnostic interviews and standardized parent-report inventories) to evaluate diagnostic severity, comorbid psychopathology, behavioral and emotional correlates, and general psychosocial functioning. Data from this study sample were not supportive of the premise that youth with both a tic disorder and OCD present with elevated diagnostic severity, higher risk-for or intensity-of comorbidity, increased likelihood of externalizing/internalizing symptomatology, or lower broad-based adaptive functioning. The OCD group had elevated rates of comorbid anxiety disorders and ADHD and ODD were more prevalent among youth in the TD group. The three groups also differed on key demographic variables. Our findings suggest that, in contrast to adults, TD+OCD in children and adolescents does not represent a more severe condition than either disorder alone on the basis of diagnostic comorbidity, symptom severity, or functional impairment. PMID:20488548

Lewin, Adam B.; Chang, Susanna; McCracken, James; McQueen, Melissa; Piacentini, John

2010-01-01

116

Autism and ADHD Symptoms in Patients with OCD: Are They Associated with Specific OC Symptom Dimensions or OC Symptom Severity?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), the relationship between autism spectrum disorders (ASD), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptom, and obsessive-compulsive (OC) symptom dimensions and severity has scarcely been studied. Therefore, 109 adult outpatients with primary OCD were compared to 87 healthy controls on OC, ADHD and…

Anholt, Gideon E.; Cath, Danielle C.; van Oppen, Patricia; Eikelenboom, Merijn; Smit, Johannes H.; van Megen, Harold; van Balkom, Anton J. L. M.

2010-01-01

117

The relationship between obsessive-compulsive and posttraumatic stress symptoms in clinical and non-clinical samples.  

PubMed

Although case reports suggest the existence of a unique relationship between obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), results from large-scale epidemiological and clinical studies have been more equivocal. Furthermore, symptom overlap may artificially inflate the significance of the relationship between OCD and PTSD. Utilizing the Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory [OCI; Psychol. Assess. 10 (1998) 206] and the Posttraumatic Diagnostic Scale [PDS; Psychol. Assess. 9 (1997) 445], this study examined the relationship between OCD and PTSD symptoms in 128 patients diagnosed with OCD, 109 patients diagnosed with PTSD, 63 patients diagnosed with another anxiety disorder, and 40 college students. Experts in OCD and PTSD independently rated items on the OCI and PDS for the degree of overlap across the disorders. On the basis of these ratings, we created a scale from each measure that included only non-overlapping items. Results revealed that overall symptoms of OCD and PTSD were related in all samples. However, after controlling for depression and overlapping symptoms simultaneously, this relationship was no longer significant in the OCD and PTSD samples, although it remained significant in the anxious and college student comparison groups. These results support the presence of a relationship between symptoms of OCD and PTSD that may be largely accounted for by a combination of symptom overlap and depression. PMID:15488372

Huppert, Jonathan D; Moser, Jason S; Gershuny, Beth S; Riggs, David S; Spokas, Megan; Filip, Jennifer; Hajcak, Greg; Parker, Holly A; Baer, Lee; Foa, Edna B

2005-01-01

118

Treatment Response, Symptom Remission and Wellness in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder  

PubMed Central

Objective Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is defined both by intrusive, unwanted thoughts, images or impulses and by repetitive behavioral or mental acts that are often performed to try to alleviate anxiety. The ultimate goal of treatment for OCD is to reduce the symptoms, as well as help patients achieve “wellness”, however currently there are no widely accepted, empirically supported criteria for determining wellness in OCD. Method Building on previous research, the current study pooled data from four OCD treatment trials (N = 288) that took place between 1990–2011to examine the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Scale (Y-BOCS) score that most reliably identified patients who responded to treatment, those who achieved symptom remission and those who achieved wellness. Results Signal detection analyses showed that a pre- to post-treatment reduction of ? 35% on the Y-BOCS was most predictive of treatment response, as defined by the Clinical Global Impressions (CGI-Improvement). A post-treatment Y-BOCS score of ? 14 was the best predictor of symptom remission, where a score of ? 12 was the best predictor of wellness, as defined by symptom remission defined by the CGI-Severity, good quality of life as measured by the Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire (QLES-Q) and a high-level of adaptive function as assessed by the Social Adjustment Scale (SAS-SR). Conclusions Empirically supported criteria for defining wellness in OCD can facilitate comparisons across treatment outcome studies and inform clinical treatment planning. PMID:23945445

Farris, Samantha G.; McLean, Carmen P.; Van Meter, Page E.; Simpson, H. Blair; Foa, Edna B.

2014-01-01

119

Obsessive-compulsive disorder  

MedlinePLUS

Obsessive-compulsive neurosis; OCD ... Doctors do not know the exact cause of OCD. Factors that may play a role include head ... out other mental disorders. Questionnaires can help diagnose OCD and track the progress of treatment.

120

Provocation of obsessive-compulsive symptoms: a quantitative voxel-based meta-analysis of functional neuroimaging studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:Recent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and positron emission tomography (PET) studies based on the symp- tom provocation paradigm have explored neural correlates of the cognitive and emotional processes associated with the emergence of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) symptoms. Although most studies showed the involvement of cortico-subcortical loops originat- ing in the orbitofrontal cortex and the anterior cingulate cortex, an increased

Jean-Yves Rotge; Dominique Guehl; Bixente Dilharreguy; Emmanuel Cuny; Jean Tignol; Bernard Bioulac; Michele Allard; Pierre Burbaud; Bruno Aouizerate

2008-01-01

121

Dissociative symptoms and dissociative disorders comorbidity in obsessive compulsive disorder: Symptom screening, diagnostic tools and reflections on treatment.  

PubMed

Borderline personality disorder, conversion disorder and obsessive compulsive disorder frequently have dissociative symptoms. The literature has demonstrated that the level of dissociation might be correlated with the severity of obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) and that those not responding to treatment had high dissociative symptoms. The structured clinical interview for DSM-IV dissociative disorders, dissociation questionnaire, somatoform dissociation questionnaire and dissociative experiences scale can be used for screening dissociative symptoms and detecting dissociative disorders in patients with OCD. However, a history of neglect and abuse during childhood is linked to a risk factor in the pathogenesis of dissociative psychopathology in adults. The childhood trauma questionnaire-53 and childhood trauma questionnaire-40 can be used for this purpose. Clinicians should not fail to notice the hidden dissociative symptoms and childhood traumatic experiences in OCD cases with severe symptoms that are resistant to treatment. Symptom screening and diagnostic tools used for this purpose should be known. Knowing how to treat these pathologies in patients who are diagnosed with OCD can be crucial. PMID:25133142

Belli, Hasan

2014-08-16

122

Inferential confusion, obsessive beliefs and obsessive-compulsive symptoms: a multidimensional investigation of cognitive domains.  

PubMed

Generally, research into the relationship between cognitive domains and obsessive-compulsive symptoms involves the use of scales that are highly intercorrelated with each other. The current study investigates the relationship between cognitive constructs and obsessive-compulsive symptoms using the item set of the Obsessive Beliefs Questionnaire and the Inferential Confusion Questionnaire. In order to create constructs that would not be excessively correlated with each other, factor scores were used to investigate the relationship between cognitive domains and obsessive-compulsive symptoms. Factor analysis followed by oblique rotation resulted in four moderately correlated cognitive constructs (importance/control of thoughts, inferential confusion/threat estimation, perfectionism/certainty and responsibility for preventing harm). With the exception of responsibility for preventing harm, the cognitive constructs under investigation were quite strongly related to obsessive-compulsive symptoms. In particular, hierarchical regression revealed the construct inferential confusion/threat estimation to be a global and strong predictor of obsessive-compulsive symptoms, followed by the constructs of perfectionism/certainty and the construct importance/control. Responsibility for preventing harm acted to be a negative predictor of obsessive-compulsive symptoms. It is concluded that the construct of inferential confusion acts as a more powerful predictor of obsessive-compulsive symptoms than any specific obsessive belief PMID:19115443

Aardema, Frederick; Radomsky, Adam S; O'Connor, Kieron P; Julien, Dominic

2008-01-01

123

Poor cognitive flexibility, and the experience thereof, in a subclinical sample of female students with obsessive-compulsive symptoms.  

PubMed

Research indicates that people with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) have poor cognitive flexibility. However, studies have largely focused on actual abilities and while individuals' emotional responses may be just as important, little is known about how those with OCD experience a situation that requires cognitive flexibility. It is furthermore largely unknown whether cognitive flexibility may also be important for people with OCD symptoms, rather than only to those with full blown disorders. This study investigates the relationship between cognitive flexibility, and the experience thereof in female students with and without OCD symptoms. It was expected that poor cognitive flexibility would be positively associated to OCD symptoms, and that those with OCD symptoms would display poor cognitive flexibility, and experience situations requiring cognitive flexibility as more difficult, than those without OCD symptoms. Participants completed a measure for OCD symptoms, a neuropsychological task to measure cognitive flexibility, and a self-report measure assessing emotional experience of situations requiring cognitive flexibility. Positive associations between OCD symptoms and both poor cognitive flexibility and negative experience of situations requiring cognitive flexibility were found. Furthermore, those with OCD symptoms performed poorer on the cognitive flexibility task than those without OCD symptoms, and reported higher scores on the cognitive inflexibility questionnaire. Results confirm a relation between OCD symptoms and poor cognitive flexibility in a subclinical sample and identify a relation between OCD symptoms and a negative experience of situations that require cognitive flexibility. Overall findings suggest that poor cognitive flexibility may be an important part of OCD symptomatology. PMID:25283593

Sternheim, Lot; van der Burgh, Maureen; Berkhout, Lotte J; Dekker, Maria R; Ruiter, Channah

2014-12-01

124

Sex differences in the phenotypic expression of obsessive-compulsive disorder: an exploratory study from Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies have shown differences in clinical features of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) between men and women, including mean age at onset of obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCS), types of OCS, comorbid disorders, course, and prognosis. The aim of this study was to compare male and female Brazilian patients with OCD on several demographic and clinical characteristics. Three hundred thirty outpatients with OCD

Ricardo Cezar Torresan; Ana Teresa de Abreu Ramos-Cerqueira; Maria Alice de Mathis; Juliana Belo Diniz; Ygor Arzeno Ferrăo; Euripedes Constantino Miguel; Albina Rodrigues Torres

2009-01-01

125

Differential diagnosis of obsessive-compulsive symptoms from delusions in schizophrenia: A phenomenological approach  

PubMed Central

Several studies suggest increased prevalence-rates of obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCS) and even of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) in patients with schizophrenic disorders. Moreover, it has been recently proposed the existence of a distinct diagnostic sub-group of schizo-obsessive disorder. However, the further investigation of the OCS or OCD-schizophrenia diagnostic comorbidity presupposes the accurate clinical differential diagnosis of obsessions and compulsions from delusions and repetitive delusional behaviours, respectively. In turn, this could be facilitated by a careful comparative examination of the phenomenological features of typical obsessions/compulsions and delusions/repetitive delusional behaviours, respectively. This was precisely the primary aim of the present investigation. Our examination included seven features of obsessions/delusions (source of origin and sense of ownership of the thought, conviction, consistency with one’s belief-system, awareness of its inaccuracy, awareness of its symptomatic nature, resistance, and emotional impact) and five features of repetitive behaviours (aim of repetitive behaviours, awareness of their inappropriateness, awareness of their symptomatic nature, and their immediate effect on underlying thought, and their emotional impact). Several of these clinical features, if properly and empathically investigated, can help discriminate obsessions and compulsive rituals from delusions and delusional repetitive behaviours, respectively, in patients with schizophrenic disorders. We comment on the results of our examination as well as on those of another recent similar investigation. Moreover, we also address several still controversial issues, such as the nature of insight, the diagnostic status of poor insight in OCD, the conceptualization and differential diagnosis of compulsions from other categories of repetitive behaviours, as well as the diagnostic weight assigned to compulsions in contemporary psychiatric diagnostic systems. We stress the importance of the feature of mental reflexivity for understanding the nature of insight and the ambiguous diagnostic status of poor insight in OCD which may be either a marker of the chronicity of obsessions, or a marker of their delusionality. Furthermore, we criticize two major shortcomings of contemporary psychiatric diagnostic systems (DSM-IV, DSM-V, ICD-10) in their criteria or guidelines for the diagnosis of OCD or OCS: first, the diagnostic parity between obsessions and compulsions and, second, the inadequate conceptualization of compulsions. We argue that these shortcomings might artificially inflate the clinical prevalence of OC symptoms in the course of schizophrenic disorders. Still, contrary to a recent proposal, we do not exclude on purely a priori grounds the possibility of a concurrence of genuine obsessions along with delusions in patients with schizophrenia. PMID:24255875

Oulis, Panagiotis; Konstantakopoulos, George; Lykouras, Lefteris; Michalopoulou, Panayiota G

2013-01-01

126

Neural correlates of clinical symptoms and cognitive dysfunctions in obsessive–compulsive disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although results from neuropsychological and neuroimaging studies have postulated the involvement of the frontal lobe and the subcortical brain regions in the pathophysiology of obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD), neuroimaging studies have provided little evidence that cognitive abnormalities in patients with OCD are related to dysfunctions in these areas. This study was designed to determine whether the clinical features and cognitive deficits

Jun Soo Kwon; Jae-Jin Kim; Dong Woo Lee; Jae Sung Lee; Dong Soo Lee; Myung-Sun Kim; In Kyoon Lyoo; Maeng Je Cho; Myung Chul Lee

2003-01-01

127

A Somatoform Variant of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: A Case Report of OCD Presenting With Persistent Vomiting  

PubMed Central

Acute nausea and vomiting are often self-limited or easily treated. Persistent vomiting, however, poses diagnostic and therapeutic challenges for the primary care physician. In addition to gastrointestinal, neurologic, and endocrine disorders, the differential diagnosis includes psychiatric illnesses, such as eating and factitious disorders. We present the case of a 52-year-old woman referred to the Tulane University Internal Medicine/Psychiatry clinic with persistent daily vomiting for 8 years despite repeated medical evaluations. The vomiting was of sufficient severity to require intensive care unit admission for hematemesis. A dually trained internal medicine-psychiatry house officer obtained further history and identified that the woman experienced an intrusive thought that urged her to vomit after each meal. Resisting the urge resulted in intolerable anxiety that was relieved only by vomiting. Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) was diagnosed according to DSM-IV criteria. Initiation of escitalopram with titration to clinical response resulted in full symptom resolution and meaningful quality of life improvement. Pertinent literature was reviewed using 2 methods: (1) an English-language MEDLINE search (1966–February 2004) using the search terms vomiting and (chronic or psychogenic or psychiatric), and obsessive-compulsive disorder and (primary care or treatment); and (2) a direct search of reference lists of pertinent journal articles. A review of psychiatric etiologies of vomiting and primary care aspects of OCD is presented. Primary care clinicians are strongly encouraged to consider psychiatric etiologies, including OCD, when common symptoms persist or present in atypical ways. Such disorders can be debilitating but also responsive to treatment. PMID:15514688

Kirkcaldy, Robert D.; Kim, Thomas J.; Carney, Caroline P.

2004-01-01

128

The contribution of perceived control of stressful life events and thought suppression to the symptoms of obsessive–compulsive disorder in both non-clinical and clinical samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

The two studies presented in this paper investigated the impact of controllable versus uncontrollable stressful life events (SLE) and low versus high thought suppression upon symptoms of obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) in both a non-clinical sample (Study 1) and a clinical sample (Study 2). The sample for Study 1 consisted of 269 undergraduate university students and the sample for Study 2

Sallee McLaren; Simon F. Crowe

2003-01-01

129

The clinical utility of symptom dimensions in obsessive-compulsive disorder.  

PubMed

Factor analyses in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) have consistently identified several different symptom dimensions. Nevertheless the clinical utility of identifying such symptom dimensions remains somewhat unclear. On the basis of their principal symptoms, 343 OCD patients were divided into four symptom dimension subgroups; 1) contamination/washing, 2) hoarding, 3) symmetry/repeating and ordering, and 4) forbidden thoughts/checking. Clinical variables including 1-year treatment outcome were compared across these patient subgroups. Most patients (74%) could distinctively be categorized as falling into a particular symptom subgroup. The groups were differentially characterized by some demographic and clinical features. For instance, both the symmetry and hoarding groups were significantly associated with decreased global functioning and greater OCD severity. Moreover the hoarding group was significantly more likely than the others to show longer duration of illness, lower rate of marriage, poor insight, and poorer outcome. However, about a quarter of the participants could not be classified definitively into a particular group. Our findings provide partial support for the clinical utility of a simple measure of symptom dimensions in OCD. In clinical settings, however, the limitations of such a simple measure of predominant symptom dimensions should be borne in mind and further work on their validity and utility is needed. PMID:20493537

Matsunaga, Hisato; Hayashida, Kazuhisa; Kiriike, Nobuo; Maebayashi, Kensei; Stein, Dan J

2010-11-30

130

The Interaction Effect of Impulsivity and Responsibility in Relation to Obsessive–Compulsive Symptoms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of the present study were to investigate the relationship between obsessive–compulsive symptoms and impulsivity,\\u000a and the interaction effects of impulsivity and responsibility in relation to obsessive–compulsive symptoms. A total of 205\\u000a university and college students were asked to fill out the Padua Inventory—Washington State University Revision, the Responsibility\\u000a Attitudes Scale, the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale—version 11 and the Hospital

Ívar Snorrason; Jakob Smári; Ragnar P. Ólafsson

2011-01-01

131

Symptom Dimensions in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: Phenomenology and Treatment Outcomes with Exposure and Ritual Prevention  

PubMed Central

Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a severe condition with varied symptom presentations. The cognitive-behavioral treatment with the most empirical support is currently exposure and ritual prevention (EX/RP); however, clinical impression and some empirical data suggest that certain OCD symptoms are more responsive to treatment than others. Prior work identifying symptom dimensions within OCD is discussed, including epidemiological findings, factor analytic studies, and biological findings. Symptom dimensions most reliably identified include contamination/cleaning, doubt about harm/checking, symmetry/ordering, and unacceptable thoughts/mental rituals. The phenomenology of each of these subtypes is described and research literature is summarized, emphasizing the differential effects of EX/RP and its variants on each of these primary symptom dimensions. To date it appears that EX/RP is an effective treatment for the various OCD dimensions, although not all dimensions have been adequately studied (i.e., symmetry and ordering). Modifications to treatment may be warranted for some types of symptoms. Clinical implications and directions for future research are discussed. PMID:23615340

Williams, Monnica T.; Mugno, Beth; Franklin, Martin; Faber, Sonya

2014-01-01

132

The familial phenotype of obsessive-compulsive disorder in relation to tic disorders: the Hopkins OCD family study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and tic disorders have phenomenological and familial-genetic overlaps. An OCD family study sample that excludes Tourette’s syndrome in probands is used to examine whether tic disorders are part of the familial phenotype of OCD.Methods: Eighty case and 73 control probands and their first-degree relatives were examined by experienced clinicians using the Schedule for Affective Disorders and

Marco A Grados; Mark A Riddle; Jack F Samuels; Kung-Yee Liang; Rudolf Hoehn-Saric; O. Joseph Bienvenu; John T Walkup; DongHo Song; Gerald Nestadt

2001-01-01

133

Symptom Dimensions in OCD: Developmental and Evolutionary Perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

At the present time, in the absence of definitive etiological markers of vulnerability for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD),\\u000a obsessive-compulsive (OC) symptom dimensions appear to offer a fruitful point of orientation. The complex clinical presentation\\u000a of OCD can be summarized using a few consistent and temporally stable symptom dimensions. These can be understood as a spectrum\\u000a of potentially overlapping vulnerabilities that are

James F. Leckman; David Mataix-Cols; Maria Conceiçăo do Rosario-Campos

134

Basal Ganglia MR Relaxometry in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: T2 Depends Upon Age of Symptom Onset  

PubMed Central

Dysfunction in circuits linking frontal cortex and basal ganglia (BG) is strongly implicated in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). On MRI studies, neuropsychiatric disorders with known BG pathology have abnormally short T2 relaxation values (a putative biomarker of elevated iron) in this region. We asked if BG T2 values are abnormal in OCD. We measured volume and T2 and T1 relaxation rates in BG of 32 adults with OCD and 33 matched controls. There were no group differences in volume or T1 values in caudate, putamen, or globus pallidus (GP). The OCD group had lower T2 values (suggesting higher iron content) in the right GP, with a trend in the same direction for the left GP. This effect was driven by patients whose OCD symptoms began from around adolescence to early adulthood. The results suggest a possible relationship between age of OCD onset and iron deposition in the basal ganglia. PMID:20503112

Hubbard, Emily; Hassenstab, Jason; Yip, Agustin; Vymazal, Josef; Herynek, Vit; Giedd, Jay; Murphy, Dennis L.; Greenberg, Benjamin D.

2010-01-01

135

Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder in Late Life  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has received increasing attention, the study and treatment of OCD in late life has been neglected. The obsessions and compulsions seen with older adults do not appear to differ from the symptoms experienced by other age groups, although developmental issues might influence symptom focus (e.g., memory…

Calamari, John E.; Pontarelli, Noelle K.; Armstrong, Kerrie M.; Salstrom, Seoka A.

2012-01-01

136

Schizotypal traits, obsessive-compulsive symptoms, and social functioning in adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between self-reported social functioning, schizotypal traits, and obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCS) was studied in a sample of 508 adolescents, of which 49.8% were male adolescents, with a mean age of 14.9 (SD, 1.6). The Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire–Brief, Maudsley Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory and Social Adaptation Self-evaluation Scale was administered. The results showed that schizotypal personality in adolescents consists of 4 factors

Eduardo Fonseca-Pedrero; Serafín Lemos-Giráldez; Mercedes Paíno-Pińeiro; Ursula Villazón-García; José Muńiz

2010-01-01

137

Functional magnetic resonance imaging of symptom provocation in obsessive-compulsive disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The new technique of functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to investigate the mediating neuroanatomy of obsessive-compulsive disorder symptoms. METHODS: Ten patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder and 5 normal subjects were studied via functional magnetic resonance imaging during control and provoked conditions. Data analysis entailed parametric and nonparametric statistical mapping. RESULTS: Statistical maps (nonparametric; P < 10(-3)) showed activation for

H. C. Breiter; S. L. Rauch; K. K. Kwong; J. R. Baker; R. M. Weisskoff; D. N. Kennedy; A. D. Kendrick; T. L. Davis; A. Jiang; M. S. Cohen; C. E. Stern; J. W. Belliveau; L. Baer; R. L. O'Sullivan; C. R. Savage; M. A. Jenike; B. R. Rosen

1996-01-01

138

Source Memory in Individuals with Subclinical Obsessive-Compulsive Symptoms  

E-print Network

Patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder often complain of poor memory and results of neuropsychological research have demonstrated impairments, particularly on tasks involving strategic processing. Past research has relied heavily on highly...

Olson, Christy Ann

2009-03-30

139

Title: Prediction of treatment response and the effect of independent component neurofeedback in obsessive-compulsive disorder: a randomized, sham-controlled, and double-blind study  

E-print Network

in obsessive-compulsive disorder: a randomized, sham-controlled, and double-blind study Authors: Ja a Kopi o á.cz #12;53 Key-words: Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder; Neurofeedback; Independent Component Analysis neurofeedback (NFB) on EEG and clinical symptoms in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

140

Symptom subtypes of obsessive-compulsive disorder in behavioral treatment studies: a quantitative review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent reviews and meta-analytic studies have provided an encouraging account of the effectiveness of behavioral interventions for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). One question regarding these estimates concerns their degree of generalizability to the range of OCD subtypes encountered in clinical settings. The purpose of the present study was to provide a quantitative description of the prevalence of various OCD subtypes (i.e.

Susan G. Ball; Lee Baer; Michael W. Otto

1996-01-01

141

The Presentation of Childhood Obsessive--Compulsive Disorder across Home and School Settings: A Preliminary Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study aimed to determine the exact pattern of obsessive--compulsive disorder (OCD) symptoms in children displayed across school and home settings. Twenty-six school children (aged 7 through 17) with OCD were tested using the Children's Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (CY-BOCS), the Clinical Global Impression (CGI)--severity subscale and…

Sabuncuoglu, Osman; Berkem, Meral

2006-01-01

142

A Review of the Pharmacotherapy of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder and Schizophrenia: The Case of Sam  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Obsessive-compulsive symptoms are a common feature of schizophrenia, and high rates of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) have been reported in schizophrenic patients. Effective pharmacotherapeutic options are available for both OCD and schizophrenia, and for some patients combining medications targeted at both conditions may be a helpful…

Randhawa, Ramandeep S.

2005-01-01

143

Family accommodation in obsessive-compulsive disorder: Relation to symptom dimensions, clinical and family characteristics.  

PubMed

Family accommodation is the term used to indicate the process whereby family members of patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) assist or participate in the patients' rituals. Family accommodation is a relatively under-researched phenomenon in OCD but an important one because it may be predictive of poor treatment outcome. This study systematically examined several socio-demographic and clinical variables that are associated with family accommodation in a well-characterized sample of adult patients and their healthy family members. Experienced clinicians administered the Family Accommodation Scale (FAS) to 141 psychopathology-free family members cohabiting with 97 patients with OCD. The items of the FAS were first subjected to principal component analysis (PCA) and the resulting domains of family accommodation (Participation, Modification, and Distress and Consequences) introduced as dependent variables in a series of multiple regression models assessing the relationship between family accommodation domains and a wide range of clinical variables, including Axis I and II psychopathology and symptom dimensions derived from the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (YBOCS) Symptom Checklist. The results showed that family accommodation was common, with the provision of reassurance, participation in rituals and assisting the patient in avoidance being the most frequent practices (occurring on a daily basis in 47%, 35%, and 43% of family members, respectively). The PCA of the YBOCS Symptom Checklist yielded four symptom dimensions, which were identical to those previously identified in the international literature. Multiple linear regression analyses showed that a higher score on the contamination/washing symptom dimension and a positive family history for an anxiety disorder other than OCD (referring to a family member other than the participant in this study) predicted greater scores on several domains of family accommodation. Our study confirms that family accommodation is frequent and distressing in psychopathology-free family members cohabiting with adult OCD patients. Family accommodation is particularly frequent and distressing when the patient has prominent contamination/washing symptoms and/or when another family member has a history of an anxiety disorder. Such families may be more likely to benefit from family-based interventions but this remains to be tested in controlled trials. PMID:20483467

Albert, Umberto; Bogetto, Filippo; Maina, Giuseppe; Saracco, Paola; Brunatto, Cinthia; Mataix-Cols, David

2010-09-30

144

Regional Cerebral Blood Flow Abnormalities in Early-Onset Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: An Exploratory SPECT Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveRecent epidemiological and clinical data suggest that obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) may be subtyped according the age of onset of obsessive-compulsive symptoms. The regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) technique was used to investigate whether the pathophysiology of OCD differs between early-and late-onset OCD subjects.

GERALDO F. BUSATTO; CARLOS A. BUCHPIGUEL; DENIS R. ZAMIGNANI; GRISELDA E. J. GARRIDO; MICHAEL F. GLABUS; MARIA C. ROSARIO-CAMPOS; CLAUDIO C. CASTRO; ALEX MAIA; EUCLIDES T. ROCHA; PHILIP K. MCGUIRE; EURIPEDES C. MIGUEL

2001-01-01

145

Changes of oscillatory activity in the subthalamic nucleus during obsessive-compulsive disorder symptoms: two case reports.  

PubMed

Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) has positive and negative effects on mood and cognition, as shown in patients suffering from Parkinson's disease (PD) and severe obsessive-compulsive disorders (OCD). Such behavioural and clinical effects suggest that the STN has an important function in limbic circuitry, which still needs to be clarified from electrophysiological recordings. Here we report two exceptional cases of OCD patients in whom local field potentials (LFP) of the anterior STN were directly recorded during acute obsessive-compulsive symptoms. We found significant symptom-related changes in different frequency bands, with no clear preferential oscillatory pattern. The overall modified STN activity during OCD symptoms suggests a mixture of both pathological and compensatory mechanisms that would reflect the maintenance of an over stable motor/cognitive/emotional set. Whether this activity propagates throughout the entire cognitive-limbic loops that are impaired in OCD is an interesting question for future research in larger series of patients. PMID:24552693

Bastin, Julien; Polosan, Mircea; Piallat, Brigitte; Krack, Paul; Bougerol, Thierry; Chabardčs, Stéphan; David, Olivier

2014-11-01

146

Schizophrenia with obsessive-compulsive disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder with poor insight: A neuropsychological comparison  

Microsoft Academic Search

Schizophrenia patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) may be a subgroup of schizophrenia, and OCD patients with poor insight may show psychotic-like symptoms. The aim of this work is to compare the neuropsychological performance of those patients with schizophrenic patients who do not have OCD symptoms and with OCD patients who have good insight. The sample consisted of 89 patients (16

Selim Tumkaya; Filiz Karadag; Nalan K. Oguzhanoglu; Cigdem Tekkanat; Gulfizar Varma; Osman Ozdel; Figen Ate?çi

2009-01-01

147

Enhanced action tendencies in high versus low obsessive-compulsive symptoms: an event-related potential study.  

PubMed

Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is an anxiety disorder characterized by repeated thoughts and behaviors. Inhibitory deficits are presumably related to the onset and maintenance of this disorder. The present study investigated whether obsessive-compulsive (OC) symptoms are related to enhanced response tendencies in reaction to external stimuli. Our goal was to search for direct evidence of an early response preparation process by examining the event-related potential (ERP) component of the readiness potential (RP). An enhanced response tendency might underlie inhibitory deficits in OCD. Response to novel stimuli was studied using a dishabituation paradigm in which a small number of schematic faces (angry or neutral) were presented. An analog sample of healthy subjects was divided into groups of high and low OC levels and high and low trait anxiety levels. The high OC group presented with a greater RP slope gradient that was enhanced under negative valence, compared to the low OC group. No such effect was found in the high versus low trait anxiety groups or in behavioral reaction times (ms). Results support the hypothesis that a stronger readiness for action might characterize subjects with OC symptoms, especially in the presence of threatening stimuli. This finding, specific to OC symptoms and not to anxiety symptoms, may underlie habitual and embodiment tendencies in OCD. This study suggests that early stages of motor preparation might be important to the etiology and maintenance of OC symptoms. PMID:25156568

Dayan, Adi; Berger, Andrea; Anholt, Gideon Emanuel

2014-11-30

148

Training interpretation biases among individuals with symptoms of obsessive compulsive disorder  

PubMed Central

The current study tested the causal premise underlying cognitive models of obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) that negative interpretations of intrusive thoughts lead to the distress and impairment associated with symptoms of OCD. Specifically, we sought to determine: a) whether it was possible to train healthier (defined as more benign/less threatening) interpretations regarding the significance of intrusive thoughts; and b) whether there was a link between modifying negative interpretations and subsequent emotional vulnerability to an OC stressor. A nonclinical sample of students high in OC symptoms completed either a Positive (n=50) or Neutral (n=50) interpretation training procedure designed to alter OC-relevant interpretations and beliefs. As expected, participants in the Positive (versus Neutral) training condition endorsed healthier OC-relevant interpretations and beliefs following training. Additionally, when controlling for baseline affect, participants in the Positive (versus Neutral) training condition reported less negative affect during the OC stressor task (at the level of a nonsignificant trend) and reported less desire to perform neutralizing activities. In general, results provide some support for cognitive models of obsessions and suggest that negative interpretations of intrusive thoughts may be causally related to symptoms of OCD. PMID:21371415

Clerkin, Elise M.; Teachman, Bethany A.

2011-01-01

149

Training interpretation biases among individuals with symptoms of obsessive compulsive disorder.  

PubMed

The current study tested the causal premise underlying cognitive models of obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) that negative interpretations of intrusive thoughts lead to the distress and impairment associated with symptoms of OCD. Specifically, we sought to determine: (a) whether it was possible to train healthier (defined as more benign/less threatening) interpretations regarding the significance of intrusive thoughts; and (b) whether there was a link between modifying negative interpretations and subsequent emotional vulnerability to an OC stressor. A nonclinical sample of students high in OC symptoms completed either a Positive (n = 50) or Neutral (n = 50) interpretation training procedure designed to alter OC-relevant interpretations and beliefs. As expected, participants in the Positive (versus Neutral) training condition endorsed healthier OC-relevant interpretations and beliefs following training. Additionally, when controlling for baseline affect, participants in the Positive (versus Neutral) training condition reported less negative affect during the OC-stressor task (at the level of a non-significant trend) and reported less desire to perform neutralizing activities. In general, results provide some support for cognitive models of obsessions and suggest that negative interpretations of intrusive thoughts may be causally related to symptoms of OCD. PMID:21371415

Clerkin, Elise M; Teachman, Bethany A

2011-09-01

150

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Genomewide linkage scan for obsessive-compulsive  

E-print Network

linkage analysis; simulation; age of onset Introduction Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) (MIM 164230ORIGINAL ARTICLE Genomewide linkage scan for obsessive-compulsive disorder: evidence and Pediatrics, School of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA Obsessive-compulsive disorder

Murphy, Dennis L.

151

Insight and treatment outcome in obsessive-compulsive disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine whether (1) insight in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) improves when OCD symptoms improve, and whether (2) degree of insight in OCD predicts response to sertraline, data were obtained from five sites participating in a larger multisite study of relapse in OCD. During the first 16 weeks of the study, 71 patients received open-label treatment with sertraline and were assessed

Jane L. Eisen; Steven A. Rasmussen; Katharine A. Phillips; Lawrence H. Price; Jonathan Davidson; R. Bruce Lydiard; Philip Ninan; Teresa Piggott

2001-01-01

152

Variations in symptom prevalence and clinical correlates in younger versus older youth with obsessive-compulsive disorder.  

PubMed

Few studies have examined the phenomenology of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) in younger children. A sample of 292 treatment seeking youth with a primary diagnosis of OCD was divided into the young child (3-9 years old) and older child (10-18 years old) groups. Overall OCD severity did not differ between groups. However, older youth demonstrated stronger intensity of obsessive and compulsive symptoms, while younger children were rated as having less resistance and control of compulsions. Older youth exhibited increased occurrence of comorbid depression, and an increased occurrence of sexual, magical thinking, and somatic obsessions, as well as, checking, counting and magical thinking compulsions. Conversely, the group of younger children exhibited significantly poorer insight, increased incidence of hoarding compulsions, higher rates of comorbid attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, disruptive behavior, and parent-rated anxiety, and more frequently exhibited hoarding compulsions. These differences suggest domains to consider when screening for OCD among younger/older pediatric cohorts. PMID:24549726

Selles, Robert R; Storch, Eric A; Lewin, Adam B

2014-12-01

153

Schizo-obsessive and obsessive-compulsive disorder: Comparison of clinical characteristics and neurological soft signs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the study was to examine whether schizophrenia with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) represents a severe form of OCD-spectrum disorders on the basis of neurological soft signs (NSS) and obsessive-compulsive (OC) symptoms. Sixteen patients with OCD-schizophrenia, 25 OCD patients and 23 healthy controls (HC) were studied. Scales for the Assessment of Positive (SAPS) and Negative Symptoms (SANS), Clinical Global

Levent Sevincok; Aybars Akoglu; Hülya Arslantas

2006-01-01

154

Using the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS) in Social Work Assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to determine the reliability and validity of the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS) in measuring the severity of obsessive-compulsive symptoms and improvement with treatment in clients already diagnosed with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD). A comprehensive review of the literature currently available on the Y-BOCS was conducted. Research revealed that the Y-BOCS was a reliable and

Mandy Tobias; Bruce A. Thyer

2006-01-01

155

Depressed mood is related to obsessions, but not to compulsions, in obsessive-compulsive disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors compared obsessive-compulsive symptoms in 150 patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) who had never experienced a mood disorder, who had once experienced a mood disorder, and who had a current mood disorder. All patients were administered the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R, the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale, and the Beck Depression Inventory. Patients with comorbid mood disorder showed more severe

Richard J. McNally

1995-01-01

156

Obsessive-compulsive disorder and common comorbidities.  

