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Sample records for ocd obsessive-compulsive symptoms

  1. Structure of Obsessive-Compulsive Symptoms in Pediatric OCD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mataix-Cols, David; Nakatani, Eriko; Micali, Nadia; Heyman, Isobel

    2008-01-01

    The investigation of the structure of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) symptoms observed in adults is similar to those observed in children is presented. This investigation indicates the structure of OCD symptoms is the same across the entire lifespan as compared to pediatric OCD and adulthood OCD.

  2. Religious Attitudes in Adolescents with Obsessive Compulsive Symptoms OCS and Disorder OCD

    PubMed Central

    Rady, Ahmed; Salama, Hoda; Wagdy, Mervat; Ketat, Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    Background: Mental health professionals observed booming in prevalence of obsessive compulsive symptoms among children and adolescents. Our epidemiological study aims at estimating the prevalence of obsessive symptoms and obsessive compulsive disorder among secondary school students and, as a secondary research objective, to assess religious attitudes among those patients. Materials: The study is cross sectional conducted on 1299 secondary school students, adequate sample size estaimated on a prevalence of 2% for Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) in literature. Equal samples were recruited from the 3 educative zones in Alexandria Governorate. Obsessive compulsive symptoms were assessed by the Lyeton obsessive inventory child LOI-CV, the Arabic version that has been validated and tested for reliability in Egyptian culture. Those scoring 35 or above were subjected to the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview for children MINI-KID Arabic. Patients with OCD had their diagnosis confirmed by psychiatric interview to assure fulfillment of criteria of OCD according to DSM IV –TR criteria. A standardized self reporting questionnaire was designed to assess religious attitudes. Results: Among the studied sample (n=1299), 201 students were scored > 35 on LOI-CV i.e. 15.5% of the total sample have OCS The prevalence of OCD among studied sample was 2.2% as 29 students from the OCS students were fulfilling diagnostic criteria for OCD according to DSM-IV TR. Religious practicing attitudes were 93.1% and 79.6% in adolescents with obsessive compulsive disorder OCD and obsessive compulsive symptoms OCS respectively with no difference (X2=0.07) Conclusion: There’s a high prevalence rate of obsessive symptoms among adolescents, such finding highlights the necessity and need of public awareness and screening of adolescents for early detection and management. Religious attitude didn’t show significant difference among adolescents showing only obsessive compulsive disorder or those showing only obsessive compulsive symptoms PMID:23121759

  3. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD)

    MedlinePlus

    ... a Psychiatrist Patients & Families All Topics Help With Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Curated and updated for the community by APA Topic Information Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is an anxiety disorder in which people ...

  4. Insight into Obsessive-Compulsive Symptoms and Awareness of Illness in Adolescent Schizophrenia Patients with and without OCD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faragian, Sarit; Kurs, Rena; Poyurovsky, Michael

    2008-01-01

    A substantial proportion of adolescent schizophrenia patients also has obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). As the reliability of OCD identification in schizophrenia has been challenged, we evaluated insight into OCD symptoms and awareness of schizophrenia, using the Brown Assessment of Beliefs Scale and the Scale to Assess Unawareness of Mental…

  5. Insight into Obsessive-Compulsive Symptoms and Awareness of Illness in Adolescent Schizophrenia Patients with and without OCD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faragian, Sarit; Kurs, Rena; Poyurovsky, Michael

    2008-01-01

    A substantial proportion of adolescent schizophrenia patients also has obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). As the reliability of OCD identification in schizophrenia has been challenged, we evaluated insight into OCD symptoms and awareness of schizophrenia, using the Brown Assessment of Beliefs Scale and the Scale to Assess Unawareness of Mental

  6. Hoarding and Obsessive-Compulsive Symptoms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frost, Randy O.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Researches the relation between hoarding and obsessive-compulsive disorders (OCD). In both college student and community samples, hoarding was associated with higher scores on the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale. Hoarding also was associated with higher levels of general psychopathology as measured by the Brief Symptom Inventory. Results…

  7. The relationships between obsessive-compulsive symptom dimensions and cognitions in obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    PubMed

    Brakoulias, Vlasios; Starcevic, Vladan; Berle, David; Milicevic, Denise; Hannan, Anthony; Martin, Andrew

    2014-06-01

    Several studies have linked obsessive-compulsive symptoms to specific obsessive-compulsive cognitions, however methodologies have varied, and no study has determined obsessive-compulsive symptoms using the most widely used clinician rating scale, the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS). Considering that almost all studies that used factor analysis to ascertain OCD symptom dimensions were based on the Y-BOCS and that self-report instruments assessing obsessive-compulsive symptoms correlate poorly with the Y-BOCS, there is a need to use the Y-BOCS to examine the relationship between obsessive-compulsive cognitions and obsessive-compulsive symptom dimensions. This study examined the relationship between five Y-BOCS-derived obsessive-compulsive symptom dimensions and the three obsessive-compulsive cognitive domains identified by the obsessive-beliefs questionnaire (OBQ). The symmetry/ordering symptom dimension was associated with increased perfectionism/intolerance of uncertainty, the unacceptable/taboo thoughts symptom dimension was associated with increased importance/control of thoughts and the doubt/checking symptom dimension was associated with increased responsibility/threat estimation. There was no statistical evidence of an association between any OBQ belief sub-scale and the hoarding symptom dimension nor the contamination/cleaning symptom dimension. The findings encourage symptom-based approaches to cognitive-behavioural therapy for some OCD symptoms and call for further research on cognitions associated with contamination/cleaning symptoms and hoarding. PMID:24142072

  8. Screening for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD)

    MedlinePlus

    ... GAD) Panic Disorder & Agoraphobia Social Anxiety Disorder Specific Phobias Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) ... Screening for Social Anxiety Disorder Screening for Specific Phobias Screening for an Anxiety Disorder: Children Screening for ...

  9. Delayed bedtimes and obsessive-compulsive symptoms.

    PubMed

    Coles, Meredith E; Schubert, Jessica R; Sharkey, Katherine M

    2012-10-01

    There is increasing recognition of an important interplay between psychiatric disorders and sleep. Clinical observations and several empirical studies have shown that later bedtimes are associated with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). This study examined the relation of delayed bedtimes (DBs) and symptoms of OCD. Two hundred and sixty-six undergraduates completed a battery of questionnaires assessing sleep patterns, mood, and obsessive-compulsive (OC) symptoms. Results showed that participants with DBs reported increased rates of OC symptoms, as compared with non-DB participants. Further, this relation remained significant when controlling for negative affect. Additional work examining the interplay between sleep and OC symptoms is warranted. PMID:22946735

  10. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD)

    MedlinePlus

    ... OCD is a common disorder that affects adults, adolescents, and children all over the world. Most people ... Adults: This webpage lists information on trends in prevalence of and use of treatments/services by adults ...

  11. Childhood trauma and obsessive-compulsive symptoms.

    PubMed

    Mathews, Carol A; Kaur, Nirmaljit; Stein, Murray B

    2008-01-01

    Childhood trauma is known to predispose to a variety of psychiatric disorders, including mood, anxiety, eating, and personality disorders. However, the relationship between childhood trauma and obsessive-compulsive symptoms has not been well studied. This study examines the relationship between childhood trauma, personality facets, and obsessive-compulsive symptoms in 938 college students using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, the Leyton Obsessional Inventory, and the NEO Personality Inventory-Revised. Between 13 and 30% of subjects met criteria for childhood trauma, with emotional neglect the most commonly reported experience. There was a small but significant association between obsessive-compulsive symptoms and childhood trauma, specifically emotional abuse and physical neglect, all of which was accounted for by co-occurring anxiety symptoms. An independent association was also seen between emotional abuse, physical abuse, and high levels of obsessive-compulsive symptoms ("probable obsessive-compulsive disorder"), which remained significant in the context of co-occurring anxiety symptoms. A similar association was seen between obsessive-compulsive symptoms and conscientiousness, and between emotional neglect and sexual abuse and conscientiousness, suggesting that an indirect role for childhood trauma in the development of obsessive-compulsive symptoms may also exist. PMID:17557315

  12. Treatment for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and OCD-related disorders using GVG

    SciTech Connect

    Dewey, Stephen L.; Brodie, Jonathan D.; Ashby, Jr., Charles R.

    2002-01-01

    The present invention relates to the use of gamma vinyl-GABA (GVG) to treat obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and OCD-related disorders, and to reduce or eliminate behaviors associated with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and OCD-related disorders.

  13. Interpretation of Ambiguity in Individuals with Obsessive-Compulsive Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Kuckertz, Jennie M.; Amir, Nader; Tobin, Anastacia C.; Najmi, Sadia

    2013-01-01

    In two experiments we examined the psychometric properties of a new measure of interpretation bias in individuals with obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCs). In Experiment 1, 38 individuals high in OC symptoms, 34 individuals high in anxiety and dysphoric symptoms, and 31 asymptomatic individuals completed the measure. Results revealed that the Word Sentence Association Test for OCD (WSAO) can differentiate those with OC symptoms from both a matched anxious/dysphoric group and a non-anxious/non-dysphoric group. In a second experiment, we tested the predictive validity of the WSAO using a performance-based behavioral approach test of contamination fears, and found that the WSAO was a better predictor of avoidance than an established measure of OC washing symptoms (Obsessive Compulsive Inventory-Revised, washing subscale). Our results provide preliminary evidence for the reliability and validity of the WSAO as well as its usefulness in predicting response to behavioral challenge above and beyond OC symptoms, depression, and anxiety. PMID:24179287

  14. The familiality of specific symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    PubMed

    Brakoulias, Vlasios; Starcevic, Vladan; Martin, Andrew; Berle, David; Milicevic, Denise; Viswasam, Kirupamani

    2016-05-30

    This study aimed to assess whether a family history of specific OCD symptoms was associated with the same OCD symptoms in study participants. Participants were sampled from the Nepean OCD study (N=206) and were assessed with the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale Symptom Checklist (YBOCS-SC) and the Vancouver Obsessional Compulsive Inventory (VOCI) in order to determine their OCD symptoms. A family history screen was used to determine whether participants had a first-degree relative with a history of any of the following specific symptoms: hoarding, contamination/cleaning, symmetry/ordering, doubt/checking and/or other OCD symptoms. The characteristics of participants with a family history of a specific OCD symptom were compared to those of participants with a family history of any other OCD symptom. This was repeated for each specific OCD symptom. The roles of co-occurring tics and age of onset of OCD were also assessed. Distinct familial associations were detected for the symptoms of hoarding and contamination/cleaning. Age of onset of OCD was significantly younger in participants who reported a family history of "other" symptoms. These findings suggest that certain OCD symptom dimensions are more familial than others, which has significant implications for aetiology of OCD. PMID:27058157

  15. Clinical and Cognitive Correlates of Depressive Symptoms among Youth with Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peris, Tara S.; Bergman, R. Lindsey; Asarnow, Joan R.; Langley, Audra; McCracken, James T.; Piacentini, John

    2010-01-01

    Depression is the most common comorbidity among adults with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), yet little is known about depressive symptoms in childhood OCD. This study examined clinical and cognitive variables associated with depressive symptomatology in 71 youths (62% male, M age = 12.7 years) with primary OCD. Youths presented with a range…

  16. Clinical and Cognitive Correlates of Depressive Symptoms among Youth with Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peris, Tara S.; Bergman, R. Lindsey; Asarnow, Joan R.; Langley, Audra; McCracken, James T.; Piacentini, John

    2010-01-01

    Depression is the most common comorbidity among adults with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), yet little is known about depressive symptoms in childhood OCD. This study examined clinical and cognitive variables associated with depressive symptomatology in 71 youths (62% male, M age = 12.7 years) with primary OCD. Youths presented with a range

  17. Aripiprazole Improved Obsessive Compulsive Symptoms in Asperger's Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Tahiroglu, Aysegul Yolga; Firat, Sunay; Avci, Ayşe

    2011-01-01

    There are many comorbid disorders associated with autism spectrum disorders in child and adolescent population. Although obsessive compulsive disorder and autism spectrum disorders (ASD) comorbidity has common in clinical practice, there are few reports about psychopharmacological treatment for obsessive compulsive symptoms in children with ASD in the literacy. We report a successful treatment case with aripiprazole in Asperger's Disorder with obsessive compulsive symptoms. The Yale Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale was performed to assess symptom variety. This case report supports the effectiveness of aripiprazole in treatment of obsessive compulsive symptoms in Asperger's Disorder or ASDs. Aripiprazole may be beneficial to obsessive compulsive disorder comorbid autism spectrum disorders in child and adolescent age group. PMID:23429759

  18. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder. [Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strock, Margaret

    This booklet provides an overview of the causes, symptoms, and incidence of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and addresses the key features of OCD, including obsessions, compulsions, realizations of senselessness, resistance, and shame and secrecy. Research findings into the causes of OCD are reviewed which indicate that the brains of…

  19. Peer Victimization in Children with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: Relations with Symptoms of Psychopathology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Storch, Eric A.; Ledley, Deborah Roth; Lewin, Adam B.; Murphy, Tanya K.; Johns, Natalie B.; Goodman, Wayne K.; Geffken, Gary R.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the frequency of peer victimization and psychological symptom correlates among youth with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The Schwartz Peer Victimization Scale, Children's Depression Inventory, and Asher Loneliness Scale were administered to 52 children and adolescents diagnosed with OCD. The child's parent or guardian…

  20. Four-Factor Structure of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Symptoms in Children, Adolescents, and Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, S. Evelyn; Rosario, Maria C.; Baer, Lee; Carter, Alice S.; Brown, Timothy A.; Scharf, Jeremiah M.; Illmann, Cornelia; Leckman, James F.; Sukhodolsky, Denis; Katsovich, Lilya; Rasmussen, Steven; Goodman, Wayne; Delorme, Richard; Leboyer, Marion; Chabane, Nadia; Jenike, Michael A.; Geller, Daniel A.; Pauls, David L.

    2008-01-01

    A study was conducted to establish the efficacy of four-factor obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) symptom structure for use in child, adolescent and adult groups. Results indicated that the four-factor OCD structure is inadequate for use in children, adolescent and adult age groups.

  1. Peer Victimization in Children with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: Relations with Symptoms of Psychopathology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Storch, Eric A.; Ledley, Deborah Roth; Lewin, Adam B.; Murphy, Tanya K.; Johns, Natalie B.; Goodman, Wayne K.; Geffken, Gary R.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the frequency of peer victimization and psychological symptom correlates among youth with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The Schwartz Peer Victimization Scale, Children's Depression Inventory, and Asher Loneliness Scale were administered to 52 children and adolescents diagnosed with OCD. The child's parent or guardian

  2. General and Maladaptive Personality Dimensions in Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aelterman, Nathalie; De Clercq, Barbara; De Bolle, Marleen; De Fruyt, Filip

    2011-01-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a chronic and impairing clinical disorder in childhood, often characterized by a heterogeneous symptomatic profile and high co-occurrence with other disorders. The present study introduces a new perspective on the description of OCD symptoms in youth, and empirically examines the value of a personality

  3. General and Maladaptive Personality Dimensions in Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aelterman, Nathalie; De Clercq, Barbara; De Bolle, Marleen; De Fruyt, Filip

    2011-01-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a chronic and impairing clinical disorder in childhood, often characterized by a heterogeneous symptomatic profile and high co-occurrence with other disorders. The present study introduces a new perspective on the description of OCD symptoms in youth, and empirically examines the value of a personality…

  4. Relationship of Exposure to Clinically Irrelevant Emotion Cues and Obsessive-Compulsive Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Laura B.; Barlow, David H.

    2009-01-01

    Research has highlighted the role of emotion regulation as a common factor underlying emotional disorders. The current study examined the relationship of emotion regulation skills to obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) symptoms. Seven participants with a principal diagnosis of OCD in a multiple-baseline across subjects design were taught the skill…

  5. Aetiological overlap between obsessive-compulsive related and anxiety disorder symptoms: multivariate twin study.

    PubMed

    López-Solà, Clara; Fontenelle, Leonardo F; Bui, Minh; Hopper, John L; Pantelis, Christos; Yücel, Murat; Menchón, José M; Alonso, Pino; Harrison, Ben J

    2016-01-01

    BackgroundThe aetiological boundary between obsessive-compulsive related disorders (OCRDs) including obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and anxiety disorders is unclear and continues to generate debate.AimsTo determine the genetic overlap and the pattern of causal relationships among OCRDs and anxiety disorders.MethodMultivariate twin modelling methods and a new regression analysis to infer causation were used, involving 2495 male and female twins.ResultsThe amount of common genetic liability observed for OCD symptoms was higher when considering anxiety disorders and OCRDs in the model v. modelling OCRD symptoms alone. OCD symptoms emerged as risk factors for the presence of generalised anxiety, panic and hoarding symptoms, whereas social phobia appeared as a risk factor for OCD symptoms.ConclusionsOCD represents a complex phenotype that includes important shared features with anxiety disorders and OCRDs. The novel patterns of risk identified between OCD and anxiety disorder may help to explain their frequent co-occurrence. PMID:26494870

  6. [Obsessive-compulsive disorders in children. Subtypes of OCD and their relation to infection with group A streptococci].

    PubMed

    Thomsen, Per Hove; Leckman, James

    2002-08-01

    The present review describes the theory of a spectrum of obsessive-compulsive disorders (OCD). This spectrum includes such disorders as trichotillomania, eating disorders, body dysmorphic disorder, and possibly pervasive developmental disorders. OCD with an onset in childhood is presented as a specific subtype, with more boys affected and frequently co-morbid with tics and Tourette's syndrome. Furthermore, it seems to be more genetically determined and have more significant deviations, as measured by neuro-imaging studies, than has OCD with an adult onset. The PANDAS theory (paediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorder associated with streptococcal infections) is described. This subtype of OCD is, still on a speculative basis, connected to infections with beta-haemolytic streptococci. The obsessive-compulsive symptoms are characterised by a sudden onset, "sawtoothed" course with relapses and remissions, and are associated with neurological abnormalities. There are still no clinical consequences in terms of penicillin treatment of this PANDAS subtype of OCD. PMID:12362609

  7. Assessment of Obsessive-Compulsive Symptom Dimensions: Development and Evaluation of the Dimensional Obsessive-Compulsive Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abramowitz, Jonathan S.; Deacon, Brett J.; Olatunji, Bunmi O.; Wheaton, Michael G.; Berman, Noah C.; Losardo, Diane; Timpano, Kiara R.; McGrath, Patrick B.; Riemann, Bradley C.; Adams, Thomas; Bjorgvinsson, Throstur; Storch, Eric A.; Hale, Lisa R.

    2010-01-01

    Although several measures of obsessive-compulsive (OC) symptoms exist, most are limited in that they are not consistent with the most recent empirical findings on the nature and dimensional structure of obsessions and compulsions. In the present research, the authors developed and evaluated a measure called the Dimensional Obsessive-Compulsive

  8. Perfectionism dimensions as predictors of symptom dimensions of obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    PubMed

    Martinelli, Mary; Chasson, Gregory S; Wetterneck, Chad T; Hart, John M; Björgvinsson, Thröstur

    2014-01-01

    The correlation between obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and perfectionism is well documented, yet it remains unclear if dimensions of perfectionism vary as a function of OCD symptom dimensions. To this end, the present study investigated the unique associations between dimensions of perfectionism (i.e., concern over mistakes, doubts about actions, personal standards, parental criticism, parental expectations, and organization) and OCD symptom dimensions (i.e., hoarding, washing, checking, ordering, obsessing, and neutralizing). The study included adult patients with OCD (N = 46) from a residential OCD treatment program. Consistent with previous research, doubts about actions was a significant predictor of overall OCD severity and OCD checking symptoms. The organization dimension of perfectionism was a significant predictor of OCD ordering symptoms. The current study provides evidence for the unique relationships between OCD symptoms and perfectionism dimensions that encourage a movement toward greater phenotypic specificity within existing models of OCD. PMID:24870847

  9. DISTINCT ETIOLOGICAL INFLUENCES ON OBSESSIVE-COMPULSIVE SYMPTOM DIMENSIONS: A MULTIVARIATE TWIN STUDY

    PubMed Central

    López-Solà, Clara; Fontenelle, Leonardo F.; Verhulst, Brad; Neale, Michael C.; Menchón, José M.; Alonso, Pino; Harrison, Ben J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is characterized by five major dimensions, including contamination/washing, harm/checking, symmetry/ordering, hoarding, and forbidden thoughts. How these dimensions may relate etiologically to the symptoms of other obsessive-compulsive related disorders (OCRDs) and anxiety disorders (ADs) is not well known. The aim of this study was to examine the genetic and environmental overlap between each major obsessive-compulsive dimension with the symptoms of other OCRDs and ADs. Methods Two thousand four hundred ninety-five twins of both sexes, aged between 18 and 45 years, were recruited from the Australian Twin Registry. Measures used scores on four dimensions (obsessing (forbidden thoughts), washing, checking, and ordering) of the Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory-Revised, Dysmorphic Concerns Questionnaire, Hoarding Rating Scale, Anxiety Sensitivity Index, Social Phobia Inventory, and Stress subscale of the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale. Multivariate twin modeling methods using continuous and categorized variables were performed, also controlling for age and gender. Results Our findings suggested that forbidden thoughts and washing demonstrated the strongest genetic overlap with other AD symptoms, while ordering was genetically related to OCRD symptoms. Common genetic influences on checking symptoms were best estimated when modeling OCRDs together with AD symptoms. Common environmental factors of ordering and checking were shared with AD symptoms. Conclusions Important shared genetic and environmental risk factors exist between OCD, OCRDs, and ADs, but which vary alongside the expression of its major dimensions. PMID:26630089

  10. Test Review: C. R. Reynolds and B. Livingston "CMOCS--Children's Measure of Obsessive-Compulsive Symptoms." Los Angeles, CA: Western Psychological Services, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lund, Emily M.; Dennison, Andrea; Ewing, Heidi K.; de Carvalho, Catharina F.

    2011-01-01

    This article presents a review of the Children's Measure of Obsessive-Compulsive Symptoms (CMOCS), a self-report screening measure of obsessive and compulsive thoughts and behaviors in children and adolescents aged 8 through 19 years. Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is estimated to affect 1% to 3% of the population over their lifetime. The

  11. Test Review: C. R. Reynolds and B. Livingston "CMOCS--Children's Measure of Obsessive-Compulsive Symptoms." Los Angeles, CA: Western Psychological Services, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lund, Emily M.; Dennison, Andrea; Ewing, Heidi K.; de Carvalho, Catharina F.

    2011-01-01

    This article presents a review of the Children's Measure of Obsessive-Compulsive Symptoms (CMOCS), a self-report screening measure of obsessive and compulsive thoughts and behaviors in children and adolescents aged 8 through 19 years. Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is estimated to affect 1% to 3% of the population over their lifetime. The…

  12. Obsessive-compulsive symptoms in childhood and adolescence.

    PubMed

    Honjo, S; Hirano, C; Murase, S; Kaneko, T; Sugiyama, T; Ohtaka, K; Aoyama, T; Takei, Y; Inoko, K; Wakabayashi, S

    1989-07-01

    We investigated 61 patients (38 boys and 23 girls) under 18 years of age with obsessive-compulsive symptoms seen in the Department of Psychiatry, Nagoya University Hospital, from 1982 until 1986. In this period, a total of 1293 patients under 18 years of age visited the clinic. The percentage of patients with obsessive-compulsive symptoms was 5%. The earliest onset of symptoms was at age 3 years, and the average age of onset was 11.6 years. We found no particular tendency in terms of the number of siblings and the birth order of the patients. Obsessive traits were the fundamental personality traits of patients. Moreover, according to the other characteristics of personality, the patients were subdivided into schizothymic, viscous temperament, and cyclothymic. Parents of the patients were more apt than usual to have obsessive-compulsive personalities. Psychiatric disturbances and occupations were also investigated. Incidents related to school situations commonly triggered obsessive-compulsive symptoms. The most frequently noted obsessive thought was dirt phobia, and the most common compulsive behavior was washing. School refusal and violence at home were especially common as associated symptoms of obsessive-compulsive symptoms. We also describe the treatment regimen and the outcomes of the patients. PMID:2763863

  13. Relationships between cyberchondria and obsessive-compulsive symptom dimensions.

    PubMed

    Norr, Aaron M; Oglesby, Mary E; Raines, Amanda M; Macatee, Richard J; Allan, Nicholas P; Schmidt, Norman B

    2015-12-15

    Researchers have recently begun to investigate a vicious cycle of escalating physical health concerns and online medical information seeking coined "cyberchondria". Research has shown that cyberchondria is strongly associated with health anxiety (HA), but there is a dearth of work investigating the potential relationships between cyberchondria and other anxiety-related pathologies. One such condition is obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), which could theoretically be related to cyberchondria given the physical health relevant focus of certain types of OC symptoms. The current study sought to investigate the potential relationship between cyberchondria OCD across OC symptom dimensions. Community participants (N=468) were recruited via online crowdsourcing to complete a battery of self-report questionnaires including cyberchondria and OC measures. Structural equation modeling revealed significant unique associations between both contamination/washing and responsibility for harm/checking symptoms, and cyberchondria, such that greater cyberchondria was associated with greater OC symptoms after controlling for HA and trait negative affect. These results suggest that similar to proposed models of cyberchondria and HA, cyberchondria could potentially play a role in the development/maintenance of two dimensions of OC symptoms, or vice versa. Future work will need to determine the causal nature of these relationships or whether they are simply co-occurring phenomena. PMID:26429148

  14. Obsessive-compulsive symptoms among alcoholics in outpatient treatment: Prevalence, severity and correlates.

    PubMed

    Campos, Luana Moraes; Yoshimi, Nicoli Tamie; Simão, Maria Odete; Torresan, Ricardo Cezar; Torres, Albina Rodrigues

    2015-09-30

    The literature on symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) in alcoholic patients is scarce and such symptoms can go unnoticed, worsening the prognosis of alcoholism. The objectives were to estimate the prevalence and severity of obsessive-compulsive symptoms in alcoholics undergoing outpatient treatment and to assess sociodemographic and clinical correlates, including suicidal behaviors. The instruments used in this cross-sectional study were the Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory - Revised (OCI-R), the Short Alcohol Dependence Data and the Beck Depression Inventory. After descriptive analyses, bivariate analyses between the categorical ("probable OCD": OCI-R≥27) and dimensional (OCI-R total and subscales scores) outcomes and all explanatory variables were conducted. Eleven (20.4%) of the 54 alcoholic patients (37 men and 17 women) presented "probable OCD", which was associated with lower income, more severe dependence, depression, lifetime suicidal thoughts and plans and suicide attempts. OCI-R severity (mean 16.0) was associated with the same predictors and with psychiatric hospitalization. Suicidal behaviors were mainly associated with the Obsession, Hoarding and Washing subscales. It is essential to investigate and treat OCD symptoms in alcoholics, as they are associated with greater severity of dependence, depression and suicidal behaviors. Longitudinal studies are required to assess the impact of OCD treatment on the clinical course of alcoholism. PMID:26150309

  15. Comorbid Personality Disorders in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder and Its Symptom Dimensions.

    PubMed

    Bulli, Francesco; Melli, Gabriele; Cavalletti, Veronica; Stopani, Eleonora; Carraresi, Claudia

    2016-06-01

    The current paper was aimed at: (1) investigating the comorbidity between obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and personality disorders (PDs) using an OCD sample and clinician-administered structured interviews; (2) exploring the associations of different cluster comorbid PDs with the specific symptom dimensions of OCD; (3) analyzing the variables which could play a significant role in the probability of having at least one comorbid PD, controlling for confounding variables. The SCID-II and Y-BOCS, together with a series of self-report measures of OCD, depression and anxiety symptoms were administered to a clinical sample of 159 patients with a primary diagnosis of OCD. 20.8 % of the participants suffered from at least one comorbid PD; the most common was obsessive-compulsive PD (9.4 %), followed by narcissistic PD (6.3 %). In OCD patients with comorbid cluster C PDs, the percentage of responsibility for harm, injury, or bad luck symptoms was significantly greater than other OCD symptom dimensions (p < .005). Logistic regression found some evidence supporting the association between severity of OCD symptoms and comorbid PDs. PDs are prevalent among Italian people with OCD and should be routinely assessed, as comorbidity may affect help-seeking behaviour and response to treatment. PMID:26442944

  16. Functional and structural neural indices of risk aversion in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD).

    PubMed

    Admon, Roee; Bleich-Cohen, Maya; Weizmant, Ronit; Poyurovsky, Michael; Faragian, Sarit; Hendler, Talma

    2012-01-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) patients suffer from risk aversion, which may be mediated by their exaggerated response to threat and diminished response to reward. In this study, 13 OCD patients and 13 healthy matched controls underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while playing an interactive risky choice game encompassing distinct intervals of threat and reward; as well as anatomical diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Compared to healthy controls OCD patients were reluctant to make risky choices during the game. Furthermore, they displayed higher amygdala activation to threat; lower nucleus accumbens (Nacc) activation to reward and reduced functional connectivity of the amygdala and Nacc to two frontal regions, the orbito-frontal cortex (OFC) and the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC), respectively. OCD patients also displayed reduced structural integrity in clusters within the uncinate and cingulum fiber tracts. Finally, these deficits in limbic-frontal connectivity pathways, both at the functional and structural level, were associated with severity of OCD symptoms, as well as with each other. Our results thus suggest that risk aversion in OCD is mediated by abnormal limbic responses to threatening and rewarding stimuli, as well as by deficient functional and structural limbic-frontal connectivity. Such deficiency characterization may aid in identifying neural predictors for treatment response and localizing individual targets for direct neural intervention treatments. PMID:22959813

  17. Is impaired response inhibition independent of symptom dimensions in obsessive-compulsive disorder? Evidence from ERPs

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Hui; Zhu, Xiongzhao; Fan, Jie; Dong, Jiaojiao; Zhou, Cheng; Zhang, Xiaocui; Zhong, Mingtian

    2015-01-01

    Impaired response inhibition has been consistently reported in patients diagnosed with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). This clinically heterogeneous disorder is characterized by several symptom dimensions that may have distinct, but partially overlapping, neural correlates. The present study examined whether alterations in response inhibition may be related to symptom severity and symptom dimensions. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded in a group of 42 medication-free OCD patients as well as 42 healthy controls during a stop-signal task. Symptom dimension scores were obtained using the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale symptom checklist. OCD patients showed longer stop-signal reaction times (SSRT, p < 0.01) and larger stop-N2 amplitudes (p < 0.01) compared to healthy controls. Neither the longer SSRT nor the larger stop-N2 scores were significantly correlated with symptom severity or present or lifetime OCD symptoms in OCD patients. These results indicate that deficient response inhibition is a common occurrence in OCD patients that is independent of global symptom severity and symptom dimensions. These data support the notion that impaired response inhibition may be a general attribute of patients with OCD. PMID:25990063

  18. Prevalence rates of obsessive-compulsive symptoms and psychiatric comorbidity among adolescents in Iran.

    PubMed

    Shams, Giti; Foroughi, Elham; Esmaili, Yaghoob; Amini, Homayoon; Ebrahimkhani, Narges

    2011-01-01

    Recent epidemiological studies show that obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and its comorbidity with psychiatric problems is more prevalent among children and adolescents than was previously believed. The primary aim of the current study is to investigate the point-prevalence rate of obsessive compulsive symptoms in a sample of adolescent high school student in Iran. A two-stage epidemiological study was carried out through a clustered random sampling method. All participants went through a two-stage assessment procedure, in the first screening phase, the Maudsley Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory (MOCI) was administered to 909 randomly selected students (in the age range 14-18 years). Participants were considered possible sub-clinical or clinical OCD cases, if they obtained a score of MOCI≥15. In the second stage, the Symptoms Checklist -90-revised (SCL-90-R) was administered to student who fulfilled the screening criteria. The prevalence of OC symptoms was found to be 11.2 percent for the total sample. The most prevalent comorbid conditions were depression and anxiety with prevalence rates of 91.2 and 78.4 percent respectively. Gender, age, birth-order, parent's education and family income had no statistically significant association with OC symptoms. Further research in this area is warranted in order to establish a set of comprehensive global assessment and measurement tools, which would allow cross-cultural studies in the field of OCD. PMID:22071645

  19. Obsessive-Compulsive Spectrum Disorder Symptoms in College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sulkowski, Michael L.; Mariaskin, Amy; Storch, Eric A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study investigated the occurrence of obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorders (OCSDs) and associated symptomology in college students. Participants: Participants included 358 undergraduate students. Results: Results suggest that clinically significant levels of OCSD symptoms are relatively common. Additionally, OCSD symptoms…

  20. Tic-Related Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD): Phenomenology and Treatment Outcome in the Pediatric OCD Treatment Study II

    PubMed Central

    Conelea, Christine A.; Walther, Michael R.; Freeman, Jennifer B.; Garcia, Abbe M.; Sapyta, Jeffrey; Khanna, Muniya; Franklin, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Objective Prior research has shown that youth with co-occurring tic disorders and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) may differ from those with non-tic-related OCD in terms of clinical characteristics and treatment responsiveness. A broad definition of “tic-related” was used to examine whether children with tics in the Pediatric OCD Treatment Study II differed from those without tics in terms of demographic and phenomenological characteristics and acute treatment outcome. Method Participants were 124 youth aged 7-17 years with a primary diagnosis of OCD who were partial responders to an adequate serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SRI) trial. Participants were randomized to medication management, medication management plus instructions in cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), or medication management plus full CBT. Tic status was based on the presence of motor and/or vocal tics on the Yale Global Tic Severity Scale. Results Tics were identified in 53% of the sample. Those with tic-related OCD did not differ from those with non-tic-related OCD in terms of age, family history of tics, OCD severity, OCD-related impairment, or comorbidity. Those with tics were responded equally in all treatment conditions. Conclusion Tic-related OCD was very prevalent using a broad definition of tic status. Results suggest that youth with this broad definition of tic-related OCD do not have increased OCD severity or inference, higher comorbidity rates or severity, or worsened functioning and support the use of CBT in this population. This highlights the importance of not making broad assumptions about OCD symptoms most likely to occur in an individual with comorbid tics. Clinical trial registration information--Treatment of Pediatric OCD for SRI Partial Responders; http://clinicaltrials.gov/show/; NCT00074815. PMID:25457929

  1. No Evidence for Object Alternation Impairment in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moritz, Steffen; Jelinek, Lena; Hottenrott, Birgit; Klinge, Ruth; Randjbar, Sarah

    2009-01-01

    Recent neuroimaging studies have consistently ascribed the orbito-frontal cortex (OFC) a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Cognitive tests presumed sensitive to this region, such as the Object Alternation Task (OAT), are considered important tools to verify this assumption and to investigate the impact of

  2. No Evidence for Object Alternation Impairment in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moritz, Steffen; Jelinek, Lena; Hottenrott, Birgit; Klinge, Ruth; Randjbar, Sarah

    2009-01-01

    Recent neuroimaging studies have consistently ascribed the orbito-frontal cortex (OFC) a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Cognitive tests presumed sensitive to this region, such as the Object Alternation Task (OAT), are considered important tools to verify this assumption and to investigate the impact of…

  3. Relationship between early maladaptive schemas and symptom dimensions in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji Eun; Lee, Sang Won; Lee, Seung Jae

    2014-01-30

    The aims of this study were to evaluate early maladaptive schemas (EMSs) of patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and to clarify relationships between particular EMSs and the five factor-analyzed symptom dimensions and other clinical variables. Fifty-seven patients with OCD and 70 normal controls completed the Young Schema Questionnaire, the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS), the Y-BOCS symptom checklist, and the Beck Depression Inventory. Patients with OCD had significantly higher scores for schema related to defectiveness/shame, social isolation/alienation, and failure than did normal controls. Among the five OCD symptom dimensions, the sexual/religious dimension was only significantly correlated with two schemas of vulnerability to harm or illness and enmeshment/undeveloped self. These two schemas were significant predictors of the sexual/religious dimension, accounting for 33% of the total variance in this dimension. Any EMSs in patients with OCD were not related to clinical variables such as severity of OCD and duration of illness. These findings may constitute evidence to improve our understandings of OCD from a perspective of schema theory. PMID:23962740

  4. Obsessive-compulsive symptom dimensions and insomnia: The mediating role of anxiety sensitivity cognitive concerns.

    PubMed

    Raines, Amanda M; Short, Nicole A; Sutton, Carson A; Oglesby, Mary E; Allan, Nicholas P; Schmidt, Norman B

    2015-08-30

    Existing research on the relationship between obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and insomnia is scarce. Moreover, no research has examined potential mechanisms that may account for the observed relations among OCD and sleep difficulties. The cognitive concerns subscale of anxiety sensitivity (AS), which reflects fears of mental incapacitation, has been linked to both symptoms of OCD and insomnia and may serve as a mechanism for increasing sleep disturbance among patients with OCD. The current study examined the relationship between OCD symptoms and insomnia and the potential mediating role of AS cognitive concerns. The sample consisted of 526 individuals recruited through Amazon's Mechanical Turk (Mturk), an online crowdsourcing marketplace. Results revealed distinct associations between the unacceptable thoughts domain of OCD and symptoms of insomnia. Additionally, AS cognitive concerns mediated the relationship between these constructs. Future research should seek to replicate these findings using clinical samples and prospective designs. PMID:26162661

  5. Dissociative symptoms and dissociative disorder comorbidity in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    PubMed

    Belli, Hasan; Ural, Cenk; Vardar, Melek Kanarya; Yesılyurt, Sema; Oncu, Fatıh

    2012-10-01

    The present study attempted to assess the dissociative symptoms and overall dissociative disorder comorbidity in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). In addition, we examined the relationship between the severity of obsessive-compulsive symptoms and dissociative symptoms. All patients admitted for the first time to the psychiatric outpatient unit were included in the study. Seventy-eight patients had been diagnosed as having OCD during the 2-year study period. Patients had to meet the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition criteria for OCD. Most (76.9%; n = 60) of the patients were female, and 23.1% (n = 18) of the patients were male. Dissociation Questionnaire was used to measure dissociative symptoms. The Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition Dissociative Disorders interviews and Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Checklist and Severity Scale were used. Eleven (14%) of the patients with OCD had comorbid dissociative disorder. The most prevalent disorder in our study was dissociative depersonalization disorder. Dissociative amnesia and dissociative identity disorder were common as well. The mean Yale-Brown score was 23.37 ± 7.27 points. Dissociation Questionnaire scores were between 0.40 and 3.87 points, and the mean was 2.23 ± 0.76 points. There was a statistically significant positive correlation between Yale-Brown points and Dissociation Questionnaire points. We conclude that dissociative symptoms among patients with OCD should alert clinicians for the presence of a chronic and complex dissociative disorder. Clinicians may overlook an underlying dissociative process in patients who have severe symptoms of OCD. However, a lack of adequate response to cognitive-behavioral and drug therapy may be a consequence of dissociative process. PMID:22425531

  6. Electroconvulsive therapy on severe obsessive-compulsive disorder comorbid depressive symptoms.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaohui; Cui, Hong; Wei, Qiang; Wang, Ying; Wang, Keyong; Wang, Chen; Zhu, Chunyan; Xie, Xinhui

    2014-04-01

    Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is not currently used as a first-line treatment for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). However, several related case reports have demonstrated that ECT seems to be effective for severe OCD, especially when first-line therapies have failed. In this study, we describe the courses, detailed parameters, effects, and follow-up information relating to three patients with severe OCD who were treated by modified bifrontal ECT after their first-line anti-OCD treatments pharmacotherapy, behavioral therapy, and cognitive behavioral therapy failed. The number of ECT procedures administered in each case is as follows: Case 1, eight; Case 2, three; and Case 3, four. In all three cases, the patients' depressive symptoms improved considerably after the ECT procedures. In addition, the condition of all three patients' OCD significantly improved and remained stable at regular follow-ups. ECT may play an effective role in treating severe OCD. PMID:24843380

  7. Assessment of Obsessive-Compulsive Symptom Dimensions: Development and Evaluation of the Dimensional Obsessive-Compulsive Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abramowitz, Jonathan S.; Deacon, Brett J.; Olatunji, Bunmi O.; Wheaton, Michael G.; Berman, Noah C.; Losardo, Diane; Timpano, Kiara R.; McGrath, Patrick B.; Riemann, Bradley C.; Adams, Thomas; Bjorgvinsson, Throstur; Storch, Eric A.; Hale, Lisa R.

    2010-01-01

    Although several measures of obsessive-compulsive (OC) symptoms exist, most are limited in that they are not consistent with the most recent empirical findings on the nature and dimensional structure of obsessions and compulsions. In the present research, the authors developed and evaluated a measure called the Dimensional Obsessive-Compulsive…

  8. [The feeling of incompleteness. Rediscovery of an old psychopathological symptom of obsessive-compulsive disorder].

    PubMed

    Ecker, W; Gönner, S

    2006-09-01

    This paper describes clinically relevant aspects of incompleteness experiences in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) (feelings of incompleteness concerning the self, "not just right" experiences and inability to achieve "closure" concerning actions/perceptions, compensatory urge to achieve "just right" feelings) and reviews empirical results and important research areas (frequency, association with symptom-based subtypes, motivational heterogeneity within subtypes, harm avoidance and incompleteness as basic OCD elements, sensation-based perfectionism, and relation to tic-related OCD and dissociative processes, especially depersonalisation/derealisation). Neurobiological explanations, biographical reconstruction, and treatment approaches are briefly summarised. It is emphasised that cognitive-behavioural methods tailored to OCD as an anxiety disorder must be modified considerably for the treatment of incompleteness-motivated OCD. PMID:16550414

  9. Convergent and discriminant validity of the Children's Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale-Symptom Checklist.

    PubMed

    Gallant, Jason; Storch, Eric A; Merlo, Lisa J; Ricketts, Emily D; Geffken, Gary R; Goodman, Wayne K; Murphy, Tanya K

    2008-12-01

    The Children's Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale-Symptom Checklist (CY-BOCS-SC; Scahill, L., Riddle, M. A., McSwiggin-Hardin, M., Ort, S. I., King, R. A., Goodman, W. K., et al. (1997). Children's Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale: Reliability and validity. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 36, 844-852) is widely used to assess the presence of obsessions and compulsions in youth. Although factor analytic studies have established symptom dimensions of the CY-BOCS-SC, little is known of its psychometric properties. The present study sought to examine the convergent and discriminant validity of the CY-BOCS-SC. Eighty-six youth with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) and their parents were administered the CY-BOCS-SC, the CY-BOCS severity items, and the Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule for DSM-IV: Parent Version (ADIS-IV-P). Children completed the Children's Depression Inventory and Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children. Internal consistency of CY-BOCS-SC symptom dimensions ranged from poor to good. The CY-BOCS-SC demonstrated good to excellent convergent validity, as demonstrated by large correlations with conceptually similar items on the ADIS-IV-P. The discriminant validity of the CY-BOCS-SC was also good, as evidenced by small, generally non-significant, correlations between the CY-BOCS-SC dimensions and depressive and anxiety symptoms, OCD symptom severity, and trichotillomania symptoms. These results provide initial psychometric support for the CY-BOCS-SC and support its use as a clinical and research instrument for assessing presence of a range of obsessive and compulsive symptoms in youth with OCD. PMID:18329843

  10. Quetiapine and obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCS): case report and review of atypical antipsychotic-induced OCS.

    PubMed Central

    Khullar, A; Chue, P; Tibbo, P

    2001-01-01

    The atypical antipsychotics have advanced the treatment of schizophrenia and have proved to be effective agents in treating other disorders with or without psychotic features. We review the literature concerning an increasingly reported and interesting adverse effect, atypical antipsychotic-induced obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCS). The first known report of quetiapine exacerbating OCS in a 43-year-old man with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), trichotillomania, delusional disorder and bipolar II disorder is presented. Mechanisms, including 5-HT2A and 5-HT2C antagonism, serotonergic regulation of dopamine systems and putative dopaminergic subtypes of OCS and OCD, are discussed. Given the paradoxical efficacy of the atypical antipsychotics in pure OCD, the neurobiology and comorbidity of OCD and schizophrenia, as well as the increasing use of atypical antipsychotics, a cautious and rational pharmacotherapeutic treatment approach is recommended. PMID:11212595

  11. Case Series: Transformation Obsession in Young People with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Volz, Chloe; Heyman, Isobel

    2007-01-01

    This article presents a previously unreported symptom of obsessive-compulsive disorder. The young people reported describe a fear of turning into someone or something else or taking on unwanted characteristics. We have called this transformation obsession. The bizarre nature of this obsession had led to misdiagnosis and inappropriate treatments in…

  12. The structure of obsessive compulsive symptoms and beliefs: A correspondence and biplot analysis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Se-Kang; McKay, Dean; Taylor, Steven; Tolin, David; Olatunji, Bunmi; Timpano, Kiara; Abramowitz, Jonathan

    2016-03-01

    Research has suggested that obsessive-compulsive (OC) beliefs are differentially predictive of OC symptom dimensions. One additional way in which beliefs and symptoms may be related is by severity; that is, the role of beliefs may vary as a function of symptom severity. In order to evaluate this possibility, correspondence analysis with biplot was applied to evaluate the association between OC beliefs and OC symptom severity across three subsamples, individuals with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD; N=398), individuals with anxiety disorders (N=104), and undergraduate students (N=285). To do so, we generated five row categories of symptom severity and six columns based on the Obsessive Compulsive Beliefs Questionnaire (OBQ) for three subsamples. Unlike factor analyses of inter-variable correlations (or covariances), the CA-biplot paradigm calibrates simultaneously row and column information and estimates dimensional coordinates (analogous to factor loadings) separately for rows and columns. We used the first two dimensions from each subsample because they accounted for most variance (on average 89%) so as to construct a hypothetical plane with them. Then, we visually inspected associations among five severity categories (rows) and six OBQ subscales (columns) in the plane and also calculated their correlations. The visual configurations and numerical correlations were consistent across three subsamples, indicating that inflated responsibility was significantly associated with OC symptoms, but only for those with the least severe symptoms. Importance and control of thoughts were associated with OC symptoms across all levels of symptom severity. The implications of these findings for the cognitive model of OCD are considered. PMID:26851748

  13. Understanding Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder in Students: Symptoms and School-Based Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyches, Tina Taylor; Leininger, Melissa; Heath, Melissa Allen; Prater, Mary Anne

    2010-01-01

    This article provides current information relevant to school social workers who serve students with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), including how OCD is defined in children and adolescents, the impact of OCD on schooling, issues in identifying students with OCD, and effective interventions. The authors offer suggestions for collaboration…

  14. Understanding Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder in Students: Symptoms and School-Based Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyches, Tina Taylor; Leininger, Melissa; Heath, Melissa Allen; Prater, Mary Anne

    2010-01-01

    This article provides current information relevant to school social workers who serve students with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), including how OCD is defined in children and adolescents, the impact of OCD on schooling, issues in identifying students with OCD, and effective interventions. The authors offer suggestions for collaboration

  15. Factor analysis of symptom subtypes of obsessive compulsive disorder and their relation to personality and tic disorders.

    PubMed

    Baer, L

    1994-03-01

    Despite advances in our understanding of the pathology and genetics of obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) and in our ability to successfully treat patients with medications and behavioral psychotherapy, the identification of homogeneous subgroups of patients with OCD has remained elusive. Once identified, such subgroups may be found related to treatment response, biological markers, or genetic transmission of OCD. To clarify identification of symptom subtypes, my colleagues and I administered the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS) Symptom Checklist to 107 patients with OCD and applied principal components analysis (e.g., factor analysis) to these data. We then examined the correlations between these factor scores and the presence of comorbid tic and personality disorders, which are thought to be related to OCD. We found that three factors, which we named "symmetry/hoarding," "contamination/cleaning," and "pure obsessions," best explained the symptoms of the Y-BOCS Symptom Checklist. Only the first factor was significantly related to comorbid obsessive compulsive personality disorder or to a lifetime history of Tourette's syndrome or chronic tic disorder. Implications of these findings regarding possible clinical utility are discussed. PMID:8077163

  16. Children' Florida Obsessive Compulsive Inventory: Psychometric Properties and Feasibility of a Self-Report Measure of Obsessive-Compulsive Symptoms in Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Storch, Eric A.; Khanna, Muniya; Merlo, Lisa J.; Loew, Benjamin A.; Franklin, Martin; Reid, Jeannette M.; Goodman, Wayne K.; Murphy, Tanya K.

    2009-01-01

    This report describes the development and psychometric properties of the Children's Florida Obsessive Compulsive Inventory (C-FOCI). Designed specifically as a brief measure for assessing obsessive-compulsive symptoms, the C-FOCI was created for use in both clinical and community settings. Study 1 included 82 children and adolescents diagnosed…

  17. Children' Florida Obsessive Compulsive Inventory: Psychometric Properties and Feasibility of a Self-Report Measure of Obsessive-Compulsive Symptoms in Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Storch, Eric A.; Khanna, Muniya; Merlo, Lisa J.; Loew, Benjamin A.; Franklin, Martin; Reid, Jeannette M.; Goodman, Wayne K.; Murphy, Tanya K.

    2009-01-01

    This report describes the development and psychometric properties of the Children's Florida Obsessive Compulsive Inventory (C-FOCI). Designed specifically as a brief measure for assessing obsessive-compulsive symptoms, the C-FOCI was created for use in both clinical and community settings. Study 1 included 82 children and adolescents diagnosed

  18. Associations between obsessive-compulsive symptoms, revenge, and the perception of interpersonal transgressions.

    PubMed

    Fatfouta, Ramzi; Merkl, Angela

    2014-10-30

    Anger and aggression have only recently gained center stage in research on obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). An investigation of obsessive-compulsive (OC) symptoms focusing on the outcome of unresolved anger (i.e., revenge), however, is absent from the literature. The objective of the present research was therefore to provide a first step towards filling this gap and, hence, to systematically examine the associations between OC symptoms and different aspects of revenge (i.e., attitudes, dispositions, motivations). In three independent studies with nonclinical participants (N=504), we tested the hypothesis that OC symptoms relate to greater revenge. Individuals high in OC symptoms reported more positive attitudes toward revenge (Study 1), scored higher on a measure of trait revenge (Study 2), and reported increased revenge motivation regarding a real-life transgressor (Study 3). Furthermore, Study 4 (N=175) demonstrated that individuals high in OC symptoms perceived interpersonal transgressions more frequently in their daily lives. OC symptoms were positively related to the number of transgressions that respondents disclosed. Our results suggest that revenge and interpersonal hurt play a significant role in OCD. PMID:24928759

  19. The relationship between magical thinking, inferential confusion and obsessive-compulsive symptoms.

    PubMed

    Goods, N A R; Rees, C S; Egan, S J; Kane, R T

    2014-01-01

    Inferential confusion is an under-researched faulty reasoning process in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Based on an overreliance on imagined possibilities, it shares similarities with the extensively researched construct of thought-action fusion (TAF). While TAF has been proposed as a specific subset of the broader construct of magical thinking, the relationship between inferential confusion and magical thinking is unexplored. The present study investigated this relationship, and hypothesised that magical thinking would partially mediate the relationship between inferential confusion and obsessive-compulsive symptoms. A non-clinical sample of 201 participants (M = 34.94, SD = 15.88) were recruited via convenience sampling. Regression analyses found the hypothesised mediating relationship was supported, as magical thinking did partially mediate the relationship between inferential confusion and OC symptoms. Interestingly, inferential confusion had the stronger relationship with OC symptoms in comparison to the other predictor variables. Results suggest that inferential confusion can both directly and indirectly (via magical thinking) impact on OC symptoms. Future studies with clinical samples should further investigate these constructs to determine whether similar patterns emerge, as this may eventually inform which cognitive errors to target in treatment of OCD. PMID:25265223

  20. The relationship between obsessive beliefs and symptom dimensions in obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    PubMed

    Wheaton, Michael G; Abramowitz, Jonathan S; Berman, Noah C; Riemann, Bradley C; Hale, Lisa R

    2010-10-01

    Research findings on the specific relationships between beliefs and OCD symptoms have been inconsistent, yet the existing studies vary in their approach to measuring the highly heterogeneous symptoms of this disorder. The Dimensional Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (DOCS) is a new measure that allows for the assessment of OCD symptom dimensions, rather than types of obsessions and compulsions per se. The present study examined the relationship between OCD symptom dimensions and dysfunctional (obsessive) beliefs believed to underlie these symptom dimensions using a large clinical sample of treatment-seeking adults with OCD. Results revealed that certain obsessive beliefs predicted certain OCD symptom dimensions in a manner consistent with cognitive-behavioral conceptual models. Specifically, contamination symptoms were predicted by responsibility/threat estimation beliefs, symmetry symptoms were predicted by perfectionism/certainty beliefs, unacceptable thoughts were predicted by importance/control of thoughts beliefs and symptoms related to being responsible for harm were predicted by responsibility/threat estimation beliefs. Implications for cognitive conceptualizations of OCD symptom dimensions are discussed. PMID:20800750

  1. Predicting obsessions and compulsions according to superego and ego characteristics: A comparison between scrupulosity and non-religious obsessive-compulsive symptoms.

    PubMed

    Besharat, Mohammad Ali; Kamali, Zeynab Sadat

    2016-02-01

    Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) is characterized by intrusive images or impulses and/or ritualistic and rigid behaviors. Symptoms of OCD have different contents including contamination, harming and symmetry. Religion is one of the themes that has been observed in the context of OCD frequently. The aim of the present study was to examine the power of superego and ego characteristics in predicting scrupulosity and non-religious obsessions and compulsions, as well as comparing the two sets of obsessive-compulsive symptoms. Sixty six Iranian (19 men, 47 women) participated in the study. All participants were asked to complete Maudsley Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory, Penn Inventory of Scrupulosity, Perfectionism Cognitions Inventory, the Multidimensional Anger Inventory, and Ego Strength Scale. Results showed that perfectionism and anger were positively correlated with scrupulosity and non-religious obsessive-compulsive symptoms. Ego control was negatively correlated with scrupulosity, while ego resiliency was not correlated with any of these two sets of symptoms. Regression analysis indicated that among these variables, anger was the best predictor of non-religious obsessive-compulsive symptoms, while perfectionism and ego control were the best predictors of scrupulosity. PMID:26957343

  2. Influence of comorbid obsessive-compulsive symptoms on brain event-related potentials in Gilles de la Tourette syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Thibault, Geneviève; Felezeu, Mihaela; O’Connor, Kieron P.; Todorov, Christo; Stip, Emmanuel; Lavoie, Marc E.

    2013-01-01

    Approximately 30 to 50% of people suffering from Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome (GTS) also fulfill diagnostic criteria for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Despite this high degree of comorbidity, very few studies have addressed the question of obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCS) in GTS patients using specific brain event-related potentials (ERP) responses. The aim of the current study was to quantify neurocognitive aspects of comorbidity, using ERPs. Fourteen adults with GTS (without OCD) were compared to a group of 12 participants with GTS and comorbid obsessive-compulsive symptoms (GTS+OCS), to a group of 15 participants with OCD and to a group of 14 control participants without neurological or psychiatric problems. The P200 and P300 components were recorded during a visual counting oddball task. Results showed intact P200 amplitude in all groups, whilst the P300 amplitude was affected differentially across groups. The P300 oddball effect was reduced in participants in both OCD and GTS+OCS groups in the anterior region. However, the P300 oddball effect was significantly larger in participants of the GTS group compared to all other groups, mostly in the parietal region. These findings suggest that adults with GTS are characterized by enhanced working memory updating processes and that the superimposition of OCS can lead to a reduction of these processes. The discrepancy between our findings and results obtained in previous studies on GTS could reflect the modulating effect of OCS on late ERP components. PMID:18280023

  3. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy, Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors and Their Combination in the Improvement of Obsessive-Compulsive Symptoms and Experiential Avoidance in Patients With Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Vakili, Yaghoob; Gharaee, Banafsheh; Habibi, Mojtaba

    2015-01-01

    Background: Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and exposure with response prevention for treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) have demonstrated empirical support; however, a substantial number of patients remain with clinically significant OCD symptoms after such treatments. Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT), selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and combination of ACT and SSRIs in the treatment of adults with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Patients and Methods: Thirty-two outpatients meeting Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision criteria for OCD were randomly assigned to one of the three treatment conditions: ACT, SSRIs and combined treatment. The Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale and Acceptance and Action Questionnaire were administered at pre-treatment and post-treatment. Twenty-seven patients completed the study. Data was analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and one-way analysis of covariance (ANCOVA), clinically significant change (CSC) and complete remission status. Results: ANCOVA revealed that patients treated with ACT and combined treatment experienced a significantly greater improvement in obsessive-compulsive (OC) symptoms and experiential avoidance (EA) at post-treatment compared to those treated with SSRIs alone. However, there were no significant differences between ACT and combined treatment on OC symptoms and EA. CSC and complete remission status results showed that unlike SSRI, ACT and combined treatment led to more improvement in OC symptoms. Conclusions: ACT and combined treatment are more effective than SSRIs alone in treating OC symptoms and EA. However, it appears that adding SSRIs to ACT does not increase the effectiveness of ACT in the treatment of adults with OCD in the short-term. PMID:26288647

  4. Dissociative symptoms and dissociative disorders comorbidity in obsessive compulsive disorder: Symptom screening, diagnostic tools and reflections on treatment.

    PubMed

    Belli, Hasan

    2014-08-16

    Borderline personality disorder, conversion disorder and obsessive compulsive disorder frequently have dissociative symptoms. The literature has demonstrated that the level of dissociation might be correlated with the severity of obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) and that those not responding to treatment had high dissociative symptoms. The structured clinical interview for DSM-IV dissociative disorders, dissociation questionnaire, somatoform dissociation questionnaire and dissociative experiences scale can be used for screening dissociative symptoms and detecting dissociative disorders in patients with OCD. However, a history of neglect and abuse during childhood is linked to a risk factor in the pathogenesis of dissociative psychopathology in adults. The childhood trauma questionnaire-53 and childhood trauma questionnaire-40 can be used for this purpose. Clinicians should not fail to notice the hidden dissociative symptoms and childhood traumatic experiences in OCD cases with severe symptoms that are resistant to treatment. Symptom screening and diagnostic tools used for this purpose should be known. Knowing how to treat these pathologies in patients who are diagnosed with OCD can be crucial. PMID:25133142

  5. Poor cognitive flexibility, and the experience thereof, in a subclinical sample of female students with obsessive-compulsive symptoms.

