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1

Insight into Obsessive-Compulsive Symptoms and Awareness of Illness in Adolescent Schizophrenia Patients with and without OCD  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A substantial proportion of adolescent schizophrenia patients also has obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). As the reliability of OCD identification in schizophrenia has been challenged, we evaluated insight into OCD symptoms and awareness of schizophrenia, using the Brown Assessment of Beliefs Scale and the Scale to Assess Unawareness of Mental…

Faragian, Sarit; Kurs, Rena; Poyurovsky, Michael

2008-01-01

2

Perfectionism, responsibility and Obsessive-Compulsive symptoms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although both perfectionism and responsibility have been associated with OCD at a theoretical level, responsibility has been the focus of a number of recent articles. This study was conducted in order to empirically test the relative importance of perfectionism and responsibility in Obsessive-Compulsive symptoms. Perfectionism and two measures of responsibility showed moderate correlations with Obsessive-Compulsive symptoms. A hierarchical regression analysis

Josée Rhéaume; Mark H. Freeston; Michel J. Dugas; Hélène Letarte; Robert Ladouceur

1995-01-01

3

The relationships between obsessive-compulsive symptom dimensions and cognitions in obsessive-compulsive disorder.  

PubMed

Several studies have linked obsessive-compulsive symptoms to specific obsessive-compulsive cognitions, however methodologies have varied, and no study has determined obsessive-compulsive symptoms using the most widely used clinician rating scale, the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS). Considering that almost all studies that used factor analysis to ascertain OCD symptom dimensions were based on the Y-BOCS and that self-report instruments assessing obsessive-compulsive symptoms correlate poorly with the Y-BOCS, there is a need to use the Y-BOCS to examine the relationship between obsessive-compulsive cognitions and obsessive-compulsive symptom dimensions. This study examined the relationship between five Y-BOCS-derived obsessive-compulsive symptom dimensions and the three obsessive-compulsive cognitive domains identified by the obsessive-beliefs questionnaire (OBQ). The symmetry/ordering symptom dimension was associated with increased perfectionism/intolerance of uncertainty, the unacceptable/taboo thoughts symptom dimension was associated with increased importance/control of thoughts and the doubt/checking symptom dimension was associated with increased responsibility/threat estimation. There was no statistical evidence of an association between any OBQ belief sub-scale and the hoarding symptom dimension nor the contamination/cleaning symptom dimension. The findings encourage symptom-based approaches to cognitive-behavioural therapy for some OCD symptoms and call for further research on cognitions associated with contamination/cleaning symptoms and hoarding. PMID:24142072

Brakoulias, Vlasios; Starcevic, Vladan; Berle, David; Milicevic, Denise; Hannan, Anthony; Martin, Andrew

2014-06-01

4

Differences in obsessional beliefs and emotion appraisal in obsessive compulsive symptom presentation  

E-print Network

November 2011 Keywords: Obsessive-compulsive disorder Obsessional beliefs Emotions Subtypes a b s t r a c t Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a heterogeneous condition with symptom presentation that includes. Introduction Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a debilitating disorder characterized by recurring

O'Toole, Alice J.

5

Obsessive-compulsive symptoms in sibling pairs concordant for obsessive-compulsive disorder.  

PubMed

Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a heterogeneous disorder of unknown etiology. Phenotypic studies of affected sib-pairs (SPs) may help to characterize familial components of the phenotype. To determine whether SPs affected with OCD are similar in age at onset of obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCS), symptom dimensions and presence of tic disorders (TDs). Forty OCD siblings ranging from 13 to 59 years old were evaluated by expert psychiatrists or psychologists. Families with two or more siblings affected with OCD were recruited from several OCD clinics in Brazil. The Yale Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale Checklist was used to assess OCS and the severity of OCD. The OCD diagnoses were made according to the DSM-IV. The chi-square test was used to assess concordance of TD presence within SPs based on the TD frequency reported in the literature (30%). There were significantly more siblings with early-onset OCS than with late-onset OCS (P = 0.002). Age at onset of OCS correlated positively and significantly between the two members of each SP (P = 0.005). Fourteen patients (35%) were diagnosed with TDs. There was no concordance of the TD presence within the SPs. When both were male, there was a significant sibling correlation in the contamination obsessions/cleaning compulsions dimension (ICC = 0.74; P = 0.002). Similarly, when both siblings were female, they were comparable in the hoarding obsessions/compulsions dimension (ICC = 0.76; P = 0.01). Familial factors seem to contribute to specific OCD phenotypic components such as age at onset of OCS and specific dimensions. The obvious influence of gender is as yet unexplained. PMID:17440931

Chacon, Priscila; Rosario-Campos, Maria Conceição; Pauls, David L; Hounie, Ana Gabriela; Curi, Mariana; Akkerman, Fernando; Shimabokuro, Fabiana Harumi; de Mathis, Maria Alice; Lopes, Antonio Carlos; Hasler, Gregor; Miguel, Euripedes Constantino

2007-06-01

6

Treatment for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and OCD-related disorders using GVG  

DOEpatents

The present invention relates to the use of gamma vinyl-GABA (GVG) to treat obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and OCD-related disorders, and to reduce or eliminate behaviors associated with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and OCD-related disorders.

Dewey, Stephen L. (Manorville, NY); Brodie, Jonathan D. (Cos Cob, CT); Ashby, Jr., Charles R. (Miller Place, NY)

2002-01-01

7

Symptom dimensions in obsessive-compulsive disorder: prediction of cognitive-behavior therapy outcome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: A significant number of patients with obsessive- compulsive disorder (OCD) fail to benefit sufficiently from treatments. This study aimed to evaluate whether certain OCD symptom dimensions were associated with cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) outcome. Method: Symptoms of 104 CBT-treated in-patients with OCD were assessed with the clinician-rated Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale symptom checklist. Logistic regression analyses examined outcome predictors. Results: The

M. Rufer; S. Fricke; S. Moritz; M. Kloss; I. Hand

2006-01-01

8

Sy43-5crct for ocd (obsessive compulsive disorders).  

PubMed

As you know, CRCT has started to prevail in Japan as a drastic therapeutic method for patients with various kinds of deviated behaviors. These behavioral traits include addictive diseases, eating disorders, and OCD (Obsessive Compulsive Disorders). Despite the development of treatments for various kinds of anxiety disorders, OCD has become widely known as one of the difficult disorders to cure sufficiently. To tell the truth, until I came to know this method, I had had difficulty coping with a lot of OCD patients, including those with obsessive compulsive behavioral traits, or such tendencies, including those not being diagnosed as OCD. I'm going to make a presentation leading to some discussions considering the recovery process of several patients with obsessive compulsive ideas or behaviors. I cannot help but hope that CRCT would spread throughout the world for the sake of enormous amount of patients in need, because of the following merits of this epoch-making method. (1) Additional method (to other conventional ones) (2) Brief therapy, to practice for beginners (3) Convenient procedures, and few side effects (4) Decisive tool, both theoretically and clinically (5) Economical means (low-cost). PMID:25221143

Yamada, H

2014-09-01

9

Memory bias in obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD)  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a memory bias associated with depression, and good reason to expect a memory bias associated with anxiety. However, the results of studies reported to date have been ambiguous. Accordingly, an experiment was conducted to assess memory for contamination in people with different types of anxiety.Memory for contaminated stimuli among participants who met DSM-IV criteria for obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD)

Adam S Radomsky; S Rachman

1999-01-01

10

Mood, personality disorder symptoms and disability in obsessive compulsive hoarders: a comparison with clinical and nonclinical controls  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hoarding is a symptom of obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), as well as a diagnostic criterion for obsessive compulsive personality disorder (OCPD). One recent study suggests that people who suffer from compulsive hoarding report more general psychopathology than people who do not [Frost, R.O., Krause, M.S., & Steketee, G. (1996). Hoarding and obsessive compulsive symptoms. Behavior Modification, 20, 116–132]. The present

Randy O. Frost; Gail Steketee; Lauren F. Williams; Ricks Warren

2000-01-01

11

Clinical and Cognitive Correlates of Depressive Symptoms Among Youth with Obsessive Compulsive Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Depression is the most common comorbidity among adults with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), yet little is known about depressive symptoms in childhood OCD. This study examined clinical and cognitive variables associated with depressive symptomatology in 71 youths (62% male, M age = 12.7 years) with primary OCD. Youths presented with a range of depressive symptoms, with 21% scoring at or above the

Tara S. Peris; R. Lindsey Bergman; Joan R. Asarnow; Audra Langley; James T. McCracken; John Piacentini

2010-01-01

12

Aripiprazole Improved Obsessive Compulsive Symptoms in Asperger's Disorder  

PubMed Central

There are many comorbid disorders associated with autism spectrum disorders in child and adolescent population. Although obsessive compulsive disorder and autism spectrum disorders (ASD) comorbidity has common in clinical practice, there are few reports about psychopharmacological treatment for obsessive compulsive symptoms in children with ASD in the literacy. We report a successful treatment case with aripiprazole in Asperger's Disorder with obsessive compulsive symptoms. The Yale Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale was performed to assess symptom variety. This case report supports the effectiveness of aripiprazole in treatment of obsessive compulsive symptoms in Asperger's Disorder or ASDs. Aripiprazole may be beneficial to obsessive compulsive disorder comorbid autism spectrum disorders in child and adolescent age group. PMID:23429759

Tahiroglu, Aysegul Yolga; Firat, Sunay; Avci, Ayse

2011-01-01

13

Shame proneness in symptom dimensions of obsessive-compulsive disorder.  

PubMed

Although one study has noted that shame may play a significant role in anxiety disorders (Fergus, Valentiner, McGratch, & Jencius, 2010), the literature does not address the appearance of shame within specific dimensions of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). In this study, shame is assessed within four common symptom dimensions of OCD: contamination, harm, unacceptable thoughts, and symmetry. The authors hypothesized that shame would be significantly related to unacceptable thoughts and harm, but not other dimensions. Ninety-one individuals with OCD completed the Dimensional Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (measuring severity of OCD symptom dimensions) and the Test of Self-Conscious Affect (assessing shame proneness). Results indicated a positive significant relationship between shame and harm, but not unacceptable thoughts. Additionally, a significant correlation was found between shame and symmetry. This is possibly due to a relationship between perfectionism and symmetry (Wu & Cortesi, 2009). These findings suggest that shame is related to certain dimensions of OCD and may deserve consideration in relation to treatment. PMID:24870849

Wetterneck, Chad T; Singh, Sonia; Hart, John

2014-01-01

14

Symptom structure in obsessive-compulsive disorder: a confirmatory factor-analytic study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has long been a unitary diagnosis, there is much recent interest in its potential heterogeneity, as manifested by symptom subgroups. This study evaluated existing models of symptom structure in a sample of 203 individuals with OCD. Using confirmatory factor analysis, we examined the ability of each model to account for two levels of data: a priori

Laura J Summerfeldt; Margaret A Richter; Martin M Antony; Richard P Swinson

1999-01-01

15

A critical evaluation of obsessive–compulsive disorder subtypes: Symptoms versus mechanisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, experts have suggested that obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD), a highly heterogeneous condition, is actually composed of distinct subtypes. Research to identify specific subtypes of OCD has focused primarily on symptom presentation. Subtype models have been proposed using factor analyses that yield dimensional systems of symptom categories, but not necessarily distinct subtypes. Other empirical work has considered the role of neuropsychological

Dean McKay; Jonathan S. Abramowitz; John E. Calamari; Michael Kyrios; Adam Radomsky; Debbie Sookman; Steven Taylor; Sabine Wilhelm

2004-01-01

16

Disgust proneness and obsessive–compulsive symptoms in a clinical sample: Structural differentiation from negative affect  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although a growing body of research has revealed robust associations between disgust and obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) symptoms, there remains a paucity of research examining the specificity of this association in clinical samples. The present study employed structural equation modeling to differentiate disgust from negative affect in the prediction of OCD symptoms in a clinical sample (n=153). Results indicate that disgust

Bunmi O. Olatunji; Chad Ebesutani; Bieke David; Qianqian Fan; Patrick B. McGrath

2011-01-01

17

Four-Factor Structure of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Symptoms in Children, Adolescents, and Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study was conducted to establish the efficacy of four-factor obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) symptom structure for use in child, adolescent and adult groups. Results indicated that the four-factor OCD structure is inadequate for use in children, adolescent and adult age groups.

Stewart, S. Evelyn; Rosario, Maria C.; Baer, Lee; Carter, Alice S.; Brown, Timothy A.; Scharf, Jeremiah M.; Illmann, Cornelia; Leckman, James F.; Sukhodolsky, Denis; Katsovich, Lilya; Rasmussen, Steven; Goodman, Wayne; Delorme, Richard; Leboyer, Marion; Chabane, Nadia; Jenike, Michael A.; Geller, Daniel A.; Pauls, David L.

2008-01-01

18

Symptom Presentation and Outcome of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous researchers have classified obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) patients by the themes of their obsessions and compulsions (e.g., washing, checking); however, mental compulsions have not been adequately assessed in these studies. The authors conducted 2 studies using a large sample of OCD patients (N = 132). In the 1st study, they categorized patients on the basis of symptom presentation, giving adequate

Jonathan S. Abramowitz; Martin E. Franklin; Stefanie A. Schwartz; Jami M. Furr

2003-01-01

19

Peer Victimization in Children with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: Relations with Symptoms of Psychopathology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the frequency of peer victimization and psychological symptom correlates among youth with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The Schwartz Peer Victimization Scale, Children's Depression Inventory, and Asher Loneliness Scale were administered to 52 children and adolescents diagnosed with OCD. The child's parent or guardian…

Storch, Eric A.; Ledley, Deborah Roth; Lewin, Adam B.; Murphy, Tanya K.; Johns, Natalie B.; Goodman, Wayne K.; Geffken, Gary R.

2006-01-01

20

Relationship of Exposure to Clinically Irrelevant Emotion Cues and Obsessive-Compulsive Symptoms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research has highlighted the role of emotion regulation as a common factor underlying emotional disorders. The current study examined the relationship of emotion regulation skills to obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) symptoms. Seven participants with a principal diagnosis of OCD in a multiple-baseline across subjects design were taught the skill…

Allen, Laura B.; Barlow, David H.

2009-01-01

21

General and Maladaptive Personality Dimensions in Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Symptoms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a chronic and impairing clinical disorder in childhood, often characterized by a heterogeneous symptomatic profile and high co-occurrence with other disorders. The present study introduces a new perspective on the description of OCD symptoms in youth, and empirically examines the value of a personality…

Aelterman, Nathalie; De Clercq, Barbara; De Bolle, Marleen; De Fruyt, Filip

2011-01-01

22

Obsessive-compulsive-spectrum symptoms in patients with focal dystonia, hemifacial spasm, and healthy subjects.  

PubMed

This study is aimed at investigating obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) in three groups of patients matched for age and gender; namely, focal dystonia (FD), hemifacial spasm (HFS), and healthy-control subjects (HC). All subjects were investigated with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-I, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, the Symptom Checklist-90, the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale, and the Structured Clinical Interview for Obsessive-Compulsive Spectrum Self-Report, Lifetime Version (SCI-OBS-SR-LT). The prevalence of OCD was significantly higher in both FD and HFS than in HC participants. On the SCI-OBS, HFS patients showed higher scores than FD or HC for "contamination" and "aggressiveness." Despite the different pathophysiology, OCD is highly represented in both FD and HFS, with different thematic content characterizing the two conditions. PMID:22450617

Mula, Marco; Strigaro, Gionata; Marotta, Antonella E; Ruggerone, Simona; Tribolo, Antonella; Monaco, Roberto; Cantello, Francesco

2012-01-01

23

Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder  

MedlinePLUS

MENU Return to Web version Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Overview What is obsessive-compulsive disorder? Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is an illness that causes people to have unwanted thoughts (obsessions) ...

24

History of trauma and dissociative symptoms among patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder and social anxiety disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

We aimed to compare the history of trauma and the profile and severity of dissociative symptoms of patients with obsessive-compulsive\\u000a disorder (OCD) to those of patients with social anxiety disorder (SAD). Patients with OCD (n = 34) and patients with SAD (n = 30) were examined with the following instruments: Trauma History Questionnaire (THQ), Dissociative Experience Scale (DES),\\u000a Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory (OCI), Liebowitz Social Anxiety

Leonardo F. Fontenelle; Aline M. Domingues; Wanderson F. Souza; Mauro V. Mendlowicz; Gabriela B. de Menezes; Ivan L. Figueira; Marcio Versiani

2007-01-01

25

Obsessive-Compulsive Symptom Dimensions as Predictors of Compliance with and Response to Behaviour Therapy: Results from a Controlled Trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Recent factor-analytic studies in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) identified consistent symptom dimensions. Support for the validity of these dimensions comes from studies of psychiatric comorbidity, functional brain imaging, genetic transmission, and treatment response to medications. This study examined whether previously identified OCD symptom dimensions are associated with treatment compliance and response to behaviour therapy (BT) for OCD. Methods: One hundred

David Mataix-Cols; Isaac M. Marks; John H. Greist; Kenneth A. Kobak; Lee Baer

2002-01-01

26

Revision of the Padua Inventory of obsessive compulsive disorder symptoms: Distinctions between worry, obsessions, and compulsions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Padua Inventory (PI), a self-report measure of obsessive and compulsive symptoms, is increasingly used in obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) research. Freeston, Ladouceur, Rheaume, Letarte, Gagnon and Thibodeau (1994) [Behaviour Research and Therapy, 32, 29–36], however, recently showed that the PI measures worry in addition to obsessions. In an attempt to solve this measurement problem, this study used a content

G. Leonard Burns; Susan G. Keortge; Gina M. Formea; Lee G. Sternberger

1996-01-01

27

Interventions for obsessive compulsive symptoms in people with schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

This is the protocol for a review and there is no abstract. The objectives are as follows: 1. Primary objectives To evaluate clinically meaningful benefits of interventions used to treat clinically significant obsessive compulsive symptoms occurring in people with schizophrenia with regard to global improvement, changes in mental state, hospitalisation, behaviour and functioning in the short term (less than six weeks), medium term (six weeks to six months) and long term (more than six months). In this review we specifically addressed the efficacy and safety of the following when used to treat clinically significant obsessive compulsive symptoms occurring in people with schizophrenia: 1.1 Conventional and newer (or atypical) antipsychotic drugs 1.2 Conventional and newer antidepressant drugs 1.3 Any other drug or pharmacologically active substance 1.4 Non-pharmacological interventions In future versions of this review we will cover the use of psychosurgery, deep brain stimulation or other invasive interventions for this purpose. 2. Secondary objectives To determine whether these interventions would have a differential effect: 2.1 In people with schizophrenia in whom obsessive compulsive symptoms preceded the onset of symptoms of schizophrenia as opposed to those in whom obsessive compulsive symptoms occurred in the prodromal stages or after the symptoms of schizophrenia were firmly established 2.2 In people with obsessive compulsive symptoms as opposed to obsessive compulsive disorder as defined by diagnostic criteria

Raj, Mohan; Farooq, Saeed

2014-01-01

28

Obsessive–compulsive disorder subgroups: a symptom-based clustering approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) is often considered a heterogeneous condition, there is no generally accepted subtype typology. Cluster analysis was used to identify definitive symptom-based groupings of 106 OCD patients. A stable cluster solution was achieved and five patient subgroups were identified based on their pattern of symptoms on the Yale-Brown (Y-BOCS) symptom checklist: harming, hoarding, contamination, certainty and obsessionals.

John E Calamari; Pamela S Wiegartz; Amy S Janeck

1999-01-01

29

Error-Related Negativity and Tic History in Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD)  

PubMed Central

Objective The error-related negativity (ERN) is a negative deflection in the event-related potential following an incorrect response, which is often increased in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). However, the relationship of the ERN to comorbid tic disorders has not been examined in patients with OCD. This study compared ERN amplitudes in patients with tic-related OCD, patients with non-tic-related OCD, and healthy controls. Method The ERN, correct response negativity, and error number were measured during an Eriksen flanker task to assess performance monitoring in 44 youth with a lifetime diagnosis of OCD and 44 matched healthy controls ranging in age from 10 to 19 years. Nine youth with OCD had a lifetime history of tics. Results ERN amplitudewas significantly increased in OCD patients compared to healthy controls. ERN amplitude was significantly larger in patients with non-tic-related OCD than either patients with tic-related OCD or controls. ERN amplitude had a significant negative correlation with age in healthy controls but not patients with OCD. Instead, in patients with non-tic-related OCD, ERN amplitude had a significant positive correlation with age at onset of OCD symptoms. ERN amplitude in patients was unrelated to OCD symptom severity, current diagnostic status, or treatment effects. Conclusions The results provide further evidence of increased error-related brain activity in pediatric OCD. The difference in the ERN between patients with tic-related and non-tic-related OCD provides preliminary evidence of a neurobiological difference between these two OCD subtypes. The results indicate the ERN is a trait-like measure that may serve as a biomarker for non-tic-related OCD. PMID:22917203

Hanna, Gregory L.; Carrasco, Melisa; Harbin, Shannon M.; Nienhuis, Jenna K.; LaRosa, Christina E.; Chen, Poyu; Fitzgerald, Kate D.; Gehring, William J.

2012-01-01

30

Decision Making and Set Shifting Impairments Are Associated With Distinct Symptom Dimensions in Obsessive–Compulsive Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) is clinically heterogeneous. The authors examined how specific OCD symptom dimensions were related to neuropsychological functions using multiple regression analyses. A total of 39 OCD patients and 40 controls completed the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT; A. Bechara, A. R. Damasio, H. Damasio, & S. W. Anderson, 1994), which is a test of decision making, and the Wisconsin

Natalia S. Lawrence; Sarah Wooderson; David Mataix-Cols; Rhodri David; Anne Speckens; Mary L. Phillips

2006-01-01

31

Perfectionism dimensions as predictors of symptom dimensions of obsessive-compulsive disorder.  

PubMed

The correlation between obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and perfectionism is well documented, yet it remains unclear if dimensions of perfectionism vary as a function of OCD symptom dimensions. To this end, the present study investigated the unique associations between dimensions of perfectionism (i.e., concern over mistakes, doubts about actions, personal standards, parental criticism, parental expectations, and organization) and OCD symptom dimensions (i.e., hoarding, washing, checking, ordering, obsessing, and neutralizing). The study included adult patients with OCD (N = 46) from a residential OCD treatment program. Consistent with previous research, doubts about actions was a significant predictor of overall OCD severity and OCD checking symptoms. The organization dimension of perfectionism was a significant predictor of OCD ordering symptoms. The current study provides evidence for the unique relationships between OCD symptoms and perfectionism dimensions that encourage a movement toward greater phenotypic specificity within existing models of OCD. PMID:24870847

Martinelli, Mary; Chasson, Gregory S; Wetterneck, Chad T; Hart, John M; Björgvinsson, Thröstur

2014-01-01

32

Obsessive-compulsive symptoms: the contribution of metacognitions and responsibility.  

PubMed

Two different cognitive models of obsessive-compulsive symptoms were evaluated. One model [Salkovskis, P. M. (1985). Obsessional-compulsive problems a cognitive-behavioral analysis. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 23, 571-583.] gives a central and necessary role to beliefs and appraisals concerning responsibility. The other [Wells, A. (1997). Cognitive therapy of anxiety disorders: a practice manual and conceptual guide. Chichester, UK: Wiley.] attaches a central and necessary role to metacognitive beliefs about the meaning and danger of thoughts/feelings and the need for control. We tested the unique contributions of responsibility or metacognitions to obsessive-compulsive symptoms whilst controlling for their intercorrelations and worry. Consistent with each model, responsibility and metacognitions were positively associated with obsessive-compulsive symptoms, even when worry was controlled for. However, responsibility was not associated with obsessive-compulsive symptoms when metacognitions and worry were controlled, but the relationship between metacognitive beliefs and obsessive-compulsive symptoms was independent of responsibility and worry. Responsibility did not add anything to the variance in symptoms explained by metacognitions. The data provide further support for the metacognitive model. PMID:16076426

Myers, Samuel G; Wells, Adrian

2005-01-01

33

To discard or not to discard: the neural basis of hoarding symptoms in obsessive-compulsive disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Preliminary neuroimaging studies suggest that patients with the ‘compulsive hoarding syndrome’ may be a neurobiologically distinct variant of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) but further research is needed. A total of 29 OCD patients (13 with and 16 without prominent hoarding symptoms) and 21 healthy controls of both sexes participated in two functional magnetic resonance imaging experiments consisting of the provocation of

S. K. An; D. Mataix-Cols; N. S. Lawrence; S. Wooderson; V. Giampietro; A. E. M. Speckens; M. J. Brammer; M. L. Phillips

2009-01-01

34

Obsessive compulsive symptoms are related to lower quality of life in patients with Schizophrenia.  

PubMed

Abstract Background. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCS) on quality of life (QoL) and to identify the OCS with a particular effect on QoL, and whether there are any such symptoms for patients with schizophrenia. Methods. We studied three groups of patients with schizophrenia. One group of patients (n = 45) without OCS or obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), one group with OCS, not fulfilling the diagnostic criteria for OCD (n = 31), and one group with OCD as a comorbid condition (n = 24). Severity of clinical symptoms was evaluated with the Positive and Negative Symptom Scale and OCS was examined using the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS) Symptom Checklist. We also administered the Y-BOCS. The patients' QoL was assessed using the Quality of Life Scale (QLS). Results. QLS interpersonal relationships subscale scores of those with OCS were lower than those without OCS. There was no difference among OCS, non-OCS, and OCD groups in terms of QoL. There was no relationship between QLS scores and symmetry, contamination and causing harm obsessions, but those with cleaning and repeating compulsions had lower QoL. Conclusions. Questioning of comorbid OCS and treatment with specific medication in schizophrenia patients may increase QoL. PMID:25012893

Uçok, Alp; K?vrak Tihan, Aysu; Karaday?, Gül?ah; Tükel, Ra?it

2014-10-01

35

Obsessive-Compulsive Spectrum Disorder Symptoms in College Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: This study investigated the occurrence of obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorders (OCSDs) and associated symptomology in college students. Participants: Participants included 358 undergraduate students. Results: Results suggest that clinically significant levels of OCSD symptoms are relatively common. Additionally, OCSD symptoms

Sulkowski, Michael L.; Mariaskin, Amy; Storch, Eric A.

2011-01-01

36

Nonverbal memory and organizational dysfunctions are related with distinct symptom dimensions in obsessive-compulsive disorder.  

PubMed

Recent acceptance that obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) represents a heterogeneous phenomenon has underscored the need for dimensional approaches to this disorder. However little is known about the relation between neuropsychological functions and symptom dimensions. The purpose of this study was to identify the cognitive deficits correlated with specific symptom dimensions. Thirteen categories in the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale symptom checklist from 144 patients with OCD were analyzed by principal component analysis. Correlations between identified symptom dimensions and neuropsychological functioning, measured by the Boston Qualitative Scoring System, were analyzed. Five factors or dimensions were identified: contamination/cleaning, hoarding, symmetry/ordering, obsessions/checking, and repeating/counting. Dysfunctions in nonverbal memory and organizational strategies were related to the symmetry/ordering dimension and the obsessions/checking dimension, respectively. The results of the present study support a transculturally stable symptom structure for OCD. They also suggest the possibility that nonverbal memory dysfunction and organizational impairment are mediated by distinct obsessive-compulsive dimensions. PMID:20483482

Jang, Joon Hwan; Kim, Hee Sun; Ha, Tae Hyon; Shin, Na Young; Kang, Do-Hyung; Choi, Jung-Seok; Ha, Kyooseob; Kwon, Jun Soo

2010-12-30

37

Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) 12-month Prevalence: 1.0% of U.S. adult  

E-print Network

Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) Prevalence � 12-month Prevalence: 1.0% of U.S. adult population, and comorbidity of twelve-month DSM-IV disorders in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication (NCS-R). Archives. Lifetime prevalence and age-of-onset distributions of DSM-IV disorders in the National Comorbidity Survey

Baker, Chris I.

38

No Evidence for Object Alternation Impairment in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent neuroimaging studies have consistently ascribed the orbito-frontal cortex (OFC) a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Cognitive tests presumed sensitive to this region, such as the Object Alternation Task (OAT), are considered important tools to verify this assumption and to investigate the impact of…

Moritz, Steffen; Jelinek, Lena; Hottenrott, Birgit; Klinge, Ruth; Randjbar, Sarah

2009-01-01

39

Error-Related Hyperactivity of the Anterior Cingulate Cortex in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder  

E-print Network

Error-Related Hyperactivity of the Anterior Cingulate Cortex in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Kate) in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has been shown to increase with symptom provocation of symptom expression in patients with OCD. Key Words: Obsessive-compulsive disorder, anterior cingulate, er

Gehring, William J.

40

Concurrent validity of the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale-Symptom Checklist.  

PubMed

Despite the frequent use of the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale-Symptom Checklist (Y-BOCS-SC; Goodman et al., 1989a) and the Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory-Revised (OCI-R; Foa et al., 2002), there are limited data on the psychometric properties of the two instruments. In the present research, clinician ratings on the Y-BOCS-SC for 112 patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) were compared to their self-report ratings on the OCI-R. In addition, Y-BOCS-SC and OCI-R scores were compared to measures of OCD symptom severity and self-report measures of anxiety (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory-Trait Subscale [STAI-T]; Spielberger, Gorusch, & Lushene, 1970) and depression (Beck Depression Inventory-II [BDI-II]; Beck, Steer, & Brown, 1996). The six symptom scales of the OCI-R had good internal consistency reliabilities (alphas). For the Y-BOCS-SC, three of five scales had good reliabilities (alphas >.80), but alphas for symmetry/ordering and sexual/religious symptom scales were inadequate. Total scores for the two instruments were strongly correlated with their corresponding "checking" scales, but no individual symptoms scales were identified as indices of overall OCD symptom presence. Scales assessing washing/contamination, symmetry/ordering, and hoarding from the two OCD instruments correlated well, but lower correlations for the other scales suggested differences in symptom coverage by the two instruments. Most symptom scales from the Y-BOCS-SC and OCI-R had low correlations with the BDI-II and STAI-T, but the OCI-R obsessing scale was well correlated (r=.54) with the STAI-T. These findings reveal some of the strengths and weaknesses of these two OCD instruments, and the results provide guidance for selecting scales that are suitable for measuring OCD symptoms. PMID:18942133

Sulkowski, Michael L; Storch, Eric A; Geffken, Gary R; Ricketts, Emily; Murphy, Tanya K; Goodman, Wayne K

2008-12-01

41

Relationship between early maladaptive schemas and symptom dimensions in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder.  

PubMed

The aims of this study were to evaluate early maladaptive schemas (EMSs) of patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and to clarify relationships between particular EMSs and the five factor-analyzed symptom dimensions and other clinical variables. Fifty-seven patients with OCD and 70 normal controls completed the Young Schema Questionnaire, the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS), the Y-BOCS symptom checklist, and the Beck Depression Inventory. Patients with OCD had significantly higher scores for schema related to defectiveness/shame, social isolation/alienation, and failure than did normal controls. Among the five OCD symptom dimensions, the sexual/religious dimension was only significantly correlated with two schemas of vulnerability to harm or illness and enmeshment/undeveloped self. These two schemas were significant predictors of the sexual/religious dimension, accounting for 33% of the total variance in this dimension. Any EMSs in patients with OCD were not related to clinical variables such as severity of OCD and duration of illness. These findings may constitute evidence to improve our understandings of OCD from a perspective of schema theory. PMID:23962740

Kim, Ji Eun; Lee, Sang Won; Lee, Seung Jae

2014-01-30

42

Clinical and Cognitive Correlates of Depressive Symptoms among Youth with Obsessive Compulsive Disorder  

PubMed Central

Depression is the most common comorbidity among adults with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), yet little is known about depressive symptoms in childhood OCD. This study examined clinical and cognitive variables associated with depressive symptomatology in 71 youths (62% male, mean age= 12.7 years) with primary OCD. Youths presented with a range of depressive symptoms, with 21% scoring at or above the clinical cutoff on the self-report measure of depression. Higher levels of depressive symptoms were associated with higher levels of cognitive distortions assessed on measures of insight, perceived control, competence, and contingencies. Depressive symptoms were also linked to older age and more severe OCD. Low perceived control and self-competence and high OCD severity independently predicted depression scores. PMID:20706915

Peris, Tara S.; Bergman, R. Lindsey; Asarnow, Joan R.; Langley, Audra; McCracken, James T.; Piacentini, John

2010-01-01

43

American Journal of Medical Genetics Part B (Neuropsychiatric Genetics) 116B:6068 (2003) Obsessive-Compulsive Symptom Dimensions in  

E-print Network

, The Netherlands Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is an etiologically heterogeneous disorder. Recent factor. KEY WORDS: Gilles de la Tourette synd- rome; obsessive-compulsive disorder; quantitative traitsAmerican Journal of Medical Genetics Part B (Neuropsychiatric Genetics) 116B:60­68 (2003) Obsessive-Compulsive

Kidd, Kenneth

44

An examination of obsessive-compulsive symptoms and dimensions using profile analysis via multidimensional scaling (PAMS).  

PubMed

Contemporary cognitive models of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) emphasize the importance of various types of dysfunctional beliefs in contributing to OC symptoms, such as beliefs about excessive personal responsibility, perfectionism, and intolerance for uncertainty. The present study seeks to further our understanding of the role of these beliefs by identifying the common profiles of such beliefs, using profile analysis via multidimensional scaling (PAMS). In Study 1, a large student sample (N=4079) completed the 44-item obsessive beliefs questionnaire. One major profile, control of thoughts and perfectionism, was extracted. Study 2 examined profiles of the 87-item obsessive beliefs questionnaire in people with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD; n=398), other anxiety disorders (n=104), and a sample of undergraduate students (n=285). Inflated responsibility was a prominent subscale in the profiles of all three groups. Only control over thoughts was a unique subscale in the profile obtained for the OCD group, with this group having lower scores compared to the other groups. The results suggest that while inflated responsibility is a significant subscale in the profile of individuals with OCD, it is not a unique contributor; instead, control over thoughts is unique to OCD. The data, as well as recent research investigating obsessive beliefs, suggest the need to revise the contemporary cognitive model of OCD. PMID:24786360

McKay, Dean; Kim, Se-Kang; Taylor, Steven; Abramowitz, Jonathan S; Tolin, David; Coles, Meredith; Timpano, Kiara R; Olatunji, Bunmi

2014-05-01

45

Symptom dimensions and subtypes of obsessive-compulsive disorder: a developmental perspective  

PubMed Central

In the absence of definitive etiological markers for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), obsessive-compulsive (OC) symptom dimensions may offer a fruitful point of orientation. These dimensions can be understood as defining potentially overlapping clinical features that may be continuous with “normal” worries first evident in childhood. Although the understanding of the dimensional structure of OC symptoms is still imperfect, a recent large-scale meta-analysis has confirmed the presence of at least four separable symptom dimensions in children, as well as adults, with OCD, A dimensional approach does not exclude other methods to parse OCD. Thus far, a pediatric age of onset, the presence of other family members with OCD, and the individual's “ticrelated” status appear to be potentially useful categorical distinctions. Although the OC symptom dimensions appear to be valid for all ages, it is unlikely that the underlying genetic vulnerability factors and neurobiological substrates for each of these symptom dimensions are the same across the course of development. PMID:19432385

Leckman, James F.; Bloch, Michael H.; King, Robert A.

2009-01-01

46

Relationship between obsessive-compulsive symptoms and smoking habits amongst schizophrenic patients.  

PubMed

The rate of smoking is especially high among patients with schizophrenia (SCH) and schizoaffective disorder (SCHAFF). Patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) smoke less than the general population. OCD symptoms are more frequent among patients with SCH or SCHAFF than in the general population, but it is still unclear whether schizophrenia patients with OC symptoms suffer from SCH and comorbid OCD, or whether they represent a unique subgroup of SCH with presenting OC symptoms. In our study we hypothetised that the current smoking rate of schizophrenia patients with OC symptoms is lower than in schizophrenia patients without OC symptoms. We assessed OC symptoms with the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS), general state with the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) and smoking habits with a questionnaire among 66 patients with SCH or SCHAFF. We formed two groups by dividing patients according to their Y-BOCS score. Group I consisted of patients with Y-BOCS scores under 16, while group II consisted of patients with Y-BOCS scores above 16, and we compared the current smoking rates of the two groups. We found that the rates did not differ significantly, so we came to the conclusion that OC symptoms are not in a tight relationship with smoking habits among patients with SCH/SCHAFF. PMID:16973220

Dome, Peter; Teleki, Zsofia; Gonda, Xenia; Gaszner, Gabor; Mandl, Peter; Rihmer, Zoltan

2006-11-15

47

Case Series: Transformation Obsession in Young People with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents a previously unreported symptom of obsessive-compulsive disorder. The young people reported describe a fear of turning into someone or something else or taking on unwanted characteristics. We have called this transformation obsession. The bizarre nature of this obsession had led to misdiagnosis and inappropriate treatments in…

Volz, Chloe; Heyman, Isobel

2007-01-01

48

Overactive performance monitoring in obsessive-compulsive disorder is independent of symptom expression.  

PubMed

Overactive performance monitoring has been consistently reported in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). OCD is a clinically heterogeneous disorder and is characterized by several symptom dimensions that may have partially distinct neural correlates. We examined whether performance-monitoring alterations are related to symptom severity and symptom dimensions. Electrocortical correlates of performance monitoring were assessed in 72 OCD patients and 72 matched healthy comparison participants during a flanker task. Amplitudes of the error- and correct-related negativity as well as delta and theta power were used to quantify performance-monitoring activity, and a composite measure was derived using factor analysis. Symptom dimension scores were obtained from the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale symptom checklist. OCD patients showed increased electrocortical responses associated with correct and erroneous responses compared to healthy comparison participants. In patients, no correlations were obtained between performance monitoring and global symptom severity as well as lifetime symptom dimension scores. Only a statistical trend was found that higher symmetry/hoarding scores were associated with reduced performance-monitoring activity. For present symptom dimensions scores, an association with rituals/superstitious symptoms was obtained such that higher scores were associated with greater performance-monitoring activity. However, for both dimensions, subjects with low scores or high scores on each dimension were characterized by overactive performance monitoring compared to healthy controls. Overactive brain processes during performance monitoring are a neural correlate of OCD that is independent of global symptom severity and can be observed for all symptom dimensions. This supports the notion of overactive performance monitoring being a candidate endophenotype for OCD. PMID:24676800

Riesel, Anja; Kathmann, Norbert; Endrass, Tanja

2014-12-01

49

Aripirazole augmentation in clozapine-associated obsessive-compulsive symptoms in schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

Objective Patients with schizophrenia often experience comorbid obsessive-compulsive symptoms. Within these patients, a significant subgroup developed secondary obsessive-compulsive symptoms during treatment with clozapine. Method In this paper, we report on four cases in which adjunctive therapy with aripiprazole was tested to alleviate obsessive-compulsive symptoms in schizophrenia. Results All four patients had a significant improvement in obsessive-compulsive symptoms. The combination of clozapine and aripiprazole was well tolerated. Conclusion This case series demonstrates the clinical efficacy of aripiprazole adjunctive therapy with clozapine in schizophrenic patients with comorbid obsessive-compulsive symptoms. Larger-sampled and controlled studies are required in order to test and confirm these observations. PMID:24330737

2013-01-01

50

The relationship between magical thinking, inferential confusion and obsessive-compulsive symptoms.  

PubMed

Inferential confusion is an under-researched faulty reasoning process in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Based on an overreliance on imagined possibilities, it shares similarities with the extensively researched construct of thought-action fusion (TAF). While TAF has been proposed as a specific subset of the broader construct of magical thinking, the relationship between inferential confusion and magical thinking is unexplored. The present study investigated this relationship, and hypothesised that magical thinking would partially mediate the relationship between inferential confusion and obsessive-compulsive symptoms. A non-clinical sample of 201 participants (M = 34.94, SD = 15.88) were recruited via convenience sampling. Regression analyses found the hypothesised mediating relationship was supported, as magical thinking did partially mediate the relationship between inferential confusion and OC symptoms. Interestingly, inferential confusion had the stronger relationship with OC symptoms in comparison to the other predictor variables. Results suggest that inferential confusion can both directly and indirectly (via magical thinking) impact on OC symptoms. Future studies with clinical samples should further investigate these constructs to determine whether similar patterns emerge, as this may eventually inform which cognitive errors to target in treatment of OCD. PMID:25265223

Goods, N A R; Rees, C S; Egan, S J; Kane, R T

2014-12-01

51

A self-report version of the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale Symptom Checklist: psychometric properties of factor-based scales in three samples.  

PubMed

Current research in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) recognizes substantial symptom heterogeneity and emphasizes dimensional assessment of core domains. This study administered a self-report version of the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale Symptom Checklist to OCD patients (n=53), non-OCD psychiatric patients (n=96), and students (n=419). Factor analyses of category- versus item-level data produced different solutions (4 or 5 vs. 3 factors, respectively), but support a multidimensional framework for OCD symptoms. For between-groups analyses, the two patient groups scored significantly higher than students on nearly all dimensions. However, OCD and non-OCD patients differed significantly only on Symmetry/Ordering symptoms. These findings provide novel data concerning this instrument and suggest that most of its scales may not distinguish OCD patients clearly when administered in this manner. We provide recommendations for improving subsequent self-report versions but caution users not to over-extend its intended use. PMID:17110080

Wu, Kevin D; Watson, David; Clark, Lee Anna

2007-01-01

52

Influence of comorbid obsessive-compulsive symptoms on brain event-related potentials in Gilles de la Tourette syndrome  

PubMed Central

Approximately 30 to 50% of people suffering from Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome (GTS) also fulfill diagnostic criteria for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Despite this high degree of comorbidity, very few studies have addressed the question of obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCS) in GTS patients using specific brain event-related potentials (ERP) responses. The aim of the current study was to quantify neurocognitive aspects of comorbidity, using ERPs. Fourteen adults with GTS (without OCD) were compared to a group of 12 participants with GTS and comorbid obsessive-compulsive symptoms (GTS+OCS), to a group of 15 participants with OCD and to a group of 14 control participants without neurological or psychiatric problems. The P200 and P300 components were recorded during a visual counting oddball task. Results showed intact P200 amplitude in all groups, whilst the P300 amplitude was affected differentially across groups. The P300 oddball effect was reduced in participants in both OCD and GTS+OCS groups in the anterior region. However, the P300 oddball effect was significantly larger in participants of the GTS group compared to all other groups, mostly in the parietal region. These findings suggest that adults with GTS are characterized by enhanced working memory updating processes and that the superimposition of OCS can lead to a reduction of these processes. The discrepancy between our findings and results obtained in previous studies on GTS could reflect the modulating effect of OCS on late ERP components. PMID:18280023

Thibault, Genevieve; Felezeu, Mihaela; O'Connor, Kieron P.; Todorov, Christo; Stip, Emmanuel; Lavoie, Marc E.

2013-01-01

53

Dissociative symptoms and dissociative disorders comorbidity in obsessive compulsive disorder: Symptom screening, diagnostic tools and reflections on treatment  

PubMed Central

Borderline personality disorder, conversion disorder and obsessive compulsive disorder frequently have dissociative symptoms. The literature has demonstrated that the level of dissociation might be correlated with the severity of obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) and that those not responding to treatment had high dissociative symptoms. The structured clinical interview for DSM-IV dissociative disorders, dissociation questionnaire, somatoform dissociation questionnaire and dissociative experiences scale can be used for screening dissociative symptoms and detecting dissociative disorders in patients with OCD. However, a history of neglect and abuse during childhood is linked to a risk factor in the pathogenesis of dissociative psychopathology in adults. The childhood trauma questionnaire-53 and childhood trauma questionnaire-40 can be used for this purpose. Clinicians should not fail to notice the hidden dissociative symptoms and childhood traumatic experiences in OCD cases with severe symptoms that are resistant to treatment. Symptom screening and diagnostic tools used for this purpose should be known. Knowing how to treat these pathologies in patients who are diagnosed with OCD can be crucial. PMID:25133142

Belli, Hasan

2014-01-01

54

Poor cognitive flexibility, and the experience thereof, in a subclinical sample of female students with obsessive-compulsive symptoms.  

PubMed

Research indicates that people with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) have poor cognitive flexibility. However, studies have largely focused on actual abilities and while individuals' emotional responses may be just as important, little is known about how those with OCD experience a situation that requires cognitive flexibility. It is furthermore largely unknown whether cognitive flexibility may also be important for people with OCD symptoms, rather than only to those with full blown disorders. This study investigates the relationship between cognitive flexibility, and the experience thereof in female students with and without OCD symptoms. It was expected that poor cognitive flexibility would be positively associated to OCD symptoms, and that those with OCD symptoms would display poor cognitive flexibility, and experience situations requiring cognitive flexibility as more difficult, than those without OCD symptoms. Participants completed a measure for OCD symptoms, a neuropsychological task to measure cognitive flexibility, and a self-report measure assessing emotional experience of situations requiring cognitive flexibility. Positive associations between OCD symptoms and both poor cognitive flexibility and negative experience of situations requiring cognitive flexibility were found. Furthermore, those with OCD symptoms performed poorer on the cognitive flexibility task than those without OCD symptoms, and reported higher scores on the cognitive inflexibility questionnaire. Results confirm a relation between OCD symptoms and poor cognitive flexibility in a subclinical sample and identify a relation between OCD symptoms and a negative experience of situations that require cognitive flexibility. Overall findings suggest that poor cognitive flexibility may be an important part of OCD symptomatology. PMID:25283593

Sternheim, Lot; van der Burgh, Maureen; Berkhout, Lotte J; Dekker, Maria R; Ruiter, Channah

2014-12-01

55

Neural correlates of clinical symptoms and cognitive dysfunctions in obsessive–compulsive disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although results from neuropsychological and neuroimaging studies have postulated the involvement of the frontal lobe and the subcortical brain regions in the pathophysiology of obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD), neuroimaging studies have provided little evidence that cognitive abnormalities in patients with OCD are related to dysfunctions in these areas. This study was designed to determine whether the clinical features and cognitive deficits

Jun Soo Kwon; Jae-Jin Kim; Dong Woo Lee; Jae Sung Lee; Dong Soo Lee; Myung-Sun Kim; In Kyoon Lyoo; Maeng Je Cho; Myung Chul Lee

2003-01-01

56

The familial phenotype of obsessive-compulsive disorder in relation to tic disorders: the Hopkins OCD family study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and tic disorders have phenomenological and familial-genetic overlaps. An OCD family study sample that excludes Tourette’s syndrome in probands is used to examine whether tic disorders are part of the familial phenotype of OCD.Methods: Eighty case and 73 control probands and their first-degree relatives were examined by experienced clinicians using the Schedule for Affective Disorders and

Marco A Grados; Mark A Riddle; Jack F Samuels; Kung-Yee Liang; Rudolf Hoehn-Saric; O. Joseph Bienvenu; John T Walkup; DongHo Song; Gerald Nestadt

2001-01-01

57

Sex differences in the phenotypic expression of obsessive-compulsive disorder: an exploratory study from Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies have shown differences in clinical features of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) between men and women, including mean age at onset of obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCS), types of OCS, comorbid disorders, course, and prognosis. The aim of this study was to compare male and female Brazilian patients with OCD on several demographic and clinical characteristics. Three hundred thirty outpatients with OCD

Ricardo Cezar Torresan; Ana Teresa de Abreu Ramos-Cerqueira; Maria Alice de Mathis; Juliana Belo Diniz; Ygor Arzeno Ferrão; Euripedes Constantino Miguel; Albina Rodrigues Torres

2009-01-01

58

Nutraceuticals in the treatment of obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD): a review of mechanistic and clinical evidence.  

