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1

[Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD)].  

PubMed

Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) is a frequent and disabling psychic illness. Along psychiatric history, several etiological models have been successively hypothesized to explain the obsessive compulsive symptoms from a psychological, behavioural or biological point of view. This review aims at presenting OCD etiological models as well as describing OCD clinical and therapeutic aspects. PMID:19772197

Debabèche, C; Muselle, A; Servais, S; Farcy, L; Barbier, V; Laloyaux, C; Mikolajczak, G; Desseilles, M

2009-08-26

2

Structure of Obsessive-Compulsive Symptoms in Pediatric OCD  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The investigation of the structure of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) symptoms observed in adults is similar to those observed in children is presented. This investigation indicates the structure of OCD symptoms is the same across the entire lifespan as compared to pediatric OCD and adulthood OCD.

Mataix-Cols, David; Nakatani, Eriko; Micali, Nadia; Heyman, Isobel

2008-01-01

3

Insight into Obsessive-Compulsive Symptoms and Awareness of Illness in Adolescent Schizophrenia Patients with and without OCD  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A substantial proportion of adolescent schizophrenia patients also has obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). As the reliability of OCD identification in schizophrenia has been challenged, we evaluated insight into OCD symptoms and awareness of schizophrenia, using the Brown Assessment of Beliefs Scale and the Scale to Assess Unawareness of Mental…

Faragian, Sarit; Kurs, Rena; Poyurovsky, Michael

2008-01-01

4

Comorbid obsessive–compulsive personality disorder in obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD): A marker of severity  

Microsoft Academic Search

IntroductionComorbid obsessive–compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) is well-described in obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD). It remains unclear, however, whether OCPD in OCD represents a distinct subtype of OCD or whether it is simply a marker of severity in OCD.

Christine Lochner; Paul Serebro; Lize van der Merwe; Sian Hemmings; Craig Kinnear; Soraya Seedat; Dan J. Stein

2011-01-01

5

The relationship between obsessive compulsive and posttraumatic stress symptoms  

E-print Network

disorder (OCD) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), results from large- scale epidemiological the significance of the relationship between OCD and PTSD. Utilizing the Obsessive­Compulsive Inventory [OCI], this study examined the relationship between OCD and PTSD symptoms in 128 patients diagnosed with OCD, 109

Liu, Taosheng

6

Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD)  

MedlinePLUS

... SSRI for OCD NIMH Hosts Twitter Chat on PANDAS/PANS Sudden onset OCD in kids broadened More ... Mental Illnesses July 31, 2013 From Paresis to PANDAS & PANS March 26, 2012 Microbes and Mental Illness ...

7

Suppression of Obsessive-Compulsive Symptoms after Head Trauma  

PubMed Central

Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) encompasses a spectrum of clinical symptoms characterized by unwanted thoughts coupled with an intense compulsion to act and to repeat behavior fragments in a ritualistic and stereotyped sequence. Obsessive-compulsive symptom due to brain lesions is not rare, but suppression of these symptoms after head trauma is very rare and we found only 3 cases in review of literatures from 1966 to 2001. The case of a patient suffering with severe OCD is described of note; her symptoms disappeared following right temporo-parietofrontal lesion. PMID:22956962

Hosseini, Seyed Hamzeh; Azari, Paria; Abdi, Roohollah; Alizadeh-Navaei, Reza

2012-01-01

8

Clinical features of children and adolescents with obsessive-compulsive disorder and hoarding symptoms  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveThis study was conducted to examine whether pediatric patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and hoarding symptoms differed in terms of clinical characteristics from pediatric OCD patients without hoarding symptoms.

Eric A. Storch; Caleb W. Lack; Lisa J. Merlo; Gary R. Geffken; Marni L. Jacob; Tanya K. Murphy; Wayne K. Goodman

2007-01-01

9

Treatment for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and OCD-related disorders using GVG  

DOEpatents

The present invention relates to the use of gamma vinyl-GABA (GVG) to treat obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and OCD-related disorders, and to reduce or eliminate behaviors associated with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and OCD-related disorders.

Dewey, Stephen L. (Manorville, NY); Brodie, Jonathan D. (Cos Cob, CT); Ashby, Jr., Charles R. (Miller Place, NY)

2002-01-01

10

Screening for Obsessive and Compulsive Symptoms: Validation of the Clark-Beck Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The 25-item Clark-Beck Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory (CBOCI) was developed to assess the frequency and severity of obsessive and compulsive symptoms. The measure uses a graded-response format to assess core symptom features of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) based on Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.; American…

Clark, David A.; Antony, Martin M.; Beck, Aaron T.; Swinson, Richard P.; Steer, Robert A.

2005-01-01

11

Obsessive compulsive disorder and symptoms may have different effects on schizophrenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study is to investigate the possible different effects of obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) and obsessive compulsive symptoms (OCS) on schizophrenia illness in regard to clinical characteristics such as severity of symptomatology.We included 184 patients with schizophrenia on monotherapy with a stable dose of antipsychotics for at least three months. Severity of clinical symptoms was evaluated by

Alp Üçok; M. Emin Ceylan; Aysu K?vrak Tihan; Sema Lapçin; Can Ger; Ra?it Tükel

2011-01-01

12

Symptom dimensions in obsessive-compulsive disorder: prediction of cognitive-behavior therapy outcome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: A significant number of patients with obsessive- compulsive disorder (OCD) fail to benefit sufficiently from treatments. This study aimed to evaluate whether certain OCD symptom dimensions were associated with cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) outcome. Method: Symptoms of 104 CBT-treated in-patients with OCD were assessed with the clinician-rated Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale symptom checklist. Logistic regression analyses examined outcome predictors. Results: The

M. Rufer; S. Fricke; S. Moritz; M. Kloss; I. Hand

2006-01-01

13

Multifamily Behavioral Treatment (MFBT) for Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD): A Step?by?Step Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) can be a severe, chronic anxiety disorder for which pharmacotherapy and behavioral therapy have both proven effective for approximately 75% of such patients. However, the majority of patients experience a recurrence of symptoms when medications are stopped and 25% to 35% of those treated with behavior therapy fail to benefit or relapse during follow-up. OCD rarely

Barbara Van Noppen

2002-01-01

14

Hoarding in obsessive–compulsive disorder: Results from the OCD Collaborative Genetics Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hoarding behavior occurs frequently in obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD). Results from previous studies suggest that individuals with OCD who have hoarding symptoms are clinically different than non-hoarders and may represent a distinct clinical group. In the present study, we compared 235 hoarding to 389 non-hoarding participants, all of whom had OCD, collected in the course of the OCD Collaborative Genetics Study.

Jack F. Samuels; O. Joseph Bienvenu; Anthony Pinto; Abby J. Fyer; James T. McCracken; Scott L. Rauch; Dennis L. Murphy; Marco A. Grados; Benjamin D. Greenberg; James A. Knowles; John Piacentini; Paul A. Cannistraro; Bernadette Cullen; Mark A. Riddle; Steven A. Rasmussen; David L. Pauls; Virginia L. Willour; Yin Y. Shugart; Kung-yee Liang; Rudolf Hoehn-Saric; Gerald Nestadt

2007-01-01

15

Latent Class Analysis of YBOCS Symptoms in Obsessive Compulsive Disorder  

PubMed Central

Objective Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is phenomenologically heterogeneous, and findings of underlying structure classification based on symptom grouping have been ambiguous to date. Variable-centered approaches, primarily factor analysis, have been used to identify homogeneous groups of symptoms, but person-centered latent methods have seen little use. This study was designed to uncover sets of homogeneous groupings within 1611 individuals with OCD, based on symptoms. Method Latent class analysis (LCA) models using 61 obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCS) collected from the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale were fit. Relationships between latent class membership and treatment response, gender, symptom severity and comorbid tic disorders were tested for relationship to class membership. Results LCA models of best fit yielded three classes. Classes differed only in frequency of symptom endorsement. Classes with higher symptom endorsement were associated with earlier age of onset, being male, higher YBOCS symptom severity scores, and comorbid tic disorders. There were no differences in treatment response between classes. Conclusions These results provide support for the validity of a single underlying latent OCD construct, in addition to the distinct symptom factors identified previously via factor analyses. PMID:21145539

Delucchi, Kevin L.; Katerberg, Hilga; Stewart, S. Evelyn; Denys, Damiaan A.J.P.; Lochner, Christine; Stack, Denise E.; den Boer, Johan A.; van Balkom, Anton J.L.M.; Jenike, Michael A.; Stein, Dan J.; Cath, Danielle C.; Mathews, Carol A.

2010-01-01

16

Connections among symptoms of obsessive–compulsive disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder: a case series  

Microsoft Academic Search

Theoretical, clinical, and empirical implications of the functional connections between symptoms of obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are abundant. As such, four cases are presented here of men and women who met criteria for comorbid OCD and PTSD. All had been diagnosed with treatment-resistant OCD and were seeking treatment from an OCD specialty clinic or institute, all

Beth S Gershuny; Lee Baer; Adam S Radomsky; Kimberly A Wilson; Michael A Jenike

2003-01-01

17

Mood, personality disorder symptoms and disability in obsessive compulsive hoarders: a comparison with clinical and nonclinical controls  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hoarding is a symptom of obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), as well as a diagnostic criterion for obsessive compulsive personality disorder (OCPD). One recent study suggests that people who suffer from compulsive hoarding report more general psychopathology than people who do not [Frost, R.O., Krause, M.S., & Steketee, G. (1996). Hoarding and obsessive compulsive symptoms. Behavior Modification, 20, 116–132]. The present

Randy O. Frost; Gail Steketee; Lauren F. Williams; Ricks Warren

2000-01-01

18

The status of hoarding as a symptom of obsessive–compulsive disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hoarding is considered by many to be a symptom of obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD). Yet although it is observed in people with OCD, hoarding symptoms also appear in a number of other psychological and psychiatric conditions. The present studies were conducted using samples of OCD patients, patients with other anxiety disorders, and a non-clinical sample to further elucidate the relationship between

Jonathan S. Abramowitz; Michael G. Wheaton; Eric A. Storch

2008-01-01

19

Obsessive–compulsive disorder symptom dimensions show specific relationships to psychiatric comorbidity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goals of this study were to examine relationships among symptom categories in obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD), to establish OCD symptom dimensions by factor- and cluster-analytic analyses, and to explore associations between OCD symptom dimensions and comorbid neuropsychiatric conditions. A total of 317 OCD participants underwent a systematic diagnostic interview using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV. OCD symptoms assessed by

Gregor Hasler; V. Holland LaSalle-Ricci; Jonne G. Ronquillo; Sarah A. Crawley; Lauren W. Cochran; Diane Kazuba; Benjamin D. Greenberg; Dennis L. Murphy

2005-01-01

20

Clinical and Cognitive Correlates of Depressive Symptoms among Youth with Obsessive Compulsive Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Depression is the most common comorbidity among adults with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), yet little is known about depressive symptoms in childhood OCD. This study examined clinical and cognitive variables associated with depressive symptomatology in 71 youths (62% male, M age = 12.7 years) with primary OCD. Youths presented with a range…

Peris, Tara S.; Bergman, R. Lindsey; Asarnow, Joan R.; Langley, Audra; McCracken, James T.; Piacentini, John

2010-01-01

21

Lower levels of whole blood serotonin in obsessive-compulsive disorder and in schizophrenia with obsessive-compulsive symptoms.  

PubMed

It has been reported that some schizophrenic patients suffer from obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCS), and clozapine treatment is quite often associated with an occurrence/increase of OCS in schizophrenic patients. The aim of the study was to explore whether differences would exist in the clinical symptomatology and the whole blood serotonin (5-HT) concentrations in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), schizophrenic patients with and without OCS (S+OCS, S-OCS), and clozapine-treated schizophrenic patients with and without clozapine-induced OCS (CLZ+OCS, CLZ-OCS). We found that S+OCS patients (n=15) showed significantly lower scores on the Hamilton Anxiety Scale (HAMA), but similar levels of compulsions and obsessions using Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (YBOCS) as compared to the patients (n=35) with OCD. S+OCS patients scored significantly lower on the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) but higher on the Hamilton Depression Scale (HAMD) compared with S-OCS patients (n=19). However, CLZ+OCS patients (n=15) suffered from dominant compulsions but fewer obsessions compared with the OCD and S+OCS patients. OCD, S+OCS and CLZ+OCS groups had significantly lower levels of whole blood 5-HT than did the healthy volunteers (n=15), S-OCS and CLZ-OCS groups. It suggests that alterations in serotonin metabolism may be a common biological characteristic of OCS in OCD as well as in schizophrenia. PMID:17291595

Ma, Ning; Tan, Li-wen; Wang, Qiang; Li, Ze-xuan; Li, Ling-jiang

2007-02-28

22

Memory bias in obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD)  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a memory bias associated with depression, and good reason to expect a memory bias associated with anxiety. However, the results of studies reported to date have been ambiguous. Accordingly, an experiment was conducted to assess memory for contamination in people with different types of anxiety.Memory for contaminated stimuli among participants who met DSM-IV criteria for obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD)

Adam S Radomsky; S Rachman

1999-01-01

23

Aripiprazole Improved Obsessive Compulsive Symptoms in Asperger's Disorder.  

PubMed

There are many comorbid disorders associated with autism spectrum disorders in child and adolescent population. Although obsessive compulsive disorder and autism spectrum disorders (ASD) comorbidity has common in clinical practice, there are few reports about psychopharmacological treatment for obsessive compulsive symptoms in children with ASD in the literacy. We report a successful treatment case with aripiprazole in Asperger's Disorder with obsessive compulsive symptoms. The Yale Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale was performed to assess symptom variety. This case report supports the effectiveness of aripiprazole in treatment of obsessive compulsive symptoms in Asperger's Disorder or ASDs. Aripiprazole may be beneficial to obsessive compulsive disorder comorbid autism spectrum disorders in child and adolescent age group. PMID:23429759

Celik, Gonca; Tahiroglu, Aysegul Yolga; Firat, Sunay; Avci, Ay?e

2011-12-01

24

Technology and Obsessive Compulsive Disorder: An Interactive Self-Help Website for OCD  

Microsoft Academic Search

Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) is a neurobiological illness characterized by unwanted thoughts and\\/or images followed by repetitive rituals. About 5 million Americans live with Obsessive Compulsive Disorder. OCD is a manageable illness when proper interventions are utilized. Treatment for OCD is limited due to the lack of adequately trained professionals and the high costs of treatment. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT)

Elizabeth McIngvale; Christine Bakos-Block; John Hart; Patrick S. Bordnick

2012-01-01

25

Obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) with schizotypy vs. schizophrenia with OCD: diagnostic dilemmas and therapeutic implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although schizophrenia and obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) are distinct diagnostic entities, there are substantial areas of overlap between the two disorders in clinical characteristics, affected brain areas and pharmacotherapy. Though OCD patients apparently do not have increased risk for developing schizophrenia, schizotypal personality disorder has consistently been found in OCD patients. Compelling evidence also points to an increased rate of OCD

M. Poyurovsky; L. M. Koran

2005-01-01

26

A critical evaluation of obsessive–compulsive disorder subtypes: Symptoms versus mechanisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, experts have suggested that obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD), a highly heterogeneous condition, is actually composed of distinct subtypes. Research to identify specific subtypes of OCD has focused primarily on symptom presentation. Subtype models have been proposed using factor analyses that yield dimensional systems of symptom categories, but not necessarily distinct subtypes. Other empirical work has considered the role of neuropsychological

Dean McKay; Jonathan S. Abramowitz; John E. Calamari; Michael Kyrios; Adam Radomsky; Debbie Sookman; Steven Taylor; Sabine Wilhelm

2004-01-01

27

Symptom structure in obsessive-compulsive disorder: a confirmatory factor-analytic study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has long been a unitary diagnosis, there is much recent interest in its potential heterogeneity, as manifested by symptom subgroups. This study evaluated existing models of symptom structure in a sample of 203 individuals with OCD. Using confirmatory factor analysis, we examined the ability of each model to account for two levels of data: a priori

Laura J Summerfeldt; Margaret A Richter; Martin M Antony; Richard P Swinson

1999-01-01

28

Measuring Change in OCD: Sensitivity of the Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory-Revised  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the sensitivity to change and specificity of response of the Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory-Revised (OCI-R), an 18-item self-report measure of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) severity. Seventy-seven OCD patients received cognitive-behavioral therapy incorporating exposure and response prevention (ERP). Change from pre- to posttest on the OCI-R was compared to changes as assessed by the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS) and other

Jonathan S. Abramowitz; David F. Tolin; Gretchen J. Diefenbach

2005-01-01

29

Obsessional Beliefs and Symptoms of Obsessive–Compulsive Disorder in a Clinical Sample  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationships among a broad range of obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD)\\u000a symptoms and obsessional beliefs in a clinical sample of OCD patients. Ninety-nine treatment-seeking adult OCD patients completed\\u000a the Obsessive Beliefs Questionnaire and the Obsessive–Compulsive Inventory-Revised. Hierarchical regression analyses, controlling\\u000a for comorbid symptoms, suggested that washing was predicted by responsibility\\/threat estimation beliefs.

David F. Tolin; Robert E. Brady; Scott Hannan

2008-01-01

30

Postpartum Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD)  

MedlinePLUS

Frequently Asked Questions Depression During Pregnancy & Postpartum Anxiety During Pregnancy & Postpartum Pregnancy or Postpartum OCD Postpartum Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Bipolar Mood Disorders Postpartum Psychosis Useful ...

31

In clinical samples, tics, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder  

E-print Network

In clinical samples, tics, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and attention-deficit/hyperactivity- Prospective, Longitudinal Study of Tic, Obsessive- Compulsive, and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorders (OCD), and attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been complicated by studying only cross

32

Obsessive–compulsive personality traits: How are they related to OCD severity?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous research has demonstrated that comorbid obsessive–compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) in patients with obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) is associated with greater overall OCD severity, functional impairment, and poorer treatment outcomes (Coles et al., 2008; Lochner et al., 2010; Pinto, 2009). However, research has only examined the effects of OCPD categorically and has yet to thoroughly examine the impact of individual OCPD

Chad T. Wetterneck; Tannah E. Little; Gregory S. Chasson; Angela H. Smith; John M. Hart; Melinda A. Stanley; Thröstur Björgvinsson

2011-01-01

33

Four-Factor Structure of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Symptoms in Children, Adolescents, and Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study was conducted to establish the efficacy of four-factor obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) symptom structure for use in child, adolescent and adult groups. Results indicated that the four-factor OCD structure is inadequate for use in children, adolescent and adult age groups.

Stewart, S. Evelyn; Rosario, Maria C.; Baer, Lee; Carter, Alice S.; Brown, Timothy A.; Scharf, Jeremiah M.; Illmann, Cornelia; Leckman, James F.; Sukhodolsky, Denis; Katsovich, Lilya; Rasmussen, Steven; Goodman, Wayne; Delorme, Richard; Leboyer, Marion; Chabane, Nadia; Jenike, Michael A.; Geller, Daniel A.; Pauls, David L.

2008-01-01

34

Relationship of Exposure to Clinically Irrelevant Emotion Cues and Obsessive-Compulsive Symptoms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research has highlighted the role of emotion regulation as a common factor underlying emotional disorders. The current study examined the relationship of emotion regulation skills to obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) symptoms. Seven participants with a principal diagnosis of OCD in a multiple-baseline across subjects design were taught the skill…

Allen, Laura B.; Barlow, David H.

2009-01-01

35

General and Maladaptive Personality Dimensions in Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Symptoms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a chronic and impairing clinical disorder in childhood, often characterized by a heterogeneous symptomatic profile and high co-occurrence with other disorders. The present study introduces a new perspective on the description of OCD symptoms in youth, and empirically examines the value of a personality…

Aelterman, Nathalie; De Clercq, Barbara; De Bolle, Marleen; De Fruyt, Filip

2011-01-01

36

Symptom Presentation and Outcome of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous researchers have classified obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) patients by the themes of their obsessions and compulsions (e.g., washing, checking); however, mental compulsions have not been adequately assessed in these studies. The authors conducted 2 studies using a large sample of OCD patients (N = 132). In the 1st study, they categorized patients on the basis of symptom presentation, giving adequate

Jonathan S. Abramowitz; Martin E. Franklin; Stefanie A. Schwartz; Jami M. Furr

2003-01-01

37

Peer Victimization in Children with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: Relations with Symptoms of Psychopathology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the frequency of peer victimization and psychological symptom correlates among youth with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The Schwartz Peer Victimization Scale, Children's Depression Inventory, and Asher Loneliness Scale were administered to 52 children and adolescents diagnosed with OCD. The child's parent or guardian…

Storch, Eric A.; Ledley, Deborah Roth; Lewin, Adam B.; Murphy, Tanya K.; Johns, Natalie B.; Goodman, Wayne K.; Geffken, Gary R.

2006-01-01

38

Obsessive-compulsive-spectrum symptoms in patients with focal dystonia, hemifacial spasm, and healthy subjects.  

PubMed

This study is aimed at investigating obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) in three groups of patients matched for age and gender; namely, focal dystonia (FD), hemifacial spasm (HFS), and healthy-control subjects (HC). All subjects were investigated with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-I, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, the Symptom Checklist-90, the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale, and the Structured Clinical Interview for Obsessive-Compulsive Spectrum Self-Report, Lifetime Version (SCI-OBS-SR-LT). The prevalence of OCD was significantly higher in both FD and HFS than in HC participants. On the SCI-OBS, HFS patients showed higher scores than FD or HC for "contamination" and "aggressiveness." Despite the different pathophysiology, OCD is highly represented in both FD and HFS, with different thematic content characterizing the two conditions. PMID:22450617

Mula, Marco; Strigaro, Gionata; Marotta, Antonella E; Ruggerone, Simona; Tribolo, Antonella; Monaco, Roberto; Cantello, Francesco

2012-01-01

39

History of trauma and dissociative symptoms among patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder and social anxiety disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

We aimed to compare the history of trauma and the profile and severity of dissociative symptoms of patients with obsessive-compulsive\\u000a disorder (OCD) to those of patients with social anxiety disorder (SAD). Patients with OCD (n = 34) and patients with SAD (n = 30) were examined with the following instruments: Trauma History Questionnaire (THQ), Dissociative Experience Scale (DES),\\u000a Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory (OCI), Liebowitz Social Anxiety

Leonardo F. Fontenelle; Aline M. Domingues; Wanderson F. Souza; Mauro V. Mendlowicz; Gabriela B. de Menezes; Ivan L. Figueira; Marcio Versiani

2007-01-01

40

Obsessive-compulsive personality traits: how are they related to OCD severity?  

PubMed

Previous research has demonstrated that comorbid obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is associated with greater overall OCD severity, functional impairment, and poorer treatment outcomes (Coles et al., 2008; Lochner et al., 2010; Pinto, 2009). However, research has only examined the effects of OCPD categorically and has yet to thoroughly examine the impact of individual OCPD characteristics dimensionally. Thus, the present study sought to investigate the relationships between various OCPD-related dimensions (e.g., perfectionism, rigidity) and OCD symptomology and severity. The study recruited a sample of OCD patients (n=51) in the OCD units of two residential treatment facilities. Findings yielded significant relationships between OCD severity and the following OCPD dimensions: flexibility, doubts about actions (a dimension of perfectionism), and hoarding. Interpretations of these results and the implications for diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment outcome are discussed. Furthermore, the current study provides insight into a unique perspective which leaves room for more symptom overlap and variability between OCD and OCPD. PMID:21798711

Wetterneck, Chad T; Little, Tannah E; Chasson, Gregory S; Smith, Angela H; Hart, John M; Stanley, Melinda A; Björgvinsson, Thröstur

2011-12-01

41

Revision of the Padua Inventory of obsessive compulsive disorder symptoms: Distinctions between worry, obsessions, and compulsions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Padua Inventory (PI), a self-report measure of obsessive and compulsive symptoms, is increasingly used in obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) research. Freeston, Ladouceur, Rheaume, Letarte, Gagnon and Thibodeau (1994) [Behaviour Research and Therapy, 32, 29–36], however, recently showed that the PI measures worry in addition to obsessions. In an attempt to solve this measurement problem, this study used a content

G. Leonard Burns; Susan G. Keortge; Gina M. Formea; Lee G. Sternberger

1996-01-01

42

Obsessive–compulsive disorder subgroups: a symptom-based clustering approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) is often considered a heterogeneous condition, there is no generally accepted subtype typology. Cluster analysis was used to identify definitive symptom-based groupings of 106 OCD patients. A stable cluster solution was achieved and five patient subgroups were identified based on their pattern of symptoms on the Yale-Brown (Y-BOCS) symptom checklist: harming, hoarding, contamination, certainty and obsessionals.

John E Calamari; Pamela S Wiegartz; Amy S Janeck

1999-01-01

43

Predicting Changes in Obsessive Compulsive Symptoms Over a Six-Month Follow-Up: A Prospective Test of Cognitive Models of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cognitive models of obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) propose that OCD-related beliefs (e.g., inflated responsibility) and\\u000a negative life events should predict changes in OC symptoms over time (Rachman, 1997, Behaviour Research and Therapy, 35, 793–802; Rachman, 1998, Behaviour Research and Therapy, 36, 385–401; Rachman, 2002, Behaviour Research and Therapy, 40, 625–639; Salkovskis, 1985, Behaviour Research and Therapy, 23, 571–583; Salkovskis &

Meredith E. Coles; Ashley S. Pietrefesa; Casey A. Schofield; Laura M. Cook

2008-01-01

44

Test Review: C. R. Reynolds and B. Livingston "CMOCS--Children's Measure of Obsessive-Compulsive Symptoms." Los Angeles, CA: Western Psychological Services, 2010  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents a review of the Children's Measure of Obsessive-Compulsive Symptoms (CMOCS), a self-report screening measure of obsessive and compulsive thoughts and behaviors in children and adolescents aged 8 through 19 years. Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is estimated to affect 1% to 3% of the population over their lifetime. The…

Lund, Emily M.; Dennison, Andrea; Ewing, Heidi K.; de Carvalho, Catharina F.

2011-01-01

45

Memory bias in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD).  

PubMed

There is a memory bias associated with depression, and good reason to expect a memory bias associated with anxiety. However, the results of studies reported to date have been ambiguous. Accordingly, an experiment was conducted to assess memory for contamination in people with different types of anxiety. Memory for contaminated stimuli among participants who met DSM-IV criteria for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and indicated a fear of contamination (n = 10) was compared to memory in a group of anxious controls (n = 10), and in undergraduate students (n = 20). Participants were shown 50 objects, 25 of which were contaminated by the experimenter and 25 which were touched but not contaminated. They then completed a neuropsychological memory assessment, after which the participants were asked to recall all of the objects touched by the experimenter. They were then asked to approach each object and to rate their anxiety about touching it. Finally, participants were asked about their perceptions of the cleanliness of each object. The OCD group had better memory for contaminated objects than for clean ones. Neither control group showed such a bias. Neuropsychological test scores indicated that this bias is not the result of differences in general memory ability. The results are discussed in terms of the memory-deficit theory of OCD and of behavioural and cognitive approaches to understanding the role of information processing in fear and anxiety. PMID:10402686

Radomsky, A S; Rachman, S

1999-07-01

46

Symptom dimensions in obsessive-compulsive disorder: from normal cognitive intrusions to clinical obsessions.  

PubMed

Cognitive behavioral models of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) assume continuity between normal obsessional intrusive thoughts (OITs) and obsessions. However, this assumption has recently been criticized. This article examines this issue using a new instrument (the Obsessional Intrusive Thoughts Inventory, INPIOS) specifically designed to assess the frequency and content of 48 OITs, which was completed by 734 community subjects and 55 OCD patients. Confirmatory factor analysis suggests six first-order factors included in two second-order factors, one containing aggressive, sexual, religious, immoral and repugnant OITs, and the other containing contamination, doubts and checking, symmetry and order, and superstition OITs. This structure integrates the research on OC symptoms and OITs. The INPIOS showed excellent known-groups validity, and it adequately represented obsessions as well as OITs. OCD and community subjects experience OITs representative of all types of obsessional contents. The dimensional structure is discussed in terms of OIT/obsessive-compulsive symptom structures currently proposed. PMID:21163617

García-Soriano, Gemma; Belloch, Amparo; Morillo, Carmen; Clark, David A

2011-05-01

47

Obsessive-Compulsive Spectrum Disorder Symptoms in College Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: This study investigated the occurrence of obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorders (OCSDs) and associated symptomology in college students. Participants: Participants included 358 undergraduate students. Results: Results suggest that clinically significant levels of OCSD symptoms are relatively common. Additionally, OCSD symptoms

Sulkowski, Michael L.; Mariaskin, Amy; Storch, Eric A.

2011-01-01

48

Error-Related Hyperactivity of the Anterior Cingulate Cortex in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder  

E-print Network

Error-Related Hyperactivity of the Anterior Cingulate Cortex in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Kate) in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has been shown to increase with symptom provocation of symptom expression in patients with OCD. Key Words: Obsessive-compulsive disorder, anterior cingulate, er

Gehring, William J.

49

Mood, personality disorder symptoms and disability in obsessive compulsive hoarders: a comparison with clinical and nonclinical controls.  

PubMed

Hoarding is a symptom of obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), as well as a diagnostic criterion for obsessive compulsive personality disorder (OCPD). One recent study suggests that people who suffer from compulsive hoarding report more general psychopathology than people who do not [Frost, R.O., Krause, M.S., & Steketee, G. (1996). Hoarding and obsessive compulsive symptoms. Behavior Modification, 20, 116-132]. The present study addressed whether persons with OCD hoarding exhibit more depression, anxiety, OCD and personality disorders symptoms than community controls, OCD nonhoarders, or other anxiety disorder patients. Disability was also examined. Hoarding subjects were older than the other three groups, but age did not account for any of the differences observed among the groups. Compared to controls, OCD hoarding, nonhoarding OCD and anxiety disorder patients showed elevated YBOCS scores, as well as higher scores on depression, anxiety, family and social disability. Compared to nonhoarding OCD and anxiety disorder patients, OCD hoarding patients scored higher on anxiety, depression, family and social disability. Hoarding subjects had greater personality disorder symptoms than controls. However, OCD hoarding subjects differed from OCD nonhoarding and anxiety disorder subjects only on dependent and schizotypal personality disorder symptoms. The findings suggest that hoarding is associated with significant comorbidity and impairment compared to nonhoarding OCD and other anxiety disorders. PMID:11060936

Frost, R O; Steketee, G; Williams, L F; Warren, R

2000-11-01

50

Meta-Analysis: Hoarding Symptoms Associated with Poor Treatment Outcome in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder  

PubMed Central

DSM-5 recognizes Hoarding Disorder as distinct from Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD), codifying a new consensus. Hoarding Disorder was previously classified as a symptom of OCD and patients received treatments designed for OCD. We conducted a meta-analysis to determine whether OCD patients with hoarding symptoms responded differently to traditional OCD treatments than OCD patients without hoarding symptoms. An electronic search was conducted for eligible studies in PubMed. A trial was eligible for inclusion if it was (1) a randomized controlled trial, cohort or case-control study; (2) compared treatment response between OCD patients with and without hoarding symptoms, or examined response to treatment between OCD symptom dimensions (which typically include hoarding) and (3) examined treatment response to pharmacotherapy, behavioral therapy, or their combination. Our primary outcome was differential treatment response between OCD patients with and without hoarding, expressed as an odds ratio. Twenty-one studies involving 3039 total participants including 304 with hoarding symptoms were included. Patients with OCD and hoarding symptoms were significantly less likely to respond to traditional OCD treatments than OCD patients without hoarding symptoms (OR=0.50 (95%CI: 0.42–0.60), z=?7.5, p<0.0001). This finding was consistent across treatment modalities. OCD patients with hoarding symptoms represent a population in need of further treatment research. OCD patients with hoarding symptoms may benefit more from interventions specifically targeting their hoarding symptoms. PMID:24912494

Bloch, Michael H.; Bartley, Christine A.; Zipperer, Lara; Jakubovski, Ewgeni; Landeros-Weisenberger, Angeli; Pittenger, Christopher; Leckman, James F.

2014-01-01

51

Dissociative symptoms and dissociative disorder comorbidity in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder.  

PubMed

The present study attempted to assess the dissociative symptoms and overall dissociative disorder comorbidity in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). In addition, we examined the relationship between the severity of obsessive-compulsive symptoms and dissociative symptoms. All patients admitted for the first time to the psychiatric outpatient unit were included in the study. Seventy-eight patients had been diagnosed as having OCD during the 2-year study period. Patients had to meet the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition criteria for OCD. Most (76.9%; n = 60) of the patients were female, and 23.1% (n = 18) of the patients were male. Dissociation Questionnaire was used to measure dissociative symptoms. The Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition Dissociative Disorders interviews and Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Checklist and Severity Scale were used. Eleven (14%) of the patients with OCD had comorbid dissociative disorder. The most prevalent disorder in our study was dissociative depersonalization disorder. Dissociative amnesia and dissociative identity disorder were common as well. The mean Yale-Brown score was 23.37 ± 7.27 points. Dissociation Questionnaire scores were between 0.40 and 3.87 points, and the mean was 2.23 ± 0.76 points. There was a statistically significant positive correlation between Yale-Brown points and Dissociation Questionnaire points. We conclude that dissociative symptoms among patients with OCD should alert clinicians for the presence of a chronic and complex dissociative disorder. Clinicians may overlook an underlying dissociative process in patients who have severe symptoms of OCD. However, a lack of adequate response to cognitive-behavioral and drug therapy may be a consequence of dissociative process. PMID:22425531

Belli, Hasan; Ural, Cenk; Vardar, Melek Kanarya; Yes?lyurt, Sema; Oncu, Fat?h

2012-10-01

52

Olanzapine augmentation of fluvoxamine-refractory obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD): a 12-week open trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

A few studies have tried antipsychotic augmentation in obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) patients who are non-responders to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy and tolerability of olanzapine addition to fluvoxamine-refractory OCD patients and to assess if a comorbid chronic tic disorder or a concomitant schizotypal personality disorder was associated with response. Twenty-three OCD

Filippo Bogetto; Silvio Bellino; Patrizia Vaschetto; Simona Ziero

2000-01-01

53

Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) 12-month Prevalence: 1.0% of U.S. adult  

E-print Network

Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) Prevalence · 12-month Prevalence: 1.0% of U.S. adult population, and comorbidity of twelve-month DSM-IV disorders in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication (NCS-R). Archives. Lifetime prevalence and age-of-onset distributions of DSM-IV disorders in the National Comorbidity Survey

Baker, Chris I.