    PubMed

    Sternheim, Lot; van der Burgh, Maureen; Berkhout, Lotte J; Dekker, Maria R; Ruiter, Channah

    2014-12-01

    Research indicates that people with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) have poor cognitive flexibility. However, studies have largely focused on actual abilities and while individuals' emotional responses may be just as important, little is known about how those with OCD experience a situation that requires cognitive flexibility. It is furthermore largely unknown whether cognitive flexibility may also be important for people with OCD symptoms, rather than only to those with full blown disorders. This study investigates the relationship between cognitive flexibility, and the experience thereof in female students with and without OCD symptoms. It was expected that poor cognitive flexibility would be positively associated to OCD symptoms, and that those with OCD symptoms would display poor cognitive flexibility, and experience situations requiring cognitive flexibility as more difficult, than those without OCD symptoms. Participants completed a measure for OCD symptoms, a neuropsychological task to measure cognitive flexibility, and a self-report measure assessing emotional experience of situations requiring cognitive flexibility. Positive associations between OCD symptoms and both poor cognitive flexibility and negative experience of situations requiring cognitive flexibility were found. Furthermore, those with OCD symptoms performed poorer on the cognitive flexibility task than those without OCD symptoms, and reported higher scores on the cognitive inflexibility questionnaire. Results confirm a relation between OCD symptoms and poor cognitive flexibility in a subclinical sample and identify a relation between OCD symptoms and a negative experience of situations that require cognitive flexibility. Overall findings suggest that poor cognitive flexibility may be an important part of OCD symptomatology. PMID:25283593

  6. Paediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder and Depressive Symptoms: Clinical Correlates and CBT Treatment Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Brown, H M; Lester, K J; Jassi, A; Heyman, I; Krebs, G

    2015-07-01

    Depression frequently co-occurs with paediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), yet the clinical correlates and impact of depression on CBT outcomes remain unclear. The prevalence and clinical correlates of depression were examined in a paediatric specialist OCD-clinic sample (N = 295; Mean = 15 [7 - 18] years, 42 % female), using both dimensional (Beck Depression Inventory-youth; n = 261) and diagnostic (Development and Wellbeing Assessment; n = 127) measures of depression. The impact of depressive symptoms and suspected disorders on post-treatment OCD severity was examined in a sub-sample who received CBT, with or without SSRI medication (N = 100). Fifty-one per-cent of patients reported moderately or extremely elevated depressive symptoms and 26 % (95 % CI: 18 - 34) met criteria for a suspected depressive disorder. Depressive symptoms and depressive disorders were associated with worse OCD symptom severity and global functioning prior to CBT. Individuals with depression were more likely to be female, have had a psychiatric inpatient admission and less likely to be attending school (ps < 0.01). OCD and depressive symptom severity significantly decreased after CBT. Depressive symptoms and depressive disorders predicted worse post-treatment OCD severity (βs = 0.19 and 0.26, ps < 0.05) but became non-significant when controlling for pre-treatment OCD severity (βs = 0.05 and 0.13, ns). Depression is common in paediatric OCD and is associated with more severe OCD and poorer functioning. However, depression severity decreases over the course of CBT for OCD and is not independently associated with worse outcomes, supporting the recommendation for treatment as usual in the presence of depressive symptoms. PMID:25301176

  7. Complex obsessive compulsive and impulsive symptoms in Tourette’s syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Palumbo, Donna; Kurlan, Roger

    2007-01-01

    Obsessive compulsive and impulsive symptoms are prevalent in patients with Tourette’s Syndrome (TS) and well recognized as part of the TS spectrum. However, some complex obsessive compulsive and impulsive behaviors may be mistaken for other symptoms, such as complex tics or psychotic behavior. In addition, the overlap between tics, compulsions, and impulsive actions can make them impossible to discern from each other. Yet, the proper recognition of these symptoms is critical in optimizing treatment outcome in TS patients. This paper will review complex obsessive compulsive and impulsive behaviors that may occur in patients with TS and discuss implications for diagnosis and treatment. PMID:19300600

  8. Differential diagnosis of obsessive-compulsive symptoms from delusions in schizophrenia: A phenomenological approach

    PubMed Central

    Oulis, Panagiotis; Konstantakopoulos, George; Lykouras, Lefteris; Michalopoulou, Panayiota G

    2013-01-01

    Several studies suggest increased prevalence-rates of obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCS) and even of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) in patients with schizophrenic disorders. Moreover, it has been recently proposed the existence of a distinct diagnostic sub-group of schizo-obsessive disorder. However, the further investigation of the OCS or OCD-schizophrenia diagnostic comorbidity presupposes the accurate clinical differential diagnosis of obsessions and compulsions from delusions and repetitive delusional behaviours, respectively. In turn, this could be facilitated by a careful comparative examination of the phenomenological features of typical obsessions/compulsions and delusions/repetitive delusional behaviours, respectively. This was precisely the primary aim of the present investigation. Our examination included seven features of obsessions/delusions (source of origin and sense of ownership of the thought, conviction, consistency with one’s belief-system, awareness of its inaccuracy, awareness of its symptomatic nature, resistance, and emotional impact) and five features of repetitive behaviours (aim of repetitive behaviours, awareness of their inappropriateness, awareness of their symptomatic nature, and their immediate effect on underlying thought, and their emotional impact). Several of these clinical features, if properly and empathically investigated, can help discriminate obsessions and compulsive rituals from delusions and delusional repetitive behaviours, respectively, in patients with schizophrenic disorders. We comment on the results of our examination as well as on those of another recent similar investigation. Moreover, we also address several still controversial issues, such as the nature of insight, the diagnostic status of poor insight in OCD, the conceptualization and differential diagnosis of compulsions from other categories of repetitive behaviours, as well as the diagnostic weight assigned to compulsions in contemporary psychiatric diagnostic systems. We stress the importance of the feature of mental reflexivity for understanding the nature of insight and the ambiguous diagnostic status of poor insight in OCD which may be either a marker of the chronicity of obsessions, or a marker of their delusionality. Furthermore, we criticize two major shortcomings of contemporary psychiatric diagnostic systems (DSM-IV, DSM-V, ICD-10) in their criteria or guidelines for the diagnosis of OCD or OCS: first, the diagnostic parity between obsessions and compulsions and, second, the inadequate conceptualization of compulsions. We argue that these shortcomings might artificially inflate the clinical prevalence of OC symptoms in the course of schizophrenic disorders. Still, contrary to a recent proposal, we do not exclude on purely a priori grounds the possibility of a concurrence of genuine obsessions along with delusions in patients with schizophrenia. PMID:24255875

  9. Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Traits in Youth with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder.

    PubMed

    Park, Jennifer M; Storch, Eric A; Pinto, Anthony; Lewin, Adam B

    2016-04-01

    While interest in the relationship between obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and obsessive compulsive personality disorder has increased, there are currently no studies that have examined the presence of obsessive compulsive personality traits (OCPTs) in youth. The current study sought to determine the latent factors and psychometric properties of a modified version of the Childhood Retrospective Perfectionism Questionnaire (CHIRP) and examine the correlates of specific OCPTs (e.g., rigidity, perfectionism) in youth with OCD. Participants included 96 treatment-seeking youth diagnosed with primary OCD (and a parent). Parents and youth completed measures of OCPTs, OCD severity, depression, and disability. A confirmatory factor analysis of the modified CHIRP resulted in a two-factor model: perfectionism and preoccupation with details. The CHIRP and its subscales demonstrated acceptable internal consistency and preliminary evidence for convergent and divergent validity. Obsessive compulsive traits in youth were also found to be associated with the checking, symmetry and contamination symptom dimensions. PMID:26160348

  10. OCD? Not Me! Protocol for the development and evaluation of a web-based self-guided treatment for youth with obsessive-compulsive disorder

    PubMed Central

    Rees, Clare S; Anderson, Rebecca A

    2015-01-01

    Background OCD? Not Me! is a novel, web-based, self-guided intervention designed to treat obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) in young people aged 12–18, using the principles of exposure and response prevention. The current paper presents the protocol for the development of the programme and for an open trial that will evaluate the effectiveness of this programme for OCD in young people, and associated distress and symptom accommodation in their parents and caregivers. Methods We will measure the impact of the OCD? Not Me! programme on OCD symptoms using the Children's Florida Obsessive Compulsive Inventory (C-FOCI), and both the self-report and parent report of the Children's Obsessional Compulsive Inventory—Revised (ChOCI-R). The impact of the programme on OCD-related functional impairment will be measured using the parent report of the Child Obsessive-Compulsive Impact Scale—Revised (COIS-R). Secondary outcome measures include the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and the Youth Quality of Life—Short Form (YQoL-SF). The 21-item Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS-21) will be used to measure the impact of the programme on parent/caregiver distress, while the Family Accommodation Scale (FAS) will be used to measure change in family accommodation of OCD symptoms. Multilevel mixed effects linear regression will be used to analyse the impact of the intervention on the outcome measures. Ethics and dissemination This study has been approved by the Curtin University Human Research Ethics Committee. The results of the study will be reported in international peer-reviewed journals. Trial registration number Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry: ACTRN12613000152729. PMID:25926148

  11. REDUCED DISGUST PROPENSITY IS ASSOCIATED WITH IMPROVEMENT IN CONTAMINATION/WASHING SYMPTOMS IN OBSESSIVE-COMPULSIVE DISORDER

    PubMed Central

    Athey, Alison J.; Elias, Jason A.; Crosby, Jesse M.; Jenike, Michael A.; Pope, Harrison G.; Hudson, James I.; Brennan, Brian P.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Disgust is a well-established phenomenon with known neurobiological correlates. However, it remains unclear how or whether disgust changes with clinical treatment, because few longitudinal studies have tracked the association of disgust vulnerability and clinical symptoms in patient populations. Methods We assessed disgust propensity and symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) in 134 patients receiving intensive residential treatment for OCD. Using linear regression with adjustment for age, sex, and depression severity, we tested the association between change in disgust propensity and change in OCD symptoms from admission to discharge. Results Change in disgust propensity was significantly associated with improvement in contamination/washing symptoms (β = 0.25 [95% confidence interval: 0.11–0.39]; P = .001). No significant association was found between change in disgust propensity and change in other OCD symptom dimensions. Conclusions In patients with OCD undergoing intensive residential treatment, disgust propensity appears to improve in parallel with contamination/washing symptoms. PMID:25485229

  12. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    MedlinePlus

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a type of anxiety disorder. If you have OCD, you have frequent, ... way of your daily life. Researchers think brain circuits may not work properly in people who have ...

  13. Autism and ADHD Symptoms in Patients with OCD: Are They Associated with Specific OC Symptom Dimensions or OC Symptom Severity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anholt, Gideon E.; Cath, Danielle C.; van Oppen, Patricia; Eikelenboom, Merijn; Smit, Johannes H.; van Megen, Harold; van Balkom, Anton J. L. M.

    2010-01-01

    In obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), the relationship between autism spectrum disorders (ASD), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptom, and obsessive-compulsive (OC) symptom dimensions and severity has scarcely been studied. Therefore, 109 adult outpatients with primary OCD were compared to 87 healthy controls on OC, ADHD and

  14. Autism and ADHD Symptoms in Patients with OCD: Are They Associated with Specific OC Symptom Dimensions or OC Symptom Severity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anholt, Gideon E.; Cath, Danielle C.; van Oppen, Patricia; Eikelenboom, Merijn; Smit, Johannes H.; van Megen, Harold; van Balkom, Anton J. L. M.

    2010-01-01

    In obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), the relationship between autism spectrum disorders (ASD), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptom, and obsessive-compulsive (OC) symptom dimensions and severity has scarcely been studied. Therefore, 109 adult outpatients with primary OCD were compared to 87 healthy controls on OC, ADHD and…

  15. Sleep disturbance and obsessive-compulsive symptoms: Results from the national comorbidity survey replication.

    PubMed

    Cox, Rebecca C; Olatunji, Bunmi O

    2016-04-01

    A small body of developing research has found evidence for sleep disturbance in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and links between sleep disturbance and obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCS) in unselected samples. However, the link between sleep disturbance and OCS is yet to be examined in a nationally representative sample. Furthermore, the extent to which the link between sleep disturbance and OCS is accounted for by symptoms of depression remains unclear. To address this gap in the literature, the present study examined the relationship between sleep disturbance and OCS in a nationally representative sample. Participants were assessed in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication (NCS-R; n = 2073). Consistent with predictions, results revealed that individuals with sleep disturbance reported increased OCS severity compared to individuals without sleep disturbance. Further, sleep disturbance severity was associated with OCS severity, even when controlling for depression (and other anxiety-related disorders). This study is the first to link sleep disturbance and OCS in a nationally representative sample, and these findings highlight the unique role of sleep disturbance in the experience of OCS. Future research is necessary to delineate specific mechanisms that may account for this relationship. PMID:26802809

  16. Associations of obsessive-compulsive symptoms with clinical and neurocognitive features in schizophrenia according to stage of illness.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung-Wan; Jeong, Bo-Ok; Kim, Jae-Min; Shin, Il-Seon; Hwang, Michael Y; Paul Amminger, G; Nelson, Barnaby; Berk, Michael; McGorry, Patrick; Yoon, Jin-Sang

    2015-03-30

    This study aimed to investigate the association of obsessive-compulsive symptoms with clinical and neurocognitive features in patients with schizophrenia. This study enrolled 163 people with schizophrenia who were receiving risperidone monotherapy. Comorbid obsessive-compulsive symptoms were assessed using the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale, and subjects with a score ≥ 10 constituted the obsessive-compulsive symptom group (n=30, 18.4%). The learning index was significantly higher in patients with obsessive-compulsive symptoms than in those without such symptoms after adjusting for age, stage (early and chronic), duration of illness, and CDSS score. However, there was no significant interaction between obsessive-compulsive symptoms and stage of illness. Scores on Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia, and Beck Depression Inventory were significantly higher in the obsessive-compulsive symptom group. In addition, the Subjective Well-being under Neuroleptic Treatment score was significantly lower in the obsessive-compulsive symptom group. In conclusion, comorbid obsessive-compulsive symptoms in patients with schizophrenia were associated with a higher learning ability without a significant interaction with stage of illness. However, schizophrenia patients with obsessive-compulsive symptoms had more severe psychotic and depressive symptoms and poorer quality of life. PMID:25681006

  17. Functional Impairment in Childhood OCD: Development and Psychometrics Properties of the Child Obsessive-Compulsive Impact Scale-Revised (COIS-R)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piacentini, John; Peris, Tara S.; Bergman, R. Lindsey; Chang, Susanna; Jaffer, Margaret

    2007-01-01

    This article documents the development, factor structure, and psychometric properties of the parent- and youth-report forms of the Child Obsessive Compulsive Impact Scale-Revised (COIS-R), a measure of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)-specific functional impairment. Using a sample of 250 youth (M age = 11.7, 54% male, 80% Caucasian) diagnosed…

  18. Symptom Dimensions in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: Phenomenology and Treatment Outcomes with Exposure and Ritual Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Monnica T.; Mugno, Beth; Franklin, Martin; Faber, Sonya

    2014-01-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a severe condition with varied symptom presentations. The cognitive-behavioral treatment with the most empirical support is currently exposure and ritual prevention (EX/RP); however, clinical impression and some empirical data suggest that certain OCD symptoms are more responsive to treatment than others. Prior work identifying symptom dimensions within OCD is discussed, including epidemiological findings, factor analytic studies, and biological findings. Symptom dimensions most reliably identified include contamination/cleaning, doubt about harm/checking, symmetry/ordering, and unacceptable thoughts/mental rituals. The phenomenology of each of these subtypes is described and research literature is summarized, emphasizing the differential effects of EX/RP and its variants on each of these primary symptom dimensions. To date it appears that EX/RP is an effective treatment for the various OCD dimensions, although not all dimensions have been adequately studied (i.e., symmetry and ordering). Modifications to treatment may be warranted for some types of symptoms. Clinical implications and directions for future research are discussed. PMID:23615340

  19. Clozapine-Induced Obsessive-Compulsive Symptoms in Schizophrenia: A Critical Review

    PubMed Central

    Schirmbeck, Frederike; Zink, Mathias

    2012-01-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is rarely associated with schizophrenia, whereas 20 to 30% of schizophrenic patients, suffer from comorbid obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCS). So far no single pathogenetic theory convincingly explained this fact suggesting heterogeneous subgroups. Based on long-term case observations, one hypothesis assumes that second-onset OCS in the course of schizophrenia might be a side effect of second generation antipsychotics (SGA), most importantly clozapine (CLZ). This review summarizes the supporting epidemiological and pharmacological evidence: Estimations on prevalence of OCS increase in more recent cross-sectional studies and in later disease stages. Longitudinal observations report the de novo-onset of OCS under clozapine treatment. This association has not been reported with first generation antipsychotics (FGA) or SGAs with mainly dopaminergic mode of action. Finally, significant correlations of OCS-severity with duration of treatment, dose and serum levels suggest clozapine-induced OCS. However, supposed causal interactions need further verifications. It is also unclear, which neurobiological mechanisms might underlie the pathogenetic process. Detailed genotypic and phenotypic characterizations of schizophrenics with comorbid OCS regarding neurocognitive functioning and activation in sensitive tasks of functional magnetic imaging are needed. Multimodal large-scaled prospective studies are necessary to define patients at risk for second-onset OCS and to improve early detection and therapeutic interventions. PMID:22942882

  20. Comorbid Obsessive-Compulsive Symptoms in Schizophrenia: Insight into Pathomechanisms Facilitates Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Zink, Mathias

    2014-01-01

    Insight into the biological pathomechanism of a clinical syndrome facilitates the development of effective interventions. This paper applies this perspective to the important clinical problem of obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCS) occurring during the lifetime diagnosis of schizophrenia. Up to 25% of schizophrenia patients suffer from OCS and about 12% fulfil the diagnostic criteria of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). This is accompanied by marked subjective burden of disease, high levels of anxiety, depression and suicidality, increased neurocognitive impairment, less favourable levels of social and vocational functioning, and greater service utilization. Comorbid patients can be assigned to heterogeneous subgroups. It is assumed that second generation antipsychotics (SGAs), most importantly clozapine, might aggravate or even induce second-onset OCS. Several epidemiological and pharmacological arguments support this assumption. Specific genetic risk factors seem to dispose patients with schizophrenia to develop OCS and risk-conferring polymorphisms has been defined in SLC1A1, BDNF, DLGAP3, and GRIN2B and in interactions between these individual genes. Further research is needed with detailed characterization of large samples. In particular interactions between genetic risk constellations, pharmacological and psychosocial factors should be analysed. Results will further define homogeneous subgroups, which are in need for differential causative interventions. In clinical practise, schizophrenia patients should be carefully monitored for OCS, starting with at-risk mental states of psychosis and longitudinal follow-ups, hopefully leading to the development of multimodal therapeutic interventions. PMID:26556409

  1. The relationship between eating disorder symptoms and obsessive compulsive disorder in primigravida women

    PubMed Central

    Mohamadirizi, Soheila; Kordi, Masoumeh; Shakeri, Mohamad Taghi; Modares-Gharavi, Morteza

    2015-01-01

    Background: Eating Disorder Symptoms are among the most common disorders in perinatal period and are influenced by various environmental and psychosocial factors such as anxiety disorders. So, the aim of this study was to determine the relationship between Eating Disorder symptoms and Obsessive Compulsive disorder in primigravida women. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried on 213 in primigravida women referring to Mashhad health care centers, selected through a two stage sampling method (cluster-convenience) in Mashhad in 2013. Demographic and prenatal characteristics Questionnaire, Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q)(26Q) and Maudsley Obsessive Compulsive Questionnaire (30Q) were completed by the subjects. The statistical analysis was performed with various statistical tests such as Pearson correlation coefficient, t-test, one-way ANOVA and linear regression. Significance level was considered as P < 0.05. Results: Based on the findings 94.6% of the subjects had Obsessive Compulsive disorder, and 18% had Eating Disorder Symptoms. In addition, there was a poor positive correlation between the rate of Eating Disorder Symptoms and Obsessive Compulsive. Conclusions: There was a correlation between the Eating Disorder Symptoms and Obsessive Compulsive in pregnant women. It is recommended to eliminate or decrease Eating Disorder Symptoms and Obsessive Compulsive among Iranian pregnant women through preventive measures. PMID:26793246

  2. The glutamate-based genetic immune hypothesis in obsessive-compulsive disorder. An integrative approach from genes to symptoms.

    PubMed

    Rotge, J Y; Aouizerate, B; Tignol, J; Bioulac, B; Burbaud, P; Guehl, D

    2010-01-20

    Recent advances in multiple areas of research have contributed to the identification of several pathophysiological factors underlying obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). In particular, the glutamate transporter gene SLC1A1 has been associated with the diagnosis of OCD. Immunological and infectious studies have reported alterations of the immune system and the presence of immune complexes directed against the Borna disease virus in OCD patients. In addition, neuroimaging of OCD patients has demonstrated abnormalities in the anterior cingulate cortex, orbitofrontal cortex, thalamus, and the basal ganglia. Neuropsychological assessments have found several cognitive disruptions that have been identified in OCD, especially impairments in cognitive flexibility. Here, we attempt to bridge the gap between these remarkable findings through several previously unpredicted pathophysiological mechanisms. We propose an integrative hypothesis that indicates how genetic and environmental factors may contribute to the structural and functional alterations of cortico-subcortical circuits, leading to the characteristic cognitive disruptions underlying OCD symptoms. PMID:19861150

  3. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder in Late Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calamari, John E.; Pontarelli, Noelle K.; Armstrong, Kerrie M.; Salstrom, Seoka A.

    2012-01-01

    Although obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has received increasing attention, the study and treatment of OCD in late life has been neglected. The obsessions and compulsions seen with older adults do not appear to differ from the symptoms experienced by other age groups, although developmental issues might influence symptom focus (e.g., memory

  4. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder in Late Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calamari, John E.; Pontarelli, Noelle K.; Armstrong, Kerrie M.; Salstrom, Seoka A.

    2012-01-01

    Although obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has received increasing attention, the study and treatment of OCD in late life has been neglected. The obsessions and compulsions seen with older adults do not appear to differ from the symptoms experienced by other age groups, although developmental issues might influence symptom focus (e.g., memory…

  5. Animal behavior as a conceptual framework for the study of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD).

    PubMed

    Eilam, David; Zor, Rama; Fineberg, Naomi; Hermesh, Haggai

    2012-06-01

    Research on affective disorders may benefit from the methodology of studying animal behavior, in which tools are available for qualitatively and quantitatively measuring and assessing behavior with as much sophistication and attention to detail as in the analysis of the brain. To illustrate this, we first briefly review the characteristics of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and then demonstrate how the quinpirole rat model is used as a conceptual model in studying human OCD patients. Like the rat model, the study of OCD in humans is based on video-telemetry, whereby observable, measurable, and relatively objective characteristics of OCD behavior may be extracted. In this process, OCD rituals are defined in terms of the space in which they are executed and the movements (acts) that are performed at each location or object in this space. Accordingly, OCD behavior is conceived of as comprising three hierarchical components: (i) rituals (as defined by the patients); (ii) visits to objects/locations in the environment at which the patient stops during the ritual; and (iii) acts performed at each object/location during visits. Scoring these structural components (behavioral units) is conveniently possible with readily available tools for behavioral description and analysis, providing quantitative and qualitative measures of the OCD hallmarks of repetition and addition, as well as the reduced functionality in OCD behavior. Altogether, the concept that was developed in the context of an animal model provides a useful tool that may facilitate OCD diagnosis, assessment and treatment, and may be similarly applied for other psychiatric disorders. PMID:21763354

  6. The Impact of Personality Traits on Ratings of Obsessive-Compulsive Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Huh, Min Jung; Shim, Geumsook; Byun, Min Soo; Kim, Sung Nyun; Kim, Euitae; Jang, Joon Hwan; Shin, Min-Sup

    2013-01-01

    Objective The goal of this study was to evaluate consistencies and discrepancies between clinician-administered and self-report versions of the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS) and to examine relationships between these scales and personality traits. Methods A total of 106 patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) participated in this study. All participants were assessed with both clinician-administered and self-report versions of the Y-BOCS. The Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis II Disorders Personality Questionnaire (SCID-II-PQ) was used to evaluate relationships between personality traits and scores on the Y-BOCS. Results Scores on the clinician-administered Y-BOCS and its obsession subscale were significantly higher than were those on the self-report version. However, we found no significant differences in compulsion subscale scores. We also found that the discrepancies in the scores on the two versions of the Y-BOCS and its compulsion subscale were significantly positively correlated with scores for narcissistic personality traits on the SCID-II-PQ. Additionally, narcissistic personality traits had a significant effect on the discrepancy in the scores on the two versions of the Y-BOCS and its compulsion subscale in the multiple linear regression analysis. Conclusion This is the first study to elucidate relationships between personality traits and discrepancies between scores on the two versions of the Y-BOCS. Although clinicians tend to rate obsessive symptoms as being more severe than do patients, clinicians may underestimate the degree to which individuals with narcissistic personality traits suffer more from subjective discomfort due to compulsive symptoms. Therefore, the effect of personality traits on symptom severity should be considered in the treatment of OCD. PMID:24302949

  7. Insight in adults with obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    PubMed

    Jacob, Marni L; Larson, Michael J; Storch, Eric A

    2014-05-01

    The present study examined the clinical correlates of insight among adults with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). One hundred and thirty treatment-seeking adults with a primary diagnosis of OCD, aged 18 to 68 years (mean 31.4 years) participated. Measures of clinical severity, obsessive-compulsive symptom dimensions, anxiety symptoms, depressive symptoms, and ability to resist and control OCD symptoms were obtained. Results indicated that poor insight was positively related to greater OCD symptom severity and poorer ability to resist and control OCD symptoms; this pattern of associations held when insight was examined continuously and categorically (i.e., high versus low insight). Insight was generally not associated with other clinical characteristics, except for a relationship with mental neutralizing behaviors. Insight did not mediate the relationship between the ability to resist and control OCD symptoms and obsessive-compulsive symptom severity. Overall, this study provides further information into the nature and role of insight in adults with OCD. PMID:24445116

  8. Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Presenting for Redundant Clothing

    PubMed Central

    Uvais, N. A.; Sreeraj, V. S.

    2016-01-01

    This is a case report of a 15-year-old girl who presented with redundant clothing. On evaluation, it was found that she had obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), and redundant clothing was a symptom of OCD, which has hitherto not been reported. PMID:27011408

  9. Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Presenting for Redundant Clothing.

    PubMed

    Uvais, N A; Sreeraj, V S

    2016-01-01

    This is a case report of a 15-year-old girl who presented with redundant clothing. On evaluation, it was found that she had obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), and redundant clothing was a symptom of OCD, which has hitherto not been reported. PMID:27011408

  10. The Presentation of Childhood Obsessive--Compulsive Disorder across Home and School Settings: A Preliminary Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabuncuoglu, Osman; Berkem, Meral

    2006-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the exact pattern of obsessive--compulsive disorder (OCD) symptoms in children displayed across school and home settings. Twenty-six school children (aged 7 through 17) with OCD were tested using the Children's Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (CY-BOCS), the Clinical Global Impression (CGI)--severity subscale and…

  11. A Review of the Pharmacotherapy of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder and Schizophrenia: The Case of Sam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randhawa, Ramandeep S.

    2005-01-01

    Obsessive-compulsive symptoms are a common feature of schizophrenia, and high rates of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) have been reported in schizophrenic patients. Effective pharmacotherapeutic options are available for both OCD and schizophrenia, and for some patients combining medications targeted at both conditions may be a helpful…

  12. Psilocybin and Obsessive Compulsive Disorder.

    PubMed

    Wilcox, James Allen

    2014-01-01

    Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) is a psychiatric disorder with considerable morbidity and mortality. This condition disables many individuals and is often refractory to treatment. Research suggests that serotonin plays a role in OCD symptom reduction. We present a case of an individual who successfully used psilocybin, a serotonergic agent, to reduce the core symptoms of OCD for several years. Although not endorsing this form of treatment, we feel that the successful use of this agent highlights the role of serotonergic factors in OCD and the need for further, legitimate research into the value of psilocybin in the treatment of anxiety disorders. PMID:25364991

  13. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... What Is Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder? Everyone feels anxiety, fear, uncertainty, or worry at some time. These normal ... is a constant stream of uncertainty, doubt, or fear in the person's mind. OCD is a type ...

  14. Predictive value of obsessive-compulsive personality disorder in antiobsessional pharmacological treatment.

    PubMed

    Cavedini, P; Erzegovesi, S; Ronchi, P; Bellodi, L

    1997-02-01

    Previous reports have stressed the implication of Personality Disorders as predictors of a poorer treatment outcome in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD). The aim of this study was to see whether or not Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder may be predictive for a poorer outcome to antiobsessive pro-serotonergic pharmacological treatment. For this purpose, 30 OCD patients were divided into two groups according to the presence or absence of Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder. Ten-week standardized treatments with oral SRI drugs were given to look for different outcomes between the two groups in Obsessive-Compulsive symptom severity. At the end of the study we found that the presence of Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder, along with the total number of Personality Disorders, did predict poorer response to pharmacological treatment in OCD. PMID:9088884

  15. Partitioning the etiology of hoarding and obsessive compulsive symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Mathews, Carol A; Delucchi, Kevin; Cath, Danielle; Willemsen, Gonneke; Boomsma, Dorret

    2015-01-01

    Background Until recently, hoarding was considered an obsessive-compulsive symptom (OCS). However, current evidence suggests that these two phenotypes may be clinically, and perhaps etiologically, distinct. Both hoarding and OCS have a genetic etiology, but the degree of unique and shared genetic contributions to these phenotypes is not well studied. Methods Prevalence rates were assessed for hoarding and OCS in a sample of adult twin pairs (N = 7,906 twins) and their family members from the Netherlands Twin Register (total sample = 15,914). Using Mplus, genetic analyses using liability threshold models were conducted for both phenotypes, for their comorbidity, and for specific hoarding symptoms (cluttering, discarding, and acquiring). Results 6.7% of the total sample met criteria for clinically significant hoarding; endorsement of all three hoarding symptoms was over 85%. Men had slightly higher rates than women. 5.7% met criteria for clinically significant OCS; rates were similar in males and females. Genetic factors accounted for 36% of the variance for hoarding and 40% of the variance for OCS. The genetic correlation between hoarding and OCS was 0.10. There was no evidence of sex-specific genetic contributions for hoarding or OCS. There was evidence for a genetic contribution to all hoarding symptom subtypes. Only cluttering showed evidence of a contribution from shared environment. Conclusions OCS and hoarding are common in this population-based sample, are similar to previously reported prevalence rates, and show significant heritability. Genetic factors contributed to the comorbidity of both traits, although the genetic correlation between them was low. PMID:25066062

  16. Obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorders

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Andrea; King, Audrey; Hollander, Eric

    2003-01-01

    The obsessive-compulsive spectrum is an important concept referring to a number of disorders drawn from several diagnostic categories that share core obsessive-compulsive features. These disorders can be grouped by the focus of their symptoms: bodily preoccupation, impulse control, or neurological disorders. Although the disorders are clearly distinct from one another, they have intriguing similarities in phenomenology, etiology, pathophysiology, patient characteristics, and treatment response. In combination with the knowledge gained through many years of research on obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), the concept of a spectrum has generated much fruitful research on the spectrum disorders. It has become apparent that these disorders can also be viewed as being on a continuum of compulsivity to impulsivity, characterized by harm avoidance at the compulsive end and risk seeking at the impulsive end. The compulsive and impulsive disorders differ in systematic ways that are just beginning to be understood. Here, we review these concepts and several representative obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorders including both compulsive and impulsive disorders, as well as the three different symptom clusters: OCD, body dysmorphic disorder, pathological gambling, sexual compulsivity, and autism spectrum disorders. PMID:22033547

  17. The Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory-Revised (OCI-R): validation of the German version in a sample of patients with OCD, anxiety disorders, and depressive disorders.

    PubMed

    Gönner, Sascha; Leonhart, Rainer; Ecker, Willi

    2008-05-01

    The OCI-R is a psychometrically sound and valid self-report scale measuring the major symptoms of OCD on six dimensions: Checking, Washing, Ordering, Hoarding, Obsessing, and Neutralizing. Information is needed on its ability to discriminate OCD from depression. In this study, reliability and convergent, divergent, and known-groups validity of an authorized German version were examined in 381 patients with OCD, other anxiety and depressive disorders. Confirmatory factor analyses replicated the original six-factor structure in each sample. Moreover, results indicated good convergent, divergent, and known-groups validity for the full scale and the subscales in each sample, only a slight construct overlap between OCD and depression, anxiety, pathological worry, and perfectionism, and the relationships of the subscales with obsessive-compulsive personality features supported its construct validity. Previous findings for the original scale were replicated and extended in a different cultural context. However, the domains Neutralizing and Obsessions need further development. PMID:17913454

  18. Anxiety control and metacognitive beliefs mediate the relationship between inflated responsibility and obsessive compulsive symptoms.

    PubMed

    Sassaroli, Sandra; Centorame, Francesco; Caselli, Gabriele; Favaretto, Ettore; Fiore, Francesca; Gallucci, Marcello; Sarracino, Diego; Ruggiero, Giovanni M; Spada, Marcantonio M; Rapee, Ronald M

    2015-08-30

    Research has indicated that beliefs about inflated responsibility, beliefs about perceived control over anxiety-related events and reactions (anxiety control) and metacognitive beliefs about the need to control thoughts are associated with obsessive compulsive symptoms. In the current study we tested a mediation model of the interactions between these variables in predicting obsessive compulsive symptoms. Thirty-seven individuals with obsessive compulsive disorder and 31 controls completed the following self-report instruments: the Responsibility Attitude Scale, the Anxiety Control Scale, the Beliefs about Need to Control Thoughts sub-scale of the Metacognitions Questionnaire 30, and the Padua Inventory. Mann-Whitney U tests revealed that participants in the clinical group scored significantly higher than those in the non-clinical group on all variables. In the mediation model we found that the relationship between beliefs about inflated responsibility and obsessive compulsive symptoms was fully mediated by anxiety control and beliefs about the need to control thoughts. These findings provide support for the significant role played by beliefs about control in predicting the severity of obsessive compulsive symptoms. PMID:26141603

  19. Functional impairment in childhood OCD: development and psychometrics properties of the Child Obsessive-Compulsive Impact Scale-Revised (COIS-R).

    PubMed

    Piacentini, John; Peris, Tara S; Bergman, R Lindsey; Chang, Susanna; Jaffer, Margaret

    2007-01-01

    This article documents the development, factor structure, and psychometric properties of the parent- and youth-report forms of the Child Obsessive Compulsive Impact Scale-Revised (COIS-R), a measure of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)-specific functional impairment. Using a sample of 250 youth (M age = 11.7, 54% male, 80% Caucasian) diagnosed with OCD in a university hospital-based child anxiety clinic, exploratory factor analysis was employed to develop a 4-factor structure for the parent-report measure (Daily Living Skills, School, Social, Family/Activities) and a 3-factor structure for the youth-report form (School, Social, Activities). Both measures demonstrated good internal consistency, concurrent validity, and test-retest reliability. Moreover, partial correlations demonstrated significant associations between COIS-R scales and clinician global assessment of functioning scores controlling for both symptom severity and comorbid internalizing and externalizing symptomatology. These findings suggest that the COIS-R may hold utility for assessing the specific impact of OCD symptoms on youth functioning. PMID:18088221

  20. Comorbid obsessive-compulsive symptoms in schizophrenia: contributions of pharmacological and genetic factors.

    PubMed

    Schirmbeck, Frederike; Zink, Mathias

    2013-01-01

    A large subgroup of around 25% of schizophrenia patients suffers from obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCS) and about 12% fulfill the diagnostic criteria of an obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The additional occurrence of OCS is associated with high subjective burden of disease, additional neurocognitive impairment, poorer social and vocational functioning, greater service utilization and high levels of anxiety and depression. Comorbid patients can be assigned to heterogeneous subgroups. One hypothesis assumes that second generation antipsychotics (SGAs), most importantly clozapine, might aggravate or even induce second-onset OCS. Several arguments support this assumption, most importantly the observed chronological order of first psychotic manifestation, start of treatment with clozapine and onset of OCS. In addition, correlations between OCS-severity and dose and serum levels and duration of clozapine treatment hint toward a dose-dependent side effect. It has been hypothesized that genetic risk-factors dispose patients with schizophrenia to develop OCS. One study in a South Korean sample reported associations with polymorphisms in the gene SLC1A1 (solute carrier family 1A1) and SGA-induced OCS. However, this finding could not be replicated in European patients. Preliminary results also suggest an involvement of polymorphisms in the BDNF gene (brain-derived neurotrophic factor) and an interaction between markers of SLC1A1 and the gene DLGAP3 (disc large associated protein 3) as well as GRIN2B (N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subunit 2B). Further research of well-defined samples, in particular studies investigating possible interactions of genetic risk-constellations and pharmacodynamic properties, are needed to clarify the assumed development of SGA-induced OCS. Results might improve pathogenic concepts and facilitate the definition of at risk populations, early detection and monitoring of OCS as well as multimodal therapeutic interventions. PMID:23950745

  1. Imbalance in habitual versus goal directed neural systems during symptom provocation in obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    PubMed

    Banca, Paula; Voon, Valerie; Vestergaard, Martin D; Philipiak, Gregor; Almeida, Ins; Pocinho, Fernando; Relvas, Joo; Castelo-Branco, Miguel

    2015-03-01

    Intrusive thoughts and compulsive urges to perform stereotyped behaviours are typical symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder. Emerging evidence suggests a cognitive bias towards habit formation at the expense of goal-directed performance in obsessive-compulsive disorder. In this study, we test this hypothesis using a novel individualized ecologically valid symptom provocation design: a live provocation functional magnetic resonance imaging paradigm with synchronous video-recording of behavioural avoidance responses. By pairing symptom provocation with online avoidance responses on a trial-by-trial basis, we sought to investigate the neural mechanisms leading to the compulsive avoidance response. In keeping with the model of habit formation in obsessive-compulsive disorder, we hypothesized that this disorder would be associated with lower activity in regions implicated in goal-directed behaviours and higher activity in regions implicated in habitual behaviours. Fifteen patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder and 15 healthy control volunteers participated in this functional magnetic resonance imaging study. Online stimuli were individually tailored to achieve effective symptom provocation at neutral, intermediate and strong intensity levels. During the symptom provocation block, the participant could choose to reject or terminate the provoking stimuli resulting in cessation of the symptom provocation. We thus separately analysed the neural correlates of symptom provocation, the urge to avoid, rejection and relief. Strongly symptom-provoking conditions evoked a dichotomous pattern of deactivation/activation in patients, which was not observed either in control conditions or in healthy subjects: a deactivation of caudate-prefrontal circuits accompanied by hyperactivation of subthalamic nucleus/putaminal regions. This finding suggests a dissociation between regions engaged in goal-directed and habitual behaviours. The putaminal hyperactivity during patients' symptom provocation preceded subsequent deactivation during avoidance and relief events, indicating a pivotal role of putamen in regulation of behaviour and habit formation in obsessive-compulsive disorder. Effective connectivity analysis identified the ventromedial prefrontal cortex/orbitofrontal cortex as the main structure in this circuitry involved in the modulation of compulsivity in obsessive-compulsive disorder. These findings suggest an imbalance in circuitry underlying habitual and goal-directed action control, which may represent a fundamental mechanism underlying compulsivity in obsessive-compulsive disorder. Our results complement current models of symptom generation in obsessive-compulsive disorder and may enable the development of future therapeutic approaches that aim to alleviate this imbalance. PMID:25567322

  2. Imbalance in habitual versus goal directed neural systems during symptom provocation in obsessive-compulsive disorder

    PubMed Central

    Banca, Paula; Voon, Valerie; Vestergaard, Martin D.; Philipiak, Gregor; Almeida, Inês; Pocinho, Fernando; Relvas, João

    2015-01-01

    Intrusive thoughts and compulsive urges to perform stereotyped behaviours are typical symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder. Emerging evidence suggests a cognitive bias towards habit formation at the expense of goal-directed performance in obsessive-compulsive disorder. In this study, we test this hypothesis using a novel individualized ecologically valid symptom provocation design: a live provocation functional magnetic resonance imaging paradigm with synchronous video-recording of behavioural avoidance responses. By pairing symptom provocation with online avoidance responses on a trial-by-trial basis, we sought to investigate the neural mechanisms leading to the compulsive avoidance response. In keeping with the model of habit formation in obsessive-compulsive disorder, we hypothesized that this disorder would be associated with lower activity in regions implicated in goal-directed behaviours and higher activity in regions implicated in habitual behaviours. Fifteen patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder and 15 healthy control volunteers participated in this functional magnetic resonance imaging study. Online stimuli were individually tailored to achieve effective symptom provocation at neutral, intermediate and strong intensity levels. During the symptom provocation block, the participant could choose to reject or terminate the provoking stimuli resulting in cessation of the symptom provocation. We thus separately analysed the neural correlates of symptom provocation, the urge to avoid, rejection and relief. Strongly symptom-provoking conditions evoked a dichotomous pattern of deactivation/activation in patients, which was not observed either in control conditions or in healthy subjects: a deactivation of caudate-prefrontal circuits accompanied by hyperactivation of subthalamic nucleus/putaminal regions. This finding suggests a dissociation between regions engaged in goal-directed and habitual behaviours. The putaminal hyperactivity during patients’ symptom provocation preceded subsequent deactivation during avoidance and relief events, indicating a pivotal role of putamen in regulation of behaviour and habit formation in obsessive-compulsive disorder. Effective connectivity analysis identified the ventromedial prefrontal cortex/orbitofrontal cortex as the main structure in this circuitry involved in the modulation of compulsivity in obsessive-compulsive disorder. These findings suggest an imbalance in circuitry underlying habitual and goal-directed action control, which may represent a fundamental mechanism underlying compulsivity in obsessive-compulsive disorder. Our results complement current models of symptom generation in obsessive-compulsive disorder and may enable the development of future therapeutic approaches that aim to alleviate this imbalance. PMID:25567322

  3. Remote cognitive-behavior therapy for obsessive-compulsive symptoms: A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Wootton, Bethany M

    2016-02-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a chronic mental health condition that results in a significant societal burden. Remote treatments do not require the patient to attend traditional face-to-face treatment services and can be used as a way to overcome barriers to accessing face-to-face treatment. The aim of the current study was to synthesize the current literature on remote treatment for OCD using a meta-analytic approach. Relevant articles were identified through an electronic database search and the references of previously completed reviews on the topic of remote treatment for OCD were also reviewed. Eighteen studies (n=823; mean age=31.20 (SD=10.36); 56.2% female) were included in the meta-analysis. Within-group findings indicate that remote treatment for OCD produces a decrease in symptoms of a large magnitude (g=1.17; 95% CI: 0.91-1.43). Between-group findings indicate that remote treatment for OCD is more effective than control (g=1.06; 95% CI: 0.68-1.45) and outcomes are not meaningfully different from face-to-face treatment (g=-0.21; 95% CI: -0.43-0.02). Those methodologies that are low intensity produce a decrease in symptoms of a large magnitude (g=1.36, 95% CI: 1.00-1.72), as do higher intensity treatments (g=1.64, 95% CI: 1.33-1.95). These findings have important implications for the development of stepped-care treatments, which may be able to be delivered in a purely remote fashion. PMID:26494179

  4. The Impact of Symptom Dimensions on Outcome for Exposure and Ritual Prevention Therapy in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Monnica T.; Farris, Samantha G.; Turkheimer, Eric N.; Franklin, Martin E.; Simpson, H. Blair; Liebowitz, Michael; Foa, Edna B.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a severe condition with varied symptom presentations. The behavioral treatment with the most empirical support is exposure and ritual prevention (EX/RP). This study examined the impact of symptom dimensions on EX/RP outcomes in OCD patients. Method The Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS) was used to determine primary symptoms for each participant. An exploratory factor analysis (EFA) of 238 patients identified five dimensions: contamination/cleaning, doubts about harm/checking, hoarding, symmetry/ordering, and unacceptable/taboo thoughts (including religious/moral and somatic obsessions among others). A linear regression was conducted on those who had received EX/RP (n = 87) to examine whether scores on the five symptom dimensions predicted post-treatment Y-BOCS scores, accounting for pre-treatment Y-BOCS scores. Results The average reduction in Y-BOCS score was 43.0%, however the regression indicated that unacceptable/taboo thoughts (β = .27, p = .02) and hoarding dimensions (β = .23, p = .04) were associated with significantly poorer EX/RP treatment outcomes. Specifically, patients endorsing religious/moral obsessions, somatic concerns, and hoarding obsessions showed significantly smaller reductions in Y-BOCS severity scores. Conclusions EX/RP was effective for all symptom dimensions, however it was less effective for unacceptable/taboo thoughts and hoarding than for other dimensions. Clinical implications and directions for research are discussed. PMID:24983796

  5. Deep brain stimulation for the obsessive-compulsive and Tourette-like symptoms of Kleefstra syndrome.

    PubMed

    Segar, David J; Chodakiewitz, Yosef G; Torabi, Radmehr; Cosgrove, G Rees

    2015-06-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has been reported to have beneficial effects in severe, treatment-refractory cases of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and Tourette syndrome (TS). In this report, the authors present the first case in which DBS was used to treat the neuropsychiatric symptoms of Kleefstra syndrome, a rare genetic disorder characterized by childhood hypotonia, intellectual disability, distinctive facial features, and myriad psychiatric and behavioral disturbances. A 24-year-old female patient with childhood hypotonia, developmental delay, and diagnoses of autism spectrum disorder, OCD, and TS refractory to medical management underwent the placement of bilateral ventral capsule/ventral striatum (VC/VS) DBS leads, with clinical improvement. Medical providers and family observed gradual and progressive improvement in the patient's compulsive behaviors, coprolalia, speech, and social interaction. Symptoms recurred when both DBS electrodes failed because of lead fracture and dislodgement, although the clinical benefits were restored by lead replacement. The symptomatic and functional improvements observed in this case of VC/VS DBS for Kleefstra syndrome suggest a novel indication for DBS worthy of further investigation. PMID:26030700

  6. The Children's Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale: Reliability and Validity for Use among 5 to 8 Year Olds with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, Jennifer; Flessner, Christopher A.; Garcia, Abbe

    2011-01-01

    The Children's Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (CY-BOCS) is the instrument of choice for assessing symptom severity in older children (i.e., 8-18 years) diagnosed with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The reliability and validity of this measure for use among younger children (i.e., 5-8 years of age), however, has never been examined.

  7. Development and Psychometric Evaluation of the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale--Second Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Storch, Eric A.; Rasmussen, Steven A.; Price, Lawrence H.; Larson, Michael J.; Murphy, Tanya K.; Goodman, Wayne K.

    2010-01-01

    The Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS; Goodman, Price, Rasmussen, Mazure, Delgado, et al., 1989) is acknowledged as the gold standard measure of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) symptom severity. A number of areas where the Y-BOCS may benefit from revision have emerged in past psychometric studies of the Severity Scale and Symptom

  8. Suicidality in clozapine-treated patients with schizophrenia: role of obsessive-compulsive symptoms.

    PubMed

    Szmulewicz, Alejandro G; Smith, José M; Valerio, Marina P

    2015-11-30

    Patients with schizophrenia have an increased lifetime risk of comorbid obsessive-compulsive symptoms. Up to 30% of these patients experience such symptoms and 12% may be diagnosed with obsessive-compulsive disorder. The presence of these symptoms in schizophrenia seems to be associated with poor outcomes including a greater suicidal risk. A subgroup of patients develops this symptomatology after the initiation with Second Generation Antipsychotics (SGA). Also, there is evidence of a causal relationship for this association, particularly for clozapine. The primary aim of this study was to investigate the association of this comorbidity with suicidality in a population of clozapine-medicated schizophrenic and schizoaffective patients (N=65). The prevalence of obsessive-compulsive symptoms in our sample was 29.2% (N=19) and the prevalence of obsessive-compulsive disorder was 13.8% (N=9). Significant positive correlations between suicidality and total Y-BOCS score and between Y- BOCS score and depressive symptoms were found. Further analysis indicated that a Y-BOCS score greater or equal than 8 was an independent predictor of suicide attempt during clozapine treatment. Routine screening for this adverse event should be warranted for this population. PMID:26260567

  9. Cognitive Predictors of Obsessive?Compulsive Symptoms in Adolescence: A Preliminary Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mather, Alison; Cartwright-Hatton, Sam

    2004-01-01

    This study examined relations among responsibility attitudes, metacognitive beliefs, and obsessive?compulsive (O?C) symptoms in youth. One hundred sixty-six nonclinical youth (ages 13 to 17 years) completed the following: Responsibility Attitude Scale (RAS; Salkovskis et al., 2000); Meta-Cognitions Questionnaire?Adolescent Version (MCQ?A;…

  10. Three cases of symptom change in Tourette's syndrome and obsessive-compulsive disorder associated with paediatric cerebral malignancies.

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, B S; Bronen, R A; Duncan, C C

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To correlate behaviour manifestations with tumour location in three children who had Gilles de la Tourette's syndrome (GTS), obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and primary cerebral malignancies. METHOD: Cases were ascertained from a chart review in a GTS and OCD specialty clinic. For each case the temporal progression of change in neuropsychiatric symptoms was qualitatively correlated with radiographic documentation of tumour progression. RESULTS: The change in symptom severities during tumour progression and treatment, together with prior neurobiological studies of GTS, suggest that the ventral striatum, corpus callosum, thalamus, and midbrain are potentially important neural substrates in the formation or modulation of tic symptoms. The limbic system, including the hypothalamus and cingulate, and the caudate nucleus, seem to be important in the neurobiology of OCD. All structures are neuroanatomically and functionally related to the corticostriato-thalamocortical circuitry that is thought to subserve symptom generation in both GTS and OCD. CONCLUSION: Although the malignancies were not likely to have caused the tic and OCD symptoms in these children, the locations of these intracranial lesions provide important clues in identifying brain regions that may contribute to the determination of tic and OCD severities. Images PMID:8937345

  11. Development and Psychometric Evaluation of the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale--Second Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Storch, Eric A.; Rasmussen, Steven A.; Price, Lawrence H.; Larson, Michael J.; Murphy, Tanya K.; Goodman, Wayne K.

    2010-01-01

    The Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS; Goodman, Price, Rasmussen, Mazure, Delgado, et al., 1989) is acknowledged as the gold standard measure of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) symptom severity. A number of areas where the Y-BOCS may benefit from revision have emerged in past psychometric studies of the Severity Scale and Symptom…

  12. The relationship of cognitive confidence to OCD symptoms.

    PubMed

    Nedeljkovic, Maja; Moulding, Richard; Kyrios, Michael; Doron, Guy

    2009-05-01

    The role of meta-memory and meta-cognition in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) symptoms and checking was examined in a student sample, using the memory and cognitive confidence scale (MACCS; Nedeljkovic, M., & Kyrios, M. (2007). Confidence in memory and other cognitive processes in obsessive-compulsive disorder. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 45, 2899-2914). Confirmatory factor analysis supported the MACCS's previously reported structure, and hierarchical regression supported its relationship to OCD symptom severity over-and-above depression and other OCD-related beliefs. Specifically, general confidence in memory was found to be a unique predictor of overall OCD severity. Implications for theory and research are discussed. PMID:19022617

  13. Correlates of Insight among Youth with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewin, Adam B.; Bergman, R. Lindsey; Peris, Tara S.; Chang, Susanna; McCracken, James T.; Piacentini, John

    2010-01-01

    Background: Individuals with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) may lack insight into the irrational nature of their symptoms. Among adults with OCD, poor insight has been linked to greater symptom severity, increased likelihood of comorbid symptoms, lower adaptive functioning, and worse treatment outcomes. Parallel work regarding insight among…

  14. Correlates of Insight among Youth with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewin, Adam B.; Bergman, R. Lindsey; Peris, Tara S.; Chang, Susanna; McCracken, James T.; Piacentini, John

    2010-01-01

    Background: Individuals with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) may lack insight into the irrational nature of their symptoms. Among adults with OCD, poor insight has been linked to greater symptom severity, increased likelihood of comorbid symptoms, lower adaptive functioning, and worse treatment outcomes. Parallel work regarding insight among

  15. "WHAT'S BUGGING THE GUT IN OCD?" A REVIEW OF THE GUT MICROBIOME IN OBSESSIVE-COMPULSIVE DISORDER.

    PubMed

    Turna, Jasmine; Grosman Kaplan, Keren; Anglin, Rebecca; Van Ameringen, Michael

    2016-03-01

    The gut microbiome has become a topic of major interest as of late, with a new focus specifically on psychiatric disorders. Recent studies have revealed that variations in the composition of the gut microbiota may influence anxiety and mood and vice versa. Keeping the concept of this bidirectional "microbiota-gut-brain" axis in mind, this review aims to shed light on how these findings may also be implicated in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD); potentially outlining a novel etiological pathway of interest for future research in the field. PMID:26629974

  16. Prevalence and clinical correlates of obsessive-compulsive disorder in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Devi, Sugnyani; Rao, Naren P; Badamath, Suresh; Chandrashekhar, C R; Janardhan Reddy, Y C

    2015-01-01

    Obsessive compulsive symptoms frequently occur in a substantial proportion of patients with schizophrenia. The term schizoobsessive has been proposed to delineate this subgroup of schizophrenia patients who present with obsessive-compulsive symptoms/disorder. However, whether this co-occurrence is more than just co-morbidity and represents a distinct subgroup remains controversial. A striking variation is noted across studies examining prevalence of obsessive-compulsive symptoms/disorder in schizophrenia patients and their impact on clinical profile of schizophrenia. Hence, in this study, we examined the prevalence of obsessive-compulsive symptoms/disorder in a large sample of consecutively hospitalized schizophrenia patients and compared the clinical and functional characteristics of schizophrenia patients with and without obsessive-compulsive symptoms/disorder. We evaluated 200 consecutive subjects with the DSM-IV diagnosis of schizophrenia using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I disorders, Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale, Brown Assessment of Beliefs Scale, Clinical Global Impression-Severity scale, Global Assessment of Functioning Scale, Family Interview for Genetic Studies and World Health Organization Quality of Life scale. The prevalence of obsessive-compulsive symptoms in patients with schizophrenia was 24% (n=48); 37 of them had obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and 11 had obsessive-compulsive symptoms not amounting to a clinical diagnosis of OCD (OCS). Schizophrenia patients with OCS/OCD had an earlier age at onset of schizophrenia symptoms, lower positive symptoms score, higher co-morbidity with Axis II disorders, higher occurrence of OCD in family and better quality of life. Findings of the study indicate a higher prevalence of OCS/OCD in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia patients with and without OCS/OCD have comparable clinical profile with few exceptions. High rates of OCD in first degree relatives suggest possible genetic contributions and differences in neurobiology. Finally, evidence to consider schizoobsessive as a distinct diagnostic entity is inconclusive and warrants further studies. PMID:25308405

  17. Family Accommodation in Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Storch, Eric A.; Geffken, Gary R.; Merlo, Lisa J.; Jacob, Marni L.; Murphy, Tanya K.; Goodman, Wayne K.; Larson, Michael J.; Fernandez, Melanie; Grabill, Kristen

    2007-01-01

    Despite the importance of the family in the treatment of pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), relatively little empirical attention has been directed to family accommodation of symptoms. This study examined the relations among family accommodation, OCD symptom severity, functional impairment, and internalizing and externalizing behavior…

  18. Patterns of alpha asymmetry in those with elevated worry, trait anxiety, and obsessive-compulsive symptoms: A test of the worry and avoidance models of alpha asymmetry.

    PubMed

    Smith, Ezra E; Zambrano-Vazquez, Laura; Allen, John J B

    2016-05-01

    Some authors have argued that worry cues lateralization of frontal brain activity leftward, whereas other varieties of avoidance motivation cue lateralization of frontal brain activity rightward. By comparison, more right-than-left parietal activity correlates with anxious arousal. The purpose of the present report was to test two models of brain lateralization and anxiety: one model that proposed that worry correlates with more left-frontal activity and another model that proposed that avoidance motivation (including worry) correlates with more right-frontal activity. Undergraduate students were selected for worry, obsessive-compulsive symptoms, and trait anxiety using self-report questionnaires. A subset of participants also met DSM-IV criteria for Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) or Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD). Alpha asymmetry and also a global-power-adjusted metric of alpha power were calculated from each participant's resting-state EEG. It was expected that participants with elevated worry and participants meeting criteria for GAD would show more left-than-right frontal activity. In contrast, participants with elevated trait anxiety, obsessive-compulsive symptoms, and those with an OCD diagnosis were expected to exhibit more right-than-left frontal activity. Participants with elevated worry, participants with a GAD diagnosis, and participants with elevated obsessive-compulsive symptoms, had more left frontal activity than low symptom individuals. Those with high scores on trait anxiety, but low worry, had greater right frontal and parietal activity compared to controls. The present results suggest that brain lateralization is not solely related to avoidance motivation, and suggest that facets of anxiety may cut across dimensions not well-represented by DSM-based categories. PMID:26970143

  19. Altered Cingulate Sub-Region Activation Accounts for Task-Related Dissociation in ERN Amplitude as a Function of Obsessive-Compulsive Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanagh, James F.; Grundler, Theo O. J.; Frank, Michael J.; Allen, John J. B.

    2010-01-01

    Larger error-related negativities (ERNs) have been consistently found in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) patients, and are thought to reflect the activities of a hyperactive cortico-striatal circuit during action monitoring. We previously observed that obsessive-compulsive (OC) symptomatic students (non-patients) have larger ERNs during errors

  20. Altered Cingulate Sub-Region Activation Accounts for Task-Related Dissociation in ERN Amplitude as a Function of Obsessive-Compulsive Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanagh, James F.; Grundler, Theo O. J.; Frank, Michael J.; Allen, John J. B.

    2010-01-01

    Larger error-related negativities (ERNs) have been consistently found in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) patients, and are thought to reflect the activities of a hyperactive cortico-striatal circuit during action monitoring. We previously observed that obsessive-compulsive (OC) symptomatic students (non-patients) have larger ERNs during errors…

  1. To discard or not to discard: the neural basis of hoarding symptoms in obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    PubMed

    An, S K; Mataix-Cols, D; Lawrence, N S; Wooderson, S; Giampietro, V; Speckens, A; Brammer, M J; Phillips, M L

    2009-03-01

    Preliminary neuroimaging studies suggest that patients with the 'compulsive hoarding syndrome' may be a neurobiologically distinct variant of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) but further research is needed. A total of 29 OCD patients (13 with and 16 without prominent hoarding symptoms) and 21 healthy controls of both sexes participated in two functional magnetic resonance imaging experiments consisting of the provocation of hoarding-related and symptom-unrelated (aversive control) anxiety. In response to the hoarding-related (but not symptom-unrelated) anxiety provocation, OCD patients with prominent hoarding symptoms showed greater activation in bilateral anterior ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC) than patients without hoarding symptoms and healthy controls. In the entire patient group (n=29), provoked anxiety was positively correlated with activation in a frontolimbic network that included the anterior VMPFC, medial temporal structures, thalamus and sensorimotor cortex. Negative correlations were observed in the left dorsal anterior cingulate gyrus, bilateral temporal cortex, bilateral dorsolateral/medial prefrontal regions, basal ganglia and parieto-occipital regions. These results were independent from the effects of age, sex, level of education, state anxiety, depression, comorbidity and use of medication. The findings are consistent with the animal and lesion literature and several landmark clinical features of compulsive hoarding, particularly decision-making difficulties. Whether the results are generalizable to hoarders who do not meet criteria for OCD remains to be investigated. PMID:18180763

  2. Does cyberchondria overlap with health anxiety and obsessive-compulsive symptoms? An examination of latent structure and scale interrelations.

