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1

Structure of Obsessive-Compulsive Symptoms in Pediatric OCD  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The investigation of the structure of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) symptoms observed in adults is similar to those observed in children is presented. This investigation indicates the structure of OCD symptoms is the same across the entire lifespan as compared to pediatric OCD and adulthood OCD.|

Mataix-Cols, David; Nakatani, Eriko; Micali, Nadia; Heyman, Isobel

2008-01-01

2

Symptom clusters in obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD): influence of age and age of onset  

Microsoft Academic Search

Obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) is an ailment of heterogeneous nature. It is believed that the age of onset determines\\u000a the subtype of juvenile OCD. The objective of our study was to evaluate the rates of symptoms’ contents and the age of manifestation\\u000a of the various OCD symptoms in adolescents and adults with early and late onset of disorder. Both authors independently

Agnieszka Butwicka; Agnieszka Gmitrowicz

2010-01-01

3

Symptom Profiles in Pediatric Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD): The Effects of Comorbid Grooming Conditions  

PubMed Central

This study sought to examine possible differences in phenomenological features and/or symptom severity of children diagnosed with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and a comorbid grooming condition (i.e., skin picking, trichotillomania). A total of 202 children receiving a primary diagnosis of OCD were classified into two distinct groups: (1) OCD alone (n = 154) and (2) OCD plus a comorbid grooming condition (OCD + grooming; n = 48). Analyses revealed that those children presenting with a comorbid grooming condition demonstrated different symptom profiles than those with OCD alone. In addition, parents of these children were more likely to report the presence of tactile/sensory sensitivity than those in the OCD alone group. However, no differences were found with respect to symptom severity via self-report (e.g., OCI) or semi-structured interview (e.g., CY-BOCS). Possible clinical and treatment implications, future areas of research, and limitations to the present study are discussed.

Flessner, Christopher A.; Berman, Noah; Garcia, Abbe; Freeman, Jennifer B.; Leonard, Henrietta L.

2009-01-01

4

Insight into Obsessive-Compulsive Symptoms and Awareness of Illness in Adolescent Schizophrenia Patients with and without OCD  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A substantial proportion of adolescent schizophrenia patients also has obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). As the reliability of OCD identification in schizophrenia has been challenged, we evaluated insight into OCD symptoms and awareness of schizophrenia, using the Brown Assessment of Beliefs Scale and the Scale to Assess Unawareness of Mental…

Faragian, Sarit; Kurs, Rena; Poyurovsky, Michael

2008-01-01

5

Hoarding and Obsessive-Compulsive Symptoms.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Researches the relation between hoarding and obsessive-compulsive disorders (OCD). In both college student and community samples, hoarding was associated with higher scores on the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale. Hoarding also was associated with higher levels of general psychopathology as measured by the Brief Symptom Inventory. Results…

Frost, Randy O.; And Others

1996-01-01

6

Obsessive-compulsive symptoms in patients with panic disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Comorbidity studies have shown an important association between panic disorder (PD) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The aim of the current study was to evaluate the prevalence of obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCS) and OCD in patients with PD. Forty-eight consecutive PD cases (DSM-IV diagnostic criteria) referred to a Brazilian university hospital clinic were studied. The Yale Brown Obsessive Compulsive scale (Y-BOCS) checklist

Albina Rodrigues Torres; André Marcelo Dedomenico; André Luiz Crepaldi; Eur??pedes Constantino Miguel

2004-01-01

7

Comorbid obsessive–compulsive personality disorder in obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD): A marker of severity  

Microsoft Academic Search

IntroductionComorbid obsessive–compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) is well-described in obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD). It remains unclear, however, whether OCPD in OCD represents a distinct subtype of OCD or whether it is simply a marker of severity in OCD.

Christine Lochner; Paul Serebro; Lize van der Merwe; Sian Hemmings; Craig Kinnear; Soraya Seedat; Dan J. Stein

2011-01-01

8

Delayed Bedtimes and Obsessive Compulsive Symptoms  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is increasing recognition of an important interplay between psychiatric disorders and sleep. Clinical observations and several empirical studies have shown that later bedtimes are associated with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The current study examined the relationship of delayed bedtimes and symptoms of OCD. Two-hundred and sixty-six undergraduates completed a battery of questionnaires assessing sleep patterns, mood, and OC symptoms. Results

Meredith E. Coles; Jessica R. Schubert; Katherine M. Sharkey

2012-01-01

9

Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD)  

MedlinePLUS

... dislikes, or having thoughts that are prohibited by religious beliefs. People with OCD may also be preoccupied ... violence; hurting loved ones; sexual acts; conflicts with religious beliefs; or being overly tidy Do the same ...

10

Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD)  

MedlinePLUS

... cause distressing emotions such as anxiety or disgust. People with OCD recognize that the thoughts, impulses, or images are ... treated by augmenting SRIs with other medications or with ... alone. Successful treatment may improve the individual's ability to attend ...

11

Obsessive-compulsive symptoms in pregnancy and the puerperium  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, we review the available research on postpartum obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Most studies are retrospective in nature, thus not answering questions as to overall prevalence of such symptoms. However, there are consistent findings with regard to symptom profile: obsessional thoughts in postpartum OCD tend to concern fears of harm to the infant. We discuss distinctions between postpartum OCD

Jonathan S. Abramowitz; Stefanie A. Schwartz; Katherine M. Moore; Kristi R. Luenzmann

2003-01-01

12

Clinical correlates of worsening in obsessive–compulsive symptoms during pregnancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined clinical factors related to worsening of obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) in pregnant women. For comorbid diagnoses at the onset of pregnancy and frequency of several obsessive–compulsive symptoms, there was a significant difference between women whose OCD worsened during the pregnancy and those in whom the OCD did not worsen.

Faruk Uguz; Veli Kaya; Kazim Gezginc; Fatih Kayhan; Erdinc Cicek

2011-01-01

13

Clinical correlates of worsening in obsessive-compulsive symptoms during pregnancy.  

PubMed

This study examined clinical factors related to worsening of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) in pregnant women. For comorbid diagnoses at the onset of pregnancy and frequency of several obsessive-compulsive symptoms, there was a significant difference between women whose OCD worsened during the pregnancy and those in whom the OCD did not worsen. PMID:21596214

Uguz, Faruk; Kaya, Veli; Gezginc, Kazim; Kayhan, Fatih; Cicek, Erdinc

2011-03-04

14

The structure of obsessive-compulsive symptoms  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study, the structure of obsessive-compulsive symptoms was investigated by means of the Padua Inventory (PI). Simultaneous Components Analysis on data from obsessive-compulsives (n = 206), patients with other anxiety disorders (n = 222), and a non clinical sample (n = 430) revealed a five-factor solution. These factors are: (I) impulses; (II) washing; (III) checking; (IV) rumination; and

Patricia Van Oppen; Rense J. Hoekstra; Paul M. G. Emmelkamp

1995-01-01

15

Clinical features of children and adolescents with obsessive-compulsive disorder and hoarding symptoms  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveThis study was conducted to examine whether pediatric patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and hoarding symptoms differed in terms of clinical characteristics from pediatric OCD patients without hoarding symptoms.

Eric A. Storch; Caleb W. Lack; Lisa J. Merlo; Gary R. Geffken; Marni L. Jacob; Tanya K. Murphy; Wayne K. Goodman

2007-01-01

16

Symptom dimensions in obsessive-compulsive disorder: prediction of cognitive-behavior therapy outcome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: A significant number of patients with obsessive- compulsive disorder (OCD) fail to benefit sufficiently from treatments. This study aimed to evaluate whether certain OCD symptom dimensions were associated with cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) outcome. Method: Symptoms of 104 CBT-treated in-patients with OCD were assessed with the clinician-rated Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale symptom checklist. Logistic regression analyses examined outcome predictors. Results: The

M. Rufer; S. Fricke; S. Moritz; M. Kloss; I. Hand

2006-01-01

17

Hoarding in obsessive–compulsive disorder: Results from the OCD Collaborative Genetics Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hoarding behavior occurs frequently in obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD). Results from previous studies suggest that individuals with OCD who have hoarding symptoms are clinically different than non-hoarders and may represent a distinct clinical group. In the present study, we compared 235 hoarding to 389 non-hoarding participants, all of whom had OCD, collected in the course of the OCD Collaborative Genetics Study.

Jack F. Samuels; O. Joseph Bienvenu; Anthony Pinto; Abby J. Fyer; James T. McCracken; Scott L. Rauch; Dennis L. Murphy; Marco A. Grados; Benjamin D. Greenberg; James A. Knowles; John Piacentini; Paul A. Cannistraro; Bernadette Cullen; Mark A. Riddle; Steven A. Rasmussen; David L. Pauls; Virginia L. Willour; Yin Y. Shugart; Kung-yee Liang; Rudolf Hoehn-Saric; Gerald Nestadt

2007-01-01

18

The structure of obsessive-compulsive symptoms.  

PubMed

In the present study, the structure of obsessive-compulsive symptoms was investigated by means of the Padua Inventory (PI). Simultaneous Components Analysis on data from obsessive-compulsives (n = 206), patients with other anxiety disorders (n = 222), and a non clinical sample (n = 430) revealed a five-factor solution. These factors are: (I) impulses; (II) washing; (III) checking; (IV) rumination; and (V) precision. Forty-one items were selected as measure of these factors. The reliability for the five subscales, assessing each of the five factors, was found to be satisfactory to excellent. Four subscales (washing, checking, rumination and precision) discriminated between panic disorder patients, social phobics and normals on the one hand and obsessive compulsives on the other. The Impulses subscale discriminated between obsessive-compulsives on the one hand and normals on the other, but not between obsessive-compulsives and social phobics or panic patients. Some evidence in support of the construct validity was found. The Padua Inventory-Revised (41-items) appears to measure the structure of obsessive compulsive symptoms: The main types of behaviours and obsessions as seen clinically are assessed by this questionnaire, apart from obsessional slowness. PMID:7872933

Van Oppen, P; Hoekstra, R J; Emmelkamp, P M

1995-01-01

19

Aripiprazole Improved Obsessive Compulsive Symptoms in Asperger's Disorder  

PubMed Central

There are many comorbid disorders associated with autism spectrum disorders in child and adolescent population. Although obsessive compulsive disorder and autism spectrum disorders (ASD) comorbidity has common in clinical practice, there are few reports about psychopharmacological treatment for obsessive compulsive symptoms in children with ASD in the literacy. We report a successful treatment case with aripiprazole in Asperger's Disorder with obsessive compulsive symptoms. The Yale Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale was performed to assess symptom variety. This case report supports the effectiveness of aripiprazole in treatment of obsessive compulsive symptoms in Asperger's Disorder or ASDs. Aripiprazole may be beneficial to obsessive compulsive disorder comorbid autism spectrum disorders in child and adolescent age group.

Tahiroglu, Aysegul Yolga; Firat, Sunay; Avci, Ayse

2011-01-01

20

Female hormones affect symptom severity in obsessive-compulsive disorder.  

PubMed

There is circumstantial evidence that reproductive events can influence symptom severity of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). We sent self-report questionnaires to 350 female outpatients with OCD to examine the relationship between the menstrual cycle, pregnancy, menopause, hormonal contraceptives, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and symptom severity of OCD. Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale scores were used at three serial time points during the menstrual cycle to assess symptom severity. One hundred and one out of 350 questionnaires (29%) were returned and completed. Forty-nine patients reported an exacerbation of OCD symptoms during the premenstrual period, nine during the menopause and 17 patients during pregnancy, whereas 11 patients mentioned improvement of OCD symptoms during pregnancy. Premenstrual dysphoric disorder could only partly explain a premenstrual exacerbation of OCD symptoms. Exacerbation of OCD could be related to reproductive events in a considerable number of patients, especially the premenstrum. Because reproductive cycle events influence the symptom severity of OCD, the menstrual cycle should be taken into account when assessing the severity of OCD symptoms during pharmacological studies. PMID:16528139

Vulink, Nienke C C; Denys, Damiaan; Bus, Léonie; Westenberg, Herman G M

2006-05-01

21

Latent Class Analysis of YBOCS Symptoms in Obsessive Compulsive Disorder  

PubMed Central

Objective Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is phenomenologically heterogeneous, and findings of underlying structure classification based on symptom grouping have been ambiguous to date. Variable-centered approaches, primarily factor analysis, have been used to identify homogeneous groups of symptoms, but person-centered latent methods have seen little use. This study was designed to uncover sets of homogeneous groupings within 1611 individuals with OCD, based on symptoms. Method Latent class analysis (LCA) models using 61 obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCS) collected from the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale were fit. Relationships between latent class membership and treatment response, gender, symptom severity and comorbid tic disorders were tested for relationship to class membership. Results LCA models of best fit yielded three classes. Classes differed only in frequency of symptom endorsement. Classes with higher symptom endorsement were associated with earlier age of onset, being male, higher YBOCS symptom severity scores, and comorbid tic disorders. There were no differences in treatment response between classes. Conclusions These results provide support for the validity of a single underlying latent OCD construct, in addition to the distinct symptom factors identified previously via factor analyses.

Delucchi, Kevin L.; Katerberg, Hilga; Stewart, S. Evelyn; Denys, Damiaan A.J.P.; Lochner, Christine; Stack, Denise E.; den Boer, Johan A.; van Balkom, Anton J.L.M.; Jenike, Michael A.; Stein, Dan J.; Cath, Danielle C.; Mathews, Carol A.

2010-01-01

22

Incompleteness as a Link between Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Traits and Specific Symptom Dimensions of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder.  

PubMed

This paper examines the contribution of incompleteness/'not just right experiences' (NJREs) to an understanding of the relationship between obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and obsessive-compulsive personality traits (OCPTs). It investigates the association of specific OCD symptom dimensions with OCPTs, conceptualized as continuous phenomena that are also observable below the diagnostic threshold. As empirical findings and clinical observation suggest that incompleteness feelings/NJREs may play a significant affective and motivational role for certain OCD subtypes, but also for patients with accentuated OCPTs, we hypothesized that OCPTs are selectively linked with incompleteness-associated OCD symptom dimensions (ordering, checking, hoarding and counting). Moreover, we assumed that this selective relationship cannot be demonstrated any more after statistical control of incompleteness, whereas it is preserved after statistical control of anxiety, depression, pathological worry and harm avoidance. Results from a study with a large clinical sample (n?=?185) partially support these hypotheses and suggest that NJREs may be an important connecting link between specific OCD symptom dimensions, in particular ordering and checking, and accentuated OCPTs. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. KEY PRACTITIONER MESSAGE: Obsessive-compulsive personality traits (OCPTs) are positively related to obsessive-compulsive disorder symptom dimensions (ordering, checking, hoarding and counting) hypothesized or found to be associated with incompleteness/'not just right experiences' (NJREs), but not to washing and obsessions. This positive relationship, which is strongest for ordering and checking, is eliminated when NJREs are statistically controlled. Ordering, checking and accentuated OCPTs may share NJREs as a common affective-motivational underpinning. Dysfunctional behaviour patterns of people with accentuated OCPTs or obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) may be viewed as efforts to avoid or reduce subjectively intolerable NJREs. On the basis of such a conceptualization of OCPD as an emotional disorder, a novel treatment approach for OCPD focusing on habituation to NJREs could be developed. PMID:23650140

Ecker, Willi; Kupfer, Jochen; Gönner, Sascha

2013-05-01

23

The Maudsley Obsessive–Compulsive Stimuli Set: Validation of a standardized paradigm for symptom-specific provocation in obsessive–compulsive disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes and further validates a standardized symptom-provocation procedure that combines symptom-specific audio instructions and pictures to reliably provoke different kinds of symptom-specific anxiety in obsessive–compulsive disorder, corresponding to its four major symptom dimensions: contamination\\/washing, obsessions\\/checking, hoarding and symmetry\\/order. The Maudsley Obsessive–Compulsive Stimuli Set has excellent convergent and discriminant validity, and it will be a useful resource for OCD

David Mataix-Cols; Natalia S. Lawrence; Sarah Wooderson; Anne Speckens; Mary L. Phillips

2009-01-01

24

Distinct neuropsychological profiles of three major symptom dimensions in obsessive–compulsive disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent neuroimaging studies have suggested that different symptom dimensions are mediated by partially distinct neural systems in obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD). However, the correlations between neuropsychological profiles and symptom dimensions in OCD are unknown. The aim of this study was to examine the extent to which OCD symptom dimensions were associated with episodic memory and attention and executive functions. The symptom

Nobuhiko Hashimoto; Shutaro Nakaaki; Ichiro M. Omori; Junko Fujioi; Yuka Noguchi; Yoshie Murata; Junko Sato; Hiroshi Tatsumi; Katsuyoshi Torii; Masaru Mimura; Toshi A. Furukawa

2011-01-01

25

Patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder and hoarding symptoms: A distinctive clinical subtype?  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated whether patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and hoarding symptoms can be differentiated from their counterparts with other types of obsessions and compulsions in terms of sociodemographic and clinical features. Ninety-seven patients with OCD were assessed with a sociodemographic and clinical questionnaire, the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID-I), the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI),

Leonardo F. Fontenelle; Mauro V. Mendlowicz; Isabela D. Soares; Márcio Versiani

2004-01-01

26

Dissociation and symptom dimensions of obsessive–compulsive disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) is a phenotypically very heterogeneous disease with high rates of comorbid psychiatric\\u000a pathology. Previous studies have indicated that OCD is associated with higher levels of dissociation. The aims of the present\\u000a study were to replicate and extend previous findings of a significant link between certain OCD symptom dimensions and dissociation.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  The study sample comprised 50 patients with

Michael Rufer; Susanne Fricke; Dada Held; Julia Cremer; Iver Hand

2006-01-01

27

Temporal stability of symptom dimensions in adult patients with obsessive–compulsive disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundAlthough symptoms of obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) are heterogeneous, considerable advances have been made in subtyping OCD based on factor-analysed symptom dimensions. However, there is very little empirical data on the longitudinal course of symptom dimensions in adult OCD.

Michael Rufer; Andreas Grothusen; Reinhard Maß; Helmut Peter; Iver Hand

2005-01-01

28

Mood, personality disorder symptoms and disability in obsessive compulsive hoarders: a comparison with clinical and nonclinical controls  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hoarding is a symptom of obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), as well as a diagnostic criterion for obsessive compulsive personality disorder (OCPD). One recent study suggests that people who suffer from compulsive hoarding report more general psychopathology than people who do not [Frost, R.O., Krause, M.S., & Steketee, G. (1996). Hoarding and obsessive compulsive symptoms. Behavior Modification, 20, 116–132]. The present

Randy O. Frost; Gail Steketee; Lauren F. Williams; Ricks Warren

2000-01-01

29

Memory bias in obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD)  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a memory bias associated with depression, and good reason to expect a memory bias associated with anxiety. However, the results of studies reported to date have been ambiguous. Accordingly, an experiment was conducted to assess memory for contamination in people with different types of anxiety.Memory for contaminated stimuli among participants who met DSM-IV criteria for obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD)

Adam S Radomsky; S Rachman

1999-01-01

30

Obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) with schizotypy vs. schizophrenia with OCD: diagnostic dilemmas and therapeutic implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although schizophrenia and obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) are distinct diagnostic entities, there are substantial areas of overlap between the two disorders in clinical characteristics, affected brain areas and pharmacotherapy. Though OCD patients apparently do not have increased risk for developing schizophrenia, schizotypal personality disorder has consistently been found in OCD patients. Compelling evidence also points to an increased rate of OCD

M. Poyurovsky; L. M. Koran

2005-01-01

31

Clinical and Cognitive Correlates of Depressive Symptoms Among Youth with Obsessive Compulsive Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Depression is the most common comorbidity among adults with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), yet little is known about depressive symptoms in childhood OCD. This study examined clinical and cognitive variables associated with depressive symptomatology in 71 youths (62% male, M age = 12.7 years) with primary OCD. Youths presented with a range of depressive symptoms, with 21% scoring at or above the

Tara S. Peris; R. Lindsey Bergman; Joan R. Asarnow; Audra Langley; James T. McCracken; John Piacentini

2010-01-01

32

The status of hoarding as a symptom of obsessive–compulsive disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hoarding is considered by many to be a symptom of obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD). Yet although it is observed in people with OCD, hoarding symptoms also appear in a number of other psychological and psychiatric conditions. The present studies were conducted using samples of OCD patients, patients with other anxiety disorders, and a non-clinical sample to further elucidate the relationship between

Jonathan S. Abramowitz; Michael G. Wheaton; Eric A. Storch

2008-01-01

33

Impact of comorbid depressive symptoms on nonverbal memory and visuospatial performance in obsessive-compulsive disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction. Recent research has suggested that some executive dysfunctions in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) represent an epiphenomenon of comorbid depressive symptoms. The present study investigated whether the impact of comorbid depressive symptoms on cognitive dysfunction in OCD extends to nonverbal memory impairment. Methods. A total of 32 OCD patients and 20 healthy controls took part in the study. Participants were administered

Steffen Moritz; Martin Kloss; Holger Jahn; Mildred Schick; Iver Hand

2003-01-01

34

Relationship between obsessive–compulsive symptoms and smoking habits amongst schizophrenic patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rate of smoking is especially high among patients with schizophrenia (SCH) and schizoaffective disorder (SCHAFF). Patients with obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) smoke less than the general population. OCD symptoms are more frequent among patients with SCH or SCHAFF than in the general population, but it is still unclear whether schizophrenia patients with OC symptoms suffer from SCH and comorbid OCD,

Peter Dome; Zsofia Teleki; Xenia Gonda; Gabor Gaszner; Peter Mandl; Zoltan Rihmer

2006-01-01

35

Obsessive–compulsive disorder symptom dimensions show specific relationships to psychiatric comorbidity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goals of this study were to examine relationships among symptom categories in obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD), to establish OCD symptom dimensions by factor- and cluster-analytic analyses, and to explore associations between OCD symptom dimensions and comorbid neuropsychiatric conditions. A total of 317 OCD participants underwent a systematic diagnostic interview using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV. OCD symptoms assessed by

Gregor Hasler; V. Holland LaSalle-Ricci; Jonne G. Ronquillo; Sarah A. Crawley; Lauren W. Cochran; Diane Kazuba; Benjamin D. Greenberg; Dennis L. Murphy

2005-01-01

36

Clinical and Cognitive Correlates of Depressive Symptoms among Youth with Obsessive Compulsive Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Depression is the most common comorbidity among adults with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), yet little is known about depressive symptoms in childhood OCD. This study examined clinical and cognitive variables associated with depressive symptomatology in 71 youths (62% male, M age = 12.7 years) with primary OCD. Youths presented with a range…

Peris, Tara S.; Bergman, R. Lindsey; Asarnow, Joan R.; Langley, Audra; McCracken, James T.; Piacentini, John

2010-01-01

37

Measuring Change in OCD: Sensitivity of the Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory-Revised  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the sensitivity to change and specificity of response of the Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory-Revised (OCI-R), an 18-item self-report measure of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) severity. Seventy-seven OCD patients received cognitive-behavioral therapy incorporating exposure and response prevention (ERP). Change from pre- to posttest on the OCI-R was compared to changes as assessed by the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS) and other

Jonathan S. Abramowitz; David F. Tolin; Gretchen J. Diefenbach

2005-01-01

38

Perfectionism and Obsessive-Compulsive Symptoms  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was designed to determine whether perfectionism, as assessed by the revised almost perfect scale (APS-R; R. B.\\u000a Slaney, M. Mobley, J. Trippi, J. S. Ashby, & D. G. Johnson, 1996), was a significant predictor of obsessive-compulsive (OC)\\u000a symptoms in a non-clinical sample of 308 university students. Perfectionistic discrepancy emerged as a general predictor of\\u000a obsessive thought difficulties and

Kenneth G. Rice; Steven L. Pence

2006-01-01

39

Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder. [Revised.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This booklet provides an overview of the causes, symptoms, and incidence of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and addresses the key features of OCD, including obsessions, compulsions, realizations of senselessness, resistance, and shame and secrecy. Research findings into the causes of OCD are reviewed which indicate that the brains of…

Strock, Margaret

40

Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder. [Revised.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet provides an overview of the causes, symptoms, and incidence of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and addresses the key features of OCD, including obsessions, compulsions, realizations of senselessness, resistance, and shame and secrecy. Research findings into the causes of OCD are reviewed which indicate that the brains of…

Strock, Margaret

41

Obsessive–compulsive personality traits: How are they related to OCD severity?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous research has demonstrated that comorbid obsessive–compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) in patients with obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) is associated with greater overall OCD severity, functional impairment, and poorer treatment outcomes (Coles et al., 2008; Lochner et al., 2010; Pinto, 2009). However, research has only examined the effects of OCPD categorically and has yet to thoroughly examine the impact of individual OCPD

Chad T. Wetterneck; Tannah E. Little; Gregory S. Chasson; Angela H. Smith; John M. Hart; Melinda A. Stanley; Thröstur Björgvinsson

2011-01-01

42

A critical evaluation of obsessive–compulsive disorder subtypes: Symptoms versus mechanisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, experts have suggested that obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD), a highly heterogeneous condition, is actually composed of distinct subtypes. Research to identify specific subtypes of OCD has focused primarily on symptom presentation. Subtype models have been proposed using factor analyses that yield dimensional systems of symptom categories, but not necessarily distinct subtypes. Other empirical work has considered the role of neuropsychological

Dean McKay; Jonathan S. Abramowitz; John E. Calamari; Michael Kyrios; Adam Radomsky; Debbie Sookman; Steven Taylor; Sabine Wilhelm

2004-01-01

43

Obsessional Beliefs and Symptoms of Obsessive–Compulsive Disorder in a Clinical Sample  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationships among a broad range of obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD)\\u000a symptoms and obsessional beliefs in a clinical sample of OCD patients. Ninety-nine treatment-seeking adult OCD patients completed\\u000a the Obsessive Beliefs Questionnaire and the Obsessive–Compulsive Inventory-Revised. Hierarchical regression analyses, controlling\\u000a for comorbid symptoms, suggested that washing was predicted by responsibility\\/threat estimation beliefs.

David F. Tolin; Robert E. Brady; Scott Hannan

2008-01-01

44

Effects of Obsessive-Compulsive Symptoms on Neuropsychological Test Performance: Complicating an Already Complicated Story  

Microsoft Academic Search

Theoretical models of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) implicate neurocognitive dysfunction, particularly deficits in nonverbal memory and executive functioning, in the pathogenesis of the disorder. The opposite hypothesis (poor performance in neuropsychological test as an epiphenomenon of OCD symptoms) has rarely been contemplated although checking behavior, obsessional doubt, lack of motivation, and slowness as well as preoccupation with touching objects may result

Steffen Moritz; Birgit Hottenrott; Lena Jelinek; Amanda M. Brooks; Armin Scheurich

2011-01-01

45

Effects of Obsessive-Compulsive Symptoms on Neuropsychological Test Performance: Complicating an Already Complicated Story  

Microsoft Academic Search

Theoretical models of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) implicate neurocognitive dysfunction, particularly deficits in nonverbal memory and executive functioning, in the pathogenesis of the disorder. The opposite hypothesis (poor performance in neuropsychological test as an epiphenomenon of OCD symptoms) has rarely been contemplated although checking behavior, obsessional doubt, lack of motivation, and slowness as well as preoccupation with touching objects may result

Steffen Moritz; Birgit Hottenrott; Lena Jelinek; Amanda M. Brooks; Armin Scheurich

2012-01-01

46

General and Maladaptive Personality Dimensions in Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Symptoms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a chronic and impairing clinical disorder in childhood, often characterized by a heterogeneous symptomatic profile and high co-occurrence with other disorders. The present study introduces a new perspective on the description of OCD symptoms in youth, and empirically examines the value of a personality…

Aelterman, Nathalie; De Clercq, Barbara; De Bolle, Marleen; De Fruyt, Filip

2011-01-01

47

Peer Victimization in Children with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: Relations with Symptoms of Psychopathology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the frequency of peer victimization and psychological symptom correlates among youth with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The Schwartz Peer Victimization Scale, Children's Depression Inventory, and Asher Loneliness Scale were administered to 52 children and adolescents diagnosed with OCD. The child's parent or guardian…

Storch, Eric A.; Ledley, Deborah Roth; Lewin, Adam B.; Murphy, Tanya K.; Johns, Natalie B.; Goodman, Wayne K.; Geffken, Gary R.

2006-01-01

48

Relationship of Exposure to Clinically Irrelevant Emotion Cues and Obsessive-Compulsive Symptoms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Research has highlighted the role of emotion regulation as a common factor underlying emotional disorders. The current study examined the relationship of emotion regulation skills to obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) symptoms. Seven participants with a principal diagnosis of OCD in a multiple-baseline across subjects design were taught the…

Allen, Laura B.; Barlow, David H.

2009-01-01

49

Four-Factor Structure of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Symptoms in Children, Adolescents, and Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A study was conducted to establish the efficacy of four-factor obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) symptom structure for use in child, adolescent and adult groups. Results indicated that the four-factor OCD structure is inadequate for use in children, adolescent and adult age groups.|

Stewart, S. Evelyn; Rosario, Maria C.; Baer, Lee; Carter, Alice S.; Brown, Timothy A.; Scharf, Jeremiah M.; Illmann, Cornelia; Leckman, James F.; Sukhodolsky, Denis; Katsovich, Lilya; Rasmussen, Steven; Goodman, Wayne; Delorme, Richard; Leboyer, Marion; Chabane, Nadia; Jenike, Michael A.; Geller, Daniel A.; Pauls, David L.

2008-01-01

50

Peer Victimization in Children with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: Relations with Symptoms of Psychopathology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study examined the frequency of peer victimization and psychological symptom correlates among youth with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The Schwartz Peer Victimization Scale, Children's Depression Inventory, and Asher Loneliness Scale were administered to 52 children and adolescents diagnosed with OCD. The child's parent or guardian…

Storch, Eric A.; Ledley, Deborah Roth; Lewin, Adam B.; Murphy, Tanya K.; Johns, Natalie B.; Goodman, Wayne K.; Geffken, Gary R.

2006-01-01

51

Obsessive-compulsive personality traits: how are they related to OCD severity?  

PubMed

Previous research has demonstrated that comorbid obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is associated with greater overall OCD severity, functional impairment, and poorer treatment outcomes (Coles et al., 2008; Lochner et al., 2010; Pinto, 2009). However, research has only examined the effects of OCPD categorically and has yet to thoroughly examine the impact of individual OCPD characteristics dimensionally. Thus, the present study sought to investigate the relationships between various OCPD-related dimensions (e.g., perfectionism, rigidity) and OCD symptomology and severity. The study recruited a sample of OCD patients (n=51) in the OCD units of two residential treatment facilities. Findings yielded significant relationships between OCD severity and the following OCPD dimensions: flexibility, doubts about actions (a dimension of perfectionism), and hoarding. Interpretations of these results and the implications for diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment outcome are discussed. Furthermore, the current study provides insight into a unique perspective which leaves room for more symptom overlap and variability between OCD and OCPD. PMID:21798711

Wetterneck, Chad T; Little, Tannah E; Chasson, Gregory S; Smith, Angela H; Hart, John M; Stanley, Melinda A; Björgvinsson, Thröstur

2011-07-01

52

Screening for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD)  

MedlinePLUS

... Brochures Resources Children and Teens Childhood Anxiety Disorders PTSD Symptoms in Children Age Six and Younger Anxiety and Depression Podcasts About Children and Teens Treatment Choosing a Therapist for Your Child Helping Children and Teens With Anxiety ...

53

Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder  

MedlinePLUS

MENU Return to Web version Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Overview What is obsessive-compulsive disorder? Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is an illness that causes people to have unwanted thoughts (obsessions) ...

54

The major symptom dimensions of obsessive-compulsive disorder are mediated by partially distinct neural systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Obsessive^compulsive disorder (OCD) is a clinically heterogeneous disorder characterized by multiple, tempo- rally stable symptom dimensions. Preliminary functional neuroimaging studies suggest that these symptom dimensions may have distinct neural substrates. Whole-brain voxel-based morphometry was used to examine the common and distinct neuroanatomical (structural) substrates of the major symptom dimensions of OCD. First, we compared 55 medication-free patients with OCD and

Odile A. van den Heuvel; Peter L. Remijnse; David Mataix-Cols; Hugo Vrenken; Henk J. Groenewegen; Harry B. M. Uylings; Dick J. Veltman

2008-01-01

55

History of trauma and dissociative symptoms among patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder and social anxiety disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

We aimed to compare the history of trauma and the profile and severity of dissociative symptoms of patients with obsessive-compulsive\\u000a disorder (OCD) to those of patients with social anxiety disorder (SAD). Patients with OCD (n = 34) and patients with SAD (n = 30) were examined with the following instruments: Trauma History Questionnaire (THQ), Dissociative Experience Scale (DES),\\u000a Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory (OCI), Liebowitz Social Anxiety

Leonardo F. Fontenelle; Aline M. Domingues; Wanderson F. Souza; Mauro V. Mendlowicz; Gabriela B. de Menezes; Ivan L. Figueira; Marcio Versiani

2007-01-01

56

Desire for Control, Sense of Control and Obsessive-Compulsive Symptoms  

Microsoft Academic Search

While control-related cognitions have often been implicated in discussions of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD), empirical\\u000a investigations of the relationship between control-constructs and OCD symptoms have been relatively limited. In this article\\u000a it was hypothesized that OCD symptoms may be linked with a higher desire to control (DC), but a lower sense of control (SC)\\u000a over the self and environment, leading

Richard Moulding; Michael Kyrios

2007-01-01

57

The clinical utility of symptom dimensions in obsessive–compulsive disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Factor analyses in obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) have consistently identified several different symptom dimensions. Nevertheless the clinical utility of identifying such symptom dimensions remains somewhat unclear. On the basis of their principal symptoms, 343 OCD patients were divided into four symptom dimension subgroups; 1) contamination\\/washing, 2) hoarding, 3) symmetry\\/repeating and ordering, and 4) forbidden thoughts\\/checking. Clinical variables including 1-year treatment outcome

Hisato Matsunaga; Kazuhisa Hayashida; Nobuo Kiriike; Kensei Maebayashi; Dan J Stein

2010-01-01

58

Positive schizotypal symptoms predict treatment outcome in obsessive–compulsive disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous research has suggested that the presence of schizotypal personality disorder may represent a risk factor for treatment failure in obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD). Relying on a dimensional approach, the present study investigated whether the predictive importance of schizotypal personality is shared by all of its features to the same extent or whether it is confined to a subset of symptoms.

Steffen Moritz; Susanne Fricke; Dirk Jacobsen; Martin Kloss; Christian Wein; Michael Rufer; Birgit Katenkamp; Roschan Farhumand; Iver Hand

2004-01-01

59

Revision of the Padua Inventory of obsessive compulsive disorder symptoms: Distinctions between worry, obsessions, and compulsions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Padua Inventory (PI), a self-report measure of obsessive and compulsive symptoms, is increasingly used in obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) research. Freeston, Ladouceur, Rheaume, Letarte, Gagnon and Thibodeau (1994) [Behaviour Research and Therapy, 32, 29–36], however, recently showed that the PI measures worry in addition to obsessions. In an attempt to solve this measurement problem, this study used a content

G. Leonard Burns; Susan G. Keortge; Gina M. Formea; Lee G. Sternberger

1996-01-01

60

Symptoms of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder in a Sample of Iranian Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Characteristic features of the obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) occur with remarkable consistency in different cultural settings. The content of symptoms, however, seems to vary across cultures.Aims: To examine the content of symptoms in a sample of OCD patients from Iran.Methods: In a sample of 135 patients recruited from three treatment settings the prevalence of symptoms with different contents were ranked

Habibollah Ghassemzadeh; Ramin Mojtabai; Akram Khamseh; Nargess Ebrahimkhani; Arab-Ali Issazadegan; Zahra Saif-Nobakht

2002-01-01

61

Decision Making and Set Shifting Impairments Are Associated With Distinct Symptom Dimensions in Obsessive–Compulsive Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) is clinically heterogeneous. The authors examined how specific OCD symptom dimensions were related to neuropsychological functions using multiple regression analyses. A total of 39 OCD patients and 40 controls completed the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT; A. Bechara, A. R. Damasio, H. Damasio, & S. W. Anderson, 1994), which is a test of decision making, and the Wisconsin

Natalia S. Lawrence; Sarah Wooderson; David Mataix-Cols; Rhodri David; Anne Speckens; Mary L. Phillips

2006-01-01

62

Error-Related Negativity and Tic History in Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD)  

PubMed Central

Objective The error-related negativity (ERN) is a negative deflection in the event-related potential following an incorrect response, which is often increased in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). However, the relationship of the ERN to comorbid tic disorders has not been examined in patients with OCD. This study compared ERN amplitudes in patients with tic-related OCD, patients with non-tic-related OCD, and healthy controls. Method The ERN, correct response negativity, and error number were measured during an Eriksen flanker task to assess performance monitoring in 44 youth with a lifetime diagnosis of OCD and 44 matched healthy controls ranging in age from 10 to 19 years. Nine youth with OCD had a lifetime history of tics. Results ERN amplitudewas significantly increased in OCD patients compared to healthy controls. ERN amplitude was significantly larger in patients with non-tic-related OCD than either patients with tic-related OCD or controls. ERN amplitude had a significant negative correlation with age in healthy controls but not patients with OCD. Instead, in patients with non-tic-related OCD, ERN amplitude had a significant positive correlation with age at onset of OCD symptoms. ERN amplitude in patients was unrelated to OCD symptom severity, current diagnostic status, or treatment effects. Conclusions The results provide further evidence of increased error-related brain activity in pediatric OCD. The difference in the ERN between patients with tic-related and non-tic-related OCD provides preliminary evidence of a neurobiological difference between these two OCD subtypes. The results indicate the ERN is a trait-like measure that may serve as a biomarker for non-tic-related OCD.

Hanna, Gregory L.; Carrasco, Melisa; Harbin, Shannon M.; Nienhuis, Jenna K.; LaRosa, Christina E.; Chen, Poyu; Fitzgerald, Kate D.; Gehring, William J.

2012-01-01

63

Predicting Changes in Obsessive Compulsive Symptoms Over a Six-Month Follow-Up: A Prospective Test of Cognitive Models of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cognitive models of obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) propose that OCD-related beliefs (e.g., inflated responsibility) and\\u000a negative life events should predict changes in OC symptoms over time (Rachman, 1997, Behaviour Research and Therapy, 35, 793–802; Rachman, 1998, Behaviour Research and Therapy, 36, 385–401; Rachman, 2002, Behaviour Research and Therapy, 40, 625–639; Salkovskis, 1985, Behaviour Research and Therapy, 23, 571–583; Salkovskis &

Meredith E. Coles; Ashley S. Pietrefesa; Casey A. Schofield; Laura M. Cook

2008-01-01

64

PREDICTING GENETIC LOADING FROM SYMPTOM PATTERNS IN OBSESSIVE- COMPULSIVE DISORDER: A LATENT VARIABLE ANALYSIS  

PubMed Central

Background Some symptom dimensions in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) patients have a familial and putative genetic foundation, based on replicated findings in studies of sib-pairs with OCD. However, these symptom dimensions are all from exploratory factor analyses of Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale Symptom Checklist ratings based on non-empirically derived symptom categories, rather than individual symptoms. Methods In this study, we used a novel latent variable mixture model analysis to identify meaningful patient subgroupings. This was preceded by a confirmatory factor analysis of a 65-item OCD symptom inventory from 398 OCD probands, which yielded a five-factor solution. Data from all five symptom factors were used in a latent variable mixture model analysis, which identified two statistically separate OCD subpopulations. Results One group of probands had a significantly higher proportion of OCD-affected afflicted relatives (parents or close parental relatives), whereas the other group had a less prevalent familial OCD. The group with the more familial OCD was also found to have an earlier age of OCD onset, more severe OCD symptoms, and greater psychiatric comorbidity and impairment. Conclusions Especially if the results are verified in other samples, this research paradigm, which identified characteristics of individuals with familial OCD, should prove useful in carrying out genome-wide linkage and association studies of OCD and may provide a model for other symptom-based studies of additional medical disorders.

Schooler, Carmi; Revell, Andrew J.; Timpano, Kiara R.; Wheaton, Michael; Murphy, Dennis L.

2009-01-01

65

The Brown Longitudinal Obsessive Compulsive Study: Clinical Features and Symptoms of the Sample at Intake  

PubMed Central

Objective This article describes the method and intake findings of the Brown Longitudinal Obsessive Compulsive Study, the first comprehensive prospective investigation of the naturalistic course of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) in a large clinical sample using longitudinal research methodology. Method Intake data, collected between June 2001 and October 2004, are presented for 293 adult participants in a prospective, naturalistic study of OCD. Participants had a primary diagnosis of DSM-IV OCD and had sought treatment for the disorder. Results Our findings indicate that OCD typically has a gradual onset and a continuous course regardless of age at onset. There is a substantial lag between the onset of the disorder and initiation of treatment. OCD, which almost always coexists with other psychiatric symptoms, leads to serious social and occupational impairment. Compared with participants with late-onset OCD, early-onset participants had higher rates of lifetime panic disorder, eating disorders, and obsessive-compulsive personality disorder. The groups also differed on the types of obsessive-compulsive symptoms that were first noticed, as well as on rates of current obsessions and compulsions. Conclusion The demographics, clinical characteristics, comorbidity rates, and symptom presentation of the sample are consistent with those reported for cross-sectional studies of OCD, including the DSM-IV Field Trial. The current sample has a number of advantages over previously collected prospective samples of OCD in that it is large, diagnostically well characterized, recruited from multiple settings, and treatment seeking. This unique data set will contribute to the identification of meaningful phenotypes in OCD based on stability of symptom dimensions, prospective course patterns, and treatment response.

Pinto, Anthony; Mancebo, Maria C.; Eisen, Jane L.; Pagano, Maria E.; Rasmussen, Steve A.

2012-01-01

66

Test Review: C. R. Reynolds and B. Livingston "CMOCS--Children's Measure of Obsessive-Compulsive Symptoms." Los Angeles, CA: Western Psychological Services, 2010  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article presents a review of the Children's Measure of Obsessive-Compulsive Symptoms (CMOCS), a self-report screening measure of obsessive and compulsive thoughts and behaviors in children and adolescents aged 8 through 19 years. Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is estimated to affect 1% to 3% of the population over their lifetime. The…

Lund, Emily M.; Dennison, Andrea; Ewing, Heidi K.; de Carvalho, Catharina F.

2011-01-01

67

Relationship between severity of obsessive-compulsive symptoms and schizotypy in obsessive-compulsive disorder  

PubMed Central

Purpose Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) patients exhibit a noninhibition response pattern very similar to that observed in schizotypy patients in cognitive tasks. It has been suggested that the reduced cognitive inhibition observed in both schizotypy and OCD may result in the frequent entry into awareness of unacceptable urges and intrusive thoughts. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the severity of obsession or compulsion and schizotypy in OCD. Patients and methods Sixty subjects (25 males and 35 females) who were OCD outpatients in the University Hospital at the Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine during the period 2008–2010 were enrolled in the study. Assessments of these patients were made using the Yale–Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS), the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ), the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D), and the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAM-A). The Pearson correlation coefficients between Y-BOCS and SPQ scores were calculated. Furthermore, hierarchical multiple linear regression analyses were conducted to assess whether schizotypy predicted the severity of obsession and compulsion. Results By calculating the Pearson correlation coefficient, it was found that the Y-BOCS obsession score, not the Y-BOCS compulsion score, was correlated with the SPQ total score. Results of the hierarchical multiple linear regression analysis showed that SPQ total score was a significant predictor of the Y-BOCS obsession score, after accounting for control variables (ie, HAM-D and HAM-A). Conclusion Results of this study showed that the Y-BOCS obsession score, not the Y-BOCS compulsion score, was correlated with the SPQ total score. This finding suggests that OCD patients with an elevated SPQ total score experience a reduction of cognitive inhibition, resulting in the frequent entry into obsession. Future longitudinal studies are recommended to clarify the effect of schizotypy on the clinical course of OCD.