PubMed

Patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) often have comorbid psychiatric disorders, such as depression, bipolar disorder, psychotic disorders, and eating disorders, which present challenges to the treating physician. Symptoms of OCD may have an earlier onset and be more severe in patients with comorbid illnesses than in those with OCD alone. Both cognitive-behavioral therapy (using exposure and response/ritual prevention) and medication may be needed to treat patients with OCD and comorbid mood, psychotic, or eating disorders. PMID:24502865

Brady, Charles F

2014-01-01

157

The Children's Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale: Reliability and Validity for Use among 5 to 8 Year Olds with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Children's Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (CY-BOCS) is the instrument of choice for assessing symptom severity in older children (i.e., 8-18 years) diagnosed with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The reliability and validity of this measure for use among younger children (i.e., 5-8 years of age), however, has never been examined.…

Freeman, Jennifer; Flessner, Christopher A.; Garcia, Abbe

2011-01-01

158

Development and Psychometric Evaluation of the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale--Second Edition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS; Goodman, Price, Rasmussen, Mazure, Delgado, et al., 1989) is acknowledged as the gold standard measure of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) symptom severity. A number of areas where the Y-BOCS may benefit from revision have emerged in past psychometric studies of the Severity Scale and Symptom

Storch, Eric A.; Rasmussen, Steven A.; Price, Lawrence H.; Larson, Michael J.; Murphy, Tanya K.; Goodman, Wayne K.

2010-01-01

159

Disordered Eating Behavior and Obsessive Compulsive Symptoms in College Students: Cognitive and Affective Similarities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Few studies have examined the psychological similarities between disordered eating behavior and obsessive-compulsive (OC) symptoms. The present study examined relationships among disordered eating, OC symptoms, and three cognitive and affective variables (perfectionism, obsessive beliefs, and negative affect). The cognitive and affective variables were significantly associated with disordered eating and with OC symptoms in a sample of 160 college women. Results

Joy D. Humphreys; James R. Clopton; Darcy A. Reich

2007-01-01

160

Obsessive-compulsive symptoms and positive, negative, and depressive symptoms in patients with recent-onset schizophrenic disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To study the relation between obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCS) and positive, negative, and depressive symptoms in patients with recent-onset schizophrenic disorders. Methods: We undertook a prospective study of 113 consecutively hospitalized patients with recent-onset schizophrenia or related disorders diagnosed according to DSM-IV criteria. We compared 3 subgroups: one without comorbid OCS, one with OCS not fulfilling DSM-IV criteria for obsessive-compulsive

Lieuwe de Haan; Britt Hoogenboom; Nico Beuk; Therese van Amelsvoort; Don Linszen

2005-01-01

161

Effects of yohimbine in obsessive compulsive disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

The a2-adrenergic receptor antagonist yohimbine was administered to 12 drug-free patients with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) and to 12 healthy subjects. Changes in behavior, cardiovascular symptoms, and in plasma levels of cortisol and the norepinephrine metabolite, 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol (MHPG), were assessed. Yohimbine had no significant effect on OCD symptoms. The OCD patients did not differ from healthy controls in their behavioral

S. A. Rasmussen; W. K. Goodman; S. W. Woods; G. R. Heninger; D. S. Charney

1987-01-01

162

The mediating effects of misinterpretation of intrusive thoughts on obsessive-compulsive symptoms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Perfectionism and inflated responsibility have both been identified as risk factors for the development and maintenance of obsessive-compulsive (OC) symptoms. The aim of the present study was to test whether the relationships between these two variables and OC symptoms are mediated by the misinterpretation of intrusive thoughts (MIT). Three hundred and three university students completed the Frost Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale,

Jessica Pleva; Tracey D. Wade

2006-01-01

163

Belief domains of the Obsessive Beliefs Questionnaire44 (OBQ-44) and their specific relationship with obsessive–compulsive symptoms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Obsessive Beliefs Questionnaire-44 (OBQ-44) was developed by the Obsessive Compulsive Cognitions Working Group to measure beliefs considered important in the development and maintenance of obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD). In this study an exploratory factor analysis of the questionnaire was conducted with a student population (n=238). Results indicated four factors: (1) perfectionism and intolerance of uncertainty, (2) importance and control of

Samuel G. Myers; Peter L. Fisher; Adrian Wells

2008-01-01

164

The occurrence of panic and obsessive compulsive symptoms in women with postpartum dysphoria: a prospective study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  \\u000a \\u000a Objective: This study investigated the prevalence of panic and obsessive compulsive symptoms in a sample of postpartum women who endorsed\\u000a high levels of dysphoria on a self-report depression measure.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Method: A community-based sample of 788 postpartum women with self-reported depressive symptomatology completed an interview assessing\\u000a major depression, panic disorder, and obsessive compulsive disorder.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results: An estimated 11% of the

A. Wenzel; L. L. Gorman; M. W. O'Hara; S. Stuart

2001-01-01

165

Autonomic responses and neural-cardiac coupling during individually tailored symptom provocation in obsessive-compulsive disorder.  

PubMed

Elevated anxiety in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has been linked to cortico-limbic hyperactivation, whereas hyperarousal of the autonomous nerve system (ANS) has inconsistently been found. We investigate ANS functioning during symptom provocation with individually tailored OCD-relevant pictures in 14 unmedicated patients and 14 controls and link it to activation in brain areas involved in ANS regulation. In addition to OCD-triggers, aversive and neutral control stimuli were included. Both groups showed increased skin conductance and heart rate changes to aversive control stimuli, whereas only patients demonstrated augmented skin conductance responses to OCD-triggers. Overall ANS hyperarousal in patients relative to controls was found at trend level. Activity in limbic and paralimbic areas in OCD patients was increased to both generally aversive and OCD-relevant stimuli, whereas dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) hyperactivation, covarying with cardiac responses in patients but not in controls, was present for disorder-relevant triggers only. Despite the small study group, these preliminary findings suggest ANS hyperactivity during OCD symptom provocation that could reflect arousal to the perceived threatening value of OCD-triggers and might mediate elevated anxiety. PMID:24064332

Simon, Daniela; Kaufmann, Christian; Kniesche, Rainer; Kischkel, Eva; Kathmann, Norbert

2013-10-01

166

Understanding Obsessive–Compulsive Disorder: Focus on Decision Making  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current approaches to obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) have suggested that neurobiological abnormalities play a crucial role in the etiology and course of this psychiatric illness. In particular, a fronto-subcortical circuit, including the orbitofrontal cortex, basal ganglia and thalamus appears to be involved in the expression of OCD symptoms. Neuropsychological studies have also shown that patients with OCD show deficits in cognitive

Paolo Cavedini; Alessandra Gorini; Laura Bellodi

2006-01-01

167

Cognitive Predictors of Obsessive?Compulsive Symptoms in Adolescence: A Preliminary Investigation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined relations among responsibility attitudes, metacognitive beliefs, and obsessive?compulsive (O?C) symptoms in youth. One hundred sixty-six nonclinical youth (ages 13 to 17 years) completed the following: Responsibility Attitude Scale (RAS; Salkovskis et al., 2000); Meta-Cognitions Questionnaire?Adolescent Version (MCQ?A;…

Mather, Alison; Cartwright-Hatton, Sam

2004-01-01

168

An fMRI study in monozygotic twins discordant for obsessive–compulsive symptoms  

Microsoft Academic Search

To examine neurobiological changes underlying obsessive–compulsive symptoms (OCS) we examined intrapair differences in behavior and fMRI brain activation in monozygotic twins discordant for OCS, using a Tower of London planning paradigm. Despite only mild evidence for impairment at the behavioral level, twins with OCS showed significantly decreased brain activation during planning in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, thalamus pulvinar, and inferior parietal

Anouk den Braber; Dennis van't Ent; Gabriëlla A. M. Blokland; Daniël S. van Grootheest; Danielle C. Cath; Dick J. Veltman; Michiel B. de Ruiter; Dorret I. Boomsma

2008-01-01

169

Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder  

MedlinePLUS

Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a type of anxiety disorder. If you have OCD, you have frequent, upsetting thoughts called obsessions. To try ... hands, counting, checking on things, or cleaning. With OCD, the thoughts and rituals cause distress and get ...

170

A randomized controlled clinical trial of Citalopram versus Fluoxetine in children and adolescents with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  Several controlled trials have demonstrated the efficacy and safety of Fluoxetine in children and adolescents with Obsessive-Compulsive\\u000a Disorder (OCD), but there is no controlled study on the effectiveness of Citalopram in this group. This report describes the\\u000a use of Citalopram in comparison with Fluoxetine in childhood-onset OCD.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Method  This study is a randomized, double blind, fixed-does (20mg) trial of Fluoxetine versus

Javad Alaghband-Rad; Mitra Hakimshooshtary

2009-01-01

171

Three cases of symptom change in Tourette's syndrome and obsessive-compulsive disorder associated with paediatric cerebral malignancies.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To correlate behaviour manifestations with tumour location in three children who had Gilles de la Tourette's syndrome (GTS), obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and primary cerebral malignancies. METHOD: Cases were ascertained from a chart review in a GTS and OCD specialty clinic. For each case the temporal progression of change in neuropsychiatric symptoms was qualitatively correlated with radiographic documentation of tumour progression. RESULTS: The change in symptom severities during tumour progression and treatment, together with prior neurobiological studies of GTS, suggest that the ventral striatum, corpus callosum, thalamus, and midbrain are potentially important neural substrates in the formation or modulation of tic symptoms. The limbic system, including the hypothalamus and cingulate, and the caudate nucleus, seem to be important in the neurobiology of OCD. All structures are neuroanatomically and functionally related to the corticostriato-thalamocortical circuitry that is thought to subserve symptom generation in both GTS and OCD. CONCLUSION: Although the malignancies were not likely to have caused the tic and OCD symptoms in these children, the locations of these intracranial lesions provide important clues in identifying brain regions that may contribute to the determination of tic and OCD severities. Images PMID:8937345

Peterson, B S; Bronen, R A; Duncan, C C

1996-01-01

172

Prevalence and clinical correlates of obsessive-compulsive disorder in schizophrenia.  

PubMed

Obsessive compulsive symptoms frequently occur in a substantial proportion of patients with schizophrenia. The term schizoobsessive has been proposed to delineate this subgroup of schizophrenia patients who present with obsessive-compulsive symptoms/disorder. However, whether this co-occurrence is more than just co-morbidity and represents a distinct subgroup remains controversial. A striking variation is noted across studies examining prevalence of obsessive-compulsive symptoms/disorder in schizophrenia patients and their impact on clinical profile of schizophrenia. Hence, in this study, we examined the prevalence of obsessive-compulsive symptoms/disorder in a large sample of consecutively hospitalized schizophrenia patients and compared the clinical and functional characteristics of schizophrenia patients with and without obsessive-compulsive symptoms/disorder. We evaluated 200 consecutive subjects with the DSM-IV diagnosis of schizophrenia using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I disorders, Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale, Brown Assessment of Beliefs Scale, Clinical Global Impression-Severity scale, Global Assessment of Functioning Scale, Family Interview for Genetic Studies and World Health Organization Quality of Life scale. The prevalence of obsessive-compulsive symptoms in patients with schizophrenia was 24% (n=48); 37 of them had obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and 11 had obsessive-compulsive symptoms not amounting to a clinical diagnosis of OCD (OCS). Schizophrenia patients with OCS/OCD had an earlier age at onset of schizophrenia symptoms, lower positive symptoms score, higher co-morbidity with Axis II disorders, higher occurrence of OCD in family and better quality of life. Findings of the study indicate a higher prevalence of OCS/OCD in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia patients with and without OCS/OCD have comparable clinical profile with few exceptions. High rates of OCD in first degree relatives suggest possible genetic contributions and differences in neurobiology. Finally, evidence to consider schizoobsessive as a distinct diagnostic entity is inconclusive and warrants further studies. PMID:25308405

Devi, Sugnyani; Rao, Naren P; Badamath, Suresh; Chandrashekhar, C R; Janardhan Reddy, Y C

2015-01-01

173

Correlates of Insight among Youth with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Individuals with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) may lack insight into the irrational nature of their symptoms. Among adults with OCD, poor insight has been linked to greater symptom severity, increased likelihood of comorbid symptoms, lower adaptive functioning, and worse treatment outcomes. Parallel work regarding insight among…

Lewin, Adam B.; Bergman, R. Lindsey; Peris, Tara S.; Chang, Susanna; McCracken, James T.; Piacentini, John

2010-01-01

174

Social skills training in a case of obsessive-compulsive disorder with schizotypal personality disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study illustrates a case of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) with schizotypal personality treated by social skills training. Prior research suggests that OCD with schizotypal personality predicts poor treatment outcome using exposure-based treatments. Following social skills treatment and at 6-month follow-up, the patient had considerable obsessive-compulsive symptom reduction, although he was still symptomatic for OCD, anxiety and depression. Controlled trials

Dean Mckay; Fugen Neziroglu

1996-01-01

175

Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder With and Without Tic Disorder: A Comparative Study From India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: Evidence from phenomenologi- cal, family, genetic, and treatment studies from Western centers have suggested that tic-related obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) could be different from non-tic-related OCD. This study from India investigated the differences in OCD with and without tics, with respect to sociode- mographics, symptom profile, and comorbidity, including obsessive-compulsive spectrum disor- ders, to examine whether the clinical profile of

T. S. Jaisoorya; Y. C. Janardhan Reddy; S. Srinath; K. Thennarasu

176

Family Accommodation in Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite the importance of the family in the treatment of pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), relatively little empirical attention has been directed to family accommodation of symptoms. This study examined the relations among family accommodation, OCD symptom severity, functional impairment, and internalizing and externalizing behavior…

Storch, Eric A.; Geffken, Gary R.; Merlo, Lisa J.; Jacob, Marni L.; Murphy, Tanya K.; Goodman, Wayne K.; Larson, Michael J.; Fernandez, Melanie; Grabill, Kristen

2007-01-01

177

Development and Validation of the Youth Obsessive-Compulsive Symptoms Scale (YOCSS).  

PubMed

From the existing self-report measures for youth Obsessive-Compulsive (OC) symptoms, several challenges can be delineated to further improve the assessment of youth OC-related pathology. The current manuscript incorporates these challenges and reports on the development and validation of a new self-report OC scale for younger age groups, that was labeled the Youth Obsessive-Compulsive Symptoms Scale (YOCSS), assessing OC symptoms and impairment in adolescents (three independent samples: N = 336; N = 289; and N = 209). Study 1 reports on the construction of the items and facets, and their higher-order structure, whereas Study 2 focuses on the confirmation of this structure, measurement invariance across age, and on the convergent and incremental predictive validity. These psychometric analyses resulted in ten symptom facets (structured in three domains) and one impairment facet, and further suggest that the YOCSS is a promising tool for describing early OC symptoms along a dimensional perspective. PMID:24374598

De Caluwé, Elien; De Clercq, Barbara

2014-12-01

178

A Structural Equation Analysis of Family Accommodation in Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder.  

E-print Network

??Family accommodation of symptoms conflicts with the primary goals of cognitive-behavioral therapy for pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and can be an obstacle to positive outcomes.… (more)

Caporino, Nicole Elise

2011-01-01

179

Case Series of Behavioral Psychotherapy for Obsessive-Compulsive Symptoms in Youth with Prader-Willi Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Obsessive-compulsive symptoms among youth with Prader-Willi Syndrome (PWS) are frequently present and associated with considerable\\u000a problems in the daily functioning of the child and his\\/her family. Although pharmacological and psychosocial treatments exist\\u000a that target obsessive-compulsive symptoms among typically developing youth, these treatments have not been systematically\\u000a adapted and\\/or evaluated for this population. Furthermore, although psychotropic medications have shown promising support

Eric A. Storch; Omar Rahman; Jessica Morgan; Lindsay Brauer; Jennifer Miller; Tanya K. Murphy

180

Genetic and environmental influences on obsessive-compulsive symptoms in adults: A population-based twin-family study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. The contribution of genetic factors to obsessive-compulsive (OC) symptoms has not been examined using a large population-based sample of adults. Furthermore, the extent to which there are qualitative and quantitative differences in genetic architecture between men and women with OC symptoms has not been elucidated. Method. We obtained the Young Adult Self Report Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (YASR-OCS) from a group

Grootheest van D. S; DANIËLLE C. CATH; AARTJAN T. BEEKMAN; DORRET I. BOOMSMA

2007-01-01

181

Trajectory in obsessive-compulsive disorder comorbidities.  

PubMed

The main goal of this study is to contribute to the understanding of the trajectory of comorbid disorders associated with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) according to the first manifested psychiatric disorder and its impact in the clinical course of OCD and subsequent psychiatric comorbidities. One thousand and one OCD patients were evaluated at a single time point. Standardized instruments were used to determine the current and lifetime psychiatric diagnoses (Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I and for impulse-control disorders) as well as to establish current obsessive-compulsive, depressive and anxiety symptom severity (Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale; Dimensional Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale, Beck Depression and Anxiety Inventories and the OCD Natural History Questionnaire). To analyze the distribution of comorbidities according to age at onset Bayesian approach was used. Five hundred eight patients had the first OC symptom onset till the age of 10 years old. The first comorbidity to appear in the majority of the sample was separation anxiety disorder (17.5%, n=175), followed by ADHD (5.0%, n=50) and tic disorders (4.4%, n=44). OCD patients that presented with separation anxiety disorder as first diagnosis had higher lifetime frequency of post-traumatic stress disorder (p=0.003), higher scores in the Sexual/Religious dimension (p=0.04), Beck Anxiety (p<0.001) and Depression (p=0.005) Inventories. OCD patients that initially presented with ADHD had higher lifetime frequencies of substance abuse and dependence (p<0.001) and worsening OCD course (p=0.03). OCD patients that presented with tic disorders as first diagnosis had higher lifetime frequencies of OC spectrum disorders (p=0.03). OCD is a heterogeneous disorder and that the presence of specific comorbid diagnoses that predate the onset of OCD may influence its clinical presentation and course over the lifetime. PMID:22921470

de Mathis, Maria Alice; Diniz, Juliana B; Hounie, Ana G; Shavitt, Roseli G; Fossaluza, Victor; Ferrăo, Ygor; Leckman, James F; de Bragança Pereira, Carlos; do Rosario, Maria Conceiçăo; Miguel, Eurípedes C

2013-07-01

182

Altered Cingulate Sub-Region Activation Accounts for Task-Related Dissociation in ERN Amplitude as a Function of Obsessive-Compulsive Symptoms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Larger error-related negativities (ERNs) have been consistently found in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) patients, and are thought to reflect the activities of a hyperactive cortico-striatal circuit during action monitoring. We previously observed that obsessive-compulsive (OC) symptomatic students (non-patients) have larger ERNs during errors…

Cavanagh, James F.; Grundler, Theo O. J.; Frank, Michael J.; Allen, John J. B.

2010-01-01

183

Perfectionism and Peer Relations Among Childrenwith Obsessive-compulsive Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study examined perfectionism, symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and depression, and peer relationships among\\u000a a clinical sample of 31 youth (age?range 7–18 years) diagnosed with OCD. Using a correlational design, perfectionistic beliefs\\u000a accounted for significant variance in OCD symptoms, depressive symptoms, and difficulties in peer relationships for children\\u000a with OCD. One dimension of perfectionism, sensitivity to mistakes, was the

Huan J. Ye; Kenneth G. Rice; Eric A. Storch

2008-01-01

184

Volumetric differences in the pituitary between drug-naďve and medicated male patients with obsessive–compulsive disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveObsessive–compulsive symptoms are induced or aggravated by stress, and the pituitary is a key component of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. We examined pituitary volume in drug-naďve and medicated male patients with obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD).

Myung Hun Jung; Min Jung Huh; Do-Hyung Kang; Jung-Seok Choi; Wi Hoon Jung; Joon Hwan Jang; Ji-Young Park; Ji Yeon Han; Chi-Hoon Choi; Jun Soo Kwon

2009-01-01

185

Children, Adolescents, and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder in the Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper explores how obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) affects students and how teachers can help such students lead productive lives in the classroom and elsewhere. It describes the symptoms of OCD in students, including trouble getting to school on time because of rituals while getting cleaned and ready in the morning, inability to finish…

Purcell, John

186

Widespread decreased grey and white matter in paediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD): a voxel-based morphometric MRI study.  

PubMed

Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a chronic, relapsing anxiety disorder. To date, neuroimaging investigations of OCD have been variable and few studies have examined paediatric populations. Eight children with OCD and 12 typically developing children matched for age, gender, handedness and performance IQ underwent a high resolution T1-weighted structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan. A voxel-based morphometry (VBM) protocol (using DARTEL) compared the brains of the paediatric OCD children with those of typically developing children. Overall, children with OCD demonstrated significantly lower intra-cranial volume (ICV) and grey- and white-matter volumes. ICV was significantly reduced (?9%) in the OCD group compared with the typically developing group. The VBM analysis demonstrated lower volumes in widespread grey matter in bilateral frontal, cingulate, temporal-parietal, occipital-frontal and right precuneus regions for OCD. Lower white matter volume was found bilaterally in the cingulate and occipital cortex, right frontal and parietal and left temporal regions, and the corpus callosum. In summary, this study provides further evidence of brain dysmorphology in paediatric OCD patients. In addition to fronto-striatal-thalamic neural networks, abnormalities in other brain regions, such as the parietal lobe and corpus callosum, were demonstrated. These brain regions may play an additional role in the pathophysiology of OCD. PMID:23701704

Chen, Jian; Silk, Tim; Seal, Marc; Dally, Karen; Vance, Alasdair

2013-07-30

187

Reduced 3-O-methyl-dopa levels in OCD patients and their unaffected parents is associated with the  

E-print Network

-10Nov2011 #12;Delorme 3 INTRODUCTION Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is characterized by recurrent Background: The catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene is considered as a candidate gene in obsessive-compulsive-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene is considered as a candidate gene in OCD. Obsessive-compulsive symptoms are frequently

188

Cultural context, obsessive-compulsive disorder symptoms, and cognitions: a preliminary study of three Turkish samples living in different countries.  

PubMed

Previous research findings have suggested that recent cognitive accounts of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) are valid across different cultural contexts for both clinical and nonclinical samples; however, there is evidence that cultural differences may have an impact on a number of cognitive variables. For this reason, immigration provides an exceptional opportunity for an examination of the role of cultural context in cognitions and possible changes in cultural characteristics. To this end, the present study examined the interrelationships between thought-action fusion, thought control strategies and OCD symptoms in three nonclinical samples, taking the immigration factor into consideration. Thus, the current study included three Turkish sample groups: those who remigrated to Turkey from Bulgaria, those still living in Bulgaria, and those that have always resided in Turkey. The findings of the study supported the role of thought and action fusion and control strategies in OCD symptoms in a cross-cultural context. To illustrate, worry, as a thought control strategy for OCD symptoms, was a common factor in all three sample groups. However, differences were also noted between the groups, despite having the same ethnic origin. Although they immigrated back to Turkey and have been living there for a considerable period of time, the Turkish remigrants retained similar characteristics to the respondents in Bulgaria on cognitions in general. Consequently, it may be suggested that cultural context might have a relative impact on certain correlates. A replication of these findings using different immigration groups and examining various cultural factors is strongly encouraged. PMID:22044185

Yorulmaz, Orçun; I??k, Bilgen

2011-04-01

189

Differential contributions of worry, anxiety, and obsessive compulsive symptoms to ERN amplitudes in response monitoring and reinforcement learning tasks.  

PubMed

Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) is characterized by intrusive thoughts (i.e. obsessions) and future-oriented worrisome cognitions that are associated with behavioral ritualistic compensations (i.e. compulsions) and anxious arousal. Research has found an enhanced error-related negativity (ERN) among those with OCD in choice response tasks such as the flankers task, but not in probabilistic learning tasks. To date, research has not directly investigated whether the ERN effect observed in individuals with OCD is specific to the central features of OCD (obsessions and compulsions), or is related more closely to the worry or anxiety observed in this disorder. This study compared groups with relatively pure symptom profiles on OC, worry, and anxiety symptoms (e.g. high on OC, low on worry and anxiety) relative to a "typical" OC presentation group (e.g. high OC, mild to high worry and anxiety) and a non-anxious non-worry Control group, in both flankers and probabilistic learning tasks. For the flankers task, only the Worry group had a significantly enhanced ERN relative to controls. For the probabilistic learning task, the OC typical group had significantly enhanced ERN amplitude on suboptimal choices relative to controls. Across tasks, the experimental groups had significantly enhanced activity on error/suboptimal choices relative to the OC specific group. The results highlight the role of worry across both tasks, and to a lesser extent anxiety and OC symptoms, in performance-monitoring processes. PMID:24971709

Zambrano-Vazquez, Laura; Allen, John J B

2014-08-01

190

Streptococcal upper respiratory tract infections and psychosocial stress predict future tic and obsessive-compulsive symptom severity in children and adolescents with Tourette syndrome and/or obsessive-compulsive disorder  

PubMed Central

Background: One goal of this prospective longitudinal study was to identify new group A beta hemolytic streptococcal (GABHS) infections in children and adolescents with Tourette syndrome (TS) and/or obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) compared to healthy control subjects. We then examined the power of GABHS infections and measures of psychosocial stress to predict future tic, obsessive-compulsive (OC), and depressive symptom severity. Methods: Consecutive ratings of tic, OC and depressive symptom severity were obtained for 45 cases and 41 matched control subjects over a two-year period. Clinical raters were blinded to the results of laboratory tests. Laboratory personnel were blinded to case or control status and clinical ratings. Structural equation modeling for unbalanced repeated measures was used to assess the sequence of new GABHS infections and psychosocial stress and their impact on future symptom severity. Results: Increases in tic and OC symptom severity did not occur after every new GABHS infection. However, the structural equation model found that these newly diagnosed infections were predictive of modest increases in future tic and OC symptom severity, but did not predict future depressive symptom severity. In addition, the inclusion of new infections in the model greatly enhanced, by a factor of three, the power of psychosocial stress in predicting future tic and OC symptom severity. Conclusions: Our data suggest that a minority of children with TS and early-onset OCD were sensitive to antecedent GABHS infections. These infections also enhanced the predictive power of current psychosocial stress on future tic and OC symptom severity. PMID:19833320

Lin, Haiqun; Williams, Kyle A.; Katsovich, Liliya; Findley, Diane B.; Grantz, Heidi; Lombroso, Paul J.; King, Robert A.; Bessen, Debra E.; Johnson, Dwight; Kaplan, Edward L.; Landeros-Weisenberger, Angeli; Zhang, Heping; Leckman, James F.

2009-01-01

191

Cultural context, obsessive-compulsive disorder symptoms, and cognitions: A preliminary study of three Turkish samples living in different countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous research findings have suggested that recent cognitive accounts of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) are valid across different cultural contexts for both clinical and nonclinical samples; however, there is evidence that cultural differences may have an impact on a number of cognitive variables. For this reason, immigration provides an exceptional opportunity for an examination of the role of cultural context in

Orçun Yorulmaz; Bilgen I??k

2011-01-01

192

Psychosocial Stress Predicts Future Symptom Severities in Children and Adolescents with Tourette Syndrome and/or Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: The goals of this prospective longitudinal study were to monitor levels of psychosocial stress in children and adolescents with Tourette syndrome (TS) and/or obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) compared to healthy control subjects and to examine the relationship between measures of psychosocial stress and fluctuations in tic,…

Lin, Haiqun; Katsovich, Liliya; Ghebremichael, Musie; Findley, Diane B.; Grantz, Heidi; Lombroso, Paul J.; King, Robert A.; Zhang, Heping; Leckman, James F.

2007-01-01

193

Hoarding in obsessive compulsive disorder: results from a case-control study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hoarding occurs relatively frequently in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and there is evidence that patients with hoarding symptoms have more severe OCD and are less responsive to treatment. In the present study, we investigated hoarding symptoms in 126 subjects with OCD. Nearly 30% of the subjects had hoarding symptoms; hoarding was twice as prevalent in males than females. Compared to the

J. Samuels; O. Joseph Bienvenu III; M. A. Riddle; B. A. M. Cullen; M. A. Grados; K.-Y. Liang; R. Hoehn-Saric; G. Nestadt

2002-01-01

194

Perfectionism and Peer Relations among Children with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study examined perfectionism, symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and depression, and peer relationships among a clinical sample of 31 youth (age range 7-18 years) diagnosed with OCD. Using a correlational design, perfectionistic beliefs accounted for significant variance in OCD symptoms, depressive symptoms, and difficulties in…

Ye, Huan J.; Rice, Kenneth G.; Storch, Eric A.

2008-01-01

195

Psychological interventions in obsessive compulsive disorder.  

PubMed

Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) is a common mental health problem associated with poor quality of life, impaired functioning and increased risk of suicide. Improvement is unlikely and symptoms will remain chronic unless adequate treatment is provided. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (2006a) guidelines on the management of OCD, recommend the use of psychological treatments that are based on cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT). Brief treatment forms of CBT are recommended initially and more intensive forms are offered when health gain is not apparent. While the presentation of OCD can be complex, nurses can assist in the recognition and treatment of OCD through additional training or current skills. PMID:25138877

Gellatly, Judith; Molloy, Christine

2014-08-26

196

The Obsessive-Compulsive Symptom (OCS) scale of the Child Behavior Checklist: A comparison between Swedish children with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder from a specialized unit, regular outpatients and a school sample  

Microsoft Academic Search

To evaluate the discriminative power of various items as reported by parents in the OCS-scale extracted from the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) problem scale and to compare findings with outcomes of previous validation studies.Children referred to a specialized child psychiatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) clinic (OCD group) (n=185) receiving a formal OCD diagnosis according to DSM IV criteria based on interviews

Tord Ivarsson; Bo Larsson

2008-01-01

197

Basal Ganglia MR Relaxometry in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: T2 Depends Upon Age of Symptom Onset  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dysfunction in circuits linking frontal cortex and basal ganglia (BG) is strongly implicated in obsessive-compulsive disorder\\u000a (OCD). On MRI studies, neuropsychiatric disorders with known BG pathology have abnormally short T2 relaxation values (a putative\\u000a biomarker of elevated iron) in this region. We asked if BG T2 values are abnormal in OCD. We measured volume and T2 and T1\\u000a relaxation rates

Stephen Correia; Emily Hubbard; Jason Hassenstab; Agustin Yip; Josef Vymazal; Vit Herynek; Jay Giedd; Dennis L. Murphy; Benjamin D. Greenberg

2010-01-01

198

Subtypes of obsessive-compulsive disorder: Implications for specialized cognitive behavior therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a heterogeneous condition, OCD subtypes have received limited attention in trials of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT). Because many patients with OCD do not respond optimally to CBT, it is important for clinicians to consider whether variability in treatment response is related to symptom presentation. Treatment modifications for patients without overt compulsions or with hoarding symptoms

Debbie Sookman; Jonathan S. Abramowitz; John E. Calamari; Sabine Wilhelm; Dean McKay

2005-01-01

199

Obsessive-Compulsive Spectrum Disorders in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder and Other Anxiety Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: There has been debate about whether obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) should be classified as one of the anxiety disorders, or should rather be categorized with obsessive-compulsive spectrum conditions. Sampling and Methods: The question of where OCD should be located in the diagnostic system was addressed by investigating the relationship of OCD, obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorders (OCSDs), and anxiety disorders. We administered

Christine Lochner; Dan J. Stein

2010-01-01

200

The future of pharmacotherapy for obsessive-compulsive disorder may lie in a better understanding of its heterogeneity.  