    PubMed

    Fergus, Thomas A; Russell, Laurie H

    2016-03-01

    Searching for medical information online is a widespread activity that increases distress for many individuals. Researchers have speculated that this phenomenon, referred to as cyberchondria, overlaps substantially with both health anxiety and obsessive-compulsive symptoms. This study sought to examine: (1) the distinguishability of cyberchondria from health anxiety and obsessive-compulsive symptoms and (2) the components of health anxiety and obsessive-compulsive symptoms that cluster most strongly with cyberchondria. The sample consisted of community adults in the United States with no current reported medical problems (N=375). Results from confirmatory factor analyses (CFAs) support the idea that cyberchondria is distinct from, yet related to, health anxiety and obsessive-compulsive symptoms. Results from zero-order correlations and regression analyses suggest that cyberchondria clusters with the affective (health worry) component of health anxiety. Regression results diverged from prior findings, as obsessive-compulsive symptoms did not share associations with cyberchondria after accounting for negative affect and health anxiety. The present results indicate that cyberchondria is possibly discernible from both health anxiety and obsessive-compulsive symptoms, while also providing insight into areas of potential overlap. PMID:26851749

  3. Streptococcal upper respiratory tract infections and psychosocial stress predict future tic and obsessive-compulsive symptom severity in children and adolescents with Tourette syndrome and/or obsessive-compulsive disorder

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Haiqun; Williams, Kyle A.; Katsovich, Liliya; Findley, Diane B.; Grantz, Heidi; Lombroso, Paul J.; King, Robert A.; Bessen, Debra E.; Johnson, Dwight; Kaplan, Edward L.; Landeros-Weisenberger, Angeli; Zhang, Heping; Leckman, James F.

    2009-01-01

    Background: One goal of this prospective longitudinal study was to identify new group A beta hemolytic streptococcal (GABHS) infections in children and adolescents with Tourette syndrome (TS) and/or obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) compared to healthy control subjects. We then examined the power of GABHS infections and measures of psychosocial stress to predict future tic, obsessive-compulsive (OC), and depressive symptom severity. Methods: Consecutive ratings of tic, OC and depressive symptom severity were obtained for 45 cases and 41 matched control subjects over a two-year period. Clinical raters were blinded to the results of laboratory tests. Laboratory personnel were blinded to case or control status and clinical ratings. Structural equation modeling for unbalanced repeated measures was used to assess the sequence of new GABHS infections and psychosocial stress and their impact on future symptom severity. Results: Increases in tic and OC symptom severity did not occur after every new GABHS infection. However, the structural equation model found that these newly diagnosed infections were predictive of modest increases in future tic and OC symptom severity, but did not predict future depressive symptom severity. In addition, the inclusion of new infections in the model greatly enhanced, by a factor of three, the power of psychosocial stress in predicting future tic and OC symptom severity. Conclusions: Our data suggest that a minority of children with TS and early-onset OCD were sensitive to antecedent GABHS infections. These infections also enhanced the predictive power of current psychosocial stress on future tic and OC symptom severity. PMID:19833320

  4. Atypical Presentation of Childhood Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Mohapatra, Satyakam; Rath, Neelmadhav

    2016-01-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is one of the most prevalent psychiatric disorders in children and adolescents. The phenomenology of OCD in children and adolescent is strikingly similar to that of adults. But at times, the presentation of OCD may be so atypical or unusual in children and adolescents that may lead to misdiagnosis or delay in diagnosis. We report a case of 10-year-old child who was initially misdiagnosed with schizophrenia, and treated with antipsychotic for 2 months. But once the core symptoms were recognized as obsessions and compulsions and appropriately treated in the line of OCD, the symptoms resolved significantly. PMID:27011407

  5. Psychosocial Stress Predicts Future Symptom Severities in Children and Adolescents with Tourette Syndrome and/or Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Haiqun; Katsovich, Liliya; Ghebremichael, Musie; Findley, Diane B.; Grantz, Heidi; Lombroso, Paul J.; King, Robert A.; Zhang, Heping; Leckman, James F.

    2007-01-01

    Background: The goals of this prospective longitudinal study were to monitor levels of psychosocial stress in children and adolescents with Tourette syndrome (TS) and/or obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) compared to healthy control subjects and to examine the relationship between measures of psychosocial stress and fluctuations in tic,

  6. Psychosocial Stress Predicts Future Symptom Severities in Children and Adolescents with Tourette Syndrome and/or Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Haiqun; Katsovich, Liliya; Ghebremichael, Musie; Findley, Diane B.; Grantz, Heidi; Lombroso, Paul J.; King, Robert A.; Zhang, Heping; Leckman, James F.

    2007-01-01

    Background: The goals of this prospective longitudinal study were to monitor levels of psychosocial stress in children and adolescents with Tourette syndrome (TS) and/or obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) compared to healthy control subjects and to examine the relationship between measures of psychosocial stress and fluctuations in tic,…

  7. Perfectionism and Peer Relations among Children with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ye, Huan J.; Rice, Kenneth G.; Storch, Eric A.

    2008-01-01

    The study examined perfectionism, symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and depression, and peer relationships among a clinical sample of 31 youth (age range 7-18 years) diagnosed with OCD. Using a correlational design, perfectionistic beliefs accounted for significant variance in OCD symptoms, depressive symptoms, and difficulties in…

  8. Perfectionism and Peer Relations among Children with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ye, Huan J.; Rice, Kenneth G.; Storch, Eric A.

    2008-01-01

    The study examined perfectionism, symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and depression, and peer relationships among a clinical sample of 31 youth (age range 7-18 years) diagnosed with OCD. Using a correlational design, perfectionistic beliefs accounted for significant variance in OCD symptoms, depressive symptoms, and difficulties in

  9. Epidemiology of obsessive-compulsive disorder: a world view.

    PubMed

    Sasson, Y; Zohar, J; Chopra, M; Lustig, M; Iancu, I; Hendler, T

    1997-01-01

    The worldwide prevalence of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is approximately 2% of the general population. Symptoms of OCD include fear of contamination by dirt or germs; constant checking; repetitive, intrusive thoughts of a somatic, aggressive, or sexual nature; extreme slowness; and an inordinate concern with orderliness and symmetry. Differential diagnosis is sometimes complicated by the overlap between OCD and obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD). The most common complication of OCD is depression. However, while both serotonergic and nonserotonergic antidepressants are effective in treating patients with depression, only serotonergic medications are effective in treating OCD patients. Because OCD patients often attempt to conceal their symptoms, it is incumbent on clinicians to screen for OCD in every mental status examination, since appropriate treatment can often result in improved quality of life. PMID:9393390

  10. The impact of perinatal depression on the evolution of anxiety and obsessive-compulsive symptoms.

    PubMed

    Miller, Emily S; Hoxha, Denada; Wisner, Katherine L; Gossett, Dana R

    2015-06-01

    We sought to examine the evolution of postpartum anxiety, obsessions and compulsions over time, and the influence of depression on their clinical course. This was a prospective cohort of obstetric patients enrolled at a tertiary care women's hospital. Women were recruited immediately postpartum and followed for 6 months. Women were screened for depression, state-trait anxiety, and obsessive-compulsive symptoms and dichotomized by the presence of depression. Four hundred sixty-one women agreed to participate in the study and completed the 2 weeks postpartum assessment; 331 (72 %) women completed the assessment at 6 months postpartum. At 2 weeks postpartum, 28 (19.9 %) women with depression had anxiety symptoms, compared to 4 (1.3 %) women who screened negative for depression (p < 0.001). Similarly, 36 (25.7 %) women with depression endorsed obsessions and compulsions compared to 19 (8.4 %) women without depression (p < 0.001). A significant interaction effect was present with anxiety over time such that by 6 months postpartum, there were no differences in symptoms in women with and without depression (p = 0.860). Conversely, the differences in obsessions and compulsions between depressed and non-depressed women persisted (p = 0.017). Women with postpartum depression are more likely to experience comorbid state-trait anxiety and obsessive-compulsive symptoms in the immediate postpartum period. While state-trait anxiety symptoms tend to resolve with time, obsessive-compulsive symptoms persist. Understanding these temporal trends is critical to tailor appropriate monitoring and treatment. PMID:25355541

  11. Clinicians' views on clinical examination and treatment of children and adolescents with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). A Danish national survey study.

    PubMed

    Nissen, Judith Becker; Thomsen, Per Hove

    2008-01-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a frequently encountered disorder in children and adolescents. Several characteristics make the disorder a challenge to diagnostic methods and treatment procedures including the diversity of symptoms, the delay of referral and the occurrence of comorbidity. The aim of the present study was to examine how recent progress in assessment and treatment has influenced the Danish clinicians in their work with children and adolescents with OCD. The study was conducted as a national survey addressing a total of 14 outpatient children and adolescent departments, and 25 medical specialists in private practice. The clinicians received a questionnaire including general and specific questions on assessment scales and treatment methods towards OCD and their view on treatment efficacy and prognosis. A total of 71.8% responded to the questionnaire. Most clinicians reported the use of a general medical and social history combined with the use of OCD-specific checklists. Treatment procedures included medication, cognitive therapy or cognitive-behavioural therapy and a family approach depending on the age of the patient. Eighty-one per cent of the clinicians reported a good or very good effect of treatment. Clinical Global Improvement ratings of the last treated patient indicated a treatment response of 68.8% and a response on general improvement of 59.4%. In conclusion, the present study shows that treatment methods employed towards children and adolescents with OCD are close to the clinical recommendations and comparable with those employed in other countries. Furthermore, the general opinion of clinicians towards OCD is comparable with that described in the literature. However, a discussion of the choice of recommended assessment methods including the use of both specific and general checklists is warranted. PMID:18763190

  12. The Children's Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale: Reliability and Validity for Use among 5 to 8 Year Olds with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, Jennifer; Flessner, Christopher A.; Garcia, Abbe

    2011-01-01

    The Children's Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (CY-BOCS) is the instrument of choice for assessing symptom severity in older children (i.e., 8-18 years) diagnosed with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The reliability and validity of this measure for use among younger children (i.e., 5-8 years of age), however, has never been examined.…

  13. Comparing two basic subtypes in OCD across three large community samples: a pure compulsive versus a mixed obsessive-compulsive subtype.

    PubMed

    Rodgers, Stephanie; Ajdacic-Gross, Vladeta; Kawohl, Wolfram; Müller, Mario; Rössler, Wulf; Hengartner, Michael P; Castelao, Enrique; Vandeleur, Caroline; Angst, Jules; Preisig, Martin

    2015-12-01

    Due to its heterogeneous phenomenology, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has been subtyped. However, these subtypes are not mutually exclusive. This study presents an alternative subtyping approach by deriving non-overlapping OCD subtypes. A pure compulsive and a mixed obsessive-compulsive subtype (including subjects manifesting obsessions with/without compulsions) were analyzed with respect to a broad pattern of psychosocial risk factors and comorbid syndromes/diagnoses in three representative Swiss community samples: the Zurich Study (n = 591), the ZInEP sample (n = 1500), and the PsyCoLaus sample (n = 3720). A selection of comorbidities was examined in a pooled database. Odds ratios were derived from logistic regressions and, in the analysis of pooled data, multilevel models. The pure compulsive subtype showed a lower age of onset and was characterized by few associations with psychosocial risk factors. The higher social popularity of the pure compulsive subjects and their families was remarkable. Comorbidities within the pure compulsive subtype were mainly restricted to phobias. In contrast, the mixed obsessive-compulsive subtype had a higher prevalence and was associated with various childhood adversities, more familial burden, and numerous comorbid disorders, including disorders characterized by high impulsivity. The current comparison study across three representative community surveys presented two basic, distinct OCD subtypes associated with differing psychosocial impairment. Such highly specific subtypes offer the opportunity to learn about pathophysiological mechanisms specifically involved in OCD. PMID:25827623

  14. [Treatment-refractory OCD from the viewpoint of obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorders: impact of comorbid child and adolescent psychiatric disorders].

    PubMed

    Kano, Yukiko

    2013-01-01

    More than a half of patients with OCD are classified as early-onset. Early-onset OCD has been indicated to be associated with a greater OCD global severity and more frequently comorbid with tic disorders and other obsessive-compulsive (OC) spectrum disorders, compared with late-onset OCD. Early-onset OCD patients with severe impairment caused by both OC symptoms and comorbid OC spectrum disorders may be identified as being refractory. Tic disorders and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are child and adolescent psychiatric disorders included in OC spectrum disorders. OCD comorbid with chronic tic disorders including Tourette syndrome (TS) is specified as tic-related OCD. Tic-related OCD is characterized by the high prevalence of early-onset and sensory phenomena including "just right" feeling. Self-injurious behaviors (SIB) such as head banging and body punching often occur in patients with TS. The patients' concern about SIB is likely to trigger them, suggesting that an impulse-control problem is a feature of TS. More than a half of patients with TS have OC symptoms. When OC symptoms in patients with TS were assessed with a dimensional approach, symmetry dimension symptoms were found most frequently over the lifetime. On the other hand, the severity of aggression dimension symptoms was the most stable during the course among all dimensions. Aggression dimension symptoms also exhibited a close relationship with impairment of global functioning and sensory phenomena. This tendency may be characteristic of tic-related OCD. It is sometimes difficult to differentiate between OC symptoms and restricted, repetitive behaviors which are core symptoms of ASD. Recently, ego-dystonia and insight are considered non-essential to diagnose OCD, whereas high-functioning and/or atypical ASD is recognized as being more prevalent than previously estimated. In this situation, attention to comorbidity of OCD and ASD is increasing, and the prevalence of OCD in children and adolescents with ASD was reported to be about 20%. One study on the impact of comorbid ASD in adults with OCD indicated that comorbid patients had higher scores for the Autism Questionnaire (AQ) subscales of attention switching and imagination but showed little difference in OC symptoms except for the predominance of compulsion compared to patients with pure OCD. "Just right" feeling and impulse-control problems were evident in OC patients comorbid with both ASD and TS. Out of five adults with TS who underwent deep brain stimulation (DBS) because of refractory tics, four had impulse-control problems including SIB, leading to very severe physical injuries in two patients. After DBS, tics and SIB improved in all patients; however, one patient experienced their re-aggravation. To improve understanding of and treatment/support for refractory OCD, OC spectrum disorders should also be considered. PMID:24228477

  15. Rapid effects of deep brain stimulation reactivation on symptoms and neuroendocrine parameters in obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    PubMed

    de Koning, P P; Figee, M; Endert, E; van den Munckhof, P; Schuurman, P R; Storosum, J G; Denys, D; Fliers, E

    2016-01-01

    Improvement of obsessions and compulsions by deep brain stimulation (DBS) for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is often preceded by a rapid and transient mood elevation (hypomania). In a previous study we showed that improvement of mood by DBS for OCD is associated with a decreased activity of the hypothalamus-pituitary adrenal axis. The aim of our present study was to evaluate the time course of rapid clinical changes following DBS reactivation in more detail and to assess their association with additional neuroendocrine parameters. We included therapy-refractory OCD patients treated with DBS (>1 year) and performed a baseline assessment of symptoms, as well as plasma concentrations of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), prolactin, growth hormone, copeptin and homovanillic acid. This was repeated after a 1-week DBS OFF condition. Next, we assessed the rapid effects of DBS reactivation by measuring psychiatric symptom changes using visual analog scales as well as repeated neuroendocrine measures after 30 min, 2 h and 6 h. OCD, anxiety and depressive symptoms markedly increased during the 1-week OFF condition and decreased again to a similar extent already 2 h after DBS reactivation. We found lower plasma prolactin (41% decrease, P=0.003) and TSH (39% decrease, P=0.003) levels during DBS OFF, which increased significantly already 30 min after DBS reactivation. The rapid and simultaneous increase in TSH and prolactin is likely to result from stimulation of hypothalamic thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH), which may underlie the commonly observed transient mood elevation following DBS. PMID:26812043

  16. Obsessive-compulsive symptoms are associated with psychiatric comorbidities, behavioral and clinical problems: a population-based study of Brazilian school children.

    PubMed

    Alvarenga, Pedro G; do Rosario, Maria C; Cesar, Raony C; Manfro, Gisele G; Moriyama, Tais S; Bloch, Michael H; Shavitt, Roseli G; Hoexter, Marcelo Q; Coughlin, Catherine G; Leckman, James F; Miguel, Euripedes C

    2016-02-01

    Pediatric-onset obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is underdiagnosed, and many affected children are untreated. The present study seeks to evaluate the presence and the clinical impact of OCD and obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCS) in a large sample of school-age children. In Phase I, we performed an initial screening using the Family History Screen (FHS). In Phase II, we identified an "at-risk" sample, as well as a randomly selected group of children. A total of 2,512 children (6-12 years old) were assessed using the FHS, the Development and Well-Being Assessment (DAWBA), the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), and the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). Data analyses included descriptive and multivariate analytical techniques. 2,512 children (mean age: 8.86 ± 1.84 years; 55.0 % male) were categorized into one of the three diagnostic groups: OCD (n = 77), OCS (n = 488), and unaffected controls (n = 1,947). There were no significant socio-demographic differences (age, gender, socioeconomic status) across groups. The OCS group resembled the OCD on overall impairment, including school problems and delinquent behaviors. However, the OCD group did have significantly higher rates of several comorbid psychiatric disorders, including separation anxiety, generalized anxiety, and major depressive disorder, than OCS or unaffected controls. Moreover, the OCD group also scored higher than the SDQ, as well as on each of CBCL items rated by the parent. Our findings suggest that there is a psychopathological continuum between OCS and OCD in school-aged children. The presence of OCS is associated with functional impairment, which needs further investigation in longitudinal studies. PMID:26015374

  17. The relationship between Obsessive-Compulsive symptoms and PARKIN genotype: The CORE-PD study

    PubMed Central

    Sharp, ME; Caccappolo, E; Mejia-Santana, H; Tang, M–X; Rosado, L; Orbe Reilly, M; Ruiz, D; Louis, ED; Comella, C; Nance, M; Bressman, S; Scott, WK; Tanner, C; Waters, C; Fahn, S; Cote, L; Ford, B; Rezak, M; Novak, K; Friedman, JH; Pfeiffer, R; Payami, H; Molho, E; Factor, SA; Nutt, J; Serrano, C; Arroyo, M; Pauciulo, MW; Nichols, WC; Clark, LN; Alcalay, RN; Marder, KS

    2014-01-01

    Background Few studies have systematically investigated the association between PARKIN genotype and psychiatric co-morbidities of PD. PARKIN-associated PD is characterized by severe nigral dopaminergic neuronal loss, a finding that may have implications for behaviors rooted in dopaminergic circuits such as obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCS). Methods The Schedule of Compulsions and Obsessions Patient Inventory (SCOPI) was administered to 104 patients with early-onset PD and 257 asymptomatic first-degree relatives. Carriers of one and two PARKIN mutations were compared to non-carriers. Results Among patients, carriers scored lower than non-carriers in adjusted models (one-mutation: 13.9 point difference, p=0.03; two-mutation: 24.1, p=0.001), where lower scores indicate less OCS. Among asymptomatic relatives, there was a trend towards the opposite: mutation carriers scored higher than non-carriers (one mutation p = 0.05; two mutations p = 0.13). Conclusions First, there was a significant association between PARKIN mutation status and obsessive-compulsive symptom level in both PD and asymptomatics, suggesting that OCS might represent an early non-motor dopamine-dependent feature. Second, irrespective of disease status, heterozygotes were significantly different that non-carriers suggesting that PARKIN heterozygosity may contribute to phenotype. PMID:25393808

  18. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder as a Disturbance of Security Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szechtman, Henry; Woody, Erik

    2004-01-01

    The authors hypothesize that the symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), despite their apparent nonrationality, have what might be termed an epistemic origin-that is, they stem from an inability to generate the normal "feeling of knowing" that would otherwise signal task completion and terminate the expression of a security motivational…

  19. Streptococcal Upper Respiratory Tract Infections and Exacerbations of Tic and Obsessive-Compulsive Symptoms: A Prospective Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leckman, James F.; King, Robert A.; Gilbert, Donald L.; Coffey, Barbara J.; Singer, Harvey S.; Dure, Leon S., IV; Grantz, Heidi; Katsovich, Liliya; Lin, Haiqun; Lombroso, Paul J.; Kawikova, Ivana; Johnson, Dwight R.; Kurlan, Roger M.; Kaplan, Edward L.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this blinded, prospective, longitudinal study was to determine whether new group A beta hemolytic streptococcal (GABHS) infections are temporally associated with exacerbations of tic or obsessive-compulsive (OC) symptoms in children who met published criteria for pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders

  20. Streptococcal Upper Respiratory Tract Infections and Exacerbations of Tic and Obsessive-Compulsive Symptoms: A Prospective Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leckman, James F.; King, Robert A.; Gilbert, Donald L.; Coffey, Barbara J.; Singer, Harvey S.; Dure, Leon S., IV; Grantz, Heidi; Katsovich, Liliya; Lin, Haiqun; Lombroso, Paul J.; Kawikova, Ivana; Johnson, Dwight R.; Kurlan, Roger M.; Kaplan, Edward L.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this blinded, prospective, longitudinal study was to determine whether new group A beta hemolytic streptococcal (GABHS) infections are temporally associated with exacerbations of tic or obsessive-compulsive (OC) symptoms in children who met published criteria for pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders…

  1. Core OCD Symptoms: Exploration of Specificity and Relations with Psychopathology

    PubMed Central

    Stasik, Sara M.; Naragon-Gainey, Kristin; Chmielewski, Michael; Watson, David

    2012-01-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a heterogeneous condition, comprised of multiple symptom domains. This study used aggregate composite scales representing three core OCD dimensions (Checking, Cleaning, Rituals), as well as Hoarding, to examine the discriminant validity, diagnostic specificity, and predictive ability of OCD symptom scales. The core OCD scales demonstrated strong patterns of convergent and discriminant validity suggesting that these dimensions are distinct from other self-reported symptoms whereas hoarding symptoms correlated just as strongly with OCD and non-OCD symptoms in most analyses. Across analyses, our results indicated that Checking is a particularly strong, specific marker of OCD diagnosis, whereas the specificity of Cleaning and Hoarding to OCD was less strong. Finally, the OCD Checking scale was the only significant predictor of OCD diagnosis in logistic regression analyses. Results are discussed with regard to the importance of assessing OCD symptom dimensions separately and implications for classification. PMID:23026094

  2. Anxiety as a context for understanding associations between hypochondriasis, obsessive-compulsive, and panic attack symptoms.

    PubMed

    Longley, Susan L; Calamari, John E; Wu, Kevin; Wade, Michael

    2010-12-01

    In the context of the integrative model of anxiety and depression, we examined whether the essential problem of hypochondriasis is one of anxiety. When analyzed, data from a large nonclinical sample corresponded to the integrative model's characterization of anxiety as composed of both broad, shared and specific, unique symptom factors. The unique hypochondriasis, obsessive-compulsive, and panic attack symptom factors all had correlational patterns expected of anxiety with the shared, broad factors of negative emotionality and positive emotionality. A confirmatory factor analysis showed a higher-order, bifactor model was the best fit to our data; the shared and the unique hypochondriasis and anxiety symptom factors both contributed substantial variance. This study provides refinements to an empirically based taxonomy and clarifies what hypochondriasis is and, importantly, what it is not. PMID:21035611

  3. Does obsessive-compulsive personality disorder belong within the obsessive-compulsive spectrum?

    PubMed

    Fineberg, Naomi A; Sharma, Punita; Sivakumaran, Thanusha; Sahakian, Barbara; Chamberlain, Sam R; Chamberlain, Sam

    2007-06-01

    It has been proposed that certain Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition Axis I disorders share overlapping clinical features, genetic contributions, and treatment response and fall within an "obsessive-compulsive" spectrum. Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) resembles obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and other spectrum disorders in terms of phenomenology, comorbidity, neurocognition, and treatment response. This article critically examines the nosological profile of OCPD with special reference to OCD and related disorders. By viewing OCPD as a candidate member of the obsessive-compulsive spectrum, we gain a fresh approach to understanding its neurobiology, etiology, and potential treatments. PMID:17545957

  4. [Diversity of obsessive-compulsive disorder and pharmacotherapy associated with obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorders].

    PubMed

    Nakamae, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    Serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SRI) are effective in the treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The response rate for SRI is approximately 50% and refractory OCD may exist. The effect of antipsychotics augmentation therapy has been established for this kind of patients. However, OCD is clinically and biologically heterogeneous neuropsychiatric disease and it will affect the response of pharmacotherapy. Several subtypes of OCD have been identified. Early onset OCD and hoarding symptoms dominant patients with OCD tend to resist SRI treatment. Antipsychotics augmentation with SRI is much effective for OCD with tic disorders. On the other hand, psychiatric disorders in obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorders (OCSD) have similar clinical symptoms, comorbidities, genetic factors, and neurobiological etiology. SRI is effective for patients with body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) in preoccupation with body appearance or sensation subgroup. The response of SRI in BDD is similar to OCD while that of eating disorders was different. Impulse control disorders will respond to opiate antagonist but not to SRI. This subgroup might have a characteristic of behavioral addiction. Antipsychotic agents are effective for neurological disorders including tic disorders, Tourette syndrome, and autistic spectrum disorders. Therefore, the dopaminergic pathophysiology might underlie in this subgroup. The main goal of DSM-V is to make diagnosis based on biological validity, and the treatment response is an important factor. Further studies are necessary for understanding the pathophysiology of OCSD. PMID:22187889

  5. Prevalence and heritability of obsessive-compulsive spectrum and anxiety disorder symptoms: A survey of the Australian Twin Registry.

    PubMed

    López-Solà, Clara; Fontenelle, Leonardo F; Alonso, Pino; Cuadras, Daniel; Foley, Debra L; Pantelis, Christos; Pujol, Jesus; Yücel, Murat; Cardoner, Narcís; Soriano-Mas, Carles; Menchón, José M; Harrison, Ben J

    2014-06-01

    While past twin studies indicate moderate levels of heritability of "obsessive-compulsive related" and anxiety disorder symptoms, no single study has reported such estimates in the same twin population nor examined potential genetic sex differences. We assessed symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder, body dysmorphic disorder, hoarding disorder, hypochondriasis, panic disorder, social phobia and generalized anxiety disorder in 2,495 adult twins (1,468 female). Prevalence estimates for the corresponding symptom measures were determined using empirically derived cut-off scores. Twin resemblance was assessed by Pearson correlations and biometrical model-fitting analyses, incorporating sex-specific effects, using OpenMx. Prevalence estimates ranged from 1.6% in the symptoms of generalized anxiety to 16.9% for social phobia. Female twins demonstrated significantly higher prevalence rates across all domains with the exception of obsessive-compulsive symptoms. Additive genetic factors accounted for a moderate proportion of the total liability to each symptom domain. Evidence suggesting qualitative genetic sex differences (i.e., distinct genetic influences between genders) was observed for body dysmorphic concern and panic symptoms, while quantitative differences were observed for hoarding and social phobia symptoms, indicating stronger heritability in females. Novel findings in this study include the observation of probable genetic sex differences in liability towards hoarding symptoms and dysmorphic concern, as well as the lack of such differences in hypochondriasis. The trend towards qualitative sex differences in panic symptoms has some intuitive appeal with regard to biological-experimental models of panic. PMID:24756981

  6. Idiopathic basal ganglia calcification presenting as schizophrenia-like psychosis and obsessive-compulsive symptoms: A case report

    PubMed Central

    PAN, BING; LIU, WEIBO; CHEN, QIAOZHEN; ZHENG, LEILEI; BAO, YINGYING; LI, HUICHUN; YU, RISHENG

    2015-01-01

    Idiopathic basal ganglia calcification (IBGC) is a rare neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the deposition of calcium in the brain and variable combinations of movement disorders, gait impairment and neuropsychiatric symptoms. Few reports have described psychiatric manifestations as early symptoms of IBGC. The present study reports the case of a middle-aged man with schizophrenia-like psychosis and obsessive-compulsive symptoms as the first manifestations of IBGC. The response of the patient to olanzapine and fluoxetine suggests that low-dose olanzapine is effective and should be increased cautiously to avoid worsening parkinsonism and that fluoxetine is an effective drug for the treatment of obsessive-compulsive symptoms in IBGC. PMID:26622362

  7. Early-Onset Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: A Subgroup with a Specific Clinical and Familial Pattern?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chabane, Nadia; Delorme, Richard; Millet, Bruno; Mouren, Marie-Christine; Leboyer, Marion; Pauls, David

    2005-01-01

    Background: The familial nature of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has been previously demonstrated. The identification of candidate symptoms such as age at onset may help to disentangle the clinical and genetic heterogeneity of the disorder. In this study, the specificity of early-onset OCD was investigated, focusing on the effect of gender,…

  8. Evidence-Based Assessment of Child Obsessive Compulsive Disorder: Recommendations for Clinical Practice and Treatment Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewin, Adam B.; Piacentini, John

    2010-01-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) presents heterogeneously and can be difficult to assess in youth. This review focuses on research-supported assessment approaches for OCD in childhood. Content areas include pre-visit screening, diagnostic establishment, differential diagnosis, assessment of comorbid psychiatric conditions, tracking symptom

  9. Early-Onset Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: A Subgroup with a Specific Clinical and Familial Pattern?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chabane, Nadia; Delorme, Richard; Millet, Bruno; Mouren, Marie-Christine; Leboyer, Marion; Pauls, David

    2005-01-01

    Background: The familial nature of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has been previously demonstrated. The identification of candidate symptoms such as age at onset may help to disentangle the clinical and genetic heterogeneity of the disorder. In this study, the specificity of early-onset OCD was investigated, focusing on the effect of gender,

  10. A Structural Equation Analysis of Family Accommodation in Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caporino, Nicole E.; Morgan, Jessica; Beckstead, Jason; Phares, Vicky; Murphy, Tanya K.; Storch, Eric A.

    2012-01-01

    Family accommodation of symptoms is counter to the primary goals of cognitive-behavioral therapy for pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and can pose an obstacle to positive treatment outcomes. Although increased attention has been given to family accommodation in pediatric OCD, relatively little is known about associated child and

  11. A Structural Equation Analysis of Family Accommodation in Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caporino, Nicole E.; Morgan, Jessica; Beckstead, Jason; Phares, Vicky; Murphy, Tanya K.; Storch, Eric A.

    2012-01-01

    Family accommodation of symptoms is counter to the primary goals of cognitive-behavioral therapy for pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and can pose an obstacle to positive treatment outcomes. Although increased attention has been given to family accommodation in pediatric OCD, relatively little is known about associated child and…

  12. Obsessive-compulsive disorder: boundary issues.

    PubMed

    Fineberg, Naomi A; Saxena, Sanjaya; Zohar, Joseph; Craig, Kevin J

    2007-05-01

    The boundaries between obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and other neuropsychiatric disorders remain unresolved and may well differ from one disorder to another. Endophenotypes are heritable, quantitative traits hypothesized to more closely represent genetic risk for complex polygenic mental disorders than overt symptoms and behaviors. They may have a role in identifying how closely these disorders are associated with another and with other mental disorders with which they share major comorbidity. This review maps the nosological relationships of OCD to other neuropsychiatric disorders, using OCD as the prototype disorder and endophenotype markers, such as cognitive, imaging, and molecular data as well as results from demographic, comorbidity, family, and treatment studies. Despite high comorbidity rates, emerging evidence suggests substantial endophenotypic differences between OCD and anxiety disorders, depression, schizophrenia, and addictions, though comparative data is lacking and the picture is far from clear. On the other hand, strong relationships between OCD, Tourette syndrome, body dysmorphic disorder, hypochondriasis, grooming disorders, obsessive-compulsive personality disorder, and pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcus are likely. Studies designed to delineate the cause, consequences, and common factors are a challenging but essential goal for future research in this area. PMID:17514081

  13. Temper Outbursts in Paediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder and Their Association with Depressed Mood and Treatment Outcome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krebs, Georgina; Bolhuis, Koen; Heyman, Isobel; Mataix-Cols, David; Turner, Cynthia; Stringaris, Argyris

    2013-01-01

    Background: Temper outbursts in youth with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) are a common source of concern, but remain poorly understood. This study examined a set of hypotheses related to: (a) the prevalence of temper outbursts in paediatric OCD, (b) the associations of temper outbursts with OCD severity and depressive symptoms; and (c) the

  14. Temper Outbursts in Paediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder and Their Association with Depressed Mood and Treatment Outcome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krebs, Georgina; Bolhuis, Koen; Heyman, Isobel; Mataix-Cols, David; Turner, Cynthia; Stringaris, Argyris

    2013-01-01

    Background: Temper outbursts in youth with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) are a common source of concern, but remain poorly understood. This study examined a set of hypotheses related to: (a) the prevalence of temper outbursts in paediatric OCD, (b) the associations of temper outbursts with OCD severity and depressive symptoms; and (c) the…

  15. Evidence for a Shared Etiological Mechanism of Psychotic Symptoms and Obsessive-Compulsive Symptoms in Patients with Psychotic Disorders and Their Siblings

    PubMed Central

    Roza, Sabine; Schoevers, Robert; Myin-Germeys, Inez; de Haan, Lieuwe

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of obsessive-compulsive disorder in subjects with psychotic disorder is much higher than in the general population. The higher than chance co-occurrence has also been demonstrated at the level of subclinical expression of both phenotypes. Both extended phenotypes have been shown to cluster in families. However, little is known about the origins of their elevated co-occurrence. In the present study, evidence for a shared etiological mechanism was investigated in 3 samples with decreasing levels of familial psychosis liability: 987 patients, 973 of their unaffected siblings and 566 healthy controls. The association between the obsessive-compulsive phenotype and the psychosis phenotype c.q. psychosis liability was investigated. First, the association was assessed between (subclinical) obsessive-compulsive symptoms and psychosis liability. Second, in a cross-sib cross-trait analysis, it was examined whether (subclinical) obsessive-compulsive symptoms in the patient were associated with (subclinical) psychotic symptoms in the related unaffected sibling. Evidence was found for both associations, which is compatible with a partially shared etiological pathway underlying obsessive-compulsive and psychotic disorder. This is the first study that used a cross-sib cross-trait design in patients and unaffected siblings, thus circumventing confounding by disease-related factors present in clinical samples. PMID:26061170

  16. Interpersonal Functioning in Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Cain, Nicole M.; Ansell, Emily B.; Simpson, H. Blair; Pinto, Anthony

    2014-01-01

    The core symptoms of obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) often lead to interpersonal difficulties. However, little research has explored interpersonal functioning in OCPD. The current study examined interpersonal problems, interpersonal sensitivities, empathy, and systemizing, the drive to analyze and derive underlying rules for systems, in a sample of 25 OCPD individuals, 25 individuals with comorbid OCPD and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and 25 healthy controls. We found that OCPD individuals reported hostile-dominant interpersonal problems and sensitivities with warm-dominant behavior by others while OCPD+OCD individuals reported submissive interpersonal problems and sensitivities with warm-submissive behavior by others. Individuals with OCPD, with and without OCD, reported less empathic perspective taking relative to healthy controls. Finally, we found that OCPD males reported a higher drive to analyze and derive rules for systems than OCPD females. Overall, results suggest that there are interpersonal deficits associated with OCPD and the clinical implications of these deficits are discussed. PMID:25046040

  17. Frequency and Correlates of Suicidal Ideation in Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Storch, Eric A.; Bussing, Regina; Jacob, Marni L.; Nadeau, Joshua M.; Crawford, Erika; Mutch, P. Jane; Mason, Dana; Lewin, Adam B.; Murphy, Tanya K.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the frequency and sociodemographic and clinical correlates of suicidal ideation in a sample of children and adolescents with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Fifty-four youth with OCD and their parent(s) were administered the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children-Present and Lifetime, Children’s Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale, and Children’s Depression Rating Scale-Revised. Children completed the Suicidal Ideation Questionnaire - Junior, Child Obsessive Compulsive Impact Scale–Child, and Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children; parents completed the Child Obsessive Compulsive Impact Scale–Parent, Swanson, Nolan, and Pelham–IV Parent Scale, and Young Mania Rating Scale–Parent Version. Seven youth endorsed clinically significant levels of suicidal ideation on the Suicidal Ideation Questionnaire - Junior. Suicidal ideation was significantly related to clinician-rated depressive symptoms, age, child-rated impairment and anxiety symptoms, and symmetry, sexuality/religiosity and miscellaneous symptom dimensions. There was no significant association between suicidal ideation and obsessive-compulsive symptom severity, comorbidity patterns, or several parent-rated indices (e.g., impairment, impulsivity). These results provide initial information regarding the frequency and correlates of suicidal ideation in treatment-seeking youth with OCD. Clinical implications are discussed, as well as directions for future research. PMID:24682580

  18. Sex determines which section of the SLC6A4 gene is linked to obsessive-compulsive symptoms in normal Chinese college students.

    PubMed

    Lei, Xuemei; Chen, Chuansheng; He, Qinghua; Chen, Chunhui; Moyzis, Robert K; Xue, Gui; Chen, Xiongying; Cao, Zhongyu; Li, Jin; Li, He; Zhu, Bi; Chun Hsu, Anna Shan; Li, Sufang; Li, Jun; Dong, Qi

    2012-09-01

    Previous case-control and family-based association studies have implicated the SLC6A4 gene in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Little research, however, has examined this gene's role in obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCS) in community samples. The present study genotyped seven tag SNPs and two common functional tandem repeat polymorphisms (5-HTTLPR and STin2), which together cover the whole SLC6A4 gene, and investigated their associations with OCS in normal Chinese college students (N = 572). The results revealed a significant gender main effect and gender-specific genetic effects of the SLC6A4 gene on OCS. Males scored significantly higher on total OCS and its three dimensions than did females (ps < .01). The 5-HTTLPR in the promoter region showed a female-specific genetic effect, with the l/l and l/s genotypes linked to higher OCS scores than the s/s genotype (ps < .05). In contrast, a conserved haplotype polymorphism (rs1042173| rs4325622| rs3794808| rs140701| rs4583306| rs2020942) covering from intron 3 to the 3' UTR of the SLC6A4 gene showed male-specific genetic effects, with the CGAAGG/CGAAGG genotype associated with lower OCS scores than the other genotypes (ps < .05). These effects remained significant after controlling for OCS-related factors including participants' depressive and anxiety symptoms as well as stressful life events, and correction for multiple tests. These results are discussed in terms of their implications for our understanding of the sex-specific role of the different sections of the SLC6A4 gene in OCD. PMID:22727904

  19. Further psychometric properties of the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale - Second Edition.

    PubMed

    Wu, Monica S; McGuire, Joseph F; Horng, Betty; Storch, Eric A

    2016-04-01

    The Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS) is a widely used clinician-rated measure for assessing obsessive-compulsive symptoms. Although numerous studies have supported its reliability and validity, improved phenomenological understanding of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) suggests the need for modifications to item content, structure, and scoring. Consequently, the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale - Second Edition (Y-BOCS-II) was developed. While the Y-BOCS-II shows initial promise, minimal data exist in examining the psychometric properties of the Y-BOCS-II English version. In response, the Y-BOCS-II was administered to 61 adult patients with a principal diagnosis of obsessive-compulsive disorder. The internal consistency for the scores on the Obsession Severity (α=.83), Compulsion Severity (α=.75), and Total Severity (α=.86) scales were acceptable to good. The inter-rater reliability for the severity scale scores was excellent (ICC=.97-99) and the test-retest reliability was acceptable (r=.64-81). Strong convergent validity was observed between the Y-BOCS-II Total Severity scale and other measures of obsessive-compulsive symptom severity and related impairment. Good divergent validity was supported by non-significant correlations between the Total Severity score and measures of anxiety and impulsiveness, though a moderate correlation was observed with depressive symptoms. Collectively, the Y-BOCS-II generally possesses sound psychometric properties and appears to be a viable alternative to the original Y-BOCS. PMID:26995242

  20. Pure Obsessive Compulsive Disorder in Three Generations

    PubMed Central

    Rahimi, Alireza; Haghighi, Mohammad; Shamsaei, Farshid

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a psychiatric disorder, which has been shown to affect 2 - 3.5% of people, during their lifetimes. Identification of familial more homogenous characteristics of OCD may help to define relevant subtypes and increase the power of genetic and neurobiological studies of OCD. Case Presentation; This case report describes an adult woman suffering from symptoms of energy loss, insomnia, lack of appetite, and depressed mood. The patient history was positive for counting coercion. The patient’s genogram revealed counting coercion in three generations of her family. Conclusions: This case highlights the issue whether counting can be a distinctive feature among inflicted and not inflicted individuals, such as hoarding. Also, it is still unclear what is it really transferred; the vulnerability to disease, which is transferred among three generations, or the symptoms of counting itself, by genes. Further studies are required to answer the debates on this issue. PMID:26288641

  1. [Etiology, psychoanalytical diagnosis and treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder in childhood and adolescence].

    PubMed

    von der Marwitz, Theo

    2008-01-01

    An overview of the psychoanalytical and developemental psychological theories about the etiology of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is given, the most important steps of psychoanalytical diagnosis and the possibilities of psychodynamic treatment are described. The author stresses the importance of the various expressions of obsessive-compulsive symptoms in classical obsessional neurosis and earlier forms of anankastic disorder. He presents the specific therapeutic approaches to the different structural levels of OCD and puts special emphasis on the observation, that in the course of psychodynamic treatment during the process of working through an oscillation between different structural levels is possible. PMID:18800674

  2. Comorbidity of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder and Schizophrenia in an Adolescent

    PubMed Central

    Rosli, Ahmad Nabil Md.; Wan Ismail, Wan Salwina

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of a girl with a history of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) subsequently exhibiting psychosis. She never attained remission since the outset. Initially she seemed to be resistant to most antipsychotics, namely, risperidone, haloperidol, paliperidone, quetiapine, and clozapine. However, she later responded remarkably better to risperidone after it was reintroduced for the second time. Recognizing and understanding the various pathogenesis of OCD or obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCS) in schizophrenia are vital in laying out plan to manage the patient effectively. PMID:26483984

  3. Dance-Like Movements in Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Bavle, Amar; Kumar, Kottur; Sharath, Vishwaraj

    2016-01-01

    The presentation of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) is sometimes unusual and can mimic other disorders. There are a number of rare and varied manifestations of this disorder, reported in literature. The case reported here, presented with a hitherto unreported symptom; a dance-like compulsion in a case of OCD. This symptom is notable for the influence of cultural environment, on the content of symptom manifestation, in a psychiatric disorder. When one symptom in a disorder presents itself very prominently, the other symptoms, which are less prominent become masked; and need to be elicited by detailed assessment. PMID:27114632

  4. Dance-Like Movements in Obsessive Compulsive Disorder.

    PubMed

    Bavle, Amar; Kumar, Kottur; Sharath, Vishwaraj

    2016-01-01

    The presentation of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) is sometimes unusual and can mimic other disorders. There are a number of rare and varied manifestations of this disorder, reported in literature. The case reported here, presented with a hitherto unreported symptom; a dance-like compulsion in a case of OCD. This symptom is notable for the influence of cultural environment, on the content of symptom manifestation, in a psychiatric disorder. When one symptom in a disorder presents itself very prominently, the other symptoms, which are less prominent become masked; and need to be elicited by detailed assessment. PMID:27114632

  5. Teaching Students with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leininger, Melissa; Dyches, Tina Taylor; Prater, Mary Anne; Heath, Melissa Allen

    2010-01-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a neurobiological condition affecting 1 of every 200 school-age children. OCD greatly affects students' academic, behavioral, and social functioning, and it can lead to additional problem such as depression. To effectively collaborate with other individuals providing appropriate support to students with OCD,…

  6. Teaching Students with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leininger, Melissa; Dyches, Tina Taylor; Prater, Mary Anne; Heath, Melissa Allen

    2010-01-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a neurobiological condition affecting 1 of every 200 school-age children. OCD greatly affects students' academic, behavioral, and social functioning, and it can lead to additional problem such as depression. To effectively collaborate with other individuals providing appropriate support to students with OCD,

  7. Behavioral versus Cognitive Treatment of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: An Examination of Outcome and Mediators of Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olatunji, Bunmi O.; Rosenfield, David; Tart, Candyce D.; Cottraux, Jean; Powers, Mark B.; Smits, Jasper A. J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To examine symptom change over time, the effect of attrition on treatment outcome, and the putative mediators of cognitive therapy (CT) versus behavior therapy (BT) for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) using archival data. Method: Sixty-two adults with OCD were randomized to 20 sessions of CT (N = 30) or BT (N = 32) that consisted of…

  8. Behavioral versus Cognitive Treatment of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: An Examination of Outcome and Mediators of Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olatunji, Bunmi O.; Rosenfield, David; Tart, Candyce D.; Cottraux, Jean; Powers, Mark B.; Smits, Jasper A. J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To examine symptom change over time, the effect of attrition on treatment outcome, and the putative mediators of cognitive therapy (CT) versus behavior therapy (BT) for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) using archival data. Method: Sixty-two adults with OCD were randomized to 20 sessions of CT (N = 30) or BT (N = 32) that consisted of

  9. When cancer is associated with illness but no longer with animal or zodiac sign: investigation of biased semantic networks in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD).

    PubMed

    Jelinek, Lena; Hottenrott, Birgit; Moritz, Steffen

    2009-12-01

    Building upon semantic network models, it is proposed that individuals with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) process ambiguous words (e.g., homographs such as cancer) preferably in the context of the OC meaning (i.e., illness) and connect them to a lesser degree to other (neutral) cognitions (e.g., animal). To investigate this assumption, a new task was designed requiring participants to generate up to five associations for different cue words. Cue words were either emotionally neutral, negative or OC-relevant. Two thirds of the items were homographs, while the rest was unambiguous. Twenty-five OCD and 21 healthy participants were recruited via internet. Analyses reveal that OCD participants produced significantly more negative and OC-relevant associations than controls, supporting the assumption of biased associative networks in OCD. The findings support the use of psychological interventions such as Association Splitting that aim at restructuring associative networks in OCD by broadening the semantic scope of OC cognitions. PMID:19640676

  10. Prevalence of Childhood Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Traits in Adults with Obsessive Compulsive Disorder versus Obsessive Compulsive Personality Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, Anthony; Greene, Ashley L.; Storch, Eric A.; Simpson, H. Blair

    2014-01-01

    Identifying risk factors of psychopathology has been an important research challenge. Prior studies examining the impact of childhood temperament on adult disorder have largely focused on undercontrolled and inhibited presentations, with little study of overcontrolled traits such as obsessive-compulsive personality traits (OCPTs). We compared rates of childhood OCPTs in adults with OCD (without OCPD) (n = 28) to adults with OCPD (without OCD) (n = 27), adults with both OCD and OCPD (n = 28), and healthy controls (HC) (n= 28), using the Childhood Retrospective Perfectionism Questionnaire, a validated measure of perfectionism, inflexibility, and drive for order. Adults with OCPD (both with and without comorbid OCD) reported higher rates of all three childhood OCPTs relative to HC. Individuals with OCD (without OCPD) reported higher rates of inflexibility and drive for order relative to HC, suggesting that these traits may presage the development of OCD, independent of OCPD. Childhood OCPTs were associated with particular OCD symptom dimensions in adulthood (contamination/cleaning, doubt/checking, and symmetry/ordering), independent of OCD onset age and OCPD diagnosis. Longitudinal prospective studies evaluating OCPTs in children are needed to better understand the progression of these traits from childhood to adulthood and their ability to predict future psychopathology. PMID:25574456

  11. The Semantic Simon Effect in Tourette's Syndrome and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rankins, D.; Bradshaw, J. L.; Georgiou-Karistianis, N.

    2006-01-01

    Core symptoms of Tourette's syndrome (TS) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) may be attributed to an impairment in inhibitory control. Neuropsychological studies have addressed inhibition in both disorders, but findings have been inconsistent. The aim of this study was to examine cognitive inhibition, using a semantic Simon effect paradigm,…

  12. Children with Very Early Onset Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: Clinical Features and Treatment Outcome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakatani, Eriko; Krebs, Georgina; Micali, Nadia; Turner, Cynthia; Heyman, Isobel; Mataix-Cols, David

    2011-01-01

    Background: There is emerging evidence that early onset obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) may be a phenomenologically distinct subtype of the disorder. Previous research has shown that individuals who report an early onset display greater severity and persistence of symptoms, and they may be less responsive to treatment. To date, this question…

  13. The Semantic Simon Effect in Tourette's Syndrome and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rankins, D.; Bradshaw, J. L.; Georgiou-Karistianis, N.

    2006-01-01

    Core symptoms of Tourette's syndrome (TS) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) may be attributed to an impairment in inhibitory control. Neuropsychological studies have addressed inhibition in both disorders, but findings have been inconsistent. The aim of this study was to examine cognitive inhibition, using a semantic Simon effect paradigm,

  14. Children with Very Early Onset Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: Clinical Features and Treatment Outcome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakatani, Eriko; Krebs, Georgina; Micali, Nadia; Turner, Cynthia; Heyman, Isobel; Mataix-Cols, David

    2011-01-01

    Background: There is emerging evidence that early onset obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) may be a phenomenologically distinct subtype of the disorder. Previous research has shown that individuals who report an early onset display greater severity and persistence of symptoms, and they may be less responsive to treatment. To date, this question

  15. Development and Validation of a Child Version of the Obsessive Compulsive Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foa, Edna B.; Coles, Meredith; Huppert, Jonathan D.; Pasupuleti, Radhika V.; Franklin, Martin E.; March, John

    2010-01-01

    Surprisingly, only 3 self-report measures that directly assess pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) have been developed. In addition, these scales have typically been developed in small samples and fail to provide a quick assessment of symptoms across multiple domains. Therefore, the current paper presents initial psychometric data for a

  16. Development and Validation of a Child Version of the Obsessive Compulsive Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foa, Edna B.; Coles, Meredith; Huppert, Jonathan D.; Pasupuleti, Radhika V.; Franklin, Martin E.; March, John

    2010-01-01

    Surprisingly, only 3 self-report measures that directly assess pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) have been developed. In addition, these scales have typically been developed in small samples and fail to provide a quick assessment of symptoms across multiple domains. Therefore, the current paper presents initial psychometric data for a…

  17. Social cognition and metacognition in obsessive-compulsive disorder: an explorative pilot study.

    PubMed

    Mavrogiorgou, Paraskevi; Bethge, Mareike; Luksnat, Stefanie; Nalato, Fabio; Juckel, Georg; Brüne, Martin

    2016-04-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a severe psychiatric condition that is, among other features, characterized by marked impairment in social functioning. Although theoretically plausible with regard to neurobiological underpinnings of OCD, there is little research about possible impairments in social cognitive and meta-cognitive abilities and their connections with social functioning in patients with OCD. Accordingly, we sought to examine social cognitive skills and metacognition in OCD. Twenty OCD patients and age-, sex-, and education-matched 20 healthy controls were assessed using neurocognitive and diverse social cognitive skills including the Ekman 60 Faces test, the Hinting Task, the faux pas test, and a proverb test. In addition, the Metacognition Questionnaire-30 was administered to both the OCD and the control groups. Social functioning was measured using the Personal and Social Performance Scale. Symptom severity in patients was determined by the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale and the Maudsley Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory. No group differences emerged in basic social cognitive abilities. In contrast, compared to controls, OCD patients scored higher on all MCQ dimensions, particularly negative beliefs about worry, uncontrollability, and danger; beliefs about need to control thoughts; and cognitive self-consciousness. There were no significant correlations between social or metacognitive parameters and OCD symptom severity. However, in the patient group, depression and metacognition predicted social functioning. OCD patients show normal basal social cognitive abilities, but dysfunctional metacognitive profiles, which may contribute to their psychosocial impairment. PMID:26810438

  18. Anxiety Sensitivity and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calamari, John E.; Rector, Neil A.; Woodard, John L.; Cohen, Robyn J.; Chik, Heather M.

    2008-01-01

    Anxiety sensitivity (AS), a cognitive risk factor for anxiety disorders, was evaluated in a homogeneous obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) sample. A total of 280 individuals with OCD completed measures. Evaluation of the Anxiety Sensitivity Index revealed a latent structure that was congruent with previous studies showing a single higher order…

  19. Anxiety Sensitivity and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calamari, John E.; Rector, Neil A.; Woodard, John L.; Cohen, Robyn J.; Chik, Heather M.

    2008-01-01

    Anxiety sensitivity (AS), a cognitive risk factor for anxiety disorders, was evaluated in a homogeneous obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) sample. A total of 280 individuals with OCD completed measures. Evaluation of the Anxiety Sensitivity Index revealed a latent structure that was congruent with previous studies showing a single higher order

  20. Procrastination tendencies among obsessive-compulsives and their relatives.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, J R; McCown, W

    1994-03-01

    Participants diagnosed with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD; 39 women, 26 men; M age = 40) and their family relatives (11 women, 7 men; M age = 45) completed standardized measures of obsessions, compulsions, decisional procrastination (indecision), and avoidant procrastination. Among the OCDs, obsessions were related significantly to decisional procrastination, and compulsions were related significantly to decisional and avoidant procrastination. In comparison to family members of obsessive compulsives, the OCDs reported significantly greater obsessions, compulsions, and indecisions, but not procrastination motivated by avoidance. Results suggest that individuals with clinical obsessive-compulsive tendencies do, in fact, report states of indecision, as claimed by DSM-III-R. However, these clinical individuals may not differ significantly from nonclinical samples (e.g., family members) in avoidant procrastination. PMID:8014239

  1. Obsessive-compulsive disorder in dermatology.

    PubMed

    Mavrogiorgou, Paraskevi; Bader, Armin; Stockfleth, Eggert; Juckel, Georg

    2015-10-01

    Patients with obsessive-compulsive (OCD) and related disorders - primarily trichotillomania, body dysmorphic disorder, and skin picking disorder - frequently present to dermatologists due to associated hair and skin symptoms. It is therefore crucial that dermatologists be familiar with these disorders. In this review article, we provide an update on clinical features, neurobiology factors, and treatment options for OCD spectrum disorders. Employing PubMed and Cochrane Library databases, a selective literature search was conducted using keywords related to dermatological disorders within the OCD spectrum. OCD and its related disorders share several phenomenological as well as pathophysiological similarities, thus warranting their classification within a separate nosological category of psychiatric disorders. Another similarity of OCD spectrum disorders is the frequent concurrence of hair and skin diseases. Besides symptomatic dermatological treatment, the combination of psychotherapy (behavioral therapy) and psychopharmacotherapy (SSRIs) may be helpful. Although recent insights into OCD have contributed to a better understanding and treatment thereof, more research is required, especially with respect to OCD spectrum disorders, for which large controlled treatment studies are still lacking. PMID:26408459

  2. Understudied Clinical Dimensions in Pediatric Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewin, Adam B.; Caporino, Nicole; Murphy, Tanya K.; Geffken, Gary R.; Storch, Eric A.

    2010-01-01

    The present study aimed to assess the phenomenology and treatment sensitivity of insight, avoidance, indecisiveness, overvalued responsibility, pervasive slowness, and pathological doubting among youth with Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) using the ancillary items on the Children's Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (CY-BOCS). These factors…

  3. Understudied Clinical Dimensions in Pediatric Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewin, Adam B.; Caporino, Nicole; Murphy, Tanya K.; Geffken, Gary R.; Storch, Eric A.

    2010-01-01

    The present study aimed to assess the phenomenology and treatment sensitivity of insight, avoidance, indecisiveness, overvalued responsibility, pervasive slowness, and pathological doubting among youth with Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) using the ancillary items on the Children's Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (CY-BOCS). These factors

  4. Specificity of Fear and Disgust Experienced During Traumatic Interpersonal Victimization in Predicting Posttraumatic Stress and Contamination-Based Obsessive-Compulsive Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Badour, Christal L.; Bown, Stephanie; Adams, Thomas G.; Bunaciu, Liviu; Feldner, Matthew T.

    2012-01-01

    Emerging evidence has documented comorbidity between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) among individuals with a history of traumatic events. There is growing recognition of the importance of disgust in each of these conditions independently. No study, however, has examined the potential role of disgust in these conditions following traumatic event exposure. The current study examined the unique role of peritraumatic fear, self-focused disgust, and other-focused disgust in predicting posttraumatic stress symptoms and contamination-based OC symptoms among 49 adult women (Mage = 28.37, SD = 13.86) with a history of traumatic interpersonal victimization. Results demonstrated that intensity of peritraumatic self-focused disgust was significantly related to contamination-based OC symptoms while peritraumatic fear and other-focused disgust were related to posttraumatic stress symptoms. These results highlight the need for future research aimed at elucidating the nature of the association between disgust experienced during traumatic events and subsequent psychopathology. PMID:22465821

  5. COGNITIVE BEHAVIORAL TREATMENT FOR YOUNG CHILDREN WITH OBSESSIVE COMPULSIVE DISORDER

    PubMed Central

    Freeman, Jennifer B.; Choate-Summers, Molly L.; Moore, Phoebe S.; Garcia, Abbe M.; Sapyta, Jeffrey J.; Leonard, Henrietta L.; Franklin, Martin E.

    2007-01-01

    Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) is a distressing and functionally impairing disorder that can emerge as early as age 4. Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) for OCD in youth shows great promise for amelioration of symptoms and associated functional impairment. However, the empirical evidence base for the efficacy of CBT in youth has some significant limitations, particularly as related to treating the very young child with OCD. This paper includes a quantitative review of existing child CBT studies to evaluate evidence for the efficacy of CBT for OCD. It identifies gaps in the literature that when addressed would enhance the understanding of effective treatment in pediatric OCD. Finally, it presents a proposed research agenda for addressing the unique concerns of the young child with OCD. PMID:17241829

  6. Learning From Animal Models of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Patricia; Feng, Guoping

    2016-01-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) affects 2%-3% of the population worldwide and can cause significant distress and disability. Substantial challenges remain in the field of OCD research and therapeutics. Approved interventions alleviate symptoms only partially, with 30%-40% of patients being resistant to treatment. Although the etiology of OCD is still unknown, research evidence points toward the involvement of cortico-striato-thalamocortical circuitry. This review focuses on the most recent behavioral, genetics, and neurophysiologic findings from animal models of OCD. Based on evidence from these models and parallels with human studies, we discuss the circuit hyperactivity hypothesis for OCD, a potential circuitry dysfunction of action termination, and the involvement of candidate genes. Adding a more biologically valid framework to OCD will help researchers define and test new hypotheses and facilitate the development of targeted therapies based on disease-specific mechanisms. PMID:26037910

  7. The Obsessive Compulsive Scale of the Child Behavior Checklist Predicts Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: A Receiver Operating Characteristic Curve Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudziak, James J.; Althoff, Robert R.; Stanger, Catherine; van Beijsterveldt, C. E. M.; Nelson, Elliot C.; Hanna, Gregory L.; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Todd, Richard D.

    2006-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to determine a score on the Obsessive Compulsive Scale (OCS) from the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) to screen for obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) in children and to rigorously test the specificity and sensitivity of a single cutpoint. Methods: A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis…

  8. Psychometric Properties of the Obsessive Compulsive Inventory: Child Version in Children and Adolescents with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Anna M.; De Nadai, Alessandro S.; Arnold, Elysse B.; McGuire, Joseph F.; Lewin, Adam B.; Murphy, Tanya K.; Storch, Eric A.

    2013-01-01

    The psychometric properties of the Obsessive Compulsive Inventory-Child Version (OCI-CV) were examined in ninety-six youth with a primary/co-primary diagnosis of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). A confirmatory factor analysis revealed an acceptable model of fit with factors consisting of doubting/checking, obsessing, hoarding, washing,

  9. Psychometric Properties of the Obsessive Compulsive Inventory: Child Version in Children and Adolescents with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Anna M.; De Nadai, Alessandro S.; Arnold, Elysse B.; McGuire, Joseph F.; Lewin, Adam B.; Murphy, Tanya K.; Storch, Eric A.