PubMed

Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a debilitating mental illness which has a significant impact on quality of life. First-line SSRI treatments for OCD typically are of limited benefit to only 40-60% of patients, and are associated with a range of adverse side effects. Current preclinical research investigating nutraceuticals (natural products) for OCD, reveals encouraging novel activity in modulating key pathways suggested to be involved in the pathogenesis of OCD (glutamatergic and serotonergic pathway dysregulation). Emerging clinical evidence also appears to tentatively support certain nutrients and plant-based interventions with known active constituents which modulate these pathways: N-acetlycysteine, myo-inositol, glycine, and milk thistle (Silybum marianum). The serotonin precursor tryptophan is unlikely to be of use in treating OCD while 5-HTP may possibly be a more effective precursor strategy. However, there is currently no clinical evidence to test the efficacy of either of these substances. Currently the balance of clinical evidence does not support the use of St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum) in OCD. While clinical research in this area is in its infancy, further research into nutraceuticals is warranted in light of the promising preclinical data regarding their mechanisms of action and their favourable side effect profiles in comparison to current SSRI treatments. It is recommended that future clinical trials of nutraceutical treatments for OCD utilize randomized placebo-controlled study designs and considerably larger sample sizes in order to properly test for efficacy. PMID:21352883

Camfield, David A; Sarris, Jerome; Berk, Michael

2011-06-01

59

Autism and ADHD Symptoms in Patients with OCD: Are They Associated with Specific OC Symptom Dimensions or OC Symptom Severity?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), the relationship between autism spectrum disorders (ASD), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptom, and obsessive-compulsive (OC) symptom dimensions and severity has scarcely been studied. Therefore, 109 adult outpatients with primary OCD were compared to 87 healthy controls on OC, ADHD and…

Anholt, Gideon E.; Cath, Danielle C.; van Oppen, Patricia; Eikelenboom, Merijn; Smit, Johannes H.; van Megen, Harold; van Balkom, Anton J. L. M.

2010-01-01

60

Symptom Dimensions in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: Phenomenology and Treatment Outcomes with Exposure and Ritual Prevention  

PubMed Central

Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a severe condition with varied symptom presentations. The cognitive-behavioral treatment with the most empirical support is currently exposure and ritual prevention (EX/RP); however, clinical impression and some empirical data suggest that certain OCD symptoms are more responsive to treatment than others. Prior work identifying symptom dimensions within OCD is discussed, including epidemiological findings, factor analytic studies, and biological findings. Symptom dimensions most reliably identified include contamination/cleaning, doubt about harm/checking, symmetry/ordering, and unacceptable thoughts/mental rituals. The phenomenology of each of these subtypes is described and research literature is summarized, emphasizing the differential effects of EX/RP and its variants on each of these primary symptom dimensions. To date it appears that EX/RP is an effective treatment for the various OCD dimensions, although not all dimensions have been adequately studied (i.e., symmetry and ordering). Modifications to treatment may be warranted for some types of symptoms. Clinical implications and directions for future research are discussed. PMID:23615340

Williams, Monnica T.; Mugno, Beth; Franklin, Martin; Faber, Sonya

2014-01-01

61

Inferential confusion, obsessive beliefs, and obsessive-compulsive symptoms: a replication and extension.  

PubMed

This study replicated and extended previous research regarding utility of an inference-based approach (IBA) to the study of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD). The IBA is a model for the development of OCD symptoms through false reasoning. One of its key features is inferential confusion-a form of processing information in which an individual accepts a remote possibility based only on subjective evidence. In a nonclinical sample, this study examined the specificity of relations between the expanded Inferential Confusion Questionnaire (ICQ-EV) and OC symptoms. Results were that the ICQ-EV significantly predicted OC symptoms after controlling for general distress, anxiety, and depression. This finding supports the unique association between inferential confusion and OCD. Further, the ICQ-EV was a stronger predictor of certain OC symptoms than scales from the Obsessive Beliefs Questionnaire, which itself has shown strong relations with OC symptoms. Thus, both inference-based and cognitive appraisal models appear useful for understanding OCD. PMID:19345557

Wu, Kevin D; Aardema, Frederick; O'Connor, Kieron P

2009-08-01

62

[Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) in the ultra-orthodox community--cultural aspects of diagnosis and treatment].  

PubMed

Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) is reflected similarly in different communities, while symptoms are affected by the patient's cultural and spiritual world. An ultra-orthodox Jew with OCD will perform compulsive actions and will have obsessive thoughts related to the Jewish religious world. The religious symptoms do not necessarily correspond with the main commandments. Despite their significance, Shabbat or moral commandments such as respecting one's parents do not play a central role in the compulsive pattern. The religious compulsiveness of OCD patients focuses on commandments having to do with order and cleanliness and is characterized by repetition, checking and slowness. Obsessive thoughts and compulsive actions of ultra-orthodox OCD patients are usually based on the Jewish scriptures. One might assume that religion, as a framework with rules and dictated rituals, serves as a strong foundation for the development of OCD. However, it is estimated that the prevalence of OCD in the ultra-orthodox community is similar to the general population. Rabbis acknowledge OCD as a psychiatric illness and do not encourage the obsessive punctuality in following the commandments. An ultra-orthodox patient will first consult his rabbi, and after receiving his recommendation, will turn to psychiatric treatment. He might prefer to receive drug treatment rather than Cognitive Behavioral Therapy that may oppose his beliefs. Understanding the cultural background of the patient is essential, in particular when the patient is ultra-orthodox and the treatment is considered "secular". Therefore, cooperation with the patient's rabbi is important in order to obtain the patient's trust and develop a treatment plan. PMID:25286637

Vinker, Michal; Jaworowski, Sol; Mergui, Joseph

2014-08-01

63

Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD): a review.  

PubMed

This review presents an overview of studies investigating white-matter integrity in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). There is increasing evidence for white matter alterations in OCD. In adult patients the majority of all studies reported abnormalities in terms of decreased fractional anisotropy (FA) compared to healthy volunteers. Although findings are heterogeneous, the cingulate bundle, the corpus callosum and the anterior limb of the internal capsule are most commonly affected by decreased white matter integrity in adult OCD patients. In pediatric and adolescent patients initial evidence points more towards increased white matter connectivity. Thus, current results suggest alterations in various white matter regions in both pediatric and adult OCD patients. They indicate that alterations may vary as a function of clinical characteristics and may be amenable to pharmacologic treatment. Although the findings have important implications for the neurobiology of OCD they also raise a number of important questions that are discussed in this review and need to be taken into consideration in future studies. PMID:24694669

Koch, Kathrin; Reess, Tim J; Rus, O Georgiana; Zimmer, Claus; Zaudig, Michael

2014-07-01

64

Animal behavior as a conceptual framework for the study of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD).  

PubMed

Research on affective disorders may benefit from the methodology of studying animal behavior, in which tools are available for qualitatively and quantitatively measuring and assessing behavior with as much sophistication and attention to detail as in the analysis of the brain. To illustrate this, we first briefly review the characteristics of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and then demonstrate how the quinpirole rat model is used as a conceptual model in studying human OCD patients. Like the rat model, the study of OCD in humans is based on video-telemetry, whereby observable, measurable, and relatively objective characteristics of OCD behavior may be extracted. In this process, OCD rituals are defined in terms of the space in which they are executed and the movements (acts) that are performed at each location or object in this space. Accordingly, OCD behavior is conceived of as comprising three hierarchical components: (i) rituals (as defined by the patients); (ii) visits to objects/locations in the environment at which the patient stops during the ritual; and (iii) acts performed at each object/location during visits. Scoring these structural components (behavioral units) is conveniently possible with readily available tools for behavioral description and analysis, providing quantitative and qualitative measures of the OCD hallmarks of repetition and addition, as well as the reduced functionality in OCD behavior. Altogether, the concept that was developed in the context of an animal model provides a useful tool that may facilitate OCD diagnosis, assessment and treatment, and may be similarly applied for other psychiatric disorders. PMID:21763354

Eilam, David; Zor, Rama; Fineberg, Naomi; Hermesh, Haggai

2012-06-01

65

Psychometric analysis of the Yale-Brown Obsessive–Compulsive Scale Second Edition Symptom Checklist  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Yale-Brown Obsessive–Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS) was recently revised to address several clinical and conceptual issues. The resultant measure, named the Yale-Brown Obsessive–Compulsive Scale—Second Edition, consists of two primary scales: the Severity Scale and the Symptom Checklist. Although the Severity Scale has been the subject of a comprehensive psychometric analysis, no data have been reported on the psychometric properties of the

Eric A. Storch; Michael J. Larson; Lawrence H. Price; Steven A. Rasmussen; Tanya K. Murphy; Wayne K. Goodman

2010-01-01

66

Functional magnetic resonance imaging of symptom provocation in obsessive-compulsive disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The new technique of functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to investigate the mediating neuroanatomy of obsessive-compulsive disorder symptoms. METHODS: Ten patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder and 5 normal subjects were studied via functional magnetic resonance imaging during control and provoked conditions. Data analysis entailed parametric and nonparametric statistical mapping. RESULTS: Statistical maps (nonparametric; P < 10(-3)) showed activation for

H. C. Breiter; S. L. Rauch; K. K. Kwong; J. R. Baker; R. M. Weisskoff; D. N. Kennedy; A. D. Kendrick; T. L. Davis; A. Jiang; M. S. Cohen; C. E. Stern; J. W. Belliveau; L. Baer; R. L. O'Sullivan; C. R. Savage; M. A. Jenike; B. R. Rosen

1996-01-01

67

Symptom subtypes of obsessive-compulsive disorder in behavioral treatment studies: a quantitative review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent reviews and meta-analytic studies have provided an encouraging account of the effectiveness of behavioral interventions for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). One question regarding these estimates concerns their degree of generalizability to the range of OCD subtypes encountered in clinical settings. The purpose of the present study was to provide a quantitative description of the prevalence of various OCD subtypes (i.e.

Susan G. Ball; Lee Baer; Michael W. Otto

1996-01-01

68

The Impact of Personality Traits on Ratings of Obsessive-Compulsive Symptoms  

PubMed Central

Objective The goal of this study was to evaluate consistencies and discrepancies between clinician-administered and self-report versions of the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS) and to examine relationships between these scales and personality traits. Methods A total of 106 patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) participated in this study. All participants were assessed with both clinician-administered and self-report versions of the Y-BOCS. The Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis II Disorders Personality Questionnaire (SCID-II-PQ) was used to evaluate relationships between personality traits and scores on the Y-BOCS. Results Scores on the clinician-administered Y-BOCS and its obsession subscale were significantly higher than were those on the self-report version. However, we found no significant differences in compulsion subscale scores. We also found that the discrepancies in the scores on the two versions of the Y-BOCS and its compulsion subscale were significantly positively correlated with scores for narcissistic personality traits on the SCID-II-PQ. Additionally, narcissistic personality traits had a significant effect on the discrepancy in the scores on the two versions of the Y-BOCS and its compulsion subscale in the multiple linear regression analysis. Conclusion This is the first study to elucidate relationships between personality traits and discrepancies between scores on the two versions of the Y-BOCS. Although clinicians tend to rate obsessive symptoms as being more severe than do patients, clinicians may underestimate the degree to which individuals with narcissistic personality traits suffer more from subjective discomfort due to compulsive symptoms. Therefore, the effect of personality traits on symptom severity should be considered in the treatment of OCD. PMID:24302949

Huh, Min Jung; Shim, Geumsook; Byun, Min Soo; Kim, Sung Nyun; Kim, Euitae; Jang, Joon Hwan; Shin, Min-Sup

2013-01-01

69

Visual, tactile, and auditory "not just right" experiences: associations with obsessive-compulsive symptoms and perfectionism.  

PubMed

"Not just right" experiences (NJREs), or uncomfortable sensations associated with the immediate environment not feeling "right," are thought to contribute to obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) symptomatology. The literature suggests that NJREs are experienced across sensory modalities; however, existing in vivo measures have been restricted to visual inductions (e.g., viewing and/or rearranging a cluttered table). The present study used a large undergraduate sample (N=284) to examine 4 in vivo tasks designed to elicit and assess NJREs across separate sensory modalities (i.e., visual, tactile, and auditory). Task ratings (discomfort evoked, and urge to counteract task-specific stimuli) were uniquely associated with self-report measures of NJREs, OC symptoms (ordering/arranging, checking, and washing), and certain maladaptive domains of perfectionism (doubts about actions, and organization). Findings have implications for experimental research and clinical work targeting NJREs specific to particular senses. PMID:25022778

Summers, Berta J; Fitch, Kristin E; Cougle, Jesse R

2014-09-01

70

A Review of the Pharmacotherapy of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder and Schizophrenia: The Case of Sam  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Obsessive-compulsive symptoms are a common feature of schizophrenia, and high rates of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) have been reported in schizophrenic patients. Effective pharmacotherapeutic options are available for both OCD and schizophrenia, and for some patients combining medications targeted at both conditions may be a helpful…

Randhawa, Ramandeep S.

2005-01-01

71

Symptom Dimensions in OCD: Developmental and Evolutionary Perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

At the present time, in the absence of definitive etiological markers of vulnerability for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD),\\u000a obsessive-compulsive (OC) symptom dimensions appear to offer a fruitful point of orientation. The complex clinical presentation\\u000a of OCD can be summarized using a few consistent and temporally stable symptom dimensions. These can be understood as a spectrum\\u000a of potentially overlapping vulnerabilities that are

James F. Leckman; David Mataix-Cols; Maria Conceição do Rosario-Campos

72

Factor structure of the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS) in a large sample of patients with schizophrenia or related disorders and comorbid obsessive-compulsive symptoms.  

PubMed

In the past decade there has been an increasing interest in the levels of obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCS) found in patients with schizophrenia or related disorders. The widely acknowledged gold standard measure of the severity of OCS is the content-free version of the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS) (Goodman et al., 1989a,b). However, factor analytic research in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) provided varied results. So far no study has been conducted on the factor structure of the Y-BOCS in patients with schizophrenia. The present study addresses this issue. We administered the Y-BOCS in a sample of 217 patients with schizophrenia or related disorders and comorbid OCS who participated in a multicentre cohort study. We used principal component analysis (PCA) to explore the underlying factor structure. A two-factor solution consistent with the originally proposed scoring structure of the Y-BOCS provided the optimal fit. We also found some support for a three-factor solution consistent with earlier findings by Kim et al. and Moritz et al. (Kim et al., 1994; Moritz et al., 2002). The produced factors showed good reliability and strong correlations with the Y-BOCS Total score. However, the resistance to compulsion item failed to demonstrate adequate correlation to the Total score, a finding consistent with earlier findings in several studies with patients with OCD. PMID:20800902

Boyette, Lindy; Swets, Marije; Meijer, Carin; Wouters, Luuk; G R O U P Authors

2011-04-30

73

Psilocybin and obsessive compulsive disorder.  

PubMed

Abstract Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) is a psychiatric disorder with considerable morbidity and mortality. This condition disables many individuals and is often refractory to treatment. Research suggests that serotonin plays a role in OCD symptom reduction. We present a case of an individual who successfully used psilocybin, a serotonergic agent, to reduce the core symptoms of OCD for several years. Although not endorsing this form of treatment, we feel that the successful use of this agent highlights the role of serotonergic factors in OCD and the need for further, legitimate research into the value of psilocybin in the treatment of anxiety disorders. PMID:25364991

Wilcox, James Allen

2014-01-01

74

Obsessive-compulsive disorder  

MedlinePLUS

Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a mental disorder in which people have unwanted and repeated thoughts, feelings, ideas, sensations (obsessions), or behaviors that drive them to do something (compulsions). Often ...

75

Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder  

MedlinePLUS

... Is Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder? Everyone feels anxiety, fear, uncertainty, or worry at some time. These normal emotions ... in perspective, there is a constant stream of uncertainty, doubt, or fear in the person's mind. OCD ...

76

Title: Prediction of treatment response and the effect of independent component neurofeedback in obsessive-compulsive disorder: a randomized, sham-controlled, and double-blind study  

E-print Network

in obsessive-compulsive disorder: a randomized, sham-controlled, and double-blind study Authors: Ja a Kopi o á.cz #12;53 Key-words: Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder; Neurofeedback; Independent Component Analysis neurofeedback (NFB) on EEG and clinical symptoms in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

77

Enhanced action tendencies in high versus low obsessive-compulsive symptoms: An event-related potential study.  

PubMed

Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is an anxiety disorder characterized by repeated thoughts and behaviors. Inhibitory deficits are presumably related to the onset and maintenance of this disorder. The present study investigated whether obsessive-compulsive (OC) symptoms are related to enhanced response tendencies in reaction to external stimuli. Our goal was to search for direct evidence of an early response preparation process by examining the event-related potential (ERP) component of the readiness potential (RP). An enhanced response tendency might underlie inhibitory deficits in OCD. Response to novel stimuli was studied using a dishabituation paradigm in which a small number of schematic faces (angry or neutral) were presented. An analog sample of healthy subjects was divided into groups of high and low OC levels and high and low trait anxiety levels. The high OC group presented with a greater RP slope gradient that was enhanced under negative valence, compared to the low OC group. No such effect was found in the high versus low trait anxiety groups or in behavioral reaction times (ms). Results support the hypothesis that a stronger readiness for action might characterize subjects with OC symptoms, especially in the presence of threatening stimuli. This finding, specific to OC symptoms and not to anxiety symptoms, may underlie habitual and embodiment tendencies in OCD. This study suggests that early stages of motor preparation might be important to the etiology and maintenance of OC symptoms. PMID:25156568

Dayan, Adi; Berger, Andrea; Anholt, Gideon Emanuel

2014-11-30

78

Development and Psychometric Evaluation of the Yale–Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale—Second Edition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Yale–Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS; Goodman, Price, Rasmussen, Mazure, Delgado, et al., 1989) is acknowledged as the gold standard measure of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) symptom severity. A number of areas where the Y-BOCS may benefit from revision have emerged in past psychometric studies of the Severity Scale and Symptom Checklist. Therefore, we created the Yale–Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale—Second Edition (Y-BOCS–II) by

Eric A. Storch; Steven A. Rasmussen; Lawrence H. Price; Michael J. Larson; Tanya K. Murphy; Wayne K. Goodman

2010-01-01

79

Variations in symptom prevalence and clinical correlates in younger versus older youth with obsessive-compulsive disorder.  

PubMed

Few studies have examined the phenomenology of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) in younger children. A sample of 292 treatment seeking youth with a primary diagnosis of OCD was divided into the young child (3-9 years old) and older child (10-18 years old) groups. Overall OCD severity did not differ between groups. However, older youth demonstrated stronger intensity of obsessive and compulsive symptoms, while younger children were rated as having less resistance and control of compulsions. Older youth exhibited increased occurrence of comorbid depression, and an increased occurrence of sexual, magical thinking, and somatic obsessions, as well as, checking, counting and magical thinking compulsions. Conversely, the group of younger children exhibited significantly poorer insight, increased incidence of hoarding compulsions, higher rates of comorbid attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, disruptive behavior, and parent-rated anxiety, and more frequently exhibited hoarding compulsions. These differences suggest domains to consider when screening for OCD among younger/older pediatric cohorts. PMID:24549726

Selles, Robert R; Storch, Eric A; Lewin, Adam B

2014-12-01

80

Insight and treatment outcome in obsessive-compulsive disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine whether (1) insight in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) improves when OCD symptoms improve, and whether (2) degree of insight in OCD predicts response to sertraline, data were obtained from five sites participating in a larger multisite study of relapse in OCD. During the first 16 weeks of the study, 71 patients received open-label treatment with sertraline and were assessed

Jane L. Eisen; Steven A. Rasmussen; Katharine A. Phillips; Lawrence H. Price; Jonathan Davidson; R. Bruce Lydiard; Philip Ninan; Teresa Piggott

2001-01-01

81

The Symptom Checklist-90: Obsessive-Compulsive Subscale: A reliability and validity study.  

PubMed

Twenty-three nondepressed patients with DSM-III obsessive-compulsive disorder completed the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS), the Symptom Checklist-90 (SCL-90), and the National Institute of Mental Health Global Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (NIMH-GOCS) once a week for a total of three times during a 2-week medication-free period and 10 times during a 10-week double-blind drug treatment period. The pretreatment test-retest reliabilities were determined for the Y-BOCS, NIMH-GOCS, and the SCL-90-Obsessive-Compulsive Subscale (SCL-90-OCS). Comparisons of the three instruments revealed that the Y-BOCS and the NIMH-GOCS were significantly more reliable than the SCL-90-OCS. Posttreatment correlations were obtained between change scores on the Y-BOCS and NIMH-GOCS and the SCL-90-OCS. Correlations were high and statistically significant for both the Y-BOCS and the NIMH-GOCS, but the correlations of the SCL-90-OCS with the Y-BOCS, NIMH-GOCS, Physician's Global Rating, and the Patient's Global Rating were poor. The findings suggest that the SCL-90-OCS may not be a sensitive instrument in assessing change in obsessive-compulsive symptoms. PMID:1561287

Kim, S W; Dysken, M W; Kuskowski, M

1992-01-01

82

Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder  

MedlinePLUS

Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a type of anxiety disorder. If you have OCD, you have frequent, upsetting thoughts called obsessions. To try ... hands, counting, checking on things, or cleaning. With OCD, the thoughts and rituals cause distress and get ...

83

A meta-analysis of the relation of intolerance of uncertainty to symptoms of generalized anxiety disorder, major depressive disorder, and obsessive–compulsive disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intolerance of uncertainty (IU) has been suggested to reflect a specific risk factor for generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), but there have been no systematic attempts to evaluate the specificity of IU to GAD. This meta-analysis examined the cross-sectional association of IU with symptoms of GAD, major depressive disorder (MDD), and obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD). Random effects analyses were conducted for two

Emily L. Gentes; Ayelet Meron Ruscio

2011-01-01

84

Cognitive Predictors of Obsessive?Compulsive Symptoms in Adolescence: A Preliminary Investigation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined relations among responsibility attitudes, metacognitive beliefs, and obsessive?compulsive (O?C) symptoms in youth. One hundred sixty-six nonclinical youth (ages 13 to 17 years) completed the following: Responsibility Attitude Scale (RAS; Salkovskis et al., 2000); Meta-Cognitions Questionnaire?Adolescent Version (MCQ?A;…

Mather, Alison; Cartwright-Hatton, Sam

2004-01-01

85

An fMRI study in monozygotic twins discordant for obsessive–compulsive symptoms  

Microsoft Academic Search

To examine neurobiological changes underlying obsessive–compulsive symptoms (OCS) we examined intrapair differences in behavior and fMRI brain activation in monozygotic twins discordant for OCS, using a Tower of London planning paradigm. Despite only mild evidence for impairment at the behavioral level, twins with OCS showed significantly decreased brain activation during planning in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, thalamus pulvinar, and inferior parietal

Anouk den Braber; Dennis van't Ent; Gabriëlla A. M. Blokland; Daniël S. van Grootheest; Danielle C. Cath; Dick J. Veltman; Michiel B. de Ruiter; Dorret I. Boomsma

2008-01-01

86

Three cases of symptom change in Tourette's syndrome and obsessive-compulsive disorder associated with paediatric cerebral malignancies.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To correlate behaviour manifestations with tumour location in three children who had Gilles de la Tourette's syndrome (GTS), obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and primary cerebral malignancies. METHOD: Cases were ascertained from a chart review in a GTS and OCD specialty clinic. For each case the temporal progression of change in neuropsychiatric symptoms was qualitatively correlated with radiographic documentation of tumour progression. RESULTS: The change in symptom severities during tumour progression and treatment, together with prior neurobiological studies of GTS, suggest that the ventral striatum, corpus callosum, thalamus, and midbrain are potentially important neural substrates in the formation or modulation of tic symptoms. The limbic system, including the hypothalamus and cingulate, and the caudate nucleus, seem to be important in the neurobiology of OCD. All structures are neuroanatomically and functionally related to the corticostriato-thalamocortical circuitry that is thought to subserve symptom generation in both GTS and OCD. CONCLUSION: Although the malignancies were not likely to have caused the tic and OCD symptoms in these children, the locations of these intracranial lesions provide important clues in identifying brain regions that may contribute to the determination of tic and OCD severities. Images PMID:8937345

Peterson, B S; Bronen, R A; Duncan, C C

1996-01-01

87

Stable Cognitive Deficits in Schizophrenia Patients With Comorbid Obsessive-Compulsive Symptoms: A 12-Month Longitudinal Study  

PubMed Central

Background: Amongst schizophrenia patients, a large subgroup of up to 25% also suffers from comorbid obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCSs). The association between comorbid OCSs in these patients and neuropsychological impairment remains unclear and somewhat contradictory. Longitudinal approaches investigating the stability of OCS-associated cognitive deficits are missing. Methods: Thirty-seven patients with schizophrenia and comorbid OCSs and 43 schizophrenia patients without OCS were assessed with a comprehensive cognitive test battery and compared at baseline and, again, 12 months later. Results: Schizophrenia patients with comorbid OCSs showed significant pronounced deficits, with increasing effect sizes over the 12-month assessment period in specific cognitive areas such as visuospatial perception and visual memory (WAIS-R block design, Rey–Osterrieth Complex Figure Test), executive functioning (perseveration in the Wisconsin Card Sorting test), and cognitive flexibility (Trail Making test B). These cognitive domains are correlated with OCS severity and are known to be candidate cognitive domains in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Conclusions: OCSs in schizophrenia is associated with specific and longitudinally stable cognitive deficits, strongly arguing for at least partially overlapping neurobiological mechanisms with OCD. Prospective studies involving patients with at-risk mental states for psychosis are necessary to decipher the interaction of cognitive impairment and the clinical manifestations of schizophrenia and OCSs. This might facilitate the definition of patients at high risk for OCSs, an early detection of subclinical levels, therapeutic interventions, and clinical monitoring. PMID:23104864

Schirmbeck, Frederike

2013-01-01

88

Cognitive behavior therapy for obsessive-compulsive and related disorders.  

PubMed

Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) is considered a first-line intervention for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) across the lifespan. Efficacy studies of CBT with exposure and response prevention suggest robust symptom reduction, often with sustained remission. Acceptability of CBT is high, and the treatment is devoid of adverse side effects. The primary mechanism of CBT is based on operant principles, specifically extinction learning. The efficacy of extinction-based treatments such as CBT is being shown for other obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorders. This article reviews the theoretic basis, clinical application, and relevant treatment outcome research for CBT and related therapies for several obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorders. PMID:25150570

Lewin, Adam B; Wu, Monica S; McGuire, Joseph F; Storch, Eric A

2014-09-01

89

Correlates of Insight among Youth with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Individuals with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) may lack insight into the irrational nature of their symptoms. Among adults with OCD, poor insight has been linked to greater symptom severity, increased likelihood of comorbid symptoms, lower adaptive functioning, and worse treatment outcomes. Parallel work regarding insight among…

Lewin, Adam B.; Bergman, R. Lindsey; Peris, Tara S.; Chang, Susanna; McCracken, James T.; Piacentini, John

2010-01-01

90

Let me check that for you: symptom accommodation in romantic partners of adults with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder.  

PubMed

Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) is typically considered from the perspective of the individual, yet symptoms often occur within an interpersonal context. Family members often engage in accommodation, assisting patients with rituals in order to alleviate anxiety, prevent conflict, or "help out" with time-consuming compulsive behaviors. Prior research has primarily examined accommodation in parents of children with OCD or in adult caregiver relationships, where caregivers can include various family members (e.g., parents, romantic partners). The current study examined accommodation behaviors in romantic partners of adults with OCD. As part of a treatment study, 20 couples were assessed for accommodation behaviors, OCD symptoms, and relationship functioning before and after 16-sessions of cognitive-behavioral treatment. Accommodation was associated with the patient's OCD symptoms at pre-treatment, and negatively associated with the partners', but not the patients', self-reported relationship satisfaction. Post-treatment partner accommodation was also associated with poorer response to treatment. The implications of these findings are discussed within an interpersonal framework, and the benefits of including partners in the treatment of OCD are described. PMID:23567474

Boeding, Sara E; Paprocki, Christine M; Baucom, Donald H; Abramowitz, Jonathan S; Wheaton, Michael G; Fabricant, Laura E; Fischer, Melanie S

2013-06-01

91

Psychosocial stress predicts future symptom severities in children and adolescents with Tourette syndrome and/or obsessive-compulsive disorder  

PubMed Central

Background The goals of this prospective longitudinal study were to monitor levels of psychosocial stress in children and adolescents with Tourette syndrome (TS) and/or obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) compared to healthy control subjects and to examine the relationship between measures of psychosocial stress and fluctuations in tic, obsessive-compulsive (OC), and depressive symptom severity. Methods Consecutive ratings of tic, OC and depressive symptom severity were obtained for 45 cases and 41 matched healthy control subjects over a two-year period. Measures of psychosocial stress included youth self-report, parental report, and clinician ratings of long-term contextual threat. Structural equation modeling for unbalanced repeated measures was used to assess the temporal sequence of psychosocial stress with the severity of tic, OC and depressive symptoms. Results Subjects with TS and OCD experienced significantly more psychosocial stress than did the controls. Estimates of psychosocial stress were predictive of future depressive symptoms. Current levels of psychosocial stress were also a significant predictor of future OC symptom severity, but not vice versa. Current OC symptom severity was a predictor of future depressive symptom severity, but not vice versa. Current levels of psychosocial stress and depression were independent predictors of future tic severity, even after controlling for the effect of advancing chronological age. Conclusions The impact of antecedent psychosocial adversity is greater on future depressive symptoms than for tic and/or OC symptoms. Worsening OC symptoms are also a predictor of future depressive symptoms. Advancing chronological age is robustly associated with reductions in tic severity. PMID:17300554

Lin, Haiqun; Katsovich, Liliya; Ghebremichael, Musie; Findley, Diane B.; Grantz, Heidi; Lombroso, Paul J.; King, Robert A.; Zhang, Heping; Leckman, James F.

2011-01-01

92

Family Accommodation in Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite the importance of the family in the treatment of pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), relatively little empirical attention has been directed to family accommodation of symptoms. This study examined the relations among family accommodation, OCD symptom severity, functional impairment, and internalizing and externalizing behavior…

Storch, Eric A.; Geffken, Gary R.; Merlo, Lisa J.; Jacob, Marni L.; Murphy, Tanya K.; Goodman, Wayne K.; Larson, Michael J.; Fernandez, Melanie; Grabill, Kristen

2007-01-01

93

Case Series of Behavioral Psychotherapy for Obsessive-Compulsive Symptoms in Youth with Prader-Willi Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Obsessive-compulsive symptoms among youth with Prader-Willi Syndrome (PWS) are frequently present and associated with considerable\\u000a problems in the daily functioning of the child and his\\/her family. Although pharmacological and psychosocial treatments exist\\u000a that target obsessive-compulsive symptoms among typically developing youth, these treatments have not been systematically\\u000a adapted and\\/or evaluated for this population. Furthermore, although psychotropic medications have shown promising support

Eric A. Storch; Omar Rahman; Jessica Morgan; Lindsay Brauer; Jennifer Miller; Tanya K. Murphy

94

Altered Cingulate Sub-Region Activation Accounts for Task-Related Dissociation in ERN Amplitude as a Function of Obsessive-Compulsive Symptoms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Larger error-related negativities (ERNs) have been consistently found in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) patients, and are thought to reflect the activities of a hyperactive cortico-striatal circuit during action monitoring. We previously observed that obsessive-compulsive (OC) symptomatic students (non-patients) have larger ERNs during errors…

Cavanagh, James F.; Grundler, Theo O. J.; Frank, Michael J.; Allen, John J. B.

2010-01-01

95

Streptococcal upper respiratory tract infections and psychosocial stress predict future tic and obsessive-compulsive symptom severity in children and adolescents with Tourette syndrome and/or obsessive-compulsive disorder  

PubMed Central

Background: One goal of this prospective longitudinal study was to identify new group A beta hemolytic streptococcal (GABHS) infections in children and adolescents with Tourette syndrome (TS) and/or obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) compared to healthy control subjects. We then examined the power of GABHS infections and measures of psychosocial stress to predict future tic, obsessive-compulsive (OC), and depressive symptom severity. Methods: Consecutive ratings of tic, OC and depressive symptom severity were obtained for 45 cases and 41 matched control subjects over a two-year period. Clinical raters were blinded to the results of laboratory tests. Laboratory personnel were blinded to case or control status and clinical ratings. Structural equation modeling for unbalanced repeated measures was used to assess the sequence of new GABHS infections and psychosocial stress and their impact on future symptom severity. Results: Increases in tic and OC symptom severity did not occur after every new GABHS infection. However, the structural equation model found that these newly diagnosed infections were predictive of modest increases in future tic and OC symptom severity, but did not predict future depressive symptom severity. In addition, the inclusion of new infections in the model greatly enhanced, by a factor of three, the power of psychosocial stress in predicting future tic and OC symptom severity. Conclusions: Our data suggest that a minority of children with TS and early-onset OCD were sensitive to antecedent GABHS infections. These infections also enhanced the predictive power of current psychosocial stress on future tic and OC symptom severity. PMID:19833320

Lin, Haiqun; Williams, Kyle A.; Katsovich, Liliya; Findley, Diane B.; Grantz, Heidi; Lombroso, Paul J.; King, Robert A.; Bessen, Debra E.; Johnson, Dwight; Kaplan, Edward L.; Landeros-Weisenberger, Angeli; Zhang, Heping; Leckman, James F.

2009-01-01

96

Psychosocial Stress Predicts Future Symptom Severities in Children and Adolescents with Tourette Syndrome and/or Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: The goals of this prospective longitudinal study were to monitor levels of psychosocial stress in children and adolescents with Tourette syndrome (TS) and/or obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) compared to healthy control subjects and to examine the relationship between measures of psychosocial stress and fluctuations in tic,…

Lin, Haiqun; Katsovich, Liliya; Ghebremichael, Musie; Findley, Diane B.; Grantz, Heidi; Lombroso, Paul J.; King, Robert A.; Zhang, Heping; Leckman, James F.

2007-01-01

97

Cognitive neuroscience of obsessive-compulsive disorder.  

PubMed

Cognitive neuroscience investigates neural responses to cognitive and emotional probes, an approach that has yielded critical insights into the neurobiological mechanisms of psychiatric disorders. This article reviews some of the major findings from neuroimaging studies using a cognitive neuroscience approach to investigate obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). It evaluates the consistency of results and interprets findings within the context of OCD symptoms, and proposes a model of OCD involving inflexibility of internally focused cognition. Although further research is needed, this body of work probing cognitive-emotional processes in OCD has already shed considerable light on the underlying mechanisms of the disorder. PMID:25150566

Stern, Emily R; Taylor, Stephan F

2014-09-01

98

Perfectionism and Peer Relations among Children with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study examined perfectionism, symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and depression, and peer relationships among a clinical sample of 31 youth (age range 7-18 years) diagnosed with OCD. Using a correlational design, perfectionistic beliefs accounted for significant variance in OCD symptoms, depressive symptoms, and difficulties in…

Ye, Huan J.; Rice, Kenneth G.; Storch, Eric A.

2008-01-01

99

Hoarding in obsessive compulsive disorder: results from a case-control study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hoarding occurs relatively frequently in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and there is evidence that patients with hoarding symptoms have more severe OCD and are less responsive to treatment. In the present study, we investigated hoarding symptoms in 126 subjects with OCD. Nearly 30% of the subjects had hoarding symptoms; hoarding was twice as prevalent in males than females. Compared to the

J. Samuels; O. Joseph Bienvenu III; M. A. Riddle; B. A. M. Cullen; M. A. Grados; K.-Y. Liang; R. Hoehn-Saric; G. Nestadt

2002-01-01

100

Symptom dimensions in obsessive-compulsive disorder: factor analysis on a clinician-rated scale and a self-report measure.  

PubMed

Although obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is regarded as a unitary nosological entity, it encompasses a rich variety of heterogeneous mental and behavioural phenomena. The identification of clinical subtypes within this broad concept has been a focus of attention in recent years. In the present study, we administered a clinician-rated scale, the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS) with the Y-BOCS Symptom Checklist (Y-BOCS CL), as well as a self-report questionnaire, the Padua Inventory revised (PI-R), to 150 outpatients with OCD. A principal component analysis on the Y-BOCS CL, along with the PI-R, identified 6 consistent symptom clusters: (1) contamination obsessions and cleaning compulsions, (2) sexual/religious/somatic obsessions and checking, (3) high risk assessment and checking, (4) impulses and fear of loss of control, (5) need for symmetry and exactness, and ordering and counting compulsions, and finally (6) rumination. The Y-BOCS CL and PI-R showed great overlap and consistency regarding content and severity of the OCD symptoms. On inspection of items with identical content, only half of the items showed significant agreement. Both inventories have unique factors: rumination is represented solely in the PI-R, somatic obsessions and checking solely in the Y-BOCS CL. This means that the use of both clinician-administered and self-report measures is recommended, so that the entire spectrum of symptoms is represented. PMID:15240990

Denys, Damiaan; de Geus, Femke; van Megen, Harold J G M; Westenberg, Herman G M

2004-01-01

101

Obsessive-Compulsive Spectrum Disorders in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder and Other Anxiety Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: There has been debate about whether obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) should be classified as one of the anxiety disorders, or should rather be categorized with obsessive-compulsive spectrum conditions. Sampling and Methods: The question of where OCD should be located in the diagnostic system was addressed by investigating the relationship of OCD, obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorders (OCSDs), and anxiety disorders. We administered

Christine Lochner; Dan J. Stein

2010-01-01

102

Subtypes of obsessive-compulsive disorder: Implications for specialized cognitive behavior therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a heterogeneous condition, OCD subtypes have received limited attention in trials of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT). Because many patients with OCD do not respond optimally to CBT, it is important for clinicians to consider whether variability in treatment response is related to symptom presentation. Treatment modifications for patients without overt compulsions or with hoarding symptoms

Debbie Sookman; Jonathan S. Abramowitz; John E. Calamari; Sabine Wilhelm; Dean McKay

2005-01-01

103

Second generation antipsychotic-induced obsessive-compulsive symptoms in schizophrenia: a review of the experimental literature.  

PubMed

Second generation antipsychotics (SGAs) have been implicated in the de novo emergence and exacerbation of obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCS) in patients with schizophrenia. Among SGAs, clozapine, olanzapine, and risperidone are the most prominent agents associated with these sequelae, according to case reports. Comorbid OCS can impede recovery by compromising treatment benefits, medication compliance, and clinical prognoses. Previous reviews of SGA-induced OCS have predominantly focused on descriptive case reports, with limited attention paid toward experimental findings. To address this paucity of data, we sought to review the effects of SGAs on OCS in schizophrenia in the experimental literature, while addressing the role of different treatment (duration, dose, serum levels) and pharmacogenetic factors. Our findings suggest that clozapine confers the greatest risk of OCS in schizophrenia, with 20 to 28% of clozapine-treated patients experiencing de novo OCS, in addition to 10 to 18% incurring an exacerbation of pre-existing OCS. Clozapine can also yield full threshold obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), in some cases. Olanzapine is another high risk drug for secondary OCS which occurs in 11 to 20% of schizophrenic patients receiving olanzapine therapy. At this time, there is insufficient experimental evidence to characterize the effects of other SGAs on OCS. Despite some experimental support for the involvement of longer treatment duration and genetic factors in mediating drug-induced OCS, more research is needed to clearly elucidate these associations. Based on these results, schizophrenic patients should be routinely monitored for OCS throughout the course of SGA treatment, particularly when clozapine or olanzapine is administered. PMID:25256097

Fonseka, Trehani M; Richter, Margaret A; Müller, Daniel J

2014-11-01

104

Early recognition of obsessive-compulsive disorder.  

PubMed

The early course in clinical and neurobiological terms of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is almost completely unknown. The disease often begins in early childhood and adolescence, but the first behavioral changes and symptoms preceding OCD have not been assessed to date. In this retrospective approach, 40 patients with OCD (23 females/17 males; 39.4 [10.1] years old in average; with scores on the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale [Y-BOCS] of 19 [9.3]) were given an author-developed questionnaire. Twenty-three patients reported first changes before having reached the age of 20 years. Rather unspecific symptoms such as "anxiety" and "lacking self-trust" seem to have been more frequent as first signs of developing OCD. Further specific symptoms indicating OCD were "enhanced feeling of responsibility," "exact attention concerning details," "being eager for order and cleanness," "difficulties with decisions," and "repetitive controlling," but were less remembered. There was no significant relationship between these first changes and later OCD-related psychopathology as measured with the Y-BOCS, but there was a relationship with later depressive comorbidity (Hamilton Depression Rating Scale). This substantiates the view that OCD-similar to other psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia and bipolar disorder-seems to be characterized by a psychopathologically less specific prodrome with rather depressive symptoms. However, this was a retrospective study with preliminary data, which has to be replicated prospectively with a larger sample. PMID:25426812

Juckel, Georg; Siebers, Frauke; Kienast, Thorsten; Mavrogiorgou, Paraskevi

2014-12-01

105

Aberrant error processing in relation to symptom severity in obsessive–compulsive disorder: A multimodal neuroimaging study  

PubMed Central

Background Obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) is characterized by maladaptive repetitive behaviors that persist despite feedback. Using multimodal neuroimaging, we tested the hypothesis that this behavioral rigidity reflects impaired use of behavioral outcomes (here, errors) to adaptively adjust responses. We measured both neural responses to errors and adjustments in the subsequent trial to determine whether abnormalities correlate with symptom severity. Since error processing depends on communication between the anterior and the posterior cingulate cortex, we also examined the integrity of the cingulum bundle with diffusion tensor imaging. Methods Participants performed the same antisaccade task during functional MRI and electroencephalography sessions. We measured error-related activation of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and the error-related negativity (ERN). We also examined post-error adjustments, indexed by changes in activation of the default network in trials surrounding errors. Results OCD patients showed intact error-related ACC activation and ERN, but abnormal adjustments in the post- vs. pre-error trial. Relative to controls, who responded to errors by deactivating the default network, OCD patients showed increased default network activation including in the rostral ACC (rACC). Greater rACC activation in the post-error trial correlated with more severe compulsions. Patients also showed increased fractional anisotropy (FA) in the white matter underlying rACC. Conclusions Impaired use of behavioral outcomes to adaptively adjust neural responses may contribute to symptoms in OCD. The rACC locus of abnormal adjustment and relations with symptoms suggests difficulty suppressing emotional responses to aversive, unexpected events (e.g., errors). Increased structural connectivity of this paralimbic default network region may contribute to this impairment. PMID:25057466

Agam, Yigal; Greenberg, Jennifer L.; Isom, Marlisa; Falkenstein, Martha J.; Jenike, Eric; Wilhelm, Sabine; Manoach, Dara S.

2014-01-01

106

Action-Monitoring Dysfunction in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence suggests that a hyperactive frontal-striatal- thalamic-frontal circuit is associated with the symptoms of obsessive- compulsive disorder (OCD), but there is little agreement about the function of the exaggerated activity. We report electrophysiological evidence suggesting that part of this system monitors events and gen- erates error signals when the events conflict with an individual's internal standards or goals. Nine individuals

William J. Gehring; Joseph Himle; Laura G. Nisenson

2000-01-01

107

Responsibility attitudes and interpretations are characteristic of obsessive compulsive disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cognitive–behavioural theory of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) proposes that a key factor influencing obsessional behaviour is the way in which the intrusive cognitions are interpreted. The present paper reports an investigation of links between clinical symptoms (of anxiety, depression and obsessionality) and responsibility beliefs. These beliefs include not only measures of general responsibility attitudes (assumptions) but also more specific

P. M. Salkovskis; A. L. Wroe; A. Gledhill; N. Morrison; E. Forrester; C. Richards; M Reynolds; S Thorpe

2000-01-01

108

Obsessive compulsive symptom dimensions and neuroticism: An examination of shared genetic and environmental risk.  

PubMed

Individuals with obsessive compulsive disorder can display diverse and heterogeneous patterns of symptoms. Little is known about the relationship between obsessive-compulsive symptom (OCS) dimensions and normal personality traits, particularly those that increase risk for other internalizing disorders. In this study of 1,382 individuals from female-female twin pairs, we examined the relationship between self-report OCS dimensions derived from the Padua Inventory and Eysenck's personality traits neuroticism and extraversion. We conducted factor analysis to determine their phenotypic structure followed by twin analyses to determine their genetic and environmental sources of covariation. A three-factor solution, with dimensions corresponding to checking, aggressive obsessions, and contamination, was the best fit for the Padua OCS items. These dimensions were significantly and somewhat variably associated with neuroticism but negligibly associated with extraversion. The genetic correlations between neuroticism and these three OCS dimensions were moderate to high (0.66 with checking, 0.89 with aggressive obsessions, and 0.40 with contamination). However, the estimated genetic correlation between neuroticism and a unified latent OCS construct was smaller (0.32). Overall this study suggests that genetic, and to a smaller extent environmental, factors underlying neuroticism may act differentially as risk factors for OCS dimensions. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25231027

Bergin, Jocilyn; Verhulst, Brad; Aggen, Steven H; Neale, Michael C; Kendler, Kenneth S; Bienvenu, Oscar J; Hettema, John M

2014-12-01

109

Cognitive-Behavioral Group Therapy in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: A Randomized Clinical Trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The present study was designed to verify the efficacy of cognitive-behavioral group therapy (CBGT) in reducing obsessive-compulsive symptoms and the intensity of overvalued ideas, as well as in improving the patient’s quality of life. Methods: Forty-seven patients meeting DSM-IV criteria for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) were randomly assigned to either 12 weekly CBGT sessions or a waiting list (control group).

Aristides Volpato Cordioli; Elizeth Heldt; Daniela Braga Bochi; Regina Margis; Marcelo Basso de Sousa; Juliano Fonseca Tonello; Gisele Gus Manfro; Flavio Kapczinski

2003-01-01

110

Streptococcal Upper Respiratory Tract Infections and Exacerbations of Tic and Obsessive-Compulsive Symptoms: A Prospective Longitudinal Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: The objective of this blinded, prospective, longitudinal study was to determine whether new group A beta hemolytic streptococcal (GABHS) infections are temporally associated with exacerbations of tic or obsessive-compulsive (OC) symptoms in children who met published criteria for pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders…

Leckman, James F.; King, Robert A.; Gilbert, Donald L.; Coffey, Barbara J.; Singer, Harvey S.; Dure, Leon S., IV; Grantz, Heidi; Katsovich, Liliya; Lin, Haiqun; Lombroso, Paul J.; Kawikova, Ivana; Johnson, Dwight R.; Kurlan, Roger M.; Kaplan, Edward L.