Yamamoto, Haruka; Tsuchida, Hideto; Nakamae, Takashi; Nishida, Seiji; Sakai, Yuki; Fujimori, Akihito; Narumoto, Jin; Wada, Yoshihisa; Yoshida, Takafumi; Taga, Chiaki; Fukui, Kenji

2012-01-01

68

Three cases of symptom change in Tourette's syndrome and obsessive-compulsive disorder associated with paediatric cerebral malignancies  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To correlate behaviour manifestations with tumour location in three children who had Gilles de la Tourette's syndrome (GTS), obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and primary cerebral malignancies. METHOD: Cases were ascertained from a chart review in a GTS and OCD specialty clinic. For each case the temporal progression of change in neuropsychiatric symptoms was qualitatively correlated with radiographic documentation of tumour

B S Peterson; R A Bronen; C C Duncan

1996-01-01

69

To discard or not to discard: the neural basis of hoarding symptoms in obsessive-compulsive disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Preliminary neuroimaging studies suggest that patients with the ‘compulsive hoarding syndrome’ may be a neurobiologically distinct variant of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) but further research is needed. A total of 29 OCD patients (13 with and 16 without prominent hoarding symptoms) and 21 healthy controls of both sexes participated in two functional magnetic resonance imaging experiments consisting of the provocation of

S. K. An; D. Mataix-Cols; N. S. Lawrence; S. Wooderson; V. Giampietro; A. E. M. Speckens; M. J. Brammer; M. L. Phillips

2009-01-01

70

To discard or not to discard: the neural basis of hoarding symptoms in obsessive-compulsive disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Preliminary neuroimaging studies suggest that patients with the 'compulsive hoarding syndrome' may be a neurobiologically distinct variant of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) but further research is needed. A total of 29 OCD patients (13 with and 16 without prominent hoarding symptoms) and 21 healthy controls of both sexes participated in two functional magnetic resonance imaging experiments consisting of the provocation of

SK An; D Mataix-Cols; NS Lawrence; S Wooderson; V Giampietro; A Speckens; MJ Brammer; ML Phillips

2008-01-01

71

Obsessive-compulsive symptoms in panic disorder: the association with major depression.  

PubMed

To examine the prevalence of obsessive-compulsive symptoms, we evaluated 69 outpatients with panic disorder. We found a 30% prevalence of obsessive-compulsive symptoms. The patients with obsessive-compulsive symptoms had an earlier onset of illness and were more likely to have current and past major depression than the other ones. PMID:19698452

Agargün, M; Kara, H; Alpkan, L; Uçi?ik, M

1996-01-01

72

Obsessive-Compulsive Spectrum Disorder Symptoms in College Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: This study investigated the occurrence of obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorders (OCSDs) and associated symptomology in college students. Participants: Participants included 358 undergraduate students. Results: Results suggest that clinically significant levels of OCSD symptoms are relatively common. Additionally, OCSD symptoms co-occurred with each other and anxiety symptoms in general, yet not significantly with impulsivity symptoms. Conclusions: Given their prevalence in college

Michael L. Sulkowski; Amy Mariaskin; Eric A. Storch

2011-01-01

73

Sensitive domains of self-concept in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD): further evidence for a multidimensional model of OCD.  

PubMed

Aspects of self-concept have been implicated in recent empirical and theoretical investigations of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). This article extends previous theory and research by investigating the proposal that specific self-structures may be linked with OCD [e.g., Doron, G., & Kyrios, M. (2005). Obsessive-compulsive disorder: a review of possible specific internal representations within a broader cognitive theory. Clinical Psychology Review, 25, 415-432]. In particular, it was hypothesized that individuals who value the domains of morality, job and scholastic competence, and social acceptability, but who feel incompetent in these domains (i.e., "sensitive" domains of self), would hold a greater level of OC-related beliefs and display more OC-symptoms. The study was performed in 198 non-clinical participants, using a multidimensional measure of self-concept. As predicted, it was found that sensitivity in the four domains was related to higher levels of OC-related beliefs. Sensitivity in the domains of morality, job competence and social acceptability also related to higher levels of OC-symptoms. Further, these findings were generally maintained when controlling for global self-worth. Based on these results, it is argued that sensitivity of self-concept may be associated with OC cognitions and phenomena. Implications for theory and treatment are discussed. PMID:16815668

Doron, Guy; Kyrios, Michael; Moulding, Richard

2006-07-03

74

Symptom dimensions, clinical course and comorbidity in men and women with obsessive-compulsive disorder.  

PubMed

The study aimed to compare male and female patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) across symptom dimensions, clinical course and comorbidity. A cross-sectional study was undertaken with 858 adult OCD patients (DSM-IV) from the Brazilian Research Consortium on Obsessive-Compulsive Spectrum Disorders. Patients were evaluated using structured interviews, including the Dimensional Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (DY-BOCS) and the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I disorders (SCID-I). The sample was composed of 504 women (58.7%) and 354 men (41.3%) with a mean age of 35.4 years-old (range: 18-77). Men were younger, more frequently single and presented more tics, social phobia and alcohol use disorders. Among men, symptom interference occurred earlier and symptoms of the sexual/religious dimension were more common and more severe. Conversely, women were more likely to present symptoms of the aggressive, contamination/cleaning and hoarding dimension and comorbidity with specific phobias, anorexia nervosa, bulimia, trichotillomania, skin picking and "compulsive" buying. In the logistic regression, female gender remained independently associated with the aggressive and contamination/cleaning dimensions. In both genders the aggressive dimension remained associated with comorbid post-traumatic stress disorder, the sexual/religious dimension with major depression and the hoarding dimension with tic disorders. Gender seems to be relevant in the determination of OCD clinical presentation and course and should be considered an important aspect when defining more homogeneous OCD subgroups. PMID:23298952

Torresan, Ricardo C; Ramos-Cerqueira, Ana Teresa A; Shavitt, Roseli G; do Rosário, Maria Conceiçăo; de Mathis, Maria Alice; Miguel, Euripedes C; Torres, Albina R

2013-01-05

75

Functional and structural neural indices of risk aversion in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD).  

PubMed

Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) patients suffer from risk aversion, which may be mediated by their exaggerated response to threat and diminished response to reward. In this study, 13 OCD patients and 13 healthy matched controls underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while playing an interactive risky choice game encompassing distinct intervals of threat and reward; as well as anatomical diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Compared to healthy controls OCD patients were reluctant to make risky choices during the game. Furthermore, they displayed higher amygdala activation to threat; lower nucleus accumbens (Nacc) activation to reward and reduced functional connectivity of the amygdala and Nacc to two frontal regions, the orbito-frontal cortex (OFC) and the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC), respectively. OCD patients also displayed reduced structural integrity in clusters within the uncinate and cingulum fiber tracts. Finally, these deficits in limbic-frontal connectivity pathways, both at the functional and structural level, were associated with severity of OCD symptoms, as well as with each other. Our results thus suggest that risk aversion in OCD is mediated by abnormal limbic responses to threatening and rewarding stimuli, as well as by deficient functional and structural limbic-frontal connectivity. Such deficiency characterization may aid in identifying neural predictors for treatment response and localizing individual targets for direct neural intervention treatments. PMID:22959813

Admon, Roee; Bleich-Cohen, Maya; Weizmant, Ronit; Poyurovsky, Michael; Faragian, Sarit; Hendler, Talma

2012-09-05

76

Obsessive–Compulsive Symptoms and the Expression of Anger  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study investigates the association between Obsessive–Compulsive (OC) symptoms and the expression of anger in a sample of 131 undergraduates. Participants were divided into two groups based on their self-reported OC symptoms and compared on their tendency to suppress anger inwardly, express anger outwardly, and control their anger. In addition, the associations between anger and specific OC symptoms were

Stephen P. Whiteside; Jonathan S. Abramowitz

2004-01-01

77

Obsessive-Compulsive Spectrum Disorder Symptoms in College Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: This study investigated the occurrence of obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorders (OCSDs) and associated symptomology in college students. Participants: Participants included 358 undergraduate students. Results: Results suggest that clinically significant levels of OCSD symptoms are relatively common. Additionally, OCSD symptoms

Sulkowski, Michael L.; Mariaskin, Amy; Storch, Eric A.

2011-01-01

78

Inflated perceptions of responsibility and obsessive–compulsive symptoms  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Salkovskis' [Salkovskis, P. (1985). Obsessional–compulsive problems: a cognitive-behavioural analysis. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 28, 571–588; Salkovskis P. (1989) Cognitive-behavioural factors and the persistence of intrusive thoughts in obsessional problems. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 27, 677–682] cognitive model for obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD), inflated perception of responsibility is highlighted as the critical feature that maintains the disorder. In the current study,

Kimberly A Wilson; Dianne L Chambless

1999-01-01

79

Olanzapine augmentation of fluvoxamine-refractory obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD): a 12-week open trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

A few studies have tried antipsychotic augmentation in obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) patients who are non-responders to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy and tolerability of olanzapine addition to fluvoxamine-refractory OCD patients and to assess if a comorbid chronic tic disorder or a concomitant schizotypal personality disorder was associated with response. Twenty-three OCD

Filippo Bogetto; Silvio Bellino; Patrizia Vaschetto; Simona Ziero

2000-01-01

80

Mood, personality disorder symptoms and disability in obsessive compulsive hoarders: a comparison with clinical and nonclinical controls.  

PubMed

Hoarding is a symptom of obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), as well as a diagnostic criterion for obsessive compulsive personality disorder (OCPD). One recent study suggests that people who suffer from compulsive hoarding report more general psychopathology than people who do not [Frost, R.O., Krause, M.S., & Steketee, G. (1996). Hoarding and obsessive compulsive symptoms. Behavior Modification, 20, 116-132]. The present study addressed whether persons with OCD hoarding exhibit more depression, anxiety, OCD and personality disorders symptoms than community controls, OCD nonhoarders, or other anxiety disorder patients. Disability was also examined. Hoarding subjects were older than the other three groups, but age did not account for any of the differences observed among the groups. Compared to controls, OCD hoarding, nonhoarding OCD and anxiety disorder patients showed elevated YBOCS scores, as well as higher scores on depression, anxiety, family and social disability. Compared to nonhoarding OCD and anxiety disorder patients, OCD hoarding patients scored higher on anxiety, depression, family and social disability. Hoarding subjects had greater personality disorder symptoms than controls. However, OCD hoarding subjects differed from OCD nonhoarding and anxiety disorder subjects only on dependent and schizotypal personality disorder symptoms. The findings suggest that hoarding is associated with significant comorbidity and impairment compared to nonhoarding OCD and other anxiety disorders. PMID:11060936

Frost, R O; Steketee, G; Williams, L F; Warren, R

2000-11-01

81

No Evidence for Object Alternation Impairment in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Recent neuroimaging studies have consistently ascribed the orbito-frontal cortex (OFC) a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Cognitive tests presumed sensitive to this region, such as the Object Alternation Task (OAT), are considered important tools to verify this assumption and to investigate the impact of…

Moritz, Steffen; Jelinek, Lena; Hottenrott, Birgit; Klinge, Ruth; Randjbar, Sarah

2009-01-01

82

Symptom dimensions are associated with age of onset and clinical course of obsessive-compulsive disorder.  

PubMed

Meta-analysis of the heterogeneous symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has found a four-factor structure of symptom dimensions consisting of cleaning, forbidden thoughts, symmetry, and hoarding. Research into age of onset of symptom dimensions has yielded inconsistent results, and it is unknown whether symptoms along these dimensions differ in their clinical course. We assessed age of onset and clinical course of different OCD symptom dimensions in a large cohort of adult patients. Nine-hundred fifty-five subjects were assessed using the Dimensional Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale. For age of onset analysis, we tested across three methods of classification: (1) primary (more severe) symptom dimension (2) clinically significant symptoms within a dimension or (3) any symptoms within a dimension. Age of onset was defined as the earliest age of onset reported for any individual item within a symptom dimension. For analysis of different types of clinical course, we used chi-square tests to assess for differences between primary symptom dimensions. OCD symptoms in the symmetry dimension had an earlier age of onset than other OCD symptom dimensions. These findings remained significant across all three methods of classification and controlling for gender and comorbid tics. No significant differences were found between the other dimensions. Subjects with primary OCD symptoms in the forbidden thoughts dimension were more likely to report a waxing-and-waning course, whereas symmetry symptoms were less likely to be associated with a waxing-and-waning course. PMID:23410525

Kichuk, Stephen A; Torres, Albina R; Fontenelle, Leonardo F; Rosário, Maria Conceiçăo; Shavitt, Roseli G; Miguel, Eurípedes C; Pittenger, Christopher; Bloch, Michael H

2013-02-12

83

Relationship between psychotic and obsessive compulsive symptoms in schizophrenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The presence of obsessive compulsive symptoms (OCSs) in schizophrenia was recognized as early as the first descriptions of the illness. Studies investigating the association between OCSs and schizophrenia have defined their co-occurrence in terms of co-morbidity and compared schizophrenia patients separated into groups according to whether they presented OCSs or not. However, most of these studies did not take both

Francois Guillem; Jennifer Satterthwaite; Tania Pampoulova; Emmanuel Stip

2009-01-01

84

Concurrent validity of the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale-Symptom Checklist.  

PubMed

Despite the frequent use of the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale-Symptom Checklist (Y-BOCS-SC; Goodman et al., 1989a) and the Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory-Revised (OCI-R; Foa et al., 2002), there are limited data on the psychometric properties of the two instruments. In the present research, clinician ratings on the Y-BOCS-SC for 112 patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) were compared to their self-report ratings on the OCI-R. In addition, Y-BOCS-SC and OCI-R scores were compared to measures of OCD symptom severity and self-report measures of anxiety (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory-Trait Subscale [STAI-T]; Spielberger, Gorusch, & Lushene, 1970) and depression (Beck Depression Inventory-II [BDI-II]; Beck, Steer, & Brown, 1996). The six symptom scales of the OCI-R had good internal consistency reliabilities (alphas). For the Y-BOCS-SC, three of five scales had good reliabilities (alphas >.80), but alphas for symmetry/ordering and sexual/religious symptom scales were inadequate. Total scores for the two instruments were strongly correlated with their corresponding "checking" scales, but no individual symptoms scales were identified as indices of overall OCD symptom presence. Scales assessing washing/contamination, symmetry/ordering, and hoarding from the two OCD instruments correlated well, but lower correlations for the other scales suggested differences in symptom coverage by the two instruments. Most symptom scales from the Y-BOCS-SC and OCI-R had low correlations with the BDI-II and STAI-T, but the OCI-R obsessing scale was well correlated (r=.54) with the STAI-T. These findings reveal some of the strengths and weaknesses of these two OCD instruments, and the results provide guidance for selecting scales that are suitable for measuring OCD symptoms. PMID:18942133

Sulkowski, Michael L; Storch, Eric A; Geffken, Gary R; Ricketts, Emily; Murphy, Tanya K; Goodman, Wayne K

2008-12-01

85

[Comorbidity and characteristic of obsessive-compulsive symptoms in anorexia nervosa].  

PubMed

There is constant interest in possible relations between obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and eating disorders, particularly anorexia nervosa (AN). The comorbidity rate for OCD and AN is reported to be between 10% and even 40%. There is also an increased incidence of prior AN in OCD patients and high number of anorectic patients with obsessional premorbid personality. Similarities between AN and OCD lie in the symptoms of the disorders: intrusive, fearful thoughts, a compulsive need to perform rituals aimed at reducing the level of anxiety and obsessions maintaining these rituals. In case of AN, these behaviours revolve around food and thinness, whereas in OCD they are of more general and differential in type. Research on AN-OCD relations provides interesting insights, but also presents some limitations. The purpose of this review is to analyse and discuss the specificity of relations between symptoms of AN and OCD. PMID:23479943

B?achno, Magda; Bry?ska, Anita

86

Psychometric analysis of the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale Second Edition Symptom Checklist.  

PubMed

The Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS) was recently revised to address several clinical and conceptual issues. The resultant measure, named the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale-Second Edition, consists of two primary scales: the Severity Scale and the Symptom Checklist. Although the Severity Scale has been the subject of a comprehensive psychometric analysis, no data have been reported on the psychometric properties of the Y-BOCS-II Symptom Checklist (Y-BOCS-II-SC). Accordingly, in the present study, clinician ratings on the Y-BOCS-II-SC for 130 patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) were examined on a number of validity and reliability indices. Partially consistent with past factor analytic studies of the Y-BOCS Symptom Checklist, the Y-BOCS-II-SC yielded four factors representing symmetry/ordering, contamination/washing, hoarding, and sexual/religious/aggression dimensions; checking rituals cross-loaded with other dimensions. Generally, the Y-BOCS-II-SC dimensions were internally consistent and rated stably across raters and over a short interval. The Y-BOCS-II-SC symptom dimensions showed good convergence with self-reported obsessive-compulsive symptoms, and were at best moderately associated with divergent measures (e.g., OCD symptom severity, depressive symptoms, and symptoms of anxiety). Overall, the Y-BOCS-II-SC shows good psychometric properties; we highlight several domains in which the Y-BOCS-II-SC may have clinical and research utility, as well as several areas for future study. PMID:20471199

Storch, Eric A; Larson, Michael J; Price, Lawrence H; Rasmussen, Steven A; Murphy, Tanya K; Goodman, Wayne K

2010-04-24

87

Error-related negativity in individuals with obsessive-compulsive symptoms: Toward an understanding of hoarding behaviors  

PubMed Central

The error-related negativity (ERN), an event-related potential component elicited by error responses in cognitive tasks, has been shown to be abnormal in most, but not all, studies of obsessive–compulsive disorder or obsessive–compulsive symptoms (OCD/S); these inconsistencies may be due to task selection, symptom subtype, or both. We used meta-analysis to further characterize the ERN in OCD/S, and pooled data across studies to examine the ERN in OCD/S with hoarding. We found an enhanced ERN in OCD/S relative to controls, as well as heterogeneity across tasks. When stratified, OCD/S showed a significantly enhanced ERN only in response conflict tasks. However, OCD/S + hoarding showed a marginally larger ERN than OCD/S–hoarding, but only for probabilistic learning tasks. These results suggest that abnormal ERN in OCD/S is task-dependent, and that OCD/S + hoarding show different ERN activity from OCD/S - hoarding perhaps suggesting different pathophysiological mechanisms of error monitoring.

Mathews, Carol A.; Perez, Veronica B.; Delucchi, Kevin L.; Mathalon, Daniel H.

2012-01-01

88

Dissociative symptoms and dissociative disorder comorbidity in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder.  

PubMed

The present study attempted to assess the dissociative symptoms and overall dissociative disorder comorbidity in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). In addition, we examined the relationship between the severity of obsessive-compulsive symptoms and dissociative symptoms. All patients admitted for the first time to the psychiatric outpatient unit were included in the study. Seventy-eight patients had been diagnosed as having OCD during the 2-year study period. Patients had to meet the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition criteria for OCD. Most (76.9%; n = 60) of the patients were female, and 23.1% (n = 18) of the patients were male. Dissociation Questionnaire was used to measure dissociative symptoms. The Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition Dissociative Disorders interviews and Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Checklist and Severity Scale were used. Eleven (14%) of the patients with OCD had comorbid dissociative disorder. The most prevalent disorder in our study was dissociative depersonalization disorder. Dissociative amnesia and dissociative identity disorder were common as well. The mean Yale-Brown score was 23.37 ± 7.27 points. Dissociation Questionnaire scores were between 0.40 and 3.87 points, and the mean was 2.23 ± 0.76 points. There was a statistically significant positive correlation between Yale-Brown points and Dissociation Questionnaire points. We conclude that dissociative symptoms among patients with OCD should alert clinicians for the presence of a chronic and complex dissociative disorder. Clinicians may overlook an underlying dissociative process in patients who have severe symptoms of OCD. However, a lack of adequate response to cognitive-behavioral and drug therapy may be a consequence of dissociative process. PMID:22425531

Belli, Hasan; Ural, Cenk; Vardar, Melek Kanarya; Yes?lyurt, Sema; Oncu, Fat?h

2012-03-17

89

Sudden Gains in the Treatment of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The present study examined sudden gains during treatment for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and their relationship to short- and long-term outcome. Methods: Ninety-one individuals (age 19–64) completed either cognitive treatment, exposure treatment, or their combination with fluvoxamine for OCD. Participants’ obsessive-compulsive symptoms were assessed before each weekly treatment session. In addition, obsessive-compulsive and depressive symptoms were assessed pre treatment and

Idan M. Aderka; Gideon E. Anholt; Johannes H. Smit; Haggai Hermesh; Patricia van Oppen

2012-01-01

90

Obsessive-compulsive symptoms in pregnancy and the puerperium: a review of the literature.  

PubMed

In this article, we review the available research on postpartum obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Most studies are retrospective in nature, thus not answering questions as to overall prevalence of such symptoms. However, there are consistent findings with regard to symptom profile: obsessional thoughts in postpartum OCD tend to concern fears of harm to the infant. We discuss distinctions between postpartum OCD symptoms and postpartum depression and psychosis. Although preliminary, research on treatments for postpartum OCD indicates the effectiveness of medications and cognitive-behavioral therapy. We explore the relationship between OCD symptoms and postpartum depression and offer possible directions for future study. We also consider the proposed etiological models and offer a fresh conceptualization of this condition. PMID:12826092

Abramowitz, Jonathan S; Schwartz, Stefanie A; Moore, Katherine M; Luenzmann, Kristi R

2003-01-01

91

Role of magical thinking in obsessive-compulsive symptoms in an undergraduate sample.  

PubMed

Thought action fusion (TAF) is an important presenting feature of many individuals with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). "Magical thinking" is a similar construct (developed within the literature on schizotypy) that may provide a more accurate depiction of difficulties encountered by individuals with OCD. This study seeks to examine relationships between components of magical thinking, TAF, and superstitiousness; establish the extent to which these constructs are independently related to OCD proneness; and establish the extent to which these biased reasoning styles are related to each of the major OCD symptom clusters (e.g., washing, checking). The Padua Inventory (PI), the Maudsley Obsessional-Compulsive Inventory (MOCI), the Magical Ideation Scale (MI), the Lucky Behaviours (Lbeh) and Lucky Beliefs (Lbel) Scales, and the Thought Action Fusion-Revised scale (TAF-R) were given to a cohort of 86 undergraduate students. Of all the measures, the MI scale was found to be the most strongly related to obsessive-compulsive symptoms. Large and significant relationships between MI scores and the two measures of OCD (i.e., MOCI and PI) were obtained even when alternative mediators (i.e., Lbeh, Lbel, TAF-R) were held constant. No other variable remained significantly related to the MOCI or PI when magical ideation scores were held constant. The findings suggest that a general magical thinking tendency may underpin previous observed links between superstitiousness, thought action fusion, and OCD severity. PMID:15129419

Einstein, Danielle A; Menzies, Ross G

2004-01-01

92

Perceived Stress in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder is Related with Obsessive but Not Compulsive Symptoms.  

PubMed

Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is achronic psychiatric disorder characterized by recurrent intrusive thoughts and/or repetitive compulsory behaviors. This psychiatric disorder is known to be stress responsive, as symptoms increase during periods of stress but also because stressful events may precede the onset of OCD. However, only a few and inconsistent reports have been published about the stress perception and the stress-response in these patients. Herein, we have characterized the correlations of OCD symptoms with basal serum cortisol levels and scores in a stress perceived questionnaire (PSS-10). The present data reveals that cortisol levels and the stress scores in the PSS-10 were significantly higher in OCD patients that in controls. Moreover, stress levels self-reported by patients using the PSS-10 correlated positively with OCD severity in the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS). Interestingly, PSS-10 scores correlated with the obsessive component, but not with the compulsive component, of Y-BOCS. These results confirm that stress is relevant in the context of OCD, particularly for the obsessive symptomatology. PMID:23565098

Morgado, P; Freitas, D; Bessa, J M; Sousa, N; Cerqueira, Joăo José

2013-04-02

93

Obsessive compulsive symptoms at initial presentation of adolescent eating disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

An association between obsessive compulsive disorder and eating disorders has often been reported in the literature. It has\\u000a been suggested that the association may be accounted for by depression, starvation or family factors but the literature remains\\u000a inconclusive. In this study self-report scales were used to measure eating attitudes, obsessional symptoms, depressive symptoms\\u000a and family functioning in an eating disordered

E. Cassidy; M. Allsopp; T. Williams

1999-01-01

94

Symptom dimensions and subtypes of obsessive-compulsive disorder: a developmental perspective  

PubMed Central

In the absence of definitive etiological markers for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), obsessive-compulsive (OC) symptom dimensions may offer a fruitful point of orientation. These dimensions can be understood as defining potentially overlapping clinical features that may be continuous with “normal” worries first evident in childhood. Although the understanding of the dimensional structure of OC symptoms is still imperfect, a recent large-scale meta-analysis has confirmed the presence of at least four separable symptom dimensions in children, as well as adults, with OCD, A dimensional approach does not exclude other methods to parse OCD. Thus far, a pediatric age of onset, the presence of other family members with OCD, and the individual's “ticrelated” status appear to be potentially useful categorical distinctions. Although the OC symptom dimensions appear to be valid for all ages, it is unlikely that the underlying genetic vulnerability factors and neurobiological substrates for each of these symptom dimensions are the same across the course of development.

Leckman, James F.; Bloch, Michael H.; King, Robert A.

2009-01-01

95

Reduced serotonin transporter–availability in obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the availability of brain serotonin transporters in 10 drug–free patients with obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) and age–matched healthy controls in vivo using single–photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and the radioligand [ 123I]–2?–carbomethoxy–3?–(4–idiophenyl)-tropane ([ 123I]?–CIT). For quantification of regional serotonin transporter a ratio of specific to non–specific [ 123I]?–CIT–binding was used. The availability of serotonin transporter was calculated using regions

Katarina Stengler-Wenzke; Ulrich Müller; Matthias C. Angermeyer; Osama Sabri; Swen Hesse

2004-01-01

96

Thought-Focused Attention and Obsessive–Compulsive Symptoms: An Evaluation of Cognitive Self-Consciousness in a Nonclinical Sample  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cognitive self-consciousness (CSC), the tendency to focus attention on and be aware of one's thoughts, has differentiated individuals with obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) from individuals with other anxiety disorders and from normal controls. A self-report measure of CSC was administered to a nonclinical sample (N = 323) and the relationship to OCD symptoms and intrusive thought appraisals was evaluated. Evaluation of

Robyn J. Cohen; John E. Calamari

2004-01-01

97

Case Series: Transformation Obsession in Young People with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents a previously unreported symptom of obsessive-compulsive disorder. The young people reported describe a fear of turning into someone or something else or taking on unwanted characteristics. We have called this transformation obsession. The bizarre nature of this obsession had led to misdiagnosis and inappropriate treatments in…

Volz, Chloe; Heyman, Isobel

2007-01-01

98

Understanding Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder in Students: Symptoms and School-Based Interventions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article provides current information relevant to school social workers who serve students with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), including how OCD is defined in children and adolescents, the impact of OCD on schooling, issues in identifying students with OCD, and effective interventions. The authors offer suggestions for collaboration…

Dyches, Tina Taylor; Leininger, Melissa; Heath, Melissa Allen; Prater, Mary Anne

2010-01-01

99

Children' Florida Obsessive Compulsive Inventory: Psychometric Properties and Feasibility of a Self-Report Measure of Obsessive-Compulsive Symptoms in Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This report describes the development and psychometric properties of the Children's Florida Obsessive Compulsive Inventory (C-FOCI). Designed specifically as a brief measure for assessing obsessive-compulsive symptoms, the C-FOCI was created for use in both clinical and community settings. Study 1 included 82 children and adolescents diagnosed…

Storch, Eric A.; Khanna, Muniya; Merlo, Lisa J.; Loew, Benjamin A.; Franklin, Martin; Reid, Jeannette M.; Goodman, Wayne K.; Murphy, Tanya K.

2009-01-01

100

Dysregulation in pediatric obsessive compulsive disorder.  

PubMed

Although obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) and common co-occurring conditions share deficits in self-regulatory abilities, there has been minimal examination of impaired self-regulation (dysregulation) in youth with OCD. This study examined the association of dysregulation with symptom severity, impairment, and treatment outcome in pediatric OCD. Clinicians assessed obsessive-compulsive severity, family accommodation and global severity in 144 youth with OCD. Youth completed self-report severity ratings of anxiety and depressive symptoms. Parents completed the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), and both children and parents completed parallel ratings of obsessive-compulsive impairment. Ninety-seven youth received cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and were re-assessed after treatment. Dysregulation was assessed using the CBCL-Dysregulation Profile. Before treatment, dysregulated youth exhibited greater obsessive-compulsive symptom severity, depressive mood, family accommodation, and impairment than non-dysregulated youth. The magnitude of dysregulation directly predicted child-rated impairment, parent-rated impairment, and family accommodation, beyond obsessive-compulsive severity. The magnitude of pretreatment dysregulation predicted treatment discontinuation but not treatment response. Obsessive-compulsive symptom severity and dysregulation level significantly decreased after CBT. Dysregulated youth with OCD presented as more clinically severe than their non-dysregulated counterparts, and may require more individualized interventions to reduce dysregulated behavior to prevent CBT attrition. For treatment completers, CBT was associated with a decrease in dysregulation level. PMID:23623154

McGuire, Joseph F; Small, Brent J; Lewin, Adam B; Murphy, Tanya K; De Nadai, Alessandro S; Phares, Vicky; Geffken, Gary; Storch, Eric A

2013-04-25

101

Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Symptoms in Huntington's Disease: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

Introduction Few cases of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) symptoms preceding the clinical onset of Huntington Disease (HD) or during later stages of the disease have been reported in the literature, but the nature of this association and its neurobiological mechanisms have not been well-investigated. Objectives To review the scientific literature regarding OCD symptoms in patients with HD and describe a case study from our clinic. Methods Extensive literature searches were performed to identify reports of patients with concurrent HD and OCD symptoms. Results Recent studies and the current case report suggest that OCD symptoms may predate or coincide with motor, affective or behavioral symptoms in patients with HD. The development of OCD and HD symptoms may involve structural and functional changes affecting the orbital and medial prefrontal cortex, ventromedial caudate nucleus, and pallidal sites. Conclusions Some patients with HD develop symptoms associated with OCD. Progressive and differential neuropathological changes in the ventromedial caudate nucleus and related neural circuits may underlie this association. No specific treatment strategy has been developed to treat these patients; however some medications attenuate associated symptoms. Further testing is needed to determine the neurobiological mechanisms of these disorders.

Molano-Eslava, Juan Carlos; Iragorri-Cucalon, Angela; Ucros-Rodriguez, Gonzalo; Bonilla-Jacome, Carolina; Tovar-Perdomo, Santiago; Herin, David V.; Orozco-Cabal, Luis

2009-01-01

102

Autism and ADHD Symptoms in Patients with OCD: Are They Associated with Specific OC Symptom Dimensions or OC Symptom Severity?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), the relationship between autism spectrum disorders (ASD), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptom, and obsessive-compulsive (OC) symptom dimensions and severity has scarcely been studied. Therefore, 109 adult outpatients with primary OCD were compared to 87 healthy controls on OC, ADHD and…

Anholt, Gideon E.; Cath, Danielle C.; van Oppen, Patricia; Eikelenboom, Merijn; Smit, Johannes H.; van Megen, Harold; van Balkom, Anton J. L. M.

2010-01-01

103

Autism and ADHD Symptoms in Patients with OCD: Are They Associated with Specific OC Symptom Dimensions or OC Symptom Severity?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), the relationship between autism spectrum disorders (ASD), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptom, and obsessive-compulsive (OC) symptom dimensions and severity has scarcely been studied. Therefore, 109 adult outpatients with primary OCD were compared to 87 healthy controls on OC, ADHD and…

Anholt, Gideon E.; Cath, Danielle C.; van Oppen, Patricia; Eikelenboom, Merijn; Smit, Johannes H.; van Megen, Harold; van Balkom, Anton J. L. M.

2010-01-01

104

Sex differences in the phenotypic expression of obsessive-compulsive disorder: an exploratory study from Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies have shown differences in clinical features of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) between men and women, including mean age at onset of obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCS), types of OCS, comorbid disorders, course, and prognosis. The aim of this study was to compare male and female Brazilian patients with OCD on several demographic and clinical characteristics. Three hundred thirty outpatients with OCD

Ricardo Cezar Torresan; Ana Teresa de Abreu Ramos-Cerqueira; Maria Alice de Mathis; Juliana Belo Diniz; Ygor Arzeno Ferrăo; Euripedes Constantino Miguel; Albina Rodrigues Torres

2009-01-01

105

Neural correlates of clinical symptoms and cognitive dysfunctions in obsessive–compulsive disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although results from neuropsychological and neuroimaging studies have postulated the involvement of the frontal lobe and the subcortical brain regions in the pathophysiology of obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD), neuroimaging studies have provided little evidence that cognitive abnormalities in patients with OCD are related to dysfunctions in these areas. This study was designed to determine whether the clinical features and cognitive deficits

Jun Soo Kwon; Jae-Jin Kim; Dong Woo Lee; Jae Sung Lee; Dong Soo Lee; Myung-Sun Kim; In Kyoon Lyoo; Maeng Je Cho; Myung Chul Lee

2003-01-01

106

Predictors of Fluvoxamine Response in Contamination-related Obsessive Compulsive Disorder: A PET Symptom Provocation Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to identify neuroimaging predictors of medication response in contamination-related obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). Prior studies of OCD had indicated that glucose metabolic rates within orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) were inversely correlated with subsequent response to serotonergic reuptake inhibitors (SRIs) and that glucose metabolic rates within posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) were positively correlated with subsequent response

Scott L Rauch; Lisa M Shin; Darin D Dougherty; Nathaniel M Alpert; Alan J Fischman; Michael A Jenike

2002-01-01

107

The familial phenotype of obsessive-compulsive disorder in relation to tic disorders: the Hopkins OCD family study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and tic disorders have phenomenological and familial-genetic overlaps. An OCD family study sample that excludes Tourette’s syndrome in probands is used to examine whether tic disorders are part of the familial phenotype of OCD.Methods: Eighty case and 73 control probands and their first-degree relatives were examined by experienced clinicians using the Schedule for Affective Disorders and

Marco A Grados; Mark A Riddle; Jack F Samuels; Kung-Yee Liang; Rudolf Hoehn-Saric; O. Joseph Bienvenu; John T Walkup; DongHo Song; Gerald Nestadt

2001-01-01

108

Autism and ADHD Symptoms in Patients with OCD: Are They Associated with Specific OC Symptom Dimensions or OC Symptom Severity?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), the relationship between autism spectrum disorders (ASD), attention-deficit\\/hyperactivity\\u000a disorder (ADHD) symptom, and obsessive-compulsive (OC) symptom dimensions and severity has scarcely been studied. Therefore,\\u000a 109 adult outpatients with primary OCD were compared to 87 healthy controls on OC, ADHD and ASD symptoms. OCD patients showed\\u000a increased ADHD and autism symptom frequencies, OCD + ADHD patients reporting more autism symptoms

Gideon E. Anholt; Danielle C. Cath; Patricia van Oppen; Merijn Eikelenboom; Johannes H. Smit; Harold van Megen

2010-01-01

109

Efficacy of a prevention program for postpartum obsessive-compulsive symptoms.  

PubMed

Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) has emerged as a common and impairing postpartum condition. Prospective studies have identified psychological vulnerabilities for the emergence of postpartum obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCS), including general anxiety symptoms, pre-existing OCS, and specific cognitive distortions. The identification of these factors makes feasible the development of prevention programs that could reduce the impact of postpartum OCS. The present investigation examined a cognitive-behavioral prevention program using a randomized, double blind, controlled trial. Expecting mothers in their 2nd or 3rd trimester with an empirically established, malleable risk factor for postpartum OCS received either the prevention program (N=38) or a credible control program (N=33), both of which were incorporated into traditional childbirth education classes. Results revealed that at 1 month, 3 months, and 6 months postpartum, the prevention program was associated with significantly lower levels of obsessions and compulsions than was the control condition (all p's<0.05). Group differences remained significant even after controlling for baseline OCS and depression symptoms. Those in the prevention condition also reported decreasing levels of cognitive distortions, in contrast to the control condition (p's<0.05). Results support the potential utility of incorporating a CBT-based OCS prevention program into childbirth education classes. PMID:21764404

Timpano, Kiara R; Abramowitz, Jonathan S; Mahaffey, Brittain L; Mitchell, Melissa A; Schmidt, Norman B

2011-07-18

110

Obsessive-compulsive symptoms and characteristics in individuals with delayed sleep phase disorder.  

PubMed

Research has demonstrated a relationship between circadian disruption and severe obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Misalignment of sleep timing/endogenous biological rhythms with the 24-hour light/dark cycle may result in difficulty dismissing intrusive thoughts, thus increasing vulnerability to disorders characterized by intrusive thoughts, such as OCD. Deficits in inhibition of intrusive thoughts are posited to play a role in OCD. The current study investigated whether individuals with delayed sleep phase disorder (DSPD) report elevated symptoms of OCD and have greater difficulty inhibiting intrusive thoughts than do individuals without DSPD. Community participants with and without DSPD completed questionnaires and performed behavioral tasks designed to elicit intrusive thoughts. The participants with DSPD (n = 27) had elevated OCD symptoms and greater rates of disorders characterized by intrusive thoughts on a structured interview, as compared with the participants without DSPD (n = 19). These results support a link between the timing of sleep and symptoms of OCD. Implications and future directions are discussed. PMID:24080675

Schubert, Jessica R; Coles, Meredith E

2013-10-01

111

Are the symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder temporally stable in children/adolescents? A prospective naturalistic study.  

PubMed

Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) symptoms tend to be temporally stable in adults, but much less is known about their stability in young people. We examined the temporal stability of OCD symptoms in a clinical pediatric sample. As part of a naturalistic longitudinal study, 74 children and adolescents with OCD were assessed with the Children's Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale on two separate occasions ranging from 1 to 11 years apart (average 5 years). Analysis of variance and multiple regression models examined changes within and between symptoms and symptom dimensions. Changes within individual symptom categories were observed in approximately 15-45% of the cases, depending on the specific symptom. In most of those cases, symptoms went from present to absent at follow-up rather than from absent to present. Changes were no longer significant when individuals who were in remission at follow-up were excluded. Multiple regression analyses indicated that the strongest predictor of a particular symptom dimension at follow-up was the presence of the same dimension at baseline. Shifts from one dimension to another were rare. The content of OCD symptoms is relatively stable across time in young people. Most changes observed were attributable to clinical improvement/remission and occurred within rather than between symptom dimensions. PMID:23261183

Fernández de la Cruz, Lorena; Micali, Nadia; Roberts, Samuel; Turner, Cynthia; Nakatani, Eriko; Heyman, Isobel; Mataix-Cols, David

2012-12-20

112

The cognitive mediation of obsessive-compulsive symptoms: a longitudinal study.  

PubMed

Contemporary cognitive models of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) posit that OC symptoms arise from negative interpretations of intrusive thoughts, which are derived from trait-like dysfunctional assumptions ("obsessive beliefs;" e.g., concerning overestimates of responsibility). Although correlational studies suggest that obsessive beliefs, negative interpretations of intrusions, and OC symptoms are interrelated, prospective studies evaluating the directional hypotheses implied in the cognitive model are lacking. In the present longitudinal study, 76 first time expecting parents were followed through the postpartum. Results indicated that the tendency to negatively interpret the presence and meaning of unwanted intrusive infant-related thoughts early in the postpartum period (3-4 weeks) mediated the relationship between pre-childbirth obsessive-beliefs and late postpartum (12 weeks) OC symptoms. Results are discussed in terms of their theoretical and treatment implications. PMID:16806800

Abramowitz, Jonathan S; Nelson, Christy A; Rygwall, Rebecca; Khandker, Maheruh

2006-06-27

113

Clozapine-induced obsessive-compulsive symptoms in schizophrenia: a critical review.  

PubMed

Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is rarely associated with schizophrenia, whereas 20 to 30% of schizophrenic patients, suffer from comorbid obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCS). So far no single pathogenetic theory convincingly explained this fact suggesting heterogeneous subgroups. Based on long-term case observations, one hypothesis assumes that second-onset OCS in the course of schizophrenia might be a side effect of second generation antipsychotics (SGA), most importantly clozapine (CLZ). This review summarizes the supporting epidemiological and pharmacological evidence: Estimations on prevalence of OCS increase in more recent cross-sectional studies and in later disease stages. Longitudinal observations report the de novo-onset of OCS under clozapine treatment. This association has not been reported with first generation antipsychotics (FGA) or SGAs with mainly dopaminergic mode of action. Finally, significant correlations of OCS-severity with duration of treatment, dose and serum levels suggest clozapine-induced OCS. However, supposed causal interactions need further verifications. It is also unclear, which neurobiological mechanisms might underlie the pathogenetic process. Detailed genotypic and phenotypic characterizations of schizophrenics with comorbid OCS regarding neurocognitive functioning and activation in sensitive tasks of functional magnetic imaging are needed. Multimodal large-scaled prospective studies are necessary to define patients at risk for second-onset OCS and to improve early detection and therapeutic interventions. PMID:22942882

Schirmbeck, Frederike; Zink, Mathias

2012-03-01

114

Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder in Late Life  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Although obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has received increasing attention, the study and treatment of OCD in late life has been neglected. The obsessions and compulsions seen with older adults do not appear to differ from the symptoms experienced by other age groups, although developmental issues might influence symptom focus (e.g., memory…

Calamari, John E.; Pontarelli, Noelle K.; Armstrong, Kerrie M.; Salstrom, Seoka A.

2012-01-01

115

Psychometric analysis of the Yale-Brown Obsessive–Compulsive Scale Second Edition Symptom Checklist  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Yale-Brown Obsessive–Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS) was recently revised to address several clinical and conceptual issues. The resultant measure, named the Yale-Brown Obsessive–Compulsive Scale—Second Edition, consists of two primary scales: the Severity Scale and the Symptom Checklist. Although the Severity Scale has been the subject of a comprehensive psychometric analysis, no data have been reported on the psychometric properties of the

Eric A. Storch; Michael J. Larson; Lawrence H. Price; Steven A. Rasmussen; Tanya K. Murphy; Wayne K. Goodman

2010-01-01

116

Evidence for a genetic overlap between body dysmorphic concerns and obsessive-compulsive symptoms in an adult female community twin sample.  