    2013-01-01

    The psychometric properties of the Obsessive Compulsive Inventory-Child Version (OCI-CV) were examined in ninety-six youth with a primary/co-primary diagnosis of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). A confirmatory factor analysis revealed an acceptable model of fit with factors consisting of doubting/checking, obsessing, hoarding, washing,…

  10. Early Alliance, Alliance Ruptures, and Symptom Change in a Nonrandomized Trial of Cognitive Therapy for Avoidant and Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strauss, Jennifer L.; Hayes, Adele M.; Johnson, Sheri L.; Newman, Cory F.; Brown, Gregory K.; Barber, Jaques P.; Lawrenceau, Jean-Philippe; Beck, Aaron T.

    2006-01-01

    Participants were 30 adult outpatients diagnosed with avoidant personality disorder or obsessive-compulsive personality disorder who enrolled in an open trial of cognitive therapy for personality disorders. Treatment consisted of up to 52 weekly sessions. Symptom evaluations were conducted at intake, at Sessions 17 and 34, and at the last…

  11. Early Alliance, Alliance Ruptures, and Symptom Change in a Nonrandomized Trial of Cognitive Therapy for Avoidant and Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strauss, Jennifer L.; Hayes, Adele M.; Johnson, Sheri L.; Newman, Cory F.; Brown, Gregory K.; Barber, Jaques P.; Lawrenceau, Jean-Philippe; Beck, Aaron T.

    2006-01-01

    Participants were 30 adult outpatients diagnosed with avoidant personality disorder or obsessive-compulsive personality disorder who enrolled in an open trial of cognitive therapy for personality disorders. Treatment consisted of up to 52 weekly sessions. Symptom evaluations were conducted at intake, at Sessions 17 and 34, and at the last

  12. Obsessive-compulsive disorder and related disorders: a comprehensive survey

    PubMed Central

    Fornaro, Michele; Gabrielli, Filippo; Albano, Claudio; Fornaro, Stefania; Rizzato, Salvatore; Mattei, Chiara; Solano, Paola; Vinciguerra, Valentina; Fornaro, Pantaleo

    2009-01-01

    Our aim was to present a comprehensive, updated survey on obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and obsessive-compulsive related disorders (OCRDs) and their clinical management via literature review, critical analysis and synthesis. Information on OCD and OCRD current nosography, clinical phenomenology and etiology, may lead to a better comprehension of their management. Clinicians should become familiar with the broad spectrum of OCD disorders, since it is a pivotal issue in current clinical psychiatry. PMID:19450269

  13. Streptococcal upper respiratory tract infections and exacerbations of tic and obsessive-compulsive symptoms: A prospective longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Leckman, James F.; King, Robert A.; Gilbert, Donald L.; Coffey, Barbara J.; Singer, Harvey S.; Dure, Leon S.; Grantz, Heidi; Katsovich, Liliya; Lin, Haiqun; Lombroso, Paul J.; Kawikova, Ivana; Johnson, Dwight R.; Kurlan, Roger M.; Kaplan, Edward L.

    2010-01-01

    Objective The objective of this blinded, prospective longitudinal study was to determine whether new group A beta hemolytic streptococcal (GABHS) infections are temporally associated with exacerbations of tic or obsessive-compulsive (OC) symptoms in children who met published criteria for Pediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorders Associated with Streptococcal infections (PANDAS). A group of children with Tourette syndrome and/or obsessive-compulsive disorder without a PANDAS history served as the (non-PANDAS) comparison group. Method Consecutive clinical ratings of tic and OC symptom severity were obtained for 31 PANDAS subjects and 53 non-PANDAS subjects. Clinical symptoms and laboratory values (throat cultures and streptococcal antibody titers) were evaluated at regular intervals during a 25 month period. Additional testing occurred at the time of any tic or OC symptom exacerbation. New GABHS infections were established by throat swab cultures and/or recent significant rise in streptococcal antibodies. Laboratory personnel were blinded to case or control status, clinical (exacerbation or not) condition, and clinical evaluators were blinded to the laboratory results. Results No group differences were observed in either the number of clinical exacerbations or the number of newly diagnosed GABHS infections. On only six occasions out of a total of 51 (12%) a newly diagnosed GABHS infection was followed, within two months, by an exacerbation of tic and/or OC symptoms. In every instance, this association occurred in the non-PANDAS group. Conclusions This study provides no evidence for a temporal association between GABHS infections and tic/OC symptom exacerbations in children who meet the published PANDAS diagnostic criteria. PMID:21241948

  14. Are stressful life events causally related to the severity of obsessive-compulsive symptoms? A monozygotic twin difference study

    PubMed Central

    Vidal-Ribas, P.; Stringaris, A.; Rück, C.; Serlachius, E.; Lichtenstein, P.; Mataix-Cols, D.

    2015-01-01

    Traumatic or stressful life events have long been hypothesized to play a role in causing or precipitating obsessive-compulsive symptoms but the impact of these environmental factors has rarely been investigated using genetically informative designs. We tested whether a wide range of retrospectively-reported stressful life events (SLEs) influence the lifetime presence and severity of obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCS) in a large Swedish population-based cohort of 22,084 twins. Multiple regression models examined whether differences in SLEs within twin pairs were significantly associated with differences in OCS. In the entire sample (i.e., both monozygotic [MZ] and dizygotic twin pairs), two SLEs factors, “abuse and family disruption” and “sexual abuse”, were significantly associated with the severity of OCS even after controlling for depressive symptoms. Other SLEs factors were either not associated with OCS (“loss”, “non-sexual assault”) or were no longer associated with OCS after controlling for depression (“illness/injury”). Within MZ pair analyses, which effectively control for genetic and shared environmental effects, showed that only the “abuse and family disruption” factor remained independently related to within-pair differences in OCS severity, even after controlling for depressive symptoms. Despite being statistically significant, the magnitude of the associations was small; “abuse and family disruption” explained approximately 3% of the variance in OCS severity. We conclude that OCS are selectively associated with certain types of stressful life events. In particular, a history of interpersonal abuse, neglect and family disruption may make a modest but significant contribution to the severity of OCS. Further replication in longitudinal cohorts is essential before causality can be firmly established. PMID:25511316

  15. Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Goli, Veeraindar; Krishnan, Ranga; Ellinwood, Everett

    1991-01-01

    An estimated three to seven million Americans suffer from obsessive compulsive disorder at some time in their lives. Until recently, obsessive compulsive disorder was considered refractory to most treatments. However, recent studies indicate a better prognosis with behavioral therapy, antidepressant medications, or both. Behavioral treatment is generally more effective for compulsions than for obsessions. PMID:21229040

  16. Obsessive-compulsive disorder and its related disorders: a reappraisal of obsessive-compulsive spectrum concepts

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Dennis L.; Timpano, Kiara R.; Wheaton, Michael G.; Greenberg, Benjamin D.; Miguel, Euripedes C.

    2010-01-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a clinical syndrome whose hallmarks are excessive, anxiety-evoking thoughts and compulsive behaviors that are generally recognized as unreasonable, but which cause significant distress and impairment. When these are the exclusive symptoms, they constitute uncomplicated OCD. OCD may also occur in the context of other neuropsychiatric disorders, most commonly other anxiety and mood disorders. The question remains as to whether these combinations of disorders should be regarded as independent, cooccurring disorders or as different manifestations of an incompletely understood constellation of OCD spectrum disorders with a common etiology. Additional considerations are given here to two potential etiology-based subgroups: (i) an environmentally based group in which OCD occurs following apparent causal events such as streptococcal infections, brain injury, or atypical neuroleptic treatment; and (ii) a genomically based group in which OCD is related to chromosomal anomalies or specific genes. Considering the status of current research, the concept of OCD and OCD-related spectrum conditions seems fluid in 2010, and in need of ongoing reappraisal. PMID:20623919

  17. Group Cognitive-Behavior Therapy with Family Involvement for Middle-School-Age Children with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Jacqueline L.; Thienemann, Margo

    2005-01-01

    Objective: Middle-school-aged children with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) are poised in development between the dependency of elementary school-aged children and growing independence of adolescence. OCD patients of this age group may differ from older ones in the quality of symptoms and level of insight. We report the results of a…

  18. Course of illness in comorbid bipolar disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder patients.

    PubMed

    Amerio, A; Tonna, M; Odone, A; Stubbs, B; Ghaemi, S N

    2016-04-01

    Psychiatric comorbidity is extremely common. One of the most common and difficult to manage comorbid conditions is the co-occurrence of bipolar disorder (BD) and obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). We updated our recent systematic review searching the electronic databases MEDLINE, Embase, and PsycINFO to investigate course of illness in BD-OCD patients. We identified a total of 13 relevant papers which found that the majority of comorbid OCD cases appeared to be related to mood episodes. OC symptoms in comorbid patients appeared more often during depressive episodes, and comorbid BD and OCD cycled together, with OC symptoms often remitting during manic/hypomanic episodes. PMID:27025465

  19. Prevalence and correlates of electroconvulsive therapy delivery in 1001 obsessive-compulsive disorder outpatients.

    PubMed

    Dos Santos-Ribeiro, Samara; Lins-Martins, Natália M; Frydman, Ilana; Conceição do Rosário, Maria; Ferrão, Ygor A; Shavitt, Roseli G; Yücel, Murat; Miguel, Euripedes C; Fontenelle, Leonardo F

    2016-05-30

    Individuals with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) who sought treatment in seven different specialized centers (n=1001) were evaluated with a structured assessment battery. Thirteen OCD patients (1.3% of the sample) reported having been treated with electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) in the past. They were older and exhibited higher global severity of OCD symptoms, but were less likely to display symmetry/ordering and contamination/washing symptoms. They also had greater suicidality and increased rates of psychosis. Finally, OCD patients exposed to ECT were more frequently treated with antipsychotics, although they did not differ in terms of responses to adequate trials with serotonin reuptake inhibitors. PMID:27137976

  20. Brain Imaging in Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacMaster, Frank P.; O'Neill, Joseph; Rosenberg, David R.

    2008-01-01

    Neuroimaging findings support the frontal-striatal-thalamic model of pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder. Glutamate is also implicated in the pathological finding of the disease. Implications for pediatric OCD treatments are discussed.

  1. Body image in social anxiety disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and panic disorder.

    PubMed

    Aderka, Idan M; Gutner, Cassidy A; Lazarov, Amit; Hermesh, Haggai; Hofmann, Stefan G; Marom, Sofi

    2014-01-01

    Body dysmorphic disorder falls under the category of obsessive-compulsive and related disorders, yet research has suggested it may also be highly associated with social anxiety disorder. The current study examined body image variables among 68 outpatients with primary obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD; n=22), social anxiety disorder (SAD; n=25), and panic disorder (PD; n=21). Participants filled out self-report measures of body image disturbance, attitudes toward one's appearance, and anxiety. Body image disturbance and attitudes toward appearance did not significantly differ between the groups. However, SAD symptoms predicted body image disturbance, Appearance Evaluation and Body Areas Satisfaction, and OCD symptoms predicted Appearance Orientation. These findings suggest that SAD and OCD may be associated with different facets of body image. Implications for the treatment of anxiety disorders and for future research are discussed. PMID:24095651

  2. Controlled Comparison of Family Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and Psychoeducation/Relaxation Training for Child Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piacentini, John; Bergman, R. Lindsey; Chang, Susanna; Langley, Audra; Peris, Tara; Wood, Jeffrey J.; McCracken, James

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine the efficacy of exposure-based cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) plus a structured family intervention (FCBT) versus psychoeducation plus relaxation training (PRT) for reducing symptom severity, functional impairment, and family accommodation in youths with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Method: A total of 71…

  3. Controlled Comparison of Family Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and Psychoeducation/Relaxation Training for Child Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piacentini, John; Bergman, R. Lindsey; Chang, Susanna; Langley, Audra; Peris, Tara; Wood, Jeffrey J.; McCracken, James

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine the efficacy of exposure-based cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) plus a structured family intervention (FCBT) versus psychoeducation plus relaxation training (PRT) for reducing symptom severity, functional impairment, and family accommodation in youths with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Method: A total of 71

  4. [Explicative psychopathology in obsessive-compulsive disorder: a postrationalist viewpoint].

    PubMed

    Mannino, Gherardo

    2011-01-01

    While descriptive psychopathology of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is now well-established, there is still a lack of a satisfying model of explicative psychopathology that explains the mechanisms that generate obsessive phenomenology. The main attempts to delineate such a model are based on cognitive therapy: according to this approach OCD is a consequence of dysfunctional beliefs (i.e. overestimation of the risk or of the influence of one's own mind on the reality). On the contrary, according to postrationalist cognitive approach, OCD would be based on a characteristic personality structure, which could be identified not only in patients with OCD but also in those who will never develop symptoms. In symptomatic individuals this organization ("Obsessive" Personal Meaning Organization) is more rigidly structured. In particular, there is crystallization of so-called diachronic attitude, which is the key to explain most of the symptoms. PMID:22322688

  5. Obsessive Compulsive Disorder and the School Counselor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wertlieb, Ellen C.

    2008-01-01

    The current article is designed to provide school counselors an understanding of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The causes, characteristics, and treatment approaches are presented with examples focusing on school-related issues. The article concludes with a discussion about the role that the school counselor can take in helping the child…

  6. Cognitive Performance in a Subclinical Obsessive-Compulsive Sample 1: Cognitive Functions

    PubMed Central

    Johansen, Thomas; Dittrich, Winand H.

    2013-01-01

    Individuals who are not clinically diagnosed with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) but still display obsessive-compulsive (OC) tendencies may show cognitive impairments. The present study investigated whether there are subgroups within a healthy group showing characteristic cognitive and emotional performance levels similar to those found in OCD patients and whether they differ from OCD subgroups regarding performance levels. Of interest are those cases showing subclinical symptomatology. The results revealed no impairments in the subclinical OC participants on the neuropsychological tasks, while evidence suggests that there exist high and low scores on two standardised clinical instruments (Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale and Cognitive Assessment Instrument of Obsessions and Compulsions) in a healthy sample. OC symptoms may diminish the quality of life and prolong sustainable return to work. It may be that occupational rehabilitation programmes are more effective in rectifying subclinical OC tendencies compared to the often complex symptoms of diagnosed OCD patients. The relationship between cognitive style and subclinical OC symptoms is discussed in terms of how materials and information might be processed. Although subclinical OC tendencies would not seem to constitute a diagnosis of OCD, the quality of treatment programmes such as cognitive behavioural therapy can be improved based on the current investigation. PMID:24236282

  7. A role for the precuneus in thought-action fusion: evidence from participants with significant obsessive-compulsive symptoms.

    PubMed

    Jones, Rhiannon; Bhattacharya, Joydeep

    2014-01-01

    Likelihood thought-action fusion (TAF-L) refers to a cognitive bias in which individuals believe that the mere thought of a negative event increases its likelihood of occurring in reality. TAF-L is most commonly associated with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) but is also present in depression, generalized anxiety disorder and psychosis. We induced TAF-L in individuals with high (High-OC, N = 23) and low (Low-OC, N = 24) levels of OC traits, and used low resolution electromagnetic tomography (LORETA) to localise the accompanying electrical brain activity patterns. The results showed greater TAF-L in the High-OC than in the Low-OC group (p < .005), which was accompanied by significantly greater upper beta frequency (19-30 Hz) activity in the precuneus (p < .05). Further, the precuneus activity was positively correlated with self-reported magnitude of TAF-L (p < .01), suggesting a specific role of this region in this cognitive bias. Results are discussed with reference to self-referential processing and the default-mode network. PMID:24371793

  8. Defining Treatment Response and Remission in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: A Signal Detection Analysis of the Children's Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Storch, Eric A.; Lewin, Adam B.; De Nadai, Alessandro S.; Murphy, Tanya K.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To examine the optimal Children's Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (CY-BOCS) percent reduction cutoffs for predicting treatment response and clinical remission among children and adolescents with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Method: Youth with OCD (N = 109; range 7 to 19 years) received 14 sessions of weekly or intensive…

  9. Defining Treatment Response and Remission in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: A Signal Detection Analysis of the Children's Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Storch, Eric A.; Lewin, Adam B.; De Nadai, Alessandro S.; Murphy, Tanya K.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To examine the optimal Children's Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (CY-BOCS) percent reduction cutoffs for predicting treatment response and clinical remission among children and adolescents with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Method: Youth with OCD (N = 109; range 7 to 19 years) received 14 sessions of weekly or intensive

  10. Demographic and clinical characteristics associated with treatment status in family members with obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    PubMed

    Cullen, Bernadette; Samuels, Jack F; Pinto, Anthony; Fyer, Abby J; McCracken, James T; Rauch, Scott L; Murphy, Dennis L; Greenberg, Benjamin D; Knowles, James A; Piacentini, John; Bienvenu, O Joseph; Grados, Marco A; Riddle, Mark A; Rasmussen, Steven A; Pauls, David L; Willour, Virginia L; Shugart, Yin Y; Liang, Kung-Yee; Hoehn-Saric, Rudolf; Nestadt, Gerald

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the demographic and clinical factors that influence treatment status in family members with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). Six hundred and two subjects from the OCD Collaborative Genetics Study were interviewed using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID) to diagnose Axis I disorders, and the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS) for assessment of OCD symptoms. The demographic and clinical data were compared between subjects who had received treatment and those who had not. A precipitous onset of symptoms, severe illness, multiple obsessions and compulsions, and co-morbid affective disorders were all positively associated with receiving treatment. Older age and the presence of obsessive compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) or OCPD traits were negatively associated with treatment. Gender and age at onset of symptoms did not predict treatment history. The mean duration from onset of symptoms to receiving treatment was 13.8+/-SD 11.9 years, but there was a direct relationship between current age and time to treatment, with younger subjects receiving treatment sooner. Clinical factors are predominant in predicting treatment status in family members with OCD. Although the mean duration from onset of symptoms to treatment was long, younger family members appear to receive treatment sooner. PMID:17345603

  11. Neural Correlates of Symptom Dimensions in Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: A Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, Andrew R.; Akkal, Dalila; Almeida, Jorge R. C.; Mataix-Cols, David; Kalas, Catherine; Devlin, Bernie; Birmaher, Boris; Phillips, Mary L.

    2009-01-01

    The use of functional magnetic resonance imaging on a group of pediatric subjects with obsessive compulsive disorder reveals that this group has reduced activity in neural regions underlying emotional processing, cognitive processing, and motor performance as compared to control subjects.

  12. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder in Adults with High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder: What Does Self-Report with the OCI-R Tell Us?

    PubMed

    Cadman, Tim; Spain, Debbie; Johnston, Patrick; Russell, Ailsa; Mataix-Cols, David; Craig, Michael; Deeley, Quinton; Robertson, Dene; Murphy, Clodagh; Gillan, Nicola; Wilson, C Ellie; Mendez, Maria; Ecker, Christine; Daly, Eileen; Findon, James; Glaser, Karen; Happé, Francesca; Murphy, Declan

    2015-10-01

    Little is known about the symptom profile of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) in individuals who have autism spectrum disorders (ASD). It is also unknown whether self-report questionnaires are useful in measuring OCD in ASD. We sought to describe the symptom profiles of adults with ASD, OCD, and ASD + OCD using the Obsessive Compulsive Inventory-Revised (OCI-R), and to assess the utility of the OCI-R as a screening measure in a high-functioning adult ASD sample. Individuals with ASD (n = 171), OCD (n = 108), ASD + OCD (n = 54) and control participants (n = 92) completed the OCI-R. Individuals with ASD + OCD reported significantly higher levels of obsessive-compulsive symptoms than those with ASD alone. OCD symptoms were not significantly correlated with core ASD repetitive behaviors as measured on the ADI-R or ADOS-G. The OCI-R showed good psychometric properties and corresponded well with clinician diagnosis of OCD. Receiver operating characteristic analysis suggested cut-offs for OCI-R Total and Checking scores that discriminated well between ASD + versus -OCD, and fairly well between ASD-alone and OCD-alone. OCD manifests separately from ASD and is characterized by a different profile of repetitive thoughts and behaviors. The OCI-R appears to be useful as a screening tool in the ASD adult population. PMID:25663563

  13. Managing obsessive compulsive disorder.

    PubMed

    Brakoulias, Vlasios

    2015-08-01

    Unlike obsessive compulsive personality traits or occasional repetitive habits, obsessive compulsive disorder can be highly distressing and associated with significant disability. Treatment should always be offered. Psychological interventions and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are first-line treatments for obsessive compulsive disorder. Patients with obsessive compulsive disorder respond to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors at a slower rate than those with depression. The dose of a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor can be increased at two-week intervals depending on the patient's response. Aim for doses in the higher therapeutic range. Improvements from treatment usually plateau at 12 weeks. Successful treatment should continue for at least 12 months. There is a significant risk of relapse when treatment is stopped. PMID:26648639

  14. Managing obsessive compulsive disorder

    PubMed Central

    Brakoulias, Vlasios

    2015-01-01

    Summary Unlike obsessive compulsive personality traits or occasional repetitive habits, obsessive compulsive disorder can be highly distressing and associated with significant disability. Treatment should always be offered. Psychological interventions and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are first-line treatments for obsessive compulsive disorder. Patients with obsessive compulsive disorder respond to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors at a slower rate than those with depression. The dose of a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor can be increased at two-week intervals depending on the patient’s response. Aim for doses in the higher therapeutic range. Improvements from treatment usually plateau at 12 weeks. Successful treatment should continue for at least 12 months. There is a significant risk of relapse when treatment is stopped. PMID:26648639

  15. A contemporary psychometric evaluation of the Obsessive Compulsive Inventory-Revised (OCI-R).

    PubMed

    Wootton, Bethany M; Diefenbach, Gretchen J; Bragdon, Laura B; Steketee, Gail; Frost, Randy O; Tolin, David F

    2015-09-01

    Traditionally, hoarding symptoms were coded under obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), however, in DSM-5 hoarding symptoms are classified as a new independent diagnosis, hoarding disorder (HD). This change will likely have a considerable impact on the self-report scales that assess symptoms of OCD, since these scales often include items measuring symptoms of hoarding. This study evaluated the psychometric properties of one of the most commonly used self-report measures of OCD symptoms, the Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory-Revised (OCI-R), in a sample of 474 individuals with either OCD (n = 118), HD (n = 201), or no current or past psychiatric disorders (n = 155). Participants with HD were diagnosed according to the proposed DSM-5 criteria. For the purposes of this study the OCI-R was divided into two scales: the OCI-OCD (measuring the five dimensions of OCD) and the OCI-HD (measuring the hoarding dimension). Evidence of validity for the OCI-OCD and OCI-HD was obtained by comparing scores with the Saving Inventory Revised (SI-R), the Hoarding Rating Scale (HRS) and the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI). Receiver operating curves for both subscales indicated good sensitivity and specificity for cut-scores determining diagnostic status. The results indicated that the OCI-OCD and OCI-HD subscales are reliable and valid measures that adequately differentiate between DSM-5 diagnostic groups. Implications for the future use of the OCI-R in OCD and HD samples are discussed. PMID:25664634

  16. Reliability and Validity of the Thai Version of the Florida Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory

    PubMed Central

    Hiranyatheb, Thanita

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the reliability and validity of the Thai version of the FOCI (FOCI-T), which is a brief self-report questionnaire to assess the symptoms and severity of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Forty-seven OCD patients completed the FOCI-T, the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9), and the Pictorial Thai Quality of Life (PTQL). They were then interviewed to determine the OCD symptom severity by the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale-Second Edition (YBOCS-II) and depressive symptoms by the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D), together with the Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) and the Clinical Global Impression-Severity Scales (CGI-S). The result showed that the FOCI-T had satisfactory internal consistency reliability on both the Symptom Checklist (KR-20 = 0.86) and the Severity Scale (α = 0.92). Regarding validity analyses, the FOCI-T Severity Scale had stronger correlations with the YBOCS-II and CGI-S than the FOCI-T Symptom Checklist. This implied the independence between the FOCI-T Symptom Checklist and the Severity Scale and good concurrent validity of the FOCI-T Severity Scale. Our results suggested that the FOCI-T was found to be a reliable and valid self-report measure to assess obsessive-compulsive symptoms and severity. PMID:25861673

  17. Management of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Hollander, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a common, often debilitating disorder characterized by the presence of obsessions and compulsions. Obsessions are repetitive thoughts or images which are experienced as intrusive and unwanted; they cause marked anxiety and distress. Compulsions (also known as rituals) are repetitive behaviors or mental acts that individuals with OCD perform in an attempt to decrease their anxiety. Patients tend to hide their symptoms due to shame; the amount of time between onset of symptoms and appropriate treatment is often many years. The disorder likely results from several etiological variables; functional imaging studies have consistently shown hyperactivity in the orbitofrontal cortex, anterior cingulate, thalamus, and striatum. The mainstays of treatment include cognitive-behavioral therapy in the form of exposure and response prevention (ERP) and serotonin reuptake inhibiting medications. Several pharmacological augmentation strategies exist for treatment-resistant OCD, with addition of antipsychotics being most commonly employed. Radio and neurosurgical procedures, including gamma knife radiation and deep brain stimulation, are reserved for severe, treatment-refractory disease that has not responded to multiple treatments, and some patients may benefit from transcranial magnetic stimulation. PMID:25165567

  18. Internet-based cognitive behavior therapy for obsessive compulsive disorder: A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) is widely regarded as an effective treatment for obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), but access to CBT therapists is limited. Internet-based CBT (ICBT) with therapist support is a way to increase access to CBT but has not been developed or tested for OCD. The aim of this study was to evaluate ICBT for OCD. Method An open trial where patients (N = 23) received a 15-week ICBT program with therapist support consisting of psychoeducation, cognitive restructuring and exposure with response prevention. The primary outcome was the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS), which was assessed by a psychiatrist before and immediately after treatment. Secondary outcomes were self-rated measures of OCD symptoms, depressive symptoms, general functioning, anxiety and quality of life. All assessments were made at baseline and post-treatment. Results All participants completed the primary outcome measure at all assessment points. There were reductions in OCD symptoms with a large within-group effect size (Cohen's d = 1.56). At post-treatment, 61% of participants had a clinically significant improvement and 43% no longer fulfilled the diagnostic criteria of OCD. The treatment also resulted in statistically significant improvements in self-rated OCD symptoms, general functioning and depression. Conclusions ICBT with therapist support reduces OCD symptoms, depressive symptoms and improves general functioning. Randomized trials are needed to confirm the effectiveness of this new treatment format. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01348529 PMID:21812991

  19. [Obsessive-compulsive disorder. A hidden disorder].

    PubMed

    Haraldsson, Magnús

    2015-02-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder is a common and often chronic psychiatric illness that significantly interferes with the patient´s functioning and quality of life. The disorder is characterized by excessive intrusive and inappropriate anxiety evoking thoughts as well as time consuming compulsions that cause significant impairment and distress. The symptoms are often accompanied by shame and guilt and the knowledge of the general public and professional community about the disorder is limited. Hence it is frequently misdiagnosed or diagnosed late. There are indications that the disorder is hereditary and that neurobiological processes are involved in its pathophysiology. Several psychological theories about the causes of obsessive-compulsive disorder are supported by empirical evidence. Evidence based treatment is either with serotoninergic medications or cognitive behavioral therapy, particularly a form of behavioral therapy called exposure response prevention. Better treatment options are needed because almost a third of people with obsessive-compulsive disorder respond inadequatly to treatment. In this review article two cases of obsessive-compulsive disorder are presented. The former case is a young man with typical symptoms that respond well to treatment and the latter is a middle aged lady with severe treatment resistant symptoms. She underwent stereotactic implantation of electrodes and received deep brain stimulation, which is an experimental treatment for severe obsessive-compulsive disorder that does not respond to any conventional treatment. Landspitali University Hospital, Division of Psychiatry. Faculty of Medicine, University of Iceland. PMID:25682808

  20. Obsessive-compulsive disorder and gut microbiota dysregulation.

    PubMed

    Rees, Jon C

    2014-02-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a debilitating disorder for which the cause is not known and treatment options are modestly beneficial. A hypothesis is presented wherein the root cause of OCD is proposed to be a dysfunction of the gut microbiome constituency resulting in a susceptibility to obsessional thinking. Both stress and antibiotics are proposed as mechanisms by which gut microbiota are altered preceding the onset of OCD symptomology. In this light, pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infections (PANDAS) leading to episodic OCD is explained not by group A beta-hemolytic streptococcal infections, but rather by prophylactic antibiotics that are administered as treatment. Further, stressful life events known to trigger OCD, such as pregnancy, are recast to show the possibility of altering gut microbiota prior to onset of OCD symptoms. Suggested treatment for OCD would be the directed, specie-specific (re)introduction of beneficial bacteria modifying the gut microbiome, thereby ameliorating OCD symptoms. Special considerations should be contemplated when considering efficacy of treatment, particularly the unhealthy coping strategies often observed in patients with chronic OCD that may need addressing in conjunction with microbiome remediation. PMID:24332563

  1. Obsessive Compulsive Disorder: What an Educator Needs to Know

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaturvedi, Amrita; Murdick, Nikki L.; Gartin, Barbara C.

    2014-01-01

    The presence of obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) impairs social, emotional and academic functioning. Individuals with OCD may have co-morbid disorders including attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, depression, oppositional defiant disorder, or Tourette syndrome. Challenges occur when students with OCD become a part of the general education…

  2. Stepped Care for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tolin, David F.; Diefenbach, Gretchen J.; Maltby, Nicholas; Hannan, Scott

    2005-01-01

    Cognitive-behavioral therapy incorporating exposure and ritual prevention (EX/RP) is the first-line psychosocial treatment of choice for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). However, several barriers to care prevent many OCD patients from receiving this treatment. Previous research has indicated that some OCD patients may benefit from less…

  3. Obsessive-compulsive disorder in children and adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Krebs, Georgina; Heyman, Isobel

    2015-01-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) in childhood and adolescence is an impairing condition, associated with a specific set of distressing symptoms incorporating repetitive, intrusive thoughts (obsessions) and distressing, time-consuming rituals (compulsions). This review considers current knowledge of causes and mechanisms underlying OCD, as well as assessment and treatment. Issues relating to differential diagnosis are summarised, including the challenges of distinguishing OCD from autism spectrum disorders and tic disorders in youth. The recommended treatments, namely cognitive behaviour therapy and serotonin reuptake inhibiting/selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor medications, are outlined along with the existing evidence-based and factors associated with treatment resistance. Finally, novel clinical developments that are emerging in the field and future directions for research are discussed. PMID:25398447

  4. Obsessive-compulsive symptoms in a large population-based twin-family sample are predicted by clinically based polygenic scores and by genome-wide SNPs.

    PubMed

    den Braber, A; Zilho, N R; Fedko, I O; Hottenga, J-J; Pool, R; Smit, D J A; Cath, D C; Boomsma, D I

    2016-01-01

    Variation in obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCS) has a heritable basis, with genetic association studies starting to yield the first suggestive findings. We contribute to insights into the genetic basis of OCS by performing an extensive series of genetic analyses in a homogeneous, population-based sample from the Netherlands. First, phenotypic and genetic longitudinal correlations over a 6-year period were estimated by modeling OCS data from twins and siblings. Second, polygenic risk scores (PRS) for 6931 subjects with genotype and OCS data were calculated based on meta-analysis results from IOCDF-GC, to investigate their predictive value. Third, the contribution of measured single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) to the heritability was estimated using random-effects modeling. Last, we performed an exploratory genome-wide association study (GWAS) of OCS, testing for SNP- and for gene-based associations. Stability in OCS (test-retest correlation 0.63) was mainly explained by genetic stability. The PRS based on clinical samples predicted OCS in our population-based twin-family sample. SNP-based heritability was estimated at 14%. GWAS revealed one SNP (rs8100480), located within the MEF2BNB gene, associated with OCS (P=2.56 10(-8)). Additional gene-based testing resulted in four significantly associated genes, which are located in the same chromosomal region on chromosome 19p13.11: MEF2BNB, RFXANK, MEF2BNB-MEF2B and MEF2B. Thus, common genetic variants explained a significant proportion of OCS trait variation. Genes significantly associated with OCS are expressed in the brain and involved in development and control of immune system functions (RFXANK) and regulation of gene expression of muscle-specific genes (MEF2BNB). MEF2BNB also showed a suggestive association with OCD in an independent case-control study, suggesting a role for this gene in the development of OCS. PMID:26859814

  5. Obsessive-compulsive disorder in pregnancy and the postpartum period: course of illness and obstetrical outcome.

    PubMed

    House, Samuel J; Tripathi, Shanti P; Knight, Bettina T; Morris, Natalie; Newport, D Jeffrey; Stowe, Zachary N

    2016-02-01

    The study aimed to examine the course of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) across pregnancy and its impact on obstetric and neonatal outcomes. Women enrolled prior to 20-week gestation in a prospective, observational study. The Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV was completed to obtain lifetime Axis I diagnoses. A total of 56 women with OCD were followed at 1 to 3-month intervals through 52weeks postpartum. Each visit, the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (YBOCS), clinical assessment, and medication/exposure tracking were performed. Obstetric and neonatal data were abstracted from the medical record. In subjects with OCD, associations between perinatal obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCSs) and outcomes were examined. Additionally, outcomes were compared to 156 matched psychiatric patients without OCD. Maternal age inversely correlated with the YBOCS scores across the study period (??=?-0.5161, p?=?.0378). Cesarean section was associated with increased OCSs in the postpartum period compared to vaginal delivery (??=?5.3632, p?=?0.043). No associations were found between severity of perinatal obsessions or compulsions and any specific obstetric or neonatal complications. Subjects without OCD had higher frequency of fetal loss compared to mothers with OCD (? (2)?=?4.03, p?=?0.043). These novel prospective data fail to identify an association of OCSs with adverse outcomes. In contrast, there is an association of delivery method and younger maternal age with increased postnatal symptoms of OCD. Psychiatric subjects without OCD may have a higher risk of miscarriage and intrauterine fetal demise compared to subjects with OCD. PMID:26173597

  6. Tic or Compulsion? It's Tourettic OCD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mansueto, Charles; Keuler, David

    2005-01-01

    A subgroup of individuals suffering from obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) frequently present to treatment with an atypical yet distinguishable array of symptoms akin to both Tourettes disorder (TD) and OCD. These individuals often receive standard treatments for OCD (or less likely, TD) that fail to address the blended features of their…

  7. Tic or Compulsion? It's Tourettic OCD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mansueto, Charles; Keuler, David

    2005-01-01

    A subgroup of individuals suffering from obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) frequently present to treatment with an atypical yet distinguishable array of symptoms akin to both Tourettes disorder (TD) and OCD. These individuals often receive standard treatments for OCD (or less likely, TD) that fail to address the blended features of their

  8. The Epidemiology of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication

    PubMed Central

    Ruscio, A. M.; Stein, D. J.; Chiu, W. T.; Kessler, R. C.

    2009-01-01

    Despite significant advances in the study of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), important questions remain about the disorder's public health significance, appropriate diagnostic classification, and clinical heterogeneity. These issues were explored using data from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication (NCS-R), a nationally representative survey of U.S. adults. A subsample of 2073 respondents was assessed for lifetime DSM-IV OCD. More than one-quarter of respondents reported experiencing obsessions or compulsions at some time in their lives. While conditional probability of OCD was strongly associated with the number of obsessions and compulsions reported, only small proportions of respondents met full DSM-IV criteria for lifetime (2.3%) or 12-month (1.2%) OCD. OCD is associated with substantial comorbidity, not only with anxiety and mood disorders but also with impulse-control and substance use disorders. Severity of OCD, assessed by an adapted version of the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS), is associated with poor insight, high comorbidity, high role impairment, and high probability of seeking treatment. The high prevalence of subthreshold OCD symptoms may help explain past inconsistencies in prevalence estimates across surveys and suggests that the public health burden of OCD may be greater than its low prevalence implies. Evidence of a preponderance of early-onset cases in males, high comorbidity with a wide range of disorders, and reliable associations between disorder severity and key outcomes may have implications for how OCD is classified in DSM-V. PMID:18725912

  9. Anorexia nervosa: obsessive-compulsive disorder, obsessive-compulsive personality disorder, or neither?

    PubMed

    Serpell, Lucy; Livingstone, Alison; Neiderman, Marc; Lask, Bryan

    2002-06-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a severe and often chronic disorder with uncertain aetiology and poor prognosis. New approaches to the understanding of the disorder are needed in order to aid the development of more effective treatments. Several authors have suggested that AN has a considerable overlap with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and that this may reflect common neurobiological, genetic, or psychological elements. However, more recent studies have suggested that AN may have a closer relationship with obsessive-compulsive personality traits such as those found in obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD). In this paper, evidence for links between the three conditions is reviewed, suggestions for further research are outlined and possible implications for the treatment of AN are presented. PMID:12113200

  10. Polarity-dependent effects of transcranial direct current stimulation in obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    PubMed

    D'Urso, Giordano; Brunoni, Andre Russowsky; Anastasia, Annalisa; Micillo, Marco; de Bartolomeis, Andrea; Mantovani, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    About one third of patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) fail to experience significant clinical benefit from currently available treatments. Hyperactivity of the presupplementary motor area (pre-SMA) has been detected in OCD patients, but it is not clear whether it is the primary cause or a secondary compensatory mechanism in OCD pathophysiology. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a noninvasive brain stimulation technique with polarity-dependent effects on motor cortical excitability. A 33-year-old woman with treatment-resistant OCD received 20 daily consecutive 2 mA/20 min tDCS sessions with the active electrode placed on the pre-SMA, according to the 10-20 EEG system, and the reference electrode on the right deltoid. The first 10 sessions were anodal, while the last 10 were cathodal. Symptoms severity was assessed using the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS) severity score. In the end of anodal stimulation, OCD symptoms had worsened. Subsequent cathodal stimulation induced a dramatic clinical improvement, which led to an overall 30% reduction in baseline symptoms severity score on the Y-BOCS. Our study supports the hypothesis that pre-SMA hyperfunction might be responsible for OCD symptoms and shows that cathodal inhibitory tDCS over this area might be an option when dealing with treatment-resistant OCD. PMID:25971992

  11. Psychometric properties of the Family Accommodation Scale for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder-Patient Version.

    PubMed

    Wu, Monica S; Pinto, Anthony; Horng, Betty; Phares, Vicky; McGuire, Joseph F; Dedrick, Robert F; Van Noppen, Barbara; Calvocoressi, Lisa; Storch, Eric A

    2016-03-01

    In obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), family accommodation is a frequently occurring phenomenon that has been linked to attenuated treatment response, increased obsessive-compulsive symptom severity, and lower levels of functioning. No patient-report version of family accommodation exists, with available measures relying on relatives as informants. However, adult patients with OCD often present to clinical services alone, frequently making it impractical to obtain information from these informants. Consequently, a standardized patient-reported measure of family accommodation proves salient in clinical practice. The present study examined the psychometric properties of the Family Accommodation Scale for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder-Patient Version (FAS-PV). Sixty-one adults with OCD were administered clinician-rated measures of OCD symptom severity and self-report questionnaires examining functional impairment, family functioning, and emotional/behavioral difficulties. Fifty-four relatives completed self-report measures assessing family accommodation and family functioning. The majority of the adult OCD participants (89%) endorsed at least 1 type of accommodating behavior in the previous week. The FAS-PV total score demonstrated good internal consistency and test-retest reliability. Convergent validity was evidenced by strong associations with scores on another measure of family accommodation, OCD symptom severity, OCD-related family functioning, anxiety, and functional impairment. Divergent validity was supported through nonsignificant correlations with depressive symptoms and impulsivity. The FAS-PV did not significantly differ from the relative-reported measure of family accommodation in terms of the internal consistency or mean of the total scores. Ultimately, the FAS-PV scores demonstrated sound psychometric properties and validity in assessing family accommodation from the patient's perspective, encouraging its use in research and clinical practice. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26075408

  12. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) augmentation of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) for SSRI-resistant obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD): a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Zhong-Rui; Shi, Li-Jun

    2014-01-01

    Background and objective: Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) as augmentation of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) for SSRI-resistant obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) have yielded conflicting results. Therefore, this meta-analysis was conducted to assess the efficacy of this strategy for SSRI-resistant OCD. Methods: Scientific and medical databases, including international databases (PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CCTR, Web of Science, PsycINFO), two Chinese databases (CBM-disc, CNKI), and relevant websites dated up to July 2014, were searched for RCTs on this strategy for treating OCD. Mantel-Haenszel random-effects model was used. Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS) score, response rates and drop-out rates were evaluated. Results: Data were obtained from nine RCTs consisting of 290 subjects. Active rTMS was an effective augmentation strategy in treating SSRI-resistant OCD with a pooled WMD of 3.89 (95% CI = [1.27, 6.50]) for reducing Y-BOCS score and a pooled odds ratio (OR) of 2.65 (95% CI = [1.36, 5.17] for response rates. No significant differences in drop-out rates were found. No publication bias was detected. Conclusion: The pooled examination demonstrated that this strategy seems to be efficacious and acceptable for treating SSRI-resistant OCD. As the number of RCTs included here was limited, further large-scale multi-center RCTs are required to validate our conclusions. PMID:25663986

  13. Capacity to Delay Reward Differentiates Obsessive Compulsive Disorder and Obsessive Compulsive Personality Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, Anthony; Steinglass, Joanna E.; Greene, Ashley L.; Weber, Elke U.; Simpson, H. Blair

    2013-01-01

    Background Although the relationship between obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) and obsessive compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) has long been debated, clinical samples of OCD (without OCPD) and OCPD (without OCD) have never been systematically compared. We studied whether individuals with OCD, OCPD, or both conditions differ on symptomatology, functioning, and a measure of self-control: the capacity to delay reward. Methods 25 OCD, 25 OCPD, 25 comorbid OCD+OCPD, and 25 healthy controls (HC) completed clinical assessments and a validated intertemporal choice task that measures capacity to forego small immediate rewards for larger delayed rewards. Results OCD and OCPD subjects both showed impairment in psychosocial functioning and quality of life, as well as compulsive behavior, but only subjects with OCD reported obsessions. Individuals with OCPD, with or without comorbid OCD, discounted the value of delayed monetary rewards significantly less than OCD and HC. This excessive capacity to delay reward discriminates OCPD from OCD, and is associated with perfectionism and rigidity. Conclusions OCD and OCPD are both impairing disorders marked by compulsive behaviors, but they can be differentiated by the presence of obsessions in OCD and by excessive capacity to delay reward in OCPD. That individuals with OCPD show less temporal discounting (suggestive of excessive self-control) whereas prior studies have shown that individuals with substance use disorders show greater discounting (suggestive of impulsivity) supports the premise that this component of self-control lies on a continuum in which both extremes (impulsivity and overcontrol) contribute to psychopathology. PMID:24199665

  14. Using direct-to-consumer marketing strategies with obsessive-compulsive disorder in the nonprofit sector.

    PubMed

    Szymanski, Jeff

    2012-06-01

    Three to four million individuals struggle with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) in the United States at any given time. OCD can be a debilitating disorder associated with significant quality-of-life and occupational impairment. First-line treatments for OCD (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and exposure and response prevention therapy) have been shown to be effective; yet, many individuals suffering from OCD experience multiple barriers to accessing these treatments. In fact, it can take as many as 17 years from onset of symptoms to effective treatment. Given the need to increase access to and utilization of effective treatments, direct-to-consumer marketing in the context of OCD appears crucial. The International OCD Foundation (formerly the Obsessive Compulsive Foundation) was established as a nonprofit organization with a mission to educate the public and mental health professionals about appropriate practice guidelines, raise awareness of the disorder, and ensure that individuals looking for treatment find the necessary resources. This paper reviews the obstacles those struggling with OCD face in their attempts to alleviate suffering, as well as the direct-to-consumer strategies and tactics used by the International OCD Foundation to improve access to empirically supported, effective treatment. PMID:22440063

  15. Hoarding in Children and Adolescents with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Samuels, Jack; Grados, Marco A.; Riddle, Mark A.; Bienvenu, O. Joseph; Goes, Fernando S.; Cullen, Bernadette; Wang, Ying; Greenberg, Benjamin D.; Fyer, Abby J.; McCracken, James T.; Geller, Dan; Murphy, Dennis L.; Knowles, James A.; Rasmussen, Steven A.; McLaughlin, Nicole C.; Piacentini, John; Pauls, David L.; Stewart, S. Evelyn; Shugart, Yin-Yao; Maher, Brion; Pulver, Ann E.; Nestadt, Gerald

    2014-01-01

    Compared to studies in adults, there have been few studies of hoarding in children and adolescents with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). In the current study, we evaluated OCD clinical features, Axis I disorders, and social reciprocity scores in 641 children and adolescents with OCD, of whom 163 (25%) had hoarding compulsions and 478 did not. We found that, as a group, youth with hoarding had an earlier age at onset and more severe lifetime OCD symptoms, poorer insight, more difficulty making decisions and completing tasks, and more overall impairment. The hoarding group also had a greater lifetime prevalence of panic disorder, specific phobia, Tourette disorder, and tics. As measured with the Social Reciprocity Scale, the hoarding group had more severe deficits in parent-rated domains of social communication, social motivation, and restricted interests and repetitive behavior. In a multivariable model, the overall social reciprocity score, age at onset of OCD symptoms, symmetry obsessions, and indecision were independently related to hoarding in these children and adolescents with OCD. These features should be considered as candidate risk factors for the development of hoarding behavior in pediatric OCD. PMID:25309849

  16. Children's Yale–Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale in Autism Spectrum Disorder: Component Structure and Correlates of Symptom Checklist

    PubMed Central

    Scahill, Lawrence; Dimitropoulos, Anastasia; McDougle, Christopher J.; Aman, Michael G.; Feurer, Irene D.; McCracken, James T.; Tierney, Elaine; Pu, Jie; White, Susan; Lecavalier, Luc; Hallett, Victoria; Bearss, Karen; King, Bryan; Arnold, L. Eugene; Vitiello, Benedetto

    2014-01-01

    Objective Repetitive behaviors in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) range from motor stereotypy to immersion in restricted interests. The modified Children's Yale–Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale for children with autism spectrum disorder (CYBOCS-ASD) includes a Symptom Checklist (behavior present or absent) and five severity scales (Time Spent, Interference, Distress, Resistance and Control). Method We assembled CYBOCS-ASD data from 3 Research Units on Pediatric Psychopharmacology Autism Network trials to explore the component structure of repetitive behaviors in children with ASD. Raters trained to reliability conducted the CYBOCS-ASD in 272 medication-free subjects. Fifteen Checklist items were endorsed for less than 5% of the sample and were dropped. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was used to explore the clustering of 23 checklist items. Component scores computed for each subject were correlated with other measures. We also examined the distribution of severity scales. Results The subjects (229 boys, 43 girls; mean age = 7.8±2.6 years) met criteria for an ASD; half were intellectually disabled. The PCA resulted in a 5-component solution to classify repetitive behaviors (34.4% of the variance): Hoarding and Ritualistic Behavior; Sensory and Arranging Behavior; Sameness and Self-injurious Behavior; Stereotypy; Restricted Interests. Sensory and Arranging and Stereotypy components were associated with lower adaptive functioning (Pearson r ranged from .2 to .3; p < 0.003). The Resistance scale showed little variation with over 60% of sample with the highest score. Conclusions Rarely endorsed checklist items can be dropped. The Resistance item does not appear relevant for children with ASD. PMID:24342389

  17. Characteristics of Young Children with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: Baseline Features from the POTS Jr. Sample.

    PubMed

    Skriner, L C; Freeman, J; Garcia, A; Benito, K; Sapyta, J; Franklin, M

    2016-02-01

    Pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a chronic and impairing condition that can emerge early in childhood and persist into adulthood. The primary aim of this paper is to examine the characteristics of a large sample of young children with OCD (age range from 5 to 8). The sample will be described with regard to: demographics, OCD symptoms/severity, family history and parental psychopathology, comorbidity, and global and family functioning. The sample includes 127 youth with a primary diagnosis of OCD who participated in a multi-site, randomized control clinical trial of family-based exposure with response prevention. Key findings include moderate to severe OCD symptoms, high rates of impairment, and significant comorbidity, despite the participants' young age. Discussion focuses on how the characteristics of young children compare with older youth and with the few other samples of young children with OCD. Considerations regarding generalizability of the sample and limitations of the study are discussed. PMID:25820921

  18. An evaluation of irreversible psychosurgical treatment of patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder in the Netherlands, 2001-2008.

    PubMed

    van Vliet, I M; van Well, E P L; Bruggeman, Richard; Campo, Joost A; Hijman, R; van Megen, H J G M; van Balkom, A J L M; van Rijen, P C

    2013-03-01

    Admissions for irreversible psychosurgical treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) by the Working Group for Indication Psychosurgery in the Netherlands were analyzed, and the postsurgical effects on symptom severity and quality of life were evaluated. The data were extracted from patient records in the period 2001-2008, and there was a postoperative assessment with a semistructured interview. Fourteen patients applied, having severe OCD with mostly one or more comorbid disorders. The mean Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS) score was 32 points. Four of seven patients in whom psychosurgery was deemed useful were operated on. The decrease of the Y-BOCS score from registration to after surgery was 9 points (range, 3-17 points). An improvement in social function was present in three of four patients. In conclusion, psychosurgery can be a valuable treatment option for patients with severe OCD in whom other treatments fail. PMID:23443039

  19. White Matter Abnormalities in Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Gruner, Patricia; Vo, An; Ikuta, Toshikazu; Mahon, Katie; Peters, Bart D; Malhotra, Anil K; Ulu?, Aziz M; Szeszko, Philip R

    2012-01-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a prevalent and often severely disabling illness with onset generally in childhood or adolescence. Although white matter deficits have been implicated in the neurobiology of OCD, few studies have been conducted in pediatric patients when the brain is still developing and have examined their functional correlates. In this study, 23 pediatric OCD patients and 23 healthy volunteers, between the ages of 9 and 17 years, matched for sex, age, handedness, and IQ, received a diffusion tensor imaging exam on a 3T GE system and a brief neuropsychological battery tapping executive functions. Patient symptom severity was assessed using the Children's Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (CY-BOCS). Patients with OCD exhibited significantly greater fractional anisotropy compared to matched controls in the left dorsal cingulum bundle, splenium of the corpus callosum, right corticospinal tract, and left inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus. There were no regions of significantly lower fractional anisotropy in patients compared to controls. Higher fractional anisotropy in the splenium was significantly correlated with greater obsession severity on the CY-BOCS in the subgroup of psychotropic drug-nave patients. Among patients, there was a significant association between greater fractional anisotropy in the dorsal cingulum bundle and better performance on measures of response inhibition and cognitive control. The overall findings suggest a pattern of greater directional coherence of white matter tracts in OCD very early in the course of illness, which may serve a compensatory mechanism, at least for response inhibition functions typically subserved by the cingulum bundle. PMID:22871914

  20. Cognitive Appraisals in Young People with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Libby, Sarah; Reynolds, Shirley; Derisley, Jo; Clark, Sarah

    2004-01-01

    Background: A number of cognitive appraisals have been identified as important in the manifestation of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) in adults. There have, however, been few attempts to explore these cognitive appraisals in clinical groups of young people. Method: This study compared young people aged between 11 and 18 years with OCD (N =…

  1. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder in Childhood and Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGough, James J.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Reviews literature on Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) in children and adolescents, emphasizing clinical presentation, evaluation, and treatment options. Notes that patients with OCD show remarkable similarities in clinical presentations, and have distinct profiles on cognitive, behavioral, and psychological measures. Concludes that advances in…

  2. A clinical case study of the use of ecological momentary assessment in obsessive compulsive disorder

    PubMed Central

    Tilley, P. J. Matt; Rees, Clare S.