2011-01-01

111

Cerebellar Morphology in Tourette Syndrome and Obsessive-Compulsive  

E-print Network

Cerebellar Morphology in Tourette Syndrome and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Russell H. Tobe, MD morphology and under- lying volumes for the main diagnosis effects of TS as well as comorbid obsessive-compulsive and attenuates during adolescence. TS is 3­4 more com- mon in males.1,2 Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD

112

Characterization of SLITRK1 Variation in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder  

E-print Network

Characterization of SLITRK1 Variation in Obsessive- Compulsive Disorder Uzoezi Ozomaro1,2 , Guiqing, Maryland, United States of America, 11 Division of Tics, Obsessive-Compulsive and Related Disorders, New York, United States of America Abstract Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) is a syndrome

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

113

Obsessive-compulsive disorder and trichotillomania: a phenomenological comparison  

E-print Network

of the TTM patients), head injury was associated with onset of obsessive-compulsive symptoms. No data could be found on the potential role of brain injury in the etiology of hair-pulling. A number of patients associated the onset of their OCD onset... :777-790. 7. Stein DJ, Mullen L, Islam MN, Cohen L, DeCaria CM, Hollander E: Compulsive and impulsive symptomatology in trichotillomania. Psychopathology 1995, 28:208-213. 8. Swedo S: Trichotillomania. In Obsessive-compulsive related disorders Edited by...

Lochner, Christine; Seedat, Soraya; du Toit, Pieter L; Nel, Daniel G; Niehaus, Dana J H; Sandler, Robin; Stein, Dan J

2005-01-13

114

Evidence-Based Assessment of Child Obsessive Compulsive Disorder: Recommendations for Clinical Practice and Treatment Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) presents heterogeneously and can be difficult to assess in youth. This review focuses on research-supported assessment approaches for OCD in childhood. Content areas include pre-visit screening, diagnostic establishment, differential diagnosis, assessment of comorbid psychiatric conditions, tracking symptom

Lewin, Adam B.; Piacentini, John

2010-01-01

115

Effectiveness of psychological and pharmacological treatments for obsessive-compulsive disorder: A quantitative Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantitative review of the controlled treatment outcome literature for obsessivecompulsive disorder (OCD) showed that exposure with response prevention was highly effective in reducing OCD symptoms. Cognitive approaches were also found to be at least as effective as exposure procedures. It appears that both cognitive and exposure interventions involve some overlapping procedures and capitalize on similar mechanisms of change. Serotonergic

Jonathan S. Abramowitz

1997-01-01

116

The relationship of self-reported subclinical obsessive-compulsive symptoms and impulsivity among adults with AD/HD.  

PubMed

This study examined the degree to which subclinical obsessive-compulsive symptoms (SOCS) among individuals with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (AD/HD) were associated with response inhibition difficulties on a performance-based test. Participants consisted of 64 adults with AD/HD who completed the Conner?s Continuous Performance Test, Second Edition (CPT-II), Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R), and the Brown Attention Deficit Disorder Scale (ADD Scale). Individuals with higher scores on the Obsessive-Compulsive Scale from the SCL-90-R made significantly more commission errors on the CPT-II; whereas other SCL-90-R scores did not demonstrate such a relationship. We did not find that SOCS were related to severity of AD/HD. These results supported the hypothesis that individuals with AD/HD with response inhibition difficulties tend to report more subclinical obsessive symptoms. PMID:24556290

Brown, Franklin C; Katz, Lynda J; Roth, Robert M; Beers, Sue R

2014-04-30

117

Temper Outbursts in Paediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder and Their Association with Depressed Mood and Treatment Outcome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Temper outbursts in youth with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) are a common source of concern, but remain poorly understood. This study examined a set of hypotheses related to: (a) the prevalence of temper outbursts in paediatric OCD, (b) the associations of temper outbursts with OCD severity and depressive symptoms; and (c) the…

Krebs, Georgina; Bolhuis, Koen; Heyman, Isobel; Mataix-Cols, David; Turner, Cynthia; Stringaris, Argyris

2013-01-01

118

Obsessive-compulsive disorder and related disorders: a comprehensive survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our aim was to present a comprehensive, updated survey on obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and obsessive-compulsive related disorders (OCRDs) and their clinical management via literature review, critical analysis and synthesis. Information on OCD and OCRD current nosography, clinical phenomenology and etiology, may lead to a better comprehension of their management. Clinicians should become familiar with the broad spectrum of OCD disorders,

Michele Fornaro; Filippo Gabrielli; Claudio Albano; Stefania Fornaro; Salvatore Rizzato; Chiara Mattei; Paola Solano; Valentina Vinciguerra; Pantaleo Fornaro

2009-01-01

119

Clinical correlates and genetic linkage of social and communication difficulties in families with obsessive-compulsive disorder: Results from the OCD Collaborative Genetics Study.  

PubMed

Some individuals with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) have autistic-like traits, including deficits in social and communication behaviors (pragmatics). The objective of this study was to determine if pragmatic impairment aggregates in OCD families and discriminates a clinically and genetically distinct subtype of OCD. We conducted clinical examinations on, and collected DNA samples from, 706 individuals with OCD in 221 multiply affected OCD families. Using the Pragmatic Rating Scale (PRS), we compared the prevalence of pragmatic impairment in OCD-affected relatives of probands with and without pragmatic impairment. We also compared clinical features of OCD-affected individuals in families having at least one, versus no, individual with pragmatic impairment, and assessed for linkage to OCD in the two groups of families. The odds of pragmatic impairment were substantially greater in OCD-affected relatives of probands with pragmatic impairment. Individuals in high-PRS families had greater odds of separation anxiety disorder and social phobia, and a greater number of schizotypal personality traits. In high-PRS families, there was suggestive linkage to OCD on chromosome 12 at marker D12S1064 and on chromosome X at marker DXS7132 whereas, in low-PRS families, there was suggestive linkage to chromosome 3 at marker D3S2398. Pragmatic impairment aggregates in OCD families. Separation anxiety disorder, social phobia, and schizotypal personality traits are part of a clinical spectrum associated with pragmatic impairment in these families. Specific regions of chromosomes 12 and X are linked to OCD in high-PRS families. Thus, pragmatic impairment may distinguish a clinically and genetically homogeneous subtype of OCD. PMID:24798771

Samuels, Jack; Shugart, Yin Yao; Wang, Ying; Grados, Marco A; Bienvenu, O Joseph; Pinto, Anthony; Rauch, Scott L; Greenberg, Benjamin D; Knowles, James A; Fyer, Abby J; Piacentini, John; Pauls, David L; Cullen, Bernadette; Rasmussen, Steven A; Stewart, S Evelyn; Geller, Dan A; Maher, Brion S; Goes, Fernando S; Murphy, Dennis L; McCracken, James T; Riddle, Mark A; Nestadt, Gerald

2014-06-01

120

[Heterogeneity and comorbidity of obsessive-compulsive disorder].  

PubMed

Although the DSM-IV-TR suggests that obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a coherent syndrome, scientific evidence offers a compelling case that OCD is highly heterogeneous and possibly composed of many different subtypes. OCD can display completely distinct symptom patterns thus making it difficult to identify a single "textbook" profile of OCD. The present state of research concerning subtyping is presented. There is a high comorbidity with depression and anxiety disorders, but all together data concerning OCD comorbidity are still not convincing. Currently obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorders (OCS) are described as a set of disorders lying on a continuum from compulsive to impulsive, with the unifying feature being an inability to regulate behaviour as a consequence of defects in inhibition. OCS disorders fall into three major clusters: impulsive disorders, disorders associated with appearance in bodily sensations, and neurological disorders characterized by repetitive behaviour. How these putative OCS disorders overlap with and are independent from obsessive-compulsive disorder itself is thoroughly discussed. PMID:21347693

Zaudig, M

2011-03-01

121

Reduced availability of serotonin transporters in obsessive-compulsive disorder correlates with symptom severity - a [11C]DASB PET study.  

PubMed

Reduced availability of brainstem serotonin transporters (5-HTT) has been observed in vivo in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). However, results vary and may be influenced by competition with endogenous serotonin. Using positron emission tomography (PET) and [11C]DASB, a specific 5-HTT ligand that showed no competition with serotonin for 5-HTT binding in vitro, we tested the hypothesis that 5-HTT availability is reduced in OCD patients and correlated with OCD severity. METHODS. 5-HTT availability in the thalamus and the midbrain was measured in nine drug-free OCD patients and compared with 19 healthy controls, matched for the individual combination of 5-HTT genotype, gender and smoking status. OCD severity was assessed with the Yale-Brown obsessive compulsive scale (Y-BOCS). RESULTS. 5-HTT availability was significantly reduced in the thalamus and midbrain of OCD patients. Age and 5-HTT in the thalamus explained 83% of OCD severity in patients that were drug-free for at least 1 year. CONCLUSION. This PET study confirms a central role of the serotonergic system, particularly the thalamus in the pathogenesis of obsessive compulsive disorder. PMID:17713719

Reimold, M; Smolka, M N; Zimmer, A; Batra, A; Knobel, A; Solbach, C; Mundt, A; Smoltczyk, H U; Goldman, D; Mann, K; Reischl, G; Machulla, H-J; Bares, R; Heinz, A

2007-01-01

122

Title: EEG source analysis in obsessive-compulsive disorder Authors: Jana Kopivov  

E-print Network

1 Title: EEG source analysis in obsessive-compulsive disorder Authors: Jana Kopivová a, b , Marco-mail address: koprivova@pcp.lf3.cuni.cz Key-words: obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD); standardized low for therapeutic interventions. INTRODUCTION Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a common neuropsychiatric

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

123

Delorme et al. 1 Platelet Serotonergic Markers as Endophenotypes for Obsessive-Compulsive  

E-print Network

Delorme et al. 1 Platelet Serotonergic Markers as Endophenotypes for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder that obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has a strong genetic component, its genetic basis remains-00109585,version1 #12;Delorme et al. 3 Introduction Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a severe

Boyer, Edmond

124

Performance monitoring in obsessive-compulsive disorder Sander Nieuwenhuisa,T,1  

E-print Network

Performance monitoring in obsessive-compulsive disorder Sander Nieuwenhuisa,T,1 , Marjan M. Nielenb in revised form 17 December 2004; accepted 10 February 2005 Abstract Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD; Feedback; Error processing; Event-related potentials 1. Introduction Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD

Nieuwenhuis, Sander

125

Parental obsessive-compulsive disorder as a prognostic factor in a year long fluvoxamine treatment in childhood and adolescent obsessive-compulsive disorder.  

PubMed

Interest in the treatment of pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has increased as our knowledge of adult OCD has expanded. Although adults are still the majority of patients, children and adolescents with OCD are being identified and treated more frequently. As this population is better identified, prognostic factors need to be addressed to improve treatment outcome. The purpose of this study was to determine the role of family psychiatric pathology in fluvoxamine treatment outcome. Eleven children and adolescents with OCD and one of their parents participated in the study. Four parents were diagnosed with OCD, six had an Axis I diagnosis other than OCD, and one had no mental disorder [Structured Clinical Interview for the DSM-Non-Patient edition (SCID-NP)]. Each patient received fluvoxamine for 58 weeks. Dependent measures included the Children Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (CY-BOCS), the NIMH-Global Obsessive Compulsive Scale (NIMH-GOCS) and the Clinical Global Impression (CGI). Based on CY-BOCS, CGI and NIMH-GOCS scores, patients with parents who have OCD showed a clinically and statistically significant reduction in symptoms from pre- to post-treatment. Patients whose parents did not have OCD also improved. However, the improvement was statistically but not clinically significant. The presence of OCD in one parent seems to modify a child's response to medication. The results suggest that family psychopathology, specifically presence of OCD, may contribute to treatment efficacy. Further research is suggested in this area. PMID:10870874

Yaryura-Tobias, J A; Grunes, M S; Walz, J; Neziroglu, F

2000-05-01

126

Symptom Overlap between Autism Spectrum Disorder, Generalized Social Anxiety Disorder and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder in Adults: A Preliminary Case-Controlled Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and social anxiety disorder (SAD) frequently co-occur in persons with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We studied which features distinguish ‘pure’ anxiety disordered patients from those with co-morbid ASD. Method: In a case-controlled design in which groups were matched for age, sex and educational level, patients with OCD or SAD and co-morbid ASD were compared with patients

Danielle C. Cath; Natalie Ran; Johannes H. Smit; Hannie C. Comijs

2008-01-01

127

Childhood-onset obsessive-compulsive disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a psychiatric condition characterized by recurrent obsessions or compulsions that cause significant impairment or distress. Although OCD was once perceived to be relatively rare in childhood, current estimates suggest that as many as half of all adult OCD cases may have their onset in childhood or adolescence. In general, there appears to be a great deal

Julie A Eichstedt; Sharon L Arnold

2001-01-01

128

Symptom Dimensions in OCD: Item-Level Factor Analysis and Heritability Estimates  

E-print Network

To reduce the phenotypic heterogeneity of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) for genetic, clinical and translational studies, numerous factor analyses of the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale checklist (YBOCS-CL) have ...

Katerberg, Hilga

129

When cancer is associated with illness but no longer with animal or zodiac sign: investigation of biased semantic networks in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD).  

PubMed

Building upon semantic network models, it is proposed that individuals with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) process ambiguous words (e.g., homographs such as cancer) preferably in the context of the OC meaning (i.e., illness) and connect them to a lesser degree to other (neutral) cognitions (e.g., animal). To investigate this assumption, a new task was designed requiring participants to generate up to five associations for different cue words. Cue words were either emotionally neutral, negative or OC-relevant. Two thirds of the items were homographs, while the rest was unambiguous. Twenty-five OCD and 21 healthy participants were recruited via internet. Analyses reveal that OCD participants produced significantly more negative and OC-relevant associations than controls, supporting the assumption of biased associative networks in OCD. The findings support the use of psychological interventions such as Association Splitting that aim at restructuring associative networks in OCD by broadening the semantic scope of OC cognitions. PMID:19640676

Jelinek, Lena; Hottenrott, Birgit; Moritz, Steffen

2009-12-01

130

Rapid effects of brief intensive cognitive-behavioral therapy on brain glucose metabolism in obsessive-compulsive disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brief intensive cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) using exposure and response prevention significantly improves obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) symptoms in as little as 4 weeks. However, it has been thought that much longer treatment was needed to produce the changes in brain function seen in neuroimaging studies of OCD. We sought to elucidate the brain mediation of response to brief intensive CBT for

Sanjaya Saxena; E Gorbis; J O'Neill; S K Baker; M A Mandelkern; K M Maidment; S Chang; N Salamon; A L Brody; J M Schwartz; E D London

2009-01-01

131

Localized Orbitofrontal and Subcortical Metabolic Changes and Predictors of Response to Paroxetine Treatment in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous positron emission tomography (PET) studies of patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) have found elevated glucose metabolic rates in the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and caudate nuclei that normalize with response to treatment. Furthermore, OCD symptom provocation differentially activates specific subregions of the OFC, which have distinct patterns of connectivity and serve different functions. Therefore, we sought to determine the role

Sanjaya Saxena; Arthur L Brody; Karron M Maidment; Jennifer J Dunkin; Mark Colgan; Shervin Alborzian; Michael E Phelps; Lewis R Baxter

1999-01-01

132

A systematic review: antipsychotic augmentation with treatment refractory obsessive-compulsive disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

As many as half of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) patients treated with an adequate trial of serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SRIs) fail to fully respond to treatment and continue to exhibit significant symptoms. Many studies have assessed the effectiveness of antipsychotic augmentation in SRI-refractory OCD. In this systematic review, we evaluate the efficacy of antipsychotic augmentation in treatment-refractory OCD. The electronic databases

M H Bloch; A Landeros-Weisenberger; B Kelmendi; V Coric; M B Bracken; J F Leckman

2006-01-01

133

Obsessive-Compulsive Symptoms and Their Impacts on Psychosocial Functioning in People with Epilepsy  

PubMed Central

Background and Purpose Obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCS) in people with epilepsy (PWE) have not been studied systematically. We evaluated the severity, predictors, and psychosocial impact of OCS in PWE. Methods We recruited PWE who visited our epilepsy clinic and age-, gender-, and education-matched healthy controls. Both PWE and healthy controls completed the Maudsley Obsessional-Compulsive Inventory (MOCI), which measures OCS. PWE also completed the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and the Quality of Life in Epilepsy Inventory-31 (QOLIE-31). We examined the severity of OCS in PWE relative to healthy controls. Predictors of OCS and the QOLIE-31 score were measured by regression analyses. A path analysis model was constructed to verify interrelations between the variables. Results The MOCI total score was significantly higher in PWE than in healthy controls (p=0.002). OCS were found in 20% of eligible patients. The strongest predictor of the MOCI total score was the BDI score (?=0.417, p<0.001), followed by EEG abnormality (?=0.194, p<0.001) and etiology (?=0.107, p=0.031). Epileptic syndrome, the side of the epileptic focus, and action mechanisms of antiepileptic drugs did not affect the MOCI total score. The strongest predictor of the QOLIE-31 overall score was the BDI score (?=-0.569, p<0.001), followed by seizure control (?=-0.163, p<0.001) and the MOCI total score (?=-0.148, p=0.001). The MOCI total score directly affected the QOLIE-31 overall score and also exerted indirect effects on the QOLIE-31 overall score through seizure control and the BDI score. Conclusions OCS are more likely to develop in PWE than in healthy people. The development of OCS appears to elicit psychosocial problems directly or indirectly by provoking depression or uncontrolled seizures. PMID:24829598

Seo, Ji-Hye; Lee, Won-Kee

2014-01-01

134

The Semantic Simon Effect in Tourette's Syndrome and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Core symptoms of Tourette's syndrome (TS) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) may be attributed to an impairment in inhibitory control. Neuropsychological studies have addressed inhibition in both disorders, but findings have been inconsistent. The aim of this study was to examine cognitive inhibition, using a semantic Simon effect paradigm,…

Rankins, D.; Bradshaw, J. L.; Georgiou-Karistianis, N.

2006-01-01

135

Association of the serotonin transporter promoter regulatory region polymorphism and obsessive-compulsive disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although modulation of symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) by serotonergic agents is well established, it is unclear whether an abnormality in the central serotonergic system is involved in its etiology. The serotonin (5-HT) transporter (5-HTT), which is the key modulator of serotonergic neurotransmission, is the target for serotonin reuptake inhibiting drugs (SRIs) that are uniquely effective in the treatment of

D Bengel; B D Greenberg; G Corá-Locatelli; M Altemus; A Heils; Q Li; D L Murphy

1999-01-01

136

Hypnotically Facilitated Treatment of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: Can it Be Evidence-Based?  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are extensive evidence-based guidelines for the treatment of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) with medication, behavior therapy, and cognitive therapy. Nevertheless, there remain a significant percentage of patients whose symptoms are more or less refractory to standardized treatments. This situation could be rooted in the phenotypic heterogeneity of the disorder as well as in its high rates of comorbid psychopathology. Studies

Claire Frederick

2007-01-01

137

Cognitive-behavioural therapy augments the effects of deep brain stimulation in obsessive-compulsive disorder.  

PubMed

Background. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a promising new treatment for patients with treatment-refractory obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). However, since most DBS patients only show a partial response, the treatment still needs to be improved. In this study we hypothesized that cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) could optimize the post-operative management in DBS and we evaluated the efficacy of CBT as augmentation to DBS targeted at the nucleus accumbens. Method. A total of 16 patients with treatment-refractory OCD were treated with DBS targeted at the nucleus accumbens. After stabilization of decline in OCD symptoms, a standardized 24-week CBT treatment programme was added to DBS in an open-phase trial of 8 months. Changes in obsessive-compulsive, anxiety and depressive symptoms were evaluated using the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale, Hamilton Anxiety Scale and Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression. Results. Following the addition of CBT to DBS, a significant decrease in obsessive-compulsive symptoms was observed, but not in anxiety and depressive symptoms. In a subsequent double-blind phase, in which stimulation was discontinued, OCD symptoms returned to baseline (relapse) and anxiety and depressive symptoms worsened (rebound) compared with baseline. Conclusions. The results of this explorative study suggest that a combined treatment of accumbens DBS and CBT may be optimal for improving obsessive-compulsive symptoms in treatment-refractory OCD. However, a subsequent randomized controlled trial is necessary to draw firm conclusions. It seems that DBS results in affective changes that may be required to enable response prevention in CBT. This may indicate that DBS and CBT act as two complementary treatments. PMID:25065708

Mantione, M; Nieman, D H; Figee, M; Denys, D

2014-12-01

138

The influence of cultural factors on obsessive compulsive disorder: religious symptoms in a religious society.  

PubMed

Judaism is one of many religions that demand cleanliness and exactness, inculcate the performance of rituals from childhood and view their non-performance as wrong or sinful. Rituals concerning cleanliness and exactness are the commonest presentations of OCD. In a sample of 34 psychiatric out-patients with OCD in north Jerusalem, religious symptoms were found in 13 of the 19 ultra-orthodox patients, and in one of the 15 non-ultra-orthodox patients. Nine of the 15 OCD patients with religious symptoms also had non-religious symptoms. Four main topics of religious symptomatology were found: prayer, dietary practices, menstrual practices and cleanliness before prayer. The dictates of religious codes regarding these topics are presented and the law is rigorous in its demands, in many cases encouraging repeating rituals. Nevertheless, repetitive performance of religious rituals is recognized by OCD sufferers and their rabbis as expressing psychopathology rather than heightened spirituality. The forms of the religious obsessions and the associated rituals in this sample were similar to the presentation of OCD in non-religious patients. Religion appears not to be a distinctive topic of OCD, rather it is the setting for the condition in very religious patients. PMID:7868322

Greenberg, D; Witztum, E

1994-01-01

139

Abnormalities of White Matter Microstructure in Unmedicated Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder and  

E-print Network

Abnormalities of White Matter Microstructure in Unmedicated Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder of myelin integrity have been reported in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) using multi- parameter maps Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder and Changes after Medication. PLoS ONE 7(4): e35889. doi:10.1371/journal

140

Perfectionism in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Considerable theory and anecdotal evidence has suggested that patients with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) are more perfectionistic. Evidence with non-clinical populations supports this hypothesis. However, no data are available on levels of perfectionism among patients diagnosed with OCD. The present study extends findings on perfectionism and OCD by comparing perfectionism levels of OCD-diagnosed patients with those of non-patients and a group

Randy O. Frost; Gail Steketee

1997-01-01

141

Specificity of Fear and Disgust Experienced During Traumatic Interpersonal Victimization in Predicting Posttraumatic Stress and Contamination-Based Obsessive-Compulsive Symptoms  

PubMed Central

Emerging evidence has documented comorbidity between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) among individuals with a history of traumatic events. There is growing recognition of the importance of disgust in each of these conditions independently. No study, however, has examined the potential role of disgust in these conditions following traumatic event exposure. The current study examined the unique role of peritraumatic fear, self-focused disgust, and other-focused disgust in predicting posttraumatic stress symptoms and contamination-based OC symptoms among 49 adult women (Mage = 28.37, SD = 13.86) with a history of traumatic interpersonal victimization. Results demonstrated that intensity of peritraumatic self-focused disgust was significantly related to contamination-based OC symptoms while peritraumatic fear and other-focused disgust were related to posttraumatic stress symptoms. These results highlight the need for future research aimed at elucidating the nature of the association between disgust experienced during traumatic events and subsequent psychopathology. PMID:22465821

Badour, Christal L.; Bown, Stephanie; Adams, Thomas G.; Bunaciu, Liviu; Feldner, Matthew T.

2012-01-01

142

The Obsessive Compulsive Scale of the Child Behavior Checklist Predicts Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: A Receiver Operating Characteristic Curve Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: The purpose of this study was to determine a score on the Obsessive Compulsive Scale (OCS) from the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) to screen for obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) in children and to rigorously test the specificity and sensitivity of a single cutpoint. Methods: A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis…

Hudziak, James J.; Althoff, Robert R.; Stanger, Catherine; van Beijsterveldt, C. E. M.; Nelson, Elliot C.; Hanna, Gregory L.; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Todd, Richard D.

2006-01-01

143

Monoamine activity reflected in urine of young patients with obsessive compulsive disorder, psychosis with and without reality distortion and healthy subjects: an explorative analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Positive psychotic symptoms are reported to be associated with high, negative symptoms with low dopamine (DA) activity and serotonin (5HT) activity may be altered in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). We analysed 24 h urine samples in these patient groups and in healthy controls for supportive evidence. Young unmedicated OCD subjects excreted more adrenaline (AD) and homovanillic acid (HVA) and showed

R. D. Oades; B. Röpcke; C. Eggers

1994-01-01

144

Distinct Neural Correlates of Washing, Checking, and Hoarding Symptom Dimensions in Obsessive-compulsive Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results: Both patients and control subjects experi- enced increased subjective anxiety during symptom provocation (patients significantly more so) and acti- vated neural regions previously linked to OCD. Analy- ses of covariance, controlling for depression, showed a distinct pattern of activation associated with each symp- tom dimension. Patients demonstrated significantly greater activation than controls in bilateral ventromedial pre- frontal regions and

David Mataix-Cols; Sarah Wooderson; Natalia Lawrence; Michael J. Brammer; Anne Speckens; Mary L. Phillips

2004-01-01

145

Responsibility and perfectionism in OCD: an experimental study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cognitive models of obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) suggest a number of different variables that may play a role in the development and maintenance of obsessive compulsive symptoms [Freeston, M. H., Rhéaume, J., & Ladouceur, R. (1996) Correcting faulty appraisals of obsessional thoughts. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 34, 433–446]. This study's aim was to verify the effect of perfectionism and excessive responsibility

Catherine Bouchard; Josée Rhéaume; Robert Ladouceur

1999-01-01

146

Early Alliance, Alliance Ruptures, and Symptom Change in a Nonrandomized Trial of Cognitive Therapy for Avoidant and Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Participants were 30 adult outpatients diagnosed with avoidant personality disorder or obsessive-compulsive personality disorder who enrolled in an open trial of cognitive therapy for personality disorders. Treatment consisted of up to 52 weekly sessions. Symptom evaluations were conducted at intake, at Sessions 17 and 34, and at the last…

Strauss, Jennifer L.; Hayes, Adele M.; Johnson, Sheri L.; Newman, Cory F.; Brown, Gregory K.; Barber, Jaques P.; Lawrenceau, Jean-Philippe; Beck, Aaron T.

2006-01-01

147

Early Alliance, Alliance Ruptures, and Symptom Change in a Nonrandomized Trial of Cognitive Therapy for Avoidant and Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Participants were 30 adult outpatients diagnosed with avoidant personality disorder or obsessive-compulsive personality disorder who enrolled in an open trial of cognitive therapy for personality disorders. Treatment consisted of up to 52 weekly sessions. Symptom evaluations were conducted at intake, at Sessions 17 and 34, and at the last session. Alliance variables were patients' first alliance rating and \\

Jennifer L. Strauss; Adele M. Hayes; Sheri L. Johnson; Cory F. Newman; Gregory K. Brown; Jacques P. Barber; Jean-Philippe Laurenceau; Aaron T. Beck

2006-01-01

148

Streptococcal upper respiratory tract infections and exacerbations of tic and obsessive-compulsive symptoms: A prospective longitudinal study  

PubMed Central

Objective The objective of this blinded, prospective longitudinal study was to determine whether new group A beta hemolytic streptococcal (GABHS) infections are temporally associated with exacerbations of tic or obsessive-compulsive (OC) symptoms in children who met published criteria for Pediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorders Associated with Streptococcal infections (PANDAS). A group of children with Tourette syndrome and/or obsessive-compulsive disorder without a PANDAS history served as the (non-PANDAS) comparison group. Method Consecutive clinical ratings of tic and OC symptom severity were obtained for 31 PANDAS subjects and 53 non-PANDAS subjects. Clinical symptoms and laboratory values (throat cultures and streptococcal antibody titers) were evaluated at regular intervals during a 25 month period. Additional testing occurred at the time of any tic or OC symptom exacerbation. New GABHS infections were established by throat swab cultures and/or recent significant rise in streptococcal antibodies. Laboratory personnel were blinded to case or control status, clinical (exacerbation or not) condition, and clinical evaluators were blinded to the laboratory results. Results No group differences were observed in either the number of clinical exacerbations or the number of newly diagnosed GABHS infections. On only six occasions out of a total of 51 (12%) a newly diagnosed GABHS infection was followed, within two months, by an exacerbation of tic and/or OC symptoms. In every instance, this association occurred in the non-PANDAS group. Conclusions This study provides no evidence for a temporal association between GABHS infections and tic/OC symptom exacerbations in children who meet the published PANDAS diagnostic criteria. PMID:21241948

Leckman, James F.; King, Robert A.; Gilbert, Donald L.; Coffey, Barbara J.; Singer, Harvey S.; Dure, Leon S.; Grantz, Heidi; Katsovich, Liliya; Lin, Haiqun; Lombroso, Paul J.; Kawikova, Ivana; Johnson, Dwight R.; Kurlan, Roger M.; Kaplan, Edward L.

2010-01-01

149

Evidence-Based Assessment of Child Obsessive Compulsive Disorder: Recommendations for Clinical Practice and Treatment Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) presents heterogeneously and can be difficult to assess in youth. This review focuses\\u000a on research-supported assessment approaches for OCD in childhood. Content areas include pre-visit screening, diagnostic establishment,\\u000a differential diagnosis, assessment of comorbid psychiatric conditions, tracking symptom severity, determining psychosocial\\u000a functioning, and evaluating clinical improvement. Throughout this review, similarities and differences between assessment\\u000a approaches geared towards clinical

Adam B. Lewin; John Piacentini

2010-01-01

150

The Netherlands Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Association (NOCDA) study: design and rationale of a longitudinal naturalistic study of the course of OCD and clinical characteristics of the sample at baseline.  

PubMed

In half of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) patients the disorder runs a chronic course despite treatment. The factors determining this unfavourable outcome remain unknown. The Netherlands Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Association (NOCDA) study is a multicentre naturalistic cohort study of the biological, psychological and social determinants of chronicity in a clinical sample. Recruitment of OCD patients took place in mental health organizations. Its design is a six-year longitudinal cohort study among a representative clinical sample of 419 OCD patients. All five measurements within this six-year period involved validated semi-structured interviews and self-report questionnaires which gathered information on the severity of OCD and its co-morbidity as well as information on general wellbeing, quality of life, daily activities, medical consumption and key psychological and social factors. The baseline measurements also include DNA and blood sampling and data on demographic and personality variables. The current paper presents the design and rationale of the study, as well as data on baseline sample characteristics. Demographic characteristics and co-morbidity ratings in the NOCDA sample closely resemble other OCD study samples. Lifetime co-morbid Axis I disorders are present in the majority of OCD patients, with high current and lifetime co-morbidity ratings for affective disorders (23.4% and 63.7%, respectively) and anxiety disorders other than OCD (36% current and 46.5% lifetime). PMID:23148029

Schuurmans, Josien; van Balkom, Anton J L M; van Megen, Harold J G M; Smit, Johannes H; Eikelenboom, Merijn; Cath, Danielle C; Kaarsemaker, Maarten; Oosterbaan, Desiree; Hendriks, Gert-Jan; Schruers, Koen R J; van der Wee, Nic J A; Glas, Gerrit; van Oppen, Patricia

2012-12-01

151

[Development of sexuality and motivational aspects of sexual behavior in men with obsessive-compulsive disorders].  

PubMed

Sexual behavior and formation of sexuality in men with obsessive-compulsive disorder is one of the pressing issues in contemporary medicine. Obsessive-compulsive disorder is characterized by the development of intrusive thoughts, memories, movements and actions, as well as a variety of pathological fears (phobias). Increase in the number of patients with this pathology in modern clinical practice of neurotic disorders, the young age of the patients and as a result violation of interpersonal, communicational and sexual nature is quite apparent. The study involved 35 men aged 23 to 47 years with clinical signs of OCD. We determined the severity of obsessive-compulsive symptoms using the Yale-Brown scale. We established the presence of a mild degree of disorder in 34,3% of cases; in 48,6% of cases disorder of moderate severity was diagnosed; remaining 17.1% were assessed subclinical condition of OCD at the applicable scale. The system of motivational maintenance of sexual behavior in men with obsessive-compulsive disorders is investigated. Motives of sexual behavior of the investigated men with the pathology are determined. The presented research in men with OCD have established multidimensionality and complexity of motivational ensuring of sexual behavior. PMID:25341245

Gerasimenko, L

2014-09-01

152

Disgust Implicated in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Psychiatric classificatory systems consider obsessions and compulsions as forms of anxiety disorder. However, the neurology of diseases associated with obsessive-compulsive symptoms suggests the involvement of fronto-striatal regions likely to be involved in the mediation of the emotion of disgust, suggesting that dysfunctions of disgust should be considered alongside anxiety in the pathogenesis of obsessive-compulsive behaviours. We therefore tested recognition of

R. Sprengelmeyer; I. Pundt; A. Sprengelmeyer; A. J. Calder; G. Berrios; R. Winkel; W. Vollmoeller; W. Kuhn; G. Sartory; H. Przuntek

1997-01-01

153

Obsessive–compulsive disorder in schizophrenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To examine the differences in demographic and clinical features of patients with schizophrenia, with or without comorbid obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD).Methods: Fifty-two subjects were recruited from clinical services in the city of Edmonton, Alberta and assessed for schizophrenia and OCD with structured clinical interviews and standardized clinical rating scales.Results: The prevalence of OCD in individuals meeting criteria for schizophrenia was

P Tibbo; M Kroetsch; P Chue; L Warneke

2000-01-01

154

Cognitive Behavioral Therapy in Adults with Obsessive–Compulsive Disorder and Borderline Intellectual Functioning: A Case Series of Three Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cognitive-behavior therapy (CBT) is widely accepted as the most effective psychological treatment for obsessive–compulsive\\u000a disorder (OCD). Although this modality flexibly treats a variety of OCD symptom subtypes, it is unclear how CBT should be\\u000a adapted to meet the needs of individuals with OCD and limitations in their cognitive functioning. In this paper, we report\\u000a on three adults with borderline intellectual

Steven L. Pence Jr; Mirela A. Aldea; Michael L. Sulkowski; Eric A. Storch

2011-01-01

155

Controlled Comparison of Family Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and Psychoeducation/Relaxation Training for Child Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To examine the efficacy of exposure-based cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) plus a structured family intervention (FCBT) versus psychoeducation plus relaxation training (PRT) for reducing symptom severity, functional impairment, and family accommodation in youths with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Method: A total of 71…

Piacentini, John; Bergman, R. Lindsey; Chang, Susanna; Langley, Audra; Peris, Tara; Wood, Jeffrey J.; McCracken, James

2011-01-01

156

Obsessive Compulsive Related Disorders: A New Classification for the DSM-V  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is concern surrounding the classification of obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) for the next edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM). The DSM-V workgroup for OCD related disorders and researchers alike suggest removing OCD from the anxiety disorders category of the DSM, and placing it under the heading of obsessive compulsive related disorders (OCRD). This paper

Lauren M. Mancusi

157

Obsessive compulsive disorders in eating disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The aim of this study is to explore current and lifetime prevalence of obsessive compulsive disorders (OCD) in eating disorder (ED) subgroups and subtypes defined by the DSM-IV and to study the chronology of appearance of these disorders taking into account the role played by denutrition. Method: Current and lifetime prevalence were investigated using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview

Mario Speranza; Maurice Corcos; Nathalie Godart; Gwenael Loas; Olivier Guilbaud; Philippe Jeammet; Martine Flament

2001-01-01

158

A role for the precuneus in thought-action fusion: Evidence from participants with significant obsessive-compulsive symptoms?  

PubMed Central

Likelihood thought–action fusion (TAF-L) refers to a cognitive bias in which individuals believe that the mere thought of a negative event increases its likelihood of occurring in reality. TAF-L is most commonly associated with obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) but is also present in depression, generalized anxiety disorder and psychosis. We induced TAF-L in individuals with high (High-OC, N = 23) and low (Low-OC, N = 24) levels of OC traits, and used low resolution electromagnetic tomography (LORETA) to localise the accompanying electrical brain activity patterns. The results showed greater TAF-L in the High-OC than in the Low-OC group (p < .005), which was accompanied by significantly greater upper beta frequency (19–30 Hz) activity in the precuneus (p < .05). Further, the precuneus activity was positively correlated with self-reported magnitude of TAF-L (p < .01), suggesting a specific role of this region in this cognitive bias. Results are discussed with reference to self-referential processing and the default-mode network. PMID:24371793

Jones, Rhiannon; Bhattacharya, Joydeep

2013-01-01

159

Aripiprazole in depersonalization disorder comorbid with major depression and obsessive-compulsive disorder: 3 cases.  

PubMed

Depersonalization is a frequent symptom in depression and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), but sometimes, it may be severe and concurrently diagnosed as a disorder. The treatment of depersonalization disorder both alone and comorbid with other psychiatric disorders is as yet unclear. This report presents the successful treatment with aripiprazole of concurrent depersonalization disorder in 3 patients with depression or OCD. The psychiatric disorders were diagnosed through structured clinical interviews. Assessments were by means of Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale, the Clinical Global Impression-Improvement Scale, and the 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression. Aripiprazole may be a beneficial psychotropic drug in the treatment of depersonalization disorder comorbid with OCD or depression, which is an important problem in clinical practice. PMID:24992087

Uguz, Faruk; Sahingoz, Mine

2014-01-01

160

Memory and confidence in memory judgments among individuals with obsessive compulsive disorder and non-clinical controls  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study investigated episodic memory functioning in: (1) obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) patients with primarily checking symptoms (i.e. checkers); (2) OCD patients without checking symptoms (i.e. non-checkers); and (3) non-clinical control participants. On a measure of recall, all groups were statistically equivalent with respect to the proportion of words correctly recalled. Using a recognition measure, checkers were unimpaired in

Penny A. Macdonald; Martin M. Antony; Colin M. Macleod; Margaret A. Richter

1997-01-01

161

Management of obsessive-compulsive disorder.  

PubMed

Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a common, often debilitating disorder characterized by the presence of obsessions and compulsions. Obsessions are repetitive thoughts or images which are experienced as intrusive and unwanted; they cause marked anxiety and distress. Compulsions (also known as rituals) are repetitive behaviors or mental acts that individuals with OCD perform in an attempt to decrease their anxiety. Patients tend to hide their symptoms due to shame; the amount of time between onset of symptoms and appropriate treatment is often many years. The disorder likely results from several etiological variables; functional imaging studies have consistently shown hyperactivity in the orbitofrontal cortex, anterior cingulate, thalamus, and striatum. The mainstays of treatment include cognitive-behavioral therapy in the form of exposure and response prevention (ERP) and serotonin reuptake inhibiting medications. Several pharmacological augmentation strategies exist for treatment-resistant OCD, with addition of antipsychotics being most commonly employed. Radio and neurosurgical procedures, including gamma knife radiation and deep brain stimulation, are reserved for severe, treatment-refractory disease that has not responded to multiple treatments, and some patients may benefit from transcranial magnetic stimulation. PMID:25165567

Seibell, Phillip J; Hollander, Eric

2014-01-01

162

Altered Brain Activation in Ventral Frontal-Striatal Regions Following a 16-week Pharmacotherapy in Unmedicated Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder  

PubMed Central

Recent studies have reported that cognitive inflexibility associated with impairments in a frontal-striatal circuit and parietal region is a core cognitive deficit of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). However, few studies have examined progressive changes in these regions following clinical improvement in obsessive-compulsive symptoms. To determine if treatment changes the aberrant activation pattern associated with task switching in OCD, we examined the activation patterns in brain areas after treatment. The study was conducted on 10 unmedicated OCD patients and 20 matched controls using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging. Treatment improved the clinical symptoms measured by the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale and behavioral flexibility indicated by the switching cost. At baseline, OCD showed significantly less activation in the dorsal and ventral frontal-striatal circuit and parietal regions under the task-switch minus task-repeat condition compared with controls. After treatment, the neural responses in the ventral frontal-striatal circuit in OCD were partially normalized, whereas the activation deficit in dorsal frontoparietal regions that mediate shifting attention or behavioral flexibility persisted. It is suggested that altered brain activation in ventral frontal-striatal regions in OCD patients is associated with their cognitive flexibility and changes in these regions may underlie the pathophysiology of OCD. PMID:21532859

Han, Ji Yeon; Kang, Do-Hyung; Gu, Bon-Mi; Jung, Wi Hoon; Choi, Jung-Seok; Choi, Chi-Hoon; Jang, Joon Hwan

2011-01-01

163

Effectiveness of exposure and ritual prevention for obsessive-compulsive disorder: Randomized compared with nonrandomized samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

The efficacy of exposure and ritual prevention (EX\\/RP) for reducing symptoms of obsessive—compulsive disorder (OCD) has been demonstrated in several randomized controlled trials (RCTs). However, procedures used in these studies to maximize experimental control may have limited their generalizability to typical clinical practice. Treatment outcome data from 110 clinical patients receiving EX\\/RP on an outpatient fee-rbr-service basis were compared with

Martin E. Franklin; Jonathan S. Abramowitz; Michael J. Kozak; Jill T. Levitt; Edna B. Foa

2000-01-01

164

Insight and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: A Conceptual Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analysis of insight in obsessive-compulsive disorders (OCD) raises conceptual problems that need addressing before meaningful empirical work can be undertaken. Insight and OCD are locked within a definitional contradiction relevant both to the nosological boundaries of OCD and the meaning of insight itself. Given that it is a form of self-knowledge, it is proposed here that insight is best conceived

Ivana S. Marková; Nemat Jaafari; German E. Berrios

2009-01-01

165

Neuropsychological performance in obsessive-compulsive disorder: a critical review  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is growing evidence for neuropsychological dysfunction in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) related to an underlying frontal lobe and\\/or basal ganglia dysfunction. The following paper is a systematical review of the existing literature on cognitive impairment in OCD patients. Fifty studies were surveyed with regard to methodological aspects and cognitive impairments found in OCD patients. In addition, the impact of confounding

Anne Katrin Kuelz; Fritz Hohagen; Ulrich Voderholzer

2004-01-01

166

A Family Study of Obsessive-compulsive Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The causes of obsessive-compulsive dis- order (OCD) are as yet unknown. Evidence of familial aggregation is one approach for investigating the role of genetics in the etiology of this condition. The current study was conducted to determine if OCD is familial and to in- vestigate possible familial subtypes. Methods: Eighty case probands were identified in 5 spe- cialty OCD

Gerald Nestadt; Jack Samuels; Mark Riddle; O. Joseph Bienvenu III; Kung-Yee Liang; Michele LaBuda; John Walkup; Marco Grados; Rudolf Hoehn-Saric

2000-01-01

167

Memory and memory confidence in obsessive–compulsive disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pathological doubt, often found in individuals with obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD), has been theoretically linked to memory deficits, but empirical evidence for such deficits has been mixed. In contrast, many studies suggest that individuals with OCD have low confidence in their memories. The present study aimed to build upon previous research by measuring memory accuracy and confidence in OCD using ecologically

David F. Tolin; Jonathan S. Abramowitz; Bartholomew D. Brigidi; Nader Amir; Edna B. Foa

2001-01-01

168

Stepped Care for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: A Pilot Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cognitive-behavioral therapy incorporating exposure and ritual prevention (EX/RP) is the first-line psychosocial treatment of choice for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). However, several barriers to care prevent many OCD patients from receiving this treatment. Previous research has indicated that some OCD patients may benefit from less…

Tolin, David F.; Diefenbach, Gretchen J.; Maltby, Nicholas; Hannan, Scott

2005-01-01

169

Phenomenology of Early Childhood Onset Obsessive Compulsive Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the phenomenological features of early childhood onset obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD; defined as\\u000a children meeting DSM-IV criteria for OCD with age of onset <8 years). Fifty-eight children (ages 4–8) were included in the\\u000a sample. OCD and comorbid diagnoses were determined by structured interview, and OCD severity was measured using the Children’s\\u000a Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (CY-BOCS). Mean age

Abbe M. Garcia; Jennifer B. Freeman; Michael B. Himle; Noah C. Berman; Alexandra K. Ogata; Janet Ng; Molly L. Choate-Summers; Henrietta Leonard

2009-01-01

170

Dimensions of Perfectionism in Children and Adolescents with Obsessive-compulsive Disorder  

PubMed Central

Objective To measure the association of perfectionism with obsessive-compulsive and depressive symptoms in children and adolescents with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Method: Sample consisted of 94 youth (44 boys, 49 girls; mean age = 13.2 y, SD = 2.5 y) with a DSM-IV diagnosis of OCD. Perfectionism beliefs were measured with both the Adaptive/Maladaptive Perfectionism Scale (AMPS) and a 14-item version of the Child and Adolescents Perfectionism Scale (CAPS-14). Using a hierarchical linear-regression model, we measured the association of perfectionist beliefs with severity of OCD and depressive symptoms. Results: Both AMPS and CAPS-14 scores were associated with the severity of OCD symptoms in our sample. In addition, CAPS-14 scores were associated with the severity of depressive symptoms, even when OCD symptoms were taken into account. Conclusions: Our findings lend further support to the hypothesis that perfectionism in youth with OCD is associated with variation in the severity of OCD and depressive symptoms. PMID:24872829

Soreni, Noam; Streiner, David; McCabe, Randi; Bullard, Carrie; Swinson, Richard; Greco, Alessia; Pires, Paulo; Szatmari, Peter

2014-01-01

171

Tic or Compulsion? It's Tourettic OCD  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A subgroup of individuals suffering from obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) frequently present to treatment with an atypical yet distinguishable array of symptoms akin to both Tourettes disorder (TD) and OCD. These individuals often receive standard treatments for OCD (or less likely, TD) that fail to address the blended features of their…

Mansueto, Charles; Keuler, David

2005-01-01

172

Cognitive-Behavior Therapy Augmentation of Pharmacotherapy in Pediatric Obsessive Compulsive Disorder: The Pediatric OCD Treatment Study II (POTS II) Randomized, Controlled Trial  

PubMed Central

Context The extant literature on the treatment of pediatric OCD indicates that partial response to serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SRIs) is the norm, and that augmentation with short-term OCD-specific cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) may provide additional benefit. Objective To examine the effects of augmenting SRIs with CBT or a brief form of CBT, instructions in CBT (I-CBT) delivered in the context of medication management (MM). Design A 12-week, 3 (site: Penn, Duke, Brown) × 3 (treatment conditions: MM, MM+I-CBT, & MM+CBT) × 4 (repeated measures: weeks 0, 4, 8, & 12) randomized controlled trial. Setting The outpatient clinics of three academic medical centers between 2004 and 2009. Participants Outpatients (N = 124) between the ages of 7–17 with primary OCD and a Children’s Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (CY-BOCS) score ? 16 despite an adequate SRI trial. Interventions Participants were randomized to receive 12 weeks of: 1) MM (7 sessions), 2) MM+I-CBT (7 sessions) or 3) MM+CBT (7 sessions of MM plus 14 concurrent CBT sessions). Main Outcome Measures Responder status as defined as a post-treatment CY-BOCS reduction of 30% or greater compared to baseline; change in continuous CY-BOCS total score over 12 weeks. Results MM+CBT was superior to MM and to MM+I-CBT on all outcome measures. In the primary ITT analysis, 68.6% in MM+CBT (95% confidence interval [CI], 53.9%–83.3%) were considered responders, which was significantly better than the 34.0% in MM+I-CBT (95% CI, 18.0% to 50.0%), and 30.0% in MM (95% CI, 14.9% to 45.1%). Planned pairwise comparisons show that MM+CBT was superior to both MM and MM+I-CBT (p < 0.01 for both). MM+I-CBT was not statistically significant from MM (p = 0.72). The number needed to treat (NNT) with MM+CBT versus MM to see one additional RESPONSE at Week 12, on average, was estimated as 3; for MM+CBT versus MM+I-CBT the NNT was also estimated as 3 ;for MM+I-CBT versus MM the NNT was estimated as 25. Conclusion Among patients age 7–17 with OCD and partial response to SRI use, the addition of CBT by a psychologist to medication management compared with medication management alone resulted in a significantly greater response rate, whereas, augmentation of medication management with the addition of instructions in CBT by the psychiatrist did not. Dissemination of full CBT augmentation for pediatric OCD partial responders of SRI should be an important public health objective. PMID:21934055

Franklin, Martin E.; Sapyta, Jeffrey; Freeman, Jennifer B.; Khanna, Muniya; Compton, Scott; Almirall, Daniel; Moore, Phoebe; Choate-Summers, Molly; Garcia, Abbe; Edson, Aubrey L.; Foa, Edna B.; March, John S.