PubMed

Pharmacological treatments currently available to treat obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) rarely produce remission. This Editorial aims to encourage more targeted research based on the specific OCD symptoms patients primarily present with. Specific OCD symptoms have been associated with distinct clinical characteristics, aetiological hypotheses and treatment responses. Treatment studies should use these findings to develop more targeted pharmacotherapy for patients with OCD. PMID:24866422

Brakoulias, Vlasios

2014-07-01

201

Temperament features in adolescents with ego-syntonic or ego-dystonic obsessive-compulsive symptoms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study evaluated whether different patterns of temperament may predict a different threshold of acceptability of\\u000a obsessive-compulsive (OC) symptoms in adolescents. OC symptomatology was detected with the Leyton Obsessional Inventory-Child\\u000a Version (LOI-CV) and temperament was assessed using the tridimensional personality questionnaire in 2,775 high-school students.\\u000a According to the LOI-CV scores, the adolescents were classified as high interference (interfering, ego-dystonic

Carlo Marchesi; Paolo Ampollini; Chiara DePanfilis; Carlo Maggini

2008-01-01

202

Predictors of functional impairment in pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current study examined factors associated with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) related functional impairment among 99 youth with OCD. A trained evaluator administered the Children's Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale, items assessing family accommodation, and a version of the Brown Assessment of Beliefs Scale that was modified for children. Youth completed the Child Obsessive-Compulsive Impact Scale-Child Version, Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory-Child Version, Multidimensional Anxiety Scale

Eric A. Storch; Michael J. Larson; Jordana Muroff; Nicole Caporino; Daniel Geller; Jeannette M. Reid; Jessica Morgan; Patrice Jordan; Tanya K. Murphy

2010-01-01

203

Relationship between obsessive-compulsive personality disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the presence of obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) in a group of 277 patients (88 with obsessive-compulsive disorder [OCD], 58 with major depressive disorder [MDD], and 131 with panic disorder [Panic)) to test the specificity of the relationship between OCPD and OCD. OCPD is statistically significantly more frequent in patients with OCD than in those with Panic and

Giuseppina Diaferia; Ivonne Bianchi; Maria Laura Bianchi; Paolo Cavedini; Stefano Erzegovesi; Laura Bellodi

1997-01-01

204

Exploratory analysis of obsessive compulsive symptom dimensions in children and adolescents: a Prospective follow-up study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Recent statistical approaches based on factor analysis of obsessive compulsive (OC) symptoms in adult patients have identified dimensions that seem more effective in symptom-based taxonomies and appear to be more stable over time. Although a phenotypic continuum from childhood to adulthood has been hypothesized, no factor analytic studies have been performed in juvenile patients, and the stability of OC

Richard Delorme; Arnaud Bille; Catalina Betancur; Flavie Mathieu; Nadia Chabane; Marie Christine Mouren-Simeoni; Marion Leboyer

2006-01-01

205

Responsibility attitudes and interpretations are characteristic of obsessive compulsive disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cognitive–behavioural theory of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) proposes that a key factor influencing obsessional behaviour is the way in which the intrusive cognitions are interpreted. The present paper reports an investigation of links between clinical symptoms (of anxiety, depression and obsessionality) and responsibility beliefs. These beliefs include not only measures of general responsibility attitudes (assumptions) but also more specific

P. M. Salkovskis; A. L. Wroe; A. Gledhill; N. Morrison; E. Forrester; C. Richards; M Reynolds; S Thorpe

2000-01-01

206

Action-Monitoring Dysfunction in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence suggests that a hyperactive frontal-striatal- thalamic-frontal circuit is associated with the symptoms of obsessive- compulsive disorder (OCD), but there is little agreement about the function of the exaggerated activity. We report electrophysiological evidence suggesting that part of this system monitors events and gen- erates error signals when the events conflict with an individual's internal standards or goals. Nine individuals

William J. Gehring; Joseph Himle; Laura G. Nisenson

2000-01-01

207

Aberrant error processing in relation to symptom severity in obsessive–compulsive disorder: A multimodal neuroimaging study  

PubMed Central

Background Obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) is characterized by maladaptive repetitive behaviors that persist despite feedback. Using multimodal neuroimaging, we tested the hypothesis that this behavioral rigidity reflects impaired use of behavioral outcomes (here, errors) to adaptively adjust responses. We measured both neural responses to errors and adjustments in the subsequent trial to determine whether abnormalities correlate with symptom severity. Since error processing depends on communication between the anterior and the posterior cingulate cortex, we also examined the integrity of the cingulum bundle with diffusion tensor imaging. Methods Participants performed the same antisaccade task during functional MRI and electroencephalography sessions. We measured error-related activation of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and the error-related negativity (ERN). We also examined post-error adjustments, indexed by changes in activation of the default network in trials surrounding errors. Results OCD patients showed intact error-related ACC activation and ERN, but abnormal adjustments in the post- vs. pre-error trial. Relative to controls, who responded to errors by deactivating the default network, OCD patients showed increased default network activation including in the rostral ACC (rACC). Greater rACC activation in the post-error trial correlated with more severe compulsions. Patients also showed increased fractional anisotropy (FA) in the white matter underlying rACC. Conclusions Impaired use of behavioral outcomes to adaptively adjust neural responses may contribute to symptoms in OCD. The rACC locus of abnormal adjustment and relations with symptoms suggests difficulty suppressing emotional responses to aversive, unexpected events (e.g., errors). Increased structural connectivity of this paralimbic default network region may contribute to this impairment. PMID:25057466

Agam, Yigal; Greenberg, Jennifer L.; Isom, Marlisa; Falkenstein, Martha J.; Jenike, Eric; Wilhelm, Sabine; Manoach, Dara S.

2014-01-01

208

Long-term outcome and prognosis of obsessive–compulsive disorder with onset in childhood or adolescence  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the catch-up follow-up study is to describe the long-term outcome of obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) with\\u000a onset in childhood and adolescence. The psychiatric morbidity in adulthood including personality disorders was assessed and\\u000a predictors in childhood for the course of obsessive–compulsive symptoms were examined. The total study group consisted of\\u000a the entire patient population treated for OCD at our

C. Wewetzer; T. Jans; B. Müller; A. Neudörfl; U. Bücherl; H. Remschmidt; A. Warnke; B. Herpertz-Dahlmann

2001-01-01

209

The role of the orbitofrontal cortex in normally developing compulsive-like behaviors and obsessive–compulsive disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mounting evidence concerning obsessive–compulsive disorders points to abnormal functioning of the orbitofrontal cortices. First, patients with obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) perform poorly on tasks that rely on response suppression\\/motor inhibition functions mediated by the orbitofrontal cortex relative to both normal and clinical controls. Second, patients with OCD exhibit functional hyperactivity in lateral orbitofrontal and related structures corresponding with symptom severity. In

David W. Evans; Marc D. Lewis; Emily Iobsta

2004-01-01

210

Early recognition of obsessive-compulsive disorder.  

PubMed

The early course in clinical and neurobiological terms of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is almost completely unknown. The disease often begins in early childhood and adolescence, but the first behavioral changes and symptoms preceding OCD have not been assessed to date. In this retrospective approach, 40 patients with OCD (23 females/17 males; 39.4 [10.1] years old in average; with scores on the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale [Y-BOCS] of 19 [9.3]) were given an author-developed questionnaire. Twenty-three patients reported first changes before having reached the age of 20 years. Rather unspecific symptoms such as "anxiety" and "lacking self-trust" seem to have been more frequent as first signs of developing OCD. Further specific symptoms indicating OCD were "enhanced feeling of responsibility," "exact attention concerning details," "being eager for order and cleanness," "difficulties with decisions," and "repetitive controlling," but were less remembered. There was no significant relationship between these first changes and later OCD-related psychopathology as measured with the Y-BOCS, but there was a relationship with later depressive comorbidity (Hamilton Depression Rating Scale). This substantiates the view that OCD-similar to other psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia and bipolar disorder-seems to be characterized by a psychopathologically less specific prodrome with rather depressive symptoms. However, this was a retrospective study with preliminary data, which has to be replicated prospectively with a larger sample. PMID:25426812

Juckel, Georg; Siebers, Frauke; Kienast, Thorsten; Mavrogiorgou, Paraskevi

2014-12-01

211

Cognitive-Behavioral Group Therapy in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: A Randomized Clinical Trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The present study was designed to verify the efficacy of cognitive-behavioral group therapy (CBGT) in reducing obsessive-compulsive symptoms and the intensity of overvalued ideas, as well as in improving the patient’s quality of life. Methods: Forty-seven patients meeting DSM-IV criteria for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) were randomly assigned to either 12 weekly CBGT sessions or a waiting list (control group).

Aristides Volpato Cordioli; Elizeth Heldt; Daniela Braga Bochi; Regina Margis; Marcelo Basso de Sousa; Juliano Fonseca Tonello; Gisele Gus Manfro; Flavio Kapczinski

2003-01-01

212

Cognitive control in childhood-onset obsessive–compulsive disorder: a functional MRI study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Failure to resist chronic obsessive-compulsive symptoms may denote an altered state of cognitive control. We searched for the cerebral regions engaged in this dysfunction. Method. Differences in brain regional activity were examined by event-related functional magnetic regional imaging (fMRI) in a group of adolescents or young adults (n=12) with childhood-onset obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), relative to healthy subjects. Subjects performed

ARMELLE VIARD; MARTINE F. FLAMENT; ERIC ARTIGES; STANISLAS DEHAENE; LIONEL NACCACHE; DAVID COHEN; PHILIPPE MAZET; MARIE-CHRISTINE MOUREN; JEAN-LUC MARTINOT

2005-01-01

213

New-onset obsessive–compulsive disorder following neurosurgery for medication-refractory seizure disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 31-year-old man with medication-refractory seizures in the context of right mesial temporal lobe sclerosis and right occipital encephalomalacia is described. He experienced the onset of obsessive–compulsive symptoms following resection of the right hippocampus and right occipital pole. Semistructured psychiatric evaluation was conducted 16months after surgery. Results indicated that he fulfilled diagnostic criteria for obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) and that he

Robert M. Roth; Barbara C. Jobst; Vijay M. Thadani; Karen L. Gilbert; David W. Roberts

2009-01-01

214

Reduction of N-acetylaspartate in the medial prefrontal cortex correlated with symptom severity in obsessive-compulsive disorder: meta-analyses of 1H-MRS studies  

PubMed Central

Structural and functional neuroimaging findings suggest that disturbance of the cortico–striato–thalamo–cortical (CSTC) circuits may underlie obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). However, some studies with 1H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) reported altered level of N-acetylaspartate (NAA), they yielded inconsistency in direction and location of abnormality within CSTC circuits. We conducted a comprehensive literature search and a meta-analysis of 1H-MRS studies in OCD. Seventeen met the inclusion criteria for a meta-analysis. Data were separated by frontal cortex region: medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, orbitofrontal cortex, basal ganglia and thalamus. The mean and s.d. of the NAA measure were calculated for each region. A random effects model integrating 16 separate datasets with 225 OCD patients and 233 healthy comparison subjects demonstrated that OCD patients exhibit decreased NAA levels in the frontal cortex (P=0.025), but no significant changes in the basal ganglia (P=0.770) or thalamus (P=0.466). Sensitivity analysis in an anatomically specified subgroup consisting of datasets examining the mPFC demonstrated marginally significant reduction of NAA (P=0.061). Meta-regression revealed that NAA reduction in the mPFC was positively correlated with symptom severity measured by Yale–Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (P=0.011). The specific reduction of NAA in the mPFC and significant relationship between neurochemical alteration in the mPFC and symptom severity indicate that the mPFC is one of the brain regions that directly related to abnormal behavior in the pathophysiology of OCD. The current meta-analysis indicates that cortices and sub-cortices contribute in different ways to the etiology of OCD. PMID:22892718

Aoki, Yuta; Aoki, Ai; Suwa, Hiroshi

2012-01-01

215

Obsessive compulsive symptom dimensions and neuroticism: An examination of shared genetic and environmental risk.  

PubMed

Individuals with obsessive compulsive disorder can display diverse and heterogeneous patterns of symptoms. Little is known about the relationship between obsessive-compulsive symptom (OCS) dimensions and normal personality traits, particularly those that increase risk for other internalizing disorders. In this study of 1,382 individuals from female-female twin pairs, we examined the relationship between self-report OCS dimensions derived from the Padua Inventory and Eysenck's personality traits neuroticism and extraversion. We conducted factor analysis to determine their phenotypic structure followed by twin analyses to determine their genetic and environmental sources of covariation. A three-factor solution, with dimensions corresponding to checking, aggressive obsessions, and contamination, was the best fit for the Padua OCS items. These dimensions were significantly and somewhat variably associated with neuroticism but negligibly associated with extraversion. The genetic correlations between neuroticism and these three OCS dimensions were moderate to high (0.66 with checking, 0.89 with aggressive obsessions, and 0.40 with contamination). However, the estimated genetic correlation between neuroticism and a unified latent OCS construct was smaller (0.32). Overall this study suggests that genetic, and to a smaller extent environmental, factors underlying neuroticism may act differentially as risk factors for OCS dimensions. PMID:25231027

Bergin, Jocilyn; Verhulst, Brad; Aggen, Steven H; Neale, Michael C; Kendler, Kenneth S; Bienvenu, Oscar J; Hettema, John M

2014-12-01

216

The relationship between obsessive compulsive and posttraumatic stress symptoms  

E-print Network

The relationship between obsessive­ compulsive and posttraumatic stress symptoms in clinical patients diagnosed with PTSD, 63 patients diagnosed with another anxiety disorder, and 40 college students for by a combination of symptom overlap and depression. # 2004 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Keywords: Obsessive­compulsive

Liu, Taosheng

217

Streptococcal Upper Respiratory Tract Infections and Exacerbations of Tic and Obsessive-Compulsive Symptoms: A Prospective Longitudinal Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: The objective of this blinded, prospective, longitudinal study was to determine whether new group A beta hemolytic streptococcal (GABHS) infections are temporally associated with exacerbations of tic or obsessive-compulsive (OC) symptoms in children who met published criteria for pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders…

Leckman, James F.; King, Robert A.; Gilbert, Donald L.; Coffey, Barbara J.; Singer, Harvey S.; Dure, Leon S., IV; Grantz, Heidi; Katsovich, Liliya; Lin, Haiqun; Lombroso, Paul J.; Kawikova, Ivana; Johnson, Dwight R.; Kurlan, Roger M.; Kaplan, Edward L.

2011-01-01

218

The Validation of a New Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Scale: The Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory (OCI), a new self-report measure for determining the diagnosis and severity of obsessive- compulsive disorder (OCD), was validated with 141 patients with OCD, 58 with social phobia, 44 with posttraumatic stress disorder, and 194 nonpatients. The OCI exhibited satisfactory reliability and validity with all four…

Foa, Edna B.; Kozak, Michael J.; Salkovskis, Paul M.; Coles, Meredith E.; Amir, Nader

1998-01-01

219

Does work on obsessive–compulsive spectrum disorders contribute to understanding the heterogeneity of obsessive–compulsive disorder?  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThere is a growing literature on the concept of an obsessive–compulsive spectrum of disorders. Here, we consider the different dimensions on which obsessive–compulsive spectrum (OCSDs) lie, and focus on how the concepts from this literature may help understand the heterogeneity of obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD).

Christine Lochner; Dan J. Stein

2006-01-01

220

Examination of a Bifactor Model of the Three Domains of Disgust Scale: Specificity in Relation to Obsessive-Compulsive Symptoms.  

PubMed

The current research evaluated a bifactor model for the Three Domains of Disgust Scale (TDDS) in 2 undergraduate samples. The goals were (a) to evaluate whether the TDDS should be scored as a unidimensional scale or whether subscales of pathogen, sex, and moral disgust should be additionally interpreted, and (b) to examine the utility of the TDDS subscales above and beyond the total score in predicting obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) symptoms. Results in Study 1 and Study 2 revealed that a bifactor model fit the TDDS data well and that all items were influenced by a general disgust dimension and by 1 of 3 content dimensions. However, model-based reliability estimated via omega hierarchical for the total score suggested that TDDS items are highly multidimensional. That is, the general disgust dimension only accounts for about half of the variability in the items of the total score, with the remaining variability accounted for by the specific disgust domains and other sources of variance. Despite the high degree of multidimensionality underlying the TDDS items, the pathogen and sex subscale scores were found to be relatively unreliable after controlling for the general disgust factor. Among the 3 domains, pathogen disgust had the most consistently significant relationship with an OCD symptom latent factor above and beyond the general disgust factor. The strengths and limitations of the TDDS are discussed in the context of these findings, and the implications for better understanding the structure of disgust and its relationship with OCD are outlined. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:25402446

Olatunji, Bunmi O; Ebesutani, Chad; Kim, Eun Ha

2014-11-17

221

CLARIFYING THE CONVERGENCE BETWEEN OBSESSIVE COMPULSIVE PERSONALITY DISORDER CRITERIA AND OBSESSIVE COMPULSIVE DISORDER  

PubMed Central

In this study we examined the convergence between obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) criteria and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Baseline assessments of 629 participants of the Collaborative Longitudinal Personality Disorders Study were used to examine the associations between OCPD criteria and diagnoses of OCD. Three of the eight OCPD criteria—hoarding, perfectionism, and preoccupation with details—were significantly more frequent in subjects with OCD (n = 89) than in subjects without OCD (n = 540). Logistic regressions were used to predict the probability of each OCPD criterion as a function of Axis I diagnoses (OCD, additional anxiety disorders, and major depressive disorder). Associations between OCD and these three OCPD criteria remained significant in the logistic regressions, showing unique associations with OCD and odds ratios ranging from 2.71 to 2.99. In addition, other anxiety disorders and major depressive disorder showed few associations with specific OCPD criteria. This study suggests variability in the strength of the relationships between specific OCPD criteria and OCD. The findings also support a unique relationship between OCPD symptoms and OCD, compared to other anxiety disorders or major depression. Future efforts to explore the link between Axis I and Axis II disorders may be enriched by conducting analyses at the symptom level. PMID:16776557

Eisen, Jane L.; Coles, Meredith E.; Shea, M. Tracie; Pagano, Maria E.; Stout, Robert L.; Yen, Shirley; Grilo, Carlos M.; Rasmussen, Steven A.

2008-01-01

222

Expectancy bias for disgust and emotional responding in contamination-related obsessive-compulsive disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study examines the relation between disgust and contamination-related obsessive-compulsive disorder symptoms (OCD) in an analog sample. The results showed that disgust sensitivity is significantly correlated with contamination-related OCD. Participants high in contamination OCD (HOCD) generally report significantly more disgust than low contamination-related OCD (LOCD) participants. We also examined if differential disgust UCS expectancies exists in contamination OCD using

Bunmi O. Olatunji; Jeffrey M. Lohr; Jeffrey L. Willems; Craig N. Sawchuk

2006-01-01

223

Recent life events and obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD): the role of pregnancy\\/delivery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conflicting results have been reported on the possible role of life events in triggering OCD onset. Moreover, pregnancy and\\/or delivery, among life events, appear to influence the OCD course and, in some cases, appear related to its onset. Our purpose was to assess the occurrence of potentially traumatizing events among patients with OCD. The study also provides an initial exploration

Giuseppe Maina; Umberto Albert; Filippo Bogetto; Patrizia Vaschetto; Luigi Ravizza

1999-01-01

224

Obsessive–Compulsive Disorder: Treatment and Treatment Resistance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To review the treatment options for obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD), with particular reference to treatment resistance, and provide a guideline for clinicians managing these patients, drawing upon evidence from clinical trials and expert consensus.Conclusions: The behavioural technique of exposure and ritual prevention (EX\\/RP) and serotonergic medications have emerged as effective standard treatments of OCD, although full symptom remission is rare.

Sean Hood; Deirdre Alderton; David Castle

2001-01-01

225

The distinctiveness of compulsive hoarding from obsessive–compulsive disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study investigated the relation of compulsive hoarding to other obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) symptoms in a sample of 162 patients with OCD. Obsessions and compulsions reported on the Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule for DSM-IV were submitted to an exploratory factor analysis. Results suggested a four-factor model: “Certainty,” “Contamination,” “Obsessions,” and “Numbers\\/Ordering.” Hoarding did not load on any factor. The

Jessica R. Grisham; Timothy A. Brown; Gabrielle I. Liverant; Laura Campbell-Sills

2005-01-01

226

Genetic and Environmental Contributions to Self-Report Obsessive-Compulsive Symptoms in Dutch Adolescents at Ages 12, 14, and 16  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveTo determine the contributions of genetic and environmental influences to variation in self-report of obsessive-compulsive (OC) symptoms in a population-based twin sample of adolescent boys and girls.

Daniël S. Van Grootheest; Meike Bartels; Catarina E. M. Van Beijsterveldt; Daniëlle C. Cath; Aartjan T. Beekman; James J. Hudziak; Dorret I. Boomsma

2008-01-01

227

Nicotine treatment of obsessive–compulsive disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following initial observations of marked effects of nicotine self-medication in a patient with obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD), another four OCD patients were treated with nicotine for eight weeks in an open label fashion. Patients fulfilling DSM-IV criteria for OCD and with initial Yale-Brown Obsessive–Compulsive Scale (YBOCS) score>15 were included in the study. The patients were scored with YBOCS, Beck Depression Inventory

Stefan Lundberg; Arvid Carlsson; Per Norfeldt; Maria L. Carlsson

2004-01-01

228

Obsessive–compulsive disorder in the community: 12-month prevalence, comorbidity and impairment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Although subthreshold conditions are associated with impairment in numerous disorders, research on obsessive–compulsive disorder\\u000a (OCD) below the diagnostic threshold of DSM-IV in the general population is limited.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Purpose  To estimate the DSM-IV 12-month prevalence, comorbidity and impairment of OCD, subthreshold OCD (i.e., fulfilling some but\\u000a not all core DSM-IV criteria), and obsessive–compulsive symptoms (OCS) (i.e., endorsement of OCS without fulfilling any

Yuki Adam; Gunther Meinlschmidt; Andrew T. Gloster; Roselind Lieb

229

Prevalence and heritability of obsessive-compulsive spectrum and anxiety disorder symptoms: A survey of the Australian Twin Registry.  

PubMed

While past twin studies indicate moderate levels of heritability of "obsessive-compulsive related" and anxiety disorder symptoms, no single study has reported such estimates in the same twin population nor examined potential genetic sex differences. We assessed symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder, body dysmorphic disorder, hoarding disorder, hypochondriasis, panic disorder, social phobia and generalized anxiety disorder in 2,495 adult twins (1,468 female). Prevalence estimates for the corresponding symptom measures were determined using empirically derived cut-off scores. Twin resemblance was assessed by Pearson correlations and biometrical model-fitting analyses, incorporating sex-specific effects, using OpenMx. Prevalence estimates ranged from 1.6% in the symptoms of generalized anxiety to 16.9% for social phobia. Female twins demonstrated significantly higher prevalence rates across all domains with the exception of obsessive-compulsive symptoms. Additive genetic factors accounted for a moderate proportion of the total liability to each symptom domain. Evidence suggesting qualitative genetic sex differences (i.e., distinct genetic influences between genders) was observed for body dysmorphic concern and panic symptoms, while quantitative differences were observed for hoarding and social phobia symptoms, indicating stronger heritability in females. Novel findings in this study include the observation of probable genetic sex differences in liability towards hoarding symptoms and dysmorphic concern, as well as the lack of such differences in hypochondriasis. The trend towards qualitative sex differences in panic symptoms has some intuitive appeal with regard to biological-experimental models of panic. PMID:24756981

López-Solŕ, Clara; Fontenelle, Leonardo F; Alonso, Pino; Cuadras, Daniel; Foley, Debra L; Pantelis, Christos; Pujol, Jesus; Yücel, Murat; Cardoner, Narcís; Soriano-Mas, Carles; Menchón, José M; Harrison, Ben J

2014-06-01

230

Effectiveness of psychological and pharmacological treatments for obsessive-compulsive disorder: A quantitative Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantitative review of the controlled treatment outcome literature for obsessivecompulsive disorder (OCD) showed that exposure with response prevention was highly effective in reducing OCD symptoms. Cognitive approaches were also found to be at least as effective as exposure procedures. It appears that both cognitive and exposure interventions involve some overlapping procedures and capitalize on similar mechanisms of change. Serotonergic

Jonathan S. Abramowitz

1997-01-01

231

A Structural Equation Analysis of Family Accommodation in Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Family accommodation of symptoms is counter to the primary goals of cognitive-behavioral therapy for pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and can pose an obstacle to positive treatment outcomes. Although increased attention has been given to family accommodation in pediatric OCD, relatively little is known about associated child and…

Caporino, Nicole E.; Morgan, Jessica; Beckstead, Jason; Phares, Vicky; Murphy, Tanya K.; Storch, Eric A.

2012-01-01

232

Early-Onset Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: A Subgroup with a Specific Clinical and Familial Pattern?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: The familial nature of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has been previously demonstrated. The identification of candidate symptoms such as age at onset may help to disentangle the clinical and genetic heterogeneity of the disorder. In this study, the specificity of early-onset OCD was investigated, focusing on the effect of gender,…

Chabane, Nadia; Delorme, Richard; Millet, Bruno; Mouren, Marie-Christine; Leboyer, Marion; Pauls, David

2005-01-01

233

Evidence-Based Assessment of Child Obsessive Compulsive Disorder: Recommendations for Clinical Practice and Treatment Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) presents heterogeneously and can be difficult to assess in youth. This review focuses on research-supported assessment approaches for OCD in childhood. Content areas include pre-visit screening, diagnostic establishment, differential diagnosis, assessment of comorbid psychiatric conditions, tracking symptom

Lewin, Adam B.; Piacentini, John

2010-01-01

234

Religiosity and religious obsessions in obsessive–compulsive disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Religion has often been thought to play a part in the genesis of some cases of obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD). In this study, we explored the relationship between religiosity, religious obsessions, and other clinical characteristics of OCD. Forty-five outpatients with OCD were evaluated with the Yale–Brown Obsessive–Compulsive Scale (Y–BOCS) and the Yale–Brown Obsessive–Compulsive Checklist (Y–BOCC) as well as the Religious Practices

Cenk Tek; Berna Ulug

2001-01-01

235

An investigation of working memory ability, executive functioning and judgment of learning in obsessive-compulsive disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neuropsychological functioning in individuals with OCD has been an area of recent focus, in effort to understand the neurobiological underpinnings of obsessive-compulsive symptoms. In particular, the literature has explored the possibility of executive functioning and memory deficits in OCD. The current study extended this line of research to compare neuropsychological functioning in OCD to that of other anxiety disorders, including

Karen Daddona

2009-01-01

236

Temper Outbursts in Paediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder and Their Association with Depressed Mood and Treatment Outcome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Temper outbursts in youth with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) are a common source of concern, but remain poorly understood. This study examined a set of hypotheses related to: (a) the prevalence of temper outbursts in paediatric OCD, (b) the associations of temper outbursts with OCD severity and depressive symptoms; and (c) the…

Krebs, Georgina; Bolhuis, Koen; Heyman, Isobel; Mataix-Cols, David; Turner, Cynthia; Stringaris, Argyris

2013-01-01

237

Self-ambivalence in obsessive-compulsive disorder .  

E-print Network

??According to the cognitive model, Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is maintained by various belief factors such as an inflated sense of responsibility, perfectionism and an overestimation… (more)

Bhar, Sunil Singh

2005-01-01

238

Clinical Treatment of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder  

PubMed Central

Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) was once thought to be extremely rare, but recent epidemiological studies have shown it to be the fourth most common psychiatric disorder (after substance abuse, specific phobias, and major depression). OCD is often a chronic disorder that produces significant morbidity when not properly diagnosed and treated. The mainstay of treatment includes cognitive behavioral therapy and medication management. The use of clomipramine in the 1960s and then the introduction of serotonin reuptake inhibitors in the 1980s represented important advances in the pharmacologic treatment of OCD. Despite effective treatment modalities, many patients demonstrate only a partial response or are resistant to available medications. SRI-resistant OCD is one of the few diagnoses in modern psychiatry for which invasive neurosurgical procedures remain part of the established treatment armamentarium. We review current treatment strategies used in the management of OCD symptoms. PMID:21120095

Pittenger, Christopher; Kelmendi, Ben; Bloch, Michael; Krystal, John H.

2005-01-01

239

National Institute of Mental Health Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder  

E-print Network

National Institute of Mental Health Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: When Unwanted Thoughts Take Over obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). #12;What is OCD? Everyone double checks things sometimes. For example in which stress and environmental factors may play a role. How is OCD treated? First, talk to your doctor

Bandettini, Peter A.

240

Effect of comorbid tics on a clinically meaningful response to 8-week open-label trial of fluoxetine in obsessive compulsive disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Currently, there are limited published data evaluating the effects of tics on serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SRI) monotherapy responses in treating obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). One retrospective case-controlled analysis of OCD patients treated with SRI monotherapy showed lesser improvement in OCD symptoms in patients with tics than those without. However, more recently there were preliminary reports of OCD subjects treated with SRI

David S. Husted; Nathan A. Shapira; Tanya K. Murphy; Giselle D. Mann; Herbert E. Ward; Wayne K. Goodman

2007-01-01

241

Frequency and correlates of suicidal ideation in pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder.  

PubMed

This study examined the frequency and sociodemographic and clinical correlates of suicidal ideation in a sample of children and adolescents with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Fifty-four youth with OCD and their parent(s) were administered the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children-Present and Lifetime, Children's Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale, and Children's Depression Rating Scale-Revised. Children completed the Suicidal Ideation Questionnaire-Junior (SIQ-JR), Child Obsessive Compulsive Impact Scale-Child, and Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children; parents completed the Child Obsessive Compulsive Impact Scale-Parent, Swanson, Nolan, and Pelham-IV Parent Scale, and Young Mania Rating Scale-Parent Version. Seven youth endorsed clinically significant levels of suicidal ideation on the SIQ-JR. Suicidal ideation was significantly related to clinician-rated depressive symptoms, age, child-rated impairment and anxiety symptoms, and symmetry, sexuality/religiosity and miscellaneous symptom dimensions. There was no significant association between suicidal ideation and obsessive-compulsive symptom severity, comorbidity patterns, or several parent-rated indices (e.g., impairment, impulsivity). These results provide initial information regarding the frequency and correlates of suicidal ideation in treatment-seeking youth with OCD. Clinical implications are discussed, as well as directions for future research. PMID:24682580

Storch, Eric A; Bussing, Regina; Jacob, Marni L; Nadeau, Joshua M; Crawford, Erika; Mutch, P Jane; Mason, Dana; Lewin, Adam B; Murphy, Tanya K

2015-02-01

242

How does locus of control and inflated sense of responsibility relate to obsessive-compulsive symptoms in Turkish adolescents?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aimed to examine the effects of responsibility attitudes, locus of control and their interactions on the general obsessive-compulsive (OC) symptomatology and the dimensions of OC symptoms in a sample of Turkish adolescents (n=385), their ages varied from 16 to 20 with a mean of 17.23 (S.D.=.68). The results of the present study revealed a significantly positive relationship between

Müjgan Alt?n; A. Nuray Karanci

2008-01-01

243

Rapid, illegible handwriting as a symptom of obsessive-compulsive disorder.  

PubMed

This is a case report of a 13 year male child who had co-morbid OCD and trichotillomania. On evaluation, he had rapid, illegible handwriting as a symptom of OCD, which has hitherto not been reported. PMID:24891714

Bavle, Amar; Andrade, Chittaranjan; Vidhyavathi, M

2014-04-01

244

Rapid, illegible handwriting as a symptom of obsessive-compulsive disorder  

PubMed Central

This is a case report of a 13 year male child who had co-morbid OCD and trichotillomania. On evaluation, he had rapid, illegible handwriting as a symptom of OCD, which has hitherto not been reported. PMID:24891714

Bavle, Amar; Andrade, Chittaranjan; Vidhyavathi, M.

2014-01-01

245

Cluster analysis of obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorders in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder: clinical and genetic correlates  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundComorbidity of certain obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorders (OCSDs; such as Tourette's disorder) in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) may serve to define important OCD subtypes characterized by differing phenomenology and neurobiological mechanisms. Comorbidity of the putative OCSDs in OCD has, however, not often been systematically investigated.

Christine Lochner; Sian M. J. Hemmings; Craig J. Kinnear; Dana J. H. Niehaus; Daniel G. Nel; Valerie A. Corfield; Johanna C. Moolman-Smook; Soraya Seedat; Dan J. Stein

2005-01-01

246

Response of symptom dimensions in obsessive- compulsive disorder to treatment with citalopram or placebo Resposta das dimensőes dos sintomas no transtorno obsessivo-compulsivo ao tratamento com citalopram ou placebo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: There is increasing evidence that the symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder lie on discrete dimensions. Relatively little work has, however, explored the relationship between such factors and response to pharmacotherapy. Method: Data from a multi-site randomized placebo-controlled study of citalopram in obsessive-compulsive disorder were analyzed. Factor analysis of individual items and symptom categories of the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale Checklist were

Dan J Stein; Elisabeth W Andersen; Kerstin Fredricson Overo

247

Cognitions in children with OCD  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cognitive theory, postulates that dysfunctional cognitions play a maintaining or even aetiological role in obsessive-compulsive\\u000a disorder (OCD). In this study it was hypothesised that if distorted cognitions play a central role in OCD, there should be\\u000a a relation between cognitive measures and the severity of the obsessive-compulsive symptoms in a childhood OCD sample. A group\\u000a of 39 children and adolescents

L. M. Verhaak; E. de Haan

2007-01-01

248

Interpersonal functioning in obsessive-compulsive personality disorder.  

PubMed

The core symptoms of obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) often lead to interpersonal difficulties. However, little research has explored interpersonal functioning in OCPD. This study examined interpersonal problems, interpersonal sensitivities, empathy, and systemizing, the drive to analyze and derive underlying rules for systems, in a sample of 25 OCPD individuals, 25 individuals with comorbid OCPD and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and 25 healthy controls. We found that OCPD individuals reported hostile-dominant interpersonal problems and sensitivities with warm-dominant behavior by others, whereas OCPD+OCD individuals reported submissive interpersonal problems and sensitivities with warm-submissive behavior by others. Individuals with OCPD, with and without OCD, reported less empathic perspective taking relative to healthy controls. Finally, we found that OCPD males reported a higher drive to analyze and derive rules for systems than OCPD females. Overall, results suggest that there are interpersonal deficits associated with OCPD and the clinical implications of these deficits are discussed. PMID:25046040

Cain, Nicole M; Ansell, Emily B; Simpson, H Blair; Pinto, Anthony

2015-01-01

249

Symptom Dimensions in OCD: Item-Level Factor Analysis and Heritability Estimates  

E-print Network

To reduce the phenotypic heterogeneity of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) for genetic, clinical and translational studies, numerous factor analyses of the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale checklist (YBOCS-CL) have ...