    2014-01-01

    Accurate assessment of obsessions and compulsions is a crucial step in treatment planning for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD). In this clinical case study, we sought to determine if the use of Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) could provide additional symptom information beyond that captured during standard assessment of OCD. We studied three adults diagnosed with OCD and compared the number and types of obsessions and compulsions captured using the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS) compared to EMA. Following completion of the Y-BOCS interview, participants then recorded their OCD symptoms into a digital voice recorder across a 12-h period in reply to randomly sent mobile phone SMS prompts. The EMA approach yielded a lower number of symptoms of obsessions and compulsions than the Y-BOCS but produced additional types of obsessions and compulsions not previously identified by the Y-BOCS. We conclude that the EMA-OCD procedure may represent a worthy addition to the suite of assessment tools used when working with clients who have OCD. Further research with larger samples is required to strengthen this conclusion. PMID:24860521

  3. The Contribution of Alexithymia to Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Symptoms Dimensions: An Investigation in a Large Community Sample in Italy

    PubMed Central

    Pozza, Andrea; Giaquinta, Nicoletta; Dèttore, Davide

    2015-01-01

    Poor attention has been dedicated to the relation between Alexithymia and specific OCD symptoms dimensions. Knowledge about which Alexithymia domains are the most affected ones in OCD dimensions could inform clinical practice, suggesting the need for the introduction of psychotherapeutic interventions targeting Alexithymia deficits. The current study aimed to investigate which OCD symptom dimension correlated with Alexithymia domains. A total of 425 community individuals (mean age = 27.80, SD = 9.89, 60% women) completed measures of Alexithymia, OCD symptoms dimensions, anxiety, and depression. Moderate correlations emerged between Difficulty Identifying Feelings and Hoarding (r = .36, p < .001) and Checking symptoms (r = .34, p < .001) and between Difficulty Describing Feelings and Pure Obsessing (r = .31, p < .001). Difficulty Identifying Feelings uniquely predicted OCD symptoms (β = 0.20, t = 3.96, and p < .001), after controlling for anxiety and depression. A main effect emerged of Alexithymia on Ordering (β = 0.70, t = 2.50, p < .05) and Pure Obsessing symptoms (β = 0.043, t = 2.08, and p < .05). Psychotherapeutic interventions specifically targeting Alexithymia should be integrated in the treatment of Ordering and Pure Obsessing symptoms. Difficulty Identifying Feelings and Difficulty Describing Feelings should be addressed in the psychotherapeutic treatment of Hoarding, Checking, and Pure Obsessing, respectively. PMID:26425542

  4. Should Nonsuicidal Self-Injury Be a Putative Obsessive-Compulsive-Related Condition? A Critical Appraisal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKay, Dean; Andover, Margaret

    2012-01-01

    Nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) has many behavioral and cognitive features that would make it appear to be closely tied to obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Obsessive-compulsive-related disorders (OCRDs) have been described in the literature as conditions that share a common phenomenology, neurobiology, and treatment response. The authors…

  5. Factor Analytic Study of the Children's Yale?Brown Obsessive?Compulsive Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Storch, Eric A.; Murphy, Tanya K.; Geffken, Gary R.; Bagner, Daniel M.; Soto, Ohel; Sajid, Muhammad; Allen, Pam; Killiany, Erin M.; Goodman, Wayne K.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the psychometric properties of the Children's Yale?Brown Obsessive?Compulsive Scale (CY?BOCS; Scahill et al., 1997). Participants were 82 children and adolescents diagnosed with obsessive?compulsive disorder (OCD). Confirmatory factor analyses of 2 previously found models (Obsessions and Compulsions; Disturbance and Severity)…

  6. Should Nonsuicidal Self-Injury Be a Putative Obsessive-Compulsive-Related Condition? A Critical Appraisal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKay, Dean; Andover, Margaret

    2012-01-01

    Nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) has many behavioral and cognitive features that would make it appear to be closely tied to obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Obsessive-compulsive-related disorders (OCRDs) have been described in the literature as conditions that share a common phenomenology, neurobiology, and treatment response. The authors

  7. PSYCHOMETRIC PROPERTIES OF THE OBSESSIVE-COMPULSIVE INVENTORY-REVISED IN A TURKISH ANALOGUE SAMPLE.

    PubMed

    Yorulmaz, Orcun; Inozu, Mujgan; Clark, David A; Radomsky, Adam S

    2015-12-01

    The Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory-Revised (OCI-R) assesses distress associated with the symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). This study reports on the psychometric properties of the Turkish version of the OCI-R as a widely known measure. The sample consisted of 319 Turkish university students (67.1% women; M age = 21.5, SD = 2.0). The questionnaire battery included measures of OCD symptoms, specific cognitions, thought control, and personality characteristics. A target rotation analysis supported the factorial validity of the Turkish OCI-R as indicated by its replicability with the original factor structure (i.e., checking, washing, obsessing, hoarding, ordering, and mental neutralizing). High-scoring OCD symptom groups also significantly differed on the Turkish OCI-R and thus presented preliminary evidence for its criterion validity. Correlational analysis supported convergent and divergent validity of the measure, with significant correlations between the Turkish OCI-R and OCD symptoms, OCD-specific beliefs, two thought control strategies (e.g., worry and punishment), and neuroticism, but not with psychoticism or extraversion. The current findings provide initial evidence of sound psychometric properties for the Turkish OCI-R in a nonclinical sample. PMID:26595297

  8. Effects of Ketamine in Treatment-Refractory Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Bloch, Michael H.; Wasylink, Suzanne; Landeros-Weisenberger, Angeli; Panza, Kaitlyn E.; Billingslea, Eileen; Leckman, James F.; Krystal, John H.; Bhagwagar, Zubin; Sanacora, Gerard; Pittenger, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Background Treatments for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) usually lead to incomplete symptom relief and take a long-time to reach full effect. Convergent evidence suggests that glutamate abnormalities contribute to the pathogenesis of OCD. Ketamine is a potent noncompetitive antagonist of the N-methyl-D-aspartate glutamate receptor. Trials have reported rapid antidepressant effects after low-dose ketamine infusion. Methods We conducted an open-label trial of ketamine (0.5mg/kg IV over 40 minutes) in 10 subjects with treatment-refractory OCD. Response was defined as a greater than 35% improvement in OCD symptoms and greater than a 50% improvement in depression symptoms from baseline at any time between 1–3 days following infusion. Results None of 10 subjects experienced a response in OCD symptoms in the first 3 days following ketamine. Four of 7 patients with comorbid depression experienced an antidepressant response to ketamine in the first 3 days following infusion. Both OCD and depression symptoms demonstrated a statistically significant improvement in the first 3 days following infusion compared to baseline, but the OCD response was <12%. The percentage reduction in depressive symptoms in the first 3 days following ketamine infusion was significantly greater than the reduction in OCD symptoms. Discussion Ketamine effects on OCD symptoms, in contrast to depressive symptoms, did not appear to persist or progress after the acute effects of ketamine had dissipated. Trial Registration Ketamine Infusion for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder, http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01349231, NCT01349231. PMID:22784486

  9. Childhood obsessive-compulsive disorder and cingulate epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Levin, B; Duchowny, M

    1991-11-15

    There are no reports of an association between obsessive-compulsive disorder and cingulate epilepsy in childhood. We report the behavioral, cognitive, and EEG findings in a young girl with medically resistant seizures and severe obsessive-compulsive symptomatology. Her scalp EEG and neuropsychological test scores suggested right frontal lobe dysfunction. The intractability of her seizures and progressive intellectual and psychosocial deterioration prompted evaluation for excisional surgery. Intracranial EEG recording demonstrated a focal seizure origin in the right anterior cingulate gyrus. Cingulotomy resulted in freedom from seizures and significant improvement in her obsessive-compulsive symptoms. PMID:1756197

  10. N-Acetyl Cysteine in the Treatment of Obsessive Compulsive and Related Disorders: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Oliver, Georgina; Dean, Olivia; Camfield, David; Blair-West, Scott; Ng, Chee; Berk, Michael; Sarris, Jerome

    2015-01-01

    Objective Obsessive compulsive and related disorders are a collection of debilitating psychiatric disorders in which the role of glutamate dysfunction in the underpinning neurobiology is becoming well established. N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) is a glutamate modulator with promising therapeutic effect. This paper presents a systematic review of clinical trials and case reports exploring the use of NAC for these disorders. A further objective was to detail the methodology of current clinical trials being conducted in the area. Methods PubMed, Web of Science and Cochrane Library Database were searched for human clinical trials or case reports investigating NAC in the treatment of obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) or obsessive compulsive related disorders. Researchers with known involvement in NAC studies were contacted for any unpublished data. Results Four clinical trials and five case reports/series were identified. Study durations were commonly 12-weeks, using 2,400–3,000 mg/day of NAC. Overall, NAC demonstrates activity in reducing the severity of symptoms, with a good tolerability profile and minimal adverse effects. Currently there are three ongoing randomized controlled trials using NAC for OCD (two adults and one pediatric), and one for excoriation. Conclusion Encouraging results have been demonstrated from the few pilot studies that have been conducted. These results are detailed, in addition to a discussion of future potential research. PMID:25912534

  11. Phenomenology, psychiatric comorbidity and family history in referred preschool children with obsessive-compulsive disorder

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Objective The study aimed to investigate phenomenology, psychiatric comorbidity, and family history of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) in a clinical sample of normally developing preschool children with OCD. Method Subjects in this study were recruited from a clinical sample of preschool children (under 72 months of age) who were referred to a university clinic. Subjects with a normal developmental history and significant impairment related to OCD symptoms were included in the study. Children’s Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale was used to assess OCD symptoms. Each subject was assessed for comorbid DSM-IV psychiatric disorders using a semi-structured interview. Parents were evaluated for lifetime history of OCD in individual sessions. Results Fifteen boys and ten girls (age range: 28 to 69 months; 54.12±9.08 months) were included. Mean age of onset of OCD was 35.64±13.42 months. All subjects received at least one comorbid diagnosis. The most frequent comorbid disorders were non-OCD anxiety disorders (n=17; 68.0%), attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) (n=15; 60.0%), oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) (n=12; 48.0%), and tic disorders (n=6; 24.0%). Mean number of comorbid disorders was 3.65 and 2.35 for boys and girls, respectively. At least one parent received lifetime OCD diagnosis in 68 percent of the subjects. Conclusions The results indicated that OCD in referred preschool children is more common in males, highly comorbid with other psychiatric disorders, and associated with high rates of family history of OCD. Given the high rates of comorbidity and family history, OCD should be considered in referred preschool children with disruptive behavior disorders and/or with family history of OCD. PMID:23173690

  12. Hoarding in obsessive-compulsive disorder and related disorders: a preliminary report of 15 cases.

    PubMed

    Seedat, Soraya; Stein, Dan J

    2002-02-01

    Hoarding, the repetitive collection of excessive quantities of poorly useable items of little or no value with failure to discard these items over time, is characterized in DSM-IV as a symptom of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) but has, until recently, received scant empirical investigation. We describe the demographics, phenomenology, associated psychopathology and family history in 15 subjects presenting with hoarding behavior. Fifteen subjects were recruited from an OCD clinic and newspaper advertisement and assessed with the comprehensive Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID I and II), the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS), and a hoarding questionnaire (devised by the authors). The sample comprised 11 women and four men who hoarded a mean of seven item types, with a mean duration of 13.2 +/- 3.9 years (range 2-15 years). Their mean age was 41.8 +/- 14.3 years (range 20-65 years). The most common motive for hoarding was the fear of discarding items of practical value. Nine subjects met DSM-IV criteria for OCD, 9 met criteria for OCPD, for symptoms and behaviors other than hoarding, while six subjects met criteria for a putative OCD spectrum disorder (Tourette's, body dysmorphic disorder, trichotillomania). Six subjects reported little or no control over their hoarding, but only one subject saw her symptoms as an 'illness' warranting treatment. Pathological hoarding is usually a covert and chronic behavior causing distress and/or impairment, and may be related to OCD and OCPD. Hoarding may meet the criterion for a compulsion in DSM-IV, yet there is evidence to suggest that hoarding may manifest in a variety of other psychiatric conditions. While a range of pharmacologic and behavioral treatments have been tried, their effectiveness in managing hoarding behaviors requires additional research. PMID:11929567

  13. Personality disorders in obsessive compulsive disorder.

    PubMed

    Baer, L; Jenike, M A

    1992-12-01

    Standardized structured interview personality scales are now available that provide better reliability than clinician interview, but are still imperfect. These scales diagnose DSM III-R personality disorders, which are more illness-oriented than Freudian notions. Use of these scales has found that the majority of patients with OCD have at least one Axis II personality disorder, with most falling in cluster C. Obsessive compulsive personality disorder, as described in DSM-III-R, is, in most samples studied, present in the minority of patients with OCD, and is often less common than other personality disorders such as mixed, dependent, avoidant, and histrionic. The prevalence of this personality disorder as modified in DSM-III-R (making it easier for a patient to qualify for this personality disorder diagnosis) appears to be higher, although still present in a minority of patients with OCD. Obsessive compulsive personality disorder (along with the other cluster B and C personality disorders) has not been reported to have a consistent relation to treatment outcome. There is evidence that in some cases, obsessive compulsive personality disorder may be secondary to OCD. Swedo et al hypothesized that some children may develop compulsive personality traits as an adaptive mechanism to deal with OCD. This hypothesis is in accord with our finding that OCD often predates compulsive personality disorder and that mixed personality disorder may develop over time, possibly secondary to OCD. We found in our sample of 96 adult patients with OCD that the presence of mixed personality disorder was more likely with longer duration of OCD, suggesting that patients who do not have premorbid personality disorders may develop significant personality traits (especially avoidant, compulsive, and dependent), which may be related to behavioral and life-style changes that are secondary to OCD. This hypothesis is strengthened by our finding that patients with one of these personality disorders at baseline tended to no longer meet criteria for them following successful treatment of their OCD. It now appears that schizotypal personality disorder, which is thought to be related genetically to schizophrenia (e.g., in three male identical twin pairs concordant for OCD but discordant for schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder, the nonpsychotic co-twins all had schizotypal personality disorder), is the only consistent personality disorder predictor of poorer outcome in OCD. These traits may help explain other proposed poor predictors of treatment outcome such as overvalued beliefs, poor compliance, and chaotic family situations.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:1461797

  14. Randomized Controlled Crossover Trial of Ketamine in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: Proof-of-Concept

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Carolyn I; Kegeles, Lawrence S; Levinson, Amanda; Feng, Tianshu; Marcus, Sue M; Vermes, Donna; Flood, Pamela; Simpson, Helen B

    2013-01-01

    Serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SRIs), the first-line pharmacological treatment for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), have two limitations: incomplete symptom relief and 2–3 months lag time before clinically meaningful improvement. New medications with faster onset are needed. As converging evidence suggests a role for the glutamate system in the pathophysiology of OCD, we tested whether a single dose of ketamine, a non-competitive N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) glutamate receptor antagonist, could achieve rapid anti-obsessional effects. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover design, drug-free OCD adults (n=15) with near-constant obsessions received two 40-min intravenous infusions, one of saline and one of ketamine (0.5 mg/kg), spaced at least 1-week apart. The OCD visual analog scale (OCD-VAS) and the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS) were used to assess OCD symptoms. Unexpectedly, ketamine's effects within the crossover design showed significant (p<0.005) carryover effects (ie, lasting longer than 1 week). As a result, only the first-phase data were used in additional analyses. Specifically, those receiving ketamine (n=8) reported significant improvement in obsessions (measured by OCD-VAS) during the infusion compared with subjects receiving placebo (n=7). One-week post-infusion, 50% of those receiving ketamine (n=8) met criteria for treatment response (⩾35% Y-BOCS reduction) vs 0% of those receiving placebo (n=7). Rapid anti-OCD effects from a single intravenous dose of ketamine can persist for at least 1 week in some OCD patients with constant intrusive thoughts. This is the first randomized, controlled trial to demonstrate that a drug affecting glutamate neurotransmission can reduce OCD symptoms without the presence of an SRI and is consistent with a glutamatergic hypothesis of OCD. PMID:23783065

  15. Selective attention deficits in obsessive-compulsive disorder: the role of metacognitive processes.

    PubMed

    Koch, Julia; Exner, Cornelia

    2015-02-28

    While initial studies supported the hypothesis that cognitive characteristics that capture cognitive resources act as underlying mechanisms in memory deficits in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), the influence of those characteristics on selective attention has not been studied, yet. In this study, we examined the influence of cognitive self-consciousness (CSC), rumination and worrying on performance in selective attention in OCD and compared the results to a depressive and a healthy control group. We found that 36 OCD and 36 depressive participants were impaired in selective attention in comparison to 36 healthy controls. In all groups, hierarchical regression analyses demonstrated that age, intelligence and years in school significantly predicted performance in selective attention. But only in OCD, the predictive power of the regression model was improved when CSC, rumination and worrying were implemented as predictor variables. In contrast, in none of the three groups the predictive power improved when indicators of severity of obsessive-compulsive (OC) and depressive symptoms and trait anxiety were introduced as predictor variables. Thus, our results support the assumption that mental characteristics that bind cognitive resources play an important role in the understanding of selective attention deficits in OCD and that this mechanism is especially relevant for OCD. PMID:25554356

  16. Efficacy of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy in Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yanqiu; Lang, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Haitao

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a debilitating psychological anxiety disorder. Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) has been shown to be an effective therapy for OCD, but the evaluation results from various studies are inconsistent and incomprehensive. This meta-analysis examined the efficacy of CBT in treatment of OCD. MATERIAL AND METHODS A literature search identified 13 studies that met the inclusion criteria. The efficacy of CBT on OCD was evaluated by comparing post-treatment and pre-treatment Children's Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (CY-BOCS) scores. Weighted mean difference (WMD) was generated for the statistical evaluation. Heterogeneity was evaluated by I2 index. RESULTS A decrease in WMD and a statistical significance (p<0.0001) in both CY-BOCS and CGI scores between pre- and post-CBT treatment were observed in both overall database (-11.73) and USA subgroup (-11.371), which indicates a dramatic relief of OCD symptoms after CBT treatment. Heterogeneity was detected in overall database and USA subgroup, which resulted in an application of the random-effects model to both groups. Publication bias was examined by both Begg's funnel plot and Egger's test and no publication bias was detected. CONCLUSIONS We concluded that CBT is efficacious in treating children's OCD. PMID:27182928

  17. Characterization of SLITRK1 variation in obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    PubMed

    Ozomaro, Uzoezi; Cai, Guiqing; Kajiwara, Yuji; Yoon, Seungtai; Makarov, Vladimir; Delorme, Richard; Betancur, Catalina; Ruhrmann, Stephan; Falkai, Peter; Grabe, Hans Jörgen; Maier, Wolfgang; Wagner, Michael; Lennertz, Leonhard; Moessner, Rainald; Murphy, Dennis L; Buxbaum, Joseph D; Züchner, Stephan; Grice, Dorothy E

    2013-01-01

    Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) is a syndrome characterized by recurrent and intrusive thoughts and ritualistic behaviors or mental acts that a person feels compelled to perform. Twin studies, family studies, and segregation analyses provide compelling evidence that OCD has a strong genetic component. The SLITRK1 gene encodes a developmentally regulated stimulator of neurite outgrowth and previous studies have implicated rare variants in this gene in disorders in the OC spectrum, specifically Tourette syndrome (TS) and trichotillomania (TTM). The objective of the current study was to evaluate rare genetic variation in SLITRK1 in risk for OCD and to functionally characterize associated coding variants. We sequenced SLITRK1 coding exons in 381 individuals with OCD as well as in 356 control samples and identified three novel variants in seven individuals. We found that the combined mutation load in OCD relative to controls was significant (p = 0.036). We identified a missense N400I change in an individual with OCD, which was not found in more than 1000 control samples (P<0.05). In addition, we showed the the N400I variant failed to enhance neurite outgrowth in primary neuronal cultures, in contrast to wildtype SLITRK1, which enhanced neurite outgrowth in this assay. These important functional differences in the N400I variant, as compared to the wildtype SLITRK1 sequence, may contribute to OCD and OC spectrum symptoms. A synonymous L63L change identified in an individual with OCD and an additional missense change, T418S, was found in four individuals with OCD and in one individual without an OCD spectrum disorder. Examination of additional samples will help assess the role of rare SLITRK1 variation in OCD and in related psychiatric illness. PMID:23990902

  18. Treatment of Sexual-Orientation Obsessions in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Using Exposure and Ritual Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Monnica T.; Crozier, Marjorie; Powers, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Presented is a case report of exposure and ritual prevention (EX/RP) therapy administered to a 51-year-old, White, heterosexual male with sexual-orientation obsessions in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The patient had been previously treated with pharmacotherapy, resulting in inadequate symptom reduction and unwanted side effects. OCD symptoms included anxiety about the possibility of becoming gay, mental reassurance, and avoidance of other men, which resulted in depressive symptoms and marital distress. The patient received 17 EX/RP sessions, administered twice per week. The effect of treatment was evaluated using standardized rating instruments and self-monitoring by the patient. OCD symptoms on the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (YBOCS) fell from 24 at intake to 3 at posttreatment and to 4 at a 6-week follow-up, indicating minimal symptoms. Improvement also occurred in mood, quality of life, and social adjustment. Issues concerning the assessment and treatment of homosexuality-themed obsessions in OCD are highlighted and discussed. PMID:22162667

  19. Dysfunctional belief-based obsessive-compulsive disorder subgroups.

    PubMed

    Calamari, John E; Cohen, Robyn J; Rector, Neil A; Szacun-Shimizu, Kate; Riemann, Bradley C; Norberg, Melissa M

    2006-09-01

    An attempt was made to identify obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) subgroups based on differences in OCD related beliefs. OCD patients (N=367) were assessed with the Obsessional-Beliefs Questionnaire prior to treatment. Individuals' scores on measures of inflated personal responsibility and the tendency to overestimate threat, perfectionism and intolerance of uncertainty, and over-importance and over-control of thoughts were subjected to cluster analysis. Support for both a simple and complex subgroup model was found (2-subgroup and 5-subgroup taxonomies). A low-beliefs subgroup was identified in both taxonomies. The low-beliefs subgroups reported scores on belief measures equivalent to scores reported for non-OCD comparison groups in earlier studies. Additional analyses were conducted to determine relations between belief-based and symptom subgroups. Significant relationships were found (e.g., Symmetry symptom subgroup membership was associated with membership in the Perfectionism/Certainty beliefs subgroup), although the shared variance was modest. Implications for understanding OCD heterogeneity and for cognitive theory are discussed. PMID:16337605

  20. A Psychological and Neuroanatomical Model of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Huey, Edward D.; Zahn, Roland; Krueger, Frank; Moll, Jorge; Kapogiannis, Dimitrios; Wassermann, Eric M.; Grafman, Jordan

    2009-01-01

    Imaging, surgical, and lesion studies suggest that the prefrontal cortex (orbitofrontal and anterior cingulate cortexes), basal ganglia, and thalamus are involved in the pathogenesis of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). On the basis of these findings several models of OCD have been developed, but have had difficulty fully integrating the psychological and neuroanatomical findings of OCD. Recent research in the field of cognitive neuroscience on the normal function of these brain areas demonstrates the role of the orbitofrontal cortex in reward, the anterior cingulate cortex in error detection, the basal ganglia in affecting the threshold for activation of motor and behavioral programs, and the prefrontal cortex in storing memories of behavioral sequences (called “structured event complexes” or SECs). The authors propose that the initiation of these SECs can be accompanied by anxiety that is relieved with completion of the SEC, and that a deficit in this process could be responsible for many of the symptoms of OCD. Specifically, the anxiety can form the basis of an obsession, and a compulsion can be an attempt to receive relief from the anxiety by repeating parts of, or an entire, SEC. The authors discuss empiric support for, and specific experimental predictions of, this model. The authors believe that this model explains the specific symptoms, and integrates the psychology and neuroanatomy of OCD better than previous models. PMID:19196924

  1. New onset obsessive-compulsive symptoms in children and adolescents with severe traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Grados, Marco A; Vasa, Roma A; Riddle, Mark A; Slomine, Beth S; Salorio, Cynthia; Christensen, James; Gerring, Joan

    2008-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) constitutes a major source of psychiatric morbidity and disability. This study examines new onset of obsessions and compulsions (OCS) within 1 year of severe pediatric TBI. Eighty children and adolescents ages 6-18 years with severe TBI were interviewed by a child psychiatrist using the Diagnostic Interview for Children and Adolescents-Revised to diagnose OCS and comorbidities. A brain magnetic resonance imaging used a 1.5 T scanner 3 months after injury with a T1-weighted spoiled gradient-recalled-echo sequence to provide high spatial resolution and T1- and T2(*)-contrast sensitivity. Race, sex, socioeconomic status, psychosocial adversity, and injury severity were used to predict new onset OCS. Psychiatric comorbidities and brain lesion volumes in orbitofrontal, mesial prefrontal, temporal lobe, basal ganglia, and thalamus were examined in relation to new onset OCS. Twenty-one children (21/72, 29.2%) had OCS after TBI. Most common were worries about disease, cleanliness, and inappropriate actions as well as excessive cleaning, doing things a certain way and ordering. Anxiety disorders, mania, dysthymia, depressive symptoms, and posttraumatic stress disorder were significantly associated with new onset OCS. Injury severity was not associated with new onset OCS. Greater psychosocial adversity (P=0.009), and being female (P=0.005) were associated with OCS while mesial prefrontal and temporal lobe lesions were associated with new onset obsessions (P<0.05). OCS are common after severe pediatric TBI and are associated with greater comorbidities. New onset obsessions are associated with female sex, psychosocial adversity, and mesial prefrontal and temporal lesions. PMID:17957806

  2. Neuropsychological differences between obsessive-compulsive washers and checkers: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Leopold, Rebecca; Backenstrass, Matthias

    2015-03-01

    Inconsistent results in neuropsychological research of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) may be the result of the heterogeneous nature of OCD symptoms. The most frequently investigated symptoms are contamination/cleaning and doubt/checking. The aim of this review was to determine whether OCD washers and checkers differ in their neuropsychological performance. We conducted a meta-analysis of 13 studies (including 535 patients) comprising tests in 10 different neuropsychological domains. Washers showed significant better task performance than checkers in 8 of 10 cognitive domains. Large effect sizes were found in planning/problem solving and response inhibition. Effect size in set shifting was medium, whereas effect sizes in attention, processing speed, encoding, verbal memory and nonverbal memory were small. Limitations consisted in a relatively small number of primary studies. In line with current neurobiological findings, the results provide further evidence for the validity of different symptom dimensions in OCD. Clinical and theoretical implications are discussed. PMID:25601381

  3. The anteromedial GPi as a new target for deep brain stimulation in obsessive compulsive disorder.

    PubMed

    Nair, Girish; Evans, Andrew; Bear, Renee E; Velakoulis, Dennis; Bittar, Richard G

    2014-05-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is now well established in the treatment of intractable movement disorders. Over the past decade the clinical applications have expanded into the realm of psychosurgery, including depression and obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). The optimal targets for electrode placement in psychosurgery remain unclear, with numerous anatomical targets reported for the treatment of OCD. We present four patients with Tourette's syndrome and prominent features of OCD who underwent DBS of the anteromedial globus pallidus internus (GPi) to treat their movement disorder. Their pre-operative and post-operative OCD symptoms were compared, and responded dramatically to surgery. On the basis of these results, we propose the anteromedial (limbic) GPi as a potential surgical target for the treatment of OCD, and furnish data supporting its further investigation as a DBS target for the treatment of psychiatric conditions. PMID:24524950

  4. Mechanisms of change in cognitive therapy for obsessive compulsive disorder: role of maladaptive beliefs and schemas.

    PubMed

    Wilhelm, Sabine; Berman, Noah C; Keshaviah, Aparna; Schwartz, Rachel A; Steketee, Gail

    2015-02-01

    The present study aimed to identify mechanisms of change in individuals with moderately severe obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) receiving cognitive therapy (CT). Thirty-six adults with OCD received CT over 24 weeks. At weeks 0, 4/6, 12, 16/18, and 24, independent evaluators assessed OCD severity, along with obsessive beliefs and maladaptive schemas. To examine mechanisms of change, we utilized a time-varying lagged regression model with a random intercept and slope. Results indicated that perfectionism and certainty obsessive beliefs and maladaptive schemas related to dependency and incompetence significantly mediated (improved) treatment response. In conclusion, cognitive changes in perfectionism/certainty beliefs and maladaptive schemas related to dependency/incompetence precede behavioral symptom reduction for OCD patients. Targeting these mechanisms in future OCD treatment trials will emphasize the most relevant processes and facilitate maximum improvement. PMID:25544403

  5. Mechanisms of Change in Cognitive Therapy for Obsessive Compulsive Disorder: Role of Maladaptive Beliefs and Schemas

    PubMed Central

    Wilhelm, Sabine; Berman, Noah C.; Keshaviah, Aparna; Schwartz, Rachel A.; Steketee, Gail

    2015-01-01

    Objective To identify mechanisms of change in individuals with moderately severe obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) receiving cognitive therapy (CT). Method Thirty-six adults with OCD received CT over 24 weeks. At weeks 0, 4/6, 12, 16/18, and 24, independent evaluators assessed OCD severity, along with obsessive beliefs and maladaptive schemas. To examine mechanisms of change, we utilized a time-varying lagged regression model with a random intercept and slope. Results Perfectionism and certainty obsessive beliefs and maladaptive schemas related to dependency and incompetence significantly mediated (improved) treatment response. Conclusions Cognitive changes in perfectionism/certainty beliefs and maladaptive schemas related to dependency/incompetence precede behavioral symptom reduction for OCD patients. Targeting these mechanisms in future OCD treatment trials will emphasize the most relevant processes and facilitate maximum improvement. PMID:25544403

  6. Comorbid bipolar disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder

    PubMed Central

    PENG, Daihui; JIANG, Kaida

    2015-01-01

    Summary Obsessive-compulsive symptoms are common in patients with bipolar disorders. This comorbid condition complicates the clinical treatment of the two disorders, so identifying these individuals is important. We discuss the comorbid occurrence of obsessive-compulsive disorder and bipolar disorder, introduce possible etiological mechanisms that could result in this common comorbid condition, discuss recent research advances in the area, and propose some clinical principles for managing such patients. PMID:26549961

  7. Goal-directed learning and obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    PubMed

    Gillan, Claire M; Robbins, Trevor W

    2014-11-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has become a paradigmatic case of goal-directed dysfunction in psychiatry. In this article, we review the neurobiological evidence, historical and recent, that originally led to this supposition and continues to support a habit hypothesis of OCD. We will then discuss a number of recent studies that have directly tested this hypothesis, using behavioural experiments in patient populations. Based on this research evidence, which suggests that rather than goal-directed avoidance behaviours, compulsions in OCD may derive from manifestations of excessive habit formation, we present the details of a novel account of the functional relationship between these habits and the full symptom profile of the disorder. Borrowing from a cognitive dissonance framework, we propose that the irrational threat beliefs (obsessions) characteristic of OCD may be a consequence, rather than an instigator, of compulsive behaviour in these patients. This lays the foundation for a potential shift in both clinical and neuropsychological conceptualization of OCD and related disorders. This model may also prove relevant to other putative disorders of compulsivity, such as substance dependence, where the experience of 'wanting' drugs may be better understood as post hoc rationalizations of otherwise goal-insensitive, stimulus-driven behaviour. PMID:25267818

  8. The correlates of obsessive-compulsive, schizotypal, and borderline personality disorders in obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    PubMed

    Melca, Isabela A; Yücel, Murat; Mendlowicz, Mauro V; de Oliveira-Souza, Ricardo; Fontenelle, Leonardo F

    2015-06-01

    We assessed correlates of obsessive-compulsive (OCPD), schizotypal (SPD) and borderline (BPD) personality disorders in 110 obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) patients. We found OCD patients with OCPD (20.9%) to exhibit higher rates of hoarding and bipolar disorders, increased severity of hoarding and symmetry, lower prevalence of unacceptable thoughts involving sex and religion and less non-planning impulsivity. Conversely, OCD patients with SPD (13.6%) displayed more frequently bipolar disorder, increased severity of depression and OCD neutralization, greater prevalence of "low-order" behaviors (i.e., touching), lower low-planning impulsivity and greater "behavioral" compulsivity. Finally, in exploratory analyses, OCD patients with BPD (21.8%) exhibited lower education, higher rates of several comorbid psychiatric disorders, greater frequency of compulsions involving interpersonal domains (e.g. reassurance seeking), increased severity of depression, anxiety and OCD dimensions other than symmetry and hoarding, more motor and non-planning impulsivity, and greater "cognitive" compulsivity. These findings highlight the importance of assessing personality disorders in OCD samples. PMID:25956558

  9. Attribution retraining group therapy for outpatients with major depression disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, and obsessive-compulsive disorder: a pilot study☆

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chun; Zhang, Jie; Li, Jijun; Zhang, Ning; Zhang, Yalin

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this present study is to examine the efficacy of attribution retraining group therapy (ARGT) and to compare the responses of outpatients with major depression disorder (MDD), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). We carried out a prospective uncontrolled intervention study with a 8-weeks of ARGT on sixty three outpatients with MDD, GAD or OCD. Hamilton rating scale for depression, Hamilton rating scale for anxiety, Yale-Brown obsessive-compulsive scale, attribution style questionnaire, self-esteem scale, index of well-being, and social disability screening schedule were administered before and after treatment. Significant improvement in symptoms and psychological and social functions from pre- to posttreatment occurred for all participants. The changes favored MDD patients. Our study suggested that ARGT may improve the symptoms and psychological-social functions of MDD, GAD, and OCD patients. MDD patients showed the best response. PMID:23554710

  10. Early alliance, alliance ruptures, and symptom change in a nonrandomized trial of cognitive therapy for avoidant and obsessive-compulsive personality disorders.

    PubMed

    Strauss, Jennifer L; Hayes, Adele M; Johnson, Sheri L; Newman, Cory F; Brown, Gregory K; Barber, Jacques P; Laurenceau, Jean-Philippe; Beck, Aaron T

    2006-04-01

    Participants were 30 adult outpatients diagnosed with avoidant personality disorder or obsessive-compulsive personality disorder who enrolled in an open trial of cognitive therapy for personality disorders. Treatment consisted of up to 52 weekly sessions. Symptom evaluations were conducted at intake, at Sessions 17 and 34, and at the last session. Alliance variables were patients' first alliance rating and "rupture-repair" episodes, which are disruptions in the therapeutic relationship that can provide corrective experiences and facilitate change. Stronger early alliances and rupture-repair episodes predicted more improvement in symptoms of personality disorder and depression. This work points to potentially important areas to target in treatment development for these personality disorders. PMID:16649878

  11. The pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infection (PANDAS) etiology for tics and obsessive-compulsive symptoms: hypothesis or entity? Practical considerations for the clinician.

    PubMed

    Kurlan, Roger; Kaplan, Edward L

    2004-04-01

    Clinicians have been faced with much publicity and contradictory scientific evidence regarding a recently described condition termed pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infection (PANDAS). It has been proposed that children with PANDAS experience tics, obsessive-compulsive behavior, and perhaps other neuropsychiatric symptoms as an autoimmune response to streptococcal infection. We review current scientific information and conclude that PANDAS remains a yet-unproven hypothesis. Until more definitive scientific proof is forthcoming, there seems to be insufficient evidence to support 1) routine microbiologic or serologic testing for group A streptococcus in children who present with neuropsychiatric symptoms or 2) the clinical use of antibiotic or immune-modifying therapies in such patients. The optimum diagnostic and therapeutic approach awaits the results of additional research studies. PMID:15060240

  12. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder in School-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helbing, Mary-Lee C.; Ficca, Michelle

    2009-01-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is an anxiety disorder characterized by disturbing thoughts, impulses, or images (obsessions); repetitive or ritualistic behaviors (compulsions); or the presence of both. Although some may believe this disorder is isolated to the adult population, it affects anywhere from 1% to 4% of children in the United…

  13. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder in School-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helbing, Mary-Lee C.; Ficca, Michelle

    2009-01-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is an anxiety disorder characterized by disturbing thoughts, impulses, or images (obsessions); repetitive or ritualistic behaviors (compulsions); or the presence of both. Although some may believe this disorder is isolated to the adult population, it affects anywhere from 1% to 4% of children in the United

  14. Patient-reported outcomes in obsessive-compulsive disorder

    PubMed Central

    Subramaniam, Mythily; Soh, Pauline; Ong, Clarissa; Esmond Seow, Lee Seng; Picco, Louisa; Vaingankar, Janhavi Ajit; Chong, Siow Ann

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the article was to provide an overview of patient-reported outcomes (PROs) and related measures that have been examined in the context of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The current review focused on patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) that evaluated three broad outcome domains: functioning, health-related quality of life (HRQoL), and OCD-related symptoms. The present review ultimately included a total of 155 unique articles and 22 PROMs. An examination of the PROs revealed that OCD patients tend to suffer from significant functional disability, and report lower HRQoL than controls. OCD patients report greater symptom severity than patients with other mental disorders and evidence indicates that PROMs are sensitive to change and may be even better than clinician-rated measures at predicting treatment outcomes. Nonetheless, it should be noted that the measures reviewed lacked patient input in their development. Future research on PROMs must involve patient perspectives and include rigorous psychometric evaluation of these measures. PMID:25152661

  15. Early Childhood OCD: Preliminary Findings from a Family-Based Cognitive-Behavioral Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, Jennifer B.; Garcia, Abbe M.; Coyne, Lisa; Ale, Chelsea; Prezeworski, Amy; Himle, Michael; Compton, Scott; Leonard, Henrietta L.

    2008-01-01

    A study was conducted to compare the relative usefulness of family-based cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) against family-based relaxation treatment for children with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Results showed that children with early childhood-onset OCD benefited from the CBT program as it effectively decreased OCD symptoms and helped

  16. Early Childhood OCD: Preliminary Findings from a Family-Based Cognitive-Behavioral Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, Jennifer B.; Garcia, Abbe M.; Coyne, Lisa; Ale, Chelsea; Prezeworski, Amy; Himle, Michael; Compton, Scott; Leonard, Henrietta L.

    2008-01-01

    A study was conducted to compare the relative usefulness of family-based cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) against family-based relaxation treatment for children with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Results showed that children with early childhood-onset OCD benefited from the CBT program as it effectively decreased OCD symptoms and helped…

  17. Traumatic Events and Obsessive Compulsive Disorder in Children and Adolescents: Is There a Link?

    PubMed Central

    Lafleur, Daniel L.; Petty, Carter; Mancuso, Elizabeth; McCarthy, Katherine; Biederman, Joseph; Faro, Alyssa; Levy, Hannah C.; Geller, Daniel A.

    2011-01-01

    Background The extant literature supports an association between psychological trauma and development of OCD in adults, and this link is a plausible mediator for environment gene interactions leading to phenotypic expression of OCD. Objective To explore the relationship between OCD and traumatic life events in children and adolescents. Methods We examined the prevalence of traumatic life events and PTSD in a large sample of systematically assessed children with OCD. OCD symptoms and severity were assessed using the Children’s Yale Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (CY-BOCS) in those with and without concurrent PTSD. Results Rate of PTSD and trauma exposure was higher in children with OCD than in a comparable control group of non-OCD youth matched for age, gender and SES. Children with concurrent PTSD had more intrusive fears and distress and less control over their rituals than children with OCD but without PTSD. Total CY-BOCS scores were higher in those with concurrent PTSD. Specific type of OCD symptoms was not altered by a PTSD diagnosis. Conclusions A history of psychologically traumatic events may be over-represented in children with OCD. Given the need to search for non-genetic factors that may lead to onset of OCD, better and more systematic methods to obtain and quantify psychologically traumatic life events are needed in clinical populations. PMID:21295942

  18. The role of early maladaptive schemas in predicting exposure and response prevention outcome for obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    PubMed

    Haaland, Aashild Tellefsen; Vogel, Patrick A; Launes, Gunvor; Haaland, Vegard Øksendal; Hansen, Bjarne; Solem, Stian; Himle, Joseph A

    2011-11-01

    This is the first study that explores whether early maladaptive schemas are related to treatment outcome for patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The sample consisted of 88 outpatients with a diagnosis of OCD who completed exposure and response prevention treatment. The Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS), the Beck Depression Inventory and Young Schema Questionnaire - Short Form were administered before and after treatment. Regression analyses using post-treatment Y-BOCS as the dependent variable indicated that higher scores on the abandonment schema at pre-treatment were related to poor outcome and explained 7% of the variance in symptoms at post-treatment. Higher scores on the self-sacrifice schema at pre-treatment were related to good outcome and explained 6% of the variance in obsessive-compulsive symptoms at post-treatment. During treatment, only changes in the failure schema were significantly related to good outcome and explained 18% of the variance in symptoms at post-treatment. PMID:21920500

  19. Commonly asked questions in the treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    PubMed

    Arumugham, Shyam Sundar; Reddy, Y C Janardhan

    2014-02-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a common and often a highly disabling condition that was considered untreatable before the 1960s. The advent of serotonin reuptake inhibitors and exposure and response prevention revolutionized the treatment of OCD. Although they are still the first line treatments for OCD, new treatments like augmentation strategies, brain stimulation techniques, psychosurgery, newer forms of psychotherapy (like cognitive therapy, acceptance and commitment therapy) have been added to the armamentarium. With the available treatment strategies, many patients can achieve at least partial remission of symptoms. Nevertheless, the plethora of information gives rise to many questions on their application for practicing clinicians. We provide evidence-based responses to these questions and suggest a broad guideline for treatment of OCD. PMID:24372473

  20. Precocious ego development and obsessive compulsive neurosis.

    PubMed

    Kulish, N

    1988-04-01

    Precocious ego development is frequently mentioned in psychoanalytic theory as an important determinant of obsessive-compulsive neurosis. Writers such as Anna Freud suggest that an imbalance in the development of ego over drive may lead to obsessional neurosis. However, further examination of the psychoanalytic literature reveals that the nature of this supposed link is not clear. Explanations couched in economic language or in terms of an early hypersensitivity to stimulation are open to theoretical criticism or are unsatisfying. The author suggests that we focus on the effect of precocious ego development on developing object relations. It is suggested that precocity may lead to early disappointment in parental objects. The inter-relationships of disappointment with early identifications, premature sense of autonomy and anal problems are discussed. A case of an obsessive-compulsive adolescent girl is presented to illustrate the role of precocious ego development and superior intelligence in the formation of the symptoms. PMID:3372264

  1. A Pilot Trial of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy Augmentation of Antibiotic Treatment in Youth with Pediatric Acute-Onset Neuropsychiatric Syndrome-Related Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Jordan, Cary; Selles, Robert R.; Wu, Monica S.; King, Morgan A.; Patel, Priyal D.; Hanks, Camille E.; Arnold, Elysse B.; Lewin, Adam B.; Murphy, Tanya K.; Storch, Eric A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: This study reports an open trial of family-based cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) in children and adolescents with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) exhibiting an onset pattern consistent with pediatric acute-onset neuropsychiatric syndrome (PANS). Methods: Eleven primarily Caucasian youth with PANS-related OCD (range=4–14 years; 6 boys) who were incomplete responders to antibiotic treatment, received family-based CBT delivered either face-to-face or via web camera. Results: All participants completing treatment (8 of 8) were considered improved at posttreatment, and average obsessive-compulsive symptom severity was reduced by 49%. Significant reductions in obsessive-compulsive symptom severity and in clinician- and parent-rated OCD-related impairment were noted. Reductions in parent- and child-rated anxiety, child-rated OCD-related impairment, and comorbid neuropsychiatric symptoms were not statistically significant. Conclusions: Gains were maintained at follow-up, with 100% (6 of 6) of those assessed remaining improved. Implications for treatment and further research are discussed. PMID:25978743

  2. Impaired sensorimotor gating in unmedicated adults with obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    PubMed

    Ahmari, Susanne E; Risbrough, Victoria B; Geyer, Mark A; Simpson, H Blair

    2012-04-01

    Functional and structural imaging studies suggest that obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) symptoms arise from dysfunction in cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical circuits. It has therefore been hypothesized that neurophysiological tasks subserved by these circuits should be abnormal in OCD patients. One neurocognitive probe associated with this circuitry is prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the acoustic startle response. PPI deficits are thought to reflect abnormalities in processing and integration of sensory and motor information. Two prior studies found that OCD patients had PPI deficits at single prepulse (PP) intensities. However, most patients in these studies were taking psychotropic medications at the time of PPI testing, and preclinical studies have demonstrated effects of psychotropic medications on PPI. We examined PPI in 22 unmedicated OCD patients and 22 matched healthy controls at three different PP intensities (74, 78, and 86 dB). OCD patients had significantly less PPI across all three PP intensities compared with controls. Exploratory analyses indicated that OCD patients with a history of tics had lower levels of PPI. Our results demonstrate that unmedicated OCD patients have impaired sensorimotor gating as measured by PPI. This indicates that PPI deficits are present in OCD patients and are not the result of medication effects. Our findings also suggest that OCD patients with a history of tics may have greater impairment in sensorimotor gating than the general OCD population. Future studies should be designed to examine whether PPI deficits characterize tic-related OCD. PMID:22218093

  3. Compulsion or Chronobiology? A Case of Severe Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Treated with Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy Augmented with Chronotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Coles, Meredith E.; Sharkey, Katherine M.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: Individuals with treatment-resistant obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) have elevated rates of delayed sleep phase. This report describes a patient with severe OCD who had failed prior trials of pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy, and whose symptoms were associated with delayed bedtimes and delays in the time she initiated her nighttime compulsions. Methods: Case report. Results: A 54 year-old woman with OCD kept sleep/symptom logs as an adjunct to traditional cognitive-behavioral therapy for OCD. At presentation, she reported habitual bedtime = 06:00, wake time = 13:00, sleep latency ' 5 min, and total sleep time = 6.5-7.5 h. Later time of initiating her compulsions was associated with longer time performing the compulsions (r = 0.86, p < 0.001). Cognitive-behavioral therapy with adjunctive chronotherapy was associated with substantial improvement. Conclusions: OCD patients with nighttime compulsions may receive light exposure that results in delayed sleep times/circadian phase. Chronotherapy may enhance outcomes for refractory OCD patients, particularly those who perform compulsions at night. Citation: Coles ME; Sharkey KM. Compulsion or chronobiology? A case of severe obsessive-compulsive disorder treated with cognitive-behavioral therapy augmented with chronotherapy. J Clin Sleep Med 2011;7(3):307-309. PMID:21677902

  4. Moving beyond an exclusive focus on harm avoidance in obsessive compulsive disorder: considering the role of incompleteness.

    PubMed

    Pietrefesa, Ashley S; Coles, Meredith E

    2008-09-01

    Cognitive-behavioral conceptualizations of obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) have predominantly viewed compulsions as being motivated by harm avoidance. However, sensations of things being incomplete or not "just right" may also underlie compulsions in OCD. Preliminary research suggests that distinguishing between harm avoidance and incompleteness in OCD may have practical utility, but the research on this topic is very limited to date. The current study further addressed the role of incompleteness in OCD. A confirmatory factor analysis provided evidence for harm avoidance and incompleteness as separate constructs in a student sample. Supporting the benefits of considering incompleteness in addition to harm avoidance, self-reported levels of both constructs were significantly correlated with all domains of OCD symptoms and perfectionism assessed. Further, some evidence for unique relationships was found (e.g., incompleteness with ordering and personally prescribed perfectionism; harm avoidance with obsessing). The role of incompleteness in OCD warrants greater attention. PMID:18721636

  5. Children with obsessive-compulsive disorder: are they just “little adults”?

    PubMed Central

    Kalra, Simran K.; Swedo, Susan E.

    2009-01-01

    Childhood-onset obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) affects 1%–2% of children and adolescents. It is characterized by recurrent obsessions and compulsions that create distress and interfere with daily life. The symptoms reported by children are similar to those seen among individuals who develop OCD in adulthood, and the two groups of patients are treated with similar symptom-relieving behavior therapies and medications. However, there are differences in sex ratios, patterns of comorbidity, and the results of neuroimaging studies that might be important. Here we review the diagnosis and treatment of childhood-onset OCD in light of pediatric and adult studies. We also discuss current knowledge of the pathophysiology of the disorder. Despite advances in this area, further research is needed to understand better the etiopathogenesis of the disorder and to develop new, more effective therapeutic options. PMID:19339765

  6. Obsessive compulsive disorder and the efficacy of qEEG-guided neurofeedback treatment: a case series.

    PubMed

    Sürmeli, Tanju; Ertem, Ayben

    2011-07-01

    While neurofeedback (NF) has been extensively studied in the treatment of many disorders, there have been only three published reports, by D.C. Hammond, on its clinical effects in the treatment of obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). In this paper the efficacy of qEEG-guided NF for subjects with OCD was studied as a case series. The goal was to examine the clinical course of the OCD symptoms and assess the efficacy of qEEG guided NF training on clinical outcome measures. Thirty-six drug resistant subjects with OCD were assigned to 9-84 sessions of QEEG-guided NF treatment. Daily sessions lasted 60 minutes where 2 sessions with half-hour applications with a 30 minute rest given between sessions were conducted per day. Thirty-three out of 36 subjects who received NF training showed clinical improvement according to the Yale-Brown obsessive-compulsive scale (Y-BOCS). The Minnesota multiphasic inventory (MMPI) was administered before and after treatment to 17 of the subjects. The MMPI results showed significant improvements not only in OCD measures, but all of the MMPI scores showed a general decrease. Finally, according to the physicians' evaluation of the subjects using the clinical global impression scale (CGI), 33 of the 36 subjects were rated as improved. Thirty-six of the subjects were followed for an average of 26 months after completing the study. According to follow-up interviews conducted with them and/or their family members 19 of the subjects maintained the improvements in their OCD symptoms. This study provides good evidence for the efficacy of NF treatment in OCD. The results of this study encourage further controlled research in this area. PMID:21870473

  7. INTENSIVE RESIDENTIAL TREATMENT FOR SEVERE OBSESSIVE-COMPULSIVE DISORDER: CHARACTERIZING TREATMENT COURSE AND PREDICTORS OF RESPONSE

    PubMed Central

    Brennan, Brian P.; Lee, Catherine; Elias, Jason A.; Crosby, Jesse M.; Mathes, Brittany M.; Andre, Marie-Christine; Gironda, Christina M.; Pope, Harrison G.; Jenike, Michael A.; Fitzmaurice, Garrett M.; Hudson, James I.

    2014-01-01

    Background Intensive residential treatment (IRT) is effective for severe, treatment-resistant obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). We sought to characterize predictors and course of response to IRT. Methods Admission, monthly, and discharge data were collected on individuals receiving IRT. We examined the association between baseline characteristics and percent change in OCD symptoms as measured by the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS) using linear regression. We compared baseline characteristics of IRT responders (≥35% reduction in Y-BOCS) versus non-responders, and of patients who did versus those who did not achieve wellness (Y-BOCS ≤12) using non-parametric tests. To examine the course of OCD severity over time, we used linear mixed-effects models with randomly varying intercepts and slopes. Results We evaluated 281 individuals admitted to an IRT program. Greater baseline Y-BOCS scores were associated with a significantly greater percent reduction in Y-BOCS scores (β = −1.49 ([95% confidence interval: −2.06 to −0.93]; P<.001). IRT responders showed significantly greater baseline Y-BOCS scores than non-responders (mean (SD) 28 (5.2) vs. 25.6 (5.8); P=.003) and lower past-year alcohol use scores than non-responders (1.4 (1.9) vs. 2.1 (2.2); P=.01). Participants who achieved wellness displayed lower hoarding factor scores than those who did not (5 (4.6) vs. 9.53 (6.3); P=.03). OCD symptoms declined rapidly over the first month but more slowly over the remaining two months. Conclusions Higher baseline OCD severity, lower past-year alcohol use, and fewer hoarding symptoms predicted better response to IRT. IRT yielded an initial rapid reduction in OCD symptoms, followed by a slower decline after the first month. PMID:24909787

  8. Plasma clomipramine levels in adult patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    PubMed

    Marazziti, Donatella; Baroni, Stefano; Faravelli, Luca; Giannaccini, Gino; Massimetti, Gabriele; Palego, Lionella; Catena-Dell'Osso, Mario

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the possible relationship between plasma clomipramine and its major metabolite (N-desmethylclomipramine) levels and related parameters, and clinical features in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Twenty-six outpatients (13 men, 13 women), suffering from OCD were consecutively enrolled in this study. The severity of OCD was assessed by the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS). The measurements were taken after 4 weeks and 6 months from the beginning of the treatment. The drug levels were measured by a high-performance liquid chromatography method developed by us. The correlations between biological and clinical parameters were analyzed by means of Spearman's correlation coefficient. The Mann-Whitney test was used for comparing biological and clinical variables between men and women. The results showed that clomipramine levels were related to the doses at the two assessment times. A significant and positive correlation was detected at the beginning between the N-desmethylclomipramine ratio and the Y-BOCS total score; however, this was true only for men, where the similar correlations were measured also with the Y-BOCS subscale. After 6 months of clomipramine, men showed a significant improvement of the compulsions. These findings would highlight the potential impact of assessing clomipramine plasma levels and their relationships with specific symptoms, as well as the influence of the sex on the drug response. PMID:21979789

  9. Behavior Therapy and Tricyclic Medication in the Treatment of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: A Quantitative Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, Helen; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Used a meta-analysis to integrate the research literature on the treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder. Antidepressants, such as clomipramine, and behavior therapy have produced appreciable changes in obsessive-compulsive and depressive symptoms. The effects of tricyclic medication and exposure therapies have not differed significantly, but…

  10. Pharmacological treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder

    PubMed Central

    Bloch, Michael H.

    2014-01-01

    Synopsis Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) affects up to 2.5% of the population of the course of a lifetime and produces substantial morbidity. Approximately 70% of patients can experience significant symptomatic relief with appropriate pharmacotherapy. The selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are the main stay of pharmacological treatment. These are typically used at higher doses and for longer periods than in depression. Remission is, unfortunately, uncommon. Proven second-line treatments include the tricyclic clomipramine and the addition of low-dose neuroleptic medications. Other augmentation strategies have been explored for patients refractory to proven interventions, but they are not as of yet robustly supported by controlled studies. The combination of medication with psychotherapy is often used, though careful studies have not documented synergistic benefit in adult patients. OCD refractory to available treatments remains a profound clinical challenge. PMID:25150568

  11. The relationship between autistic traits and social anxiety, worry, obsessive-compulsive, and depressive symptoms: specific and non-specific mediators in a student sample.

    PubMed

    Liew, Shi Min; Thevaraja, Nishta; Hong, Ryan Y; Magiati, Iliana

    2015-03-01

    The high prevalence of anxiety symptoms in individuals with autism spectrum disorders has now been well documented. There is also a positive relationship between autistic traits and anxiety symptoms in unselected samples and individuals with anxiety disorders have more autistic traits compared to those without. Less is known, however, regarding which elements of autistic traits (i.e., social versus non-social/behavioral) or which other variables may mediate this relationship. This study investigated the shared and specific role of five autistic-trait related mediators (social problem-solving, social competence, teasing experiences, prevention from/punishment for preferred repetitive behaviors and aversive sensory experiences) in a non-clinical sample of 252 university students. Autistic traits positively correlated with both anxiety and depressive symptoms. Social competence mediated the relationship between autistic traits and social anxiety symptoms only, while only prevention from preferred repetitive behaviors and frequent aversive sensory experiences mediated the relationship between autistic traits, worry and obsessive-compulsive symptoms. Replication of these findings is required in longitudinal studies and with clinical samples. Limitations of the study are discussed and possible implications for intervention are tentatively suggested. PMID:25234480

  12. Assessment and Management of Treatment-Refractory Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder in Children

    PubMed Central

    Bloch, Michael H.; Storch, Eric A.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To review the assessment and treatment of treatment-refractory pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). METHOD A PubMed search was conducted to identify controlled trials in pediatric OCD. Additionally, practice guidelines for the treatment of adults and children were further reviewed for references in treatment-refractory OCD across the lifespan. RESULTS Pharmacotherapy with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and cognitive-behavioral therapy are effective treatments for pediatric OCD. Evidence suggests that CBT is additionally effective even in pediatric patients with refractory OCD symptoms. Antipsychotic augmentation, raising SSRI dosage, and several glutamate-modulating agents have some evidence of efficacy in adults with treatment-refractory OCD but have not been studied in pediatric populations. CONCLUSION Several pharmacological treatment options exist for children with refractory OCD symptoms. However, little evidence-based data exist to guide treatment for our most challenging pediatric OCD patients. Further research is needed to evaluate the efficacy/side-effect profile of commonly used interventions in treatment-refractory pediatric OCD. PMID:25791142

  13. Neither Saints nor Wolves in Disguise: Ambivalent Interpersonal Attitudes and Behaviors in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moritz, Steffen; Wahl, Karina; Ertle, Andrea; Jelinek, Lena; Hauschildt, Marit; Klinge, Ruth; Hand, Iver

    2009-01-01

    Inflated responsibility is ascribed a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The aim of the study was to assess interpersonal attitudes and behaviors contributing to enhanced responsibility in OCD. In particular, we tested the hypothesis that individuals diagnosed with OCD share stronger latent aggression toward…

  14. Evidence-Based Psychosocial Treatments for Child and Adolescent Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, Paula M.; Farrell, Lara; Pina, Armando A.; Peris, Tara S.; Piacentini, John

    2008-01-01

    Child and adolescent obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a chronic and debilitating condition associated with a wide range of impairments. This article briefly discusses the phenomenology of OCD, the theory underlying current treatment approaches, and the extant psychosocial treatment literature for child and adolescent OCD relative to the

  15. Thought-Action Fusion and Inflated Responsibility Beliefs in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Leary, Emily Marie; Rucklidge, Julia Jane; Blampied, Neville

    2009-01-01

    In obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), inflated responsibility (IR) beliefs and thought-action fusion (TAF) are two cognitive schema argued to contribute to obsessions and compulsions. We investigated whether IR and TAF are OCD-specific or whether they occur in other anxiety disorders. Adults diagnosed with OCD (n = 20) or other anxiety disorders

  16. Neither Saints nor Wolves in Disguise: Ambivalent Interpersonal Attitudes and Behaviors in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moritz, Steffen; Wahl, Karina; Ertle, Andrea; Jelinek, Lena; Hauschildt, Marit; Klinge, Ruth; Hand, Iver

    2009-01-01

    Inflated responsibility is ascribed a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The aim of the study was to assess interpersonal attitudes and behaviors contributing to enhanced responsibility in OCD. In particular, we tested the hypothesis that individuals diagnosed with OCD share stronger latent aggression toward

  17. Thought-Action Fusion and Inflated Responsibility Beliefs in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Leary, Emily Marie; Rucklidge, Julia Jane; Blampied, Neville

    2009-01-01

    In obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), inflated responsibility (IR) beliefs and thought-action fusion (TAF) are two cognitive schema argued to contribute to obsessions and compulsions. We investigated whether IR and TAF are OCD-specific or whether they occur in other anxiety disorders. Adults diagnosed with OCD (n = 20) or other anxiety disorders…

  18. Evidence-Based Psychosocial Treatments for Child and Adolescent Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, Paula M.; Farrell, Lara; Pina, Armando A.; Peris, Tara S.; Piacentini, John

    2008-01-01

    Child and adolescent obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a chronic and debilitating condition associated with a wide range of impairments. This article briefly discusses the phenomenology of OCD, the theory underlying current treatment approaches, and the extant psychosocial treatment literature for child and adolescent OCD relative to the…

  19. Is obsessive-compulsive disorder an autoimmune disease?

    PubMed

    Arnold, P D; Richter, M A

    2001-11-13

    OBSESSIVE-COMPULSIVE DISORDER (OCD) IS A COMMON and debilitating neuropsychiatric disorder. Although it is widely believed to have a genetic basis, no specific genetic factors have been conclusively identified as yet, leading researchers to look for environmental risk factors that may interact with an underlying genetic susceptibility in affected individuals. Recently, there has been increasing interest in a possible link between streptococcal infections and the development of OCD and tic disorders in children. It has been suggested that OCD in some susceptible individuals may be caused by an autoimmune response to streptococcal infections, that is, a similar biological mechanism to that associated with Sydenham's chorea. The term "pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infections" (PANDAS) has been used to describe a subset of children with abrupt onset or exacerbations of OCD or tics, or both, following streptococcal infections. Affected children have relatively early symptom onset, characteristic comorbid symptoms and subtle neurological dysfunction. Neuroimaging studies reveal increased basal ganglia volumes, and the proposed cause involves the cross-reaction of streptococcal antibodies with basal ganglia tissue. Vulnerability to developing PANDAS probably involves genetic factors, and elevated levels of D8/17 antibodies may represent a marker of susceptibility to PANDAS. Prophylactic antibiotic treatments have thus far not been shown to be helpful in preventing symptom exacerbations. Intravenous immunoglobulin therapy may be an effective treatment in selected individuals. Further understanding of the role of streptococcal infections in childhood-onset OCD will be important in determining alternative and effective strategies for treatment, early identification and prevention of this common and debilitating psychiatric disorder. PMID:11760984

  20. Safety of treatment of obsessive compulsive disorder in pregnancy and puerperium

    PubMed Central

    Namouz-Haddad, Shirin; Nulman, Irena

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Question My patient is 3 weeks postpartum and has experienced repetitive checking and washing of her newborn as a result of obsessive concerns with the newborn’s safety. Should I refer her for a psychiatric assessment to rule out obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) or should I reassure her that her behaviour is normal? Answer Current data suggest that pregnancy and the postpartum period are times of high risk of OCD onset and exacerbation. The presenting symptoms of OCD overlap with normal concerns and behaviour during the perinatal period; however, an undiagnosed or untreated disorder could have adverse consequences for both the mother and her newborn. Therefore, it is strongly recommended that this patient undergo screening and psychiatric assessment in order to be appropriately managed. PMID:24522675

  1. Intensive Individual and Group Cognitive Behavioural Therapy for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Rumina; Reeder, Clare

    2015-01-01

    Whilst there is good evidence to show intensive individual therapy can be effective for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), this treatment can be challenging to deliver for therapists in the National Health Service (NHS). We report on a novel means of delivering intensive cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) by combining it with group work, which allowed therapists to offer each other mutual support and permitted patients to gain the interpersonal benefits of working with others. This case study describes the combined intensive individual and group CBT programme for a 46-year-old woman with OCD. This treatment took place within a community mental health team within outer London. Following treatment, the client showed significant improvements in symptoms. This creative method for treating OCD as part of routine clinical practice may be beneficial for therapists to feel supported, for reduction in clinicians' time in treatment, and for clients to benefit from a group experience. PMID:26414309

  2. Polymorphisms within the neuronal cadherin (CDH2) gene are associated with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) in a South African cohort.

    PubMed

    McGregor, N W; Lochner, C; Stein, D J; Hemmings, S M J

    2016-02-01

    OCD is characterised by recurrent obsessions and compulsions that result in severe distress and increased risk for comorbidity. Recently published findings have indicated that the neuronal cadherin gene (CDH2) plays a role in the development of canine OCD, and led us to investigate the human ortholog, CDH2, in a human OCD cohort. Seven CDH2 polymorphisms were selected and genotyped in a South African Caucasian cohort of 234 OCD patients and 180 healthy controls using TaqMan assays. Polymorphisms were analysed in a single-locus and haplotypic context. Of the seven polymorphisms, two reached statistical significance for OCD under additive and codominant models of inheritance (rs1120154 and rs12605662). CDH2 SNP, rs1120154, C-allele carriers were found to be significantly associated with lower risk to develop OCD compared to TT-homozygotes (OR = 0.49; 95 % CI: 0.32-0.75; p < 0.001), and rs12605662 G-allele carriers were significantly associated with reduced risk OCD compared to TT-homozygotes (OR = 0.46; 95 % CI: 0.30-0.71; p < 0.001), Furthermore, a single haplotype was found to infer an increased risk for OCD diagnosis (*rs8087457-rs1148374: A-T). Polymorphisms within the CDH2 gene are associated with susceptibility to OCD in a South African cohort. PMID:26093892

  3. Incompleteness and not just right experiences in the explanation of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder.

    PubMed

    Belloch, Amparo; Fornés, Gertrudis; Carrasco, Angel; López-Solá, Clara; Alonso, Pino; Menchón, Jose M

    2016-02-28

    In the past decade, not just right experiences (NJRE) and incompleteness (INC) have attracted renewed interest as putative motivators of symptoms in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), beyond harm avoidance (HA). This study examines, in 267 non-clinical undergraduates and 47 OCD patients, the differential contributions of HA, INC, and NJRE to the different OCD symptom dimensions and the propensity to have the disorder. The results indicate that although both the NJRE and INC range from normality to OCD, their number and intensity significantly increase as the obsessional tendencies increase, which suggests that they are vulnerability markers for OCD. Although they cannot be considered fully specific to OCD, they are more important in explaining OCD symptoms than general distress and harm-related beliefs, and they are also better indicators of OCD severity than HA. In light of the operationalization of both NJRE and INC across the items on their respective questionnaires, the two constructs seem to capture different aspects of the same complex underlying construct: whereas INC might refer to a relatively stable disposition or trait of engaging in compulsive rituals, NJRE resemble obsessions more, and the appraisals that individuals ascribe to the experience would motivate the compulsions. PMID:26795870

  4. Near-Infrared Spectroscopy during the Verbal Fluency Task before and after Treatment with Image Exposure and SSRI Therapy in Patients with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder.