PubMed

Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is thought to be etiologically related to obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) but the available evidence is incomplete. The current study examined the genetic and environmental sources of covariance between body dysmorphic and obsessive-compulsive symptoms in a community sample of adult twins. A total of 2,148 female twins (1,074 pairs) completed valid and reliable measures of body dysmorphic concerns and obsessive-compulsive symptoms. The data were analyzed using bivariate twin modeling methods and the statistical programme Mx. In the best-fitting model, the covariation between body dysmorphic and obsessive-compulsive traits was largely accounted for by genetic influences common to both phenotypes (64%; 95% CI: 0.50-0.80). This genetic overlap was even higher when specific obsessive-compulsive symptom dimensions were considered, with up to 82% of the phenotypic correlation between the obsessing and symmetry/ordering symptom dimensions and dysmorphic concerns being attributable to common genetic factors. Unique environmental factors, although influencing these traits individually, did not substantially contribute to their covariation. The results remained unchanged when excluding individuals reporting an objective medical condition/injury accounting for their concern in physical appearance. The association between body dysmorphic concerns and obsessive-compulsive symptoms is largely explained by shared genetic factors. Environmental risk factors were largely unique to each phenotype. These results support current recommendations to group BDD together with OCD in the same DSM-5 chapter, although comparison with other phenotypes such as somatoform disorders and social phobia is needed. PMID:22434544

Monzani, Benedetta; Rijsdijk, Fruhling; Iervolino, Alessandra C; Anson, Martin; Cherkas, Lynn; Mataix-Cols, David

2012-03-20

117

Brain activation during cognitive planning in twins discordant or concordant for obsessive-compulsive symptoms  

PubMed Central

Neuroimaging studies have indicated abnormalities in cortico-striatal-thalamo-cortical circuits in patients with obsessive–compulsive disorder compared with controls. However, there are inconsistencies between studies regarding the exact set of brain structures involved and the direction of anatomical and functional changes. These inconsistencies may reflect the differential impact of environmental and genetic risk factors for obsessive–compulsive disorder on different parts of the brain. To distinguish between functional brain changes underlying environmentally and genetically mediated obsessive–compulsive disorder, we compared task performance and brain activation during a Tower of London planning paradigm in monozygotic twins discordant (n?=?38) or concordant (n?=?100) for obsessive–compulsive symptoms. Twins who score high on obsessive–compulsive symptoms can be considered at high risk for obsessive–compulsive disorder. We found that subjects at high risk for obsessive–compulsive disorder did not differ from the low-risk subjects behaviourally, but we obtained evidence that the high-risk subjects differed from the low-risk subjects in the patterns of brain activation accompanying task execution. These regions can be separated into those that were affected by mainly environmental risk (dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and lingual cortex), genetic risk (frontopolar cortex, inferior frontal cortex, globus pallidus and caudate nucleus) and regions affected by both environmental and genetic risk factors (cingulate cortex, premotor cortex and parts of the parietal cortex). Our results suggest that neurobiological changes related to obsessive–compulsive symptoms induced by environmental factors involve primarily the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, whereas neurobiological changes induced by genetic factors involve orbitofrontal–basal ganglia structures. Regions showing similar changes in high-risk twins from discordant and concordant pairs may be part of compensatory networks that keep planning performance intact, in spite of cortico-striatal-thalamo-cortical deficits.

van 't Ent, Dennis; Cath, Danielle C.; Wagner, Judith; Boomsma, Dorret I.; de Geus, Eco J. C.

2010-01-01

118

The Presentation of Childhood Obsessive--Compulsive Disorder across Home and School Settings: A Preliminary Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study aimed to determine the exact pattern of obsessive--compulsive disorder (OCD) symptoms in children displayed across school and home settings. Twenty-six school children (aged 7 through 17) with OCD were tested using the Children's Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (CY-BOCS), the Clinical Global Impression (CGI)--severity subscale…

Sabuncuoglu, Osman; Berkem, Meral

2006-01-01

119

A Review of the Pharmacotherapy of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder and Schizophrenia: The Case of Sam  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Obsessive-compulsive symptoms are a common feature of schizophrenia, and high rates of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) have been reported in schizophrenic patients. Effective pharmacotherapeutic options are available for both OCD and schizophrenia, and for some patients combining medications targeted at both conditions may be a helpful…

Randhawa, Ramandeep S.

2005-01-01

120

Factor structure of the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS) in a large sample of patients with schizophrenia or related disorders and comorbid obsessive-compulsive symptoms.  

PubMed

In the past decade there has been an increasing interest in the levels of obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCS) found in patients with schizophrenia or related disorders. The widely acknowledged gold standard measure of the severity of OCS is the content-free version of the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS) (Goodman et al., 1989a,b). However, factor analytic research in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) provided varied results. So far no study has been conducted on the factor structure of the Y-BOCS in patients with schizophrenia. The present study addresses this issue. We administered the Y-BOCS in a sample of 217 patients with schizophrenia or related disorders and comorbid OCS who participated in a multicentre cohort study. We used principal component analysis (PCA) to explore the underlying factor structure. A two-factor solution consistent with the originally proposed scoring structure of the Y-BOCS provided the optimal fit. We also found some support for a three-factor solution consistent with earlier findings by Kim et al. and Moritz et al. (Kim et al., 1994; Moritz et al., 2002). The produced factors showed good reliability and strong correlations with the Y-BOCS Total score. However, the resistance to compulsion item failed to demonstrate adequate correlation to the Total score, a finding consistent with earlier findings in several studies with patients with OCD. PMID:20800902

Boyette, Lindy; Swets, Marije; Meijer, Carin; Wouters, Luuk; G R O U P Authors

2010-08-30

121

Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder  

MedlinePLUS

... Is Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder? Everyone feels anxiety, fear, uncertainty, or worry at some time. These normal emotions ... in perspective, there is a constant stream of uncertainty, doubt, or fear in the person's mind. OCD ...

122

Development and Psychometric Evaluation of the Yale–Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale—Second Edition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Yale–Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS; Goodman, Price, Rasmussen, Mazure, Delgado, et al., 1989) is acknowledged as the gold standard measure of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) symptom severity. A number of areas where the Y-BOCS may benefit from revision have emerged in past psychometric studies of the Severity Scale and Symptom Checklist. Therefore, we created the Yale–Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale—Second Edition (Y-BOCS–II) by

Eric A. Storch; Steven A. Rasmussen; Lawrence H. Price; Michael J. Larson; Tanya K. Murphy; Wayne K. Goodman

2010-01-01

123

Objective sleep patterns and severity of symptoms in pediatric obsessive compulsive disorder: A pilot investigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sleep disturbances are common among youth with anxiety disorders, yet objective assessments of sleep in children with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) have been the focus of scant research. We therefore compared a small group of non-medicated, non-depressed children with primary OCD (ages 7–11 years) to matched healthy controls using home-based actigraphy during a 7-day prospective assessment. Validated parent and child

Candice A. Alfano; Kerri L. Kim

2011-01-01

124

Family accommodation in obsessive–compulsive disorder: Relation to symptom dimensions, clinical and family characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Family accommodation is the term used to indicate the process whereby family members of patients with obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) assist or participate in the patients' rituals. Family accommodation is a relatively under-researched phenomenon in OCD but an important one because it may be predictive of poor treatment outcome. This study systematically examined several socio-demographic and clinical variables that are associated

Umberto Albert; Filippo Bogetto; Giuseppe Maina; Paola Saracco; Cinthia Brunatto; David Mataix-Cols

2010-01-01

125

Insight and treatment outcome in obsessive-compulsive disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine whether (1) insight in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) improves when OCD symptoms improve, and whether (2) degree of insight in OCD predicts response to sertraline, data were obtained from five sites participating in a larger multisite study of relapse in OCD. During the first 16 weeks of the study, 71 patients received open-label treatment with sertraline and were assessed

Jane L. Eisen; Steven A. Rasmussen; Katharine A. Phillips; Lawrence H. Price; Jonathan Davidson; R. Bruce Lydiard; Philip Ninan; Teresa Piggott

2001-01-01

126

Distinct correlates of hoarding and cleaning symptom dimensions in relation to onset of obsessive–compulsive disorder at menarche or the perinatal period  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ninety female outpatients with obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) completed a semistructured interview to assess the relationship\\u000a between different OCD symptom dimensions and the onset of OCD at menarche or during the perinatal period. Patients with hoarding\\u000a symptoms had an earlier age at menarche than non-hoarders (12.1?±?1.3 vs 13.0?±?1.5 years, p?=?0.019) and were more likely to report OCD onset at menarche (OR?=?4.1, p?=?0.034).

Javier Labad; Pino Alonso; Cinto Segalas; Eva Real; Susana Jimenez; Blanca Bueno; Julio Vallejo; Jose Manuel Menchon

2010-01-01

127

Schizo-obsessive and obsessive-compulsive disorder: Comparison of clinical characteristics and neurological soft signs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the study was to examine whether schizophrenia with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) represents a severe form of OCD-spectrum disorders on the basis of neurological soft signs (NSS) and obsessive-compulsive (OC) symptoms. Sixteen patients with OCD-schizophrenia, 25 OCD patients and 23 healthy controls (HC) were studied. Scales for the Assessment of Positive (SAPS) and Negative Symptoms (SANS), Clinical Global

Levent Sevincok; Aybars Akoglu; Hülya Arslantas

2006-01-01

128

Temporal Stability of Obsessive-Compulsive Symptom Dimensions in an Undergraduate Sample: A Prospective 2-Year Follow-Up Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The temporal stability of obsessive-compulsive symptom dimensions was studied in a nonclinical student sample. The Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory--Revised was administered twice to 132 undergraduate students during a 2-year period. There were no significant changes in symptom dimension scores between the baseline and follow-up, except for the…

Fullana, Miquel A.; Tortella-Feliu, Miquel; Caseras, Xavier; Taberner, Joan; Torrubia, Rafael; Mataix-Cols, David

2007-01-01

129

The Children's Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale: Reliability and Validity for Use among 5 to 8 Year Olds with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Children's Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (CY-BOCS) is the instrument of choice for assessing symptom severity in older children (i.e., 8-18 years) diagnosed with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The reliability and validity of this measure for use among younger children (i.e., 5-8 years of age), however, has never been examined.…

Freeman, Jennifer; Flessner, Christopher A.; Garcia, Abbe

2011-01-01

130

A pilot study on the validity of using pictures and videos for individualized symptom provocation in obsessive-compulsive disorder.  

PubMed

Distressing symptom-related anxiety is difficult to study in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) due to the disorder's heterogeneity. Our aim was to develop and validate a set of pictures and films comprising a variety of prominent OCD triggers that can be used for individually tailored symptom provocation in experimental studies. In a two-staged production procedure a large pool of OCD triggers and neutral contents was produced and preselected by three psychotherapists specialized in OCD. A sample of 13 OCD patients and 13 controls rated their anxiety, aversiveness and arousal during exposure to OCD-relevant, aversive and neutral control stimuli. Our findings demonstrate differences between the responses of patients and controls to OCD triggers only. Symptom-related anxiety was stronger in response to dynamic compared with static OCD-relevant stimuli. Due to the small number of 13 patients included in the study, only tentative conclusions can be drawn and this study merely provides a first step of validation. These standardized sets constitute valuable tools that can be used in experimental studies on the brain correlates of OCD symptoms and for the study of therapeutic interventions in order to contribute to future developments in the field. PMID:22414659

Simon, Daniela; Kischkel, Eva; Spielberg, Rüdiger; Kathmann, Norbert

2012-03-12

131

Development and Psychometric Evaluation of the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale--Second Edition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS; Goodman, Price, Rasmussen, Mazure, Delgado, et al., 1989) is acknowledged as the gold standard measure of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) symptom severity. A number of areas where the Y-BOCS may benefit from revision have emerged in past psychometric studies of the Severity Scale and Symptom

Storch, Eric A.; Rasmussen, Steven A.; Price, Lawrence H.; Larson, Michael J.; Murphy, Tanya K.; Goodman, Wayne K.

2010-01-01

132

Comorbid obsessive-compulsive symptoms in schizophrenia: contributions of pharmacological and genetic factors  

PubMed Central

A large subgroup of around 25% of schizophrenia patients suffers from obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCS) and about 12% fulfill the diagnostic criteria of an obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The additional occurrence of OCS is associated with high subjective burden of disease, additional neurocognitive impairment, poorer social and vocational functioning, greater service utilization and high levels of anxiety and depression. Comorbid patients can be assigned to heterogeneous subgroups. One hypothesis assumes that second generation antipsychotics (SGAs), most importantly clozapine, might aggravate or even induce second-onset OCS. Several arguments support this assumption, most importantly the observed chronological order of first psychotic manifestation, start of treatment with clozapine and onset of OCS. In addition, correlations between OCS-severity and dose and serum levels and duration of clozapine treatment hint toward a dose-dependent side effect. It has been hypothesized that genetic risk-factors dispose patients with schizophrenia to develop OCS. One study in a South Korean sample reported associations with polymorphisms in the gene SLC1A1 (solute carrier family 1A1) and SGA-induced OCS. However, this finding could not be replicated in European patients. Preliminary results also suggest an involvement of polymorphisms in the BDNF gene (brain-derived neurotrophic factor) and an interaction between markers of SLC1A1 and the gene DLGAP3 (disc large associated protein 3) as well as GRIN2B (N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subunit 2B). Further research of well-defined samples, in particular studies investigating possible interactions of genetic risk-constellations and pharmacodynamic properties, are needed to clarify the assumed development of SGA-induced OCS. Results might improve pathogenic concepts and facilitate the definition of at risk populations, early detection and monitoring of OCS as well as multimodal therapeutic interventions.

Schirmbeck, Frederike; Zink, Mathias

2013-01-01

133

Effects of yohimbine in obsessive compulsive disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

The a2-adrenergic receptor antagonist yohimbine was administered to 12 drug-free patients with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) and to 12 healthy subjects. Changes in behavior, cardiovascular symptoms, and in plasma levels of cortisol and the norepinephrine metabolite, 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol (MHPG), were assessed. Yohimbine had no significant effect on OCD symptoms. The OCD patients did not differ from healthy controls in their behavioral

S. A. Rasmussen; W. K. Goodman; S. W. Woods; G. R. Heninger; D. S. Charney

1987-01-01

134

Neurohemodynamic Correlates of Washing Symptoms in Obsessive-compulsive Disorder: A Pilot fMRI Study Using Symptom Provocation Paradigm  

PubMed Central

Background: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is increasingly being viewed as a multidimensional heterogeneous disorder caused due to the dysfunction of several closely related, overlapping frontostriatal circuits. A study investigating the dimensional construct in treatment naďve, co-morbidity free patients with identical handedness is likely to provide the necessary homogeneity and power to elicit neural correlates of the various symptom dimensions, and overcome the limitations of previous studies. Materials and Methods: Nine DSM-IV OCD patients with predominant contamination-related obsessive-compulsive symptoms (age=29.8±7.1 years; five males: four females; years-of-education=13.9±1.6, YBOCS total score=28.8±4.7, DYBOCS Contamination dimension score=10.7±1.8) and nine healthy controls matched one to one with the patients for age, sex, and years of education (age=27.8±5.4, five males: four females; years-of-education=14.9±3.0), were examined during symptom provocation task performance in 3TMRI. Paired samples t test of brain activation differences (contamination relevant pictures – neutral pictures), limited to apriori regions of interest was done using SPM8 (uncorrected P<0.005). Results: Patients found significantly more pictures to be anxiety provoking in comparison to healthy controls. Patients were found to have deficient activation in the following areas in comparison with healthy controls: bilateral anterior prefrontal, dorsolateral prefrontal, orbitofrontal, anterior cingulate, insular and parietal cortices, precuneus, and caudate. Conclusions: Results underscore the importance of frontal, striatal, parietal, and occipital areas in the pathophysiology of OCD. Divergence of findings from previous studies might be attributed to the absence of confounding factors in the current study and may be due to production of intense anxiety in patients.

Agarwal, Sri Mahavir; Jose, Dania; Baruah, Upasana; Shivakumar, Venkataram; Kalmady, Sunil Vasu; Venkatasubramanian, Ganesan; Mataix-Cols, David; Reddy, Yemmigannur Chandrashekhar Janardhan

2013-01-01

135

Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder  

MedlinePLUS

Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a type of anxiety disorder. If you have OCD, you have frequent, upsetting thoughts called obsessions. To try ... hands, counting, checking on things, or cleaning. With OCD, the thoughts and rituals cause distress and get ...

136

The mediating effects of misinterpretation of intrusive thoughts on obsessive-compulsive symptoms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Perfectionism and inflated responsibility have both been identified as risk factors for the development and maintenance of obsessive-compulsive (OC) symptoms. The aim of the present study was to test whether the relationships between these two variables and OC symptoms are mediated by the misinterpretation of intrusive thoughts (MIT). Three hundred and three university students completed the Frost Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale,

Jessica Pleva; Tracey D. Wade

2006-01-01

137

Postpartum onset obsessive-compulsive disorder: diagnosis and management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The postpartum period is associated with an increased risk of developing obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) in women. Postpartum onset OCD is often undiagnosed and untreated resulting in serious consequences for the patient, her family and the newborn. The symptoms of postpartum onset OCD may consist of obsessional intrusive thoughts about harming the newborn without compulsions or with both obsessions and

M. Brandes; C. N. Soares; L. S. Cohen

2004-01-01

138

Understanding Obsessive–Compulsive Disorder: Focus on Decision Making  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current approaches to obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) have suggested that neurobiological abnormalities play a crucial role in the etiology and course of this psychiatric illness. In particular, a fronto-subcortical circuit, including the orbitofrontal cortex, basal ganglia and thalamus appears to be involved in the expression of OCD symptoms. Neuropsychological studies have also shown that patients with OCD show deficits in cognitive

Paolo Cavedini; Alessandra Gorini; Laura Bellodi

2006-01-01

139

Health Concerns in Patients With Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study, individuals with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) who also had excessive health concerns n = 56 were compared with OCD individuals without such concerns n = 343 regarding their OCD symptom severity, types of obsessions and compulsions, insight into the irrationality of their obsessions, and prevalence of generalized anxiety disorder. While the presence of health concerns did not

Jonathan S. Abramowitz; Bartholomew D. Brigidi; Edna B. Foa

1999-01-01

140

Comparable performance of patients with obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) and healthy controls for verbal and nonverbal memory accuracy and confidence  

Microsoft Academic Search

The memory deficit or forgetfulness hypothesis of obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) has received considerable attention and empirical effort over the past decades. The present study aimed to provide a fair test of its various formulations: (1) memory dysfunction in OCD is ubiquitous, that is, manifests irrespective of modality and material; (2) memory dysfunction is found for nonverbal but not verbal material,

Steffen Moritz; Martin Kloss; Francesca Vitzthum von Eckstaedt; Lena Jelinek

2009-01-01

141

Cognitive Predictors of Obsessive?Compulsive Symptoms in Adolescence: A Preliminary Investigation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study examined relations among responsibility attitudes, metacognitive beliefs, and obsessive?compulsive (O?C) symptoms in youth. One hundred sixty-six nonclinical youth (ages 13 to 17 years) completed the following: Responsibility Attitude Scale (RAS; Salkovskis et al., 2000); Meta-Cognitions Questionnaire?Adolescent Version (MCQ?A;…

Mather, Alison; Cartwright-Hatton, Sam

2004-01-01

142

Factor Structure of the Yale–Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Yale–Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS) is one of the most widely used measures of obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) symptoms (W. K. Goodman et al., 1989). The purpose of this study was to examine the dimensions underlying the Y-BOCS by performing a confirmatory factor analysis of the scale using responses from a large sample of patients. The results support a 2-factor

Nader Amir; Edna B. Foa; Meredith E. Coles

1997-01-01

143

Stable cognitive deficits in schizophrenia patients with comorbid obsessive-compulsive symptoms: a 12-month longitudinal study.  

PubMed

Background: Amongst schizophrenia patients, a large subgroup of up to 25% also suffers from comorbid obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCSs). The association between comorbid OCSs in these patients and neuropsychological impairment remains unclear and somewhat contradictory. Longitudinal approaches investigating the stability of OCS-associated cognitive deficits are missing. Methods: Thirty-seven patients with schizophrenia and comorbid OCSs and 43 schizophrenia patients without OCS were assessed with a comprehensive cognitive test battery and compared at baseline and, again, 12 months later. Results: Schizophrenia patients with comorbid OCSs showed significant pronounced deficits, with increasing effect sizes over the 12-month assessment period in specific cognitive areas such as visuospatial perception and visual memory (WAIS-R block design, Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test), executive functioning (perseveration in the Wisconsin Card Sorting test), and cognitive flexibility (Trail Making test B). These cognitive domains are correlated with OCS severity and are known to be candidate cognitive domains in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Conclusions: OCSs in schizophrenia is associated with specific and longitudinally stable cognitive deficits, strongly arguing for at least partially overlapping neurobiological mechanisms with OCD. Prospective studies involving patients with at-risk mental states for psychosis are necessary to decipher the interaction of cognitive impairment and the clinical manifestations of schizophrenia and OCSs. This might facilitate the definition of patients at high risk for OCSs, an early detection of subclinical levels, therapeutic interventions, and clinical monitoring. PMID:23104864

Schirmbeck, Frederike; Rausch, Franziska; Englisch, Susanne; Eifler, Sarah; Esslinger, Christine; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Zink, Mathias

2012-10-27

144

Three cases of symptom change in Tourette's syndrome and obsessive-compulsive disorder associated with paediatric cerebral malignancies.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To correlate behaviour manifestations with tumour location in three children who had Gilles de la Tourette's syndrome (GTS), obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and primary cerebral malignancies. METHOD: Cases were ascertained from a chart review in a GTS and OCD specialty clinic. For each case the temporal progression of change in neuropsychiatric symptoms was qualitatively correlated with radiographic documentation of tumour progression. RESULTS: The change in symptom severities during tumour progression and treatment, together with prior neurobiological studies of GTS, suggest that the ventral striatum, corpus callosum, thalamus, and midbrain are potentially important neural substrates in the formation or modulation of tic symptoms. The limbic system, including the hypothalamus and cingulate, and the caudate nucleus, seem to be important in the neurobiology of OCD. All structures are neuroanatomically and functionally related to the corticostriato-thalamocortical circuitry that is thought to subserve symptom generation in both GTS and OCD. CONCLUSION: Although the malignancies were not likely to have caused the tic and OCD symptoms in these children, the locations of these intracranial lesions provide important clues in identifying brain regions that may contribute to the determination of tic and OCD severities. Images

Peterson, B S; Bronen, R A; Duncan, C C

1996-01-01

145

Correlates of Insight among Youth with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Background: Individuals with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) may lack insight into the irrational nature of their symptoms. Among adults with OCD, poor insight has been linked to greater symptom severity, increased likelihood of comorbid symptoms, lower adaptive functioning, and worse treatment outcomes. Parallel work regarding insight among…

Lewin, Adam B.; Bergman, R. Lindsey; Peris, Tara S.; Chang, Susanna; McCracken, James T.; Piacentini, John

2010-01-01

146

Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder With and Without Tic Disorder: A Comparative Study From India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: Evidence from phenomenologi- cal, family, genetic, and treatment studies from Western centers have suggested that tic-related obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) could be different from non-tic-related OCD. This study from India investigated the differences in OCD with and without tics, with respect to sociode- mographics, symptom profile, and comorbidity, including obsessive-compulsive spectrum disor- ders, to examine whether the clinical profile of

T. S. Jaisoorya; Y. C. Janardhan Reddy; S. Srinath; K. Thennarasu

147

Does gabapentin lead to early symptom improvement in obsessive-compulsive disorder?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  The aim of this study was to compare efficacy of fluoxetine alone and co-administration of gabapentin and fluoxetine in patients\\u000a with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Forty outpatients with a DSM-IV diagnosis of OCD were randomized to open label treatment, 20 of whom were treated with fluoxetine\\u000a alone and the remaining 20 with fluoxetine plus gabapentin during 8 weeks. The severity was

Emin Önder; Ümit Tural; Mehmet Gökbakan

2008-01-01

148

Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder in Late Life  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has received increasing attention, the study and treatment of OCD in late life has been neglected. The obsessions and compulsions seen with older adults do not appear to differ from the symptoms experienced by other age groups, although developmental issues might influence symptom focus (e.g., memory functioning-related obsessions). Hoarding difficulties might be prevalent in late life,

Seoka A. Salstrom

149

Family Accommodation in Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Despite the importance of the family in the treatment of pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), relatively little empirical attention has been directed to family accommodation of symptoms. This study examined the relations among family accommodation, OCD symptom severity, functional impairment, and internalizing and externalizing behavior…

Storch, Eric A.; Geffken, Gary R.; Merlo, Lisa J.; Jacob, Marni L.; Murphy, Tanya K.; Goodman, Wayne K.; Larson, Michael J.; Fernandez, Melanie; Grabill, Kristen

2007-01-01

150

Familial aggregation of schizophrenia-spectrum disorders and obsessive-compulsive associated disorders in schizophrenia probands with and without OCD.  

PubMed

A substantial proportion of schizophrenia patients also has obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). To further validate the clinical validity of a schizo-obsessive diagnostic entity, we assessed morbid risks for schizophrenia-spectrum disorders and OC-associated disorders in first-degree relatives of schizophrenia probands with and without OCD. Two groups of schizophrenia probands [with OCD (n = 57) and without OCD (n = 60)] and community-based controls (n = 50) were recruited. One hundred eighty two first-degree relatives of probands with OCD-schizophrenia, 210 relatives of non-OCD schizophrenia probands, and 165 relatives of community subjects were interviewed directly [59.3% (108/182), 51.9% (109/210), and 54.5% (90/165), respectively], using the Structured Clinical Interview for Axis-I DSM-IV Disorders and Axis II DSM-III-R Personality Disorders and the remaining relatives were interviewed indirectly, using the Family History Research Diagnostic Criteria. Relatives of OCD-schizophrenia probands had significantly higher morbid risks for OCD-schizophrenia (2.2% vs. 0%; P = 0.033) and OCPD (7.14% vs. 1.90%; P = 0.014), and a trend towards higher morbid risk for OCD (4.41% vs. 1.43%; P = 0.08) compared to relatives of non-OCD schizophrenia probands. When morbid risks for OCD, OCPD, and OCD-schizophrenia were pooled together, the significant between-group difference became robust (13.74% vs. 3.33%; P = 0.0002). In contrast, relatives of the two schizophrenia groups did not differ significantly in morbid risks for schizophrenia-spectrum disorders, mood disorders, or substance abuse disorders. A differential aggregation of OC-associated disorders in relatives of OCD-schizophrenia versus non-OCD schizophrenia probands, provides further support for the validity of a putative OCD-schizophrenia ("schizo-obsessive") diagnostic entity. PMID:15635656

Poyurovsky, Michael; Kriss, Victoria; Weisman, Gregory; Faragian, Sarit; Schneidman, Michael; Fuchs, Camil; Weizman, Abraham; Weizman, Ronit

2005-02-01

151

Pathophysiology of obsessive–compulsive disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) is characterized by repetitive intrusive thoughts and compulsive time-consuming behaviors classified into three to five distinct symptom dimensions including: (1) aggressive\\/somatic obsessions with checking compulsions; (2) contamination concerns with washing compulsions; (3) symmetry obsessions with counting\\/ordering compulsions; (4) hoarding obsessions with collecting compulsions; and (5) sexual\\/religious concerns. Phenomenologically, OCD could be thought of as the irruption of

Bruno Aouizerate; Dominique Guehl; Emmanuel Cuny; Alain Rougier; Bernard Bioulac; Jean Tignol; Pierre Burbaud

2004-01-01

152

Genetic and environmental covariations among obsessive-compulsive symptoms, neuroticism, and extraversion in South Korean adolescent and young adult twins.  

PubMed

A growing literature suggests that personality traits may be endophenotype markers for psychiatric illnesses. Although the phenotypic relationships between obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and high neuroticism and low extraversion have been well documented, underlying genetic and environmental contributions to these associations have not been explored previously. Five hundred and twenty-four monozygoitc (MZ) and 228 dizygotic (DZ) pairs of adolescent and young adult twins (aged 13-24 years) drawn from the South Korean Twin Registry completed the Maudsley Obsessive Compulsive Inventory (MOCI) and the Neuroticism and Extraversion scale of the Eysenck Personality Scale by mail. The total score of MOCI (MOCIT) was significantly and positively correlated with Neuroticism (r = .44), but only weakly and negatively related to Extraversion (r = -.10). A trivariate Cholesky model was applied to the data. The additive genetic correlations in the best-fitting model were .51 between Neuroticism and MOCIT and -.17 between Extraversion and MOCIT, suggesting that additive genetic factors that lead to high neuroticism and low extraversion overlap with those genetic factors influencing high OC symptoms. These findings add to the cumulative evidence of the shared genetic etiology for the associations between a personality profile of high neuroticism and low extraversion and mental illnesses. PMID:19335184

Hur, Yoon-Mi

2009-04-01

153

To discard or not to discard: the neural basis of hoarding symptoms in obsessive-compulsive disorder.  

PubMed

Preliminary neuroimaging studies suggest that patients with the 'compulsive hoarding syndrome' may be a neurobiologically distinct variant of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) but further research is needed. A total of 29 OCD patients (13 with and 16 without prominent hoarding symptoms) and 21 healthy controls of both sexes participated in two functional magnetic resonance imaging experiments consisting of the provocation of hoarding-related and symptom-unrelated (aversive control) anxiety. In response to the hoarding-related (but not symptom-unrelated) anxiety provocation, OCD patients with prominent hoarding symptoms showed greater activation in bilateral anterior ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC) than patients without hoarding symptoms and healthy controls. In the entire patient group (n=29), provoked anxiety was positively correlated with activation in a frontolimbic network that included the anterior VMPFC, medial temporal structures, thalamus and sensorimotor cortex. Negative correlations were observed in the left dorsal anterior cingulate gyrus, bilateral temporal cortex, bilateral dorsolateral/medial prefrontal regions, basal ganglia and parieto-occipital regions. These results were independent from the effects of age, sex, level of education, state anxiety, depression, comorbidity and use of medication. The findings are consistent with the animal and lesion literature and several landmark clinical features of compulsive hoarding, particularly decision-making difficulties. Whether the results are generalizable to hoarders who do not meet criteria for OCD remains to be investigated. PMID:18180763

An, S K; Mataix-Cols, D; Lawrence, N S; Wooderson, S; Giampietro, V; Speckens, A; Brammer, M J; Phillips, M L

2008-01-08

154

Compulsive checking behavior of quinpirole-sensitized rats as an animal model of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder(OCD): form and control  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: A previous report showed that the open field behavior of rats sensitized to the dopamine agonist quinpirole satisfies 5 performance criteria for compulsive checking behavior. In an effort to extend the parallel between the drug-induced phenomenon and human obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), the present study investigated whether the checking behavior of quinpirole rats is subject to interruption, which is an

Henry Szechtman; Michael J Eckert; Wai S Tse; Jonathan T Boersma; Carlo A Bonura; Jessica Z McClelland; Kirsten E Culver; David Eilam

2001-01-01

155

Predictive value of obsessive compulsive symptoms involving the skin on quality of life in patients with acne vulgaris.  

PubMed

Acne is one of the most common dermatological diseases, and obsessive compulsive disorder is among the most frequent psychiatric conditions seen in dermatology clinics. Comorbidity of these conditions may therefore be expected. The aim of this study was to measure obsessive compulsive symptoms and quality of life in patients with acne vulgaris, compare them with those of healthy control subjects, and determine whether there is any predictive value of obsessive compulsive symptoms for quality of life in patients with acne. Obsessive compulsive symptoms and quality of life measurements of 146 patients with acne vulgaris and 94 healthy control subjects were made using the Maudsley Obsessive Compulsive Questionnaire and Short Form-36 in a cross-sectional design. Patients with acne vulgaris had lower scores for physical functioning, physical role dysfunction, general health perception, vitality, and emotional role dysfunction. They also had higher scores for checking, slowness, and rumination. The only predictor of physical functioning and vitality dimensions of health-related quality of life in these patients was rumination score. Obsessive compulsive symptoms in patients with acne vulgaris are higher than in controls, and this may correlate with both disease severity and quality of life for patients. PMID:23572177

Bez, Yasin; Yesilova, Yavuz; Ar?, Mustafa; Kaya, Mehmet Cemal; Alpak, Gokay; Bulut, Mahmut

2013-10-23

156

Pregnancy-induced obsessive compulsive disorder: a case report.  

PubMed

Pregnancy is a well-recognised risk factor in precipitating obsessive-compulsive disorder. We present and discuss a case with the onset of obsessive-compulsive disorder in the fourth month of gestation, which fully recovered two weeks after delivery. The phenomenology of the observed disorder was similar to earlier reports of obsessive-compulsive disorder in pregnancy, i.e. the obsessions and compulsions were predominantly related to the concern of contaminating the foetus resulting in washing compulsions. Despite the initial success with anti-obsessional drugs, the patient stopped the medication in the last month of gestation. Nevertheless, she fully recovered two weeks after the delivery without any psychiatric intervention. There were no obsessive-compulsive symptoms at one-year follow up. The possible mechanisms involved in the aetiology of this case, and future research directions in understanding the role of pregnancy in OCD are discussed. PMID:15955256

Kalra, Harish; Tandon, Rajul; Trivedi, Jitendra Kumar; Janca, Aleksandar

2005-06-15

157

Psychometric properties of the obsessive compulsive inventory: child version in children and adolescents with obsessive-compulsive disorder.  

PubMed

The psychometric properties of the Obsessive Compulsive Inventory-Child Version (OCI-CV) were examined in ninety-six youth with a primary/co-primary diagnosis of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). A confirmatory factor analysis revealed an acceptable model of fit with factors consisting of doubting/checking, obsessing, hoarding, washing, ordering, and neutralizing. The internal consistency of the OCI-CV total score was good, while internal consistency for subscale scores ranged from poor to good. The OCI-CV was modestly correlated with obsessive-compulsive symptom severity on the Children's Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (CY-BOCS) Severity Scale, as well as with clinician-reported OCD severity. All OCI-CV subscales significantly correlated with the corresponding CY-BOCS Symptom Checklist dimension. The OCI-CV significantly correlated with child-reported depressive symptoms and OCD-related functional impairment, but was not significantly correlated with parent-reported irritability or clinician-reported overall functioning. Taken together, these data suggest the psychometric properties of the OCI-CV are adequate for assessing obsessive-compulsive symptom presence among youth with OCD. PMID:22711294

Jones, Anna M; De Nadai, Alessandro S; Arnold, Elysse B; McGuire, Joseph F; Lewin, Adam B; Murphy, Tanya K; Storch, Eric A

2013-02-01

158

Manifestation of Incompleteness in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) as Reduced Functionality and Extended Activity beyond Task Completion  

PubMed Central

Background This study focused on hypotheses regarding the source of incompleteness in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). For this, we had to document the behavioral manifestation of incompleteness in compulsive rituals, predicting that an exaggerated focus on acts that are appropriate for the task will support the hypothesis on heightened responsibility/perfectionism. In contrast, activity past the expected terminal act for the motor task would support the “stop signal deficiency” hypothesis. Methodology and Principal Findings We employed video-telemetry to analyze 39 motor OCD rituals and compared each with a similar task performed by a non-OCD individual, in order to objectively and explicitly determine the functional end of the activity. We found that 75% of OCD rituals comprised a “tail,” which is a section that follows the functional end of the task that the patients ascribed to their activity. The other 25% tailless rituals comprised a relatively high number and higher rate of repetition of non-functional acts. Thus, in rituals with tail, incompleteness was manifested by the mere presence of the tail whereas in tailless rituals, incompleteness was manifested by the reduced functionality of the task due to an inflated execution and repetition of non-functional acts. Conclusions The prevalence of activity after the functional end (“tail”) and the elevated non-functionality in OCD motor rituals support the “lack of stop signal” theories as the underlying mechanism in OCD. Furthermore, the presence and content of the tail might have a therapeutic potential in cognitive-behavior therapy.

Zor, Rama; Szechtman, Henry; Hermesh, Haggai; Fineberg, Naomi A.; Eilam, David

2011-01-01

159

Responsibility and impulsivity and their interaction in relation to obsessive-compulsive symptoms.  

PubMed

In the present study, the role of responsibility and impulsivity and their interaction in obsessive-compulsive symptoms was investigated. The obsessive-compulsive inventory-revised (OCI-R), an attention deficit and hyperactivity/impulsivity self-report scale (AD/HD-SR), the responsibility attitudes scale (RAS), Eysenck's impulsiveness/venturesomeness/empathy questionnaire (IVE), the community epidemiological survey-depression (CES-D) and the Penn State worry questionnaire (PSWQ) were administered to a sample of 405 Icelandic university students. Responsibility attitudes (RAS) and impulsivity measures were significantly related to scores on the OCI-R total scale, even when depression had been taken into consideration. The interaction between responsibility and hyperactivity/impulsivity added to the prediction of OCI-R scores over and above simple effects. PMID:17692284

Smári, Jakob; Bouranel, Guethrún; Thornóra Eiethsdóttir, Sigríethur

2007-07-14

160

Insight as a Predictor of Treatment Outcome in Behavioral Group Treatment for Obsessive–Compulsive Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

The presence of poor insight into the senselessness of symptoms of obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) has been theoretically linked to poor treatment response, yet few studies have examined this question. This study examined the role of poor insight in 69 OCD patients, who completed 7 weeks of cognitive behavioral group therapy. Participants completed the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS) and other measures

Joseph A. Himle; Michelle L. Van Etten; Amy S. Janeck; Daniel J. Fischer

2006-01-01

161

Use of factor analysis to detect potential phenotypes in obsessive-compulsive disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aimed to identify symptom dimensions in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) in order to reveal distinct clinical phenotypes. Factor analysis of the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS) checklist on item level was performed on data from 335 outpatients with primary OCD. The relationship of demographic and clinical characteristics to the resulting factor scores was examined. A principal component analysis identified the

Damiaan Denys; Femke de Geus; Herman G. M. Westenberg

2004-01-01

162

Sexual obsessions and clinical correlates in adults with obsessive-compulsive disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because little is known about sexual obsessions in individuals with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), we examined rates and clinical correlates of sexual obsessions in 293 consecutive subjects with primary lifetime Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, OCD (54.6% females; mean age, 40.5 ± 12.9 years). Symptom severity was examined using the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale. Comorbidity, treatment response,

Jon E. Grant; Anthony Pinto; Matthew Gunnip; Maria C. Mancebo; Jane L. Eisen; Steven A. Rasmussen

2006-01-01

163

Does SSRI augmentation with antidepressants that influence noradrenergic function resolve depression in obsessive–compulsive disorder?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) often coexists with major depressive disorder (MDD). Serotonergic antidepressant medications have emerged as the treatment of choice for both OCD and MDD. In the usual course of events, both the patient’s OCD and depressive symptoms improve in parallel following initiation of serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SRI) treatment for OCD. However, such is not always the case.

Catherine Mancini; Michael Van Ameringen; Peter Farvolden

2002-01-01

164

Phenomenological and comorbid features associated in obsessive–compulsive disorder: influence of age of onset  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: To explore clinical features of symptoms and comorbidity according to the age of onset of patients suffering from obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD). Methods: The survey involved collecting data from both patient members of an OCD association, and a sample of 175 OCD patients seen in OCD specialty practice. All the patients (n=617) responded to a questionnaire on family and personal

B Millet; F Kochman; T Gallarda; M. O Krebs; F Demonfaucon; I Barrot; M. C Bourdel; J. P Olié; H Loo; E. G Hantouche

2004-01-01

165

Dimensional structure of the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale in patients with obsessive–compulsive disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Comorbid depression is frequent in obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) and is acknowledged as a major confound in biological and neurocognitive investigations in OCD. The aim of the present study was to assess the distribution of depressive symptoms in a large OCD sample (n=162) and to analyze the dimensional structure of the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) in OCD. Major depressive disorder

Steffen Moritz; Beat Meier; Iver Hand; Mildred Schick; Holger Jahn

2004-01-01

166

Distinct correlates of hoarding and cleaning symptom dimensions in relation to onset of obsessive-compulsive disorder at menarche or the perinatal period.  

PubMed

Ninety female outpatients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) completed a semistructured interview to assess the relationship between different OCD symptom dimensions and the onset of OCD at menarche or during the perinatal period. Patients with hoarding symptoms had an earlier age at menarche than non-hoarders (12.1 +/- 1.3 vs 13.0 +/- 1.5 years, p = 0.019) and were more likely to report OCD onset at menarche (OR = 4.1, p = 0.034). Patients with symptoms of the contamination/cleaning dimension were more likely to report the onset of their disorder during pregnancy or postpartum (OR = 9.3, p = 0.048). PMID:19657706

Labad, Javier; Alonso, Pino; Segalas, Cinto; Real, Eva; Jimenez, Susana; Bueno, Blanca; Vallejo, Julio; Menchon, Jose Manuel

2009-08-06

167

Turning order into chaos through repetition and addition of elementary acts in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD).  

PubMed

A concept and methodology derived from an animal model provided the framework for a study of rituals in obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) patients and yielded objective and observable criteria applicable for compulsive rituals across patients. The employed ethological approach should be able to reveal and identify a common structure underlying OCD rituals, pointing to shared psychopathology. Eleven OCD rituals performed by patients in their own home were videotaped and compared with the behaviour of healthy individuals instructed to perform the same rituals. The videotaped rituals were deconstructed into visits to specific locations or objects (ritual space), and to the acts performed at each location/object (ritual basic components). Quantitative analyses revealed that compulsiveness emanates from the expansion of repeats for some acts and visits, and from the addition of superfluous act types. Best discrimination between OCD and control rituals (90.9% success) was provided by the parameter "maximum of act repeats in a ritual" (R(2)=0.77). It is suggested that the identified properties of compulsive behaviour are consistent with a recent hypothesis that ritualized behaviour shifts the individual's attention from a normal focus on structured actions to a pathological attraction onto the processing of basic acts, a shift that invariably overtaxes memory. Characteristics and mechanisms of compulsive rituals may prove useful in objective assessment of psychiatric disorders, behavioural therapy, and OCD nosology. PMID:17853263

Zor, Rama; Hermesh, Haggai; Szechtman, Henry; Eilam, David

2009-01-01

168

The Attention Training Technique as an Attempt to Decrease Intrusive Thoughts in Obsessive–Compulsive Disorder (OCD): From Cognitive Theory to Practice and Back  

Microsoft Academic Search

The attention training technique (ATT) is a cognitive treatment method that is aimed at ameliorating intrusive thoughts in\\u000a anxiety disorders. To the best of our knowledge, no randomized controlled study has yet been conducted on individuals with\\u000a obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD). For the present study, we recruited 80 participants with OCD over the internet and allocated\\u000a them to an experimental (ATT

Steffen Moritz; Nathalie Wess; András Treszl; Lena Jelinek

2011-01-01

169

Perfectionism and Peer Relations among Children with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The study examined perfectionism, symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and depression, and peer relationships among a clinical sample of 31 youth (age range 7-18 years) diagnosed with OCD. Using a correlational design, perfectionistic beliefs accounted for significant variance in OCD symptoms, depressive symptoms, and difficulties in…

Ye, Huan J.; Rice, Kenneth G.; Storch, Eric A.

2008-01-01

170

The Obsessive-Compulsive Symptom (OCS) scale of the Child Behavior Checklist: A comparison between Swedish children with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder from a specialized unit, regular outpatients and a school sample  

Microsoft Academic Search

To evaluate the discriminative power of various items as reported by parents in the OCS-scale extracted from the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) problem scale and to compare findings with outcomes of previous validation studies.Children referred to a specialized child psychiatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) clinic (OCD group) (n=185) receiving a formal OCD diagnosis according to DSM IV criteria based on interviews

Tord Ivarsson; Bo Larsson

2008-01-01

171

Epidemiology of obsessive-compulsive disorder: a world view.  