Katerberg, Hilga

250

Anterior Capsulotomy for Treatment of Refractory Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: Results in a Young and an Old Patient  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this case report was to assess the effect of anterior capsulotomy for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) in 2 patients beyond extremes of age ranges of published radiofrequency capsulotomy. The youngest patient developed OCD at age 10 with increasing symptoms of tension and worry. The symptoms were refractory to medications and behavioral therapy. He underwent anterior capsulotomy at age

Daniel D. Christensen; Lauri V. Laitinen; Leonard J. Schmidt; Marwan I. Hariz

2002-01-01

251

The obsessive–compulsive spectrum in the perinatal period: a prospective pilot study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aims to describe the phenomenology of obsessive–compulsive symptoms (OCS) and disorders (OCD) in perinatal women\\u000a and to explore the relationship of OCS\\/OCD to postpartum depression. A prospective longitudinal study of 44 women screened\\u000a with the Obsessive–Compulsive Inventory—Revised (OCI-R) and Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) between 30 and 37 weeks\\u000a of pregnancy. Twenty-four women completed a diagnostic interview and the

Linda H. Chaudron; Neha Nirodi

2010-01-01

252

Obsessive compulsive personality disorder as a predictor of exposure and ritual prevention outcome for obsessive compulsive disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite elevated rates of obsessive compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) in patients with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), no study has specifically examined comorbid OCPD as a predictor of exposure and ritual prevention (EX\\/RP) outcome. Participants were adult outpatients (n = 49) with primary OCD and a Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (YBOCS) total score ? 16 despite a therapeutic serotonin reuptake inhibitor dose for at least

Anthony Pinto; Michael R. Liebowitz; Edna B. Foa; H. Blair Simpson

2011-01-01

253

Comorbidity of obsessive–compulsive disorder with obsessive–compulsive personality disorder: Does it imply a specific subtype of obsessive–compulsive disorder?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study examined whether the comorbidity of obsessive–compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) and obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) constitute a specific subtype of OCD. The study sample consisted of 146 consecutive outpatients with a DSM-IV diagnosis of OCD. Diagnoses were established using MINI, IPDE, YBOCS and YBOCS-SC. OCD patients with comorbid OCPD were compared with OCD patients without OCPD on various sociodemographic

George Garyfallos; Konstantinos Katsigiannopoulos; Aravela Adamopoulou; Georgios Papazisis; Anastasia Karastergiou; Vasilios P. Bozikas

2010-01-01

254

Title: EEG source analysis in obsessive-compulsive disorder Authors: Jana Kopivov  

E-print Network

-mail address: koprivova@pcp.lf3.cuni.cz Key-words: obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD); standardized low for therapeutic interventions. INTRODUCTION Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a common neuropsychiatric1 Title: EEG source analysis in obsessive-compulsive disorder Authors: Jana Kopivová a, b , Marco

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

255

Obsessive Compulsive Personality Disorder as a Predictor of Exposure and Ritual Prevention Outcome for Obsessive Compulsive Disorder  

PubMed Central

Despite elevated rates of obsessive compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) in patients with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), no study has specifically examined comorbid OCPD as a predictor of exposure and ritual prevention (EX/RP) outcome. Participants were adult outpatients (n = 49) with primary OCD and a Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (YBOCS) total score ? 16 despite a therapeutic serotonin reuptake inhibitor dose for at least 12 weeks prior to entry. Participants received 17 sessions of EX/RP over 8 weeks. OCD severity was assessed with the YBOCS pre- and post-treatment by independent evaluators. At baseline, 34.7% of the OCD sample met criteria for comorbid DSM-IV OCPD, assessed by structured interview. OCPD was tested as a predictor of outcome both as a diagnostic category and as a dimensional score (severity) based on the total number of OCPD symptoms coded as present and clinically significant at baseline. Both OCPD diagnosis and greater OCPD severity predicted worse EX/RP outcome, controlling for baseline OCD severity, Axis I and II comorbidity, prior treatment, quality of life, and gender. When the individual OCPD criteria were tested separately, only perfectionism predicted worse treatment outcome, over and above the previously mentioned covariates. These findings highlight the importance of assessing OCPD and suggest a need to directly address OCPD-related traits, especially perfectionism, in the context of EX/RP to minimize their interference in outcome. PMID:21600563

Pinto, Anthony; Liebowitz, Michael R.; Foa, Edna B.; Simpson, H. Blair

2011-01-01

256

Sleep in obsessive compulsive disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several lines of evidence suggest that brain serotonergic systems may be disturbed in obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD).\\u000a The serotonergic system strongly affects sleep and characteristic abnormalities of sleep are documented in depression. This\\u000a study, therefore, aimed to investigate sleep structure of OCD patients in order to evaluate whether similar changes as in\\u000a depression are present. Up to now, this issue

Ulrich Voderholzer; Dieter Riemann; Christine Huwig-Poppe; Anne Katrin Kuelz; Andreas Kordon; Katharina Bruestle; Mathias Berger; Fritz Hohagen

2007-01-01

257

Posttraumatic obsessive–compulsive disorder: A case series  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report documents emerging posttraumatic obsessive–compulsive disorder in 13 Israeli military veterans diagnosed with both obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), for whom the onset of OCD was clearly associated with the trauma. Data presented include four detailed case reports that delineate relations between symptomatology in the two disorders. Clinical and theoretical implications of these data are discussed.

Yehuda Sasson; Sharon Dekel; Nitza Nacasch; Miriam Chopra; Yaffa Zinger; Daniella Amital; Joseph Zohar

2005-01-01

258

Symptom Overlap between Autism Spectrum Disorder, Generalized Social Anxiety Disorder and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder in Adults: A Preliminary Case-Controlled Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and social anxiety disorder (SAD) frequently co-occur in persons with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We studied which features distinguish ‘pure’ anxiety disordered patients from those with co-morbid ASD. Method: In a case-controlled design in which groups were matched for age, sex and educational level, patients with OCD or SAD and co-morbid ASD were compared with patients

Danielle C. Cath; Natalie Ran; Johannes H. Smit; Hannie C. Comijs

2008-01-01

259

Localized Orbitofrontal and Subcortical Metabolic Changes and Predictors of Response to Paroxetine Treatment in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous positron emission tomography (PET) studies of patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) have found elevated glucose metabolic rates in the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and caudate nuclei that normalize with response to treatment. Furthermore, OCD symptom provocation differentially activates specific subregions of the OFC, which have distinct patterns of connectivity and serve different functions. Therefore, we sought to determine the role

Sanjaya Saxena; Arthur L Brody; Karron M Maidment; Jennifer J Dunkin; Mark Colgan; Shervin Alborzian; Michael E Phelps; Lewis R Baxter

1999-01-01

260

Behavioral versus Cognitive Treatment of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: An Examination of Outcome and Mediators of Change  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To examine symptom change over time, the effect of attrition on treatment outcome, and the putative mediators of cognitive therapy (CT) versus behavior therapy (BT) for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) using archival data. Method: Sixty-two adults with OCD were randomized to 20 sessions of CT (N = 30) or BT (N = 32) that consisted of…

Olatunji, Bunmi O.; Rosenfield, David; Tart, Candyce D.; Cottraux, Jean; Powers, Mark B.; Smits, Jasper A. J.

2013-01-01

261

A Randomized, Controlled Trial of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Augmenting Pharmacotherapy in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder  

PubMed Central

Objective Although serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SRIs) are approved for the treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), most OCD patients who have received an adequate SRI trial continue to have clinically significant OCD symptoms. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of augmenting SRIs with exposure and ritual prevention, an established cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for OCD. Method A randomized, controlled trial was conducted at two academic outpatient clinics to compare the effects of augmenting SRIs with exposure and ritual prevention versus stress management training, another form of CBT. Participants were adult outpatients (N=108) with primary OCD and a Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale total score ?16 despite a therapeutic SRI dose for at least 12 weeks prior to entry. Participants received 17 sessions of CBT (either exposure and ritual prevention or stress management training) twice a week while continuing SRI pharmacotherapy. Results Exposure and ritual prevention was superior to stress management training in reducing OCD symptoms. At week 8, significantly more patients receiving exposure and ritual prevention than patients receiving stress management training had a decrease in symptom severity of at least 25% (based on Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale scores) and achieved minimal symptoms (defined as a Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale score ?12). Conclusions Augmentation of SRI pharmacotherapy with exposure and ritual prevention is an effective strategy for reducing OCD symptoms. However, 17 sessions were not sufficient to help most of these patients achieve minimal symptoms. PMID:18316422

Simpson, Helen Blair; Foa, Edna B.; Liebowitz, Michael R.; Ledley, Deborah Roth; Huppert, Jonathan D.; Cahill, Shawn; Vermes, Donna; Schmidt, Andrew B.; Hembree, Elizabeth; Franklin, Martin; Campeas, Raphael; Hahn, Chang-Gyu; Petkova, Eva

2014-01-01

262

The Children’s Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale: Reliability and Validity for Use Among 5 to 8 Year Olds with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Children’s Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (CY-BOCS) is the instrument of choice for assessing symptom severity\\u000a in older children (i.e., 8–18 years) diagnosed with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The reliability and validity of this\\u000a measure for use among younger children (i.e., 5–8 years of age), however, has never been examined. The primary aim of this\\u000a study was to examine this scale’s use among

Jennifer Freeman; Christopher A. Flessner; Abbe Garcia

2011-01-01

263

A systematic review: antipsychotic augmentation with treatment refractory obsessive-compulsive disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

As many as half of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) patients treated with an adequate trial of serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SRIs) fail to fully respond to treatment and continue to exhibit significant symptoms. Many studies have assessed the effectiveness of antipsychotic augmentation in SRI-refractory OCD. In this systematic review, we evaluate the efficacy of antipsychotic augmentation in treatment-refractory OCD. The electronic databases

M H Bloch; A Landeros-Weisenberger; B Kelmendi; V Coric; M B Bracken; J F Leckman

2006-01-01

264

Teaching Students with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a neurobiological condition affecting 1 of every 200 school-age children. OCD greatly affects students' academic, behavioral, and social functioning, and it can lead to additional problem such as depression. To effectively collaborate with other individuals providing appropriate support to students with OCD,…

Leininger, Melissa; Dyches, Tina Taylor; Prater, Mary Anne; Heath, Melissa Allen

2010-01-01

265

Attitudes toward obsessive-compulsive disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Background: Fear, embarrassment and stigma are salient factors contributing to reluctance to seek help for psychological distress. Although\\u000a vignette studies have often been employed to assess attitudes towards psychological disorders, no study has specifically assessed\\u000a attitudes towards Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD). Methods: An experimental study assessing attitudes toward obsessive-compulsive problems is presented. One hundred and thirteen undergraduate\\u000a students were given

Laura M. Simonds; Susan J. Thorpe

2003-01-01

266

Association of the serotonin transporter promoter regulatory region polymorphism and obsessive-compulsive disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although modulation of symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) by serotonergic agents is well established, it is unclear whether an abnormality in the central serotonergic system is involved in its etiology. The serotonin (5-HT) transporter (5-HTT), which is the key modulator of serotonergic neurotransmission, is the target for serotonin reuptake inhibiting drugs (SRIs) that are uniquely effective in the treatment of

D Bengel; B D Greenberg; G Corá-Locatelli; M Altemus; A Heils; Q Li; D L Murphy

1999-01-01

267

Sexual orientation obsessions in obsessive–compulsive disorder: Prevalence and correlates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sexual obsessions are a common symptom of obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) that may be particularly troubling to patients. However, little research has examined concerns surrounding sexual orientation, which includes obsessive doubt about one's sexual orientation, fears of becoming homosexual, or fears that others might think one is homosexual. The present study reports rates and related characteristics of individuals with sexual orientation

Monnica T. Williams; Samantha G. Farris

2011-01-01

268

The Semantic Simon Effect in Tourette's Syndrome and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Core symptoms of Tourette's syndrome (TS) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) may be attributed to an impairment in inhibitory control. Neuropsychological studies have addressed inhibition in both disorders, but findings have been inconsistent. The aim of this study was to examine cognitive inhibition, using a semantic Simon effect paradigm,…

Rankins, D.; Bradshaw, J. L.; Georgiou-Karistianis, N.

2006-01-01

269

Accuracy of retrospective memory and covariation estimation in patients with obsessive–compulsive disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Assessment methods relying on biased or inaccurate retrospective recall may distort knowledge about the nature of disorders and lead to faulty clinical inferences. Despite concerns about the accuracy of retrospective recall in general and in particular with obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) patients, the accuracy of retrospective recall for one's own symptoms assessed in vivo is unknown in this population. This study

Andrew T. Gloster; David C. S. Richard; Joseph Himle; Ellen Koch; Heather Anson; Laura Lokers; James Thornton

2008-01-01

270

Obsessive-Compulsive Symptoms and Their Impacts on Psychosocial Functioning in People with Epilepsy  

PubMed Central

Background and Purpose Obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCS) in people with epilepsy (PWE) have not been studied systematically. We evaluated the severity, predictors, and psychosocial impact of OCS in PWE. Methods We recruited PWE who visited our epilepsy clinic and age-, gender-, and education-matched healthy controls. Both PWE and healthy controls completed the Maudsley Obsessional-Compulsive Inventory (MOCI), which measures OCS. PWE also completed the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and the Quality of Life in Epilepsy Inventory-31 (QOLIE-31). We examined the severity of OCS in PWE relative to healthy controls. Predictors of OCS and the QOLIE-31 score were measured by regression analyses. A path analysis model was constructed to verify interrelations between the variables. Results The MOCI total score was significantly higher in PWE than in healthy controls (p=0.002). OCS were found in 20% of eligible patients. The strongest predictor of the MOCI total score was the BDI score (?=0.417, p<0.001), followed by EEG abnormality (?=0.194, p<0.001) and etiology (?=0.107, p=0.031). Epileptic syndrome, the side of the epileptic focus, and action mechanisms of antiepileptic drugs did not affect the MOCI total score. The strongest predictor of the QOLIE-31 overall score was the BDI score (?=-0.569, p<0.001), followed by seizure control (?=-0.163, p<0.001) and the MOCI total score (?=-0.148, p=0.001). The MOCI total score directly affected the QOLIE-31 overall score and also exerted indirect effects on the QOLIE-31 overall score through seizure control and the BDI score. Conclusions OCS are more likely to develop in PWE than in healthy people. The development of OCS appears to elicit psychosocial problems directly or indirectly by provoking depression or uncontrolled seizures. PMID:24829598

Seo, Ji-Hye; Lee, Won-Kee

2014-01-01

271

Functional Neuroimaging of Avoidance Habits in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder  

E-print Network

Objective: The goal of this study was to determine the neural correlates of excessive habit formation in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). We aimed to (i) test for neurobiological convergence with the known pathophysiology of OCD and (ii) infer...

Gillan, Claire M.; Apergis-Schoute, Annemieke M.; Morein-Zamir, Sharon; Urcelay, Gonzalo P.; Sule, Akeem; Fineberg, Naomi A.; Sahakian, Barbara J.; Robbins, Trevor W.

272

Treatment of Sexual-Orientation Obsessions in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Using Exposure and Ritual Prevention  

Microsoft Academic Search

Presented is a case report of exposure and ritual prevention (EX\\/RP) therapy administered to a 51-year-old, White, heterosexual male with sexual-orientation obsessions in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The patient had been previously treated with pharmacotherapy, resulting in inadequate symptom reduction and unwanted side effects. OCD symptoms included anxiety about the possibility of becoming gay, mental reassurance, and avoidance of other men,

Monnica T. Williams; Marjorie Crozier; Mark Powers

2011-01-01

273

Elucidating the Relation of Hoarding to Obsessive Compulsive Disorder and Impulse Control Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hoarding has historically been conceptualized as a symptom of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD); however, data demonstrate\\u000a important differences between hoarding and OC symptoms (for discussion, see Grisham et al. Anxiety Disorders, 19, 767?779. 2005). Hoarding has also been observed in disorders besides OCD, including specific Impulse Control Disorders (ICDs; e.g., kleptomania,\\u000a trichotillomania, pathological gambling, compulsive buying). Therefore, the current study

Laura C. Hayward; Meredith E. Coles

2009-01-01

274

Performance monitoring in obsessive-compulsive disorder Sander Nieuwenhuisa,T,1  

E-print Network

in revised form 17 December 2004; accepted 10 February 2005 Abstract Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD; Feedback; Error processing; Event-related potentials 1. Introduction Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCDPerformance monitoring in obsessive-compulsive disorder Sander Nieuwenhuisa,T,1 , Marjan M. Nielenb

Nieuwenhuis, Sander

275

Abnormalities of White Matter Microstructure in Unmedicated Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder and  

E-print Network

of myelin integrity have been reported in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) using multi- parameter mapsAbnormalities of White Matter Microstructure in Unmedicated Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder and Changes after Medication. PLoS ONE 7(4): e35889. doi:10.1371/journal

276

Reduced availability of serotonin transporters in obsessive-compulsive disorder correlates with symptom severity – a [ 11 C]DASB PET study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Reduced availability of brainstem serotonin transporters (5-HTT) has been observed in vivo in obsessive-compulsive disorder\\u000a (OCD). However, results vary and may be influenced by competition with endogenous serotonin. Using positron emission tomography\\u000a (PET) and [11C]DASB, a specific 5-HTT ligand that showed no competition with serotonin for 5-HTT binding in vitro, we tested the hypothesis\\u000a that 5-HTT availability is reduced in

M. Reimold; M. N. Smolka; A. Zimmer; A. Batra; A. Knobel; C. Solbach; A. Mundt; H. U. Smoltczyk; D. Goldman; K. Mann; G. Reischl; H.-J. Machulla; R. Bares; A. Heinz

2007-01-01

277

Reappraisal of spontaneous stereotypy in the deer mouse as an animal model of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD): response to escitalopram treatment and basal serotonin transporter (SERT) density.  

PubMed

Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is characterized by recurrent thoughts and repetitive motor actions. Hyposerotonergic signalling in the cortico-striatal circuitry is believed to be central to the pathology of OCD, while many patients only respond to chronic treatment with high dose selective serotonin (5HT) reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). Confined deer mice spontaneously develop two forms of stereotypy, namely vertical jumping and pattern running. The purpose of this investigation was to reappraise these behaviours and strengthen the validity of deer mouse stereotypy as an animal model of OCD within a framework of three study questions: (1) can the time spent executing stereotypical behaviours be employed as a measure of extent of stereotypy, (2) does deer mouse stereotypy only respond to chronic, but not sub-chronic treatment with a high-dose SSRI, and (3) is deer mouse stereotypy associated with altered cortico-striatal 5HT transporter (SERT) binding? The current study demonstrates that treatment naďve high stereotypical (HS) deer mice spend significantly more time executing stereotypical behaviours while significantly less time is spent indulging in stereotypy following chronic, but not sub-chronic, treatment with escitalopram. Furthermore, HS deer mice present with a significant decrease in striatal SERT density compared to non-stereotypical (NS) controls. Building on previous validation studies, we conclude that deer mouse stereotypy is a valid naturalistic animal model of OCD with robust face, construct and predictive validity. PMID:24013013

Wolmarans, De Wet; Brand, Linda; Stein, Dan J; Harvey, Brian H

2013-11-01

278

Familiality of Factor Analysis-Derived YBOCS Dimensions in OCD-Affected Sibling Pairs  

E-print Network

, obsessive-compulsive disorder, symptom dimensions O bsessive­compulsive disorder (OCD) is a neuropsychi. Murphy Background: Identification of familial, more homogenous characteristics of obsessive­compulsive Clinical Interview for DSM-IV and the Yale­Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (YBOCS) Symptom Checklist

Murphy, Dennis L.

279

Specificity of fear and disgust experienced during traumatic interpersonal victimization in predicting posttraumatic stress and contamination-based obsessive-compulsive symptoms.  

PubMed

Emerging evidence has documented comorbidity between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) among individuals with a history of traumatic events. There is growing recognition of the importance of disgust in each of these conditions independently. No study, however, has examined the potential role of disgust in these conditions following traumatic event exposure. The current study examined the unique role of peritraumatic fear, self-focused disgust, and other-focused disgust in predicting posttraumatic stress symptoms and contamination-based OC symptoms among 49 adult women (M(age)=28.37, SD=13.86) with a history of traumatic interpersonal victimization. Results demonstrated that intensity of peritraumatic self-focused disgust was significantly related to contamination-based OC symptoms while peritraumatic fear and other-focused disgust were related to posttraumatic stress symptoms. These results highlight the need for future research aimed at elucidating the nature of the association between disgust experienced during traumatic events and subsequent psychopathology. PMID:22465821

Badour, Christal L; Bown, Stephanie; Adams, Thomas G; Bunaciu, Liviu; Feldner, Matthew T

2012-06-01

280

Cerebellar Morphology in Tourette Syndrome and Obsessive-Compulsive  

E-print Network

Cerebellar Morphology in Tourette Syndrome and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Russell H. Tobe, MD morphology and under- lying volumes for the main diagnosis effects of TS as well as comorbid obsessive and attenuates during adolescence. TS is 3­4 more com- mon in males.1,2 Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD

281

Understudied Clinical Dimensions in Pediatric Obsessive Compulsive Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study aimed to assess the phenomenology and treatment sensitivity of insight, avoidance, indecisiveness, overvalued responsibility, pervasive slowness, and pathological doubting among youth with Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) using the ancillary items on the Children's Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (CY-BOCS). These factors…

Lewin, Adam B.; Caporino, Nicole; Murphy, Tanya K.; Geffken, Gary R.; Storch, Eric A.

2010-01-01

282

Anxiety Sensitivity and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Anxiety sensitivity (AS), a cognitive risk factor for anxiety disorders, was evaluated in a homogeneous obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) sample. A total of 280 individuals with OCD completed measures. Evaluation of the Anxiety Sensitivity Index revealed a latent structure that was congruent with previous studies showing a single higher order…

Calamari, John E.; Rector, Neil A.; Woodard, John L.; Cohen, Robyn J.; Chik, Heather M.

2008-01-01

283

Early Alliance, Alliance Ruptures, and Symptom Change in a Nonrandomized Trial of Cognitive Therapy for Avoidant and Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Participants were 30 adult outpatients diagnosed with avoidant personality disorder or obsessive-compulsive personality disorder who enrolled in an open trial of cognitive therapy for personality disorders. Treatment consisted of up to 52 weekly sessions. Symptom evaluations were conducted at intake, at Sessions 17 and 34, and at the last…

Strauss, Jennifer L.; Hayes, Adele M.; Johnson, Sheri L.; Newman, Cory F.; Brown, Gregory K.; Barber, Jaques P.; Lawrenceau, Jean-Philippe; Beck, Aaron T.

2006-01-01

284

Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy in obsessive-compulsive disorder: protocol of a randomized controlled trial.  

PubMed

BackgroundObsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a very disabling condition with a chronic course, if left untreated. Though cognitive behavioral treatment (CBT) with or without selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) is the method of choice, up to one third of individuals with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) do not respond to treatment in terms of at least 35% improvement of symptoms. Mindfulness based cognitive therapy (MBCT) is an 8-week group program that could help OCD patients with no or only partial response to CBT to reduce OC symptoms and develop a helpful attitude towards obsessions and compulsive urges.Methods/designThis study is a prospective, bicentric, assessor-blinded, randomized, actively-controlled clinical trial. 128 patients with primary diagnosis of OCD according to DSM-IV and no or only partial response to CBT will be recruited from in- and outpatient services as well as online forums and the media. Patients will be randomized to either an MBCT intervention group or to a psycho-educative coaching group (OCD-EP) as an active control condition. All participants will undergo eight weekly sessions with a length of 120 minutes each of a structured group program. We hypothesize that MBCT will be superior to OCD-EP in reducing obsessive-compulsive symptoms as measured by the Yale-Brown-Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS) following the intervention and at 6- and 12-months-follow-up. Secondary outcome measures include depressive symptoms, quality of life, metacognitive beliefs, self-compassion, mindful awareness and approach-avoidance tendencies as measured by an approach avoidance task.DiscussionThe results of this study will elucidate the benefits of MBCT for OCD patients who did not sufficiently benefit from CBT. To our knowledge, this is the first randomized controlled study assessing the effects of MBCT on symptom severity and associated parameters in OCD.Trial registrationGerman Clinical Trials Register DRKS00004525. Registered 19 March 2013. PMID:25403813

Külz, Anne; Landmann, Sarah; Cludius, Barbara; Hottenrott, Birgit; Rose, Nina; Heidenreich, Thomas; Hertenstein, Elisabeth; Voderholzer, Ulrich; Moritz, Steffen

2014-11-18

285

The Obsessive Compulsive Scale of the Child Behavior Checklist Predicts Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: A Receiver Operating Characteristic Curve Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: The purpose of this study was to determine a score on the Obsessive Compulsive Scale (OCS) from the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) to screen for obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) in children and to rigorously test the specificity and sensitivity of a single cutpoint. Methods: A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis…

Hudziak, James J.; Althoff, Robert R.; Stanger, Catherine; van Beijsterveldt, C. E. M.; Nelson, Elliot C.; Hanna, Gregory L.; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Todd, Richard D.

2006-01-01

286

The Obsessive Compulsive Scale of the Child Behavior Checklist predicts obsessive-compulsive disorder: a receiver operating characteristic curve analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The purpose of this study was to determine a score on the Obsessive Compulsive Scale (OCS) from the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) to screen for obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) in children and to rigorously test the specificity and sensitivity of a single cutpoint. Methods: A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was applied to data from 61 patients with

James J. Hudziak; Robert R. Althoff; Catherine Stanger; Beijsterveldt van C. E. M; Elliot C. Nelson; Gregory L. Hanna; Dorret I. Boomsma; Richard D. Todd

2006-01-01

287

The Validation of a New Obsessive–Compulsive Disorder Scale: The Obsessive–Compulsive Inventory  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Obsessive–Compulsive Inventory (OCI) is a new self-report instrument developed to address the problems inherent in available instruments for determining the diagnosis and severity of obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD). The OCI consists of 42 items composing 7 subscales: Washing, Checking, Doubting, Ordering, Obsessing (i.e., having obsessional thoughts), Hoarding, and Mental Neutralizing. Each item is rated on a 5-point (0–4) Likert scale

Edna B. Foa; Michael J. Kozak; Paul M. Salkovskis; Meredith E. Coles; Nader Amir

1998-01-01

288

Towards a post-traumatic subtype of obsessive-compulsive disorder.  

PubMed

We evaluated whether traumatic events are associated with a distinctive pattern of socio-demographic and clinical features of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). We compared socio-demographic and clinical features of 106 patients developing OCD after post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD; termed post-traumatic OCD), 41 patients developing OCD before PTSD (pre-traumatic OCD), and 810 OCD patients without any history of PTSD (non-traumatic OCD) using multinomial logistic regression analysis. A later age at onset of OCD, self-mutilation disorder, history of suicide plans, panic disorder with agoraphobia, and compulsive buying disorder were independently related to post-traumatic OCD. In contrast, earlier age at OCD onset, alcohol-related disorders, contamination-washing symptoms, and self-mutilation disorder were all independently associated with pre-traumatic OCD. In addition, patients with post-traumatic OCD without a previous history of obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCS) showed lower educational levels, greater rates of contamination-washing symptoms, and more severe miscellaneous symptoms as compared to post-traumatic OCD patients with a history of OCS. PMID:22230220

Fontenelle, Leonardo F; Cocchi, Luca; Harrison, Ben J; Shavitt, Roseli G; do Rosário, Maria Conceiçăo; Ferrăo, Ygor A; de Mathis, Maria Alice; Cordioli, Aristides V; Yücel, Murat; Pantelis, Christos; Mari, Jair de Jesus; Miguel, Euripedes C; Torres, Albina R

2012-03-01

289

Quality of life in obsessive-compulsive disorder before and after treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThe assessment of Quality of Life (QoL) is an important tool for elucidating target symptoms that are particularly bothersome to patients. The present study was designed to explore predictors of decreased QoL in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) patients and to explore which aspects of QoL are most affected in OCD. Furthermore, the study investigated changes in QoL after treatment and the

Steffen Moritz; Michael Rufer; Susanne Fricke; Anne Karow; Matthias Morfeld; Lena Jelinek; Dirk Jacobsen

2005-01-01

290

Panic disorder and obsessive compulsive disorder in a hyperventilation challenge test  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Stress-induced hyperventilation produces symptoms that people are prone to misinterpret as life-threatening if they are unaware of the consequences of overbreathing. Our aim was to observe the induction of panic attacks by a hyperventilation challenge test in a series of panic disorder and obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) patients (DSM-IV). Method: We randomly selected 28 panic disorder patients, 21 OCD

Antonio Egidio Nardi; Alexandre M. Valença; Isabella Nascimento; Walter A. Zin

2002-01-01

291

Obsessive Beliefs and Dimensions of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: An Examination of Specific Associations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although current cognitive-behavioral models have highlighted a central role of dysfunctional “obsessive beliefs” about threat,\\u000a responsibility, uncertainty, perfectionism, importance and control of thoughts in the development of obsessive-compulsive\\u000a disorder (OCD), empirical evidence in support of this notion has been inconsistent. The present investigation further examines\\u000a the association between obsessive beliefs and OCD symptoms among nonclinical (Study 1) and clinical samples

Megan A. ViarSarah; Sarah A. Bilsky; Thomas Armstrong; Bunmi O. Olatunji

2011-01-01

292

A Prospective Test of Cognitive Vulnerability to Obsessive-compulsive Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cognitive models of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder [OCD; e.g., Rachman, 1997, Behaviour Research and Therapy, 35, 793–802; Salkovskis, 1985, Behaviour Research and Therapy, 23, 571–583] propose that negative interpretations of intrusive thoughts and images are central to the development and maintenance\\u000a of OCD. Despite consistent findings that specific interpretations (e.g., heightened responsibility) contribute to the maintenance\\u000a of OC symptoms [see Salkovskis &

Meredith E. Coles; Betty Horng

2006-01-01

293

Obsessive-compulsive disorder and related disorders: a comprehensive survey  

PubMed Central

Our aim was to present a comprehensive, updated survey on obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and obsessive-compulsive related disorders (OCRDs) and their clinical management via literature review, critical analysis and synthesis. Information on OCD and OCRD current nosography, clinical phenomenology and etiology, may lead to a better comprehension of their management. Clinicians should become familiar with the broad spectrum of OCD disorders, since it is a pivotal issue in current clinical psychiatry. PMID:19450269

Fornaro, Michele; Gabrielli, Filippo; Albano, Claudio; Fornaro, Stefania; Rizzato, Salvatore; Mattei, Chiara; Solano, Paola; Vinciguerra, Valentina; Fornaro, Pantaleo

2009-01-01

294

Perfectionism in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Considerable theory and anecdotal evidence has suggested that patients with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) are more perfectionistic. Evidence with non-clinical populations supports this hypothesis. However, no data are available on levels of perfectionism among patients diagnosed with OCD. The present study extends findings on perfectionism and OCD by comparing perfectionism levels of OCD-diagnosed patients with those of non-patients and a group

Randy O. Frost; Gail Steketee

1997-01-01

295

Obsessive-compulsive syndromes and disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To determine the prevalence and clinical characteristics of comorbid obsessive compulsive disorders and syndromes (OCD\\/OCS), compared with pure OCD\\/OCS among adults in the community. Method Data were drawn from the Zurich Study, a longitudinal cohort study of 591 adults in the canton of Zurich. Comorbid OCD\\/OCS was compared with pure OCD\\/OCS groups in terms of distress, impairment, family history,

Jules Angst; Alex Gamma; Jérôme Endrass; Elie Hantouche; Renée Goodwin; Vladeta Ajdacic; Dominique Eich; Wulf Rössler

2005-01-01

296

Distinct Neural Correlates of Washing, Checking, and Hoarding Symptom Dimensions in Obsessive-compulsive Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results: Both patients and control subjects experi- enced increased subjective anxiety during symptom provocation (patients significantly more so) and acti- vated neural regions previously linked to OCD. Analy- ses of covariance, controlling for depression, showed a distinct pattern of activation associated with each symp- tom dimension. Patients demonstrated significantly greater activation than controls in bilateral ventromedial pre- frontal regions and

David Mataix-Cols; Sarah Wooderson; Natalia Lawrence; Michael J. Brammer; Anne Speckens; Mary L. Phillips

2004-01-01

297

[Development of sexuality and motivational aspects of sexual behavior in men with obsessive-compulsive disorders].  

PubMed

Sexual behavior and formation of sexuality in men with obsessive-compulsive disorder is one of the pressing issues in contemporary medicine. Obsessive-compulsive disorder is characterized by the development of intrusive thoughts, memories, movements and actions, as well as a variety of pathological fears (phobias). Increase in the number of patients with this pathology in modern clinical practice of neurotic disorders, the young age of the patients and as a result violation of interpersonal, communicational and sexual nature is quite apparent. The study involved 35 men aged 23 to 47 years with clinical signs of OCD. We determined the severity of obsessive-compulsive symptoms using the Yale-Brown scale. We established the presence of a mild degree of disorder in 34,3% of cases; in 48,6% of cases disorder of moderate severity was diagnosed; remaining 17.1% were assessed subclinical condition of OCD at the applicable scale. The system of motivational maintenance of sexual behavior in men with obsessive-compulsive disorders is investigated. Motives of sexual behavior of the investigated men with the pathology are determined. The presented research in men with OCD have established multidimensionality and complexity of motivational ensuring of sexual behavior. PMID:25341245

2014-09-01

298

Comparison of clinical characteristics, co-morbidity and pharmacotherapy in adolescent schizophrenia patients with and without obsessive–compulsive disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

A substantial proportion of adolescent schizophrenia patients exhibit obsessive–compulsive symptoms\\/disorder (OCS\\/OCD). In the present study we sought to provide a clinical characterization of adolescent schizo-obsessive patients. A consecutive sample of 22 adolescent patients (age 13–18 years) who met DSM-IV criteria for both schizophrenia and OCD was compared with 22 non-OCD schizophrenia patients matched for age, gender and number of hospitalizations. The

Michael Poyurovsky; Sarit Faragian; Adeeb Shabeta; Anatoly Kosov

2008-01-01

299

Cognitive-behavioral family treatment for childhood obsessive-compulsive disorder: A 7-year follow-up study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluated the long-term durability of individual and group cognitive-behavioral family-based therapy (CBFT) for childhood obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Thirty-eight participants (age 13–24 years) from a randomized controlled trial of individual or group CBFT for childhood OCD were assessed 7 years post-treatment. Diagnostic, symptom severity interviews and self-report measures of OCD, anxiety, and depression were administered. Seven years after treatment,

Emily Marie McHugh O’Leary; Paula Barrett; Krister W. Fjermestad

2009-01-01

300

Are stressful life events causally related to the severity of obsessive-compulsive symptoms? A monozygotic twin difference study.  

PubMed

Traumatic or stressful life events have long been hypothesized to play a role in causing or precipitating obsessive-compulsive symptoms but the impact of these environmental factors has rarely been investigated using genetically informative designs. We tested whether a wide range of retrospectively-reported stressful life events (SLEs) influence the lifetime presence and severity of obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCS) in a large Swedish population-based cohort of 22,084 twins. Multiple regression models examined whether differences in SLEs within twin pairs were significantly associated with differences in OCS. In the entire sample (i.e., both monozygotic [MZ] and dizygotic twin pairs), two SLEs factors, "abuse and family disruption" and "sexual abuse", were significantly associated with the severity of OCS even after controlling for depressive symptoms. Other SLEs factors were either not associated with OCS ("loss", "non-sexual assault") or were no longer associated with OCS after controlling for depression ("illness/injury"). Within MZ pair analyses, which effectively control for genetic and shared environmental effects, showed that only the "abuse and family disruption" factor remained independently related to within-pair differences in OCS severity, even after controlling for depressive symptoms. Despite being statistically significant, the magnitude of the associations was small; "abuse and family disruption" explained approximately 3% of the variance in OCS severity. We conclude that OCS are selectively associated with certain types of stressful life events. In particular, a history of interpersonal abuse, neglect and family disruption may make a modest but significant contribution to the severity of OCS. Further replication in longitudinal cohorts is essential before causality can be firmly established. PMID:25511316

Vidal-Ribas, P; Stringaris, A; Rück, C; Serlachius, E; Lichtenstein, P; Mataix-Cols, D

2015-02-01

301

Controlled Comparison of Family Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and Psychoeducation/Relaxation Training for Child Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To examine the efficacy of exposure-based cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) plus a structured family intervention (FCBT) versus psychoeducation plus relaxation training (PRT) for reducing symptom severity, functional impairment, and family accommodation in youths with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Method: A total of 71…

Piacentini, John; Bergman, R. Lindsey; Chang, Susanna; Langley, Audra; Peris, Tara; Wood, Jeffrey J.; McCracken, James

2011-01-01

302

Disgust Implicated in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Psychiatric classificatory systems consider obsessions and compulsions as forms of anxiety disorder. However, the neurology of diseases associated with obsessive-compulsive symptoms suggests the involvement of fronto-striatal regions likely to be involved in the mediation of the emotion of disgust, suggesting that dysfunctions of disgust should be considered alongside anxiety in the pathogenesis of obsessive-compulsive behaviours. We therefore tested recognition of

R. Sprengelmeyer; I. Pundt; A. Sprengelmeyer; A. J. Calder; G. Berrios; R. Winkel; W. Vollmoeller; W. Kuhn; G. Sartory; H. Przuntek

1997-01-01

303

Body image in social anxiety disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and panic disorder.  