2012-01-01

173

Information processing in obsessive—compulsive disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

A modified Stroop task incorporating a semantic manipulation was used to study processing of fear-related information in patients diagnosed with obsessive—compulsive disorder (OCD). Twenty-three OCs with washing rituals (washers), 10 OCs without washing rituals (nonwashers), and 14 normals were administered a modified Stroop task in which they were asked to color-name contamination words, general threat words, neutral words, and nonwords.

Edna B. Foa; Doron Ilai; Paul R. McCarthy; Beth Shoyer; Tamera Murdock

1993-01-01

174

The utilization of nonpatient samples in the study of obsessive compulsive disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) is increasingly studied in nonpatients, primarily through the selection of individuals who score high on a self-report measure of OCD. The usefulness of this methodology for understanding OCD presupposes that some of the individuals in the high-scoring group meet diagnostic criteria for OCD, that the obsessive-compulsive behaviors in the high-scoring individuals are stable across time to

G. Leonard Burns; Gina M. Formea; Susan Keortge; Lee G. Sternberger

1995-01-01

175

Dysregulation of Neurosteroids in Obsessive Compulsive Disorder  

PubMed Central

Alterations in hormone concentrations, including adrenocorticotropin, corticotropin releasing hormone, and cortisol have been reported in patients with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its sulfated metabolite, DHEA-S, have not been assessed in patients with OCD. We report 24-hour serum DHEA, DHEA-S, and cortisol concentrations in a young man with OCD and 15 healthy young men. Circadian patterns of DHEA and cortisol were markedly different in the subject with OCD than in the control subjects. DHEA and DHEA-S concentrations were substantially higher in the OCD subject than in the control subjects. In contrast, cortisol concentrations were similar in the OCD subject and the control subjects. Future clinical studies are needed to evaluate the significance of DHEA and DHEA-S in OCD. PMID:18514738

Bigos, KL; Folan, MM; Jones, MR; Haas, GL; Kroboth, FJ; Kroboth, PD

2009-01-01

176

Cognitive Appraisals in Young People with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: A number of cognitive appraisals have been identified as important in the manifestation of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) in adults. There have, however, been few attempts to explore these cognitive appraisals in clinical groups of young people. Method: This study compared young people aged between 11 and 18 years with OCD (N =…

Libby, Sarah; Reynolds, Shirley; Derisley, Jo; Clark, Sarah

2004-01-01

177

Mapping Structural Brain Alterations in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Recent technical developments have made it feasible to comprehensively assess brain anatomy in psychiatric populations. Objective: To describe the structural brain alterations detected in the magnetic resonance images of a large se- ries of patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) using imaging procedures that allow the evaluation of vol- ume changes throughout the brain. Design: Case-control study. Setting: Referral OCD

Jesus Pujol; Carles Soriano-Mas; Pino Alonso; Narcõ ´ s Cardoner; Jose M. Menchon; Joan Deus; Julio Vallejo

2004-01-01

178

Psychiatric morbidity with focus on obsessive–compulsive disorder in an Israeli cohort of adolescents with mild to moderate mental retardation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study evaluated the prevalence of DSM-IV-TR-defined psychiatric disorders in adolescents with mental retardation, with\\u000a a focus on obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD), for which data at present are sparse. Eighty-seven adolescents with mild to\\u000a moderate mental retardation attending the Israeli special-education system were screened for psychiatric disorders in general\\u000a and obsessive–compulsive symptoms in particular. Sixty-one percent had at least one psychiatric

Doron Gothelf; Olga Goraly; Sari Avni; Mike Stawski; Inbar Hartmann; Lina Basel-Vanagaite; Alan Apter

2008-01-01

179

Factor Analytic Study of the Children's Yale?Brown Obsessive?Compulsive Scale  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the psychometric properties of the Children's Yale?Brown Obsessive?Compulsive Scale (CY?BOCS; Scahill et al., 1997). Participants were 82 children and adolescents diagnosed with obsessive?compulsive disorder (OCD). Confirmatory factor analyses of 2 previously found models (Obsessions and Compulsions; Disturbance and Severity)…

Storch, Eric A.; Murphy, Tanya K.; Geffken, Gary R.; Bagner, Daniel M.; Soto, Ohel; Sajid, Muhammad; Allen, Pam; Killiany, Erin M.; Goodman, Wayne K.

2005-01-01

180

Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD)  

MedlinePLUS

... household items “just so”, or in a symmetric fashion, or to have things perfect. Mental compulsions In ... the situations that create anxiety and provoke compulsive behavior or mental rituals. Through exposure, patients learn to ...

181

Family Factors Predict Treatment Outcome for Pediatric Obsessive Compulsive Disorder  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine family conflict, parental blame, and poor family cohesion as predictors of treatment outcome for youth receiving family-focused cognitive behavioral therapy (FCBT) for obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). Methods We analyzed data from a sample of youth who were randomized to FCBT (n = 49; 59% male; mean age = 12.43 years) as part of a larger randomized clinical trial. Youngsters and their families were assessed by an independent evaluator (IE) pre- and post- FCBT using a standardized battery of measures evaluating family functioning and OCD symptom severity. Family conflict and cohesion were measured via parent self-report on the Family Environment Scale (FES; Moos & Moos, 1994) and parental blame was measured using parent self-report on the Parental Attitudes and Behaviors Scale (PABS; Peris, 2008b). Symptom severity was rated by IE’s using the Children’s Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (CY-BOCS; Scahill et al., 1997). Results Families with lower levels of parental blame and family conflict and higher levels of family cohesion at baseline were more likely to have a child who responded to FCBT treatment even after adjusting for baseline symptom severity compared to families who endorsed higher levels of dysfunction prior to treatment. In analyses using both categorical and continuous outcome measures, higher levels of family dysfunction and difficulty in higher number of domains of family functioning were associated with lower rates of treatment response. In addition, changes in family cohesion predicted response to FCBT controlling for baseline symptom severity. Conclusions Findings speak to the role of the family in treatment for childhood OCD and highlight potential targets for future family interventions. PMID:22309471

Peris, Tara S.; Sugar, Catherine A.; Bergman, R. Lindsey; Chang, Susanna; Langley, Audra; Piacentini, John

2012-01-01

182

Cognitive Bias Modification (CBM) of obsessive compulsive beliefs  

PubMed Central

Background Cognitive bias modification (CBM) protocols have been developed to help establish the causal role of biased cognitive processing in maintaining psychopathology and have demonstrated therapeutic benefits in a range of disorders. The current study evaluated a cognitive bias modification training paradigm designed to target interpretation biases (CBM-I) associated with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). Methods We evaluated the impact of CBM-I on measures of interpretation bias, distress, and on responses to three OC stressor tasks designed to tap the core belief domains of Importance of Thoughts/Control, Perfectionism/Intolerance of Uncertainty, and Contamination/Estimation of Threat in a selected sample of community members reporting obsessive compulsive (OC) symptoms (N = 89). Results Participants randomly assigned to the Positive condition evidenced a change in interpretation bias towards more positive and less negative OC-relevant interpretations following CBM-I compared to participants assigned to the Control condition. Importantly, a positivity bias was not observed for foil scenarios unrelated to the core OC belief domains. Further, participants in the Positive condition reported less distress and urge to neutralize following an OC stressor task designed to tap Importance of Thoughts/Control. No significant difference emerged on the indices of behavioural response to the OC stressor tasks. Severity of OC symptoms did not moderate the effects of positive CBM-I training. Conclusions CBM-I appears effective in selectively targeting OC beliefs. Results need to be replicated in clinical samples in order for potential therapeutic benefit to be demonstrated. PMID:24106918

2013-01-01

183

Pharmacological treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder.  

PubMed

Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) affects up to 2.5% of the population of the course of a lifetime and produces substantial morbidity. Approximately 70% of patients can experience significant symptomatic relief with appropriate pharmacotherapy. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are the mainstay of pharmacological treatment. These drugs are typically used at higher doses and for longer periods than in depression. Proven second-line treatments include the tricyclic clomipramine and the addition of low-dose neuroleptic medications. OCD refractory to available treatments remains a profound clinical challenge. PMID:25150568

Pittenger, Christopher; Bloch, Michael H

2014-09-01

184

[Life-threatening Bleeding in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder].  

PubMed

We report on a case of life-threatening hemorrhoidal bleeding due to obsessive-compulsive disorder. The patient had irrational fears and felt compelled to defecate at least 3 times a day. This required massive abdominal pressing and caused inguinal hernias and prolapsed hemorrhoids. Severe obsessive-compulsive rituals may often result in physical complications. Conversely, obsessive-compulsive disorder should be considered when patients present with uncommon physical complaints, particularly skin symptoms or abnormalities in the context of micturition and defecation. PMID:25259772

Walz, Daniel; Huth, Martin; Voderholzer, Ulrich

2014-09-01

185

Nuclear magnetic resonance study of obsessive-compulsive disorder.  

PubMed

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brains of 32 patients who met the DSM-III criteria for obsessive-compulsive disorder and of 14 normal subjects frequently revealed abnormalities, but none was specific to obsessive-compulsive disorder. Spin-lattice relaxation time (T1) for right frontal white matter was prolonged in the patients compared to the control subjects, and the patients had greater right-minus-left T1 differences for frontal white matter. Right-minus-left T1 differences in the orbital frontal cortex were strongly correlated with symptom severity in the unmedicated patients and in the patients with family histories of obsessive-compulsive disorder. PMID:2750970

Garber, H J; Ananth, J V; Chiu, L C; Griswold, V J; Oldendorf, W H

1989-08-01

186

Impulsive disorders in Japanese adult patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we sought to characterize obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) patients with impulsive features, and to determine whether they constitute a distinct subtype of OCD. Therefore we systematically assessed impulse control disorders and other impulsive conditions categorized as obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorders (OCSDs) in 153 Japanese adult patients with OCD. Forty-five subjects (29%) had concurrent impulsive disorders, and they were differentiated

Hisato Matsunaga; Nobuo Kiriike; Tokuzo Matsui; Kenzo Oya; Dan J. Stein

2005-01-01

187

Dissociation as a Predictor of Cognitive Behavior Therapy Outcome in Patients with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Previous studies have found a strong association between dissociation and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The purpose of the present study was to evaluate whether dissociation is a predictor of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) outcome in patients with OCD. Methods: Fifty-two patients with OCD were assessed using the Dissociative Experience Scale (DES), the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale and the Beck Depression Inventory.

Michael Rufer; Dada Held; Julia Cremer; Susanne Fricke; Steffen Moritz; Helmut Peter; Iver Hand

2006-01-01

188

Phenomenology, psychiatric comorbidity and family history in referred preschool children with obsessive-compulsive disorder  

PubMed Central

Objective The study aimed to investigate phenomenology, psychiatric comorbidity, and family history of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) in a clinical sample of normally developing preschool children with OCD. Method Subjects in this study were recruited from a clinical sample of preschool children (under 72 months of age) who were referred to a university clinic. Subjects with a normal developmental history and significant impairment related to OCD symptoms were included in the study. Children’s Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale was used to assess OCD symptoms. Each subject was assessed for comorbid DSM-IV psychiatric disorders using a semi-structured interview. Parents were evaluated for lifetime history of OCD in individual sessions. Results Fifteen boys and ten girls (age range: 28 to 69 months; 54.12±9.08 months) were included. Mean age of onset of OCD was 35.64±13.42 months. All subjects received at least one comorbid diagnosis. The most frequent comorbid disorders were non-OCD anxiety disorders (n=17; 68.0%), attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) (n=15; 60.0%), oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) (n=12; 48.0%), and tic disorders (n=6; 24.0%). Mean number of comorbid disorders was 3.65 and 2.35 for boys and girls, respectively. At least one parent received lifetime OCD diagnosis in 68 percent of the subjects. Conclusions The results indicated that OCD in referred preschool children is more common in males, highly comorbid with other psychiatric disorders, and associated with high rates of family history of OCD. Given the high rates of comorbidity and family history, OCD should be considered in referred preschool children with disruptive behavior disorders and/or with family history of OCD. PMID:23173690

2012-01-01

189

Personality disorders in obsessive compulsive disorder.  

PubMed

Standardized structured interview personality scales are now available that provide better reliability than clinician interview, but are still imperfect. These scales diagnose DSM III-R personality disorders, which are more illness-oriented than Freudian notions. Use of these scales has found that the majority of patients with OCD have at least one Axis II personality disorder, with most falling in cluster C. Obsessive compulsive personality disorder, as described in DSM-III-R, is, in most samples studied, present in the minority of patients with OCD, and is often less common than other personality disorders such as mixed, dependent, avoidant, and histrionic. The prevalence of this personality disorder as modified in DSM-III-R (making it easier for a patient to qualify for this personality disorder diagnosis) appears to be higher, although still present in a minority of patients with OCD. Obsessive compulsive personality disorder (along with the other cluster B and C personality disorders) has not been reported to have a consistent relation to treatment outcome. There is evidence that in some cases, obsessive compulsive personality disorder may be secondary to OCD. Swedo et al hypothesized that some children may develop compulsive personality traits as an adaptive mechanism to deal with OCD. This hypothesis is in accord with our finding that OCD often predates compulsive personality disorder and that mixed personality disorder may develop over time, possibly secondary to OCD. We found in our sample of 96 adult patients with OCD that the presence of mixed personality disorder was more likely with longer duration of OCD, suggesting that patients who do not have premorbid personality disorders may develop significant personality traits (especially avoidant, compulsive, and dependent), which may be related to behavioral and life-style changes that are secondary to OCD. This hypothesis is strengthened by our finding that patients with one of these personality disorders at baseline tended to no longer meet criteria for them following successful treatment of their OCD. It now appears that schizotypal personality disorder, which is thought to be related genetically to schizophrenia (e.g., in three male identical twin pairs concordant for OCD but discordant for schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder, the nonpsychotic co-twins all had schizotypal personality disorder), is the only consistent personality disorder predictor of poorer outcome in OCD. These traits may help explain other proposed poor predictors of treatment outcome such as overvalued beliefs, poor compliance, and chaotic family situations.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:1461797

Baer, L; Jenike, M A

1992-12-01

190

Personality traits and smoking in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder.  

PubMed

As opposed to other psychiatric populations, subjects with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) smoke less than the general population. The present study aims at further investigating the relationship between smoking in OCD subjects and personality traits. Sixty-four subjects with OCD were interviewed concerning their smoking habits. Personality traits were evaluated using the Karolinska Scales of Personality, and specific obsessive-compulsive personality traits were elicited through self-report questionnaires. Non-smokers were more easily fatigued, more inclined to worry, more remorseful, less self-confident, less impulsive and became uneasy more frequently when urged to speed up, than smokers with OCD. Additionally, non-smokers fulfilled significantly more obsessive-compulsive personality disorder criteria as compared to the smokers (P < 0.001). We propose a clinical subtype of OCD related to non-smoking, psychasthenia, anxiety, and pronounced obsessive-compulsive personality disorder traits. PMID:11112931

Bejerot, S; von Knorring, L; Ekselius, L

2000-11-01

191

Treatment of Sexual-Orientation Obsessions in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Using Exposure and Ritual Prevention  

PubMed Central

Presented is a case report of exposure and ritual prevention (EX/RP) therapy administered to a 51-year-old, White, heterosexual male with sexual-orientation obsessions in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The patient had been previously treated with pharmacotherapy, resulting in inadequate symptom reduction and unwanted side effects. OCD symptoms included anxiety about the possibility of becoming gay, mental reassurance, and avoidance of other men, which resulted in depressive symptoms and marital distress. The patient received 17 EX/RP sessions, administered twice per week. The effect of treatment was evaluated using standardized rating instruments and self-monitoring by the patient. OCD symptoms on the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (YBOCS) fell from 24 at intake to 3 at posttreatment and to 4 at a 6-week follow-up, indicating minimal symptoms. Improvement also occurred in mood, quality of life, and social adjustment. Issues concerning the assessment and treatment of homosexuality-themed obsessions in OCD are highlighted and discussed. PMID:22162667

Williams, Monnica T.; Crozier, Marjorie; Powers, Mark

2011-01-01

192

Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale and US National Institute of Mental Health Global Obsessive Compulsive Scale in Turkish: reliability and validity.  

PubMed

Fifteen patients with DSM-III-R diagnosis of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) were rated according to the Turkish version of the Yale Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS) and the US National Institute of Mental Health Global Obsessive Compulsive Scale (NIMH-GOCS) by 7 raters independently from audiotaped interviews. Patients also completed the Maudsley Obsessive Compulsive Inventory (MOCI). Interrater reliability of Y-BOCS and NIMH-GOCS were very good as well as correlations between these two scales. The correlations of MOCI with Y-BOCS and NIMH-GOCS were not significant. We found Y-BOCS and NIMH-GOCS to be reliable and valid instruments in assessing the severity of OCD. These findings suggest that MOCI may not be a suitable instrument for assessing the severity of OCD. PMID:7676839

Tek, C; Ulu?, B; Rezaki, B G; Tanriverdi, N; Mercan, S; Demir, B; Vargel, S

1995-06-01

193

New onset obsessive-compulsive symptoms in children and adolescents with severe traumatic brain injury.  

PubMed

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) constitutes a major source of psychiatric morbidity and disability. This study examines new onset of obsessions and compulsions (OCS) within 1 year of severe pediatric TBI. Eighty children and adolescents ages 6-18 years with severe TBI were interviewed by a child psychiatrist using the Diagnostic Interview for Children and Adolescents-Revised to diagnose OCS and comorbidities. A brain magnetic resonance imaging used a 1.5 T scanner 3 months after injury with a T1-weighted spoiled gradient-recalled-echo sequence to provide high spatial resolution and T1- and T2(*)-contrast sensitivity. Race, sex, socioeconomic status, psychosocial adversity, and injury severity were used to predict new onset OCS. Psychiatric comorbidities and brain lesion volumes in orbitofrontal, mesial prefrontal, temporal lobe, basal ganglia, and thalamus were examined in relation to new onset OCS. Twenty-one children (21/72, 29.2%) had OCS after TBI. Most common were worries about disease, cleanliness, and inappropriate actions as well as excessive cleaning, doing things a certain way and ordering. Anxiety disorders, mania, dysthymia, depressive symptoms, and posttraumatic stress disorder were significantly associated with new onset OCS. Injury severity was not associated with new onset OCS. Greater psychosocial adversity (P=0.009), and being female (P=0.005) were associated with OCS while mesial prefrontal and temporal lobe lesions were associated with new onset obsessions (P<0.05). OCS are common after severe pediatric TBI and are associated with greater comorbidities. New onset obsessions are associated with female sex, psychosocial adversity, and mesial prefrontal and temporal lesions. PMID:17957806

Grados, Marco A; Vasa, Roma A; Riddle, Mark A; Slomine, Beth S; Salorio, Cynthia; Christensen, James; Gerring, Joan

2008-01-01

194

Correlates of comorbid anxiety and externalizing disorders in childhood obsessive compulsive disorder  

PubMed Central

The present study examines the influence of diagnostic comorbidity on the demographic, psychiatric, and functional status of youth with a primary diagnosis of obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). Two hundred and fifteen children (ages 5–17) referred to a university-based OCD specialty clinic were compared based on DSM-IV diagnostic profile: OCD without comorbid anxiety or externalizing disorder, OCD plus anxiety disorder, and OCD plus externalizing disorder. No age or gender differences were found across groups. Higher OCD severity was found for the OCD + ANX group, while the OCD + EXT group reported greater functional impairment than the other two groups. Lower family cohesion was reported by the OCD + EXT group compared to the OCD group and the OCD + ANX group reported higher family conflict compared to the OCD + EXT group. The OCD + ANX group had significantly lower rates of tic disorders while rates of depressive disorders did not differ among the three groups. The presence of comorbid anxiety and externalizing psychopathology are associated with greater symptom severity and functional and family impairment and underscores the importance of a better understanding of the relationship of OCD characteristics and associated disorders. Results and clinical implications are further discussed. PMID:20349255

Lewin, Adam B.; Bergman, R. Lindsey; Lee, Joyce C.; Piacentini, John

2010-01-01

195

Cognitive Frontal Lobe Dysfunction in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: There is evidence that dysfunction within associative frontostriatal circuits represents a feature of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Previous neuropsychologic studies have yielded diverging results, which may in part be explained by differences in the selection of subjects and methods. The present study focused on the question of cognitive frontal lobe performance in OCD.Methods: Twenty-nine unmedicated OCD patients were compared to

Klaus Schmidtke; Alexander Schorb; Gabriele Winkelmann; Fritz Hohagen

1998-01-01

196

Goal-directed learning and obsessive-compulsive disorder  

PubMed Central

Obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) has become a paradigmatic case of goal-directed dysfunction in psychiatry. In this article, we review the neurobiological evidence, historical and recent, that originally led to this supposition and continues to support a habit hypothesis of OCD. We will then discuss a number of recent studies that have directly tested this hypothesis, using behavioural experiments in patient populations. Based on this research evidence, which suggests that rather than goal-directed avoidance behaviours, compulsions in OCD may derive from manifestations of excessive habit formation, we present the details of a novel account of the functional relationship between these habits and the full symptom profile of the disorder. Borrowing from a cognitive dissonance framework, we propose that the irrational threat beliefs (obsessions) characteristic of OCD may be a consequence, rather than an instigator, of compulsive behaviour in these patients. This lays the foundation for a potential shift in both clinical and neuropsychological conceptualization of OCD and related disorders. This model may also prove relevant to other putative disorders of compulsivity, such as substance dependence, where the experience of ‘wanting’ drugs may be better understood as post hoc rationalizations of otherwise goal-insensitive, stimulus-driven behaviour. PMID:25267818

Gillan, Claire M.; Robbins, Trevor W.

2014-01-01

197

Goal-directed learning and obsessive-compulsive disorder.  

PubMed

Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has become a paradigmatic case of goal-directed dysfunction in psychiatry. In this article, we review the neurobiological evidence, historical and recent, that originally led to this supposition and continues to support a habit hypothesis of OCD. We will then discuss a number of recent studies that have directly tested this hypothesis, using behavioural experiments in patient populations. Based on this research evidence, which suggests that rather than goal-directed avoidance behaviours, compulsions in OCD may derive from manifestations of excessive habit formation, we present the details of a novel account of the functional relationship between these habits and the full symptom profile of the disorder. Borrowing from a cognitive dissonance framework, we propose that the irrational threat beliefs (obsessions) characteristic of OCD may be a consequence, rather than an instigator, of compulsive behaviour in these patients. This lays the foundation for a potential shift in both clinical and neuropsychological conceptualization of OCD and related disorders. This model may also prove relevant to other putative disorders of compulsivity, such as substance dependence, where the experience of 'wanting' drugs may be better understood as post hoc rationalizations of otherwise goal-insensitive, stimulus-driven behaviour. PMID:25267818

Gillan, Claire M; Robbins, Trevor W

2014-11-01

198

Cognitive-Behavioral Family Treatment of Childhood Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: A Controlled Trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveTo evaluate the relative efficacy of (1) individual cognitive-behavioral family-based therapy (CBFT); (2) group CBFT; and (3) a waitlist control group in the treatment of childhood obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD).

Paula Barrett; Lara Healy-Farrell; John S. March

2004-01-01

199

Fluvoxamine for Children and Adolescents With Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: A Randomized, Controlled, Multicenter Trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveTo determine the safety and efficacy of fluvoxamine for the treatment of children and adolescents with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) with a double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter study.

MARK A. RIDDLE; ELIZABETH A. REEVE; JOSE A. YARYURA-TOBIAS; HWA MING YANG; JAMES L. CLAGHORN; GARY GAFFNEY; JOHN H. GREIST; DONNA HOLLAND; BRIAN J. MCCONVILLE; TERESA PIGOTT; JOHN T. WALKUP

2001-01-01

200

Thought-action fusion in obsessive compulsive disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent psychometric results suggested that the phenomenon of thought-action fusion (TAF) is implicated in obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). The construct of TAF has two components: (a) the belief that thinking about an unacceptable or disturbing event makes it more likely to happen and (b) the belief that having an unacceptable thought is the moral equivalent of carrying out the unacceptable

Roz Shafran; Dana S. Thordarson; S. Rachman

1996-01-01

201

Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder in School-Age Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is an anxiety disorder characterized by disturbing thoughts, impulses, or images (obsessions); repetitive or ritualistic behaviors (compulsions); or the presence of both. Although some may believe this disorder is isolated to the adult population, it affects anywhere from 1% to 4% of children in the United…

Helbing, Mary-Lee C.; Ficca, Michelle

2009-01-01

202

Social and Communication Difficulties and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The relationship between pervasive developmental disorder (PDD) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has not been extensively studied despite having some phenomenological features in common. Abnormal social and communication behaviors (pragmatic behaviors) are key components of PDD and are also part of the broader autism phenotype (BAP). In this study we sought to establish if there is any association between the

Bernadette Cullen; Jack Samuels; Marco Grados; Rebecca Landa; O. Joseph Bienvenu; Kung-Yee Liang; Mark Riddle; Rudolf Hoehn-Saric; Gerald Nestadt

2008-01-01

203

Effect of Prefrontal Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: A Preliminary Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Prefrontal mechanisms are implicated in obsessive-compulsive disorder. The authors investigated whether prefrontal repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation influenced obsessive-compulsive disorder symptoms. Method: Twelve patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder were given repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (80% motor threshold, 20 Hz\\/2 seconds per minute for 20 minutes) to a right lateral prefrontal, a left lateral prefrontal, and a midoccipital (control) site on separate

Benjamin D. Greenberg; Mark S. George; Juliet D. Martin; Jonathan Benjamin; Thomas E. Schlaepfer; Margaret Altemus; Eric M. Wassermann; Robert M. Post; Dennis L. Murphy

1997-01-01

204

The relationship of obsessive–compulsive disorder to possible spectrum disorders: results from a family study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The familial relationship between obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) and “obsessive–compulsive spectrum” disorders is unclear. This study investigates the relationship of OCD to somatoform disorders (body dysmorphic disorder [BDD] and hypochondriasis), eating disorders (e.g., anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa), pathologic “grooming” conditions (e.g., nail biting, skin picking, trichotillomania), and other impulse control disorders (e.g., kleptomania, pathologic gambling, pyromania) using blinded family

O. Joseph Bienvenu; Jack F Samuels; Mark A Riddle; Rudolf Hoehn-Saric; Kung-Yee Liang; Bernadette A. M Cullen; Marco A Grados; Gerald Nestadt

2000-01-01

205

Patient-reported outcomes in obsessive-compulsive disorder  

PubMed Central

The purpose of the article was to provide an overview of patient-reported outcomes (PROs) and related measures that have been examined in the context of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The current review focused on patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) that evaluated three broad outcome domains: functioning, health-related quality of life (HRQoL), and OCD-related symptoms. The present review ultimately included a total of 155 unique articles and 22 PROMs. An examination of the PROs revealed that OCD patients tend to suffer from significant functional disability, and report lower HRQoL than controls. OCD patients report greater symptom severity than patients with other mental disorders and evidence indicates that PROMs are sensitive to change and may be even better than clinician-rated measures at predicting treatment outcomes. Nonetheless, it should be noted that the measures reviewed lacked patient input in their development. Future research on PROMs must involve patient perspectives and include rigorous psychometric evaluation of these measures. PMID:25152661

Subramaniam, Mythily; Soh, Pauline; Ong, Clarissa; Esmond Seow, Lee Seng; Picco, Louisa; Vaingankar, Janhavi Ajit; Chong, Siow Ann

2014-01-01

206

A Preliminary Study on the Effects of Attachment-based Intervention on Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder  

PubMed Central

Background: Research on attachment has shed new light on understanding one of the underlying mechanisms of psychopathology in children. The aim of this study was to investigate the therapeutic efficacy of attachment-based intervention in a pediatric sample with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Methods: Twelve participants, 10-12 years of age, were treated across an eight-week period. They had not been treated with either pharmacotherapy or psychotherapy previously and remained medication-free during the attachment-based therapy. This study comprised two groups of children: The experimental group, who received attachment-based intervention, and the control group, who did not receive treatment. All participants were assessed in terms of severity of OCD symptoms by administrating the Children's Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale before and after the experimental group had received the therapeutic sessions. The children were assessed again one month later. The level of children's depression, and attachment insecurity, as well as their mothers’ depression, OCD symptoms, and attachment insecurity, were statistically controlled in this study. Results: Multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) indicated that the OCD symptoms in children decreased significantly over the course of the therapy, and this gain was maintained at follow-up. The results of this study demonstrated that the attachment-based intervention was efficacious in alleviating the OCD symptoms. Conclusion: It is suggested that parental instruction in attachment-based relationships may help prevent young children from developing OCD symptoms in middle-childhood and adulthood. PMID:23413047

Rezvan, Shiva; Bahrami, Fatemeh; Abedi, Mohamadreza; Macleod, Colin; Doost, Hamid Taher Neshat; Ghasemi, Vahid

2013-01-01

207

Early Childhood OCD: Preliminary Findings from a Family-Based Cognitive-Behavioral Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study was conducted to compare the relative usefulness of family-based cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) against family-based relaxation treatment for children with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Results showed that children with early childhood-onset OCD benefited from the CBT program as it effectively decreased OCD symptoms and helped…

Freeman, Jennifer B.; Garcia, Abbe M.; Coyne, Lisa; Ale, Chelsea; Prezeworski, Amy; Himle, Michael; Compton, Scott; Leonard, Henrietta L.

2008-01-01

208

Rituals, Stereotypies, and Obsessive-Compulsive Behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Rituals, stereotypies, and obsessive-compulsive behavior are all terms used to describe one of the core symptoms of autistic\\u000a disorder and autism spectrum disorders (ASDs; Militerni, Bravaccio, Falco, Fico, & Palermo, 2002). Their inclusion in the\\u000a symptomatology related to ASDs can be traced back to Kanner’s (1943) description of the disorder, which included various forms\\u000a of repetition such as rituals, motor

Joel E. Ringdahl

209

Visuospatial Abilities, Memory, and Executive Functioning in Trichotillomania and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Few studies have compared neuropsychological functioning in trichotillomania (TTM) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). In OCD, most studies suggest abnormal visuospatial abilities, memory, and executive functioning. We compared 23 TTM, 21 OCD and 26 healthy control individuals on neuropsychological tasks assessing these abilities. Neither the TTM nor the OCD groups suffered from generalized neuropsychological deficits compared to the healthy control group.

Antje Bohne; Cary R. Savage; Thilo Deckersbach; Nancy J. Keuthen; Michael A. Jenike; Brunna Tuschen-Caffier; Sabine Wilhelm

2005-01-01

210

Insight in pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder: Associations with clinical presentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Insight has emerged as a significant treatment outcome predictor in adult obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), with some suggesting that OCD with poor insight represents a distinct clinical subtype. Despite its clinical relevance, limited data exist on insight in pediatric OCD patients. The present study investigated the relation between poor insight and clinical characteristics among children and adolescents with OCD (N=78, ages

Vanessa A. Milsom; Lisa J. Merlo; Michael Larson; Gary R. Geffken; Marni L. Jacob; Tanya K. Murphy; Wayne K. Goodman

2008-01-01

211

Different patterns of local field potentials from limbic DBS targets in patients with major depressive and obsessive compulsive disorder.  

PubMed

The role of distinct limbic areas in emotion regulation has been largely inferred from neuroimaging studies. Recently, the opportunity for intracranial recordings from limbic areas has arisen in patients undergoing deep brain stimulation (DBS) for neuropsychiatric disorders including major depressive disorder (MDD) and obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). Here we test the hypothesis that distinct temporal patterns of local field potential (LFP) activity in the human limbic system reflect disease state and symptom severity in MDD and OCD patients. To this end, we recorded LFPs via implanted DBS electrodes from the bed nucleus of stria terminalis (BNST area) in 12 patients (5 OCD, 7 MDD) and from the subgenual cingulate cortex in 7 MDD patients (CG25 area). We found a distinct pattern of oscillatory activity with significantly higher ?-power in MDD compared with OCD in the BNST area (broad ?-band 8-14?Hz; P<0.01) and a similar level of ?-activity in the CG25 area as in the BNST area in MDD patients. The mean ?-power correlated with severity of depressive symptoms as assessed by the Beck depression inventory in MDD (n=14, r=0.55, P=0.042) but not with severity of obsessive compulsive symptoms in OCD. Here we show larger ?-band activity in MDD patients compared with OCD recorded from intracranial DBS targets. Our results suggest that ?-activity in the limbic system may be a signature of symptom severity in MDD and may serve as a potential state biomarker for closed loop DBS in MDD. PMID:24514569

Neumann, W-J; Huebl, J; Brücke, C; Gabriëls, L; Bajbouj, M; Merkl, A; Schneider, G-H; Nuttin, B; Brown, P; Kühn, A A

2014-11-01

212

Traumatic Events and Obsessive Compulsive Disorder in Children and Adolescents: Is There a Link?  

PubMed Central

Background The extant literature supports an association between psychological trauma and development of OCD in adults, and this link is a plausible mediator for environment gene interactions leading to phenotypic expression of OCD. Objective To explore the relationship between OCD and traumatic life events in children and adolescents. Methods We examined the prevalence of traumatic life events and PTSD in a large sample of systematically assessed children with OCD. OCD symptoms and severity were assessed using the Children’s Yale Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (CY-BOCS) in those with and without concurrent PTSD. Results Rate of PTSD and trauma exposure was higher in children with OCD than in a comparable control group of non-OCD youth matched for age, gender and SES. Children with concurrent PTSD had more intrusive fears and distress and less control over their rituals than children with OCD but without PTSD. Total CY-BOCS scores were higher in those with concurrent PTSD. Specific type of OCD symptoms was not altered by a PTSD diagnosis. Conclusions A history of psychologically traumatic events may be over-represented in children with OCD. Given the need to search for non-genetic factors that may lead to onset of OCD, better and more systematic methods to obtain and quantify psychologically traumatic life events are needed in clinical populations. PMID:21295942

Lafleur, Daniel L.; Petty, Carter; Mancuso, Elizabeth; McCarthy, Katherine; Biederman, Joseph; Faro, Alyssa; Levy, Hannah C.; Geller, Daniel A.

2011-01-01

213

Neuroimaging studies in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder in China  

PubMed Central

Summary Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a common mental disorder of uncertain etiology. Neuroimaging studies of patients with OCD in China started to appear in the late 1990s, identifying structural abnormalities in the gray matter and white matter of the prefrontal lobe, the corpus striatum, and the thalamus. Studies using positron emission tomography (PET), functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) have found increased metabolism and activation in these brain regions that are correlated with the duration, severity and cognitive symptoms of OCD. After surgery for OCD the activation in these target areas decreases. These results in China are similar to those presented in previous neuroimaging studies, including several meta-analyses from other countries. PMID:24991139

Fan, Qing; Xiao, Zeping

2013-01-01

214

Temper outbursts in paediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder and their association with depressed mood and treatment outcome  

PubMed Central

Background Temper outbursts in youth with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) are a common source of concern, but remain poorly understood. This study examined a set of hypotheses related to: (a) the prevalence of temper outbursts in paediatric OCD, (b) the associations of temper outbursts with OCD severity and depressive symptoms; and (c) the influence of temper outbursts on treatment response. Methods The prevalence of temper outbursts was estimated in a specialist OCD clinical sample (n = 387) using parent- and child-report. This was replicated in a community sample (n = 18,415). Associations of temper outbursts with obsessive-compulsive symptoms and with depressed mood were examined using logistic regression models. The influence of temper outbursts on treatment response was examined in a subsample of 109 patients treated with cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) with or without medication. Results Over a third of young people with OCD displayed temper outbursts, and rates were similar across the clinical and community samples. Temper outbursts were two to three times more common in youth with OCD than in healthy controls. However, OCD symptom severity was not a strong predictor of child- or parent-reported temper outbursts. Instead, both child- and parent- reported temper outbursts were significantly associated to depressive symptoms. CBT strongly reduced OCD and depressive symptoms, as well as the severity of temper outbursts. There was no significant difference in post-treatment OCD or depression scores between those with temper outbursts compared to those without. Conclusions Temper outbursts are common in youth with OCD and are particularly related to depressed mood. They improve with CBT for OCD and do not seem to impede OCD treatment response. PMID:22957831

Krebs, Georgina; Bolhuis, Koen; Heyman, Isobel; Mataix-Cols, David; Turner, Cynthia; Stringaris, Argyris

2014-01-01

215

Precocious ego development and obsessive compulsive neurosis.  

PubMed

Precocious ego development is frequently mentioned in psychoanalytic theory as an important determinant of obsessive-compulsive neurosis. Writers such as Anna Freud suggest that an imbalance in the development of ego over drive may lead to obsessional neurosis. However, further examination of the psychoanalytic literature reveals that the nature of this supposed link is not clear. Explanations couched in economic language or in terms of an early hypersensitivity to stimulation are open to theoretical criticism or are unsatisfying. The author suggests that we focus on the effect of precocious ego development on developing object relations. It is suggested that precocity may lead to early disappointment in parental objects. The inter-relationships of disappointment with early identifications, premature sense of autonomy and anal problems are discussed. A case of an obsessive-compulsive adolescent girl is presented to illustrate the role of precocious ego development and superior intelligence in the formation of the symptoms. PMID:3372264

Kulish, N

1988-04-01

216

Implicit awareness of ambiguity: a role in the development of obsessive-compulsive disorder.  

PubMed

The cognitive-behavioral model of obsessive-compulsive disorder proposes that obsessional symptoms are the consequence of the manner in which intrusive cognitions are interpreted [e.g., Salkovskis, P. M. (1998). Cognitive-behavioral approach to understanding obsessional thinking. British Journal of Psychiatry, 173(35S), 53-63]. The present study suggests that this may be attributable to maladaptive implicit cognitive processing, a deficit that results in the explicit awareness of ambiguity in idiographic obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) stimuli. The present study examines decision-making responses of low and high OCD scorers in a non-clinical undergraduate sample. Via a computer console, participants were shown sentence statements for three levels of ambiguity. They were then presented with a propositional statement for which they had to indicate agreement or disagreement for sentences of varying ambiguity. After this, the participants indicated whether they were completely confident or unconfident as regards their previous agree-disagree decisions. Results indicate that the high compared to the low OCD scoring group had less agreement and subsequent less confidence in decisions made for sentences of varying ambiguity. Response latencies partially fitted the predicted hypotheses. Consequently, an addition to Salkovskis, Forester, and Richards' [1998. Cognitive-behavioral approach to understanding obsessional thinking. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 173(35S), 53-63] model of OCD is suggested: namely that an implicit ambiguity deficit mediates the likelihood of normally occurring intrusions developing into abnormal obsessions. Methodological limitations and future research are considered. PMID:18457814

Harkin, Benjamin L; Mayes, Gillian M

2008-07-01

217

Obsessive compulsive disorder in dental setting.  

PubMed

Globally, 20% of children and adolescents suffer from a disabling psychologic illness. Among these, Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) is listed by the World Health Organization (WHO) as one of the 10 most disabling conditions, with prevalence rates of OCD in children ranging between 1 to 3%. Pediatric dentists are in a unique position to diagnose psychological problems in children and adolescents due to their ongoing relationship with children and their parents that starts at a very early age. Timely diagnosis of psychological illness can result in early intervention as well as better patient management for the dentist too. The purpose of this case report is to highlight a case of OCD in an adolescent girl diagnosed in a dental setting. PMID:25231042

Chandna, Preetika; Srivastava, Nikhil; Adlakha, Vivek Kumar

2014-01-01

218

Dopaminergic activity in Tourette syndrome and obsessive-compulsive disorder.  

PubMed

Tourette syndrome (TS) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) both are neuropsychiatric disorders associated with abnormalities in dopamine neurotransmission. Aims of this study were to quantify striatal D2/3 receptor availability in TS and OCD, and to examine dopamine release and symptom severity changes in both disorders following amphetamine challenge. Changes in [(11)C]raclopride binding potential (BP(ND)) were assessed using positron emission tomography before and after administration of d-amphetamine (0.3 mg kg(-1)) in 12 TS patients without comorbid OCD, 12 OCD patients without comorbid tics, and 12 healthy controls. Main outcome measures were baseline striatal D2/3 receptor BP(ND) and change in BP(ND) following amphetamine as a measure of dopamine release. Voxel-based analysis revealed significantly decreased baseline [(11)C]raclopride BP(ND) in bilateral putamen of both patient groups vs. healthy controls, differences being more pronounced in the TS than in the OCD group. Changes in BP(ND) following amphetamine were not significantly different between groups. Following amphetamine administration, tic severity increased in the TS group, which correlated with BP(ND) changes in right ventral striatum. Symptom severity in the OCD group did not change significantly following amphetamine challenge and was not associated with changes in BP(ND). This study provides evidence for decreased striatal D2/3 receptor availability in TS and OCD, presumably reflecting higher endogenous dopamine levels in both disorders. In addition, it provides the first direct evidence that ventral striatal dopamine release is related to the pathophysiology of tics. PMID:23876376

Denys, Damiaan; de Vries, Froukje; Cath, Danielle; Figee, Martijn; Vulink, Nienke; Veltman, Dick J; van der Doef, Thalia F; Boellaard, Ronald; Westenberg, Herman; van Balkom, Anton; Lammertsma, Adriaan A; van Berckel, Bart N M

2013-11-01

219

Strategies of thought control in obsessive-compulsive disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intrusive anxiety-provoking thoughts are a core feature of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Recent research suggests that individuals use five different techniques of thought control including: distraction, punishment, re-appraisal, social control, and worry. The purpose of the present study was to examine the strategies of thought control used by OCD patients compared to those used by non-anxious controls. In addition, the relationship

Nader Amir; Laurie Cashman; Edna B. Foa

1997-01-01

220

Children with obsessive-compulsive disorder: are they just "little adults"?  

PubMed Central

Childhood-onset obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) affects 1%–2% of children and adolescents. It is characterized by recurrent obsessions and compulsions that create distress and interfere with daily life. The symptoms reported by children are similar to those seen among individuals who develop OCD in adulthood, and the two groups of patients are treated with similar symptom-relieving behavior therapies and medications. However, there are differences in sex ratios, patterns of comorbidity, and the results of neuroimaging studies that might be important. Here we review the diagnosis and treatment of childhood-onset OCD in light of pediatric and adult studies. We also discuss current knowledge of the pathophysiology of the disorder. Despite advances in this area, further research is needed to understand better the etiopathogenesis of the disorder and to develop new, more effective therapeutic options. PMID:19339765

Kalra, Simran K.; Swedo, Susan E.

2009-01-01

221

Differentiating among singular and comorbid obsessive-compulsive disorder and social phobia symptomology.  

PubMed

Social phobia is a frequent co-occurring diagnosis with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD); however, co-occurring OCD in those with social phobia is less common. Genetic, environmental, and cognitive traits are common risk factors for anxiety disorders broadly. It is plausible that shared variables related to OCD and/or social phobia could provide insight into the co-occurrence of these two disorders. The current study explored differences in fear of negative evaluation (FNE) and perfectionism among four groups: those with (1) elevated social phobia symptoms, (2) elevated OCD symptoms, (3) elevated symptoms of OCD and social phobia, and those who were (4) asymptomatic as a control group. A non-clinical sample of 196 participants completed several online questionnaires about social phobia and OCD symptomology. Results identified three cognitive variables (i.e., FNE, total perfectionism, and concern over mistakes) as differential variables in comorbid symptom presentation of OCD and social phobia. A fourth variable (i.e., doubts about actions) was identified as a potential dual risk factor, and four subsequent variables (i.e., parental criticism, personal standards, parental expectations, and organization) were not implicated in differential symptom presentation. Given the different rates of OCD and social phobia co-occurrence, identification of differentiating variables could aid in better understanding of potential risk factors, which may enhance preventative and therapeutic techniques. Study implications, limitations, and future recommendations are discussed. PMID:24365129

Rudy, Brittany M; May, Anna C; Whiting, Sara E; Davis, Thompson E; Jenkins, Whitney S; Reuther, Erin T

2014-01-01

222

Obsessive-compulsive disorder: an integrative genetic and neurobiological perspective.  