54

No Evidence for Object Alternation Impairment in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent neuroimaging studies have consistently ascribed the orbito-frontal cortex (OFC) a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Cognitive tests presumed sensitive to this region, such as the Object Alternation Task (OAT), are considered important tools to verify this assumption and to investigate the impact of…

Moritz, Steffen; Jelinek, Lena; Hottenrott, Birgit; Klinge, Ruth; Randjbar, Sarah

2009-01-01

55

Association between Protestant religiosity and obsessive-compulsive symptoms and cognitions.  

PubMed

There is evidence that religion and other cultural influences are associated with the presentation of obsessive-compulsive symptoms, as well as beliefs and assumptions presumed to underlie the development and maintenance of these symptoms. We sought to further examine the relationship between Protestant religiosity and (1) various symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) (e.g., checking, washing) and (2) OCD-related cognitions. Using self-report questionnaires, we compared differences in these OCD-related phenomena between highly religious Protestants, moderately religious Protestants, and atheist/agnostic participants drawn from an undergraduate sample. Highly religious versus moderately religious Protestants reported greater obsessional symptoms, compulsive washing, and beliefs about the importance of thoughts. Additionally, the highly religious evinced more obsessional symptoms, compulsive washing, intolerance for uncertainty, need to control thoughts, beliefs about the importance of thoughts, and inflated responsibility, compared to atheists/agnostics. Results are discussed in terms of the relationship between religion and OCD symptoms in the context of the cognitive-behavioral conceptualization of OCD. PMID:15390213

Abramowitz, Jonathan S; Deacon, Brett J; Woods, Carol M; Tolin, David F

2004-01-01

56

Clinical and Cognitive Correlates of Depressive Symptoms among Youth with Obsessive Compulsive Disorder  

PubMed Central

Depression is the most common comorbidity among adults with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), yet little is known about depressive symptoms in childhood OCD. This study examined clinical and cognitive variables associated with depressive symptomatology in 71 youths (62% male, mean age= 12.7 years) with primary OCD. Youths presented with a range of depressive symptoms, with 21% scoring at or above the clinical cutoff on the self-report measure of depression. Higher levels of depressive symptoms were associated with higher levels of cognitive distortions assessed on measures of insight, perceived control, competence, and contingencies. Depressive symptoms were also linked to older age and more severe OCD. Low perceived control and self-competence and high OCD severity independently predicted depression scores. PMID:20706915

Peris, Tara S.; Bergman, R. Lindsey; Asarnow, Joan R.; Langley, Audra; McCracken, James T.; Piacentini, John

2010-01-01

57

Sudden Gains in the Treatment of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The present study examined sudden gains during treatment for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and their relationship to short- and long-term outcome. Methods: Ninety-one individuals (age 19–64) completed either cognitive treatment, exposure treatment, or their combination with fluvoxamine for OCD. Participants’ obsessive-compulsive symptoms were assessed before each weekly treatment session. In addition, obsessive-compulsive and depressive symptoms were assessed pre treatment and

Idan M. Aderka; Gideon E. Anholt; Johannes H. Smit; Haggai Hermesh; Patricia van Oppen

2012-01-01

58

American Journal of Medical Genetics Part B (Neuropsychiatric Genetics) 116B:6068 (2003) Obsessive-Compulsive Symptom Dimensions in  

E-print Network

, The Netherlands Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is an etiologically heterogeneous disorder. Recent factor. KEY WORDS: Gilles de la Tourette synd- rome; obsessive-compulsive disorder; quantitative traitsAmerican Journal of Medical Genetics Part B (Neuropsychiatric Genetics) 116B:60­68 (2003) Obsessive-Compulsive

Kidd, Kenneth

2003-01-01

59

Children’s Florida Obsessive Compulsive Inventory: Psychometric Properties and Feasibility of a Self-Report Measure of Obsessive–Compulsive Symptoms in Youth  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report describes the development and psychometric properties of the Children’s Florida Obsessive Compulsive Inventory\\u000a (C-FOCI). Designed specifically as a brief measure for assessing obsessive–compulsive symptoms, the C-FOCI was created for\\u000a use in both clinical and community settings. Study 1 included 82 children and adolescents diagnosed with primary Obsessive–Compulsive\\u000a Disorder, and their parents. The Children’s Yale-Brown Obsessive–Compulsive Scale (CY-BOCS) was

Eric A. Storch; Muniya Khanna; Lisa J. Merlo; Benjamin A. Loew; Martin Franklin; Jeannette M. Reid; Wayne K. Goodman; Tanya K. Murphy

2009-01-01

60

Thought-Focused Attention and Obsessive–Compulsive Symptoms: An Evaluation of Cognitive Self-Consciousness in a Nonclinical Sample  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cognitive self-consciousness (CSC), the tendency to focus attention on and be aware of one's thoughts, has differentiated individuals with obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) from individuals with other anxiety disorders and from normal controls. A self-report measure of CSC was administered to a nonclinical sample (N = 323) and the relationship to OCD symptoms and intrusive thought appraisals was evaluated. Evaluation of

Robyn J. Cohen; John E. Calamari

2004-01-01

61

Overactive performance monitoring in obsessive-compulsive disorder is independent of symptom expression.  

PubMed

Overactive performance monitoring has been consistently reported in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). OCD is a clinically heterogeneous disorder and is characterized by several symptom dimensions that may have partially distinct neural correlates. We examined whether performance-monitoring alterations are related to symptom severity and symptom dimensions. Electrocortical correlates of performance monitoring were assessed in 72 OCD patients and 72 matched healthy comparison participants during a flanker task. Amplitudes of the error- and correct-related negativity as well as delta and theta power were used to quantify performance-monitoring activity, and a composite measure was derived using factor analysis. Symptom dimension scores were obtained from the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale symptom checklist. OCD patients showed increased electrocortical responses associated with correct and erroneous responses compared to healthy comparison participants. In patients, no correlations were obtained between performance monitoring and global symptom severity as well as lifetime symptom dimension scores. Only a statistical trend was found that higher symmetry/hoarding scores were associated with reduced performance-monitoring activity. For present symptom dimensions scores, an association with rituals/superstitious symptoms was obtained such that higher scores were associated with greater performance-monitoring activity. However, for both dimensions, subjects with low scores or high scores on each dimension were characterized by overactive performance monitoring compared to healthy controls. Overactive brain processes during performance monitoring are a neural correlate of OCD that is independent of global symptom severity and can be observed for all symptom dimensions. This supports the notion of overactive performance monitoring being a candidate endophenotype for OCD. PMID:24676800

Riesel, Anja; Kathmann, Norbert; Endrass, Tanja

2014-12-01

62

Case Series: Transformation Obsession in Young People With Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents a previously unreported symptom of obsessive-compulsive disorder. The young people reported describe a fear of turning into someone or something else or taking on unwanted characteristics. We have called this transformation obsession. The bizarre nature of this obsession had led to misdiagnosis and inappropriate treatments in a number of these patients. Recognition of this symptom as an

ISOBEL HEYMAN

2007-01-01

63

Aberrant error processing in relation to symptom severity in obsessivecompulsive disorder: A multimodal neuroimaging study  

E-print Network

Aberrant error processing in relation to symptom severity in obsessive­compulsive disorder neuroimaging Background: Obsessive­compulsive disorder (OCD) is characterized by maladaptive repetitive Obsessive­compulsive disorder (OCD) is characterized by stereo- typed and repetitive behaviors that persist

Manoach, Dara S.

64

Children' Florida Obsessive Compulsive Inventory: Psychometric Properties and Feasibility of a Self-Report Measure of Obsessive-Compulsive Symptoms in Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report describes the development and psychometric properties of the Children's Florida Obsessive Compulsive Inventory (C-FOCI). Designed specifically as a brief measure for assessing obsessive-compulsive symptoms, the C-FOCI was created for use in both clinical and community settings. Study 1 included 82 children and adolescents diagnosed…

Storch, Eric A.; Khanna, Muniya; Merlo, Lisa J.; Loew, Benjamin A.; Franklin, Martin; Reid, Jeannette M.; Goodman, Wayne K.; Murphy, Tanya K.

2009-01-01

65

Reduced serotonin transporter–availability in obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the availability of brain serotonin transporters in 10 drug–free patients with obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) and age–matched healthy controls in vivo using single–photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and the radioligand [ 123I]–2?–carbomethoxy–3?–(4–idiophenyl)-tropane ([ 123I]?–CIT). For quantification of regional serotonin transporter a ratio of specific to non–specific [ 123I]?–CIT–binding was used. The availability of serotonin transporter was calculated using regions

Katarina Stengler-Wenzke; Ulrich Müller; Matthias C. Angermeyer; Osama Sabri; Swen Hesse

2004-01-01

66

Understanding Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder in Students: Symptoms and School-Based Interventions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article provides current information relevant to school social workers who serve students with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), including how OCD is defined in children and adolescents, the impact of OCD on schooling, issues in identifying students with OCD, and effective interventions. The authors offer suggestions for collaboration…

Dyches, Tina Taylor; Leininger, Melissa; Heath, Melissa Allen; Prater, Mary Anne

2010-01-01

67

Decreased Hepatocyte Growth Factor (HGF) and Gamma Aminobutyric Acid (GABA) in Individuals with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD)  

PubMed Central

Introduction There is support for the role of gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the etiology of mood disorders. Recent research has shown that hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) modulates GABAergic inhibition and seizure susceptibility. This study was designed to determine and correlate plasma levels of HGF and GABA as well as symptom severity in individuals with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Subjects and methods Plasma from 15 individuals with OCD (9 males, 6 females;, mean age 38.7 years) and 17 neurotypical controls (10 males, 7 females; mean age 35.2 years) was assessed for HGF, GABA, urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA), and urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) concentration using enzyme-linked immunosorbest assays ELISAs. Symptom severity was assessed in these OCD individuals and compared with HGF and GABA concentrations. Results In this preliminary study, individuals with OCD had significantly decreased HGF levels, decreased plasma levels of GABA and decreased uPA. We found that both uPA and uPAR levels correlate with HGF. Both low uPA and low uPAR levels correlate with high symptom severity in individuals with OCD. Low GABA levels in OCD individuals also correlate with high symptom severity. Discussion These results demonstrate a preliminary association between HGF, GABA, uPA levels, and OCD and suggest that plasma GABA and uPA levels are related to symptom severity in individuals with OCD. PMID:24023510

Russo, Anthony J.; Pietsch, Stefanie C.

2013-01-01

68

Case Series: Transformation Obsession in Young People with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents a previously unreported symptom of obsessive-compulsive disorder. The young people reported describe a fear of turning into someone or something else or taking on unwanted characteristics. We have called this transformation obsession. The bizarre nature of this obsession had led to misdiagnosis and inappropriate treatments in…

Volz, Chloe; Heyman, Isobel

2007-01-01

69

Decision making and set shifting impairments are associated with distinct symptom dimensions in obsessive-compulsive disorder.  

PubMed

Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is clinically heterogeneous. The authors examined how specific OCD symptom dimensions were related to neuropsychological functions using multiple regression analyses. A total of 39 OCD patients and 40 controls completed the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT; A. Bechara, A. R. Damasio, H. Damasio, & S. W. Anderson, 1994), which is a test of decision making, and the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (R. K. Heaton, 1981), which is a test of set shifting. OCD patients and controls showed comparable decision making. However, patients with prominent hoarding symptoms showed impaired decision making on the IGT as well as reduced skin conductance responses. OCD patients had poorer set shifting abilities than controls, and symmetry/ordering symptoms were negatively associated with set shifting. These results help explain previous inconsistent findings in neuropsychological research in OCD and support recent neuroimaging data showing dissociable neural mechanisms involved in mediating the different OCD symptom dimensions. PMID:16846259

Lawrence, Natalia S; Wooderson, Sarah; Mataix-Cols, David; David, Rhodri; Speckens, Anne; Phillips, Mary L

2006-07-01

70

Dissociative symptoms and dissociative disorders comorbidity in obsessive compulsive disorder: Symptom screening, diagnostic tools and reflections on treatment  

PubMed Central

Borderline personality disorder, conversion disorder and obsessive compulsive disorder frequently have dissociative symptoms. The literature has demonstrated that the level of dissociation might be correlated with the severity of obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) and that those not responding to treatment had high dissociative symptoms. The structured clinical interview for DSM-IV dissociative disorders, dissociation questionnaire, somatoform dissociation questionnaire and dissociative experiences scale can be used for screening dissociative symptoms and detecting dissociative disorders in patients with OCD. However, a history of neglect and abuse during childhood is linked to a risk factor in the pathogenesis of dissociative psychopathology in adults. The childhood trauma questionnaire-53 and childhood trauma questionnaire-40 can be used for this purpose. Clinicians should not fail to notice the hidden dissociative symptoms and childhood traumatic experiences in OCD cases with severe symptoms that are resistant to treatment. Symptom screening and diagnostic tools used for this purpose should be known. Knowing how to treat these pathologies in patients who are diagnosed with OCD can be crucial. PMID:25133142

Belli, Hasan

2014-01-01

71

Source Memory in Individuals with Subclinical Obsessive-Compulsive Symptoms  

E-print Network

Patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder often complain of poor memory and results of neuropsychological research have demonstrated impairments, particularly on tasks involving strategic processing. Past research has ...

Olson, Christy Ann

2009-03-30

72

Effects of obsessive-compulsive symptoms on neuropsychological test performance: complicating an already complicated story.  

PubMed

Theoretical models of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) implicate neurocognitive dysfunction, particularly deficits in nonverbal memory and executive functioning, in the pathogenesis of the disorder. The opposite hypothesis (poor performance in neuropsychological test as an epiphenomenon of OCD symptoms) has rarely been contemplated although checking behavior, obsessional doubt, lack of motivation, and slowness as well as preoccupation with touching objects may result in secondary test impairment and mimic manifestations of neural dysfunction. A total of 60 patients with OCD and 30 healthy controls were tested with a multi-functional neuropsychological battery. At the end of the testing participants were asked about their effort and the severity of OCD symptoms during task execution. Up to one fourth of the OCD patients affirmed OCD-related worries and motivational problems during task execution. Poor motivation and checking were significantly associated with enhanced objective performance deficits. Whereas the present study does not negate a role of neurocognitive deficits in the formation of OCD, in our view the reverse relationship should be contemplated as well. We advise researchers to pay closer attention to possible confounds that may mediate the relationship between OCD and neurocognition. Limitations of the study are discussed. PMID:22166079

Moritz, Steffen; Hottenrott, Birgit; Jelinek, Lena; Brooks, Amanda M; Scheurich, Armin

2012-01-01

73

Autism and ADHD Symptoms in Patients with OCD: Are They Associated with Specific OC Symptom Dimensions or OC Symptom Severity?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), the relationship between autism spectrum disorders (ASD), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptom, and obsessive-compulsive (OC) symptom dimensions and severity has scarcely been studied. Therefore, 109 adult outpatients with primary OCD were compared to 87 healthy controls on OC, ADHD and…

Anholt, Gideon E.; Cath, Danielle C.; van Oppen, Patricia; Eikelenboom, Merijn; Smit, Johannes H.; van Megen, Harold; van Balkom, Anton J. L. M.

2010-01-01

74

Associations of obsessive-compulsive symptoms with clinical and neurocognitive features in schizophrenia according to stage of illness.  

PubMed

This study aimed to investigate the association of obsessive-compulsive symptoms with clinical and neurocognitive features in patients with schizophrenia. This study enrolled 163 people with schizophrenia who were receiving risperidone monotherapy. Comorbid obsessive-compulsive symptoms were assessed using the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale, and subjects with a score?10 constituted the obsessive-compulsive symptom group (n=30, 18.4%). The learning index was significantly higher in patients with obsessive-compulsive symptoms than in those without such symptoms after adjusting for age, stage (early and chronic), duration of illness, and CDSS score. However, there was no significant interaction between obsessive-compulsive symptoms and stage of illness. Scores on Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia, and Beck Depression Inventory were significantly higher in the obsessive-compulsive symptom group. In addition, the Subjective Well-being under Neuroleptic Treatment score was significantly lower in the obsessive-compulsive symptom group. In conclusion, comorbid obsessive-compulsive symptoms in patients with schizophrenia were associated with a higher learning ability without a significant interaction with stage of illness. However, schizophrenia patients with obsessive-compulsive symptoms had more severe psychotic and depressive symptoms and poorer quality of life. PMID:25681006

Kim, Sung-Wan; Jeong, Bo-Ok; Kim, Jae-Min; Shin, Il-Seon; Hwang, Michael Y; Paul Amminger, G; Nelson, Barnaby; Berk, Michael; McGorry, Patrick; Yoon, Jin-Sang

2015-03-30

75

Neural correlates of clinical symptoms and cognitive dysfunctions in obsessive–compulsive disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although results from neuropsychological and neuroimaging studies have postulated the involvement of the frontal lobe and the subcortical brain regions in the pathophysiology of obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD), neuroimaging studies have provided little evidence that cognitive abnormalities in patients with OCD are related to dysfunctions in these areas. This study was designed to determine whether the clinical features and cognitive deficits

Jun Soo Kwon; Jae-Jin Kim; Dong Woo Lee; Jae Sung Lee; Dong Soo Lee; Myung-Sun Kim; In Kyoon Lyoo; Maeng Je Cho; Myung Chul Lee

2003-01-01

76

An Examination of Magical Beliefs as Predictors of Obsessive-Compulsive Symptom Dimensions  

E-print Network

Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision as a symptom of Obsessive Compulsive Personality Disorder (OCPD; American Psychiatric Association [DSM-IV-TR], 2000), and the most recent proposals for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual...

Spears, Lauren

2014-08-31

77

Are the symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder temporally stable in children/adolescents? A prospective naturalistic study.  

PubMed

Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) symptoms tend to be temporally stable in adults, but much less is known about their stability in young people. We examined the temporal stability of OCD symptoms in a clinical pediatric sample. As part of a naturalistic longitudinal study, 74 children and adolescents with OCD were assessed with the Children's Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale on two separate occasions ranging from 1 to 11 years apart (average 5 years). Analysis of variance and multiple regression models examined changes within and between symptoms and symptom dimensions. Changes within individual symptom categories were observed in approximately 15-45% of the cases, depending on the specific symptom. In most of those cases, symptoms went from present to absent at follow-up rather than from absent to present. Changes were no longer significant when individuals who were in remission at follow-up were excluded. Multiple regression analyses indicated that the strongest predictor of a particular symptom dimension at follow-up was the presence of the same dimension at baseline. Shifts from one dimension to another were rare. The content of OCD symptoms is relatively stable across time in young people. Most changes observed were attributable to clinical improvement/remission and occurred within rather than between symptom dimensions. PMID:23261183

Fernández de la Cruz, Lorena; Micali, Nadia; Roberts, Samuel; Turner, Cynthia; Nakatani, Eriko; Heyman, Isobel; Mataix-Cols, David

2013-09-30

78

Symptom Dimensions in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: Phenomenology and Treatment Outcomes with Exposure and Ritual Prevention  

PubMed Central

Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a severe condition with varied symptom presentations. The cognitive-behavioral treatment with the most empirical support is currently exposure and ritual prevention (EX/RP); however, clinical impression and some empirical data suggest that certain OCD symptoms are more responsive to treatment than others. Prior work identifying symptom dimensions within OCD is discussed, including epidemiological findings, factor analytic studies, and biological findings. Symptom dimensions most reliably identified include contamination/cleaning, doubt about harm/checking, symmetry/ordering, and unacceptable thoughts/mental rituals. The phenomenology of each of these subtypes is described and research literature is summarized, emphasizing the differential effects of EX/RP and its variants on each of these primary symptom dimensions. To date it appears that EX/RP is an effective treatment for the various OCD dimensions, although not all dimensions have been adequately studied (i.e., symmetry and ordering). Modifications to treatment may be warranted for some types of symptoms. Clinical implications and directions for future research are discussed. PMID:23615340

Williams, Monnica T.; Mugno, Beth; Franklin, Martin; Faber, Sonya

2014-01-01

79

Clozapine-Induced Obsessive-Compulsive Symptoms in Schizophrenia: A Critical Review  

PubMed Central

Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is rarely associated with schizophrenia, whereas 20 to 30% of schizophrenic patients, suffer from comorbid obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCS). So far no single pathogenetic theory convincingly explained this fact suggesting heterogeneous subgroups. Based on long-term case observations, one hypothesis assumes that second-onset OCS in the course of schizophrenia might be a side effect of second generation antipsychotics (SGA), most importantly clozapine (CLZ). This review summarizes the supporting epidemiological and pharmacological evidence: Estimations on prevalence of OCS increase in more recent cross-sectional studies and in later disease stages. Longitudinal observations report the de novo-onset of OCS under clozapine treatment. This association has not been reported with first generation antipsychotics (FGA) or SGAs with mainly dopaminergic mode of action. Finally, significant correlations of OCS-severity with duration of treatment, dose and serum levels suggest clozapine-induced OCS. However, supposed causal interactions need further verifications. It is also unclear, which neurobiological mechanisms might underlie the pathogenetic process. Detailed genotypic and phenotypic characterizations of schizophrenics with comorbid OCS regarding neurocognitive functioning and activation in sensitive tasks of functional magnetic imaging are needed. Multimodal large-scaled prospective studies are necessary to define patients at risk for second-onset OCS and to improve early detection and therapeutic interventions. PMID:22942882

Schirmbeck, Frederike; Zink, Mathias

2012-01-01

80

The familial phenotype of obsessive-compulsive disorder in relation to tic disorders: the Hopkins OCD family study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and tic disorders have phenomenological and familial-genetic overlaps. An OCD family study sample that excludes Tourette’s syndrome in probands is used to examine whether tic disorders are part of the familial phenotype of OCD.Methods: Eighty case and 73 control probands and their first-degree relatives were examined by experienced clinicians using the Schedule for Affective Disorders and

Marco A Grados; Mark A Riddle; Jack F Samuels; Kung-Yee Liang; Rudolf Hoehn-Saric; O. Joseph Bienvenu; John T Walkup; DongHo Song; Gerald Nestadt

2001-01-01

81

Functional magnetic resonance imaging of symptom provocation in obsessive-compulsive disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The new technique of functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to investigate the mediating neuroanatomy of obsessive-compulsive disorder symptoms. METHODS: Ten patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder and 5 normal subjects were studied via functional magnetic resonance imaging during control and provoked conditions. Data analysis entailed parametric and nonparametric statistical mapping. RESULTS: Statistical maps (nonparametric; P < 10(-3)) showed activation for

H. C. Breiter; S. L. Rauch; K. K. Kwong; J. R. Baker; R. M. Weisskoff; D. N. Kennedy; A. D. Kendrick; T. L. Davis; A. Jiang; M. S. Cohen; C. E. Stern; J. W. Belliveau; L. Baer; R. L. O'Sullivan; C. R. Savage; M. A. Jenike; B. R. Rosen

1996-01-01

82

Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder in Late Life  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has received increasing attention, the study and treatment of OCD in late life has been neglected. The obsessions and compulsions seen with older adults do not appear to differ from the symptoms experienced by other age groups, although developmental issues might influence symptom focus (e.g., memory…

Calamari, John E.; Pontarelli, Noelle K.; Armstrong, Kerrie M.; Salstrom, Seoka A.

2012-01-01

83

Brain activation during cognitive planning in twins discordant or concordant for obsessive–compulsive symptoms  

PubMed Central

Neuroimaging studies have indicated abnormalities in cortico-striatal-thalamo-cortical circuits in patients with obsessive–compulsive disorder compared with controls. However, there are inconsistencies between studies regarding the exact set of brain structures involved and the direction of anatomical and functional changes. These inconsistencies may reflect the differential impact of environmental and genetic risk factors for obsessive–compulsive disorder on different parts of the brain. To distinguish between functional brain changes underlying environmentally and genetically mediated obsessive–compulsive disorder, we compared task performance and brain activation during a Tower of London planning paradigm in monozygotic twins discordant (n?=?38) or concordant (n?=?100) for obsessive–compulsive symptoms. Twins who score high on obsessive–compulsive symptoms can be considered at high risk for obsessive–compulsive disorder. We found that subjects at high risk for obsessive–compulsive disorder did not differ from the low-risk subjects behaviourally, but we obtained evidence that the high-risk subjects differed from the low-risk subjects in the patterns of brain activation accompanying task execution. These regions can be separated into those that were affected by mainly environmental risk (dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and lingual cortex), genetic risk (frontopolar cortex, inferior frontal cortex, globus pallidus and caudate nucleus) and regions affected by both environmental and genetic risk factors (cingulate cortex, premotor cortex and parts of the parietal cortex). Our results suggest that neurobiological changes related to obsessive–compulsive symptoms induced by environmental factors involve primarily the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, whereas neurobiological changes induced by genetic factors involve orbitofrontal–basal ganglia structures. Regions showing similar changes in high-risk twins from discordant and concordant pairs may be part of compensatory networks that keep planning performance intact, in spite of cortico-striatal-thalamo-cortical deficits. PMID:20823085

van ’t Ent, Dennis; Cath, Danielle C.; Wagner, Judith; Boomsma, Dorret I.; de Geus, Eco J. C.

2010-01-01

84

White matter structure and symptom dimensions in obsessive-compulsive disorder.  

PubMed

There is evidence that the different symptom dimensions in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) may be mediated by partially distinct neural systems. This DTI study investigated the relationship between symptom dimensions and white matter microstructure. Fractional anisotropy (FA), axial and radial diffusivity was analyzed in relation to the main OCD symptom dimensions. Symptom severity on the obsessing dimension was negatively correlated with FA in the corpus callosum and the cingulate bundle. Severity on the ordering dimension was negatively correlated with FA in, amongst others, the right inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus and the right optic radiation. All correlations were ascribable to alterations in radial diffusivity while there was no association between symptoms and axial diffusivity. Present results illustrate an association between alterations in visual processing tracts and ordering symptoms which are characterized by altered visual processing and increased attention towards irrelevant detail. They also indicate an association between obsessive thoughts and alterations in structures known to be relevant for cognitive control and inhibition. Hence, different symptom dimensions must be taken into account in order to disentangle the neurobiological underpinnings of OCD. PMID:22099866

Koch, Kathrin; Wagner, Gerd; Schachtzabel, Claudia; Schultz, C Christoph; Straube, Thomas; Güllmar, Daniel; Reichenbach, Jürgen R; Peikert, Gregor; Sauer, Heinrich; Schlösser, Ralf G M

2012-02-01

85

The Impact of Personality Traits on Ratings of Obsessive-Compulsive Symptoms  

PubMed Central

Objective The goal of this study was to evaluate consistencies and discrepancies between clinician-administered and self-report versions of the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS) and to examine relationships between these scales and personality traits. Methods A total of 106 patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) participated in this study. All participants were assessed with both clinician-administered and self-report versions of the Y-BOCS. The Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis II Disorders Personality Questionnaire (SCID-II-PQ) was used to evaluate relationships between personality traits and scores on the Y-BOCS. Results Scores on the clinician-administered Y-BOCS and its obsession subscale were significantly higher than were those on the self-report version. However, we found no significant differences in compulsion subscale scores. We also found that the discrepancies in the scores on the two versions of the Y-BOCS and its compulsion subscale were significantly positively correlated with scores for narcissistic personality traits on the SCID-II-PQ. Additionally, narcissistic personality traits had a significant effect on the discrepancy in the scores on the two versions of the Y-BOCS and its compulsion subscale in the multiple linear regression analysis. Conclusion This is the first study to elucidate relationships between personality traits and discrepancies between scores on the two versions of the Y-BOCS. Although clinicians tend to rate obsessive symptoms as being more severe than do patients, clinicians may underestimate the degree to which individuals with narcissistic personality traits suffer more from subjective discomfort due to compulsive symptoms. Therefore, the effect of personality traits on symptom severity should be considered in the treatment of OCD. PMID:24302949

Huh, Min Jung; Shim, Geumsook; Byun, Min Soo; Kim, Sung Nyun; Kim, Euitae; Jang, Joon Hwan; Shin, Min-Sup

2013-01-01

86

Symptom subtypes of obsessive-compulsive disorder in behavioral treatment studies: a quantitative review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent reviews and meta-analytic studies have provided an encouraging account of the effectiveness of behavioral interventions for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). One question regarding these estimates concerns their degree of generalizability to the range of OCD subtypes encountered in clinical settings. The purpose of the present study was to provide a quantitative description of the prevalence of various OCD subtypes (i.e.

Susan G. Ball; Lee Baer; Michael W. Otto

1996-01-01

87

Family accommodation of obsessional symptoms and naturalistic outcome of obsessive-compulsive disorder.  

PubMed

Accommodation of symptoms by families and expressed emotion (EE) may have a negative impact on the outcome of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The study examines the effect of family accommodation (FA) and EE on the 1-year naturalistic outcome of OCD. Patients with OCD who met the criteria for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV, text revision (DSM-IV TR; N=94) were followed up for 1 year and assessed every 3 months. Assessments included measurement of symptom severity, FA, EE and family burden. By the 12th month, the cumulative probability of remission was 58%. Non-remitters compared with remitters had a significantly higher FA, EE and family burden at the baseline and did not report significant reductions on any of the family variables over the year. In a Cox proportional hazard regression analysis, a higher FA at the baseline significantly predicted time to remission. FA of symptoms has a significant negative impact on the naturalistic outcome of OCD. This emphasises the need to design specific interventions to reduce FA for a better outcome. PMID:24368062

Cherian, Anish V; Pandian, Dhanasekhara; Bada Math, Suresh; Kandavel, Thennarasu; Janardhan Reddy, Y C

2014-02-28

88

[Clinical features, treatments and outcome of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) focusing on the assessment and characteristics of patients with treatment-refractory OCD].  

PubMed

Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is fairly common, with prevalence estimates ranging from 1 to 2%. OCD is generally described as having a chronic course with periods of waxing and waning of symptoms, and most individuals with OCD are at risk for other comorbid psychiatric disorders such as major depression. It is associated with considerable impairment and disability, in that individuals with OCD often experience severe social and interpersonal difficulties, familial dysfunction, occupational problems and impaired quality of life. Indeed, WHO classifies OCD as one of the top 10 most debilitating illnesses. Despite the proven effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) in the treatment of OCD, these 2 treatment strategies have demonstrated inadequate responses in at least 40% of OCD patients. Moreover, even when the best available treatments are applied, a number of patients remain severely affected and experience treatment-refractory OCD. Long-term follow-up (up to 40 years) studies also suggest that OCD often results in a chronic and lifelong condition with low rates of remission and with a relatively high probability of relapse. Thus, a "treatment-refractory" status should be assessed in each OCD individual according to responses to all available therapeutic alternatives, along with the long-term course and outcome. For further exploration of the treatment strategies for OCD patients assessed as "treatment-refractory", definition of the condition as well as the optimization and standardization of the currently best available treatments is needed. In particular, taking into account the psychopathologically and biologically heterogeneous nature of OCD, optimal and rational treatment strategies should be independently examined for each distinct OCD subtype. Further advance of social support and educational systems may also be helpful to promote earlier intervention for the treatment of individuals at high risk of developing chronic or treatment-refractory OCD. PMID:24228474

Matsunaga, Hisato

2013-01-01

89

A Review of the Pharmacotherapy of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder and Schizophrenia: The Case of Sam  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Obsessive-compulsive symptoms are a common feature of schizophrenia, and high rates of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) have been reported in schizophrenic patients. Effective pharmacotherapeutic options are available for both OCD and schizophrenia, and for some patients combining medications targeted at both conditions may be a helpful…

Randhawa, Ramandeep S.

2005-01-01

90

Symptom Dimensions in OCD: Developmental and Evolutionary Perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

At the present time, in the absence of definitive etiological markers of vulnerability for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD),\\u000a obsessive-compulsive (OC) symptom dimensions appear to offer a fruitful point of orientation. The complex clinical presentation\\u000a of OCD can be summarized using a few consistent and temporally stable symptom dimensions. These can be understood as a spectrum\\u000a of potentially overlapping vulnerabilities that are

James F. Leckman; David Mataix-Cols; Maria Conceição do Rosario-Campos

91

[Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) in the ultra-orthodox community--cultural aspects of diagnosis and treatment].  

PubMed

Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) is reflected similarly in different communities, while symptoms are affected by the patient's cultural and spiritual world. An ultra-orthodox Jew with OCD will perform compulsive actions and will have obsessive thoughts related to the Jewish religious world. The religious symptoms do not necessarily correspond with the main commandments. Despite their significance, Shabbat or moral commandments such as respecting one's parents do not play a central role in the compulsive pattern. The religious compulsiveness of OCD patients focuses on commandments having to do with order and cleanliness and is characterized by repetition, checking and slowness. Obsessive thoughts and compulsive actions of ultra-orthodox OCD patients are usually based on the Jewish scriptures. One might assume that religion, as a framework with rules and dictated rituals, serves as a strong foundation for the development of OCD. However, it is estimated that the prevalence of OCD in the ultra-orthodox community is similar to the general population. Rabbis acknowledge OCD as a psychiatric illness and do not encourage the obsessive punctuality in following the commandments. An ultra-orthodox patient will first consult his rabbi, and after receiving his recommendation, will turn to psychiatric treatment. He might prefer to receive drug treatment rather than Cognitive Behavioral Therapy that may oppose his beliefs. Understanding the cultural background of the patient is essential, in particular when the patient is ultra-orthodox and the treatment is considered "secular". Therefore, cooperation with the patient's rabbi is important in order to obtain the patient's trust and develop a treatment plan. PMID:25286637

Vinker, Michal; Jaworowski, Sol; Mergui, Joseph

2014-08-01

92

Disgust affects TNF-alpha, IL6 and noradrenalin levels in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neurobiological research of obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) has rarely taken in account the context dependent evocation of obsessive compulsive symptoms. To bypass this obstacle, this study investigated neurobiological parameters during a standardized disgust provocation paradigm in patients with OCD and healthy controls. Ten OCD patients and 10 healthy controls were exposed to 9 disgust related items using a standardized provocation

S. B. A. H. A. Fluitman; D. A. J. P. Denys; C. J. Heijnen; H. G. M. Westenberg

2010-01-01

93

Obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorders  

PubMed Central

The obsessive-compulsive spectrum is an important concept referring to a number of disorders drawn from several diagnostic categories that share core obsessive-compulsive features. These disorders can be grouped by the focus of their symptoms: bodily preoccupation, impulse control, or neurological disorders. Although the disorders are clearly distinct from one another, they have intriguing similarities in phenomenology, etiology, pathophysiology, patient characteristics, and treatment response. In combination with the knowledge gained through many years of research on obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), the concept of a spectrum has generated much fruitful research on the spectrum disorders. It has become apparent that these disorders can also be viewed as being on a continuum of compulsivity to impulsivity, characterized by harm avoidance at the compulsive end and risk seeking at the impulsive end. The compulsive and impulsive disorders differ in systematic ways that are just beginning to be understood. Here, we review these concepts and several representative obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorders including both compulsive and impulsive disorders, as well as the three different symptom clusters: OCD, body dysmorphic disorder, pathological gambling, sexual compulsivity, and autism spectrum disorders. PMID:22033547

Allen, Andrea; King, Audrey; Hollander, Eric

2003-01-01

94

Variations in symptom prevalence and clinical correlates in younger versus older youth with obsessive-compulsive disorder.  