PubMed

Body dysmorphic disorder falls under the category of obsessive-compulsive and related disorders, yet research has suggested it may also be highly associated with social anxiety disorder. The current study examined body image variables among 68 outpatients with primary obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD; n=22), social anxiety disorder (SAD; n=25), and panic disorder (PD; n=21). Participants filled out self-report measures of body image disturbance, attitudes toward one's appearance, and anxiety. Body image disturbance and attitudes toward appearance did not significantly differ between the groups. However, SAD symptoms predicted body image disturbance, Appearance Evaluation and Body Areas Satisfaction, and OCD symptoms predicted Appearance Orientation. These findings suggest that SAD and OCD may be associated with different facets of body image. Implications for the treatment of anxiety disorders and for future research are discussed. PMID:24095651

Aderka, Idan M; Gutner, Cassidy A; Lazarov, Amit; Hermesh, Haggai; Hofmann, Stefan G; Marom, Sofi

2014-01-01

304

Obsessive-compulsive disorder and its related disorders: a reappraisal of obsessive-compulsive spectrum concepts  

PubMed Central

Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a clinical syndrome whose hallmarks are excessive, anxiety-evoking thoughts and compulsive behaviors that are generally recognized as unreasonable, but which cause significant distress and impairment. When these are the exclusive symptoms, they constitute uncomplicated OCD. OCD may also occur in the context of other neuropsychiatric disorders, most commonly other anxiety and mood disorders. The question remains as to whether these combinations of disorders should be regarded as independent, cooccurring disorders or as different manifestations of an incompletely understood constellation of OCD spectrum disorders with a common etiology. Additional considerations are given here to two potential etiology-based subgroups: (i) an environmentally based group in which OCD occurs following apparent causal events such as streptococcal infections, brain injury, or atypical neuroleptic treatment; and (ii) a genomically based group in which OCD is related to chromosomal anomalies or specific genes. Considering the status of current research, the concept of OCD and OCD-related spectrum conditions seems fluid in 2010, and in need of ongoing reappraisal. PMID:20623919

Murphy, Dennis L.; Timpano, Kiara R.; Wheaton, Michael G.; Greenberg, Benjamin D.; Miguel, Euripedes C.

2010-01-01

305

Obsessive Compulsive Related Disorders: A New Classification for the DSM-V  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is concern surrounding the classification of obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) for the next edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM). The DSM-V workgroup for OCD related disorders and researchers alike suggest removing OCD from the anxiety disorders category of the DSM, and placing it under the heading of obsessive compulsive related disorders (OCRD). This paper

Lauren M. Mancusi

306

Fear of Guilt in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder.  

E-print Network

??Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a significantly impairing anxiety disorder for which the most successful treatment, cognitive behaviour therapy, has 50-60% success rates, taking into account… (more)

Chiang, Brenda

2013-01-01

307

Brain Imaging in Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Neuroimaging findings support the frontal-striatal-thalamic model of pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder. Glutamate is also implicated in the pathological finding of the disease. Implications for pediatric OCD treatments are discussed.

MacMaster, Frank P.; O'Neill, Joseph; Rosenberg, David R.

2008-01-01

308

Obsessive-compulsive disorder and trichotillomania: a phenomenological comparison  

E-print Network

Abstract Background Similarities between obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and trichotillomania (TTM) have been widely recognized. Nevertheless, there is evidence of important differences between these two disorders. Some authors have...

Lochner, Christine; Seedat, Soraya; du Toit, Pieter L; Nel, Daniel G; Niehaus, Dana J H; Sandler, Robin; Stein, Dan J

2005-01-13

309

Obsessive–compulsive disorder in schizophrenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To examine the differences in demographic and clinical features of patients with schizophrenia, with or without comorbid obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD).Methods: Fifty-two subjects were recruited from clinical services in the city of Edmonton, Alberta and assessed for schizophrenia and OCD with structured clinical interviews and standardized clinical rating scales.Results: The prevalence of OCD in individuals meeting criteria for schizophrenia was

P Tibbo; M Kroetsch; P Chue; L Warneke

2000-01-01

310

Obsessive-compulsive disorder. Diagnosis and management.  

PubMed Central

We present three diagnostic tools to identify overt compulsive rituals, obsessional thinking, and neutralizing behaviours in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and describe the most effective cognitive-behavioural technique for treating obsessional thinking without overt rituals. Basic dysfunctional beliefs that lead to OCD are explained and integrated in the treatment model. We suggest how combined therapy can be used to tread OCD. PMID:8704492

Ladouceur, R.; Freeston, M.; Gagnon, F.

1996-01-01

311

Obsessive Compulsive Disorder  

PubMed Central

An estimated three to seven million Americans suffer from obsessive compulsive disorder at some time in their lives. Until recently, obsessive compulsive disorder was considered refractory to most treatments. However, recent studies indicate a better prognosis with behavioral therapy, antidepressant medications, or both. Behavioral treatment is generally more effective for compulsions than for obsessions. PMID:21229040

Goli, Veeraindar; Krishnan, Ranga; Ellinwood, Everett

1991-01-01

312

Defining Treatment Response and Remission in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: A Signal Detection Analysis of the Children's Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To examine the optimal Children's Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (CY-BOCS) percent reduction cutoffs for predicting treatment response and clinical remission among children and adolescents with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Method: Youth with OCD (N = 109; range 7 to 19 years) received 14 sessions of weekly or intensive…

Storch, Eric A.; Lewin, Adam B.; De Nadai, Alessandro S.; Murphy, Tanya K.

2010-01-01

313

Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder traits and personality dimensions in parents of children with obsessive-compulsive disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeTo compare patterns of temperament and character and the prevalence of Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder (OCPD) and OCPD traits in parents of children with OCD and parents of healthy controls.

Rosa Calvo; Luisa Lázaro; Josefina Castro-Fornieles; Elena Moreno; J. Toro

2009-01-01

314

Sleep-related problems in pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although attention has been given to presence of sleep related problems (SRPs) in children with psychiatric conditions, little has been reported on SRPs in youth with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Sixty-six children and adolescents with OCD were administered the Children's Yale Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale and completed the Children's Depression Inventory and Multidimensional Anxiety Scale. Their parents completed the Child Behavior Checklist

Eric A. Storch; Tanya K. Murphy; Caleb W. Lack; Gary R. Geffken; Marni L. Jacob; Wayne K. Goodman

2008-01-01

315

Quality of Life in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a severe mental disorder with a lifetime prevalence of 1.6{%} in the US population,\\u000a although the identified obsessive-compulsive spectrum may affect up to 10{%} of the US population. Furthermore, OCD is a chronic,\\u000a profoundly disabling illness that impacts negatively on the academic, occupational, social and family patients’ functioning\\u000a as well as on their families’ lives. Indeed,

Julio Bobes; M.-P. GarcÍa-Portilla; Maria-Teresa BascarÁn; Pilar-Alejandra SÁiz; Maria-Teresa Bobes-BascarÁn; Manuel BousoŃo

316

Is obsessive–compulsive disorder an anxiety disorder?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) is classified as an anxiety disorder in the DSM-IV-TR [American Psychiatric Association, 2000. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, Fourth ed., rev. Washington, DC: Author]; however, the notion of a spectrum of obsessive–compulsive (OC) related disorders that is comprised of such disparate disorders as OCD, body dysmorphic disorder, certain eating disorders, pathological gambling, and autism, is

Jennifer A. Bartz; Eric Hollander

2006-01-01

317

Gender-related clinical differences in obsessive-compulsive disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the present study was to investigate the gender-related differences of clinical features in a sample of obsessive-compulsive (OCD) patients. One hundred and sixty outpatients with a principal diagnosis of obsessive-compulsive disorder (DSM-IV, Y-BOCS = 16) were admitted. Patients were evaluated with a semi-structured interview covering the following areas: socio-demographic data, Axis I diagnoses (DSM-IV), OCD clinical features

F Bogetto; S Venturello; U Albert; G Maina; L Ravizza

1999-01-01

318

Posttraumatic obsessive-compulsive disorder: a case series.  

PubMed

This report documents emerging posttraumatic obsessive-compulsive disorder in 13 Israeli military veterans diagnosed with both obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), for whom the onset of OCD was clearly associated with the trauma. Data presented include four detailed case reports that delineate relations between symptomatology in the two disorders. Clinical and theoretical implications of these data are discussed. PMID:15922457

Sasson, Yehuda; Dekel, Sharon; Nacasch, Nitza; Chopra, Miriam; Zinger, Yaffa; Amital, Daniella; Zohar, Joseph

2005-06-15

319

Obsessive Compulsive Disorder and the School Counselor  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current article is designed to provide school counselors an understanding of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The causes, characteristics, and treatment approaches are presented with examples focusing on school-related issues. The article concludes with a discussion about the role that the school counselor can take in helping the child…

Wertlieb, Ellen C.

2008-01-01

320

Memory and confidence in memory judgments among individuals with obsessive compulsive disorder and non-clinical controls  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study investigated episodic memory functioning in: (1) obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) patients with primarily checking symptoms (i.e. checkers); (2) OCD patients without checking symptoms (i.e. non-checkers); and (3) non-clinical control participants. On a measure of recall, all groups were statistically equivalent with respect to the proportion of words correctly recalled. Using a recognition measure, checkers were unimpaired in

Penny A. Macdonald; Martin M. Antony; Colin M. Macleod; Margaret A. Richter

1997-01-01

321

A role for the precuneus in thought-action fusion: evidence from participants with significant obsessive-compulsive symptoms.  

PubMed

Likelihood thought-action fusion (TAF-L) refers to a cognitive bias in which individuals believe that the mere thought of a negative event increases its likelihood of occurring in reality. TAF-L is most commonly associated with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) but is also present in depression, generalized anxiety disorder and psychosis. We induced TAF-L in individuals with high (High-OC, N = 23) and low (Low-OC, N = 24) levels of OC traits, and used low resolution electromagnetic tomography (LORETA) to localise the accompanying electrical brain activity patterns. The results showed greater TAF-L in the High-OC than in the Low-OC group (p < .005), which was accompanied by significantly greater upper beta frequency (19-30 Hz) activity in the precuneus (p < .05). Further, the precuneus activity was positively correlated with self-reported magnitude of TAF-L (p < .01), suggesting a specific role of this region in this cognitive bias. Results are discussed with reference to self-referential processing and the default-mode network. PMID:24371793

Jones, Rhiannon; Bhattacharya, Joydeep

2014-01-01

322

A role for the precuneus in thought–action fusion: Evidence from participants with significant obsessive–compulsive symptoms?  

PubMed Central

Likelihood thought–action fusion (TAF-L) refers to a cognitive bias in which individuals believe that the mere thought of a negative event increases its likelihood of occurring in reality. TAF-L is most commonly associated with obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) but is also present in depression, generalized anxiety disorder and psychosis. We induced TAF-L in individuals with high (High-OC, N = 23) and low (Low-OC, N = 24) levels of OC traits, and used low resolution electromagnetic tomography (LORETA) to localise the accompanying electrical brain activity patterns. The results showed greater TAF-L in the High-OC than in the Low-OC group (p < .005), which was accompanied by significantly greater upper beta frequency (19–30 Hz) activity in the precuneus (p < .05). Further, the precuneus activity was positively correlated with self-reported magnitude of TAF-L (p < .01), suggesting a specific role of this region in this cognitive bias. Results are discussed with reference to self-referential processing and the default-mode network. PMID:24371793

Jones, Rhiannon; Bhattacharya, Joydeep

2013-01-01

323

Stereotactic treatment of refractory obsessive compulsive disorder by bilateral capsulotomy with 3 years follow-up  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to study the clinical effect of bilateral capsulotomy in patients with refractory obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), 35 patients with refractory obsessive compulsive disorder for whom anti-OCD medications and psychological\\/behavior therapy had failed, underwent MRI-guided stereotactic bilateral anterior capsulotomy. Pre- and post-operative Yale-Brown obsessive compulsive scale (Y-BOCS), Hamilton depression scale (HAMD) and Hamilton anxiety scale (HAMA) scores were determined

Kangyong Liu; Haiyin Zhang; Chunfeng Liu; Yihui Guan; Liqin Lang; Yanbo Cheng; Bomin Sun; Hui Wang; Chuantao Zuo; Li Pan; Heding Xu; Shunjun Li; Lihua Shi; Jinjun Qian; Yaping Yang

2008-01-01

324

Predictive value of Obsessive–Compulsive Personality Disorder in antiobsessional pharmacological treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous reports have stressed the implication of Personality Disorders as predictors of a poorer treatment outcome in Obsessive–Compulsive Disorder (OCD). The aim of this study was to see whether or not Obsessive–Compulsive Personality Disorder in Obsessive–Compulsive Disorder may be predictive for a poorer outcome to antiobsessive pro-serotonergic pharmacological treatment. For this purpose, 30 OCD patients were divided into two groups

Paolo Cavedini; Stefano Erzegovesi; Paolo Ronchi; Laura Bellodi

1997-01-01

325

Quantitative somatic sensory testing and functional imaging of the response to painful stimuli before and after cingulotomy for obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD)  

PubMed Central

The middle cingulate cortex (MCC) has been implicated in pain processing by studies of cingulotomy for chronic pain and imaging studies documenting increased MCC blood flow in response to acute pain. The only previous report of quantitative sensory testing following cingulotomy described increased intensity and unpleasantness ratings of painful hot and cold stimuli in a single patient with psychiatric disease. We now report a case in which perception of pain and temperature was assessed before and after cingulotomy for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Positron emission tomographic (PET) studies of the bloodflow response to acute pain were carried out using a single subject design which allowed for statistical evaluation of postoperative blood flow changes in this case. Postoperatively, the patient demonstrated increased intensity and unpleasantness ratings of painful thermal waterbath stimuli. The PET studies demonstrated preoperative contact heat pain-evoked activation of the bilateral MCC/SMA (supplementary motor area) and the left (contralateral) fronto-parietal operculum. Postoperative pain-evoked activation was demonstrated in the right (ipsilateral) parasylvian cortex but not of the MCC/SMA. Prior studies of forebrain lesions, and of cortical synchrony during the application of painful stimuli suggest the presence of functional connectivity between components of the MCC/SMA and the fronto-parietal opercula. Therefore present results suggest that cingulate lesions disinhibit ipsilateral parasylvian cortex and so are independent evidence of functional connectivity between these cortical areas, the defining characteristic of components in a pain network. PMID:18328752

Greenspan, Joel D.; Coghill, Robert C.; Gilron, Ian; Sarlani, Eleni; Veldhuijzen, Dieuwke; Lenz, Frederick A.

2012-01-01

326

The mediating role of disgust sensitivity and thought-action fusion between religiosity and obsessive compulsive symptoms.  

PubMed

Psychological theories of obsessions and compulsions have long recognised that strict religious codes and moral standards might promote thought-action fusion (TAF) appraisals. These appraisals have been implicated in the transformation of normally occurring intrusions into clinically distressing obsessions. Furthermore, increased disgust sensitivity has also been reported to be associated with obsessive compulsive (OC) symptoms. No research, however, has investigated the mediating roles of TAF and disgust sensitivity between religiosity and OC symptoms. This study was composed of 244 undergraduate students who completed measures of OC symptoms, TAF, disgust sensitivity, religiosity and negative effect. Analyses revealed that the relationship between religiosity and OC symptoms was mediated by TAF and disgust sensitivity. More importantly, the mediating role of TAF was not different across OC symptom subtypes, whereas the mediating role of disgust sensitivity showed different patterns across OC symptom subtypes. These findings indicate that the tendency for highly religious Muslims to experience greater OC symptoms is related to their heightened beliefs about disgust sensitivity and the importance of thoughts. PMID:25178954

Inozu, Mujgan; Ulukut, Fulya Ozcanli; Ergun, Gokce; Alcolado, Gillian M

2014-10-01

327

An fMRI Investigation of Source Memory in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder  

E-print Network

Individuals with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) often complain about poor memory and evidence suggests that individuals with OCD exhibit deficits on some tasks, including those that are unrelated to obsessional concerns. As individuals with OCD...

Olson, Christy Ann

2013-12-31

328

Cognitive behavioral therapy of obsessive-compulsive disorder  

PubMed Central

Until the mid-1960s, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) was considered to be treatment-resistant, as both psychodynamic psychotherapy and medication had been unsuccessful in significantly reducing OCD symptoms. The first real breakthrough came in 1966 with the introduction of exposure and ritual prevention. This paper will discuss the cognitive behavioral conceptualizations that influenced the development of cognitive behavioral treatments for OCD. There will be a brief discussion of the use of psychodynamic psychotherapy and early behavioral therapy, neither of which produced successful outcomes with OCD. The main part of the paper will be devoted to current cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) with an emphasis on variants of exposure and ritual or response prevention (EX/RP) treatments, the therapy that has shown the most empirical evidence of its efficacy. PMID:20623924

Foa, Edna B.

2010-01-01

329

How does locus of control and inflated sense of responsibility relate to obsessive-compulsive symptoms in Turkish adolescents?  

PubMed

This study aimed to examine the effects of responsibility attitudes, locus of control and their interactions on the general obsessive-compulsive (OC) symptomatology and the dimensions of OC symptoms in a sample of Turkish adolescents (n=385), their ages varied from 16 to 20 with a mean of 17.23 (S.D.=.68). The results of the present study revealed a significantly positive relationship between responsibility attitudes and general OC symptomatology. However, locus of control did not appear as a significant predictor of general OC symptomatology. Furthermore, results revealed that there was a significant interaction effect of responsibility attitudes with locus of control on OC symptomatology. That is, an inflated sense of responsibility and the presence of an external locus of control produced the highest level of OC symptoms. Related to the dimensions of OC symptoms, responsibility was a weak predictor of obsessive thinking symptoms, and a moderate predictor of cleanliness and checking symptoms. Locus of control and its interaction with responsibility attitudes only significantly predicted obsessional thinking symptoms. PMID:18304779

Altin, Müjgan; Karanci, A Nuray

2008-12-01

330

Depression, anxiety and obsessive-compulsive symptoms and quality of life in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) during three-month methylphenidate treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current study was designed to investigate the changes that occur in depression, anxiety, obsessive—compulsive symptoms and health-related quality of life during methylphenidate (MPH) treatment in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Forty-five treatment naive children with ADHD, aged 8—14, were assessed based on self, parent and teacher reports at the baseline and at the end of the first and

Ka?an Gürkan; Ayhan Bilgiç; Serhat Türko?lu; Birim G K?l?ç; Ayla Aysev; Runa Uslu

2010-01-01

331

Delayed obsessive-compulsive disorder symptom exacerbation after a single dose of a serotonin antagonist in fluoxetine-treated but not untreated patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Enhanced serotonergic transmission may underlie therapeutic effects of serotonin reuptake inhibitors in obsessive-compulsive\\u000a disorder. However, such treatment may decrease serotonin receptor responsivity. We investigated whether the serotonin antagonist\\u000a metergoline would exacerbate or further improve systems in fluoxetine-responsive patients. Pilot results suggested open metergoline\\u000a produced delayed symptom worsening in fluoxetine-treated patients. Fourteen patients continuing fluoxetine received metergoline\\u000a and placebo (double-blind, randomized).

B. D. Greenberg; Jonathan Benjamin; Juliet D. Martin; David Keuler; S.-J. Huang; Margaret Altemus; Dennis L. Murphy

1998-01-01

332

Accuracy of retrospective memory and covariation estimation in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder.  

PubMed

Assessment methods relying on biased or inaccurate retrospective recall may distort knowledge about the nature of disorders and lead to faulty clinical inferences. Despite concerns about the accuracy of retrospective recall in general and in particular with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) patients, the accuracy of retrospective recall for one's own symptoms assessed in vivo is unknown in this population. This study used a prospective ecological momentary assessment (EMA) methodology to create a criterion against which to assess recall accuracy in OCD patients. Although results indicated that patients' retrospective recall of OCD symptoms was fairly accurate, they consistently overestimated the magnitude of OCD symptom covariation with non-OCD facets (e.g., sleep duration, contemporaneous stress level, etc.). Findings suggest that even when recall of OCD symptoms is accurate, patients may be inaccurate in estimating symptom covariation. The findings have implications for the research, case conceptualization, and assessment of OCD, and may extend to other disorders. PMID:18417100

Gloster, Andrew T; Richard, David C S; Himle, Joseph; Koch, Ellen; Anson, Heather; Lokers, Laura; Thornton, James

2008-05-01

333

Eating disorders and obsessive-compulsive disorder: A dimensional approach to purported relations.  

PubMed

The purpose of this research was to investigate the specificity of purported relations between symptoms of eating disorders (ED) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Whereas most research has focused on diagnostic comorbidity or between-groups analyses, this study took a dimensional approach to investigate specific relations among symptoms of anorexia, bulimia, and OCD, as well as panic, depression, and general distress in a student sample (N=465). Results were that all symptoms showed significant zero-order correlations, including all ED-OCD pairings. After removing general distress variance, however, none of three OCD scales significantly predicted anorexia; only compulsive washing among OCD scales significantly predicted bulimia. Hierarchical multiple regression demonstrated that panic and depression out-performed OCD in predicting bulimia symptoms. Overall, symptoms of ED and OCD did not show unique relations at the level of core dimensions of each construct. A possible link between bulimia and compulsive washing is worth further study. PMID:18396006

Wu, Kevin D

2008-12-01

334

Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) augmentation of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) for SSRI-resistant obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD): a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials  

PubMed Central

Background and objective: Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) as augmentation of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) for SSRI-resistant obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) have yielded conflicting results. Therefore, this meta-analysis was conducted to assess the efficacy of this strategy for SSRI-resistant OCD. Methods: Scientific and medical databases, including international databases (PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CCTR, Web of Science, PsycINFO), two Chinese databases (CBM-disc, CNKI), and relevant websites dated up to July 2014, were searched for RCTs on this strategy for treating OCD. Mantel-Haenszel random-effects model was used. Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS) score, response rates and drop-out rates were evaluated. Results: Data were obtained from nine RCTs consisting of 290 subjects. Active rTMS was an effective augmentation strategy in treating SSRI-resistant OCD with a pooled WMD of 3.89 (95% CI = [1.27, 6.50]) for reducing Y-BOCS score and a pooled odds ratio (OR) of 2.65 (95% CI = [1.36, 5.17] for response rates. No significant differences in drop-out rates were found. No publication bias was detected. Conclusion: The pooled examination demonstrated that this strategy seems to be efficacious and acceptable for treating SSRI-resistant OCD. As the number of RCTs included here was limited, further large-scale multi-center RCTs are required to validate our conclusions.

Ma, Zhong-Rui; Shi, Li-Jun

2014-01-01

335

Internet-based cognitive behavior therapy for obsessive compulsive disorder: A pilot study  

PubMed Central

Background Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) is widely regarded as an effective treatment for obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), but access to CBT therapists is limited. Internet-based CBT (ICBT) with therapist support is a way to increase access to CBT but has not been developed or tested for OCD. The aim of this study was to evaluate ICBT for OCD. Method An open trial where patients (N = 23) received a 15-week ICBT program with therapist support consisting of psychoeducation, cognitive restructuring and exposure with response prevention. The primary outcome was the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS), which was assessed by a psychiatrist before and immediately after treatment. Secondary outcomes were self-rated measures of OCD symptoms, depressive symptoms, general functioning, anxiety and quality of life. All assessments were made at baseline and post-treatment. Results All participants completed the primary outcome measure at all assessment points. There were reductions in OCD symptoms with a large within-group effect size (Cohen's d = 1.56). At post-treatment, 61% of participants had a clinically significant improvement and 43% no longer fulfilled the diagnostic criteria of OCD. The treatment also resulted in statistically significant improvements in self-rated OCD symptoms, general functioning and depression. Conclusions ICBT with therapist support reduces OCD symptoms, depressive symptoms and improves general functioning. Randomized trials are needed to confirm the effectiveness of this new treatment format. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01348529 PMID:21812991

2011-01-01

336

Comparison of obsessive-compulsive disorder patients with and without comorbid putative obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorders using a structured clinical interview.  

PubMed

Increasing attention has been paid to the possibility that a range of disorders, the putative obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorders (OCSDs), may share overlapping phenomenological and neurobiological features with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The development of a structured clinician-administered interview for the putative OCSDs (SCID-OCSD) is described. This instrument was used to investigate differences between OCD patients with a comorbid putative OCSD and OCD patients without a comorbid putative OCSD. A sample of 85 adult patients (38 men and 47 women) presenting for treatment of OCD was interviewed with the SCID-OCSD. OCD patients without comorbid putative OCSDs (n = 36) were compared to patients with comorbid OCSDs (n = 49) in terms of demographic features, clinical characteristics, and associated comorbidity with other non-OCSD DSM-IV axis I disorders. Of the OCD patients, 57.6% currently met criteria for at least one putative OCSD and 67.1% had a lifetime history of at least one comorbid OCSD. The OCSDs with the highest prevalence rates were compulsive self-injury (22.4%), compulsive buying (10.6%), and intermittent explosive disorder (10.6%). There was a significantly larger proportion of women in the group with comorbid OCSDs. Although the two groups did not differ in terms of severity of OCD symptoms, the group with comorbid OCSDs had significantly more obsessions and compulsions. The two groups did not differ significantly in terms of associated psychopathology other than OCSDs. We conclude that the SCID-OCSD provides clinicians and researchers with an instrument for the diagnosis of putative OCSDs. Our findings suggest that putative OCSDs have a relatively high prevalence rate in OCD patients. In addition, OCD patients with comorbid OCSDs differ with regard to certain demographic and clinical features. Further research, particularly genetic and neuroimmunological work, may ultimately be useful in validating the obsessive-compulsive spectrum. PMID:11458303

du Toit, P L; van Kradenburg, J; Niehaus, D; Stein, D J

2001-01-01

337

Cognitive Assessment Instrument of Obsessions and Compulsions (CAIOC-13) — A new 13-item scale for evaluating functional impairment associated with OCD  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Cognitive Assessment Instrument of Obsessions and Compulsions (CAIOC) was designed as a novel instrument for clinicians to assess the main cognitive and executive impairments that are hypothesized to underpin the impact of obsessive-compulsive symptoms on functioning in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Initially, 18 items were selected based upon observation in the laboratory and clinical research setting, then refined

Winand H. Dittrich; Thomas Johansen; Naomi A. Fineberg

2011-01-01

338

Tic or Compulsion? It's Tourettic OCD  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A subgroup of individuals suffering from obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) frequently present to treatment with an atypical yet distinguishable array of symptoms akin to both Tourettes disorder (TD) and OCD. These individuals often receive standard treatments for OCD (or less likely, TD) that fail to address the blended features of their…

Mansueto, Charles; Keuler, David

2005-01-01

339

Does cognitive-behavioral therapy cure obsessive-compulsive disorder? A meta-analytic evaluation of clinical significance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Meta-analytic methods were employed to investigate the clinical significance of ex- posure therapy in the treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Samples of patients treated in 16 outcome trials were compared with 9 normative samples to clarify how similar the symptoms of treated patients were to those without history of OCD. The Maudsley Obsessional-Compulsive Inventory (MOCI) was used as the basis

Jonathan S. Abramowitz

1998-01-01

340

Cognitive behavior therapy in treatment-naive children and adolescents with obsessive-compulsive disorder: an open trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work aims is to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) in pediatric patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) who had not previously been treated with either pharmacotherapy or psychotherapy and who remained medication-free during CBT. Sixteen OCD outpatients, 8–17 years of age, were treated in a 12-week open trial with manualized CBT. Target symptoms were rated at

N. R. Benazon; J. Ager; D. R. Rosenberg

2002-01-01

341

Obsessive–compulsive disorder and personality disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Previous studies indicate that most individuals with obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) have comorbid personality disorders\\u000a (PDs), particularly from the anxious cluster. However, the nature and strength of this association remains unclear, as the\\u000a majority of previous studies have relied heavily on clinical populations. We analysed the prevalence of screen positive personality\\u000a disorder in a representative sample of adults with OCD living

Albina R. Torres; Paul Moran; Paul Bebbington; Traolach Brugha; Dinesh Bhugra; Jeremy W. Coid; Michael Farrell; Rachel Jenkins; Glyn Lewis; Howard Meltzer; Martin Prince

2006-01-01

342

Effectiveness of exposure and ritual prevention for obsessive-compulsive disorder: Randomized compared with nonrandomized samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

The efficacy of exposure and ritual prevention (EX\\/RP) for reducing symptoms of obsessive—compulsive disorder (OCD) has been demonstrated in several randomized controlled trials (RCTs). However, procedures used in these studies to maximize experimental control may have limited their generalizability to typical clinical practice. Treatment outcome data from 110 clinical patients receiving EX\\/RP on an outpatient fee-rbr-service basis were compared with

Martin E. Franklin; Jonathan S. Abramowitz; Michael J. Kozak; Jill T. Levitt; Edna B. Foa

2000-01-01

343

Illusion of Control and Behavioral Control Attempts in Obsessive–Compulsive Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present research used the illusion-of-control paradigm to examine the relationships among obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) symptoms, behavioral control attempts, and illusory sense of control. Participants were presented with a preprogrammed sequence of aversive and neutral visual stimuli and were encouraged to attempt to control the sequence with keyboard presses. Participants rated their perceived level of control 3 times during the

Orna Reuven-Magril; Reuven Dar; Nira Liberman

2008-01-01

344

Correlation between lipid peroxidation-induced TBARS level and disease severity in obsessive–compulsive disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oxidative stress is thought to play an important role in several neuropsychiatric diseases including obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD). Thiobarbituric acid reacting substances (TBARS) are products formed as a result of free radical induced lipid peroxidation in the human body. Our study investigated the correlation between TBARS and the clinical severity of OCD as indicated by the Yale Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale

Sutirtha Chakraborty; Om Prakash Singh; Anindya Dasgupta; Nikhiles Mandal; Harendra Nath Das

2009-01-01

345

Management of obsessive-compulsive disorder.  

PubMed

Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a common, often debilitating disorder characterized by the presence of obsessions and compulsions. Obsessions are repetitive thoughts or images which are experienced as intrusive and unwanted; they cause marked anxiety and distress. Compulsions (also known as rituals) are repetitive behaviors or mental acts that individuals with OCD perform in an attempt to decrease their anxiety. Patients tend to hide their symptoms due to shame; the amount of time between onset of symptoms and appropriate treatment is often many years. The disorder likely results from several etiological variables; functional imaging studies have consistently shown hyperactivity in the orbitofrontal cortex, anterior cingulate, thalamus, and striatum. The mainstays of treatment include cognitive-behavioral therapy in the form of exposure and response prevention (ERP) and serotonin reuptake inhibiting medications. Several pharmacological augmentation strategies exist for treatment-resistant OCD, with addition of antipsychotics being most commonly employed. Radio and neurosurgical procedures, including gamma knife radiation and deep brain stimulation, are reserved for severe, treatment-refractory disease that has not responded to multiple treatments, and some patients may benefit from transcranial magnetic stimulation. PMID:25165567

Seibell, Phillip J; Hollander, Eric

2014-01-01

346

Management of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder  

PubMed Central

Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a common, often debilitating disorder characterized by the presence of obsessions and compulsions. Obsessions are repetitive thoughts or images which are experienced as intrusive and unwanted; they cause marked anxiety and distress. Compulsions (also known as rituals) are repetitive behaviors or mental acts that individuals with OCD perform in an attempt to decrease their anxiety. Patients tend to hide their symptoms due to shame; the amount of time between onset of symptoms and appropriate treatment is often many years. The disorder likely results from several etiological variables; functional imaging studies have consistently shown hyperactivity in the orbitofrontal cortex, anterior cingulate, thalamus, and striatum. The mainstays of treatment include cognitive-behavioral therapy in the form of exposure and response prevention (ERP) and serotonin reuptake inhibiting medications. Several pharmacological augmentation strategies exist for treatment-resistant OCD, with addition of antipsychotics being most commonly employed. Radio and neurosurgical procedures, including gamma knife radiation and deep brain stimulation, are reserved for severe, treatment-refractory disease that has not responded to multiple treatments, and some patients may benefit from transcranial magnetic stimulation. PMID:25165567

Hollander, Eric

2014-01-01

347

Dimensions of Perfectionism in Children and Adolescents with Obsessive-compulsive Disorder  

PubMed Central

Objective To measure the association of perfectionism with obsessive-compulsive and depressive symptoms in children and adolescents with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Method: Sample consisted of 94 youth (44 boys, 49 girls; mean age = 13.2 y, SD = 2.5 y) with a DSM-IV diagnosis of OCD. Perfectionism beliefs were measured with both the Adaptive/Maladaptive Perfectionism Scale (AMPS) and a 14-item version of the Child and Adolescents Perfectionism Scale (CAPS-14). Using a hierarchical linear-regression model, we measured the association of perfectionist beliefs with severity of OCD and depressive symptoms. Results: Both AMPS and CAPS-14 scores were associated with the severity of OCD symptoms in our sample. In addition, CAPS-14 scores were associated with the severity of depressive symptoms, even when OCD symptoms were taken into account. Conclusions: Our findings lend further support to the hypothesis that perfectionism in youth with OCD is associated with variation in the severity of OCD and depressive symptoms. PMID:24872829

Soreni, Noam; Streiner, David; McCabe, Randi; Bullard, Carrie; Swinson, Richard; Greco, Alessia; Pires, Paulo; Szatmari, Peter

2014-01-01

348

Obsessive-compulsive disorder in children and adolescents.  

PubMed

Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) in childhood and adolescence is an impairing condition, associated with a specific set of distressing symptoms incorporating repetitive, intrusive thoughts (obsessions) and distressing, time-consuming rituals (compulsions). This review considers current knowledge of causes and mechanisms underlying OCD, as well as assessment and treatment. Issues relating to differential diagnosis are summarised, including the challenges of distinguishing OCD from autism spectrum disorders and tic disorders in youth. The recommended treatments, namely cognitive behaviour therapy and serotonin reuptake inhibiting/selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor medications, are outlined along with the existing evidence-based and factors associated with treatment resistance. Finally, novel clinical developments that are emerging in the field and future directions for research are discussed. PMID:25398447

Krebs, Georgina; Heyman, Isobel

2014-11-14

349

Obsessive-compulsive disorder and trichotillomania: a phenomenological comparison  

PubMed Central

Background Similarities between obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and trichotillomania (TTM) have been widely recognized. Nevertheless, there is evidence of important differences between these two disorders. Some authors have conceptualized the disorders as lying on an OCD spectrum of conditions. Methods Two hundred and seventy eight OCD patients (n = 278: 148 male; 130 female) and 54 TTM patients (n = 54; 5 male; 49 female) of all ages were interviewed. Female patients were compared on select demographic and clinical variables, including comorbid axis I and II disorders, and temperament/character profiles. Results OCD patients reported significantly more lifetime disability, but fewer TTM patients reported response to treatment. OCD patients reported higher comorbidity, more harm avoidance and less novelty seeking, more maladaptive beliefs, and more sexual abuse. OCD and TTM symptoms were equally likely to worsen during menstruation, but OCD onset or worsening was more likely associated with pregnancy/puerperium. Conclusions These findings support previous work demonstrating significant differences between OCD and TTM. The classification of TTM as an impulse control disorder is also problematic, and TTM may have more in common with conditions characterized by stereotypical self-injurious symptoms, such as skin-picking. Differences between OCD and TTM may reflect differences in underlying psychobiology, and may necessitate contrasting treatment approaches. PMID:15649315

Lochner, Christine; Seedat, Soraya; du Toit, Pieter L; Nel, Daniel G; Niehaus, Dana JH; Sandler, Robin; Stein, Dan J

2005-01-01

350

Obsessive-compulsive disorder and gut microbiota dysregulation.  