PubMed

Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is characterized by repetitive thoughts and behaviours that are experienced as unwanted. Family and twin studies have demonstrated that OCD is a multifactorial familial condition that involves both polygenic and environmental risk factors. Neuroimaging studies have implicated the cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical circuit in the pathophysiology of the disorder, which is supported by the observation of specific neuropsychological impairments in patients with OCD, mainly in executive functions. Genetic studies indicate that genes affecting the serotonergic, dopaminergic and glutamatergic systems, and the interaction between them, play a crucial part in the functioning of this circuit. Environmental factors such as adverse perinatal events, psychological trauma and neurological trauma may modify the expression of risk genes and, hence, trigger the manifestation of obsessive-compulsive behaviours. PMID:24840803

Pauls, David L; Abramovitch, Amitai; Rauch, Scott L; Geller, Daniel A

2014-06-01

223

Behavior Therapy and Tricyclic Medication in the Treatment of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: A Quantitative Review.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Used a meta-analysis to integrate the research literature on the treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder. Antidepressants, such as clomipramine, and behavior therapy have produced appreciable changes in obsessive-compulsive and depressive symptoms. The effects of tricyclic medication and exposure therapies have not differed significantly, but…

Christensen, Helen; And Others

1987-01-01

224

Neural response in obsessive-compulsive washers depends on individual fit of triggers  

PubMed Central

Background: Patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) have highly idiosyncratic triggers. To fully understand which role this idiosyncrasy plays in the neurobiological mechanisms behind OCD, it is necessary to elucidate the impact of individualization regarding the applied investigation methods. This functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study explores the neural correlates of contamination/washing-related OCD with a highly individualized symptom provocation paradigm. Additionally, it is the first study to directly compare individualized and standardized symptom provocation. Methods: Nineteen patients with washing compulsions created individual OCD hierarchies, which later served as instructions to photograph their own individualized stimulus sets. The patients and 19 case-by-case matched healthy controls participated in a symptom provocation fMRI experiment with individualized and standardized stimulus sets created for each patient. Results: OCD patients compared to healthy controls displayed stronger activation in the basal ganglia (nucleus accumbens, nucleus caudatus, pallidum) for individualized symptom provocation. Using standardized symptom provocation, this group comparison led to stronger activation in the nucleus caudatus. The direct comparison of between-group effects for both symptom provocation approaches revealed stronger activation of the orbitofronto-striatal network for individualized symptom provocation. Conclusions: The present study provides insight into the differential impact of individualized and standardized symptom provocation on the orbitofronto-striatal network of OCD washers. Behavioral and neural responses imply a higher symptom-specificity of individualized symptom provocation. PMID:23630478

Baioui, Ali; Pilgramm, Juliane; Merz, Christian J.; Walter, Bertram; Vaitl, Dieter; Stark, Rudolf

2013-01-01

225

Hemispheric functional imbalance in a sub-clinical obsessive-compulsive sample assessed by the Continuous Performance Test, Identical Pairs version  

Microsoft Academic Search

Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) sufferers have long been observed to give excessive consideration to normally ignored exogenous and endogenous stimuli. This over-focused attention concerning their symptoms has led researchers to experimentally investigate the attentional mechanisms involved in this disorder and its psychobiological basis. Previous psychometric and neuropsychological research has demonstrated the validity of the sub-clinical analogue in the study of the

David Mataix-Cols; Carme Junqué; Julio Vallejo; Miquel Sànchez-Turet; Katia Verger; Maite Barrios

1997-01-01

226

Platelet serotonin-2 receptors in obsessive-compulsive disorder.  

PubMed

To examine the role of serotonin-2 (5-HT2) receptors in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), we studied 5-HT2 receptors in platelets obtained from patients with OCD (n = 20) during a drug free baseline period, as well as in normal control subjects (n = 25). The maximum number of binding sites (Bmax) and the apparent dissociation constant (Kd) of 5-HT2 receptors were determined by receptor binding techniques using 125I-lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) as radioligand. We observed that the mean Bmax of 125I-LSD binding in platelets of patients with OCD was not significantly different when compared with normal control subjects. There was also no significant difference in Kd values between patients with OCD and normal control subjects. To examine whether the baseline 5-HT2 receptors are related to the severity of illness, we determined the relationships of the baseline Bmax and Kd with baseline scores of the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS), the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS), and the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) Obsessive-Compulsive scale (GOCS). We found no significant correlation between baseline Bmax and Kd with the baseline HDRS, Y-BOCS, or NIMH-GOCS scores. Our results do not indicate abnormal 5-HT2 receptors in platelets of patients with OCD. PMID:8471695

Pandey, S C; Kim, S W; Davis, J M; Pandey, G N

1993-03-01

227

Evidence-Based Psychosocial Treatments for Child and Adolescent Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Child and adolescent obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a chronic and debilitating condition associated with a wide range of impairments. This article briefly discusses the phenomenology of OCD, the theory underlying current treatment approaches, and the extant psychosocial treatment literature for child and adolescent OCD relative to the…

Barrett, Paula M.; Farrell, Lara; Pina, Armando A.; Peris, Tara S.; Piacentini, John

2008-01-01

228

Evidence-Based Psychosocial Treatments for Child and Adolescent Obsessive–Compulsive Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Child and adolescent obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) is a chronic and debilitating condition associated with a wide range of impairments. This article briefly discusses the phenomenology of OCD, the theory underlying current treatment approaches, and the extant psychosocial treatment literature for child and adolescent OCD relative to the criteria for classification as an evidence-based intervention. Studies were evaluated for methodological rigor

Paula M. Barrett; Lara Farrell; Armando A. Pina; Tara S. Peris; John Piacentini

2008-01-01

229

Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder  

MedlinePLUS

... has OCD and not even realize it. What's Life Like for Someone With OCD? Living with OCD can be very hard. Compulsions often take up lots of time and energy, making it hard to finish homework, do chores, or have any fun. Some kids even find it difficult to go ...

230

[Bipolar obsessive-compulsive disorder: confirmation of results of the "ABC-OCD" survey in 2 populations of patient members versus non-members of an association].  

PubMed

Clinical data are largely focused on depressive comorbidity in OCD. However in practice, treating resistant or severe OCD sufferers revealed many cases who seem to have an authentic OCD with a hidden comorbid bipolar disorder. Most reports had evaluated the OCD comorbidity in unipolar and bipolar mood disorders (Kruger et al., 1995; Chen et Dilsaver, 1995). The only investigation in clinical population focused on the reverse issue was conducted in Pisa. Perugi et al. (1997) have showed in a consecutive series of 315 OCD outpatients, that 15.7% presented a bipolar comorbidity, mostly with BP-II disorder. Further analyses suggested that when comorbidity occurs with bipolar and unipolar depression, it has a differential impact on the clinical picture and course of OCD. The rate of bipolar comorbidity in OCD was analyzed in a recent epidemiological survey undertaken by the French Association of patients suffering from OCD (FA-OCD or AFTOC in French). In a sample of 453 OCD patients, 76% had suffered from a major depression, 11% from bipolar disorder (DSM IV mania or hypomania), 30% from hypomania (cases that obtained a score > or = 10 on the self-rated Angst Hypomania Checklist). According to the score > or = 10 on Self-rated Questionnaire for Cyclothymic Temperament, 50% were classified as cyclothymic. The self-assessment of soft-bipolar dimensions, such as hypomania and cyclothymia was previously validated in a multi-site study in major depression (Hantouche et al., 1998). Further analyses showed that comorbidity with soft bipolarity was characterized by significant interactions with high levels of impulsivity, anger attacks and suicidal behavior. In order to confirm these data, another cohort (n = 175 patients treated by psychiatrists for OCD) was formed and named "PSY-OCD". Comparative analyses between the two populations allowed showing very few demographic and clinical differences. The frequency rate of "bipolar OCD" was equivalent in both populations: BP-II disorder (DSM IV criteria) was present in 11% of FA-OCD and 16% of PSY-OCD. Furthermore using the Hypomania Checklist showed that BP-II disorder rate (score > or = 10) was higher: 32% of in both populations. Cyclothymic rate was also globally higher, but significant difference was obtained: 56% of FA-OCD versus 45% of PSY-OCD (p = 0.02). Moreover, mood switching rate under anti-OCD drugs was equivalent in both OCD populations (respectively 38% and 33%, p = ns). In case of BP comorbidity, patients had presented a greater number of concurrent major depressive episodes and suicidal attempts. When concurrent depression was considered, the rate diagnosis of soft bipolarity was 2.5 fold, and the number of suicidal attempts augmented by 7 fold (by comparison versus non-depressed OCD). Despite very early descriptions (since the beginning of the last century) of particular relationships between so-called "psychasthenia, folie de doute, folie raisonnante" and "circular and intermittent madness or cyclothymia", a few attention has been devoted to this complex pattern of comorbidity. The comparative data deriving from the collaborative survey with patients who are members of AFTOC and with a cohort of psychiatric outpatients, confirm the reality of bipolar-OCD comorbidity, which is largely under-recognized in clinical practice. More in depth analyses are now undertaken in order to investigate the characteristics of "bipolar OCD" by comparison to "non bipolar OCD". PMID:11963340

Hantouche, E G; Kochman, F; Demonfaucon, C; Barrot, I; Millet, B; Lancrenon, S; Akiskal, H S

2002-01-01

231

Prevalence and clinical characteristics of patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder in first-episode psychosis  

PubMed Central

Background Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) in patients with psychotic disorders has been reported to be a frequent co-morbid disorder in patients with psychotic disorders. The aim of the study determine the prevalence of OCD in first-episode psychosis and the relationship with clinical characteristics. Methods First-episode psychosis patients (N = 246) consecutively admitted to a comprehensive early psychosis program were assessed for OCD with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV. Symptom assessment measures were the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, Global Assessment of Functioning, and the Clinician Rating Scale. Results Twenty-six patients (10.6%) fulfilled the criteria for OCD. Patients with comorbid OCD were younger, had more depressive symptoms and a higher rate of suicidal plans or attempts at index point compared to patients without OCD. The two groups did not differ with respect to other demographic variables or severity of psychotic symptoms. Conclusion OCD is a significant comorbid disorder in patients with first-episode psychosis. Since treatment procedures are different, systematic screening for OCD is warranted. PMID:23721089

2013-01-01

232

Near-Infrared Spectroscopy during the Verbal Fluency Task before and after Treatment with Image Exposure and SSRI Therapy in Patients with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder  

PubMed Central

Drug therapy with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) has been used as a treatment for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). In the present case report, exposure therapy was used in addition to escitalopram (20?mg) to treat a 28-year-old female patient with OCD for 6 months. Her obsessive-compulsive symptoms comprised thoughts of words such as rape, crematorium, neck hanging, unhappy, death, die, and kill and images such as a shelf of gods, a shrine, a Buddhist altar, the sun, the sky, and the faces of her parents, siblings, and relatives. As exposure therapy, she was asked to view the images associated with these symptoms three times a day along with drug therapy. With the combination of drug and exposure therapies, her obsessive-compulsive symptoms improved within 6 months, with no interference in her daily life. Multichannel near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) showed improvement of brain function in the temporal and frontal lobes after treatment. These results suggest that NIRS can be used as an indicator of brain function improvement in patients with OCD. PMID:25317351

Nakanishi, Mari; Tanaka, Yoshihiro; Inoue, Ayako; Kawashima, Chiwa; Okamoto, Kana; Kobayashi, Shunsuke; Ishitobi, Yoshinobu; Ninomiya, Taiga

2014-01-01

233

Near-Infrared Spectroscopy during the Verbal Fluency Task before and after Treatment with Image Exposure and SSRI Therapy in Patients with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder.  

PubMed

Drug therapy with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) has been used as a treatment for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). In the present case report, exposure therapy was used in addition to escitalopram (20?mg) to treat a 28-year-old female patient with OCD for 6 months. Her obsessive-compulsive symptoms comprised thoughts of words such as rape, crematorium, neck hanging, unhappy, death, die, and kill and images such as a shelf of gods, a shrine, a Buddhist altar, the sun, the sky, and the faces of her parents, siblings, and relatives. As exposure therapy, she was asked to view the images associated with these symptoms three times a day along with drug therapy. With the combination of drug and exposure therapies, her obsessive-compulsive symptoms improved within 6 months, with no interference in her daily life. Multichannel near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) showed improvement of brain function in the temporal and frontal lobes after treatment. These results suggest that NIRS can be used as an indicator of brain function improvement in patients with OCD. PMID:25317351

Nakanishi, Mari; Oshita, Harumi; Tanaka, Yoshihiro; Inoue, Ayako; Kawashima, Chiwa; Okamoto, Kana; Kobayashi, Shunsuke; Ishitobi, Yoshinobu; Ninomiya, Taiga; Akiyoshi, Jotaro

2014-01-01

234

Fluoxetine Treatment for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder in Children and Adolescents: A Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveThis study assesses the efficacy and tolerability of fluoxetine in the acute treatment of child and adolescent obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) during a 13-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

DANIEL A. GELLER; SHARON L. HOOG; JOHN H. HEILIGENSTEIN; RANDALL K. RICARDI; ROY TAMURA; STACY KLUSZYNSKI; JENNIE G. JACOBSON

2001-01-01

235

Instinctual impulses in obsessive compulsive disorder: A neuropsychological and psychoanalytic interface.  

PubMed

Psychopathology of obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) that has been characterized by a conflict between the ego and superego on one hand, and aggressive and sexual impulses emerging from the id on the other, and employment of characteristic defenses to combat intense conflicts being connected with ones' biological disposition from the psychoanalytic school of thought now gets empirical foundation from neuroimaging research. The findings disregard the psychological construct, exclusively establishing the neurobiology of the disorder. With the objective to study the impact of sexual and aggressive impulses on the executive functions and processing speed in the patient group, 20 OCD patients (11 males, 9 females) and 20 normal control subjects, matched for all relevant variables including age, sex, educational level and handedness were studied. Sexual impulse and guilt was assessed on the Sex Guilt Rating Scale (SGRS), aggressive impulses were tested using State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory (STAXI), the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS) was used to assess symptom severity, executive functions were assessed through Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST), and processing speed was assessed by employing the Processing Speed Index (PSI) - from WAIS III. It was found that the OCD group differed significantly from the controls, attaining significantly lower percentiles on Processing Speed Index and for all variables of WCST under consideration, namely, perseverative response, perseverative error, non-perseverative error, conceptual level response and number of categories completed. They reported higher scores on subscales of STAXI, specifically related to trait anger and lower scores on anger expression. On the items of SGRS, the OCD group significantly differed with the controls, expressing greater sexual inhibition. In conclusion, we propose an explanation of psychopathology of OCD, which addresses instinctual impulses, executive functions and neural substrates. Our findings contribute to understanding instinctual impulses from the neuropsychological perspective. The findings have implications for better eclectic understanding of the pathogenesis of OCD. PMID:23050884

Mukhopadhyay, Pritha; Tarafder, Sreemoyee; Bilimoria, Dinaz D; Paul, Debika; Bandyopadhyay, Gautam

2010-12-01

236

Obsessionality & compulsivity: a phenomenology of obsessive-compulsive disorder  

PubMed Central

Progress in psychiatry depends on accurate definitions of disorders. As long as there are no known biologic markers available that are highly specific for a particular psychiatric disorder, clinical practice as well as scientific research is forced to appeal to clinical symptoms. Currently, the nosology of obsessive-compulsive disorder is being reconsidered in view of the publication of DSM-V. Since our diagnostic entities are often simplifications of the complicated clinical profile of patients, definitions of psychiatric disorders are imprecise and always indeterminate. This urges researchers and clinicians to constantly think and rethink well-established definitions that in psychiatry are at risk of being fossilised. In this paper, we offer an alternative view to the current definition of obsessive-compulsive disorder from a phenomenological perspective. Translation This article is translated from Dutch, originally published in [Handbook Obsessive-compulsive disorders, Damiaan Denys, Femke de Geus (Eds.), (2007). De Tijdstroom uitgeverij BV, Utrecht. ISBN13: 9789058980878.] PMID:21284843

2011-01-01

237

Toward a Neurodevelopmental Model of Obsessive–Compulsive Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Neurobiological models for obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) have consistently implicated ventral prefrontal cortical and striatal circuits in the pathophysiology of this disorder, but typically have not utilized a developmental framework for conceptualizing the illness.Methods: We describe an integrated series of neurobiologic studies aimed at testing the hypothesis that neurodevelopmental abnormalities of ventral prefrontal–striatal circuits may be involved in and contribute

David R. Rosenberg; Matcheri S. Keshavan

1998-01-01

238

Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cognitive-behavioral therapy can be effective for many clients who have obsessive-compulsive disorder. Despite its effectiveness, many treatment guidelines fail to describe cognitive-behavioral therapy procedures in adequate detail. The present paper will review the literature on cognitive-behavioral therapy for OCD in an attempt to provide concise, meaningful guidelines for the psychological treatment of this disorder. Cognitive-behavioral therapy includes four general components:

James C. Overholser

1999-01-01

239

Parental psychopathology in child and adolescent obsessive-compulsive disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  To identify the lifetime prevalence of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and other psychiatric diagnoses in parents of OCD\\u000a pediatric patients as well as the frequency of onset of psychiatric disorders in the 6 months prior to evaluation.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Parents (n = 63) of 32 children and adolescents (20 males and 12 females; mean age of 13.3 ± 2.4) with OCD and parents of (n = 63) 32 age and

Rosa Calvo; Luisa Lázaro; Josefina Castro; Astrid Morer; Josep Toro

2007-01-01

240

Autism Spectrum and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorders: OC Behaviors, Phenotypes and Genetics  

PubMed Central

Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are a phenotypically and etiologically heterogeneous set of disorders that include obsessive–compulsive behaviors (OCB) that partially overlap with symptoms associated with obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD). The OCB seen in ASD vary depending on the individual’s mental and chronological age as well as the etiology of their ASD. Although progress has been made in the measurement of the OCB associated with ASD, more work is needed including the potential identification of heritable endophenotypes. Likewise, important progress toward the understanding of genetic influences in ASD has been made by greater refinement of relevant phenotypes using a broad range of study designs, including twin and family-genetic studies, parametric and nonparametric linkage analyses, as well as candidate gene studies and the study of rare genetic variants. These genetic analyses could lead to the refinement of the OCB phenotypes as larger samples are studied and specific associations are replicated. Like ASD, OCB are likely to prove to be multidimensional and polygenic. Some of the vulnerability genes may prove to be generalist genes influencing the phenotypic expression of both ASD and OCD while others will be specific to subcomponents of the ASD phenotype. In order to discover molecular and genetic mechanisms, collaborative approaches need to generate shared samples, resources, novel genomic technologies, as well as more refined phenotypes and innovative statistical approaches. There is a growing need to identify the range of molecular pathways involved in OCB related to ASD in order to develop novel treatment interventions. PMID:20029829

Jacob, Suma; Landeros-Weisenberger, Angeli; Leckman, James F.

2014-01-01

241

Autism spectrum and obsessive-compulsive disorders: OC behaviors, phenotypes and genetics.  

PubMed

Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are a phenotypically and etiologically heterogeneous set of disorders that include obsessive-compulsive behaviors (OCB) that partially overlap with symptoms associated with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The OCB seen in ASD vary depending on the individual's mental and chronological age as well as the etiology of their ASD. Although progress has been made in the measurement of the OCB associated with ASD, more work is needed including the potential identification of heritable endophenotypes. Likewise, important progress toward the understanding of genetic influences in ASD has been made by greater refinement of relevant phenotypes using a broad range of study designs, including twin and family-genetic studies, parametric and nonparametric linkage analyses, as well as candidate gene studies and the study of rare genetic variants. These genetic analyses could lead to the refinement of the OCB phenotypes as larger samples are studied and specific associations are replicated. Like ASD, OCB are likely to prove to be multidimensional and polygenic. Some of the vulnerability genes may prove to be generalist genes influencing the phenotypic expression of both ASD and OCD while others will be specific to subcomponents of the ASD phenotype. In order to discover molecular and genetic mechanisms, collaborative approaches need to generate shared samples, resources, novel genomic technologies, as well as more refined phenotypes and innovative statistical approaches. There is a growing need to identify the range of molecular pathways involved in OCB related to ASD in order to develop novel treatment interventions. PMID:20029829

Jacob, Suma; Landeros-Weisenberger, Angeli; Leckman, James F

2009-12-01

242

Tic disorders and obsessive-compulsive disorder: is autoimmunity involved?  

PubMed

The precise cause of tic disorders and paediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is unknown. In addition to genetic factors, autoimmunity may play a role, possibly as a sequela of preceding streptococcal throat infections in susceptible children. Here we review the most recent findings, from July 2003 onwards, with regard to a possible relationship between tics/OCD and autoimmunity. Evidence about an intriguing correlation between streptococcal infections and tic disorders and OCD is accumulating. Specific criteria have been outlined for paediatric autoimmune disorders associated with streptococcal infections (PANDAS), but autoimmunity may also be involved in tic disorders and/or OCD in general. Anti-basal ganglia auto-antibodies are an important potential indicator of autoimmunity. Although the lack of a standardized methodology makes comparisons of findings difficult, new data has emerged pointing to the possible involvement of specific auto-antigens. Earlier findings of increased D8/17 B cell expression as a putative susceptibility marker could not be replicated, possibly due to instability of the D8/17-binding antibody. Although PANDAS patients have been reported to improve after therapeutic plasma exchange, and antibiotics may prevent symptom exacerbations, immune-based treatments should not be routinely given. In future studies, demonstrating the pathogenetic significance of anti-basal ganglia antibodies in animals is a major challenge to draw any firm conclusions about a role for autoimmunity. Future longitudinal studies should be aimed at assessing the precise relationship between symptom exacerbations, infections, and immune parameters, possibly along with gene expression profiles. PMID:16401548

Hoekstra, Pieter J; Minderaa, Ruud B

2005-12-01

243

A Case of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) Associated with Special Japanese Cultural Background Involving Strong Fear against Entities Associated with Bad Omen  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report an OCD case exhibiting strong fear against entities associated with bad omen was treated by exposure and response prevention behavioral therapy. The patient was a 60-year old unemployed female. She married at 28 years old. Soon after the marriage, her husband showed violent behavior against her in response to situations and occurrences that he did not like and

Yasuaki AKASAKI

244

Performance monitoring in obsessive-compulsive disorder and social anxiety disorder.  

PubMed

Overactive performance monitoring, indexed by greater error-related brain activity, has been frequently observed in individuals with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Similar alterations have been found in individuals with major depressive and generalized anxiety disorders. The main objective was to extend these findings by investigating performance monitoring in individuals with social anxiety disorder (SAD) and to evaluate the specificity of performance-monitoring changes in OCD. Event-related potentials were used to examine error-related brain activity during a flanker task in 24 individuals with OCD, 24 individuals with SAD, and 24 healthy controls with no history of neurological or psychiatric disorders. Error-related negativity (ERN) and correct-related negativity served as electrophysiological indicators for performance monitoring. Enhanced ERN was expected for both clinical groups, but differential associations with clinical symptoms were explored. ERN amplitudes were larger in individuals with OCD and SAD than in healthy controls. Correlational analyses did not reveal significant associations between ERN and clinical symptomatology in OCD, but a significant correlation with depressive symptoms was found in the SAD group. These findings further strengthen the idea that overactive performance monitoring is independent of clinical symptoms in OCD. Furthermore, it may also represent a transdiagnostic vulnerability indicator, although the relationship with clinical symptoms observed in the SAD group needs additional evaluation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:25286372

Endrass, Tanja; Riesel, Anja; Kathmann, Norbert; Buhlmann, Ulrike

2014-11-01

245

Rage Attacks in Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: Phenomenology and Clinical Correlates  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Rage attacks have been documented in youth with varied psychiatric disorders, but few data have been reported on the clinical characteristics and correlates of rage attacks among children with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Method: Participants were 86 children (ages 6-16 years) with a primary diagnosis of OCD. Patients and their…

Storch, Eric A.; Jones, Anna M.; Lack, Caleb W.; Ale, Chelsea M.; Sulkowski, Michael L.; Lewin, Adam B.; De Nadai, Alessandro S.; Murphy, Tanya K.

2012-01-01

246

Local-Global Processing in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder and Comorbid Tourette's Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Neuropsychological and neuroimaging studies implicate attentional difficulties in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), but results are inconsistent due possibly to sample heterogeneity and lack of control of comorbid disorders, such as Tourette's syndrome (TS). Nevertheless, it has been suggested that OCD symptomatology may be a result of…

Rankins, D.; Bradshaw, J. L.; Georgiou-Karistianis, N.

2005-01-01

247

A Review of Metacognition in Psychological Models of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cognitive-behavioural models and interventions for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) have always included some metacognitive elements but until recently these have been predominantly construed of as cognitive as opposed to metacognitive processes. Increasingly, psychological models of OCD are now recognising the importance of metacognitive…

Rees, Clare S.; Anderson, Rebecca A.

2013-01-01

248

Ethnic Identification Biases Responses to the Padua Inventory for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors report differential item functioning (DIF) between Black and White participants completing the 60-item Padua Inventory (PI) for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The authors use an Internet-generated sample that included 105 Blacks, 67 Hispanics, 582 Whites, and 136 additional participants reporting an OCD diagnosis. Factor analysis…

Williams, Monnica; Turkheimer, Eric; Schmidt, Karen; Oltmanns, Thomas

2005-01-01

249

Neurocognitive impairment does not predict treatment outcome in obsessive–compulsive disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is conflicting evidence pertaining to whether or not neurocognitive task performance at baseline predicts treatment response in obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD). In the present study, we administered a set of executive neurocognitive tests with a putative sensitivity for treatment outcome to a sample of 138 OCD patients. Additionally, subjective neurocognitive dysfunction was determined via a questionnaire. All patients participated in

Steffen Moritz; Martin Kloss; Dirk Jacobsen; Susanne Fricke; Carrie Cuttler; Stefanie Brassen; Iver Hand

2005-01-01

250

Cognitive Deficits in Obsessive–Compulsive Disorder on Tests of Frontal–Striatal Function  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Although neuropsychological and neuroimaging studies of obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) have implicated the frontal cortex and subcortical structures in the pathophysiology of the disorder, few studies have examined cognitive function in patients with OCD on tasks validated in the assessment of frontal lobe and subcortical dysfunction.Methods: The accuracy and latency of executive and visual memory function was assessed in 23

Rosemary Purcell; Paul Maruff; Michael Kyrios; Christos Pantelis

1998-01-01

251

Orbital Frontal and Amygdala Volume Reductions in Obsessive-compulsive Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Functional neuroimaging studies have implicated the frontal lobes and the hippocampus- amygdala complex in the pathophysiology of obsessive- compulsive disorder (OCD). These brain regions have not been well investigated in patients with OCD, how- ever, using magnetic resonance imaging. Methods: Volumes of the superior frontal gyrus, ante- rior cingulate gyrus, orbital frontal region, hippocampus, and amygdala were computed from

Philip R. Szeszko; Delbert Robinson; Jose Ma; J. Alvir; Robert M. Bilder; Todd Lencz; Manzar Ashtari; Houwei Wu; Bernhard Bogerts

1999-01-01

252

Obsessive compulsive disorder, response to serotonin reuptake inhibitors and the serotonin transporter gene  

Microsoft Academic Search

Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) is a common illness, characterized by anxiety- provoking thoughts and the need to perform rituals. OCD is most commonly treated with a class of pharmacological agents known as serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SRIs). SRIs block the reuptake of serotonin (5-HT) into the presynaptic neuron, a process mediated by the serotonin transporter (5-HTT). The successful use of SRIs

E A Billett; M A Richter; N King; A Heils; K P Lesch; J L Kennedy

1997-01-01

253

Treating Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder and Schizophrenia: The Case of Sam  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes the case of Sam, a 22-year-old male with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and schizophrenia. The patient's background, the development and characteristics of his OCD and schizophrenia, and the history of what became a rather complicated treatment are described. In addition, four problem areas of therapy are identified.

Peasley-Miklus, Catherine; Massie, Elise; Baslett, Gaston; Carmin, Cheryl

2005-01-01

254

Obsessive Beliefs Predict Cognitive Behavior Therapy Outcome for Obsessive Compulsive Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cognitive accounts of obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) assert that core beliefs are crucial to the development, maintenance, and treatment of the disorder. There are a number of obsessive beliefs that are considered fundamental to OCD, including personal responsibility, threat estimation, perfectionism, need for certainty, importance of thoughts, and thought control. The present study investigated if pretreatment severity of obsessive beliefs,

Thomas G. Adams Jr; Bradley C. Riemann; Chad T. Wetterneck; Josh M. Cisler

2012-01-01

255

Metacognitive Therapy versus Exposure and Response Prevention for Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Exposure with ritual prevention (ERP) is the psychotherapeutic treatment of choice for pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). In the present study, a new treatment rationale – metacognitive therapy (MCT) for children – was developed and evaluated. Methods: Ten children and adolescents with OCD were randomly assigned to either MCT or ERP therapy condition. Patients were assessed before and after treatment

Michael Simons; Silvia Schneider; Beate Herpertz-Dahlmann

2006-01-01

256

Predicting behavioral treatment outcome for agoraphobia and obsessive compulsive disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews findings of retrospective studies of factors predictive of behavior therapy outcome immediately after treatment or at follow-up for panic disorder with and without agoraphobia and obsessive compulsive disorder. Despite disagreement on some variables, most predictor variables (most demographic variables, severity of symptoms, depression, general anxiety, assertiveness, expectancy and motivation, and treatment context) were not consistently associated with

Gail Steketee; Leslie J. Shapiro

1995-01-01

257

Obsessive-compulsive disorder apparently related to abortion.  

PubMed

This case study presents a young woman who developed a severe obsessive-compulsive disorder after a routine medical procedure. It is suggested that this procedure brought back repressed guilt from three abortions and thus led to the onset of symptoms. The case is discussed in relationship to available research and theory. PMID:2751012

McCraw, R K

1989-04-01

258

Brief Treatment of the Symptomatic Obsessive-Compulsive Style.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The poor self-image of many collegiate high achievers is due to the development of an obsessive-compulsive personality. Typical of this psychological maladjustment is the concept that external achievements are directly related to internal personal worth in a linear and absolute fashion. Characteristic symptoms include physical as well as emotional…

Foster, Thomas V.

259

Correlates of Accommodation of Pediatric Obsessive Compulsive Disorder: Parent, Child, and Family Characteristics  

PubMed Central

Objective Pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a chronic, impairing condition associated with high levels of family accommodation (i.e., participation in symptoms). Understanding of factors that may engender accommodation of pediatric OCD is limited. This study conducted exploratory analyses of parent-, child-, and family-level correlates of family accommodation, considering both behavioral and affective components of the response. Method The sample included 65 youth (mean age = 12.3 years; 62% male) with OCD and their parents who completed a standardized assessment battery comprised of both clinical and self-report measures (e.g., CY-BOCS, Brief Symptom Inventory). Results Family accommodation was common, with the provision of reassurance and participation in rituals the most frequent practices (respectively occurring on a daily basis among 56% and 46% of parents). Total scores on the Family Accommodation Scale were not associated with child OCD symptom severity; however, parental involvement in rituals was associated with higher levels of child OCD severity and parental psychopathology, and with lower levels of family organization. Comorbid externalizing symptomatology and family conflict were associated with parent report of worse consequences when not accommodating. Conclusions Although these findings must be interpreted in light of potential Type I error, they suggest that accommodation is the norm in pediatric OCD. Family-focused interventions must consider the parent, child, and family-level variables associated with this familial response when teaching disengagement strategies. PMID:18724255

Peris, Tara S.; Bergman, R. Lindsey; Langley, Audra; Chang, Susanna; McCracken, James T.; Piacentini, John

2012-01-01

260

Piloting the perinatal obsessive-compulsive scale (POCS): development and validation.  

PubMed

Onset/worsening of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) during the perinatal period are frequently seen clinically. No specific tool assessing the unique content, context, severity, and onset of perinatal OCD exists. A self-report scale of perinatal obsessions and compulsions, the Perinatal Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (POCS), was developed and validated. A total of 162 women (67 pregnant, 95 postpartum) participated in this pilot study. They completed the POCS as well as the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS). The POCS has good construct validity, reflected by representative items, high internal consistency, good concurrent validity and discriminative capacity. The most common obsessions were fear of having an unhealthy baby at birth, contamination, the baby being taken away, and infant death. Behavioral compulsions such as repeating rituals, asking for reassurance, checking, and cleaning mirrored these obsessions. The POCS helps clinicians detect perinatal OCD while giving perinatal women an opportunity to openly discuss socially sensitive issues. PMID:21824744

Lord, Catherine; Rieder, Amber; Hall, Geoffrey B C; Soares, Claudio N; Steiner, Meir

2011-12-01

261

Predictors and Moderators of Treatment Outcome in the Pediatric Obsessive Compulsive Treatment Study (POTS I)  

PubMed Central

Objective To identify predictors and moderators of outcome in the first Pediatric OCD Treatment Study (POTS I) among youth (N=112) randomly assigned to sertraline, cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), both sertraline and CBT (COMB), or a pill placebo. Method Potential baseline predictors and moderators were identified by literature review. The outcome measure was an adjusted week 12 predicted score for the Children’s Yale Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (CY-BOCS). Main and interactive effects of treatment condition and each candidate predictor or moderator variable were examined using GLM on the adjusted predicted week 12 CY-BOCS scores. Results Youth with lower OCD severity, less OCD-related functional impairment, greater insight, fewer comorbid externalizing symptoms, and lower levels of family accommodation showed greater improvement across treatment conditions than their counterparts after acute POTS treatment. Those with a family history of OCD had a six-fold decrease in effect size in CBT monotherapy relative to their counterparts in CBT without a family history of OCD. Conclusions Greater attention is needed to build optimized intervention strategies for more complex youth with OCD. Youth with a family history of OCD are not likely to benefit from CBT unless offered in combination with an SSRI. PMID:20855047

Garcia, Abbe Marrs; Sapyta, Jeffrey J.; Moore, Phoebe S.; Freeman, Jennifer B.; Franklin, Martin E.; March, John S.; Foa, Edna B.

2010-01-01

262

Recruitment of a Hidden Population: African Americans with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder  

PubMed Central

Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a leading cause of disability worldwide, however for reasons that are poorly understood ethnic minority groups are not well represented in clinical research studies. Thus, although African Americans experience equivalent rates of OCD according to epidemiological surveys, the generalizability of findings from clinical trials remains unknown. Research designed to improve identification, assessment and treatment of OCD is an important public health priority. The purpose of this study is to report outreach methods used to recruit African American adults for participation in an OCD research study. A variety of methods were employed, including radio advertisements, public transportation advertising, community outreach, and online advertising. A total of 83 African American adult participants were recruited over a 9.5 month period at the University of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia, and given comprehensive psychiatric assessments. African Americans with OCD symptoms were reliably identified and assessed, for a total of 75 with lifetime OCD (4 past and 71 current diagnoses). There was variability in the success and cost effectiveness of study recruitment methods. Radio ads were the most expensive means of recruitment, newspaper ads accounted for the largest number of eligible participants, and no cost methods such as Craig’s List and word of mouth were also effective. The authors conclude that, with focused efforts, there are many effective methods for recruiting African Americans with OCD. Guidelines for recruitment are discussed, with a focus on cultural considerations. PMID:21983626

Williams, Monnica T.; Proetto, Dante; Casiano, Delane; Franklin, Martin

2011-01-01

263

Artificial neural network model for the prediction of obsessive-compulsive disorder treatment response.  

PubMed

Several patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) who are refractory to adequate treatment with first-line treatments are considered treatment-resistant. Further surveys were to be implemented to explore the outcome predictors of the antiobsessional response. Such study was aimed at building a model suitable to predict the final outcome of a mixed OCD pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic treatment approaches. We studied 130 subjects with OCD who underwent pharmacologic (with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors alone or with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and risperidone at low dosage) and/or behavioral therapy (using exposure and response prevention techniques). The following variables were used as predictors: symptoms dimension, as resulting from the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale items factor analysis; neuropsychologic performances; and epidemiologic variables. The treatment response arising from 3 to 6 months of therapy was used as dependent variable. A conventional logistic regression was used to define a previsional model of treatment response and multilayer perceptrons and to supervise an artificial neural network technique. The 46.9% of the sample resulted to be refractory to treatment. Results obtained with the logistic regression model showed that the only predictors of treatment outcome are hoarding symptoms, repeating rituals, and counting compulsions. Furthermore, using all the variables considered in the models, multilayer perceptrons showed highly better predictive performance as compared with the logistic regression models (93.3% vs 61.5%, respectively, of correct classification of cases). Complex interactions between different clinical and neuropsychologic variables are involved in defining OCD treatment response profile, and nonlinear and interactive modeling strategies, that is, supervised artificial neural networks, seem to be more suitable to investigate this complexity than linear techniques. PMID:19593173

Salomoni, Giuliana; Grassi, Massimiliano; Mosini, Paola; Riva, Patrizia; Cavedini, Paolo; Bellodi, Laura

2009-08-01

264

Developmental Aspects of Error and High-Conflict-Related Brain Activity in Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: A FMRI Study with a Flanker Task before and after CBT  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Heightened error and conflict monitoring are considered central mechanisms in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and are associated with anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) function. Pediatric obsessive-compulsive patients provide an opportunity to investigate the development of this area and its associations with psychopathology.…

Huyser, Chaim; Veltman, Dick J.; Wolters, Lidewij H.; de Haan, Else; Boer, Frits

2011-01-01

265

Information Processing and Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: Comorbidity of Delusions, Overvalued Ideas, and Schizophrenia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Schizophrenia, in conjunction with obsessive-compulsive symptoms, presents significant barriers to treatment. This is true even if the obsessive-compulsive symptoms would ordinarily be considered straightforward for cognitive-behavioral treatment. These many limitations in treatment are considered here in light of the information processing…

McKay, Dean; McKiernan, Kevin

2005-01-01

266

Correlates of comorbid anxiety and externalizing disorders in childhood obsessive compulsive disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study examines the influence of diagnostic comorbidity on the demographic, psychiatric, and functional status\\u000a of youth with a primary diagnosis of obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). Two hundred and fifteen children (ages 5–17) referred\\u000a to a university-based OCD specialty clinic were compared based on DSM-IV diagnostic profile: OCD without comorbid anxiety\\u000a or externalizing disorder, OCD plus anxiety disorder, and

Audra K. LangleyAdam; Adam B. Lewin; R. Lindsey Bergman; Joyce C. Lee; John Piacentini

2010-01-01

267

Cobalamin deficiency presenting as obsessive compulsive disorder: case report.  

PubMed

Cobalamin deficiency commonly presents with a wide range of neuropsychiatric manifestations ranging from myelopathy, neuropathy, optic neuritis and dementia to mood disorders, chronic fatigue and psychosis even without classical hematological abnormalities like anemia and macrocytosis. However, obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) in relation to vitamin B12 deficiency has not been described so far. We report a case of middle-aged man presenting with OCD, low serum cobalamin and a positive family history of vitamin B12 deficiency who responded well to methylcobalamin replacement. PMID:22227032

Sharma, Vivek; Biswas, Devdutta

2012-01-01

268

Predictors of Parental Accommodation in Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: Findings from the Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Treatment Study (POTS) Trial  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Few studies have examined predictors of parental accommodation (assessed with the Family Accommodation Scale-Parent Report) among families of children with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). No studies have examined this phenomenon using empirically derived subscales of the Family Accommodation Scale-Parent Report (i.e., Caregiver…

Flessner, Christopher A.; Freeman, Jennifer B.; Sapyta, Jeffrey; Garcia, Abbe; Franklin, Martin E.; March, John S.; Foa, Edna

2011-01-01

269

Wisconsin Card Sorting Test performance in obsessive-compulsive disorder: no evidence for involvement of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) performances were studied in 33 patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and 33 age-, sex-, and education-matched normal comparison subjects; the OCD patients were divided into four subgroups on the basis of their symptomatology. Neither the two groups of subjects nor the four OCD subgroups differed on any of the WCST neuropsychological indices. No relationship was

Massimo Abbruzzese; Stefano Ferri; Silvio Scarone

1995-01-01

270

Neuropsychological Deficits in Obsessive-compulsive Disorder: A Comparison With Unipolar Depression, Panic Disorder, and Normal Controls  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The neuropsychological dysfunction as- sociated with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has similarities to the deficits reported in other affective or anxiety disorders. We directly compared cognitive func- tion in patients with OCD with that in matched patients with unipolar depression and panic disorder and healthy control subjects to establish the specific nature of neu- ropsychological deficits in OCD. Methods: Thirty

Rosemary Purcell; Paul Maruff; Michael Kyrios; Christos Pantelis

1998-01-01

271

Evidence for linkage disequilibrium between serotonin transporter protein gene (SLC6A4) and obsessive compulsive disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) is characterized by recurrent and intrusive thoughts that are distressing (obsessions) and\\/or repetitive behaviors or mental acts that the person feels driven to perform (compulsions). OCD has a partly genetic basis. For treatment of OCD, potent serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SRI) drugs (clomipramine (Anafranil), fluvoxamine (Luvox), fluoxetine (Prozac), sertraline (Zoloft), and paroxetine (Paxil)), which act on the

C J McDougle; C N Epperson; L H Price; J Gelernter

1998-01-01

272

Decision-making heterogeneity in obsessive-compulsive disorder: ventromedial prefrontal cortex function predicts different treatment outcomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Certain clinical aspects of patients with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) appear similar to those of patients with damage to the ventromedial sector of the prefrontal cortex. The hypothesis for the involvement of the frontal region in OCD is also supported by neuropsychological findings. Building on this evidence, we assessed the performance of a group of 34 OCD patients on a measure

Paolo Cavedini; Giovanna Riboldi; Arcangela D'Annucci; Patrizia Belotti; Michele Cisima; Laura Bellodi

2002-01-01

273

The Genetics of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder and Tourette Syndrome: An Epidemiological and Pathway-Based Approach for Gene Discovery  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To provide a contemporary perspective on genetic discovery methods applied to obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and Tourette syndrome (TS). Method: A review of research trends in genetics research in OCD and TS is conducted, with emphasis on novel approaches. Results: Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) are now in progress in OCD

Grados, Marco A.

2010-01-01

274

Current trends in drug treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder  

PubMed Central

This article aims to highlight current trends in the pharmacologic management of obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD). A systematic search of the electronic database MEDLINE was conducted. The first case report of clomipramine efficacy in the management OCD more than 40 years ago gave new hope for the treatment of this debilitating disorder. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) proved to have a similar efficacy profile compared with clomipramine but had a superior tolerability profile. While many patients with OCD respond to SSRIs or clomipramine, the treatment of those with refractory OCD remains challenging. Different augmentation agents in treatment-resistant OCD have been explored, with antipsychotic agents having the largest supporting evidence base. Nevertheless, new pharmacologic treatment options are required and are under investigation. PMID:20520787

Decloedt, Eric H; Stein, Dan J

2010-01-01

275

Psychotherapy and medication management strategies for obsessive-compulsive disorder  

PubMed Central

Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a chronic anxiety disorder. While medication and psychotherapy advances have been very helpful to patients, many patients do not respond adequately to initial trials of serotonergic medication or cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and require multiple treatment trials or combination therapies. Comorbidity may also influence treatment response. The role of streptococcal infections in pediatric OCD has become an area of intense scrutiny and controversy. In this article, current treatment methods for OCD will be reviewed, with special attention to strategies for treating OCD in children and in patients with comorbid tic disorders. Alternative psychotherapy strategies for patients who are highly anxious about starting CBT, such as cognitive therapy or augmentation with D-cycloserine, will be reviewed. Newer issues regarding use of antibiotics, neuroleptics, and glutamate modulators in OCD treatment will also be explored. PMID:21931490

Walsh, Kelda H; McDougle, Christopher J

2011-01-01

276

Altered frontal EEG asymmetry in obsessive-compulsive disorder.  

PubMed

Hemispheric topography of alpha band power in the electroencephalogram has been linked to approach/avoidance motivation and may index the risk for anxiety disorders and depression. We quantified lower alpha band power (8-10?Hz) in 20 patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and 20 matched healthy controls during blocks of rest and presentation of neutral, aversive, and OCD-related pictures. Compared to the control group, OCD patients showed altered asymmetry, with frontal alpha power in the 8-10?Hz band being more dominant in the left hemisphere across all conditions. This alteration was not observed over parietal areas, and also did not show in the upper alpha, and the theta and beta bands. This change in hemispheric topography of lower alpha band power supports the hypothesis of relatively increased avoidance motivation in OCD. Altered asymmetry appears to be traitlike in OCD, suggesting a link to depressive disorders. PMID:24673721

Ischebeck, Moritz; Endrass, Tanja; Simon, Daniela; Kathmann, Norbert

2014-07-01

277

Are there sex differences in neuropsychological functions among patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder?  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to examine whether men and women with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) demonstrate differences in neuropsychological functioning compared to healthy men and women. Participants were 56 consecutive patients (33 male, 23 female) and 40 healthy control participants (20 male, 20 female) of comparable characteristics. Male and female patients had comparable symptom severity, illness duration, comorbidity, in- or out-patient status, and medication usage. An extensive neuropsychological test battery was administered including tests of general nonverbal intelligence, attention, verbal and nonverbal memory, and executive functions. Male and female OCD patients showed comparable neuropsychological performances on most cognitive domains. However, we found some evidence for cross-sex shifts in verbal fluency tasks (FAS and Category Alternation Test [CAT]), the reading component of the Stroop test, and the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R) Digit Span-Forward test. Post hoc analyses revealed that female patients showed reduced performance on these tests compared to healthy women, in the male-typical direction. Among OCD women only, there were significant negative correlations between OCD symptom severity and performance on the CAT and the reading Stroop. We conclude that sex does not seem to be a major determinant of neuropsychological function in OCD, but the observed cross-sex shifts on some tasks deserve further examination. PMID:16594870

Mataix-Cols, David; Rahman, Qazi; Spiller, Mary; Alonso, María Pino; Pifarré, Josep; Menchón, José Manuel; Vallejo, Julio

2006-01-01

278

Why do eating disorders and obsessive-compulsive disorder co-occur?  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to use an alternative, dimensionally based approach to understanding the reasons for comorbidity between eating disorders and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Participants from a representative community sample (N=407; 47% female) completed self-report measures of eating pathology, obsessive-compulsive symptoms, perfectionism, and neuroticism. Hierarchical multiple regression indicated that neuroticism and perfectionism completely mediated associations between most obsessive-compulsive and eating disorder symptoms. However, body dissatisfaction shared unique associations with checking, cleaning, and obsessive rituals that could not be explained by these personality traits. Results suggest that shared personality traits play a key role in the comorbidity between eating disorders characterized by binge eating and dietary restraint and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Future studies are needed to examine whether similar underlying neurocognitive processes that give rise to compulsive checking, cleaning, and obsessive rituals may also contribute to the development and maintenance of body checking in individuals diagnosed with eating disorders. PMID:23557823

Pollack, Lauren O; Forbush, Kelsie T

2013-04-01

279

Why Do Eating Disorders and Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Co-Occur?  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to use an alternative, dimensionally based approach to understanding the reasons for comorbidity between eating disorders and obsessive compulsive disorder. Participants from a representative community sample (N=407; 47% female) completed self-report measures of eating pathology, obsessive-compulsive symptoms, perfectionism, and neuroticism. Hierarchical multiple regression indicated that neuroticism and perfectionism completely mediated associations between most obsessive-compulsive and eating disorder symptoms. However, body dissatisfaction shared unique associations with checking, cleaning, and obsessive rituals that could not be explained by these personality traits. Results suggest that shared personality traits play a key role in the comorbidity between eating disorders characterized by binge eating and dietary restraint and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Future studies are needed to examine whether similar underlying neurocognitive processes that give rise to compulsive checking, cleaning, and obsessive rituals may also contribute to the development and maintenance of body checking in individuals diagnosed with eating disorders. PMID:23557823

Pollack, Lauren O.; Forbush, Kelsie T.

2013-01-01

280

Impulsive disorders in Japanese adult patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder.  