PubMed

Few studies have examined the phenomenology of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) in younger children. A sample of 292 treatment seeking youth with a primary diagnosis of OCD was divided into the young child (3-9 years old) and older child (10-18 years old) groups. Overall OCD severity did not differ between groups. However, older youth demonstrated stronger intensity of obsessive and compulsive symptoms, while younger children were rated as having less resistance and control of compulsions. Older youth exhibited increased occurrence of comorbid depression, and an increased occurrence of sexual, magical thinking, and somatic obsessions, as well as, checking, counting and magical thinking compulsions. Conversely, the group of younger children exhibited significantly poorer insight, increased incidence of hoarding compulsions, higher rates of comorbid attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, disruptive behavior, and parent-rated anxiety, and more frequently exhibited hoarding compulsions. These differences suggest domains to consider when screening for OCD among younger/older pediatric cohorts. PMID:24549726

Selles, Robert R; Storch, Eric A; Lewin, Adam B

2014-12-01

95

Insight and treatment outcome in obsessive-compulsive disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine whether (1) insight in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) improves when OCD symptoms improve, and whether (2) degree of insight in OCD predicts response to sertraline, data were obtained from five sites participating in a larger multisite study of relapse in OCD. During the first 16 weeks of the study, 71 patients received open-label treatment with sertraline and were assessed

Jane L. Eisen; Steven A. Rasmussen; Katharine A. Phillips; Lawrence H. Price; Jonathan Davidson; R. Bruce Lydiard; Philip Ninan; Teresa Piggott

2001-01-01

96

Modifications of the Obsessive Compulsive Drinking Scale (OCDS-G) for use in longitudinal studies.  

PubMed

Since the application of the Obsessive Compulsive Drinking Scale (OCDS) has been reported to be problematic when used to measure alcohol craving in longitudinal studies, we examined the following questions: (1) Is it possible to skip problematic quantity items? (2) Is the score calculation rule using the higher value of item pairs necessary? (3) Can the shortened version of the OCDS be applied alternatively? We examined two samples including a total of 355 alcohol-dependent patients: a multi center study sample (n=149) and a validation control sample (n=206). Neither an advantage of the score calculation rule nor the necessity of including items regarding alcohol consumption could be demonstrated. The exclusion of consumption items lead to a clear, stable 2-factor structure with a maximum stability (.81-.91). Retest-reliability ranged from r(tt)=.73 to r(tt)=.76 at an average time interval of 5 weeks. Concerning stability (.68-.81) and reliability (r(tt)=.76), the short version turned out to be equivalent. The short version of the OCDS seems to be sufficient. If different effects on cognitive and behavioral levels are expected, the 12-item version without the quantity items should be applied. PMID:18602219

Nakovics, Helmut; Diehl, Alexander; Croissant, Bernhard; Mann, Karl

2008-10-01

97

The Children's Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale: Reliability and Validity for Use among 5 to 8 Year Olds with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Children's Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (CY-BOCS) is the instrument of choice for assessing symptom severity in older children (i.e., 8-18 years) diagnosed with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The reliability and validity of this measure for use among younger children (i.e., 5-8 years of age), however, has never been examined.…

Freeman, Jennifer; Flessner, Christopher A.; Garcia, Abbe

2011-01-01

98

Imbalance in habitual versus goal directed neural systems during symptom provocation in obsessive-compulsive disorder.  

PubMed

Intrusive thoughts and compulsive urges to perform stereotyped behaviours are typical symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder. Emerging evidence suggests a cognitive bias towards habit formation at the expense of goal-directed performance in obsessive-compulsive disorder. In this study, we test this hypothesis using a novel individualized ecologically valid symptom provocation design: a live provocation functional magnetic resonance imaging paradigm with synchronous video-recording of behavioural avoidance responses. By pairing symptom provocation with online avoidance responses on a trial-by-trial basis, we sought to investigate the neural mechanisms leading to the compulsive avoidance response. In keeping with the model of habit formation in obsessive-compulsive disorder, we hypothesized that this disorder would be associated with lower activity in regions implicated in goal-directed behaviours and higher activity in regions implicated in habitual behaviours. Fifteen patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder and 15 healthy control volunteers participated in this functional magnetic resonance imaging study. Online stimuli were individually tailored to achieve effective symptom provocation at neutral, intermediate and strong intensity levels. During the symptom provocation block, the participant could choose to reject or terminate the provoking stimuli resulting in cessation of the symptom provocation. We thus separately analysed the neural correlates of symptom provocation, the urge to avoid, rejection and relief. Strongly symptom-provoking conditions evoked a dichotomous pattern of deactivation/activation in patients, which was not observed either in control conditions or in healthy subjects: a deactivation of caudate-prefrontal circuits accompanied by hyperactivation of subthalamic nucleus/putaminal regions. This finding suggests a dissociation between regions engaged in goal-directed and habitual behaviours. The putaminal hyperactivity during patients' symptom provocation preceded subsequent deactivation during avoidance and relief events, indicating a pivotal role of putamen in regulation of behaviour and habit formation in obsessive-compulsive disorder. Effective connectivity analysis identified the ventromedial prefrontal cortex/orbitofrontal cortex as the main structure in this circuitry involved in the modulation of compulsivity in obsessive-compulsive disorder. These findings suggest an imbalance in circuitry underlying habitual and goal-directed action control, which may represent a fundamental mechanism underlying compulsivity in obsessive-compulsive disorder. Our results complement current models of symptom generation in obsessive-compulsive disorder and may enable the development of future therapeutic approaches that aim to alleviate this imbalance. PMID:25567322

Banca, Paula; Voon, Valerie; Vestergaard, Martin D; Philipiak, Gregor; Almeida, Inês; Pocinho, Fernando; Relvas, João; Castelo-Branco, Miguel

2015-03-01

99

Comorbid obsessive-compulsive symptoms in schizophrenia: contributions of pharmacological and genetic factors  

PubMed Central

A large subgroup of around 25% of schizophrenia patients suffers from obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCS) and about 12% fulfill the diagnostic criteria of an obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The additional occurrence of OCS is associated with high subjective burden of disease, additional neurocognitive impairment, poorer social and vocational functioning, greater service utilization and high levels of anxiety and depression. Comorbid patients can be assigned to heterogeneous subgroups. One hypothesis assumes that second generation antipsychotics (SGAs), most importantly clozapine, might aggravate or even induce second-onset OCS. Several arguments support this assumption, most importantly the observed chronological order of first psychotic manifestation, start of treatment with clozapine and onset of OCS. In addition, correlations between OCS-severity and dose and serum levels and duration of clozapine treatment hint toward a dose-dependent side effect. It has been hypothesized that genetic risk-factors dispose patients with schizophrenia to develop OCS. One study in a South Korean sample reported associations with polymorphisms in the gene SLC1A1 (solute carrier family 1A1) and SGA-induced OCS. However, this finding could not be replicated in European patients. Preliminary results also suggest an involvement of polymorphisms in the BDNF gene (brain-derived neurotrophic factor) and an interaction between markers of SLC1A1 and the gene DLGAP3 (disc large associated protein 3) as well as GRIN2B (N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subunit 2B). Further research of well-defined samples, in particular studies investigating possible interactions of genetic risk-constellations and pharmacodynamic properties, are needed to clarify the assumed development of SGA-induced OCS. Results might improve pathogenic concepts and facilitate the definition of at risk populations, early detection and monitoring of OCS as well as multimodal therapeutic interventions. PMID:23950745

Schirmbeck, Frederike; Zink, Mathias

2013-01-01

100

Disordered Eating Behavior and Obsessive Compulsive Symptoms in College Students: Cognitive and Affective Similarities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Few studies have examined the psychological similarities between disordered eating behavior and obsessive-compulsive (OC) symptoms. The present study examined relationships among disordered eating, OC symptoms, and three cognitive and affective variables (perfectionism, obsessive beliefs, and negative affect). The cognitive and affective variables were significantly associated with disordered eating and with OC symptoms in a sample of 160 college women. Results

Joy D. Humphreys; James R. Clopton; Darcy A. Reich

2007-01-01

101

Development and Psychometric Evaluation of the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale--Second Edition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS; Goodman, Price, Rasmussen, Mazure, Delgado, et al., 1989) is acknowledged as the gold standard measure of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) symptom severity. A number of areas where the Y-BOCS may benefit from revision have emerged in past psychometric studies of the Severity Scale and Symptom

Storch, Eric A.; Rasmussen, Steven A.; Price, Lawrence H.; Larson, Michael J.; Murphy, Tanya K.; Goodman, Wayne K.

2010-01-01

102

Quality of life in obsessive-compulsive disorder: the role of mediating variables.  

PubMed

This study examined the association of various clinical features of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) with quality of life (QoL) in 102 adults with a principal diagnosis of OCD. Participants were assessed by trained clinicians using the Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule 4th edition, the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale, and an unstructured clinical interview. Subjects completed the MOS-36 Item Short Form Health Survey, and Beck Depression Inventory-II. Obsessive-compulsive symptom severity was negatively correlated with emotional health, social functioning and general health QoL. Depressive symptoms mediated the relationship between obsessive-compulsive symptom severity and emotional health, social functioning and general health QoL. Additionally, interference of obsessive-compulsive symptoms mediated the relationship between obsessive-compulsive symptom severity and emotional health, social functioning and general health QoL. Resistance against obsessive-compulsive symptoms mediated the relationship between obsessive-compulsive symptom severity and social functioning QoL. Diminished QoL is present in persons with OCD and is essential in understanding the complete clinical picture of OCD. PMID:23122558

Kugler, Brittany B; Lewin, Adam B; Phares, Vicky; Geffken, Gary R; Murphy, Tanya K; Storch, Eric A

2013-03-30

103

Enhanced perceived responsibility decreases metamemory but not memory accuracy in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD).  

PubMed

Mixed findings have been obtained in prior research with respect to the presence and severity of memory and metamemory deficits in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). We tested the hypothesis that experimentally induced increments of subjective responsibility would lead to a disproportionately strong decline of memory confidence and enhanced response latencies in OCD while leaving memory accuracy unaffected. Twenty-eight OCD patients and 28 healthy controls were presented a computerized memory test framed with two different scenarios. In the neutral scenario, the participant was requested to imagine purchasing 15 items from a do-it-yourself store. In the recognition phase, the 15 needed items were presented along with 15 distractor items. The participant was asked to decide whether items were on his or her shopping list or not, graded by subjective confidence. In the responsibility scenario, the general experimental setup was analogous except that the participant now had to envision that he or she was a helper in a region recently struck by an earthquake, dispatched to provide 15 urgently needed goods from a nearby town. In line with prior work by our group, samples did not differ in either condition on memory accuracy in a subsequent recognition task. As hypothesized, OCD participants were less certain in their responses for the high responsibility condition than controls. Whereas patients and controls did not differ in their subjective estimates for memorized items, patients expressed stronger doubt that their earthquake mission was successful. The findings indicate that low memory confidence in OCD may only be elicited in situations where perceived responsibility is high and that patients may share higher performance standards ("good is not good enough") than controls when perceived responsibility is inflated. PMID:17462589

Moritz, S; Wahl, K; Zurowski, B; Jelinek, L; Hand, I; Fricke, S

2007-09-01

104

Neurohemodynamic Correlates of Washing Symptoms in Obsessive-compulsive Disorder: A Pilot fMRI Study Using Symptom Provocation Paradigm  

PubMed Central

Background: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is increasingly being viewed as a multidimensional heterogeneous disorder caused due to the dysfunction of several closely related, overlapping frontostriatal circuits. A study investigating the dimensional construct in treatment naïve, co-morbidity free patients with identical handedness is likely to provide the necessary homogeneity and power to elicit neural correlates of the various symptom dimensions, and overcome the limitations of previous studies. Materials and Methods: Nine DSM-IV OCD patients with predominant contamination-related obsessive-compulsive symptoms (age=29.8±7.1 years; five males: four females; years-of-education=13.9±1.6, YBOCS total score=28.8±4.7, DYBOCS Contamination dimension score=10.7±1.8) and nine healthy controls matched one to one with the patients for age, sex, and years of education (age=27.8±5.4, five males: four females; years-of-education=14.9±3.0), were examined during symptom provocation task performance in 3TMRI. Paired samples t test of brain activation differences (contamination relevant pictures – neutral pictures), limited to apriori regions of interest was done using SPM8 (uncorrected P<0.005). Results: Patients found significantly more pictures to be anxiety provoking in comparison to healthy controls. Patients were found to have deficient activation in the following areas in comparison with healthy controls: bilateral anterior prefrontal, dorsolateral prefrontal, orbitofrontal, anterior cingulate, insular and parietal cortices, precuneus, and caudate. Conclusions: Results underscore the importance of frontal, striatal, parietal, and occipital areas in the pathophysiology of OCD. Divergence of findings from previous studies might be attributed to the absence of confounding factors in the current study and may be due to production of intense anxiety in patients. PMID:23833345

Agarwal, Sri Mahavir; Jose, Dania; Baruah, Upasana; Shivakumar, Venkataram; Kalmady, Sunil Vasu; Venkatasubramanian, Ganesan; Mataix-Cols, David; Reddy, Yemmigannur Chandrashekhar Janardhan

2013-01-01

105

Seasonal obsessive-compulsive disorder  

PubMed Central

A case of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) with seasonal variation in symptoms of 10-years duration is reported because of its rarity. The phenomenology of the observed disorder was obsessions related to dirt and contamination resulting in washing compulsions with onset in October and complete resolution in April-May every year. The patient responded to phototherapy along with exposure and response prevention therapy and pharmacotherapy. PMID:25788807

Sinha, Prakriti; Bakhla, Ajay Kumar; Patnaik, Ashok Kumar; Chaudhury, Suprakash

2014-01-01

106

Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder  

MedlinePLUS

Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a type of anxiety disorder. If you have OCD, you have frequent, upsetting thoughts called obsessions. To try ... hands, counting, checking on things, or cleaning. With OCD, the thoughts and rituals cause distress and get ...

107

Pharmacological Treatment of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a disabling neuropsychiatric disorder. Two treatments have been proven efficacious\\u000a for the symptoms of OCD: pharmacological treatment with serotonin reuptake inhibitors and cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT)\\u000a consisting of exposure and response prevention. This chapter will focus on pharmacological treatments. The only medications\\u000a which have proved effective for OCD in multisite randomized controlled trials are serotonin reuptake inhibitors,

Helen Blair Simpson

108

Understanding Obsessive–Compulsive Disorder: Focus on Decision Making  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current approaches to obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) have suggested that neurobiological abnormalities play a crucial role in the etiology and course of this psychiatric illness. In particular, a fronto-subcortical circuit, including the orbitofrontal cortex, basal ganglia and thalamus appears to be involved in the expression of OCD symptoms. Neuropsychological studies have also shown that patients with OCD show deficits in cognitive

Paolo Cavedini; Alessandra Gorini; Laura Bellodi

2006-01-01

109

A randomized controlled clinical trial of Citalopram versus Fluoxetine in children and adolescents with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  Several controlled trials have demonstrated the efficacy and safety of Fluoxetine in children and adolescents with Obsessive-Compulsive\\u000a Disorder (OCD), but there is no controlled study on the effectiveness of Citalopram in this group. This report describes the\\u000a use of Citalopram in comparison with Fluoxetine in childhood-onset OCD.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Method  This study is a randomized, double blind, fixed-does (20mg) trial of Fluoxetine versus

Javad Alaghband-Rad; Mitra Hakimshooshtary

2009-01-01

110

Correlates of Insight among Youth with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Individuals with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) may lack insight into the irrational nature of their symptoms. Among adults with OCD, poor insight has been linked to greater symptom severity, increased likelihood of comorbid symptoms, lower adaptive functioning, and worse treatment outcomes. Parallel work regarding insight among…

Lewin, Adam B.; Bergman, R. Lindsey; Peris, Tara S.; Chang, Susanna; McCracken, James T.; Piacentini, John

2010-01-01

111

Does gabapentin lead to early symptom improvement in obsessive-compulsive disorder?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  The aim of this study was to compare efficacy of fluoxetine alone and co-administration of gabapentin and fluoxetine in patients\\u000a with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Forty outpatients with a DSM-IV diagnosis of OCD were randomized to open label treatment, 20 of whom were treated with fluoxetine\\u000a alone and the remaining 20 with fluoxetine plus gabapentin during 8 weeks. The severity was

Emin Önder; Ümit Tural; Mehmet Gökbakan

2008-01-01

112

Social skills training in a case of obsessive-compulsive disorder with schizotypal personality disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study illustrates a case of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) with schizotypal personality treated by social skills training. Prior research suggests that OCD with schizotypal personality predicts poor treatment outcome using exposure-based treatments. Following social skills treatment and at 6-month follow-up, the patient had considerable obsessive-compulsive symptom reduction, although he was still symptomatic for OCD, anxiety and depression. Controlled trials

Dean Mckay; Fugen Neziroglu

1996-01-01

113

Family Accommodation in Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite the importance of the family in the treatment of pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), relatively little empirical attention has been directed to family accommodation of symptoms. This study examined the relations among family accommodation, OCD symptom severity, functional impairment, and internalizing and externalizing behavior…

Storch, Eric A.; Geffken, Gary R.; Merlo, Lisa J.; Jacob, Marni L.; Murphy, Tanya K.; Goodman, Wayne K.; Larson, Michael J.; Fernandez, Melanie; Grabill, Kristen

2007-01-01

114

Obsessive-Compulsive Behavior as a Symptom of Dementia in Progressive Supranuclear Palsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims: To describe obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCS) as under-recognized behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia of progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) and to discuss possible mechanisms based on MRI and SPECT findings. Methods: We studied 74 PSP patients. OCS are defined as persistent and unreasonable, but non-delusional\\/hallucinatory, ideas and behaviors. Demography, cognition, the widths of middle cerebellar peduncles (MCP) and the inter-caudate

T. Fukui; E. Lee; H. Hosoda; K. Okita

2010-01-01

115

Randomized Sham-Controlled Trial of Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation in Treatment-Resistant Obsessive Compulsive Disorder  

E-print Network

-Resistant Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Antonio Mantovani, MD, PhD Division of Brain Stimulation and Therapeutic (SMA) improved symptoms and normalized cortical hyper- excitability of patients with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD). Here we present the results of a randomized sham-controlled double-blind study. Medication

Qian, Ning

116

Widespread decreased grey and white matter in paediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD): a voxel-based morphometric MRI study.  

PubMed

Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a chronic, relapsing anxiety disorder. To date, neuroimaging investigations of OCD have been variable and few studies have examined paediatric populations. Eight children with OCD and 12 typically developing children matched for age, gender, handedness and performance IQ underwent a high resolution T1-weighted structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan. A voxel-based morphometry (VBM) protocol (using DARTEL) compared the brains of the paediatric OCD children with those of typically developing children. Overall, children with OCD demonstrated significantly lower intra-cranial volume (ICV) and grey- and white-matter volumes. ICV was significantly reduced (?9%) in the OCD group compared with the typically developing group. The VBM analysis demonstrated lower volumes in widespread grey matter in bilateral frontal, cingulate, temporal-parietal, occipital-frontal and right precuneus regions for OCD. Lower white matter volume was found bilaterally in the cingulate and occipital cortex, right frontal and parietal and left temporal regions, and the corpus callosum. In summary, this study provides further evidence of brain dysmorphology in paediatric OCD patients. In addition to fronto-striatal-thalamic neural networks, abnormalities in other brain regions, such as the parietal lobe and corpus callosum, were demonstrated. These brain regions may play an additional role in the pathophysiology of OCD. PMID:23701704

Chen, Jian; Silk, Tim; Seal, Marc; Dally, Karen; Vance, Alasdair

2013-07-30

117

The glutamate-based genetic immune hypothesis in obsessive-compulsive disorder. An integrative approach from genes to symptoms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent advances in multiple areas of research have contributed to the identification of several pathophysiological factors underlying obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). In particular, the glutamate transporter gene SLC1A1 has been associated with the diagnosis of OCD. Immunological and infectious studies have reported alterations of the immune system and the presence of immune complexes directed against the Borna disease virus in OCD

J. Y. Rotge; B. Aouizerate; J. Tignol; B. Bioulac; P. Burbaud; D. Guehl

2010-01-01

118

Familial aggregation of schizophrenia-spectrum disorders and obsessive-compulsive associated disorders in schizophrenia probands with and without OCD.  

PubMed

A substantial proportion of schizophrenia patients also has obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). To further validate the clinical validity of a schizo-obsessive diagnostic entity, we assessed morbid risks for schizophrenia-spectrum disorders and OC-associated disorders in first-degree relatives of schizophrenia probands with and without OCD. Two groups of schizophrenia probands [with OCD (n = 57) and without OCD (n = 60)] and community-based controls (n = 50) were recruited. One hundred eighty two first-degree relatives of probands with OCD-schizophrenia, 210 relatives of non-OCD schizophrenia probands, and 165 relatives of community subjects were interviewed directly [59.3% (108/182), 51.9% (109/210), and 54.5% (90/165), respectively], using the Structured Clinical Interview for Axis-I DSM-IV Disorders and Axis II DSM-III-R Personality Disorders and the remaining relatives were interviewed indirectly, using the Family History Research Diagnostic Criteria. Relatives of OCD-schizophrenia probands had significantly higher morbid risks for OCD-schizophrenia (2.2% vs. 0%; P = 0.033) and OCPD (7.14% vs. 1.90%; P = 0.014), and a trend towards higher morbid risk for OCD (4.41% vs. 1.43%; P = 0.08) compared to relatives of non-OCD schizophrenia probands. When morbid risks for OCD, OCPD, and OCD-schizophrenia were pooled together, the significant between-group difference became robust (13.74% vs. 3.33%; P = 0.0002). In contrast, relatives of the two schizophrenia groups did not differ significantly in morbid risks for schizophrenia-spectrum disorders, mood disorders, or substance abuse disorders. A differential aggregation of OC-associated disorders in relatives of OCD-schizophrenia versus non-OCD schizophrenia probands, provides further support for the validity of a putative OCD-schizophrenia ("schizo-obsessive") diagnostic entity. PMID:15635656

Poyurovsky, Michael; Kriss, Victoria; Weisman, Gregory; Faragian, Sarit; Schneidman, Michael; Fuchs, Camil; Weizman, Abraham; Weizman, Ronit

2005-02-01

119

Psychosocial Stress Predicts Future Symptom Severities in Children and Adolescents with Tourette Syndrome and/or Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: The goals of this prospective longitudinal study were to monitor levels of psychosocial stress in children and adolescents with Tourette syndrome (TS) and/or obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) compared to healthy control subjects and to examine the relationship between measures of psychosocial stress and fluctuations in tic,…

Lin, Haiqun; Katsovich, Liliya; Ghebremichael, Musie; Findley, Diane B.; Grantz, Heidi; Lombroso, Paul J.; King, Robert A.; Zhang, Heping; Leckman, James F.

2007-01-01

120

Sexual obsessions and clinical correlates in adults with obsessive-compulsive disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because little is known about sexual obsessions in individuals with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), we examined rates and clinical correlates of sexual obsessions in 293 consecutive subjects with primary lifetime Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, OCD (54.6% females; mean age, 40.5 ± 12.9 years). Symptom severity was examined using the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale. Comorbidity, treatment response,

Jon E. Grant; Anthony Pinto; Matthew Gunnip; Maria C. Mancebo; Jane L. Eisen; Steven A. Rasmussen

2006-01-01

121

Compulsive checking behavior of quinpirole-sensitized rats as an animal model of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder(OCD): form and control  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: A previous report showed that the open field behavior of rats sensitized to the dopamine agonist quinpirole satisfies 5 performance criteria for compulsive checking behavior. In an effort to extend the parallel between the drug-induced phenomenon and human obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), the present study investigated whether the checking behavior of quinpirole rats is subject to interruption, which is an

Henry Szechtman; Michael J Eckert; Wai S Tse; Jonathan T Boersma; Carlo A Bonura; Jessica Z McClelland; Kirsten E Culver; David Eilam

2001-01-01

122

Reduced 3-O-methyl-dopa levels in OCD patients and their unaffected parents is associated with the  

E-print Network

-10Nov2011 #12;Delorme 3 INTRODUCTION Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is characterized by recurrent Background: The catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene is considered as a candidate gene in obsessive-compulsive-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene is considered as a candidate gene in OCD. Obsessive-compulsive symptoms are frequently

123

Phenomenological and comorbid features associated in obsessive–compulsive disorder: influence of age of onset  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: To explore clinical features of symptoms and comorbidity according to the age of onset of patients suffering from obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD). Methods: The survey involved collecting data from both patient members of an OCD association, and a sample of 175 OCD patients seen in OCD specialty practice. All the patients (n=617) responded to a questionnaire on family and personal

B Millet; F Kochman; T Gallarda; M. O Krebs; F Demonfaucon; I Barrot; M. C Bourdel; J. P Olié; H Loo; E. G Hantouche

2004-01-01

124

Perfectionism and Peer Relations among Children with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study examined perfectionism, symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and depression, and peer relationships among a clinical sample of 31 youth (age range 7-18 years) diagnosed with OCD. Using a correlational design, perfectionistic beliefs accounted for significant variance in OCD symptoms, depressive symptoms, and difficulties in…

Ye, Huan J.; Rice, Kenneth G.; Storch, Eric A.

2008-01-01

125

Hoarding in obsessive compulsive disorder: results from a case-control study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hoarding occurs relatively frequently in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and there is evidence that patients with hoarding symptoms have more severe OCD and are less responsive to treatment. In the present study, we investigated hoarding symptoms in 126 subjects with OCD. Nearly 30% of the subjects had hoarding symptoms; hoarding was twice as prevalent in males than females. Compared to the

J. Samuels; O. Joseph Bienvenu III; M. A. Riddle; B. A. M. Cullen; M. A. Grados; K.-Y. Liang; R. Hoehn-Saric; G. Nestadt

2002-01-01

126

Psychological interventions in obsessive compulsive disorder.  

PubMed

Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) is a common mental health problem associated with poor quality of life, impaired functioning and increased risk of suicide. Improvement is unlikely and symptoms will remain chronic unless adequate treatment is provided. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (2006a) guidelines on the management of OCD, recommend the use of psychological treatments that are based on cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT). Brief treatment forms of CBT are recommended initially and more intensive forms are offered when health gain is not apparent. While the presentation of OCD can be complex, nurses can assist in the recognition and treatment of OCD through additional training or current skills. PMID:25138877

Gellatly, Judith; Molloy, Christine

2014-08-26

127

Subtypes of obsessive-compulsive disorder: Implications for specialized cognitive behavior therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a heterogeneous condition, OCD subtypes have received limited attention in trials of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT). Because many patients with OCD do not respond optimally to CBT, it is important for clinicians to consider whether variability in treatment response is related to symptom presentation. Treatment modifications for patients without overt compulsions or with hoarding symptoms

Debbie Sookman; Jonathan S. Abramowitz; John E. Calamari; Sabine Wilhelm; Dean McKay

2005-01-01

128

Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a psychiatric illness that can be quite debilitating and historically has proven difficult\\u000a to treat. Research conducted over the past decade has provided much insight into the underlying neuropathology, allowing significant\\u000a advances in the treatment of these patients. Whereas psychotherapy was previously the only mode of treatment for OCD, pharmacological\\u000a agents and psychosurgical procedures are proving

David S. Husted; Nathan A. Shapira; Wayne K. Goodman

129

Temperament features in adolescents with ego-syntonic or ego-dystonic obsessive-compulsive symptoms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study evaluated whether different patterns of temperament may predict a different threshold of acceptability of\\u000a obsessive-compulsive (OC) symptoms in adolescents. OC symptomatology was detected with the Leyton Obsessional Inventory-Child\\u000a Version (LOI-CV) and temperament was assessed using the tridimensional personality questionnaire in 2,775 high-school students.\\u000a According to the LOI-CV scores, the adolescents were classified as high interference (interfering, ego-dystonic

Carlo Marchesi; Paolo Ampollini; Chiara DePanfilis; Carlo Maggini

2008-01-01

130

Relationship between obsessive-compulsive personality disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the presence of obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) in a group of 277 patients (88 with obsessive-compulsive disorder [OCD], 58 with major depressive disorder [MDD], and 131 with panic disorder [Panic)) to test the specificity of the relationship between OCPD and OCD. OCPD is statistically significantly more frequent in patients with OCD than in those with Panic and

Giuseppina Diaferia; Ivonne Bianchi; Maria Laura Bianchi; Paolo Cavedini; Stefano Erzegovesi; Laura Bellodi

1997-01-01

131

An Uncommon Treatment of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes the unorthodox, but successful treatment of a 32-year-old male client suffering from chronic obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The client was first diagnosed with OCD at age 18, and since then had received all of the standard treatments (both therapeutic and pharmacological) for OCD without showing any improvement. The treatment described here focused on alleviating the client's symptoms of

Walter Lowe Jr

2006-01-01

132

Exploratory analysis of obsessive compulsive symptom dimensions in children and adolescents: a Prospective follow-up study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Recent statistical approaches based on factor analysis of obsessive compulsive (OC) symptoms in adult patients have identified dimensions that seem more effective in symptom-based taxonomies and appear to be more stable over time. Although a phenotypic continuum from childhood to adulthood has been hypothesized, no factor analytic studies have been performed in juvenile patients, and the stability of OC

Richard Delorme; Arnaud Bille; Catalina Betancur; Flavie Mathieu; Nadia Chabane; Marie Christine Mouren-Simeoni; Marion Leboyer

2006-01-01

133

Corpus callosal signal intensity in treatment-naive pediatric obsessive compulsive disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.1. Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) is increasingly recognized as a severe, highly prevalent and chronically disabling disorder, emerging during childhood in as many as 80% of cases. The authors previously found significant abnormalities in the region of the corpus callosum (CC) connecting ventral prefrontal cortex and striatum in pediatric OCD patients compared to controls that correlated significantly with OCD symptom

Frank P. Mac Master; Matcheri S. Keshavan; Elizabeth L. Dick; David R. Rosenberg

1999-01-01

134

Intravenous clomipramine challenge in obsessive-compulsive disorder: predicting response to oral therapy at eight weeks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Challenge with intravenous clomipramine (CMI) is serotonin selective and has been reported to transiently exacerbate symptoms in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) patients, and to predict subsequent response to oral CMI therapy.Methods: We administered CMI (12.5 mg, IV) to medication free OCD patients (N = 29) and normal controls (N = 22) to characterize neurohormonal response. A subset of OCD patients

Floyd R Sallee; Lorrin M Koran; Stefano Pallanti; Stanley W Carson; Gopalan Sethuraman

1998-01-01

135

Action-Monitoring Dysfunction in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence suggests that a hyperactive frontal-striatal- thalamic-frontal circuit is associated with the symptoms of obsessive- compulsive disorder (OCD), but there is little agreement about the function of the exaggerated activity. We report electrophysiological evidence suggesting that part of this system monitors events and gen- erates error signals when the events conflict with an individual's internal standards or goals. Nine individuals

William J. Gehring; Joseph Himle; Laura G. Nisenson

2000-01-01

136

Responsibility attitudes and interpretations are characteristic of obsessive compulsive disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cognitive–behavioural theory of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) proposes that a key factor influencing obsessional behaviour is the way in which the intrusive cognitions are interpreted. The present paper reports an investigation of links between clinical symptoms (of anxiety, depression and obsessionality) and responsibility beliefs. These beliefs include not only measures of general responsibility attitudes (assumptions) but also more specific

P. M. Salkovskis; A. L. Wroe; A. Gledhill; N. Morrison; E. Forrester; C. Richards; M Reynolds; S Thorpe

2000-01-01

137

Early recognition of obsessive-compulsive disorder.  

PubMed

The early course in clinical and neurobiological terms of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is almost completely unknown. The disease often begins in early childhood and adolescence, but the first behavioral changes and symptoms preceding OCD have not been assessed to date. In this retrospective approach, 40 patients with OCD (23 females/17 males; 39.4 [10.1] years old in average; with scores on the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale [Y-BOCS] of 19 [9.3]) were given an author-developed questionnaire. Twenty-three patients reported first changes before having reached the age of 20 years. Rather unspecific symptoms such as "anxiety" and "lacking self-trust" seem to have been more frequent as first signs of developing OCD. Further specific symptoms indicating OCD were "enhanced feeling of responsibility," "exact attention concerning details," "being eager for order and cleanness," "difficulties with decisions," and "repetitive controlling," but were less remembered. There was no significant relationship between these first changes and later OCD-related psychopathology as measured with the Y-BOCS, but there was a relationship with later depressive comorbidity (Hamilton Depression Rating Scale). This substantiates the view that OCD-similar to other psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia and bipolar disorder-seems to be characterized by a psychopathologically less specific prodrome with rather depressive symptoms. However, this was a retrospective study with preliminary data, which has to be replicated prospectively with a larger sample. PMID:25426812

Juckel, Georg; Siebers, Frauke; Kienast, Thorsten; Mavrogiorgou, Paraskevi

2014-12-01

138

Neurotrophic factors in obsessive-compulsive disorder.  

PubMed

In this cross-sectional study, we assessed the levels of neurotrophins (NF) of patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) in different stages of treatment and their relationship with OCD clinical features. Forty patients with OCD and 40 healthy controls had Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF), Nerve Growth Factor (NGF), and Glial Cell-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (GNDF) plasma levels measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Patients with OCD were further examined with the Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory-Revised, the Beck Depression Inventory, the Beck Anxiety Inventory, and the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS). Patients with OCD exhibited significantly lower levels of BDNF and significantly increased levels of NGF as compared to healthy controls. In OCD, statistically significant negative correlations between BDNF levels and number of working days lost per week were found. Additional analyses revealed a statistically significant positive correlation between both NGF and GDNF and severity of washing symptoms. Plasma levels of NF were not affected by age, age at OCD onset, gender, major depressive disorder, the relative dose of serotonin-reuptake inhibitors being prescribed, or the use of antipsychotics. Our findings suggest that patients with OCD may exhibit a particular NF profile, with functional impairment correlating with BDNF levels and severity of washing symptoms correlating with NGF and GDNF levels. PMID:22494702

Fontenelle, Leonardo F; Barbosa, Izabela Guimarães; Luna, Juliano Victor; Rocha, Natalia Pessoa; Silva Miranda, Aline; Teixeira, Antonio Lucio

2012-10-30

139

Obsessive-compulsive severity spectrum in the community: prevalence, comorbidity, and course  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives : To describe lifetime prevalence rates, course and comorbidity of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), obsessive-compulsive syndromes (OCS) and OC-symptoms (OC-sx) up to age 41. Methods : In the Zurich community cohort study 591 subjects were selected after screening at the age of 19 and studied prospectively by 6 interviews from 20 to 40; they represent 1599 subjects of the normal

Jules Angst; Alex Gamma; Jerome Endrass; Renee Goodwin; Vladeta Ajdacic; Dominique Eich; Wulf Rössler

2004-01-01

140

Cognitive-Behavioral Group Therapy in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: A Randomized Clinical Trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The present study was designed to verify the efficacy of cognitive-behavioral group therapy (CBGT) in reducing obsessive-compulsive symptoms and the intensity of overvalued ideas, as well as in improving the patient’s quality of life. Methods: Forty-seven patients meeting DSM-IV criteria for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) were randomly assigned to either 12 weekly CBGT sessions or a waiting list (control group).