PubMed

Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a debilitating disorder for which the cause is not known and treatment options are modestly beneficial. A hypothesis is presented wherein the root cause of OCD is proposed to be a dysfunction of the gut microbiome constituency resulting in a susceptibility to obsessional thinking. Both stress and antibiotics are proposed as mechanisms by which gut microbiota are altered preceding the onset of OCD symptomology. In this light, pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infections (PANDAS) leading to episodic OCD is explained not by group A beta-hemolytic streptococcal infections, but rather by prophylactic antibiotics that are administered as treatment. Further, stressful life events known to trigger OCD, such as pregnancy, are recast to show the possibility of altering gut microbiota prior to onset of OCD symptoms. Suggested treatment for OCD would be the directed, specie-specific (re)introduction of beneficial bacteria modifying the gut microbiome, thereby ameliorating OCD symptoms. Special considerations should be contemplated when considering efficacy of treatment, particularly the unhealthy coping strategies often observed in patients with chronic OCD that may need addressing in conjunction with microbiome remediation. PMID:24332563

Rees, Jon C

2014-02-01

351

Stepped Care for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: A Pilot Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cognitive-behavioral therapy incorporating exposure and ritual prevention (EX/RP) is the first-line psychosocial treatment of choice for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). However, several barriers to care prevent many OCD patients from receiving this treatment. Previous research has indicated that some OCD patients may benefit from less…

Tolin, David F.; Diefenbach, Gretchen J.; Maltby, Nicholas; Hannan, Scott

2005-01-01

352

Childhood Obsessive–Compulsive Disorder in the NIMH MECA Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because as many as 50% of obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) cases have had onset by age 15, interest in its detection in childhood is strong. Clinical experience indicates that children often try to keep their OCD secret and that parental report may give marked underestimates. The authors examined the prevalence of childhood OCD in the NIMH Methods for the Epidemiology of

Judith L Rapoport; Gale Inoff-Germain; Myrna M Weissman; Steven Greenwald; William E Narrow; Peter S Jensen; Benjamin B Lahey; Glorisa Canino

2000-01-01

353

Neuropsychological performance in obsessive-compulsive disorder: a critical review  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is growing evidence for neuropsychological dysfunction in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) related to an underlying frontal lobe and\\/or basal ganglia dysfunction. The following paper is a systematical review of the existing literature on cognitive impairment in OCD patients. Fifty studies were surveyed with regard to methodological aspects and cognitive impairments found in OCD patients. In addition, the impact of confounding

Anne Katrin Kuelz; Fritz Hohagen; Ulrich Voderholzer

2004-01-01

354

Memory and memory confidence in obsessive–compulsive disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pathological doubt, often found in individuals with obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD), has been theoretically linked to memory deficits, but empirical evidence for such deficits has been mixed. In contrast, many studies suggest that individuals with OCD have low confidence in their memories. The present study aimed to build upon previous research by measuring memory accuracy and confidence in OCD using ecologically

David F. Tolin; Jonathan S. Abramowitz; Bartholomew D. Brigidi; Nader Amir; Edna B. Foa

2001-01-01

355

Insight in obsessive compulsive disorder and body dysmorphic disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Similarities between obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) have been described in terms of clinical presentation, comorbidity rates, treatment response profiles, and other features. This is the first study to compare insight in OCD and BDD measuring global insight and numerous components of insight. We compared insight in 64 adult outpatients with DSM-IV OCD and 85 adult outpatients

Jane L Eisen; Katharine A Phillips; Meredith E Coles; Steven A Rasmussen

2004-01-01

356

Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder in Adults with Down's Syndrome.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated demographic and phenomenological characteristics of obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) in nine adults with Down syndrome (DS), and possible effects on adaptive behavior. Results suggest OCD is more common in the DS population than the non-DS population. Ordering and tidiness was the most common form of OCD found, and…

Prasher, V. P.; Day, S.

1995-01-01

357

A Family Study of Obsessive-compulsive Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The causes of obsessive-compulsive dis- order (OCD) are as yet unknown. Evidence of familial aggregation is one approach for investigating the role of genetics in the etiology of this condition. The current study was conducted to determine if OCD is familial and to in- vestigate possible familial subtypes. Methods: Eighty case probands were identified in 5 spe- cialty OCD

Gerald Nestadt; Jack Samuels; Mark Riddle; O. Joseph Bienvenu III; Kung-Yee Liang; Michele LaBuda; John Walkup; Marco Grados; Rudolf Hoehn-Saric

2000-01-01

358

Strategic Processing and Episodic Memory Impairment in Obsessive Compulsive Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is evidence that nonverbal memory problems in obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) are mediated by impaired strategic processing. Although many studies have found verbal memory to be normal in OCD, these studies did not use tests designed to stress organizational strategies. This study examined verbal and nonverbal memory performance in 33 OCD patients and 30 normal control participants with the

Cary R. Savage; Thilo Deckersbach; Sabine Wilhelm; Scott L. Rauch; Lee Baer; Tracey Reid; Michael A. Jenike

2000-01-01

359

Decreased TNF ? and NK activity in obsessive-compulsive disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Accumulating evidence points towards the involvement of autoimmune mechanisms in the pathophysiology of some subgroups of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). This study was carried out to investigate whether obsessive-compulsive disorder is associated with altered activity of the immune system, and whether these changes are related to particular clinical characteristics.Methods: Ex vivo production of TNF-?, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, and IFN-? in

Damiaan Denys; Sjoerd Fluitman; Annemieke Kavelaars; Cobi Heijnen; Herman Westenberg

2004-01-01

360

An overview of Indian research in obsessive compulsive disorder  

PubMed Central

Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) was considered a relatively rare disorder until about two decades ago. Since then, considerable advance has been made in understanding the various aspects of OCD that include epidemiology, clinical features, comorbidity, biology and treatment. In the last one decade, there has also been interest in a group of related disorders called obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorders. There is substantial research from India on various aspects of OCD, particularly from the National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences (NIMHANS), Bangalore. We attempt to review all the relevant Indian data on OCD. PMID:21836679

Reddy, Y. C. Janardhan; Rao, Naren P.; Khanna, Sumant

2010-01-01

361

Virtual reality for obsessive-compulsive disorder: past and the future.  

PubMed

The use of computers, especially for virtual reality (VR), to understand, assess, and treat various mental health problems has been developed for the last decade, including application for phobia, post-traumatic stress disorder, attention deficits, and schizophrenia. However, the number of VR tools addressing obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is still lacking due to the heterogeneous symptoms of OCD and poor understanding of the relationship between VR and OCD. This article reviews the empirical literatures for VR tools in the future, which involve applications for both clinical work and experimental research in this area, including examining symptoms using VR according to OCD patients' individual symptoms, extending OCD research in the VR setting to also study behavioral and physiological correlations of the symptoms, and expanding the use of VR for OCD to cognitive-behavioral intervention. PMID:20046385

Kim, Kwanguk; Kim, Chan-Hyung; Kim, So-Yeon; Roh, Daeyoung; Kim, Sun I

2009-09-01

362

Virtual Reality for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: Past and the Future  

PubMed Central

The use of computers, especially for virtual reality (VR), to understand, assess, and treat various mental health problems has been developed for the last decade, including application for phobia, post-traumatic stress disorder, attention deficits, and schizophrenia. However, the number of VR tools addressing obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is still lacking due to the heterogeneous symptoms of OCD and poor understanding of the relationship between VR and OCD. This article reviews the empirical literatures for VR tools in the future, which involve applications for both clinical work and experimental research in this area, including examining symptoms using VR according to OCD patients' individual symptoms, extending OCD research in the VR setting to also study behavioral and physiological correlations of the symptoms, and expanding the use of VR for OCD to cognitive-behavioral intervention. PMID:20046385

Kim, Kwanguk; Kim, So-Yeon; Roh, Daeyoung; Kim, Sun I.

2009-01-01

363

Predictors of Early Adult Outcome in Pediatric-Onset Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder.  

E-print Network

??This study was conducted in order to determine childhood clinical predictors of early adult outcome in pediatric-onset obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). We specifically hypothesized that OCD… (more)

Craiglow, Brittany G

364

Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder in Children and Adolescents: A Study of Parental Psychopathology and Precipitating Events in 20 Consecutive Danish Cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

The family history of obsessive-compulsive (OCD) and other psychiatric disorders of 20 children and adolescents, consecutively referred for OCD, is described and compared with that of 20 comparison patients, matched for age and gender. OCD, current or past, was found in 3 fathers to OCD patients, and obsessive-compulsive behaviour was found in 5 fathers and 3 mothers to OCD patients

Per Hove Thomsen

1995-01-01

365

The utilization of nonpatient samples in the study of obsessive compulsive disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) is increasingly studied in nonpatients, primarily through the selection of individuals who score high on a self-report measure of OCD. The usefulness of this methodology for understanding OCD presupposes that some of the individuals in the high-scoring group meet diagnostic criteria for OCD, that the obsessive-compulsive behaviors in the high-scoring individuals are stable across time to

G. Leonard Burns; Gina M. Formea; Susan Keortge; Lee G. Sternberger

1995-01-01

366

Psychiatric morbidity with focus on obsessive–compulsive disorder in an Israeli cohort of adolescents with mild to moderate mental retardation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study evaluated the prevalence of DSM-IV-TR-defined psychiatric disorders in adolescents with mental retardation, with\\u000a a focus on obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD), for which data at present are sparse. Eighty-seven adolescents with mild to\\u000a moderate mental retardation attending the Israeli special-education system were screened for psychiatric disorders in general\\u000a and obsessive–compulsive symptoms in particular. Sixty-one percent had at least one psychiatric

Doron Gothelf; Olga Goraly; Sari Avni; Mike Stawski; Inbar Hartmann; Lina Basel-Vanagaite; Alan Apter

2008-01-01

367

Symptom Dimensions in OCD: Item-Level Factor Analysis and Heritability Estimates  

PubMed Central

To reduce the phenotypic heterogeneity of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) for genetic, clinical and translational studies, numerous factor analyses of the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale checklist (YBOCS-CL) have been conducted. Results of these analyses have been inconsistent, likely as a consequence of small sample sizes and variable methodologies. Furthermore, data concerning the heritability of the factors are limited. Item and category-level factor analyses of YBOCS-CL items from 1224 OCD subjects were followed by heritability analyses in 52 OCD-affected multigenerational families. Item-level analyses indicated that a five factor model: (1) taboo, (2) contamination/cleaning, (3) doubts, (4) superstitions/rituals, and (5) symmetry/hoarding provided the best fit, followed by a one-factor solution. All 5 factors as well as the one-factor solution were found to be heritable. Bivariate analyses indicated that the taboo and doubts factor, and the contamination and symmetry/hoarding factor share genetic influences. Contamination and symmetry/hoarding show shared genetic variance with symptom severity. Nearly all factors showed shared environmental variance with each other and with symptom severity. These results support the utility of both OCD diagnosis and symptom dimensions in genetic research and clinical contexts. Both shared and unique genetic influences underlie susceptibility to OCD and its symptom dimensions. PMID:20361247

Katerberg, Hilga; Delucchi, Kevin L.; Stewart, S. Evelyn; Lochner, Christine; Denys, Damiaan A. J. P.; Stack, Denise E.; Andresen, J. Michael; Grant, J. E.; Kim, Suck W.; Williams, Kyle A.; den Boer, Johan A.; van Balkom, Anton J. L. M.; Smit, Johannes H.; van Oppen, Patricia; Polman, Annemiek; Jenike, Michael A.; Stein, Dan J.; Mathews, Carol A.

2010-01-01

368

Recent advances in the genetics of obsessive-compulsive disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reviews recent developments in understanding the genetic etiology of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Family\\u000a studies provide further support for the familial aggregation of OCD. Genome-wide linkage studies indicate that specific chromosomal\\u000a regions are linked to OCD. Moreover, results from recent molecular genetic studies suggest that several candidate genes are\\u000a associated with OCD. However, specific genes causing OCD have not

Jack F. Samuels

2009-01-01

369

Depression in comorbid obsessive-compulsive disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder.  

PubMed

Previous findings suggested a unique role that depression symptoms might play in the comorbid relationship between obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, the nature of this role remains unclear. Thus, the current study examined ways in which OCD and PTSD symptoms vary as a function of depression, as well as the mediating role of depression in the OCD-PTSD relationship, in 104 individuals seeking treatment for refractory OCD. Findings revealed that depressed individuals in the treatment-refractory OCD sample report higher levels of overall obsessing and greater severity of PTSD. In addition, depression appeared to mediate the relation between OCD and PTSD. Implications of findings are discussed. PMID:21404272

Merrill, Anna; Gershuny, Beth; Baer, Lee; Jenike, Michael A

2011-06-01

370

Modular Cognitive Therapy for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: A Wait-List Controlled Trial  

PubMed Central

The current study examined the efficacy of cognitive therapy (CT) in reducing symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Twenty-nine individuals with OCD were assigned according to therapist availability to a 12-week wait period or the immediate start of 22 sessions (over 24 weeks) of flexible, modular CT. After 12 weeks of treatment, the CT group, but not the wait-list group, exhibited significant improvement in OCD symptoms. The combined sample of patients who underwent 24 weeks of CT improved significantly from pre- to post-treatment and symptoms remained significantly improved at 3-month follow-up. OCD symptoms rose slightly between posttreatment and 12-month follow-up, but, remained significantly lower than at pretreatment. Overall, modular CT appears to be an effective and acceptable treatment for OCD. PMID:21072138

Wilhelm, Sabine; Steketee, Gail; Fama, Jeanne M.; Buhlmann, Ulrike; Teachman, Bethany A.; Golan, Elana

2010-01-01

371

Cognitive Therapy for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

This case report is about a 31-year-old married female with a variety of obsessions, primarily focusing on harming obsessions. Because of anxiety, numerous washing rituals have taken place as well as the avoidance of situations. This client was diagnosed with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) and was seen for 25 sessions of individual cognitive therapy. The aim of this study therefore was

Patricia Van Oppen

2004-01-01

372

Information processing in obsessive—compulsive disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

A modified Stroop task incorporating a semantic manipulation was used to study processing of fear-related information in patients diagnosed with obsessive—compulsive disorder (OCD). Twenty-three OCs with washing rituals (washers), 10 OCs without washing rituals (nonwashers), and 14 normals were administered a modified Stroop task in which they were asked to color-name contamination words, general threat words, neutral words, and nonwords.

Edna B. Foa; Doron Ilai; Paul R. McCarthy; Beth Shoyer; Tamera Murdock

1993-01-01

373

Hoarding in Children and Adolescents with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder.  

PubMed

Compared to studies in adults, there have been few studies of hoarding in children and adolescents with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). In the current study, we evaluated OCD clinical features, Axis I disorders, and social reciprocity scores in 641 children and adolescents with OCD, of whom 163 (25%) had hoarding compulsions and 478 did not. We found that, as a group, youth with hoarding had an earlier age at onset and more severe lifetime OCD symptoms, poorer insight, more difficulty making decisions and completing tasks, and more overall impairment. The hoarding group also had a greater lifetime prevalence of panic disorder, specific phobia, Tourette disorder, and tics. As measured with the Social Reciprocity Scale, the hoarding group had more severe deficits in parent-rated domains of social communication, social motivation, and restricted interests and repetitive behavior. In a multivariable model, the overall social reciprocity score, age at onset of OCD symptoms, symmetry obsessions, and indecision were independently related to hoarding in these children and adolescents with OCD. These features should be considered as candidate risk factors for the development of hoarding behavior in pediatric OCD. PMID:25309849

Samuels, Jack; Grados, Marco A; Riddle, Mark A; Bienvenu, O Joseph; Goes, Fernando S; Cullen, Bernadette; Wang, Ying; Greenberg, Benjamin D; Fyer, Abby J; McCracken, James T; Geller, Dan; Murphy, Dennis L; Knowles, James A; Rasmussen, Steven A; McLaughlin, Nicole C; Piacentini, John; Pauls, David L; Stewart, S Evelyn; Shugart, Yin-Yao; Maher, Brion; Pulver, Ann E; Nestadt, Gerald

2014-10-01

374

Anhedonia in obsessive-compulsive disorder: beyond comorbid depression.  

PubMed

Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has been linked to reward dysfunctions, highlighting a possible role of anhedonia in OCD. Surprisingly, anhedonia in OCD has never been evaluated. Moreover, although nicotine typically has anti-anhedonic effects, anecdotal reports suggest low prevalence rates of smoking in OCD. To address these two phenomena, 113 individuals with OCD completed a battery of questionnaires assessing symptom severity, anhedonia, and smoking. 28.3% of the sample met criteria for clinically significant anhedonia, which correlated with Y-BOCS scores (r=0.44), even when controlling for depressive symptoms. 13.3% of the sample endorsed current smoking, a lower rate than seen in psychiatric disorders (40-90%) and the general adult population (19%). Results highlight high rates of anhedonia and yet reduced prevalence of smoking in OCD. In contrast to the known positive association between anhedonia and smoking, a negative association emerged. Future research is needed to address the unique interface between anhedonia and reward responsiveness in OCD. Potential clinical implications are discussed. PMID:24564999

Abramovitch, Amitai; Pizzagalli, Diego A; Reuman, Lillian; Wilhelm, Sabine

2014-05-15

375

A clinical case study of the use of ecological momentary assessment in obsessive compulsive disorder  

PubMed Central

Accurate assessment of obsessions and compulsions is a crucial step in treatment planning for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD). In this clinical case study, we sought to determine if the use of Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) could provide additional symptom information beyond that captured during standard assessment of OCD. We studied three adults diagnosed with OCD and compared the number and types of obsessions and compulsions captured using the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS) compared to EMA. Following completion of the Y-BOCS interview, participants then recorded their OCD symptoms into a digital voice recorder across a 12-h period in reply to randomly sent mobile phone SMS prompts. The EMA approach yielded a lower number of symptoms of obsessions and compulsions than the Y-BOCS but produced additional types of obsessions and compulsions not previously identified by the Y-BOCS. We conclude that the EMA-OCD procedure may represent a worthy addition to the suite of assessment tools used when working with clients who have OCD. Further research with larger samples is required to strengthen this conclusion. PMID:24860521

Tilley, P. J. Matt; Rees, Clare S.

2014-01-01

376

Is Familial Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Different from Sporadic Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder? A Comparison of Clinical Characteristics, Comorbidity and Treatment Response  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Familial and sporadic subtypes of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) have been proposed, but have not been well studied. The aim of the study was to compare the clinical characteristics, comorbidity and treatment response of familial OCD with sporadic OCD. Sampling and Methods: We reviewed the clinical records of 84 familial OCD patients and 80 randomly selected sporadic OCD patients from

Biju Viswanath; Janardhanan C. Narayanaswamy; Anish V. Cherian; Y. C. Janardhan Reddy; Suresh Bada Math

2011-01-01

377

Factor Analytic Study of the Children's Yale?Brown Obsessive?Compulsive Scale  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the psychometric properties of the Children's Yale?Brown Obsessive?Compulsive Scale (CY?BOCS; Scahill et al., 1997). Participants were 82 children and adolescents diagnosed with obsessive?compulsive disorder (OCD). Confirmatory factor analyses of 2 previously found models (Obsessions and Compulsions; Disturbance and Severity)…

Storch, Eric A.; Murphy, Tanya K.; Geffken, Gary R.; Bagner, Daniel M.; Soto, Ohel; Sajid, Muhammad; Allen, Pam; Killiany, Erin M.; Goodman, Wayne K.

2005-01-01

378

Comparison of clinical characteristics in obsessive-compulsive disorder and body dysmorphic disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent research has suggested that body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is part of the spectrum of obsessive-compulsive disorders. In order to determine the extent of similarity for psychopathology measures, patients diagnosed with BDD were compared to a group of patients diagnosed with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) on obsessionality, compulsivity, overvalued ideas, depression, and anxiety. Results indicate that BDD patients are similar to

Dean McKay; Fugen Neziroglu; Jose A. Yaryura-Tobias

1997-01-01

379

Should Nonsuicidal Self-Injury Be a Putative Obsessive-Compulsive-Related Condition? A Critical Appraisal  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) has many behavioral and cognitive features that would make it appear to be closely tied to obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Obsessive-compulsive-related disorders (OCRDs) have been described in the literature as conditions that share a common phenomenology, neurobiology, and treatment response. The authors…

McKay, Dean; Andover, Margaret

2012-01-01

380

Possible role of neuropeptides in obsessive compulsive disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

The most consistent finding in clinical research of obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) is the significant treatment advantage of potent serotonin uptake inhibitors (SUIs) over other classes of antidepressant and antianxiety drugs. Clinical neurobiological studies of OCD, however, have yielded limited and inconsistent evidence for significant fundamental abnormalities in monoamine systems including serotonin, norepinephrine and dopamine. Furthermore, one-third to one-half of

Christopher J. McDougle; Linda C. Barr; Wayne K. Goodman; Lawrence H. Price

1999-01-01

381

Cognitive Appraisals in Young People with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: A number of cognitive appraisals have been identified as important in the manifestation of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) in adults. There have, however, been few attempts to explore these cognitive appraisals in clinical groups of young people. Method: This study compared young people aged between 11 and 18 years with OCD (N =…

Libby, Sarah; Reynolds, Shirley; Derisley, Jo; Clark, Sarah

2004-01-01

382

Mapping Structural Brain Alterations in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Recent technical developments have made it feasible to comprehensively assess brain anatomy in psychiatric populations. Objective: To describe the structural brain alterations detected in the magnetic resonance images of a large se- ries of patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) using imaging procedures that allow the evaluation of vol- ume changes throughout the brain. Design: Case-control study. Setting: Referral OCD

Jesus Pujol; Carles Soriano-Mas; Pino Alonso; Narcő ´ s Cardoner; Jose M. Menchon; Joan Deus; Julio Vallejo

2004-01-01

383

Internet-based cognitive behaviour therapy for obsessive–compulsive disorder: a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) is an effective treatment for obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) but access to CBT is limited. Internet-based CBT (ICBT) with therapist support is potentially a more accessible treatment. There are no randomized controlled trials testing ICBT for OCD. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of ICBT for OCD in a randomized controlled trial. Method Participants (n=101) diagnosed with OCD were randomized to either 10 weeks of ICBT or to an attention control condition, consisting of online supportive therapy. The primary outcome measure was the Yale–Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (YBOCS) administered by blinded assessors. Results Both treatments lead to significant improvements in OCD symptoms, but ICBT resulted in larger improvements than the control condition on the YBOCS, with a significant between-group effect size (Cohen's d) of 1.12 (95% CI 0.69–1.53) at post-treatment. The proportion of participants showing clinically significant improvement was 60% (95% CI 46–72) in the ICBT group compared to 6% (95% CI 1–17) in the control condition. The results were sustained at follow-up. Conclusions ICBT is an efficacious treatment for OCD that could substantially increase access to CBT for OCD patients. Replication studies are warranted. PMID:22348650

Andersson, E.; Enander, J.; Andrén, P.; Hedman, E.; Ljótsson, B.; Hursti, T.; Bergström, J.; Kaldo, V.; Lindefors, N.; Andersson, G.; Rück, C.

2012-01-01

384

Sex differences in the phenotypic expression of obsessive-compulsive disorder: an exploratory study from Brazil.  

PubMed

Previous studies have shown differences in clinical features of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) between men and women, including mean age at onset of obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCS), types of OCS, comorbid disorders, course, and prognosis. The aim of this study was to compare male and female Brazilian patients with OCD on several demographic and clinical characteristics. Three hundred thirty outpatients with OCD (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition [DSM-IV], criteria) who sought treatment at 3 Brazilian public universities and at 2 private practice clinics in the city of Săo Paulo were evaluated. The assessment instruments used were the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale to evaluate OCD severity and symptoms, the Beck Depression and Anxiety Inventories, the Yale Global Tic Severity Scale, and the Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Axis I Disorders to assess psychiatric comorbidity. Fifty-five percent of the patients (n = 182) were men who were significantly more likely than women to be single and to present sexual, religious, and symmetry obsessions and mental rituals. They also presented earlier onset of OCS and earlier symptom interference in functioning, and significantly more comorbid tic disorders and posttraumatic stress disorder. Women, besides showing significantly higher mean scores in the Beck Depression and Anxiety Inventories, were more likely to present comorbid simple phobias, eating disorders in general and anorexia in particular, impulse control disorders in general, and compulsive buying and skin picking in particular. No significant differences were observed between sexes concerning family history of OCS or OCD, and global symptoms severity, either in obsession or compulsive subscale. The present study confirms the presence of sex-related differences described in other countries and cultures. The fact that the OCS start earlier and probably have a worse impact in men can eventually lead to more specific and efficacious treatment approaches for these patients. PMID:19059516

Torresan, Ricardo Cezar; Ramos-Cerqueira, Ana Teresa de Abreu; de Mathis, Maria Alice; Diniz, Juliana Belo; Ferrăo, Ygor Arzeno; Miguel, Euripedes Constantino; Torres, Albina Rodrigues

2009-01-01

385

Family Factors Predict Treatment Outcome for Pediatric Obsessive Compulsive Disorder  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine family conflict, parental blame, and poor family cohesion as predictors of treatment outcome for youth receiving family-focused cognitive behavioral therapy (FCBT) for obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). Methods We analyzed data from a sample of youth who were randomized to FCBT (n = 49; 59% male; mean age = 12.43 years) as part of a larger randomized clinical trial. Youngsters and their families were assessed by an independent evaluator (IE) pre- and post- FCBT using a standardized battery of measures evaluating family functioning and OCD symptom severity. Family conflict and cohesion were measured via parent self-report on the Family Environment Scale (FES; Moos & Moos, 1994) and parental blame was measured using parent self-report on the Parental Attitudes and Behaviors Scale (PABS; Peris, 2008b). Symptom severity was rated by IE’s using the Children’s Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (CY-BOCS; Scahill et al., 1997). Results Families with lower levels of parental blame and family conflict and higher levels of family cohesion at baseline were more likely to have a child who responded to FCBT treatment even after adjusting for baseline symptom severity compared to families who endorsed higher levels of dysfunction prior to treatment. In analyses using both categorical and continuous outcome measures, higher levels of family dysfunction and difficulty in higher number of domains of family functioning were associated with lower rates of treatment response. In addition, changes in family cohesion predicted response to FCBT controlling for baseline symptom severity. Conclusions Findings speak to the role of the family in treatment for childhood OCD and highlight potential targets for future family interventions. PMID:22309471

Peris, Tara S.; Sugar, Catherine A.; Bergman, R. Lindsey; Chang, Susanna; Langley, Audra; Piacentini, John

2012-01-01

386

Intensive Family-Based Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: Applications for Treatment of Medication Partial or Nonresponders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Serotonin reuptake inhibitor medications and cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) are both effective treatments for pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Despite recommendations that youth with OCD be treated with CBT alone or together with serotonin reuptake inhibitor medication, many youth are treated with medication alone or with non-CBT psychotherapy initially. Although effective, symptom remission with medication alone is rare (e.g., only 21.4% of

Wendi E. Marien; Eric A. Storch; Gary R. Geffken; Tanya K. Murphy

2009-01-01

387

Streptococcal Infection and Exacerbations of Childhood Tics and Obsessive-Compulsive Symptoms: A Prospective Blinded Cohort Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE.If pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with strepto- coccal infections is a unique clinical entity, we hypothesized that children meeting diagnostic criteria would have more clinical exacerbations temporally linked to bona fide group A -hemolytic streptococcus infection than matched control subjects (chronic tic and\\/or obsessive-compulsive disorder with no known temporal relation- ship to group A -hemolytic streptococcus infection). PATIENTS AND

Roger Kurlan; Edward L. Kaplan

388

Overlapping and Distinctive Features of Hypochondriasis and Obsessive–Compulsive Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

The spectrum of obsessive–compulsive disorders has received a great deal of theoretical attention, but there has been relatively little associated empirical research. The purpose of this study was to compare three groups of patients; those diagnosed with hypochondriasis (HC, a proposed spectrum condition), obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) and those with both OCD and HC (OCD\\/HC). The results show that patients with

Fugen Neziroglu; Dean McKay; Jose A Yaryura-Tobias

2000-01-01

389

Personality traits and smoking in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

As opposed to other psychiatric populations, subjects with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) smoke less than the general population. The present study aims at further investigating the relationship between smoking in OCD subjects and personality traits.Sixty-four subjects with OCD were interviewed concerning their smoking habits. Personality traits were evaluated using the Karolinska Scales of Personality, and specific obsessive-compulsive personality traits were elicited

S Bejerot; L von Knorring; L Ekselius

2000-01-01

390

Dissociation as a Predictor of Cognitive Behavior Therapy Outcome in Patients with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Previous studies have found a strong association between dissociation and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The purpose of the present study was to evaluate whether dissociation is a predictor of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) outcome in patients with OCD. Methods: Fifty-two patients with OCD were assessed using the Dissociative Experience Scale (DES), the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale and the Beck Depression Inventory.

Michael Rufer; Dada Held; Julia Cremer; Susanne Fricke; Steffen Moritz; Helmut Peter; Iver Hand

2006-01-01

391

Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder and Anorexia Nervosa in a High School Athlete: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

Objective: To describe the case of a basketball and track athlete who presented with both anorexia nervosa and obsessive- compulsive disorder (OCD). Background: OCD is a psychiatric condition known to appear with significant frequency among those with anorexia. Although treatable with drug and behavioral therapy, it must be specifically sought because some of its symptoms are similar to those of anorexia nervosa. Differential Diagnosis: Obsessive-compulsive disorder, anxiety disorder. Treatment: Behavioral therapy involves exposure to the obsessive fears without allowing the patient to ritualize. This is best used in combination with drugs that selectively block the reuptake of serotonin in the brain. Uniqueness: Anorexia nervosa is notoriously difficult to treat. In our patient, anorexic symptoms all but disappeared along with the OCD in a matter of weeks, once treatment of the OCD began. Lengthy treatment for anorexia alone had been unsuccessful. Conclusions: OCD occurs frequently in patients with anorexia, and successful treatment requires that both conditions be specifically identified and managed. Athletic trainers may be the first to recognize key signs and symptoms of this illness; by referring the individual for psychiatric evaluation, they can be instrumental in helping the patient to obtain appropriate treatment. PMID:16558592

Gee, Rebecca L.; Telew, Nicholas

1999-01-01

392

Gender in obsessive-compulsive disorder and obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  \\u000a \\u000a Background: There is increasing recognition that obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and putative OCD spectrum disorders (OCSDs) are\\u000a not homogenous entities. Gender may provide an important window onto the heterogeneity of these various disorders.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods: A MEDLINE review of gender issues in OCD and putative OCD spectrum disorders (excluding eating disorders) was undertaken\\u000a (1965–2000). These included demographic variables, clinical phenomenology, etiological

C. Lochner; D. J. Stein

2001-01-01

393

Comparison of obsessive-compulsive disorder patients with and without comorbid putative obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorders using a structured clinical interview  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasing attention has been paid to the possibility that a range of disorders, the putative obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorders (OCSDs), may share overlapping phenomenological and neurobiological features with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The development of a structured clinician-administered interview for the putative OCSDs (SCID-OCSD) is described. This instrument was used to investigate differences between OCD patients with a comorbid putative OCSD and

Pieter L. du Toit; Jeanine van Kradenburg; Dana Niehaus; Dan J. Stein

2001-01-01

394

Glutamatergic Synaptic Dysfunction and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder  

PubMed Central

Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a debilitating neuropsychiatric condition estimated to afflict 1-3% of the world population. The estimated financial impact in the treatment and management of OCD is in the billions of dollars annually in the US alone. At present there is a marked lack of evidence on the specific causes of OCD. Current hypotheses largely focus on the serotonin (5-HT) system on the basis of the effectiveness of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) in alleviating symptoms of patients with OCD, yet a considerable fraction of patients are non-responsive or minimally responsive to these agents. Despite this fact, SSRIs have remained the primary pharmacological treatment avenue for OCD. In recent years, multiple lines of evidence have implicated glutamatergic synaptic dysfunction within the cortico-striatal-thalamo-cortical (CSTC) brain circuit in the etiology of OCD and related disorders, thereby prompting intensified effort in the development and evaluation of agents that modulate glutamatergic neurotransmission for the treatment of OCD. With this in mind, here we review the following topics with respect to synaptic dysfunction and the neural circuitry underlying OCD: (1) evidence supporting the critical involvement of the CSTC circuit, (2) genetic studies supporting the involvement of glutamatergic dysfunction, (3) insights from genetic animal models of OCD, and (4) preliminary findings with glutamatergic neurotransmission-modulating agents in the treatment of OCD. Given the putative mechanistic overlap between OCD and the broader OC-spectrum of disorders, unraveling the synaptic basis of OCD has potential to translate into more effective treatments for an array of poorly understood human disorders. PMID:19768139

Ting, Jonathan T; Feng, Guoping

2008-01-01

395

Selective attention deficits in obsessive-compulsive disorder: The role of metacognitive processes.  

PubMed

While initial studies supported the hypothesis that cognitive characteristics that capture cognitive resources act as underlying mechanisms in memory deficits in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), the influence of those characteristics on selective attention has not been studied, yet. In this study, we examined the influence of cognitive self-consciousness (CSC), rumination and worrying on performance in selective attention in OCD and compared the results to a depressive and a healthy control group. We found that 36 OCD and 36 depressive participants were impaired in selective attention in comparison to 36 healthy controls. In all groups, hierarchical regression analyses demonstrated that age, intelligence and years in school significantly predicted performance in selective attention. But only in OCD, the predictive power of the regression model was improved when CSC, rumination and worrying were implemented as predictor variables. In contrast, in none of the three groups the predictive power improved when indicators of severity of obsessive-compulsive (OC) and depressive symptoms and trait anxiety were introduced as predictor variables. Thus, our results support the assumption that mental characteristics that bind cognitive resources play an important role in the understanding of selective attention deficits in OCD and that this mechanism is especially relevant for OCD. PMID:25554356

Koch, Julia; Exner, Cornelia

2015-02-28

396

Internet cognitive behavioural treatment for obsessive compulsive disorder: A randomised controlled trial.  