    PubMed

    Nakanishi, Mari; Oshita, Harumi; Tanaka, Yoshihiro; Inoue, Ayako; Kawashima, Chiwa; Okamoto, Kana; Kobayashi, Shunsuke; Ishitobi, Yoshinobu; Ninomiya, Taiga; Akiyoshi, Jotaro

    2014-01-01

    Drug therapy with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) has been used as a treatment for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). In the present case report, exposure therapy was used in addition to escitalopram (20 mg) to treat a 28-year-old female patient with OCD for 6 months. Her obsessive-compulsive symptoms comprised thoughts of words such as rape, crematorium, neck hanging, unhappy, death, die, and kill and images such as a shelf of gods, a shrine, a Buddhist altar, the sun, the sky, and the faces of her parents, siblings, and relatives. As exposure therapy, she was asked to view the images associated with these symptoms three times a day along with drug therapy. With the combination of drug and exposure therapies, her obsessive-compulsive symptoms improved within 6 months, with no interference in her daily life. Multichannel near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) showed improvement of brain function in the temporal and frontal lobes after treatment. These results suggest that NIRS can be used as an indicator of brain function improvement in patients with OCD. PMID:25317351

  5. Ultra-orthodox rabbinic responses to religious obsessive- compulsive disorder.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, David; Shefler, Gaby

    2008-01-01

    This presentation deals with the response of rabbis to ultra-orthodox people suffering from religious symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder. The symptoms are consistent with religious practice and patients justify their compulsive behaviors by the dictates of the codes of law.Will rabbis see their primary role as protection of the codes of law rather than alleviation of the suffering of the faithful? Will they see the person as someone who is meritoriously meticulous or in need of help? The writings of two eminent rabbis, and advice related by contemporary patients in Jerusalem, Israel are presented. The most arresting example of guidance is provided by Rabbi Nahman of Bratslav (1772-1810) who declared that he himself suffered from excessive religious practices typical of religious OCD until he overcame them. The accounts of rabbis and patients have features similar to the cognitive-behavioral treatment of choice for this disorder. The guidance of a rabbi is based on authority, and detailed knowledge of religious law, while a mental health therapist is an expert on OCD. The latter cannot give religious guidance, and has no authority within the ultra-orthodox community, and is only afforded a role with the rabbi's acquiescence. The role of the patient's rabbi is likely to be crucial in management. Religious guidance without professional help may often only have short-term benefit in this generally chronic condition, although studies have not been carried out. PMID:19398822

  6. Is obsessive-compulsive disorder an anxiety disorder?

    PubMed

    Bartz, Jennifer A; Hollander, Eric

    2006-05-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is classified as an anxiety disorder in the DSM-IV-TR [American Psychiatric Association, 2000. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, Fourth ed., rev. Washington, DC: Author]; however, the notion of a spectrum of obsessive-compulsive (OC) related disorders that is comprised of such disparate disorders as OCD, body dysmorphic disorder, certain eating disorders, pathological gambling, and autism, is gaining acceptance. The fact that these disorders share obsessive-compulsive features and evidence similarities in patient characteristics, course, comorbidity, neurobiology, and treatment response raises the question of whether OCD is best conceptualized as an anxiety or an OC spectrum disorder. This article reviews evidence from comorbidity and family studies, as well as biological evidence related to neurocircuitry, neurotransmitter function, and pharmacologic treatment response that bear on this question. The implications of removing OCD from the anxiety disorders category and moving it to an OC spectrum disorders category, as is being proposed for the DSM-V, is discussed. PMID:16455175

  7. Remembering and forgetting: directed forgetting effect in obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    PubMed

    Konishi, Mika; Shishikura, Kurie; Nakaaki, Shutaro; Komatsu, Shin-Ichi; Mimura, Masaru

    2011-01-01

    It has been reported that episodic memory seems to be impaired in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) because the patients repeat a specific checking behavior, but it is still unknown if OCD patients show memory impairments associated with their unique symptoms or not. To study episodic memory in OCD patients, we examined the directed forgetting effect. Patients with OCD and healthy control participants were given a list of 24 emotionally neutral everyday words (12 remember [R]-cued words and 12 forget [F]-cued words) under two conditions: List and Item. The results of our study showed that OCD patients recalled a number of F-cued words similar to that for controls and relatively fewer R-cued words than controls under both List and Item conditions. Consequently, the directed forgetting effect was smaller in OCD patients than controls. Our results demonstrated that both selective encoding and retrieval inhibition processes are impaired in OCD, and we suggest that recall of unfavorable items to be forgotten intruded into necessary items to be remembered. This impairment in episodic memory may partially account for some of the unique clinical symptoms of OCD. PMID:21822387

  8. Secondary Psychometric Examination of the Dimensional Obsessive-Compulsive Scale: Classical Testing, Item Response Theory, and Differential Item Functioning.

    PubMed

    Thibodeau, Michel A; Leonard, Rachel C; Abramowitz, Jonathan S; Riemann, Bradley C

    2015-12-01

    The Dimensional Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (DOCS) is a promising measure of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) symptoms but has received minimal psychometric attention. We evaluated the utility and reliability of DOCS scores. The study included 832 students and 300 patients with OCD. Confirmatory factor analysis supported the originally proposed four-factor structure. DOCS total and subscale scores exhibited good to excellent internal consistency in both samples (α = .82 to α = .96). Patient DOCS total scores reduced substantially during treatment (t = 16.01, d = 1.02). DOCS total scores discriminated between students and patients (sensitivity = 0.76, 1 - specificity = 0.23). The measure did not exhibit gender-based differential item functioning as tested by Mantel-Haenszel chi-square tests. Expected response options for each item were plotted as a function of item response theory and demonstrated that DOCS scores incrementally discriminate OCD symptoms ranging from low to extremely high severity. Incremental differences in DOCS scores appear to represent unbiased and reliable differences in true OCD symptom severity. PMID:25422521

  9. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... might lead to some cases of OCD. Using genetic engineering, NIH-funded researchers created an OCD-like set of behaviors in mice. They then reversed these behaviors with antidepressants and genetic targeting of a key brain circuit. The study ...

  10. Escitalopram in the treatment of patients with schizophrenia and obsessive-compulsive disorder: an open-label, prospective study.

    PubMed

    Stryjer, Rafael; Dambinsky, Yael; Timinsky, Igor; Green, Tamar; Kotler, Moshe; Weizman, Abraham; Spivak, Baruch

    2013-03-01

    The current data suggest that up to 50% of patients with schizophrenia have obsessive-compulsive (OC) symptoms coexisting with psychosis and between 7.8 and 46% of schizophrenia patients also have full-blown obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The aim of this study was to examine the efficacy of the most selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor escitalopram in the management of OCD in schizophrenia patients. The study was an open-label prospective trial of 12 weeks' duration in which escitalopram at a dose of up to 20 mg/day was added to the existing antipsychotic drug regimen in schizophrenia patients with OCD. Fifteen patients (10 men/five women) with the diagnosis of schizophrenia and OCD were recruited for the study (mean age: 39±14, range 21-61 years) and received escitalopram according to the study design. A significant improvement was observed in the total Yale Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS) scores and in the scores of both the Y-BOCS-Obsession and the Y-BOCS-Compulsion subscale at the end point. In addition, a significant improvement was observed in the total scores of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale and particularly in scores of anxiety, tension, depression, and preoccupation items. No adverse effects of escitalopram were reported by patients during the trial. In our prospective 12-week open-label study, escitalopram 20 mg/day was well tolerated and improved OC symptoms in schizophrenia patients. Our preliminary results are encouraging and a double-blind randomized study is required to confirm our results. PMID:23211492

  11. A structural equation analysis of family accommodation in pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    PubMed

    Caporino, Nicole E; Morgan, Jessica; Beckstead, Jason; Phares, Vicky; Murphy, Tanya K; Storch, Eric A

    2012-01-01

    Family accommodation of symptoms is counter to the primary goals of cognitive-behavioral therapy for pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and can pose an obstacle to positive treatment outcomes. Although increased attention has been given to family accommodation in pediatric OCD, relatively little is known about associated child and parent characteristics, and their mediating/moderating effects. This study examined a structural equation model of parent and child variables related to parent reports of family accommodation. Sixty-one children with OCD (ages 6-17 years, 39% female) and their parents were recruited from a university-based clinic. They were administered clinician- and parent-rated measures of child OCD symptom severity, OCD-specific impairment, internalizing problems, and externalizing problems as well as parent anxiety, depression, empathy, consideration of future consequences, and accommodation. Results generally supported the hypothesized model. Family accommodation mediated the relationship between OCD symptom severity and parent-rated functional impairment; child internalizing problems mediated the relationship between parent anxiety and family accommodation; and parent empathy and consideration of future consequences interacted to predict family accommodation. Child externalizing problems were significantly associated with family accommodation but neither of these two variables was associated with parent depression. Findings suggest that reductions in family accommodation might be maximized by routinely screening for comorbid psychopathology in children with OCD and their parents, and using prescriptive or modular approaches to intervention. Directions for future research are discussed. PMID:21842196

  12. [Effect of religious culture on obsessive compulsive disorder symptomatology. A transcultural study in monotheistic religions].

    PubMed

    de Bilbao, Fabienne; Giannakopoulos, Pantéléimon

    2005-11-30

    Effect of religious culture on obsessive Cultural factors may influence the nature of obsessions and compulsions associated with the obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). The aim of this review is to evaluate the effect of religious upbringing on OCD symptoms. In fact, a variety of symptoms related to religious thoughts are more prevalent in clinical populations from countries in which religion is at the central core of the society, particularly in Muslim and Jewish Middle Eastern cultures, as compared with clinical populations from the West. These findings suggest that clinicians should be sensitive to the fact that religious obsessions may be more prevalent in certain cultures with which they may not be well acquainted. PMID:16396372

  13. Tic disorders and obsessive-compulsive disorder: is autoimmunity involved?

    PubMed

    Hoekstra, Pieter J; Minderaa, Ruud B

    2005-12-01

    The precise cause of tic disorders and paediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is unknown. In addition to genetic factors, autoimmunity may play a role, possibly as a sequela of preceding streptococcal throat infections in susceptible children. Here we review the most recent findings, from July 2003 onwards, with regard to a possible relationship between tics/OCD and autoimmunity. Evidence about an intriguing correlation between streptococcal infections and tic disorders and OCD is accumulating. Specific criteria have been outlined for paediatric autoimmune disorders associated with streptococcal infections (PANDAS), but autoimmunity may also be involved in tic disorders and/or OCD in general. Anti-basal ganglia auto-antibodies are an important potential indicator of autoimmunity. Although the lack of a standardized methodology makes comparisons of findings difficult, new data has emerged pointing to the possible involvement of specific auto-antigens. Earlier findings of increased D8/17 B cell expression as a putative susceptibility marker could not be replicated, possibly due to instability of the D8/17-binding antibody. Although PANDAS patients have been reported to improve after therapeutic plasma exchange, and antibiotics may prevent symptom exacerbations, immune-based treatments should not be routinely given. In future studies, demonstrating the pathogenetic significance of anti-basal ganglia antibodies in animals is a major challenge to draw any firm conclusions about a role for autoimmunity. Future longitudinal studies should be aimed at assessing the precise relationship between symptom exacerbations, infections, and immune parameters, possibly along with gene expression profiles. PMID:16401548

  14. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... go away for a short time. When the fear and nervousness return, the person who has OCD ... common obsessions? The following are some common obsessions: Fear of dirt or germs Disgust with bodily waste ...

  15. Use of benzodiazepines in obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    PubMed

    Starcevic, Vladan; Berle, David; do Rosrio, Maria Conceio; Brakoulias, Vlasios; Ferro, Ygor A; Viswasam, Kirupamani; Shavitt, Roseli; Miguel, Euripedes; Fontenelle, Leonardo F

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the frequency of benzodiazepine (BDZ) use in a large sample of patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and ascertain the type of BDZ used and the correlates and predictors of BDZ use in OCD. The sample consisted of 955 patients with OCD from a comprehensive, cross-sectional, multicentre study conducted by the Brazilian Research Consortium on Obsessive-Compulsive Spectrum Disorders between 2003 and 2009. The rate of BDZ use over time in this OCD sample was 38.4%. Of individuals taking BDZs, 96.7% used them in combination with other medications, usually serotonin reuptake inhibitors. The most commonly used BDZ was clonazepam. Current age, current level of anxiety and number of additional medications for OCD taken over time significantly predicted BDZ use. This is the first study to comprehensively examine BDZ use in OCD patients, demonstrating that it is relatively common, despite recommendations from treatment guidelines. Use of BDZs in combination with several other medications over time and in patients with marked anxiety suggests that OCD patients taking BDZs may be more complex and more difficult to manage. This calls for further research and clarification of the role of BDZs in the treatment of OCD. PMID:26426443

  16. Neuronal antibody biomarkers for Sydenham's chorea identify a new group of children with chronic recurrent episodic acute exacerbations of tic and obsessive compulsive symptoms following a streptococcal infection.

    PubMed

    Singer, Harvey S; Mascaro-Blanco, Adda; Alvarez, Kathy; Morris-Berry, Christina; Kawikova, Ivana; Ben-Pazi, Hilla; Thompson, Carol B; Ali, Syed F; Kaplan, Edward L; Cunningham, Madeleine W

    2015-01-01

    Several autoantibodies (anti-dopamine 1 (D1R) and 2 (D2R) receptors, anti-tubulin, anti-lysoganglioside-GM1) and antibody-mediated activation of calcium calmodulin dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) signaling activity are elevated in children with Sydenham's chorea (SC). Recognizing proposed clinical and autoimmune similarities between SC and PANDAS (pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorder associated with a streptococcal infection), we sought to identify serial biomarker changes in a slightly different population. Antineuronal antibodies were measured in eight children (mean 11.3 years) with chronic, dramatic, recurrent tics and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) associated with a group A β-hemolytic streptococcal (GABHS) respiratory tract infection, but differing because they lacked choreiform movements. Longitudinal serum samples in most subjects included two pre-exacerbation samples, Exac), one midst Exac (abrupt recurrence of tic/OCD; temporally association with a GABHS infection in six of eight subjects), and two post-Exac. Controls included four groups of unaffected children (n = 70; mean 10.8 years) obtained at four different institutions and published controls. Clinical exacerbations were not associated with a significant rise in antineuronal antibody titers. CaMKII activation was increased at the GABHS exacerbation point in 5/6 subjects, exceeded combined and published control's 95th percentile at least once in 7/8 subjects, and median values were elevated at each time point. Anti-tubulin and anti-D2R titers did not differ from published or combined control group's 95th percentile or median values. Differences in anti-lysoganglioside-GM1 and anti-D1R titers were dependent on the selected control. Variances in antibody titers and CaMKII activation were identified among the institutional control groups. Based on comparisons to published studies, results identify two groups of PANDAS: 1) a cohort, represented by this study, which lacks choreiform movements and elevated antibodies against D2R; 2) the originally reported group with choreiform movements and elevated anti-D2R antibodies, similar to SC. Increased antibody mediated CaMKII activation was found in both groups and requires further study as a potential biomarker. PMID:25793715

  17. The Neural Bases of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder in Children and Adults

    PubMed Central

    Maia, Tiago V.; Cooney, Rebecca E.; Peterson, Bradley S.

    2011-01-01

    Functional imaging studies have reported with remarkable consistency hyperactivity in the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), and caudate nucleus of patients with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD). These findings have often been interpreted as evidence that abnormalities in cortico-basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical loops involving the OFC and ACC are causally related to OCD. This interpretation remains controversial, however, because such hyperactivity may represent either a cause or a consequence of the symptoms. This article analyzes the evidence for a causal role of these loops in producing OCD in children and adults. The article first reviews the strong evidence for anatomical abnormalities in these loops in patients with OCD. These findings are not sufficient to establish causality, however, because anatomical alterations may themselves be a consequence rather than a cause of the symptoms. The article then reviews three lines of evidence that, despite their own limitations, permit stronger causal inferences: the development of OCD following brain injury, pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infection, and neurosurgical lesions that attenuate OCD. Converging evidence from these various lines of research supports a causal role for the cortico-basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical loops that involve the OFC and ACC in the pathogenesis of OCD in children and adults. PMID:18838041

  18. Catechol-O-Methyltransferase Gene Polymorphisms in Specific Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Patients' Subgroups.

    PubMed

    Melo-Felippe, Fernanda Brito; de Salles Andrade, Juliana Braga; Giori, Isabele Gomes; Vieira-Fonseca, Tamiris; Fontenelle, Leonardo Franklin; Kohlrausch, Fabiana Barzotti

    2016-01-01

    Pharmacological data and animal models support the hypothesis that the dopaminergic (DA) system is implicated in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Therefore, this case-control study assessed whether genetics variations in catechol-O-methyltransferase gene (COMT) could influence susceptibility to OCD and OCD features in a Brazilian sample. A sample of 199 patients with OCD and 200 healthy individuals was genotyped for -287A > G (rs2075507) and Val158Met (rs4680) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) by TaqMan(®) or restriction mapping. We observed a statistically significant predominance of the Met low-activity allele in the male patient group as compared to the male healthy control group. The -287A > G polymorphism's genotypes and alleles were significantly overrepresented among male individuals with ordering and female subjects with washing symptoms. We also found female hoarders to exhibit a significant higher frequency of the low activity Met/Met genotype of Val158Met polymorphism compared to female patients who did not express this dimension. Our data suggest an influence of COMT polymorphisms on OCD and OCD patients' features, such as gender, and ordering, washing, and hoarding symptom dimensions. Further studies to confirm the clinical importance of COMT SNPs in OCD are warranted. PMID:26687156

  19. Shame in the obsessive compulsive related disorders: A conceptual review

    PubMed Central

    Weingarden, Hilary; Renshaw, Keith D.

    2014-01-01

    Background Theoretical and anecdotal support for the role of shame in obsessive compulsive related disorders (OCRDs) is prominent. Developing our understanding of shame’s role in OCRDs is important to building knowledge about this new diagnostic category. This review aims to consolidate our understanding of shame in each OCRD, through summarizing existing clinical, conceptual, and empirical work. Methods We provide an overview of shame, its measurement considerations, and a full review of 110 articles addressing shame in OCRDs. Results General shame and shame about having a mental illness are the broadest types of shame relevant to OCRDs; symptom-based shame and body shame may be more specific to OCRDs. In OCD, violent, sexual, or blasphemous obsessions may trigger symptom-based shame. In trichotillomania (TTM) and skin picking (SP), symptom-based shame may be related to pulling, picking, and post-pulling/picking behaviors. In hoarding disorder, symptom-based shame may accompany beliefs about being defective due to living with clutter. Body shame appears inherent to body dysmorphic disorder, while in TTM and SP it may arise as a secondary response to damage resulting from body focused repetitive behaviors. Limitations Much of the current knowledge on shame in OCRDs comes from anecdotal, case, and conceptual work. Empirical studies do not always assess specific types of shame, instead assessing shame as a general construct. Conclusions Shame is closely related to OCRDs. Clinical and research recommendations drawing from the literature are provided. PMID:25299438

  20. Moral thought-action fusion and OCD symptoms: the moderating role of religious affiliation.

    PubMed

    Siev, Jedidiah; Chambless, Dianne L; Huppert, Jonathan D

    2010-04-01

    The empirical literature on the relationship between moral thought-action fusion (TAF) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is characterized by mixed findings. Previous studies have reported religious group differences in moral TAF and the relationship between moral TAF and religiosity. In light of those studies and considering the apparent role of moral TAF in scrupulosity, the purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the possible role of religion as a moderator of the relationship between moral TAF and OCD symptoms. The results revealed that (a) Christians endorsed higher levels of moral TAF than did Jews independent of OCD symptoms; (b) religiosity was correlated with moral TAF in Christians but not in Jews, suggesting that Christian religious adherence is related to beliefs about the moral import of thoughts; and (c) moral TAF was related to OCD symptoms only in Jews. That is, for Christians, moral TAF was related to religiosity but not OCD symptoms, and for Jews, moral TAF was related to OCD symptoms but not religiosity. These results imply that moral TAF is only a marker of pathology when such beliefs are not culturally normative (e.g., as a function of religious teaching or doctrine). PMID:20097516

  1. Obsessive-compulsive disorder in chronic epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Peter W

    2011-11-01

    There is a long-recognized association between obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and chronic epilepsy, most notably refractory temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). The literature documents this association with case reports, patient series, and some larger controlled studies that reveal that almost a quarter of patients with TLE exhibit OCD features, which may go unrecognized. Obsession features with ordering, symmetry, exactness, handwashing, and religiosity occur more often in persons with right- or left-sided epileptic foci than in those with idiopathic generalized epilepsies or controls. Neurobiological and social factors suggest abnormalities of the frontal-thalamic-pallidal-striatal-anterior cingulate-frontal circuits stemming from the observation that certain diseases, damage, or surgery along these circuits may produce or, conversely, reduce OCD in TLE. This review explores the literature on case reports, case series, and larger retrospective controlled studies and looks at the associations of epilepsy with OCD. Contemporary speculation on the theoretical neurobiological underpinnings provides some basis on how and where to direct treatment. Invasive deep brain stimulation has triggered recent controversy on newer treatment modalities. PMID:21889913

  2. Ethnic Identification Biases Responses to the Padua Inventory for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Monnica; Turkheimer, Eric; Schmidt, Karen; Oltmanns, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    The authors report differential item functioning (DIF) between Black and White participants completing the 60-item Padua Inventory (PI) for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The authors use an Internet-generated sample that included 105 Blacks, 67 Hispanics, 582 Whites, and 136 additional participants reporting an OCD diagnosis. Factor analysis…

  3. Evidence-Based Assessment of Child Obsessive Compulsive Disorder: Recommendations for Clinical Practice and Treatment Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewin, Adam B.; Piacentini, John

    2010-01-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) presents heterogeneously and can be difficult to assess in youth. This review focuses on research-supported assessment approaches for OCD in childhood. Content areas include pre-visit screening, diagnostic establishment, differential diagnosis, assessment of comorbid psychiatric conditions, tracking symptom…

  4. Local-Global Processing in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder and Comorbid Tourette's Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rankins, D.; Bradshaw, J. L.; Georgiou-Karistianis, N.

    2005-01-01

    Neuropsychological and neuroimaging studies implicate attentional difficulties in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), but results are inconsistent due possibly to sample heterogeneity and lack of control of comorbid disorders, such as Tourette's syndrome (TS). Nevertheless, it has been suggested that OCD symptomatology may be a result of…

  5. Using Motivational Interviewing to Enhance Treatment Outcome in People with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Helen Blair; Zuckoff, Allan

    2011-01-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a leading cause of health-related disability. There are two evidence-based treatments for OCD, pharmacotherapy and cognitive-behavioral therapy consisting of exposure and response prevention (EX/RP). Although effective, outcome from both treatments is often limited by patient lack of adherence to the…

  6. Treating Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder and Schizophrenia: The Case of Sam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peasley-Miklus, Catherine; Massie, Elise; Baslett, Gaston; Carmin, Cheryl

    2005-01-01

    This article describes the case of Sam, a 22-year-old male with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and schizophrenia. The patient's background, the development and characteristics of his OCD and schizophrenia, and the history of what became a rather complicated treatment are described. In addition, four problem areas of therapy are identified.

  7. A School-Based Treatment Model for Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sloman, Glenn M.; Gallant, Jason; Storch, Eric A.

    2007-01-01

    School psychologists have expertise in the realm of school-based assessment and intervention for behavioral, educational, and psychological difficulties. Recent evidence indicates that many school psychologists lack evidenced based knowledge about assessment and treatment of pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD). Pediatric OCD is a…

  8. Nicotine augmentation for refractory obsessive-compulsive disorder. A case report.

    PubMed

    Pasquini, Massimo; Garavini, Alessandra; Biondi, Massimo

    2005-01-01

    The authors present a case of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) resistant to conventional treatments, which improved following nicotine augmentation administered as 4 mg chewing gum. The role of acetylcholine in the pathophysiology of OCD is not clear. The authors discuss the effect of nicotine on memory for actions. PMID:15610960

  9. A Review of Metacognition in Psychological Models of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rees, Clare S.; Anderson, Rebecca A.

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive-behavioural models and interventions for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) have always included some metacognitive elements but until recently these have been predominantly construed of as cognitive as opposed to metacognitive processes. Increasingly, psychological models of OCD are now recognising the importance of metacognitive…

  10. Parent-Child Agreement in the Assessment of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canavera, Kristin E.; Wilkins, Kendall C.; Pincus, Donna B.; Ehrenreich-May, Jill T.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to extend research regarding parent-child agreement in the assessment of anxiety disorders to include youth with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Ninety-three children and adolescents with OCD (50 female, 43 male), ages 6 to 17 years, and their parents were administered the Anxiety Disorders Interview…

  11. Clinical Considerations when Tailoring Cognitive Behavioral Treatment for Young Children with Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choate-Summers, Molly L.; Freeman, Jennifer B.; Garcia, Abbe M.; Coyne, Lisa; Przeworski, Amy; Leonard, Henrietta L.

    2008-01-01

    Research on the effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral therapy, and in particular, exposure with response prevention for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD), has only been systematically evaluated in children and adolescents ages 7-17. These treatments do not address the unique characteristics of young children with OCD. This paper discusses…

  12. Rage Attacks in Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: Phenomenology and Clinical Correlates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Storch, Eric A.; Jones, Anna M.; Lack, Caleb W.; Ale, Chelsea M.; Sulkowski, Michael L.; Lewin, Adam B.; De Nadai, Alessandro S.; Murphy, Tanya K.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Rage attacks have been documented in youth with varied psychiatric disorders, but few data have been reported on the clinical characteristics and correlates of rage attacks among children with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Method: Participants were 86 children (ages 6-16 years) with a primary diagnosis of OCD. Patients and their…

  13. Clinical Considerations when Tailoring Cognitive Behavioral Treatment for Young Children with Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choate-Summers, Molly L.; Freeman, Jennifer B.; Garcia, Abbe M.; Coyne, Lisa; Przeworski, Amy; Leonard, Henrietta L.

    2008-01-01

    Research on the effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral therapy, and in particular, exposure with response prevention for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD), has only been systematically evaluated in children and adolescents ages 7-17. These treatments do not address the unique characteristics of young children with OCD. This paper discusses

  14. Patient Adherence Predicts Outcome from Cognitive Behavioral Therapy in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Helen Blair; Maher, Michael J.; Wang, Yuanjia; Bao, Yuanyuan; Foa, Edna B.; Franklin, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine the effects of patient adherence on outcome from exposure and response prevention (EX/RP) therapy in adults with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Method: Thirty adults with OCD were randomized to EX/RP (n = 15) or EX/RP augmented by motivational interviewing strategies (n = 15). Both treatments included 3 introductory

  15. A School-Based Treatment Model for Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sloman, Glenn M.; Gallant, Jason; Storch, Eric A.

    2007-01-01

    School psychologists have expertise in the realm of school-based assessment and intervention for behavioral, educational, and psychological difficulties. Recent evidence indicates that many school psychologists lack evidenced based knowledge about assessment and treatment of pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD). Pediatric OCD is a

  16. Parent-Child Agreement in the Assessment of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canavera, Kristin E.; Wilkins, Kendall C.; Pincus, Donna B.; Ehrenreich-May, Jill T.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to extend research regarding parent-child agreement in the assessment of anxiety disorders to include youth with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Ninety-three children and adolescents with OCD (50 female, 43 male), ages 6 to 17 years, and their parents were administered the Anxiety Disorders Interview

  17. Rage Attacks in Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: Phenomenology and Clinical Correlates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Storch, Eric A.; Jones, Anna M.; Lack, Caleb W.; Ale, Chelsea M.; Sulkowski, Michael L.; Lewin, Adam B.; De Nadai, Alessandro S.; Murphy, Tanya K.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Rage attacks have been documented in youth with varied psychiatric disorders, but few data have been reported on the clinical characteristics and correlates of rage attacks among children with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Method: Participants were 86 children (ages 6-16 years) with a primary diagnosis of OCD. Patients and their

  18. Using Motivational Interviewing to Enhance Treatment Outcome in People with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Helen Blair; Zuckoff, Allan

    2011-01-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a leading cause of health-related disability. There are two evidence-based treatments for OCD, pharmacotherapy and cognitive-behavioral therapy consisting of exposure and response prevention (EX/RP). Although effective, outcome from both treatments is often limited by patient lack of adherence to the

  19. Local-Global Processing in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder and Comorbid Tourette's Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rankins, D.; Bradshaw, J. L.; Georgiou-Karistianis, N.

    2005-01-01

    Neuropsychological and neuroimaging studies implicate attentional difficulties in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), but results are inconsistent due possibly to sample heterogeneity and lack of control of comorbid disorders, such as Tourette's syndrome (TS). Nevertheless, it has been suggested that OCD symptomatology may be a result of

  20. Error-Related Negativity and Tic History in Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanna, Gregory L.; Carrasco, Melisa; Harbin, Shannon M.; Nienhuis, Jenna K.; LaRosa, Christina E.; Chen, Poyu; Fitzgerald, Kate D.; Gehring, William J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The error-related negativity (ERN) is a negative deflection in the event-related potential after an incorrect response, which is often increased in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). However, the relation of the ERN to comorbid tic disorders has not been examined in patients with OCD. This study compared ERN amplitudes

  1. An Autistic Dimension: A Proposed Subtype of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bejerot, Susanne

    2007-01-01

    This article focuses on the possibility that autism spectrum disorder (ASD: Asperger syndrome, autism and atypical autism) in its milder forms may be clinically important among a substantial proportion of patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and discusses OCD subtypes based on this proposition. The hypothesis derives from extensive

  2. A Review of Metacognition in Psychological Models of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rees, Clare S.; Anderson, Rebecca A.

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive-behavioural models and interventions for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) have always included some metacognitive elements but until recently these have been predominantly construed of as cognitive as opposed to metacognitive processes. Increasingly, psychological models of OCD are now recognising the importance of metacognitive

  3. Error-Related Negativity and Tic History in Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanna, Gregory L.; Carrasco, Melisa; Harbin, Shannon M.; Nienhuis, Jenna K.; LaRosa, Christina E.; Chen, Poyu; Fitzgerald, Kate D.; Gehring, William J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The error-related negativity (ERN) is a negative deflection in the event-related potential after an incorrect response, which is often increased in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). However, the relation of the ERN to comorbid tic disorders has not been examined in patients with OCD. This study compared ERN amplitudes…

  4. Meta-Analysis of Randomized, Controlled Treatment Trials for Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Hunna J.; Rees, Clare S.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To conduct a meta-analysis on randomized, controlled treatment trials of pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Method: Studies were included if they employed randomized, controlled methodology and treated young people (19 years or under) with OCD. A comprehensive literature search identified 13 RCTs containing 10…

  5. Cognitive Inflexibility and Frontal-Cortical Activation in Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Britton, Jennifer C.; Rauch, Scott L.; Rosso, Isabelle M.; Killgore, William D. S.; Price, Lauren M.; Ragan, Jennifer; Chosak, Anne; Hezel, Dianne M.; Pine, Daniel S.; Leibenluft, Ellen; Pauls, David L.; Jenike, Michael A.; Stewart, S. Evelyn

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Deficits in cognitive flexibility and response inhibition have been linked to perturbations in cortico-striatal-thalamic circuitry in adult obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Although similar cognitive deficits have been identified in pediatric OCD, few neuroimaging studies have been conducted to examine its neural correlates in the…

  6. Repetitive Behaviour in Children with High Functioning Autism and Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zandt, Fiona; Prior, Margot; Kyrios, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) and children with Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) were compared on a range of repetitive behaviours. Parents reported similar levels of sameness behaviour and repetitive movements in the clinical groups, although children with OCD engaged in more repetitive behaviour focussed around routines and…

  7. Patient Adherence Predicts Outcome from Cognitive Behavioral Therapy in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Helen Blair; Maher, Michael J.; Wang, Yuanjia; Bao, Yuanyuan; Foa, Edna B.; Franklin, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine the effects of patient adherence on outcome from exposure and response prevention (EX/RP) therapy in adults with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Method: Thirty adults with OCD were randomized to EX/RP (n = 15) or EX/RP augmented by motivational interviewing strategies (n = 15). Both treatments included 3 introductory…

  8. An Autistic Dimension: A Proposed Subtype of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bejerot, Susanne

    2007-01-01

    This article focuses on the possibility that autism spectrum disorder (ASD: Asperger syndrome, autism and atypical autism) in its milder forms may be clinically important among a substantial proportion of patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and discusses OCD subtypes based on this proposition. The hypothesis derives from extensive…

  9. Neuropsychological Assessment in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Kohli, Adarsh; Rana, Devender Kumar; Gupta, Nitin; Kulhara, Parmanand

    2015-01-01

    Background: Neuropsychological deficits in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) have been encouraged by brain imaging studies suggesting a putative fron to- striatial biological basis of the condition. Studies of neuropsychological functions in OCD have documented deficits in several cognitive domains, particularly with regard to visuospatial abilities, executive functioning, motor speed and memory. The Aim of the present study was to assess neuropsychological profile of patients with OCD. Objectives of the study were to assess and compare the neuropsychological profile of patients with OCD and matched healthy controls. Materials and Methods: Twenty clinically stable outpatients with ICD-10 diagnosis of OCD and equal number of normal controls matched for age, education, gender and handedness were studied using a battery of neuropsychological tests. The tests consisted of verbal and performance tests of intelligence, memory, perceptual motor functions, set test and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST). Results: On perceptual-motor functions, verbal fluency, executive functions (WCST), intelligence and memory patients with OCD did not show impairments comparable to healthy controls. An attempt to correlate the test findings with the duration of illness, stability of illness and the average drug dose was made and it was found that there was no correlation between the two. Conclusion: The present study does not provide evidence for a localized neuropsychological/cognitive impairment in OCD in cases that are stable for at least three months. Absence of impairments in perceptual-motor functions, verbal fluency, executive functions (WCST), intelligence, and memory does not agree with the results of other studies using these tests. PMID:25969608

  10. Brain stimulation techniques in the treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder: current and future directions.

    PubMed

    Dell'Osso, Bernardo; Altamura, Alfredo Carlo; Allen, Andrea; Hollander, Eric

    2005-12-01

    Recent studies on the epidemiology of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) estimate 50 million patients suffer from OCD worldwide, thus making it a global problem. The treatment of OCD has changed substantially over the last 2 decades following the introduction of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, which provide symptom improvement in approximately 60% of patients. However, some patients remain resistant to the standard pharmacologic and behavioral treatments. Although some treatment-resistant patients respond to pharmacologic augmentations, others do not, and there is evidence that some of the most severe cases benefit from treatment with neurosurgical interventions. Besides pharmacologic, behavioral, and neurosurgical approaches, different brain stimulation methods-transcranial magnetic stimulation, deep brain stimulation, and electroconvulsive therapy-have been investigated in treatment-resistant patients with OCD. However, available data about the use of these techniques in OCD treatment are quite limited in terms of sample size and study design, given the difficulty in conducting standard blinded trials for these procedures. In addition, none of the mentioned treatments have received Food and Drug Administration approval for the treatment of OCD. Nevertheless, promising findings regarding efficacy, tolerability, and non-invasiveness and/or reversibility of these techniques have increased interest in investigating their use in treatment-resistant OCD. PMID:16344833

  11. Recruitment of a hidden population: African Americans with obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    PubMed

    Williams, Monnica T; Proetto, Dante; Casiano, Delane; Franklin, Martin E

    2012-01-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a leading cause of disability worldwide, however for reasons that are poorly understood ethnic minority groups are not well represented in clinical research studies. Thus, although African Americans experience equivalent rates of OCD according to epidemiological surveys, the generalizability of findings from clinical trials remains unknown. Research designed to improve identification, assessment and treatment of OCD is an important public health priority. The purpose of this study is to report outreach methods used to recruit African American adults for participation in an OCD research study. A variety of methods were employed, including radio advertisements, public transportation advertising, community outreach, and online advertising. A total of 83 African American adult participants were recruited over a 9.5 month period at the University of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia, and given comprehensive psychiatric assessments. African Americans with OCD symptoms were reliably identified and assessed, for a total of 75 with lifetime OCD (4 past and 71 current diagnoses). There was variability in the success and cost effectiveness of study recruitment methods. Radio ads were the most expensive means of recruitment, newspaper ads accounted for the largest number of eligible participants, and no cost methods such as Craig's List and word of mouth were also effective. The authors conclude that, with focused efforts, there are many effective methods for recruiting African Americans with OCD. Guidelines for recruitment are discussed, with a focus on cultural considerations. PMID:21983626

  12. The nature of prospective memory deficit in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    PubMed

    Yang, Tian-Xiao; Peng, Zi-Wen; Wang, Ya; Geng, Fu-Lei; Miao, Guo-Dong; Shum, David H K; Cheung, Eric F C; Chan, Raymond C K

    2015-12-15

    We comprehensively examined prospective memory (PM) performance in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and explored the cognitive and psychopathological correlates of PM in this clinical population. Fifty-eight OCD patients and 58 healthy controls were assessed with computer-based PM tasks and related neurocognitive functions, and the participants also reported frequency of PM failures and compulsive behaviours in daily life. OCD patients had intact activity-based PM performance but had lower accuracy in time-based PM and longer reaction time to event-based PM cues compared to healthy controls. Among the neurocognitive functions, both the WCST (perseverative error) and the letter number span correlated with time-based PM. OCD patients reported similar number of PM failures in daily life as controls, which correlated with their intact event-based PM performance, suggesting a generally good insight into their PM functions. Neither clinician-assessed nor self-reported OCD symptoms correlated with PM performance. This study indicates that PM impairment tends to vary with the PM cue types in OCD patients. In addition, certain executive functions (i.e., mental shifting and updating) may contribute to time-based PM impairment in patients with OCD. PMID:26455759

  13. 'Impulsive compulsivity' in obsessive-compulsive disorder: a phenotypic marker of patients with poor clinical outcome.

    PubMed

    Kashyap, Himani; Fontenelle, Leonardo F; Miguel, Euripedes C; Ferrão, Ygor A; Torres, Albina R; Shavitt, Roseli G; Ferreira-Garcia, Rafael; do Rosário, Maria C; Yücel, Murat

    2012-09-01

    Although traditionally obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and impulse control disorders (ICD) have represented opposing ends of a continuum, recent research has demonstrated a frequent co-occurrence of impulsive and compulsive behaviours, which may contribute to a worse clinical picture of some psychiatric disorders. We hypothesize that individuals with 'impulsive' OCD as characterized by poor insight, low resistance, and reduced control towards their compulsions will have a deteriorative course, greater severity of hoarding and/or symmetry/ordering symptoms, and comorbid ICD and/or substance use disorders (SUD). The sample consisted of 869 individuals with a minimum score of 16 on the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS). Of these, 65 had poor insight, low resistance, and reduced control towards compulsions ('poor IRC') and 444 had preserved insight, greater resistance and better control over compulsions ('good IRC'). These two groups were compared on a number of clinical and demographic variables. Individuals with poor IRC were significantly more likely to have a deteriorative course (p < 0.001), longer duration of obsessions (p = 0.017), greater severity of symmetry/ordering (p < 0.001), contamination/cleaning (p < 0.001) and hoarding (p = 0.002) symptoms, and comorbid intermittent explosive disorder (p = 0.026), trichotillomania (p = 0.014) and compulsive buying (p = 0.040). Regression analysis revealed that duration of obsessions (p = 0.037) and hoarding severity (p = 0.005) were significant predictors of poor IRC. In the absence of specific measures for impulsivity in OCD, the study highlights the utility of simple measures such as insight, resistance and control over compulsions as a phenotypic marker of a subgroup of OCD with impulsive features demonstrating poor clinical outcome. PMID:22647523

  14. Developmental Aspects of Error and High-Conflict-Related Brain Activity in Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: A FMRI Study with a Flanker Task before and after CBT

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huyser, Chaim; Veltman, Dick J.; Wolters, Lidewij H.; de Haan, Else; Boer, Frits

    2011-01-01

    Background: Heightened error and conflict monitoring are considered central mechanisms in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and are associated with anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) function. Pediatric obsessive-compulsive patients provide an opportunity to investigate the development of this area and its associations with psychopathology.…

  15. Developmental Aspects of Error and High-Conflict-Related Brain Activity in Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: A FMRI Study with a Flanker Task before and after CBT

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huyser, Chaim; Veltman, Dick J.; Wolters, Lidewij H.; de Haan, Else; Boer, Frits

    2011-01-01

    Background: Heightened error and conflict monitoring are considered central mechanisms in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and are associated with anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) function. Pediatric obsessive-compulsive patients provide an opportunity to investigate the development of this area and its associations with psychopathology.

  16. Information Processing and Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: Comorbidity of Delusions, Overvalued Ideas, and Schizophrenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKay, Dean; McKiernan, Kevin

    2005-01-01

    Schizophrenia, in conjunction with obsessive-compulsive symptoms, presents significant barriers to treatment. This is true even if the obsessive-compulsive symptoms would ordinarily be considered straightforward for cognitive-behavioral treatment. These many limitations in treatment are considered here in light of the information processing…

  17. Information Processing and Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: Comorbidity of Delusions, Overvalued Ideas, and Schizophrenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKay, Dean; McKiernan, Kevin

    2005-01-01

    Schizophrenia, in conjunction with obsessive-compulsive symptoms, presents significant barriers to treatment. This is true even if the obsessive-compulsive symptoms would ordinarily be considered straightforward for cognitive-behavioral treatment. These many limitations in treatment are considered here in light of the information processing

  18. Quality of life in children and adolescents with obsessive-compulsive disorder: base rates, parent-child agreement, and clinical correlates.

    PubMed

    Lack, Caleb W; Storch, Eric A; Keeley, Mary L; Geffken, Gary R; Ricketts, Emily D; Murphy, Tanya K; Goodman, Wayne K

    2009-11-01

    The presence of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has been linked to decreased quality of life (QoL) among adults, yet little is known about the impact of OCD on QoL in pediatric patients. Sixty-two youth with OCD and their parent(s) were administered the Children's Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale following a clinical interview. Children completed the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory and parents completed the Pediatric Quality of Life Parent Proxy Inventory and Child Behavior Checklist. QoL scores for OCD patients were significantly lower than for healthy controls, but similar to QoL in a general psychiatric sample on the majority of domains. Parent-child agreement on QoL was moderate to strong across age groups. Results indicate that, in youth with OCD, QoL is reduced relative to healthy controls, related to OCD symptom severity per parent-report, and are strongly predicted by the presence of comorbid externalizing and internalizing symptoms. PMID:19255701

  19. Does Pregnenolone Enhance Exposure Therapy in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder? - A Pilot, Interim Report of a Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Double-Blind Study.

    PubMed

    Kellner, M; Nowack, S; Wortmann, V; Yassouridis, A; Wiedemann, K

    2016-03-01

    Exposure therapy is an effective cognitive-behavioral treatment for patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). However, a further amelioration of symptoms by additional drugs that enhance extinction learning is desirable. An interesting candidate is pregnenolone, which positively modulates NMDA and GABAA receptors in preclinical studies and influences amygdala and prefrontal activity in humans. We present pilot data showing high acceptance and good tolerability of pregnenolone given 2 h before exposure sessions in OCD patients. As per our interim analyses, exposure treatment resulted in significantly improved main outcome parameters, but no effects of pregnenolone vs. placebo pretreatment were detectable thus far. PMID:26797931

  20. The PANDAS subgroup of tic disorders and childhood-onset obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    PubMed

    Martino, Davide; Defazio, Giovanni; Giovannoni, Gavin

    2009-12-01

    Diagnosis and treatment of the PANDAS (pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infections) variant of Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS) and childhood-onset obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) are still controversial issues. Most cross-sectional studies confirm a significant association between GTS and the development of an immune response against group A beta-hemolytic streptococcus (GABHS). Moreover, longitudinal retrospective studies suggest that a recent exposure to GABHS might be a risk factor for the onset of tics and obsessive-compulsive symptoms. However, further evidence from longitudinal prospective research is needed to verify whether a temporal association between GABHS infections and symptom exacerbations is a useful and reliable criterion for the diagnosis of PANDAS. In addition, preliminary results suggest that the PANDAS spectrum might be enlarged to include attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Although a number of immunological biomarkers have been proposed as markers of the PANDAS variant, at present, none of these has been conclusively proved useful to diagnose and monitor disease course in children with a suspicion of PANDAS. Finally, despite their empirical use in community settings, we still lack conclusive, evidence-based data regarding the usefulness of antibiotic and immunomodulatory treatments in children with PANDAS. Given the relevance of this topic for general pediatric health, additional research efforts to solve all the pending issues and the hottest points of debate are warranted. PMID:19913659

  1. A case study in treating chronic comorbid obsessive-compulsive disorder and depression with behavioral activation and pharmacotherapy.

    PubMed

    Arco, Lucius

    2015-06-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is difficult to treat, and more so when comorbid with major depressive disorder (MDD). The aim of the present case study was to examine effects of behavioral activation (BA) and pharmacotherapy with an adult with chronic comorbid OCD and MDD. BA aimed at increasing approach behaviors in life activities and decreasing avoidant and inactive behaviors. After 21 months of treatment at a community mental health clinic, OCD and MDD symptoms, including compulsive checking behaviors, were no longer at clinical levels. Symptom alleviation and psychological health improved in line with increases in activities of living such as self-care, domestic, social, and studying, and decreases in medications from a regimen of mood stabilizers and anxiolytics to a sole antidepressant. The participant was satisfied with treatment procedures and outcome. The results add to growing evidence of effective BA treatments for comorbid disorders that include depression. PMID:25985047

  2. Cobalamin deficiency presenting as obsessive compulsive disorder: case report.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Vivek; Biswas, Devdutta

    2012-01-01

    Cobalamin deficiency commonly presents with a wide range of neuropsychiatric manifestations ranging from myelopathy, neuropathy, optic neuritis and dementia to mood disorders, chronic fatigue and psychosis even without classical hematological abnormalities like anemia and macrocytosis. However, obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) in relation to vitamin B12 deficiency has not been described so far. We report a case of middle-aged man presenting with OCD, low serum cobalamin and a positive family history of vitamin B12 deficiency who responded well to methylcobalamin replacement. PMID:22227032

  3. Predictors of Parental Accommodation in Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: Findings from the Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Treatment Study (POTS) Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flessner, Christopher A.; Freeman, Jennifer B.; Sapyta, Jeffrey; Garcia, Abbe; Franklin, Martin E.; March, John S.; Foa, Edna

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Few studies have examined predictors of parental accommodation (assessed with the Family Accommodation Scale-Parent Report) among families of children with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). No studies have examined this phenomenon using empirically derived subscales of the Family Accommodation Scale-Parent Report (i.e., Caregiver…

  4. Predictors of Parental Accommodation in Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: Findings from the Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Treatment Study (POTS) Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flessner, Christopher A.; Freeman, Jennifer B.; Sapyta, Jeffrey; Garcia, Abbe; Franklin, Martin E.; March, John S.; Foa, Edna

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Few studies have examined predictors of parental accommodation (assessed with the Family Accommodation Scale-Parent Report) among families of children with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). No studies have examined this phenomenon using empirically derived subscales of the Family Accommodation Scale-Parent Report (i.e., Caregiver

  5. A meta-analysis of family accommodation and OCD symptom severity.

    PubMed

    Wu, Monica S; McGuire, Joseph F; Martino, Charitie; Phares, Vicky; Selles, Robert R; Storch, Eric A

    2016-04-01

    Family accommodation in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is characterized by myriad behaviors, such as modifying family routines, facilitating avoidance, and engaging in compulsions to reduce obsessional distress. It has been linked to various deleterious outcomes including increased functional impairment and poorer treatment response for OCD. Although extant literature suggests a linear relationship between family accommodation and OCD symptom severity, the magnitude and statistical significance of this association has been inconsistent across studies, indicating that moderators may be influencing this relationship. The present study examined this relationship using meta-analytic techniques, and investigated sample-dependent (age, gender, comorbid anxiety/mood disorders) and methodological (administration method and number of items used in family accommodation measure, informant type, sample size, publication year) moderators. Forty-one studies were included in the present meta-analysis, and the overall effect size (ES) for the correlation between family accommodation and OCD symptom severity was moderate (r=.42). Moderator analyses revealed that the number of items on the family accommodation scale moderated the ES. No other sample-dependent or methodological characteristics emerged as moderators. In addition to being the first systematic examination of family accommodation moderators, these results highlight the moderate relationship between family accommodation and OCD severity that is influenced by measurement scales. Findings may be used to guide clinical care and inform future investigations by providing a more nuanced understanding of family accommodation in OCD. PMID:27019367

  6. Different patterns of local field potentials from limbic DBS targets in patients with major depressive and obsessive compulsive disorder

    PubMed Central

    Neumann, W-J; Huebl, J; Brücke, C; Gabriëls, L; Bajbouj, M; Merkl, A; Schneider, G-H; Nuttin, B; Brown, P; Kühn, AA

    2016-01-01

    The role of distinct limbic areas in emotion regulation has been largely inferred from neuroimaging studies. Recently, the opportunity for intracranial recordings from limbic areas has arisen in patients undergoing deep brain stimulation (DBS) for neuropsychiatric disorders including major depressive disorder (MDD) and obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). Here we test the hypothesis that distinct temporal patterns of local field potential (LFP) activity in the human limbic system reflect disease state and symptom severity in MDD and OCD patients. To this end, we recorded LFPs via implanted DBS electrodes from the bed nucleus of stria terminalis (BNST area) in 12 patients (5 OCD, 7 MDD) and from the subgenual cingulate cortex in 7 MDD patients (CG25 area). We found a distinct pattern of oscillatory activity with significantly higher α-power in MDD compared with OCD in the BNST area (broad α-band 8–14 Hz; P<0.01) and a similar level of α-activity in the CG25 area as in the BNST area in MDD patients. The mean α-power correlated with severity of depressive symptoms as assessed by the Beck depression inventory in MDD (n = 14, r = 0.55, P = 0.042) but not with severity of obsessive compulsive symptoms in OCD. Here we show larger α-band activity in MDD patients compared with OCD recorded from intracranial DBS targets. Our results suggest that α-activity in the limbic system may be a signature of symptom severity in MDD and may serve as a potential state biomarker for closed loop DBS in MDD. PMID:24514569

  7. Not just right experiences and obsessive-compulsive features: experimental and self-monitoring perspectives.

    PubMed

    Coles, Meredith E; Heimberg, Richard G; Frost, Randy O; Steketee, Gail

    2005-02-01

    Individuals with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) often report compulsions aimed at reducing feelings of something not being just right or sensations of incompleteness. Research using self-report questionnaires has demonstrated a link between not just right experiences (NJREs) and OCD symptoms (Behav. Res. Therapy 41 (2003) 681; Anxiety, 1 (1995) 208). Extending previous work, this paper presents experimental and self-monitoring data on NJREs in an undergraduate sample. NJREs produced distress and urges to change something, but feared consequences were rare. Stronger responses were found for naturally occurring self-monitored NJREs compared to NJREs elicited in the laboratory. Several significant relationships were found between features of NJREs and OC symptoms and constructs theoretically related to OCD (e.g., responsibility, incompleteness), but no significant relationships were found between features of NJREs and non-OCD-related constructs (worry, depressive symptoms, social anxiety). Further consideration of NJREs will be useful in improving our understanding of the phenomenology, neurobiological substrates, and treatment, of OCD. PMID:15629747

  8. Integrative Medicine Approach to Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder and Anxiety: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Couture, Danielle Chung; Chung, Myung Kyu; Shinnick, Phillip; Curzon, Jonathan; McClure, Mark J; LaRiccia, Patrick J

    2016-01-01

    Pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is prevalent in 1% to 2% of the population. Emerging studies have correlated non-celiac gluten sensitivity with psychiatric conditions such as schizophrenia, depression, mania, and anxiety. This case study is the first reported case of OCD associated with non-celiac gluten sensitivity. The objectives of this case report are to (1) identify gluten sensitivity as a possible contributing factor to OCD in some patients; and (2) point out the possible benefit of an integrative medicine approach to the management of OCD in a patient with suboptimal benefit from a standard treatment regime. A 7-year-old male treated at a multi-physician integrative medicine practice in the United States had marked reduction of OCD symptoms and anxiety along with marked improvement of social behavior and school work after treatment consisting of gluten avoidance and other integrative medicine modalities. The patient's rapid response without side effects behooves the medical research community to further investigate the association of non-celiac gluten sensitivity and pediatric OCD. PMID:26937323

  9. Heredity in comorbid bipolar disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder patients

    PubMed Central

    AMERIO, Andrea; TONNA, Matteo; ODONE, Anna; STUBBS, Brendon; GHAEMI, S. Nassir

    2015-01-01

    Summary Partly due to the overlap of symptom groupings in DSM, psychiatric comorbidity is extremely common. One of the most common and difficult to manage comorbid conditions is the co-occurrence of bipolar disorder (BD) and obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). However, the key nosological question about this condition – whether they are two distinct disorders or a subtype of one of the disorders – remains unresolved. In order to help address this unanswered question, we updated our recent systematic review, searching the electronic databases MEDLINE, Embase, and PsycINFO to specifically investigate the heredity in BD-OCD patients. We identified a total of 8 relevant papers, the majority of which found that, compared to non-BD-OCD patients, BD-OCD patients were more likely to have a family history for mood disorders and less likely to have a family history for OCD. These results support the view that the majority of cases of comorbid BD-OCD are, in fact, BD cases. If confirmed in larger, more focused studies, this conclusion would have important nosological and clinical implications. PMID:26977128

  10. A Randomized Clinical Trial of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy versus Progressive Relaxation Training for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Twohig, Michael P.; Hayes, Steven C.; Plumb, Jennifer C.; Pruitt, Larry D.; Collins, Angela B.; Hazlett-Stevens, Holly; Woidneck, Michelle R.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Effective treatments for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) exist, but additional treatment options are needed. The effectiveness of 8 sessions of acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) for adult OCD was compared with progressive relaxation training (PRT). Method: Seventy-nine adults (61% female) diagnosed with OCD (mean age = 37…

  11. The Genetics of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder and Tourette Syndrome: An Epidemiological and Pathway-Based Approach for Gene Discovery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grados, Marco A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To provide a contemporary perspective on genetic discovery methods applied to obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and Tourette syndrome (TS). Method: A review of research trends in genetics research in OCD and TS is conducted, with emphasis on novel approaches. Results: Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) are now in progress in OCD

  12. A Randomized Clinical Trial of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy versus Progressive Relaxation Training for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Twohig, Michael P.; Hayes, Steven C.; Plumb, Jennifer C.; Pruitt, Larry D.; Collins, Angela B.; Hazlett-Stevens, Holly; Woidneck, Michelle R.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Effective treatments for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) exist, but additional treatment options are needed. The effectiveness of 8 sessions of acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) for adult OCD was compared with progressive relaxation training (PRT). Method: Seventy-nine adults (61% female) diagnosed with OCD (mean age = 37

  13. Psychotherapy and medication management strategies for obsessive-compulsive disorder

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Kelda H; McDougle, Christopher J

    2011-01-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a chronic anxiety disorder. While medication and psychotherapy advances have been very helpful to patients, many patients do not respond adequately to initial trials of serotonergic medication or cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and require multiple treatment trials or combination therapies. Comorbidity may also influence treatment response. The role of streptococcal infections in pediatric OCD has become an area of intense scrutiny and controversy. In this article, current treatment methods for OCD will be reviewed, with special attention to strategies for treating OCD in children and in patients with comorbid tic disorders. Alternative psychotherapy strategies for patients who are highly anxious about starting CBT, such as cognitive therapy or augmentation with D-cycloserine, will be reviewed. Newer issues regarding use of antibiotics, neuroleptics, and glutamate modulators in OCD treatment will also be explored. PMID:21931490

  14. High-dose glycine treatment of refractory obsessive-compulsive disorder and body dysmorphic disorder in a 5-year period.

    PubMed

    Cleveland, W Louis; DeLaPaz, Robert L; Fawwaz, Rashid A; Challop, Roger S

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes an individual who was diagnosed with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) at age 17 when education was discontinued. By age 19, he was housebound without social contacts except for parents. Adequate trials of three selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, two with atypical neuroleptics, were ineffective. Major exacerbations following ear infections involving Group A beta-hemolytic streptococcus at ages 19 and 20 led to intravenous immune globulin therapy, which was also ineffective. At age 22, another severe exacerbation followed antibiotic treatment for H. pylori. This led to a hypothesis that postulates deficient signal transduction by the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR). Treatment with glycine, an NMDAR coagonist, over 5 years led to robust reduction of OCD/BDD signs and symptoms except for partial relapses during treatment cessation. Education and social life were resumed and evidence suggests improved cognition. Our findings motivate further study of glycine treatment of OCD and BDD. PMID:20182547

  15. High-Dose Glycine Treatment of Refractory Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder and Body Dysmorphic Disorder in a 5-Year Period

    PubMed Central

    Cleveland, W. Louis; DeLaPaz, Robert L.; Fawwaz, Rashid A.; Challop, Roger S.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes an individual who was diagnosed with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) at age 17 when education was discontinued. By age 19, he was housebound without social contacts except for parents. Adequate trials of three selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, two with atypical neuroleptics, were ineffective. Major exacerbations following ear infections involving Group A ?-hemolytic streptococcus at ages 19 and 20 led to intravenous immune globulin therapy, which was also ineffective. At age 22, another severe exacerbation followed antibiotic treatment for H. pylori. This led to a hypothesis that postulates deficient signal transduction by the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR). Treatment with glycine, an NMDAR coagonist, over 5 years led to robust reduction of OCD/BDD signs and symptoms except for partial relapses during treatment cessation. Education and social life were resumed and evidence suggests improved cognition. Our findings motivate further study of glycine treatment of OCD and BDD. PMID:20182547

  16. [Mindfulness based cognitive therapy (MBCT) in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder--an adaptation of the original program].