Aristides Volpato Cordioli; Elizeth Heldt; Daniela Braga Bochi; Regina Margis; Marcelo Basso de Sousa; Juliano Fonseca Tonello; Gisele Gus Manfro; Flavio Kapczinski

2003-01-01

141

Repetitive behaviors in Tourette's syndrome and OCD with and without tics: what are the differences?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome (GTS) and obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) share obsessive–compulsive phenomena. The aims of this study were to compare the OC symptom distribution between GTS and OCD and to investigate whether a subdivision of these phenomena into obsessions, compulsions and ‘impulsions’ is useful in distinguishing GTS and OCD patients. Thirty-two GTS, 31 OCD (10 with tics, 21 without

Danielle C Cath; Philip Spinhoven; Cees A. L Hoogduin; Andrea D Landman; Theo C. A. M van Woerkom; Ben J. M van de Wetering; Raymund A. C Roos; Harry G. M Rooijmans

2001-01-01

142

The impact of tics, obsessive-compulsive symptoms, and impulsivity on global functioning in Tourette syndrome.  

PubMed

This study investigated the relationships between tics, obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCS), and impulsivity, and their effects on global functioning in Japanese patients with Tourette syndrome (TS), using the dimensional approach for OCS. Fifty-three TS patients were assessed using the Yale Global Tic Severity Scale, the Dimensional Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale, the Impulsivity Rating Scale, and the Global Assessment of Functioning Scale. Although tic severity scores were significantly and positively correlated with OCS severity scores, impulsivity severity scores were not significantly correlated with either. The global functioning score was significantly and negatively correlated with tic and OCS severity scores. Of the 6 dimensional OCS scores, only aggression scores had a significant negative correlation with global functioning scores. A stepwise multiple regression analysis showed that only OCS severity scores were significantly associated with global functioning scores. Despite a moderate correlation between tic severity and OCS severity, the impact of OCS on global functioning was greater than that of tics. Of the OCS dimensions, only aggression had a significant impact on global functioning. Our findings suggest that it is important to examine OCS using a dimensional approach when analyzing global functioning in TS patients. PMID:25618473

Kano, Yukiko; Kono, Toshiaki; Matsuda, Natsumi; Nonaka, Maiko; Kuwabara, Hitoshi; Shimada, Takafumi; Shishikura, Kurie; Konno, Chizue; Ohta, Masataka

2015-03-30

143

Comorbidity of obsessive-compulsive disorder with obsessive-compulsive personality disorder: Does it imply a specific subtype of obsessive-compulsive disorder?  

PubMed

The present study examined whether the comorbidity of obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) constitute a specific subtype of OCD. The study sample consisted of 146 consecutive outpatients with a DSM-IV diagnosis of OCD. Diagnoses were established using MINI, IPDE, YBOCS and YBOCS-SC. OCD patients with comorbid OCPD were compared with OCD patients without OCPD on various sociodemographic and clinical variables. Almost one third of the OCD subjects met criteria for comorbid OCPD. OCD+OCPD patients had a significantly earlier age at onset of initial OC symptoms, earlier age at onset of OCD and more obsessions and compulsions than pure obsessions compared to the patients with OCDOCPD. OCD+OCPD patients also had a higher rate of comorbidity with avoidant personality disorder and showed more impairment in global functioning. There were not differences between the two sub-groups on severity of OCD symptoms and also on type of OCD onset. Our results indicate that the comorbidity of OCD with OCPD is associated with a number of specific clinical characteristics of OCD. These findings in conjunction with of current clinical, family and genetic studies provide some initial evidence that OCD comorbid with OCPD constitute a specific subtype of OCD. PMID:20163876

Garyfallos, George; Katsigiannopoulos, Konstantinos; Adamopoulou, Aravela; Papazisis, Georgios; Karastergiou, Anastasia; Bozikas, Vasilios P

2010-05-15

144

Streptococcal Upper Respiratory Tract Infections and Exacerbations of Tic and Obsessive-Compulsive Symptoms: A Prospective Longitudinal Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: The objective of this blinded, prospective, longitudinal study was to determine whether new group A beta hemolytic streptococcal (GABHS) infections are temporally associated with exacerbations of tic or obsessive-compulsive (OC) symptoms in children who met published criteria for pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders…

Leckman, James F.; King, Robert A.; Gilbert, Donald L.; Coffey, Barbara J.; Singer, Harvey S.; Dure, Leon S., IV; Grantz, Heidi; Katsovich, Liliya; Lin, Haiqun; Lombroso, Paul J.; Kawikova, Ivana; Johnson, Dwight R.; Kurlan, Roger M.; Kaplan, Edward L.

2011-01-01

145

The Validation of a New Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Scale: The Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory (OCI), a new self-report measure for determining the diagnosis and severity of obsessive- compulsive disorder (OCD), was validated with 141 patients with OCD, 58 with social phobia, 44 with posttraumatic stress disorder, and 194 nonpatients. The OCI exhibited satisfactory reliability and validity with all four…

Foa, Edna B.; Kozak, Michael J.; Salkovskis, Paul M.; Coles, Meredith E.; Amir, Nader

1998-01-01

146

Examination of a bifactor model of the Three Domains of Disgust Scale: Specificity in relation to obsessive-compulsive symptoms.  

PubMed

The current research evaluated a bifactor model for the Three Domains of Disgust Scale (TDDS) in 2 undergraduate samples. The goals were (a) to evaluate whether the TDDS should be scored as a unidimensional scale or whether subscales of pathogen, sex, and moral disgust should be additionally interpreted, and (b) to examine the utility of the TDDS subscales above and beyond the total score in predicting obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) symptoms. Results in Study 1 and Study 2 revealed that a bifactor model fit the TDDS data well and that all items were influenced by a general disgust dimension and by 1 of 3 content dimensions. However, model-based reliability estimated via omega hierarchical for the total score suggested that TDDS items are highly multidimensional. That is, the general disgust dimension only accounts for about half of the variability in the items of the total score, with the remaining variability accounted for by the specific disgust domains and other sources of variance. Despite the high degree of multidimensionality underlying the TDDS items, the pathogen and sex subscale scores were found to be relatively unreliable after controlling for the general disgust factor. Among the 3 domains, pathogen disgust had the most consistently significant relationship with an OCD symptom latent factor above and beyond the general disgust factor. The strengths and limitations of the TDDS are discussed in the context of these findings, and the implications for better understanding the structure of disgust and its relationship with OCD are outlined. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:25402446

Olatunji, Bunmi O; Ebesutani, Chad; Kim, Eun Ha

2015-03-01

147

Dreams in obsessive-compulsive disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: We sought to investigate the content of the dreams of obsessive-compulsive outpatients in the light of the following postulate: if dreams play a role in the processing of information and mental storage of events of the day, the dream recollections of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) patients should present evidence of diurnal obsessive or ritual themes. Method: On seven successive mornings,

Alain Sauteraud; Jean-Claude Menny; Pierre Philip; Franck Peyré; Jean-Marie Bonnin

2001-01-01

148

Does obsessive-compulsive personality disorder belong within the obsessive-compulsive spectrum?  

PubMed

It has been proposed that certain Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition Axis I disorders share overlapping clinical features, genetic contributions, and treatment response and fall within an "obsessive-compulsive" spectrum. Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) resembles obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and other spectrum disorders in terms of phenomenology, comorbidity, neurocognition, and treatment response. This article critically examines the nosological profile of OCPD with special reference to OCD and related disorders. By viewing OCPD as a candidate member of the obsessive-compulsive spectrum, we gain a fresh approach to understanding its neurobiology, etiology, and potential treatments. PMID:17545957

Fineberg, Naomi A; Sharma, Punita; Sivakumaran, Thanusha; Sahakian, Barbara; Chamberlain, Sam R; Chamberlain, Sam

2007-06-01

149

Clarifying the convergence between obsessive compulsive personality disorder criteria and obsessive compulsive disorder.  

PubMed

In this study we examined the convergence between obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) criteria and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Baseline assessments of 629 participants of the Collaborative Longitudinal Personality Disorders Study were used to examine the associations between OCPD criteria and diagnoses of OCD. Three of the eight OCPD criteria--hoarding, perfectionism, and preoccupation with details--were significantly more frequent in subjects with OCD (n = 89) than in subjects without OCD (n = 540). Logistic regressions were used to predict the probability of each OCPD criterion as a function of Axis I diagnoses (OCD, additional anxiety disorders, and major depressive disorder). Associations between OCD and these three OCPD criteria remained significant in the logistic regressions, showing unique associations with OCD and odds ratios ranging from 2.71 to 2.99. In addition, other anxiety disorders and major depressive disorder showed few associations with specific OCPD criteria. This study suggests variability in the strength of the relationships between specific OCPD criteria and OCD. The findings also support a unique relationship between OCPD symptoms and OCD, compared to other anxiety disorders or major depression. Future efforts to explore the link between Axis I and Axis II disorders may be enriched by conducting analyses at the symptom level. PMID:16776557

Eisen, Jane L; Coles, Meredith E; Shea, M Tracie; Pagano, Maria E; Stout, Robert L; Yen, Shirley; Grilo, Carlos M; Rasmussen, Steven A

2006-06-01

150

Obsessive-compulsive disorder.  

PubMed

This article reviews the clinical features and neurochemical hypotheses of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) with a focus on the serotonin system. In DSM-5, OCD was moved from the anxiety disorders to a new category of Obsessive-Compulsive and Related Disorders. OCD is a common, typically persistent disorder marked by intrusive and disturbing thoughts (obsessions) and repetitive behaviors (compulsions) that the person feels driven to perform. The preferential efficacy of serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SRIs) in OCD led to the so-called serotonin hypothesis. However, direct support for a role of serotonin in the pathophysiology (e.g., biomarkers in pharmacological challenge studies) of OCD remains elusive. A role of the glutamatergic system in OCD has been gaining traction based on imaging data, genomic studies and animal models of aberrant grooming behavior. These findings have spurred interest in testing the efficacy of medications that modulate glutamate function. A role of glutamate is compatible with circuit-based theories of OCD. PMID:25150561

Goodman, Wayne K; Grice, Dorothy E; Lapidus, Kyle A B; Coffey, Barbara J

2014-09-01

151

Recent life events and obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD): the role of pregnancy\\/delivery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conflicting results have been reported on the possible role of life events in triggering OCD onset. Moreover, pregnancy and\\/or delivery, among life events, appear to influence the OCD course and, in some cases, appear related to its onset. Our purpose was to assess the occurrence of potentially traumatizing events among patients with OCD. The study also provides an initial exploration

Giuseppe Maina; Umberto Albert; Filippo Bogetto; Patrizia Vaschetto; Luigi Ravizza

1999-01-01

152

The distinctiveness of compulsive hoarding from obsessive–compulsive disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study investigated the relation of compulsive hoarding to other obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) symptoms in a sample of 162 patients with OCD. Obsessions and compulsions reported on the Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule for DSM-IV were submitted to an exploratory factor analysis. Results suggested a four-factor model: “Certainty,” “Contamination,” “Obsessions,” and “Numbers\\/Ordering.” Hoarding did not load on any factor. The

Jessica R. Grisham; Timothy A. Brown; Gabrielle I. Liverant; Laura Campbell-Sills

2005-01-01

153

Prevalence and heritability of obsessive-compulsive spectrum and anxiety disorder symptoms: A survey of the Australian Twin Registry.  

PubMed

While past twin studies indicate moderate levels of heritability of "obsessive-compulsive related" and anxiety disorder symptoms, no single study has reported such estimates in the same twin population nor examined potential genetic sex differences. We assessed symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder, body dysmorphic disorder, hoarding disorder, hypochondriasis, panic disorder, social phobia and generalized anxiety disorder in 2,495 adult twins (1,468 female). Prevalence estimates for the corresponding symptom measures were determined using empirically derived cut-off scores. Twin resemblance was assessed by Pearson correlations and biometrical model-fitting analyses, incorporating sex-specific effects, using OpenMx. Prevalence estimates ranged from 1.6% in the symptoms of generalized anxiety to 16.9% for social phobia. Female twins demonstrated significantly higher prevalence rates across all domains with the exception of obsessive-compulsive symptoms. Additive genetic factors accounted for a moderate proportion of the total liability to each symptom domain. Evidence suggesting qualitative genetic sex differences (i.e., distinct genetic influences between genders) was observed for body dysmorphic concern and panic symptoms, while quantitative differences were observed for hoarding and social phobia symptoms, indicating stronger heritability in females. Novel findings in this study include the observation of probable genetic sex differences in liability towards hoarding symptoms and dysmorphic concern, as well as the lack of such differences in hypochondriasis. The trend towards qualitative sex differences in panic symptoms has some intuitive appeal with regard to biological-experimental models of panic. PMID:24756981

López-Solà, Clara; Fontenelle, Leonardo F; Alonso, Pino; Cuadras, Daniel; Foley, Debra L; Pantelis, Christos; Pujol, Jesus; Yücel, Murat; Cardoner, Narcís; Soriano-Mas, Carles; Menchón, José M; Harrison, Ben J

2014-06-01

154

Obsessive compulsive disorder in ultra-orthodox Jewish patients: a comparison of religious and non-religious symptoms.  

PubMed

Of 28 ultra-orthodox Jewish psychiatric referrals with obsessive compulsive disorder, 26 had religious symptoms, while 18 had non-religious symptoms. On average, each patient had three times more religious symptoms than non-religious symptoms. In only nine cases did the patients view their non-religious symptoms as the main difficulty, and all of these nine cases were ultra-orthodox from birth. There was no significant difference between the distress, resistance, sense of irrationality and hours spent daily of religious and non-religious symptoms. Further, there was no significant difference between the age of onset, age when felt to be a disturbance, and duration until help was sought. They were more likely to turn for help initially to a religious authority for a religious symptom and a mental health worker for a non-religious symptom. It may be concluded that the religious and non-religious symptoms of obsessive compulsive disorder in ultra-orthodox Jews are not experienced in markedly different ways by the sufferers. Two limitations to the study are the sample size, and the selection bias in that all had sought professional help, of itself likely to reflect their attitude to obsessive compulsive disorder. PMID:12396759

Greenberg, David; Shefler, Gaby

2002-06-01

155

Obsessive–compulsive disorder in the community: 12-month prevalence, comorbidity and impairment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Although subthreshold conditions are associated with impairment in numerous disorders, research on obsessive–compulsive disorder\\u000a (OCD) below the diagnostic threshold of DSM-IV in the general population is limited.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Purpose  To estimate the DSM-IV 12-month prevalence, comorbidity and impairment of OCD, subthreshold OCD (i.e., fulfilling some but\\u000a not all core DSM-IV criteria), and obsessive–compulsive symptoms (OCS) (i.e., endorsement of OCS without fulfilling any

Yuki Adam; Gunther Meinlschmidt; Andrew T. Gloster; Roselind Lieb

156

A Structural Equation Analysis of Family Accommodation in Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Family accommodation of symptoms is counter to the primary goals of cognitive-behavioral therapy for pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and can pose an obstacle to positive treatment outcomes. Although increased attention has been given to family accommodation in pediatric OCD, relatively little is known about associated child and…

Caporino, Nicole E.; Morgan, Jessica; Beckstead, Jason; Phares, Vicky; Murphy, Tanya K.; Storch, Eric A.

2012-01-01

157

Evidence-Based Assessment of Child Obsessive Compulsive Disorder: Recommendations for Clinical Practice and Treatment Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) presents heterogeneously and can be difficult to assess in youth. This review focuses on research-supported assessment approaches for OCD in childhood. Content areas include pre-visit screening, diagnostic establishment, differential diagnosis, assessment of comorbid psychiatric conditions, tracking symptom

Lewin, Adam B.; Piacentini, John

2010-01-01

158

Early-Onset Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: A Subgroup with a Specific Clinical and Familial Pattern?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: The familial nature of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has been previously demonstrated. The identification of candidate symptoms such as age at onset may help to disentangle the clinical and genetic heterogeneity of the disorder. In this study, the specificity of early-onset OCD was investigated, focusing on the effect of gender,…

Chabane, Nadia; Delorme, Richard; Millet, Bruno; Mouren, Marie-Christine; Leboyer, Marion; Pauls, David

2005-01-01

159

Effectiveness of psychological and pharmacological treatments for obsessive-compulsive disorder: A quantitative Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantitative review of the controlled treatment outcome literature for obsessivecompulsive disorder (OCD) showed that exposure with response prevention was highly effective in reducing OCD symptoms. Cognitive approaches were also found to be at least as effective as exposure procedures. It appears that both cognitive and exposure interventions involve some overlapping procedures and capitalize on similar mechanisms of change. Serotonergic

Jonathan S. Abramowitz

1997-01-01

160

Religiosity and religious obsessions in obsessive–compulsive disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Religion has often been thought to play a part in the genesis of some cases of obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD). In this study, we explored the relationship between religiosity, religious obsessions, and other clinical characteristics of OCD. Forty-five outpatients with OCD were evaluated with the Yale–Brown Obsessive–Compulsive Scale (Y–BOCS) and the Yale–Brown Obsessive–Compulsive Checklist (Y–BOCC) as well as the Religious Practices

Cenk Tek; Berna Ulug

2001-01-01

161

[Perinatal obsessive-compulsive disorder].  

PubMed

A perinatal obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is defined as an illness exhibiting first symptoms in the context of pregnancy and the postpartal period. There are no valid data up to date concerning the incidence of OCD, which might be of multifactorial origin, in this period in which females are highly vulnerable for psychiatric diseases. From a clinical point of view, obsessions and compulsions are mainly related to the well-being of the foetus or newborn baby. Differential diagnosis of perinatal OCD including pregnancy psychosis and post-partum depression is often difficult. Concerning treatment, non-pharmacological approaches should be preferred. Administration of SSRIs should be strongly restricted. However, there are no controlled therapy studies in patients with perinatal OCD. Furthermore, current knowledge about these patients is still limited. The aim of this review article is the presentation of phenomenology, pathogenesis, differential diagnosis and treatment of perinatal OCD. The mental situation of the female patients can be improved and stabilised if early diagnosis of a perinatal OCD leads to early initiation of an adequate therapy. This will then enable a good and stable mother-child relationship to develop. PMID:21830184

Mavrogiorgou, P; Illes, F; Juckel, G

2011-09-01

162

Multimodal assessment of disgust in contamination-related obsessive-compulsive disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study utilizes multiple methods to examine the relationship between disgust and contamination-related obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) symptoms in an analogue sample. Questionnaire findings revealed that participants with high OCD contamination concerns showed stronger disgust sensitivity than did participants with low OCD contamination symptoms after controlling for negative affect. High OCD participants (N=30) also reported significantly more disgust than did

Bunmi O. Olatunji; Jeffrey M. Lohr; Craig N. Sawchuk; David F. Tolin

2007-01-01

163

A comparison of clinical features among Japanese eating-disordered women with obsessive-compulsive disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clinical features, such as obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) symptoms, were investigated in Japanese women with DSM-III-R eating disorders (EDs) and concurrent OCD in comparison to age-matched women with OCD. Sixteen women with restricting anorexia nervosa (AN), 16 with bulimia nervosa (BN), and 16 with both AN and BN (BAN) showed commonality in a more elevated prevalence of OCD symptoms of symmetry

Hisato Matsunaga; Akira Miyata; Yoko Iwasaki; Tokuzo Matsui; Kayo Fujimoto; Nobuo Kiriike

1999-01-01

164

Temper Outbursts in Paediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder and Their Association with Depressed Mood and Treatment Outcome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Temper outbursts in youth with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) are a common source of concern, but remain poorly understood. This study examined a set of hypotheses related to: (a) the prevalence of temper outbursts in paediatric OCD, (b) the associations of temper outbursts with OCD severity and depressive symptoms; and (c) the…

Krebs, Georgina; Bolhuis, Koen; Heyman, Isobel; Mataix-Cols, David; Turner, Cynthia; Stringaris, Argyris

2013-01-01

165

Obsessive-compulsive disorder and related disorders: a comprehensive survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our aim was to present a comprehensive, updated survey on obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and obsessive-compulsive related disorders (OCRDs) and their clinical management via literature review, critical analysis and synthesis. Information on OCD and OCRD current nosography, clinical phenomenology and etiology, may lead to a better comprehension of their management. Clinicians should become familiar with the broad spectrum of OCD disorders,

Michele Fornaro; Filippo Gabrielli; Claudio Albano; Stefania Fornaro; Salvatore Rizzato; Chiara Mattei; Paola Solano; Valentina Vinciguerra; Pantaleo Fornaro

2009-01-01

166

Rapid, illegible handwriting as a symptom of obsessive-compulsive disorder.  

PubMed

This is a case report of a 13 year male child who had co-morbid OCD and trichotillomania. On evaluation, he had rapid, illegible handwriting as a symptom of OCD, which has hitherto not been reported. PMID:24891714

Bavle, Amar; Andrade, Chittaranjan; Vidhyavathi, M

2014-04-01

167

Culture and psychopathology: superstition and obsessive-compulsive cognitions and symptoms in a non-clinical Italian sample  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two-hundred and fifty-eight high and low superstitious students completed the Italian versions of well-established measures of obsessive-compulsive cognitions and symptoms, depression, anxiety and worry. After controlling for anxiety and depression, high superstitious subjects scored higher than low-superstitious on measures of overestimation of threat, impaired mental control, contamination and worry. A logistic regression analysis showed that overestimation of threat and perfectionism

Claudio Sica; Caterina Novara; Ezio Sanavio

2002-01-01

168

Obsessive-Compulsive Symptoms Associated with Clozapine and Risperidone Treatment: Three Case Reports and Review of the Literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Treatment-emergent obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCSs) have raised concern since the widespread introduction of serotonin-dopamine antagonists (SDAs) for the treatment of schizophrenia. Further investigations of SDA-emergent OCSs and their response to anti-obsessional agents will be beneficial for clinicians in helping patients who suffer from this problem. We present three cases of schizophrenia in which distressing OCSs occurred during clozapine or risperidone treatment.

Chiao-Li Ke; Cheng-Fang Yen; Cheng-Chung Chen; Shang-Ju Yang; Weilun Chung; Ming-Jen Yang

2004-01-01

169

Frequency and correlates of suicidal ideation in pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder.  

PubMed

This study examined the frequency and sociodemographic and clinical correlates of suicidal ideation in a sample of children and adolescents with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Fifty-four youth with OCD and their parent(s) were administered the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children-Present and Lifetime, Children's Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale, and Children's Depression Rating Scale-Revised. Children completed the Suicidal Ideation Questionnaire-Junior (SIQ-JR), Child Obsessive Compulsive Impact Scale-Child, and Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children; parents completed the Child Obsessive Compulsive Impact Scale-Parent, Swanson, Nolan, and Pelham-IV Parent Scale, and Young Mania Rating Scale-Parent Version. Seven youth endorsed clinically significant levels of suicidal ideation on the SIQ-JR. Suicidal ideation was significantly related to clinician-rated depressive symptoms, age, child-rated impairment and anxiety symptoms, and symmetry, sexuality/religiosity and miscellaneous symptom dimensions. There was no significant association between suicidal ideation and obsessive-compulsive symptom severity, comorbidity patterns, or several parent-rated indices (e.g., impairment, impulsivity). These results provide initial information regarding the frequency and correlates of suicidal ideation in treatment-seeking youth with OCD. Clinical implications are discussed, as well as directions for future research. PMID:24682580

Storch, Eric A; Bussing, Regina; Jacob, Marni L; Nadeau, Joshua M; Crawford, Erika; Mutch, P Jane; Mason, Dana; Lewin, Adam B; Murphy, Tanya K

2015-02-01

170

The Evolutionary Psychology of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: the role of cognitive metarepresentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Repetitive unpleasant thoughts and ritualized behaviors are the key features of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD).The classical neuroethological mod- els of OCD rely largely on behavioral similarities between animal stereotypies and human compulsive rituals and are unable to account for the cognitive component of OCD.The cognitive symptoms of OCD need to be addressed in an evolutionary psy- chological context that incorporates information

Martin Brune

2006-01-01

171

Interpersonal functioning in obsessive-compulsive personality disorder.  

PubMed

The core symptoms of obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) often lead to interpersonal difficulties. However, little research has explored interpersonal functioning in OCPD. This study examined interpersonal problems, interpersonal sensitivities, empathy, and systemizing, the drive to analyze and derive underlying rules for systems, in a sample of 25 OCPD individuals, 25 individuals with comorbid OCPD and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and 25 healthy controls. We found that OCPD individuals reported hostile-dominant interpersonal problems and sensitivities with warm-dominant behavior by others, whereas OCPD+OCD individuals reported submissive interpersonal problems and sensitivities with warm-submissive behavior by others. Individuals with OCPD, with and without OCD, reported less empathic perspective taking relative to healthy controls. Finally, we found that OCPD males reported a higher drive to analyze and derive rules for systems than OCPD females. Overall, results suggest that there are interpersonal deficits associated with OCPD and the clinical implications of these deficits are discussed. PMID:25046040

Cain, Nicole M; Ansell, Emily B; Simpson, H Blair; Pinto, Anthony

2015-01-01

172

Sex determines which section of the SLC6A4 gene is linked to obsessive-compulsive symptoms in normal Chinese college students.  

PubMed

Previous case-control and family-based association studies have implicated the SLC6A4 gene in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Little research, however, has examined this gene's role in obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCS) in community samples. The present study genotyped seven tag SNPs and two common functional tandem repeat polymorphisms (5-HTTLPR and STin2), which together cover the whole SLC6A4 gene, and investigated their associations with OCS in normal Chinese college students (N = 572). The results revealed a significant gender main effect and gender-specific genetic effects of the SLC6A4 gene on OCS. Males scored significantly higher on total OCS and its three dimensions than did females (ps < .01). The 5-HTTLPR in the promoter region showed a female-specific genetic effect, with the l/l and l/s genotypes linked to higher OCS scores than the s/s genotype (ps < .05). In contrast, a conserved haplotype polymorphism (rs1042173| rs4325622| rs3794808| rs140701| rs4583306| rs2020942) covering from intron 3 to the 3' UTR of the SLC6A4 gene showed male-specific genetic effects, with the CGAAGG/CGAAGG genotype associated with lower OCS scores than the other genotypes (ps < .05). These effects remained significant after controlling for OCS-related factors including participants' depressive and anxiety symptoms as well as stressful life events, and correction for multiple tests. These results are discussed in terms of their implications for our understanding of the sex-specific role of the different sections of the SLC6A4 gene in OCD. PMID:22727904

Lei, Xuemei; Chen, Chuansheng; He, Qinghua; Chen, Chunhui; Moyzis, Robert K; Xue, Gui; Chen, Xiongying; Cao, Zhongyu; Li, Jin; Li, He; Zhu, Bi; Chun Hsu, Anna Shan; Li, Sufang; Li, Jun; Dong, Qi

2012-09-01

173

Stress response in postpartum women with and without obsessive–compulsive symptoms: an fMRI study  

PubMed Central

Background During the postpartum period, some women might be under a considerable amount of stress and at increased risk for onset or exacerbation of obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD). Little is known about the stress response correlates during the postpartum period and in patients with OCD. This study aimed to examine the cerebral, psychologic and endocrine correlates of the stress response in patients with OCD and during the postpartum period. Methods Women with postpartum OCD, healthy postpartum women and healthy mothers past the postpartum period underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging while facing a reliable psychosocial stressor (the Montreal Imaging Stress Task). Stress-related psychologic and endocrine responses (i.e., cortisol) were obtained. Results We enrolled 12 women with postpartum OCD, 16 healthy postpartum women and 11 healthy mothers past the postpartum period in our study. Compared with healthy postpartum counterparts, postpartum women with OCD had a heightened self-reported and endocrine stress response associated with a distinct brain activation pattern in response to psychosocial stress involving the orbitofrontal and temporal cortices. Moreover, compared with mothers assessed in a period of time beyond the postpartum period, healthy postpartum women did not differ in psychologic and cortisol response to stress, but recruited different brain regions, such as the dorsolateral pre-frontal cortex and the anterior cingulate cortex, during exposure to stress. Limitations Potential confounding factors, such as medication use, breastfeeding, parity and personality factors, may have modulated the stress-related endocrine response and could not be assessed in this study. Conclusion Obsessive–compulsive disorder and the postpartum period differentially influence the brain circuitry underlying psychosocial stress as well as the psychologic and endocrine responses. PMID:22122779

Lord, Catherine; Steiner, Meir; Soares, Claudio N.; Carew, Caitlin L.; Hall, Geoffrey B.

2012-01-01

174

Anterior Capsulotomy for Treatment of Refractory Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: Results in a Young and an Old Patient  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this case report was to assess the effect of anterior capsulotomy for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) in 2 patients beyond extremes of age ranges of published radiofrequency capsulotomy. The youngest patient developed OCD at age 10 with increasing symptoms of tension and worry. The symptoms were refractory to medications and behavioral therapy. He underwent anterior capsulotomy at age

Daniel D. Christensen; Lauri V. Laitinen; Leonard J. Schmidt; Marwan I. Hariz

2002-01-01

175

Electroconvulsive therapy in obsessive-compulsive disorder: a chart review and evaluation of its potential therapeutic effects.  

PubMed

In a chart review of patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) attending a university clinic, ECT was prescribed for five subjects (1.2%), only because of severe intervening manic (N=1) or depressive episodes (N=4). Although affective symptoms improved in four of the five patients, OCD symptoms remained unchanged (N=3) or transiently worsened (N=2). PMID:25111446

Lins-Martins, Natália M; Yücel, Murat; Tovar-Moll, Fernanda; Rodrigues, Erika C; Fontenelle, Leonardo F

2015-01-01

176

Obsessive compulsive personality disorder as a predictor of exposure and ritual prevention outcome for obsessive compulsive disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite elevated rates of obsessive compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) in patients with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), no study has specifically examined comorbid OCPD as a predictor of exposure and ritual prevention (EX\\/RP) outcome. Participants were adult outpatients (n = 49) with primary OCD and a Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (YBOCS) total score ? 16 despite a therapeutic serotonin reuptake inhibitor dose for at least

Anthony Pinto; Michael R. Liebowitz; Edna B. Foa; H. Blair Simpson

2011-01-01

177

Comorbidity of obsessive–compulsive disorder with obsessive–compulsive personality disorder: Does it imply a specific subtype of obsessive–compulsive disorder?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study examined whether the comorbidity of obsessive–compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) and obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) constitute a specific subtype of OCD. The study sample consisted of 146 consecutive outpatients with a DSM-IV diagnosis of OCD. Diagnoses were established using MINI, IPDE, YBOCS and YBOCS-SC. OCD patients with comorbid OCPD were compared with OCD patients without OCPD on various sociodemographic

George Garyfallos; Konstantinos Katsigiannopoulos; Aravela Adamopoulou; Georgios Papazisis; Anastasia Karastergiou; Vasilios P. Bozikas

2010-01-01

178

Delorme et al. 1 Platelet Serotonergic Markers as Endophenotypes for Obsessive-Compulsive  

E-print Network

Delorme et al. 1 Platelet Serotonergic Markers as Endophenotypes for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder that obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has a strong genetic component, its genetic basis remains-00109585,version1 #12;Delorme et al. 3 Introduction Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a severe

Boyer, Edmond

179

Performance monitoring in obsessive-compulsive disorder Sander Nieuwenhuisa,T,1  

E-print Network

Performance monitoring in obsessive-compulsive disorder Sander Nieuwenhuisa,T,1 , Marjan M. Nielenb in revised form 17 December 2004; accepted 10 February 2005 Abstract Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD; Feedback; Error processing; Event-related potentials 1. Introduction Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD

Nieuwenhuis, Sander

180

Obsessive Compulsive Personality Disorder as a Predictor of Exposure and Ritual Prevention Outcome for Obsessive Compulsive Disorder  

PubMed Central

Despite elevated rates of obsessive compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) in patients with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), no study has specifically examined comorbid OCPD as a predictor of exposure and ritual prevention (EX/RP) outcome. Participants were adult outpatients (n = 49) with primary OCD and a Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (YBOCS) total score ? 16 despite a therapeutic serotonin reuptake inhibitor dose for at least 12 weeks prior to entry. Participants received 17 sessions of EX/RP over 8 weeks. OCD severity was assessed with the YBOCS pre- and post-treatment by independent evaluators. At baseline, 34.7% of the OCD sample met criteria for comorbid DSM-IV OCPD, assessed by structured interview. OCPD was tested as a predictor of outcome both as a diagnostic category and as a dimensional score (severity) based on the total number of OCPD symptoms coded as present and clinically significant at baseline. Both OCPD diagnosis and greater OCPD severity predicted worse EX/RP outcome, controlling for baseline OCD severity, Axis I and II comorbidity, prior treatment, quality of life, and gender. When the individual OCPD criteria were tested separately, only perfectionism predicted worse treatment outcome, over and above the previously mentioned covariates. These findings highlight the importance of assessing OCPD and suggest a need to directly address OCPD-related traits, especially perfectionism, in the context of EX/RP to minimize their interference in outcome. PMID:21600563

Pinto, Anthony; Liebowitz, Michael R.; Foa, Edna B.; Simpson, H. Blair

2011-01-01

181

Obsessive compulsive personality disorder as a predictor of exposure and ritual prevention outcome for obsessive compulsive disorder.  