PubMed

In this study, we sought to characterize obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) patients with impulsive features, and to determine whether they constitute a distinct subtype of OCD. Therefore we systematically assessed impulse control disorders and other impulsive conditions categorized as obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorders (OCSDs) in 153 Japanese adult patients with OCD. Forty-five subjects (29%) had concurrent impulsive disorders, and they were differentiated from other OCD patients on a range of demographic features (e.g., younger age at onset), and clinical features (e.g., pervasive and severe psychopathology, and poor treatment outcome). However, on logistic regression, none of these variables predicted comorbid impulsivity. The findings appear to support the argument that OCD patients with impulsive features constitute a subtype of OCD. However, further research is necessary to determine whether impulsivity should be conceptualized as lying on a spectrum with compulsivity or as a dimension that is orthogonal to compulsivity. PMID:15714194

Matsunaga, Hisato; Kiriike, Nobuo; Matsui, Tokuzo; Oya, Kenzo; Okino, Kenya; Stein, Dan J

2005-01-01

281

Obsessive–compulsive disorder in hospitalized patients with chronic schizophrenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Obsessive–compulsive (OC) symptoms have been observed in a substantial proportion of schizophrenic patients. In this study, we assessed the rate of occurrence of OC symptoms and the interrelationship between OC and schizophrenic symptoms in 68 hospitalized chronic schizophrenic patients. The patients were interviewed with the Structured Clinical Interview for Axis-I DSM-IV Disorders — Patient Edition (SCID-P) and the appropriate rating

Michael Poyurovsky; Sophia Hramenkov; Victoria Isakov; Boris Rauchverger; Ilan Modai; Michael Schneidman; Camil Fuchs; Abraham Weizman

2001-01-01

282

Deep brain stimulation for obsessive-compulsive disorder: a systematic review and meta-analysis.  

PubMed

Background. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is increasingly being applied to psychiatric conditions such as obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), major depression and anorexia nervosa. Double-blind, randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of active versus sham treatment have been limited to small numbers. We therefore undertook a systematic review and meta-analysis of the effectiveness of DBS in psychiatric conditions to maximize study power. Method. We conducted a systematic literature search for double-blind, RCTs of active versus sham treatment using Pubmed/Medline and EMBASE up to April 2013. Where possible, we combined results from studies in a meta-analysis. We assessed differences in final values between the active and sham treatments for parallel-group studies and compared changes from baseline score for cross-over designs. Results. Inclusion criteria were met by five studies, all of which were of OCD. Forty-four subjects provided data for the meta-analysis. The main outcome was a reduction in obsessive symptoms as measured by the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (YBOCS). Patients on active, as opposed to sham, treatment had a significantly lower mean score [mean difference (MD) -8.93, 95% confidence interval (CI) -13.35 to -5.76, p < 0.001], representing partial remission. However, one-third of patients experienced significant adverse effects (n = 16). There were no differences between the two groups in terms of other outcomes. Conclusions. DBS may show promise for treatment-resistant OCD but there are insufficient randomized controlled data for other psychiatric conditions. DBS remains an experimental treatment in adults for severe, medically refractory conditions until further data are available. PMID:25066053

Kisely, S; Hall, K; Siskind, D; Frater, J; Olson, S; Crompton, D

2014-12-01

283

Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy vs Risperidone for Augmenting Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder  

PubMed Central

IMPORTANCE Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is one of the world’s most disabling illnesses according to the World Health Organization. Serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SRIs) are the only medications approved by the Food and Drug Administration to treat OCD, but few patients achieve minimal symptoms from an SRI alone. In such cases, practice guidelines recommend adding antipsychotics or cognitive-behavioral therapy consisting of exposure and ritual prevention (EX/RP). OBJECTIVE To compare the effects of these 2 SRI augmentation strategies vs pill placebo for the first time, to our knowledge, in adults with OCD. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS A randomized clinical trial (conducted January 2007–August 2012) at 2 academic outpatient research clinics that specialize in OCD and anxiety disorders. Patients (aged 18–70 years) were eligible if they had OCD of at least moderate severity despite a therapeutic SRI dose for at least 12 weeks prior to entry. Of 163 who were eligible, 100 were randomized (risperidone, n = 40; EX/RP, n = 40; and placebo, n = 20), and 86 completed the trial. INTERVENTIONS While continuing their SRI at the same dose, patients were randomized to the addition of 8 weeks of risperidone (up to 4 mg/d), EX/RP (17 sessions delivered twice weekly), or pill placebo. Independent assessments were conducted every 4 weeks. MAIN OUTCOME AND MEASURE The Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS) to measure OCD severity. RESULTS Patients randomized to EX/RP had significantly greater reduction in week 8 Y-BOCS scores based on mixed-effects models (vs risperidone: mean [SE], ?9.72 [1.38]; P<.001 vs placebo: mean [SE], ?10.10 [1.68]; P < .001). Patients receiving risperidone did not significantly differ from those receiving placebo (mean [SE], ?0.38 [1.72]; P=.83). More patients receiving EX/RP responded (Y-BOCS score decrease ?25%: 80% for EX/RP, 23% for risperidone, and 15% for placebo; P < .001). More patients receiving EX/RP achieved minimal symptoms (Y-BOCS score ?12: 43% for EX/RP, 13% for risperidone, and 5% for placebo; P = .001). Adding EX/RP was also superior to risperidone and placebo in improving insight, functioning, and quality of life. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Adding EX/RP to SRIs was superior to both risperidone and pill placebo. Patients with OCD receiving SRIs who continue to have clinically significant symptoms should be offered EX/RP before antipsychotics given its superior efficacy and less negative adverse effect profile. TRIAL REGISTRATION clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00389493. PMID:24026523

Simpson, Helen Blair; Foa, Edna B.; Liebowitz, Michael R.; Huppert, Jonathan D.; Cahill, Shawn; Maher, Michael J.; McLean, Carmen P.; Bender, James; Marcus, Sue M.; Williams, Monnica T.; Weaver, Jamie; Vermes, Donna; Van Meter, Page E.; Rodriguez, Carolyn I.; Powers, Mark; Pinto, Anthony; Imms, Patricia; Hahn, Chang-Gyu; Campeas, Raphael

2014-01-01

284

A meta–analysis of functional neuroimaging in obsessive–compulsive disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent neurobiological models of obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) posit that a dysfunction in orbitofrontal–subcortical circuitry underlies the etiology of this disorder. Much of the empirical support for these theories comes from studies using neuroimaging techniques to compare brain activity in OCD patients with that in non-OCD controls. Qualitative reviews of this literature implicate the orbitofrontal cortex, caudate nuclei, and thalamus. In

Stephen P. Whiteside; John D. Port; Jonathan S. Abramowitz

2004-01-01

285

The clinical impact of bipolar and unipolar affective comorbidity on obsessive–compulsive disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies on the comorbidity of Obsessive–Compulsive Disorder (OCD) have largely focused on comorbidity with major depressive and anxiety disorders. The present investigation deals with a more complex pattern of comorbidity involving bipolarity. Indeed, in a consecutive series of 315 OCD outpatients, 15.7% had such comorbidity (mostly with bipolar II disorder). Unlike non-bipolar OCD patients, these had a more gradual

Giulio Perugi; Hagop S Akiskal; Chiara Pfanner; Silvio Presta; Alfredo Gemignani; Alessandro Milanfranchi; Patrizia Lensi; Susanna Ravagli; Giovanni B Cassano

1997-01-01

286

Does D-Cycloserine Augmentation of CBT Improve Therapeutic Homework Compliance for Pediatric Obsessive Compulsive Disorder?  

Microsoft Academic Search

D-cycloserine (DCS), a partial agonist that acts on the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor of the glutamatergic receptor complex, may enhance fear extinction learning during exposure-based therapy. Clinical studies in adults with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and non-OCD anxiety disorders - and a recent trial in pediatric OCD - have shown that DCS can improve treatment response to exposure therapy relative to placebo

Jennifer M. Park

2011-01-01

287

Potential role of anticonvulsants in the treatment of obsessive-compulsive and related disorders.  

PubMed

We reviewed the extant literature to evaluate the current evidence regarding the efficacy and safety of anticonvulsants in the treatment of obsessive-compulsive and related disorders. Relevant literature was accessed using the Cochrane database, embase and PubMed on 29 October 2013. Prospective studies examining the efficacy of anticonvulsants in obsessive-compulsive and related disorders were included. Case reports, case series, and retrospective studies were excluded. A total of 10 studies were included in this review. The studies of obsessive-compulsive disorder, except for two negative studies, showed favorable efficacy results of anticonvulsants. In one study on body dysmorphic disorder, levetiracetam showed favorable efficacy. In two lamotrigine studies for pathologic skin-picking, the efficacy findings were inconsistent. In one trichotillomania study, topiramate had reduced hair-pulling symptoms. Despite limited evidence, our review suggests that anticonvulsants have a potential role in the treatment of obsessive-compulsive and related disorders. PMID:24735021

Wang, Hee Ryung; Woo, Young Sup; Bahk, Won-Myong

2014-10-01

288

The Draw-A-Person: group differences among individuals with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Tourette Syndrome, and normal controls  

E-print Network

The purpose of the present study was to investigate the differences among the human figure drawings (HFDs) of individuals diagnosed with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD), Tourette Syndrome (TS), Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD...

Burch, Wendy A.

2005-11-01

289

Amygdala activity in obsessive-compulsive disorder with contamination fear: a study with oxygen-15 water positron emission tomography.  

PubMed

Previous imaging studies of obsessive-compulsive symptom states have implicated frontal-striatal and limbic regions in the pathophysiology of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Functional imaging studies, however, have yielded inconsistent results, presumably due to methodological differences (patient inclusion criteria, stimulus paradigm, imaging technique, and absence of control groups). In the present study, randomized presentation of contamination-related and neutral visual stimuli was used to investigate the neurophysiological correlates of contamination fear in a group of medication-free OCD patients with washing behaviors and healthy controls. A total of 21 subjects (11 OCD patients and 10 healthy controls) were scanned using H(2)(15)O positron emission tomography (PET). Subjects were presented with pictures of clean and dirty surroundings and were requested to make indoor/outdoor decisions to control for attention differences. State anxiety and obsessionality were rated after each scan using visual analogue scales. Main effects of stimulus type (contamination vs. neutral) were found in bilateral occipital cortex in both groups. A significant group interaction effect was observed in the left amygdala reflecting enhanced activity in response to contamination stimuli in OCD patients. Sensitization effects were observed in the right amygdala in the OCD group; these paralleled an increase in levels of distress and obsessionality as well as a decrease in dorsolateral prefrontal activity. The findings of the present study are consistent with the hypothesis of decreased frontal-striatal control of limbic structures, specifically the amygdala, resulting in an inadequate fear response in OCD patients with contamination fear. PMID:15664794

van den Heuvel, Odile A; Veltman, Dick J; Groenewegen, Henk J; Dolan, Raymond J; Cath, Danielle C; Boellaard, Ronald; Mesina, Catalina T; van Balkom, Anton J L M; van Oppen, Patricia; Witter, Menno P; Lammertsma, Adriaan A; van Dyck, Richard

2004-12-30

290

The OCD Collaborative Genetics Study: Methods and Sample Description  

PubMed Central

Results from twin and family studies suggest that obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) may be transmitted in families but, to date, genes for the disorder have not been identified. The OCD Collaborative Genetics Study (OCGS) is a six-site collaborative genetic linkage study of OCD. Specimens and blinded clinical data will be made available through the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) cell repository. In this initial report, we describe the methods of the study and present clinical characteristics of affected individuals for researchers interested in this valuable resource for genetic studies of OCD. The project clinically evaluated and collected blood specimens from 238 families containing 299 OCD-affected sibling pairs and their parents, and additional affected relative pairs, for a genome-wide linkage study. Of the 999 individuals interviewed to date, 624 were diagnosed with “definite” OCD. The mean age of subjects was 36 years (range 7-95). The majority of affected individuals (66%) were female. The mean age at onset of obsessive-compulsive symptoms was 9.5 years. Specific mood disorders, anxiety disorders, eating disorders, and skin picking were more prevalent in female cases, whereas tics, Tourette disorder, and alcohol dependence were more prevalent in male cases. Compared to “definite” cases of OCD, “probable” cases (n=82) had, on average, later age at onset of obsessive-compulsive symptoms, lower severity score, and fewer numbers of different categories of obsessions and compulsions, and they were less likely to have received treatment for their symptoms. PMID:16511842

Samuels, Jack F.; Riddle, Mark A.; Greenberg, Benjamin D.; Fyer, Abby J.; McCracken, James T.; Rauch, Scott L.; Murphy, Dennis L.; Grados, Marco A.; Pinto, Anthony; Knowles, James A.; Piacentini, John; Cannistraro, Paul A.; Cullen, Bernadette; Bienvenu, O. Joseph; Rasmussen, Steven A.; Pauls, David L.; Willour, Virginia L.; Shugart, Yin Y.; Liang, Kung-yee; Hoehn-Saric, Rudolf; Nestadt, Gerald

2008-01-01

291

The OCD collaborative genetics study: methods and sample description.  

PubMed

Results from twin and family studies suggest that obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) may be transmitted in families but, to date, genes for the disorder have not been identified. The OCD Collaborative Genetics Study (OCGS) is a six-site collaborative genetic linkage study of OCD. Specimens and blinded clinical data will be made available through the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) cell repository. In this initial report, we describe the methods of the study and present clinical characteristics of affected individuals for researchers interested in this valuable resource for genetic studies of OCD. The project clinically evaluated and collected blood specimens from 238 families containing 299 OCD-affected sibling pairs and their parents, and additional affected relative pairs, for a genome-wide linkage study. Of the 999 individuals interviewed to date, 624 were diagnosed with "definite" OCD. The mean age of subjects was 36 years (range 7-95). The majority of affected individuals (66%) were female. The mean age at onset of obsessive-compulsive symptoms was 9.5 years. Specific mood disorders, anxiety disorders, eating disorders, and skin picking were more prevalent in female cases, whereas tics, Tourette disorder, and alcohol dependence were more prevalent in male cases. Compared to "definite" cases of OCD, "probable" cases (n = 82) had, on average, later age at onset of obsessive-compulsive symptoms, lower severity score, and fewer numbers of different categories of obsessions and compulsions, and they were less likely to have received treatment for their symptoms. PMID:16511842

Samuels, Jack F; Riddle, Mark A; Greenberg, Benjamin D; Fyer, Abby J; McCracken, James T; Rauch, Scott L; Murphy, Dennis L; Grados, Marco A; Pinto, Anthony; Knowles, James A; Piacentini, John; Cannistraro, Paul A; Cullen, Bernadette; Bienvenu, O Joseph; Rasmussen, Steven A; Pauls, David L; Willour, Virginia L; Shugart, Yin Y; Liang, Kung-yee; Hoehn-Saric, Rudolf; Nestadt, Gerald

2006-04-01

292

A Naturalistic Study of Referred Children and Adolescents with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To report on clinical features, comorbidity, and response to pharmacotherapy in children and adolescents with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) naturalistically followed and treated with serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SRIs). Method: A consecutive series of 94 patients (65 males, 29 females, age 13.6 [+ or -] 2.8 years), referred in…

Masi, Gabriele; Millepiedi, Stefania; Mucci, Maria; Bertini, Nicoletta; Milantoni, Luca; Arcangeli, Francesca

2005-01-01

293

Cognitive-Behavioral Family Treatment of Childhood Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: A Controlled Trial.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To evaluate the relative efficacy of (1) individual cognitive-behavioral family-based therapy (CBFT); (2) group CBFT; and (3) a waitlist control group in the treatment of childhood obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Method: This study, conducted at a university clinic in Brisbane, Australia, involved 77 children and adolescents with…

Barrett, Paula; Healy-Farrell, Lara; March, John S.

2004-01-01

294

“Not just right experiences”: perfectionism, obsessive–compulsive features and general psychopathology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Individuals with obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) frequently report uncomfortable sensations of things not being just right (“not just right experiences”; NJREs) and a need to ritualize until they quiet these sensations. However, very little work has been conducted to empirically examine the nature and characteristics of this phenomenon. In this paper, we present two studies that systematically examine NJREs in large

Meredith E. Coles; Randy O. Frost; Richard G. Heimberg; Josée Rhéaume

2003-01-01

295

Instinctual impulses in obsessive compulsive disorder: A neuropsychological and psychoanalytic interface  

Microsoft Academic Search

Psychopathology of obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) that has been characterized by a conflict between the ego and superego on one hand, and aggressive and sexual impulses emerging from the id on the other, and employment of characteristic defenses to combat intense conflicts being connected with ones’ biological disposition from the psychoanalytic school of thought now gets empirical foundation from neuroimaging

Pritha Mukhopadhyay; Sreemoyee Tarafder; Dinaz D. Bilimoria; Debika Paul; Gautam Bandyopadhyay

2010-01-01

296

Differential Brain Metabolic Predictors of Response to Paroxetine in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Versus Major Depression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SRI) medications are effective in the treatment of both major depressive disor- der and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), but it is unknown whether the neu- ral substrates of treatment response for the two disorders are the same or differ- ent. The authors sought to identify pre- treatment cerebral glucose metabolic markers of responsiveness to SRI treat- ment

Sanjaya Saxena; Arthur L. Brody; Matthew L. Ho; B. S. Narineh Zohrabi; Karron M. Maidment; M. A. Lewis; R. Baxter

2003-01-01

297

Cognitive therapy and exposure in vivo in the treatment of obsessive compulsive disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study is the first controlled study that evaluates the effects of cognitive therapy along the lines of Beck (1976) [Cognitive therapy and the emotional disorder. New York: International University Press] and Salkovskis (1985) [Behaviour Research and Therapy, 23, 571–583] in obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) and compares these effects with those of self-controlled exposure in vivo with response prevention.

Patricia Van Oppen; Else De Haan; Philip Spinhoven; Kees Hoogduin; Richard Van Dyck

1995-01-01

298

Inflated responsibility in obsessive compulsive disorder: Validation of an operational definition  

Microsoft Academic Search

An excessive sense of responsibility has been identified in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) where patients evaluate their thoughts in terms of the harm they could cause to themselves or others. In a new definition, responsibility was defined as the belief that one possesses pivotal power to provoke or prevent subjective crucial negative outcomes. In order to empirically test the validity of

Josée Rhéaume; Robert Ladouceur; Mark H. Freeston; Hélène Letarte

1995-01-01

299

Organizational strategies mediate nonverbal memory impairment in obsessive–compulsive disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Previous neuropsychological studies of obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) have indicated impaired executive functioning and nonverbal memory. The extent to which impaired executive functioning impacts nonverbal memory has not been established. The current study investigated the mediating effects of organizational strategies used when copying a figure on subsequent nonverbal memory for that figure.Methods: We examined neuropsychological performance in 20 unmedicated subjects

Cary R Savage; Lee Baer; Nancy J Keuthen; Halle D Brown; Scott L Rauch; Michael A Jenike

1999-01-01

300

Whole Blood Serotonin and Disruptive Behaviors in Juvenile Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveThe study was conducted with children and adolescents with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) to assess the relationship of whole blood serotonin (5-HT) content to a concurrent diagnosis of a disruptive behavior disorder (DBD) and to severity ratings of aggressive behavior.

Gregory L. Hanna; Arthur Yuwiler; Janice K. Coates

1995-01-01

301

Demographic and Clinical Characteristics of Adolescents in Hawaii With Obsessive-compulsive Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: A high prevalence rate of obsessive- compulsive disorder (OCD) among Hawaiian adoles- cents, particularly Native Hawaiians, has been reported. Be- cause Native Hawaiian and other Polynesian youth are at an increased risk for rheumatic fever, caused by an auto- immune response to group A-hemolytic streptococci, we hypothesized that the genetic and environmental risk fac- tors for streptococcal infections and

Anthony P. S. Guerrero; Earl S. Hishinuma; Naleen N. Andrade; Cathy K. Bell; David K. Kurahara; Terry G. Lee; Helen Turner; Jason Andrus; Noelle Y. C. Yuen; Alexander J. Stokes

2003-01-01

302

School Psychologists' Views and Management of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder in Children and Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Over the past decade, an increasing body of research has been conducted on evidence-based psychological and psychiatric treatment for pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Despite this improved understanding, however, these treatments are not being performed. This study descriptively examined the practices and views of school…

Gallant, Jason; Storch, Eric A.; Valderhaug, Robert; Geffken, Gary R.

2007-01-01

303

The Application of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy to Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper is part of a case series illustrating the application of different therapies to a case of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). It describes the hypothetical application of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT). This paper covers the philosophy and basic research on language and cognition that inform ACT. It also provides an ACT-based…

Twohig, Michael P.

2009-01-01

304

Is Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder a Disturbance of Security Motivation? Comment on Szechtman and Woody (2004)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

H. Szechtman and E. Woody proposed that obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is caused by a malfunctioning brain security motivation system. In the current article, the authors' review of the model suggests that it is limited in the following ways: (a) It is built on a selective review of the empirical literature, (b) it offers no explanation for…

Taylor, Steven; McKay, Dean; Abramowitz, Jonathan S.

2005-01-01

305

The Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Treatment Study II: rationale, design and methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

: This paper presents the rationale, design, and methods of the Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Treatment Study II (POTS II), which investigates two different cognitive-behavior therapy (CBT) augmentation approaches in children and adolescents who have experienced a partial response to pharmacotherapy with a serotonin reuptake inhibitor for OCD. The two CBT approaches test a \\

Jennifer B Freeman; Molly L Choate-Summers; Abbe M Garcia; Phoebe S Moore; Jeffrey J Sapyta; Muniya S Khanna; John S March; Edna B Foa; Martin E Franklin

2009-01-01

306

Treatment of obsessive–compulsive disorder: Cognitive behavior therapy vs. exposure and response prevention  

Microsoft Academic Search

The efficacy of contemporary cognitive therapy for obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) has only recently been investigated. The current study compares exposure and response prevention (ERP) and cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) delivered in an individual format. Participants were randomly assigned to the 12 consecutive-week CBT or ERP treatment. Based on 59 treatment completers, there was no significant difference in YBOCS scores between

Maureen L. Whittal; Dana S. Thordarson; Peter D. McLean

2005-01-01

307

An Inference-Based Approach to Treating Obsessive-Compulsive Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article outlines the conceptual and empirical basis for an inference-based approach (IBA) to treating obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The IBA considers that in most cases the obsessional process begins with an initial doubt (e.g., "Maybe my hands are not clean"; "Perhaps the door was not locked"; "There's a chance I made an error"; "I…

O'Connor, Kieron; Koszegi, Natalia; Aardema, Frederick; van Niekerk, Jan; Taillon, Annie

2009-01-01

308

Current Educational Practices in Classifying and Serving Students with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Current educational practices for classifying and serving students with mental health disorders such as obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) have been associated with specific problems. These include the stigma of labeling, misalignment of school-based categories (e.g., E/BD, OHI) with clinical diagnoses, and concerns regarding the provision of…

Adams, Gail B.; Smith, Thomas J.; Bolt, Sara E.; Nolten, Patrick

2007-01-01

309

Decreased limbic and increased fronto-parietal connectivity in unmedicated patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder.  

PubMed

Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is characterized by recurrent intrusive thoughts and ritualized, repetitive behaviors, or mental acts. Convergent experimental evidence from neuroimaging and neuropsychological studies supports an orbitofronto-striato-thalamo-cortical dysfunction in OCD. Moreover, an over excitability of the amygdala and over monitoring of thoughts and actions involving the anterior cingulate, frontal and parietal cortex has been proposed as aspects of pathophysiology in OCD. We chose a data driven, graph theoretical approach to investigate brain network organization in 17 unmedicated OCD patients and 19 controls using resting-state fMRI. OCD patients showed a decreased connectivity of the limbic network to several other brain networks: the basal ganglia network, the default mode network, and the executive/attention network. The connectivity within the limbic network was also found to be decreased in OCD patients compared to healthy controls. Furthermore, we found a stronger connectivity of brain regions within the executive/attention network in OCD patients. This effect was positively correlated with disease severity. The decreased connectivity of limbic regions (amygdala, hippocampus) may be related to several neurocognitive deficits observed in OCD patients involving implicit learning, emotion processing and expectation, and processing of reward and punishment. Limbic disconnection from fronto-parietal regions relevant for (re)-appraisal may explain why intrusive thoughts become and/or remain threatening to patients but not to healthy subjects. Hyperconnectivity within the executive/attention network might be related to OCD symptoms such as excessive monitoring of thoughts and behavior as a dysfunctional strategy to cope with threat and uncertainty. Hum Brain Mapp 35:5617-5632, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25044747

Göttlich, Martin; Krämer, Ulrike M; Kordon, Andreas; Hohagen, Fritz; Zurowski, Bartosz

2014-11-01

310

Metacognition, specific obsessive-compulsive beliefs and obsessive-compulsive behaviour  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cognitive distortions and beliefs have been found to be associated with obsessive-compulsive disorder. Most of these cognitive distortions are supposed to be non-specifically related to obsessive-compulsive behaviour in general, rather than specific domains of beliefs being related to specific forms of obsessive-compulsive behaviour. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether specific cognitive domains are related to specific

Paul M. G. Emmelkamp; A. Aardema

1999-01-01

311

GENDER AND PSYCHOPATHOLOGY IN OBSESSIVE COMPULSIVE DISORDER  

E-print Network

SUMMARY: The gender difference in OCD was studied in 52 patients attending the psychiatric OPD and it was found that 35 (67.30%) patients were males compared to 17 (32.70%) females, which constituted 0.72 % and 1.03 % of the male and female patients attending the OPD during the study period, respectively. Hence, inspite of the male preponderance in the study sample, it might not reflect the true prevalence of the disorder in the community. The age of onset for males was lower than that for females, but it did not reach statistical significane. The mean duration of illness for the entire sample was 7.48+7.66 years. The mean duration was found to he significantly longer for females compared to males. The females had higher obsessive, compulsive and total scores on YBOCS indicating a more severe psychopathology. All female patients had compulsions compared to 25.71 % males who had no compulsions. Females had increased frequency of obsessive rumination with obsessions of dirt and contamination along with compulsive washing. An interesting finding was that obsessive imagery with obsessions of sex and religion along with repeating rituals were found exclusively in males. A high celibacy rate was found amongst the males. There was no difference in the family history between the males and females.

Christoday R. J. Khess; Sayeed Akhtar; Tushar Jagawat; Sanjukta Das; Alpana Srivastava

312

Onset and Exacerbation of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder in Pregnancy and the Postpartum Period  

PubMed Central

Background The primary goal of this study was to examine the impact of pregnancy, childbirth and menstruation on the onset of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and/or exacerbation of OCD symptoms. Method One hundred twenty-six women attending a university-based OCD clinic aged 18-69 years who met DSM-IV criteria for OCD according to the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Disorders were interviewed retrospectively to assess OCD onset and symptom exacerbation in relationship to reproductive events. Women were placed into two groups: ever pregnant (Preg) and never pregnant (NPreg). The Preg group was further subdivided into those who reported onset of OCD in the perinatal period (perinatal-related, PR) and those that denied onset related to pregnancy (non-perinatal-related, NR). Between groups comparisons were done using a Student’s t-test for continuous measures and categorical variables were assessed using the chi-square test. Results Of the 76 women in the Preg group, 32.1% (N = 25) had OCD onset in the perinatal period (PR group), 15.4% in pregnancy, 15.4% at postpartum, and 1.3% following miscarriage. Out of 132 total pregnancies, 34.1% involved an exacerbation of symptoms, 22.0% involved an improvement in OCD symptoms, and 43.9% did not change symptom severity in women with pre-existing illness. Women in the PR group and women with perinatal worsening of pre-existing OCD were more likely to have premenstrual worsening of OCD symptoms compared to NR women (65.5% vs. 39.3%, p = 0.047). Conclusion Findings from this study provide additional evidence that pregnancy and childbirth are frequently associated with the onset of OCD or worsening of symptoms in those with pre-existing disorder. In addition, there appears to be continuity between OCD onset and/or exacerbation across the reproductive life cycle, at least with menstruation and pregnancy. PMID:20492843

Forray, Ariadna; Focseneanu, Mariel; Pittman, Brian; McDougle, Christopher J.; Epperson, C. Neill

2014-01-01

313

Randomized controlled trial of yogic meditation techniques for patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to compare efficacy of two meditation protocols for treating patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Patients were randomized to two groups-matched for sex, age, and medication status-and blinded to the comparison protocol. They were told the trial would last for 12 months, unless one protocol proved to be more efficacious. If so, groups would merge, and the group that received the less efficacious treatment would also be afforded 12 months of the more effective one. The study was conducted at Children's Hospital, San Diego, Calif. Patients were selected according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Third Edition-Revised (DSM-III-R) criteria and recruited by advertisements and referral. At baseline, Group 1 included 11 adults and 1 adolescent, and Group 2 included 10 adults. Group 1 employed a kundalini yoga meditation protocol and Group 2 employed the Relaxation Response plus Mindfulness Meditation technique. Baseline and 3-month interval testing was conducted using the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS), Symptoms Checklist-90-Revised Obsessive Compulsive (SCL-90-R OC) and Global Severity Index (SCL-90-R GSI) scales, Profile of Moods scale (POMS), Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), and Purpose in Life (PIL) test. Seven adults in each group completed 3 months of therapy. At 3 months, Group 1 demonstrated greater improvements (Student's independent groups t-test) on the Y-BOCS, SCL-90-R OC and GSI scales, and POMS, and greater but nonsignificant improvements on the PSS and PIL test. An intent-to-treat analysis (Y-BOCS) for the baseline and 3-month tests showed that only Group 1 improved. Within-group statistics (Student's paired t-tests) showed that Group 1 significantly improved on all six scales, but Group 2 had no improvements. Groups were merged for an additional year using Group 1 techniques. At 15 months, the final group (N=11) improved 71%, 62%, 66%, 74%, 39%, and 23%, respectively, on the Y-BOCS, SCL-90-R OC, SCL-90-R GSI, POMS, PSS, and PIL; P<0.003 (analysis of variance). This study demonstrates that kundalini yoga techniques are effective in the treatment of OCD. PMID:18311106

Shannahoff-Khalsa, D S; Ray, L E; Levine, S; Gallen, C C; Schwartz, B J; Sidorowich, J J

1999-12-01

314

Family-Based Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: Comparison of Intensive and Weekly Approaches  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To examine the relative efficacy of intensive versus weekly cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for children and adolescents with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Method: Forty children and adolescents with OCD (range 7-17 years) were randomized to receive 14 sessions of weekly or intensive (daily psychotherapy sessions) family-based…

Storch, Eric A.; Geffken, Gary R.; Merlo, Lisa J.; Mann, Giselle; Duke, Danny; Munson, Melissa; Adkins, Jennifer; Grabill, Kristen M.; Murphy, Tanya K.; Goodman, Wayne K.

2007-01-01

315

Adapting Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction for the Treatment of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: A Case Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is an illness characterized by intrusive and distressing thoughts, images, or impulses (i.e., obsessions) and by repetitive mental or behavioral acts (i.e., compulsions) performed to prevent or reduce distress. Efficacious treatments for OCD include psychotropic medications and exposure and response prevention…

Patel, Sapana R.; Carmody, James; Simpson, H. Blair

2007-01-01

316

Directions in Specialized Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Resistant Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: Theory and Practice of Two Approaches  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper discusses specialized approaches developed for patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) who are resistant to cognitive behavior therapy (CBT). Following a review of theoretical and outcome research, two approaches developed to resolve persistent OCD are described and illustrated. Cognitive therapy (CT) designed to address…

Sookman, Debbie; Steketee, Gail

2007-01-01

317

Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for PANDAS-Related Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: Findings From A Preliminary Waitlist Controlled Open Trial  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To provide preliminary estimates of the effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) in treating pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) of the pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcus (PANDAS) subtype. Method: Seven children with OCD of the PANDAS subtype (range 9-13 years) were treated…

Storch, Eric A.; Murphy, Tanya K.; Geffken, Gary R.; Mann, Giselle; Adkins, Jennifer; Merlo, Lisa J.; Duke, Danny; Munson, Melissa; Swaine, Zoe; Goodman, Wayne K.

2006-01-01

318

Continuous performance test in drug-naïve patients with obsessive–compulsive disorder: A case-controlled study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty drug-naïve patients with obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) were compared with matched controls on their performance of the Continuous Performance Test (CPT). There was no difference on any measure of the CPT in the two groups. Higher obsession scores, rather than compulsion scores, were associated with poorer sensitivity of the CPT in drug-naïve OCD patients.

Chun-Hung Lee; Chih-Chiang Chiu; Chen-Huan Chiu; Ching-Jui Chang; Hwa-Sheng Tang

2009-01-01

319

The genetics of obsessive-compulsive disorder: a review  

PubMed Central

Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a serious psychiatric disorder that affects approximately 2% of the populations of children and adults. Family aggregation studies have demonstrated that OCD is familial, and results from twin studies demonstrate that the familiality is due in part to genetic factors. Only three genome-wide linkage studies have been completed to date, with suggestive but not definitive results. In addition, over 80 candidate gene studies have been published. Most of these studies have focused on genes in the serotonergic and dopaminergic pathways. Unfortunately, none have achieved genome-wide significance, and, with the exception of the glutamate transporter gene, none have been replicated. Future research will require the collaboration of multidisciplinary teams of investigators to (i) achieve sufficiently large samples of individuals with OCD; (ii) apply the state-of-the-art laboratory techniques; and ( iii) perform the bioinformatic analyses essential to the identification of risk loci. PMID:20623920

Pauls, David L.

2010-01-01

320

Abnormalities of White Matter Microstructure in Unmedicated Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder and Changes after Medication  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundAbnormalities of myelin integrity have been reported in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) using multi-parameter maps of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). However, it was still unknown to what degree these abnormalities might be affected by pharmacological treatment.ObjectiveTo investigate whether the abnormalities of white matter microstructure including myelin integrity exist in OCD and whether they are affected by medication.Methodology and Principal FindingsParameter maps

Qing Fan; Xu Yan; Jijun Wang; Ying Chen; Xuemei Wang; Chunbo Li; Ling Tan; Chao You; Tianhong Zhang; Sai Zuo; Dongrong Xu; Kemin Chen; Jodie Marie Finlayson-Burden; Zeping Xiao

2012-01-01

321

Animal Models of Obsessive-Compulsive Behavior: A Neurobiological and Ethological Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Animal models of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) either may be induced in a laboratory setting or may arise spontaneously\\u000a in veterinary patients. Both models have their usefulness and may replicate some or a constellation of signs associated with\\u000a the human disorder. Classical laboratory models of OCD are induced by behavioral or pharmacological means. They include rat\\u000a pup isolation distress calls, conjunctive

Nicholas H. Dodman; Louis Shuster

322

Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: Essential Phenomenology and Overlap with other Anxiety Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Very few of the emotional disorders described in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV; American Psychiatric Association, 1994) are as devastating as obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Individuals suffering\\u000a from OCD are likely to have difficulty with work or school, falter in maintaining social and emotional relationships, and\\u000a struggle with daily life events that others take for granted. They

Jonathan S. Abramowitz; Brett J. Deacon

323

Ethnic Identification Biases Responses to the Padua Inventory for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors report differential item functioning (DIF) between Black and White participants completing the 60-item Padua Inventory (PI) for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The authors use an Internet-generated sample that included 105 Blacks, 67 Hispanics, 582 Whites, and 136 additional participants reporting an OCD diagnosis. Factor analysis replicated prior work indicating the PI consists of four factors: contamination fears, checking behaviors,

Monnica T. Williams; Eric Turkheimer; Karen M. Schmidt; Thomas F. Oltmanns

2005-01-01

324

The Psychopathology of Parents of Children and Adolescents with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Our purpose was to determine the rates of psychopathology in parents of children and adolescents with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and compare these with that found in parents of children with learning disorders of reading and written expression. Method: Thirty-one children with OCD, aged 8–15 years, and their parents (n = 62), aged 43–48 years, were studied and compared to

Magda Liakopoulou; Sofia Korlou; Katerina Sakellariou; Vassiliki Kondyli; Efi Kapsimali; Jasmin Sarafidou; Dimitris Anagnostopoulos

2010-01-01

325

Serotonin Transporter and Seasonal Variation in Blood Serotonin in Families with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

The serotonin transporter (HTT) is a candidate gene for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) that has been associated with anxiety-related traits. The long (l) and short (s) variants of the HTT promoter have different transcriptional efficiencies. HTT promoter genotype and blood 5-HT concentration were examined in 70 subjects from 20 families ascertained through children and adolescents with a DSM-III-R diagnosis of OCD.

Gregory L Hanna; Joseph A Himle; George C Curtis; Diane Q Koram; Jeremy Veenstra-Vander Weele; Bennett L Leventhal; Edwin H Cook

1998-01-01

326

A Randomized Controlled Trial of Cognitive Therapy versus Intensive Behavior Therapy in Obsessive Compulsive Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The study was designed to compare cognitive therapy (CT) with intensive behavior therapy (BT) in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and to study their change process. Methods: Sixty-five outpatients with DSM-4 OCD were randomized into 2 groups for 16 weeks of individual treatment in 3 centers. Group 1 received 20 sessions of CT. Group 2 received a BT program of 20

Jean Cottraux; Sai Nan Yao; Sylviane Lafont; Evelyne Mollard; Martine Bouvard; Alain Sauteraud; Marc Bourgeois; Jean-François Dartigues

2001-01-01

327

Comorbidity for obsessive-compulsive disorder in bipolar and unipolar disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lifetime rates of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) among subjects with histories of 1.(1) bipolar disorder,2.(2) major depressive disorder but not of hypomania or mania (unipolar disorder), and3.(3) any Axis I disorder defined in DSM-III other than bipolar or unipolar disorders (i.e., ‘other’ disorder) was determined using the Epidemiologic Catchment Area (ECA) data base. The strengths of the relationships between OCD

Yuan-Who Chen; Steven C. Dilsaver

1995-01-01

328

FDG-PET predictors of response to behavioral therapy and pharmacotherapy in obsessive compulsive disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

In subjects with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), lower pre-treatment metabolism in the right orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and anterior cingulate gyrus (AC) has been associated with a better response to clomipramine. We sought to determine pre-treatment metabolic predictors of response to behavioral therapy (BT) vs. pharmacotherapy in subjects with OCD. To do this, [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography scans of the brain were

Arthur L Brody; Sanjaya Saxena; Jeffrey M Schwartz; Paula W Stoessel; Karron Maidment; Michael E Phelps; Lewis R Baxter

1998-01-01

329

Frontal-Lobe Dysfunction in Schizophrenia and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder - A Neuropsychological Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Converging evidence suggests there is a specific role of dorso-lateral-prefrontal cortex (DLPC) in schizophrenic disorders and of orbite-frontal cortex (OFC) in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Here, 25 schizophrenic and 25 OCD patients were evaluated with Wisconsin Card Sorting Test and Object Alternation Test; neuropsychological tools sensitive to DLPC and OFC damage, respectively; and compared with 25 subjects of a control group.

M. Abbruzzese; L. Bellodi; S. Ferri; S. Scarone

1995-01-01

330

Cerebral glucose metabolism in childhood-onset obsessive-compulsive disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cerebral metabolic rate for glucose was studied in 18 adults with childhood-onset obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and in age- and sex-matched controls using positron emission tomography and fludeoxyglucose F 18. Both groups were scanned during rest, with reduced auditory and visual stimulation. The group with OCD showed an increased glucose metabolism in the left orbital frontal, right sensorimotor, and bilateral

S. E. Swedo; M. B. Schapiro; C. L. Grady; D. L. Cheslow; H. L. Leonard; A. Kumar; R. Friedland; S. I. Rapoport; J. L. Rapoport

1989-01-01

331

False Beliefs Maintenance for Fear-Related Information in Obsessive–Compulsive Disorder: An Investigation With the Hindsight Paradigm  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study tested whether participants with obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) overestimate the incidence frequency of OCD-relevant phenomena and display a decreased hindsight bias for concern-related information, which may represent a maintenance factor for OCD. Thirty participants with OCD and 39 control participants were requested to estimate the incidence frequency of 8 events in each of 4 domains: washing-relevant, checking-relevant, negative,

Steffen Moritz; Rüdiger F. Pohl

2006-01-01

332

Regional cerebral blood flow in obsessive-compulsive patients with and without a chronic tic disorder. A SPECT study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main goal of the present study was to explore whether regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) differs between obsessive-compulsive\\u000a disorder (OCD) patients without chronic motor tic disorder and those OCD patients with a comorbid chronic tic disorder. Twenty-seven\\u000a patients suffering from OCD (DSM-IV criteria), including 7 OCD patients who met DSM-IV criteria for simple chronic motor dic\\u000a disorder, and 16

Benedicto Crespo-Facorro; Jose A. Cabranes; Maria I. López-Ibor Alcocer; Beatriz Payá; Cristina Fernández Pérez; Marta Encinas; Jose L. Ayuso Mateos; Juan J. López-Ibor Jr

1999-01-01

333

Attachment states of mind in adolescents with Obsessive–Compulsive Disorder and\\/or depressive disorders: a controlled study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little is known about the contribution of attachment insecurity to Obsessive–Compulsive Disorder (OCD), though speculations\\u000a have been extensive. We aimed to study how states of mind (SoM) with regard to attachment relate to OCD with and without depressive\\u000a disorder (DD). We interviewed 100 adolescents, 25 each with OCD, DD, OCD plus DD and general population controls, using the\\u000a Adult Attachment

Tord Ivarsson; Pehr Granqvist; Christopher Gillberg; Anders G. Broberg

2010-01-01

334

Enhanced Avoidance Habits in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder  

PubMed Central

Background Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a psychiatric condition that typically manifests in compulsive urges to perform irrational or excessive avoidance behaviors. A recent account has suggested that compulsivity in OCD might arise from excessive stimulus-response habit formation, rendering behavior insensitive to goal value. We tested if OCD patients have a bias toward habits using a novel shock avoidance task. To explore how habits, as a putative model of compulsivity, might relate to obsessions and anxiety, we recorded measures of contingency knowledge, explicit fear, and physiological arousal. Methods Twenty-five OCD patients and 25 control subjects completed a shock avoidance task designed to induce habits through overtraining, which were identified using goal-devaluation. The relationship between habitual behavior, erroneous cognitions, and physiological arousal was assessed using behavior, questionnaires, subjective report, and skin conductance responses. Results A devaluation sensitivity test revealed that both groups could inhibit unnecessary behavioral responses before overtraining. Following overtraining, OCD patients showed greater avoidance habits than control subjects. Groups did not differ in conditioned arousal (skin conductance responses) at any stage. Additionally, groups did not differ in contingency knowledge or explicit ratings of shock expectancy following the habit test. Habit responses were associated with a subjective urge to respond. Conclusions These data indicate that OCD patients have a tendency to develop excessive avoidance habits, providing support for a habit account of OCD. Future research is needed to fully characterize the causal role of physiological arousal and explicit fear in habit formation in OCD. PMID:23510580

Gillan, Claire M.; Morein-Zamir, Sharon; Urcelay, Gonzalo P.; Sule, Akeem; Voon, Valerie; Apergis-Schoute, Annemieke M.; Fineberg, Naomi A.; Sahakian, Barbara J.; Robbins, Trevor W.

2014-01-01

335

White matter abnormalities of fronto-striato-thalamic circuitry in obsessive–compulsive disorder: A study using diffusion spectrum imaging tractography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies have reported white matter abnormalities in patients with obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD). This study aimed to further explore white matter abnormalities in OCD patients through diffusion spectrum imaging (DSI) and tractography of the two white matter tracts which most probably play an important role in OCD neuropathology: the anterior segment of cingulum bundles (ACB) and the anterior thalamic radiations

Chen-Huan Chiu; Yu-Chun Lo; Hwa-Sheng Tang; I-Chao Liu; Wen-Yang Chiang; Fang-Cheng Yeh; Fu-Shan Jaw; Wen-Yih Isaac Tseng

2011-01-01

336

Agomelatine Augmentation of Escitalopram Therapy in Treatment-Resistant Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a chronic condition characterized by obsessions or compulsions that cause distress or interfere with functioning. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are the first-line strategy in the treatment of OCD, but approximately 40% to 60% of patients with OCD fail to respond to them. Several augmentation strategies have been proposed, including the use of atypical antipsychotics and antidepressant combinations. In the present paper we describe the case of a young female patient suffering from severe treatment-resistant OCD who remitted as a result of agomelatine augmentation of escitalopram therapy. PMID:23094178

De Berardis, Domenico; Serroni, Nicola; Marini, Stefano; Martinotti, Giovanni; Ferri, Francesca; Callista, Gaetano; La Rovere, Raffaella; Moschetta, Francesco Saverio; Di Giannantonio, Massimo

2012-01-01

337

Agomelatine augmentation of escitalopram therapy in treatment-resistant obsessive-compulsive disorder: a case report.  

PubMed

Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a chronic condition characterized by obsessions or compulsions that cause distress or interfere with functioning. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are the first-line strategy in the treatment of OCD, but approximately 40% to 60% of patients with OCD fail to respond to them. Several augmentation strategies have been proposed, including the use of atypical antipsychotics and antidepressant combinations. In the present paper we describe the case of a young female patient suffering from severe treatment-resistant OCD who remitted as a result of agomelatine augmentation of escitalopram therapy. PMID:23094178

De Berardis, Domenico; Serroni, Nicola; Marini, Stefano; Martinotti, Giovanni; Ferri, Francesca; Callista, Gaetano; La Rovere, Raffaella; Moschetta, Francesco Saverio; Di Giannantonio, Massimo

2012-01-01

338

Clinical expression of obsessive-compulsive disorder in women with bipolar disorder Expressão clínica do transtorno obsessivo- compulsivo em uma amostra de mulheres com transtorno de humor bipolar  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Abstract Abstract Abstract Objective: Objective: Objective: Objective: Objective: To study clinical and psychopathological features of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) in women with bipolar disorder (BD). Methods: Methods: Methods: Methods: Methods: Fifteen outpatients with concurrent bipolar disorder I (80.0%) or II (20.0%) and obsessive-compulsive disorder were studied. Most of them (80.0%) sought treatment for bipolar disorder. They were ascertained by means

Cilly Klüger Issler; José Antonio de Mello; Renata Sayuri Tamada; Angela Maria Schwartzmann; Roseli Gedanke Shavitt; Eurípedes Constantino Miguel; Beny Lafer

2005-01-01

339

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Genomewide linkage scan for obsessive-compulsive  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Genomewide linkage scan for obsessive-compulsive disorder: evidence and Pediatrics, School of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA Obsessive-compulsive disorder; published online 6 June 2006 Keywords: obsessive-compulsive disorder; genome-wide scan; covariate based

Murphy, Dennis L.

340

Effects of intensive cognitive-behavioral therapy on cingulate neurochemistry in obsessive-compulsive disorder  

PubMed Central

The neurophysiological bases of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) are incompletely understood. Previous studies, though sparse, implicate metabolic changes in pregenual anterior cingulate cortex (pACC) and anterior middle cingulate cortex (aMCC) as neural correlates of response to CBT. The goal of this pilot study was to determine the relationship between levels of the neurochemically interlinked metabolites glutamate + glutamine (Glx) and N-acetyl-aspartate + N-acetyl-aspartyl-glutamate (tNAA) in pACC and aMCC to pretreatment OCD diagnostic status and OCD response to CBT. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (1H MRSI) was acquired from pACC and aMCC in 10 OCD patients at baseline, 8 of whom had a repeat scan after 4 weeks of intensive CBT. pACC was also scanned (baseline only) in 8 age-matched healthy controls. OCD symptoms improved markedly in 8/8 patients after CBT. In right pACC, tNAA was significantly lower in OCD patients than controls at baseline and then increased significantly after CBT. Baseline tNAA also correlated with post-CBT change in OCD symptom severity. In left aMCC, Glx decreased significantly after intensive CBT. These findings add to evidence implicating the pACC and aMCC as loci of the metabolic effects of CBT in OCD, particularly effects on glutamatergic and N-acetyl compounds. Moreover, these metabolic responses occurred after just 4 weeks of intensive CBT, compared to 3 months for standard weekly CBT. Baseline levels of tNAA in the pACC may be associated with response to CBT for OCD. Lateralization of metabolite effects of CBT, previously observed in subcortical nuclei and white matter, may also occur in cingulate cortex. Tentative mechanisms for these effects are discussed. Comorbid depressive symptoms in OCD patients may have contributed to metabolite effects, although baseline and post-CBT change in depression ratings varied with choline-compounds and myo-inositol rather than Glx or tNAA. PMID:23290560

O'Neill, Joseph; Gorbis, Eda; Feusner, Jamie D.; Yip, Jenny C.; Chang, Susanna; Maidment, Karron M.; Levitt, Jennifer G.; Salamon, Noriko; Ringman, John M.; Saxena, Sanjaya

2013-01-01

341

The structure of the corpus callosum in obsessive compulsive disorder.  