    PubMed

    Külz, Anne Katrin; Rose, Nina

    2014-01-01

    Mindfulness-based cognitive Therapy (MBCT) has shown to be effective in the relapse prevention and treatment of several psychiatric disorders. However, MBCT has not yet been applied in OCD (Obsessive-compulsive Disorder). This article proposes an adaptation of the eight-session group program for patients with residual symptoms after cognitive behavioural treatment (CBT) with exposure. It has proven feasible and was considered helpful by patients within the framework of a pilot study 1. Apart from an overview of the modified manual, OCD-specific elements are presented in detail and illustrated on the base of work sheets. The manual indicates that MBCT could be a useful supplement to CBT and is well applicable to the therapeutic needs of patients with OCD. PMID:23959536

  17. Effects of gender and executive function on visuospatial working memory in adult obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    PubMed

    Martoni, Riccardo Maria; Salgari, Giulia; Galimberti, Elisa; Cavallini, Maria Cristina; O'Neill, Joseph

    2015-12-01

    Visuospatial working memory (VSWM) is the ability of the brain to transiently store and manipulate visual information. VSWM deficiencies have been reported in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), but not consistently, perhaps due to variability in task design and clinical patient factors. To explore this variability, this study assessed effects of the design factors task difficulty and executive organizational strategy and of the clinical factors gender, OCD symptom dimension, and duration of illness on VSWM in OCD. The CANTAB spatial working memory, spatial recognition memory, delayed matching to sample, and stop signal tasks were administered to 42 adult OCD patients and 42 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Aims were to detect a possible VSWM deficit in the OCD sample, to evaluate influences of the above task and patient factors, to determine the specificity of the deficit to the visuospatial subdomain, and to examine effects of sustained attention as potential neurocognitive confound. We confirmed previous findings of a VSWM deficit in OCD that was more severe for greater memory load (task difficulty) and that was affected by task strategy (executive function). We failed to demonstrate significant deficits in neighboring or confounding neurocognitive subdomains (visual object recognition or visual object short-term memory, sustained attention). Notably, the VSWM deficit was only significant for female patients, adding to evidence for sexual dimorphism in OCD. Again as in prior work, more severe OCD symptoms in the symmetry dimension (but no other dimension) significantly negatively impacted VSWM. Duration of illness had no significant effect on VSWM. VSWM deficits in OCD appear more severe with higher task load and may be mediated through poor task strategy. Such deficits may present mainly in female patients and in (male and female) patients with symmetry symptoms. PMID:25972085

  18. Adjunctive Low-frequency Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation over the Right Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex in Patients with Treatment-resistant Obsessive-compulsive Disorder: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Ho-Jun; Jung, Young-Eun; Lim, Hyun Kook; Um, Yoo-Hyun; Lee, Chang Uk; Chae, Jeong-Ho

    2016-01-01

    Objective The present study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of low frequency (LF) repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) over the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) for the treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Methods Twenty-seven patients with treatment resistant OCD were randomly assigned to 3 week either active (n=14) or sham (n=13) rTMS. The active rTMS parameters consisted of 1 Hz, 20-minute trains (1,200 pulses/day) at 100% of the resting motor threshold (MT). OCD symptoms, mood, and anxiety were assessed at baseline and every week throughout the treatment period. Results A repeated-measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to evaluate changes on the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (YBOCS). Our results revealed a significant reduction in YBOCS scores in the active group compared with the sham group after 3 weeks. Similarly, a repeated-measures ANOVA revealed significant effect of time and time×group interaction on scores on the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and the Clinical Global Impression-Severity scale. There were no reports of any serious adverse effects following the active and sham rTMS treatments. Conclusion LF rTMS over the right DLPFC appeared to be superior to sham rTMS for relieving OCD symptoms and depression in patients with treatment-resistant OCD. Further trials with larger sample sizes should be conducted to confirm the present findings. PMID:27121426

  19. Why Do Eating Disorders and Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Co-Occur?

    PubMed Central

    Pollack, Lauren O.; Forbush, Kelsie T.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to use an alternative, dimensionally based approach to understanding the reasons for comorbidity between eating disorders and obsessive compulsive disorder. Participants from a representative community sample (N=407; 47% female) completed self-report measures of eating pathology, obsessive-compulsive symptoms, perfectionism, and neuroticism. Hierarchical multiple regression indicated that neuroticism and perfectionism completely mediated associations between most obsessive-compulsive and eating disorder symptoms. However, body dissatisfaction shared unique associations with checking, cleaning, and obsessive rituals that could not be explained by these personality traits. Results suggest that shared personality traits play a key role in the comorbidity between eating disorders characterized by binge eating and dietary restraint and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Future studies are needed to examine whether similar underlying neurocognitive processes that give rise to compulsive checking, cleaning, and obsessive rituals may also contribute to the development and maintenance of body checking in individuals diagnosed with eating disorders. PMID:23557823

  20. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy vs Risperidone for Augmenting Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Simpson, Helen Blair; Foa, Edna B.; Liebowitz, Michael R.; Huppert, Jonathan D.; Cahill, Shawn; Maher, Michael J.; McLean, Carmen P.; Bender, James; Marcus, Sue M.; Williams, Monnica T.; Weaver, Jamie; Vermes, Donna; Van Meter, Page E.; Rodriguez, Carolyn I.; Powers, Mark; Pinto, Anthony; Imms, Patricia; Hahn, Chang-Gyu; Campeas, Raphael

    2014-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is one of the world’s most disabling illnesses according to the World Health Organization. Serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SRIs) are the only medications approved by the Food and Drug Administration to treat OCD, but few patients achieve minimal symptoms from an SRI alone. In such cases, practice guidelines recommend adding antipsychotics or cognitive-behavioral therapy consisting of exposure and ritual prevention (EX/RP). OBJECTIVE To compare the effects of these 2 SRI augmentation strategies vs pill placebo for the first time, to our knowledge, in adults with OCD. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS A randomized clinical trial (conducted January 2007–August 2012) at 2 academic outpatient research clinics that specialize in OCD and anxiety disorders. Patients (aged 18–70 years) were eligible if they had OCD of at least moderate severity despite a therapeutic SRI dose for at least 12 weeks prior to entry. Of 163 who were eligible, 100 were randomized (risperidone, n = 40; EX/RP, n = 40; and placebo, n = 20), and 86 completed the trial. INTERVENTIONS While continuing their SRI at the same dose, patients were randomized to the addition of 8 weeks of risperidone (up to 4 mg/d), EX/RP (17 sessions delivered twice weekly), or pill placebo. Independent assessments were conducted every 4 weeks. MAIN OUTCOME AND MEASURE The Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS) to measure OCD severity. RESULTS Patients randomized to EX/RP had significantly greater reduction in week 8 Y-BOCS scores based on mixed-effects models (vs risperidone: mean [SE], −9.72 [1.38]; P<.001 vs placebo: mean [SE], −10.10 [1.68]; P < .001). Patients receiving risperidone did not significantly differ from those receiving placebo (mean [SE], −0.38 [1.72]; P=.83). More patients receiving EX/RP responded (Y-BOCS score decrease ≥25%: 80% for EX/RP, 23% for risperidone, and 15% for placebo; P < .001). More patients receiving EX/RP achieved minimal symptoms (Y-BOCS score ≤12: 43% for EX/RP, 13% for risperidone, and 5% for placebo; P = .001). Adding EX/RP was also superior to risperidone and placebo in improving insight, functioning, and quality of life. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Adding EX/RP to SRIs was superior to both risperidone and pill placebo. Patients with OCD receiving SRIs who continue to have clinically significant symptoms should be offered EX/RP before antipsychotics given its superior efficacy and less negative adverse effect profile. TRIAL REGISTRATION clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00389493. PMID:24026523

  1. Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy in obsessive-compulsive disorder – A qualitative study on patients’ experiences

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) with exposure and response prevention (ERP) is the first-line treatment for patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). However, not all of them achieve remission on a longterm basis. Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) represents a new 8-week group therapy program whose effectiveness has been demonstrated in various mental disorders, but has not yet been applied to patients with OCD. The present pilot study aimed to qualitatively assess the subjective experiences of patients with OCD who participated in MBCT. Method Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 12 patients suffering from OCD directly after 8 sessions of a weekly MBCT group program. Data were analyzed using a qualitative content analysis. Results Participants valued the treatment as helpful in dealing with their OCD and OCD-related problems. Two thirds of the patients reported a decline in OCD symptoms. Benefits included an increased ability to let unpleasant emotions surface and to live more consciously in the present. However, participants also discussed several problems. Conclusion The data provide preliminary evidence that patients with OCD find aspects of the current MBCT protocol acceptable and beneficial. The authors suggest to further explore MBCT as a complementary treatment strategy for OCD. PMID:23114260

  2. Obsessive Compulsive Disorder with Intellectual Disability: A Diagnostic and Therapeutic Challenge

    PubMed Central

    Gautam, Priyanka

    2015-01-01

    Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) are known to occur in patients with intellectual disability and at rates least proportional to the general population but often the developmental disabilities and lack of communication in these patients make it difficult to diagnose and assess the disorder and hence go undetected and untreated. Once diagnosed, treating OCD is another challenge faced by therapist in patients with intellectual disabilities. We report a case of intellectual disability with OCD highlighting the diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. PMID:26500990

  3. [Obsessive-compulsive disorder in children induced by streptococcal infection].

    PubMed

    Kochman, F; Hantouche, E G; Karila, L; Bayart, D; Bailly, D

    2001-11-24

    FROM OBSESSIVE-COMPULSIVE DISORDER TO PANDAS: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) represents a potentially severe and handicapping disorder that affects several hundreds of thousands of children in France. OCD has, for many years, been considered as a neurosis resulting from mental conflicts. It is currently seen as a neurobiological disorder, the etiological substratum of which is more organic than mental. Recently a sub-type of OCD was isolated in children following infection by Group A b-hemolytic streptococci. This sub-type has been described as Paediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorder Associated with Streptococcal Infections (PANDAS). A NEW PHYSIOPATHOLOGICAL APPROACH: The putative dysimmune relationship between bacterial infection and neurotic disorder has led to the development of an original etiopathogenic model that may lead to new therapeutic strategies. The clinical case report of an adolescent presenting with trichotillomania associated with recurrent pharyngitis is a good illustration of this. PUBLISHED DATA: Data published in medical literature over the last 10 years indicates a 10% prevalence in the young suffering from OCD, i.e. 0.1 to 0.3% of the young population. PMID:11769071

  4. Scurvy induced by obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Amanda A O; Minicucci, Marcos Ferreira; Gaiolla, Rafael D; Okoshi, Marina P; Duarte, Daniella R; Matsubara, Luiz S; Inoue, Roberto M T; Azevedo, Paula S; Polegato, Bertha F; Zornoff, Leonardo A M; Paiva, Sergio A R

    2009-01-01

    Historically, scurvy has been associated with sailors of great navigational epochs. This disease has been known since ancient Egypt, but nowadays it is almost forgotten. Although its prevalence has decreased over the centuries, scurvy is still present in developed countries. A 61-year-old man was referred to hospital with a 30-day history of anorexia, fatigue, gingival bleeding and ecchymosis of the arms and legs. On physical examination he presented gingival hypertrophic lesions, signs of chronic periodontitis and petechial rash, and several bruises on his arms and legs. A food frequency questionnaire revealed a long history of poor diet, with no vegetables or fruit. The patient had ingested only chocolate milk and cookies for the last 10 years due to fear of pesticides being present in foods of vegetable origin. A diagnosis of scurvy induced by obsessive-compulsive disorder was suspected, and after vitamin C supplementation there was a marked improvement of symptoms. PMID:21686798

  5. A comparative study of early maladaptive schemas in obsessive-compulsive disorder and panic disorder.

    PubMed

    Kwak, Kyung-Hwa; Lee, Seung Jae

    2015-12-30

    Schema theory and therapy may be an additional therapeutic approach to identify and treat chronic psychological problems, namely early maladaptive schemas (EMSs), in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and panic disorder (PAD). In the current study, we investigated the characteristics in EMSs between patients with OCD and PAD. Fifty-one patients with OCD, 46 patients with PAD, and 70 normal controls participated in this study. EMSs and depressive symptoms were measured using the Young Schema Questionnaire and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), respectively. Analysis of covariance was conducted with age, sex, BDI score, and education level as covariates to assess group differences. Direct comparisons among the three groups revealed that the defectiveness/shame and social isolation/alienation schemas were prominently activated in patients with OCD, whereas the vulnerability to harm or illness and self-sacrifice were activated in patients with PAD. In subgroup analysis, these differences were observed between subgroups with lower BDI scores, but not between the patient subgroups with higher BDI scores. However, the differences between the patient groups in the defectiveness/shame and vulnerability to harm or illness schemas almost reached significance. Patients with OCD and PAD differed in particular EMS characteristics, which could have potential therapeutic implications. PMID:26599390

  6. Agomelatine augmentation in obsessive compulsive disorder: a preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Tzavellas, E; Karaiskos, D; Ilias, I; Liappas, I; Paparrigopoulos, T

    2014-01-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is often the anxiety disorder that affects approximately 2% of the population. This disorder is associated with significant morbidity and dysfunction, and is included in the World Health Organization list of the ten most disabling medical illnesses. The therapeutic response of patients with OCD is relatively poor compared with that of other mental disorders. Pharmacological interventions for OCD have focused on modulating primarily serotonin function and secondarily dopamine neurotransmission. Augmentation treatment has been the subject of several studies in treatment-resistant obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). We hypothesized that medications with a dual action on the melatoninergic and serotoninergic systems may be of use in treatment-resistant OCD. In this open label study we investigated the efficacy and safety of agomelatine augmentation in treatment-resistant OCD. Twelve patients, aged 18-50, fulfilling OCD criteria, having failed to respond to adequate treatment with a Serotonine Reuptake Inhibitor for at least 16 weeks, were assigned to receive agomelatine augmentation. Subjects were assessed with the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS), and were screened for treatment-emergent side effects at baseline and week 16 of treatment. We excluded patients with comorbid psychopathology, serious medical comorbidity, current or past history of substance abuse and severe personality disorders as well as patients receiving psychotherapy in addition to psychopharmacological treatment. Agomelatine augmentation lead to net improvement in Y-BOCS and its obsession and compulsion subscales after 16 weeks of treatment (all p<0.005). Agomelatine augmentation was well-tolerated and none of the patients dropped-out. Treatment-related adverse events were recorded as follows: (n, %): nausea: 1 (8.3%), headache 4 (33.3%), dizziness: 3 (25%) and somnolence: 2 (16.7%). The present case series study has several limitations due to its open-label design and the absence of a placebo or active control group. The small number of patients further limits the impact of our findings. The present case series study showed that a 16 week add-on treatment with agomelatine, achieved on average a 25% improvement in Y-BOCS in refractory to treatment OCD patients; side effects were mild, and none of the patients dropped out throughout the 16-week study period. Agomelatine could be efficacious and well tolerated as an augmenting agent in refractory to treatment OCD. The unique pharmacological profile of agomelatine and its dual action on serotoninergic and melatoninergic receptors may be of interest in this difficult-to-treat illness. Further controlled studies are warranted to explore the efficacy of agomelatine, as well as the potential role of circadian rhythm modulation both in the pathophysiology and treatment of OCD. PMID:25367661

  7. Cigarette smoking in patients with obsessive compulsive disorder: a report from the International College of Obsessive Compulsive Spectrum Disorders (ICOCS).

    PubMed

    Dell'Osso, Bernardo; Nicolini, Humberto; Lanzagorta, Nuria; Benatti, Beatrice; Spagnolin, Gregorio; Palazzo, M Carlotta; Marazziti, Donatella; Hollander, Eric; Fineberg, Naomi; Stein, Dan J; Pallanti, Stefano; Van Ameringen, Michael; Lochner, Christine; Hranov, Georgi; Karamustafalioglu, Oguz; Hranov, Luchezar; Zohar, Joseph; Denys, Damiaan; Altamura, A Carlo; Menchon, Jose M

    2015-10-01

    Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) showed a lower prevalence of cigarette smoking compared to other psychiatric disorders in previous and recent reports. We assessed the prevalence and clinical correlates of the phenomenon in an international sample of 504 OCD patients recruited through the International College of Obsessive Compulsive Spectrum Disorders (ICOCS) network. Cigarette smoking showed a cross-sectional prevalence of 24.4% in the sample, with significant differences across countries. Females were more represented among smoking patients (16% vs 7%; p<.001). Patients with comorbid Tourette's syndrome (p<.05) and tic disorder (p<.05) were also more represented among smoking subjects. Former smokers reported a higher number of suicide attempts (p<.05). We found a lower cross-sectional prevalence of smoking among OCD patients compared to findings from previous studies in patients with other psychiatric disorders but higher compared to previous and more recent OCD studies. Geographic differences were found and smoking was more common in females and comorbid Tourette's syndrome/tic disorder. PMID:26349811

  8. Cognitive Control of a Simple Mental Image in Patients with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kocak, Orhan Murat; Ozpolat, Aysegul Yilmaz; Atbasoglu, Cem; Cicek, Metehan

    2011-01-01

    The nature of obsessions has led researchers to try to determine if the main problem in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is impaired inhibitory control. Previous studies report that the effort to suppress is one of the factors that increase the frequency of obsessive thoughts. Based on these results and those of the present study that suggest…

  9. A Naturalistic Study of Referred Children and Adolescents with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masi, Gabriele; Millepiedi, Stefania; Mucci, Maria; Bertini, Nicoletta; Milantoni, Luca; Arcangeli, Francesca

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To report on clinical features, comorbidity, and response to pharmacotherapy in children and adolescents with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) naturalistically followed and treated with serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SRIs). Method: A consecutive series of 94 patients (65 males, 29 females, age 13.6 [+ or -] 2.8 years), referred in

  10. Family Factors Predict Treatment Outcome for Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peris, Tara S.; Sugar, Catherine A.; Bergman, R. Lindsey; Chang, Susanna; Langley, Audra; Piacentini, John

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine family conflict, parental blame, and poor family cohesion as predictors of treatment outcome for youths receiving family-focused cognitive behavioral therapy (FCBT) for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Method: We analyzed data from a sample of youths who were randomized to FCBT (n = 49; 59% male; M age = 12.43 years) as…

  11. Repetitive Behaviors in Autism and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: New Perspectives from a Network Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruzzano, Laura; Borsboom, Denny; Geurts, Hilde M.

    2015-01-01

    The association between autism and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) seems largely dependent upon observed similarities in the repetitive behaviors that manifest in both disorders. The aim of this study was to use a network approach to explore the interactions between these behaviors. We constructed a network based on clinician's…

  12. Treatment of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder in Young Children: An Intervention Model and Case Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ginsburg, Golda S.; Burstein, Marcy; Becker, Kimberly D.; Drake, Kelly L.

    2011-01-01

    This article presents an intervention model for young children with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The intervention, designed to reduce compulsive behavior and improve parenting practices, was tested using a multiple baseline design with 7 children (M = 6 years old; 57% female) in which participants were randomly assigned to 1, 2, or 3 weeks

  13. Treatment of Refractory Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: The St. Louis Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanDyke, Melanie M.; Pollard, C. Alec

    2005-01-01

    In this article, we describe a cognitive behavioral treatment approach to cases of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) that have not responded to standard outpatient evidence-based treatment. The approach begins with an assessment of the reasons why patients have not responded to treatment, which can be grouped into two categories: (a)…

  14. The Effectiveness of Treatment for Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abramowitz, Jonathan S.; Whiteside, Sephen P.; Deacon, Brett J.

    2005-01-01

    The last decade has seen a noticeable increase in the number of treatment outcome studies for pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The present article describes a meta-analysis of this literature with the aim of quantifying treatment effects and examining the extent to which various patient or treatment variables are related to outcome.…

  15. A Naturalistic Study of Referred Children and Adolescents with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masi, Gabriele; Millepiedi, Stefania; Mucci, Maria; Bertini, Nicoletta; Milantoni, Luca; Arcangeli, Francesca

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To report on clinical features, comorbidity, and response to pharmacotherapy in children and adolescents with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) naturalistically followed and treated with serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SRIs). Method: A consecutive series of 94 patients (65 males, 29 females, age 13.6 [+ or -] 2.8 years), referred in…

  16. Decreased Family Accommodation Associated with Improved Therapy Outcome in Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merlo, Lisa J.; Lehmkuhl, Heather D.; Geffken, Gary R.; Storch, Eric A.

    2009-01-01

    Pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a chronic, disabling condition that affects both patients and their families. Despite the identification of efficacious treatments (e.g., cognitive-behavioral therapy and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor medications), not all patients respond fully. The purpose of the present study was to…

  17. School Psychologists' Views and Management of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder in Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallant, Jason; Storch, Eric A.; Valderhaug, Robert; Geffken, Gary R.

    2007-01-01

    Over the past decade, an increasing body of research has been conducted on evidence-based psychological and psychiatric treatment for pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Despite this improved understanding, however, these treatments are not being performed. This study descriptively examined the practices and views of school…

  18. Recent Developments in the Assessment and Treatment of Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berman, Noah C.; Abramowitz, Jonathan S.

    2010-01-01

    Although tremendous strides have recently been made in the development of assessment and treatment methods for pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), more accurate methods for diagnosis, more effective treatments, and more refined instruments for monitoring progress during therapy are still needed. The present commentary highlights the…

  19. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy as a Treatment for Scrupulosity in Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dehlin, John P.; Morrison, Kate L.; Twohig, Michael P.

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) for scrupulosity-based obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). Five adults were treated with eight sessions of ACT, without in-session exposure, in a multiple baseline across participants design. Daily monitoring of compulsions and avoided valued activities were tracked throughout the…

  20. The Application of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy to Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Twohig, Michael P.

    2009-01-01

    This paper is part of a case series illustrating the application of different therapies to a case of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). It describes the hypothetical application of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT). This paper covers the philosophy and basic research on language and cognition that inform ACT. It also provides an ACT-based…

  1. Treatment of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder in Young Children: An Intervention Model and Case Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ginsburg, Golda S.; Burstein, Marcy; Becker, Kimberly D.; Drake, Kelly L.

    2011-01-01

    This article presents an intervention model for young children with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The intervention, designed to reduce compulsive behavior and improve parenting practices, was tested using a multiple baseline design with 7 children (M = 6 years old; 57% female) in which participants were randomly assigned to 1, 2, or 3 weeks…

  2. D-Cycloserine for Treatment Nonresponders with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: A Case Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norberg, Melissa M.; Gilliam, Christina M.; Villavicencio, Anna; Pearlson, Godfrey D.; Tolin, David F.

    2012-01-01

    Despite being the most effective treatment available, as many as one third of patients who receive exposure and response prevention (ERP) for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) do not initially respond to treatment. Recent research suggests that the n-methyl d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor partial agonist D-Cycloserine (DCS) may speed up the course

  3. Recent Developments in the Assessment and Treatment of Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berman, Noah C.; Abramowitz, Jonathan S.

    2010-01-01

    Although tremendous strides have recently been made in the development of assessment and treatment methods for pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), more accurate methods for diagnosis, more effective treatments, and more refined instruments for monitoring progress during therapy are still needed. The present commentary highlights the

  4. School Psychologists' Views and Management of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder in Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallant, Jason; Storch, Eric A.; Valderhaug, Robert; Geffken, Gary R.

    2007-01-01

    Over the past decade, an increasing body of research has been conducted on evidence-based psychological and psychiatric treatment for pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Despite this improved understanding, however, these treatments are not being performed. This study descriptively examined the practices and views of school

  5. Family Factors Predict Treatment Outcome for Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peris, Tara S.; Sugar, Catherine A.; Bergman, R. Lindsey; Chang, Susanna; Langley, Audra; Piacentini, John

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine family conflict, parental blame, and poor family cohesion as predictors of treatment outcome for youths receiving family-focused cognitive behavioral therapy (FCBT) for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Method: We analyzed data from a sample of youths who were randomized to FCBT (n = 49; 59% male; M age = 12.43 years) as

  6. Decreased Family Accommodation Associated with Improved Therapy Outcome in Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merlo, Lisa J.; Lehmkuhl, Heather D.; Geffken, Gary R.; Storch, Eric A.

    2009-01-01

    Pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a chronic, disabling condition that affects both patients and their families. Despite the identification of efficacious treatments (e.g., cognitive-behavioral therapy and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor medications), not all patients respond fully. The purpose of the present study was to

  7. Cognitive Control of a Simple Mental Image in Patients with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kocak, Orhan Murat; Ozpolat, Aysegul Yilmaz; Atbasoglu, Cem; Cicek, Metehan

    2011-01-01

    The nature of obsessions has led researchers to try to determine if the main problem in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is impaired inhibitory control. Previous studies report that the effort to suppress is one of the factors that increase the frequency of obsessive thoughts. Based on these results and those of the present study that suggest

  8. The Application of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy to Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Twohig, Michael P.

    2009-01-01

    This paper is part of a case series illustrating the application of different therapies to a case of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). It describes the hypothetical application of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT). This paper covers the philosophy and basic research on language and cognition that inform ACT. It also provides an ACT-based

  9. Repetitive Behaviors in Autism and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: New Perspectives from a Network Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruzzano, Laura; Borsboom, Denny; Geurts, Hilde M.

    2015-01-01

    The association between autism and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) seems largely dependent upon observed similarities in the repetitive behaviors that manifest in both disorders. The aim of this study was to use a network approach to explore the interactions between these behaviors. We constructed a network based on clinician's

  10. D-Cycloserine for Treatment Nonresponders with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: A Case Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norberg, Melissa M.; Gilliam, Christina M.; Villavicencio, Anna; Pearlson, Godfrey D.; Tolin, David F.

    2012-01-01

    Despite being the most effective treatment available, as many as one third of patients who receive exposure and response prevention (ERP) for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) do not initially respond to treatment. Recent research suggests that the n-methyl d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor partial agonist D-Cycloserine (DCS) may speed up the course…

  11. Is Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder a Disturbance of Security Motivation? Comment on Szechtman and Woody (2004)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Steven; McKay, Dean; Abramowitz, Jonathan S.

    2005-01-01

    H. Szechtman and E. Woody proposed that obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is caused by a malfunctioning brain security motivation system. In the current article, the authors' review of the model suggests that it is limited in the following ways: (a) It is built on a selective review of the empirical literature, (b) it offers no explanation for…

  12. Current Educational Practices in Classifying and Serving Students with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Gail B.; Smith, Thomas J.; Bolt, Sara E.; Nolten, Patrick

    2007-01-01

    Current educational practices for classifying and serving students with mental health disorders such as obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) have been associated with specific problems. These include the stigma of labeling, misalignment of school-based categories (e.g., E/BD, OHI) with clinical diagnoses, and concerns regarding the provision of…

  13. An Inference-Based Approach to Treating Obsessive-Compulsive Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, Kieron; Koszegi, Natalia; Aardema, Frederick; van Niekerk, Jan; Taillon, Annie

    2009-01-01

    This article outlines the conceptual and empirical basis for an inference-based approach (IBA) to treating obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The IBA considers that in most cases the obsessional process begins with an initial doubt (e.g., "Maybe my hands are not clean"; "Perhaps the door was not locked"; "There's a chance I made an error"; "I

  14. Abnormal small-world architecture of topdown control networks in obsessivecompulsive disorder

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Tijiang; Wang, Jinhui; Yang, Yanchun; Wu, Qizhu; Li, Bin; Chen, Long; Yue, Qiang; Tang, Hehan; Yan, Chaogan; Lui, Su; Huang, Xiaoqi; Chan, Raymond C.K.; Zang, Yufeng; He, Yong; Gong, Qiyong

    2011-01-01

    Background Obsessivecompulsive disorder (OCD) is a common neuropsychiatric disorder that is characterized by recurrent intrusive thoughts, ideas or images and repetitive ritualistic behaviours. Although focal structural and functional abnormalities in specific brain regions have been widely studied in populations with OCD, changes in the functional relations among them remain poorly understood. This study examined OCDrelated alterations in functional connectivity patterns in the brains topdown control network. Methods We applied resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate the correlation patterns of intrinsic or spontaneous blood oxygen leveldependent signal fluctuations in 18 patients with OCD and 16 healthy controls. The brain control networks were first constructed by thresholding temporal correlation matrices of 39 brain regions associated with topdown control and then analyzed using graph theory-based approaches. Results Compared with healthy controls, the patients with OCD showed decreased functional connectivity in the posterior temporal regions and increased connectivity in various control regions such as the cingulate, precuneus, thalamus and cerebellum. Furthermore, the brains control networks in the healthy controls showed small-world architecture (high clustering coefficients and short path lengths), suggesting an optimal balance between modularized and distributed information processing. In contrast, the patients with OCD showed significantly higher local clustering, implying abnormal functional organization in the control network. Further analysis revealed that the changes in network properties occurred in regions of increased functional connectivity strength in patients with OCD. Limitations The patient group in the present study was heterogeneous in terms of symptom clusters, and most of the patients with OCD were medicated. Conclusion Our preliminary results suggest that the organizational patterns of intrinsic brain activity in the control networks are altered in patients with OCD and thus provide empirical evidence for aberrant functional connectivity in the large-scale brain systems in people with this disorder. PMID:20964957

  15. Pattern and determinants of burden in Chinese families of adults with obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    PubMed

    Siu, Bonnie W M; Lam, Chi-leung; Chan, Wai-chi

    2012-01-01

    The burden on caregivers of patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is an important yet under-researched area in the Chinese population. This study aimed to assess the pattern and determinants of burden reported by caregivers of adults with OCD in Hong Kong. Seventy-seven OCD patient-caregiver dyads were recruited from a psychiatric out-patient clinic. Adults were assessed with the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS) and the Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) scale. Caregivers were interviewed with the Chinese version of the Family Burden Interview Schedule. Ninety-nine percent of the caregivers experienced objective burden. Mothers of patients with OCD experienced the greatest caregiver subjective burden. Multivariate analysis showed that GAF explained 41.5% and 49.8% of the variance of objective and subjective burden respectively. The functional level of OCD adults was an important determinant of both the objective and subjective burden on caregivers. PMID:22176953

  16. Gamma knife for obsessive compulsive disorder: can it be detrimental?

    PubMed

    Tripat Hi, Manjul; Mukherjee, Kanchan; Chhabra, Rajesh; Radotra, Ishan; Singh, Apinder P; Radotra, Bishan

    2014-01-01

    Functional neurological disorders (FND) have been a challenge to treat both for neurologists and neurosurgeons. Various ablative as well as non-ablative techniques have been used to treat these disorders. Gamma knife radiosurgery (GKRS) is also being practised to treat refractory obsessive- compulsive disorder (OCD). The subsequent complications of GKRS reported have been variable, with headache being the most common. We discuss here a rare complication of 'late onset radiation necrosis in bilateral caudate nuclei' in a patient after receiving GKRS three years back. This case highlights the need to be more cautious before administering ablative procedures in patients suffering with functional disorders. PMID:25050687

  17. Intravenous Clomipramine for Treatment-Resistant Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Khani, Munir

    2016-01-01

    Background: This open trial was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of intravenous clomipramine (CMI) in refractory obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Methods: Thirty OCD poor responders to previous multiple trials of anti-obsessive medications were selected and admitted to the hospital. Severity of the illness and response to treatment were primarily assessed by the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS). CMI was gradually administered intravenously for one week. All patients were thereafter switched to oral CMI with a maximum dose of 225mg/day. Results: The Y-BOCS total score mean at admission was in the severe range (24–31), and dropped on discharge and follow-ups to the moderate range (16–23). At discharge, 23 patients (76.7%) had a decrease in Y-BOCS ≥25% and were considered responders, while only 18 (60%) were still responders at 24 weeks. No relevant persistent side effects were reported. Conclusion: Intravenous clomipramine could be of benefit for severe OCD cases that have not adequately responded to several therapies, including oral clomipramine. PMID:26221004

  18. Reward-Based Spatial Learning in Unmedicated Adults with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Marsh, Rachel; Tau, Gregory Z.; Wang, Zhishun; Huo, Yuankai; Liu, Ge; Hao, Xuejun; Packard, Mark J.; Peterson, Bradley S.; Simpson, H. Blair

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess the functioning of mesolimbic and striatal areas involved in reward-based spatial learning in unmedicated adults with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD). Methods We compared fMRI BOLD response in 33 unmedicated adults with OCD to 33 healthy, age-matched control participants during a reward-based learning task that required learning to use extra-maze cues to navigate a virtual 8-arm radial maze to find hidden rewards. We compared groups in their patterns of brain activation associated with reward-based spatial learning versus a control condition in which rewards were unexpected because they were allotted pseudo-randomly to experimentally prevent learning. Results Both groups learned to navigate the maze to find hidden rewards, but group differences in neural activity during navigation and reward processing were detected in mesolimbic and striatal areas. During navigation, OCD participants, unlike healthy participants, activated left posterior hippocampus. Unlike healthy participants, OCD participants did not activate left ventral putamen and amygdala when anticipating rewards or left hippocampus, amygdala, and ventral putamen when receiving unexpected rewards (control condition). Signal in these regions decreased relative to baseline during unexpected reward receipt in OCD participants and the degree of activation was inversely associated with doubt/checking symptoms. Conclusion OCD participants displayed abnormal recruitment of mesolimbic and ventral striatal circuitry during reward-based spatial learning. Whereas healthy participants activate this circuitry in response to the violation of reward expectations, unmedicated OCD participants do not and instead overrely on posterior hippocampus during learning. Thus, dopaminergic innervation of reward circuitry may be altered and future study of anterior/posterior hippocampal dysfunction in OCD is warranted. PMID:25526598

  19. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for PANDAS-Related Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: Findings From A Preliminary Waitlist Controlled Open Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Storch, Eric A.; Murphy, Tanya K.; Geffken, Gary R.; Mann, Giselle; Adkins, Jennifer; Merlo, Lisa J.; Duke, Danny; Munson, Melissa; Swaine, Zoe; Goodman, Wayne K.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To provide preliminary estimates of the effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) in treating pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) of the pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcus (PANDAS) subtype. Method: Seven children with OCD of the PANDAS subtype (range 9-13 years) were treated

  20. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging during Planning before and after Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy in Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huyser, Chaim; Veltman, Dick J.; Wolters, Lidewij H.; de Haan, Else; Boer, Frits

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Pediatric obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) has been associated with cognitive abnormalities, in particular executive impairments, and dysfunction of frontal-striatal-thalamic circuitry. The aim of this study was to investigate if planning as an executive function is compromised in pediatric OCD and is associated with…

  1. The Genetics of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder and Tourette Syndrome: An Epidemiological and Pathway-Based Approach for Gene Discovery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grados, Marco A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To provide a contemporary perspective on genetic discovery methods applied to obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and Tourette syndrome (TS). Method: A review of research trends in genetics research in OCD and TS is conducted, with emphasis on novel approaches. Results: Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) are now in progress in OCD…

  2. Moving beyond an Exclusive Focus on Harm Avoidance in Obsessive Compulsive Disorder: Considering the Role of Incompleteness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pietrefesa, Ashley S.; Coles, Meredith E.

    2008-01-01

    Cognitive-behavioral conceptualizations of obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) have predominantly viewed compulsions as being motivated by harm avoidance. However, sensations of things being incomplete or not "just right" may also underlie compulsions in OCD. Preliminary research suggests that distinguishing between harm avoidance and…

  3. Family-Based Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: Comparison of Intensive and Weekly Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Storch, Eric A.; Geffken, Gary R.; Merlo, Lisa J.; Mann, Giselle; Duke, Danny; Munson, Melissa; Adkins, Jennifer; Grabill, Kristen M.; Murphy, Tanya K.; Goodman, Wayne K.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To examine the relative efficacy of intensive versus weekly cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for children and adolescents with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Method: Forty children and adolescents with OCD (range 7-17 years) were randomized to receive 14 sessions of weekly or intensive (daily psychotherapy sessions) family-based…

  4. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging during Planning before and after Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy in Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huyser, Chaim; Veltman, Dick J.; Wolters, Lidewij H.; de Haan, Else; Boer, Frits

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Pediatric obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) has been associated with cognitive abnormalities, in particular executive impairments, and dysfunction of frontal-striatal-thalamic circuitry. The aim of this study was to investigate if planning as an executive function is compromised in pediatric OCD and is associated with

  5. Moving beyond an Exclusive Focus on Harm Avoidance in Obsessive Compulsive Disorder: Considering the Role of Incompleteness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pietrefesa, Ashley S.; Coles, Meredith E.

    2008-01-01

    Cognitive-behavioral conceptualizations of obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) have predominantly viewed compulsions as being motivated by harm avoidance. However, sensations of things being incomplete or not "just right" may also underlie compulsions in OCD. Preliminary research suggests that distinguishing between harm avoidance and

  6. Adapting Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction for the Treatment of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: A Case Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patel, Sapana R.; Carmody, James; Simpson, H. Blair

    2007-01-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is an illness characterized by intrusive and distressing thoughts, images, or impulses (i.e., obsessions) and by repetitive mental or behavioral acts (i.e., compulsions) performed to prevent or reduce distress. Efficacious treatments for OCD include psychotropic medications and exposure and response prevention…

  7. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for PANDAS-Related Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: Findings From A Preliminary Waitlist Controlled Open Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Storch, Eric A.; Murphy, Tanya K.; Geffken, Gary R.; Mann, Giselle; Adkins, Jennifer; Merlo, Lisa J.; Duke, Danny; Munson, Melissa; Swaine, Zoe; Goodman, Wayne K.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To provide preliminary estimates of the effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) in treating pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) of the pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcus (PANDAS) subtype. Method: Seven children with OCD of the PANDAS subtype (range 9-13 years) were treated…

  8. Family-Based Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: Comparison of Intensive and Weekly Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Storch, Eric A.; Geffken, Gary R.; Merlo, Lisa J.; Mann, Giselle; Duke, Danny; Munson, Melissa; Adkins, Jennifer; Grabill, Kristen M.; Murphy, Tanya K.; Goodman, Wayne K.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To examine the relative efficacy of intensive versus weekly cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for children and adolescents with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Method: Forty children and adolescents with OCD (range 7-17 years) were randomized to receive 14 sessions of weekly or intensive (daily psychotherapy sessions) family-based

  9. Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation of the Supplementary Motor Area in the Treatment of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: A Multi-Site Study

    PubMed Central

    Hawken, Emily R.; Dilkov, Dancho; Kaludiev, Emil; Simek, Selcuk; Zhang, Felicia; Milev, Roumen

    2016-01-01

    Recently, strategies beyond pharmacological and psychological treatments have been developed for the management of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Specifically, repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has been employed as an adjunctive treatment in cases of treatment-refractory OCD. Here, we investigate six weeks of low frequency rTMS, applied bilaterally and simultaneously over the sensory motor area, in OCD patients in a randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial. Twenty-two participants were randomly enrolled into the treatment (ACTIVE = 10) or placebo (SHAM = 12) groups. At each of seven visits (baseline; day 1 and weeks 2, 4, and 6 of treatment; and two and six weeks after treatment) the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS) was administered. At the end of the six weeks of rTMS, patients in the ACTIVE group showed a clinically significant decrease in Y-BOCS scores compared to both the baseline and the SHAM group. This effect was maintained six weeks following the end of rTMS treatment. Therefore, in this sample, rTMS appeared to significantly improve the OCD symptoms of the treated patients beyond the treatment window. More studies need to be conducted to determine the generalizability of these findings and to define the duration of rTMS’ clinical effect on the Y-BOCS. Clinical Trial Registration Number (NCT) at www.clinicaltrials.gov: NCT00616486. PMID:27011177

  10. Association between the Catechol-O-Methyltransferase (COMT) Val158Met Polymorphism and Alexithymia in Patients with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Koh, Min Jung; Kang, Jee In; Namkoong, Kee; Lee, Su Young

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Alexithymia, defined as a deficit in the ability to recognize and describe one's own feelings, may be related to the development and maintenance of obsessive-compulsive symptoms. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) Val158Met polymorphism and alexithymia in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Materials and Methods We recruited 244 patients with OCD (169 males, 75 females). Alexithymia was assessed using the 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20), and genotyping of the COMT Val158Met polymorphism was evaluated. Results Patients with the COMT Val/Val genotype had significantly higher total and "difficulty identifying feelings" (DIF) subdimension scores than those with the Val/Met or Met/Met genotypes. Patients with the COMT Val/Val genotype had significantly higher "difficulty describing feelings" (DDF) subdimension scores than those with the COMT Val/Met genotype. However, there were no differences in the scores for the "externally oriented thinking" (EOT) subdimension among the three genotypes. Conclusion These results indicate that the high-activity Val allele of the COMT Val158Met polymorphism is associated with increased alexithymic traits in patients with OCD. The present finding suggests that alexithymia is an endophenotype of OCD that is mediated by the COMT Val158Met polymorphism. PMID:26996573

  11. Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation of the Supplementary Motor Area in the Treatment of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: A Multi-Site Study.

    PubMed

    Hawken, Emily R; Dilkov, Dancho; Kaludiev, Emil; Simek, Selcuk; Zhang, Felicia; Milev, Roumen

    2016-01-01

    Recently, strategies beyond pharmacological and psychological treatments have been developed for the management of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Specifically, repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has been employed as an adjunctive treatment in cases of treatment-refractory OCD. Here, we investigate six weeks of low frequency rTMS, applied bilaterally and simultaneously over the sensory motor area, in OCD patients in a randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial. Twenty-two participants were randomly enrolled into the treatment (ACTIVE = 10) or placebo (SHAM = 12) groups. At each of seven visits (baseline; day 1 and weeks 2, 4, and 6 of treatment; and two and six weeks after treatment) the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS) was administered. At the end of the six weeks of rTMS, patients in the ACTIVE group showed a clinically significant decrease in Y-BOCS scores compared to both the baseline and the SHAM group. This effect was maintained six weeks following the end of rTMS treatment. Therefore, in this sample, rTMS appeared to significantly improve the OCD symptoms of the treated patients beyond the treatment window. More studies need to be conducted to determine the generalizability of these findings and to define the duration of rTMS' clinical effect on the Y-BOCS. Clinical Trial Registration Number (NCT) at www.clinicaltrials.gov: NCT00616486. PMID:27011177

  12. Striatal circuits, habits, and implications for obsessive-compulsive disorder

    PubMed Central

    Burguière, Eric; Monteiro, Patricia; Mallet, Luc; Feng, Guoping; Graybiel, Ann M.

    2014-01-01

    Increasing evidence implicates abnormalities in corticostriatal circuits in the pathophysiology of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and OC-spectrum disorders. Parallels between the emergence of repetitive, compulsive behaviors and the acquisition of automated behaviors suggest that the expression of compulsions could in part involve loss of control of such habitual behaviors. The view that striatal circuit dysfunction is involved in OC-spectrum disorders is strengthened by imaging and other evidence in humans, by discovery of genes related to OCD syndromes, and by functional studies in animal models of these disorders. We highlight this growing concordance of work in genetics and neurobiology suggesting that frontostriatal circuits, and their links with basal ganglia, thalamus and brainstem, are promising candidates for therapeutic intervention in OCD. PMID:25241072

  13. Utility of the Leyton Obsessional Inventory to distinguish OCD and OCPD.

    PubMed

    Wellen, David; Samuels, Jack; Bienvenu, O Joseph; Grados, Marco; Cullen, Bernadette; Riddle, Mark; Liang, Kung-Yee; Nestadt, Gerald

    2007-01-01

    The Leyton Obsessional Inventory (LOI) is a self-report questionnaire that assesses obsessional symptoms. The ability of the LOI to distinguish between obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) has not been adequately addressed. Our purpose is to identify dimensions of obsessional symptoms from the LOI and determine how well they distinguish between OCD and OCPD. The LOI was completed by 488 participants diagnosed by trained clinicians. Factor analysis was performed on responses to the interference items of the LOI. The relationship between the factors, OCD and OCPD was evaluated using logistic regression. Five factors underlying the LOI were identified: (I) obsessional ruminations and compulsions, (II) ordering and arranging, (III) organizing activities, (IV) contamination, and (V) parsimony. Factors I, III, and IV were strongly associated with OCD. Only Factor II was associated with OCPD. Factor IV was negatively associated with obsessive-compulsive personality traits. LOI factors are useful in discriminating between OCD and OCPD. Obsessional ruminations and compulsions, organizing activities, and contamination fears may indicate OCD, and ordering and arranging symptoms may indicate OCPD rather than OCD. Parsimony may indicate neither disorder, and contamination, the absence of OCPD traits compared with the other LOI factors. These findings may contribute to effective diagnosis and treatment by allowing the LOI to screen for OCD and OCPD in a population exhibiting obsessional symptoms and traits. PMID:17099877

  14. A neuropsychiatric review of pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder: etiology and efficacious treatments

    PubMed Central

    Lewin, Adam B; Storch, Eric A; Geffken, Gary R; Goodman, Wayne K; Murphy, Tanya K

    2006-01-01

    Pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a chronic neuropsychiatric condition associated with broad impairments in functioning. This paper outlines current etiological theories of OCD, providing a review of neuroanatomical, neurochemical, neuroimmunological, and cognitivebehavioral explanations. Subsequently, first-line treatment modalities are discussed (serotonin reuptake inhibitors [SRIs] and cognitivebehavioral therapy [CBT] with exposure and response prevention [E/RP]) in the context of recent pharmacological, CBT, and combined trials. PMID:19412443

  15. Comorbidity Between Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Across the Lifespan: A Systematic and Critical Review

    PubMed Central

    Abramovitch, Amitai; Dar, Reuven; Mittelman, Andrew; Wilhelm, Sabine

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The concept of comorbidity between attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has been discussed for two decades. No review, however, has examined this question in light of the stark contrast in disorder-specific phenomenology and neurobiology. We review reported prevalence rates and the methodological, phenomenological, and theoretical issues concerning concomitant ADHD-OCD. Reported co-occurrence rates are highly inconsistent in the literature. Studies aimed at examining the potential for comorbidity have suffered from various methodological problems, including the existence of very few community samples, highly variable exclusionary criteria, and possible clinical misinterpretation of symptoms. Despite numerous studies suggesting an ADHD-OCD comorbidity, thus far etiological (i.e., genetic) backing has been provided only for a pediatric comorbidity. Additionally, inflated rates of ADHD-OCD co-occurrence may be mediated by the presence of tic disorders, and evidence of impaired neuronal maturational processes in pediatric OCD may lead to possibly transient phenotypical expressions that resemble ADHD symptomatology. Thus, clinicians are encouraged to consider the possibility that ADHD-like symptoms resulting from OCD-specific symptomatology may be misdiagnosed as ADHD. This suggestion may account for the lower co-occurrence rates reported in adolescents and adults and for the lack of a theoretical account for comorbidity in these age groups. Existing literature is summarized and critically reviewed, and recommendations are made for future research. PMID:26052877

  16. OCD Treatment Options

    MedlinePlus

    ... GAD) Panic Disorder & Agoraphobia Social Anxiety Disorder Specific Phobias Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) ... Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Social Anxiety Disorder Specific Phobias Conference Why Attend? Continuing Education About ADAA Mission & ...

  17. Seeking proxies for internal states in obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    PubMed

    Lazarov, Amit; Liberman, Nira; Hermesh, Haggai; Dar, Reuven

    2014-11-01

    Pervasive doubts are a central feature of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). We have theorized that obsessive doubts can arise in relation to any internal state and lead to compensatory reliance on more discernible substitutes (proxies), including rules and rituals. Previous findings corroborated this hypothesis, but were based on students with high and low OCD tendencies and did not control for anxiety. The present study tested our hypothesis in OCD participants using both anxiety disorders and nonclinical controls. Twenty OCD participants, 20 anxiety disorders participants, and 20 nonclinical participants underwent 2 experimental procedures. In the first, participants had to produce specific levels of muscle tension with and without the aid of biofeedback. In the second, participants were asked to subjectively assess their own muscle tension after viewing preprogrammed false feedback showing either increasing or decreasing levels of muscle tension. As predicted, OCD participants were less accurate than anxiety disorder and nonclinical participants in producing designated levels of muscle tension when biofeedback was not available and more likely to request the biofeedback when given the opportunity to do so. In the false feedback procedure, OCD participants were more influenced by the false biofeedback when judging their own level of muscle tension compared with the 2 controls groups. In both procedures, anxiety disorder participants did not differ from the nonclinical controls. These results support the hypothesis that individuals with OCD have attenuated access to and reduced confidence in their internal states, and that this deficit is specific to OCD and not attributable to anxiety. PMID:25133987

  18. Enhanced Avoidance Habits in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Gillan, Claire M.; Morein-Zamir, Sharon; Urcelay, Gonzalo P.; Sule, Akeem; Voon, Valerie; Apergis-Schoute, Annemieke M.; Fineberg, Naomi A.; Sahakian, Barbara J.; Robbins, Trevor W.

    2014-01-01

    Background Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a psychiatric condition that typically manifests in compulsive urges to perform irrational or excessive avoidance behaviors. A recent account has suggested that compulsivity in OCD might arise from excessive stimulus-response habit formation, rendering behavior insensitive to goal value. We tested if OCD patients have a bias toward habits using a novel shock avoidance task. To explore how habits, as a putative model of compulsivity, might relate to obsessions and anxiety, we recorded measures of contingency knowledge, explicit fear, and physiological arousal. Methods Twenty-five OCD patients and 25 control subjects completed a shock avoidance task designed to induce habits through overtraining, which were identified using goal-devaluation. The relationship between habitual behavior, erroneous cognitions, and physiological arousal was assessed using behavior, questionnaires, subjective report, and skin conductance responses. Results A devaluation sensitivity test revealed that both groups could inhibit unnecessary behavioral responses before overtraining. Following overtraining, OCD patients showed greater avoidance habits than control subjects. Groups did not differ in conditioned arousal (skin conductance responses) at any stage. Additionally, groups did not differ in contingency knowledge or explicit ratings of shock expectancy following the habit test. Habit responses were associated with a subjective urge to respond. Conclusions These data indicate that OCD patients have a tendency to develop excessive avoidance habits, providing support for a habit account of OCD. Future research is needed to fully characterize the causal role of physiological arousal and explicit fear in habit formation in OCD. PMID:23510580

  19. Sleep in obsessive-compulsive disorder: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Román, Amparo; Perestelo-Pérez, Lilisbeth; Buela-Casal, Gualberto

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether there are differences in sleep between people with and without obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and, if so, whether such differences are associated with comorbid depressive symptoms or other conditioning factors. We conducted a search for articles published until March 2013 in PubMed, Web of Knowledge, PsycINFO, Scopus, Trip Database, Dissertation Abstracts, and OpenSIGLE. We retrieved 9658 records, which were assessed against the inclusion and quality criteria. Six studies were included in the review and four were included in the meta-analysis. They were all cross-sectional studies with medium methodological quality. All studies except one were polysomnographic. The total sample of the meta-analysis consisted of 111 patients with OCD and 141 controls. The synthesis of results showed differences in sleep between people with and without OCD. The presence of comorbid depression was a key issue in the amount and type of differences found. Nevertheless, in order to support these results, longitudinal studies should be conducted with larger sample sizes and different age ranges. PMID:26298778

  20. Anxiety Disorders and Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Nine Months after Perinatal Loss

    PubMed Central

    Boggs, Martha E.; Muzik, Maria; Sen, Ananda

    2015-01-01

    Objective Perinatal loss (stillbirth after 20 weeks gestational age or infant death in the first month) impacts 1–2 infants per hundred live births in the United States and can be a devastating experience for parents. We assessed prevalence of anxiety disorders and obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) among bereaved and live-birth mothers. Methods We collaborated with the Michigan Department of Public Health to survey Michigan mothers with perinatal death or live birth. We measured symptoms of generalized anxiety disorder, social phobia, panic disorder, and OCD using validated written self-report screens and collected data on maternal demographics, psychiatric history, social support, and intimate partner violence. Results 609/1400 mothers (44%) participated, returning surveys nine months post-delivery. 232 mothers had live birth and 377 had perinatal loss. In unadjusted analyses, bereaved mothers had higher odds of all four disorders. In logistic regression adjusted for covariates, bereaved mothers still had higher odds of moderate-severe generalized anxiety disorder (OR: 2.39, CI: 1.10–5.18, p=0.028) and social phobia (OR: 2.32, CI: 1.52–3.54, p<0.0005 but not panic disorder or OCD. Conclusion Bereaved mothers struggle with clinically-significant anxiety disorders in the first year after perinatal loss; improved identification and treatment are essential to improve mental health for this vulnerable population. PMID:25305711

  1. Quantitative electroencephalographic subtyping of obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    PubMed

    Prichep, L S; Mas, F; Hollander, E; Liebowitz, M; John, E R; Almas, M; DeCaria, C M; Levine, R H

    1993-04-01

    Current neuropsychological, electrophysiological, and other imaging data strongly suggest the existence of a neurobiological basis for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), which was long considered to be exclusively of psychogenic origin. The positive response of some OCD patients to neurosurgery, as well as the efficacy of agents that selectively block serotonin reuptake, lends further support to a biological involvement. However, a survey of the treatment literature reveals that only 45-62% of OCD patients improve with these specific medications. In a pilot study using a quantitative electroencephalographic (QEEG) method known as neurometrics, in which QEEG data from OCD patients were compared statistically with those from an age-appropriate normative population, we previously reported the existence of two subtypes of OCD patients within a clinically homogeneous group of patients who met DSM-III-R criteria for OCD. Following pharmacological treatment, a clear relationship was found between treatment response and neurometric cluster membership. In this study, we have expanded the OCD population, adding patients from a second site, and have replicated the existence of two clusters of patients in an enlarged, statistically more robust population. Cluster 1 was characterized by excess relative power in theta, especially in the frontal and frontotemporal regions; cluster 2 was characterized by increased relative power in alpha. Further, 80.0% of the members of cluster 1 were found to be nonresponders to drug treatment, while 82.4% of the members of cluster 2 were found to be treatment responders.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8511221

  2. Genetics of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder and Related Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Browne, Heidi A.; Gair, Shannon L.; Scharf, Jeremiah M.; Grice, Dorothy E.

    2014-01-01

    Synopsis Twin and family studies support a significant genetic contribution to obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and related disorders such as chronic tic disorders, trichotillomania, skin picking disorder, body dysmorphic disorder, and hoarding disorder. Recently, population-based studies and novel laboratory-based methods have confirmed substantial heritability in OCD. Genome-wide association studies and candidate gene association studies have provided information on specific genes that may be involved in the pathobiology of OCD and also of related disorders, particularly chronic tic disorders, though these genes each contribute only a small portion of the total genetic risk and a substantial portion of the specific genetic risk profile in OCD is still unknown. Nevertheless, there are some examples of genes for which perturbations produce OCD-like phenotypes in animal model systems, allowing a laboratory platform for investigating the pathobiology of --- and new treatments for --- OCD and related disorders. Future work promises to continue to clarify the specific genes involved in risk for OCD as well as their interaction with environmental variables. PMID:25150565

  3. Delusional misidentification syndromes in obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    PubMed

    Melca, Isabela A; Rodrigues, Clarissa L; Serra-Pinheiro, Maria A; Pantelis, Christos; Velakoulis, Dennis; Mendlowicz, Mauro V; Fontenelle, Leonardo F

    2013-06-01

    Delusional misidentification syndromes (DMS) have been rarely reported in patients with conditions other than schizophrenia-related disorders, diffuse brain disease (dementia) and focal neurological illness. In this report, we describe DMS (i.e. Capgras and Fregoli syndromes) in two patients with severe and treatment resistant obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), one with paranoid personality disorder (PPD) and the other with a pervasive developmental disorder (PDD) not otherwise specified. While our findings highlight an interesting phenomenon (the occurrence of DMS in OCD), it is presently unclear whether this association is rare or underreported. Misidentification syndromes might be the ultimate result of a combination of obsessive fears and preexisting cognitive bias/deficits, such as mistrustfulness (in PPD) or poor theory of mind (in PDD). PMID:22922811

  4. Biased Processing of Threat-Related Information Rather than Knowledge Deficits Contributes to Overestimation of Threat in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moritz, Steffen; Pohl, Rudiger F.

    2009-01-01

    Overestimation of threat (OET) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The present study deconstructed this complex concept and looked for specific deviances in OCD relative to controls. A total of 46 participants with OCD and 51 nonclinical controls were asked: (a) to estimate the incidence rate for 20…

  5. Atypical Frontal-Striatal-Thalamic Circuit White Matter Development in Pediatric Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Fitzgerald, Kate D.; Liu, Yanni; Reamer, Elyse N.; Taylor, Stephan F.; Welsh, Robert C.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Atypical development of frontal-striatal-thalamic circuitry (FSTC) has been hypothesized to underlie the early course of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD); however, the development of FSTC white matter tracts remains to be studied in young patients. Method To address this gap, we scanned 36 patients with pediatric OCD compared to 27 healthy controls, aged 8 to 19 years, with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to measure fractional anisotropy (FA), an index of white matter coherence. Tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) were used to test differential effects of age on FA, across the whole brain, in those with OCD compared to healthy youth, followed by analyses in a priori regions of interest (anterior corpus callosum, anterior cingulum bundle and anterior limb of the internal capsule [ALIC]) to further characterize developmental differences between groups. Results Patients with OCD showed more pronounced age-related increases in FA than controls in regions of interest, as well as several other white matter tracts. In patients, greater FA in anterior cingulum bundle correlated with more severe symptoms after controlling for age. Conclusions Our findings support theories of atypical FSTC maturation in pediatric OCD by providing the first evidence for altered trajectories of white matter development in anterior corpus callosum, anterior cingulum bundle, and ALIC in young patients. Steeper age-related increases of FA in these and other select white matter tracts in OCD, compared to healthy controls, may derive from an early delay in white matter development and/or prolonged white matter growth, but confirmation of these possibilities awaits longitudinal work. PMID:25440312

  6. A meta-analysis examining the relations among pathological gambling, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and obsessive-compulsive traits.

    PubMed

    Durdle, Heather; Gorey, Kevin M; Stewart, Sherry H

    2008-10-01

    Pathological gambling has been proposed to belong to the obsessive-compulsive spectrum of disorders. Disorders on this spectrum are thought to share similar clinical features, neurobiology, and responses to treatment as Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder. A total of 18 studies were included in a meta-analysis to assess the strength of the association between these disorders. A strong relationship (effect size = 1.01) was found between pathological gambling and obsessive-compulsive traits. A weak relationship was found between pathological gambling and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (.07) and Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder (effect size = .23). These results suggest pathological gambling and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder are distinct disorders. However, pathological gamblers do appear to show high rates of obsessive-compulsive traits relative to controls. These findings are only moderately supportive of the inclusion of pathological gambling within the obsessive-compulsive spectrum of conditions. PMID:19102474

  7. Design and Rationale for a Randomized Controlled Trial Testing the Efficacy of Aerobic Exercise for Patients with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Abrantes, Ana M.; McLaughlin, Nicole; Greenberg, Benjamin D.; Strong, David R.; Riebe, Deborah; Mancebo, Maria; Rasmussen, Steven; Desaulniers, Julie; Brown, Richard A.

    2012-01-01

    Background Over the last two decades very few advances have been made in the development of new treatments for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). While patients with OCD improve with available treatments (pharmacotherapy and/or cognitive-behavioral therapy), moderate levels of OCD symptoms often persist even with adequate doses and durations of these treatments. Building on the growing body of evidence for the efficacy of exercise in the treatment of other psychiatric disorders, interventions to increase aerobic exercise in patients with OCD represent a potentially useful yet relatively unexplored strategy in OCD. Methods/Design One hundred and two (102) patients with clinically significant OCD symptoms despite current engagement in recommended treatments (pharmacotherapy and/or CBT) will be randomly assigned to receive either a 12-week moderate intensity aerobic exercise (AE) intervention or a health education control (HEC) intervention. Follow-up interviews will be conducted at the end of treatment and at 3-, 6- and 12-months post-intervention. They will assess OCD severity, nonspecific anxiety, depression, quality of life, cardiorespiratory fitness and cognition (executive function). Discussion If efficacy is established, patients with OCD who have clinically significant residual symptoms despite current pharmacotherapy or CBT would gain a valuable and practical treatment augmentation option. PMID:23189089

  8. Correlation between Overactive Bladder Syndrome and Obsessive Compulsive Disorder in Women

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Keun-Soo; Hong, Hyun-Pyo; Ahn, Ah-Leum; Oh, Eun-Jung; Choi, Jae-Kyung; Cho, Dong-Yung

    2016-01-01

    Background Overactive bladder syndrome is characterized by urinary urgency, usually accompanied by Frequent urination and nocturia, with or without urgent urinary incontinence. There must be the absence of causative infection or pathological conditions. Overactive bladder syndrome is related to mental disorders, particularly depression and anxiety. However, obsessive-compulsive symptoms are investigated much less frequently. The purpose of the present study was thus to assess obsessive-compulsive symptoms in overactive bladder syndrome patients. Methods Fifty-seven women patients with overactive bladder syndrome and fifty-seven women without it (age matched control group) were prospectively enrolled. They completed the overactive bladder syndrome-validated 8-question screener and the Korean version of the Maudsley Obsessional-Compulsive Inventory Questionnaire at the same time they visited the clinic. Patients were compared with controls on the Korean version of the Maudsley Obsessional-Compulsive Inventory Questionnaire and its checking, tidiness, doubting, and fear of contamination components. Results Patients showed more obsessive traits than controls on the Korean version of the Maudsley Obsessional-Compulsive Inventory Questionnaire total score (P=0.006) and on the checking subscale (P=0.001). Odds ratio for the overactive bladder syndrome group's obsessive-compulsive symptoms traits (score≥14) was 5.47 (P=0.001). The Korean version of the Maudsley Obsessional-Compulsive Inventory Questionnaire total score was associated with the overactive bladder syndrome-validated 8-question screener score in patients (P=0.03). Conclusion Obsessive-compulsive symptoms may constitute an important aspect of the psychiatric profile of overactive bladder syndrome patients. The severity of obsessive-compulsive symptoms seems to be related to the degree of the overactive bladder syndrome severity. Clinicians may consider screening women with overactive bladder syndrome for obsessive-compulsive symptoms. PMID:26885319

  9. Personality Disorders in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: A Comparative Study versus Other Anxiety Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Pena-Garijo, Josep; Edo Villamón, Silvia; Ruipérez, M. Ángeles

    2013-01-01

    Objective. The purpose of this paper is to provide evidence for the relationship between personality disorders (PDs), obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), and other anxiety disorders different from OCD (non-OCD) symptomatology. Method. The sample consisted of a group of 122 individuals divided into three groups (41 OCD; 40 non-OCD, and 41 controls) matched by sex, age, and educational level. All the individuals answered the IPDE questionnaire and were evaluated by means of the SCID-I and SCID-II interviews. Results. Patients with OCD and non-OCD present a higher presence of PD. There was an increase in cluster C diagnoses in both groups, with no statistically significant differences between them. Conclusions. Presenting anxiety disorder seems to cause a specific vulnerability for PD. Most of the PDs that were presented belonged to cluster C. Obsessive Compulsive Personality Disorder (OCPD) is the most common among OCD. However, it does not occur more frequently among OCD patients than among other anxious patients, which does not confirm the continuum between obsessive personality and OCD. Implications for categorical and dimensional diagnoses are discussed. PMID:24453917

  10. Obsessive-compulsive disorder presenting with musical obsessions in otosclerosis: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Musical obsessions consist of intrusive recollections of music fragments that are experienced as unwanted. Otosclerosis is caused by an abnormal bone homeostasis of the otic capsule and represents a frequent cause of hearing impairment. Many conditions causing hearing loss have been associated with musical hallucinations, but the association between musical obsessions and hearing loss is frequently overlooked. Case presentation We present the case of a 51-year-old Caucasian woman with a history of obsessive-compulsive disorder who developed musical obsessions soon after being diagnosed with otosclerosis. She was referred to our obsessive-compulsive disorder outpatient unit by her general psychiatrist. At the time of our first evaluation, she had severe musical obsessions that interfered with her social functioning and made her unable to follow conversations. She was started on 40mg of paroxetine and 2.5mg of aripiprazole, which led to significant improvement of her symptoms and of her social and work functioning. Conclusions To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of musical obsessions in a patient with hearing loss due to otosclerosis and a history of obsessive-compulsive disorder. This case suggests that a differential diagnosis of obsessive-compulsive disorder should be carefully considered in patients with hearing impairment who complain of involuntary musical imagery, especially in those patients who have a previous history of obsessive-compulsive disorder. PMID:25418908

  11. Correlates of Accommodation of Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: Parent, Child, and Family Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peris, Tara S.; Bergman, R. Lindsey; Langley, Audra; Chang, Susanna; McCracken, James T.; Piacentini, John

    2008-01-01

    The article examines family's involvement in child and adolescent obsessive-compulsive (OC) symptoms in relation to parent-, child- and family-level correlates. Results suggest that greater parental involvement in OC symptoms results in higher levels of child symptom severity and higher level of parental anxiety and hostility.