PubMed

Despite elevated rates of obsessive compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) in patients with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), no study has specifically examined comorbid OCPD as a predictor of exposure and ritual prevention (EX/RP) outcome. Participants were adult outpatients (n = 49) with primary OCD and a Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (YBOCS) total score ? 16 despite a therapeutic serotonin reuptake inhibitor dose for at least 12 weeks prior to entry. Participants received 17 sessions of EX/RP over 8 weeks. OCD severity was assessed with the YBOCS pre- and post-treatment by independent evaluators. At baseline, 34.7% of the OCD sample met criteria for comorbid DSM-IV OCPD, assessed by structured interview. OCPD was tested as a predictor of outcome both as a diagnostic category and as a dimensional score (severity) based on the total number of OCPD symptoms coded as present and clinically significant at baseline. Both OCPD diagnosis and greater OCPD severity predicted worse EX/RP outcome, controlling for baseline OCD severity, Axis I and II comorbidity, prior treatment, quality of life, and gender. When the individual OCPD criteria were tested separately, only perfectionism predicted worse treatment outcome, over and above the previously mentioned covariates. These findings highlight the importance of assessing OCPD and suggest a need to directly address OCPD-related traits, especially perfectionism, in the context of EX/RP to minimize their interference in outcome. PMID:21600563

Pinto, Anthony; Liebowitz, Michael R; Foa, Edna B; Simpson, H Blair

2011-08-01

182

Sleep in obsessive compulsive disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several lines of evidence suggest that brain serotonergic systems may be disturbed in obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD).\\u000a The serotonergic system strongly affects sleep and characteristic abnormalities of sleep are documented in depression. This\\u000a study, therefore, aimed to investigate sleep structure of OCD patients in order to evaluate whether similar changes as in\\u000a depression are present. Up to now, this issue

Ulrich Voderholzer; Dieter Riemann; Christine Huwig-Poppe; Anne Katrin Kuelz; Andreas Kordon; Katharina Bruestle; Mathias Berger; Fritz Hohagen

2007-01-01

183

Symptom Dimensions in OCD: Item-Level Factor Analysis and Heritability Estimates  

E-print Network

To reduce the phenotypic heterogeneity of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) for genetic, clinical and translational studies, numerous factor analyses of the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale checklist (YBOCS-CL) have ...

Katerberg, Hilga

184

Symptom Overlap between Autism Spectrum Disorder, Generalized Social Anxiety Disorder and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder in Adults: A Preliminary Case-Controlled Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and social anxiety disorder (SAD) frequently co-occur in persons with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We studied which features distinguish ‘pure’ anxiety disordered patients from those with co-morbid ASD. Method: In a case-controlled design in which groups were matched for age, sex and educational level, patients with OCD or SAD and co-morbid ASD were compared with patients

Danielle C. Cath; Natalie Ran; Johannes H. Smit; Hannie C. Comijs

2008-01-01

185

Impulse control disorders in adults with obsessive compulsive disorder.  

PubMed

Little is known about impulse control disorders (ICDs) in individuals with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). Although studies have examined ICD comorbidity in OCD, no previous studies have examined clinical correlates of ICD comorbidity in a large sample of individuals with a primary diagnosis of OCD. We examined rates and clinical correlates of comorbid ICDs in 293 consecutive subjects with lifetime DSM-IV OCD (56.8% females; mean age=40.6+/-12.9 years). Comorbidity data were obtained with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV. ICDs were diagnosed with structured clinical interviews using DSM-IV criteria. OCD severity was assessed with the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale. Quality of life and social/occupational functioning were examined using the Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire and the Social and Occupational Functioning Assessment Scale. All variables were compared in OCD subjects with and without lifetime and current ICDs. Forty-eight (16.4%) OCD subjects had a lifetime ICD, and 34 (11.6%) had a current ICD. Skin picking was the most common lifetime (10.4%) and current (7.8%) ICD, followed by nail biting with lifetime and current rates of 4.8% and 2.4%, respectively. OCD subjects with current ICDs had significantly worse OCD symptoms and poorer functioning and quality of life. These preliminary results suggest that there is a low prevalence of ICDs among individuals with OCD, although certain ICDs (skin picking) appear to be more common. PMID:16430922

Grant, Jon E; Mancebo, Maria C; Pinto, Anthony; Eisen, Jane L; Rasmussen, Steven A

2006-09-01

186

Clinical correlates and genetic linkage of social and communication difficulties in families with obsessive-compulsive disorder: Results from the OCD Collaborative Genetics Study.  

PubMed

Some individuals with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) have autistic-like traits, including deficits in social and communication behaviors (pragmatics). The objective of this study was to determine if pragmatic impairment aggregates in OCD families and discriminates a clinically and genetically distinct subtype of OCD. We conducted clinical examinations on, and collected DNA samples from, 706 individuals with OCD in 221 multiply affected OCD families. Using the Pragmatic Rating Scale (PRS), we compared the prevalence of pragmatic impairment in OCD-affected relatives of probands with and without pragmatic impairment. We also compared clinical features of OCD-affected individuals in families having at least one, versus no, individual with pragmatic impairment, and assessed for linkage to OCD in the two groups of families. The odds of pragmatic impairment were substantially greater in OCD-affected relatives of probands with pragmatic impairment. Individuals in high-PRS families had greater odds of separation anxiety disorder and social phobia, and a greater number of schizotypal personality traits. In high-PRS families, there was suggestive linkage to OCD on chromosome 12 at marker D12S1064 and on chromosome X at marker DXS7132 whereas, in low-PRS families, there was suggestive linkage to chromosome 3 at marker D3S2398. Pragmatic impairment aggregates in OCD families. Separation anxiety disorder, social phobia, and schizotypal personality traits are part of a clinical spectrum associated with pragmatic impairment in these families. Specific regions of chromosomes 12 and X are linked to OCD in high-PRS families. Thus, pragmatic impairment may distinguish a clinically and genetically homogeneous subtype of OCD. PMID:24798771

Samuels, Jack; Shugart, Yin Yao; Wang, Ying; Grados, Marco A; Bienvenu, O Joseph; Pinto, Anthony; Rauch, Scott L; Greenberg, Benjamin D; Knowles, James A; Fyer, Abby J; Piacentini, John; Pauls, David L; Cullen, Bernadette; Rasmussen, Steven A; Stewart, S Evelyn; Geller, Dan A; Maher, Brion S; Goes, Fernando S; Murphy, Dennis L; McCracken, James T; Riddle, Mark A; Nestadt, Gerald

2014-06-01

187

A group-based treatment for clients with Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) in a secondary care mental health setting: Integrating new developments within cognitive behavioural interventions – An exploratory study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims: This paper presents a model of a group-based intervention for the treatment of clients with Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) referred to secondary mental health care services, which has been developed by the authors over the last five years. Method: Groups are not a common form of treatment design for this client group, however the available literature is briefly reviewed

Hamilton Fairfax; Jane Barfield

2010-01-01

188

Localized Orbitofrontal and Subcortical Metabolic Changes and Predictors of Response to Paroxetine Treatment in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous positron emission tomography (PET) studies of patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) have found elevated glucose metabolic rates in the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and caudate nuclei that normalize with response to treatment. Furthermore, OCD symptom provocation differentially activates specific subregions of the OFC, which have distinct patterns of connectivity and serve different functions. Therefore, we sought to determine the role

Sanjaya Saxena; Arthur L Brody; Karron M Maidment; Jennifer J Dunkin; Mark Colgan; Shervin Alborzian; Michael E Phelps; Lewis R Baxter

1999-01-01

189

Behavioral versus Cognitive Treatment of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: An Examination of Outcome and Mediators of Change  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To examine symptom change over time, the effect of attrition on treatment outcome, and the putative mediators of cognitive therapy (CT) versus behavior therapy (BT) for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) using archival data. Method: Sixty-two adults with OCD were randomized to 20 sessions of CT (N = 30) or BT (N = 32) that consisted of…

Olatunji, Bunmi O.; Rosenfield, David; Tart, Candyce D.; Cottraux, Jean; Powers, Mark B.; Smits, Jasper A. J.

2013-01-01

190

Teaching Students with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a neurobiological condition affecting 1 of every 200 school-age children. OCD greatly affects students' academic, behavioral, and social functioning, and it can lead to additional problem such as depression. To effectively collaborate with other individuals providing appropriate support to students with OCD,…

Leininger, Melissa; Dyches, Tina Taylor; Prater, Mary Anne; Heath, Melissa Allen

2010-01-01

191

Comparing Treatment Approaches for Obsessive Compulsive Disorder.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current status of research literature relevant to obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) is reviewed. Models proposing the etiology and maintenance of OCD, empirically established treatments for OCD, and research supporting cognitive approaches to treatment are also included in the review. Until recently, most of the controlled research…

Gariglietti, Kelli P.; Schemmel, Todd A.

192

Differences in obsessional beliefs and emotion appraisal in obsessive compulsive symptom presentation  

E-print Network

-Clear Lake, Houston, TX, United Sates d Center for Anxiety and Depression Treatment of Houston, TX, United States e McLean Hospital, Boston, MA, United States a r t i c l e i n f o Article history: Received 23 November 2011 Keywords: Obsessive-compulsive disorder Obsessional beliefs Emotions Subtypes a b s t r a c

O'Toole, Alice J.

193

A systematic review: antipsychotic augmentation with treatment refractory obsessive-compulsive disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

As many as half of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) patients treated with an adequate trial of serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SRIs) fail to fully respond to treatment and continue to exhibit significant symptoms. Many studies have assessed the effectiveness of antipsychotic augmentation in SRI-refractory OCD. In this systematic review, we evaluate the efficacy of antipsychotic augmentation in treatment-refractory OCD. The electronic databases

M H Bloch; A Landeros-Weisenberger; B Kelmendi; V Coric; M B Bracken; J F Leckman

2006-01-01

194

The Sense of Incompleteness as a Motivator of Obsessive-Compulsive Symptoms: An Empirical Analysis of Concepts and Correlates  

PubMed Central

Contemporary models of obsessive-compulsive disorder emphasize the importance of harm avoidance (HA) and related dysfunctional beliefs as motivators of obsessive-compulsive (OC) symptoms. Recently, there has been a resurgence of interest in Janet’s (1908) concept of incompleteness (INC) as another potentially important motivator. Contemporary investigators define INC as the sense that one’s actions, intentions, or experiences have not been properly achieved. Janet defined INC more broadly to include alexithymia, depersonalization, derealization, and impaired psychological mindedness. We conducted two studies to address four issues: (a) the clinical correlates of INC; (b) whether INC and HA are distinguishable constructs; (c) whether INC predicts OC symptoms after controlling for HA; and (d) the relative merits of broad versus narrow conceptualizations of INC. Study 1 was a meta-analysis of the clinical correlates of narrowly defined INC (16 studies, N=5,940). INC was correlated with all types of OC symptoms, and was more strongly correlated with OC symptoms than with general distress. Study 2 (N=534 nonclinical participants) showed that: (a) INC and HA were strongly correlated but factor analytically distinguishable; (b) INC statistically predicted all types of OC symptoms even after controlling for HA; and (c) narrow INC was most strongly correlated with OC symptoms whereas broad INC was most strongly correlated with general distress. Although the findings are limited by being correlational in nature, they support the hypothesis that INC, especially in its narrow form, is a motivator of OC symptoms. PMID:24491200

Taylor, Steven; McKay, Dean; Crowe, Katherine B.; Abramowitz, Jonathan S.; Conelea, Christine A.; Calamari, John E.; Sica, Claudio

2014-01-01

195

Association of the serotonin transporter promoter regulatory region polymorphism and obsessive-compulsive disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although modulation of symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) by serotonergic agents is well established, it is unclear whether an abnormality in the central serotonergic system is involved in its etiology. The serotonin (5-HT) transporter (5-HTT), which is the key modulator of serotonergic neurotransmission, is the target for serotonin reuptake inhibiting drugs (SRIs) that are uniquely effective in the treatment of

D Bengel; B D Greenberg; G Corá-Locatelli; M Altemus; A Heils; Q Li; D L Murphy

1999-01-01

196

Children with Very Early Onset Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: Clinical Features and Treatment Outcome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: There is emerging evidence that early onset obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) may be a phenomenologically distinct subtype of the disorder. Previous research has shown that individuals who report an early onset display greater severity and persistence of symptoms, and they may be less responsive to treatment. To date, this question…

Nakatani, Eriko; Krebs, Georgina; Micali, Nadia; Turner, Cynthia; Heyman, Isobel; Mataix-Cols, David

2011-01-01

197

Development and Validation of a Child Version of the Obsessive Compulsive Inventory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Surprisingly, only 3 self-report measures that directly assess pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) have been developed. In addition, these scales have typically been developed in small samples and fail to provide a quick assessment of symptoms across multiple domains. Therefore, the current paper presents initial psychometric data for a…

Foa, Edna B.; Coles, Meredith; Huppert, Jonathan D.; Pasupuleti, Radhika V.; Franklin, Martin E.; March, John

2010-01-01

198

Hypnotically Facilitated Treatment of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: Can it Be Evidence-Based?  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are extensive evidence-based guidelines for the treatment of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) with medication, behavior therapy, and cognitive therapy. Nevertheless, there remain a significant percentage of patients whose symptoms are more or less refractory to standardized treatments. This situation could be rooted in the phenotypic heterogeneity of the disorder as well as in its high rates of comorbid psychopathology. Studies

Claire Frederick

2007-01-01

199

The Semantic Simon Effect in Tourette's Syndrome and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Core symptoms of Tourette's syndrome (TS) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) may be attributed to an impairment in inhibitory control. Neuropsychological studies have addressed inhibition in both disorders, but findings have been inconsistent. The aim of this study was to examine cognitive inhibition, using a semantic Simon effect paradigm,…

Rankins, D.; Bradshaw, J. L.; Georgiou-Karistianis, N.

2006-01-01

200

Obsessive-Compulsive Symptoms and Their Impacts on Psychosocial Functioning in People with Epilepsy  

PubMed Central

Background and Purpose Obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCS) in people with epilepsy (PWE) have not been studied systematically. We evaluated the severity, predictors, and psychosocial impact of OCS in PWE. Methods We recruited PWE who visited our epilepsy clinic and age-, gender-, and education-matched healthy controls. Both PWE and healthy controls completed the Maudsley Obsessional-Compulsive Inventory (MOCI), which measures OCS. PWE also completed the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and the Quality of Life in Epilepsy Inventory-31 (QOLIE-31). We examined the severity of OCS in PWE relative to healthy controls. Predictors of OCS and the QOLIE-31 score were measured by regression analyses. A path analysis model was constructed to verify interrelations between the variables. Results The MOCI total score was significantly higher in PWE than in healthy controls (p=0.002). OCS were found in 20% of eligible patients. The strongest predictor of the MOCI total score was the BDI score (?=0.417, p<0.001), followed by EEG abnormality (?=0.194, p<0.001) and etiology (?=0.107, p=0.031). Epileptic syndrome, the side of the epileptic focus, and action mechanisms of antiepileptic drugs did not affect the MOCI total score. The strongest predictor of the QOLIE-31 overall score was the BDI score (?=-0.569, p<0.001), followed by seizure control (?=-0.163, p<0.001) and the MOCI total score (?=-0.148, p=0.001). The MOCI total score directly affected the QOLIE-31 overall score and also exerted indirect effects on the QOLIE-31 overall score through seizure control and the BDI score. Conclusions OCS are more likely to develop in PWE than in healthy people. The development of OCS appears to elicit psychosocial problems directly or indirectly by provoking depression or uncontrolled seizures. PMID:24829598

Seo, Ji-Hye; Lee, Won-Kee

2014-01-01

201

Children and adolescents with obsessive-compulsive disorder and comorbid attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: preliminary results of a prospective follow-up study.  

PubMed

In the present study, we have investigated the influence of comorbid attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) on early onset obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). For that purpose, we compared 20 patients with "OCD with ADHD" and 20 randomly selected patients with "OCD without ADHD". "OCD with ADHD" patients tended to show an earlier age of OCD onset, a higher severity of symptoms and a higher persistence rate than OCD patients without ADHD. Both groups appear to develop different patterns of comorbid disorders. PMID:18200431

Walitza, S; Zellmann, H; Irblich, B; Lange, K W; Tucha, O; Hemminger, U; Wucherer, K; Rost, V; Reinecker, H; Wewetzer, C; Warnke, A

2008-01-01

202

When cancer is associated with illness but no longer with animal or zodiac sign: investigation of biased semantic networks in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD).  

PubMed

Building upon semantic network models, it is proposed that individuals with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) process ambiguous words (e.g., homographs such as cancer) preferably in the context of the OC meaning (i.e., illness) and connect them to a lesser degree to other (neutral) cognitions (e.g., animal). To investigate this assumption, a new task was designed requiring participants to generate up to five associations for different cue words. Cue words were either emotionally neutral, negative or OC-relevant. Two thirds of the items were homographs, while the rest was unambiguous. Twenty-five OCD and 21 healthy participants were recruited via internet. Analyses reveal that OCD participants produced significantly more negative and OC-relevant associations than controls, supporting the assumption of biased associative networks in OCD. The findings support the use of psychological interventions such as Association Splitting that aim at restructuring associative networks in OCD by broadening the semantic scope of OC cognitions. PMID:19640676

Jelinek, Lena; Hottenrott, Birgit; Moritz, Steffen

2009-12-01

203

[Obsessive-compulsive symptoms in structural ego defects--a study exemplified by anorexia and bulimia nervosa].  

PubMed

The present study reports findings concerning the hypothesis whether patients with narcissistic self-system disturbances show more obsessive-compulsive (OC) symptoms as compared to patients without such disturbances. Ninety-one patients meeting DSM-III-R criteria for anorexia nervosa (AN) or bulimia nervosa (BN) were investigated using the Narzissmusinventar (NI), the Hamburger-Zwangsinventar (HZI), the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS) and the Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI). The NI-data demonstrated a great variance of self-system disturbances in AN and BN; a cluster analysis identified two different clinical features. In comparison to eating disorder patients without concomitant disturbances of the self-system (n = 34) the patient group with such narcissistic deficits (n = 57) showed significantly higher Y-BOCS and HZI-scores indicating more and severer OC symptoms. These patients also had significantly higher and hence pathologic means on seven of eight EDI scales. The results suggest that OC behaviour may be an unconscious attempt to stabilize the self-system equilibrium, i.e. counteracting narcisstic desintegration. Regulatory processes of the self-system and OC symptoms may present additional prognostic factors and lead to new approaches in psychotherapy research. PMID:7709658

Thiel, A; Schüssler, G

1995-01-01

204

Five-Year Course of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: Predictors of Remission and Relapse  

PubMed Central

Background Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a heterogeneous and disabling condition; however, no studies have examined symptom categories or subtypes as predictors of long-term clinical course in adults with primary OCD. Method A total of 213 adults with DSM-IV OCD were recruited from several mental health treatment sites between July 2001 and February 2006 as part of the Brown Longitudinal Obsessive Compulsive Study, a prospective, naturalistic study of treatment-seeking adults with primary OCD. OCD symptoms were assessed annually over the 5-year follow-up period using the Longitudinal Interval Follow-Up Evaluation. Results Thirty-nine percent of participants experienced either a partial (22.1%) or a full (16.9%) remission. Two OCD symptom dimensions impacted remission. Participants with primary obsessions regarding overresponsibility for harm were nearly twice as likely to experience a remission (P < .05), whereas only 2 of 21 participants (9.5%) with primary hoarding achieved remission. Other predictors of increased remission were lower OCD severity (P < .0001) and shorter duration of illness (P < .0001). Fifty-nine percent of participants who remitted subsequently relapsed. Participants with obsessive-compulsive personality disorder were more than twice as likely to relapse (P < .005). Participants were also particularly vulnerable to relapse if they experienced partial remission versus full remission (70% vs 45%; P < .05). Conclusions The contributions of OCD symptom categories and comorbid obsessive-compulsive personality disorder are critically important to advancing our understanding of the prognosis and ultimately the successful treatment of OCD. Longer duration of illness was also found to be a significant predictor of course, highlighting the critical importance of early detection and treatment of OCD. Furthermore, having full remission as a treatment target is an important consideration for the prevention of relapse in this disorder. PMID:23561228

Eisen, Jane L.; Sibrava, Nicholas J.; Boisseau, Christina L.; Mancebo, Maria C.; Stout, Robert L.; Pinto, Anthony; Rasmussen, Steven A.

2014-01-01

205

Treatment of Sexual-Orientation Obsessions in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Using Exposure and Ritual Prevention  

Microsoft Academic Search

Presented is a case report of exposure and ritual prevention (EX\\/RP) therapy administered to a 51-year-old, White, heterosexual male with sexual-orientation obsessions in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The patient had been previously treated with pharmacotherapy, resulting in inadequate symptom reduction and unwanted side effects. OCD symptoms included anxiety about the possibility of becoming gay, mental reassurance, and avoidance of other men,

Monnica T. Williams; Marjorie Crozier; Mark Powers

2011-01-01

206

Abnormalities of White Matter Microstructure in Unmedicated Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder and  

E-print Network

Abnormalities of White Matter Microstructure in Unmedicated Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder of myelin integrity have been reported in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) using multi- parameter maps Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder and Changes after Medication. PLoS ONE 7(4): e35889. doi:10.1371/journal

207

Socioemotional deficits associated with obsessive-compulsive symptomatology.  

PubMed

Increasing emphasis has been placed on the role of socioemotional functioning in models of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The present study investigated whether OCD symptoms were associated with capacity for theory of mind (ToM) and basic affect recognition. Non-clinical volunteers (N=204) completed self report measures of OCD and general psychopathology, in addition to behavioral measures of ToM and affect recognition. The results indicated that higher OCD symptoms were associated with reduced ToM, as well as reduced accuracy decoding the specific emotion of disgust. Importantly, these relationships could not be attributed to other, more general features of psychopathology. The findings of the current study therefore further our understanding of how the processing and interpretation of social and emotional information is affected in the context of OCD symptomatology, and are discussed in relation to neuropsychological models of OCD. PMID:20022385

Grisham, Jessica R; Henry, Julie D; Williams, Alishia D; Bailey, Phoebe E

2010-02-28

208

Obsessive Compulsive and Tic Related Disorders  

PubMed Central

Synopsis Youth affected by obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) and by chronic tic disorders (CTDs) often experience significant distress, functional impairment, and psychiatric comorbidity which collectively compromise quality of life and achievement of developmental milestones. We review the extant literature on the phenomenology and treatment of these conditions in youth, and summarize the state of the treatment literature, focusing particularly on the application of psychosocial interventions that have yielded substantial symptom improvements. Comorbidity of OCD and CTDs is common, and we provide clinical recommendations for managing patients when both disorders are present. We conclude with a brief discussion of clinical controversies, particularly the central role ascribed to habituation as the mechanism by which these treatments' effects are realized. PMID:22800994

Franklin, Martin E.; Harrison, Julie; Benavides, Kristin

2012-01-01

209

Responsibility and perfectionism in OCD: an experimental study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cognitive models of obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) suggest a number of different variables that may play a role in the development and maintenance of obsessive compulsive symptoms [Freeston, M. H., Rhéaume, J., & Ladouceur, R. (1996) Correcting faulty appraisals of obsessional thoughts. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 34, 433–446]. This study's aim was to verify the effect of perfectionism and excessive responsibility

Catherine Bouchard; Josée Rhéaume; Robert Ladouceur

1999-01-01

210

Anxiety Sensitivity and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Anxiety sensitivity (AS), a cognitive risk factor for anxiety disorders, was evaluated in a homogeneous obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) sample. A total of 280 individuals with OCD completed measures. Evaluation of the Anxiety Sensitivity Index revealed a latent structure that was congruent with previous studies showing a single higher order…

Calamari, John E.; Rector, Neil A.; Woodard, John L.; Cohen, Robyn J.; Chik, Heather M.

2008-01-01

211

The relation between obsessive-compulsive personality traits and subtypes of compulsive behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nature of the relationship between obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has been the subject of considerable debate. The current study examined the hypothesis of a differential association of compulsive checking and washing behaviours with obsessive-compulsive personality traits within a nonclincal sample utilizing the Checking and Washing subscales of the Maudsley Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory (MOCI). Since checking behavior

Natalie A. Gibbs; Thomas F. Oltmanns

1995-01-01

212

Understudied Clinical Dimensions in Pediatric Obsessive Compulsive Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study aimed to assess the phenomenology and treatment sensitivity of insight, avoidance, indecisiveness, overvalued responsibility, pervasive slowness, and pathological doubting among youth with Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) using the ancillary items on the Children's Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (CY-BOCS). These factors…

Lewin, Adam B.; Caporino, Nicole; Murphy, Tanya K.; Geffken, Gary R.; Storch, Eric A.

2010-01-01

213

Memory and metamemory in obsessive–compulsive disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies on the link between checking and memory problems have produced equivocal results regarding a general memory deficit in patients with obsessive–compulsive disorder and subclinical checkers. However, there is clear and consistent evidence that patients with obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) show lack of confidence in their memory performance. The purpose of the present study was to investigate memory and metamemory performance

?ehnaz Tuna; Ali ?. Tekcan; Volkan Topçuo?lu

2005-01-01

214

Reappraisal of spontaneous stereotypy in the deer mouse as an animal model of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD): response to escitalopram treatment and basal serotonin transporter (SERT) density.  

PubMed

Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is characterized by recurrent thoughts and repetitive motor actions. Hyposerotonergic signalling in the cortico-striatal circuitry is believed to be central to the pathology of OCD, while many patients only respond to chronic treatment with high dose selective serotonin (5HT) reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). Confined deer mice spontaneously develop two forms of stereotypy, namely vertical jumping and pattern running. The purpose of this investigation was to reappraise these behaviours and strengthen the validity of deer mouse stereotypy as an animal model of OCD within a framework of three study questions: (1) can the time spent executing stereotypical behaviours be employed as a measure of extent of stereotypy, (2) does deer mouse stereotypy only respond to chronic, but not sub-chronic treatment with a high-dose SSRI, and (3) is deer mouse stereotypy associated with altered cortico-striatal 5HT transporter (SERT) binding? The current study demonstrates that treatment naïve high stereotypical (HS) deer mice spend significantly more time executing stereotypical behaviours while significantly less time is spent indulging in stereotypy following chronic, but not sub-chronic, treatment with escitalopram. Furthermore, HS deer mice present with a significant decrease in striatal SERT density compared to non-stereotypical (NS) controls. Building on previous validation studies, we conclude that deer mouse stereotypy is a valid naturalistic animal model of OCD with robust face, construct and predictive validity. PMID:24013013

Wolmarans, De Wet; Brand, Linda; Stein, Dan J; Harvey, Brian H

2013-11-01

215

Predictors of Treatment Outcome in Modular Cognitive Therapy for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder  

PubMed Central

Background The present study sought to identify predictors of outcome for a comprehensive cognitive therapy (CT) developed for patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Methods Treatment was delivered over 22 sessions and included standard CT methods, as well as specific strategies designed for subtypes of OCD including religious, sexual and other obsessions. This study of 39 participants assigned to CT examined predictors of outcomes assessed on the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale. A variety of baseline symptom variables were examined as well as treatment expectancy and motivation. Results Findings indicated that participants who perceived themselves as having more severe OCD at baseline remained in treatment but more severe symptoms were marginally associated with worse outcome for those who completed therapy. Depressed and anxious mood did not predict post-test outcome, but more Axis I comorbid diagnoses (mainly major depression and anxiety disorders), predicted more improvement, as did the presence of sexual (but not religious) OCD symptoms, and stronger motivation (but not expectancy). A small rebound in OCD symptoms at 1-year follow-up was significantly predicted by higher scores on personality traits, especially for schizotypal (but not obsessive-compulsive personality) traits. Conclusions Longer treatment may be needed for those with more severe symptoms at the outset. CT may have positive effects not only on OCD symptoms but also on comorbid depressive and anxious disorders and associated underlying core beliefs. Findings are discussed in light of study limitations and research on other predictors. PMID:21308884

Steketee, Gail; Siev, Jedidiah; Fama, Jeanne M.; Keshaviah, Aparna; Chosak, Anne; Wilhelm, Sabine

2011-01-01

216

Early Alliance, Alliance Ruptures, and Symptom Change in a Nonrandomized Trial of Cognitive Therapy for Avoidant and Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Participants were 30 adult outpatients diagnosed with avoidant personality disorder or obsessive-compulsive personality disorder who enrolled in an open trial of cognitive therapy for personality disorders. Treatment consisted of up to 52 weekly sessions. Symptom evaluations were conducted at intake, at Sessions 17 and 34, and at the last…

Strauss, Jennifer L.; Hayes, Adele M.; Johnson, Sheri L.; Newman, Cory F.; Brown, Gregory K.; Barber, Jaques P.; Lawrenceau, Jean-Philippe; Beck, Aaron T.

2006-01-01

217

Psychometric Properties of the Obsessive Compulsive Inventory: Child Version in Children and Adolescents with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The psychometric properties of the Obsessive Compulsive Inventory-Child Version (OCI-CV) were examined in ninety-six youth with a primary/co-primary diagnosis of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). A confirmatory factor analysis revealed an acceptable model of fit with factors consisting of doubting/checking, obsessing, hoarding, washing,…

Jones, Anna M.; De Nadai, Alessandro S.; Arnold, Elysse B.; McGuire, Joseph F.; Lewin, Adam B.; Murphy, Tanya K.; Storch, Eric A.

2013-01-01

218

Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy in obsessive-compulsive disorder: protocol of a randomized controlled trial.  

PubMed

BackgroundObsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a very disabling condition with a chronic course, if left untreated. Though cognitive behavioral treatment (CBT) with or without selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) is the method of choice, up to one third of individuals with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) do not respond to treatment in terms of at least 35% improvement of symptoms. Mindfulness based cognitive therapy (MBCT) is an 8-week group program that could help OCD patients with no or only partial response to CBT to reduce OC symptoms and develop a helpful attitude towards obsessions and compulsive urges.Methods/designThis study is a prospective, bicentric, assessor-blinded, randomized, actively-controlled clinical trial. 128 patients with primary diagnosis of OCD according to DSM-IV and no or only partial response to CBT will be recruited from in- and outpatient services as well as online forums and the media. Patients will be randomized to either an MBCT intervention group or to a psycho-educative coaching group (OCD-EP) as an active control condition. All participants will undergo eight weekly sessions with a length of 120 minutes each of a structured group program. We hypothesize that MBCT will be superior to OCD-EP in reducing obsessive-compulsive symptoms as measured by the Yale-Brown-Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS) following the intervention and at 6- and 12-months-follow-up. Secondary outcome measures include depressive symptoms, quality of life, metacognitive beliefs, self-compassion, mindful awareness and approach-avoidance tendencies as measured by an approach avoidance task.DiscussionThe results of this study will elucidate the benefits of MBCT for OCD patients who did not sufficiently benefit from CBT. To our knowledge, this is the first randomized controlled study assessing the effects of MBCT on symptom severity and associated parameters in OCD.Trial registrationGerman Clinical Trials Register DRKS00004525. Registered 19 March 2013. PMID:25403813

Külz, Anne; Landmann, Sarah; Cludius, Barbara; Hottenrott, Birgit; Rose, Nina; Heidenreich, Thomas; Hertenstein, Elisabeth; Voderholzer, Ulrich; Moritz, Steffen

2014-11-18

219

Perfectionism in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Considerable theory and anecdotal evidence has suggested that patients with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) are more perfectionistic. Evidence with non-clinical populations supports this hypothesis. However, no data are available on levels of perfectionism among patients diagnosed with OCD. The present study extends findings on perfectionism and OCD by comparing perfectionism levels of OCD-diagnosed patients with those of non-patients and a group

Randy O. Frost; Gail Steketee

1997-01-01

220

Obsessive-compulsive syndromes and disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To determine the prevalence and clinical characteristics of comorbid obsessive compulsive disorders and syndromes (OCD\\/OCS), compared with pure OCD\\/OCS among adults in the community. Method Data were drawn from the Zurich Study, a longitudinal cohort study of 591 adults in the canton of Zurich. Comorbid OCD\\/OCS was compared with pure OCD\\/OCS groups in terms of distress, impairment, family history,

Jules Angst; Alex Gamma; Jérôme Endrass; Elie Hantouche; Renée Goodwin; Vladeta Ajdacic; Dominique Eich; Wulf Rössler

2005-01-01

221

Distinct Neural Correlates of Washing, Checking, and Hoarding Symptom Dimensions in Obsessive-compulsive Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results: Both patients and control subjects experi- enced increased subjective anxiety during symptom provocation (patients significantly more so) and acti- vated neural regions previously linked to OCD. Analy- ses of covariance, controlling for depression, showed a distinct pattern of activation associated with each symp- tom dimension. Patients demonstrated significantly greater activation than controls in bilateral ventromedial pre- frontal regions and

David Mataix-Cols; Sarah Wooderson; Natalia Lawrence; Michael J. Brammer; Anne Speckens; Mary L. Phillips

2004-01-01

222

Streptococcal upper respiratory tract infections and exacerbations of tic and obsessive-compulsive symptoms: A prospective longitudinal study  

PubMed Central

Objective The objective of this blinded, prospective longitudinal study was to determine whether new group A beta hemolytic streptococcal (GABHS) infections are temporally associated with exacerbations of tic or obsessive-compulsive (OC) symptoms in children who met published criteria for Pediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorders Associated with Streptococcal infections (PANDAS). A group of children with Tourette syndrome and/or obsessive-compulsive disorder without a PANDAS history served as the (non-PANDAS) comparison group. Method Consecutive clinical ratings of tic and OC symptom severity were obtained for 31 PANDAS subjects and 53 non-PANDAS subjects. Clinical symptoms and laboratory values (throat cultures and streptococcal antibody titers) were evaluated at regular intervals during a 25 month period. Additional testing occurred at the time of any tic or OC symptom exacerbation. New GABHS infections were established by throat swab cultures and/or recent significant rise in streptococcal antibodies. Laboratory personnel were blinded to case or control status, clinical (exacerbation or not) condition, and clinical evaluators were blinded to the laboratory results. Results No group differences were observed in either the number of clinical exacerbations or the number of newly diagnosed GABHS infections. On only six occasions out of a total of 51 (12%) a newly diagnosed GABHS infection was followed, within two months, by an exacerbation of tic and/or OC symptoms. In every instance, this association occurred in the non-PANDAS group. Conclusions This study provides no evidence for a temporal association between GABHS infections and tic/OC symptom exacerbations in children who meet the published PANDAS diagnostic criteria. PMID:21241948

Leckman, James F.; King, Robert A.; Gilbert, Donald L.; Coffey, Barbara J.; Singer, Harvey S.; Dure, Leon S.; Grantz, Heidi; Katsovich, Liliya; Lin, Haiqun; Lombroso, Paul J.; Kawikova, Ivana; Johnson, Dwight R.; Kurlan, Roger M.; Kaplan, Edward L.

2010-01-01

223

Are stressful life events causally related to the severity of obsessive-compulsive symptoms? A monozygotic twin difference study.  