PubMed

Abnormal brain connectivity has recently been reported in obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). However, structural differences in the corpus callosum (CC), the primary structure connecting the two hemispheres, have not been extensively studied. In this case-control study, we recruited 30 patients with OCD and 30 healthy control subjects carefully matched for age, sex and handedness. Combining surface-based mesh-modeling and voxel-based morphometry (VBM), we compared callosal thickness and white matter (WM) density in patients and controls. We investigated associations between callosal structure and cortical gray matter (GM) density, and we related CC measures to neuropsychological performance in OCD. OCD patients showed small anterior and posterior callosal regions compared to healthy control subjects. In the OCD group, anterior callosal thickness was positively correlated with GM density of the right mid-dorso-lateral prefrontal (BA 9/46) area, while posterior callosal thickness was positively correlated with GM density in the left supramarginal gyrus (BA 40). Moreover, posterior callosal WM density was positively correlated with verbal memory, visuo-spatial memory, verbal fluency, and visuo-spatial reasoning performances. Callosal attributes were related to GM density in cortical areas innervated by the CC, and were also related to performance in cognitive domains impaired in the disorder. The CC may therefore be integrally involved in OCD. PMID:23078960

Di Paola, M; Luders, E; Rubino, I A; Siracusano, A; Manfredi, G; Girardi, P; Martinotti, G; Thompson, P M; Chou, Y-Y; Toga, A W; Caltagirone, C; Spalletta, G

2013-10-01

342

Complex segregation analysis of obsessive-compulsive disorder in 141 families of eating disorder probands, with and without obsessive-compulsive disorder.  

PubMed

Probands affected with eating disorders (ED) present a higher number of relatives affected with obsessive-compulsive disorders/tic disorders than a comparison population. Therefore, we hypothesized that ED and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) might share the same biological liability, and that a single major gene might account for that liability. We tested this hypothesis by applying a complex segregation analysis to 141 families of probands affected with ED (89 with anorexia nervosa, restricting and binge-eating types, 52 with bulimia nervosa). Given the hypothesized relationship between OCD and genetic spectrum disorders, we considered these diagnoses as affected phenotype in relatives. In Italian ED families, ED and OCD followed a Mendelian dominant model of transmission. When probands were divided according to co-diagnosis of OCD, best fit in the subgroup of families of 114 probands without OCD co-diagnosis was for a Mendelian dominant model of transmission whereas a Mendelian additive model of transmission represented best fit in the subgroup of families of 27 probands with an OCD co-diagnosis. Genetic transmission was not shown in those families where the only affected phenotype was ED. The existence of a Mendelian mode of genetic transmission within ED families supports the hypothesis that a common genetic liability could account for both ED and OCD. PMID:10898919

Cavallini, M C; Bertelli, S; Chiapparino, D; Riboldi, S; Bellodi, L

2000-06-12

343

Treatment Responses of Inpatient Eating Disorder Women with and without Co-occurring Obsessive-compulsive Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

We analyzed the influence of co-occurring obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) on response to eating disorder (ED) treatment among 2,971 female inpatients. We assessed treatment response using Eating Disorder Inventory-2 and DSM-IV ED criteria. Multivariate analyses included sociodemographics, illness severity, and co-occurring Axis I\\/II diagnoses. ED inpatients with OCD had greater ED severity than those without OCD. However, no differences occurred in

Edward J. Cumella; Zina Kally; A. David Wall

2007-01-01

344

Depressive comorbidity of panic, social phobic, and obsessive–compulsive disorders re-examined: is there a bipolar ii connection?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Utilizing the DSM-III-R schema, we have investigated lifetime comorbidity between panic disorder with or without agoraphobia (PD), social phobia (SP) and obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) on the one hand, and mood disorder on the other. Compared with PD, the results for SP and OCD showed significantly higher numbers of comorbid anxiety and mood disorders. In addition, SP and OCD were significantly

Giulio Perugi; Hagop S Akiskal; Sandra Ramacciotti; Stefano Nassini; Cristina Toni; Alessandro Milanfranchi; Laura Musetti

1999-01-01

345

Regional gray and white matter volume abnormalities in obsessive–compulsive disorder: A voxel-based morphometry study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies have demonstrated both functional and structural abnormalities in the frontal–striatal–thalamic circuits in obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD). The purpose of this study was to assess volume abnormalities not only of gray matter (GM), but also of white matter (WM) in patients with OCD using voxel-based morphometry (VBM). Subjects consisted of 23 patients with OCD and 26 normal control subjects. All

Osamu Togao; Takashi Yoshiura; Tomohiro Nakao; Maiko Nabeyama; Hirokuni Sanematsu; Akiko Nakagawa; Tomoyuki Noguchi; Akio Hiwatashi; Koji Yamashita; Eiki Nagao; Shigenobu Kanba; Hiroshi Honda

2010-01-01

346

Refining clinical judgment of treatment outcome in obsessive-compulsive disorder.  

PubMed

This research aimed to provide clinicians and investigators with optimal treatment outcome criteria for accurately predicting response and remission in both research studies and clinical practice. Data from 153 adult OCD outpatients (ages 18-79) who had participated in a treatment outcome study were examined. Signal detection analysis was conducted to compare levels of Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS) symptom percent reductions and post treatment absolute scores with Clinical Global Impression (CGI) ratings of symptom improvement and severity. Optimal cutoff criteria were based on sensitivity, specificity and efficiency and were assessed via the Quality Receiver Operating Characteristic curve. A Y-BOCS reduction of 45% was observed to be the most efficient for predicting response in research trials, whereas a reduction of 35% may be optimal for clinical use. A 55% Y-BOCS reduction was determined to be the optimal cutoff for predicting remission in both clinical and research settings. A Y-BOCS absolute raw score of 12 or less was optimal for predicting remission in a clinical setting and a raw score of 14 or below was most favorable in research trials. This research provides the first empirical contrast of optimal outcome criteria in OCD based on differing ideals of both research and practice. PMID:20846725

Lewin, Adam B; De Nadai, Alessandro S; Park, Jennifer; Goodman, Wayne K; Murphy, Tanya K; Storch, Eric A

2011-02-28

347

Study protocol for a randomised controlled trial of internet-based cognitive-behavioural therapy for obsessive-compulsive disorder  

PubMed Central

Background Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) is a common chronic psychiatric disorder that constitutes a leading cause of disability. Although Cognitive-Behaviour Therapy (CBT) has been shown to be an effective treatment for OCD, this specialised treatment is unavailable to many due to access issues and the social stigma associated with seeing a mental health specialist. Internet-based psychological treatments have shown to provide effective, accessible and affordable treatment for a range of anxiety disorders, and two Randomised Controlled Trials (RCTs) have demonstrated the efficacy and acceptability of internet-based CBT (iCBT) for OCD, as compared to waitlist or supportive therapy. Although these initial findings are promising, they do not isolate the specific effect of iCBT. This paper details the study protocol for the first randomised control trial evaluating the efficacy of therapist-assisted iCBT for OCD, as compared to a matched control intervention; internet-based therapist-assisted progressive relaxation training (iPRT). It will aim to examine whether therapist-assisted iCBT is an acceptable and efficacious treatment, and to examine how effectiveness is influenced by patient characteristics. Method/design A randomised controlled trial using repeated measures with two arms (intervention and matched control) will be used to evaluate the efficacy and acceptability of iCBT for OCD. The RCT will randomise 212 Australian adults with a primary diagnosis of OCD into either the active intervention or control condition, for 12 weeks duration. Outcomes for participants in both study arms will be assessed at baseline and post-intervention. Participants in iCBT will be further assessed at six month follow-up, while participants in the control condition will be crossed over to receive the iCBT intervention and reassessed at post-intervention and six month follow-up. The primary outcome will be clinically significant change in obsessive-compulsive symptom scores. Discussion This will be the first known therapist assisted internet-based trial of a comprehensive CBT treatment for OCD as compared to a matched control intervention. Demonstrating the efficacy of an internet-based treatment for OCD will allow the development of models of care for broad-based access to an evidence-based but complex treatment. PMID:25062747

2014-01-01

348

Should an Obsessive-Compulsive Spectrum Grouping of Disorders Be Included in DSM-V?  

PubMed Central

The obsessive-compulsive (OC) spectrum has been discussed in the literature for two decades. Proponents of this concept propose that certain disorders characterized by repetitive thoughts and/or behaviors are related to obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and suggest that such disorders be grouped together in the same category (i.e., grouping, or “chapter”) in DSM. This paper addresses this topic and presents options and preliminary recommendations to be considered for DSM-V. The paper builds upon and extends prior reviews of this topic that were prepared for and discussed at a DSM-V Research Planning Conference on Obsessive-Compulsive Spectrum Disorders held in 2006. Our preliminary recommendation is that an OC-spectrum grouping of disorders be included in DSM-V. Furthermore, we preliminarily recommend that consideration be given to including this group of disorders within a larger supraordinate category of “Anxiety and Obsessive-Compulsive Spectrum Disorders.” These preliminary recommendations must be evaluated in light of recommendations for, and constraints upon, the overall structure of DSM-V. PMID:20533367

Phillips, Katharine A.; Stein, Dan J.; Rauch, Scott; Hollander, Eric; Fallon, Brian A.; Barsky, Arthur; Fineberg, Naomi; Mataix-Cols, David; Ferrao, Ygor Arzeno; Saxena, Sanjaya; Wilhelm, Sabine; Kelly, Megan M.; Clark, Lee Anna; Pinto, Anthony; Bienvenu, O. Joseph; Farrow, Joanne; Leckman, James

2014-01-01

349

Impulse control disorders in children and adolescents with obsessive compulsive disorder  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to examine current prevalences, clinical correlates and patterns of co-occurrence of impulse control disorders (ICDs) in children and adolescents with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). We examined rates and clinical correlates of comorbid ICDs in 70 consecutive child and adolescent subjects with lifetime DSM-IV OCD (32.9% females; mean age = 13.8 ± 2.9 years). Comorbidity data were obtained with structured clinical interviews using DSM-IV criteria. OCD severity was assessed with the Child Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale. All variables were compared in OCD subjects with and without current ICDs. 12 (17.1%) subjects met criteria for a current ICD. Pathological skin picking and compulsive nail biting were the most common ICDs with current rates of 12.8% and 10.0%, respectively. OCD subjects with current ICDs were significantly more likely to have a co-occurring tic disorder (66.7% vs. 20.7%; p=.003). Although having an ICD was associated with greater numerical scores of OCD symptomatology, these differences were not statistically significant. There were no sex-specific patterns of ICD occurrence in children and adolescents with OCD. Certain ICDs are common among children and adolescents with OCD. Better identification of ICDs in children and adolescents with OCD is needed, as are empirically validated treatments for youth with co-occurring ICDs. PMID:20004481

Grant, Jon E.; Mancebo, Maria C.; Eisen, Jane L.; Rasmussen, Steven A.

2009-01-01

350

Low prevalence of smoking among patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder.  

PubMed

Tobacco smoking is common among psychiatric patients, especially among those with schizophrenia, where the prevalence is extremely high, 74% to 88%, compared with 45% to 70% in patients with other psychiatric diagnoses. Patients with anxiety disorders are less well investigated in this respect, particularly obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) patients. Eighty-three psychiatric outpatients with OCD and 110 members of the Swedish OCD Association responded to questions concerning their smoking habits. Among OCD patients, 14% were current smokers (compared with 25% in the general population of Sweden), 72% had never smoked, and 11 previous smokers had stopped, mostly without any difficulties. Since a decreased smoking rate among OCD subjects was confirmed, the smoking prevalences in schizophrenia and OCD, respectively, seem to represent either end of a continuum, and OCD may also differ significantly from other anxiety disorders in this respect. Possible implications of this finding for the purported frontal lobe dysregulation in OCD are discussed. PMID:10428185

Bejerot, S; Humble, M

1999-01-01

351

Religious involvement and obsessive compulsive disorder among African Americans and Black Caribbeans.  

PubMed

Prior research is equivocal concerning the relationships between religious involvement and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The literature indicates limited evidence of denomination differences in prevalence of OCD whereas findings regarding OCD and degree of religiosity are equivocal. This study builds on prior research by examining OCD in relation to diverse measures of religious involvement within the National Survey of American Life, a nationally representative sample of African American and Black Caribbean adults. Bivariate and multivariate analyses (logistic regression) examine the relationship between lifetime prevalence of OCD and religious denomination, service attendance, non-organizational religiosity (e.g., prayer, religious media) subjective religiosity, and religious coping. Frequent religious service attendance was negatively associated with OCD, whereas Catholic affiliation (as compared to Baptist) and religious coping (prayer when dealing with stressful situations) were both positively associated with OCD. With regard to demographic factors, persons of older age and higher education levels were significantly less likely to have OCD. PMID:22397898

Himle, Joseph A; Taylor, Robert Joseph; Chatters, Linda M

2012-05-01

352

GLUTAMATE ABNORMALITIES IN OBSESSIVE COMPULSIVE DISORDER: NEUROBIOLOGY, PATHOPHYSIOLOGY, AND TREATMENT  

PubMed Central

Obsessive compulsive disorder is prevalent, disabling, incompletely understood, and often resistant to current therapies. Established treatments consist of specialized cognitive-behavioral psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy with medications targeting serotonergic and dopaminergic neurotransmission. However, remission is rare, and more than a quarter of OCD sufferers receive little or no benefit from these approaches, even when they are optimally delivered. New insights into the disorder, and new treatment strategies, are urgently needed. Recent evidence suggests that the ubiquitous excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate is dysregulated in OCD, and that this dysregulation may contribute to the pathophysiology of the disorder. Here we review the current state of this evidence, including neuroimaging studies, genetics, neurochemical investigations, and insights from animal models. Finally, we review recent findings from small clinical trials of glutamate-modulating medications in treatment-refractory OCD. The precise role of glutamate dysregulation in OCD remains unclear, and we lack blinded, well-controlled studies demonstrating therapeutic benefit from glutamate-modulating agents. Nevertheless, the evidence supporting some important perturbation of glutamate in the disorder is increasingly strong. This new perspective on the pathophysiology of OCD, which complements the older focus on monoaminergic neurotransmission, constitutes an important focus of current research and a promising area for the ongoing development of new therapeutics. PMID:21963369

Pittenger, Christopher; Bloch, Michael H.; Williams, Kyle

2011-01-01

353

Default mode network subsystem alterations in obsessive-compulsive disorder.  

PubMed

Background Although neurobiological models of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) traditionally emphasise the central role of corticostriatal brain regions, studies of default mode network integrity have garnered increasing interest, but have produced conflicting results. Aims To resolve these discrepant findings by examining the integrity of default mode network subsystems in OCD. Method Comparison of seed-based resting-state functional connectivity of 11 default mode network components between 46 patients with OCD and 46 controls using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Results Significantly reduced connectivity within the dorsal medial prefrontal cortex self subsystem was identified in the OCD group, and remained significant after controlling for medication status and life-time history of affective disorders. Further, greater connectivity between the self subsystem and salience and attention networks was observed. Conclusions Results indicate that people with OCD show abnormalities in a neural system previously associated with self-referential processing in healthy individuals, and suggest the need for examination of dynamic interactions between this default mode network subsystem and other large-scale networks in this disorder. PMID:25257066

Beucke, Jan C; Sepulcre, Jorge; Eldaief, Mark C; Sebold, Miriam; Kathmann, Norbert; Kaufmann, Christian

2014-11-01

354

Can Patients With Obsessive—Compulsive Disorder Discriminate Between Percepts and Mental Images? A Signal Detection Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Signal detection analysis was used to test three hypotheses for repetitive thoughts and behaviors characteristic of obsessive—compulsive disorder (OCD). Patients might have (a) low sensitivity for the difference between having seen something or having imagined seeing it, (b) a high criterion for this discrimination, or (c) difficulty associating context with information in memory. Subjects judged viewed words or imagined words

Halle D. Brown; Stephen M. Kosslyn; Lee Baer; Michael A. Jenike

2000-01-01

355

A Prospective Study of Alexithymia in Obsessive-Compulsive Patients Treated with Multimodal Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Alexithymia as a predictor of treatment outcome in psychotherapy has often been discussed but rarely evaluated in prospective studies. The present study evaluated the absolute and relative stability of alexithymia in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and the predictive value of alexithymia for the outcome of treatment. Methods: We conducted a prospective study with 42 inpatients receiving intensive, multimodal

Michael Rufer; Iver Hand; Anne Braatz; Heike Alsleben; Susanne Fricke; Helmut Peter

2004-01-01

356

682 Diffusion Spectrum Imaging of White Matter Abnormalities in Fronto-Striato-Thalamic Circuit in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) is an anxiety disorder with a prevalence rate of 2% to 3% of the adult population. The clinical manifestations include persistent, intrusive thought and rituals or compulsions. To date, data from different lines of studies including neuronanatomical, neurosurgical, neuroparmacological and neruoimaging has provided important evidence implicating that the basal ganglia and by extension the striatal-thalamic and

C. H. Chiu

357

Spatial working memory deficits in obsessive compulsive disorder are associated with excessive engagement of the medial frontal cortex  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies have shown that obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) is associated with a specific deficit in spatial working memory, especially when task difficulty (i.e., working memory load) is high. It is not clear whether this deficit is associated with dysfunction of the brain system that subserves spatial working memory, or whether it is associated with a more generalized effect on

Nic J. A van der Wee; Nick F. Ramsey; Johan M. Jansma; Damiaan A. Denys; Harold J. G. M van Megen; Herman M. G. Westenberg; René S. Kahn

2003-01-01

358

Resting-state functional connectivity abnormalities in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder and their healthy first-degree relatives  

PubMed Central

Background Obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) is a common, heritable neuropsychiatric disorder, hypothetically underpinned by dysfunction of brain cortical–striatal–thalamic–cortical (CSTC) circuits; however, the extent of brain functional abnormalities in individuals with OCD is unclear, and the genetic basis of this disorder is poorly understood. We determined the whole brain functional connectivity patterns in patients with OCD and their healthy first-degree relatives. Methods We used resting-state fMRI to measure functional connectivity strength in patients with OCD, their healthy first-degree relatives and healthy controls. Whole brain functional networks were constructed by measuring the temporal correlations of all brain voxel pairs and further analyzed using a graph theory approach. Results We enrolled 39 patients with OCD, 20 healthy first-degree relatives and 39 healthy controls in our study. Compared with healthy controls, patients with OCD showed increased functional connectivity primarily within the CSTC circuits and decreased functional connectivity in the occipital cortex, temporal cortex and cerebellum. Moreover, patients with OCD and their first-degree relatives exhibited overlapping increased functional connectivity strength in the bilateral caudate nucleus, left orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and left middle temporal gyrus. Limitations Potential confounding factors, such as medication use, heterogeneity in symptom clusters and comorbid disorders, may have impacted our findings. Conclusion Our preliminary results suggest that patients with OCD have abnormal resting-state functional connectivity that is not limited to CSTC circuits and involves abnormalities in additional large-scale brain systems, especially the limbic system. Moreover, resting-state functional connectivity strength abnormalities in the left OFC, bilateral caudate nucleus and left middle temporal gyrus may be neuroimaging endophenotypes for OCD. PMID:24866415

Hou, Jing-Ming; Zhao, Ming; Zhang, Wei; Song, Ling-Heng; Wu, Wen-Jing; Wang, Jian; Zhou, Dai-Quan; Xie, Bing; He, Mei; Guo, Jun-Wei; Qu, Wei; Li, Hai-Tao

2014-01-01

359

Glutamate System Genes Associated with Ventral Prefrontal and Thalamic Volume in Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

This pilot study was undertaken to determine if there was a significant association between specific glutamate system genes\\u000a and regional volumes of interest implicated in the pathogenesis of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Volumetric magnetic\\u000a resonance imaging (MRI) and genotyping of seven polymorphisms in two genes, glutamate receptor, ionotropic, N-methyl-d-aspartate\\u000a 2B (GRIN2B) and solute linked carrier, family 1, member 1 (SLC1A1) were

Paul Daniel Arnold; Frank P. MacMaster; Gregory L. Hanna; Margaret A. Richter; Tricia Sicard; Eliza Burroughs; Yousha Mirza; Phillip C. Easter; Michelle Rose; James L. Kennedy; David R. Rosenberg

2009-01-01

360

Response Inhibition and Interference Control in Obsessive-Compulsive Spectrum Disorders  

PubMed Central

Over the past 20?years, motor response inhibition and interference control have received considerable scientific effort and attention, due to their important role in behavior and the development of neuropsychiatric disorders. Results of neuroimaging studies indicate that motor response inhibition and interference control are dependent on cortical–striatal–thalamic–cortical (CSTC) circuits. Structural and functional abnormalities within the CSTC circuits have been reported for many neuropsychiatric disorders, including obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) and related disorders, such as attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, Tourette’s syndrome, and trichotillomania. These disorders also share impairments in motor response inhibition and interference control, which may underlie some of their behavioral and cognitive symptoms. Results of task-related neuroimaging studies on inhibitory functions in these disorders show that impaired task performance is related to altered recruitment of the CSTC circuits. Previous research has shown that inhibitory performance is dependent upon dopamine, noradrenaline, and serotonin signaling, neurotransmitters that have been implicated in the pathophysiology of these disorders. In this narrative review, we discuss the common and disorder-specific pathophysiological mechanisms of inhibition-related dysfunction in OCD and related disorders. PMID:24966828

van Velzen, Laura S.; Vriend, Chris; de Wit, Stella J.; van den Heuvel, Odile A.

2014-01-01

361

Quality of life in children and adolescents with obsessive-compulsive disorder: base rates, parent–child agreement, and clinical correlates  

Microsoft Academic Search

The presence of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has been linked to decreased quality of life (QoL) among adults, yet little\\u000a is known about the impact of OCD on QoL in pediatric patients. Sixty-two youth with OCD and their parent(s) were administered\\u000a the Children’s Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale following a clinical interview. Children completed the Pediatric Quality\\u000a of Life Inventory and parents

Caleb W. Lack; Eric A. Storch; Mary L. Keeley; Gary R. Geffken; Emily D. Ricketts; Tanya K. Murphy; Wayne K. Goodman

2009-01-01

362

Should Non-Suicidal Self-Injury Be A Putative Obsessive-Compulsive Related Condition? A Critical Appraisal  

PubMed Central

Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) has many behavioral and cognitive features that would make it appear to be closely tied to obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Obsessive-compulsive related disorders (OCRDs) have been described in the literature as conditions that share a common phenomenology, neurobiology, and treatment response. We reviewed the literature describing the degree that NSSI is similar to, and distinct from, OCRDs based on these hypothesized common areas. We conclude with recommendations for conceptualization that draws partly on that from the OCRD literature and from cognitive-behavioral models of rumination. PMID:21885469

McKay, Dean; Andover, Margaret

2013-01-01

363

Seeking proxies for internal states in obsessive-compulsive disorder.  

PubMed

Pervasive doubts are a central feature of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). We have theorized that obsessive doubts can arise in relation to any internal state and lead to compensatory reliance on more discernible substitutes (proxies), including rules and rituals. Previous findings corroborated this hypothesis, but were based on students with high and low OCD tendencies and did not control for anxiety. The present study tested our hypothesis in OCD participants using both anxiety disorders and nonclinical controls. Twenty OCD participants, 20 anxiety disorders participants, and 20 nonclinical participants underwent 2 experimental procedures. In the first, participants had to produce specific levels of muscle tension with and without the aid of biofeedback. In the second, participants were asked to subjectively assess their own muscle tension after viewing preprogrammed false feedback showing either increasing or decreasing levels of muscle tension. As predicted, OCD participants were less accurate than anxiety disorder and nonclinical participants in producing designated levels of muscle tension when biofeedback was not available and more likely to request the biofeedback when given the opportunity to do so. In the false feedback procedure, OCD participants were more influenced by the false biofeedback when judging their own level of muscle tension compared with the 2 controls groups. In both procedures, anxiety disorder participants did not differ from the nonclinical controls. These results support the hypothesis that individuals with OCD have attenuated access to and reduced confidence in their internal states, and that this deficit is specific to OCD and not attributable to anxiety. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:25133987

Lazarov, Amit; Liberman, Nira; Hermesh, Haggai; Dar, Reuven

2014-11-01

364

The relationship between obsessive-compulsive personality disorder traits, obsessive-compulsive disorder and excessive exercise in patients with anorexia nervosa: a systematic review  

PubMed Central

Objective Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) traits and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) are commonly associated with patients with Anorexia Nervosa (AN). The aim of this review was to systematically search the literature to examine whether OCPD and OCD are positively associated with excessive exercise in patients with AN. Method A systematic electronic search of the literature (using PsycInfo, Medline and Web of Knowledge) was undertaken to identify relevant publications until May 2012. Results A total of ten studies met criteria for inclusion in the review. The design of the studies varied from cross-sectional to retrospective and quasi-experimental. Seven out of the ten studies reviewed demonstrated a positive relationship between OCPD and/or OCD in AN patients who exercise excessively, whilst three studies found a lack of relationship, or a negative relationship, between these constructs. Conclusion There is evidence from the literature to suggest that there is a positive relationship between OCPD and excessive exercise in patients with AN. However, the relationship between OCD and excessive exercise is less clear and further research is required to qualify the strength of such relationships. Future research should utilise the most comprehensive and reliable clinical assessment tools, and address prognostic factors, treatment factors and specific interventions for patients with OCPD and/or OCD and excessive exercise. PMID:24999397

2013-01-01

365

1H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy in obsessive-compulsive disorder: evidence for neuronal loss in the cingulate gyrus and the right striatum  

Microsoft Academic Search

We compared 12 patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and six control subjects by 1H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Significantly lower relative N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA) levels were found in the right striatum of OCD patients, as well as a decrease of anterior cingulate NAA that correlated with severity of illness. Age and sex were correlated to striatal NAA levels.

Dieter Ebert; Oliver Speck; Almuth König; Mathias Berger; Jürgen Hennig; Fritz Hohagen

1997-01-01

366

Intensive Family-Based Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: Applications for Treatment of Medication Partial- or Nonresponders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Serotonin reuptake inhibitor medications and cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) are both effective treatments for pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Despite recommendations that youth with OCD be treated with CBT alone or together with serotonin reuptake inhibitor medication, many youth are treated with medication alone or with non-CBT…

Marien, Wendi E.; Storch, Eric A.; Geffken, Gary R.; Murphy, Tanya K.

2009-01-01

367

Medial prefrontal brain activation to anticipated reward and loss in obsessive-compulsive disorder?  

PubMed Central

Obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) is associated with dysfunctional brain activity in several regions which are also involved in the processing of motivational stimuli. Processing of reward and punishment appears to be of special importance to understand clinical symptoms. There is evidence for higher sensitivity to punishment in patients with OCD which raises the question how avoidance of punishment relates to activity within the brain's reward circuitry. We employed the monetary incentive delay task paradigm optimized for modeling the anticipation phase of immediate reward and punishment, in the context of a cross-sectional event-related FMRI study comparing OCD patients and healthy control participants (n = 19 in each group). While overall behavioral performance was similar in both groups, patients showed increased activation upon anticipated losses in a medial and superior frontal cortex region extending into the cingulate cortex, and decreased activation upon anticipated rewards. No evidence was found for altered activation of dorsal or ventral striatal regions. Patients also showed more delayed responses for anticipated rewards than for anticipated losses whereas the reverse was true in healthy participants. The medial prefrontal cortex has been shown to implement a domain-general process comprising negative affect, pain and cognitive control. This process uses information about punishment to control aversively motivated actions by integrating signals arriving from subcortical regions. Our results support the notion that OCD is associated with altered sensitivity to anticipated rewards and losses in a medial prefrontal region whereas there is no significant aberrant activation in ventral or dorsal striatal brain regions during processing of reinforcement anticipation. PMID:24179774

Kaufmann, C.; Beucke, J.C.; Preusse, F.; Endrass, T.; Schlagenhauf, F.; Heinz, A.; Juckel, G.; Kathmann, N.

2013-01-01

368

Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Treatment in Patients with Down Syndrome: A Case Series  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this case series we report four cases of patients with Down syndrome with symptoms consistent with obsessive compulsive disorder. Each patient experienced substantial reduction in compulsive behaviors with pharmacotherapy of an SSRI alone or with the addition of risperidone to SSRI therapy. None of the patients experienced significant side…

Sutor, Bruce; Hansen, Mark R.; Black, John L.

2006-01-01

369

Metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 binding in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder.  

PubMed

Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a disabling, mostly chronic, psychiatric condition with significant social and economic impairments and is a major public health issue. However, numerous patients are resistant to currently available pharmacological and psychological interventions. Given that recent animal studies and magnetic resonance spectroscopy research points to glutamate dysfunction in OCD, we investigated the metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5) in patients with OCD and healthy controls. We determined mGluR5 distribution volume ratio (DVR) in the brain of ten patients with OCD and ten healthy controls by using [11C]ABP688 positron-emission tomography. As a clinical measure of OCD severity, the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS) was employed. We found no significant global difference in mGluR5 DVR between patients with OCD and healthy controls. We did, however, observe significant positive correlations between the Y-BOCS obsession sub-score and mGluR5 DVR in the cortico-striatal-thalamo-cortical brain circuit, including regions of the amygdala, anterior cingulate cortex, and medial orbitofrontal cortex (Spearman's ?'s? = 0.68, p < 0.05). These results suggest that obsessions in particular might have an underlying glutamatergic pathology related to mGluR5. The research indicates that the development of metabotropic glutamate agents would be useful as a new treatment for OCD. PMID:24833114

Akkus, Funda; Terbeck, Sylvia; Ametamey, Simon M; Rufer, Michael; Treyer, Valerie; Burger, Cyrill; Johayem, Anass; Mancilla, Baltazar Gomez; Sovago, Judit; Buck, Alfred; Hasler, Gregor

2014-12-01

370

Patient satisfaction with specialized mental health service for obsessive-compulsive disorder  

PubMed Central

Background Patient satisfaction is an important outcome variable that is increasingly used in mental health service evaluation. There are no results available for patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) yet. Methods Using the Verona Service Satisfaction Scale, patient satisfaction with a specialized mental health service was examined in patients with OCD. Results OCD patients were overall satisfied with the professional help provided, whereas satisfaction with the professional involvement of relatives within the treatment and health care process was found to be quite low. Patients with more severe OCD, as measured by the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale, as well as chronically ill and more disabled patients were more likely to be dissatisfied with the overall care they received. Patient satisfaction plays an important role in the long-term course of an illness such OCD. This seems to be decreased so longer illness is not or badly treated. There is a stronger need for involvement of family members in the treatment and health care of patients with OCD. Conclusions More OCD-specific treatment offers have to be established for patients with this long-term illness such as psychotherapy in groups. PMID:24341311

2013-01-01

371

Preliminary investigation of web-camera delivered cognitive-behavioral therapy for youth with obsessive-compulsive disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study reports a waitlist controlled randomized trial of family-based cognitive-behavioral therapy delivered via web-camera (W-CBT) in children and adolescents with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Thirty-one primarily Caucasian youth with OCD (range=7–16years; 19 male) were randomly assigned to W-CBT or a Waitlist control. Assessments were conducted immediately before and after treatment, and at 3-month follow-up (for W-CBT arm only). Primary outcomes

Eric A. Storch; Nicole E. Caporino; Jessica R. Morgan; Adam B. Lewin; Ariz Rojas; Lindsay Brauer; Michael J. Larson; Tanya K. Murphy

2011-01-01

372

Attachment to people and to objects in obsessive-compulsive disorder: an exploratory comparison of hoarders and non-hoarders  

Microsoft Academic Search

People with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) who hoard have been posited to have an atypical emotional attachment to the inanimate objects that they pathologically accumulate, yet this hypothesis has not been formally examined using methodology from the attachment field. To explore this hypothesis, attachment to people and to inanimate objects was assessed in 30 individuals with OCD (n = 14 hoarders, n = 16 non-hoarders).

Anna Nedelisky; Miriam Steele

2009-01-01

373

Obsessive-compulsive (anankastic) personality disorder: toward the ICD-11 classification.  

PubMed

Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) is an early-onset disorder characterized by perfectionism, need for control, and cognitive rigidity. Its nosological status is currently under review. Historically, OCPD has been conceptualized as bearing a close relationship with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). In this article, we discuss the diagnosis of OCPD in anticipation of its review for the ICD-11, from the perspective of clinical utility, global applicability, and research planning. Considering the recent establishment of an obsessive-compulsive and related disorders (OCRD) category in DSM-5, we focus on the relationship between OCPD and the disorders that are currently thought to bear a close relationship with OCD, including DSM-5 OCRD, and other compulsive disorders such as eating disorder and autistic spectrum disorder (that were not included in the DSM-5 OCRD category), as well as with the personality disorders, focusing on nosological determinants such as phenomenology, course of illness, heritability, environmental risk factors, comorbidity, neurocognitive endophenotypes, and treatment response. Based on this analysis, we attempt to draw conclusions as to its optimal placement in diagnostic systems and draw attention to key research questions that could be explored in field trials. PMID:25388611

Fineberg, Naomi A; Reghunandanan, Samar; Kolli, Sangeetha; Atmaca, Murad

2014-01-01

374

How to treat the untreated: effectiveness of a self-help metacognitive training program (myMCT) for obsessive-compulsive disorder  

PubMed Central

Despite advances in the understanding and treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), many patients undergoing interventions display incomplete symptom reduction. Our research group has developed a self-help manual entitled “My Metacognitive Training for OCD” (myMCT) aimed at raising patients' awareness about cognitive biases that seem to subserve OCD. The training is particularly intended for patients currently unable or unwilling to attend standard therapy, or in cases where such a treatment option is not available. For the present study, 86 individuals suffering from OCD were recruited over the Internet. Following the initial assessment participants were either immediately emailed the myMCT manual or allocated to a waitlist group. After 4 weeks, a second assessment was performed. The myMCT group showed significantly greater improvement for OCD symptoms according to the Y-BOCS total score compared with the waitlist group (d =.63), particularly for obsessions (d=.69). Medium to strong differences emerged for the OCI-R (d =.70) and the BDI-SF (d =.50). The investigation provides the first evidence for the effectiveness of the myMCT for OCD. PMID:20623925

Moritz, Steffen; Jelinek, Lena; Hauschildt, Marit; Naber, Dieter

2010-01-01

375

Intensive Family-Based Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: Applications for Treatment of Medication Partial- or Nonresponders  

PubMed Central

Serotonin reuptake inhibitor medications and cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) are both effective treatments for pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Despite recommendations that youth with OCD be treated with CBT alone or together with serotonin reuptake inhibitor medication, many youth are treated with medication alone or with non-CBT psychotherapy initially. Although effective, symptom remission with medication alone is rare (e.g., only 21.4% of youth achieved remission with sertraline in the Pediatric OCD Treatment Study, 2004) and residual symptoms often remain (e.g., 58% of subjects in the March et al. [1998] sertraline trial were not considered treatment responders). This paper reviews the literature on the efficacy of CBT for pediatric OCD, particularly as it relates to the treatment of youth with prior inadequate response to medication. It also describes an intensive, family-based CBT program for children and adolescents with OCD and support for its efficacy among those with prior partial- or nonresponse to medication. Finally, we present a case study of an adolescent girl with OCD who participated in the intensive treatment program after having limited benefit from medication and non-CBT psychotherapy and experienced a favorable response. PMID:24174866

Marien, Wendi E.; Storch, Eric A.; Geffken, Gary R.; Murphy, Tanya K.

2011-01-01

376

Poor performance on the Iowa gambling task in children with obsessive-compulsive disorder  

PubMed Central

Background Several lines of evidence implicate orbitofrontal cortex dysfunction in the pathophysiology of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The purpose of this study was to investigate neuropsychological dysfunction of the orbitofrontal cortex in children with OCD. Methods The Iowa Gambling Task (IGT), which reflects orbitofrontal cortex function, and the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST), which is associated with functioning of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, were administered to 22 children with OCD and 22 healthy controls matched for gender, age, and intelligence. Results OCD patients displayed poor performance on the IGT. In contrast, performance on the WCST was not impaired in OCD patients compared to controls. Conclusions These findings are in line with previous studies demonstrating that OCD in childhood is associated with a dysfunction of orbitofrontal-striatal-thalamic circuitry. PMID:23062199

2012-01-01

377

The Pediatric Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Treatment Study for Young Children (POTS jr): Developmental Considerations in the Rationale, Design, and Methods  

PubMed Central

This paper presents the rationale, design, and methods of the Pediatric Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) Treatment Study for young children (POTS Jr). The study is a multi-site randomized controlled trial (RCT) of family-based Cognitive Behavioral Treatment (CBT) vs. family-based Relaxation Therapy (RT) for young children (ages 5–8) with OCD, which examines the effect of treatment on symptom reduction, functional impairment, and quality of life. Secondary aims evaluate: potential moderators and mediators of treatment response, differences in time course of response, retention rates, and maintenance of treatment gains over one year post-treatment. The sample included 127 children (53% female) and their parents. With regard to ethnicity, 89% of the sample described themselves as non-Hispanic, 5% Hispanic/Latino, and 6% did not endorse a category. In terms of race, the sample was predominantly (91%) White. Because the rationale and methods of the multi-site RCT have been well established, we emphasize here the methodological aspects of the study that were tailored to meet the developmental needs of young children with OCD. Aspects that are highlighted include: choice of control group, inclusion/exclusion criteria, assessment/measurement issues, treatment adaptations, training, and recruitment. PMID:23181244

Freeman, Jennifer; Garcia, Abbe; Benito, Kristen; Conelea, Christine; Sapyta, Jeffrey; Khanna, Muniya; March, John; Franklin, Martin

2012-01-01

378

Diagnosis and treatment of an obsessive–compulsive disorder following traumatic brain injury: A single case and review of the literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 27-year-old patient with traumatic brain injury and neuropsychiatric symptoms fitting the obsessive–compulsive disorder was investigated. Brain CT-scan revealed left temporal and bilateral fronto-basal parenchymal contusions. Main Outcome Measure was the Yale–Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale at pre- and post-treatment and at 6 months follow-up. The combination of pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy resulted in lower intensity and frequency of symptoms. Our case

Helene Hofer; Susanna Frigerio; Eveline Frischknecht; Daniel Gassmann; Klemens Gutbrod; René M. Müri

2012-01-01

379

What is the association between obsessive-compulsive disorder and eating disorders?  

PubMed

Because eating disorders (EDs) and obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) co-occur at high rates and can have functionally similar clinical presentations, it has been suggested that both constructs might be part of a common spectrum of disorders. Identifying the relationship between EDs and OCD may lead to the discovery of important shared core disease processes and/or mechanisms for maintenance. The objective of this paper is to understand the relationship between EDs and OCD by systematically reviewing epidemiological, longitudinal and family studies guided by five models of comorbidity posited by Klein and Riso (1993) and others. Though this literature is relatively small, the preponderance of evidence from these studies largely suggests that OCD/ED co-occur because of a shared etiological relationship. Limitations to extant literature, and suggestions for future research are discussed. PMID:19744759

Altman, Sarah E; Shankman, Stewart A

2009-11-01

380

Cerebral glucose metabolism in childhood-onset obsessive-compulsive disorder  

SciTech Connect

The cerebral metabolic rate for glucose was studied in 18 adults with childhood-onset obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and in age- and sex-matched controls using positron emission tomography and fludeoxyglucose F 18. Both groups were scanned during rest, with reduced auditory and visual stimulation. The group with OCD showed an increased glucose metabolism in the left orbital frontal, right sensorimotor, and bilateral prefrontal and anterior cingulate regions as compared with controls. Ratios of regional activity to mean cortical gray matter metabolism were increased for the right prefrontal and left anterior cingulate regions in the group with OCD as a whole. Correlations between glucose metabolism and clinical assessment measures showed a significant relationship between metabolic activity and both state and trait measurements of OCD and anxiety as well as the response to clomipramine hydrochloride therapy. These results are consistent with the suggestion that OCD may result from a functional disturbance in the frontal-limbic-basal ganglia system.

Swedo, S.E.; Schapiro, M.B.; Grady, C.L.; Cheslow, D.L.; Leonard, H.L.; Kumar, A.; Friedland, R.; Rapoport, S.I.; Rapoport, J.L.

1989-06-01

381

OBSESSIVE-COMPULSIVE DISORDER: A REVIEW OF THE DIAGNOSTIC CRITERIA AND POSSIBLE SUBTYPES AND DIMENSIONAL SPECIFIERS FOR DSM-V  

PubMed Central

Background Since the publication of the DSM-IV in 1994, research on obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) has continued to expand. It is timely to reconsider the nosology of this disorder, assessing whether changes to diagnostic criteria as well as subtypes and specifiers may improve diagnostic validity and clinical utility. Methods The existing criteria were evaluated. Key issues were identified. Electronic databases of PubMed, ScienceDirect, and PsycINFO were searched for relevant studies. Results This review presents a number of options and preliminary recommendations to be considered for DSM-V. These include: (1) clarifying and simplifying the definition of obsessions and compulsions(criterion A); (2) possibly deleting the requirement that people recognize that their obsessions or compulsions are excessive or unreasonable (criterion B); (3) rethinking the clinical significance criterion (criterion C) and, in the interim, possibly adjusting what is considered “time-consuming” for OCD; (4) listing additional disorders to help with the differential diagnosis (criterion D); (5) rethinking the medical exclusion criterion (criterion E) and clarifying what is meant by a “general medical condition”; (6) revising the specifiers (i.e., clarifying that OCD can involve a range of insight, in addition to “poor insight,” and adding “tic-related OCD”); and (7) highlighting in the DSM-V text important clinical features of OCD that are not currently mentioned in the criteria (e.g., the major symptom dimensions). Conclusions A number of changes to the existing diagnostic criteria for OCD are proposed. These proposed criteria may change as the DSM-V process progresses. PMID:20217853

Leckman, James F.; Denys, Damiaan; Simpson, H. Blair; Mataix-Cols, David; Hollander, Eric; Saxena, Sanjaya; Miguel, Euripedes C.; Rauch, Scott L.; Goodman, Wayne K.; Phillips, Katharine A.; Stein, Dan J.

2014-01-01

382

Reduced dorsolateral prefrontal cortical hemodynamic response in adult obsessive-compulsive disorder as measured by near-infrared spectroscopy during the verbal fluency task  

PubMed Central

Background Near-infrared spectroscopy has helped our understanding of the neurobiological mechanisms of psychiatric disorders and has advantages including noninvasiveness, lower cost, and ease of use compared with other imaging techniques, like functional magnetic resonance imaging. The verbal fluency task is the most common and well established task used to assess cognitive activation during near-infrared spectroscopy. Recent functional neuroimaging studies have shown that the orbitofrontal cortex and other brain regions, including the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, may play important roles in the pathophysiology of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). This study aimed to evaluate hemodynamic responses in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in patients with OCD using near-infrared spectroscopy during the verbal fluency task and to compare these with dorsolateral prefrontal cortex responses in healthy controls. Methods Twenty patients with OCD and 20 controls matched for age, gender, handedness, and estimated intelligence quotient participated in this study. The verbal fluency task was used to elicit near-infrared spectroscopic activation and consisted of a 30-second pre-task, followed by three repetitions of a 20-second verbal fluency task (total 60 seconds), followed by a 70-second post-task period. The near-infrared spectroscopy experiment was conducted on the same day as surveys of obsessive-compulsive symptoms, depression, and anxiety. Z-scores for changes in the concentration of oxygenated hemoglobin were compared between the OCD patients and controls in 14 channels set over the left and right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and frontopolar areas. Results During the verbal fluency task, significant task-related activation was detected in both the OCD group and the controls. Changes in oxygenated hemoglobin concentration in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex were significantly smaller in the OCD group than in the controls, but were not statistically significant after correction for multiple comparisons. Conclusion Patients with OCD have reduced prefrontal, especially right dorsolateral prefrontal, cortical hemodynamic responses as measured by near-infrared spectroscopy during the verbal fluency task. These results support the hypothesis that the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex plays a role in the pathophysiology of OCD. PMID:23874098

Hirosawa, Rikuei; Narumoto, Jin; Sakai, Yuki; Nishida, Seiji; Ishida, Takuya; Nakamae, Takashi; Takei, Yuichi; Fukui, Kenji

2013-01-01

383

Using Motivational Interviewing to Enhance Treatment Outcome in People With Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder  

PubMed Central

Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a leading cause of health-related disability. There are two evidence-based treatments for OCD, pharmacotherapy and cognitive-behavioral therapy consisting of exposure and response prevention (EX/RP). Although effective, outcome from both treatments is often limited by patient lack of adherence to the treatment procedures. In this article, we present the rationale for using motivational interviewing (MI) to increase EX/RP adherence. We then review two published studies that used MI in different ways to foster EX/RP participation. Finally, we describe 6 cases in which we explored whether MI could help ready OCD patients who had refused or failed prior evidence-based treatment of any kind. Together, these data illustrate the promise and obstacles of employing MI to promote treatment adherence in OCD. We conclude by discussing future directions for researchers and for clinicians when using MI in this population. PMID:24707163

Simpson, Helen Blair; Zuckoff, Allan

2014-01-01

384

Homotypic versus Heterotypic Continuity of Anxiety Symptoms in Young Adolescents: Evidence for Distinctions between DSM-IV Subtypes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To investigate homotypic and heterotypic longitudinal patterns of symptoms of separation anxiety disorder (SAD), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), social phobia (SoPh), panic disorder (PD), and obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) in young adolescents from the Dutch general population. Method: 2,067 individuals (51.4% girls) from a…

Ferdinand, Robert F.; Dieleman, Gwen; Ormel, Johan; Verhulst, Frank C.