  12. Refining clinical judgment of treatment outcome in obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    PubMed

    Lewin, Adam B; De Nadai, Alessandro S; Park, Jennifer; Goodman, Wayne K; Murphy, Tanya K; Storch, Eric A

    2011-02-28

    This research aimed to provide clinicians and investigators with optimal treatment outcome criteria for accurately predicting response and remission in both research studies and clinical practice. Data from 153 adult OCD outpatients (ages 18-79) who had participated in a treatment outcome study were examined. Signal detection analysis was conducted to compare levels of Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS) symptom percent reductions and post treatment absolute scores with Clinical Global Impression (CGI) ratings of symptom improvement and severity. Optimal cutoff criteria were based on sensitivity, specificity and efficiency and were assessed via the Quality Receiver Operating Characteristic curve. A Y-BOCS reduction of 45% was observed to be the most efficient for predicting response in research trials, whereas a reduction of 35% may be optimal for clinical use. A 55% Y-BOCS reduction was determined to be the optimal cutoff for predicting remission in both clinical and research settings. A Y-BOCS absolute raw score of 12 or less was optimal for predicting remission in a clinical setting and a raw score of 14 or below was most favorable in research trials. This research provides the first empirical contrast of optimal outcome criteria in OCD based on differing ideals of both research and practice. PMID:20846725

  13. Compulsivity in mouse strains homologous with chromosomes 7p and 15q linked to obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    PubMed

    Kas, Martien J H; Gelegen, Cigdem; van Nieuwerburgh, Filip; Westenberg, Herman G M; Deforce, Dieter; Denys, Damiaan

    2010-01-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a severe anxiety disorder characterized by obsessions and compulsions. The core symptom of OCD is compulsivity, the inability to stop thinking or acting when you want to, despite being aware of the uselessness of the content or the adverse consequences. To initiate a systematic search for genetic mechanisms underlying the pathophysiology of compulsivity, a panel of chromosome substitution (CS) strains, derived from mice that suppress (C57BL/6J strain) or maintain (A/J strain) high levels of repetitive wheel running during 2 hr of daily limited food access, was screened for this compulsive behavior. Following the genetic screen, we found linkage between compulsive wheel running and mouse chromosomes 2, 6, and 7 that show overlap with recently identified human linkage regions for OCD on chromosomes 7p and 15q. In the overlapping (human/mouse) genomic region, the CRH receptor 2 (CRHR2) gene was tested in a human case-control study. An initial exploration in OCD cases versus controls failed to detect an association between four-candidate CRH2R SNP's within this homologous linkage region and OCD. Genetic fine mapping of compulsivity in mice provides new opportunities to reveal mechanisms underlying this significant psychiatric trait. PMID:19514050

  14. Should an Obsessive-Compulsive Spectrum Grouping of Disorders Be Included in DSM-V?

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Katharine A.; Stein, Dan J.; Rauch, Scott; Hollander, Eric; Fallon, Brian A.; Barsky, Arthur; Fineberg, Naomi; Mataix-Cols, David; Ferrão, Ygor Arzeno; Saxena, Sanjaya; Wilhelm, Sabine; Kelly, Megan M.; Clark, Lee Anna; Pinto, Anthony; Bienvenu, O. Joseph; Farrow, Joanne; Leckman, James

    2014-01-01

    The obsessive-compulsive (OC) spectrum has been discussed in the literature for two decades. Proponents of this concept propose that certain disorders characterized by repetitive thoughts and/or behaviors are related to obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and suggest that such disorders be grouped together in the same category (i.e., grouping, or “chapter”) in DSM. This paper addresses this topic and presents options and preliminary recommendations to be considered for DSM-V. The paper builds upon and extends prior reviews of this topic that were prepared for and discussed at a DSM-V Research Planning Conference on Obsessive-Compulsive Spectrum Disorders held in 2006. Our preliminary recommendation is that an OC-spectrum grouping of disorders be included in DSM-V. Furthermore, we preliminarily recommend that consideration be given to including this group of disorders within a larger supraordinate category of “Anxiety and Obsessive-Compulsive Spectrum Disorders.” These preliminary recommendations must be evaluated in light of recommendations for, and constraints upon, the overall structure of DSM-V. PMID:20533367

  15. Translational approaches to obsessive-compulsive disorder: from animal models to clinical treatment

    PubMed Central

    Fineberg, NA; Chamberlain, SR; Hollander, E; Boulougouris, V; Robbins, TW

    2011-01-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is characterized by obsessions (intrusive thoughts) and compulsions (repetitive ritualistic behaviours) leading to functional impairment. Accumulating evidence links these conditions with underlying dysregulation of fronto-striatal circuitry and monoamine systems. These abnormalities represent key targets for existing and novel treatment interventions. However, the brain bases of these conditions and treatment mechanisms are still not fully elucidated. Animal models simulating the behavioural and clinical manifestations of the disorder show great potential for augmenting our understanding of the pathophysiology and treatment of OCD. This paper provides an overview of what is known about OCD from several perspectives. We begin by describing the clinical features of OCD and the criteria used to assess the validity of animal models of symptomatology; namely, face validity (phenomenological similarity between inducing conditions and specific symptoms of the human phenomenon), predictive validity (similarity in response to treatment) and construct validity (similarity in underlying physiological or psychological mechanisms). We then survey animal models of OC spectrum conditions within this framework, focusing on (i) ethological models; (ii) genetic and pharmacological models; and (iii) neurobehavioural models. We also discuss their advantages and shortcomings in relation to their capacity to identify potentially efficacious new compounds. It is of interest that there has been rather little evidence of ‘false alarms’ for therapeutic drug effects in OCD models which actually fail in the clinic. While it is more difficult to model obsessive cognition than compulsive behaviour in experimental animals, it is feasible to infer cognitive inflexibility in certain animal paradigms. Finally, key future neurobiological and treatment research areas are highlighted. LINKED ARTICLES This article is part of a themed issue on Translational Neuropharmacology. To view the other articles in this issue visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2011.164.issue-4 PMID:21486280

  16. Impulse control disorders in children and adolescents with obsessive compulsive disorder

    PubMed Central

    Grant, Jon E.; Mancebo, Maria C.; Eisen, Jane L.; Rasmussen, Steven A.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine current prevalences, clinical correlates and patterns of co-occurrence of impulse control disorders (ICDs) in children and adolescents with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). We examined rates and clinical correlates of comorbid ICDs in 70 consecutive child and adolescent subjects with lifetime DSM-IV OCD (32.9% females; mean age = 13.8 ± 2.9 years). Comorbidity data were obtained with structured clinical interviews using DSM-IV criteria. OCD severity was assessed with the Child Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale. All variables were compared in OCD subjects with and without current ICDs. 12 (17.1%) subjects met criteria for a current ICD. Pathological skin picking and compulsive nail biting were the most common ICDs with current rates of 12.8% and 10.0%, respectively. OCD subjects with current ICDs were significantly more likely to have a co-occurring tic disorder (66.7% vs. 20.7%; p=.003). Although having an ICD was associated with greater numerical scores of OCD symptomatology, these differences were not statistically significant. There were no sex-specific patterns of ICD occurrence in children and adolescents with OCD. Certain ICDs are common among children and adolescents with OCD. Better identification of ICDs in children and adolescents with OCD is needed, as are empirically validated treatments for youth with co-occurring ICDs. PMID:20004481

  17. Religious involvement and obsessive compulsive disorder among African Americans and Black Caribbeans.

    PubMed

    Himle, Joseph A; Taylor, Robert Joseph; Chatters, Linda M

    2012-05-01

    Prior research is equivocal concerning the relationships between religious involvement and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The literature indicates limited evidence of denomination differences in prevalence of OCD whereas findings regarding OCD and degree of religiosity are equivocal. This study builds on prior research by examining OCD in relation to diverse measures of religious involvement within the National Survey of American Life, a nationally representative sample of African American and Black Caribbean adults. Bivariate and multivariate analyses (logistic regression) examine the relationship between lifetime prevalence of OCD and religious denomination, service attendance, non-organizational religiosity (e.g., prayer, religious media) subjective religiosity, and religious coping. Frequent religious service attendance was negatively associated with OCD, whereas Catholic affiliation (as compared to Baptist) and religious coping (prayer when dealing with stressful situations) were both positively associated with OCD. With regard to demographic factors, persons of older age and higher education levels were significantly less likely to have OCD. PMID:22397898

  18. Neurosteroid Levels in Patients with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Kartalci, Sukru

    2015-01-01

    Objective Changes in serum neurosteroid levels have been reported in stress-related disorders such as anxiety and depression, but not in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). We thus investigated such changes in patients with OCD. Methods We compared the serum levels of progesterone, pregnanolone, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEA-S), cortisol and testosterone in 30 patients with OCD and 30 healthy controls. Results When male and female patients were evaluated together, DHEA and cortisol levels were significantly higher in patients with OCD than the control group. When the genders were evaluated separately, DHEA and cortisol levels were higher in female patients than the female controls. The increase in DHEA levels in female patients is likely an effect of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. In contrast, cortisol levels in male patients were higher than the control group, while testosterone levels were lower. The increased cortisol and decreased testosterone levels in male patients likely involves the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis. Conclusion These findings suggest that neurosteroid levels in patients with OCD should be investigated together with the HPA and HPG axes in future studies. PMID:26508966

  19. GLUTAMATE ABNORMALITIES IN OBSESSIVE COMPULSIVE DISORDER: NEUROBIOLOGY, PATHOPHYSIOLOGY, AND TREATMENT

    PubMed Central

    Pittenger, Christopher; Bloch, Michael H.; Williams, Kyle

    2011-01-01

    Obsessive compulsive disorder is prevalent, disabling, incompletely understood, and often resistant to current therapies. Established treatments consist of specialized cognitive-behavioral psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy with medications targeting serotonergic and dopaminergic neurotransmission. However, remission is rare, and more than a quarter of OCD sufferers receive little or no benefit from these approaches, even when they are optimally delivered. New insights into the disorder, and new treatment strategies, are urgently needed. Recent evidence suggests that the ubiquitous excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate is dysregulated in OCD, and that this dysregulation may contribute to the pathophysiology of the disorder. Here we review the current state of this evidence, including neuroimaging studies, genetics, neurochemical investigations, and insights from animal models. Finally, we review recent findings from small clinical trials of glutamate-modulating medications in treatment-refractory OCD. The precise role of glutamate dysregulation in OCD remains unclear, and we lack blinded, well-controlled studies demonstrating therapeutic benefit from glutamate-modulating agents. Nevertheless, the evidence supporting some important perturbation of glutamate in the disorder is increasingly strong. This new perspective on the pathophysiology of OCD, which complements the older focus on monoaminergic neurotransmission, constitutes an important focus of current research and a promising area for the ongoing development of new therapeutics. PMID:21963369

  20. Subjective uncertainty and limbic hyperactivation in obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    PubMed

    Stern, Emily R; Welsh, Robert C; Gonzalez, Richard; Fitzgerald, Kate D; Abelson, James L; Taylor, Stephan F

    2013-08-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is often associated with pathological uncertainty regarding whether an action has been performed correctly or whether a bad outcome will occur, leading to compulsive "evidence gathering" behaviors aimed at reducing uncertainty. The current study used event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate neural functioning in OCD patients and controls as subjective certainty was rated in response to sequential pieces of evidence for a decision. Uncertainty was experimentally manipulated so that some decisions were associated with no "objective" uncertainty (all observed evidence pointed to one correct choice), whereas other decisions contained calculable but varying levels of objective uncertainty based on displayed probabilities. Results indicated that OCD patients differed from controls on decisions that contained no objective uncertainty, such that patients rated themselves as more uncertain. Patients also showed greater activation in a network of brain regions previously associated with internally-focused thought and valuation including ventromedial prefrontal cortex, parahippocampus, middle temporal cortex, as well as amygdala and orbitofrontal cortex/ventral anterior insula. In the patient group, a significantly greater number of positive intersubject correlations were found among several of these brain regions, suggesting that this network is more interconnected in patients. OCD patients did not differ from controls on decisions where task parameters led to uncertainty. These results indicate that OCD is associated with hyperactivation in a network of limbic/paralimbic brain regions when making decisions, which may contribute to the greater subjective experience of doubt that characterizes the disorder. PMID:22461182

  1. Compulsivity in obsessive-compulsive disorder and addictions.

    PubMed

    Figee, Martijn; Pattij, Tommy; Willuhn, Ingo; Luigjes, Judy; van den Brink, Wim; Goudriaan, Anneke; Potenza, Marc N; Robbins, Trevor W; Denys, Damiaan

    2016-05-01

    Compulsive behaviors are driven by repetitive urges and typically involve the experience of limited voluntary control over these urges, a diminished ability to delay or inhibit these behaviors, and a tendency to perform repetitive acts in a habitual or stereotyped manner. Compulsivity is not only a central characteristic of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) but is also crucial to addiction. Based on this analogy, OCD has been proposed to be part of the concept of behavioral addiction along with other non-drug-related disorders that share compulsivity, such as pathological gambling, skin-picking, trichotillomania and compulsive eating. In this review, we investigate the neurobiological overlap between compulsivity in substance-use disorders, OCD and behavioral addictions as a validation for the construct of compulsivity that could be adopted in the Research Domain Criteria (RDoC). The reviewed data suggest that compulsivity in OCD and addictions is related to impaired reward and punishment processing with attenuated dopamine release in the ventral striatum, negative reinforcement in limbic systems, cognitive and behavioral inflexibility with diminished serotonergic prefrontal control, and habitual responding with imbalances between ventral and dorsal frontostriatal recruitment. Frontostriatal abnormalities of compulsivity are promising targets for neuromodulation and other interventions for OCD and addictions. We conclude that compulsivity encompasses many of the RDoC constructs in a trans-diagnostic fashion with a common brain circuit dysfunction that can help identifying appropriate prevention and treatment targets. PMID:26774279

  2. Reduced Prefrontal Hemodynamic Response in Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder as Measured by Near-Infrared Spectroscopy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ota, Toyosaku; Iida, Junzo; Sawada, Masayuki; Suehiro, Yuko; Yamamuro, Kazuhiko; Matsuura, Hiroki; Tanaka, Shohei; Kishimoto, Naoko; Negoro, Hideki; Kishimoto, Toshifumi

    2013-01-01

    Recent developments in near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) have enabled non-invasive clarification of brain functions in psychiatric disorders. Functional neuroimaging studies of patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) have suggested that the frontal cortex and subcortical structures may play a role in the pathophysiology of the disorder.…

  3. Obsessive Compulsive Disorder in Children and Adolescents: The Role of the School Psychologist in Identification, Assessment, and Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Gail B.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Describes the major phenomena that characterize obsessive compulsive disorders (OCD) in children and adolescents. Provides examples of behavioral manifestations of these disorders in the school setting. Discusses the school psychologist's role, with particular emphasis placed on a behavioral consultative approach for assessing and treating…

  4. Brief Report: Exposure and Response Prevention for Obsessive Compulsive Disorder in a 12-Year-Old with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehmkuhl, Heather D.; Storch, Eric A.; Bodfish, James W.; Geffken, Gary R.

    2008-01-01

    Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) involves exaggerated or excessive worry about threatening and non-threatening stimuli coupled with impairing rituals believed to reduce anxiety. Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) are characterized by impairment in social and communicative activities as well as restricted and repetitive behaviors. Approximately 2%…

  5. Reduced Prefrontal Hemodynamic Response in Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder as Measured by Near-Infrared Spectroscopy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ota, Toyosaku; Iida, Junzo; Sawada, Masayuki; Suehiro, Yuko; Yamamuro, Kazuhiko; Matsuura, Hiroki; Tanaka, Shohei; Kishimoto, Naoko; Negoro, Hideki; Kishimoto, Toshifumi

    2013-01-01

    Recent developments in near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) have enabled non-invasive clarification of brain functions in psychiatric disorders. Functional neuroimaging studies of patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) have suggested that the frontal cortex and subcortical structures may play a role in the pathophysiology of the disorder.

  6. Brief Report: Exposure and Response Prevention for Obsessive Compulsive Disorder in a 12-Year-Old with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehmkuhl, Heather D.; Storch, Eric A.; Bodfish, James W.; Geffken, Gary R.

    2008-01-01

    Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) involves exaggerated or excessive worry about threatening and non-threatening stimuli coupled with impairing rituals believed to reduce anxiety. Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) are characterized by impairment in social and communicative activities as well as restricted and repetitive behaviors. Approximately 2%

  7. Animal models of obsessive-compulsive disorder: utility and limitations.

    PubMed

    Alonso, Pino; López-Solà, Clara; Real, Eva; Segalàs, Cinto; Menchón, José Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a disabling and common neuropsychiatric condition of poorly known etiology. Many attempts have been made in the last few years to develop animal models of OCD with the aim of clarifying the genetic, neurochemical, and neuroanatomical basis of the disorder, as well as of developing novel pharmacological and neurosurgical treatments that may help to improve the prognosis of the illness. The latter goal is particularly important given that around 40% of patients with OCD do not respond to currently available therapies. This article summarizes strengths and limitations of the leading animal models of OCD including genetic, pharmacologically induced, behavioral manipulation-based, and neurodevelopmental models according to their face, construct, and predictive validity. On the basis of this evaluation, we discuss that currently labeled "animal models of OCD" should be regarded not as models of OCD but, rather, as animal models of different psychopathological processes, such as compulsivity, stereotypy, or perseverance, that are present not only in OCD but also in other psychiatric or neurological disorders. Animal models might constitute a challenging approach to study the neural and genetic mechanism of these phenomena from a trans-diagnostic perspective. Animal models are also of particular interest as tools for developing new therapeutic options for OCD, with the greatest convergence focusing on the glutamatergic system, the role of ovarian and related hormones, and the exploration of new potential targets for deep brain stimulation. Finally, future research on neurocognitive deficits associated with OCD through the use of analogous animal tasks could also provide a genuine opportunity to disentangle the complex etiology of the disorder. PMID:26346234

  8. A Case of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Twohig, Michael P.; Whittal, Maureen L.

    2009-01-01

    This article presents the case of a 51-year old woman with obsessive-compulsive disorder. "Caroline" reported obsessions of harming people secondary to spreading her "bad energy," which is experienced as dust on her hands and in her mouth. To prevent harm coming to others she mentally "vacuums" the dust, creates mental protective barriers around

  9. A Case of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Twohig, Michael P.; Whittal, Maureen L.

    2009-01-01

    This article presents the case of a 51-year old woman with obsessive-compulsive disorder. "Caroline" reported obsessions of harming people secondary to spreading her "bad energy," which is experienced as dust on her hands and in her mouth. To prevent harm coming to others she mentally "vacuums" the dust, creates mental protective barriers around…

  10. The relationship between obsessive-compulsive personality disorder traits, obsessive-compulsive disorder and excessive exercise in patients with anorexia nervosa: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objective Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) traits and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) are commonly associated with patients with Anorexia Nervosa (AN). The aim of this review was to systematically search the literature to examine whether OCPD and OCD are positively associated with excessive exercise in patients with AN. Method A systematic electronic search of the literature (using PsycInfo, Medline and Web of Knowledge) was undertaken to identify relevant publications until May 2012. Results A total of ten studies met criteria for inclusion in the review. The design of the studies varied from cross-sectional to retrospective and quasi-experimental. Seven out of the ten studies reviewed demonstrated a positive relationship between OCPD and/or OCD in AN patients who exercise excessively, whilst three studies found a lack of relationship, or a negative relationship, between these constructs. Conclusion There is evidence from the literature to suggest that there is a positive relationship between OCPD and excessive exercise in patients with AN. However, the relationship between OCD and excessive exercise is less clear and further research is required to qualify the strength of such relationships. Future research should utilise the most comprehensive and reliable clinical assessment tools, and address prognostic factors, treatment factors and specific interventions for patients with OCPD and/or OCD and excessive exercise. PMID:24999397

  11. Investigation of response inhibition in obsessive-compulsive disorder using the Hayling task.

    PubMed

    Van der Linden, Martial; Ceschi, Grazia; Zermatten, Ariane; Dunker, Daniela; Perroud, Alain

    2005-10-01

    This study investigates response inhibition deficits in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) by using the Hayling task. Sixteen OCD washers, 16 OCD checkers, 16 social phobic patients and 16 nonanxious controls were asked to complete sentences with either the expected word (section A: "initiation") or an unrelated word (section B: "inhibition"). The groups did not differ in terms of section B minus section A latencies. However, OCD washers and checkers made significantly more errors (sentence-related responses) in section B than social phobic patients and controls. In the OCD patients, the frequency of these errors correlates with the total OCD severity score and the compulsion subscore, but not with the depression and anxiety scores. These findings suggest that OCD patients might present a specific deficit affecting the inhibition of a prepotent response. PMID:16248913

  12. An Open Trial of Intensive Family Based Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy in Youth with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Who Are Medication Partial Responders or Nonresponders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Storch, Eric A.; Lehmkuhl, Heather D.; Ricketts, Emily; Geffken, Gary R.; Marien, Wendi; Murphy, Tanya K.

    2010-01-01

    This study reports an open-trial of family-based cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) in children and adolescents with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Thirty primarily Caucasian youth with OCD (range = 7-19 years; 15 girls) who were partial responders or nonresponders to two or more medication trials that were delivered either serially or…

  13. Intensive Family-Based Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: Applications for Treatment of Medication Partial- or Nonresponders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marien, Wendi E.; Storch, Eric A.; Geffken, Gary R.; Murphy, Tanya K.

    2009-01-01

    Serotonin reuptake inhibitor medications and cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) are both effective treatments for pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Despite recommendations that youth with OCD be treated with CBT alone or together with serotonin reuptake inhibitor medication, many youth are treated with medication alone or with non-CBT…

  14. An Open Trial of Intensive Family Based Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy in Youth with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Who Are Medication Partial Responders or Nonresponders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Storch, Eric A.; Lehmkuhl, Heather D.; Ricketts, Emily; Geffken, Gary R.; Marien, Wendi; Murphy, Tanya K.

    2010-01-01

    This study reports an open-trial of family-based cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) in children and adolescents with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Thirty primarily Caucasian youth with OCD (range = 7-19 years; 15 girls) who were partial responders or nonresponders to two or more medication trials that were delivered either serially or

  15. Intensive Family-Based Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: Applications for Treatment of Medication Partial- or Nonresponders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marien, Wendi E.; Storch, Eric A.; Geffken, Gary R.; Murphy, Tanya K.

    2009-01-01

    Serotonin reuptake inhibitor medications and cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) are both effective treatments for pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Despite recommendations that youth with OCD be treated with CBT alone or together with serotonin reuptake inhibitor medication, many youth are treated with medication alone or with non-CBT

  16. Normative Childhood Repetitive Routines and Obsessive Compulsive Symptomatology in 6-Year-Old Twins

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolton, Derek; Rijsdijk, Fruhling; Eley, Thalia C.; O'Connor, Thomas G.; Briskman, Jacqueline; Perrin, Sean

    2009-01-01

    Background: To investigate the association between normative repetitive routines of childhood and paediatric obsessive compulsive symptom syndrome (OCSS) and the extent to which it is genetically mediated. Methods: In a two-phase design a community sample of 4,662 6-year-old twin-pairs were sampled and 854 pairs were assessed in the second phase…

  17. Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Treatment in Patients with Down Syndrome: A Case Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutor, Bruce; Hansen, Mark R.; Black, John L.

    2006-01-01

    In this case series we report four cases of patients with Down syndrome with symptoms consistent with obsessive compulsive disorder. Each patient experienced substantial reduction in compulsive behaviors with pharmacotherapy of an SSRI alone or with the addition of risperidone to SSRI therapy. None of the patients experienced significant side…

  18. Sensory properties of obsessive thoughts in OCD and the relationship to psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Röhlinger, Jana; Wulf, Falk; Fieker, Martina; Moritz, Steffen

    2015-12-15

    For decades hallucinations and perception-laden thoughts were considered specific indicators of schizophrenia. This assumption has been revised over the years. Novel studies indicate that a subgroup of patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), borderline disorder or depression display hallucinations and "loud"/perceptual thoughts. The present study examined the frequency of sensory-laden obsessive thoughts and their relationship with the severity of obsessive-compulsive, paranoid and depressive symptoms in a sample of 137 OCD patients who were recruited via the Internet. Participants were asked to fill out the Sensory Properties of Obsessions Questionnaire (SPOQ), the Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory-Revised (OCI-R), the Paranoia Checklist and the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ9). In line with a prior study, a total of 72% displayed perceptual intrusions (i.e. vivid obsessions). Correlations emerged between perceptual thoughts and obsessive-compulsive, paranoid and depressive symptoms. Results further strengthen the assumption of a continuum ranging from "silent" thoughts to vivid intrusions and hallucinations. PMID:26514791

  19. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy of prefrontal white matter in psychotropic naïve children and adolescents with obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    PubMed

    Weber, Alexander Mark; Soreni, Noam; Stanley, Jeffrey A; Greco, Alessia; Mendlowitz, Sandra; Szatmari, Peter; Schachar, Russell; Mannasis, Katharina; Pires, Paulo; Swinson, Richard; Noseworthy, Michael D

    2014-04-30

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has a typical onset during childhood or adolescence. Although recent in-vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) studies report gray matter metabolite abnormalities in children and adolescents with OCD, there are no existing (1)H-MRS studies that measure white matter (WM) metabolite levels in this population. In the present study, we measured metabolite levels in the left and right prefrontal WM (LPFWM and RPFWM, respectively) of psychotropic-naïve children and adolescents with OCD (LPFWM: N=15, mean age 13.3±2.4 years; right RPFWM: N=14, mean age 13.0±2.3 years) and healthy controls (LPFWM: N=17, mean age 11.8±2.7 years; RPFWM: N=18, mean age 12.2±2.8 years). Spectra were acquired using a 3T single voxel PRESS sequence (1.5×2.0×2.0cm(3)). When age and sex effects were controlled, OCD patients had higher levels of RPFWM choline and N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA). In addition, RPFWM levels of NAA, creatine and myo-inositol were positively and significantly correlated with severity of OCD symptoms. In summary, this is the first published study of WM metabolite levels in children and adolescents with OCD. Our preliminary findings lend further support to the previous findings of WM abnormalities in OCD. PMID:24602517

  20. Intensive Family-Based Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: Applications for Treatment of Medication Partial- or Nonresponders

    PubMed Central

    Marien, Wendi E.; Storch, Eric A.; Geffken, Gary R.; Murphy, Tanya K.

    2011-01-01

    Serotonin reuptake inhibitor medications and cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) are both effective treatments for pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Despite recommendations that youth with OCD be treated with CBT alone or together with serotonin reuptake inhibitor medication, many youth are treated with medication alone or with non-CBT psychotherapy initially. Although effective, symptom remission with medication alone is rare (e.g., only 21.4% of youth achieved remission with sertraline in the Pediatric OCD Treatment Study, 2004) and residual symptoms often remain (e.g., 58% of subjects in the March et al. [1998] sertraline trial were not considered treatment responders). This paper reviews the literature on the efficacy of CBT for pediatric OCD, particularly as it relates to the treatment of youth with prior inadequate response to medication. It also describes an intensive, family-based CBT program for children and adolescents with OCD and support for its efficacy among those with prior partial- or nonresponse to medication. Finally, we present a case study of an adolescent girl with OCD who participated in the intensive treatment program after having limited benefit from medication and non-CBT psychotherapy and experienced a favorable response. PMID:24174866

  1. Neuronal Antibody Biomarkers for Sydenham’s Chorea Identify a New Group of Children with Chronic Recurrent Episodic Acute Exacerbations of Tic and Obsessive Compulsive Symptoms Following a Streptococcal Infection

    PubMed Central

    Singer, Harvey S.; Mascaro-Blanco, Adda; Alvarez, Kathy; Morris-Berry, Christina; Kawikova, Ivana; Ben-Pazi, Hilla; Thompson, Carol B.; Ali, Syed F.; Kaplan, Edward L.; Cunningham, Madeleine W.

    2015-01-01

    Several autoantibodies (anti-dopamine 1 (D1R) and 2 (D2R) receptors, anti-tubulin, anti-lysoganglioside-GM1) and antibody-mediated activation of calcium calmodulin dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) signaling activity are elevated in children with Sydenham’s chorea (SC). Recognizing proposed clinical and autoimmune similarities between SC and PANDAS (pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorder associated with a streptococcal infection), we sought to identify serial biomarker changes in a slightly different population. Antineuronal antibodies were measured in eight children (mean 11.3 years) with chronic, dramatic, recurrent tics and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) associated with a group A β-hemolytic streptococcal (GABHS) respiratory tract infection, but differing because they lacked choreiform movements. Longitudinal serum samples in most subjects included two pre-exacerbation samples, Exac), one midst Exac (abrupt recurrence of tic/OCD; temporally association with a GABHS infection in six of eight subjects), and two post-Exac. Controls included four groups of unaffected children (n = 70; mean 10.8 years) obtained at four different institutions and published controls. Clinical exacerbations were not associated with a significant rise in antineuronal antibody titers. CaMKII activation was increased at the GABHS exacerbation point in 5/6 subjects, exceeded combined and published control’s 95th percentile at least once in 7/8 subjects, and median values were elevated at each time point. Anti-tubulin and anti-D2R titers did not differ from published or combined control group’s 95th percentile or median values. Differences in anti-lysoganglioside-GM1 and anti-D1R titers were dependent on the selected control. Variances in antibody titers and CaMKII activation were identified among the institutional control groups. Based on comparisons to published studies, results identify two groups of PANDAS: 1) a cohort, represented by this study, which lacks choreiform movements and elevated antibodies against D2R; 2) the originally reported group with choreiform movements and elevated anti-D2R antibodies, similar to SC. Increased antibody mediated CaMKII activation was found in both groups and requires further study as a potential biomarker. PMID:25793715

  2. Abnormal resting-state functional connectivity of the left caudate nucleus in obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yunhui; Juhás, Michal; Greenshaw, Andrew J; Hu, Qiang; Meng, Xin; Cui, Hongsheng; Ding, Yongzhuo; Kang, Lu; Zhang, Yubo; Wang, Yuhua; Cui, Guangcheng; Li, Ping

    2016-06-01

    Altered brain activities in the cortico-striato-thalamocortical (CSTC) circuitry are implicated in the pathophysiology of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). However, whether the underlying changes occur only within this circuitry or in large-scale networks is still not thoroughly understood. This study performed voxel-based functional connectivity analysis on resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data from thirty OCD patients and thirty healthy controls to investigate whole-brain intrinsic functional connectivity patterns in OCD. Relative to the healthy controls, OCD patients showed decreased functional connectivity within the CSTC circuitry but increased functional connectivity in other brain regions. Furthermore, decreased left caudate nucleus-thalamus connectivity within the CSTC circuitry was positively correlated with the illness duration of OCD. This study provides additional evidence that CSTC circuitry may play an essential role and alteration of large-scale brain networks may be involved in the pathophysiology of OCD. PMID:27143323

  3. The Developmental Course of Anxiety Symptoms during Adolescence: The TRAILS Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Oort, F. V. A.; Greaves-Lord, K.; Verhulst, F. C.; Ormel, J.; Huizink, A. C.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Little is known about the development of anxiety symptoms from late childhood to late adolescence. The present study determined developmental trajectories of symptoms of separation anxiety disorder (SAD), social phobia (SoPh), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), panic disorder (PD), and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) in a large

  4. The Developmental Course of Anxiety Symptoms during Adolescence: The TRAILS Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Oort, F. V. A.; Greaves-Lord, K.; Verhulst, F. C.; Ormel, J.; Huizink, A. C.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Little is known about the development of anxiety symptoms from late childhood to late adolescence. The present study determined developmental trajectories of symptoms of separation anxiety disorder (SAD), social phobia (SoPh), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), panic disorder (PD), and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) in a large…

  5. [Update on neurosurgical treatment for obsessive compulsive disorder].

    PubMed

    Lopes, Antonio Carlos; de Mathis, Maria Eugênia; Canteras, Miguel Montes; Salvajoli, João Victor; Del Porto, José Alberto; Miguel, Eurípedes Constantino

    2004-03-01

    Responses to pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) range from 60 to 80% of cases. However, a subset of OCD patients do not respond to adequately conducted treatment trials, leading to severe psychosocial impairment. Stereotactic surgery can be indicated then as the last resource. Five surgical techniques are available, with the following rates of global post-operative improvement: anterior capsulotomy (38-100%); anterior cingulotomy (27-57%); subcaudate tractotomy (33-67%); limbic leucotomy (61-69%), and central lateral thalamotomy/anterior medial pallidotomy (62.5%). The first technique can be conducted as a standard neurosurgery, as radiosurgery or as deep brain stimulation. In the standard neurosurgery neural circuits are interrupted by radiofrequency. In radiosurgery, an actinic lesion is provoked without opening the brain. Deep brain stimulation consists on implanting electrodes which are activated by stimulators. Literature reports a relatively low prevalence of adverse events and complications. Neuropsychological and personality changes are rarely reported. However, there is a lack of randomized controlled trials to prove efficacy and adverse events/complication issues among these surgical procedures. Concluding, there is a recent development in the neurosurgeries for severe psychiatric disorders in the direction of making them more efficacious and safer. These surgeries, when correctly indicated, can profoundly alleviate the suffering of severe OCD patients. PMID:15057843

  6. Arbitration between Action Strategies in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder.

    PubMed

    Gruner, Patricia; Anticevic, Alan; Lee, Daeyeol; Pittenger, Christopher

    2016-04-01

    Decision making in a complex world, characterized both by predictable regularities and by frequent departures from the norm, requires dynamic switching between rapid habit-like, automatic processes and slower, more flexible evaluative processes. These strategies, formalized as "model-free" and "model-based" reinforcement learning algorithms, respectively, can lead to divergent behavioral outcomes, requiring a mechanism to arbitrate between them in a context-appropriate manner. Recent data suggest that individuals with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) rely excessively on inflexible habit-like decision making during reinforcement-driven learning. We propose that inflexible reliance on habit in OCD may reflect a functional weakness in the mechanism for context-appropriate dynamic arbitration between model-free and model-based decision making. Support for this hypothesis derives from emerging functional imaging findings. A deficit in arbitration in OCD may help reconcile evidence for excessive reliance on habit in rewarded learning tasks with an older literature suggesting inappropriate recruitment of circuitry associated with model-based decision making in unreinforced procedural learning. The hypothesized deficit and corresponding circuitry may be a particularly fruitful target for interventions, including cognitive remediation. PMID:25605642

  7. Genome-wide Association Study of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, S Evelyn; Yu, Dongmei; Scharf, Jeremiah M; Neale, Benjamin M; Fagerness, Jesen A; Mathews, Carol A; Arnold, Paul D; Evans, Patrick D; Gamazon, Eric R; Osiecki, Lisa; McGrath, Lauren; Haddad, Stephen; Crane, Jacquelyn; Hezel, Dianne; Illman, Cornelia; Mayerfeld, Catherine; Konkashbaev, Anuar; Liu, Chunyu; Pluzhnikov, Anna; Tikhomirov, Anna; Edlund, Christopher K; Rauch, Scott L; Moessner, Rainald; Falkai, Peter; Maier, Wolfgang; Ruhrmann, Stephan; Grabe, Hans-Jörgen; Lennertz, Leonard; Wagner, Michael; Bellodi, Laura; Cavallini, Maria Cristina; Richter, Margaret A; Cook, Edwin H; Kennedy, James L; Rosenberg, David; Stein, Dan J; Hemmings, Sian MJ; Lochner, Christine; Azzam, Amin; Chavira, Denise A; Fournier, Eduardo; Garrido, Helena; Sheppard, Brooke; Umaña, Paul; Murphy, Dennis L; Wendland, Jens R; Veenstra-VanderWeele, Jeremy; Denys, Damiaan; Blom, Rianne; Deforce, Dieter; Van Nieuwerburgh, Filip; Westenberg, Herman GM; Walitza, Susanne; Egberts, Karin; Renner, Tobias; Miguel, Euripedes Constantino; Cappi, Carolina; Hounie, Ana G; Conceição do Rosário, Maria; Sampaio, Aline S; Vallada, Homero; Nicolini, Humberto; Lanzagorta, Nuria; Camarena, Beatriz; Delorme, Richard; Leboyer, Marion; Pato, Carlos N; Pato, Michele T; Voyiaziakis, Emanuel; Heutink, Peter; Cath, Danielle C; Posthuma, Danielle; Smit, Jan H; Samuels, Jack; Bienvenu, O Joseph; Cullen, Bernadette; Fyer, Abby J; Grados, Marco A; Greenberg, Benjamin D; McCracken, James T; Riddle, Mark A; Wang, Ying; Coric, Vladimir; Leckman, James F; Bloch, Michael; Pittenger, Christopher; Eapen, Valsamma; Black, Donald W; Ophoff, Roel A; Strengman, Eric; Cusi, Daniele; Turiel, Maurizio; Frau, Francesca; Macciardi, Fabio; Gibbs, J Raphael; Cookson, Mark R; Singleton, Andrew; Hardy, John; Crenshaw, Andrew T; Parkin, Melissa A; Mirel, Daniel B; Conti, David V; Purcell, Shaun; Nestadt, Gerald; Hanna, Gregory L; Jenike, Michael A; Knowles, James A; Cox, Nancy; Pauls, David L

    2014-01-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a common, debilitating neuropsychiatric illness with complex genetic etiology. The International OCD Foundation Genetics Collaborative (IOCDF-GC) is a multi-national collaboration established to discover the genetic variation predisposing to OCD. A set of individuals affected with DSM-IV OCD, a subset of their parents, and unselected controls, were genotyped with several different Illumina SNP microarrays. After extensive data cleaning, 1,465 cases, 5,557 ancestry-matched controls and 400 complete trios remained, with a common set of 469,410 autosomal and 9,657 X-chromosome SNPs. Ancestry-stratified case-control association analyses were conducted for three genetically-defined subpopulations and combined in two meta-analyses, with and without the trio-based analysis. In the case-control analysis, the lowest two p-values were located within DLGAP1 (p=2.49×10-6 and p=3.44×10-6), a member of the neuronal postsynaptic density complex. In the trio analysis, rs6131295, near BTBD3, exceeded the genome-wide significance threshold with a p-value=3.84 × 10-8. However, when trios were meta-analyzed with the combined case-control samples, the p-value for this variant was 3.62×10-5, losing genome-wide significance. Although no SNPs were identified to be associated with OCD at a genome-wide significant level in the combined trio-case-control sample, a significant enrichment of methylation-QTLs (p<0.001) and frontal lobe eQTLs (p=0.001) was observed within the top-ranked SNPs (p<0.01) from the trio-case-control analysis, suggesting these top signals may have a broad role in gene expression in the brain, and possibly in the etiology of OCD. PMID:22889921

  8. Genome-wide association study of obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    PubMed

    Stewart, S E; Yu, D; Scharf, J M; Neale, B M; Fagerness, J A; Mathews, C A; Arnold, P D; Evans, P D; Gamazon, E R; Davis, L K; Osiecki, L; McGrath, L; Haddad, S; Crane, J; Hezel, D; Illman, C; Mayerfeld, C; Konkashbaev, A; Liu, C; Pluzhnikov, A; Tikhomirov, A; Edlund, C K; Rauch, S L; Moessner, R; Falkai, P; Maier, W; Ruhrmann, S; Grabe, H-J; Lennertz, L; Wagner, M; Bellodi, L; Cavallini, M C; Richter, M A; Cook, E H; Kennedy, J L; Rosenberg, D; Stein, D J; Hemmings, S M J; Lochner, C; Azzam, A; Chavira, D A; Fournier, E; Garrido, H; Sheppard, B; Umaña, P; Murphy, D L; Wendland, J R; Veenstra-VanderWeele, J; Denys, D; Blom, R; Deforce, D; Van Nieuwerburgh, F; Westenberg, H G M; Walitza, S; Egberts, K; Renner, T; Miguel, E C; Cappi, C; Hounie, A G; Conceição do Rosário, M; Sampaio, A S; Vallada, H; Nicolini, H; Lanzagorta, N; Camarena, B; Delorme, R; Leboyer, M; Pato, C N; Pato, M T; Voyiaziakis, E; Heutink, P; Cath, D C; Posthuma, D; Smit, J H; Samuels, J; Bienvenu, O J; Cullen, B; Fyer, A J; Grados, M A; Greenberg, B D; McCracken, J T; Riddle, M A; Wang, Y; Coric, V; Leckman, J F; Bloch, M; Pittenger, C; Eapen, V; Black, D W; Ophoff, R A; Strengman, E; Cusi, D; Turiel, M; Frau, F; Macciardi, F; Gibbs, J R; Cookson, M R; Singleton, A; Hardy, J; Crenshaw, A T; Parkin, M A; Mirel, D B; Conti, D V; Purcell, S; Nestadt, G; Hanna, G L; Jenike, M A; Knowles, J A; Cox, N; Pauls, D L

    2013-07-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a common, debilitating neuropsychiatric illness with complex genetic etiology. The International OCD Foundation Genetics Collaborative (IOCDF-GC) is a multi-national collaboration established to discover the genetic variation predisposing to OCD. A set of individuals affected with DSM-IV OCD, a subset of their parents, and unselected controls, were genotyped with several different Illumina SNP microarrays. After extensive data cleaning, 1465 cases, 5557 ancestry-matched controls and 400 complete trios remained, with a common set of 469,410 autosomal and 9657 X-chromosome single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Ancestry-stratified case-control association analyses were conducted for three genetically-defined subpopulations and combined in two meta-analyses, with and without the trio-based analysis. In the case-control analysis, the lowest two P-values were located within DLGAP1 (P=2.49 × 10(-6) and P=3.44 × 10(-6)), a member of the neuronal postsynaptic density complex. In the trio analysis, rs6131295, near BTBD3, exceeded the genome-wide significance threshold with a P-value=3.84 × 10(-8). However, when trios were meta-analyzed with the case-control samples, the P-value for this variant was 3.62 × 10(-5), losing genome-wide significance. Although no SNPs were identified to be associated with OCD at a genome-wide significant level in the combined trio-case-control sample, a significant enrichment of methylation QTLs (P<0.001) and frontal lobe expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs) (P=0.001) was observed within the top-ranked SNPs (P<0.01) from the trio-case-control analysis, suggesting these top signals may have a broad role in gene expression in the brain, and possibly in the etiology of OCD. PMID:22889921

  9. Comparison of Perfectionism and Related Positive-Negative Dimension in People With High Traits on Obsessive Compulsive and Eating Disorder Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Yahghoubi, Hassan; Mohammadzadeh, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Background: Psychopathological perfectionism is often correlated with obsessive compulsive eating disorders. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate perfectionism in people with high traits of obsessive compulsive and eating disorder characteristics. Materials and Methods: This study was an expo fact research. The statistical population of the research comprised of male and female undergraduate students at Tabriz and Sarab branches of Payam- e- Noor University, Tabriz Islamic University and Azarbaijan Shahid Madani university in the academic year 2012 - 2013. A group of 640 university students, using the stratified random sampling method were screened by the obsessive compulsive inventory and the eating attitude test, then a group of 143 participants with high obsessive compulsive traits with another 137 participants with high eating disorder characteristics were selected and assessed with the Perfectionism Inventory. Data were analyzed using one way analysis of variance. Results: The results showed that perfectionism and related negative dimension are more commonly found in people with high obsessive-compulsive traits than eating disorder characteristics (P < 0.02). The results showed the highest contribution of maladaptive perfectionism in predicting obsessive-compulsive features and pathological eating attitude. Also, no difference was found between the two groups in terms of negative perfectionism. Conclusions: The greater association of perfectionism with symptoms of obsessive-compulsive is consistent with its phenomenological feature. Fear of failure may motivate the behavioral components of perfectionism that aim to focus on careful checking, reassurance seeking and excessive consideration before making a decision. PMID:26576174

  10. The Pediatric Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Treatment Study for Young Children (POTS jr): Developmental Considerations in the Rationale, Design, and Methods

    PubMed Central

    Freeman, Jennifer; Garcia, Abbe; Benito, Kristen; Conelea, Christine; Sapyta, Jeffrey; Khanna, Muniya; March, John; Franklin, Martin

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the rationale, design, and methods of the Pediatric Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) Treatment Study for young children (POTS Jr). The study is a multi-site randomized controlled trial (RCT) of family-based Cognitive Behavioral Treatment (CBT) vs. family-based Relaxation Therapy (RT) for young children (ages 5–8) with OCD, which examines the effect of treatment on symptom reduction, functional impairment, and quality of life. Secondary aims evaluate: potential moderators and mediators of treatment response, differences in time course of response, retention rates, and maintenance of treatment gains over one year post-treatment. The sample included 127 children (53% female) and their parents. With regard to ethnicity, 89% of the sample described themselves as non-Hispanic, 5% Hispanic/Latino, and 6% did not endorse a category. In terms of race, the sample was predominantly (91%) White. Because the rationale and methods of the multi-site RCT have been well established, we emphasize here the methodological aspects of the study that were tailored to meet the developmental needs of young children with OCD. Aspects that are highlighted include: choice of control group, inclusion/exclusion criteria, assessment/measurement issues, treatment adaptations, training, and recruitment. PMID:23181244

  11. Stress situations of daily living in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder: a retrospective case note study.

    PubMed

    Tarumi, Shin; Tashiiro, Nobutada

    2004-02-01

    About 40% of patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) are said to have treatment-refractory symptoms and chronic course of illness in spite of cognitive-behavior therapy and pharmacotherapy. The present purpose was to investigate factors relevant to OCD patients' chronic course and disturbed daily functions in view of human basic needs based on Maslow's hierarchy of five basic needs. Case notes of 101 outpatients with OCD (47 men and 54 women who were 18 to 55 years old) and seen on a psychiatry unit of a general hospital were studied to explore their stressful situations and identify thwarted basic needs. 84 of the 101 patients had Love Needs, and Esteem Needs (n = 47) and Safety Needs (n = 45) were next. The Poor-functioning group mainly had histories with problems of Safety Needs (70.8%), while the Good-functioning group tended to mainly have problems of Esteem Needs (51.5%) rather than Safety Needs (33.3%). 57 patients (23 men and 34 women) who were treated for more than three months were divided into two groups according to their Global Assessment of Functioning score at the final assessment (cut-off point: 61); patients in the Good-functioning group tended to have problems of higher needs. PMID:15077758

  12. The Risk of Cancer in Patients With Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Cheng-Che; Hu, Li-Yu; Hu, Yu-Wen; Chang, Wen-Han; Tang, Pei-Ling; Chen, Pan-Ming; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Su, Tung-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Previous studies suggest a link between anxiety disorders and cancer. The aim of the study was to evaluate the risk of cancer among patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) using a nationwide population-based dataset. We recruited newly diagnosed OCD patients without antecedent cancer from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database between 2002 and 2011. The standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) were estimated for 22 specific cancer types among OCD patients and we determined the SIRs for subgroups according to age and sex group. In addition, because of a potential detection bias, a subgroup analysis stratified with the duration of the OCD diagnosis was carried out. Among the 52,656 OCD patients, who were followed up for 259,945 person-years (median follow-up = 4.9 years), there were 718 cases of cancer. Patients with OCD did not exhibit an increased overall cancer risk relative to the general population (SIR 1.05, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.98–1.13). An increased SIR was observed among OCD patients only within the first year of OCD diagnosis (SIR 1.21, 95% CI 1.01–1.43). This study indicated that the overall cancer risk was not elevated among OCD patients. An increased SIR observed among OCD patients within the first year of OCD diagnosis may be caused by a surveillance bias, and because paraneoplastic manifestations presented with obsessive-compulsive behaviors. Prospective study is necessary to confirm these findings. PMID:26945419

  13. The OCD Collaborative Genetics Study: Methods and Sample Description

    PubMed Central

    Samuels, Jack F.; Riddle, Mark A.; Greenberg, Benjamin D.; Fyer, Abby J.; McCracken, James T.; Rauch, Scott L.; Murphy, Dennis L.; Grados, Marco A.; Pinto, Anthony; Knowles, James A.; Piacentini, John; Cannistraro, Paul A.; Cullen, Bernadette; Bienvenu, O. Joseph; Rasmussen, Steven A.; Pauls, David L.; Willour, Virginia L.; Shugart, Yin Y.; Liang, Kung-yee; Hoehn-Saric, Rudolf; Nestadt, Gerald

    2008-01-01

    Results from twin and family studies suggest that obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) may be transmitted in families but, to date, genes for the disorder have not been identified. The OCD Collaborative Genetics Study (OCGS) is a six-site collaborative genetic linkage study of OCD. Specimens and blinded clinical data will be made available through the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) cell repository. In this initial report, we describe the methods of the study and present clinical characteristics of affected individuals for researchers interested in this valuable resource for genetic studies of OCD. The project clinically evaluated and collected blood specimens from 238 families containing 299 OCD-affected sibling pairs and their parents, and additional affected relative pairs, for a genome-wide linkage study. Of the 999 individuals interviewed to date, 624 were diagnosed with “definite” OCD. The mean age of subjects was 36 years (range 7-95). The majority of affected individuals (66%) were female. The mean age at onset of obsessive-compulsive symptoms was 9.5 years. Specific mood disorders, anxiety disorders, eating disorders, and skin picking were more prevalent in female cases, whereas tics, Tourette disorder, and alcohol dependence were more prevalent in male cases. Compared to “definite” cases of OCD, “probable” cases (n=82) had, on average, later age at onset of obsessive-compulsive symptoms, lower severity score, and fewer numbers of different categories of obsessions and compulsions, and they were less likely to have received treatment for their symptoms. PMID:16511842

  14. The Risk of Cancer in Patients With Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: A Nationwide Population-Based Retrospective Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Shen, Cheng-Che; Hu, Li-Yu; Hu, Yu-Wen; Chang, Wen-Han; Tang, Pei-Ling; Chen, Pan-Ming; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Su, Tung-Ping

    2016-03-01

    Previous studies suggest a link between anxiety disorders and cancer. The aim of the study was to evaluate the risk of cancer among patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) using a nationwide population-based dataset.We recruited newly diagnosed OCD patients without antecedent cancer from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database between 2002 and 2011. The standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) were estimated for 22 specific cancer types among OCD patients and we determined the SIRs for subgroups according to age and sex group. In addition, because of a potential detection bias, a subgroup analysis stratified with the duration of the OCD diagnosis was carried out.Among the 52,656 OCD patients, who were followed up for 259,945 person-years (median follow-up = 4.9 years), there were 718 cases of cancer. Patients with OCD did not exhibit an increased overall cancer risk relative to the general population (SIR 1.05, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.98-1.13). An increased SIR was observed among OCD patients only within the first year of OCD diagnosis (SIR 1.21, 95% CI 1.01-1.43).This study indicated that the overall cancer risk was not elevated among OCD patients. An increased SIR observed among OCD patients within the first year of OCD diagnosis may be caused by a surveillance bias, and because paraneoplastic manifestations presented with obsessive-compulsive behaviors. Prospective study is necessary to confirm these findings. PMID:26945419

  15. A Voxel Based Morphometry Study of Brain Gray Matter Volumes in Juvenile Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Jayarajan, Rajan Nishanth; Agarwal, Sri Mahavir; Viswanath, Biju; Kalmady, Sunil V.; Venkatasubramanian, Ganesan; Srinath, Shoba; Chandrashekar, C.R.; Janardhan Reddy, Y.C.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Adult patients with Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) have been shown to have gray matter (GM) volume differences from healthy controls in multiple regions – the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), medial frontal gyri (MFG), striatum, thalamus, and superior parietal lobule. However, there is paucity of data with regard to juvenile OCD. Hence, we examined GM volume differences between juvenile OCD patients and matched healthy controls using voxel based morphometry (VBM) with the above apriori regions of interest. Method: Fifteen right handed juvenile patients with OCD and age- sex- handedness- matched healthy controls were recruited after administering the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview-KID and the Children’s Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale, and scanned using a 3 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging scanner. VBM methodology was followed. Results: In comparison with healthy controls, patients had significantly smaller GM volumes in left ACC. YBOCS total score (current) showed significant negative correlation with GM volumes in bilateral OFC, and left superior parietal lobule. Conclusion: These findings while reiterating the important role of the orbito-fronto-striatal circuitry, also implicate in the parietal lobe – especially the superior parietal lobule as an important structure involved in the pathogenesis of OCD. PMID:26379719

  16. Memory deficits in patients with DSM-IV obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    PubMed

    Zitterl, W; Urban, C; Linzmayer, L; Aigner, M; Demal, U; Semler, B; Zitterl-Eglseer, K

    2001-01-01

    Neuropsychological testing provides increasing evidence that certain memory deficits might play an essential role in the emergence of doubts and, as a result, in perpetuating checkers' rituals. Another account of doubting implicates meta-cognitive factors, such as confidence in memory. The present study examined mnestic functioning and self-perception of memory ability in a group of 27 nondepressed patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and 27 normal controls. All patients met DSM-IV and ICD-10 criteria for OCD, displayed prominent behavioral checking rituals and had to show a score on the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS) of at least 16. Significant deficits in intermediate (Lern- und Gedächtnistest; LGT-3) and immediate (Corsi Block-Tapping Test) nonverbal memory were identified in the patients with OCD compared to normal controls. Contrary to predictions, OCD patients also showed a significant deficit in general memory and verbal memory (LGT-3). With respect to meta-cognition, OCD patients reported less confidence in their memories than controls. These findings suggest that obsessional doubt reflects a deficit in memory as well as a deficit in memory confidence. Depending on which dysfunction predominates, different therapeutic procedures seem to be required. PMID:11316955

  17. DNA damage and antioxidants in treatment naïve children with obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    PubMed

    Şimşek, Şeref; Gençoğlan, Salih; Yüksel, Tuğba

    2016-03-30

    The current study aimed to investigate whether serum antioxidant levels and DNA damage differ between the children and adolescents with Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) and healthy controls. The study included 31 children (Male/Female, 22/9; age range 7-17 years), with treatment naïve OCD diagnosed according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-V (DSM-V) and 28 age- and gender-matched healthy control subjects. Children's Yale Brown Obsession Compulsion Scale (CY-BOC) was applied to the children. Glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase (SOD), coenzyme Q (CoQ), and 8-Hydroxy-2-Deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) were all measured by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method. GPx, CoQ and 8-OHdG levels were found to be significantly higher in the OCD group, compared to the control group (p=0.010, p=0.034, p=0.010, respectively); however, no significant difference was found in the SOD levels between two groups (p=0.10). There were no correlations between the CY-BOC scores, depression scores, duration of the disease and biochemical parameters (p>0.05, for all). Children with OCD were found to have higher antioxidant levels and oxidative DNA damage. The findings of this study support the role of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of OCD. In this regard, any possible effect of adding antioxidants to conventional treatment can be investigated. PMID:26833278

  18. An attentional inhibitory deficit for irrelevant information in obsessive-compulsive disorder: evidence from ERPs.

    PubMed

    Fan, Jie; Zhong, Mingtian; Zhu, Xiongzhao; Lei, Hui; Dong, Jiaojiao; Zhou, Cheng; Liu, Wanting

    2014-12-01

    Previous studies on attentional bias have demonstrated that patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) have an overall longer reaction time (RT) for various stimuli. It was hypothesized that this general slowness may indicate the presence of an attentional inhibition deficit in OCD. To test the hypothesis, event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded in 31 non-medicated OCD patients and 29 age-, handedness- and sex-matched healthy controls while they performed an emotional Stroop task (EST). Relative to the control subjects, the OCD patients had similar interference effects for negative words, but an overall longer RT and larger P2 and P3 amplitudes to all words. These results support the notion that OCD is characterized by an attentional inhibitory dysfunction for irrelevant information. PMID:25448270

  19. The effect of personality disorders on treatment outcomes in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorders.

    PubMed

    Thiel, Nicola; Hertenstein, Elisabeth; Nissen, Christoph; Herbst, Nirmal; Külz, Anne Katrin; Voderholzer, Ulrich

    2013-12-01

    The effect of comorbid personality disorders (PD) on treatment outcomes in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is unclear. The authors systematically review results from investigations of therapy outcomes in adult patients with OCD and a comorbid PD. PsycINFO and MEDLINE were searched for original articles. Twenty-three studies assessing PDs through interviews were selected. Cluster A PDs, particularly schizotypal PD, narcissistic PD, and the presence of two or more comorbid PDs, were associated with poorer treatment outcomes in patients with OCD. With regard to other PDs and clusters, the results are inconsistent or the sample sizes are too small to reach a conclusion. OCD patients with different comorbid PDs differ in their therapeutic response to treatment. To optimize the treatment of OCD, the predictive value of PDs on the treatment outcome should be further investigated, and treatment of Axis I and II comorbidity requires more attention. PMID:23795757

  20. Obsessive-compulsive disorder is associated with broad impairments in executive function: A meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Snyder, Hannah R.; Kaiser, Roselinde H.; Warren, Stacie L.; Heller, Wendy

    2014-01-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a serious and often chronically disabling condition. The current dominant model of OCD focuses on abnormalities in prefrontal-striatal circuits that support executive function (EF). While there is growing evidence for EF impairments associated with OCD, results have been inconsistent, making the nature and magnitude of these impairments controversial. The current meta-analysis uses random-effects models to synthesize 110 previous studies that compared participants with OCD to healthy control participants on at least one neuropsychological measure of EF. The results indicate that individuals with OCD are impaired on tasks measuring most aspects of EF, consistent with broad impairment in EF. EF deficits were not explained by general motor slowness or depression. Effect sizes were largely stable across variation in demographic and clinical characteristics of samples, although medication use, age, and gender moderated some effects. PMID:25755918