PubMed

Traumatic or stressful life events have long been hypothesized to play a role in causing or precipitating obsessive-compulsive symptoms but the impact of these environmental factors has rarely been investigated using genetically informative designs. We tested whether a wide range of retrospectively-reported stressful life events (SLEs) influence the lifetime presence and severity of obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCS) in a large Swedish population-based cohort of 22,084 twins. Multiple regression models examined whether differences in SLEs within twin pairs were significantly associated with differences in OCS. In the entire sample (i.e., both monozygotic [MZ] and dizygotic twin pairs), two SLEs factors, "abuse and family disruption" and "sexual abuse", were significantly associated with the severity of OCS even after controlling for depressive symptoms. Other SLEs factors were either not associated with OCS ("loss", "non-sexual assault") or were no longer associated with OCS after controlling for depression ("illness/injury"). Within MZ pair analyses, which effectively control for genetic and shared environmental effects, showed that only the "abuse and family disruption" factor remained independently related to within-pair differences in OCS severity, even after controlling for depressive symptoms. Despite being statistically significant, the magnitude of the associations was small; "abuse and family disruption" explained approximately 3% of the variance in OCS severity. We conclude that OCS are selectively associated with certain types of stressful life events. In particular, a history of interpersonal abuse, neglect and family disruption may make a modest but significant contribution to the severity of OCS. Further replication in longitudinal cohorts is essential before causality can be firmly established. PMID:25511316

Vidal-Ribas, P; Stringaris, A; Rück, C; Serlachius, E; Lichtenstein, P; Mataix-Cols, D

2015-02-01

224

Are stressful life events causally related to the severity of obsessive-compulsive symptoms? A monozygotic twin difference study  

PubMed Central

Traumatic or stressful life events have long been hypothesized to play a role in causing or precipitating obsessive-compulsive symptoms but the impact of these environmental factors has rarely been investigated using genetically informative designs. We tested whether a wide range of retrospectively-reported stressful life events (SLEs) influence the lifetime presence and severity of obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCS) in a large Swedish population-based cohort of 22,084 twins. Multiple regression models examined whether differences in SLEs within twin pairs were significantly associated with differences in OCS. In the entire sample (i.e., both monozygotic [MZ] and dizygotic twin pairs), two SLEs factors, “abuse and family disruption” and “sexual abuse”, were significantly associated with the severity of OCS even after controlling for depressive symptoms. Other SLEs factors were either not associated with OCS (“loss”, “non-sexual assault”) or were no longer associated with OCS after controlling for depression (“illness/injury”). Within MZ pair analyses, which effectively control for genetic and shared environmental effects, showed that only the “abuse and family disruption” factor remained independently related to within-pair differences in OCS severity, even after controlling for depressive symptoms. Despite being statistically significant, the magnitude of the associations was small; “abuse and family disruption” explained approximately 3% of the variance in OCS severity. We conclude that OCS are selectively associated with certain types of stressful life events. In particular, a history of interpersonal abuse, neglect and family disruption may make a modest but significant contribution to the severity of OCS. Further replication in longitudinal cohorts is essential before causality can be firmly established. PMID:25511316

Vidal-Ribas, P.; Stringaris, A.; Rück, C.; Serlachius, E.; Lichtenstein, P.; Mataix-Cols, D.

2015-01-01

225

[Development of sexuality and motivational aspects of sexual behavior in men with obsessive-compulsive disorders].  

PubMed

Sexual behavior and formation of sexuality in men with obsessive-compulsive disorder is one of the pressing issues in contemporary medicine. Obsessive-compulsive disorder is characterized by the development of intrusive thoughts, memories, movements and actions, as well as a variety of pathological fears (phobias). Increase in the number of patients with this pathology in modern clinical practice of neurotic disorders, the young age of the patients and as a result violation of interpersonal, communicational and sexual nature is quite apparent. The study involved 35 men aged 23 to 47 years with clinical signs of OCD. We determined the severity of obsessive-compulsive symptoms using the Yale-Brown scale. We established the presence of a mild degree of disorder in 34,3% of cases; in 48,6% of cases disorder of moderate severity was diagnosed; remaining 17.1% were assessed subclinical condition of OCD at the applicable scale. The system of motivational maintenance of sexual behavior in men with obsessive-compulsive disorders is investigated. Motives of sexual behavior of the investigated men with the pathology are determined. The presented research in men with OCD have established multidimensionality and complexity of motivational ensuring of sexual behavior. PMID:25341245

2014-09-01

226

Disgust Implicated in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Psychiatric classificatory systems consider obsessions and compulsions as forms of anxiety disorder. However, the neurology of diseases associated with obsessive-compulsive symptoms suggests the involvement of fronto-striatal regions likely to be involved in the mediation of the emotion of disgust, suggesting that dysfunctions of disgust should be considered alongside anxiety in the pathogenesis of obsessive-compulsive behaviours. We therefore tested recognition of

R. Sprengelmeyer; I. Pundt; A. Sprengelmeyer; A. J. Calder; G. Berrios; R. Winkel; W. Vollmoeller; W. Kuhn; G. Sartory; H. Przuntek

1997-01-01

227

Cognitive-behavioral family treatment for childhood obsessive-compulsive disorder: A 7-year follow-up study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluated the long-term durability of individual and group cognitive-behavioral family-based therapy (CBFT) for childhood obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Thirty-eight participants (age 13–24 years) from a randomized controlled trial of individual or group CBFT for childhood OCD were assessed 7 years post-treatment. Diagnostic, symptom severity interviews and self-report measures of OCD, anxiety, and depression were administered. Seven years after treatment,

Emily Marie McHugh O’Leary; Paula Barrett; Krister W. Fjermestad

2009-01-01

228

Controlled Comparison of Family Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and Psychoeducation/Relaxation Training for Child Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To examine the efficacy of exposure-based cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) plus a structured family intervention (FCBT) versus psychoeducation plus relaxation training (PRT) for reducing symptom severity, functional impairment, and family accommodation in youths with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Method: A total of 71…

Piacentini, John; Bergman, R. Lindsey; Chang, Susanna; Langley, Audra; Peris, Tara; Wood, Jeffrey J.; McCracken, James

2011-01-01

229

Obsessive-compulsive disorder and its related disorders: a reappraisal of obsessive-compulsive spectrum concepts  

PubMed Central

Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a clinical syndrome whose hallmarks are excessive, anxiety-evoking thoughts and compulsive behaviors that are generally recognized as unreasonable, but which cause significant distress and impairment. When these are the exclusive symptoms, they constitute uncomplicated OCD. OCD may also occur in the context of other neuropsychiatric disorders, most commonly other anxiety and mood disorders. The question remains as to whether these combinations of disorders should be regarded as independent, cooccurring disorders or as different manifestations of an incompletely understood constellation of OCD spectrum disorders with a common etiology. Additional considerations are given here to two potential etiology-based subgroups: (i) an environmentally based group in which OCD occurs following apparent causal events such as streptococcal infections, brain injury, or atypical neuroleptic treatment; and (ii) a genomically based group in which OCD is related to chromosomal anomalies or specific genes. Considering the status of current research, the concept of OCD and OCD-related spectrum conditions seems fluid in 2010, and in need of ongoing reappraisal. PMID:20623919

Murphy, Dennis L.; Timpano, Kiara R.; Wheaton, Michael G.; Greenberg, Benjamin D.; Miguel, Euripedes C.

2010-01-01

230

Obsessive Compulsive Disorder  

PubMed Central

An estimated three to seven million Americans suffer from obsessive compulsive disorder at some time in their lives. Until recently, obsessive compulsive disorder was considered refractory to most treatments. However, recent studies indicate a better prognosis with behavioral therapy, antidepressant medications, or both. Behavioral treatment is generally more effective for compulsions than for obsessions. PMID:21229040

Goli, Veeraindar; Krishnan, Ranga; Ellinwood, Everett

1991-01-01

231

Body image in social anxiety disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and panic disorder.  

PubMed

Body dysmorphic disorder falls under the category of obsessive-compulsive and related disorders, yet research has suggested it may also be highly associated with social anxiety disorder. The current study examined body image variables among 68 outpatients with primary obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD; n=22), social anxiety disorder (SAD; n=25), and panic disorder (PD; n=21). Participants filled out self-report measures of body image disturbance, attitudes toward one's appearance, and anxiety. Body image disturbance and attitudes toward appearance did not significantly differ between the groups. However, SAD symptoms predicted body image disturbance, Appearance Evaluation and Body Areas Satisfaction, and OCD symptoms predicted Appearance Orientation. These findings suggest that SAD and OCD may be associated with different facets of body image. Implications for the treatment of anxiety disorders and for future research are discussed. PMID:24095651

Aderka, Idan M; Gutner, Cassidy A; Lazarov, Amit; Hermesh, Haggai; Hofmann, Stefan G; Marom, Sofi

2014-01-01

232

[Similarities and differences between the behavior of Asperger's syndrome and obsessive-compulsive disorder].  

PubMed

Asperger's syndrome (AS) is one of subcategories of pervasive developmental disorder defined by behavioral symptoms. These symptoms include repetitive and stereotyped patterns similar to the behavior of obsessive-compulsive disorder(OCD). These are included by a broader concept newly named as obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorders. While there may be biological bases common to the repetitive behaviors of PDD and OCD, differential diagnosis is important from the clinical point of view. Most of the obsession-like and compulsion-like behaviors of the former lack ego-dystonic features. Moreover, AS has no clinically significant delay in language in definition, but has pragmatic disorder, which should not be seen in OCD. PMID:17354567

Hashimoto, Ohiko

2007-03-01

233

Brain Imaging in Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Neuroimaging findings support the frontal-striatal-thalamic model of pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder. Glutamate is also implicated in the pathological finding of the disease. Implications for pediatric OCD treatments are discussed.

MacMaster, Frank P.; O'Neill, Joseph; Rosenberg, David R.

2008-01-01

234

Cerebellar Morphology in Tourette Syndrome and Obsessive-Compulsive  

E-print Network

. Baseline gender differences in cerebellar morphology may in part account for the more prevalent expression and attenuates during adolescence. TS is 3­4 more com- mon in males.1,2 Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD

235

Episodic course in obsessive-compulsive disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

The course of obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) is variable, ranging from episodic to chronic. We hypothesised that the\\u000a former course is more likely to be related to bipolar mood disorders. With the use of a specially constructed OCD questionnaire,\\u000a we studied 135 patients fulfilling DSM-III-R criteria for OCD with an illness duration of at least 10 years and divided by\\u000a course:

Giulio Perugi; Hagop S. Akiskal; Alfredo Gemignani; Chiara Pfanner; Silvio Presta; Alessandro Milanfranchi; Patrizia Lensi; Susanna Ravagli; Icro Maremmani; Giovanni B. Cassano

1998-01-01

236

Obsessive–compulsive disorder in schizophrenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To examine the differences in demographic and clinical features of patients with schizophrenia, with or without comorbid obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD).Methods: Fifty-two subjects were recruited from clinical services in the city of Edmonton, Alberta and assessed for schizophrenia and OCD with structured clinical interviews and standardized clinical rating scales.Results: The prevalence of OCD in individuals meeting criteria for schizophrenia was

P Tibbo; M Kroetsch; P Chue; L Warneke

2000-01-01

237

Obsessive Compulsive Related Disorders: A New Classification for the DSM-V  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is concern surrounding the classification of obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) for the next edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM). The DSM-V workgroup for OCD related disorders and researchers alike suggest removing OCD from the anxiety disorders category of the DSM, and placing it under the heading of obsessive compulsive related disorders (OCRD). This paper

Lauren M. Mancusi

238

Cognitive Performance in a Subclinical Obsessive-Compulsive Sample 1: Cognitive Functions  

PubMed Central

Individuals who are not clinically diagnosed with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) but still display obsessive-compulsive (OC) tendencies may show cognitive impairments. The present study investigated whether there are subgroups within a healthy group showing characteristic cognitive and emotional performance levels similar to those found in OCD patients and whether they differ from OCD subgroups regarding performance levels. Of interest are those cases showing subclinical symptomatology. The results revealed no impairments in the subclinical OC participants on the neuropsychological tasks, while evidence suggests that there exist high and low scores on two standardised clinical instruments (Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale and Cognitive Assessment Instrument of Obsessions and Compulsions) in a healthy sample. OC symptoms may diminish the quality of life and prolong sustainable return to work. It may be that occupational rehabilitation programmes are more effective in rectifying subclinical OC tendencies compared to the often complex symptoms of diagnosed OCD patients. The relationship between cognitive style and subclinical OC symptoms is discussed in terms of how materials and information might be processed. Although subclinical OC tendencies would not seem to constitute a diagnosis of OCD, the quality of treatment programmes such as cognitive behavioural therapy can be improved based on the current investigation. PMID:24236282

Johansen, Thomas; Dittrich, Winand H.

2013-01-01

239

Cognitive performance in a subclinical obsessive-compulsive sample 1: cognitive functions.  

PubMed

Individuals who are not clinically diagnosed with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) but still display obsessive-compulsive (OC) tendencies may show cognitive impairments. The present study investigated whether there are subgroups within a healthy group showing characteristic cognitive and emotional performance levels similar to those found in OCD patients and whether they differ from OCD subgroups regarding performance levels. Of interest are those cases showing subclinical symptomatology. The results revealed no impairments in the subclinical OC participants on the neuropsychological tasks, while evidence suggests that there exist high and low scores on two standardised clinical instruments (Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale and Cognitive Assessment Instrument of Obsessions and Compulsions) in a healthy sample. OC symptoms may diminish the quality of life and prolong sustainable return to work. It may be that occupational rehabilitation programmes are more effective in rectifying subclinical OC tendencies compared to the often complex symptoms of diagnosed OCD patients. The relationship between cognitive style and subclinical OC symptoms is discussed in terms of how materials and information might be processed. Although subclinical OC tendencies would not seem to constitute a diagnosis of OCD, the quality of treatment programmes such as cognitive behavioural therapy can be improved based on the current investigation. PMID:24236282

Johansen, Thomas; Dittrich, Winand H

2013-01-01

240

Multiple pathways to functional impairment in obsessive-compulsive disorder.  

PubMed

Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a chronic and debilitating condition that is relatively common in both children and adults, and it is associated with a wide range of functional impairments. Mental health researchers and practitioners have placed considerable attention on OCD over the past two decades, with the goal of advancing treatment and understanding its etiology. Until recently, it was unknown to what extent this disorder was associated with functional impairment. However, recent research shows that the condition has significant social and occupational liabilities. This article discusses etiology, common symptom presentations (including comorbid and ancillary symptoms), basic OCD subtypes, neuropsychological functioning, and the relation these have with functional disability in OCD. Recommendations for future research are also considered. PMID:19853982

Markarian, Yeraz; Larson, Michael J; Aldea, Mirela A; Baldwin, Scott A; Good, Daniel; Berkeljon, Arjan; Murphy, Tanya K; Storch, Eric A; McKay, Dean

2010-02-01

241

The Netherlands Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Association (NOCDA) study: design and rationale of a longitudinal naturalistic study of the course of OCD and clinical characteristics of the sample at baseline.  

PubMed

In half of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) patients the disorder runs a chronic course despite treatment. The factors determining this unfavourable outcome remain unknown. The Netherlands Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Association (NOCDA) study is a multicentre naturalistic cohort study of the biological, psychological and social determinants of chronicity in a clinical sample. Recruitment of OCD patients took place in mental health organizations. Its design is a six-year longitudinal cohort study among a representative clinical sample of 419 OCD patients. All five measurements within this six-year period involved validated semi-structured interviews and self-report questionnaires which gathered information on the severity of OCD and its co-morbidity as well as information on general wellbeing, quality of life, daily activities, medical consumption and key psychological and social factors. The baseline measurements also include DNA and blood sampling and data on demographic and personality variables. The current paper presents the design and rationale of the study, as well as data on baseline sample characteristics. Demographic characteristics and co-morbidity ratings in the NOCDA sample closely resemble other OCD study samples. Lifetime co-morbid Axis I disorders are present in the majority of OCD patients, with high current and lifetime co-morbidity ratings for affective disorders (23.4% and 63.7%, respectively) and anxiety disorders other than OCD (36% current and 46.5% lifetime). PMID:23148029

Schuurmans, Josien; van Balkom, Anton J L M; van Megen, Harold J G M; Smit, Johannes H; Eikelenboom, Merijn; Cath, Danielle C; Kaarsemaker, Maarten; Oosterbaan, Desiree; Hendriks, Gert-Jan; Schruers, Koen R J; van der Wee, Nic J A; Glas, Gerrit; van Oppen, Patricia

2012-12-01

242

Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder traits and personality dimensions in parents of children with obsessive-compulsive disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeTo compare patterns of temperament and character and the prevalence of Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder (OCPD) and OCPD traits in parents of children with OCD and parents of healthy controls.

Rosa Calvo; Luisa Lázaro; Josefina Castro-Fornieles; Elena Moreno; J. Toro

2009-01-01

243

Quality of Life in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a severe mental disorder with a lifetime prevalence of 1.6{%} in the US population,\\u000a although the identified obsessive-compulsive spectrum may affect up to 10{%} of the US population. Furthermore, OCD is a chronic,\\u000a profoundly disabling illness that impacts negatively on the academic, occupational, social and family patients’ functioning\\u000a as well as on their families’ lives. Indeed,

Julio Bobes; M.-P. GarcÍa-Portilla; Maria-Teresa BascarÁn; Pilar-Alejandra SÁiz; Maria-Teresa Bobes-BascarÁn; Manuel BousoÑo

244

Sleep-related problems in pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although attention has been given to presence of sleep related problems (SRPs) in children with psychiatric conditions, little has been reported on SRPs in youth with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Sixty-six children and adolescents with OCD were administered the Children's Yale Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale and completed the Children's Depression Inventory and Multidimensional Anxiety Scale. Their parents completed the Child Behavior Checklist

Eric A. Storch; Tanya K. Murphy; Caleb W. Lack; Gary R. Geffken; Marni L. Jacob; Wayne K. Goodman

2008-01-01

245

Demographic and clinical characteristics associated with treatment status in family members with obsessive-compulsive disorder.  

PubMed

This study investigated the demographic and clinical factors that influence treatment status in family members with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). Six hundred and two subjects from the OCD Collaborative Genetics Study were interviewed using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID) to diagnose Axis I disorders, and the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS) for assessment of OCD symptoms. The demographic and clinical data were compared between subjects who had received treatment and those who had not. A precipitous onset of symptoms, severe illness, multiple obsessions and compulsions, and co-morbid affective disorders were all positively associated with receiving treatment. Older age and the presence of obsessive compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) or OCPD traits were negatively associated with treatment. Gender and age at onset of symptoms did not predict treatment history. The mean duration from onset of symptoms to receiving treatment was 13.8+/-SD 11.9 years, but there was a direct relationship between current age and time to treatment, with younger subjects receiving treatment sooner. Clinical factors are predominant in predicting treatment status in family members with OCD. Although the mean duration from onset of symptoms to treatment was long, younger family members appear to receive treatment sooner. PMID:17345603

Cullen, Bernadette; Samuels, Jack F; Pinto, Anthony; Fyer, Abby J; McCracken, James T; Rauch, Scott L; Murphy, Dennis L; Greenberg, Benjamin D; Knowles, James A; Piacentini, John; Bienvenu, O Joseph; Grados, Marco A; Riddle, Mark A; Rasmussen, Steven A; Pauls, David L; Willour, Virginia L; Shugart, Yin Y; Liang, Kung-Yee; Hoehn-Saric, Rudolf; Nestadt, Gerald

2008-01-01

246

Defining Treatment Response and Remission in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: A Signal Detection Analysis of the Children's Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To examine the optimal Children's Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (CY-BOCS) percent reduction cutoffs for predicting treatment response and clinical remission among children and adolescents with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Method: Youth with OCD (N = 109; range 7 to 19 years) received 14 sessions of weekly or intensive…

Storch, Eric A.; Lewin, Adam B.; De Nadai, Alessandro S.; Murphy, Tanya K.

2010-01-01

247

Obsessive Compulsive Disorder and the School Counselor  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current article is designed to provide school counselors an understanding of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The causes, characteristics, and treatment approaches are presented with examples focusing on school-related issues. The article concludes with a discussion about the role that the school counselor can take in helping the child…

Wertlieb, Ellen C.

2008-01-01

248

A role for the precuneus in thought–action fusion: Evidence from participants with significant obsessive–compulsive symptoms?  

PubMed Central

Likelihood thought–action fusion (TAF-L) refers to a cognitive bias in which individuals believe that the mere thought of a negative event increases its likelihood of occurring in reality. TAF-L is most commonly associated with obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) but is also present in depression, generalized anxiety disorder and psychosis. We induced TAF-L in individuals with high (High-OC, N = 23) and low (Low-OC, N = 24) levels of OC traits, and used low resolution electromagnetic tomography (LORETA) to localise the accompanying electrical brain activity patterns. The results showed greater TAF-L in the High-OC than in the Low-OC group (p < .005), which was accompanied by significantly greater upper beta frequency (19–30 Hz) activity in the precuneus (p < .05). Further, the precuneus activity was positively correlated with self-reported magnitude of TAF-L (p < .01), suggesting a specific role of this region in this cognitive bias. Results are discussed with reference to self-referential processing and the default-mode network. PMID:24371793

Jones, Rhiannon; Bhattacharya, Joydeep

2013-01-01

249

Memory and confidence in memory judgments among individuals with obsessive compulsive disorder and non-clinical controls  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study investigated episodic memory functioning in: (1) obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) patients with primarily checking symptoms (i.e. checkers); (2) OCD patients without checking symptoms (i.e. non-checkers); and (3) non-clinical control participants. On a measure of recall, all groups were statistically equivalent with respect to the proportion of words correctly recalled. Using a recognition measure, checkers were unimpaired in

Penny A. Macdonald; Martin M. Antony; Colin M. Macleod; Margaret A. Richter

1997-01-01

250

Stereotactic treatment of refractory obsessive compulsive disorder by bilateral capsulotomy with 3 years follow-up  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to study the clinical effect of bilateral capsulotomy in patients with refractory obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), 35 patients with refractory obsessive compulsive disorder for whom anti-OCD medications and psychological\\/behavior therapy had failed, underwent MRI-guided stereotactic bilateral anterior capsulotomy. Pre- and post-operative Yale-Brown obsessive compulsive scale (Y-BOCS), Hamilton depression scale (HAMD) and Hamilton anxiety scale (HAMA) scores were determined

Kangyong Liu; Haiyin Zhang; Chunfeng Liu; Yihui Guan; Liqin Lang; Yanbo Cheng; Bomin Sun; Hui Wang; Chuantao Zuo; Li Pan; Heding Xu; Shunjun Li; Lihua Shi; Jinjun Qian; Yaping Yang

2008-01-01

251

Neural Correlates of Symptom Dimensions in Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: A Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The use of functional magnetic resonance imaging on a group of pediatric subjects with obsessive compulsive disorder reveals that this group has reduced activity in neural regions underlying emotional processing, cognitive processing, and motor performance as compared to control subjects.

Gilbert, Andrew R.; Akkal, Dalila; Almeida, Jorge R. C.; Mataix-Cols, David; Kalas, Catherine; Devlin, Bernie; Birmaher, Boris; Phillips, Mary L.

2009-01-01

252

Reliability and Validity of the Thai Version of the Florida Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory  

PubMed Central

This study aimed to examine the reliability and validity of the Thai version of the FOCI (FOCI-T), which is a brief self-report questionnaire to assess the symptoms and severity of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Forty-seven OCD patients completed the FOCI-T, the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9), and the Pictorial Thai Quality of Life (PTQL). They were then interviewed to determine the OCD symptom severity by the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale-Second Edition (YBOCS-II) and depressive symptoms by the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D), together with the Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) and the Clinical Global Impression-Severity Scales (CGI-S). The result showed that the FOCI-T had satisfactory internal consistency reliability on both the Symptom Checklist (KR-20 = 0.86) and the Severity Scale (? = 0.92). Regarding validity analyses, the FOCI-T Severity Scale had stronger correlations with the YBOCS-II and CGI-S than the FOCI-T Symptom Checklist. This implied the independence between the FOCI-T Symptom Checklist and the Severity Scale and good concurrent validity of the FOCI-T Severity Scale. Our results suggested that the FOCI-T was found to be a reliable and valid self-report measure to assess obsessive-compulsive symptoms and severity.

Hiranyatheb, Thanita

2015-01-01

253

Factor Structure of the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The dimensions underlying the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS) (W. Goodman and others, 1989) were examined by performing a confirmatory factor analysis of the scale using responses from 404 patients. Results support a two-factor model of obsessive-compulsive symptoms, reflecting degree of disturbance and severity of symptoms. (SLD)

Amir, Nader; Foa, Edna B.; Coles, Meredith E.

1997-01-01

254

Delayed obsessive-compulsive disorder symptom exacerbation after a single dose of a serotonin antagonist in fluoxetine-treated but not untreated patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Enhanced serotonergic transmission may underlie therapeutic effects of serotonin reuptake inhibitors in obsessive-compulsive\\u000a disorder. However, such treatment may decrease serotonin receptor responsivity. We investigated whether the serotonin antagonist\\u000a metergoline would exacerbate or further improve systems in fluoxetine-responsive patients. Pilot results suggested open metergoline\\u000a produced delayed symptom worsening in fluoxetine-treated patients. Fourteen patients continuing fluoxetine received metergoline\\u000a and placebo (double-blind, randomized).

B. D. Greenberg; Jonathan Benjamin; Juliet D. Martin; David Keuler; S.-J. Huang; Margaret Altemus; Dennis L. Murphy

1998-01-01

255

Obsessive-compulsive disorder and trichotillomania: a phenomenological comparison  

E-print Network

of disorders were more frequent in females with OCD: major depressive disorder (MDD), dysthymia, obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) was more frequent in females with OCD (Table 3). Symptom severity The severity of OC symptoms in OCD patients... .9 Pyromania 0% 2.0% 2.6 0.1 Compulsive shopping 6.9% 4.1% 0.5 0.5 Hypersexual disorder 1.5% 0% 1.3 0.3 Intermittent explosive disorder 16.2% 6.1% 3.5 .06 OCPD 39.2% 13.3% 11.3 .001** Avoidant personality disorder 21.2% (N = 99) 0.03% (N = 26) 2.9 0...

Lochner, Christine; Seedat, Soraya; du Toit, Pieter L; Nel, Daniel G; Niehaus, Dana J H; Sandler, Robin; Stein, Dan J

2005-01-13

256

Obsessive–compulsive disorder and personality disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Previous studies indicate that most individuals with obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) have comorbid personality disorders\\u000a (PDs), particularly from the anxious cluster. However, the nature and strength of this association remains unclear, as the\\u000a majority of previous studies have relied heavily on clinical populations. We analysed the prevalence of screen positive personality\\u000a disorder in a representative sample of adults with OCD living

Albina R. Torres; Paul Moran; Paul Bebbington; Traolach Brugha; Dinesh Bhugra; Jeremy W. Coid; Michael Farrell; Rachel Jenkins; Glyn Lewis; Howard Meltzer; Martin Prince

2006-01-01

257

Management of obsessive-compulsive disorder.  

PubMed

Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a common, often debilitating disorder characterized by the presence of obsessions and compulsions. Obsessions are repetitive thoughts or images which are experienced as intrusive and unwanted; they cause marked anxiety and distress. Compulsions (also known as rituals) are repetitive behaviors or mental acts that individuals with OCD perform in an attempt to decrease their anxiety. Patients tend to hide their symptoms due to shame; the amount of time between onset of symptoms and appropriate treatment is often many years. The disorder likely results from several etiological variables; functional imaging studies have consistently shown hyperactivity in the orbitofrontal cortex, anterior cingulate, thalamus, and striatum. The mainstays of treatment include cognitive-behavioral therapy in the form of exposure and response prevention (ERP) and serotonin reuptake inhibiting medications. Several pharmacological augmentation strategies exist for treatment-resistant OCD, with addition of antipsychotics being most commonly employed. Radio and neurosurgical procedures, including gamma knife radiation and deep brain stimulation, are reserved for severe, treatment-refractory disease that has not responded to multiple treatments, and some patients may benefit from transcranial magnetic stimulation. PMID:25165567

Seibell, Phillip J; Hollander, Eric

2014-01-01

258

Management of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder  

PubMed Central

Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a common, often debilitating disorder characterized by the presence of obsessions and compulsions. Obsessions are repetitive thoughts or images which are experienced as intrusive and unwanted; they cause marked anxiety and distress. Compulsions (also known as rituals) are repetitive behaviors or mental acts that individuals with OCD perform in an attempt to decrease their anxiety. Patients tend to hide their symptoms due to shame; the amount of time between onset of symptoms and appropriate treatment is often many years. The disorder likely results from several etiological variables; functional imaging studies have consistently shown hyperactivity in the orbitofrontal cortex, anterior cingulate, thalamus, and striatum. The mainstays of treatment include cognitive-behavioral therapy in the form of exposure and response prevention (ERP) and serotonin reuptake inhibiting medications. Several pharmacological augmentation strategies exist for treatment-resistant OCD, with addition of antipsychotics being most commonly employed. Radio and neurosurgical procedures, including gamma knife radiation and deep brain stimulation, are reserved for severe, treatment-refractory disease that has not responded to multiple treatments, and some patients may benefit from transcranial magnetic stimulation. PMID:25165567

Hollander, Eric

2014-01-01

259

Does cognitive-behavioral therapy cure obsessive-compulsive disorder? A meta-analytic evaluation of clinical significance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Meta-analytic methods were employed to investigate the clinical significance of ex- posure therapy in the treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Samples of patients treated in 16 outcome trials were compared with 9 normative samples to clarify how similar the symptoms of treated patients were to those without history of OCD. The Maudsley Obsessional-Compulsive Inventory (MOCI) was used as the basis

Jonathan S. Abramowitz

1998-01-01

260

Cognitive behavior therapy in treatment-naive children and adolescents with obsessive-compulsive disorder: an open trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work aims is to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) in pediatric patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) who had not previously been treated with either pharmacotherapy or psychotherapy and who remained medication-free during CBT. Sixteen OCD outpatients, 8–17 years of age, were treated in a 12-week open trial with manualized CBT. Target symptoms were rated at

N. R. Benazon; J. Ager; D. R. Rosenberg

2002-01-01

261

Worries and obsessions in individuals with obsessive–compulsive disorder with and without comorbid generalized anxiety disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Participants from the DSM-IV field trial for OCD (N=381) were divided into two groups based on the SCID interview: those who met current criteria for obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) but not generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and those who met current diagnostic criteria for both. The groups were compared on their severity of obsessive and compulsive symptoms, as well as on the

Jonathan S Abramowitz; Edna B Foa

1998-01-01

262

Effectiveness of exposure and ritual prevention for obsessive-compulsive disorder: Randomized compared with nonrandomized samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

The efficacy of exposure and ritual prevention (EX\\/RP) for reducing symptoms of obsessive—compulsive disorder (OCD) has been demonstrated in several randomized controlled trials (RCTs). However, procedures used in these studies to maximize experimental control may have limited their generalizability to typical clinical practice. Treatment outcome data from 110 clinical patients receiving EX\\/RP on an outpatient fee-rbr-service basis were compared with

Martin E. Franklin; Jonathan S. Abramowitz; Michael J. Kozak; Jill T. Levitt; Edna B. Foa

2000-01-01

263

Altered Brain Activation in Ventral Frontal-Striatal Regions Following a 16-week Pharmacotherapy in Unmedicated Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder  

PubMed Central

Recent studies have reported that cognitive inflexibility associated with impairments in a frontal-striatal circuit and parietal region is a core cognitive deficit of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). However, few studies have examined progressive changes in these regions following clinical improvement in obsessive-compulsive symptoms. To determine if treatment changes the aberrant activation pattern associated with task switching in OCD, we examined the activation patterns in brain areas after treatment. The study was conducted on 10 unmedicated OCD patients and 20 matched controls using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging. Treatment improved the clinical symptoms measured by the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale and behavioral flexibility indicated by the switching cost. At baseline, OCD showed significantly less activation in the dorsal and ventral frontal-striatal circuit and parietal regions under the task-switch minus task-repeat condition compared with controls. After treatment, the neural responses in the ventral frontal-striatal circuit in OCD were partially normalized, whereas the activation deficit in dorsal frontoparietal regions that mediate shifting attention or behavioral flexibility persisted. It is suggested that altered brain activation in ventral frontal-striatal regions in OCD patients is associated with their cognitive flexibility and changes in these regions may underlie the pathophysiology of OCD. PMID:21532859

Han, Ji Yeon; Kang, Do-Hyung; Gu, Bon-Mi; Jung, Wi Hoon; Choi, Jung-Seok; Choi, Chi-Hoon; Jang, Joon Hwan

2011-01-01

264

Dimensions of Perfectionism in Children and Adolescents with Obsessive-compulsive Disorder  

PubMed Central

Objective To measure the association of perfectionism with obsessive-compulsive and depressive symptoms in children and adolescents with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Method: Sample consisted of 94 youth (44 boys, 49 girls; mean age = 13.2 y, SD = 2.5 y) with a DSM-IV diagnosis of OCD. Perfectionism beliefs were measured with both the Adaptive/Maladaptive Perfectionism Scale (AMPS) and a 14-item version of the Child and Adolescents Perfectionism Scale (CAPS-14). Using a hierarchical linear-regression model, we measured the association of perfectionist beliefs with severity of OCD and depressive symptoms. Results: Both AMPS and CAPS-14 scores were associated with the severity of OCD symptoms in our sample. In addition, CAPS-14 scores were associated with the severity of depressive symptoms, even when OCD symptoms were taken into account. Conclusions: Our findings lend further support to the hypothesis that perfectionism in youth with OCD is associated with variation in the severity of OCD and depressive symptoms. PMID:24872829

Soreni, Noam; Streiner, David; McCabe, Randi; Bullard, Carrie; Swinson, Richard; Greco, Alessia; Pires, Paulo; Szatmari, Peter

2014-01-01

265

A Family Study of Obsessive-compulsive Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The causes of obsessive-compulsive dis- order (OCD) are as yet unknown. Evidence of familial aggregation is one approach for investigating the role of genetics in the etiology of this condition. The current study was conducted to determine if OCD is familial and to in- vestigate possible familial subtypes. Methods: Eighty case probands were identified in 5 spe- cialty OCD

Gerald Nestadt; Jack Samuels; Mark Riddle; O. Joseph Bienvenu III; Kung-Yee Liang; Michele LaBuda; John Walkup; Marco Grados; Rudolf Hoehn-Saric

2000-01-01

266

Neuropsychological performance in obsessive-compulsive disorder: a critical review  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is growing evidence for neuropsychological dysfunction in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) related to an underlying frontal lobe and\\/or basal ganglia dysfunction. The following paper is a systematical review of the existing literature on cognitive impairment in OCD patients. Fifty studies were surveyed with regard to methodological aspects and cognitive impairments found in OCD patients. In addition, the impact of confounding

Anne Katrin Kuelz; Fritz Hohagen; Ulrich Voderholzer

2004-01-01

267

Memory and memory confidence in obsessive–compulsive disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pathological doubt, often found in individuals with obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD), has been theoretically linked to memory deficits, but empirical evidence for such deficits has been mixed. In contrast, many studies suggest that individuals with OCD have low confidence in their memories. The present study aimed to build upon previous research by measuring memory accuracy and confidence in OCD using ecologically

David F. Tolin; Jonathan S. Abramowitz; Bartholomew D. Brigidi; Nader Amir; Edna B. Foa

2001-01-01

268

Assessment of obsessive–compulsive disorder: A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) affects approximately 2–3% of the adult population and is considered a debilitating and costly disorder, with associated impairments spanning the social, occupational, and familial domains. Although effective treatments of OCD exist, many individuals who suffer from OCD go undiagnosed or misdiagnosed, preventing them from obtaining appropriate treatment. As a result, making improvements to the assessment and diagnosis

Kristen Grabill; Lisa Merlo; Danny Duke; Kelli-Lee Harford; Mary L. Keeley; Gary R. Geffken; Eric A. Storch

2008-01-01

269

Twin studies on obsessive-compulsive disorder: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic factors have historically been thought of as important in the development of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). For the estimation of the relative importance of genetic and environmental factors, twin studies are an obvious approach. Twin studies of OCD have a long history, starting in 1929. In this review, over 70 years of twin research of OCD is presented, using four

Grootheest van D. S; Daniëlle C. Cath; Aartjan T. Beekman; Dorret I. Boomsma

2005-01-01

270

Impulse control disorders in adults with obsessive compulsive disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little is known about impulse control disorders (ICDs) in individuals with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). Although studies have examined ICD comorbidity in OCD, no previous studies have examined clinical correlates of ICD comorbidity in a large sample of individuals with a primary diagnosis of OCD. We examined rates and clinical correlates of comorbid ICDs in 293 consecutive subjects with lifetime

Jon E. Grant; Maria C. Mancebo; Anthony Pinto; Jane L. Eisen; Steven A. Rasmussen

2006-01-01

271

Obsessive-compulsive disorder and trichotillomania: a phenomenological comparison  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Similarities between obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and trichotillomania (TTM) have been widely recognized. Nevertheless, there is evidence of important differences between these two disorders. Some authors have conceptualized the disorders as lying on an OCD spectrum of conditions. METHODS: Two hundred and seventy eight OCD patients (n = 278: 148 male; 130 female) and 54 TTM patients (n = 54;

Christine Lochner; Soraya Seedat; Pieter L du Toit; Daniel G Nel; Dana JH Niehaus; Robin Sandler; Dan J Stein

2005-01-01

272

Tic or Compulsion? It's Tourettic OCD  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A subgroup of individuals suffering from obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) frequently present to treatment with an atypical yet distinguishable array of symptoms akin to both Tourettes disorder (TD) and OCD. These individuals often receive standard treatments for OCD (or less likely, TD) that fail to address the blended features of their…

Mansueto, Charles; Keuler, David

2005-01-01

273

Relations between Obsessive–Compulsive Disorder and personality: Beyond Axis I–Axis II comorbidity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most research on relations between Obsessive–Compulsive Disorder (OCD) and personality addresses only comorbidity rates between OCD and Obsessive–Compulsive Personality Disorder (OCPD). We first investigated empirical OCD–OCPD relations, but then also examined patterns of dimensional traits in OCD patients versus students and general outpatients. Results did not support a specific OCD–OCPD relation and the implications of this conclusion are discussed. Regarding

Kevin D. Wu; Lee Anna Clark; David Watson

2006-01-01

274

Obsessive-compulsive disorder and gut microbiota dysregulation.  