PubMed

The worldwide prevalence of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is approximately 2% of the general population. Symptoms of OCD include fear of contamination by dirt or germs; constant checking; repetitive, intrusive thoughts of a somatic, aggressive, or sexual nature; extreme slowness; and an inordinate concern with orderliness and symmetry. Differential diagnosis is sometimes complicated by the overlap between OCD and obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD). The most common complication of OCD is depression. However, while both serotonergic and nonserotonergic antidepressants are effective in treating patients with depression, only serotonergic medications are effective in treating OCD patients. Because OCD patients often attempt to conceal their symptoms, it is incumbent on clinicians to screen for OCD in every mental status examination, since appropriate treatment can often result in improved quality of life. PMID:9393390

Sasson, Y; Zohar, J; Chopra, M; Lustig, M; Iancu, I; Hendler, T

1997-01-01

172

Religion and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) among young Muslim women in Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fifteen young women suffering from OCD in Saudi Arabia were interviewed about their experience of the illness and the roles played by religion. Religion was not perceived as a cause of the illness, but the illness can show itself in religious symptoms – notably with respect to prayer, and in a phase in which the young women were very strict

Lamis Al-Solaim; Kate Miriam Loewenthal

2011-01-01

173

Subtypes of obsessive-compulsive disorder: Implications for specialized cognitive behavior therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a heterogeneous condition, OCD subtypes have received limited attention in trials of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT). Because many patients with OCD do not respond optimally to CBT, it is important for clinicians to consider whether variability in treatment response is related to symptom presentation. Treatment modifications for patients without overt compulsions or with hoarding symptoms

Debbie Sookman; Jonathan S. Abramowitz; John E. Calamari; Sabine Wilhelm; Dean McKay

2005-01-01

174

An empirical test of the metacognitive model of obsessive-compulsive symptoms: fusion beliefs, beliefs about rituals, and stop signals.  

PubMed

The metacognitive model of obsessive-compulsive symptoms [Wells, A. (1997). Cognitive therapy of anxiety disorders: a practice manual and conceptual guide. Chichester, UK: Wiley] emphasizes three types of metacognitive knowledge in the etiology and maintenance of symptoms: thought fusion beliefs, beliefs about the need to perform rituals, and criteria that signal rituals can be stopped. We tested the model using a series of hierarchical regression analyses. Results showed that each metacognitive domain when entered in their hypothesized causal sequence explained incremental variance in two different measures of obsessive-compulsive symptoms, with worry controlled. These incremental relationships remained when non-metacognitive beliefs (e.g., responsibility and perfectionism) which have been linked to obsessive-compulsive symptoms in other theories were controlled. Results provide further support for the metacognitive model. PMID:18922674

Myers, Samuel G; Fisher, Peter L; Wells, Adrian

2008-09-03

175

Relationship between obsessive-compulsive personality disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the presence of obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) in a group of 277 patients (88 with obsessive-compulsive disorder [OCD], 58 with major depressive disorder [MDD], and 131 with panic disorder [Panic)) to test the specificity of the relationship between OCPD and OCD. OCPD is statistically significantly more frequent in patients with OCD than in those with Panic and

Giuseppina Diaferia; Ivonne Bianchi; Maria Laura Bianchi; Paolo Cavedini; Stefano Erzegovesi; Laura Bellodi

1997-01-01

176

Temperament features in adolescents with ego-syntonic or ego-dystonic obsessive-compulsive symptoms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study evaluated whether different patterns of temperament may predict a different threshold of acceptability of\\u000a obsessive-compulsive (OC) symptoms in adolescents. OC symptomatology was detected with the Leyton Obsessional Inventory-Child\\u000a Version (LOI-CV) and temperament was assessed using the tridimensional personality questionnaire in 2,775 high-school students.\\u000a According to the LOI-CV scores, the adolescents were classified as high interference (interfering, ego-dystonic

Carlo Marchesi; Paolo Ampollini; Chiara DePanfilis; Carlo Maggini

2008-01-01

177

Corpus callosal signal intensity in treatment-naive pediatric obsessive compulsive disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.1. Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) is increasingly recognized as a severe, highly prevalent and chronically disabling disorder, emerging during childhood in as many as 80% of cases. The authors previously found significant abnormalities in the region of the corpus callosum (CC) connecting ventral prefrontal cortex and striatum in pediatric OCD patients compared to controls that correlated significantly with OCD symptom

Frank P. Mac Master; Matcheri S. Keshavan; Elizabeth L. Dick; David R. Rosenberg

1999-01-01

178

Feelings of incompleteness : Studies on dopamine in obsessive-compulsive disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although obsessive-compulsive disorders have been subject to intense multimodal research, their pathogeneses are yet to be fully understood. However, increasing evidence from both preclinical and clinical studies support a role for dopamine in OCD. The studies in this thesis provide circumstantial evidence for the involvement of dopamine in OCD. On the one hand, first exacerbation of OCD symptoms by blocking

N. C. C. Vulink

2009-01-01

179

Repetitive behaviors in Tourette's syndrome and OCD with and without tics: what are the differences?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome (GTS) and obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) share obsessive–compulsive phenomena. The aims of this study were to compare the OC symptom distribution between GTS and OCD and to investigate whether a subdivision of these phenomena into obsessions, compulsions and ‘impulsions’ is useful in distinguishing GTS and OCD patients. Thirty-two GTS, 31 OCD (10 with tics, 21 without

Danielle C Cath; Philip Spinhoven; Cees A. L Hoogduin; Andrea D Landman; Theo C. A. M van Woerkom; Ben J. M van de Wetering; Raymund A. C Roos; Harry G. M Rooijmans

2001-01-01

180

Responsibility attitudes and interpretations are characteristic of obsessive compulsive disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cognitive–behavioural theory of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) proposes that a key factor influencing obsessional behaviour is the way in which the intrusive cognitions are interpreted. The present paper reports an investigation of links between clinical symptoms (of anxiety, depression and obsessionality) and responsibility beliefs. These beliefs include not only measures of general responsibility attitudes (assumptions) but also more specific

P. M. Salkovskis; A. L. Wroe; A. Gledhill; N. Morrison; E. Forrester; C. Richards; M Reynolds; S Thorpe

2000-01-01

181

Action-Monitoring Dysfunction in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence suggests that a hyperactive frontal-striatal- thalamic-frontal circuit is associated with the symptoms of obsessive- compulsive disorder (OCD), but there is little agreement about the function of the exaggerated activity. We report electrophysiological evidence suggesting that part of this system monitors events and gen- erates error signals when the events conflict with an individual's internal standards or goals. Nine individuals

William J. Gehring; Joseph Himle; Laura G. Nisenson

2000-01-01

182

Altered cingulate sub-region activation accounts for task-related dissociation in ERN amplitude as a function of obsessive-compulsive symptoms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Larger error-related negativities (ERNs) have been consistently found in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) patients, and are thought to reflect the activities of a hyperactive cortico-striatal circuit during action monitoring. We previously observed that obsessive-compulsive (OC) symptomatic students (non-patients) have larger ERNs during errors in a response competition task, yet smaller ERNs in a reinforcement learning task. The finding of a task-specific

James F. Cavanagh; Theo O. J. Gründler; Michael J. Frank; John J. B. Allen

2010-01-01

183

The role of the orbitofrontal cortex in normally developing compulsive-like behaviors and obsessive–compulsive disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mounting evidence concerning obsessive–compulsive disorders points to abnormal functioning of the orbitofrontal cortices. First, patients with obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) perform poorly on tasks that rely on response suppression\\/motor inhibition functions mediated by the orbitofrontal cortex relative to both normal and clinical controls. Second, patients with OCD exhibit functional hyperactivity in lateral orbitofrontal and related structures corresponding with symptom severity. In

David W. Evans; Marc D. Lewis; Emily Iobsta

2004-01-01

184

Core OCD symptoms: exploration of specificity and relations with psychopathology.  

PubMed

Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a heterogeneous condition, comprised of multiple symptom domains. This study used aggregate composite scales representing three core OCD dimensions (Checking, Cleaning, and Rituals), as well as Hoarding, to examine the discriminant validity, diagnostic specificity, and predictive ability of OCD symptom scales. The core OCD scales demonstrated strong patterns of convergent and discriminant validity - suggesting that these dimensions are distinct from other self-reported symptoms - whereas hoarding symptoms correlated just as strongly with OCD and non-OCD symptoms in most analyses. Across analyses, our results indicated that Checking is a particularly strong, specific marker of OCD diagnosis, whereas the specificity of Cleaning and Hoarding to OCD was less strong. Finally, the OCD Checking scale was the only significant predictor of OCD diagnosis in logistic regression analyses. Results are discussed with regard to the importance of assessing OCD symptom dimensions separately and implications for classification. PMID:23026094

Stasik, Sara M; Naragon-Gainey, Kristin; Chmielewski, Michael; Watson, David

2012-08-04

185

The presence of magical thinking in obsessive compulsive disorder.  

PubMed

Two research groups have raised the possibility that magical ideation may be a fundamental feature of obsessive-compulsive disorder. It has been proposed to underlie thought action fusion and superstitious beliefs. In this study, the Magical Ideation scale, the Lucky Behaviours and Lucky Beliefs scales, the Thought Action Fusion-Revised scale, the Padua Inventory, and the Obsessive Compulsive Inventory-Short Version were completed by 60 obsessive compulsive patients at a hospital clinic. Of all the measures, the Magical Ideation (MI) scale was found to be the most strongly related to obsessive compulsive symptoms. Large and significant relationships between MI scores and the measures of OCD were obtained even when alternative constructs (Lucky Behaviours, Lucky Beliefs, Thought Action Fusion-Revised scales) were held constant. No other variable remained significantly related to the Obsessive Compulsive Inventory-Short Version when magical ideation scores were held constant. The findings suggest that a general magical thinking tendency may underpin previous observed links between superstitiousness, thought action fusion and OCD severity. PMID:15033500

Einstein, Danielle A; Menzies, Ross G

2004-05-01

186

Cognitive-Behavioral Group Therapy in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: A Randomized Clinical Trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The present study was designed to verify the efficacy of cognitive-behavioral group therapy (CBGT) in reducing obsessive-compulsive symptoms and the intensity of overvalued ideas, as well as in improving the patient’s quality of life. Methods: Forty-seven patients meeting DSM-IV criteria for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) were randomly assigned to either 12 weekly CBGT sessions or a waiting list (control group).

Aristides Volpato Cordioli; Elizeth Heldt; Daniela Braga Bochi; Regina Margis; Marcelo Basso de Sousa; Juliano Fonseca Tonello; Gisele Gus Manfro; Flavio Kapczinski

2003-01-01

187

Cognitive control in childhood-onset obsessive–compulsive disorder: a functional MRI study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Failure to resist chronic obsessive-compulsive symptoms may denote an altered state of cognitive control. We searched for the cerebral regions engaged in this dysfunction. Method. Differences in brain regional activity were examined by event-related functional magnetic regional imaging (fMRI) in a group of adolescents or young adults (n=12) with childhood-onset obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), relative to healthy subjects. Subjects performed

ARMELLE VIARD; MARTINE F. FLAMENT; ERIC ARTIGES; STANISLAS DEHAENE; LIONEL NACCACHE; DAVID COHEN; PHILIPPE MAZET; MARIE-CHRISTINE MOUREN; JEAN-LUC MARTINOT

2005-01-01

188

New-onset obsessive–compulsive disorder following neurosurgery for medication-refractory seizure disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 31-year-old man with medication-refractory seizures in the context of right mesial temporal lobe sclerosis and right occipital encephalomalacia is described. He experienced the onset of obsessive–compulsive symptoms following resection of the right hippocampus and right occipital pole. Semistructured psychiatric evaluation was conducted 16months after surgery. Results indicated that he fulfilled diagnostic criteria for obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) and that he

Robert M. Roth; Barbara C. Jobst; Vijay M. Thadani; Karen L. Gilbert; David W. Roberts

2009-01-01

189

The clinical impact of mood disorder comorbidity on obsessive–compulsive disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study examines the effect of concomitant major depressive or bipolar disorder on clinical symptoms of patients\\u000a with obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD). Forty–nine patients classified as OCD without a mood disorder, 26 classified as\\u000a OCD with bipolar disorder (OCD–BD) and 42 classified as OCD with major depressive disorder (OCD–MDD) according to DSM–IV diagnostic\\u000a criteria were included in the study. The

Rasit Tükel; Handan Meteris; Ahmet Koyuncu; Alper Tecer; O. Yaz?c?

2006-01-01

190

Comorbidity of obsessive-compulsive disorder with obsessive-compulsive personality disorder: Does it imply a specific subtype of obsessive-compulsive disorder?  

PubMed

The present study examined whether the comorbidity of obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) constitute a specific subtype of OCD. The study sample consisted of 146 consecutive outpatients with a DSM-IV diagnosis of OCD. Diagnoses were established using MINI, IPDE, YBOCS and YBOCS-SC. OCD patients with comorbid OCPD were compared with OCD patients without OCPD on various sociodemographic and clinical variables. Almost one third of the OCD subjects met criteria for comorbid OCPD. OCD+OCPD patients had a significantly earlier age at onset of initial OC symptoms, earlier age at onset of OCD and more obsessions and compulsions than pure obsessions compared to the patients with OCDOCPD. OCD+OCPD patients also had a higher rate of comorbidity with avoidant personality disorder and showed more impairment in global functioning. There were not differences between the two sub-groups on severity of OCD symptoms and also on type of OCD onset. Our results indicate that the comorbidity of OCD with OCPD is associated with a number of specific clinical characteristics of OCD. These findings in conjunction with of current clinical, family and genetic studies provide some initial evidence that OCD comorbid with OCPD constitute a specific subtype of OCD. PMID:20163876

Garyfallos, George; Katsigiannopoulos, Konstantinos; Adamopoulou, Aravela; Papazisis, Georgios; Karastergiou, Anastasia; Bozikas, Vasilios P

2010-02-16

191

Differential effects of antipsychotic agents on obsessive-compulsive symptoms in schizophrenia: a longitudinal study.  

PubMed

Indirect evidence supports the assumption that antiserotonergic second-generation antipsychotics (SGA) induce and aggravate obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCS) in schizophrenia. However, multimodal studies assessing the long-term interaction of pharmacotherapy and psychopathology are missing. Over 12 months, we followed-up 75 schizophrenia patients who were classified into two groups according to antipsychotic treatment: clozapine or olanzapine (group I) versus aripiprazole or amisulpride (group II). We applied the Yale Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (YBOCS) and investigated between-group changes over time as the primary endpoint. Group I showed markedly higher YBOCS scores at both time points. Repeated measure analyses of variance (ANOVAs) revealed significant interaction effects of group and time (per protocol sample (PP): p=0.006). This was due to persistently high OCS severity within group I, and decreasing YBOCS scores within group II. OCS severity correlated significantly with the negative and general psychopathology subscales of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), as well as with depressive symptoms. The progressive differences in OCS severity between our groups support the assumption of differential pharmacodynamic effects on comorbid OCS in schizophrenia. Further studies should address the pathogenetic mechanism, define patients at risk and facilitate early detection as well as therapeutic interventions. PMID:23095245

Schirmbeck, Frederike; Rausch, Franziska; Englisch, Susanne; Eifler, Sarah; Esslinger, Christine; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Zink, Mathias

2012-10-24

192

Obsessive–Compulsive Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) is a ­neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by the presence of both obsessions and compulsions\\u000a (American Psychiatric Association, 2000), and is expressed in approximately 2–4% of children (Esser, Schmidt, & Woerner, 1990;\\u000a Flament et al., 1988; Maggini et al., 2003; Thomsen 1993). On the one hand, obsessions are composed of recurrent and persistent\\u000a thoughts, impulses, and\\/or images that are

Omar Rahman; Jeannette M. Reid; Amy M. Parks; Dean McKay; Eric A. Storch

193

Recent life events and obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD): the role of pregnancy\\/delivery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conflicting results have been reported on the possible role of life events in triggering OCD onset. Moreover, pregnancy and\\/or delivery, among life events, appear to influence the OCD course and, in some cases, appear related to its onset. Our purpose was to assess the occurrence of potentially traumatizing events among patients with OCD. The study also provides an initial exploration

Giuseppe Maina; Umberto Albert; Filippo Bogetto; Patrizia Vaschetto; Luigi Ravizza

1999-01-01

194

Autism and ADHD symptoms in patients with OCD: are they associated with specific OC symptom dimensions or OC symptom severity?  

PubMed

In obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), the relationship between autism spectrum disorders (ASD), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptom, and obsessive-compulsive (OC) symptom dimensions and severity has scarcely been studied. Therefore, 109 adult outpatients with primary OCD were compared to 87 healthy controls on OC, ADHD and ASD symptoms. OCD patients showed increased ADHD and autism symptom frequencies, OCD + ADHD patients reporting more autism symptoms (particularly attention switching and social skills problems) than OCD - ADHD patients. Attention switching problems were most significant predictors of OC symptom dimensions (except hoarding) and of symptom severity. Hoarding was not associated with elevated autism scale scores, but with inattention. In conclusion, attention switching problems may reflect both symptom overlap and a common etiological factor underlying ASD, ADHD and OCD. PMID:20039111

Anholt, Gideon E; Cath, Danielle C; van Oppen, Patricia; Eikelenboom, Merijn; Smit, Johannes H; van Megen, Harold; van Balkom, Anton J L M

2010-05-01

195

Autism and ADHD Symptoms in Patients with OCD: Are They Associated with Specific OC Symptom Dimensions or OC Symptom Severity?  

PubMed Central

In obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), the relationship between autism spectrum disorders (ASD), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptom, and obsessive-compulsive (OC) symptom dimensions and severity has scarcely been studied. Therefore, 109 adult outpatients with primary OCD were compared to 87 healthy controls on OC, ADHD and ASD symptoms. OCD patients showed increased ADHD and autism symptom frequencies, OCD + ADHD patients reporting more autism symptoms (particularly attention switching and social skills problems) than OCD ? ADHD patients. Attention switching problems were most significant predictors of OC symptom dimensions (except hoarding) and of symptom severity. Hoarding was not associated with elevated autism scale scores, but with inattention. In conclusion, attention switching problems may reflect both symptom overlap and a common etiological factor underlying ASD, ADHD and OCD.

Anholt, Gideon E.; van Oppen, Patricia; Eikelenboom, Merijn; Smit, Johannes H.; van Megen, Harold; van Balkom, Anton J. L. M.

2009-01-01

196

Treatment of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) is characterized by the presence of intrusive, anxiety-provoking thoughts, images, or impulses along with repetitive behaviors or mental acts designed to reduce obsessional distress. OCD is associated with significant functional impairment, psychiatric comorbidity, and compromised quality of life. Fortunately, substantive progress has been made in the past several decades in the development and empirical evaluation of

Martin E. Franklin; Edna B. Foa

197

Treatment of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) is characterized by the presence of intrusive, anxiety-provoking thoughts, images, or impulses along with repetitive behaviors or mental acts designed to reduce obsessional distress. OCD is associated with significant functional impairment, psychiatric comorbidity, and compromised quality of life. Fortunately, substantive progress has been made in the past several decades in the development and empirical evaluation of

Martin E. Franklin; Edna B. Foa

2011-01-01

198

Streptococcal Upper Respiratory Tract Infections and Exacerbations of Tic and Obsessive-Compulsive Symptoms: A Prospective Longitudinal Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Objective: The objective of this blinded, prospective, longitudinal study was to determine whether new group A beta hemolytic streptococcal (GABHS) infections are temporally associated with exacerbations of tic or obsessive-compulsive (OC) symptoms in children who met published criteria for pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders…

Leckman, James F.; King, Robert A.; Gilbert, Donald L.; Coffey, Barbara J.; Singer, Harvey S.; Dure, Leon S., IV; Grantz, Heidi; Katsovich, Liliya; Lin, Haiqun; Lombroso, Paul J.; Kawikova, Ivana; Johnson, Dwight R.; Kurlan, Roger M.; Kaplan, Edward L.

2011-01-01

199

Recent life events and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD): the role of pregnancy/delivery.  

PubMed

Conflicting results have been reported on the possible role of life events in triggering OCD onset. Moreover, pregnancy and/or delivery, among life events, appear to influence the OCD course and, in some cases, appear related to its onset. Our purpose was to assess the occurrence of potentially traumatizing events among patients with OCD. The study also provides an initial exploration of the association between OCD and pregnancy or delivery. The number and type of stressful life events which occurred in the 12 months before the onset of OCD were determined for both OCD patients (N = 68, 33 women and 35 men) and a group of comparison subjects (N = 68, 33 women and 35 men) by using a semistructured interview in accordance with Paykel's list. The results did not show a significant excess of life events in patients compared with healthy subjects. No differences were detected between OCD patients according to gender. When examining the type of events, OCD female individuals were found to be more likely than normal female subjects to report exposure to postpartum events, and high rates of obstetric complications were observed in these patients. Subjects with postpartum OCD had significantly higher rates of aggressive obsessions to harm the newborn. OCD male subjects did not show an association between a specific event and onset of the disorder. The findings confirm that the postpartum period represents a risk factor for OCD in some individuals, and suggest that obstetric complications may be relevant to the development of the disorder. PMID:10643877

Maina, G; Albert, U; Bogetto, F; Vaschetto, P; Ravizza, L

1999-12-13

200

Does obsessive-compulsive personality disorder belong within the obsessive-compulsive spectrum?  

PubMed

It has been proposed that certain Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition Axis I disorders share overlapping clinical features, genetic contributions, and treatment response and fall within an "obsessive-compulsive" spectrum. Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) resembles obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and other spectrum disorders in terms of phenomenology, comorbidity, neurocognition, and treatment response. This article critically examines the nosological profile of OCPD with special reference to OCD and related disorders. By viewing OCPD as a candidate member of the obsessive-compulsive spectrum, we gain a fresh approach to understanding its neurobiology, etiology, and potential treatments. PMID:17545957

Fineberg, Naomi A; Sharma, Punita; Sivakumaran, Thanusha; Sahakian, Barbara; Chamberlain, Sam R; Chamberlain, Sam

2007-06-01

201

Clarifying the convergence between obsessive compulsive personality disorder criteria and obsessive compulsive disorder.  

PubMed

In this study we examined the convergence between obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) criteria and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Baseline assessments of 629 participants of the Collaborative Longitudinal Personality Disorders Study were used to examine the associations between OCPD criteria and diagnoses of OCD. Three of the eight OCPD criteria--hoarding, perfectionism, and preoccupation with details--were significantly more frequent in subjects with OCD (n = 89) than in subjects without OCD (n = 540). Logistic regressions were used to predict the probability of each OCPD criterion as a function of Axis I diagnoses (OCD, additional anxiety disorders, and major depressive disorder). Associations between OCD and these three OCPD criteria remained significant in the logistic regressions, showing unique associations with OCD and odds ratios ranging from 2.71 to 2.99. In addition, other anxiety disorders and major depressive disorder showed few associations with specific OCPD criteria. This study suggests variability in the strength of the relationships between specific OCPD criteria and OCD. The findings also support a unique relationship between OCPD symptoms and OCD, compared to other anxiety disorders or major depression. Future efforts to explore the link between Axis I and Axis II disorders may be enriched by conducting analyses at the symptom level. PMID:16776557

Eisen, Jane L; Coles, Meredith E; Shea, M Tracie; Pagano, Maria E; Stout, Robert L; Yen, Shirley; Grilo, Carlos M; Rasmussen, Steven A

2006-06-01

202

CLARIFYING THE CONVERGENCE BETWEEN OBSESSIVE COMPULSIVE PERSONALITY DISORDER CRITERIA AND OBSESSIVE COMPULSIVE DISORDER  

PubMed Central

In this study we examined the convergence between obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) criteria and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Baseline assessments of 629 participants of the Collaborative Longitudinal Personality Disorders Study were used to examine the associations between OCPD criteria and diagnoses of OCD. Three of the eight OCPD criteria—hoarding, perfectionism, and preoccupation with details—were significantly more frequent in subjects with OCD (n = 89) than in subjects without OCD (n = 540). Logistic regressions were used to predict the probability of each OCPD criterion as a function of Axis I diagnoses (OCD, additional anxiety disorders, and major depressive disorder). Associations between OCD and these three OCPD criteria remained significant in the logistic regressions, showing unique associations with OCD and odds ratios ranging from 2.71 to 2.99. In addition, other anxiety disorders and major depressive disorder showed few associations with specific OCPD criteria. This study suggests variability in the strength of the relationships between specific OCPD criteria and OCD. The findings also support a unique relationship between OCPD symptoms and OCD, compared to other anxiety disorders or major depression. Future efforts to explore the link between Axis I and Axis II disorders may be enriched by conducting analyses at the symptom level.

Eisen, Jane L.; Coles, Meredith E.; Shea, M. Tracie; Pagano, Maria E.; Stout, Robert L.; Yen, Shirley; Grilo, Carlos M.; Rasmussen, Steven A.

2008-01-01

203

Expectancy bias for disgust and emotional responding in contamination-related obsessive-compulsive disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study examines the relation between disgust and contamination-related obsessive-compulsive disorder symptoms (OCD) in an analog sample. The results showed that disgust sensitivity is significantly correlated with contamination-related OCD. Participants high in contamination OCD (HOCD) generally report significantly more disgust than low contamination-related OCD (LOCD) participants. We also examined if differential disgust UCS expectancies exists in contamination OCD using

Bunmi O. Olatunji; Jeffrey M. Lohr; Jeffrey L. Willems; Craig N. Sawchuk

2006-01-01

204

The distinctiveness of compulsive hoarding from obsessive–compulsive disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study investigated the relation of compulsive hoarding to other obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) symptoms in a sample of 162 patients with OCD. Obsessions and compulsions reported on the Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule for DSM-IV were submitted to an exploratory factor analysis. Results suggested a four-factor model: “Certainty,” “Contamination,” “Obsessions,” and “Numbers\\/Ordering.” Hoarding did not load on any factor. The

Jessica R. Grisham; Timothy A. Brown; Gabrielle I. Liverant; Laura Campbell-Sills

2005-01-01

205

Obsessive–Compulsive Disorder: Treatment and Treatment Resistance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To review the treatment options for obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD), with particular reference to treatment resistance, and provide a guideline for clinicians managing these patients, drawing upon evidence from clinical trials and expert consensus.Conclusions: The behavioural technique of exposure and ritual prevention (EX\\/RP) and serotonergic medications have emerged as effective standard treatments of OCD, although full symptom remission is rare.

Sean Hood; Deirdre Alderton; David Castle

2001-01-01

206

Phenotypic characteristics of Obsessive–Compulsive Disorder ascertained in adulthood  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past decade, the increased awareness and knowledge of Obsessive–Compulsive Disorder (OCD) has allowed the in-depth study of its phenotypic characteristics. The largest studies to date have described the symptom and syndrome characteristics of treatment-seeking patients. While usefully homogeneous with regard to their current state, the clinical characteristics of patients seeking treatment may only partially represent the OCD population.

C Sobin; M Blundell; F Weiller; C Gavigan; C Haiman; M Karayiorgou

1999-01-01

207

[Diversity of obsessive-compulsive disorder and pharmacotherapy associated with obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorders].  

PubMed

Serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SRI) are effective in the treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The response rate for SRI is approximately 50% and refractory OCD may exist. The effect of antipsychotics augmentation therapy has been established for this kind of patients. However, OCD is clinically and biologically heterogeneous neuropsychiatric disease and it will affect the response of pharmacotherapy. Several subtypes of OCD have been identified. Early onset OCD and hoarding symptoms dominant patients with OCD tend to resist SRI treatment. Antipsychotics augmentation with SRI is much effective for OCD with tic disorders. On the other hand, psychiatric disorders in obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorders (OCSD) have similar clinical symptoms, comorbidities, genetic factors, and neurobiological etiology. SRI is effective for patients with body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) in preoccupation with body appearance or sensation subgroup. The response of SRI in BDD is similar to OCD while that of eating disorders was different. Impulse control disorders will respond to opiate antagonist but not to SRI. This subgroup might have a characteristic of behavioral addiction. Antipsychotic agents are effective for neurological disorders including tic disorders, Tourette syndrome, and autistic spectrum disorders. Therefore, the dopaminergic pathophysiology might underlie in this subgroup. The main goal of DSM-V is to make diagnosis based on biological validity, and the treatment response is an important factor. Further studies are necessary for understanding the pathophysiology of OCSD. PMID:22187889

Nakamae, Takashi

2011-01-01

208

Religiosity and religious obsessions in obsessive–compulsive disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Religion has often been thought to play a part in the genesis of some cases of obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD). In this study, we explored the relationship between religiosity, religious obsessions, and other clinical characteristics of OCD. Forty-five outpatients with OCD were evaluated with the Yale–Brown Obsessive–Compulsive Scale (Y–BOCS) and the Yale–Brown Obsessive–Compulsive Checklist (Y–BOCC) as well as the Religious Practices

Cenk Tek; Berna Ulug

2001-01-01

209

Obsessive Compulsive Disorder with Bipolar Mood Disorder: A Rare Comorbidity in India  

PubMed Central

Obsessive compulsive features occurring in mania have been well documented. Though there have been some studies on obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) comorbid with mania in the western countries, there are very few case reports and studies in India. Our aim is to report one such case here, who presented with OC features which are not typical of the symptom cluster of the OCD commonly seen with mania in earlier reports. Also, the comorbidities in OCD should be recognized as this can have important diagnostic and therapeutic implications.

Annigeri, Bindu; Raman, Rajesh; Appaji, Rashmi

2011-01-01

210

Obsessive–compulsive disorder in the community: 12-month prevalence, comorbidity and impairment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Although subthreshold conditions are associated with impairment in numerous disorders, research on obsessive–compulsive disorder\\u000a (OCD) below the diagnostic threshold of DSM-IV in the general population is limited.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Purpose  To estimate the DSM-IV 12-month prevalence, comorbidity and impairment of OCD, subthreshold OCD (i.e., fulfilling some but\\u000a not all core DSM-IV criteria), and obsessive–compulsive symptoms (OCS) (i.e., endorsement of OCS without fulfilling any

Yuki Adam; Gunther Meinlschmidt; Andrew T. Gloster; Roselind Lieb

211

[Perinatal obsessive-compulsive disorder].  

PubMed

A perinatal obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is defined as an illness exhibiting first symptoms in the context of pregnancy and the postpartal period. There are no valid data up to date concerning the incidence of OCD, which might be of multifactorial origin, in this period in which females are highly vulnerable for psychiatric diseases. From a clinical point of view, obsessions and compulsions are mainly related to the well-being of the foetus or newborn baby. Differential diagnosis of perinatal OCD including pregnancy psychosis and post-partum depression is often difficult. Concerning treatment, non-pharmacological approaches should be preferred. Administration of SSRIs should be strongly restricted. However, there are no controlled therapy studies in patients with perinatal OCD. Furthermore, current knowledge about these patients is still limited. The aim of this review article is the presentation of phenomenology, pathogenesis, differential diagnosis and treatment of perinatal OCD. The mental situation of the female patients can be improved and stabilised if early diagnosis of a perinatal OCD leads to early initiation of an adequate therapy. This will then enable a good and stable mother-child relationship to develop. PMID:21830184

Mavrogiorgou, P; Illes, F; Juckel, G

2011-08-09

212

Specificity of Fear and Disgust Experienced During Traumatic Interpersonal Victimization in Predicting Posttraumatic Stress and Contamination-Based Obsessive-Compulsive Symptoms  

PubMed Central

Emerging evidence has documented comorbidity between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) among individuals with a history of traumatic events. There is growing recognition of the importance of disgust in each of these conditions independently. No study, however, has examined the potential role of disgust in these conditions following traumatic event exposure. The current study examined the unique role of peritraumatic fear, self-focused disgust, and other-focused disgust in predicting posttraumatic stress symptoms and contamination-based OC symptoms among 49 adult women (Mage = 28.37, SD = 13.86) with a history of traumatic interpersonal victimization. Results demonstrated that intensity of peritraumatic self-focused disgust was significantly related to contamination-based OC symptoms while peritraumatic fear and other-focused disgust were related to posttraumatic stress symptoms. These results highlight the need for future research aimed at elucidating the nature of the association between disgust experienced during traumatic events and subsequent psychopathology.

Badour, Christal L.; Bown, Stephanie; Adams, Thomas G.; Bunaciu, Liviu; Feldner, Matthew T.

2012-01-01

213

Relapse Following Successful Intensive Treatment of Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive DisorderA Case Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This case study describes the use of intensive exposure and response prevention (ERP) for the treatment of pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The adolescent described in this report lives a long distance from treatment providers with expertise in managing severe OCD symptoms. Thus, he has to travel out of town for effective therapy. The treatment program results in substantial immediate benefits.

Stephen P. Whiteside; Jonathan S. Abramowitz

2006-01-01

214

Evidence-Based Assessment of Child Obsessive Compulsive Disorder: Recommendations for Clinical Practice and Treatment Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) presents heterogeneously and can be difficult to assess in youth. This review focuses on research-supported assessment approaches for OCD in childhood. Content areas include pre-visit screening, diagnostic establishment, differential diagnosis, assessment of comorbid psychiatric conditions, tracking symptom

Lewin, Adam B.; Piacentini, John

2010-01-01

215

A Structural Equation Analysis of Family Accommodation in Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Family accommodation of symptoms is counter to the primary goals of cognitive-behavioral therapy for pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and can pose an obstacle to positive treatment outcomes. Although increased attention has been given to family accommodation in pediatric OCD, relatively little is known about associated child and…

Caporino, Nicole E.; Morgan, Jessica; Beckstead, Jason; Phares, Vicky; Murphy, Tanya K.; Storch, Eric A.

2012-01-01

216

Early-Onset Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: A Subgroup with a Specific Clinical and Familial Pattern?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Background: The familial nature of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has been previously demonstrated. The identification of candidate symptoms such as age at onset may help to disentangle the clinical and genetic heterogeneity of the disorder. In this study, the specificity of early-onset OCD was investigated, focusing on the effect of gender,…

Chabane, Nadia; Delorme, Richard; Millet, Bruno; Mouren, Marie-Christine; Leboyer, Marion; Pauls, David

2005-01-01

217

Evidence-Based Assessment of Child Obsessive Compulsive Disorder: Recommendations for Clinical Practice and Treatment Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) presents heterogeneously and can be difficult to assess in youth. This review focuses on research-supported assessment approaches for OCD in childhood. Content areas include pre-visit screening, diagnostic establishment, differential diagnosis, assessment of comorbid psychiatric conditions, tracking symptom

Lewin, Adam B.; Piacentini, John

2010-01-01

218

Effectiveness of psychological and pharmacological treatments for obsessive-compulsive disorder: A quantitative Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantitative review of the controlled treatment outcome literature for obsessivecompulsive disorder (OCD) showed that exposure with response prevention was highly effective in reducing OCD symptoms. Cognitive approaches were also found to be at least as effective as exposure procedures. It appears that both cognitive and exposure interventions involve some overlapping procedures and capitalize on similar mechanisms of change. Serotonergic

Jonathan S. Abramowitz

1997-01-01

219

Aberrant Snacking Patterns and Eating Disorders in Patients With Obsessive Compulsive Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Appetitive symptoms. particu- larly carbohydrate craving. have been shown to occur in patients whose conditions responded to treatment with drugs that enhance serotonin- mediated neurotransmission. This suggested that patients with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) who also frequently respond to serotoner- gic drugs also might have similar distributions of appetitive and eating patterns. Method: A survey study of 170 OCD

Dermot A. O'Rourke; Judith J. Wurtman; Rita Tsay; Ray Gleason; Lee Baer; Michael A. Jenike

220

A comparison of clinical features among Japanese eating-disordered women with obsessive-compulsive disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clinical features, such as obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) symptoms, were investigated in Japanese women with DSM-III-R eating disorders (EDs) and concurrent OCD in comparison to age-matched women with OCD. Sixteen women with restricting anorexia nervosa (AN), 16 with bulimia nervosa (BN), and 16 with both AN and BN (BAN) showed commonality in a more elevated prevalence of OCD symptoms of symmetry

Hisato Matsunaga; Akira Miyata; Yoko Iwasaki; Tokuzo Matsui; Kayo Fujimoto; Nobuo Kiriike

1999-01-01

221

Multimodal assessment of disgust in contamination-related obsessive-compulsive disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study utilizes multiple methods to examine the relationship between disgust and contamination-related obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) symptoms in an analogue sample. Questionnaire findings revealed that participants with high OCD contamination concerns showed stronger disgust sensitivity than did participants with low OCD contamination symptoms after controlling for negative affect. High OCD participants (N=30) also reported significantly more disgust than did

Bunmi O. Olatunji; Jeffrey M. Lohr; Craig N. Sawchuk; David F. Tolin

2007-01-01

222

Self-Focused Ruminations and Memory Deficits in Obsessive–Compulsive Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous research has shown memory deficits in obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) but has been inconsistent as to which aspects\\u000a of memory are affected and how deficits are linked to OCD symptoms. The current study assessed working, episodic and semantic\\u000a memory in 19 subjects with OCD and 19 matched controls. The severity of OCD symptoms was assessed using a clinician-rated\\u000a scale (Yale-Brown

Cornelia Exner; Vera Martin; Winfried Rief

2009-01-01

223

Obsessive–compulsive disorder is associated with less of a distinction between specific acts of omission and commission  

Microsoft Academic Search

Individuals with obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) seem to judge harm caused actively and passively as morally equivalent. In contrast, people generally choose harm by omission over harm by commission, a propensity known as omission bias. Two studies examined the hypothesis that OCD is associated with less omission bias. In Study 1, with a student population, symptoms of OCD and related cognitions

Jedidiah Siev; Jonathan D. Huppert; Dianne L. Chambless

2010-01-01

224

Predictive value of obsessive-compulsive drinking scale (OCDS) for outcome in alcohol-dependent inpatients: results of a 24-month follow-up study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  The present study examined whether craving as measured by the obsessive-compulsive drinking scale (OCDS) predict long-term\\u000a outcome in alcohol-dependent inpatients.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  This was a 24-month prospective, observational study in 198 alcohol-dependent inpatients treated under standardized conditions.\\u000a The primary outcome criterion was abstinence, defined as no subjective report or objective indication of alcohol consumption\\u000a since discharge from treatment. The patients self-rated their

Peggy Schmidt; Claudia Helten; Michael Soyka

2011-01-01

225

Obsessive-compulsive disorder and related disorders: a comprehensive survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our aim was to present a comprehensive, updated survey on obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and obsessive-compulsive related disorders (OCRDs) and their clinical management via literature review, critical analysis and synthesis. Information on OCD and OCRD current nosography, clinical phenomenology and etiology, may lead to a better comprehension of their management. Clinicians should become familiar with the broad spectrum of OCD disorders,

Michele Fornaro; Filippo Gabrielli; Claudio Albano; Stefania Fornaro; Salvatore Rizzato; Chiara Mattei; Paola Solano; Valentina Vinciguerra; Pantaleo Fornaro

2009-01-01

226

Search for copy number variants in chromosomes 15q11-q13 and 22q11.2 in obsessive compulsive disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a clinically and etiologically heterogeneous syndrome. The high frequency of obsessive-compulsive symptoms reported in subjects with the 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (DiGeorge\\/velocardiofacial syndrome) or Prader-Willi syndrome (15q11-13 deletion of the paternally derived chromosome), suggests that gene dosage effects in these chromosomal regions could increase risk for OCD. Therefore, the aim of this study was to search

Richard Delorme; Daniel Moreno-De-Luca; Aurélie Gennetier; Wolfgang Maier; Pauline Chaste; Rainald Mössner; Hans Jörgen Grabe; Stephan Ruhrmann; Peter Falkai; Marie-Christine Mouren; Marion Leboyer; Michael Wagner; Catalina Betancur

2010-01-01

227

Amygdala activity in obsessive-compulsive disorder with contamination fear: a study with oxygen-15 water positron emission tomography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous imaging studies of obsessive-compulsive symptom states have implicated frontal–striatal and limbic regions in the pathophysiology of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Functional imaging studies, however, have yielded inconsistent results, presumably due to methodological differences (patient inclusion criteria, stimulus paradigm, imaging technique, and absence of control groups). In the present study, randomized presentation of contamination-related and neutral visual stimuli was used to

Odile A. van den Heuvel; Dick J. Veltman; Henk J. Groenewegen; Raymond J. Dolan; Danielle C. Cath; Ronald Boellaard; Catalina T. Mesina; Patricia van Oppen; Menno P. Witter; Adriaan A. Lammertsma; Richard van Dyck

2004-01-01

228

The Evolutionary Psychology of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: the role of cognitive metarepresentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Repetitive unpleasant thoughts and ritualized behaviors are the key features of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD).The classical neuroethological mod- els of OCD rely largely on behavioral similarities between animal stereotypies and human compulsive rituals and are unable to account for the cognitive component of OCD.The cognitive symptoms of OCD need to be addressed in an evolutionary psy- chological context that incorporates information

Martin Brune

2006-01-01

229

A comparison of clinical features among Japanese eating-disordered women with obsessive-compulsive disorder.  

PubMed

Clinical features, such as obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) symptoms, were investigated in Japanese women with DSM-III-R eating disorders (EDs) and concurrent OCD in comparison to age-matched women with OCD. Sixteen women with restricting anorexia nervosa (AN), 16 with bulimia nervosa (BN), and 16 with both AN and BN (BAN) showed commonality in a more elevated prevalence of OCD symptoms of symmetry and order compared with 18 OCD women. Among the personality disorders (PDs), likewise, obsessive-compulsive PD (OCPD) was more prevalent in each ED group compared with the OCD group. However, aggressive obsessions were more common in both BN and BAN subjects compared with AN subjects. Subjects with bulimic symptoms were also distinguished from AN subjects by impulsive features in behavior and personality. Thus, an elevated prevalence of aggressive obsessions along with an admixture of impulsive and compulsive features specifically characterized the clinical features of bulimic subjects with OCD. PMID:10509614

Matsunaga, H; Miyata, A; Iwasaki, Y; Matsui, T; Fujimoto, K; Kiriike, N

230

Obsessive-Compulsive Symptoms Associated with Clozapine and Risperidone Treatment: Three Case Reports and Review of the Literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Treatment-emergent obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCSs) have raised concern since the widespread introduction of serotonin-dopamine antagonists (SDAs) for the treatment of schizophrenia. Further investigations of SDA-emergent OCSs and their response to anti-obsessional agents will be beneficial for clinicians in helping patients who suffer from this problem. We present three cases of schizophrenia in which distressing OCSs occurred during clozapine or risperidone treatment.

Chiao-Li Ke; Cheng-Fang Yen; Cheng-Chung Chen; Shang-Ju Yang; Weilun Chung; Ming-Jen Yang

2004-01-01

231

Animal models of obsessive-compulsive disorder.  