PubMed

Internet-based cognitive behaviour therapy (iCBT) is becoming increasing accepted as an efficacious and effective treatment for the anxiety and depressive disorders. However few studies have examined the efficacy of iCBT for obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). This randomised controlled trial compared technician-administered iCBT (n = 32) to a treatment as usual (TAU) control group (n = 35) in patients with OCD. The primary outcome measures were the Dimensional Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (DOCS) and the Obsessional Beliefs Questionnaire (OBQ-20) administered at pre- and post-treatment (or matched time points). The iCBT group was followed-up at 3-months post-treatment when diagnostic status was assessed at clinical interview. The iCBT program was more efficacious than TAU in reducing maladaptive OC beliefs as well as symptoms of OCD, distress, and depression, with large within- and between-groups effect sizes found (>.78). Adherence was high (75%) and gains were maintained at 3 month-follow-up with 54% of treatment completers no longer meeting diagnostic criteria for OCD at follow-up. These results are comparable to outcomes obtained by clinician-administered face-to-face and internet-based programs and suggest that iCBT for OCD is efficacious when administered by a clinically-supervised technician. Future research is now needed to evaluate how effective iCBT for OCD is in routine clinical settings. PMID:25461784

Mahoney, Alison E J; Mackenzie, Anna; Williams, Alishia D; Smith, Jessica; Andrews, Gavin

2014-10-01

397

Treatment of Sexual-Orientation Obsessions in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Using Exposure and Ritual Prevention  

PubMed Central

Presented is a case report of exposure and ritual prevention (EX/RP) therapy administered to a 51-year-old, White, heterosexual male with sexual-orientation obsessions in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The patient had been previously treated with pharmacotherapy, resulting in inadequate symptom reduction and unwanted side effects. OCD symptoms included anxiety about the possibility of becoming gay, mental reassurance, and avoidance of other men, which resulted in depressive symptoms and marital distress. The patient received 17 EX/RP sessions, administered twice per week. The effect of treatment was evaluated using standardized rating instruments and self-monitoring by the patient. OCD symptoms on the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (YBOCS) fell from 24 at intake to 3 at posttreatment and to 4 at a 6-week follow-up, indicating minimal symptoms. Improvement also occurred in mood, quality of life, and social adjustment. Issues concerning the assessment and treatment of homosexuality-themed obsessions in OCD are highlighted and discussed. PMID:22162667

Williams, Monnica T.; Crozier, Marjorie; Powers, Mark

2011-01-01

398

No Impact of Deep Brain Stimulation on Fear-Potentiated Startle in Obsessive–Compulsive Disorder  

PubMed Central

Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the ventral internal capsule is effective in treating therapy refractory obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD). Given the close proximity of the stimulation site to the stria terminalis (BNST), we hypothesized that the striking decrease in anxiety symptoms following DBS could be the result of the modulation of contextual anxiety. However, the effect of DBS in this region on contextual anxiety is as of yet unknown. Thus, the current study investigated the effect of DBS on contextual anxiety in an experimental threat of shock paradigm. Eight patients with DBS treatment for severe OCD were tested in a double-blind crossover design with randomly assigned 2-week periods of active and sham stimulation. DBS resulted in significant decrease of obsessive–compulsive symptoms, anxiety, and depression. However, even though the threat manipulation resulted in a clear context-potentiated startle effect, none of the parameters derived from the startle recordings was modulated by the DBS. This suggests that DBS in the ventral internal capsule is effective in treating anxiety symptoms of OCD without modulating the startle circuitry. We hypothesize that the anxiety symptoms present in OCD are likely distinct from the pathological brain circuits in defensive states of other anxiety disorders. PMID:25249953

Baas, Johanna M. P.; Klumpers, Floris; Mantione, Mariska H.; Figee, Martijn; Vulink, Nienke C.; Schuurman, P. Richard; Mazaheri, Ali; Denys, Damiaan

2014-01-01

399

Characterization of SLITRK1 Variation in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder  

PubMed Central

Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) is a syndrome characterized by recurrent and intrusive thoughts and ritualistic behaviors or mental acts that a person feels compelled to perform. Twin studies, family studies, and segregation analyses provide compelling evidence that OCD has a strong genetic component. The SLITRK1 gene encodes a developmentally regulated stimulator of neurite outgrowth and previous studies have implicated rare variants in this gene in disorders in the OC spectrum, specifically Tourette syndrome (TS) and trichotillomania (TTM). The objective of the current study was to evaluate rare genetic variation in SLITRK1 in risk for OCD and to functionally characterize associated coding variants. We sequenced SLITRK1 coding exons in 381 individuals with OCD as well as in 356 control samples and identified three novel variants in seven individuals. We found that the combined mutation load in OCD relative to controls was significant (p?=?0.036). We identified a missense N400I change in an individual with OCD, which was not found in more than 1000 control samples (P<0.05). In addition, we showed the the N400I variant failed to enhance neurite outgrowth in primary neuronal cultures, in contrast to wildtype SLITRK1, which enhanced neurite outgrowth in this assay. These important functional differences in the N400I variant, as compared to the wildtype SLITRK1 sequence, may contribute to OCD and OC spectrum symptoms. A synonymous L63L change identified in an individual with OCD and an additional missense change, T418S, was found in four individuals with OCD and in one individual without an OCD spectrum disorder. Examination of additional samples will help assess the role of rare SLITRK1 variation in OCD and in related psychiatric illness. PMID:23990902

Ozomaro, Uzoezi; Yoon, Seungtai; Makarov, Vladimir; Delorme, Richard; Betancur, Catalina; Ruhrmann, Stephan; Falkai, Peter; Grabe, Hans Jörgen; Maier, Wolfgang; Wagner, Michael; Lennertz, Leonhard; Moessner, Rainald; Murphy, Dennis L.; Buxbaum, Joseph D.; Züchner, Stephan; Grice, Dorothy E.

2013-01-01

400

Childhood trauma in obsessive-compulsive disorder, trichotillomania, and controls.  

PubMed

There is relatively little data on the link between childhood trauma and obsessive-compulsive/putative obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorders. The revised Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), which assesses physical, emotional, and sexual abuse as well as physical and emotional neglect, was administered to female patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD; n = 74; age: 36.1 plus minus 16.3), TTM (n = 36; age: 31.8 plus minus 12.3), and a group of normal controls (n = 31; age: 21.5 plus minus 1.0). The findings showed a significantly greater severity of childhood trauma in general, and emotional neglect specifically, in the patient groups compared to the controls. Although various factors may play a role in the etiology of both OCD and trichotillomania (TTM), this study is consistent with some evidence from previous studies suggesting that childhood trauma may play a role in the development of these disorders. PMID:11891995

Lochner, Christine; du Toit, Pieter L; Zungu-Dirwayi, Nompumelelo; Marais, Adele; van Kradenburg, Jeanine; Seedat, Soraya; Niehaus, Dana J H; Stein, Dan J

2002-01-01

401

Repetitive behaviors in autism and obsessive-compulsive disorder: new perspectives from a network analysis.  

PubMed

The association between autism and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) seems largely dependent upon observed similarities in the repetitive behaviors that manifest in both disorders. The aim of this study was to use a network approach to explore the interactions between these behaviors. We constructed a network based on clinician's perceptions as well as a network based on 213 clinically diagnosed children. In all networks, autism and OCD emerged as two distinct symptom clusters and obsessions and compulsions showed few direct associations with autism symptoms. Further, sensory interests were identified as behaviors that may contribute to the link between autism and OCD. Through network analysis, we expose the symptom pathways that may lead to the perceived association between autism and OCD. PMID:25149176

Ruzzano, Laura; Borsboom, Denny; Geurts, Hilde M

2015-01-01

402

A Review of Pharmacologic Treatments for Obsessive Compulsive Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Obsessive-compulsive disorder is a chronic and often disabling disorder that affects 2 to 3 percent of the U.S. population. Optimal treatment involves a combination of pharmacologic and cog- nitive-behavioral therapies. Advances in psychopharmacology have led to safe and effective treatments for obsessive-compulsive disorder that provide clinically significant improvement in symptoms. In this article the authors review studies of pharmacologic

Alicia Kaplan; Eric Hollander

2004-01-01

403

Relapse Prevention Program for Treatment of Obsessive—Compulsive Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eighteen participants with obsessive—compulsive disorder received 3 weeks of intensive treatment by exposure and response prevention, which were followed by either a relapse prevention (RP) program or associative therapy (AT; an attention-control program). Independent evaluators conducted assessments of obsessive—compulsive symptoms, anxiety, and depression, before and after intensive behavior therapy, after the week of intensive RP or AT and at a

Edna B. Foa; Michael J. Kozak

2000-01-01

404

The anteromedial GPi as a new target for deep brain stimulation in obsessive compulsive disorder.  

PubMed

Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is now well established in the treatment of intractable movement disorders. Over the past decade the clinical applications have expanded into the realm of psychosurgery, including depression and obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). The optimal targets for electrode placement in psychosurgery remain unclear, with numerous anatomical targets reported for the treatment of OCD. We present four patients with Tourette's syndrome and prominent features of OCD who underwent DBS of the anteromedial globus pallidus internus (GPi) to treat their movement disorder. Their pre-operative and post-operative OCD symptoms were compared, and responded dramatically to surgery. On the basis of these results, we propose the anteromedial (limbic) GPi as a potential surgical target for the treatment of OCD, and furnish data supporting its further investigation as a DBS target for the treatment of psychiatric conditions. PMID:24524950

Nair, Girish; Evans, Andrew; Bear, Renee E; Velakoulis, Dennis; Bittar, Richard G

2014-05-01

405

Mechanisms of change in cognitive therapy for obsessive compulsive disorder: Role of maladaptive beliefs and schemas.  

PubMed

The present study aimed to identify mechanisms of change in individuals with moderately severe obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) receiving cognitive therapy (CT). Thirty-six adults with OCD received CT over 24 weeks. At weeks 0, 4/6, 12, 16/18, and 24, independent evaluators assessed OCD severity, along with obsessive beliefs and maladaptive schemas. To examine mechanisms of change, we utilized a time-varying lagged regression model with a random intercept and slope. Results indicated that perfectionism and certainty obsessive beliefs and maladaptive schemas related to dependency and incompetence significantly mediated (improved) treatment response. In conclusion, cognitive changes in perfectionism/certainty beliefs and maladaptive schemas related to dependency/incompetence precede behavioral symptom reduction for OCD patients. Targeting these mechanisms in future OCD treatment trials will emphasize the most relevant processes and facilitate maximum improvement. PMID:25544403

Wilhelm, Sabine; Berman, Noah C; Keshaviah, Aparna; Schwartz, Rachel A; Steketee, Gail

2015-02-01

406

Attribution retraining group therapy for outpatients with major depression disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, and obsessive-compulsive disorder: a pilot study?  

PubMed Central

The aim of this present study is to examine the efficacy of attribution retraining group therapy (ARGT) and to compare the responses of outpatients with major depression disorder (MDD), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). We carried out a prospective uncontrolled intervention study with a 8-weeks of ARGT on sixty three outpatients with MDD, GAD or OCD. Hamilton rating scale for depression, Hamilton rating scale for anxiety, Yale-Brown obsessive-compulsive scale, attribution style questionnaire, self-esteem scale, index of well-being, and social disability screening schedule were administered before and after treatment. Significant improvement in symptoms and psychological and social functions from pre- to posttreatment occurred for all participants. The changes favored MDD patients. Our study suggested that ARGT may improve the symptoms and psychological-social functions of MDD, GAD, and OCD patients. MDD patients showed the best response. PMID:23554710

Wang, Chun; Zhang, Jie; Li, Jijun; Zhang, Ning; Zhang, Yalin

2011-01-01

407

Early Childhood OCD: Preliminary Findings from a Family-Based Cognitive-Behavioral Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study was conducted to compare the relative usefulness of family-based cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) against family-based relaxation treatment for children with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Results showed that children with early childhood-onset OCD benefited from the CBT program as it effectively decreased OCD symptoms and helped…

Freeman, Jennifer B.; Garcia, Abbe M.; Coyne, Lisa; Ale, Chelsea; Prezeworski, Amy; Himle, Michael; Compton, Scott; Leonard, Henrietta L.

2008-01-01

408

Correlates of comorbid anxiety and externalizing disorders in childhood obsessive compulsive disorder  

PubMed Central

The present study examines the influence of diagnostic comorbidity on the demographic, psychiatric, and functional status of youth with a primary diagnosis of obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). Two hundred and fifteen children (ages 5–17) referred to a university-based OCD specialty clinic were compared based on DSM-IV diagnostic profile: OCD without comorbid anxiety or externalizing disorder, OCD plus anxiety disorder, and OCD plus externalizing disorder. No age or gender differences were found across groups. Higher OCD severity was found for the OCD + ANX group, while the OCD + EXT group reported greater functional impairment than the other two groups. Lower family cohesion was reported by the OCD + EXT group compared to the OCD group and the OCD + ANX group reported higher family conflict compared to the OCD + EXT group. The OCD + ANX group had significantly lower rates of tic disorders while rates of depressive disorders did not differ among the three groups. The presence of comorbid anxiety and externalizing psychopathology are associated with greater symptom severity and functional and family impairment and underscores the importance of a better understanding of the relationship of OCD characteristics and associated disorders. Results and clinical implications are further discussed. PMID:20349255

Lewin, Adam B.; Bergman, R. Lindsey; Lee, Joyce C.; Piacentini, John

2010-01-01

409

Satiation Therapy and Exposure Response Prevention in the Treatment of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of present study was to test the comparative effectiveness of Satiation Therapy and Exposure Response Prevention\\u000a techniques in the treatment of obsessive–compulsive disordered patients. Sixty self-referred male outpatient cases were investigated\\u000a within a randomized controlled trial. Patients were allocated to Satiation Therapy, Exposure Response Prevention or wait-list\\u000a control groups. Obsessive–compulsive symptoms were measured by the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive

Siamak Khodarahimi

2009-01-01

410

Maintenance electroconvulsive therapy for comorbid pharmacotherapy-refractory obsessive-compulsive and schizoaffective disorder  

PubMed Central

Objective There is a high comorbidity of schizophrenia and obsessive-compulsory disorder (OCD) associated with more severe symptoms. Standard pharmacotherapy achieve symptom improvement in approximately 60% only. Results We report about a 48-old women treated for depression which developed successively psychotic symptoms (ideas of reference, psychotic worries), negative symptoms (blunted affect, impoverished thinking, difficulties in planning), and obsessive-compulsive symptoms (mainly repeating rituals, avoidance behaviour, collecting and hoarding). She did not respond to combined treatment with neuroleptics and high dose selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors. She acutely improved during a course of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) and was maintained on outpatient ECTs fortnightly together with 12 mg sertindol and 45 mg mirtazapine for 42 weeks. Conclusion Maintenance ECT is not an approved therapy in OCD but might be an option in pharmacotherapy refractory cases of comorbid OCD and schizophrenic/schizoaffective disorder. PMID:19666398

2009-01-01

411

Fluvoxamine for Children and Adolescents With Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: A Randomized, Controlled, Multicenter Trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveTo determine the safety and efficacy of fluvoxamine for the treatment of children and adolescents with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) with a double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter study.

MARK A. RIDDLE; ELIZABETH A. REEVE; JOSE A. YARYURA-TOBIAS; HWA MING YANG; JAMES L. CLAGHORN; GARY GAFFNEY; JOHN H. GREIST; DONNA HOLLAND; BRIAN J. MCCONVILLE; TERESA PIGOTT; JOHN T. WALKUP

2001-01-01

412

Cognitive-Behavioral Family Treatment of Childhood Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: A Controlled Trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveTo evaluate the relative efficacy of (1) individual cognitive-behavioral family-based therapy (CBFT); (2) group CBFT; and (3) a waitlist control group in the treatment of childhood obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD).

Paula Barrett; Lara Healy-Farrell; John S. March

2004-01-01

413

Cerebellar Morphology in Tourette Syndrome and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder  

PubMed Central

Objective Neuroanatomical and functional imaging studies have identified the cerebellum as an integral component of motor and language control. Few studies, however, have investigated the role of the cerebellum in Tourette syndrome (TS), a condition defined by the presence of semi-involuntary movements and sounds. Methods Magnetic resonance imaging was conducted in 163 persons with TS and 147 control participants. Multivariate linear regression models were used to explore effects on cerebellar surface morphology and underlying volumes for the main diagnosis effects of TS as well as comorbid obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Additionally, the correlations of symptom severity with cerebellar morphology were also assessed. Results The TS group demonstrated reduced volumes of the cerebellar hemispheres bilaterally that derived primarily from reduced gray matter in crus I and lobules VI, VIIB, and VIIIA. These decreased regional volumes accompanied increasing tic symptom severity and motoric disinhibition as demonstrated by a finger tapping test. Males had reduced volumes of these same regions compared with females, irrespective of diagnosis. Comorbid OCD was associated with relative enlargement of these regions in proportion to the increasing severity of OCD symptoms. Interpretation The cerebellum is involved in the pathogenesis of TS and tic-related OCD. Baseline gender differences in cerebellar morphology may in part account for the more prevalent expression of TS in males. PMID:20437583

Tobe, Russell H.; Bansal, Ravi; Xu, Dongrong; Hao, Xuejun; Liu, Jun; Sanchez, Juan; Peterson, Bradley S.

2014-01-01

414

A Preliminary Study on the Effects of Attachment-based Intervention on Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder  

PubMed Central

Background: Research on attachment has shed new light on understanding one of the underlying mechanisms of psychopathology in children. The aim of this study was to investigate the therapeutic efficacy of attachment-based intervention in a pediatric sample with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Methods: Twelve participants, 10-12 years of age, were treated across an eight-week period. They had not been treated with either pharmacotherapy or psychotherapy previously and remained medication-free during the attachment-based therapy. This study comprised two groups of children: The experimental group, who received attachment-based intervention, and the control group, who did not receive treatment. All participants were assessed in terms of severity of OCD symptoms by administrating the Children's Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale before and after the experimental group had received the therapeutic sessions. The children were assessed again one month later. The level of children's depression, and attachment insecurity, as well as their mothers’ depression, OCD symptoms, and attachment insecurity, were statistically controlled in this study. Results: Multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) indicated that the OCD symptoms in children decreased significantly over the course of the therapy, and this gain was maintained at follow-up. The results of this study demonstrated that the attachment-based intervention was efficacious in alleviating the OCD symptoms. Conclusion: It is suggested that parental instruction in attachment-based relationships may help prevent young children from developing OCD symptoms in middle-childhood and adulthood. PMID:23413047

Rezvan, Shiva; Bahrami, Fatemeh; Abedi, Mohamadreza; Macleod, Colin; Doost, Hamid Taher Neshat; Ghasemi, Vahid

2013-01-01

415

Gender in obsessive–compulsive disorder: clinical and genetic findings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: There is increasing recognition that obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) is not a homogeneous entity. It has been suggested that gender may contribute to the clinical and biological heterogeneity of OCD. Methods: Two hundred and twenty patients (n=220; 107 male, 113 female) with DSM-IV OCD (age: 36.40±13.46) underwent structured interviews. A subset of Caucasian subjects (n=178), including subjects from the genetically

Christine Lochner; Sian M. J. Hemmings; Craig J. Kinnear; Johanna C. Moolman-Smook; Valerie A. Corfield; James A. Knowles; Dana J. H. Niehaus; Dan J. Stein

2004-01-01

416

Cognitive Frontal Lobe Dysfunction in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: There is evidence that dysfunction within associative frontostriatal circuits represents a feature of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Previous neuropsychologic studies have yielded diverging results, which may in part be explained by differences in the selection of subjects and methods. The present study focused on the question of cognitive frontal lobe performance in OCD.Methods: Twenty-nine unmedicated OCD patients were compared to

Klaus Schmidtke; Alexander Schorb; Gabriele Winkelmann; Fritz Hohagen

1998-01-01

417

Individual versus group cognitive–behavioral treatment for obsessive–compulsive disorder: a controlled pilot study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study sought to examine the effectiveness of group and individual cognitive–behavioral treatment (CBT) and to compare the results with those of a wait-list control group among a sample of patients with obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD). Fifty-seven individuals diagnosed with OCD were evaluated pre- and posttreatment with the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale and the Hamilton Rating Scales for Anxiety and Depression.

Nuria Jaurrieta; Susana Jimenez-Murcia; José Manuel Menchón; M. Del Pino Alonso; Cinto Segalas; Eva M. ÁLvarez-Moya; Javier Labad; Roser Granero; Julio Vallejo

2008-01-01

418

The relationship of obsessive-compulsive disorder to putative spectrum disorders: results from an Indian study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and putative obsessive-compulsive (OC) spectrum disorders is unclear. This study investigates the prevalence of putative OC spectrum disorders in OCD subjects in a controlled clinical design. The putative OC spectrum disorders studied included somatoform disorders (body dysmorphic disorder [BDD] and hypochondriasis), eating disorders, tic disorders (e.g., Tourette’s syndrome [TS]), and impulse control disorders (e.g.,

T. S Jaisoorya; Y. C. Janardhan Reddy; S Srinath

2003-01-01

419

The relationship of obsessive–compulsive disorder to possible spectrum disorders: results from a family study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The familial relationship between obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) and “obsessive–compulsive spectrum” disorders is unclear. This study investigates the relationship of OCD to somatoform disorders (body dysmorphic disorder [BDD] and hypochondriasis), eating disorders (e.g., anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa), pathologic “grooming” conditions (e.g., nail biting, skin picking, trichotillomania), and other impulse control disorders (e.g., kleptomania, pathologic gambling, pyromania) using blinded family

O. Joseph Bienvenu; Jack F Samuels; Mark A Riddle; Rudolf Hoehn-Saric; Kung-Yee Liang; Bernadette A. M Cullen; Marco A Grados; Gerald Nestadt

2000-01-01

420

Quality of Life in Adult Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: The Role of Moderating and Mediating Variables  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: This study examined the contribution of various aspects of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) on quality of life (QoL) in 102 adults with a principal diagnosis of OCD from an archival database. Method: Participants were assessed for DSM-IV diagnoses by trained clinicians using the Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule, 4th Edition (ADIS-IV), the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS), and an unstructured interview. Further

Brittany Belle Speisman

2012-01-01

421

Increased nocturnal secretion of ACTH and cortisol in obsessive compulsive disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Information on the function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, the main mammalian system of stress response, in obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) is inconsistent. In this study, nine inpatients with a DSM-IV diagnosis of OCD without comorbid major depression (Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale [Y-BOCS] score >15; HAMD-21 total score ?16) and nine healthy matched controls were included. Blood of patients (seven

Michael Kluge; Petra Schüssler; Heike E. Künzel; Martin Dresler; Alexander Yassouridis; Axel Steiger

2007-01-01

422

Lifetime-comorbidity of obsessive-compulsive disorder and subclinical obsessive-compulsive disorder in northern Germany  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective Inspite of the worldwide relevance of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), there is a substantial lack of data on comorbidity\\u000a in OCD and subclinical OCD in the general population. Methods German versions of the DSM-IV adapted Composite International Diagnostic Interview were administered to a representative\\u000a sample of 4075 persons aged 18–64 years, living in a northern German region. Results In both

Hans Joergen Grabe; Christian Meyer; Ulfert Hapke; Hans-Juergen Rumpf; Harald Juergen Freyberger; Horst Dilling; Ulrich John

2001-01-01

423

Extinction retention and fear renewal in a lifetime obsessive-compulsive disorder sample.  

PubMed

Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), like other illnesses with prominent anxiety, may involve abnormal fear regulation and consolidation of safety memories. Impaired fear extinction memory (extinction recall, ER) has been shown in individuals with current symptoms of OCD [1]. However, contrary to expectations, the only previous study investigating this phenomenon showed a positive correlation between extinction recall abilities and OCD symptomology (i.e., as OCD symptoms worsened, extinction memory improved). The purpose of the current study was to determine if patients with a lifetime diagnosis of OCD (not necessarily currently symptomatic) also demonstrate impairments in extinction memory, and the relationship between OCD symptomology and extinction memory in this type of sample. In addition, we also examined fear renewal, which has never been investigated in an OCD sample. We enrolled 37 patients with OCD, the majority of whom were on serotonin reuptake inhibitors, and 18 healthy control participants in a 2-day paradigm assessing fear conditioning and extinction (Day 1) and extinction retention and renewal (Day 2). Skin conductance responses (SCRs) were the dependent measure. Results, as in the prior study, indicated that the only between-group difference was impaired ER in OCD patients relative to controls. Contrary to our prediction, OCD symptom severity was not correlated with the magnitude of extinction recall. There were no differences in fear renewal between OCD patients and controls. PMID:25446749

McLaughlin, N C R; Strong, D; Abrantes, A; Garnaat, S; Cerny, A; O'Connell, C; Fadok, R; Spofford, C; Rasmussen, S A; Milad, M R; Greenberg, B D

2015-03-01

424

Thought-action fusion in obsessive compulsive disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent psychometric results suggested that the phenomenon of thought-action fusion (TAF) is implicated in obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). The construct of TAF has two components: (a) the belief that thinking about an unacceptable or disturbing event makes it more likely to happen and (b) the belief that having an unacceptable thought is the moral equivalent of carrying out the unacceptable

Roz Shafran; Dana S. Thordarson; S. Rachman

1996-01-01

425

Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder in School-Age Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is an anxiety disorder characterized by disturbing thoughts, impulses, or images (obsessions); repetitive or ritualistic behaviors (compulsions); or the presence of both. Although some may believe this disorder is isolated to the adult population, it affects anywhere from 1% to 4% of children in the United…

Helbing, Mary-Lee C.; Ficca, Michelle

2009-01-01

426

Social and Communication Difficulties and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The relationship between pervasive developmental disorder (PDD) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has not been extensively studied despite having some phenomenological features in common. Abnormal social and communication behaviors (pragmatic behaviors) are key components of PDD and are also part of the broader autism phenotype (BAP). In this study we sought to establish if there is any association between the

Bernadette Cullen; Jack Samuels; Marco Grados; Rebecca Landa; O. Joseph Bienvenu; Kung-Yee Liang; Mark Riddle; Rudolf Hoehn-Saric; Gerald Nestadt

2008-01-01

427

T Cell Subsets in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stress can produce immunosuppression leading to increased susceptibility to infection, tumor growth or autoimmune disease. It has been recently noted, however, that certain kinds of stress need not increase the risk of immune pathology. The present study looked for immune pathology in an anxiety-related disorder. Acute exacerbation of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), an anxiety spectrum disorder, served as a model for

Y. Barber; P. Toren; A. Achiron; S. Noy; L. Wolmer; R. Weizman; N. Laor

1996-01-01

428

Patient-reported outcomes in obsessive-compulsive disorder  

PubMed Central

The purpose of the article was to provide an overview of patient-reported outcomes (PROs) and related measures that have been examined in the context of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The current review focused on patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) that evaluated three broad outcome domains: functioning, health-related quality of life (HRQoL), and OCD-related symptoms. The present review ultimately included a total of 155 unique articles and 22 PROMs. An examination of the PROs revealed that OCD patients tend to suffer from significant functional disability, and report lower HRQoL than controls. OCD patients report greater symptom severity than patients with other mental disorders and evidence indicates that PROMs are sensitive to change and may be even better than clinician-rated measures at predicting treatment outcomes. Nonetheless, it should be noted that the measures reviewed lacked patient input in their development. Future research on PROMs must involve patient perspectives and include rigorous psychometric evaluation of these measures. PMID:25152661

Subramaniam, Mythily; Soh, Pauline; Ong, Clarissa; Esmond Seow, Lee Seng; Picco, Louisa; Vaingankar, Janhavi Ajit; Chong, Siow Ann

2014-01-01

429

Evidence for fractional anisotropy and mean diffusivity white matter abnormalities in the internal capsule and cingulum in patients with obsessive–compulsive disorder  

PubMed Central

Background There is evidence to suggest that obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) is associated with structural abnormalities in cortico–striato–thalamic circuits, yet the extent of white matter abnormalities is not well established. In this study, we used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to examine white matter integrity in specific regions of interest (ROIs) in patients with OCD. Methods Patients with OCD and sex-, age- and IQ-matched healthy controls underwent DTI. The primary objective was to explore whether patients with OCD had white matter abnormalities in the anterior limb of the internal capsule (ALIC), the uncinate fasciculus, the genu of the corpus callosum and the cingulum. The secondary objective was to evaluate the relation between fractional anisotropy and mean diffusivity in these ROIs and other clinical variables (including age at onset of OCD, OCD severity and levels of depressive and anxiety symptomatology) in patients with OCD. Results There were 15 patients and 17 controls enrolled in our study. Compared with healthy controls, patients with OCD showed increased fractional anisotropy in bilateral regions of the ALIC adjacent to the body of the caudate, as well as decreased fractional anisotropy in the right anterior limb near the head of the caudate. Patients also had decreased mean diffusivity in the body of the right cingulum and the left anterior cingulum compared with controls. Correlational analyses revealed significant associations of fractional anisotropy and mean diffusivity in select circuits with OCD, depression and anxiety severity scores. Limitations Inclusion of patients with OCD receiving pharmacotherapy may have been a limitation. In addition, the patients were heterogeneous in terms of their obsessive–compulsive symptom profiles; we did not distinguish between different obsessive–compulsive symptom dimensions. Conclusion The study results provide further evidence for OCD-related white matter abnormalities in the ALIC and cingulum, consistent with a corticostriatal model of OCD. PMID:22297066

Lochner, Christine; Fouché, Jean-Paul; du Plessis, Stefan; Spottiswoode, Bruce; Seedat, Soraya; (Psych), MMed; Fineberg, Naomi; Chamberlain, Samuel R.; Stein, Dan J.

2012-01-01

430

Nonclinical populations in research on obsessive-compulsive disorder: A critical review  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article provides a review of the literature on nonclinical obsessive-compulsives (NCOCs). The main areas of focus include: (a) prevalence of obsessive-compulsive symptoms in nonclinical populations, (b) symptom profile, (c) associated psychopathology, (d) personality and psychological characteristics, (e) cognitive dysfunction, and (f) coping styles. For all six areas, findings on NCOCs are compared with research on clinical samples. Results suggest

Natalie A. Gibbs

1996-01-01

431

Commonly asked questions in the treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder.  

PubMed

Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a common and often a highly disabling condition that was considered untreatable before the 1960s. The advent of serotonin reuptake inhibitors and exposure and response prevention revolutionized the treatment of OCD. Although they are still the first line treatments for OCD, new treatments like augmentation strategies, brain stimulation techniques, psychosurgery, newer forms of psychotherapy (like cognitive therapy, acceptance and commitment therapy) have been added to the armamentarium. With the available treatment strategies, many patients can achieve at least partial remission of symptoms. Nevertheless, the plethora of information gives rise to many questions on their application for practicing clinicians. We provide evidence-based responses to these questions and suggest a broad guideline for treatment of OCD. PMID:24372473

Arumugham, Shyam Sundar; Reddy, Y C Janardhan

2014-02-01

432

Rituals, Stereotypies, and Obsessive-Compulsive Behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Rituals, stereotypies, and obsessive-compulsive behavior are all terms used to describe one of the core symptoms of autistic\\u000a disorder and autism spectrum disorders (ASDs; Militerni, Bravaccio, Falco, Fico, & Palermo, 2002). Their inclusion in the\\u000a symptomatology related to ASDs can be traced back to Kanner’s (1943) description of the disorder, which included various forms\\u000a of repetition such as rituals, motor

Joel E. Ringdahl

433

Traumatic Events and Obsessive Compulsive Disorder in Children and Adolescents: Is There a Link?  

PubMed Central

Background The extant literature supports an association between psychological trauma and development of OCD in adults, and this link is a plausible mediator for environment gene interactions leading to phenotypic expression of OCD. Objective To explore the relationship between OCD and traumatic life events in children and adolescents. Methods We examined the prevalence of traumatic life events and PTSD in a large sample of systematically assessed children with OCD. OCD symptoms and severity were assessed using the Children’s Yale Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (CY-BOCS) in those with and without concurrent PTSD. Results Rate of PTSD and trauma exposure was higher in children with OCD than in a comparable control group of non-OCD youth matched for age, gender and SES. Children with concurrent PTSD had more intrusive fears and distress and less control over their rituals than children with OCD but without PTSD. Total CY-BOCS scores were higher in those with concurrent PTSD. Specific type of OCD symptoms was not altered by a PTSD diagnosis. Conclusions A history of psychologically traumatic events may be over-represented in children with OCD. Given the need to search for non-genetic factors that may lead to onset of OCD, better and more systematic methods to obtain and quantify psychologically traumatic life events are needed in clinical populations. PMID:21295942

Lafleur, Daniel L.; Petty, Carter; Mancuso, Elizabeth; McCarthy, Katherine; Biederman, Joseph; Faro, Alyssa; Levy, Hannah C.; Geller, Daniel A.

2011-01-01

434

Hoarding behavior among young children with obsessive-compulsive disorder.  

PubMed

Previous research has shown that among the various subtypes of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), adults (e.g. Frost, Krause & Steketee, 1996) and older children and adolescents (Bloch et al., 2009; Storch et al., 2007) with problematic hoarding have distinct features and a poor treatment prognosis. However, there is limited information on the phenomenology and prevalence of hoarding behaviors in young children. The present study characterizes children ages 10 and under who present with OCD and hoarding behaviors. Sixty-eight children received a structured interview-determined diagnosis of OCD. Clinician administered, parent-report, and child-report measures on demographic, symptomatic, and diagnostic variables were completed. Clinician ratings of hoarding symptoms and parent and child endorsement of the hoarding item on the CY-BOCS checklist (Scahill, Riddle, McSwiggin-Hardin, & Ort, 1997) determined inclusion in the hoarding group (n=33). Compared to children without hoarding symptoms (n=35), the presence of hoarding symptoms was associated with an earlier age of primary diagnosis onset and a higher proportion of ADHD and provisional anxiety diagnoses. These results are partially consistent with the adult literature and with findings in older children (Storch et al., 2007). Additional data on clinical presentation and phenomenology of hoarding are needed to form a developmentally appropriate definition of the behavior. PMID:24860725

Frank, Hannah; Stewart, Elyse; Walther, Michael; Benito, Kristen; Freeman, Jennifer; Conelea, Christ; Garci, Abbe

2014-01-01

435

Hoarding behavior among young children with obsessive-compulsive disorder  

PubMed Central

Previous research has shown that among the various subtypes of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), adults (e.g. Frost, Krause & Steketee, 1996) and older children and adolescents (Bloch et al., 2009; Storch et al., 2007) with problematic hoarding have distinct features and a poor treatment prognosis. However, there is limited information on the phenomenology and prevalence of hoarding behaviors in young children. The present study characterizes children ages 10 and under who present with OCD and hoarding behaviors. Sixty-eight children received a structured interview-determined diagnosis of OCD. Clinician administered, parent-report, and child-report measures on demographic, symptomatic, and diagnostic variables were completed. Clinician ratings of hoarding symptoms and parent and child endorsement of the hoarding item on the CY-BOCS checklist (Scahill, Riddle, McSwiggin-Hardin, & Ort, 1997) determined inclusion in the hoarding group (n=33). Compared to children without hoarding symptoms (n=35), the presence of hoarding symptoms was associated with an earlier age of primary diagnosis onset and a higher proportion of ADHD and provisional anxiety diagnoses. These results are partially consistent with the adult literature and with findings in older children (Storch et al., 2007). Additional data on clinical presentation and phenomenology of hoarding are needed to form a developmentally appropriate definition of the behavior. PMID:24860725

Frank, Hannah; Stewart, Elyse; Walther, Michael; Benito, Kristen; Freeman, Jennifer; Conelea, Christ; Garci, Abbe

2014-01-01

436

Development and validation of the Japanese version of the obsessive-compulsive inventory  

PubMed Central

Background The Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory (OCI) was designed to evaluate the severity of obsessive-compulsive symptoms in both clinical and non-clinical samples. The aim of the study was to develop a Japanese version of this scale (OCI-J) and validate it in both non-clinical and clinical Japanese samples. Findings In Study 1, the OCI-J, the Maudsley Obsessional Compulsive Inventory (MOCI), and measures of anxiety and depression were administered to 150 undergraduate students (non-clinical sample) in order to investigate the internal consistency and convergent validity of the OCI-J. Furthermore, 118 non-clinical participants completed the OCI-J after a 2-week interval to determine the test-retest reliability. In Study 2, OCD participants (n?=?35), anxiety control participants with panic disorder (n?=?22), and healthy control participants (n?=?37) completed the OCI-J in order to test its clinical discrimination ability. Correlational analysis indicated moderate to high correlations between the subscales and total scores of the OCI-J and MOCI. In addition, the OCI-J and its subscales demonstrated satisfactory test-retest reliabilities. Finally, the OCI-J showed good clinical discrimination for patients with OCD from healthy and anxiety controls. Conclusions The OCI-J is a valid and reliable instrument for measuring OCD symptoms in both clinical and non-clinical samples of Japanese. PMID:24884936

2014-01-01

437

Family involvement in the psychological treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder: a meta-analysis.  