PubMed

Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a debilitating disorder for which the cause is not known and treatment options are modestly beneficial. A hypothesis is presented wherein the root cause of OCD is proposed to be a dysfunction of the gut microbiome constituency resulting in a susceptibility to obsessional thinking. Both stress and antibiotics are proposed as mechanisms by which gut microbiota are altered preceding the onset of OCD symptomology. In this light, pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infections (PANDAS) leading to episodic OCD is explained not by group A beta-hemolytic streptococcal infections, but rather by prophylactic antibiotics that are administered as treatment. Further, stressful life events known to trigger OCD, such as pregnancy, are recast to show the possibility of altering gut microbiota prior to onset of OCD symptoms. Suggested treatment for OCD would be the directed, specie-specific (re)introduction of beneficial bacteria modifying the gut microbiome, thereby ameliorating OCD symptoms. Special considerations should be contemplated when considering efficacy of treatment, particularly the unhealthy coping strategies often observed in patients with chronic OCD that may need addressing in conjunction with microbiome remediation. PMID:24332563

Rees, Jon C

2014-02-01

275

Decreased TNF ? and NK activity in obsessive-compulsive disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Accumulating evidence points towards the involvement of autoimmune mechanisms in the pathophysiology of some subgroups of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). This study was carried out to investigate whether obsessive-compulsive disorder is associated with altered activity of the immune system, and whether these changes are related to particular clinical characteristics.Methods: Ex vivo production of TNF-?, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, and IFN-? in

Damiaan Denys; Sjoerd Fluitman; Annemieke Kavelaars; Cobi Heijnen; Herman Westenberg

2004-01-01

276

Obsessive compulsive disorder due to a cavernous malformation hemorrhage in the dominant caudate head.  

PubMed

Structural lesions of the basal ganglia may lead to obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). We report a 31-year-old woman who developed OCD after a previously asymptomatic left caudate intracerebral cavernous malformation (ICM) hemorrhaged. Her neurologic examination was normal. Her OCD required hospitalization and improved with medication and therapy. The pathophysiology of this psychiatric disorder probably reflects a frontal cortex deafferentation mechanism. In patients with known ICM, any abrupt change in neurologic or psychiatric symptoms should prompt repeat imaging to assess for hemorrhage. PMID:25124646

Katz, Brian S; Flemming, Kelly D

2015-02-01

277

Obsessive compulsive disorder: report of six cases.  

PubMed

Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) refers to interloping and interative thoughts, ideas, images, fantasies, impulses and actions accompanied by feelings of distress and declarations of resistance. It is assumed that OCD is rare among black Africans. This paper reports six cases from Uganda. The report indicates that OCD exists among black Africans and that those affected experience considerable amounts of emotional, social and occupational distress. It is suggested that OCD should be taught adequately to medical students to enable future general-duty medical officers to recognise and manage it appropriately. The names that appear in the text are pseudonyms. PMID:12002090

Ovuga, E

2001-05-01

278

Anorexia nervosa: obsessive-compulsive disorder, obsessive-compulsive personality disorder, or neither?  

PubMed

Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a severe and often chronic disorder with uncertain aetiology and poor prognosis. New approaches to the understanding of the disorder are needed in order to aid the development of more effective treatments. Several authors have suggested that AN has a considerable overlap with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and that this may reflect common neurobiological, genetic, or psychological elements. However, more recent studies have suggested that AN may have a closer relationship with obsessive-compulsive personality traits such as those found in obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD). In this paper, evidence for links between the three conditions is reviewed, suggestions for further research are outlined and possible implications for the treatment of AN are presented. PMID:12113200

Serpell, Lucy; Livingstone, Alison; Neiderman, Marc; Lask, Bryan

2002-06-01

279

Citalopram in the treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder: an open pilot study.  

PubMed

Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a common anxiety disorder, which often causes significant impairment of the affected individual's social, occupational or interpersonal functioning. Previous reports suggest that the disorder may be treated with the tricyclic antidepressant clomipramine, and also with the more recently introduced selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), such as fluoxetine, fluvoxamine, sertraline and paroxetine. The present 24-week open pilot study was designed to examine the efficacy, appropriate dose range, side-effects and clinical usefulness of citalopram in OCD. A total of 29 OCD patients were included in the study, of whom 76% showed alleviation of symptoms as evaluated by various self- and observer-rated scales, such as the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale. In most cases the citalopram doses used were in most cases 40 or 60 mg daily, and the treatment was well tolerated. The most commonly experienced adverse events during the study were nausea, vomiting, increased dreaming and decreased sleep. Diminished sexual desire and orgasmic dysfunction were also reported. Despite having the limitations of an open study, our results suggest that citalopram may be effective in the treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder. PMID:9395151

Koponen, H; Lepola, U; Leinonen, E; Jokinen, R; Penttinen, J; Turtonen, J

1997-11-01

280

Using direct-to-consumer marketing strategies with obsessive-compulsive disorder in the nonprofit sector.  

PubMed

Three to four million individuals struggle with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) in the United States at any given time. OCD can be a debilitating disorder associated with significant quality-of-life and occupational impairment. First-line treatments for OCD (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and exposure and response prevention therapy) have been shown to be effective; yet, many individuals suffering from OCD experience multiple barriers to accessing these treatments. In fact, it can take as many as 17 years from onset of symptoms to effective treatment. Given the need to increase access to and utilization of effective treatments, direct-to-consumer marketing in the context of OCD appears crucial. The International OCD Foundation (formerly the Obsessive Compulsive Foundation) was established as a nonprofit organization with a mission to educate the public and mental health professionals about appropriate practice guidelines, raise awareness of the disorder, and ensure that individuals looking for treatment find the necessary resources. This paper reviews the obstacles those struggling with OCD face in their attempts to alleviate suffering, as well as the direct-to-consumer strategies and tactics used by the International OCD Foundation to improve access to empirically supported, effective treatment. PMID:22440063

Szymanski, Jeff

2012-06-01

281

The utilization of nonpatient samples in the study of obsessive compulsive disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) is increasingly studied in nonpatients, primarily through the selection of individuals who score high on a self-report measure of OCD. The usefulness of this methodology for understanding OCD presupposes that some of the individuals in the high-scoring group meet diagnostic criteria for OCD, that the obsessive-compulsive behaviors in the high-scoring individuals are stable across time to

G. Leonard Burns; Gina M. Formea; Susan Keortge; Lee G. Sternberger

1995-01-01

282

The Obsessive–Compulsive Inventory-Revised (OCI-R): Validation of the German version in a sample of patients with OCD, anxiety disorders, and depressive disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

The OCI-R is a psychometrically sound and valid self-report scale measuring the major symptoms of OCD on six dimensions: Checking, Washing, Ordering, Hoarding, Obsessing, and Neutralizing. Information is needed on its ability to discriminate OCD from depression. In this study, reliability and convergent, divergent, and known-groups validity of an authorized German version were examined in 381 patients with OCD, other

Sascha Gönner; Rainer Leonhart; Willi Ecker

2008-01-01

283

Information processing in obsessive—compulsive disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

A modified Stroop task incorporating a semantic manipulation was used to study processing of fear-related information in patients diagnosed with obsessive—compulsive disorder (OCD). Twenty-three OCs with washing rituals (washers), 10 OCs without washing rituals (nonwashers), and 14 normals were administered a modified Stroop task in which they were asked to color-name contamination words, general threat words, neutral words, and nonwords.

Edna B. Foa; Doron Ilai; Paul R. McCarthy; Beth Shoyer; Tamera Murdock

1993-01-01

284

Hallucinogens, Serotonin and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

The serotonin (5-HT) neurotransmitter system has been implicated in the pathophysiology of several neuropsychiatric disorders, especially obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Blockade of 5-HT reuptake appears to be an important initial neurobiological event in the therapeutic mechanism of action of antiobsessional drugs. However, for reasons that continue to be poorly understood, clinical improvement following initiation of treatment with 5-HT reuptake inhibitors can

Pedro L. Delgado; Francisco A. Moreno

1998-01-01

285

Cognitive Therapy for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

This case report is about a 31-year-old married female with a variety of obsessions, primarily focusing on harming obsessions. Because of anxiety, numerous washing rituals have taken place as well as the avoidance of situations. This client was diagnosed with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) and was seen for 25 sessions of individual cognitive therapy. The aim of this study therefore was

Patricia Van Oppen

2004-01-01

286

Children's Yale–Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale in Autism Spectrum Disorder: Component Structure and Correlates of Symptom Checklist  

PubMed Central

Objective Repetitive behaviors in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) range from motor stereotypy to immersion in restricted interests. The modified Children's Yale–Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale for children with autism spectrum disorder (CYBOCS-ASD) includes a Symptom Checklist (behavior present or absent) and five severity scales (Time Spent, Interference, Distress, Resistance and Control). Method We assembled CYBOCS-ASD data from 3 Research Units on Pediatric Psychopharmacology Autism Network trials to explore the component structure of repetitive behaviors in children with ASD. Raters trained to reliability conducted the CYBOCS-ASD in 272 medication-free subjects. Fifteen Checklist items were endorsed for less than 5% of the sample and were dropped. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was used to explore the clustering of 23 checklist items. Component scores computed for each subject were correlated with other measures. We also examined the distribution of severity scales. Results The subjects (229 boys, 43 girls; mean age = 7.8±2.6 years) met criteria for an ASD; half were intellectually disabled. The PCA resulted in a 5-component solution to classify repetitive behaviors (34.4% of the variance): Hoarding and Ritualistic Behavior; Sensory and Arranging Behavior; Sameness and Self-injurious Behavior; Stereotypy; Restricted Interests. Sensory and Arranging and Stereotypy components were associated with lower adaptive functioning (Pearson r ranged from .2 to .3; p < 0.003). The Resistance scale showed little variation with over 60% of sample with the highest score. Conclusions Rarely endorsed checklist items can be dropped. The Resistance item does not appear relevant for children with ASD. PMID:24342389

Scahill, Lawrence; Dimitropoulos, Anastasia; McDougle, Christopher J.; Aman, Michael G.; Feurer, Irene D.; McCracken, James T.; Tierney, Elaine; Pu, Jie; White, Susan; Lecavalier, Luc; Hallett, Victoria; Bearss, Karen; King, Bryan; Arnold, L. Eugene; Vitiello, Benedetto

2014-01-01

287

Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) augmentation of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) for SSRI-resistant obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD): a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials  

PubMed Central

Background and objective: Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) as augmentation of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) for SSRI-resistant obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) have yielded conflicting results. Therefore, this meta-analysis was conducted to assess the efficacy of this strategy for SSRI-resistant OCD. Methods: Scientific and medical databases, including international databases (PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CCTR, Web of Science, PsycINFO), two Chinese databases (CBM-disc, CNKI), and relevant websites dated up to July 2014, were searched for RCTs on this strategy for treating OCD. Mantel-Haenszel random-effects model was used. Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS) score, response rates and drop-out rates were evaluated. Results: Data were obtained from nine RCTs consisting of 290 subjects. Active rTMS was an effective augmentation strategy in treating SSRI-resistant OCD with a pooled WMD of 3.89 (95% CI = [1.27, 6.50]) for reducing Y-BOCS score and a pooled odds ratio (OR) of 2.65 (95% CI = [1.36, 5.17] for response rates. No significant differences in drop-out rates were found. No publication bias was detected. Conclusion: The pooled examination demonstrated that this strategy seems to be efficacious and acceptable for treating SSRI-resistant OCD. As the number of RCTs included here was limited, further large-scale multi-center RCTs are required to validate our conclusions. PMID:25663986

Ma, Zhong-Rui; Shi, Li-Jun

2014-01-01

288

A clinical case study of the use of ecological momentary assessment in obsessive compulsive disorder  

PubMed Central

Accurate assessment of obsessions and compulsions is a crucial step in treatment planning for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD). In this clinical case study, we sought to determine if the use of Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) could provide additional symptom information beyond that captured during standard assessment of OCD. We studied three adults diagnosed with OCD and compared the number and types of obsessions and compulsions captured using the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS) compared to EMA. Following completion of the Y-BOCS interview, participants then recorded their OCD symptoms into a digital voice recorder across a 12-h period in reply to randomly sent mobile phone SMS prompts. The EMA approach yielded a lower number of symptoms of obsessions and compulsions than the Y-BOCS but produced additional types of obsessions and compulsions not previously identified by the Y-BOCS. We conclude that the EMA-OCD procedure may represent a worthy addition to the suite of assessment tools used when working with clients who have OCD. Further research with larger samples is required to strengthen this conclusion. PMID:24860521

Tilley, P. J. Matt; Rees, Clare S.

2014-01-01

289

Is Familial Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Different from Sporadic Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder? A Comparison of Clinical Characteristics, Comorbidity and Treatment Response  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Familial and sporadic subtypes of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) have been proposed, but have not been well studied. The aim of the study was to compare the clinical characteristics, comorbidity and treatment response of familial OCD with sporadic OCD. Sampling and Methods: We reviewed the clinical records of 84 familial OCD patients and 80 randomly selected sporadic OCD patients from

Biju Viswanath; Janardhanan C. Narayanaswamy; Anish V. Cherian; Y. C. Janardhan Reddy; Suresh Bada Math

2011-01-01

290

Mapping Structural Brain Alterations in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Recent technical developments have made it feasible to comprehensively assess brain anatomy in psychiatric populations. Objective: To describe the structural brain alterations detected in the magnetic resonance images of a large se- ries of patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) using imaging procedures that allow the evaluation of vol- ume changes throughout the brain. Design: Case-control study. Setting: Referral OCD

Jesus Pujol; Carles Soriano-Mas; Pino Alonso; Narcõ ´ s Cardoner; Jose M. Menchon; Joan Deus; Julio Vallejo

2004-01-01

291

Possible role of neuropeptides in obsessive compulsive disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

The most consistent finding in clinical research of obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) is the significant treatment advantage of potent serotonin uptake inhibitors (SUIs) over other classes of antidepressant and antianxiety drugs. Clinical neurobiological studies of OCD, however, have yielded limited and inconsistent evidence for significant fundamental abnormalities in monoamine systems including serotonin, norepinephrine and dopamine. Furthermore, one-third to one-half of

Christopher J. McDougle; Linda C. Barr; Wayne K. Goodman; Lawrence H. Price

1999-01-01

292

Platelet Serotonergic Markers as Endophenotypes for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although compelling evidence has shown that obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has a strong genetic component, its genetic basis remains to be elucidated. Identifying biological abnormalities in nonaffected relatives is one of the strategies advocated to isolate genetic vulnerability factors in complex disorders. Since peripheral serotonergic disturbances are frequently observed in OCD patients, the aim of this study was to investigate if

Richard Delorme; Catalina Betancur; Jacques Callebert; Nadia Chabane; Jean-Louis Laplanche; Marie-Christine Mouren-Simeoni; Jean-Marie Launay; Marion Leboyer

2005-01-01

293

Obsessive-compulsive disorder phenotypes: implications for genetic studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) clinical presentation is remarkably diverse, and can vary both within and across patients over time. This variability in the phenotypic expression has led to the hypothesis that OCD is a heterogeneous disorder and that this heterogeneity obscures the findings of clinical, natural history and treatment response studies and complicates the search for vulnerability genes. A complete understanding

E C Miguel; J F Leckman; S Rauch; M C do Rosario-Campos; A G Hounie; M T Mercadante; P Chacon; D L Pauls

2005-01-01

294

Cognitive Appraisals in Young People with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: A number of cognitive appraisals have been identified as important in the manifestation of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) in adults. There have, however, been few attempts to explore these cognitive appraisals in clinical groups of young people. Method: This study compared young people aged between 11 and 18 years with OCD (N =…

Libby, Sarah; Reynolds, Shirley; Derisley, Jo; Clark, Sarah

2004-01-01

295

Multiple pathways to functional impairment in obsessive–compulsive disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) is a chronic and debilitating condition that is relatively common in both children and adults, and it is associated with a wide range of functional impairments. Mental health researchers and practitioners have placed considerable attention on OCD over the past two decades, with the goal of advancing treatment and understanding its etiology. Until recently, it was unknown

Yeraz Markarian; Michael J. Larson; Mirela A. Aldea; Scott A. Baldwin; Daniel Good; Arjan Berkeljon; Tanya K. Murphy; Eric A. Storch; Dean McKay

2010-01-01

296

Should Nonsuicidal Self-Injury Be a Putative Obsessive-Compulsive-Related Condition? A Critical Appraisal  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) has many behavioral and cognitive features that would make it appear to be closely tied to obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Obsessive-compulsive-related disorders (OCRDs) have been described in the literature as conditions that share a common phenomenology, neurobiology, and treatment response. The authors…

McKay, Dean; Andover, Margaret

2012-01-01

297

Factor Analytic Study of the Children's Yale?Brown Obsessive?Compulsive Scale  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the psychometric properties of the Children's Yale?Brown Obsessive?Compulsive Scale (CY?BOCS; Scahill et al., 1997). Participants were 82 children and adolescents diagnosed with obsessive?compulsive disorder (OCD). Confirmatory factor analyses of 2 previously found models (Obsessions and Compulsions; Disturbance and Severity)…

Storch, Eric A.; Murphy, Tanya K.; Geffken, Gary R.; Bagner, Daniel M.; Soto, Ohel; Sajid, Muhammad; Allen, Pam; Killiany, Erin M.; Goodman, Wayne K.

2005-01-01

298

Obsessive–compulsive disorder patients display enhanced latent inhibition on a visual search task  

Microsoft Academic Search

Latent inhibition (LI) is a phenomenon that reflects the ability to ignore irrelevant stimuli. LI is attenuated in some schizophrenic patient groups and in high schizotypal normal participants. One study has found enhanced LI in patients with obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD [Swerdlow, N. R., Hartston, H. J., & Hartman, P. L., 1999. Enhanced visual latent inhibition in obsessive–compulsive disorder. Biological Psychiatry,

Oren Kaplan; Reuven Dar; Lirona Rosenthal; Haggai Hermesh; Mendel Fux; R. E. Lubow

2006-01-01

299

Cognitive Bias Modification (CBM) of obsessive compulsive beliefs  

PubMed Central

Background Cognitive bias modification (CBM) protocols have been developed to help establish the causal role of biased cognitive processing in maintaining psychopathology and have demonstrated therapeutic benefits in a range of disorders. The current study evaluated a cognitive bias modification training paradigm designed to target interpretation biases (CBM-I) associated with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). Methods We evaluated the impact of CBM-I on measures of interpretation bias, distress, and on responses to three OC stressor tasks designed to tap the core belief domains of Importance of Thoughts/Control, Perfectionism/Intolerance of Uncertainty, and Contamination/Estimation of Threat in a selected sample of community members reporting obsessive compulsive (OC) symptoms (N = 89). Results Participants randomly assigned to the Positive condition evidenced a change in interpretation bias towards more positive and less negative OC-relevant interpretations following CBM-I compared to participants assigned to the Control condition. Importantly, a positivity bias was not observed for foil scenarios unrelated to the core OC belief domains. Further, participants in the Positive condition reported less distress and urge to neutralize following an OC stressor task designed to tap Importance of Thoughts/Control. No significant difference emerged on the indices of behavioural response to the OC stressor tasks. Severity of OC symptoms did not moderate the effects of positive CBM-I training. Conclusions CBM-I appears effective in selectively targeting OC beliefs. Results need to be replicated in clinical samples in order for potential therapeutic benefit to be demonstrated. PMID:24106918

2013-01-01

300

Gender in obsessive-compulsive disorder and obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  \\u000a \\u000a Background: There is increasing recognition that obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and putative OCD spectrum disorders (OCSDs) are\\u000a not homogenous entities. Gender may provide an important window onto the heterogeneity of these various disorders.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods: A MEDLINE review of gender issues in OCD and putative OCD spectrum disorders (excluding eating disorders) was undertaken\\u000a (1965–2000). These included demographic variables, clinical phenomenology, etiological

C. Lochner; D. J. Stein

2001-01-01

301

Dissociation as a Predictor of Cognitive Behavior Therapy Outcome in Patients with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Previous studies have found a strong association between dissociation and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The purpose of the present study was to evaluate whether dissociation is a predictor of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) outcome in patients with OCD. Methods: Fifty-two patients with OCD were assessed using the Dissociative Experience Scale (DES), the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale and the Beck Depression Inventory.

Michael Rufer; Dada Held; Julia Cremer; Susanne Fricke; Steffen Moritz; Helmut Peter; Iver Hand

2006-01-01

302

Hoarding in obsessive-compulsive disorder and related disorders: a preliminary report of 15 cases.  

PubMed

Hoarding, the repetitive collection of excessive quantities of poorly useable items of little or no value with failure to discard these items over time, is characterized in DSM-IV as a symptom of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) but has, until recently, received scant empirical investigation. We describe the demographics, phenomenology, associated psychopathology and family history in 15 subjects presenting with hoarding behavior. Fifteen subjects were recruited from an OCD clinic and newspaper advertisement and assessed with the comprehensive Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID I and II), the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS), and a hoarding questionnaire (devised by the authors). The sample comprised 11 women and four men who hoarded a mean of seven item types, with a mean duration of 13.2 +/- 3.9 years (range 2-15 years). Their mean age was 41.8 +/- 14.3 years (range 20-65 years). The most common motive for hoarding was the fear of discarding items of practical value. Nine subjects met DSM-IV criteria for OCD, 9 met criteria for OCPD, for symptoms and behaviors other than hoarding, while six subjects met criteria for a putative OCD spectrum disorder (Tourette's, body dysmorphic disorder, trichotillomania). Six subjects reported little or no control over their hoarding, but only one subject saw her symptoms as an 'illness' warranting treatment. Pathological hoarding is usually a covert and chronic behavior causing distress and/or impairment, and may be related to OCD and OCPD. Hoarding may meet the criterion for a compulsion in DSM-IV, yet there is evidence to suggest that hoarding may manifest in a variety of other psychiatric conditions. While a range of pharmacologic and behavioral treatments have been tried, their effectiveness in managing hoarding behaviors requires additional research. PMID:11929567

Seedat, Soraya; Stein, Dan J

2002-02-01

303

Obsessive-compulsive disorder.  

PubMed

The prevalence of OCD in a dermatologic practice may be much higher than in the general population. OCDs can be debilitating in one's interpersonal, social, and occupational functioning. The obsessions and compulsions typically begin fairly early in life and may consume prolonged lengths of the patient's time to complete daily rituals of washing, checking, touching, arranging, hoarding, or ruminating. Evidence is mounting for support of a neurobiologic basis in the etiology of OCD. In terms of treatment, the psychopharmacologic agents (clomipramine, fluoxetine, fluvoxamine, sertraline, paroxetine) and behavior therapy alone or in combination with SRIs help a significant majority of patients suffering from this disorder. The OCD spectrum of disorders is varied. Patients presenting to the dermatologist will exhibit an interesting array of symptoms, including those who compulsively hand wash, pick at nails or skin, pull body hair, or display other SIB. Increased awareness of these disorders will enable the dermatologist to identify and treat patients with OCD appropriately. PMID:8818556

Warnock, J K; Kestenbaum, T

1996-07-01

304

Selective attention deficits in obsessive-compulsive disorder: the role of metacognitive processes.  

PubMed

While initial studies supported the hypothesis that cognitive characteristics that capture cognitive resources act as underlying mechanisms in memory deficits in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), the influence of those characteristics on selective attention has not been studied, yet. In this study, we examined the influence of cognitive self-consciousness (CSC), rumination and worrying on performance in selective attention in OCD and compared the results to a depressive and a healthy control group. We found that 36 OCD and 36 depressive participants were impaired in selective attention in comparison to 36 healthy controls. In all groups, hierarchical regression analyses demonstrated that age, intelligence and years in school significantly predicted performance in selective attention. But only in OCD, the predictive power of the regression model was improved when CSC, rumination and worrying were implemented as predictor variables. In contrast, in none of the three groups the predictive power improved when indicators of severity of obsessive-compulsive (OC) and depressive symptoms and trait anxiety were introduced as predictor variables. Thus, our results support the assumption that mental characteristics that bind cognitive resources play an important role in the understanding of selective attention deficits in OCD and that this mechanism is especially relevant for OCD. PMID:25554356

Koch, Julia; Exner, Cornelia

2015-02-28

305

No Impact of Deep Brain Stimulation on Fear-Potentiated Startle in Obsessive–Compulsive Disorder  

PubMed Central

Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the ventral internal capsule is effective in treating therapy refractory obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD). Given the close proximity of the stimulation site to the stria terminalis (BNST), we hypothesized that the striking decrease in anxiety symptoms following DBS could be the result of the modulation of contextual anxiety. However, the effect of DBS in this region on contextual anxiety is as of yet unknown. Thus, the current study investigated the effect of DBS on contextual anxiety in an experimental threat of shock paradigm. Eight patients with DBS treatment for severe OCD were tested in a double-blind crossover design with randomly assigned 2-week periods of active and sham stimulation. DBS resulted in significant decrease of obsessive–compulsive symptoms, anxiety, and depression. However, even though the threat manipulation resulted in a clear context-potentiated startle effect, none of the parameters derived from the startle recordings was modulated by the DBS. This suggests that DBS in the ventral internal capsule is effective in treating anxiety symptoms of OCD without modulating the startle circuitry. We hypothesize that the anxiety symptoms present in OCD are likely distinct from the pathological brain circuits in defensive states of other anxiety disorders. PMID:25249953

Baas, Johanna M. P.; Klumpers, Floris; Mantione, Mariska H.; Figee, Martijn; Vulink, Nienke C.; Schuurman, P. Richard; Mazaheri, Ali; Denys, Damiaan

2014-01-01

306

A Review of Pharmacologic Treatments for Obsessive Compulsive Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Obsessive-compulsive disorder is a chronic and often disabling disorder that affects 2 to 3 percent of the U.S. population. Optimal treatment involves a combination of pharmacologic and cog- nitive-behavioral therapies. Advances in psychopharmacology have led to safe and effective treatments for obsessive-compulsive disorder that provide clinically significant improvement in symptoms. In this article the authors review studies of pharmacologic

Alicia Kaplan; Eric Hollander

2004-01-01

307

Title: EEG source analysis in obsessive-compulsive disorder Authors: Jana Kopivov  

E-print Network

-mail address: koprivova@pcp.lf3.cuni.cz Key-words: obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD); standardized low sources in patients with OCD. METHODS: We compared resting state EEG from 50 OCD patients and 50 matched to derive the same components from the OCD group and to compare their power with controls. RESULTS: In OCD

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

308

Dysfunctional beliefs in group and individual cognitive behavioral therapy for obsessive compulsive disorder.  

PubMed

The primary aim of the study was to investigate dysfunctional beliefs in the form of inflated responsibility (IR) and thought action fusion (TAF) as predictive and mediating variables in individual (n=33) and group (n=37) cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). IR and TAF declined significantly during CBT, and the decline was positively associated with change in OCD symptoms. However, when controlling for change in depressive symptoms, only change in IR remained significantly associated with OCD symptom change. The moral subtype of TAF predicted poorer treatment outcome, but only in group CBT. Both treatments produced a similar amount of change in the dysfunctional beliefs. The results provide some, preliminary evidence that IR, but not TAF, may be specifically involved in the change mechanisms of both individual and group CBT for OCD, although the design of the study with pre- and post-therapy measurements only does not allow for a causal mediator analysis. PMID:21232914

Jónsson, Hjalti; Hougaard, Esben; Bennedsen, Birgit E

2011-05-01

309

Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD)  

MedlinePLUS

... situation. In the most severe cases, a constant repetition of rituals may fill the day, making a ... repeat a behavior several times. They know these repetitions won’t actually guard against injury but fear ...

310

The anteromedial GPi as a new target for deep brain stimulation in obsessive compulsive disorder.  

PubMed

Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is now well established in the treatment of intractable movement disorders. Over the past decade the clinical applications have expanded into the realm of psychosurgery, including depression and obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). The optimal targets for electrode placement in psychosurgery remain unclear, with numerous anatomical targets reported for the treatment of OCD. We present four patients with Tourette's syndrome and prominent features of OCD who underwent DBS of the anteromedial globus pallidus internus (GPi) to treat their movement disorder. Their pre-operative and post-operative OCD symptoms were compared, and responded dramatically to surgery. On the basis of these results, we propose the anteromedial (limbic) GPi as a potential surgical target for the treatment of OCD, and furnish data supporting its further investigation as a DBS target for the treatment of psychiatric conditions. PMID:24524950

Nair, Girish; Evans, Andrew; Bear, Renee E; Velakoulis, Dennis; Bittar, Richard G

2014-05-01

311

Effect of Prefrontal Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: A Preliminary Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Prefrontal mechanisms are implicated in obsessive-compulsive disorder. The authors investigated whether prefrontal repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation influenced obsessive-compulsive disorder symptoms. Method: Twelve patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder were given repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (80% motor threshold, 20 Hz\\/2 seconds per minute for 20 minutes) to a right lateral prefrontal, a left lateral prefrontal, and a midoccipital (control) site on separate

Benjamin D. Greenberg; Mark S. George; Juliet D. Martin; Jonathan Benjamin; Thomas E. Schlaepfer; Margaret Altemus; Eric M. Wassermann; Robert M. Post; Dennis L. Murphy

1997-01-01

312

Satiation Therapy and Exposure Response Prevention in the Treatment of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of present study was to test the comparative effectiveness of Satiation Therapy and Exposure Response Prevention\\u000a techniques in the treatment of obsessive–compulsive disordered patients. Sixty self-referred male outpatient cases were investigated\\u000a within a randomized controlled trial. Patients were allocated to Satiation Therapy, Exposure Response Prevention or wait-list\\u000a control groups. Obsessive–compulsive symptoms were measured by the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive

Siamak Khodarahimi

2009-01-01

313

Fluvoxamine for Children and Adolescents With Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: A Randomized, Controlled, Multicenter Trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveTo determine the safety and efficacy of fluvoxamine for the treatment of children and adolescents with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) with a double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter study.

MARK A. RIDDLE; ELIZABETH A. REEVE; JOSE A. YARYURA-TOBIAS; HWA MING YANG; JAMES L. CLAGHORN; GARY GAFFNEY; JOHN H. GREIST; DONNA HOLLAND; BRIAN J. MCCONVILLE; TERESA PIGOTT; JOHN T. WALKUP

2001-01-01

314

Cognitive-Behavioral Family Treatment of Childhood Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: A Controlled Trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveTo evaluate the relative efficacy of (1) individual cognitive-behavioral family-based therapy (CBFT); (2) group CBFT; and (3) a waitlist control group in the treatment of childhood obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD).

Paula Barrett; Lara Healy-Farrell; John S. March

2004-01-01

315

Cognitive?Behavioral Treatment of Pediatric Obsessive?Compulsive Disorder: An Open Clinical Trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveThe purpose of this open clinical trial was to examine the efficacy of cognitive-behavioral treatment involving exposure and ritual prevention for pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD).