PubMed

Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) occurs with high prevalence, and the drugs used to treat OCD are limited in efficacy and have side-effect issues. The discovery of improved medicines for OCD has been hampered in part by the lack of predictive in vivo models. This unit provides a brief overview of two methods that might have such predictive utility. Marble burying and nestlet shredding are two behaviors that occur spontaneously with high frequency and repetitiveness in mice. These acute in vivo assays are relatively easy to conduct. Selective serotonin uptake inhibitors decrease these behaviors without producing motor side effects, as assessed by the behavior of walking on a rotating rod. In contrast, some other drugs (e.g., benzodiazepine anxiolytics) only affect marble burying and nestlet shredding at motor-impairing doses. The present methods might therefore provide one piece of in vivo information for the discovery of novel chemical treatment solutions for the symptoms of OCD. PMID:18972380

Witkin, Jeffrey M

2008-10-01

232

Comorbidity of obsessive–compulsive disorder with obsessive–compulsive personality disorder: Does it imply a specific subtype of obsessive–compulsive disorder?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study examined whether the comorbidity of obsessive–compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) and obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) constitute a specific subtype of OCD. The study sample consisted of 146 consecutive outpatients with a DSM-IV diagnosis of OCD. Diagnoses were established using MINI, IPDE, YBOCS and YBOCS-SC. OCD patients with comorbid OCPD were compared with OCD patients without OCPD on various sociodemographic

George Garyfallos; Konstantinos Katsigiannopoulos; Aravela Adamopoulou; Georgios Papazisis; Anastasia Karastergiou; Vasilios P. Bozikas

2010-01-01

233

Obsessive compulsive personality disorder as a predictor of exposure and ritual prevention outcome for obsessive compulsive disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite elevated rates of obsessive compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) in patients with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), no study has specifically examined comorbid OCPD as a predictor of exposure and ritual prevention (EX\\/RP) outcome. Participants were adult outpatients (n = 49) with primary OCD and a Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (YBOCS) total score ? 16 despite a therapeutic serotonin reuptake inhibitor dose for at least

Anthony Pinto; Michael R. Liebowitz; Edna B. Foa; H. Blair Simpson

2011-01-01

234

The obsessive–compulsive spectrum in the perinatal period: a prospective pilot study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aims to describe the phenomenology of obsessive–compulsive symptoms (OCS) and disorders (OCD) in perinatal women\\u000a and to explore the relationship of OCS\\/OCD to postpartum depression. A prospective longitudinal study of 44 women screened\\u000a with the Obsessive–Compulsive Inventory—Revised (OCI-R) and Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) between 30 and 37 weeks\\u000a of pregnancy. Twenty-four women completed a diagnostic interview and the

Linda H. Chaudron; Neha Nirodi

2010-01-01

235

Stress response in postpartum women with and without obsessive-compulsive symptoms: an fMRI study  

PubMed Central

Background During the postpartum period, some women might be under a considerable amount of stress and at increased risk for onset or exacerbation of obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD). Little is known about the stress response correlates during the postpartum period and in patients with OCD. This study aimed to examine the cerebral, psychologic and endocrine correlates of the stress response in patients with OCD and during the postpartum period. Methods Women with postpartum OCD, healthy postpartum women and healthy mothers past the postpartum period underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging while facing a reliable psychosocial stressor (the Montreal Imaging Stress Task). Stress-related psychologic and endocrine responses (i.e., cortisol) were obtained. Results We enrolled 12 women with postpartum OCD, 16 healthy postpartum women and 11 healthy mothers past the postpartum period in our study. Compared with healthy postpartum counterparts, postpartum women with OCD had a heightened self-reported and endocrine stress response associated with a distinct brain activation pattern in response to psychosocial stress involving the orbitofrontal and temporal cortices. Moreover, compared with mothers assessed in a period of time beyond the postpartum period, healthy postpartum women did not differ in psychologic and cortisol response to stress, but recruited different brain regions, such as the dorsolateral pre-frontal cortex and the anterior cingulate cortex, during exposure to stress. Limitations Potential confounding factors, such as medication use, breastfeeding, parity and personality factors, may have modulated the stress-related endocrine response and could not be assessed in this study. Conclusion Obsessive–compulsive disorder and the postpartum period differentially influence the brain circuitry underlying psychosocial stress as well as the psychologic and endocrine responses.

Lord, Catherine; Steiner, Meir; Soares, Claudio N.; Carew, Caitlin L.; Hall, Geoffrey B.

2012-01-01

236

Obsessive Compulsive Personality Disorder as a Predictor of Exposure and Ritual Prevention Outcome for Obsessive Compulsive Disorder  

PubMed Central

Despite elevated rates of obsessive compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) in patients with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), no study has specifically examined comorbid OCPD as a predictor of exposure and ritual prevention (EX/RP) outcome. Participants were adult outpatients (n = 49) with primary OCD and a Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (YBOCS) total score ? 16 despite a therapeutic serotonin reuptake inhibitor dose for at least 12 weeks prior to entry. Participants received 17 sessions of EX/RP over 8 weeks. OCD severity was assessed with the YBOCS pre- and post-treatment by independent evaluators. At baseline, 34.7% of the OCD sample met criteria for comorbid DSM-IV OCPD, assessed by structured interview. OCPD was tested as a predictor of outcome both as a diagnostic category and as a dimensional score (severity) based on the total number of OCPD symptoms coded as present and clinically significant at baseline. Both OCPD diagnosis and greater OCPD severity predicted worse EX/RP outcome, controlling for baseline OCD severity, Axis I and II comorbidity, prior treatment, quality of life, and gender. When the individual OCPD criteria were tested separately, only perfectionism predicted worse treatment outcome, over and above the previously mentioned covariates. These findings highlight the importance of assessing OCPD and suggest a need to directly address OCPD-related traits, especially perfectionism, in the context of EX/RP to minimize their interference in outcome.

Pinto, Anthony; Liebowitz, Michael R.; Foa, Edna B.; Simpson, H. Blair

2011-01-01

237

Obsessive compulsive personality disorder as a predictor of exposure and ritual prevention outcome for obsessive compulsive disorder.  

PubMed

Despite elevated rates of obsessive compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) in patients with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), no study has specifically examined comorbid OCPD as a predictor of exposure and ritual prevention (EX/RP) outcome. Participants were adult outpatients (n = 49) with primary OCD and a Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (YBOCS) total score ? 16 despite a therapeutic serotonin reuptake inhibitor dose for at least 12 weeks prior to entry. Participants received 17 sessions of EX/RP over 8 weeks. OCD severity was assessed with the YBOCS pre- and post-treatment by independent evaluators. At baseline, 34.7% of the OCD sample met criteria for comorbid DSM-IV OCPD, assessed by structured interview. OCPD was tested as a predictor of outcome both as a diagnostic category and as a dimensional score (severity) based on the total number of OCPD symptoms coded as present and clinically significant at baseline. Both OCPD diagnosis and greater OCPD severity predicted worse EX/RP outcome, controlling for baseline OCD severity, Axis I and II comorbidity, prior treatment, quality of life, and gender. When the individual OCPD criteria were tested separately, only perfectionism predicted worse treatment outcome, over and above the previously mentioned covariates. These findings highlight the importance of assessing OCPD and suggest a need to directly address OCPD-related traits, especially perfectionism, in the context of EX/RP to minimize their interference in outcome. PMID:21600563

Pinto, Anthony; Liebowitz, Michael R; Foa, Edna B; Simpson, H Blair

2011-05-10

238

Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: When Unwanted Thoughts Take Over  

MedlinePLUS

Introduction: Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Do you feel the need to check and re-check things over and over? Do you have ... disorder called obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). What is OCD? Everyone double checks things sometimes. For example, you ...

239

Symptom Overlap between Autism Spectrum Disorder, Generalized Social Anxiety Disorder and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder in Adults: A Preliminary Case-Controlled Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and social anxiety disorder (SAD) frequently co-occur in persons with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We studied which features distinguish ‘pure’ anxiety disordered patients from those with co-morbid ASD. Method: In a case-controlled design in which groups were matched for age, sex and educational level, patients with OCD or SAD and co-morbid ASD were compared with patients

Danielle C. Cath; Natalie Ran; Johannes H. Smit; Hannie C. Comijs

2008-01-01

240

Childhood-onset obsessive-compulsive disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a psychiatric condition characterized by recurrent obsessions or compulsions that cause significant impairment or distress. Although OCD was once perceived to be relatively rare in childhood, current estimates suggest that as many as half of all adult OCD cases may have their onset in childhood or adolescence. In general, there appears to be a great deal

Julie A Eichstedt; Sharon L Arnold

2001-01-01

241

Teaching Students with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a neurobiological condition affecting 1 of every 200 school-age children. OCD greatly affects students' academic, behavioral, and social functioning, and it can lead to additional problem such as depression. To effectively collaborate with other individuals providing appropriate support to students with OCD,…

Leininger, Melissa; Dyches, Tina Taylor; Prater, Mary Anne; Heath, Melissa Allen

2010-01-01

242

Organicity in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Though pharmacological and\\/or behavioral interventions have proven highly effective, 20 to 30% of the obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) population is treatment refractory. This study describes the OCD clinical profile that is correlated to organicity. Two groups of OCD patients were presented: an organic group and a control nonorganic group. The 9 organic patients exhibit an indifference to their illness, a lack

Jose A. Yaryura-Tobias; Mark C. Anderson; Fugen A. Neziroglu

2000-01-01

243

Thought–action fusion and its relationship to schizotypy and OCD symptoms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thought–action fusion (TAF) is a cognitive bias that has been linked to obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Preliminary evidence suggests schizotypal traits may be associated with some types of OCD obsessions but not others. We examined the relationship between each of the two major types of TAF (i.e., likelihood and moral), schizotypal traits, and OCD symptoms in 969 nonclinical undergraduate students. We

Han-Joo Lee; Jesse R. Cougle; Michael J. Telch

2005-01-01

244

Attitudes toward obsessive-compulsive disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Background: Fear, embarrassment and stigma are salient factors contributing to reluctance to seek help for psychological distress. Although\\u000a vignette studies have often been employed to assess attitudes towards psychological disorders, no study has specifically assessed\\u000a attitudes towards Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD). Methods: An experimental study assessing attitudes toward obsessive-compulsive problems is presented. One hundred and thirteen undergraduate\\u000a students were given

Laura M. Simonds; Susan J. Thorpe

2003-01-01

245

Behavioral versus Cognitive Treatment of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: An Examination of Outcome and Mediators of Change  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Objective: To examine symptom change over time, the effect of attrition on treatment outcome, and the putative mediators of cognitive therapy (CT) versus behavior therapy (BT) for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) using archival data. Method: Sixty-two adults with OCD were randomized to 20 sessions of CT (N = 30) or BT (N = 32) that consisted…

Olatunji, Bunmi O.; Rosenfield, David; Tart, Candyce D.; Cottraux, Jean; Powers, Mark B.; Smits, Jasper A. J.

2013-01-01

246

Behavioral versus Cognitive Treatment of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: An Examination of Outcome and Mediators of Change  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To examine symptom change over time, the effect of attrition on treatment outcome, and the putative mediators of cognitive therapy (CT) versus behavior therapy (BT) for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) using archival data. Method: Sixty-two adults with OCD were randomized to 20 sessions of CT (N = 30) or BT (N = 32) that consisted of…

Olatunji, Bunmi O.; Rosenfield, David; Tart, Candyce D.; Cottraux, Jean; Powers, Mark B.; Smits, Jasper A. J.

2013-01-01

247

A systematic review: antipsychotic augmentation with treatment refractory obsessive-compulsive disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

As many as half of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) patients treated with an adequate trial of serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SRIs) fail to fully respond to treatment and continue to exhibit significant symptoms. Many studies have assessed the effectiveness of antipsychotic augmentation in SRI-refractory OCD. In this systematic review, we evaluate the efficacy of antipsychotic augmentation in treatment-refractory OCD. The electronic databases

M H Bloch; A Landeros-Weisenberger; B Kelmendi; V Coric; M B Bracken; J F Leckman

2006-01-01

248

When cancer is associated with illness but no longer with animal or zodiac sign: investigation of biased semantic networks in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD).  

PubMed

Building upon semantic network models, it is proposed that individuals with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) process ambiguous words (e.g., homographs such as cancer) preferably in the context of the OC meaning (i.e., illness) and connect them to a lesser degree to other (neutral) cognitions (e.g., animal). To investigate this assumption, a new task was designed requiring participants to generate up to five associations for different cue words. Cue words were either emotionally neutral, negative or OC-relevant. Two thirds of the items were homographs, while the rest was unambiguous. Twenty-five OCD and 21 healthy participants were recruited via internet. Analyses reveal that OCD participants produced significantly more negative and OC-relevant associations than controls, supporting the assumption of biased associative networks in OCD. The findings support the use of psychological interventions such as Association Splitting that aim at restructuring associative networks in OCD by broadening the semantic scope of OC cognitions. PMID:19640676

Jelinek, Lena; Hottenrott, Birgit; Moritz, Steffen

2009-07-08

249

The Case for the OCD Spectrum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is an anxiety disorder with an often chronic course that is estimated to have a lifetime\\u000a prevalence rate of 1.9–3% in the United States (American Psychiatric Association, 2000). However, a substantially greater\\u000a percentage of the population has symptoms that overlap with OCD and may be included within the so-called obsessive-compulsive\\u000a spectrumdisorders (OCSDs).OCD and OCSDs are characterized by

Eric Hollander; Jennifer P. Friedberg; Stacey Wasserman; Chin-Chin Yeh; Rupa Iyengar

250

Accuracy of retrospective memory and covariation estimation in patients with obsessive–compulsive disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Assessment methods relying on biased or inaccurate retrospective recall may distort knowledge about the nature of disorders and lead to faulty clinical inferences. Despite concerns about the accuracy of retrospective recall in general and in particular with obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) patients, the accuracy of retrospective recall for one's own symptoms assessed in vivo is unknown in this population. This study

Andrew T. Gloster; David C. S. Richard; Joseph Himle; Ellen Koch; Heather Anson; Laura Lokers; James Thornton

2008-01-01

251

Hypnotically Facilitated Treatment of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: Can it Be Evidence-Based?  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are extensive evidence-based guidelines for the treatment of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) with medication, behavior therapy, and cognitive therapy. Nevertheless, there remain a significant percentage of patients whose symptoms are more or less refractory to standardized treatments. This situation could be rooted in the phenotypic heterogeneity of the disorder as well as in its high rates of comorbid psychopathology. Studies

Claire Frederick

2007-01-01

252

Development and Validation of a Child Version of the Obsessive Compulsive Inventory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Surprisingly, only 3 self-report measures that directly assess pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) have been developed. In addition, these scales have typically been developed in small samples and fail to provide a quick assessment of symptoms across multiple domains. Therefore, the current paper presents initial psychometric data for a…

Foa, Edna B.; Coles, Meredith; Huppert, Jonathan D.; Pasupuleti, Radhika V.; Franklin, Martin E.; March, John

2010-01-01

253

The Semantic Simon Effect in Tourette's Syndrome and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Core symptoms of Tourette's syndrome (TS) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) may be attributed to an impairment in inhibitory control. Neuropsychological studies have addressed inhibition in both disorders, but findings have been inconsistent. The aim of this study was to examine cognitive inhibition, using a semantic Simon effect paradigm,…

Rankins, D.; Bradshaw, J. L.; Georgiou-Karistianis, N.

2006-01-01

254

Development and Validation of a Child Version of the Obsessive Compulsive Inventory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Surprisingly, only 3 self-report measures that directly assess pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) have been developed. In addition, these scales have typically been developed in small samples and fail to provide a quick assessment of symptoms across multiple domains. Therefore, the current paper presents initial psychometric data for a…

Foa, Edna B.; Coles, Meredith; Huppert, Jonathan D.; Pasupuleti, Radhika V.; Franklin, Martin E.; March, John

2010-01-01

255

Association of the serotonin transporter promoter regulatory region polymorphism and obsessive-compulsive disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although modulation of symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) by serotonergic agents is well established, it is unclear whether an abnormality in the central serotonergic system is involved in its etiology. The serotonin (5-HT) transporter (5-HTT), which is the key modulator of serotonergic neurotransmission, is the target for serotonin reuptake inhibiting drugs (SRIs) that are uniquely effective in the treatment of

D Bengel; B D Greenberg; G Corá-Locatelli; M Altemus; A Heils; Q Li; D L Murphy

1999-01-01

256

Children with Very Early Onset Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: Clinical Features and Treatment Outcome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Background: There is emerging evidence that early onset obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) may be a phenomenologically distinct subtype of the disorder. Previous research has shown that individuals who report an early onset display greater severity and persistence of symptoms, and they may be less responsive to treatment. To date, this question…

Nakatani, Eriko; Krebs, Georgina; Micali, Nadia; Turner, Cynthia; Heyman, Isobel; Mataix-Cols, David

2011-01-01

257

Clinical predictors of response to cognitive-behavioral therapy for obsessive–compulsive disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews predictors of treatment response in open and controlled trials of cognitive-behavioral therapy for obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD). We focus on demographic characteristics, aspects of OCD symptoms, comorbidity, family factors, cognitive influences, and treatment-specific characteristics as predictor variables. Although inconsistent findings characterize much of the literature, several relatively consistent and salient predictors have emerged, including symptom severity, symptom subtype,

Mary L. Keeley; Eric A. Storch; Lisa J. Merlo; Gary R. Geffken

2008-01-01

258

Obsessive-compulsive disorder and Tourette’s syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Opinion statement  Obsessive-compulsive behavior (OCB) or full-blown obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) afflict more than 50% of patients with\\u000a Tourette’s syndrome (TS) and often are more debilitating than the tic disorder itself. Medications for OCD, including selective\\u000a serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), help patients with TS and OCD, particularly in combination with low-dose antipsychotic\\u000a drugs, but seldom eliminate OCD entirely. Behavioral therapies are more

Randall D. Buzan; Jay H. Shore; Christopher O’Brien; Christopher Schneck

2000-01-01

259

Reappraisal of spontaneous stereotypy in the deer mouse as an animal model of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD): Response to escitalopram treatment and basal serotonin transporter (SERT) density.  

PubMed

Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is characterized by recurrent thoughts and repetitive motor actions. Hyposerotonergic signalling in the cortico-striatal circuitry is believed to be central to the pathology of OCD, while many patients only respond to chronic treatment with high dose selective serotonin (5HT) reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). Confined deer mice spontaneously develop two forms of stereotypy, namely vertical jumping and pattern running. The purpose of this investigation was to reappraise these behaviours and strengthen the validity of deer mouse stereotypy as an animal model of OCD within a framework of three study questions: (1) can the time spent executing stereotypical behaviours be employed as a measure of extent of stereotypy, (2) does deer mouse stereotypy only respond to chronic, but not sub-chronic treatment with a high-dose SSRI, and (3) is deer mouse stereotypy associated with altered cortico-striatal 5HT transporter (SERT) binding? The current study demonstrates that treatment naďve high stereotypical (HS) deer mice spend significantly more time executing stereotypical behaviours while significantly less time is spent indulging in stereotypy following chronic, but not sub-chronic, treatment with escitalopram. Furthermore, HS deer mice present with a significant decrease in striatal SERT density compared to non-stereotypical (NS) controls. Building on previous validation studies, we conclude that deer mouse stereotypy is a valid naturalistic animal model of OCD with robust face, construct and predictive validity. PMID:24013013

Wolmarans, De Wet; Brand, Linda; Stein, Dan J; Harvey, Brian H

2013-09-05

260

[Obsessive compulsive disorder during pregnancy and the postpartum period].  

PubMed

Research into psychiatric illnesses during pregnancy and the postpartum period has focused primarily on mood disorders and psychosis. However, recent reports suggest that during pregnancy and the postpartum period psychiatric patients run an increased risk of developing the symptoms of obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) or if they already have these symptoms, the severity is likely to increase. We report two cases of OCD in pregnancy and in the postpartum period. In addition, we present a brief review of the literature that is currently available on this topic. PMID:22753187

de Pender, A M G; Lambregtse-van den Berg, M P; Raats, M E

2012-01-01

261

Responsibility and perfectionism in OCD: an experimental study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cognitive models of obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) suggest a number of different variables that may play a role in the development and maintenance of obsessive compulsive symptoms [Freeston, M. H., Rhéaume, J., & Ladouceur, R. (1996) Correcting faulty appraisals of obsessional thoughts. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 34, 433–446]. This study's aim was to verify the effect of perfectionism and excessive responsibility

Catherine Bouchard; Josée Rhéaume; Robert Ladouceur

1999-01-01

262

Procrastination tendencies among obsessive-compulsives and their relatives.  

PubMed

Participants diagnosed with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD; 39 women, 26 men; M age = 40) and their family relatives (11 women, 7 men; M age = 45) completed standardized measures of obsessions, compulsions, decisional procrastination (indecision), and avoidant procrastination. Among the OCDs, obsessions were related significantly to decisional procrastination, and compulsions were related significantly to decisional and avoidant procrastination. In comparison to family members of obsessive compulsives, the OCDs reported significantly greater obsessions, compulsions, and indecisions, but not procrastination motivated by avoidance. Results suggest that individuals with clinical obsessive-compulsive tendencies do, in fact, report states of indecision, as claimed by DSM-III-R. However, these clinical individuals may not differ significantly from nonclinical samples (e.g., family members) in avoidant procrastination. PMID:8014239

Ferrari, J R; McCown, W

1994-03-01

263

Obsessive Compulsive Disorder in the Workplace  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we examine the role of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) in the workplace lives of women. Classified as a disability under the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), the secrecy associated with the disorder makes it invisible to everyone except the women who suffer from it. Left untreated and without appropriate forms of support and accommodation, OCD often creates difficulties

Angela Neal-Barnett; Lorre Leon Mendelson

2003-01-01

264

Inhibitory Control in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The clinical features of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) suggest that a fundamental deficit of inhibitory control is intrinsic to the disorder. In this preliminary study, we sought to examine cognitive disinhibition in OCD by using an established laboratory technique. The stop signal task was administered to a higher functioning, untreated…

Krikorian, Robert; Zimmerman, Molly E.; Fleck, David E.

2004-01-01

265

Anxiety Sensitivity and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Anxiety sensitivity (AS), a cognitive risk factor for anxiety disorders, was evaluated in a homogeneous obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) sample. A total of 280 individuals with OCD completed measures. Evaluation of the Anxiety Sensitivity Index revealed a latent structure that was congruent with previous studies showing a single higher order…

Calamari, John E.; Rector, Neil A.; Woodard, John L.; Cohen, Robyn J.; Chik, Heather M.

2008-01-01

266

Selective Attention in Obsessive–Compulsive Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent information-processing studies have suggested that a selective attention deficit may be involved in the symptomatology of obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD). In this study, individuals diagnosed with OCD were distinguished from those with panic disorder and from control participants by their relatively poorer performance on a series of psychometric tasks of selective attention. These results are interpreted as supporting the hypothesis

Ian C. Clayton; Jeffrey C. Richards; Christopher J. Edwards

1999-01-01

267

Elucidating the Relation of Hoarding to Obsessive Compulsive Disorder and Impulse Control Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hoarding has historically been conceptualized as a symptom of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD); however, data demonstrate\\u000a important differences between hoarding and OC symptoms (for discussion, see Grisham et al. Anxiety Disorders, 19, 767?779. 2005). Hoarding has also been observed in disorders besides OCD, including specific Impulse Control Disorders (ICDs; e.g., kleptomania,\\u000a trichotillomania, pathological gambling, compulsive buying). Therefore, the current study

Laura C. Hayward; Meredith E. Coles

2009-01-01

268

Obsessive Compulsive and Tic Related Disorders  

PubMed Central

Synopsis Youth affected by obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) and by chronic tic disorders (CTDs) often experience significant distress, functional impairment, and psychiatric comorbidity which collectively compromise quality of life and achievement of developmental milestones. We review the extant literature on the phenomenology and treatment of these conditions in youth, and summarize the state of the treatment literature, focusing particularly on the application of psychosocial interventions that have yielded substantial symptom improvements. Comorbidity of OCD and CTDs is common, and we provide clinical recommendations for managing patients when both disorders are present. We conclude with a brief discussion of clinical controversies, particularly the central role ascribed to habituation as the mechanism by which these treatments' effects are realized.

Franklin, Martin E.; Harrison, Julie; Benavides, Kristin

2012-01-01

269

Understudied Clinical Dimensions in Pediatric Obsessive Compulsive Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The present study aimed to assess the phenomenology and treatment sensitivity of insight, avoidance, indecisiveness, overvalued responsibility, pervasive slowness, and pathological doubting among youth with Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) using the ancillary items on the Children's Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (CY-BOCS). These…

Lewin, Adam B.; Caporino, Nicole; Murphy, Tanya K.; Geffken, Gary R.; Storch, Eric A.

2010-01-01

270

The relation between obsessive-compulsive personality traits and subtypes of compulsive behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nature of the relationship between obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has been the subject of considerable debate. The current study examined the hypothesis of a differential association of compulsive checking and washing behaviours with obsessive-compulsive personality traits within a nonclincal sample utilizing the Checking and Washing subscales of the Maudsley Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory (MOCI). Since checking behavior

Natalie A. Gibbs; Thomas F. Oltmanns

1995-01-01

271

Genetic and Environmental Contributions to Self-Report Obsessive-Compulsive Symptoms in Dutch Adolescents at Ages 12, 14, and 16  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The involvement of genetic and environmental factors to the development of obsessive compulsion symptoms during the adolescent period is examined. Study revealed that individual differences in OC symptoms are heritable during puberty and shared environmental influences played a role only in the beginning of adolescence but no sex differences in…

Van Grootheest, Daniel S.; Bartels, Meike; Van Beijsterveldt, Catarina E. M.; Cath, Danielle C.; Beekman, Aartjan T.; Hudziak, James J.; Boomsma, Dorret I.

2008-01-01

272

The Validation of a New Obsessive–Compulsive Disorder Scale: The Obsessive–Compulsive Inventory  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Obsessive–Compulsive Inventory (OCI) is a new self-report instrument developed to address the problems inherent in available instruments for determining the diagnosis and severity of obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD). The OCI consists of 42 items composing 7 subscales: Washing, Checking, Doubting, Ordering, Obsessing (i.e., having obsessional thoughts), Hoarding, and Mental Neutralizing. Each item is rated on a 5-point (0–4) Likert scale

Edna B. Foa; Michael J. Kozak; Paul M. Salkovskis; Meredith E. Coles; Nader Amir

1998-01-01

273

Psychometric Properties of the Obsessive Compulsive Inventory: Child Version in Children and Adolescents with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The psychometric properties of the Obsessive Compulsive Inventory-Child Version (OCI-CV) were examined in ninety-six youth with a primary/co-primary diagnosis of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). A confirmatory factor analysis revealed an acceptable model of fit with factors consisting of doubting/checking, obsessing, hoarding, washing,…

Jones, Anna M.; De Nadai, Alessandro S.; Arnold, Elysse B.; McGuire, Joseph F.; Lewin, Adam B.; Murphy, Tanya K.; Storch, Eric A.

2013-01-01

274

Psychometric Properties of the Obsessive Compulsive Inventory: Child Version in Children and Adolescents with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The psychometric properties of the Obsessive Compulsive Inventory-Child Version (OCI-CV) were examined in ninety-six youth with a primary/co-primary diagnosis of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). A confirmatory factor analysis revealed an acceptable model of fit with factors consisting of doubting/checking, obsessing, hoarding, washing,…

Jones, Anna M.; De Nadai, Alessandro S.; Arnold, Elysse B.; McGuire, Joseph F.; Lewin, Adam B.; Murphy, Tanya K.; Storch, Eric A.

2013-01-01

275

The Obsessive Compulsive Scale of the Child Behavior Checklist predicts obsessive-compulsive disorder: a receiver operating characteristic curve analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The purpose of this study was to determine a score on the Obsessive Compulsive Scale (OCS) from the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) to screen for obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) in children and to rigorously test the specificity and sensitivity of a single cutpoint. Methods: A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was applied to data from 61 patients with

James J. Hudziak; Robert R. Althoff; Catherine Stanger; Beijsterveldt van C. E. M; Elliot C. Nelson; Gregory L. Hanna; Dorret I. Boomsma; Richard D. Todd

2006-01-01

276

Predictors of Treatment Outcome in Modular Cognitive Therapy for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder  

PubMed Central

Background The present study sought to identify predictors of outcome for a comprehensive cognitive therapy (CT) developed for patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Methods Treatment was delivered over 22 sessions and included standard CT methods, as well as specific strategies designed for subtypes of OCD including religious, sexual and other obsessions. This study of 39 participants assigned to CT examined predictors of outcomes assessed on the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale. A variety of baseline symptom variables were examined as well as treatment expectancy and motivation. Results Findings indicated that participants who perceived themselves as having more severe OCD at baseline remained in treatment but more severe symptoms were marginally associated with worse outcome for those who completed therapy. Depressed and anxious mood did not predict post-test outcome, but more Axis I comorbid diagnoses (mainly major depression and anxiety disorders), predicted more improvement, as did the presence of sexual (but not religious) OCD symptoms, and stronger motivation (but not expectancy). A small rebound in OCD symptoms at 1-year follow-up was significantly predicted by higher scores on personality traits, especially for schizotypal (but not obsessive-compulsive personality) traits. Conclusions Longer treatment may be needed for those with more severe symptoms at the outset. CT may have positive effects not only on OCD symptoms but also on comorbid depressive and anxious disorders and associated underlying core beliefs. Findings are discussed in light of study limitations and research on other predictors.

Steketee, Gail; Siev, Jedidiah; Fama, Jeanne M.; Keshaviah, Aparna; Chosak, Anne; Wilhelm, Sabine

2011-01-01

277

Obsessive-compulsive syndromes and disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To determine the prevalence and clinical characteristics of comorbid obsessive compulsive disorders and syndromes (OCD\\/OCS), compared with pure OCD\\/OCS among adults in the community. Method Data were drawn from the Zurich Study, a longitudinal cohort study of 591 adults in the canton of Zurich. Comorbid OCD\\/OCS was compared with pure OCD\\/OCS groups in terms of distress, impairment, family history,

Jules Angst; Alex Gamma; Jérôme Endrass; Elie Hantouche; Renée Goodwin; Vladeta Ajdacic; Dominique Eich; Wulf Rössler

2005-01-01

278

Perfectionism in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Considerable theory and anecdotal evidence has suggested that patients with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) are more perfectionistic. Evidence with non-clinical populations supports this hypothesis. However, no data are available on levels of perfectionism among patients diagnosed with OCD. The present study extends findings on perfectionism and OCD by comparing perfectionism levels of OCD-diagnosed patients with those of non-patients and a group

Randy O. Frost; Gail Steketee

1997-01-01

279

Early Alliance, Alliance Ruptures, and Symptom Change in a Nonrandomized Trial of Cognitive Therapy for Avoidant and Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Participants were 30 adult outpatients diagnosed with avoidant personality disorder or obsessive-compulsive personality disorder who enrolled in an open trial of cognitive therapy for personality disorders. Treatment consisted of up to 52 weekly sessions. Symptom evaluations were conducted at intake, at Sessions 17 and 34, and at the last…

Strauss, Jennifer L.; Hayes, Adele M.; Johnson, Sheri L.; Newman, Cory F.; Brown, Gregory K.; Barber, Jaques P.; Lawrenceau, Jean-Philippe; Beck, Aaron T.

2006-01-01

280

Early Alliance, Alliance Ruptures, and Symptom Change in a Nonrandomized Trial of Cognitive Therapy for Avoidant and Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Participants were 30 adult outpatients diagnosed with avoidant personality disorder or obsessive-compulsive personality disorder who enrolled in an open trial of cognitive therapy for personality disorders. Treatment consisted of up to 52 weekly sessions. Symptom evaluations were conducted at intake, at Sessions 17 and 34, and at the last…

Strauss, Jennifer L.; Hayes, Adele M.; Johnson, Sheri L.; Newman, Cory F.; Brown, Gregory K.; Barber, Jaques P.; Lawrenceau, Jean-Philippe; Beck, Aaron T.

2006-01-01

281

A Structural Equation Analysis of Family Accommodation in Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Family accommodation of symptoms is counter to the primary goals of cognitive-behavioral therapy for pediatric obsessive-compulsive\\u000a disorder (OCD) and can pose an obstacle to positive treatment outcomes. Although increased attention has been given to family\\u000a accommodation in pediatric OCD, relatively little is known about associated child and parent characteristics, and their mediating\\/moderating\\u000a effects. This study examined a structural equation model

Nicole Elise Caporino; Jessica Morgan; Jason Beckstead; Vicky Phares; Tanya K. Murphy; Eric A. Storch

2011-01-01

282

A Prospective Test of Cognitive Vulnerability to Obsessive-compulsive Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cognitive models of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder [OCD; e.g., Rachman, 1997, Behaviour Research and Therapy, 35, 793–802; Salkovskis, 1985, Behaviour Research and Therapy, 23, 571–583] propose that negative interpretations of intrusive thoughts and images are central to the development and maintenance\\u000a of OCD. Despite consistent findings that specific interpretations (e.g., heightened responsibility) contribute to the maintenance\\u000a of OC symptoms [see Salkovskis &

Meredith E. Coles; Betty Horng

2006-01-01

283

Sumatriptan, 5HT 1D receptors and obsessive-compulsive disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: After considering the effects of 5-HT receptor agonists with different binding profiles on the symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), Zohar and Kindler hypothesized that the 5-HT1D receptor was implicated in this disorder’s pathophysiology. Methods: We explored the 5-HT1D hypothesis in a 5-day, random, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of oral sumatriptan 100 mg\\/day in medication-free adults with OCD. We hypothesized that

Lorrin M. Koran; Stefano Pallanti; Leonardo Quercioli

2001-01-01

284

Obsessive-compulsive disorder: evaluation of clinical and biological circadian parameters during fluoxetine treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rationale: Many biological abnormalities have been found in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The circadian rhythm investigations\\u000a of different clinical and biological parameters may provide a comparison with depression. Fluoxetine is one of the efficient\\u000a drugs in alleviating symptoms of OCD. The effect of fluoxetine can highlight some clues to the neurotransmitter alterations\\u000a in the disorder. Objective: The present study investigated clinical

Bruno Millet; Yvan Touitou; Marie-France Poirier; Marie-Chantal Bourdel; Isabelle Amado; Elie-Georges Hantouche; André Bogdan; Jean-Pierre Olié

1999-01-01

285

Impaired Sensorimotor Gating in Unmedicated Adults with Obsessive–Compulsive Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Functional and structural imaging studies suggest that obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) symptoms arise from dysfunction in cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical circuits. It has therefore been hypothesized that neurophysiological tasks subserved by these circuits should be abnormal in OCD patients. One neurocognitive probe associated with this circuitry is prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the acoustic startle response. PPI deficits are thought to reflect abnormalities in processing

Susanne E Ahmari; Victoria B Risbrough; Mark A Geyer; H Blair Simpson

2012-01-01

286

Distinct Neural Correlates of Washing, Checking, and Hoarding Symptom Dimensions in Obsessive-compulsive Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results: Both patients and control subjects experi- enced increased subjective anxiety during symptom provocation (patients significantly more so) and acti- vated neural regions previously linked to OCD. Analy- ses of covariance, controlling for depression, showed a distinct pattern of activation associated with each symp- tom dimension. Patients demonstrated significantly greater activation than controls in bilateral ventromedial pre- frontal regions and

David Mataix-Cols; Sarah Wooderson; Natalia Lawrence; Michael J. Brammer; Anne Speckens; Mary L. Phillips

2004-01-01

287

Obsessive-compulsive disorder: subclassification based on co-morbidity  

PubMed Central

Background Obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) is probably an etiologically heterogeneous condition. Many patients manifest other psychiatric syndromes. This study investigated the relationship between OCD and co-morbid conditions to identify subtypes. Method Seven hundred and six individuals with OCD were assessed in the OCD Collaborative Genetics Study (OCGS). Multi-level latent class analysis was conducted based on the presence of eight co-morbid psychiatric conditions [generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), major depression, panic disorder (PD), separation anxiety disorder (SAD), tics, mania, somatization disorders (Som) and grooming disorders (GrD)]. The relationship of the derived classes to specific clinical characteristics was investigated. Results Two and three classes of OCD syndromes emerge from the analyses. The two-class solution describes lesser and greater co-morbidity classes and the more descriptive three-class solution is characterized by: (1) an OCD simplex class, in which major depressive disorder (MDD) is the most frequent additional disorder; (2) an OCD co-morbid tic-related class, in which tics are prominent and affective syndromes are considerably rarer; and (3) an OCD co-morbid affective-related class in which PD and affective syndromes are highly represented. The OCD co-morbid tic-related class is predominantly male and characterized by high conscientiousness. The OCD co-morbid affective-related class is predominantly female, has a young age at onset, obsessive–compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) features, high scores on the ‘taboo’ factor of OCD symptoms, and low conscientiousness. Conclusions OCD can be classified into three classes based on co-morbidity. Membership within a class is differentially associated with other clinical characteristics. These classes, if replicated, should have important implications for research and clinical endeavors.

Nestadt, G.; Di, C. Z.; Riddle, M. A.; Grados, M. A.; Greenberg, B. D.; Fyer, A. J.; McCracken, J. T.; Rauch, S. L.; Murphy, D. L.; Rasmussen, S. A.; Cullen, B.; Pinto, A.; Knowles, J. A.; Piacentini, J.; Pauls, D. L.; Bienvenu, O. J.; Wang, Y.; Liang, K. Y.; Samuels, J. F.; Roche, K. Bandeen

2011-01-01

288

Pregnancy complicated by obsessive-compulsive disorder.  

PubMed

Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a well-recognized psychiatric disorder often beginning in reproductive age. A case of OCD in pregnancy is presented and its management discussed. A 28-year-old G3P2 woman presented at 8 weeks' gestation for prenatal care. She had been diagnosed with OCD following her prior pregnancy. Her symptoms primarily involved obsessions about infectious disease and compulsive cleaning and organization of household items, both of which greatly distressed her and interfered with caring for her children. She had been managed with clomipramine between pregnancies and was beginning a clinical trial of fluvoxamine when pregnancy was diagnosed. She discontinued medication when she realized she was pregnant. Her symptoms were managed during the pregnancy with frequent appointments with her obstetrician and her psychiatrist. She used a behavioral technique, "thought-stopping", as well. Her symptoms worsened in the last month of pregnancy and immediately after delivery; she delivered a normal infant. The clomipramine was restarted postpartum. She has done well since then, with minimal psychiatric symptoms. OCD is a disabling psychiatric disorder that occurs in women of reproductive age. With careful management, pregnancy without disabling psychiatric symptoms can occur. PMID:9029382

Chelmow, D; Halfin, V P

289

Cognitive Behavioral Therapy in Adults with Obsessive–Compulsive Disorder and Borderline Intellectual Functioning: A Case Series of Three Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cognitive-behavior therapy (CBT) is widely accepted as the most effective psychological treatment for obsessive–compulsive\\u000a disorder (OCD). Although this modality flexibly treats a variety of OCD symptom subtypes, it is unclear how CBT should be\\u000a adapted to meet the needs of individuals with OCD and limitations in their cognitive functioning. In this paper, we report\\u000a on three adults with borderline intellectual

Steven L. Pence Jr; Mirela A. Aldea; Michael L. Sulkowski; Eric A. Storch

2011-01-01

290

Obsessive-compulsive disorder and its related disorders: a reappraisal of obsessive-compulsive spectrum concepts  

PubMed Central

Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a clinical syndrome whose hallmarks are excessive, anxiety-evoking thoughts and compulsive behaviors that are generally recognized as unreasonable, but which cause significant distress and impairment. When these are the exclusive symptoms, they constitute uncomplicated OCD. OCD may also occur in the context of other neuropsychiatric disorders, most commonly other anxiety and mood disorders. The question remains as to whether these combinations of disorders should be regarded as independent, cooccurring disorders or as different manifestations of an incompletely understood constellation of OCD spectrum disorders with a common etiology. Additional considerations are given here to two potential etiology-based subgroups: (i) an environmentally based group in which OCD occurs following apparent causal events such as streptococcal infections, brain injury, or atypical neuroleptic treatment; and (ii) a genomically based group in which OCD is related to chromosomal anomalies or specific genes. Considering the status of current research, the concept of OCD and OCD-related spectrum conditions seems fluid in 2010, and in need of ongoing reappraisal.

Murphy, Dennis L.; Timpano, Kiara R.; Wheaton, Michael G.; Greenberg, Benjamin D.; Miguel, Euripedes C.

2010-01-01

291

Disgust Implicated in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Psychiatric classificatory systems consider obsessions and compulsions as forms of anxiety disorder. However, the neurology of diseases associated with obsessive-compulsive symptoms suggests the involvement of fronto-striatal regions likely to be involved in the mediation of the emotion of disgust, suggesting that dysfunctions of disgust should be considered alongside anxiety in the pathogenesis of obsessive-compulsive behaviours. We therefore tested recognition of

R. Sprengelmeyer; I. Pundt; A. Sprengelmeyer; A. J. Calder; G. Berrios; R. Winkel; W. Vollmoeller; W. Kuhn; G. Sartory; H. Przuntek

1997-01-01

292

Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder in Adolescence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some borderline cases of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), schizophrenia, and manic-depressive disorder in whom the diagnosis had been difficult to assess in adolescence are presented. The records of 27 OCD patients with admission both in adolescence and adulthood were compared to a group of manic-depressive and schizophrenic patients with an admission in adolescence where the OCD diagnosis had been given. Some

Per Hove Thomsen

1992-01-01

293

Obsessive–compulsive disorder in schizophrenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To examine the differences in demographic and clinical features of patients with schizophrenia, with or without comorbid obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD).Methods: Fifty-two subjects were recruited from clinical services in the city of Edmonton, Alberta and assessed for schizophrenia and OCD with structured clinical interviews and standardized clinical rating scales.Results: The prevalence of OCD in individuals meeting criteria for schizophrenia was

P Tibbo; M Kroetsch; P Chue; L Warneke

2000-01-01

294

Controlled Comparison of Family Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and Psychoeducation/Relaxation Training for Child Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Objective: To examine the efficacy of exposure-based cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) plus a structured family intervention (FCBT) versus psychoeducation plus relaxation training (PRT) for reducing symptom severity, functional impairment, and family accommodation in youths with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Method: A total of 71…

Piacentini, John; Bergman, R. Lindsey; Chang, Susanna; Langley, Audra; Peris, Tara; Wood, Jeffrey J.; McCracken, James

2011-01-01

295

Brain Imaging in Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Neuroimaging findings support the frontal-striatal-thalamic model of pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder. Glutamate is also implicated in the pathological finding of the disease. Implications for pediatric OCD treatments are discussed.|

MacMaster, Frank P.; O'Neill, Joseph; Rosenberg, David R.

2008-01-01

296

Sensitivity of self-beliefs in obsessive compulsive disorder.  

PubMed

Aspects of self-concept have been implicated in recent cognitive theories of obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). It has been proposed that OCD is associated with perceptions of incompetence in self-domains considered important by the individual. A previous study in nonclinical individuals found that such "sensitivity of self" in the areas of job competence, morality and social acceptability was associated with elevated OCD symptoms and related beliefs. This study examined whether self-sensitivity is related to higher OCD symptoms and cognitions in individuals with OCD, and whether such self-sensitivity is specific to OCD versus other anxiety disorders. Clinical samples with OCD (N=30), other anxiety disorders (N=20) and a community control sample (N=32) participated in the study. It was found that in the OCD group, sensitivity in moral domains, but not job competence or social acceptability, was associated with higher levels of OCD symptoms and OCD-related beliefs. Sensitivity in the domains of morality and job competence was found in the OCD cohort, whereas individuals with other anxiety disorders did not show such sensitivity, suggesting some specificity of relationships to OCD. Implications for theory and therapy are discussed. PMID:18033729

Doron, Guy; Moulding, Richard; Kyrios, Michael; Nedeljkovic, Maja

2008-01-01

297

Depression, anxiety and obsessive-compulsive symptoms in relation to nutritional status and outcome in severe anorexia nervosa.  