2007-01-01

385

A Ten-Year Review of the Efficacy of Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder in Children and Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reviews six studies using cognitive behavioral treatment (CBT) for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) in children and adolescents. Four elements of research methods are considered: (1) characteristics of participants; (2) components of the CBT programs; (3) assessment measures; and (4) follow-up analysis. The studies were obtained…

Stock, Hayli R.; Andrews, Jac

2004-01-01

386

Similarities and Differences between Children and Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Those with Obsessive Compulsive Disorder: Executive Functioning and Repetitive Behaviour  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In order to examine hypothesized underlying neurocognitive processes in repetitive behaviour, children and adolescents (7-16 years) with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) were compared on a range of executive function (EF) measures. Performance on neuropsychological tests assessing executive functioning showed…

Zandt, Fiona; Prior, Margot; Kyrios, Michael

2009-01-01

387

A Randomized Controlled Trial of Self-Directed versus Therapist-Directed Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Patients with Prior Medication Trials  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cognitive-behavioral therapy incorporating exposure and response prevention (ERP) is widely considered a first-line psychosocial treatment for patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). However, a number of obstacles prevent many patients from receiving this treatment, and self-administered ERP may be a useful alternative or adjunct.…

Tolin, David F.; Hannan, Scott; Maltby, Nicholas; Diefenbach, Gretchen J.; Worhunsky, Patrick; Brady, Robert E.

2007-01-01

388

Familiality of Tourette Syndrome, Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder, and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Heritability Analysis in a Large Sib-Pair Sample  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Tourette syndrome (TS) is a neuropsychiatric disorder with a genetic component that is highly comorbid with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, the genetic relations between these disorders have not been clearly elucidated. This study examined the familial relations among TS,…

Mathews, Carol A.; Grados, Marco A.

2011-01-01

389

Reliability and validity of the Thai version of the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale - Second Edition in clinical samples  

PubMed Central

Purpose The Yale–Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS) is regarded as the most acceptable tool for measuring obsessive–compulsive disorder symptom severity. Recently, the Yale–Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale – Second Edition (Y-BOCS-II) was developed for better measurement. The study reported here aimed to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Thai version of the Yale–Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale – Second Edition (Y-BOCS-II-T). Patients and methods The original version of the Y-BOCS-II was translated into Thai, which involved forward translation, synthesis of the translation, and back translation. Modification and cross-cultural adaptation were completed accordingly. The developed Y-BOCS-II-T, together with the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression, was administered to 41 patients who had a primary diagnosis of obsessive–compulsive disorder. The patients then completed the Pictorial Thai Quality of Life instrument and Patient Health Questionnaire. Lastly, the Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) and the Clinical Global Impression – Severity Scale (CGI-S) of all patients were blindly rated by another experienced psychiatrist who was not the interviewer. Results The mean total score of the Yale–Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale – Second Edition – Severity Scale (Y-BOCS-II-SS) and the Yale–Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale – Second Edition – Symptom Checklist (Y-BOCS-II-SC) were 18.44 (standard deviation =10.51) and 15.85 (standard deviation =9.58), respectively. The Y-BOCS-II-T had satisfactory internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha =0.94 for the Severity Scale, and Kuder–Richardson Formula 20 =0.90 for the Symptom Checklist). Inter-rater reliability was excellent for both the Y-BOCS-II-SS and Y-BOCS-II-SC. Factor analysis of Y-BOCS-II-SS items revealed a two-factor component associated with obsession and compulsion. The Y-BOCS-II-SS correlated highly with the CGI-S and GAF (r =0.75 and ?0.76, respectively), but the Y-BOCS-II-SC correlated moderately (r=0.42 for CGI-S; r=?0.39 for GAF). The Y-BOCS-II-SS and Y-BOCS-II-SC slightly to moderately correlated with the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression, Patient Health Questionnaire, and Pictorial Thai Quality of Life, which might indicate the comorbidity depression and its effect on quality of life. Conclusion The Y-BOCS-II-T is a psychometrically reliable and valid measure for the assessment of both severity and characteristics of obsessive–compulsive symptoms in Thai clinical samples. PMID:24648741

Hiranyatheb, Thanita; Saipanish, Ratana; Lotrakul, Manote

2014-01-01

390

Effects of axis I and II comorbidity on behavior therapy outcome for obsessive-compulsive disorder and agoraphobia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of concurrent axis I diagnoses and axis II traits on the efficacy of a 22-session exposure-based treatment program for 43 outpatients with panic disorder and agoraphobia (PDA) and 63 with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) was examined. Trained interviewers used the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R (SCID) to assess axis I diagnoses and the SCID-II to identify the number of

Gail Steketee; Dianne L. Chambless; Giao Q. Tran

2001-01-01

391

A controlled positron emission tomography study of obsessive and neutral auditory stimulation in obsessive-compulsive disorder with checking rituals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ten nondepressed patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) who were characterized by predominant checking rituals were compared with 10 age- and sex-matched control subjects. Hemispheric and regional cerebral blood flow levels (rCBF) were measured with positron emission tomography (H215O) across four conditions: rest, auditory stimulation with idiosyncratic normal or abnormal obsession, auditory stimulation with neutral verbal stimuli, and rest. Order of

Jean Cottraux; Daniel Gérard; Luc Cinotti; Jean-Claude Froment; Marie-Pierre Deiber; Didier Le Bars; Gérard Galy; Philippe Millet; Claire Labbé; Frank Lavenne; Martine Bouvard; François Mauguière

1996-01-01

392

Genotype Determining Low Catechol-O-Methyltransferase Activity as a Risk Factor for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study, we address the role of the gene for catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT), a key modulator of dopaminergic and noradrenergic neurotransmission, in the genetic predisposition to obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). We show that a common functional allele of this gene, which results in a 3- to 4-fold reduction in enzyme activity, is significantly associated in a recessive manner with susceptibility

Maria Karayiorgou; Margaret Altemus; Brandi L. Galke; David Goldman; Dennis L. Murphy; Jurg Ott; Joseph A. Gogos

1997-01-01

393

Brain circuitries of obsessive compulsive disorder: a systematic review and meta-analysis of diffusion tensor imaging studies.  

PubMed

The potential role of white matter (WM) abnormalities in the pathophysiology of obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) is substantially unexplored. Apart from alterations in the WM tracts within cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical circuitry, recent theorizations predict the existence of more widespread WM abnormalities. In this paper we systematically reviewed the current diffusion tensor imaging literature in OCD and purposely evaluated the prevalence and functional significance of specific WM tissue changes in the disorder. The relationship between clinical variables (medication status, symptom severity) and WM microstructural changes was also assessed. The reviewed studies are consistent with the existence of microstructural alterations in the fronto-basal pathways targeting the orbitofrontal cortex and the anterior cingulate cortex. Moreover, altered anatomical connectivity between lateral frontal and parietal regions and microstructural abnormalities in intra-hemispheric bundles linking distinctive areas of the prefrontal cortex to posterior parietal and occipital association cortices, are consistently reported. Finally, microstructural abnormalities in the corpus callosum, characterized by decreased connectivity in the rostrum and hyperconnectivity in the genu, are substantiated by a large body of evidence. PMID:24177038

Piras, Federica; Piras, Fabrizio; Caltagirone, Carlo; Spalletta, Gianfranco

2013-12-01

394

Neurobiology of obsessive-compulsive disorder: insights into neural circuitry dysfunction through mouse genetics  

PubMed Central

The precise causal factors for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) are not known, however, decades of research have honed in on the cortico-striatal-thalamo-cortical (CSTC) circuitry in the brain as a critical pathway involved in obsessions and the intimately linked compulsive-repetitive behaviors. Recent progress in human and mouse genetics have led to the identification of novel candidate susceptibility genes, which in turn have facilitated a more focused approach to unraveling the nature of circuitry dysfunction in OCD. The ability to perform invasive techniques in genetic animal models of OCD will be crucial for rapid advances in this field, and as such we review the most recent developments and highlight the importance of searching out common circuitry defects underlying compulsive-repetitive behaviors. PMID:21605970

Ting, Jonathan T.; Feng, Guoping

2011-01-01

395

Predictors of Treatment Response in Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study examines predictors of treatment response in pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder, which is a severe mental illness causing distress and impaired functioning. Summarized findings of psychosocial factors and medication interventions are presented.

Ginsburg, Golda S.; Kingery, Julie Newman; Drake, Kelly L.; Grados, Marco A.

2008-01-01

396

Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder in a Child with Asperger Syndrome: A Case Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This case report outlines the cognitive-behavioral treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder in a 7-year-old female with Asperger syndrome. Interventions were based upon the work of March and Mulle and were adapted in light of the patient's cognitive, social, and linguistic characteristics. Symptoms improved markedly after 6 months of treatment.…

Reaven, Judy; Hepburn, Susan

2003-01-01

397

Detecting pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcus in children with obsessive-compulsive disorder and tics  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundA subgroup of children with obsessive-compulsive and tic disorders are proposed to have an infectious trigger. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between group A streptococcal titers and symptom fluctuations in children with a clinical course resembling that described for pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcus.

Tanya K. Murphy; Muhammad Sajid; Ohel Soto; Nathan Shapira; Paula Edge; Mark Yang; Mark H. Lewis; Wayne K. Goodman

2004-01-01

398

Magnetoencephalography reveals altered auditory information processing in youth with obsessive-compulsive disorder.  

PubMed

Patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) often report sensory intolerances which may lead to significant functional impairment. This study used auditory evoked fields (AEFs) to address the question of whether neural correlates of sensory auditory information processing differ in youth with OCD compared with healthy comparison subjects (HCS). AEFs, recorded with a whole head 275-channel magnetoencephalography system, were elicited in response to binaural auditory stimuli from 10 pediatric subjects with OCD (ages 8-13, mean 11 years, 6 males) and 10 age- and gender-matched HCS. Three major neuromagnetic responses were studied: M70 (60-80 ms), M100 (90-120 ms), and M150 (130-190 ms). When compared with HCS, subjects with OCD demonstrated delayed latency of the M100 response. In subjects with OCD the amplitude of the M100 and M150 responses was significantly greater in the right hemisphere compared with the left hemisphere. Current results suggest that when compared with HCS, subjects with OCD have altered auditory information processing, evident from the delayed latency of the M100 response, which is thought to be associated with the encoding of physical stimulus characteristics. Interhemispheric asymmetry with increased M100 and M150 amplitudes over the right hemisphere compared with the left hemisphere was found in young OCD subjects. These results should be interpreted with caution due to the high variability rate of responses in both HCS and OCD subjects, as well as the possible effect of medication in OCD subjects. PMID:23545237

Korostenskaja, Milena; Harris, Elana; Giovanetti, Cathy; Horn, Paul; Wang, Yingying; Rose, Douglas; Fujiwara, Hisako; Xiang, Jing

2013-05-30

399

Excluding the typical patient: Thirty years of pharmacotherapy efficacy trials for obsessive-compulsive disorder  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Over the past 30 years, clinical trials have resulted in several successful pharmacotherapies for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), yet patients in clinical settings often report inadequate response. This study compares clinical characteristics of treatment-seeking OCD patients to the inclusion/exclusion criteria used in pharmacotherapy trials. METHODS The sample consisted of 325 community members with a DSM-IV diagnosis of OCD who underwent systematic interviews with clinicians knowledgeable in the diagnosis and treatment of OCD. We compiled pharmacotherapy studies for OCD published between 1980 and 2010 using Medline, PubMed, and library resources, and estimated the proportion of patients in each decade satisfying the most common inclusion/exclusion criteria. RESULTS We included 39 clinical trials and found 72% of the 325 patients would have been excluded from trials conducted between 1980 and 2010. Exclusion was projected as dramatically lower for trials conducted between 1980 and 1989 (19.7%) compared with 74.8% for trials conducted between 1990 and 1999 and 76.9% for trials between 2000 and 2010. CONCLUSIONS The majority of treatment-seeking individuals with OCD would not qualify for OCD treatment studies due to comorbid psychiatric disorders, and failure to meet OCD severity threshold criteria. This illustrates the need to include a more community-representative sample of OCD patients in clinical trials examining pharmacotherapy efficacy. PMID:24501729

Odlaug, Brian L.; Weinhandl, Eric; Mancebo, Maria C.; Mortensen, Erik L.; Eisen, Jane L.; Rasmussen, Steven A.; Schreiber, Liana R. N.; Grant, Jon E.

2014-01-01

400

The cognitive mediation of obsessive-compulsive handwashing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential mediating roles of danger expectancies, responsibility, perfectionism, anticipated anxiety and self-efficacy on obsessive-compulsive handwashing were examined. Ratings were obtained from 27 obsessive-compulsive patients before and during a behavioural avoidance test involving a compound stimulus of potting soil, animal hair, food scraps and raw meat. Correlation and partial correlation analyses were conducted to examine the relationships between the cognitive

Mairwen K. Jones; Ross G. Menzies

1997-01-01

401

The impact of trauma and post-traumatic stress disorder on the treatment response of patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Few case series studies have addressed the issue of treatment response in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)\\u000a and comorbid post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and there are no prospective studies addressing response to conventional\\u000a treatment in OCD patients with a history of trauma (HT). The present study aimed to investigate, prospectively, the impact\\u000a of HT or PTSD on two systematic, first-line

Roseli Gedanke Shavitt; Carolina Valério; Victor Fossaluza; Elizabeth Meyer da Silva; Quirino Cordeiro; Juliana Belo Diniz; Cristina Belotto-Silva; Aristides Volpato Cordioli; Jair Mari; Eurípedes Constantino Miguel

2010-01-01

402

A voxel-based investigation of regional cerebral blood flow abnormalities in obsessive–compulsive disorder using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several functional imaging studies have reported abnormalities of the orbitofrontal and anterior cingulate cortices, striatum and thalamus in obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD). These studies have often been limited by small patient samples and image analysis methods that rely on region-of-interest (ROI) approaches. We have assessed resting regional cerebral blood flow with 99mTc-ECD SPECT in 26 unmedicated OCD patients and 22 healthy

Geraldo F. Busatto; Denis R. Zamignani; Carlos A. Buchpiguel; Griselda E. J. Garrido; Michael F. Glabus; Euclides T. Rocha; Alex F. Maia; Maria C. Rosario-Campos; Claudio Campi Castro; Sergio S. Furuie; Marco A. Gutierrez; Philip K. McGuire; Euripedes C. Miguel

2000-01-01

403

A Double-blind, Placebo-Controlled Study of Risperidone Addition in Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor-Refractory Obsessive-compulsive Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background:Todate,only1controlledstudyhasfound a drug (haloperidol) to be efficacious in augmenting re- sponse in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) refractory to serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SRI) monotherapy; patients with comorbid chronic tic disor- ders showed a preferential response. This report de- scribes the first controlled study of risperidone addition in patients with OCD refractory to treatment with SRI alone. Methods: Seventy adult patients

Christopher J. McDougle; C. Neill Epperson; Gregory H. Pelton; Suzanne Wasylink; Lawrence H. Price

2000-01-01

404

Family-based association studies support a sexually dimorphic effect of COMT and MAOA on genetic susceptibility to obsessive-compulsive disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a common and severe psychiatric illness that affects 1–3% of the population and presents a well-established co-morbidity with major depressive disorder (MDD). Twin and family studies have suggested a genetic component in the etiology of OCD, although the mode of inheritance is unknown. Pharmacotherapy of the disease implicates both serotonergic and dopaminergic pathways. Previously, guided

Maria Karayiorgou; Christina Sobin; Maude L. Blundell; Brandi L. Galke; Lubomira Malinova; Pablo Goldberg; Jurg Ott; Joseph A. Gogos

1999-01-01

405

Metabolic Imaging of Anterior Capsular Stimulation in Refractory Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: A Key Role for the Subgenual Anterior Cingulate and Ventral Striatum  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-frequency anterior capsular stimulation is a new, promis- ing, and reversible neuromodulatory treatment in the research stage for patients with refractory obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The mechanism of action is unknown but hypothesized to be secondary to interruption of the corticothalamostriatocortical circuit.Methods: 18F-FDG PET was performed on 6 consecutive OCD patients preoperatively and after stimulation. The results were compared with those

Koenraad Van Laere; Bart Nuttin; Loes Gabriels; Patrick Dupont; Steve Rasmussen; Benjamin D. Greenberg

406

Exposure / Ritual Prevention Therapy Boosts Antidepressant Treatment of OCD  

MedlinePLUS

... Office 301-443-4536 NIMHPress@nih.gov More Science News about: Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) Contact the ... the Field News from the Field NIMH-Funded Science on EurekAlert Schizophrenia Not a Single Disease But ...

407

People with OCD May Have Higher Odds for Schizophrenia  

MedlinePLUS

... People With OCD May Have Higher Odds for Schizophrenia: Study But the absolute risk to any one ... 3, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Schizophrenia WEDNESDAY, Sept. 3, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- People with ...

408

Investigation of Attentional Bias in Obsessive Compulsive Disorder with and without Depression in Visual Search  

PubMed Central

Whether Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) is associated with an increased attentional bias to emotive stimuli remains controversial. Additionally, it is unclear whether comorbid depression modulates abnormal emotional processing in OCD. This study examined attentional bias to OC-relevant scenes using a visual search task. Controls, non-depressed and depressed OCD patients searched for their personally selected positive images amongst their negative distractors, and vice versa. Whilst the OCD groups were slower than healthy individuals in rating the images, there were no group differences in the magnitude of negative bias to concern-related scenes. A second experiment employing a common set of images replicated the results on an additional sample of OCD patients. Although there was a larger bias to negative OC-related images without pre-exposure overall, no group differences in attentional bias were observed. However, OCD patients subsequently rated the images more slowly and more negatively, again suggesting post-attentional processing abnormalities. The results argue against a robust attentional bias in OCD patients, regardless of their depression status and speak to generalized difficulties disengaging from negative valence stimuli. Rather, post-attentional processing abnormalities may account for differences in emotional processing in OCD. PMID:24260343

Morein-Zamir, Sharon; Papmeyer, Martina; Durieux, Alice; Fineberg, Naomi A.; Sahakian, Barbara J.; Robbins, Trevor W.

2013-01-01

409

Microstructural Abnormality in Left Nucleus Accumbens Predicts Dysfunctional Beliefs in Treatment-Resistant Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder  

PubMed Central

Background The aim of this study was to determine whether dysfunctional beliefs might predict treatment-resistance and to examine the relationship between fractional anisotropy (FA) in diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and cognitive biases for optimal treatment choice. Material/Methods We recruited 11 non-resistant obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) patients, 11 resistant OCD patients, and 11 healthy subjects. Results OCD patients had higher Obsessive Beliefs Questionnaire (OBQ-87) subscale scores than subjects in non-resistant and resistant groups. A significant difference was found between non-resistant and resistant OCD patients in R-Scale and I-Scale. A significant decrease in FA was found in left dorsal frontal gyrus and left inferior parietal lobule in the non-resistant group as compared to the control group. FA also decreased significantly in left anterior cingulate cortex, putamen, and nucleus accumbens in the resistant group as compared to the control group. There was a significant decrease in FA in nucleus accumbens in the resistant group as compared to the non-resistant group. Reduced FA in left nucleus accumbens was negatively associated with OBQ-87 factor R and I and the total Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS). Conclusions Abnormalities in cortical-striatal white matter networks may contribute to the dysfunctional beliefs in patients with treatment-resistant OCD, and the left nucleus accumbens may be an important and promising target for the treatment of OCD. PMID:25393961

Li, Zhongchun; Ji, Weidong; Li, Deqiang; Li, Xujuan; Feng, Wei

2014-01-01

410

Microstructural abnormality in left nucleus accumbens predicts dysfunctional beliefs in treatment-resistant obsessive-compulsive disorder.  

PubMed

Background The aim of this study was to determine whether dysfunctional beliefs might predict treatment-resistance and to examine the relationship between fractional anisotropy (FA) in diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and cognitive biases for optimal treatment choice. Material and Methods We recruited 11 non-resistant obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) patients, 11 resistant OCD patients, and 11 healthy subjects. Results OCD patients had higher Obsessive Beliefs Questionnaire (OBQ-87) subscale scores than subjects in non-resistant and resistant groups. A significant difference was found between non-resistant and resistant OCD patients in R-Scale and I-Scale. A significant decrease in FA was found in left dorsal frontal gyrus and left inferior parietal lobule in the non-resistant group as compared to the control group. FA also decreased significantly in left anterior cingulate cortex, putamen, and nucleus accumbens in the resistant group as compared to the control group. There was a significant decrease in FA in nucleus accumbens in the resistant group as compared to the non-resistant group. Reduced FA in left nucleus accumbens was negatively associated with OBQ-87 factor R and I and the total Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS). Conclusions Abnormalities in cortical-striatal white matter networks may contribute to the dysfunctional beliefs in patients with treatment-resistant OCD, and the left nucleus accumbens may be an important and promising target for the treatment of OCD. PMID:25393961

Li, Zhongchun; Ji, Weidong; Li, Deqiang; Li, Xujuan; Feng, Wei

2014-01-01

411

Recent findings in the genetics of OCD.  

PubMed

Progress in the elucidation of the genetic mechanisms involved in the expression of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has been hampered by 2 factors: heterogeneity of the clinical phenotype and lack of understanding of the molecular mechanism of the disorder. Efforts to narrow the phenotype have included identification of 4 symptom dimensions as well as investigation into comorbid and perhaps related illnesses such as Gilles de la Tourette's syndrome, eating disorders, and impulse-control disorders. A number of familial studies have been conducted to explore the relationship of OCD to these illnesses and the possible existence of independently heritable components that make up the more complex disorder. Candidate gene studies are also being conducted, with the goal of understanding the molecular mechanisms of OCD. PMID:12027117

Pato, Michele T; Pato, Carlos N; Pauls, David L

2002-01-01

412

Perceived quality of life in obsessive-compulsive disorder: related factors  

PubMed Central

Background Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) affects young adults and has great impact on the social, emotional and work spheres. Methods We measured perceived quality of life (QOL) in OCD patients, in order to analyse socio-demographic and clinical factors that may be associated with QOL perception. 64 OCD outpatients were assessed with the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview for DSM-IV, the Yale-Brown Obsessions and Compulsions scale (Y-BOCS), Hamilton's depression scale and the SF-36 self-administered global QOL perception scale. Results We found a correlation among Hamilton's scale scores and all SF-36 subscales. The severity of the obsessive-compulsive disorder was correlated with all SF-36 subscales and with the highest scores in Hamilton's scale. The obsessions subscale was correlated to all SF-36 subscales, while the compulsions subscale was correlated only to social functioning, emotional role, mental health and vitality. Compulsions were not related to general health perception. There were significant differences between OCD patients and the Spanish general population in all SF-36 subscales except those related to physical health and pain. Gender, age, age of onset of the disorder, years of evolution and marital status of the patients did not significantly affect quality of life perception. Being employed was related to better scores in the subscale of physical role. Patients with medical comorbidity scored lower in the subscales of general health, social functioning and mental health. Patients with comorbid psychiatric disorders had worse scores in the subscales of pain, general health, social functioning and mental health. Conclusion Quality of life perception was different in OCD patients and the general population. Quality of life perception was related to severity of the disorder, physical and psychiatric comorbidity and employment status. PMID:16684346

Rodriguez-Salgado, Beatriz; Dolengevich-Segal, Helen; Arrojo-Romero, Manuel; Castelli-Candia, Paola; Navio-Acosta, Mercedes; Perez-Rodriguez, Maria M; Saiz-Ruiz, Jeronimo; Baca-Garcia, Enrique

2006-01-01

413

Crosscutting issues and future directions for the OCD spectrum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The research planning agenda for DSM-V examined possible similarities in phenomenology, comorbidity, familial and genetic features, brain circuitry, and treatment response between obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and several related disorders that are characterized by repetitive thoughts or behaviors. Such data support a re-examination of the DSM-IV-TR classification of OCD and the anxiety disorders, with possible inclusion of a group of obsessive-compulsive

Eric Hollander; Suah Kim; Ashley Braun; Daphne Simeon; Joseph Zohar

2009-01-01

414

Generalization of Conditioned Fear and Obsessive-Compulsive Traits  

PubMed Central

Generalization of conditioned fear refers to the transfer of the conditioned fear response to stimuli that resemble the original conditioned stimulus. Overgeneralization of conditioned fear has been associated with panic disorder and generalized anxiety disorder and may be relevant to obsessive-compulsive (OC) symptoms as well. This study represents the first attempt to determine the degree to which individuals with high versus low OC traits over generalize conditioned fear. We hypothesized that the high OC individuals, particularly those characterized by overestimation of threat, would show overgeneralization of conditioned fear compared to controls as measured by behavioral and psychophysiological (fear-potentiated startle) measures. The results of this study show an interaction between the high and low Threat Estimation groups as measured by the Obsessive Beliefs Questionnaire, which suggests that those who have a tendency to overestimate threat show overgeneralization of conditioned fear. This finding suggests that the relation between OC symptoms and overgeneralization of conditioned fear may be specific to the high threat estimation component of OC symptoms. PMID:24567864

Kaczkurkin, Antonia N; Lissek, Shmuel

2013-01-01

415

Multidimensional Measures of Impulsivity in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: Cannot Wait and Stop  

PubMed Central

Objective Although the relationship between obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) and impulsivity has long been debated, impulsivity has not been systematically examined in clinical samples of OCD. Meanwhile, recent findings suggest that impulsivity is multi-dimensional construct that can be examined through several constructs. Therefore, this study is aimed to evaluate multiple facets of impulsivity in OCD. Method The recruitment includes 80 OCD and 76 healthy control participants. Participants completed a test battery comprising three behavioral tasks of stop signal task (SST), delay discounting task (DDT) and balloon analog risk test (BART), and one self-report measure of the Barratt Impulsiveness scale (BIS-11). Results OCD subjects showed significantly lower stop signal reaction time of SST reflecting higher action impulsivity and higher delay discounting parameter of DDT suggesting increased choice impulsivity but significantly lower adjusted mean pump of BART implying lower risk taking propensity of BART than healthy control. Conclusion Increased Action and choice impulsivity, and decreased risk taking propensities were found in OCD. These findings seem to be consistent with clinical characteristics of OCD such as greater preference for or avoid risky situations (avoidance), inability to wait tension relief may provoke safety behaviors (compulsion) and inability to stop already started behaviors (repetition). PMID:25372136

Sohn, Sung Yun; Kang, Jee In; Namkoong, Kee; Kim, Se Joo

2014-01-01

416

Disrupted cortical network as a vulnerability marker for obsessive-compulsive disorder.  

PubMed

Morphological alterations of brain structure are generally assumed to be involved in the pathophysiology of obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD). Yet, little is known about the morphological connectivity properties of structural brain networks in OCD or about the heritability of those morphological connectivity properties. To better understand these properties, we conducted a study that defined three different groups: OCD group with 30 subjects, siblings group with 19 subjects, and matched controls group with 30 subjects. A structural brain network was constructed using 68 cortical regions of each subject within their respective group (i.e., one brain network for each group). Both small-worldness and modularity were measured to reflect the morphological connectivity properties of each constructed structural brain network. When compared to the matched controls, the structural brain networks of patients with OCD indeed exhibited atypical small-worldness and modularity. Specifically, small-worldness showed decreased local efficiency, and modularity showed reduced intra-connectivity in Module III (default mode network) and increased interconnectivity between Module I (executive function) and Module II (cognitive control/spatial). Intriguingly, the structured brain networks of the unaffected siblings showed similar small-worldness and modularity as OCD patients. Based on the atypical structural brain networks observed in OCD patients and their unaffected siblings, abnormal small-worldness and modularity may indicate a candidate endophenotype for OCD. PMID:23797209

Peng, Ziwen; Shi, Feng; Shi, Changzheng; Yang, Qiong; Chan, Raymond C K; Shen, Dinggang

2014-09-01

417

Dissociation of decisions in ambiguous and risky situations in obsessive-compulsive disorder.  

PubMed

Patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) often show deficits in everyday decision-making, a phenomenon which is leading to a growing research interest in neuropsychological aspects of decision-making in OCD. Previous investigations of OCD patients demonstrated deficits in the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT), a decision-making task with implicit rules. Results were interpreted as reflecting orbitofrontal cortex dysfunctions observed in OCD. The aim of the present study is to investigate OCD patients' performance on the Game of Dice Task (GDT), a decision-making task with explicit and stable rules. For this purpose, 23 patients with OCD and 22 healthy comparison subjects were examined with the GDT and the IGT as well as with tests of executive functioning. While patients performed worse than comparison subjects on the IGT, they were unimpaired on the GDT and executive functioning tasks. Results further emphasize dysfunctions of the orbitofrontal cortex, but indicate intact functioning of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in patients with OCD. PMID:20004479

Starcke, Katrin; Tuschen-Caffier, Brunna; Markowitsch, Hans Joachim; Brand, Matthias

2010-01-30

418

Multivariate pattern analysis of DTI reveals differential white matter in individuals with obsessive-compulsive disorder  

PubMed Central

Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies have revealed group differences in white matter between patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and healthy controls. However, the results of these studies were based on average differences between the two groups, and therefore had limited clinical applicability. The objective of this study was to investigate whether fractional anisotropy (FA) of white matter can be used to discriminate between patients with OCD and healthy controls at the level of the individual. DTI data were acquired from 28 OCD patients and 28 demographically matched healthy controls, scanned using a 3T MRI system. Differences in FA values of white matter between OCD and healthy controls were examined using a multivariate pattern classification technique known as support vector machine (SVM). SVM applied to FA images correctly identified OCD patients with a sensitivity of 86% and a specificity of 82% resulting in a statistically significant accuracy of 84% (P ? 0.001). This discrimination was based on a distributed network including bilateral prefrontal and temporal regions, inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, superior fronto-parietal fasciculus, splenium of corpus callosum and left middle cingulum bundle. The present study demonstrates subtle and spatially distributed white matter abnormalities in individuals with OCD, and provides preliminary support for the suggestion that that these could be used to aid the identification of individuals with OCD in clinical practice. Hum Brain Mapp 35:2643–2651, 2014. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24048702

Li, Fei; Huang, Xiaoqi; Tang, Wanjie; Yang, Yanchun; Li, Bin; Kemp, Graham J; Mechelli, Andrea; Gong, Qiyong

2014-01-01

419

Obsessive-compulsive disorder patients have a reduced sense of control on the illusion of control task  

PubMed Central

There is disagreement regarding the role of perceived control in obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD). The present study used a traditional illusion of control paradigm (Alloy and Abramson, 1979) to empirically test control estimation in OCD. Twenty-six OCD patients and 26 matched comparison subjects completed an illusion of control task wherein their goal was to attempt to exert control over a light bulb. The density of reinforcement (high, low) and the valence of trials (gain, loss) were experimentally manipulated within subjects. Unbeknownst to participants, the illumination of the light bulb was predetermined and irrespective of their behavior. OCD patients exhibited lower estimates of control compared with healthy comparison subjects. There were no interactions between group and outcome density or group and valence. We found that OCD patients endorse lower estimates of control than comparison subjects. This finding highlights a potential role for contingency learning in the disorder. PMID:24659974

Gillan, Claire M.; Morein-Zamir, Sharon; Durieux, Alice M. S.; Fineberg, Naomi A.; Sahakian, Barbara J.; Robbins, Trevor W.

2014-01-01

420

An Inherited Small Microdeletion at 15q13.3 in a Patient with Early- Onset Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder  

PubMed Central

Copy number variations (CNVs) have been previously associated with several different neurodevelopmental psychiatric disorders, such as autism, schizophrenia, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The present study consisted of a pilot genome-wide screen for CNVs in a cohort of 16 patients with early-onset obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and 12 mentally healthy individuals, using array-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) on 44K arrays. A small rare paternal inherited microdeletion (?64 kb) was identified in chromosome 15q13.3 of one male patient with very early onset OCD. The father did not have OCD. The deletion encompassed part of the FMN1 gene, which is involved with the glutamatergic system. This finding supports the hypothesis of a complex network of several genes expressed in the brain contributing for the genetic risk of OCD, and also supports the glutamatergic involvement in OCD, which has been previously reported in the literature. PMID:25303678

Cappi, Carolina; Hounie, Ana Gabriela; Mariani, Daniel B.; Diniz, Juliana Belo; Silva, Aderbal R. T.; Reis, Viviane N. S.; Busso, Ariane F.; Silva, Amanda Goncalves; Fidalgo, Felipe; Rogatto, Silvia Regina; Miguel, Euripedes C.; Krepischi, Ana C.; Brentani, Helena

2014-01-01

421

Telephone-Administered Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exposure with response prevention and cognitive behavior therapy are widely recognized as effective treatments for obsessive-compulsive disorder. Unfortunately, many people with obsessive- compulsive disorder - particularly those living in rural areas - do not have access to therapists providing these treatments. Accordingly, we investigated the efficacy of telephone-administered cognitive behavior therapy for obsessive-compulsive disorder. Two open trials are reported, for

Steven Taylor; Dana S. Thordarson; Truman Spring; Angela H. Yeh; Kathleen M. Corcoran; Kathy Eugster; Colin Tisshaw

2003-01-01

422

Threat Processing in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: Evidence from a Modified Negative Priming Task  

PubMed Central

Individuals with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) often experience intrusive thoughts. These intrusions may be due to biases in information processing mechanisms, including attention, memory, and learning. To examine this hypothesis, we presented a modified negative priming (NP) paradigm with idiographically-selected words to 19 individuals with OCD (OCs) and 19 matched non-anxious control participants (NACs). The words included OCD-relevant threat, OCD-relevant positive, and neutral words. This paradigm typically elicits positive priming because participants may learn the contingency between the prime and probe that facilitates responding (Frings, C., & Wentura, D. (2006). Strategy effects counteract distractor inhibition: Negative priming with constantly absent probe distractors. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 32, 854–864). As predicted, NACs showed facilitation (i.e., positive priming) rather than NP for all word types, whereas OCs exhibited facilitation for only neutral words. For positive words, OCs exhibited no priming and for threat words they exhibited NP. These results suggest that for idiographic, OCD-relevant threat information, individuals with OCD show difficulty learning the contingency between the information in the prime and probe displays relative to the NACs. PMID:18433731

Amir, Nader; Cobb, Michelle; Morrison, Amanda S.

2008-01-01

423

Psychobiology of anxiety disorders and obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorders.  

PubMed

Obsessive-compulsive disorder is currently classified as an anxiety disorder. However, there is growing interest in the concept of an obsessive-compulsive spectrum of disorders (OCSDs). The relationship between anxiety disorders and OCSDs has been questioned. The psychobiology of anxiety disorders and OCSDs is briefly reviewed in this article. While there appear to be several distinct contrasts in the underlying psychobiology of these conditions, there is also evidence of overlapping mechanisms. In addition, there are crucial gaps in our current database, confounding nosological decision-making. Conceptualizing various anxiety disorders and putative OCSDs as lying within a broader spectrum of emotional disorders may be useful. However, clinicians must also recognize that individual anxiety and obsessive-compulsive spectrum conditions, including disorders characterized by body-focused repetitive behaviors, have distinct psychobiological underpinnings and require different treatment approaches. PMID:18849908

Stein, Dan J

2008-09-01

424

Cognitive Inflexibility and Frontal-Cortical Activation in Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder  

PubMed Central

Objective Deficits in cognitive flexibility and response inhibition have been linked to perturbations in cortico-striatal-thalamic circuitry in adult obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Although similar cognitive deficits have been identified in pediatric OCD, few neuroimaging studies have been conducted to examine its neural correlates in the developing brain. In this study, we tested hypotheses regarding group differences in the behavioral and neural correlates of cognitive flexibility in a pediatric OCD and a healthy comparison (HC) sample. Method In this functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, a pediatric sample of 10- to 17-year-old subjects, 15 with OCD and 20 HC, completed a set-shifting task. The task, requiring an extradimensional shift to identify a target, examines cognitive flexibility. Within each block, the dimension (color or shape) that identified the target either alternated (i.e., mixed) or remained unchanged (i.e., repeated). Results Compared with the HC group, the OCD group tended to be slower to respond to trials within mixed blocks. Compared with the HC group, the OCD group exhibited less left inferior frontal gyrus/BA47 activation in the set-shifting contrast (i.e., HC > OCD, mixed versus repeated); only the HC group exhibited significant activation in this region. The correlation between set shifting-induced right caudate activation and shift cost (i.e., reaction time differential in response to mixed versus repeated trials) was significantly different between HC and OCD groups, in that we found a positive correlation in HC and a negative correlation in OCD. Conclusions In pediatric OCD, less fronto-striatal activation may explain previously identified deficits in shifting cognitive sets. PMID:20732630

Britton, Jennifer C.; Rauch, Scott L.; Rosso, Isabelle M.; Killgore, William D.S.; Price, Lauren M.; Ragan, Jennifer; Chosak, Anne; Hezel, Dianne M.; Pine, Daniel S.; Leibenluft, Ellen; Pauls, David L.; Jenike, Michael A.; Stewart, S. Evelyn

2014-01-01

425

The relationship between impulse control disorders and obsessive-compulsive disorder: a current understanding and future research directions  

PubMed Central

Impulse control disorders (ICDs) constitute a heterogeneous group of conditions linked diagnostically by difficulties in resisting “the impulse, drive, or temptation to perform an act that is harmful to the person or to others.” Specific ICDs share clinical, phenomenological and biological features with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) that have suggested that these disorders might be categorized together. However, other data suggest significant differences between OCD and ICDs. In this article, clinical, phenomenological and biological features of the formal ICDs are reviewed and compared and contrasted with those of OCD. Available data indicate substantial differences between ICDs and OCD that suggest independent categorizations. Existing research gaps are identified and avenues for future research suggested. PMID:19811840

Potenza, Marc Nicholas; Koran, Lorrin Michael; Pallanti, Stefano

2009-01-01

426

Brain Structural Alterations in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Patients with Autogenous and Reactive Obsessions  

PubMed Central

Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a clinically heterogeneous condition. Although structural brain alterations have been consistently reported in OCD, their interaction with particular clinical subtypes deserves further examination. Among other approaches, a two-group classification in patients with autogenous and reactive obsessions has been proposed. The purpose of the present study was to assess, by means of a voxel-based morphometry analysis, the putative brain structural correlates of this classification scheme in OCD patients. Ninety-five OCD patients and 95 healthy controls were recruited. Patients were divided into autogenous (n?=?30) and reactive (n?=?65) sub-groups. A structural magnetic resonance image was acquired for each participant and pre-processed with SPM8 software to obtain a volume-modulated gray matter map. Whole-brain and voxel-wise comparisons between the study groups were then performed. In comparison to the autogenous group, reactive patients showed larger gray matter volumes in the right Rolandic operculum. When compared to healthy controls, reactive patients showed larger volumes in the putamen (bilaterally), while autogenous patients showed a smaller left anterior temporal lobe. Also in comparison to healthy controls, the right middle temporal gyrus was smaller in both patient subgroups. Our results suggest that autogenous and reactive obsessions depend on partially dissimilar neural substrates. Our findings provide some neurobiological support for this classification scheme and contribute to unraveling the neurobiological basis of clinical heterogeneity in OCD. PMID:24098688

Subirà, Marta; Alonso, Pino; Segalàs, Cinto; Real, Eva; López-Solà, Clara; Pujol, Jesús; Martínez-Zalacaín, Ignacio; Harrison, Ben J.; Menchón, José M.; Cardoner, Narcís; Soriano-Mas, Carles

2013-01-01

427

Did Evagrius Ponticus (AD 346-99) have obsessive-compulsive disorder?  

PubMed

Evagrius Ponticus was one of the most important and influential spiritual writers in the early Christian church. This author argues that he suffered from obsessive-compulsive disorder: in particular, the demonic 'thoughts' which he repeatedly describes meet all the criteria for obsessions. If this is true, it offers a new perspective on the relation between pastoral theology and psychiatric disorders: the spiritual tradition which Evagrius helped found may, as a result, have tended to exacerbate such symptoms in others, but it also possessed the resources to address them in a practical way. PMID:20207904

Hill, Jonathan

2010-02-01

428

Partitioning the Heritability of Tourette Syndrome and Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Reveals Differences in Genetic Architecture  

PubMed Central

The direct estimation of heritability from genome-wide common variant data as implemented in the program Genome-wide Complex Trait Analysis (GCTA) has provided a means to quantify heritability attributable to all interrogated variants. We have quantified the variance in liability to disease explained by all SNPs for two phenotypically-related neurobehavioral disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and Tourette Syndrome (TS), using GCTA. Our analysis yielded a heritability point estimate of 0.58 (se?=?0.09, p?=?5.64e-12) for TS, and 0.37 (se?=?0.07, p?=?1.5e-07) for OCD. In addition, we conducted multiple genomic partitioning analyses to identify genomic elements that concentrate this heritability. We examined genomic architectures of TS and OCD by chromosome, MAF bin, and functional annotations. In addition, we assessed heritability for early onset and adult onset OCD. Among other notable results, we found that SNPs with a minor allele frequency of less than 5% accounted for 21% of the TS heritability and 0% of the OCD heritability. Additionally, we identified a significant contribution to TS and OCD heritability by variants significantly associated with gene expression in two regions of the brain (parietal cortex and cerebellum) for which we had available expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs). Finally we analyzed the genetic correlation between TS and OCD, revealing a genetic correlation of 0.41 (se?=?0.15, p?=?0.002). These results are very close to previous heritability estimates for TS and OCD based on twin and family studies, suggesting that very little, if any, heritability is truly missing (i.e., unassayed) from TS and OCD GWAS studies of common variation. The results also indicate that there is some genetic overlap between these two phenotypically-related neuropsychiatric disorders, but suggest that the two disorders have distinct genetic architectures. PMID:24204291

Davis, Lea K.; Yu, Dongmei; Keenan, Clare L.; Gamazon, Eric R.; Konkashbaev, Anuar I.; Derks, Eske M.; Neale, Benjamin M.; Yang, Jian; Lee, S. Hong; Evans, Patrick; Barr, Cathy L.; Bellodi, Laura; Benarroch, Fortu; Berrio, Gabriel Bedoya; Bienvenu, Oscar J.; Bloch, Michael H.; Blom, Rianne M.; Bruun, Ruth D.; Budman, Cathy L.; Camarena, Beatriz; Campbell, Desmond; Cappi, Carolina; Cardona Silgado, Julio C.; Cath, Danielle C.; Cavallini, Maria C.; Chavira, Denise A.; Chouinard, Sylvain; Conti, David V.; Cook, Edwin H.; Coric, Vladimir; Cullen, Bernadette A.; Deforce, Dieter; Delorme, Richard; Dion, Yves; Edlund, Christopher K.; Egberts, Karin; Falkai, Peter; Fernandez, Thomas V.; Gallagher, Patience J.; Garrido, Helena; Geller, Daniel; Girard, Simon L.; Grabe, Hans J.; Grados, Marco A.; Greenberg, Benjamin D.; Gross-Tsur, Varda; Haddad, Stephen; Heiman, Gary A.; Hemmings, Sian M. J.; Hounie, Ana G.; Illmann, Cornelia; Jankovic, Joseph; Jenike, Michael A.; Kennedy, James L.; King, Robert A.; Kremeyer, Barbara; Kurlan, Roger; Lanzagorta, Nuria; Leboyer, Marion; Leckman, James F.; Lennertz, Leonhard; Liu, Chunyu; Lochner, Christine; Lowe, Thomas L.; Macciardi, Fabio; McCracken, James T.; McGrath, Lauren M.; Mesa Restrepo, Sandra C.; Moessner, Rainald; Morgan, Jubel; Muller, Heike; Murphy, Dennis L.; Naarden, Allan L.; Ochoa, William Cornejo; Ophoff, Roel A.; Osiecki, Lisa; Pakstis, Andrew J.; Pato, Michele T.; Pato, Carlos N.; Piacentini, John; Pittenger, Christopher; Pollak, Yehuda; Rauch, Scott L.; Renner, Tobias J.; Reus, Victor I.; Richter, Margaret A.; Riddle, Mark A.; Robertson, Mary M.; Romero, Roxana; Rosàrio, Maria C.; Rosenberg, David; Rouleau, Guy A.; Ruhrmann, Stephan; Ruiz-Linares, Andres; Sampaio, Aline S.; Samuels, Jack; Sandor, Paul; Sheppard, Brooke; Singer, Harvey S.; Smit, Jan H.; Stein, Dan J.; Strengman, E.; Tischfield, Jay A.; Valencia Duarte, Ana V.; Vallada, Homero; Van Nieuwerburgh, Filip; Veenstra-VanderWeele, Jeremy; Walitza, Susanne; Wang, Ying; Wendland, Jens R.; Westenberg, Herman G. M.; Shugart, Yin Yao; Miguel, Euripedes C.; McMahon, William; Wagner, Michael; Nicolini, Humberto; Posthuma, Danielle; Hanna, Gregory L.; Heutink, Peter; Denys, Damiaan; Arnold, Paul D.; Oostra, Ben A.; Nestadt, Gerald; Freimer, Nelson B.; Pauls, David L.; Wray, Naomi R.

2013-01-01

429

Psychological interventions for obsessive-compulsive personality disorder  

PubMed Central

This is the protocol for a review and there is no abstract. The objectives are as follows: To evaluate the potential beneficial and adverse effects of psychological interventions for people with obsessive-compulsive personality disorder and to make recommendations for future areas of research.

Alex, Rajesh; Ferriter, Michael; Jones, Hannah; Duggan, Conor; Huband, Nick; Gibbon, Simon; Vollm, Birgit A; Stoffers, Jutta; Lieb, Klaus

2014-01-01

430

Telehealth approaches to obsessive-compulsive related disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, a major new category classification of disorders, the obsessive-compulsive related disorders (OCRDs), has been proposed (Hollander, Braun, & Simeon, 2008). The proposed disorders that would fall in this category are associated with efficacious treatments, but have not been widely disseminated. Recent developments in telehealth have made treatment available to a wider range of clients with putative OCRDs. This paper

Joseph Brand; Dean McKay

2012-01-01

431

Pharmacological interventions for obsessive-compulsive personality disorder  

PubMed Central

This is the protocol for a review and there is no abstract. The objectives are as follows: To evaluate the potential beneficial and adverse effects of pharmacological interventions for people with obsessive-compulsive personality disorder and to make recommendations for future areas of research.

Alex, Rajesh; Ferriter, Michael; Jones, Hannah; Huband, Nick; Duggan, Conor; Vollm, Birgit A; Stoffers, Jutta; Lieb, Klaus

2014-01-01

432

Ondansetron or placebo in the augmentation of fluvoxamine response over 8 weeks in obsessive-compulsive disorder.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy and safety of ondansetron as an augmentative agent to fluvoxamine in the treatment of patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Forty-six men and women, aged 18-60 years, who fulfilled the diagnostic criteria of OCD on the basis of the DSM-IV-TR and had a Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS) score of at least 21 were recruited into the study. The patients randomly received either ondansetron (8?mg/day) or placebo for 8 weeks. All patients received fluvoxamine (100?mg/day) for the first 4 weeks, followed by 200?mg/day for the rest of the trial. The patients were assessed using the Y-BOCS and the adverse event checklists at baseline, and the second, fourth, sixth, and eighth week. Forty-four patients completed the study. The Y-BOCS total score as well as the Y-BOCS obsession subscale score and compulsion subscale score showed significantly greater reduction in the ondansetron group than in the placebo group. There was no significant difference in adverse events between the two groups. In this 8-week double-blind randomized-controlled trial, ondansetron showed significant beneficial effect as an augmentative agent with fluvoxamine in patients with moderate to severe OCD and it was generally well tolerated. PMID:24850229

Heidari, Mahnaz; Zarei, Maryam; Hosseini, Seyed M R;