PubMed

Psychological treatments for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) are increasingly aimed at improving outcomes by directly incorporating family members to address family disruption, dysfunction, or symptom accommodation. Much remains to be learned about the pooled effects of "family inclusive treatment" (FIT) for OCD and factors that may explain variation in response. Random-effects meta-analytic procedures were conducted to empirically evaluate the overall effect of FITs on OCD, and treatment moderators. Study search criteria yielded 29 studies examining FIT response in 1,366 OCD patients. Outcome variables included OCD symptoms and global functioning. Examined moderators included age group, gender, minority status, treatment length and format, and inclusion of specific family focused treatment elements. FITs for OCD demonstrated a large overall effect on OCD symptoms (pooled d = 1.68, SE = 0.14) and global functioning (pooled d = 0.98, SE = 0.14). Moderator analyses found that individual family treatments (vs. group) and FITs targeting family accommodation of symptoms (vs. those that did not target accommodation) were associated with greater improvements in patient functioning. Results indicate a robust overall response to FITs for OCD and clarify key moderators that inform optimal circumstances for effective treatment. Findings underscore the need for continued momentum in the development, evaluation, and dissemination of FITs for OCD. PMID:24798816

Thompson-Hollands, Johanna; Edson, Aubrey; Tompson, Martha C; Comer, Jonathan S

2014-06-01

438

Moving beyond an exclusive focus on harm avoidance in obsessive compulsive disorder: considering the role of incompleteness.  

PubMed

Cognitive-behavioral conceptualizations of obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) have predominantly viewed compulsions as being motivated by harm avoidance. However, sensations of things being incomplete or not "just right" may also underlie compulsions in OCD. Preliminary research suggests that distinguishing between harm avoidance and incompleteness in OCD may have practical utility, but the research on this topic is very limited to date. The current study further addressed the role of incompleteness in OCD. A confirmatory factor analysis provided evidence for harm avoidance and incompleteness as separate constructs in a student sample. Supporting the benefits of considering incompleteness in addition to harm avoidance, self-reported levels of both constructs were significantly correlated with all domains of OCD symptoms and perfectionism assessed. Further, some evidence for unique relationships was found (e.g., incompleteness with ordering and personally prescribed perfectionism; harm avoidance with obsessing). The role of incompleteness in OCD warrants greater attention. PMID:18721636

Pietrefesa, Ashley S; Coles, Meredith E

2008-09-01

439

Children with obsessive-compulsive disorder: are they just “little adults”?  

PubMed Central

Childhood-onset obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) affects 1%–2% of children and adolescents. It is characterized by recurrent obsessions and compulsions that create distress and interfere with daily life. The symptoms reported by children are similar to those seen among individuals who develop OCD in adulthood, and the two groups of patients are treated with similar symptom-relieving behavior therapies and medications. However, there are differences in sex ratios, patterns of comorbidity, and the results of neuroimaging studies that might be important. Here we review the diagnosis and treatment of childhood-onset OCD in light of pediatric and adult studies. We also discuss current knowledge of the pathophysiology of the disorder. Despite advances in this area, further research is needed to understand better the etiopathogenesis of the disorder and to develop new, more effective therapeutic options. PMID:19339765

Kalra, Simran K.; Swedo, Susan E.

2009-01-01

440

A neuropsychological comparison of obsessive-compulsive disorder and trichotillomania  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and trichotillomania (compulsive hair-pulling) share overlapping co-morbidity, familial transmission, and phenomenology. However, the extent to which these disorders share a common cognitive phenotype has yet to be elucidated using patients without confounding co-morbidities. Aim: To compare neurocognitive functioning in co-morbidity-free patients with OCD and trichotillomania, focusing on domains of learning and memory, executive function, affective processing,

Samuel R. Chamberlain; Naomi A. Fineberg; Andrew D. Blackwell; Luke Clark; Trevor W. Robbins; Barbara J. Sahakian

2006-01-01

441

Strategies of thought control in obsessive-compulsive disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intrusive anxiety-provoking thoughts are a core feature of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Recent research suggests that individuals use five different techniques of thought control including: distraction, punishment, re-appraisal, social control, and worry. The purpose of the present study was to examine the strategies of thought control used by OCD patients compared to those used by non-anxious controls. In addition, the relationship

Nader Amir; Laurie Cashman; Edna B. Foa

1997-01-01

442

Immunological alterations in adult obsessive-compulsive disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Some recent findings suggest the involvement of autoimmune mechanisms in childhood onset of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), on the basis of a parallel drawn with Sydenham’s chorea, a manifestation of rheumatic fever. A monoclonal antibody called D8\\/D17 characterizing a B-lymphocyte antigen, present in almost all patients with rheumatic fever, has been found also in children affected by OCD, Tourette syndrome,

Donatella Marazziti; Silvio Presta; Chiara Pfanner; Alfredo Gemignani; Alessandra Rossi; Silverio Sbrana; Valeria Rocchi; Fabio Ambrogi; Giovanni B Cassano

1999-01-01

443

Hemispheric functional imbalance in a sub-clinical obsessive-compulsive sample assessed by the Continuous Performance Test, Identical Pairs version  

Microsoft Academic Search

Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) sufferers have long been observed to give excessive consideration to normally ignored exogenous and endogenous stimuli. This over-focused attention concerning their symptoms has led researchers to experimentally investigate the attentional mechanisms involved in this disorder and its psychobiological basis. Previous psychometric and neuropsychological research has demonstrated the validity of the sub-clinical analogue in the study of the

David Mataix-Cols; Carme Junqué; Julio Vallejo; Miquel Sŕnchez-Turet; Katia Verger; Maite Barrios

1997-01-01

444

Behavior Therapy and Tricyclic Medication in the Treatment of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: A Quantitative Review.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Used a meta-analysis to integrate the research literature on the treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder. Antidepressants, such as clomipramine, and behavior therapy have produced appreciable changes in obsessive-compulsive and depressive symptoms. The effects of tricyclic medication and exposure therapies have not differed significantly, but…

Christensen, Helen; And Others

1987-01-01

445

Differentiating among singular and comorbid obsessive-compulsive disorder and social phobia symptomology.  

PubMed

Social phobia is a frequent co-occurring diagnosis with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD); however, co-occurring OCD in those with social phobia is less common. Genetic, environmental, and cognitive traits are common risk factors for anxiety disorders broadly. It is plausible that shared variables related to OCD and/or social phobia could provide insight into the co-occurrence of these two disorders. The current study explored differences in fear of negative evaluation (FNE) and perfectionism among four groups: those with (1) elevated social phobia symptoms, (2) elevated OCD symptoms, (3) elevated symptoms of OCD and social phobia, and those who were (4) asymptomatic as a control group. A non-clinical sample of 196 participants completed several online questionnaires about social phobia and OCD symptomology. Results identified three cognitive variables (i.e., FNE, total perfectionism, and concern over mistakes) as differential variables in comorbid symptom presentation of OCD and social phobia. A fourth variable (i.e., doubts about actions) was identified as a potential dual risk factor, and four subsequent variables (i.e., parental criticism, personal standards, parental expectations, and organization) were not implicated in differential symptom presentation. Given the different rates of OCD and social phobia co-occurrence, identification of differentiating variables could aid in better understanding of potential risk factors, which may enhance preventative and therapeutic techniques. Study implications, limitations, and future recommendations are discussed. PMID:24365129

Rudy, Brittany M; May, Anna C; Whiting, Sara E; Davis, Thompson E; Jenkins, Whitney S; Reuther, Erin T

2014-01-01

446

A promising randomized trial of a new therapy for obsessive–compulsive disorder  

PubMed Central

Pharmacotherapy and cognitive–behavioral therapy (CBT) are currently the most effective interventions for treating obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD). These treatments, however, are time consuming and in some cases the patients do not show significant improvement. In all, 30%–60% of OCD patients do not respond adequately to pharmacotherapy and 20%–40% of OCD patients who complete CBT do not improve significantly, suggesting a more efficacious approach is needed. The objectives of this study are to demonstrate an efficacious pharmacotherapy plus psychotherapy, named cognitive–coping therapy (CCT), for OCD and to investigate the efficacy of this approach in a larger sample size. Therefore, a total of 108 patients with OCD were randomly allocated into three groups: pharmacotherapy (N = 38), pharmacotherapy plus CBT (PCBT, N = 34), and pharmacotherapy plus CCT (PCCT, N = 36). The severity of symptoms and the patients' functioning were assessed pretreatment and after 7, 14, 21 days, and 1-, 3-, 6-, and 12-month treatment using the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale and Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF). Compared with the pharmacotherapy and PCBT groups, the severity of OCD symptoms was significantly reduced (P < 0.001), the rates of response (100%) and remission (85.0%) were significantly higher (P < 0.001), and relapse rate was lower (P = 0.017) in PCCT group during the 1-year follow-up. In addition, the GAF score was significantly higher in the PCCT group than in the other two groups (P < 0.001). Our preliminary data suggest that PCCT is a more efficacious psychotherapy for OCD patients than pharmacotherapy or PCBT. PMID:22950048

Hu, Xian-Zhang; Wen, You-Sheng; Ma, Jian-Dong; Han, Dong-Ming; Li, Yu-Xia; Wang, Shu-Fan

2012-01-01

447

Near-Infrared Spectroscopy during the Verbal Fluency Task before and after Treatment with Image Exposure and SSRI Therapy in Patients with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder  

PubMed Central

Drug therapy with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) has been used as a treatment for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). In the present case report, exposure therapy was used in addition to escitalopram (20?mg) to treat a 28-year-old female patient with OCD for 6 months. Her obsessive-compulsive symptoms comprised thoughts of words such as rape, crematorium, neck hanging, unhappy, death, die, and kill and images such as a shelf of gods, a shrine, a Buddhist altar, the sun, the sky, and the faces of her parents, siblings, and relatives. As exposure therapy, she was asked to view the images associated with these symptoms three times a day along with drug therapy. With the combination of drug and exposure therapies, her obsessive-compulsive symptoms improved within 6 months, with no interference in her daily life. Multichannel near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) showed improvement of brain function in the temporal and frontal lobes after treatment. These results suggest that NIRS can be used as an indicator of brain function improvement in patients with OCD. PMID:25317351

Nakanishi, Mari; Tanaka, Yoshihiro; Inoue, Ayako; Kawashima, Chiwa; Okamoto, Kana; Kobayashi, Shunsuke; Ishitobi, Yoshinobu; Ninomiya, Taiga

2014-01-01

448

Evidence-Based Psychosocial Treatments for Child and Adolescent Obsessive–Compulsive Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Child and adolescent obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) is a chronic and debilitating condition associated with a wide range of impairments. This article briefly discusses the phenomenology of OCD, the theory underlying current treatment approaches, and the extant psychosocial treatment literature for child and adolescent OCD relative to the criteria for classification as an evidence-based intervention. Studies were evaluated for methodological rigor

Paula M. Barrett; Lara Farrell; Armando A. Pina; Tara S. Peris; John Piacentini

2008-01-01

449

Thought-Action Fusion and Inflated Responsibility Beliefs in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), inflated responsibility (IR) beliefs and thought-action fusion (TAF) are two cognitive schema argued to contribute to obsessions and compulsions. We investigated whether IR and TAF are OCD-specific or whether they occur in other anxiety disorders. Adults diagnosed with OCD (n = 20) or other anxiety disorders…

O'Leary, Emily Marie; Rucklidge, Julia Jane; Blampied, Neville

2009-01-01

450

Evidence-Based Psychosocial Treatments for Child and Adolescent Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Child and adolescent obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a chronic and debilitating condition associated with a wide range of impairments. This article briefly discusses the phenomenology of OCD, the theory underlying current treatment approaches, and the extant psychosocial treatment literature for child and adolescent OCD relative to the…

Barrett, Paula M.; Farrell, Lara; Pina, Armando A.; Peris, Tara S.; Piacentini, John

2008-01-01

451

Videoconferencing-based cognitive-behavioral therapy for obsessive-compulsive disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a prevalent, chronic and disabling anxiety disorder. Despite the efficacy and strength of pharmacologic interventions for OCD, medications are not always well accepted or effective, making an efficacious psychosocial alternative especially attractive. Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) has been established as an effective treatment for adult OCD, yet access to such treatment is limited, especially in rural areas.

Joseph A. Himle; Daniel J. Fischer; Jordana R. Muroff; Michelle L. Van Etten; Laura M. Lokers; James L. Abelson; Gregory L. Hanna

2006-01-01

452

Neurosteroids modulate compulsive and persistent behavior in rodents: Implications for obsessive–compulsive disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neurosteroids are reported to modulate GABAergic and glutamatergic pathways that then influence serotonin and dopamine, the neurotransmitters implicated in pathophysiology of obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD). Fluoxetine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor clinically used in OCD is reported to increase the levels of neurosteroids like allopregnanolone, whereas OCD patients exhibit higher plasma levels of dehydroepiandrosterone 3-sulphate (DHEAS), a neuroactive steroid having opposite

2009-01-01

453

Circulating lymphocyte subsets in obsessive compulsive disorder, major depression and normal controls  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) shares several features with depressive illness (e.g., comorbidity, early escape from dexamethasone suppression, effectiveness of serotonergic pharmacotherapy). It was of interest to establish whether OCD, like major depression, was also associated with immune alterations, notably elevations of circulating natural killer (NK) cells. Method: Circulating lymphocytes were determined from morning blood samples taken from OCD and

Arun V Ravindran; Jenna Griffiths; Zul Merali; Hymie Anisman

1999-01-01

454

Amygdala Volume Reductions in Pediatric Patients with Obsessive–Compulsive Disorder Treated with Paroxetine: Preliminary Findings  

Microsoft Academic Search

The amygdala is believed to be highly relevant to the pathophysiology of obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) given its prominent role in fear conditioning and because it is an important target of the serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SRIs), the pharmacotherapy of choice for OCD. In the present study, we measured in vivo volumetric changes in the amygdala in pediatric patients with OCD following

Philip R Szeszko; Shauna MacMillan; Marjorie McMeniman; Elisa Lorch; Rachel Madden; Jennifer Ivey; S Preeya Banerjee; Gregory J Moore; David R Rosenberg

2004-01-01

455

Sex-specific clinical correlates of hoarding in obsessive-compulsive disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little is known about whether the clinical correlates of hoarding behavior are different in men and women with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). In the current study, we evaluated the association of hoarding with categories of obsessions and compulsions, psychiatric disorders, personality dimensions, and other clinical characteristics separately in 151 men and 358 women with OCD who were examined during the OCD

Jack F. Samuels; O. Joseph Bienvenu; Anthony Pinto; Dennis L. Murphy; John Piacentini; Scott L. Rauch; Abby J. Fyer; Marco A. Grados; Benjamin D. Greenberg; James A. Knowles; James T. McCracken; Bernadette Cullen; Mark A. Riddle; Steven A. Rasmussen; David L. Pauls; Kung-Yee Liang; Rudolf Hoehn-Saric; Ann E. Pulver; Gerald Nestadt

2008-01-01

456

Obsessive-compulsive disorder and behavioral therapy: A rational-choice perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) is a mental syndrome characterized by intrusive thoughts that trigger some repetitive action the individual feels driven to perform in order to relieve the anxiety engendered by the disturbing thoughts. A natural measure for the severity of OCD is the duration of the repetitive ritual. This paper presents a dynamic model of rational OCD that determines the

Gideon Yaniv

2008-01-01

457

A High Resolution Quantitative EEG Power Analysis of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: The findings of the quantitative EEG power-spectral studies in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) have so far been mostly inconsistent. Moreover, none of the studies has been a high resolution one. Aim: The aim of the study was to examine the band power of delta, theta, alpha, beta1 and beta2 bands with high resolution EEG data in patients with obsessive- compulsive

Pushpal Desarkar; Vinod Kumar Sinha; K. Jagadheesan; S. Haque Nizamie

458

Measuring social anxiety and obsessive-compulsive spectra: Comparison of interviews and self-report instruments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present report analyzes the agreement between the interview and the self-report formats of the instruments Structured Clinical Interview for Social Anxiety Spectrum (SCI-SHY) and Structured Clinical Interview for Obsessive Compulsive Spectrum (SCI-OBS), already validated, in three psychiatric patient samples and controls. Thirty patients (10 with obsessive-compulsive disorder [OCD], 10 with social anxiety disorder [SAD], 10 with recurrent unipolar depression

Liliana Dell'Osso; Paola Rucci; Giovanni B. Cassano; Jack D. Maser; Jean Endicott; M. Katherine Shear; Nannina Sarno; Marco Saettoni; Victoria J. Grochocinski; Ellen Frank

2002-01-01

459

Moral thought-action fusion and OCD symptoms: the moderating role of religious affiliation.  

PubMed

The empirical literature on the relationship between moral thought-action fusion (TAF) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is characterized by mixed findings. Previous studies have reported religious group differences in moral TAF and the relationship between moral TAF and religiosity. In light of those studies and considering the apparent role of moral TAF in scrupulosity, the purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the possible role of religion as a moderator of the relationship between moral TAF and OCD symptoms. The results revealed that (a) Christians endorsed higher levels of moral TAF than did Jews independent of OCD symptoms; (b) religiosity was correlated with moral TAF in Christians but not in Jews, suggesting that Christian religious adherence is related to beliefs about the moral import of thoughts; and (c) moral TAF was related to OCD symptoms only in Jews. That is, for Christians, moral TAF was related to religiosity but not OCD symptoms, and for Jews, moral TAF was related to OCD symptoms but not religiosity. These results imply that moral TAF is only a marker of pathology when such beliefs are not culturally normative (e.g., as a function of religious teaching or doctrine). PMID:20097516

Siev, Jedidiah; Chambless, Dianne L; Huppert, Jonathan D

2010-04-01

460

Disproportionate Alterations in the Anterior and Posterior Insular Cortices in Obsessive–Compulsive Disorder  

PubMed Central

Background Recent studies have reported that the insular cortex is involved in the pathophysiology of obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD). However, specific morphometric abnormalities of the insular subregions remain unclear. In this study, we examined insular cortical volume to determine whether the volume of the anterior and posterior insular cortices of unmedicated OCD patients differed according to different symptom dimensions. Methods/Principal Findings Using magnetic resonance imaging, we measured the gray matter volumes of the insular cortex and its subregions (anterior and posterior divisions) in 41 patients with OCD (31 drug-naďve and 10 non-medicated) and 53 healthy controls. Volumetric measures of the insular cortex were compared according to different OC symptoms. Enlarged anterior and reduced posterior insular cortices were observed in OCD patients. The insular volumetric alterations were more significant in OCD patients with predominant checking rather than cleaning symptoms when compared with healthy controls. Conclusions/Significance Our results suggest the presence of unbalanced anterior and posterior insular volumetric abnormalities in unmedicated OCD patients and emphasize the distinct role of the insular cortex in different OC symptoms. We propose that the insular morphometric alterations may influence the modulation of interoceptive processing, the insular functional role, in OCD patients with different symptoms. PMID:21811591

Song, Aram; Jung, Wi Hoon; Jang, Joon Hwan; Kim, Euitae; Shim, Geumsook; Park, Hye Yoon; Choi, Chi-Hoon; Kwon, Jun Soo

2011-01-01

461

Brief Report: Exposure and Response Prevention for Obsessive Compulsive Disorder in a 12-year-old with Autism  

PubMed Central

Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) involves exaggerated or excessive worry about threatening and non-threatening stimuli coupled with impairing rituals believed to reduce anxiety. Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) are characterized by impairment in social and communicative activities as well as restricted and repetitive behaviors. Approximately 2% of children with ASD are also diagnosed with OCD. Although there is extensive research demonstrating the effectiveness of behavioral interventions for pediatric OCD, little is known about how effective these treatments are for children who have a dual diagnosis of OCD and ASD. This report describes a 12-year-old male with Autism who was treated successfully with cognitive behavioral therapy with exposure and response prevention. This case study provides initial support that cognitive-behavioral therapy is effective in symptom reduction for children with comorbid autism and OCD. PMID:17885801

Storch, Eric A.; Bodfish, James W.; Geffken, Gary R.

2013-01-01

462

Secondary Psychometric Examination of the Dimensional Obsessive-Compulsive Scale: Classical Testing, Item Response Theory, and Differential Item Functioning.  

PubMed

The Dimensional Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (DOCS) is a promising measure of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) symptoms but has received minimal psychometric attention. We evaluated the utility and reliability of DOCS scores. The study included 832 students and 300 patients with OCD. Confirmatory factor analysis supported the originally proposed four-factor structure. DOCS total and subscale scores exhibited good to excellent internal consistency in both samples (? = .82 to ? = .96). Patient DOCS total scores reduced substantially during treatment (t = 16.01, d = 1.02). DOCS total scores discriminated between students and patients (sensitivity = 0.76, 1 - specificity = 0.23). The measure did not exhibit gender-based differential item functioning as tested by Mantel-Haenszel chi-square tests. Expected response options for each item were plotted as a function of item response theory and demonstrated that DOCS scores incrementally discriminate OCD symptoms ranging from low to extremely high severity. Incremental differences in DOCS scores appear to represent unbiased and reliable differences in true OCD symptom severity. PMID:25422521

Thibodeau, Michel A; Leonard, Rachel C; Abramowitz, Jonathan S; Riemann, Bradley C

2014-11-24

463

Imagery special issue: intrusive images and memories of earlier adverse events in patients with obsessive compulsive disorder.  

PubMed

Mental imagery is increasingly considered to be an important feature in anxiety disorders. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and characteristics of mental images in obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) and their possible association with earlier adverse events. A consecutive sample of 37 patients with OCD admitted to a specialist unit was interviewed using a semi-structured interview. Thirty (81%) patients with OCD reported mental images. Most images were either memories of earlier adverse events (n=10 or 34%) or were associated with them (n=13 or 45%). Patients with mental images had more obsessive compulsive symptoms, responsibility beliefs and anxiety than those without. Previous research has shown that patients with OCD and comorbid posttraumatic stress disorder might not benefit as much from standard behavioural treatment as those without. Consequently, additional therapeutic interventions such as imaginal reliving and restructuring of meaning or imagery modification of traumatic memories might be helpful in OCD patients with mental images that are linked to earlier adverse events. PMID:18005933

Speckens, Anne E M; Hackmann, Ann; Ehlers, Anke; Cuthbert, Bea

2007-12-01

464

An investigation of traumatic life events and obsessive-compulsive disorder.  

PubMed

Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), like most other psychiatric disorders, is suspected of being influenced by an interaction between life events and genes, both with regard to onset and course of illness. To date, no specific genes have been identified as playing a frequent role, and only a relatively few empirical studies have assessed the association between stressful life events (SLEs) and OCD. The present study builds on past research by examining the potential contributions from traumatic life events (TLEs) on the severity and symptom features in 265 individuals with Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID)-diagnosed OCD. Of these participants 54% endorsed having experienced at least one TLE in their life time. The presence of one or more TLEs was associated with increased OCD symptom severity. This relationship remained significant despite controlling for key variables including age, OCD age-of-onset, comorbidity, and depressive symptoms. In addition, obsessions/checking and symmetry/ordering were two of four symptom factors that were specifically associated with the occurrence of TLEs. These results are generally supportive of a pathoplastic relationship between TLEs and OCD symptomatology and thus suggest the need for greater systematic consideration of life stresses in research focused on the nature and treatment of OCD. PMID:17067548

Cromer, Kiara R; Schmidt, Norman B; Murphy, Dennis L

2007-07-01

465

Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy in obsessive-compulsive disorder – A qualitative study on patients’ experiences  

PubMed Central

Background Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) with exposure and response prevention (ERP) is the first-line treatment for patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). However, not all of them achieve remission on a longterm basis. Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) represents a new 8-week group therapy program whose effectiveness has been demonstrated in various mental disorders, but has not yet been applied to patients with OCD. The present pilot study aimed to qualitatively assess the subjective experiences of patients with OCD who participated in MBCT. Method Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 12 patients suffering from OCD directly after 8 sessions of a weekly MBCT group program. Data were analyzed using a qualitative content analysis. Results Participants valued the treatment as helpful in dealing with their OCD and OCD-related problems. Two thirds of the patients reported a decline in OCD symptoms. Benefits included an increased ability to let unpleasant emotions surface and to live more consciously in the present. However, participants also discussed several problems. Conclusion The data provide preliminary evidence that patients with OCD find aspects of the current MBCT protocol acceptable and beneficial. The authors suggest to further explore MBCT as a complementary treatment strategy for OCD. PMID:23114260

2012-01-01

466

Resting-State Functional Connectivity between FrontoParietal and Default Mode Networks in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundObsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is characterized by an excessive focus on upsetting or disturbing thoughts, feelings, and images that are internally-generated. Internally-focused thought processes are subserved by the “default mode network\\

Emily R. Stern; Kate D. Fitzgerald; Robert C. Welsh; James L. Abelson; Stephan F. Taylor

2012-01-01

467

Fluoxetine Treatment for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder in Children and Adolescents: A Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveThis study assesses the efficacy and tolerability of fluoxetine in the acute treatment of child and adolescent obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) during a 13-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

DANIEL A. GELLER; SHARON L. HOOG; JOHN H. HEILIGENSTEIN; RANDALL K. RICARDI; ROY TAMURA; STACY KLUSZYNSKI; JENNIE G. JACOBSON

2001-01-01

468

Compulsive-Like Behaviors of Typical Development: A Question of Their Nature and Continuity with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder.  

E-print Network

??OBJECTIVE: To investigate compulsive-like behaviors (CLB) of typical development: how they relate to the obsessions and compulsions of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD); and the implication of… (more)

Reid, Jeannette Mason

2010-01-01

469

Relevance of Five-Factor Model personality traits for obsessive-compulsive symptoms in patients with psychotic disorders and their un-affected siblings.  

PubMed

High rates of obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCS) in schizophrenia require pathogenic explanations. Personality traits may represent risk and resiliency factors for the development of mental disorders and their comorbidities. The aim of the present study was to explore the associations between Five-Factor Model (FFM) personality traits and the liability for OCS in patients with psychotic disorders and in their un-affected siblings. FFM traits, occurrence and severity of OCS and (subclinical) psychotic symptoms were assessed in 208 patients and in 281 siblings. Differences in FFM traits between participants with vs. without comorbid OCS were examined and the predictive value of FFM traits on group categorization was evaluated. Associations between FFM traits and OCS severity were investigated. Patients and siblings with OCS showed significantly higher Neuroticism compared to their counterparts without OCS. Neuroticism was positively associated with higher OCS severity and significantly predicted group assignment in both patients and in siblings. Patients with comorbid OCS presented with lower scores on Extraversion and Conscientiousness. Higher Neuroticism, and to a lesser degree lower Extraversion and Conscientiousness might add to the vulnerability of patients with a psychotic disorder to also develop OCS. Future prospective studies are needed to elucidate proposed personality-psychopathology interrelations and possible mediating factors. PMID:25613659

Schirmbeck, Frederike; Boyette, Lindy-Lou; Valk, Renate van der; Meijer, Carin; Dingemans, Peter; Van, Rien; de Haan, Lieuwe; Kahn, René S; de Haan, Lieuwe; van Os, Jim; Wiersma, Durk; Bruggeman, Richard; Cahn, Wiepke; Meijer, Carin; Myin-Germeys, Inez

2015-02-28

470

Escitalopram in the treatment of patients with schizophrenia and obsessive-compulsive disorder: an open-label, prospective study.  

PubMed

The current data suggest that up to 50% of patients with schizophrenia have obsessive-compulsive (OC) symptoms coexisting with psychosis and between 7.8 and 46% of schizophrenia patients also have full-blown obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The aim of this study was to examine the efficacy of the most selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor escitalopram in the management of OCD in schizophrenia patients. The study was an open-label prospective trial of 12 weeks' duration in which escitalopram at a dose of up to 20 mg/day was added to the existing antipsychotic drug regimen in schizophrenia patients with OCD. Fifteen patients (10 men/five women) with the diagnosis of schizophrenia and OCD were recruited for the study (mean age: 39±14, range 21-61 years) and received escitalopram according to the study design. A significant improvement was observed in the total Yale Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS) scores and in the scores of both the Y-BOCS-Obsession and the Y-BOCS-Compulsion subscale at the end point. In addition, a significant improvement was observed in the total scores of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale and particularly in scores of anxiety, tension, depression, and preoccupation items. No adverse effects of escitalopram were reported by patients during the trial. In our prospective 12-week open-label study, escitalopram 20 mg/day was well tolerated and improved OC symptoms in schizophrenia patients. Our preliminary results are encouraging and a double-blind randomized study is required to confirm our results. PMID:23211492

Stryjer, Rafael; Dambinsky, Yael; Timinsky, Igor; Green, Tamar; Kotler, Moshe; Weizman, Abraham; Spivak, Baruch

2013-03-01

471

Increased Maintenance of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Remission after Integrated Serotonergic Treatment and Cognitive Psychotherapy Compared with Medication Alone  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Both medication and psychotherapy are effective in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). However, they both have disadvantages. We aimed at studying the long-term effectiveness of integrated treatment compared with medication alone. Methods: A private practice sample of 20 consecutive patients with OCD (DSM-III-R) who achieved remission or marked improvement [Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (YBOCS) score ?10 and Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF)

Massimo Biondi; Angelo Picardi

2005-01-01

472

Videoconference and cell phone-based cognitive-behavioral therapy of obsessive-compulsive disorder: A case series  

Microsoft Academic Search

For most patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) the availability of exposure-based therapy is limited. In our study six outpatients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) received 15 sessions of therapy delivered only over teleconference (six sessions) and cell phones (nine sessions) over a 3-month period of time. Five of the patients were women and the average age of the participants was 31.5

Patrick A. Vogel; Gunvor Launes; Erna M. Moen; Stian Solem; Bjarne Hansen; Ashild Tellefsen Haaland; Joseph A. Himle

473

Prevalence, quality of life and psychosocial function in obsessive-compulsive disorder and subclinical obsessive-compulsive disorder in northern Germany  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Despite the worldwide relevance of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) there are considerable differences in prevalence rates\\u000a and gender ratios between the studies and a substantial lack of prevalence data on subclinical OCD. Moreover, data on quality\\u000a of life and on psychosocial function of subjects with OCD and subclinical OCD in the general population are missing to date.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods: German versions

H. J. Grabe; Ch. Meyer; U. Hapke; H.-J. Rumpf; H. J. Freyberger; H. Dilling; U. John

2000-01-01

474

Autism Spectrum and Obsessive–Compulsive Disorders: OC Behaviors, Phenotypes and Genetics  

PubMed Central

Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are a phenotypically and etiologically heterogeneous set of disorders that include obsessive–compulsive behaviors (OCB) that partially overlap with symptoms associated with obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD). The OCB seen in ASD vary depending on the individual’s mental and chronological age as well as the etiology of their ASD. Although progress has been made in the measurement of the OCB associated with ASD, more work is needed including the potential identification of heritable endophenotypes. Likewise, important progress toward the understanding of genetic influences in ASD has been made by greater refinement of relevant phenotypes using a broad range of study designs, including twin and family-genetic studies, parametric and nonparametric linkage analyses, as well as candidate gene studies and the study of rare genetic variants. These genetic analyses could lead to the refinement of the OCB phenotypes as larger samples are studied and specific associations are replicated. Like ASD, OCB are likely to prove to be multidimensional and polygenic. Some of the vulnerability genes may prove to be generalist genes influencing the phenotypic expression of both ASD and OCD while others will be specific to subcomponents of the ASD phenotype. In order to discover molecular and genetic mechanisms, collaborative approaches need to generate shared samples, resources, novel genomic technologies, as well as more refined phenotypes and innovative statistical approaches. There is a growing need to identify the range of molecular pathways involved in OCB related to ASD in order to develop novel treatment interventions. PMID:20029829

Jacob, Suma; Landeros-Weisenberger, Angeli; Leckman, James F.

2014-01-01

475

5-HT2A/C receptors do not mediate the attenuation of compulsive checking by mCPP in the quinpirole sensitization rat model of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD).  

PubMed

There is emerging evidence for a dopamine (DA)-serotonin (5-HT) interaction underlying obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). In the quinpirole sensitization rat model of OCD, compulsive checking is induced by chronic treatment with the DA agonist quinpirole, and is attenuated by the 5-HT agonist drug mCPP. However, mCPP has affinity for a number of 5-HT receptor subtypes, and it is unknown by which receptors mCPP exerts its effects on quinpirole-treated animals. The present study tested in rats whether mCPP activity at 5-HT2A/C receptors mediates the attenuation of compulsive checking in quinpirole-treated animals. Rats were chronically treated with quinpirole on the open field for the induction of compulsive checking. Following the induction phase, animals were treated with mCPP (1.25mg/kg) and the selective 5-HT2A/C receptor antagonist ritanserin (1mg/kg or 5mg/kg) to test whether blockade of 5-HT2A/C receptors inhibits attenuation of checking by mCPP. Results showed that as expected, quinpirole induced compulsive checking, and mCPP reduced its performance. However, 5-HT2A/C receptor blockade by ritanserin did not inhibit the attenuation of compulsive checking by mCPP. These results suggest that the reduction in compulsive checking by mCPP is not mediated by activity at 5-HT2A/C receptors, but by another receptor subtype. PMID:25449840

Tucci, Mark C; Dvorkin-Gheva, Anna; Johnson, Eric; Wong, Michael; Szechtman, Henry

2015-02-15

476