PubMed

Depression, anxiety and obsessive-compulsive disorder are frequently reported to co-occur with anorexia nervosa (AN). There is clinical consensus that depressive symptoms and anxiety may in part be sequelae of malnutrition in AN. However, evidence-based data are still very rare. The present study among severe AN patients investigates links between these psychological variants and nutritional status at admission and subsequent to nutritional rehabilitation. Twenty-four women with AN diagnosed according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual IV (DSM-IV) were included prospectively and consecutively at hospitalisation. Nutritional status was assessed by body mass index (BMI). Several psychological aspects were assessed using various scales for depression, anxiety, social phobia, obsessive and eating behaviour symptoms. Follow-up weights and heights at 4-12 years after hospital discharge were measured in 18 patients. BMI and all the scores except the Yale-Brown obsessive-compulsive scale (Y-BOCS) showed significant improvement between admission and discharge. This study highlights the fact that some of the depressive and anxiety symptoms at least partially decrease with nutrition rehabilitation. The improvement in the scores on the psychometric scales between admission and discharge was not correlated with BMI improvement. Psychometric scores at admission and at discharge were not correlated with BMI at follow-up. BMI at follow-up was correlated with minimum lifetime BMI (r=0.486, P=0.04). Future studies should use a better indicator for nutritional status than BMI alone, and should also consider the initial degree of weight loss and the rate at which weight was lost. PMID:22703719

Mattar, Lama; Thiébaud, Marie-Raphaele; Huas, Caroline; Cebula, Christelle; Godart, Nathalie

2012-06-15

298

Obsessive-Compulsive Behavior Disappearing after Left Capsular Genu Infarction  

PubMed Central

This case report describes a 74-year-old woman with obsessive-compulsive behaviors that disappeared following a left capsular genu infarction. The patient's capsular genu infarction likely resulted in thalamocortical disconnection in the cortico-basal ganglia-thalamocortical loop, which may have caused the disappearance of her obsessive-compulsive symptoms. The fact that anterior capsulotomy has been demonstrated to be effective for treating refractory obsessive-compulsive disorder further supports this hypothesis.

Oh, Ji-Hyang; Ahn, Bo-Young; Jo, Min-Kyung; Yoon, Yeo-Ju; Park, Kyu-Hyun; Na, Duk L.; Kim, Eun-Joo

2011-01-01

299

Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder traits and personality dimensions in parents of children with obsessive-compulsive disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeTo compare patterns of temperament and character and the prevalence of Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder (OCPD) and OCPD traits in parents of children with OCD and parents of healthy controls.

Rosa Calvo; Luisa Lázaro; Josefina Castro-Fornieles; Elena Moreno; J. Toro

2009-01-01

300

The obsessive-compulsive spectrum in the perinatal period: a prospective pilot study.  

PubMed

This study aims to describe the phenomenology of obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCS) and disorders (OCD) in perinatal women and to explore the relationship of OCS/OCD to postpartum depression. A prospective longitudinal study of 44 women screened with the Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory-Revised (OCI-R) and Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) between 30 and 37 weeks of pregnancy. Twenty-four women completed a diagnostic interview and the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS) before delivery and were contacted postpartum to repeat the EPDS and Y-BOCS. In the third trimester, 32% reported high levels of anxiety and/or depressive symptoms (EPDS???10 and/or OCI-R???15) and 29% of those who completed the diagnostic interview met criteria for OCD. At 1 month postpartum, 12.5% had new OCS (Y-BOCS???8) and 25% had new high levels of depressive symptoms (EPDS???10). OCS increased in intensity postpartum but did not change in character. OCD and OCS may be of greater prevalence during the perinatal period than previously recognized. The high rates provide new information and require replication in larger, more diverse populations. Research in the perinatal period must expand beyond the exploration of depression to include anxiety disorders and specifically OCD. PMID:20221779

Chaudron, Linda H; Nirodi, Neha

2010-03-10

301

Understudied Clinical Dimensions in Pediatric Obsessive Compulsive Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study aimed to assess the phenomenology and treatment sensitivity of insight, avoidance, indecisiveness, overvalued\\u000a responsibility, pervasive slowness, and pathological doubting among youth with Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) using the\\u000a ancillary items on the Children’s Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (CY-BOCS). These factors are believed to be relevant\\u000a to the clinical presentation of youth with OCD but remain understudied. Eighty-nine youth

Adam B. Lewin; Nicole Caporino; Tanya K. Murphy; Gary R. Geffken; Eric A. Storch

2010-01-01

302

Quality of Life in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a severe mental disorder with a lifetime prevalence of 1.6{%} in the US population,\\u000a although the identified obsessive-compulsive spectrum may affect up to 10{%} of the US population. Furthermore, OCD is a chronic,\\u000a profoundly disabling illness that impacts negatively on the academic, occupational, social and family patients’ functioning\\u000a as well as on their families’ lives. Indeed,

Julio Bobes; M.-P. GarcÍa-Portilla; Maria-Teresa BascarÁn; Pilar-Alejandra SÁiz; Maria-Teresa Bobes-BascarÁn; Manuel BousoŃo

303

Defining Treatment Response and Remission in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: A Signal Detection Analysis of the Children's Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Objective: To examine the optimal Children's Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (CY-BOCS) percent reduction cutoffs for predicting treatment response and clinical remission among children and adolescents with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Method: Youth with OCD (N = 109; range 7 to 19 years) received 14 sessions of weekly or intensive…

Storch, Eric A.; Lewin, Adam B.; De Nadai, Alessandro S.; Murphy, Tanya K.

2010-01-01

304

Obsessive Compulsive Disorder and the School Counselor  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The current article is designed to provide school counselors an understanding of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The causes, characteristics, and treatment approaches are presented with examples focusing on school-related issues. The article concludes with a discussion about the role that the school counselor can take in helping the child…

Wertlieb, Ellen C.

2008-01-01

305

Action Identification in Obsessive-Compulsive Washers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The construal of hand washing by OCD patients with washing rituals was examined from the perspective of Action Identification Theory (Vallacher & Wegner, 1985, 1987). Items related to the act of hand washing were classified as reflecting a low level of identification (its technical and concrete aspects) or a high level of identification (its purpose or higher goal). Twenty-five obsessive-compulsive

Reuven Dar; Hagit Katz

2005-01-01

306

Is juvenile obsessive-compulsive disorder a developmental subtype of the disorder?--Findings from an Indian study.  

PubMed

Juvenile obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has been hypothesized to be different from adult-onset OCD suggesting that juvenile OCD may be a developmental subtype of the disorder. There is some evidence that juvenile OCD may be phenotypically different from juvenile-onset adult OCD. This study examines the phenotypic characteristics of juvenile OCD (current age < or = 18 years, n = 39), juvenile-onset adult OCD (onset < or = 18 years, current age >18 years, n = 87) and adult-onset OCD (onset > 18 years, n = 105). Qualified psychiatrists expert in evaluating OCD subjects conducted clinical and structured interviews. In the multinomial logistic regression analysis, controlling for chronological age and gender, the juvenile OCD was associated with male preponderance, elevated rates of certain obsessive-compulsive symptoms, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, chronic tics, body dysmorphic disorder and major depression. In addition, juvenile-onset adult OCD differed from juvenile OCD by having later age-at-onset and low rate of ADHD. The juvenile-onset adult OCD was positively associated with social phobia and chronic tics compared to adult-onset OCD. The juvenile OCD appears to be different from both juvenile-onset adult OCD and adult-onset OCD supporting previous observations that juvenile OCD could be a developmental subtype of the disorder. PMID:14689261

Jaisoorya, T S; Janardhan Reddy, Y C; Srinath, S

2003-12-01

307

Comparable performance of patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and healthy controls for verbal and nonverbal memory accuracy and confidence: time to forget the forgetfulness hypothesis of OCD?  

PubMed

The memory deficit or forgetfulness hypothesis of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has received considerable attention and empirical effort over the past decades. The present study aimed to provide a fair test of its various formulations: (1) memory dysfunction in OCD is ubiquitous, that is, manifests irrespective of modality and material; (2) memory dysfunction is found for nonverbal but not verbal material, (3) memory dysfunction is secondary to executive impairment; and (4) memory dysfunction affects meta-memory rather than memory accuracy. Participants comprised 43 OCD patients and 46 healthy controls who were tested on the Picture Word Memory Test (PWMT), which provides several unconfounded parameters for nonverbal and verbal memory accuracy and confidence measures across different time-points. In addition, the Trail-Making Test B was administered to test assumption number 3. Replicating earlier work of our group, samples displayed similar performance on all indices. None of the different formulations of the memory deficit hypothesis were supported. In view of waning evidence for a global memory deficit in OCD, neuropsychological research on OCD should more thoroughly investigate moderators and triggers of occasional instances of impaired performance, particularly cognitive biases such as perfectionism and an inflated sense of responsibility. PMID:19285350

Moritz, Steffen; Kloss, Martin; von Eckstaedt, Francesca Vitzthum; Jelinek, Lena

2009-03-12

308

Depressive and obsessive-compulsive symptoms in hyperserotonemic parents of children with autistic disorder.  

PubMed

Because of previous findings that parents of children with autistic disorder may be at increased risk for anxiety disorders and/or mood disorders, the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression (CES-D) Scale and the Modified Maudsley Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory (MMOCI) were administered to parents of children with autistic disorder and parents of children with Down's syndrome. Parents with normal whole blood serotonin levels who had children with autistic disorder and parents of children with Down's syndrome had significantly lower CES-D depression scores than parents with elevated whole blood serotonin levels who had children with autistic disorder. Hyperserotonemic parents of children with autistic disorder had significantly higher MMOCI scores than parents of children with Down's syndrome. PMID:8047619

Cook, E H; Charak, D A; Arida, J; Spohn, J A; Roizen, N J; Leventhal, B L

1994-04-01

309

Demographic and clinical characteristics associated with treatment status in family members with obsessive-compulsive disorder.  

PubMed

This study investigated the demographic and clinical factors that influence treatment status in family members with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). Six hundred and two subjects from the OCD Collaborative Genetics Study were interviewed using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID) to diagnose Axis I disorders, and the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS) for assessment of OCD symptoms. The demographic and clinical data were compared between subjects who had received treatment and those who had not. A precipitous onset of symptoms, severe illness, multiple obsessions and compulsions, and co-morbid affective disorders were all positively associated with receiving treatment. Older age and the presence of obsessive compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) or OCPD traits were negatively associated with treatment. Gender and age at onset of symptoms did not predict treatment history. The mean duration from onset of symptoms to receiving treatment was 13.8+/-SD 11.9 years, but there was a direct relationship between current age and time to treatment, with younger subjects receiving treatment sooner. Clinical factors are predominant in predicting treatment status in family members with OCD. Although the mean duration from onset of symptoms to treatment was long, younger family members appear to receive treatment sooner. PMID:17345603

Cullen, Bernadette; Samuels, Jack F; Pinto, Anthony; Fyer, Abby J; McCracken, James T; Rauch, Scott L; Murphy, Dennis L; Greenberg, Benjamin D; Knowles, James A; Piacentini, John; Bienvenu, O Joseph; Grados, Marco A; Riddle, Mark A; Rasmussen, Steven A; Pauls, David L; Willour, Virginia L; Shugart, Yin Y; Liang, Kung-Yee; Hoehn-Saric, Rudolf; Nestadt, Gerald

2008-01-01

310

Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder is not a Clinical Manifestation of the DYT1 Dystonia Gene  

PubMed Central

Prior studies suggest that obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCS) and disorder (OCD) are comorbid with dystonia. We tested if OCS/OCD is a clinical manifestation of the DYT1 dystonia mutation by interviewing members of families with an identified DYT1 mutation, and classifying by manifesting carriers (MC), non-manifesting carriers (NMC), and non-carriers (NC). We found that OCD/OCS are not increased in DYT1 mutation carriers compared with NC, nor is OCD associated with manifesting DYT1 dystonia.

Heiman, Gary A.; Ottman, Ruth; Saunders-Pullman, Rachel J.; Ozelius, Laurie J.; Risch, Neil J.; Bressman, Susan B.

2013-01-01

311

Treatment with aripiprazole and topiramate in an obese subject with borderline personality disorder, obsessive-compulsive symptoms and bulimia nervosa: a case report  

PubMed Central

Introduction Borderline personality disorder is a chronic mental disorder associated with severe psychosocial impairment and morbidity, greater usage of mental health resources, and a high mortality rate. Although there is no drug with an approved indication for this disorder, pharmacological treatment is a common practice based on the specific benefit of the drugs on the remission of the core symptoms of the disease. Case presentation Authors reported the case of a 37-year-old obese woman with borderline personality disorder, obsessive-compulsive symptoms and bulimia nervosa treated with aripiprazole and topiramate. Co-administration of aripiprazole and topiramate produced a significant improvement of all psychopathological dimensions, obsessive-compulsive symptoms, and eating disorder. Conclusion Co-administration of aripiprazole and topiramate could be a safe and effective long-term treatment for improving not only the symptoms of borderline personality disorder but also the associated health-related quality of life and interpersonal problems.

Riganello, Deborah; Marino, Antonio

2009-01-01

312

Development and psychometric evaluation of the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale--Second Edition.  

PubMed

The Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS; Goodman, Price, Rasmussen, Mazure, Delgado, et al., 1989) is acknowledged as the gold standard measure of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) symptom severity. A number of areas where the Y-BOCS may benefit from revision have emerged in past psychometric studies of the Severity Scale and Symptom Checklist. Therefore, we created the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale-Second Edition (Y-BOCS-II) by revising the Severity Scale item content and scoring framework, integrating avoidance into the scoring of Severity Scale items, and modifying the Symptom Checklist content and format. One hundred thirty treatment-seeking adults with OCD completed a battery of measures assessing OCD symptom severity and typology and depressive and anxious symptomology. Interrater and test-retest reliability were assessed on a subsample of participants. The Y-BOCS-II showed strong internal consistency for the Symptom Checklist (Kuder-Richardson-20 = .91) and Severity Scale (alpha = .89). Test-retest and interrater reliabilities were both high (intraclass correlations > .85). Confirmatory factor analyses did not show adequate fit with previous models of the Y-BOCS. Exploratory factor analysis revealed a two-factor solution generally consistent with the Obsession and Compulsion Severity subscales. Construct validity was supported by strong correlations with clinician-rated measures of OCD symptom severity and moderate correlations with measures of worry and depressive symptoms. Taken together, the Y-BOCS-II has excellent psychometric properties in assessing the presence and severity of obsessive-compulsive symptoms. Although the Y-BOCS remains a reliable and valid measure, the Y-BOCS-II may provide an alternative method of assessing symptom presence and severity. PMID:20528050

Storch, Eric A; Rasmussen, Steven A; Price, Lawrence H; Larson, Michael J; Murphy, Tanya K; Goodman, Wayne K

2010-06-01

313

Do all obsessive-compulsive disorder subtypes respond to medication?  

PubMed

Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) in children is strikingly similar in clinical presentation and treatment responsiveness to OCD in adults. While treatment is commonly effective for OCD not all subtypes of OCD are similarly responsive to treatment. Numerous studies describe the differential responsiveness of OCD subtypes to pharmacological treatment in adults, yet few such studies exist in pediatric OCD. This manuscript reviews the extant literature that addresses differential response of OCD subtypes to medication intervention. Specific OCD subtypes can be derived utilizing the following strategies: symptom factor analysis, comorbidity latent class analysis, concurrent internalizing disorders, concurrent externalizing disorders, tic-related subtype and early-onset subtype are reviewed in relation to data on differential pharmacotherapy response. Only externalizing disorders moderate treatment response in pediatric OCD. Specifically, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder are associated with poorer response to medication treatment. Hoarding appears to be associated with a poor response to medication in adults, but data are sparse in children. The presence of tic disorders may also predict poorer response to pharmacotherapy in pediatric OCD. Strategies for treatment of the tic-related subtype of OCD, while strongly supporting the use of antipsychotic-augmentation for enhanced response in adults, are lacking controlled data in pediatric OCD. PMID:18386211

Grados, Marco; Riddle, Mark A

2008-04-01

314

Cognitive behavioral therapy of obsessive-compulsive disorder  

PubMed Central

Until the mid-1960s, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) was considered to be treatment-resistant, as both psychodynamic psychotherapy and medication had been unsuccessful in significantly reducing OCD symptoms. The first real breakthrough came in 1966 with the introduction of exposure and ritual prevention. This paper will discuss the cognitive behavioral conceptualizations that influenced the development of cognitive behavioral treatments for OCD. There will be a brief discussion of the use of psychodynamic psychotherapy and early behavioral therapy, neither of which produced successful outcomes with OCD. The main part of the paper will be devoted to current cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) with an emphasis on variants of exposure and ritual or response prevention (EX/RP) treatments, the therapy that has shown the most empirical evidence of its efficacy.

Foa, Edna B.

2010-01-01

315

Memory and confidence in memory judgments among individuals with obsessive compulsive disorder and non-clinical controls  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study investigated episodic memory functioning in: (1) obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) patients with primarily checking symptoms (i.e. checkers); (2) OCD patients without checking symptoms (i.e. non-checkers); and (3) non-clinical control participants. On a measure of recall, all groups were statistically equivalent with respect to the proportion of words correctly recalled. Using a recognition measure, checkers were unimpaired in

Penny A. Macdonald; Martin M. Antony; Colin M. Macleod; Margaret A. Richter

1997-01-01

316

Obsessive-compulsive disorder in patients with velocardiofacial (22q11 deletion) syndrome.  

PubMed

The study of neurogenetic microdeletion syndromes provides an insight into the developmental psychopathology of psychiatric disorders. The aim of the study was to evaluate the prevalence of psychiatric disorders, especially obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), in patients with velocardiofacial syndrome (VCFS), a 22q11 microdeletion syndrome. Forty-three subjects with VCFS of mean age 18.3 +/- 10.6 years were comprehensively assessed using semi-structured psychiatric interview and the Yale-Brown obsessive compulsive scale (Y-BOCS). Best estimate diagnoses were made on the basis of information gathered from subjects, parents, teachers, and social workers. Fourteen VCFS subjects (32.6%) met the DSM-IV criteria for OCD. OCD had an early age of onset and generally responded to fluoxetine treatment. It was not related to mental retardation. The most common obsessive-compulsive symptoms were contamination, aggression, somatic worries, hoarding, repetitive questions, and cleaning. Sixteen of the 43 patients (37.2%) had attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and 7 (16.2%) had psychotic disorder. The results of our study suggest that there is a strong association between VCFS and early-onset OCD. This finding may be significant in the understanding of the underlying genetic basis of OCD. PMID:15048657

Gothelf, Doron; Presburger, Gadi; Zohar, Ada H; Burg, Merav; Nahmani, Ariela; Frydman, Moshe; Shohat, Mordechai; Inbar, Dov; Aviram-Goldring, Ayala; Yeshaya, Josepha; Steinberg, Tamar; Finkelstein, Yehuda; Frisch, Amos; Weizman, Abraham; Apter, Alan

2004-04-01

317

Neural Correlates of Symptom Dimensions in Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: A Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The use of functional magnetic resonance imaging on a group of pediatric subjects with obsessive compulsive disorder reveals that this group has reduced activity in neural regions underlying emotional processing, cognitive processing, and motor performance as compared to control subjects.|

Gilbert, Andrew R.; Akkal, Dalila; Almeida, Jorge R. C.; Mataix-Cols, David; Kalas, Catherine; Devlin, Bernie; Birmaher, Boris; Phillips, Mary L.

2009-01-01

318

Neuroendocrine and behavioral responses to mCPP in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder.  

PubMed

Patients with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) have been shown to demonstrate blunted cortisol and prolactin responses along with an exacerbation of obsessive-compulsive symptoms in response to oral administration of the pharmacological probe, meta-chlorophenylpiperazine (mCPP). In an attempt to replicate these findings, mCPP was administered orally in the dose of 0.5 mg/kg body weight in a randomized double-blind design to 34 OCD patients who were either drug-naive or drug-free for a minimum period of four weeks. The cortisol and prolactin responses were contrasted with those of 18 drug-free healthy subjects. The OCD patients showed significantly blunted cortisol and prolactin responses to mCPP challenge as compared to normal subjects. However, mCPP did not produce any significant exacerbation of obsessive-compulsive symptoms in the patient group. The results are suggestive of a serotonin (5-HT) receptor hyporesponsivity in the HPA axis. Even though previous studies indicate a hyperresponsivity of the 5-HT receptor system in the orbitofrontal-striatal-pallido-thalamo-cortical pathway as shown by significant symptom worsening following serotonergic challenge, the present study failed to replicate those results. 5-HT receptor hyporesponsivity in the HPA axis may be considered as a biological "trait marker" of OCD, and may not be directly involved in the mediation of symptomatology of the disorder. PMID:11087965

Khanna, S; John, J P; Reddy, L P

2001-02-01

319

The Relationship Between Restrictive and Repetitive Behaviors in Individuals with Autism and Obsessive Compulsive Symptoms in Parents  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the relationship between repetitive behaviors in individuals with autism and obsessive-compulsive behaviors in parents. We hypothesized that repetitive behaviors in probands with autism would be associated with increased obsessive-compulsive behaviors in parents in sporadic families (1 known case of autism per family and no known history of autism). Parents with clinically significant Y-BOCS scores were more likely

RK Abramson; SA Ravan; HH Wright; K Wieduwilt; CM Wolpert; SA Donnelly; MA Pericak-Vance; ML Cuccaro

2005-01-01

320

Compulsive hoarders: how do they differ from individuals with obsessive compulsive disorder?  

PubMed

Hoarding has been considered a subtype of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Planned revisions to the diagnostic criteria propose that hoarding form a separate diagnosis in a larger category of obsessive compulsive related disorders. To date, there have been few direct comparisons between hoarding and those with other symptoms of OCD. This study builds on work that suggests compulsive hoarding, while similar to OCD, comprises a clinically distinct condition. Three groups were compared: those with OCD without compulsive hoarding symptoms (n=102), those with compulsive hoarding but not OCD (n=21), and individuals who satisfied both criteria (n=25). The groups were compared on obsessionality, compulsivity, overvalued ideas, depression, and anxiety. The two hoarding groups were also compared on hoarding symptoms and savings cognitions. Results indicated that the hoarding-only group reported fewer symptoms than both OCD groups, including fewer obsessions and compulsions and lower depression. Both hoarding groups showed significantly higher overvalued ideas when compared to the OCD-only group. These results suggest that hoarders experience less subjective distress than those with OCD, yet have greater difficulty in challenging dysfunctional cognitions associated with the presenting condition. These findings suggest that individuals with hoarding, whether with or without OCD, will show greater difficulty engaging in cognitive-behavioral interventions. PMID:22748189

Neziroglu, Fugen; Weissman, Steven; Allen, Jennifer; McKay, Dean

2012-06-27

321

Obsessive-compulsive disorder: pharmacological treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) in children and adolescents is often a disabling condition, which demands treatment with\\u000a medication. Research shows that serotonin is involved in the disorder and empirical treatment studies show that antidepressants\\u000a with serotonin activity are effective. The first choice of treatment in the psychopharmacological approach to OCD in children\\u000a and adolescents are the SSRI agents, which have been

Per Hove Thomsen

2000-01-01

322

Obsessive–compulsive disorder and personality disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Previous studies indicate that most individuals with obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) have comorbid personality disorders\\u000a (PDs), particularly from the anxious cluster. However, the nature and strength of this association remains unclear, as the\\u000a majority of previous studies have relied heavily on clinical populations. We analysed the prevalence of screen positive personality\\u000a disorder in a representative sample of adults with OCD living

Albina R. Torres; Paul Moran; Paul Bebbington; Traolach Brugha; Dinesh Bhugra; Jeremy W. Coid; Michael Farrell; Rachel Jenkins; Glyn Lewis; Howard Meltzer; Martin Prince

2006-01-01

323

Comparison of obsessive-compulsive disorder patients with and without comorbid putative obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorders using a structured clinical interview.  

PubMed

Increasing attention has been paid to the possibility that a range of disorders, the putative obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorders (OCSDs), may share overlapping phenomenological and neurobiological features with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The development of a structured clinician-administered interview for the putative OCSDs (SCID-OCSD) is described. This instrument was used to investigate differences between OCD patients with a comorbid putative OCSD and OCD patients without a comorbid putative OCSD. A sample of 85 adult patients (38 men and 47 women) presenting for treatment of OCD was interviewed with the SCID-OCSD. OCD patients without comorbid putative OCSDs (n = 36) were compared to patients with comorbid OCSDs (n = 49) in terms of demographic features, clinical characteristics, and associated comorbidity with other non-OCSD DSM-IV axis I disorders. Of the OCD patients, 57.6% currently met criteria for at least one putative OCSD and 67.1% had a lifetime history of at least one comorbid OCSD. The OCSDs with the highest prevalence rates were compulsive self-injury (22.4%), compulsive buying (10.6%), and intermittent explosive disorder (10.6%). There was a significantly larger proportion of women in the group with comorbid OCSDs. Although the two groups did not differ in terms of severity of OCD symptoms, the group with comorbid OCSDs had significantly more obsessions and compulsions. The two groups did not differ significantly in terms of associated psychopathology other than OCSDs. We conclude that the SCID-OCSD provides clinicians and researchers with an instrument for the diagnosis of putative OCSDs. Our findings suggest that putative OCSDs have a relatively high prevalence rate in OCD patients. In addition, OCD patients with comorbid OCSDs differ with regard to certain demographic and clinical features. Further research, particularly genetic and neuroimmunological work, may ultimately be useful in validating the obsessive-compulsive spectrum. PMID:11458303

du Toit, P L; van Kradenburg, J; Niehaus, D; Stein, D J

324

Exploring the role of obsessive-compulsive relevant self-worth contingencies in obsessive-compulsive disorder patients.  

PubMed

This article examines whether self-worth contingencies in the personal domains of cleanliness, morality, hoarding, certainty, accuracy, religion and respect for others have specific associations with obsessive symptoms and cognitions in individuals with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Fifty-seven patients with a primary diagnosis of OCD completed the Obsessional Concerns and Self Questionnaire (OCSQ), designed to assess the extent to which respondents consider OCD content domains relevant to their self-worth, along with a battery of other instruments. Results indicate that the OCSQ is more associated with OCD than with non-OCD anxiety symptoms, and that it is also associated with comorbid depressive symptoms in OCD patients. Moreover, the OCSQ-Order and Cleanliness and Hoarding dimensions are associated with their symptom counterparts (i.e., contamination, checking, order, hoarding and neutralizing). OCSQ domains were highly associated with dysfunctional beliefs about obsessions. However, only the OCSQ scores, but not the dysfunctional beliefs, predicted OCD symptoms. These results support cognitive conceptualizations implicating self-concept in OCD development, and they suggest the need to further analyze the influence of self-worth in OCD development and maintenance. PMID:22386566

García-Soriano, Gemma; Belloch, Amparo

2012-03-03

325

Preschool children with obsessive-compulsive disorder and fluoxetine treatment.  

PubMed

Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is an anxiety disorder which can substantially disable children's ability to function at home and school. Clinicians frequently rely on knowledge about symptoms that can be examined early in treatment to determine future treatment effectiveness. However, OCD in preschoolers has also received little attention in literature. To the best of our knowledge, there is only one retrospective chart review and one case report in the literature for preschool cases treated with SSRIs. Therefore, the effect of fluoxetine on preschool children was imprecisely understood. The aim of this case report was to examine the efficacy and safety of fluoxetine treatment for pediatric OCD. Four preschool children with OCD completed an 8-week fluoxetine (up to 20 mg) trial. We diagnosed OCD according to Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, 4th edition, text revision (DSM-IV-TR) criteria and symptoms of OCD were assessed with the Childrens' Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (CY-BOCS). Initial and post-treatment symptom severity and improvement were assessed by using the severity (S) and improvement (I) scales of Clinical Global Impressions Scale (CGI). The CY-BOCS total, obsessions and compulsions subscale scores and CGI-S scores were significantly improved for all of the cases at the end of the eighth week. In this case report four preschool children, with severe OCD and resistant to the previous non-psychopharmacologic treatment responded well to fluoxetine monotherapy. On the other hand, the usage of SSRIs in preschool children remains highly controversial, due to the lack of data on safety and efficacy. PMID:22271063

Ercan, Eyup Sabri; Kandulu, Rasiha; Akyol Ardic, Ulku

2012-01-22

326

Evaluating the Contributions of ADHD, OCD, and Tic Symptoms in Predicting Functional Competence in Children with Tic Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Children with chronic tic disorders (CTD), including Tourette’s Disorder (TD), demonstrate a higher incidence of comorbid\\u000a conditions, including attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD). The relative\\u000a contributions of tics versus ADHD and OCD symptoms for predicting impaired functioning in children with TD is unknown and\\u000a existing studies on the topic are inconsistent. This study evaluated the unique contributions

Michael B. Himle; Susanna Chang; Douglas W. Woods; Liviu Bunaciu; Amanda Pearlman; Brian Buzzella; John C. Piacentini

2007-01-01

327

Tic or Compulsion? It's Tourettic OCD  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A subgroup of individuals suffering from obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) frequently present to treatment with an atypical yet distinguishable array of symptoms akin to both Tourettes disorder (TD) and OCD. These individuals often receive standard treatments for OCD (or less likely, TD) that fail to address the blended features of their…

Mansueto, Charles; Keuler, David

2005-01-01

328

Altered Brain Activation in Ventral Frontal-Striatal Regions Following a 16-week Pharmacotherapy in Unmedicated Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder  

PubMed Central

Recent studies have reported that cognitive inflexibility associated with impairments in a frontal-striatal circuit and parietal region is a core cognitive deficit of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). However, few studies have examined progressive changes in these regions following clinical improvement in obsessive-compulsive symptoms. To determine if treatment changes the aberrant activation pattern associated with task switching in OCD, we examined the activation patterns in brain areas after treatment. The study was conducted on 10 unmedicated OCD patients and 20 matched controls using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging. Treatment improved the clinical symptoms measured by the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale and behavioral flexibility indicated by the switching cost. At baseline, OCD showed significantly less activation in the dorsal and ventral frontal-striatal circuit and parietal regions under the task-switch minus task-repeat condition compared with controls. After treatment, the neural responses in the ventral frontal-striatal circuit in OCD were partially normalized, whereas the activation deficit in dorsal frontoparietal regions that mediate shifting attention or behavioral flexibility persisted. It is suggested that altered brain activation in ventral frontal-striatal regions in OCD patients is associated with their cognitive flexibility and changes in these regions may underlie the pathophysiology of OCD.

Han, Ji Yeon; Kang, Do-Hyung; Gu, Bon-Mi; Jung, Wi Hoon; Choi, Jung-Seok; Choi, Chi-Hoon; Jang, Joon Hwan

2011-01-01

329

Obsessive-compulsive disorder with and without tic disorder: a comparative study from India.  

PubMed

Introduction: Evidence from phenomenological, family, genetic, and treatment studies from Western centers have suggested that tic-related obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) could be different from non-tic-related OCD. This study from India investigated the differences in OCD with and without tics, with respect to sociodemographics, symptom profile, and comorbidity, including obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorders, to examine whether the clinical profile of tic-related OCD is similar to that reported previously. Methods: Fifty subjects with OCD and tics (chronic motor tics and Tourette syndrome) were compared with 141 OCD subjects without tics. Results: Subjects having OCD with tics tended to be males, and had an earlier onset of illness. They had more of symmetry/aggressive and religious obsessions, and cleaning, ordering/arranging, hoarding, and repeating compulsions and were associated with trichotillomania and hypochondraisis. Stepwise backward (Wald) regression analysis showed that an early age of onset, male gender, aggressive obsessions, cleaning compulsions, and trichotillomania were significantly associated with tic-related OCD. Conclusion: The findings of this study from India are broadly similar to those reported previously from the West indicating the universality of differences in tic- and non-tic-related OCD. Our findings also support the existing evidence that tics contribute to the heterogeneity of OCD. PMID:18704026

Jaisoorya, T S; Reddy, Y C J; Srinath, S; Thennarasu, K

2008-08-01

330

Low-Dose Sertraline in Children with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three case studies of children aged 11-12 years are reported in which very low doses (12.5 mg) of sertraline are compared with inactive placebo in a cross-over study, to see if low doses are effective in improving symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). In these cases low doses of sertraline had a significant beneficial effect. To our knowledge, this is the

Elizabeth Procter; Fiona Mc Nicholas; Gillian Baird

2001-01-01

331

Effectiveness of exposure and ritual prevention for obsessive-compulsive disorder: Randomized compared with nonrandomized samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

The efficacy of exposure and ritual prevention (EX\\/RP) for reducing symptoms of obsessive—compulsive disorder (OCD) has been demonstrated in several randomized controlled trials (RCTs). However, procedures used in these studies to maximize experimental control may have limited their generalizability to typical clinical practice. Treatment outcome data from 110 clinical patients receiving EX\\/RP on an outpatient fee-rbr-service basis were compared with

Martin E. Franklin; Jonathan S. Abramowitz; Michael J. Kozak; Jill T. Levitt; Edna B. Foa

2000-01-01

332

Relations between Obsessive–Compulsive Disorder and personality: Beyond Axis I–Axis II comorbidity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most research on relations between Obsessive–Compulsive Disorder (OCD) and personality addresses only comorbidity rates between OCD and Obsessive–Compulsive Personality Disorder (OCPD). We first investigated empirical OCD–OCPD relations, but then also examined patterns of dimensional traits in OCD patients versus students and general outpatients. Results did not support a specific OCD–OCPD relation and the implications of this conclusion are discussed. Regarding

Kevin D. Wu; Lee Anna Clark; David Watson

2006-01-01

333

Strategic Processing and Episodic Memory Impairment in Obsessive Compulsive Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is evidence that nonverbal memory problems in obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) are mediated by impaired strategic processing. Although many studies have found verbal memory to be normal in OCD, these studies did not use tests designed to stress organizational strategies. This study examined verbal and nonverbal memory performance in 33 OCD patients and 30 normal control participants with the

Cary R. Savage; Thilo Deckersbach; Sabine Wilhelm; Scott L. Rauch; Lee Baer; Tracey Reid; Michael A. Jenike

2000-01-01

334

Twin studies on obsessive-compulsive disorder: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic factors have historically been thought of as important in the development of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). For the estimation of the relative importance of genetic and environmental factors, twin studies are an obvious approach. Twin studies of OCD have a long history, starting in 1929. In this review, over 70 years of twin research of OCD is presented, using four

Grootheest van D. S; Daniëlle C. Cath; Aartjan T. Beekman; Dorret I. Boomsma

2005-01-01

335

Stepped Care for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: A Pilot Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Cognitive-behavioral therapy incorporating exposure and ritual prevention (EX/RP) is the first-line psychosocial treatment of choice for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). However, several barriers to care prevent many OCD patients from receiving this treatment. Previous research has indicated that some OCD patients may benefit from less…

Tolin, David F.; Diefenbach, Gretchen J.; Maltby, Nicholas; Hannan, Scott

2005-01-01

336

Assessment of obsessive–compulsive disorder: A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) affects approximately 2–3% of the adult population and is considered a debilitating and costly disorder, with associated impairments spanning the social, occupational, and familial domains. Although effective treatments of OCD exist, many individuals who suffer from OCD go undiagnosed or misdiagnosed, preventing them from obtaining appropriate treatment. As a result, making improvements to the assessment and diagnosis

Kristen Grabill; Lisa Merlo; Danny Duke; Kelli-Lee Harford; Mary L. Keeley; Gary R. Geffken; Eric A. Storch

2008-01-01

337

Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Previous studies suggested an association between exposure to trauma or stressful life events and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). This study investigates the hypothesis that traumatic events and posttraumatic stress disorders (PTSD) precede the onset of OCD. Sampling and Methods: 210 cases with OCD from university treatment facilities were compared with 133 sex- and age-matched controls from the adult general population.

Hans Joergen Grabe; Stephan Ruhrmann; Carsten Spitzer; Jana Josepeit; Susan Ettelt; Friederike Buhtz; Andrea Hochrein; Svenja Schulze-Rauschenbach; Klaus Meyer; Susanne Kraft; Claudia Reck; Ralf Pukrop; Joachim Klosterkötter; Peter Falkai; Wolfgang Maier; Michael Wagner; Ulrich John; Harald J. Freyberger

2008-01-01

338

Stepped Care for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: A Pilot Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cognitive-behavioral therapy incorporating exposure and ritual prevention (EX/RP) is the first-line psychosocial treatment of choice for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). However, several barriers to care prevent many OCD patients from receiving this treatment. Previous research has indicated that some OCD patients may benefit from less…

Tolin, David F.; Diefenbach, Gretchen J.; Maltby, Nicholas; Hannan, Scott

2005-01-01

339

A Family Study of Obsessive-compulsive Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The causes of obsessive-compulsive dis- order (OCD) are as yet unknown. Evidence of familial aggregation is one approach for investigating the role of genetics in the etiology of this condition. The current study was conducted to determine if OCD is familial and to in- vestigate possible familial subtypes. Methods: Eighty case probands were identified in 5 spe- cialty OCD

Gerald Nestadt; Jack Samuels; Mark Riddle; O. Joseph Bienvenu III; Kung-Yee Liang; Michele LaBuda; John Walkup; Marco Grados; Rudolf Hoehn-Saric

2000-01-01

340

Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder, 5-HTTLPR polymorphism and treatment response  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, a role for a functional polymorphism within the promoter region of the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR) in conferring susceptibility to Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) has been suggested. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that allelic variation of the 5-HTTLPR could be associated with OCD susceptibility or influence the drug response in OCD. One hundred and

D Di Bella; S Erzegovesi; M C Cavallini; L Bellodi

2002-01-01

341

Neuropsychological performance in obsessive-compulsive disorder: a critical review  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is growing evidence for neuropsychological dysfunction in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) related to an underlying frontal lobe and\\/or basal ganglia dysfunction. The following paper is a systematical review of the existing literature on cognitive impairment in OCD patients. Fifty studies were surveyed with regard to methodological aspects and cognitive impairments found in OCD patients. In addition, the impact of confounding

Anne Katrin Kuelz; Fritz Hohagen; Ulrich Voderholzer

2004-01-01

342

Insight in obsessive compulsive disorder and body dysmorphic disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Similarities between obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) have been described in terms of clinical presentation, comorbidity rates, treatment response profiles, and other features. This is the first study to compare insight in OCD and BDD measuring global insight and numerous components of insight. We compared insight in 64 adult outpatients with DSM-IV OCD and 85 adult outpatients

Jane L Eisen; Katharine A Phillips; Meredith E Coles; Steven A Rasmussen

2004-01-01

343

Obsessive-compulsive disorder and trichotillomania: a phenomenological comparison  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Similarities between obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and trichotillomania (TTM) have been widely recognized. Nevertheless, there is evidence of important differences between these two disorders. Some authors have conceptualized the disorders as lying on an OCD spectrum of conditions. METHODS: Two hundred and seventy eight OCD patients (n = 278: 148 male; 130 female) and 54 TTM patients (n = 54;

Christine Lochner; Soraya Seedat; Pieter L du Toit; Daniel G Nel; Dana JH Niehaus; Robin Sandler; Dan J Stein

2005-01-01

344

Neuropsychological functioning of children with obsessive-compulsive disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a condition marked by frequent, intrusive thoughts and behaviors. It stands to reason that such unwanted cognitive disruption could be associated with neuropsychological differences. However, to date, there have been few consistent findings with respect to the neuropsychology of OCD and fewer conducted with children. The adult literature on the neuropsychology of OCD had uncovered some

Scott Greisberg

2005-01-01

345

Memory and memory confidence in obsessive–compulsive disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pathological doubt, often found in individuals with obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD), has been theoretically linked to memory deficits, but empirical evidence for such deficits has been mixed. In contrast, many studies suggest that individuals with OCD have low confidence in their memories. The present study aimed to build upon previous research by measuring memory accuracy and confidence in OCD using ecologically

David F. Tolin; Jonathan S. Abramowitz; Bartholomew D. Brigidi; Nader Amir; Edna B. Foa

2001-01-01

346

Attributions for Thought Suppression Failure in Obsessive–Compulsive Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cognitive–behavioral models of obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) posit that OCD is mediated, in part, by the paradoxical effects of thought suppression. This theory is based largely on research using nonclinical participants indicating that attempting to suppress thoughts may cause a paradoxical increase in the frequency of that thought. Previous research using OCD patients (OCs) suggests that OCs are more likely than

David F. Tolin; Jonathan S. Abramowitz; Constance Hamlin; Edna B. Foa; Demetrius S. Synodi

2002-01-01

347

Phenomenology of Early Childhood Onset Obsessive Compulsive Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the phenomenological features of early childhood onset obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD; defined as\\u000a children meeting DSM-IV criteria for OCD with age of onset <8 years). Fifty-eight children (ages 4–8) were included in the\\u000a sample. OCD and comorbid diagnoses were determined by structured interview, and OCD severity was measured using the Children’s\\u000a Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (CY-BOCS). Mean age

Abbe M. Garcia; Jennifer B. Freeman; Michael B. Himle; Noah C. Berman; Alexandra K. Ogata; Janet Ng; Molly L. Choate-Summers; Henrietta Leonard

2009-01-01

348

An overview of Indian research in obsessive compulsive disorder  

PubMed Central

Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) was considered a relatively rare disorder until about two decades ago. Since then, considerable advance has been made in understanding the various aspects of OCD that include epidemiology, clinical features, comorbidity, biology and treatment. In the last one decade, there has also been interest in a group of related disorders called obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorders. There is substantial research from India on various aspects of OCD, particularly from the National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences (NIMHANS), Bangalore. We attempt to review all the relevant Indian data on OCD.

Reddy, Y. C. Janardhan; Rao, Naren P.; Khanna, Sumant

2010-01-01

349

Obsessive–compulsive behaviors in parents of multiplex autism families  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parents of autistic probands with high and low rates of repetitive behaviors were compared for rates of obsessive–compulsive traits and disorder. The rate of repetitive behaviors was assessed using the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R) in 176 autistic probands from 57 multiplex families. Obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) in parents was determined by direct interview using a parental history questionnaire, with screening for

Eric Hollander; Audrey King; Katherine Delaney; Christopher J Smith; Jeremy M Silverman

2003-01-01

350

Situation awareness in obsessive-compulsive disorder.  

PubMed

Past studies have suggested that OCD patients suffer memory impairment on tasks using complex stimuli that require memory for combined elements to be maintained, but not for more simplistic memory tests. We tested this with 42 OCD patients and 42 healthy controls performed a computerized situation awareness task. In addition, participants completed the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS) and Maudsley Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory (MOCI). The OCD patients had poorer accuracy in integration/comprehension and perception levels than controls. There were significant correlations between situational awareness scores (i.e., visuo-spatial monitoring and processing) and Y-BOCS obsession-compulsion and slowness and doubt scores of MOCI in OCD patients. In addition, there were also significant correlations between situational awareness and controlling, cleaning, slowness, rumination and total scores of MOCI in control group. Results indicated that (I) OCD patients have problems of perception, integration, and comprehension of complex visual perceptions; (II) situation awareness deficits associated with severity and prevalence of obsessions and compulsions. PMID:23537845

Tumkaya, Selim; Karadag, Filiz; Mueller, Shane T; Ugurlu, Tugce T; Oguzhanoglu, Nalan K; Ozdel, Osman; Atesci, Figen C; Bayraktutan, Mustafa

2013-03-26

351

Obsessive-compulsive disorder and trichotillomania: a phenomenological comparison  

PubMed Central

Background Similarities between obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and trichotillomania (TTM) have been widely recognized. Nevertheless, there is evidence of important differences between these two disorders. Some authors have conceptualized the disorders as lying on an OCD spectrum of conditions. Methods Two hundred and seventy eight OCD patients (n = 278: 148 male; 130 female) and 54 TTM patients (n = 54; 5 male; 49 female) of all ages were interviewed. Female patients were compared on select demographic and clinical variables, including comorbid axis I and II disorders, and temperament/character profiles. Results OCD patients reported significantly more lifetime disability, but fewer TTM patients reported response to treatment. OCD patients reported higher comorbidity, more harm avoidance and less novelty seeking, more maladaptive beliefs, and more sexual abuse. OCD and TTM symptoms were equally likely to worsen during menstruation, but OCD onset or worsening was more likely associated with pregnancy/puerperium. Conclusions These findings support previous work demonstrating significant differences between OCD and TTM. The classification of TTM as an impulse control disorder is also problematic, and TTM may have more in common with conditions characterized by stereotypical self-injurious symptoms, such as skin-picking. Differences between OCD and TTM may reflect differences in underlying psychobiology, and may necessitate contrasting treatment approaches.

Lochner, Christine; Seedat, Soraya; du Toit, Pieter L; Nel, Daniel G; Niehaus, Dana JH; Sandler, Robin; Stein, Dan J

2005-01-01

352

Relationship between obsessive-compulsive personality disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder.  

PubMed

This study investigated the presence of obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) in a group of 277 patients (88 with obsessive-compulsive disorder [OCD], 58 with major depressive disorder [MDD], and 131 with panic disorder [Panic]) to test the specificity of the relationship between OCPD and OCD. OCPD is statistically significantly more frequent in patients with OCD than in those with Panic and MDD. The distribution of single criteria of OCPD in the three groups does not differ significantly. Discriminant analysis selects a list of items that provide a correct classification rate of 66% based on OCPD criteria selected by canonical function. OCD patients with and without OCPD do not differ in sex, age of onset, duration of illness, positive family history for Tics disorder/Tourette syndrome (TS), or morbidity risk for OCD. PMID:8980870

Diaferia, G; Bianchi, I; Bianchi, M L; Cavedini, P; Erzegovesi, S; Bellodi, L

353

The neuropsychological profile of a subclinical obsessive-compulsive sample.  

PubMed

We investigated the neuropsychological profile of subjects in a subclinical obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) sample. Psychometrically defined subclinical obsessive-compulsive (n = 21) and control (n = 22) subjects were examined. Comprehensive neuropsychological tests evaluating verbal/nonverbal memory, attention, and executive function were administered. The subclinical obsessive-compulsive group showed poorer performances on the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST), F(1, 41) = 13.80, p < .001, and Trail-Making Test (TMT), F(1, 41) = 5.48, p < .05, compared with the control group. The subclinical obsessive-compulsive group showed higher rates of total errors, perseverative errors, and perseverative responses. In addition, the subclinical obsessive-compulsive group committed a greater number of errors in the TMT. However, the groups showed no performance differences in the TMT after controlling for the effects of depression and anxiety, F(1, 39) = 0.11, p = .739. These results suggest that subclinical obsessive-compulsives seemed to display deficits in executive functioning. This neuropsychological profile is consistent with current theories proposing that executive dysfunction may serve as the pathophysiological mechanism underlying the development of obsessive-compulsive disorder. PMID:19203429

Kim, Myung-Sun; Jang, Kyoung-Mi; Kim, Bit-Na

2009-02-10

354

Obsessive compulsive disorder: diagnosis and management.  

PubMed

Obsessive-compulsive disorder is an illness that can cause marked distress and disability. It often goes unrecognized and is undertreated. Primary care physicians should be familiar with the various ways obsessive-compulsive disorder can present and should be able to recognize clues to the presence of obsessions or compulsions. Proper diagnosis and education about the nature of the disorder are important first steps in recovery. Treatment is rarely curative, but patients can have significant improvement in symptoms. Recommended first-line therapy is cognitive behavior therapy with exposure and response prevention or a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor. The medication doses required for treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder are often higher than those for other indications, and the length of time to response is typically longer. There are a variety of options for treatment-resistant obsessive-compulsive disorder, including augmentation of a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor with an atypical antipsychotic. Obsessive-compulsive disorder is a chronic condition with a high rate of relapse. Discontinuation of treatment should be undertaken with caution. Patients should be closely monitored for comorbid depression and suicidal ideation. PMID:19621834

Fenske, Jill N; Schwenk, Thomas L

2009-08-01

355

Anorexia nervosa: obsessive-compulsive disorder, obsessive-compulsive personality disorder, or neither?  

PubMed

Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a severe and often chronic disorder with uncertain aetiology and poor prognosis. New approaches to the understanding of the disorder are needed in order to aid the development of more effective treatments. Several authors have suggested that AN has a considerable overlap with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and that this may reflect common neurobiological, genetic, or psychological elements. However, more recent studies have suggested that AN may have a closer relationship with obsessive-compulsive personality traits such as those found in obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD). In this paper, evidence for links between the three conditions is reviewed, suggestions for further research are outlined and possible implications for the treatment of AN are presented. PMID:12113200

Serpell, Lucy; Livingstone, Alison; Neiderman, Marc; Lask, Bryan

2002-06-01

356

The Obsessive–Compulsive Inventory-Revised (OCI-R): Validation of the German version in a sample of patients with OCD, anxiety disorders, and depressive disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

The OCI-R is a psychometrically sound and valid self-report scale measuring the major symptoms of OCD on six dimensions: Checking, Washing, Ordering, Hoarding, Obsessing, and Neutralizing. Information is needed on its ability to discriminate OCD from depression. In this study, reliability and convergent, divergent, and known-groups validity of an authorized German version were examined in 381 patients with OCD, other

Sascha Gönner; Rainer Leonhart; Willi Ecker

2008-01-01

357

Virtual Reality for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: Past and the Future  

PubMed Central

The use of computers, especially for virtual reality (VR), to understand, assess, and treat various mental health problems has been developed for the last decade, including application for phobia, post-traumatic stress disorder, attention deficits, and schizophrenia. However, the number of VR tools addressing obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is still lacking due to the heterogeneous symptoms of OCD and poor understanding of the relationship between VR and OCD. This article reviews the empirical literatures for VR tools in the future, which involve applications for both clinical work and experimental research in this area, including examining symptoms using VR according to OCD patients' individual symptoms, extending OCD research in the VR setting to also study behavioral and physiological correlations of the symptoms, and expanding the use of VR for OCD to cognitive-behavioral intervention.

Kim, Kwanguk; Kim, So-Yeon; Roh, Daeyoung; Kim, Sun I.

2009-01-01

358

The utilization of nonpatient samples in the study of obsessive compulsive disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) is increasingly studied in nonpatients, primarily through the selection of individuals who score high on a self-report measure of OCD. The usefulness of this methodology for understanding OCD presupposes that some of the individuals in the high-scoring group meet diagnostic criteria for OCD, that the obsessive-compulsive behaviors in the high-scoring individuals are stable across time to

G. Leonard Burns; Gina M. Formea; Susan Keortge; Lee G. Sternberger

1995-01-01

359

Obsessive-compulsive features in pathological lottery and scratch-ticket gamblers.  

PubMed

The results of this study support the notion that pathological gamblers drawn from the community would score higher on all three scores from the YBOCS than light gamblers. Consistent with hypotheses, pathological gamblers (lottery and scratch ticket) reported more obsessions, compulsions, and avoidance behavior than the light gamblers, and also reported having more urges to engage in injurious behaviors to themselves and others. These findings provide evidence that pathological gambling falls in a spectrum or family of disorders which have obsessive-compulsive disorder at its core. These findings support McElroy, Hudson, Philips, et al.'s (1993) suggestions of similarities between OCD and Impulse Control Disorders, and extend Blaszczynski (1999) findings of overlap between pathological gamblers and OCD in a treatment population. Heavy gamblers also reported significantly more hoarding symptoms and compulsive buying than light gamblers. More research in this area may show further evidence of a spectrum of disorders with obsessive compulsive disorder at its core, and show further links between impulse control disorders (such as pathological gambling) and OCD. PMID:11705017

Frost, R O; Meagher, B M; Riskind, J H

2001-01-01

360

Recent advances in the genetics of obsessive-compulsive disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reviews recent developments in understanding the genetic etiology of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Family\\u000a studies provide further support for the familial aggregation of OCD. Genome-wide linkage studies indicate that specific chromosomal\\u000a regions are linked to OCD. Moreover, results from recent molecular genetic studies suggest that several candidate genes are\\u000a associated with OCD. However, specific genes causing OCD have not

Jack F. Samuels

2009-01-01

361

The evolutionary psychology of obsessive-compulsive disorder: the role of cognitive metarepresentation.  

PubMed

Repetitive unpleasant thoughts and ritualized behaviors are the key features of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The classical neuroethological models of OCD rely largely on behavioral similarities between animal stereotypies and human compulsive rituals and are unable to account for the cognitive component of OCD. The cognitive symptoms of OCD need to be addressed in an evolutionary psychological context that incorporates information about human brain evolution. OCD can be understood as an extreme on a continuum of evolved harm-avoidance strategies. A pathological exaggeration of our evolved capacity to cognitively represent future scenarios, including imagined consequences of our own thoughts and actions (metarepresentation), may be part of the set of evolved psychological mechanisms contributing to the psychopathology of OCD. The costly side of the adaptive ability to anticipate future needs or threats could be that etiologically heterogeneous affections of the underlying striatal-frontal brain circuits may render an individual vulnerable to develop OCD. PMID:16960303

Brüne, Martin

2006-01-01

362

Cognitive Therapy for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

This case report is about a 31-year-old married female with a variety of obsessions, primarily focusing on harming obsessions. Because of anxiety, numerous washing rituals have taken place as well as the avoidance of situations. This client was diagnosed with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) and was seen for 25 sessions of individual cognitive therapy. The aim of this study therefore was

Patricia Van Oppen

2004-01-01

363

Information processing in obsessive—compulsive disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

A modified Stroop task incorporating a semantic manipulation was used to study processing of fear-related information in patients diagnosed with obsessive—compulsive disorder (OCD). Twenty-three OCs with washing rituals (washers), 10 OCs without washing rituals (nonwashers), and 14 normals were administered a modified Stroop task in which they were asked to color-name contamination words, general threat words, neutral words, and nonwords.

Edna B. Foa; Doron Ilai; Paul R. McCarthy; Beth Shoyer; Tamera Murdock

1993-01-01

364

Psychiatric morbidity with focus on obsessive–compulsive disorder in an Israeli cohort of adolescents with mild to moderate mental retardation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study evaluated the prevalence of DSM-IV-TR-defined psychiatric disorders in adolescents with mental retardation, with\\u000a a focus on obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD), for which data at present are sparse. Eighty-seven adolescents with mild to\\u000a moderate mental retardation attending the Israeli special-education system were screened for psychiatric disorders in general\\u000a and obsessive–compulsive symptoms in particular. Sixty-one percent had at least one psychiatric

Doron Gothelf; Olga Goraly; Sari Avni; Mike Stawski; Inbar Hartmann; Lina Basel-Vanagaite; Alan Apter

2008-01-01

365

Correlates of Insight among Youth with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder  

PubMed Central

Background Individuals with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) may lack insight into the irrational nature of their symptoms. Among adults with OCD, poor insight has been linked to greater symptom severity, increased likelihood of comorbid symptoms, lower adaptive functioning, and worse treatment outcomes. Parallel work regarding insight among children and adolescents, with OCD, is lacking. The aim of this research was to examine links between insight and demographic, cognitive, and clinical factors among youth with OCD. Methods Seventy-one youths with OCD (mean age = 11.7; 63% = male) were assessed as part of a larger treatment trial. Insight was measured via clinician interview. Results Youth with low insight had poorer intellectual functioning and reported decreased perception of control over their environment. Additionally, youth with low insight were more likely to be younger, to report higher levels of depressive symptoms, and to report lower levels of adaptive functioning. Conclusion This set of cognitive, developmental and clinical factors that may predispose youth with OCD to have diminished insight. Data provide initial empirical support for diagnostic differences between youth and adults with regard to requiring intact insight. Implications for treatment are discussed.

Lewin, Adam B.; Bergman, R. Lindsey; Peris, Tara S.; Chang, Susanna; McCracken, James T.; Piacentini, John

2010-01-01

366

White Matter Abnormalities in Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder  

PubMed Central

Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a prevalent and often severely disabling illness with onset generally in childhood or adolescence. Although white matter deficits have been implicated in the neurobiology of OCD, few studies have been conducted in pediatric patients when the brain is still developing and have examined their functional correlates. In this study, 23 pediatric OCD patients and 23 healthy volunteers, between the ages of 9 and 17 years, matched for sex, age, handedness, and IQ, received a diffusion tensor imaging exam on a 3T GE system and a brief neuropsychological battery tapping executive functions. Patient symptom severity was assessed using the Children's Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (CY-BOCS). Patients with OCD exhibited significantly greater fractional anisotropy compared to matched controls in the left dorsal cingulum bundle, splenium of the corpus callosum, right corticospinal tract, and left inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus. There were no regions of significantly lower fractional anisotropy in patients compared to controls. Higher fractional anisotropy in the splenium was significantly correlated with greater obsession severity on the CY-BOCS in the subgroup of psychotropic drug-naďve patients. Among patients, there was a significant association between greater fractional anisotropy in the dorsal cingulum bundle and better performance on measures of response inhibition and cognitive control. The overall findings suggest a pattern of greater directional coherence of white matter tracts in OCD very early in the course of illness, which may serve a compensatory mechanism, at least for response inhibition functions typically subserved by the cingulum bundle.

Gruner, Patricia; Vo, An; Ikuta, Toshikazu; Mahon, Katie; Peters, Bart D; Malhotra, Anil K; Ulug, Aziz M; Szeszko, Philip R

2012-01-01

367

Obsessive-compulsive disorder phenotypes: implications for genetic studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) clinical presentation is remarkably diverse, and can vary both within and across patients over time. This variability in the phenotypic expression has led to the hypothesis that OCD is a heterogeneous disorder and that this heterogeneity obscures the findings of clinical, natural history and treatment response studies and complicates the search for vulnerability genes. A complete understanding

E C Miguel; J F Leckman; S Rauch; M C do Rosario-Campos; A G Hounie; M T Mercadante; P Chacon; D L Pauls

2005-01-01

368

Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder in Childhood and Adolescence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews literature on Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) in children and adolescents, emphasizing clinical presentation, evaluation, and treatment options. Notes that patients with OCD show remarkable similarities in clinical presentations, and have distinct profiles on cognitive, behavioral, and psychological measures. Concludes that advances in…

McGough, James J.; And Others

1993-01-01

369

Possible role of neuropeptides in obsessive compulsive disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

The most consistent finding in clinical research of obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) is the significant treatment advantage of potent serotonin uptake inhibitors (SUIs) over other classes of antidepressant and antianxiety drugs. Clinical neurobiological studies of OCD, however, have yielded limited and inconsistent evidence for significant fundamental abnormalities in monoamine systems including serotonin, norepinephrine and dopamine. Furthermore, one-third to one-half of

Christopher J. McDougle; Linda C. Barr; Wayne K. Goodman; Lawrence H. Price

1999-01-01

370

Current animal models of obsessive compulsive disorder: an update  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the last 30 years there have been many attempts to develop animal models of obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), in the hope that they may provide a route for furthering our understanding and treatment of this disorder. The present review provides the reader with an overview of the currently active animal models of OCD, their strengths and limitations, so that

N. Albelda; D. Joel

371

Mapping Structural Brain Alterations in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Recent technical developments have made it feasible to comprehensively assess brain anatomy in psychiatric populations. Objective: To describe the structural brain alterations detected in the magnetic resonance images of a large se- ries of patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) using imaging procedures that allow the evaluation of vol- ume changes throughout the brain. Design: Case-control study. Setting: Referral OCD

Jesus Pujol; Carles Soriano-Mas; Pino Alonso; Narcő ´ s Cardoner; Jose M. Menchon; Joan Deus; Julio Vallejo

2004-01-01

372

A comparison of trichotillomania and obsessive-compulsive disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

The validity of conceptualizing trichotillomania (TCM) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) as separate and distinct diagnoses was examined in a study of 20 patients with each disorder. A comparison of demographic, psychometric, and clinical features between the two groups revealed a number of statistically significant differences. Patients meeting the criteria for OCD scored higher on measures of psychiatric symptomatology including ratings

Joseph A Himle; Patrick S. Bordnick; Bruce A. Thyer

1995-01-01

373

Inhibition of return in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study is aimed at replicating and extending previous results by Nelson et al. [Psychiatry Res. 49 (1993) 183], who found decreased inhibition of return (IOR) in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Thirty OCD patients, 14 psychiatric, and 14 healthy controls participated in a visual cueing experiment. The task required detection of a target stimulus at one of two

Steffen Moritz; Adrian von Muhlenenb

2005-01-01

374

Modular Cognitive Therapy for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: A Wait-List Controlled Trial  

PubMed Central

The current study examined the efficacy of cognitive therapy (CT) in reducing symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Twenty-nine individuals with OCD were assigned according to therapist availability to a 12-week wait period or the immediate start of 22 sessions (over 24 weeks) of flexible, modular CT. After 12 weeks of treatment, the CT group, but not the wait-list group, exhibited significant improvement in OCD symptoms. The combined sample of patients who underwent 24 weeks of CT improved significantly from pre- to post-treatment and symptoms remained significantly improved at 3-month follow-up. OCD symptoms rose slightly between posttreatment and 12-month follow-up, but, remained significantly lower than at pretreatment. Overall, modular CT appears to be an effective and acceptable treatment for OCD.

Wilhelm, Sabine; Steketee, Gail; Fama, Jeanne M.; Buhlmann, Ulrike; Teachman, Bethany A.; Golan, Elana

2010-01-01

375

Modular Cognitive Therapy for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: A Wait-List Controlled Trial.  

PubMed

The current study examined the efficacy of cognitive therapy (CT) in reducing symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Twenty-nine individuals with OCD were assigned according to therapist availability to a 12-week wait period or the immediate start of 22 sessions (over 24 weeks) of flexible, modular CT. After 12 weeks of treatment, the CT group, but not the wait-list group, exhibited significant improvement in OCD symptoms. The combined sample of patients who underwent 24 weeks of CT improved significantly from pre- to post-treatment and symptoms remained significantly improved at 3-month follow-up. OCD symptoms rose slightly between posttreatment and 12-month follow-up, but, remained significantly lower than at pretreatment. Overall, modular CT appears to be an effective and acceptable treatment for OCD. PMID:21072138

Wilhelm, Sabine; Steketee, Gail; Fama, Jeanne M; Buhlmann, Ulrike; Teachman, Bethany A; Golan, Elana

2009-01-01

376

Should Nonsuicidal Self-Injury Be a Putative Obsessive-Compulsive-Related Condition? A Critical Appraisal  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) has many behavioral and cognitive features that would make it appear to be closely tied to obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Obsessive-compulsive-related disorders (OCRDs) have been described in the literature as conditions that share a common phenomenology, neurobiology, and treatment response. The authors…

McKay, Dean; Andover, Margaret

2012-01-01

377

Anorexia nervosa with excessive exercise: A phenotype with close links to obsessive-compulsive disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anorexia nervosa (AN) and obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) are highly comorbid, and appear to share a common neurophysiological dysfunction that contributes to the obsessional thoughts and compulsive behaviours seen in both disorders. Obsessive–compulsive personality (OCP) traits are also important risk factors for AN. Since excessive exercise has also been associated with greater obsessionality, we hypothesised that AN patients with a hyperactive

Caroline Davis; Simone Kaptein

2006-01-01

378

Factor Analytic Study of the Children's Yale?Brown Obsessive?Compulsive Scale  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study examined the psychometric properties of the Children's Yale?Brown Obsessive?Compulsive Scale (CY?BOCS; Scahill et al., 1997). Participants were 82 children and adolescents diagnosed with obsessive?compulsive disorder (OCD). Confirmatory factor analyses of 2 previously found models (Obsessions and Compulsions; Disturbance and Severity)…

Storch, Eric A.; Murphy, Tanya K.; Geffken, Gary R.; Bagner, Daniel M.; Soto, Ohel; Sajid, Muhammad; Allen, Pam; Killiany, Erin M.; Goodman, Wayne K.

2005-01-01

379

Comparison of clinical characteristics in obsessive-compulsive disorder and body dysmorphic disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent research has suggested that body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is part of the spectrum of obsessive-compulsive disorders. In order to determine the extent of similarity for psychopathology measures, patients diagnosed with BDD were compared to a group of patients diagnosed with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) on obsessionality, compulsivity, overvalued ideas, depression, and anxiety. Results indicate that BDD patients are similar to

Dean McKay; Fugen Neziroglu; Jose A. Yaryura-Tobias

1997-01-01

380

Internet-based cognitive behaviour therapy for obsessive-compulsive disorder: a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) is an effective treatment for obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) but access to CBT is limited. Internet-based CBT (ICBT) with therapist support is potentially a more accessible treatment. There are no randomized controlled trials testing ICBT for OCD. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of ICBT for OCD in a randomized controlled trial. Method Participants (n=101) diagnosed with OCD were randomized to either 10 weeks of ICBT or to an attention control condition, consisting of online supportive therapy. The primary outcome measure was the Yale–Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (YBOCS) administered by blinded assessors. Results Both treatments lead to significant improvements in OCD symptoms, but ICBT resulted in larger improvements than the control condition on the YBOCS, with a significant between-group effect size (Cohen's d) of 1.12 (95% CI 0.69–1.53) at post-treatment. The proportion of participants showing clinically significant improvement was 60% (95% CI 46–72) in the ICBT group compared to 6% (95% CI 1–17) in the control condition. The results were sustained at follow-up. Conclusions ICBT is an efficacious treatment for OCD that could substantially increase access to CBT for OCD patients. Replication studies are warranted.

Andersson, E.; Enander, J.; Andren, P.; Hedman, E.; Ljotsson, B.; Hursti, T.; Bergstrom, J.; Kaldo, V.; Lindefors, N.; Andersson, G.; Ruck, C.

2012-01-01

381

Symptom Dimensions in OCD: Item-Level Factor Analysis and Heritability Estimates  

PubMed Central

To reduce the phenotypic heterogeneity of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) for genetic, clinical and translational studies, numerous factor analyses of the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale checklist (YBOCS-CL) have been conducted. Results of these analyses have been inconsistent, likely as a consequence of small sample sizes and variable methodologies. Furthermore, data concerning the heritability of the factors are limited. Item and category-level factor analyses of YBOCS-CL items from 1224 OCD subjects were followed by heritability analyses in 52 OCD-affected multigenerational families. Item-level analyses indicated that a five factor model: (1) taboo, (2) contamination/cleaning, (3) doubts, (4) superstitions/rituals, and (5) symmetry/hoarding provided the best fit, followed by a one-factor solution. All 5 factors as well as the one-factor solution were found to be heritable. Bivariate analyses indicated that the taboo and doubts factor, and the contamination and symmetry/hoarding factor share genetic influences. Contamination and symmetry/hoarding show shared genetic variance with symptom severity. Nearly all factors showed shared environmental variance with each other and with symptom severity. These results support the utility of both OCD diagnosis and symptom dimensions in genetic research and clinical contexts. Both shared and unique genetic influences underlie susceptibility to OCD and its symptom dimensions.

Katerberg, Hilga; Delucchi, Kevin L.; Stewart, S. Evelyn; Lochner, Christine; Denys, Damiaan A. J. P.; Stack, Denise E.; Andresen, J. Michael; Grant, J. E.; Kim, Suck W.; Williams, Kyle A.; den Boer, Johan A.; van Balkom, Anton J. L. M.; Smit, Johannes H.; van Oppen, Patricia; Polman, Annemiek; Jenike, Michael A.; Stein, Dan J.; Mathews, Carol A.

2010-01-01

382

Transcranial sonography in obsessive-compulsive disorder.  

PubMed

There is convergent evidence that basal ganglia structures are involved in the pathogenesis of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). It has been also assumed that OCD is caused by a central serotonergic dysfunction. Transcranial sonography (TCS) has become a reliable, sensitive and non-invasive diagnostic tool concerning the evaluation of extrapyramidal movement disorders. This study used TCS to examine the alterations in different parenchymal regions, especially concerning serotonergic brainstem raphe nuclei as well as basal ganglia in OCD. Thirty-one OCD patients were compared with 31 matched healthy controls. Echogenecities were investigated according to the examination protocol for extrapyramidal disorders using a Siemens Sonoline(®) Elegra system. Obsessive-compulsive disorder patients showed reduced echogenity of the serotonergic brainstem raphe nuclei (32.3%) compared with healthy controls (16.1%). In nine OCD-patients (31%), but only in 2 control subjects (6.2%), a hyperechogenicity of the caudate nucleus was found. Patients with OCD significantly more often reveal a hypoechogenic brainstem raphe possibly reflecting altered serotonergic neurons there and a hyperechogenicity of caudate nucleus indicating structural or molecular cell changes. Further research is warranted to examine, whether TCS is useful in order to classify OCD and its subtypes. PMID:23932243

Mavrogiorgou, Paraskevi; Nalato, Fabio; Meves, Saskia; Luksnat, Stefanie; Norra, Christine; Gold, Ralf; Juckel, Georg; Krogias, Christos

2013-08-08

383

Sex differences in Indian patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder.  

PubMed

Sex has been postulated as one of the factors mediating heterogeneity in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). This study investigated the sex differences in OCD with respect to sociodemographics, symptom profile, and comorbidity including spectrum disorders. Two hundred thirty-one subjects diagnosed with OCD by Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, criteria were included in the study. The subjects were evaluated by extensive clinical and semistructured interviews by expert clinical psychiatrists, and diagnosis was made by consensus. Male (n = 166) and female (n = 65) subjects with OCD were compared with respect to the data obtained. Males with OCD tended to have an earlier onset and had more symmetry/religious obsessions and miscellaneous compulsions. Males also showed a tendency to have attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Female subjects were more likely to be married, have cleaning compulsions and be associated with trichotillomania. The findings support the hypothesis that there are sex differences in OCD, but the results are only partly comparable with other studies, suggesting that the phenotypic expression of OCD is possibly dependent on a complex interaction among biologic, personal, and cultural factors. PMID:19059517

Jaisoorya, T S; Reddy, Y C Janardhan; Srinath, S; Thennarasu, K

2008-08-23

384

Beyond depression: citalopram for obsessive-compulsive disorder.  

PubMed

Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and serotonin reuptake inhibitors became inextricably joined with the discovery of their effectiveness for the treatment of OCD in 1969 and 1976. The specificity of response of OCD to serotonin reuptake inhibitors has provided an important platform for the exploration of the neurobiology of OCD. This knowledge has come from many different areas of investigation, including neuroimaging, neuroimmunology and pharmacologic challenge studies. As the research into the pharmacologic treatment of OCD has progressed, a number of serotonin reuptake inhibitors have been approved and marketed for the treatment of OCD. These agents include clomipramine, sertraline, paroxetine, fluoxetine, and fluvoxamine. Because these agents share the same mechanism of action (serotonin reuptake inhibition), choosing which agent to use must be based on other parameters. These include differences in efficacy, dosing, and side-effect profile. Citalopram, a newly marketed selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor could offer some advantages over those agents currently marketed. Theoretically, it should also be effective in the treatment of OCD. In treating depression, it has been shown to have minimal side-effects, low risk of withdrawal symptoms, and little possibility of interaction with other agents. PMID:10471169

Pato, M T

1999-05-01

385

Gender in obsessive-compulsive disorder and obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  \\u000a \\u000a Background: There is increasing recognition that obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and putative OCD spectrum disorders (OCSDs) are\\u000a not homogenous entities. Gender may provide an important window onto the heterogeneity of these various disorders.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods: A MEDLINE review of gender issues in OCD and putative OCD spectrum disorders (excluding eating disorders) was undertaken\\u000a (1965–2000). These included demographic variables, clinical phenomenology, etiological

C. Lochner; D. J. Stein

2001-01-01

386

Genetics of early-onset obsessive–compulsive disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) is characterized by recurrent, intrusive and disturbing thoughts as well as by repetitive\\u000a stereotypic behaviors. Epidemiological data are similar in children and adults, i.e., between 1 and 3% of the general population\\u000a suffer from OCD. Children with OCD are often seriously impaired in their development. OCD, especially of early onset, has\\u000a been shown to be familial. Several

Susanne Walitza; Jens R. Wendland; Edna Gruenblatt; Andreas Warnke; Thomas A. Sontag; Oliver Tucha; Klaus W. Lange

2010-01-01

387

Sex differences in the phenotypic expression of obsessive-compulsive disorder: an exploratory study from Brazil.  

PubMed

Previous studies have shown differences in clinical features of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) between men and women, including mean age at onset of obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCS), types of OCS, comorbid disorders, course, and prognosis. The aim of this study was to compare male and female Brazilian patients with OCD on several demographic and clinical characteristics. Three hundred thirty outpatients with OCD (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition [DSM-IV], criteria) who sought treatment at 3 Brazilian public universities and at 2 private practice clinics in the city of Săo Paulo were evaluated. The assessment instruments used were the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale to evaluate OCD severity and symptoms, the Beck Depression and Anxiety Inventories, the Yale Global Tic Severity Scale, and the Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Axis I Disorders to assess psychiatric comorbidity. Fifty-five percent of the patients (n = 182) were men who were significantly more likely than women to be single and to present sexual, religious, and symmetry obsessions and mental rituals. They also presented earlier onset of OCS and earlier symptom interference in functioning, and significantly more comorbid tic disorders and posttraumatic stress disorder. Women, besides showing significantly higher mean scores in the Beck Depression and Anxiety Inventories, were more likely to present comorbid simple phobias, eating disorders in general and anorexia in particular, impulse control disorders in general, and compulsive buying and skin picking in particular. No significant differences were observed between sexes concerning family history of OCS or OCD, and global symptoms severity, either in obsession or compulsive subscale. The present study confirms the presence of sex-related differences described in other countries and cultures. The fact that the OCS start earlier and probably have a worse impact in men can eventually lead to more specific and efficacious treatment approaches for these patients. PMID:19059516

Torresan, Ricardo Cezar; Ramos-Cerqueira, Ana Teresa de Abreu; de Mathis, Maria Alice; Diniz, Juliana Belo; Ferrăo, Ygor Arzeno; Miguel, Euripedes Constantino; Torres, Albina Rodrigues

2008-08-29

388

Dissociation as a Predictor of Cognitive Behavior Therapy Outcome in Patients with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Previous studies have found a strong association between dissociation and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The purpose of the present study was to evaluate whether dissociation is a predictor of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) outcome in patients with OCD. Methods: Fifty-two patients with OCD were assessed using the Dissociative Experience Scale (DES), the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale and the Beck Depression Inventory.

Michael Rufer; Dada Held; Julia Cremer; Susanne Fricke; Steffen Moritz; Helmut Peter; Iver Hand

2006-01-01

389

The differential impact of executive attention dysfunction on episodic memory in obsessive-compulsive disorder patients with checking symptoms vs. those with washing symptoms.  

PubMed

Neuropsychological studies of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) have pointed to memory and attention deficits among its sufferers, but these reports have largely ignored the possibility that cognitive disturbances may vary across OCD clinical subtypes, or that their interactions may differ between subtypes. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether "checkers" and "washers" demonstrate differences in their memory and executive attention function. Fifty-three outpatients with primary DSM-IV diagnosis of OCD with typical checking (n=27) or washing (n=26) rituals participated in the study. Patients were administered the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised and a comprehensive neuropsychological battery to assess executive attention function. Various neuropsychological tests were then subjected to factor analysis. Neuropsychological test results and obtained factor scores were compared between "washers" and "checkers". Effects of these factor scores on memory by OCD subtypes were examined. No significant difference in terms of demographic and clinical variables was found between the two groups. Checkers displayed performance deficits on Stroop test, Trail Making Test, GO/NO GO test (commission errors) and category fluency. Three factors, inhibition, cognitive flexibility, and multi-tasking, were obtained. Statistically significant differences were observed between the two groups on the inhibition and the cognitive flexibility scores, but not on the general memory or the multi-tasking score. There was a statistically significant interaction between groups and the inhibition score. Only among "checkers", a significant correlation was noted between the inhibition factor and the general memory, while no such correlation was observed among "washers". Among "checkers", poor general memory was related to inhibition deficits. PMID:16824544

Omori, Ichiro M; Murata, Yoshie; Yamanishi, Tomoaki; Nakaaki, Shutaro; Akechi, Tatsuo; Mikuni, Masahiko; Furukawa, Toshiaki A

2006-07-07

390

Family Factors Predict Treatment Outcome for Pediatric Obsessive Compulsive Disorder  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine family conflict, parental blame, and poor family cohesion as predictors of treatment outcome for youth receiving family-focused cognitive behavioral therapy (FCBT) for obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). Methods We analyzed data from a sample of youth who were randomized to FCBT (n = 49; 59% male; mean age = 12.43 years) as part of a larger randomized clinical trial. Youngsters and their families were assessed by an independent evaluator (IE) pre- and post- FCBT using a standardized battery of measures evaluating family functioning and OCD symptom severity. Family conflict and cohesion were measured via parent self-report on the Family Environment Scale (FES; Moos & Moos, 1994) and parental blame was measured using parent self-report on the Parental Attitudes and Behaviors Scale (PABS; Peris, 2008b). Symptom severity was rated by IE’s using the Children’s Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (CY-BOCS; Scahill et al., 1997). Results Families with lower levels of parental blame and family conflict and higher levels of family cohesion at baseline were more likely to have a child who responded to FCBT treatment even after adjusting for baseline symptom severity compared to families who endorsed higher levels of dysfunction prior to treatment. In analyses using both categorical and continuous outcome measures, higher levels of family dysfunction and difficulty in higher number of domains of family functioning were associated with lower rates of treatment response. In addition, changes in family cohesion predicted response to FCBT controlling for baseline symptom severity. Conclusions Findings speak to the role of the family in treatment for childhood OCD and highlight potential targets for future family interventions.

Peris, Tara S.; Sugar, Catherine A.; Bergman, R. Lindsey; Chang, Susanna; Langley, Audra; Piacentini, John

2012-01-01

391

Glutamatergic Synaptic Dysfunction and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder  

PubMed Central

Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a debilitating neuropsychiatric condition estimated to afflict 1-3% of the world population. The estimated financial impact in the treatment and management of OCD is in the billions of dollars annually in the US alone. At present there is a marked lack of evidence on the specific causes of OCD. Current hypotheses largely focus on the serotonin (5-HT) system on the basis of the effectiveness of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) in alleviating symptoms of patients with OCD, yet a considerable fraction of patients are non-responsive or minimally responsive to these agents. Despite this fact, SSRIs have remained the primary pharmacological treatment avenue for OCD. In recent years, multiple lines of evidence have implicated glutamatergic synaptic dysfunction within the cortico-striatal-thalamo-cortical (CSTC) brain circuit in the etiology of OCD and related disorders, thereby prompting intensified effort in the development and evaluation of agents that modulate glutamatergic neurotransmission for the treatment of OCD. With this in mind, here we review the following topics with respect to synaptic dysfunction and the neural circuitry underlying OCD: (1) evidence supporting the critical involvement of the CSTC circuit, (2) genetic studies supporting the involvement of glutamatergic dysfunction, (3) insights from genetic animal models of OCD, and (4) preliminary findings with glutamatergic neurotransmission-modulating agents in the treatment of OCD. Given the putative mechanistic overlap between OCD and the broader OC-spectrum of disorders, unraveling the synaptic basis of OCD has potential to translate into more effective treatments for an array of poorly understood human disorders.

Ting, Jonathan T; Feng, Guoping

2008-01-01

392

Phenomenology, psychiatric comorbidity and family history in referred preschool children with obsessive-compulsive disorder  

PubMed Central

Objective The study aimed to investigate phenomenology, psychiatric comorbidity, and family history of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) in a clinical sample of normally developing preschool children with OCD. Method Subjects in this study were recruited from a clinical sample of preschool children (under 72 months of age) who were referred to a university clinic. Subjects with a normal developmental history and significant impairment related to OCD symptoms were included in the study. Children’s Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale was used to assess OCD symptoms. Each subject was assessed for comorbid DSM-IV psychiatric disorders using a semi-structured interview. Parents were evaluated for lifetime history of OCD in individual sessions. Results Fifteen boys and ten girls (age range: 28 to 69 months; 54.12±9.08 months) were included. Mean age of onset of OCD was 35.64±13.42 months. All subjects received at least one comorbid diagnosis. The most frequent comorbid disorders were non-OCD anxiety disorders (n=17; 68.0%), attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) (n=15; 60.0%), oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) (n=12; 48.0%), and tic disorders (n=6; 24.0%). Mean number of comorbid disorders was 3.65 and 2.35 for boys and girls, respectively. At least one parent received lifetime OCD diagnosis in 68 percent of the subjects. Conclusions The results indicated that OCD in referred preschool children is more common in males, highly comorbid with other psychiatric disorders, and associated with high rates of family history of OCD. Given the high rates of comorbidity and family history, OCD should be considered in referred preschool children with disruptive behavior disorders and/or with family history of OCD.

2012-01-01

393

Intensive Family-Based Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: Applications for Treatment of Medication Partial or Nonresponders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Serotonin reuptake inhibitor medications and cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) are both effective treatments for pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Despite recommendations that youth with OCD be treated with CBT alone or together with serotonin reuptake inhibitor medication, many youth are treated with medication alone or with non-CBT psychotherapy initially. Although effective, symptom remission with medication alone is rare (e.g., only 21.4% of

Wendi E. Marien; Eric A. Storch; Gary R. Geffken; Tanya K. Murphy

2009-01-01

394

Group Cognitive-Behavior Therapy with Family Involvement for Middle-School-Age Children with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: A Pilot Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. Middle-school-aged children with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) are poised in development between the dependency of elementary-school-aged children and growing independence of adolescence. OCD patients of this age group may differ from older ones in the quality of symptoms and level of insight. We report the results of a naturalistic, pilot study of group Cognitive-behavior Therapy (CBT) for school-aged children with

Martin L. Jacqueline; Thienemann Margo

2005-01-01

395

Hoarding in obsessive-compulsive disorder and related disorders: a preliminary report of 15 cases.  

PubMed

Hoarding, the repetitive collection of excessive quantities of poorly useable items of little or no value with failure to discard these items over time, is characterized in DSM-IV as a symptom of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) but has, until recently, received scant empirical investigation. We describe the demographics, phenomenology, associated psychopathology and family history in 15 subjects presenting with hoarding behavior. Fifteen subjects were recruited from an OCD clinic and newspaper advertisement and assessed with the comprehensive Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID I and II), the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS), and a hoarding questionnaire (devised by the authors). The sample comprised 11 women and four men who hoarded a mean of seven item types, with a mean duration of 13.2 +/- 3.9 years (range 2-15 years). Their mean age was 41.8 +/- 14.3 years (range 20-65 years). The most common motive for hoarding was the fear of discarding items of practical value. Nine subjects met DSM-IV criteria for OCD, 9 met criteria for OCPD, for symptoms and behaviors other than hoarding, while six subjects met criteria for a putative OCD spectrum disorder (Tourette's, body dysmorphic disorder, trichotillomania). Six subjects reported little or no control over their hoarding, but only one subject saw her symptoms as an 'illness' warranting treatment. Pathological hoarding is usually a covert and chronic behavior causing distress and/or impairment, and may be related to OCD and OCPD. Hoarding may meet the criterion for a compulsion in DSM-IV, yet there is evidence to suggest that hoarding may manifest in a variety of other psychiatric conditions. While a range of pharmacologic and behavioral treatments have been tried, their effectiveness in managing hoarding behaviors requires additional research. PMID:11929567

Seedat, Soraya; Stein, Dan J

2002-02-01

396

Randomized Controlled Crossover Trial of Ketamine in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: Proof-of-Concept.  

PubMed

Serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SRIs), the first-line pharmacological treatment for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), have two limitations: incomplete symptom relief and 2-3 months lag time before clinically meaningful improvement. New medications with faster onset are needed. As converging evidence suggests a role for the glutamate system in the pathophysiology of OCD, we tested whether a single dose of ketamine, a non-competitive N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) glutamate receptor antagonist, could achieve rapid anti-obsessional effects. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover design, drug-free OCD adults (n=15) with near-constant obsessions received two 40-min intravenous infusions, one of saline and one of ketamine (0.5?mg/kg), spaced at least 1-week apart. The OCD visual analog scale (OCD-VAS) and the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS) were used to assess OCD symptoms. Unexpectedly, ketamine's effects within the crossover design showed significant (p<0.005) carryover effects (ie, lasting longer than 1 week). As a result, only the first-phase data were used in additional analyses. Specifically, those receiving ketamine (n=8) reported significant improvement in obsessions (measured by OCD-VAS) during the infusion compared with subjects receiving placebo (n=7). One-week post-infusion, 50% of those receiving ketamine (n=8) met criteria for treatment response (?35% Y-BOCS reduction) vs 0% of those receiving placebo (n=7). Rapid anti-OCD effects from a single intravenous dose of ketamine can persist for at least 1 week in some OCD patients with constant intrusive thoughts. This is the first randomized, controlled trial to demonstrate that a drug affecting glutamate neurotransmission can reduce OCD symptoms without the presence of an SRI and is consistent with a glutamatergic hypothesis of OCD. PMID:23783065

Rodriguez, Carolyn I; Kegeles, Lawrence S; Levinson, Amanda; Feng, Tianshu; Marcus, Sue M; Vermes, Donna; Flood, Pamela; Simpson, Helen B

2013-06-19

397

The Role of Treatment Expectancy in Youth Receiving Exposure-based CBT for Obsessive Compulsive Disorder  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this investigation was to examine correlates of parent, child, and therapist treatment expectations and their role in the exposure-based treatment of childhood obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). Treatment expectations were assessed among 49 youth with primary OCD, their parents, and therapists as part of the baseline evaluation and post-treatment clinical outcomes were determined by blind evaluators. Baseline depressive symptoms, child/parent-rated functional impairment, externalizing behavior problems, number of comorbid psychiatric disorders, and a lower perception of control were associated with lower pre-treatment expectations. Parent expectation was associated with parental OCD symptoms, child depressive symptoms and child-reported impairment. Therapist expectations inversely correlated with child depressive symptoms, externalizing problems, and child-rated impairment. Pre-treatment OCD severity and prior treatment history were not linked to expectancy. Finally, higher treatment expectations were linked to better treatment response, lower attrition, better homework compliance, and reduced impairment.

Lewin, Adam B.; Peris, Tara S.; Bergman, R. Lindsey; McCracken, James T.; Piacentini, John

2011-01-01

398

Characterization of SLITRK1 Variation in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder  

PubMed Central

Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) is a syndrome characterized by recurrent and intrusive thoughts and ritualistic behaviors or mental acts that a person feels compelled to perform. Twin studies, family studies, and segregation analyses provide compelling evidence that OCD has a strong genetic component. The SLITRK1 gene encodes a developmentally regulated stimulator of neurite outgrowth and previous studies have implicated rare variants in this gene in disorders in the OC spectrum, specifically Tourette syndrome (TS) and trichotillomania (TTM). The objective of the current study was to evaluate rare genetic variation in SLITRK1 in risk for OCD and to functionally characterize associated coding variants. We sequenced SLITRK1 coding exons in 381 individuals with OCD as well as in 356 control samples and identified three novel variants in seven individuals. We found that the combined mutation load in OCD relative to controls was significant (p?=?0.036). We identified a missense N400I change in an individual with OCD, which was not found in more than 1000 control samples (P<0.05). In addition, we showed the the N400I variant failed to enhance neurite outgrowth in primary neuronal cultures, in contrast to wildtype SLITRK1, which enhanced neurite outgrowth in this assay. These important functional differences in the N400I variant, as compared to the wildtype SLITRK1 sequence, may contribute to OCD and OC spectrum symptoms. A synonymous L63L change identified in an individual with OCD and an additional missense change, T418S, was found in four individuals with OCD and in one individual without an OCD spectrum disorder. Examination of additional samples will help assess the role of rare SLITRK1 variation in OCD and in related psychiatric illness.

Ozomaro, Uzoezi; Yoon, Seungtai; Makarov, Vladimir; Delorme, Richard; Betancur, Catalina; Ruhrmann, Stephan; Falkai, Peter; Grabe, Hans Jorgen; Maier, Wolfgang; Wagner, Michael; Lennertz, Leonhard; Moessner, Rainald; Murphy, Dennis L.; Buxbaum, Joseph D.; Zuchner, Stephan; Grice, Dorothy E.

2013-01-01

399

Characterization of SLITRK1 Variation in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder.  

PubMed

Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) is a syndrome characterized by recurrent and intrusive thoughts and ritualistic behaviors or mental acts that a person feels compelled to perform. Twin studies, family studies, and segregation analyses provide compelling evidence that OCD has a strong genetic component. The SLITRK1 gene encodes a developmentally regulated stimulator of neurite outgrowth and previous studies have implicated rare variants in this gene in disorders in the OC spectrum, specifically Tourette syndrome (TS) and trichotillomania (TTM). The objective of the current study was to evaluate rare genetic variation in SLITRK1 in risk for OCD and to functionally characterize associated coding variants. We sequenced SLITRK1 coding exons in 381 individuals with OCD as well as in 356 control samples and identified three novel variants in seven individuals. We found that the combined mutation load in OCD relative to controls was significant (p?=?0.036). We identified a missense N400I change in an individual with OCD, which was not found in more than 1000 control samples (P<0.05). In addition, we showed the the N400I variant failed to enhance neurite outgrowth in primary neuronal cultures, in contrast to wildtype SLITRK1, which enhanced neurite outgrowth in this assay. These important functional differences in the N400I variant, as compared to the wildtype SLITRK1 sequence, may contribute to OCD and OC spectrum symptoms. A synonymous L63L change identified in an individual with OCD and an additional missense change, T418S, was found in four individuals with OCD and in one individual without an OCD spectrum disorder. Examination of additional samples will help assess the role of rare SLITRK1 variation in OCD and in related psychiatric illness. PMID:23990902

Ozomaro, Uzoezi; Cai, Guiqing; Kajiwara, Yuji; Yoon, Seungtai; Makarov, Vladimir; Delorme, Richard; Betancur, Catalina; Ruhrmann, Stephan; Falkai, Peter; Grabe, Hans Jörgen; Maier, Wolfgang; Wagner, Michael; Lennertz, Leonhard; Moessner, Rainald; Murphy, Dennis L; Buxbaum, Joseph D; Züchner, Stephan; Grice, Dorothy E

2013-08-21

400

[A case of pregnant woman with severe obsessive-compulsive disorder successfully treated by modified-electroconvulsive therapy].  

PubMed

Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is rare psychiatric disorder during pregnancy, and is often therapy-resistant. We report a 36-year-old pregnant woman with severe obsessive-compulsive disorder successfully treated by modified-electroconvulsive therapy. During the pregnancy, severe mysophobia and compulsive washing appeared, so severely that she was unable to lie down, endangering the life of the fetus. Since the pharmacotherapy was ineffective, modified electroconvulsive therapy (m-ECT) was performed in cooperation with the obstetrician and the anesthesiologist, along with monitored cardiotocography throughout the procedure. During the second therapy late deceleration on the fetal cardiotocogram occurred, but rapid intravenous administration of ritodrine led to the cessation of abnormal uterine contraction. Two courses of m-ECT markedly diminished her symptoms, and she delivered a healthy infant without complications. M-ECT can be an alternative treatment for pregnant patients with OCD. PMID:14560648

Fukuchi, Takahiko; Okada, Yoshifumi; Katayama, Hitoshi; Nishijima, Kouichi; Kato, Satoshi; Netsu, Sachiho; Fukuda, Hirokazu

2003-01-01

401

Childhood trauma in obsessive-compulsive disorder, trichotillomania, and controls.  

PubMed

There is relatively little data on the link between childhood trauma and obsessive-compulsive/putative obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorders. The revised Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), which assesses physical, emotional, and sexual abuse as well as physical and emotional neglect, was administered to female patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD; n = 74; age: 36.1 plus minus 16.3), TTM (n = 36; age: 31.8 plus minus 12.3), and a group of normal controls (n = 31; age: 21.5 plus minus 1.0). The findings showed a significantly greater severity of childhood trauma in general, and emotional neglect specifically, in the patient groups compared to the controls. Although various factors may play a role in the etiology of both OCD and trichotillomania (TTM), this study is consistent with some evidence from previous studies suggesting that childhood trauma may play a role in the development of these disorders. PMID:11891995

Lochner, Christine; du Toit, Pieter L; Zungu-Dirwayi, Nompumelelo; Marais, Adele; van Kradenburg, Jeanine; Seedat, Soraya; Niehaus, Dana J H; Stein, Dan J

2002-01-01

402

Rates and correlates of nonadherence to treatment in obsessive-compulsive disorder.  

PubMed

The goal of this cross-sectional study was to identify the rates and correlates of treatment refusal and/or dropout in a treatment-seeking sample of patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Specifically, we investigated the relationships between treatment adherence and different OCD dimensions, intelligence, and insight into OCD. The study involved 60 patients with OCD who were being treated in a specialized university OCD clinic. The patients' adherence to standard treatment was assessed with the Treatment Adherence Survey-Patient Version. Patients were also evaluated with the following instruments: the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview 6.0, the Dimensional Yale-Brown ObsessiveCompulsive Scale-short version, the Brown Assessment of Beliefs Scale, the Beck Depression Inventory, the Sheehan Disability Scale, and the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence. The patients with OCD who refused to undertake CBT (46%) displayed greater rates of obsessions with aggressive/violent content. Among patients who started CBT (n=32), 51% withdrew before completing therapy. Patients who refused medication for OCD (52%) displayed greater severity of OCD (particularly hoarding), less insight into symptoms, and greater disability. Of the patients with OCD who were given drug therapy (n=58), 61% reported having taken their medication less frequently and/or at a smaller dose than prescribed or discontinuing the use of medication altogether. Treatment nonadherence is common among patients with OCD. This study found that aggressive/violent obsessions were associated with nonadherence to CBT, while greater severity of OCD (particularly hoarding) and poorer insight were associated with poorer adherence to drug therapy. Future research is needed to clarify whether these OCD phenotypes predict or are the consequence of treatment nonadherence. PMID:23334678

Santana, Lívia; Fontenelle, Júlia M; Yücel, Murat; Fontenelle, Leonardo F

2013-01-01

403

Epilepsy and obsessive-compulsive disorder  

PubMed Central

Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has long been associated with epilepsy. The link with temporal lobe (usually refractory) epilepsy (TLE) is particularly prominent. Of TLE patients, 10% to 22% of patients may have OCD, often underdiagnosed in the outpatient clinic. Data on the links include case reports, case series, and controlled studies. Three larger, controlled studies in TLE patients, using comprehensive epilepsy and OCD classifications, in aggregate, have noted the obsessive qualities of washing, symmetry/exactness, and ordering, with a greater preoccupation with certain aspects of religion, compared with controls or patients with idiopathic generalized epilepsy. TLE foci may be either left- or right-sided. Social and neurobiological factors are involved in OCD in TLE. The neurobiology implicates a pathophysiological or structural impairment of the orbitofrontal-thalamic, and frontothalamic-pallidal-striatal-anterior cingulate-frontal circuits. Discrete anatomic lesions in these pathways, or their surgical removal, may induce (or conversely) improve OCD in TLE patients.

Kaplan, Peter W.

2010-01-01

404

Late-onset obsessive compulsive disorder associated with possible gliomatosis cerebri.  

PubMed

Onset of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) after the age of 50 years is rare, and should alert the physician to possible "organic" causes of OCD. These include infections, degenerative disorders, brain injury and cerebrovascular lesions, principally involving the frontal lobes and basal ganglia. The current patient had obsessive images, anxiety, auditory hallucinations and seizures following (possible) gliomatosis cerebri, with onset around 69 years of age. The atypical presentation, lesions involving the cortical-basal ganglia-thalamic-cortical circuit and the association with neurological signs/symptoms, was characteristic. However, late-onset OCD has not been commonly reported with diffuse lesions, and the association with gliomatosis cerebri is not known. This patient's case illustrates the need for careful screening of older patients with recently acquired OCD, and for further systematic study of OCD in the broad range of neuropsychiatric disorders affecting the elderly. PMID:19548182

Kumar, Vineet; Chakrabarti, Subho; Modi, Manish; Sahoo, Manoj

2009-01-01

405

Correlates of comorbid anxiety and externalizing disorders in childhood obsessive compulsive disorder  

PubMed Central

The present study examines the influence of diagnostic comorbidity on the demographic, psychiatric, and functional status of youth with a primary diagnosis of obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). Two hundred and fifteen children (ages 5–17) referred to a university-based OCD specialty clinic were compared based on DSM-IV diagnostic profile: OCD without comorbid anxiety or externalizing disorder, OCD plus anxiety disorder, and OCD plus externalizing disorder. No age or gender differences were found across groups. Higher OCD severity was found for the OCD + ANX group, while the OCD + EXT group reported greater functional impairment than the other two groups. Lower family cohesion was reported by the OCD + EXT group compared to the OCD group and the OCD + ANX group reported higher family conflict compared to the OCD + EXT group. The OCD + ANX group had significantly lower rates of tic disorders while rates of depressive disorders did not differ among the three groups. The presence of comorbid anxiety and externalizing psychopathology are associated with greater symptom severity and functional and family impairment and underscores the importance of a better understanding of the relationship of OCD characteristics and associated disorders. Results and clinical implications are further discussed.

Lewin, Adam B.; Bergman, R. Lindsey; Lee, Joyce C.; Piacentini, John

2010-01-01

406

Clinical correlates of nucleus accumbens volume in drug-naive, adult patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder.  

PubMed

Background: Reward-processing deficits have been demonstrated in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and this has been linked to ventral striatal abnormalities. However, volumetric abnormalities of the nucleus accumbens (NAcc), a key structure in the reward pathway, have not been examined in OCD. We report on the volumetric abnormalities of NAcc and its correlation with illness severity in drug-naďve, adult patients with OCD. Method: In this cross-sectional study of case-control design, the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) 1.5-T (1-mm) volume of NAcc was measured using 3D Slicer software in drug-naďve OCD patients (n = 44) and age, sex and handedness-matched healthy controls (HCs) (n = 36) using a valid and reliable method. OCD symptoms were assessed using the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS) Symptom checklist and severity and the Clinical Global Impression-Severity (CGI-S) scale. Results: There was no significant difference in NAcc volumes on either side between OCD patients and HCs (F = 3.45, p = 0.07). However, there was significant negative correlation between the right NAcc volume and Y-BOCS compulsion score (r = -0.48, p = 0.001). Conclusions: Study observations suggest involvement of the NAcc in the pathogenesis of OCD, indicating potential reward-processing deficits. Correlation between the right NAcc volume deficit and severity of compulsions offers further support for this region as a candidate for deep brain stimulation treatment in OCD. PMID:23737599

Narayanaswamy, Janardhanan C; Jose, Dania; Kalmady, Sunil; Venkatasubramanian, Ganesan; Reddy, Yc Janardhan

2013-06-04

407

Reduced prefrontal gyrification in obsessive–compulsive disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies reveal evidence for brain abnormalities in obsessive–compulsive disorder\\u000a (OCD), for instance, reduction of gray matter volume in the prefrontal cortex. Disturbances of gyrification in the prefrontal\\u000a cortex have been described several times in schizophrenia pointing to a neurodevelopmental etiology, while gyrification has\\u000a not been studied so far in OCD patients. In 26 OCD patients

Thomas Wobrock; Oliver Gruber; Andrew M. McIntosh; Susanne Kraft; Anne Klinghardt; Harald Scherk; Wolfgang Reith; Thomas Schneider-Axmann; Stephen M. Lawrie; Peter Falkai; Thomas William Moorhead

2010-01-01

408

Prevalence of obsessive-compulsive disorder in Iran  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Estimates of the annual prevalence for Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) were consistent across the international sites range, 1.9% – 2.5%. The nine population surveys, which used Diagnostic Interview Schedule, estimated a six-month prevalence of OCD ranging from 0.7% to 2.1%. This study performed in order to determine the prevalence of OCD in a population-based study among Iranian adults aged

Mohammad Reza Mohammadi; Ahmad Ghanizadeh; Mehdi Rahgozar; Ali Ahmad Noorbala; Haratoun Davidian; Hossein Malek Afzali; Hamid Reza Naghavi; Seyed Abbas Bagheri Yazdi; Seyed Saberi; Bita Mesgarpour; Shahin Akhondzadeh; Javad Alaghebandrad; Mehdi Tehranidoost

2004-01-01

409

Cognitive Frontal Lobe Dysfunction in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: There is evidence that dysfunction within associative frontostriatal circuits represents a feature of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Previous neuropsychologic studies have yielded diverging results, which may in part be explained by differences in the selection of subjects and methods. The present study focused on the question of cognitive frontal lobe performance in OCD.Methods: Twenty-nine unmedicated OCD patients were compared to

Klaus Schmidtke; Alexander Schorb; Gabriele Winkelmann; Fritz Hohagen

1998-01-01

410

Gender in obsessive–compulsive disorder: clinical and genetic findings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: There is increasing recognition that obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) is not a homogeneous entity. It has been suggested that gender may contribute to the clinical and biological heterogeneity of OCD. Methods: Two hundred and twenty patients (n=220; 107 male, 113 female) with DSM-IV OCD (age: 36.40±13.46) underwent structured interviews. A subset of Caucasian subjects (n=178), including subjects from the genetically

Christine Lochner; Sian M. J. Hemmings; Craig J. Kinnear; Johanna C. Moolman-Smook; Valerie A. Corfield; James A. Knowles; Dana J. H. Niehaus; Dan J. Stein

2004-01-01

411

The Characterization of Beliefs in Obsessive–Compulsive Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Beliefs are associated with most obsessions and compulsions in obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD). The characteristics of\\u000a these beliefs can vary considerably, which has led to some of them being regarded as overvalued ideas or delusions and has\\u000a contributed to confusion regarding the conceptualization and classification of OCD. This article proposes that beliefs arising\\u000a in the context of OCD be assessed along

Vlasios Brakoulias; Vladan Starcevic

2011-01-01

412

Cognitive-Behavioral Family Treatment of Childhood Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: A Controlled Trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveTo evaluate the relative efficacy of (1) individual cognitive-behavioral family-based therapy (CBFT); (2) group CBFT; and (3) a waitlist control group in the treatment of childhood obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD).

Paula Barrett; Lara Healy-Farrell; John S. March

2004-01-01

413

Low level of dopaminergic D 2 receptor binding in obsessive-compulsive disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundDespite growing evidence for involvement of the dopaminergic system in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), the functional anatomy of the dopaminergic system in the basal ganglia has been investigated sparsely.

Damiaan Denys; Nic van der Wee; Joost Janssen; Femke De Geus; Herman G. M Westenberg

2004-01-01

414

Obsessive-compulsive disorder in pregnant women during the third trimester of pregnancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveThe principal aims of this study were to examine the current prevalence rate, clinical characteristics, and related factors of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) in pregnant women during the third trimester of pregnancy.

Faruk Uguz; Kazim Gezginc; Ismet Esra Zeytinci; Savas Karatayli; Rustem Askin; Ozkan Guler; Figen Kir Sahin; H. Murat Emul; Omer Ozbulut; Omer Gecici

2007-01-01

415

Fluvoxamine for Children and Adolescents With Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: A Randomized, Controlled, Multicenter Trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveTo determine the safety and efficacy of fluvoxamine for the treatment of children and adolescents with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) with a double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter study.

MARK A. RIDDLE; ELIZABETH A. REEVE; JOSE A. YARYURA-TOBIAS; HWA MING YANG; JAMES L. CLAGHORN; GARY GAFFNEY; JOHN H. GREIST; DONNA HOLLAND; BRIAN J. MCCONVILLE; TERESA PIGOTT; JOHN T. WALKUP

2001-01-01

416

Attribution retraining group therapy for outpatients with major depression disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, and obsessive-compulsive disorder: a pilot study?  

PubMed Central

The aim of this present study is to examine the efficacy of attribution retraining group therapy (ARGT) and to compare the responses of outpatients with major depression disorder (MDD), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). We carried out a prospective uncontrolled intervention study with a 8-weeks of ARGT on sixty three outpatients with MDD, GAD or OCD. Hamilton rating scale for depression, Hamilton rating scale for anxiety, Yale-Brown obsessive-compulsive scale, attribution style questionnaire, self-esteem scale, index of well-being, and social disability screening schedule were administered before and after treatment. Significant improvement in symptoms and psychological and social functions from pre- to posttreatment occurred for all participants. The changes favored MDD patients. Our study suggested that ARGT may improve the symptoms and psychological-social functions of MDD, GAD, and OCD patients. MDD patients showed the best response.

Wang, Chun; Zhang, Jie; Li, Jijun; Zhang, Ning; Zhang, Yalin

2011-01-01

417

[New approach to obsessive-compulsive disorder: dopaminergic theories].  

PubMed

In patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), structural and volumetric abnormalities have been identified by up-to-date neuroimaging techniques both in the prefrontal region and in the basal ganglia (striatum, thalamus, amygdala). The dysfunction of these regions also has been proved by neuroimaging techniques. These alterations can be described as dopaminergic hyperfunction in the prefrontal cortex and serotonergic hypofunction in the basal ganglia. The dysfunction of the so-called 'cortico-striato-thalamic' loops is strongly linked to the symptoms of OCD, where the dopamine is the most dominant neurotransmitter. The ascending serotonergic projections from the raphe nuclei restrain and control the function of these loops. Thus, when serotonergic hypofunction is present, the predominantly dopaminergic loops became overactive, which has been confirmed by neuroimaging techniques and by neurocognitive tests as well. The linkage of the two predominant neurotransmitter systems affected in OCD can be the reason for the fact that SSRIs have limited success in the treatment of OCD symptoms. In recent international, multicentric studies, the treatment of SSRI non-responder subgroup of OCD patients were supplemented by antipsychotics with dopaminergic activity. Many studies have confirmed the beneficial effect of these antidopaminergic substances on the hyperactive cortico-striato-thalamic loops in OCD. The investigation of these dysfunctional loops is also connected to the genetic background of OCD, because some of the candidate gene regions of OCD are coding proteins of the dopamine synthesis (for example: COMT). In this paper, we present a detailed overview of these relationships based on recent findings of OCD research. PMID:18167420

Harsányi, András; Csigó, Katalin; Demeter, Gyula; Németh, Attila

2007-01-01

418

Are “obsessive” beliefs specific to OCD?: A comparison across anxiety disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cognitive models of obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) assign a central role to maladaptive beliefs about threat, uncertainty, importance and control of thoughts, responsibility, and perfection. Previous research has demonstrated that such beliefs relate to specific OCD symptoms in a theoretically meaningful way. The aim of the present study was to determine whether these beliefs are endorsed more strongly by OCD patients

David F. Tolin; Patrick Worhunsky; Nicholas Maltby

2006-01-01

419

Early Childhood OCD: Preliminary Findings from a Family-Based Cognitive-Behavioral Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A study was conducted to compare the relative usefulness of family-based cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) against family-based relaxation treatment for children with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Results showed that children with early childhood-onset OCD benefited from the CBT program as it effectively decreased OCD symptoms and helped…

Freeman, Jennifer B.; Garcia, Abbe M.; Coyne, Lisa; Ale, Chelsea; Prezeworski, Amy; Himle, Michael; Compton, Scott; Leonard, Henrietta L.

2008-01-01

420

Lifetime-comorbidity of obsessive-compulsive disorder and subclinical obsessive-compulsive disorder in northern Germany  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective Inspite of the worldwide relevance of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), there is a substantial lack of data on comorbidity\\u000a in OCD and subclinical OCD in the general population. Methods German versions of the DSM-IV adapted Composite International Diagnostic Interview were administered to a representative\\u000a sample of 4075 persons aged 18–64 years, living in a northern German region. Results In both

Hans Joergen Grabe; Christian Meyer; Ulfert Hapke; Hans-Juergen Rumpf; Harald Juergen Freyberger; Horst Dilling; Ulrich John

2001-01-01

421

Effect of Prefrontal Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: A Preliminary Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Prefrontal mechanisms are implicated in obsessive-compulsive disorder. The authors investigated whether prefrontal repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation influenced obsessive-compulsive disorder symptoms. Method: Twelve patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder were given repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (80% motor threshold, 20 Hz\\/2 seconds per minute for 20 minutes) to a right lateral prefrontal, a left lateral prefrontal, and a midoccipital (control) site on separate

Benjamin D. Greenberg; Mark S. George; Juliet D. Martin; Jonathan Benjamin; Thomas E. Schlaepfer; Margaret Altemus; Eric M. Wassermann; Robert M. Post; Dennis L. Murphy

1997-01-01

422

Individual versus group cognitive–behavioral treatment for obsessive–compulsive disorder: a controlled pilot study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study sought to examine the effectiveness of group and individual cognitive–behavioral treatment (CBT) and to compare the results with those of a wait-list control group among a sample of patients with obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD). Fifty-seven individuals diagnosed with OCD were evaluated pre- and posttreatment with the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale and the Hamilton Rating Scales for Anxiety and Depression.

Nuria Jaurrieta; Susana Jimenez-Murcia; José Manuel Menchón; M. Del Pino Alonso; Cinto Segalas; Eva M. ÁLvarez-Moya; Javier Labad; Roser Granero; Julio Vallejo

2008-01-01

423

The relationship of obsessive-compulsive disorder to putative spectrum disorders: results from an Indian study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and putative obsessive-compulsive (OC) spectrum disorders is unclear. This study investigates the prevalence of putative OC spectrum disorders in OCD subjects in a controlled clinical design. The putative OC spectrum disorders studied included somatoform disorders (body dysmorphic disorder [BDD] and hypochondriasis), eating disorders, tic disorders (e.g., Tourette’s syndrome [TS]), and impulse control disorders (e.g.,

T. S Jaisoorya; Y. C. Janardhan Reddy; S Srinath

2003-01-01

424

Quality of Life in Adult Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: The Role of Moderating and Mediating Variables  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: This study examined the contribution of various aspects of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) on quality of life (QoL) in 102 adults with a principal diagnosis of OCD from an archival database. Method: Participants were assessed for DSM-IV diagnoses by trained clinicians using the Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule, 4th Edition (ADIS-IV), the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS), and an unstructured interview. Further

Brittany Belle Speisman

2012-01-01

425

The relationship of obsessive–compulsive disorder to possible spectrum disorders: results from a family study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The familial relationship between obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) and “obsessive–compulsive spectrum” disorders is unclear. This study investigates the relationship of OCD to somatoform disorders (body dysmorphic disorder [BDD] and hypochondriasis), eating disorders (e.g., anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa), pathologic “grooming” conditions (e.g., nail biting, skin picking, trichotillomania), and other impulse control disorders (e.g., kleptomania, pathologic gambling, pyromania) using blinded family

O. Joseph Bienvenu; Jack F Samuels; Mark A Riddle; Rudolf Hoehn-Saric; Kung-Yee Liang; Bernadette A. M Cullen; Marco A Grados; Gerald Nestadt

2000-01-01

426

Deficits of Organizational Strategy and Visual Memory in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was conducted to investigate the deficits of organizational strategy and visual memory in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Thirty OCD patients and 30 healthy controls aged 20–35 years participated. The Maudsley Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory, Beck Anxiety Inventory, Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, and Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure (ROCF) test were administered to participants. The authors scored ROCF performances using the Boston Qualitative Scoring

M. S. Shin; S. J. Park; M. S. Kim; Y. H. Lee; T. H. Ha; J. S. Kwon

2004-01-01

427

Obsessive–compulsive traits in children and adolescents with Asperger syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study is to examine the occurrence and characteristic features of obsessive–compulsive behaviours in\\u000a children and adolescents with Asperger syndrome (AS), with respect to a matched obsessive compulsive disorder group (OCD)\\u000a and a typically developing control group (CG). For this purpose, 60 subjects (20 OCD; 18 AS; 22 CG), aged 8–15 years, matched\\u000a for age, gender and IQ

Liliana Ruta; Diego Mugno; Valentina Genitori D’Arrigo; Benedetto Vitiello; Luigi Mazzone

2010-01-01

428

Understanding and treating incompleteness in obsessive-compulsive disorder.  

PubMed

Incompleteness-the troubling and irremediable sense that one's actions or experiences are not "just right"--appears to underlie many of the symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Because incompleteness may reflect basic sensory-affective dysfunction, it presents a challenge to clinicians wishing to apply cognitive-behavioral treatments. In this article, I review ways of adapting well-demonstrated treatment principles to this condition. A case is presented and then used to discuss challenges in conducting cognitive-behavioral therapy with this population. Behavioral methods aimed at habituation (e.g., exposure and ritual prevention [ERP]) are probably more applicable than conventional cognitive techniques. However, even these may result in modest long-term gains; relapse is a probability if they are not actively practiced after treatment cessation. PMID:15389620

Summerfeldt, Laura J

2004-11-01

429

Social and Communication Difficulties and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The relationship between pervasive developmental disorder (PDD) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has not been extensively studied despite having some phenomenological features in common. Abnormal social and communication behaviors (pragmatic behaviors) are key components of PDD and are also part of the broader autism phenotype (BAP). In this study we sought to establish if there is any association between the

Bernadette Cullen; Jack Samuels; Marco Grados; Rebecca Landa; O. Joseph Bienvenu; Kung-Yee Liang; Mark Riddle; Rudolf Hoehn-Saric; Gerald Nestadt

2008-01-01

430

Treatment Compliance and Outcome in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exposure and ritual prevention (EX\\/RP) is an effective treatment for obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), although it is neither universally nor completely helpful. Compliance with EX\\/RP treatment procedures has been linked theoretically to posttreatment outcome, yet empirical exploration of this relationship has been insufficient. In this study, therapists were asked to rate the treatment compliance of 28 consecutive patients who received

Jonathan S. Abramowitz; Martin E. Franklin; Lori A. Zoellner; Corrie L. Dibernardo

2002-01-01

431

Thought-action fusion in obsessive compulsive disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent psychometric results suggested that the phenomenon of thought-action fusion (TAF) is implicated in obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). The construct of TAF has two components: (a) the belief that thinking about an unacceptable or disturbing event makes it more likely to happen and (b) the belief that having an unacceptable thought is the moral equivalent of carrying out the unacceptable

Roz Shafran; Dana S. Thordarson; S. Rachman

1996-01-01

432

Obsessive-compulsive bipolar comorbidity: focus on children and adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Growing evidence documents the frequent co-morbidity between Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) and Bipolar Disorder (BP) in adults. The aim of the present study is to explore some clinical aspects of this interface in children and adolescents, as it appears in a setting of routine clinical practice. Method: The sample comprised 102 consecutively referred children and adolescents, both inpatients and

Gabriele Masi; Giulio Perugi; Cristina Toni; Stefania Millepiedi; Maria Mucci; Nicoletta Bertini; Hagop S. Akiskal

2004-01-01

433

Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder in School-Age Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is an anxiety disorder characterized by disturbing thoughts, impulses, or images (obsessions); repetitive or ritualistic behaviors (compulsions); or the presence of both. Although some may believe this disorder is isolated to the adult population, it affects anywhere from 1% to 4% of children in the United…

Helbing, Mary-Lee C.; Ficca, Michelle

2009-01-01

434

A Preliminary Study on the Effects of Attachment-based Intervention on Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder  

PubMed Central

Background: Research on attachment has shed new light on understanding one of the underlying mechanisms of psychopathology in children. The aim of this study was to investigate the therapeutic efficacy of attachment-based intervention in a pediatric sample with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Methods: Twelve participants, 10-12 years of age, were treated across an eight-week period. They had not been treated with either pharmacotherapy or psychotherapy previously and remained medication-free during the attachment-based therapy. This study comprised two groups of children: The experimental group, who received attachment-based intervention, and the control group, who did not receive treatment. All participants were assessed in terms of severity of OCD symptoms by administrating the Children's Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale before and after the experimental group had received the therapeutic sessions. The children were assessed again one month later. The level of children's depression, and attachment insecurity, as well as their mothers’ depression, OCD symptoms, and attachment insecurity, were statistically controlled in this study. Results: Multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) indicated that the OCD symptoms in children decreased significantly over the course of the therapy, and this gain was maintained at follow-up. The results of this study demonstrated that the attachment-based intervention was efficacious in alleviating the OCD symptoms. Conclusion: It is suggested that parental instruction in attachment-based relationships may help prevent young children from developing OCD symptoms in middle-childhood and adulthood.

Rezvan, Shiva; Bahrami, Fatemeh; Abedi, Mohamadreza; Macleod, Colin; Doost, Hamid Taher Neshat; Ghasemi, Vahid

2013-01-01

435

Standardized low-resolution electromagnetic tomography in obsessive-compulsive disorder--a replication study.  

PubMed

Previous EEG source localization studies in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) reported ambiguous results. The reason probably lies in different OCD samples included in the studies - obsessive-compulsive subjects selected based on a psychopathology questionnaire (the Symptom Checklist - Revised), drug-naďve OCD cases or patients with a long-term disorder. This study was conceived as a replication of our previous research on OCD population coming to treatment in Prague Psychiatric Centre [9]. We included 50 OCD patients (8 drug-free and 42 medicated with SSRIs) and 50 healthy controls. All subjects were different from those enrolled in the previous study. Resting state EEG was analyzed in 8 frequency bands as well as with 1 Hz frequency resolution using the standardized low-resolution electromagnetic tomography (sLORETA). In OCD, sLORETA indicated low-frequency power excess at 2 and 3 Hz in the cingulate gyrus with maximal t-values in Brodmann area 24. The low-frequency activity was unrelated to the severity of clinical symptoms and illness duration but delta power in the right orbitofrontal cortex positively correlated with age of OCD onset. Our results confirm previous finding of the low-frequency excess in the cingulate gyrus in OCD and document the essential role of delta frequencies. Delta activity in the cingulate gyrus is negatively associated with reward-signalling dopamine release in the ventral striatum and increases in states connected with a need for reinforcement. Thus, delta activity could reflect a repetitive need to perform compulsive behaviour in OCD patients. PMID:23701862

Kop?ivová, Jana; Horá?ek, Ji?í; Raszka, Michal; Brunovský, Martin; Praško, Ján

2013-05-20

436

Insight in pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder: Associations with clinical presentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Insight has emerged as a significant treatment outcome predictor in adult obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), with some suggesting that OCD with poor insight represents a distinct clinical subtype. Despite its clinical relevance, limited data exist on insight in pediatric OCD patients. The present study investigated the relation between poor insight and clinical characteristics among children and adolescents with OCD (N=78, ages

Vanessa A. Milsom; Lisa J. Merlo; Michael Larson; Gary R. Geffken; Marni L. Jacob; Tanya K. Murphy; Wayne K. Goodman

2008-01-01

437

Visuospatial Abilities, Memory, and Executive Functioning in Trichotillomania and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Few studies have compared neuropsychological functioning in trichotillomania (TTM) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). In OCD, most studies suggest abnormal visuospatial abilities, memory, and executive functioning. We compared 23 TTM, 21 OCD and 26 healthy control individuals on neuropsychological tasks assessing these abilities. Neither the TTM nor the OCD groups suffered from generalized neuropsychological deficits compared to the healthy control group.

Antje Bohne; Cary R. Savage; Thilo Deckersbach; Nancy J. Keuthen; Michael A. Jenike; Brunna Tuschen-Caffier; Sabine Wilhelm

2005-01-01

438

Evidence for fractional anisotropy and mean diffusivity white matter abnormalities in the internal capsule and cingulum in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder  

PubMed Central

Background There is evidence to suggest that obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) is associated with structural abnormalities in cortico–striato–thalamic circuits, yet the extent of white matter abnormalities is not well established. In this study, we used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to examine white matter integrity in specific regions of interest (ROIs) in patients with OCD. Methods Patients with OCD and sex-, age- and IQ-matched healthy controls underwent DTI. The primary objective was to explore whether patients with OCD had white matter abnormalities in the anterior limb of the internal capsule (ALIC), the uncinate fasciculus, the genu of the corpus callosum and the cingulum. The secondary objective was to evaluate the relation between fractional anisotropy and mean diffusivity in these ROIs and other clinical variables (including age at onset of OCD, OCD severity and levels of depressive and anxiety symptomatology) in patients with OCD. Results There were 15 patients and 17 controls enrolled in our study. Compared with healthy controls, patients with OCD showed increased fractional anisotropy in bilateral regions of the ALIC adjacent to the body of the caudate, as well as decreased fractional anisotropy in the right anterior limb near the head of the caudate. Patients also had decreased mean diffusivity in the body of the right cingulum and the left anterior cingulum compared with controls. Correlational analyses revealed significant associations of fractional anisotropy and mean diffusivity in select circuits with OCD, depression and anxiety severity scores. Limitations Inclusion of patients with OCD receiving pharmacotherapy may have been a limitation. In addition, the patients were heterogeneous in terms of their obsessive–compulsive symptom profiles; we did not distinguish between different obsessive–compulsive symptom dimensions. Conclusion The study results provide further evidence for OCD-related white matter abnormalities in the ALIC and cingulum, consistent with a corticostriatal model of OCD.

Lochner, Christine; Fouche, Jean-Paul; du Plessis, Stefan; Spottiswoode, Bruce; Seedat, Soraya; (Psych), MMed; Fineberg, Naomi; Chamberlain, Samuel R.; Stein, Dan J.

2012-01-01

439

The role of early maladaptive schemas in predicting exposure and response prevention outcome for obsessive-compulsive disorder.  

PubMed

This is the first study that explores whether early maladaptive schemas are related to treatment outcome for patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The sample consisted of 88 outpatients with a diagnosis of OCD who completed exposure and response prevention treatment. The Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS), the Beck Depression Inventory and Young Schema Questionnaire - Short Form were administered before and after treatment. Regression analyses using post-treatment Y-BOCS as the dependent variable indicated that higher scores on the abandonment schema at pre-treatment were related to poor outcome and explained 7% of the variance in symptoms at post-treatment. Higher scores on the self-sacrifice schema at pre-treatment were related to good outcome and explained 6% of the variance in obsessive-compulsive symptoms at post-treatment. During treatment, only changes in the failure schema were significantly related to good outcome and explained 18% of the variance in symptoms at post-treatment. PMID:21920500

Haaland, Aashild Tellefsen; Vogel, Patrick A; Launes, Gunvor; Haaland, Vegard Řksendal; Hansen, Bjarne; Solem, Stian; Himle, Joseph A

2011-09-09

440

Functional MRI and the Study of OCD: From Symptom Provocation to Cognitive-Behavioral Probes of Cortico-Striatal Systems and the Amygdala  

Microsoft Academic Search

Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) first appeared in 1991. Since that time there has been a burgeoning use of the technology by psychiatric researchers and neuroscientists. Our group first used fMRI to study obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) with a symptom provocation paradigm and then moved to the use of circuitry-specific cognitive-behavioral probes. The techniques we utilized for the symptom provocation

Hans C. Breiter; Scott L. Rauch

1996-01-01

441

Response-inhibition deficits in obsessive-compulsive disorder: an indicator of dysfunction in frontostriatal circuits.  

PubMed Central

Abnormalities in the orbital prefrontal cortex and its ventral striatal target fields are believed to be involved in causing obsessive and compulsive symptoms. Lesions to this brain circuitry result in a selective disturbance in suppressing responses to irrelevant stimuli. This disturbance might underlie the apparent inhibitory deficit suggested by the symptomatology of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Oculomotor tests were administered to 12 medication-free, nondepressed patients with OCD aged 18 to 44 y and 12 matched healthy controls to assess the ability to suppress responses and to execute delayed responses volitionally. Patients with OCD had more response-suppression failures than controls when peripheral visual targets were presented close to central fixation. No significant case-control differences were observed on the delayed-response task. A basic disturbance of neurobehavioral inhibition in OCD may underlie the repetitive behavior that characterizes the illness and be related to abnormalities in orbital prefrontal ventral striatal circuits.

Rosenberg, D R; Dick, E L; O'Hearn, K M; Sweeney, J A

1997-01-01

442

Assessment of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Self-report assessment devices of obsessive-compulsive symptoms are widely used by behavior therapists. In the present investigation, psychometric characteristics and concurrent, discriminant, and factorial validity of the Maudsley Obsessional Compulsive Inventory (MOCI) were studied in clinical samples. Test-retest reliabilitywas high. The internal consistencywas high for the total score and moderate for the subscales, checking and cleaning. The slowness and doubting subscales

P. M. G. Emmelkamp; H. J. M. Kraaijkamp; M. A. Van Den Hout

1999-01-01

443

Onset of obsessive-compulsive disorder: premorbid conditions and prodromal phase.  

PubMed

This article focuses on the clinical onset of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), specifically addressing the age of onset, gradual and acute onset, and whether there are some types of premorbid conditions or a prodromal phase that predispose individuals to the onset of OCD. Clinical and epidemiological studies have come to different conclusions regarding age at onset as well as regarding differences between the sexes. Data gleaned from research to date have demonstrated a relationship between OCD and obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD), although OCPD does not appear to be the more prevalent personality disorder among patients with OCD. Preliminary research has suggested that Axis I disorders may predispose individuals to OCD onset; however, the significance of this relationship remains to be clarified. Evidence of the association between OCD and subthreshold obsessive-compulsive syndrome suggests that these disorders lie on a continuum of severity, with some cases developing OCD while others do not. PMID:17545963

Maina, G; Albert, U; Bogetto, F; Ravizza, L

2000-12-01

444

Single photon emission computed tomography op the brain with Tc99m HMPAO during sumatriptan challenge in obsessive-compulsive disorder: Investigating the functional role of the serotonin autoreceptor  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.1. Symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) may be acutely exacerbated by administration of certain serotonin agonists Exacerbation of OCD symptoms by sumatriptan, a 5HT1D agonist (Zohar, 1993), is consistent with pre-clinical data suggesting that the serotonin auto-receptor plays an important role in this disorder (El Mansari et al, 1995).2.2. In order to investigate the functional role of the serotonin auto-receptor

Dan J. Stein; Barend Van Heerden; Charmaine J. Wessels; Jeanine Van kradenburg; James Warwick; Herman J. Wasserman

1999-01-01

445

Traumatic Events and Obsessive Compulsive Disorder in Children and Adolescents: Is There a Link?  

PubMed Central

Background The extant literature supports an association between psychological trauma and development of OCD in adults, and this link is a plausible mediator for environment gene interactions leading to phenotypic expression of OCD. Objective To explore the relationship between OCD and traumatic life events in children and adolescents. Methods We examined the prevalence of traumatic life events and PTSD in a large sample of systematically assessed children with OCD. OCD symptoms and severity were assessed using the Children’s Yale Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (CY-BOCS) in those with and without concurrent PTSD. Results Rate of PTSD and trauma exposure was higher in children with OCD than in a comparable control group of non-OCD youth matched for age, gender and SES. Children with concurrent PTSD had more intrusive fears and distress and less control over their rituals than children with OCD but without PTSD. Total CY-BOCS scores were higher in those with concurrent PTSD. Specific type of OCD symptoms was not altered by a PTSD diagnosis. Conclusions A history of psychologically traumatic events may be over-represented in children with OCD. Given the need to search for non-genetic factors that may lead to onset of OCD, better and more systematic methods to obtain and quantify psychologically traumatic life events are needed in clinical populations.

Lafleur, Daniel L.; Petty, Carter; Mancuso, Elizabeth; McCarthy, Katherine; Biederman, Joseph; Faro, Alyssa; Levy, Hannah C.; Geller, Daniel A.

2011-01-01

446

Predictors of Early Adulthood Quality of Life in Children with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder  

PubMed Central

Objectives The goal of this study was to determine childhood clinical predictors of quality of life (QoL) in early adulthood in children with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD). Methods A longitudinal cohort study was conducted with 36(out of 62 eligible) children with OCD, interviewed once at childhood baseline (mean age: 12.1±2.1, range: 8.0 – 15.8), and again in early adulthood after an average follow-up interval of 9 years. QoL was measured in adulthood with the Longitudinal Interval Follow-up Evaluation Range of Impaired Functioning Tool (LIFE-RIFT). Results Forty-two percent of children experienced a remission of OCD symptoms by early adulthood. OCD appeared to most strongly impair the interpersonal relationships and work domains of QoL. QoL and severity of OCD and anxiety symptoms were significantly associated in early adulthood. Primary hoarding symptoms in childhood predicted poor QoL in adulthood. Increased symptoms in the forbidden thoughts dimension in both childhood and adulthood were associated with improved adulthood QoL. Conclusions Children for whom OCD symptoms remitted by adulthood showed no evidence of residual impairment in QoL, whereas children whose OCD symptoms failed to remit by adulthood showed at most mild impairment in QoL. Hoarding symptoms in childhood appear to portend not only the persistence of OCD symptoms but also poorer QoL in early adulthood.

Palermo, Sean D.; Bloch, Michael H.; Craiglow, Brittany; Landeros-Weisenberger, Angeli; Dombrowski, Philip A.; Panza, Kaitlyn; Smith, Megan E.; Peterson, Bradley S.; Leckman, James F.

2013-01-01

447

Antidepressant-induced mania in obsessive compulsive disorder.  

PubMed

Serotonin-reuptake inhibitors have come forth to become the mainstay of treatment in obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), predominantly as a result of evidence from clinical psychopharmacological response studies. Comorbid psychiatric disorders frequent OCD patients, most often depression. Although selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are effective in the treatment of both OCD and depressive disorder, all antidepressants are associated with treatment-emergent affective switch. We present a 48-year-old patient with OCD, on antidepressants, initially for OCD and later for depression as well. She switched to mania after 20 years of treatment, which responded to olanzapine and divalproex sodium. PMID:22988331

Philip, Johann; Janaki, R

2012-04-01

448

Examination of emotional Stroop interference in obsessive–compulsive disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous research has produced conflicting findings on whether or not patients with subclinical or manifest obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) share an attentional bias for anxiety-related material. In the present study, 35 OCD patients were compared with 20 healthy controls on their performance in an emotional Stroop paradigm. Nine different stimulus conditions were compiled, including sets for depression-related and anxiety-related words as

Steffen Moritz; Dirk Jacobsen; Martin Kloss; Susanne Fricke; Michael Rufer; Iver Hand

2004-01-01

449

The cognitive-affective neuroscience of obsessive-compulsive disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is substantial evidence that obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is mediated by specific cortico-striatalthalamic-cortical\\u000a (CTSC) circuits. Here we discuss very recent publications that address the following questions: How does damage to CSTC circuitry\\u000a come about?; What are the neurochemical systems involved in mediating this circuitry?; and What are the implications of such\\u000a damage for understanding the pathogenesis and management of OCD?

Dan J. Stein; Wayne K. Goodman; Scott L. Rauch

2000-01-01

450

Suicidal ideation in patients with obsessive–compulsive disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

The risk factors for suicidal behaviour in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) have been less studied compared than in other anxiety disorders. In the present study, we examined the dem