MARTIN E. FRANKLIN; MICHAEL J. KOZAK; LAURIE A. CASHMAN; MEREDITH E. COLES; ALYSSA A. RHEINGOLD; EDNA B. FOA

1998-01-01

316

Reduced prefrontal gyrification in obsessive–compulsive disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies reveal evidence for brain abnormalities in obsessive–compulsive disorder\\u000a (OCD), for instance, reduction of gray matter volume in the prefrontal cortex. Disturbances of gyrification in the prefrontal\\u000a cortex have been described several times in schizophrenia pointing to a neurodevelopmental etiology, while gyrification has\\u000a not been studied so far in OCD patients. In 26 OCD patients

Thomas Wobrock; Oliver Gruber; Andrew M. McIntosh; Susanne Kraft; Anne Klinghardt; Harald Scherk; Wolfgang Reith; Thomas Schneider-Axmann; Stephen M. Lawrie; Peter Falkai; Thomas William Moorhead

2010-01-01

317

Cognitive Frontal Lobe Dysfunction in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: There is evidence that dysfunction within associative frontostriatal circuits represents a feature of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Previous neuropsychologic studies have yielded diverging results, which may in part be explained by differences in the selection of subjects and methods. The present study focused on the question of cognitive frontal lobe performance in OCD.Methods: Twenty-nine unmedicated OCD patients were compared to

Klaus Schmidtke; Alexander Schorb; Gabriele Winkelmann; Fritz Hohagen

1998-01-01

318

Prevalence of obsessive-compulsive disorder in Iran  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Estimates of the annual prevalence for Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) were consistent across the international sites range, 1.9% – 2.5%. The nine population surveys, which used Diagnostic Interview Schedule, estimated a six-month prevalence of OCD ranging from 0.7% to 2.1%. This study performed in order to determine the prevalence of OCD in a population-based study among Iranian adults aged

Mohammad Reza Mohammadi; Ahmad Ghanizadeh; Mehdi Rahgozar; Ali Ahmad Noorbala; Haratoun Davidian; Hossein Malek Afzali; Hamid Reza Naghavi; Seyed Abbas Bagheri Yazdi; Seyed Saberi; Bita Mesgarpour; Shahin Akhondzadeh; Javad Alaghebandrad; Mehdi Tehranidoost

2004-01-01

319

Goal-directed learning and obsessive–compulsive disorder  

PubMed Central

Obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) has become a paradigmatic case of goal-directed dysfunction in psychiatry. In this article, we review the neurobiological evidence, historical and recent, that originally led to this supposition and continues to support a habit hypothesis of OCD. We will then discuss a number of recent studies that have directly tested this hypothesis, using behavioural experiments in patient populations. Based on this research evidence, which suggests that rather than goal-directed avoidance behaviours, compulsions in OCD may derive from manifestations of excessive habit formation, we present the details of a novel account of the functional relationship between these habits and the full symptom profile of the disorder. Borrowing from a cognitive dissonance framework, we propose that the irrational threat beliefs (obsessions) characteristic of OCD may be a consequence, rather than an instigator, of compulsive behaviour in these patients. This lays the foundation for a potential shift in both clinical and neuropsychological conceptualization of OCD and related disorders. This model may also prove relevant to other putative disorders of compulsivity, such as substance dependence, where the experience of ‘wanting’ drugs may be better understood as post hoc rationalizations of otherwise goal-insensitive, stimulus-driven behaviour. PMID:25267818

Gillan, Claire M.; Robbins, Trevor W.

2014-01-01

320

Goal-directed learning and obsessive-compulsive disorder.  

PubMed

Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has become a paradigmatic case of goal-directed dysfunction in psychiatry. In this article, we review the neurobiological evidence, historical and recent, that originally led to this supposition and continues to support a habit hypothesis of OCD. We will then discuss a number of recent studies that have directly tested this hypothesis, using behavioural experiments in patient populations. Based on this research evidence, which suggests that rather than goal-directed avoidance behaviours, compulsions in OCD may derive from manifestations of excessive habit formation, we present the details of a novel account of the functional relationship between these habits and the full symptom profile of the disorder. Borrowing from a cognitive dissonance framework, we propose that the irrational threat beliefs (obsessions) characteristic of OCD may be a consequence, rather than an instigator, of compulsive behaviour in these patients. This lays the foundation for a potential shift in both clinical and neuropsychological conceptualization of OCD and related disorders. This model may also prove relevant to other putative disorders of compulsivity, such as substance dependence, where the experience of 'wanting' drugs may be better understood as post hoc rationalizations of otherwise goal-insensitive, stimulus-driven behaviour. PMID:25267818

Gillan, Claire M; Robbins, Trevor W

2014-11-01

321

Disability and family burden in obsessive-compulsive disorder.  

PubMed

This paper reviews 2 aspects of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD): impairment in functioning and family burden associated with OCD. Impairment is evident from epidemiological and clinical studies in several areas, particularly in occupational and social maladjustment. Clinic outpatients show a range of impairment associated with OCD, while hospitalized patients exhibit consistently severe disabilities that rival those of patients with schizophrenia. Although behaviourally and medication-treated patients improve in adjustment levels, there is some evidence of persistent impairment, particularly in social and work functioning. Several studies support extensive family involvement and accommodation of OCD symptoms, as well as the considerable burden placed on families who reduce their social activities and increase their isolation and distress. Findings are equivocal regarding OCD and marital distress. Predictors of treatment outcome do not include marital dissatisfaction, but may include expressed anger and criticism. With regard to treatment, family support groups are popular but untested interventions, and family-assisted individual and group behaviour therapy have demonstrated good outcomes in limited trials. PMID:9429061

Steketee, G

1997-11-01

322

Assessment of obsessive-compulsive disorder: a review.  

PubMed

Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) affects approximately 2-3% of the adult population and is considered a debilitating and costly disorder, with associated impairments spanning the social, occupational, and familial domains. Although effective treatments of OCD exist, many individuals who suffer from OCD go undiagnosed or misdiagnosed, preventing them from obtaining appropriate treatment. As a result, making improvements to the assessment and diagnosis of OCD remains an important area of focus for research and clinical practice. This paper provides a critical review of instruments used in the assessment and diagnosis of OCD as well as a review of adjunctive measures used to assess associated symptoms. Types of instruments reviewed include diagnostic interviews, self-report questionnaires, family-report questionnaires, and clinician-administered inventories. Discussion of each instrument includes information regarding the pragmatics of administration and the psychometric properties of each instrument, as well as an evaluation of each instrument's strengths and weaknesses. We conclude by providing a synthesis of the literature and highlighting directions for future research. PMID:17367988

Grabill, Kristen; Merlo, Lisa; Duke, Danny; Harford, Kelli-Lee; Keeley, Mary L; Geffken, Gary R; Storch, Eric A

2008-01-01

323

Lifetime-comorbidity of obsessive-compulsive disorder and subclinical obsessive-compulsive disorder in northern Germany  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective Inspite of the worldwide relevance of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), there is a substantial lack of data on comorbidity\\u000a in OCD and subclinical OCD in the general population. Methods German versions of the DSM-IV adapted Composite International Diagnostic Interview were administered to a representative\\u000a sample of 4075 persons aged 18–64 years, living in a northern German region. Results In both

Hans Joergen Grabe; Christian Meyer; Ulfert Hapke; Hans-Juergen Rumpf; Harald Juergen Freyberger; Horst Dilling; Ulrich John

2001-01-01

324

The relationship of obsessive–compulsive disorder to possible spectrum disorders: results from a family study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The familial relationship between obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) and “obsessive–compulsive spectrum” disorders is unclear. This study investigates the relationship of OCD to somatoform disorders (body dysmorphic disorder [BDD] and hypochondriasis), eating disorders (e.g., anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa), pathologic “grooming” conditions (e.g., nail biting, skin picking, trichotillomania), and other impulse control disorders (e.g., kleptomania, pathologic gambling, pyromania) using blinded family

O. Joseph Bienvenu; Jack F Samuels; Mark A Riddle; Rudolf Hoehn-Saric; Kung-Yee Liang; Bernadette A. M Cullen; Marco A Grados; Gerald Nestadt

2000-01-01

325

Individual versus group cognitive–behavioral treatment for obsessive–compulsive disorder: a controlled pilot study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study sought to examine the effectiveness of group and individual cognitive–behavioral treatment (CBT) and to compare the results with those of a wait-list control group among a sample of patients with obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD). Fifty-seven individuals diagnosed with OCD were evaluated pre- and posttreatment with the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale and the Hamilton Rating Scales for Anxiety and Depression.

Nuria Jaurrieta; Susana Jimenez-Murcia; José Manuel Menchón; M. Del Pino Alonso; Cinto Segalas; Eva M. ÁLvarez-Moya; Javier Labad; Roser Granero; Julio Vallejo

2008-01-01

326

Thought-action fusion in obsessive compulsive disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent psychometric results suggested that the phenomenon of thought-action fusion (TAF) is implicated in obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). The construct of TAF has two components: (a) the belief that thinking about an unacceptable or disturbing event makes it more likely to happen and (b) the belief that having an unacceptable thought is the moral equivalent of carrying out the unacceptable

Roz Shafran; Dana S. Thordarson; S. Rachman

1996-01-01

327

T Cell Subsets in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stress can produce immunosuppression leading to increased susceptibility to infection, tumor growth or autoimmune disease. It has been recently noted, however, that certain kinds of stress need not increase the risk of immune pathology. The present study looked for immune pathology in an anxiety-related disorder. Acute exacerbation of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), an anxiety spectrum disorder, served as a model for

Y. Barber; P. Toren; A. Achiron; S. Noy; L. Wolmer; R. Weizman; N. Laor

1996-01-01

328

Obsessive-compulsive bipolar comorbidity: focus on children and adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Growing evidence documents the frequent co-morbidity between Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) and Bipolar Disorder (BP) in adults. The aim of the present study is to explore some clinical aspects of this interface in children and adolescents, as it appears in a setting of routine clinical practice. Method: The sample comprised 102 consecutively referred children and adolescents, both inpatients and

Gabriele Masi; Giulio Perugi; Cristina Toni; Stefania Millepiedi; Maria Mucci; Nicoletta Bertini; Hagop S. Akiskal

2004-01-01

329

Social and Communication Difficulties and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The relationship between pervasive developmental disorder (PDD) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has not been extensively studied despite having some phenomenological features in common. Abnormal social and communication behaviors (pragmatic behaviors) are key components of PDD and are also part of the broader autism phenotype (BAP). In this study we sought to establish if there is any association between the

Bernadette Cullen; Jack Samuels; Marco Grados; Rebecca Landa; O. Joseph Bienvenu; Kung-Yee Liang; Mark Riddle; Rudolf Hoehn-Saric; Gerald Nestadt

2008-01-01

330

Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder in School-Age Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is an anxiety disorder characterized by disturbing thoughts, impulses, or images (obsessions); repetitive or ritualistic behaviors (compulsions); or the presence of both. Although some may believe this disorder is isolated to the adult population, it affects anywhere from 1% to 4% of children in the United…

Helbing, Mary-Lee C.; Ficca, Michelle

2009-01-01

331

Are “obsessive” beliefs specific to OCD?: A comparison across anxiety disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cognitive models of obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) assign a central role to maladaptive beliefs about threat, uncertainty, importance and control of thoughts, responsibility, and perfection. Previous research has demonstrated that such beliefs relate to specific OCD symptoms in a theoretically meaningful way. The aim of the present study was to determine whether these beliefs are endorsed more strongly by OCD patients

David F. Tolin; Patrick Worhunsky; Nicholas Maltby

2006-01-01

332

Early Childhood OCD: Preliminary Findings from a Family-Based Cognitive-Behavioral Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study was conducted to compare the relative usefulness of family-based cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) against family-based relaxation treatment for children with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Results showed that children with early childhood-onset OCD benefited from the CBT program as it effectively decreased OCD symptoms and helped…

Freeman, Jennifer B.; Garcia, Abbe M.; Coyne, Lisa; Ale, Chelsea; Prezeworski, Amy; Himle, Michael; Compton, Scott; Leonard, Henrietta L.

2008-01-01

333

Patient-reported outcomes in obsessive-compulsive disorder  

PubMed Central

The purpose of the article was to provide an overview of patient-reported outcomes (PROs) and related measures that have been examined in the context of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The current review focused on patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) that evaluated three broad outcome domains: functioning, health-related quality of life (HRQoL), and OCD-related symptoms. The present review ultimately included a total of 155 unique articles and 22 PROMs. An examination of the PROs revealed that OCD patients tend to suffer from significant functional disability, and report lower HRQoL than controls. OCD patients report greater symptom severity than patients with other mental disorders and evidence indicates that PROMs are sensitive to change and may be even better than clinician-rated measures at predicting treatment outcomes. Nonetheless, it should be noted that the measures reviewed lacked patient input in their development. Future research on PROMs must involve patient perspectives and include rigorous psychometric evaluation of these measures. PMID:25152661

Subramaniam, Mythily; Soh, Pauline; Ong, Clarissa; Esmond Seow, Lee Seng; Picco, Louisa; Vaingankar, Janhavi Ajit; Chong, Siow Ann

2014-01-01

334

Extinction retention and fear renewal in a lifetime obsessive-compulsive disorder sample.  

PubMed

Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), like other illnesses with prominent anxiety, may involve abnormal fear regulation and consolidation of safety memories. Impaired fear extinction memory (extinction recall, ER) has been shown in individuals with current symptoms of OCD [1]. However, contrary to expectations, the only previous study investigating this phenomenon showed a positive correlation between extinction recall abilities and OCD symptomology (i.e., as OCD symptoms worsened, extinction memory improved). The purpose of the current study was to determine if patients with a lifetime diagnosis of OCD (not necessarily currently symptomatic) also demonstrate impairments in extinction memory, and the relationship between OCD symptomology and extinction memory in this type of sample. In addition, we also examined fear renewal, which has never been investigated in an OCD sample. We enrolled 37 patients with OCD, the majority of whom were on serotonin reuptake inhibitors, and 18 healthy control participants in a 2-day paradigm assessing fear conditioning and extinction (Day 1) and extinction retention and renewal (Day 2). Skin conductance responses (SCRs) were the dependent measure. Results, as in the prior study, indicated that the only between-group difference was impaired ER in OCD patients relative to controls. Contrary to our prediction, OCD symptom severity was not correlated with the magnitude of extinction recall. There were no differences in fear renewal between OCD patients and controls. PMID:25446749

McLaughlin, N C R; Strong, D; Abrantes, A; Garnaat, S; Cerny, A; O'Connell, C; Fadok, R; Spofford, C; Rasmussen, S A; Milad, M R; Greenberg, B D

2015-03-01

335

Successful treatment for obsessive-compulsive disorder with addition of low-dose risperidone to fluvoxamine: implications for plasma levels of catecholamine metabolites and serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels.  

PubMed

The authors report on the successful treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) in three patients with the addition of risperidone to ongoing fluvoxamine treatment. Plasma homovanillic acid (HVA), but not 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol (MHPG) levels decreased after risperidone administration, and plasma levels of fluvoxamine did not change. In addition, serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels were not altered after the recovery from obsessive-compulsive symptoms, indicating that serum BDNF levels might not predict the patient's response to risperidone treatment. Taken together, a combination treatment of risperdone and fluvoxamine might improve obsessive-compulsive symptoms. In short, fluvoxamine enhances the activity of the serotonergic system by inhibiting serotonin transporters, and risperidone decreases that of the dopaminergic system by blocking D2 receptors. PMID:16732759

Yoshimura, Reiji; Kaneko, Sachiko; Shinkai, Koji; Nakamura, Jun

2006-06-01

336

Single photon emission computed tomography op the brain with Tc99m HMPAO during sumatriptan challenge in obsessive-compulsive disorder: Investigating the functional role of the serotonin autoreceptor  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.1. Symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) may be acutely exacerbated by administration of certain serotonin agonists Exacerbation of OCD symptoms by sumatriptan, a 5HT1D agonist (Zohar, 1993), is consistent with pre-clinical data suggesting that the serotonin auto-receptor plays an important role in this disorder (El Mansari et al, 1995).2.2. In order to investigate the functional role of the serotonin auto-receptor

Dan J. Stein; Barend Van Heerden; Charmaine J. Wessels; Jeanine Van kradenburg; James Warwick; Herman J. Wasserman

1999-01-01

337

Functional MRI and the Study of OCD: From Symptom Provocation to Cognitive-Behavioral Probes of Cortico-Striatal Systems and the Amygdala  

Microsoft Academic Search

Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) first appeared in 1991. Since that time there has been a burgeoning use of the technology by psychiatric researchers and neuroscientists. Our group first used fMRI to study obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) with a symptom provocation paradigm and then moved to the use of circuitry-specific cognitive-behavioral probes. The techniques we utilized for the symptom provocation

Hans C. Breiter; Scott L. Rauch

1996-01-01

338

Traumatic Events and Obsessive Compulsive Disorder in Children and Adolescents: Is There a Link?  

PubMed Central

Background The extant literature supports an association between psychological trauma and development of OCD in adults, and this link is a plausible mediator for environment gene interactions leading to phenotypic expression of OCD. Objective To explore the relationship between OCD and traumatic life events in children and adolescents. Methods We examined the prevalence of traumatic life events and PTSD in a large sample of systematically assessed children with OCD. OCD symptoms and severity were assessed using the Children’s Yale Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (CY-BOCS) in those with and without concurrent PTSD. Results Rate of PTSD and trauma exposure was higher in children with OCD than in a comparable control group of non-OCD youth matched for age, gender and SES. Children with concurrent PTSD had more intrusive fears and distress and less control over their rituals than children with OCD but without PTSD. Total CY-BOCS scores were higher in those with concurrent PTSD. Specific type of OCD symptoms was not altered by a PTSD diagnosis. Conclusions A history of psychologically traumatic events may be over-represented in children with OCD. Given the need to search for non-genetic factors that may lead to onset of OCD, better and more systematic methods to obtain and quantify psychologically traumatic life events are needed in clinical populations. PMID:21295942

Lafleur, Daniel L.; Petty, Carter; Mancuso, Elizabeth; McCarthy, Katherine; Biederman, Joseph; Faro, Alyssa; Levy, Hannah C.; Geller, Daniel A.

2011-01-01

339

Onset of obsessive-compulsive disorder: premorbid conditions and prodromal phase.  

PubMed

This article focuses on the clinical onset of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), specifically addressing the age of onset, gradual and acute onset, and whether there are some types of premorbid conditions or a prodromal phase that predispose individuals to the onset of OCD. Clinical and epidemiological studies have come to different conclusions regarding age at onset as well as regarding differences between the sexes. Data gleaned from research to date have demonstrated a relationship between OCD and obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD), although OCPD does not appear to be the more prevalent personality disorder among patients with OCD. Preliminary research has suggested that Axis I disorders may predispose individuals to OCD onset; however, the significance of this relationship remains to be clarified. Evidence of the association between OCD and subthreshold obsessive-compulsive syndrome suggests that these disorders lie on a continuum of severity, with some cases developing OCD while others do not. PMID:17545963

Maina, G; Albert, U; Bogetto, F; Ravizza, L

2000-12-01

340

Hoarding behavior among young children with obsessive-compulsive disorder  

PubMed Central

Previous research has shown that among the various subtypes of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), adults (e.g. Frost, Krause & Steketee, 1996) and older children and adolescents (Bloch et al., 2009; Storch et al., 2007) with problematic hoarding have distinct features and a poor treatment prognosis. However, there is limited information on the phenomenology and prevalence of hoarding behaviors in young children. The present study characterizes children ages 10 and under who present with OCD and hoarding behaviors. Sixty-eight children received a structured interview-determined diagnosis of OCD. Clinician administered, parent-report, and child-report measures on demographic, symptomatic, and diagnostic variables were completed. Clinician ratings of hoarding symptoms and parent and child endorsement of the hoarding item on the CY-BOCS checklist (Scahill, Riddle, McSwiggin-Hardin, & Ort, 1997) determined inclusion in the hoarding group (n=33). Compared to children without hoarding symptoms (n=35), the presence of hoarding symptoms was associated with an earlier age of primary diagnosis onset and a higher proportion of ADHD and provisional anxiety diagnoses. These results are partially consistent with the adult literature and with findings in older children (Storch et al., 2007). Additional data on clinical presentation and phenomenology of hoarding are needed to form a developmentally appropriate definition of the behavior. PMID:24860725

Frank, Hannah; Stewart, Elyse; Walther, Michael; Benito, Kristen; Freeman, Jennifer; Conelea, Christ; Garci, Abbe

2014-01-01

341

Suicidal ideation in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder.  

PubMed

The risk factors for suicidal behaviour in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) have been less studied compared than in other anxiety disorders. In the present study, we examined the demographic and clinical correlates of current suicidal ideation (SI) in patients with OCD. Forty-four patients were grouped into those with (n=23) and without current SI (n=21) as assessed by the Scale for Suicidal Ideation. The Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS) was used to assess the obsessive-compulsive (OC) symptomatology. Following Bonferroni correction, only the severity of depression differed significantly between the two groups. The presence of major depression and aggressive obsessions, the level of hopelessness, and the severity of OC symptomatology were significant predictors of current SI in patients with OCD. The relatively low frequency of some comorbid Axis I disorders is based on small sample size and therefore may be vulnerable to type II error. We did not examine the relationship between the recent suicidal attempts and OCD. Also, we did not assess the effect of impulsivity in the occurrence of SI in patients with OCD. Associated depression, hopelessness, and aggressive obsessions might play an important role in the occurrence of SI in patients with OCD. However, future studies with a psychological autopsy design are required to systematically determine the presence for OCD among those who have completed suicide. PMID:19923009

Balci, Volkan; Sevincok, Levent

2010-01-30

342

Dopaminergic activity in Tourette syndrome and obsessive-compulsive disorder.  

PubMed

Tourette syndrome (TS) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) both are neuropsychiatric disorders associated with abnormalities in dopamine neurotransmission. Aims of this study were to quantify striatal D2/3 receptor availability in TS and OCD, and to examine dopamine release and symptom severity changes in both disorders following amphetamine challenge. Changes in [(11)C]raclopride binding potential (BP(ND)) were assessed using positron emission tomography before and after administration of d-amphetamine (0.3 mg kg(-1)) in 12 TS patients without comorbid OCD, 12 OCD patients without comorbid tics, and 12 healthy controls. Main outcome measures were baseline striatal D2/3 receptor BP(ND) and change in BP(ND) following amphetamine as a measure of dopamine release. Voxel-based analysis revealed significantly decreased baseline [(11)C]raclopride BP(ND) in bilateral putamen of both patient groups vs. healthy controls, differences being more pronounced in the TS than in the OCD group. Changes in BP(ND) following amphetamine were not significantly different between groups. Following amphetamine administration, tic severity increased in the TS group, which correlated with BP(ND) changes in right ventral striatum. Symptom severity in the OCD group did not change significantly following amphetamine challenge and was not associated with changes in BP(ND). This study provides evidence for decreased striatal D2/3 receptor availability in TS and OCD, presumably reflecting higher endogenous dopamine levels in both disorders. In addition, it provides the first direct evidence that ventral striatal dopamine release is related to the pathophysiology of tics. PMID:23876376

Denys, Damiaan; de Vries, Froukje; Cath, Danielle; Figee, Martijn; Vulink, Nienke; Veltman, Dick J; van der Doef, Thalia F; Boellaard, Ronald; Westenberg, Herman; van Balkom, Anton; Lammertsma, Adriaan A; van Berckel, Bart N M

2013-11-01

343

Obsessive compulsive disorder in dental setting.  

PubMed

Globally, 20% of children and adolescents suffer from a disabling psychologic illness. Among these, Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) is listed by the World Health Organization (WHO) as one of the 10 most disabling conditions, with prevalence rates of OCD in children ranging between 1 to 3%. Pediatric dentists are in a unique position to diagnose psychological problems in children and adolescents due to their ongoing relationship with children and their parents that starts at a very early age. Timely diagnosis of psychological illness can result in early intervention as well as better patient management for the dentist too. The purpose of this case report is to highlight a case of OCD in an adolescent girl diagnosed in a dental setting. PMID:25231042

Chandna, Preetika; Srivastava, Nikhil; Adlakha, Vivek Kumar

2014-01-01

344

The effect of obsessive-compulsive symptomatology on executive functions in schizophrenia: a systematic review and meta-analysis.  

PubMed

The presence of obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCS) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is frequent in patients with schizophrenia and has been associated with greater functional impairment. The impact of these features on cognitive function is unclear. In this article, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the effect of OCS/OCD on executive functions in schizophrenia patients. Results indicate that schizophrenia patients with OCS/OCD were more impaired in abstract thinking than schizophrenia patients without OCS/OCD. This finding provides support to the double jeopardy hypothesis and may partially explain the greater functional impairment shown in schizo-obsessive patients compared to those with schizophrenia. Inconsistent results were found for set-shifting, cognitive flexibility, cognitive inhibition and verbal fluency, as indicated by the high statistical heterogeneity found. Potential sources of heterogeneity such as definition of OCS/OCD, age of onset, severity of negative symptoms and premorbid intelligence were planned to be explored but there was an insufficient number of studies to perform these analyses. Our findings highlight the complexity of the relationship between OCS/OCD and schizophrenia and warrant further investigation of the cognitive function of schizo-obsessive patients. PMID:23810510

Cunill, Ruth; Huerta-Ramos, Elena; Castells, Xavier

2013-11-30

345

Children with obsessive-compulsive disorder: are they just “little adults”?  

PubMed Central

Childhood-onset obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) affects 1%–2% of children and adolescents. It is characterized by recurrent obsessions and compulsions that create distress and interfere with daily life. The symptoms reported by children are similar to those seen among individuals who develop OCD in adulthood, and the two groups of patients are treated with similar symptom-relieving behavior therapies and medications. However, there are differences in sex ratios, patterns of comorbidity, and the results of neuroimaging studies that might be important. Here we review the diagnosis and treatment of childhood-onset OCD in light of pediatric and adult studies. We also discuss current knowledge of the pathophysiology of the disorder. Despite advances in this area, further research is needed to understand better the etiopathogenesis of the disorder and to develop new, more effective therapeutic options. PMID:19339765

Kalra, Simran K.; Swedo, Susan E.

2009-01-01

346

Strategies of thought control in obsessive-compulsive disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intrusive anxiety-provoking thoughts are a core feature of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Recent research suggests that individuals use five different techniques of thought control including: distraction, punishment, re-appraisal, social control, and worry. The purpose of the present study was to examine the strategies of thought control used by OCD patients compared to those used by non-anxious controls. In addition, the relationship

Nader Amir; Laurie Cashman; Edna B. Foa

1997-01-01

347

The cognitive-affective neuroscience of obsessive-compulsive disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is substantial evidence that obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is mediated by specific cortico-striatalthalamic-cortical\\u000a (CTSC) circuits. Here we discuss very recent publications that address the following questions: How does damage to CSTC circuitry\\u000a come about?; What are the neurochemical systems involved in mediating this circuitry?; and What are the implications of such\\u000a damage for understanding the pathogenesis and management of OCD?

Dan J. Stein; Wayne K. Goodman; Scott L. Rauch

2000-01-01

348

Strategy implementation in obsessive–compulsive disorder and trichotillomania  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. The use of strategies to aid performance when undertaking neuropsychological tasks is dependent on intact fronto-striatal circuitry, and growing evidence suggests impaired spon- taneous use of strategies in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). However, studies to date have not examined the effects of strategy training on task performance in OCD or in trichotillomania (compulsive hair-pulling, a condition that has

SAMUEL R. CHAMBERLAIN; ANDREW D. BLACKWELL; NAOMI A. FINEBERG; TREVOR W. ROBBINS; BARBARA J. SAHAKIAN

2005-01-01

349

DSM-IV obsessive-compulsive personality disorder: Prevalence in patients with anxiety disorders and in healthy comparison subjects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) has not yet been fully clarified. The aim of the present study was to analyze DSM-IV OCPD prevalence rates in OCD and panic disorder (PD) patients to test for the specificity of the OCPD-OCD link, and to compare them to OCPD prevalence in a control group of subjects without

Umberto Albert; Giuseppe Maina; Federica Forner; Filippo Bogetto

2004-01-01

350

The Relationship Between Autistic Traits and Social Anxiety, Worry, Obsessive-Compulsive, and Depressive Symptoms: Specific and Non-specific Mediators in a Student Sample.  

PubMed

The high prevalence of anxiety symptoms in individuals with autism spectrum disorders has now been well documented. There is also a positive relationship between autistic traits and anxiety symptoms in unselected samples and individuals with anxiety disorders have more autistic traits compared to those without. Less is known, however, regarding which elements of autistic traits (i.e., social versus non-social/behavioral) or which other variables may mediate this relationship. This study investigated the shared and specific role of five autistic-trait related mediators (social problem-solving, social competence, teasing experiences, prevention from/punishment for preferred repetitive behaviors and aversive sensory experiences) in a non-clinical sample of 252 university students. Autistic traits positively correlated with both anxiety and depressive symptoms. Social competence mediated the relationship between autistic traits and social anxiety symptoms only, while only prevention from preferred repetitive behaviors and frequent aversive sensory experiences mediated the relationship between autistic traits, worry and obsessive-compulsive symptoms. Replication of these findings is required in longitudinal studies and with clinical samples. Limitations of the study are discussed and possible implications for intervention are tentatively suggested. PMID:25234480

Liew, Shi Min; Thevaraja, Nishta; Hong, Ryan Y; Magiati, Iliana

2015-03-01

351

Near-Infrared Spectroscopy during the Verbal Fluency Task before and after Treatment with Image Exposure and SSRI Therapy in Patients with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder  

PubMed Central

Drug therapy with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) has been used as a treatment for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). In the present case report, exposure therapy was used in addition to escitalopram (20?mg) to treat a 28-year-old female patient with OCD for 6 months. Her obsessive-compulsive symptoms comprised thoughts of words such as rape, crematorium, neck hanging, unhappy, death, die, and kill and images such as a shelf of gods, a shrine, a Buddhist altar, the sun, the sky, and the faces of her parents, siblings, and relatives. As exposure therapy, she was asked to view the images associated with these symptoms three times a day along with drug therapy. With the combination of drug and exposure therapies, her obsessive-compulsive symptoms improved within 6 months, with no interference in her daily life. Multichannel near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) showed improvement of brain function in the temporal and frontal lobes after treatment. These results suggest that NIRS can be used as an indicator of brain function improvement in patients with OCD. PMID:25317351

Nakanishi, Mari; Tanaka, Yoshihiro; Inoue, Ayako; Kawashima, Chiwa; Okamoto, Kana; Kobayashi, Shunsuke; Ishitobi, Yoshinobu; Ninomiya, Taiga

2014-01-01

352

Videoconferencing-based cognitive-behavioral therapy for obsessive-compulsive disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a prevalent, chronic and disabling anxiety disorder. Despite the efficacy and strength of pharmacologic interventions for OCD, medications are not always well accepted or effective, making an efficacious psychosocial alternative especially attractive. Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) has been established as an effective treatment for adult OCD, yet access to such treatment is limited, especially in rural areas.

Joseph A. Himle; Daniel J. Fischer; Jordana R. Muroff; Michelle L. Van Etten; Laura M. Lokers; James L. Abelson; Gregory L. Hanna

2006-01-01

353

Evidence-Based Psychosocial Treatments for Child and Adolescent Obsessive–Compulsive Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Child and adolescent obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) is a chronic and debilitating condition associated with a wide range of impairments. This article briefly discusses the phenomenology of OCD, the theory underlying current treatment approaches, and the extant psychosocial treatment literature for child and adolescent OCD relative to the criteria for classification as an evidence-based intervention. Studies were evaluated for methodological rigor

Paula M. Barrett; Lara Farrell; Armando A. Pina; Tara S. Peris; John Piacentini

2008-01-01

354

Neuropsychological function in obsessive-compulsive disorder: effects of comorbid conditions on task performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. – Neuropsychological testing reveals a pattern of impairment among patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) which implicates the orbitofrontal region. Studies of neuropsychological function in OCD differ regarding performance deficits on classical tests of frontal executive function. In some studies, OCD patients did not demonstrate impaired performance on tests of executive function. However, other researchers have documented performance deficits among

Ayse Aycicegi; Wayne M Dinn; Catherine L Harris; Husnu Erkmen

2003-01-01

355

Obsessive–compulsive disorder and body dysmorphic disorder: a comparison of clinical features  

Microsoft Academic Search

Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is currently classified as a somatoform disorder in DSM-IV, but has been long noted to have some important similarities with obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD). In addition, BDD and OCD have been often reported to be comorbid with each other. In the present study, we compared demographic characteristics, clinical features and psychiatric comorbidity in patients with OCD, BDD

Franco Frare; Giulio Perugi; Giuseppe Ruffolo; Cristina Toni

2004-01-01

356

Evidence-Based Psychosocial Treatments for Child and Adolescent Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Child and adolescent obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a chronic and debilitating condition associated with a wide range of impairments. This article briefly discusses the phenomenology of OCD, the theory underlying current treatment approaches, and the extant psychosocial treatment literature for child and adolescent OCD relative to the…

Barrett, Paula M.; Farrell, Lara; Pina, Armando A.; Peris, Tara S.; Piacentini, John

2008-01-01

357

Obsessive-compulsive disorder and behavioral therapy: A rational-choice perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) is a mental syndrome characterized by intrusive thoughts that trigger some repetitive action the individual feels driven to perform in order to relieve the anxiety engendered by the disturbing thoughts. A natural measure for the severity of OCD is the duration of the repetitive ritual. This paper presents a dynamic model of rational OCD that determines the

Gideon Yaniv

2008-01-01

358

Thought-Action Fusion and Inflated Responsibility Beliefs in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), inflated responsibility (IR) beliefs and thought-action fusion (TAF) are two cognitive schema argued to contribute to obsessions and compulsions. We investigated whether IR and TAF are OCD-specific or whether they occur in other anxiety disorders. Adults diagnosed with OCD (n = 20) or other anxiety disorders…

O'Leary, Emily Marie; Rucklidge, Julia Jane; Blampied, Neville

2009-01-01

359

Decreased Blood Levels of Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha in Patients with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate immune system function in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) we measured plasma levels of tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), interleukin-1? (IL-1?) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in 14 drug-free obsessive-compulsive patients and 14 matched healthy controls. No significant differences were observed between patients and controls in plasma levels of IL-1? and IL-6, whereas plasma levels of TNF-? were significantly lower (p = 0.001)

Palmiero Monteleone; Francesco Catapano; Michele Fabrazzo; Alfonso Tortorella; Mario Maj

1998-01-01

360

Measuring social anxiety and obsessive-compulsive spectra: Comparison of interviews and self-report instruments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present report analyzes the agreement between the interview and the self-report formats of the instruments Structured Clinical Interview for Social Anxiety Spectrum (SCI-SHY) and Structured Clinical Interview for Obsessive Compulsive Spectrum (SCI-OBS), already validated, in three psychiatric patient samples and controls. Thirty patients (10 with obsessive-compulsive disorder [OCD], 10 with social anxiety disorder [SAD], 10 with recurrent unipolar depression

Liliana Dell'Osso; Paola Rucci; Giovanni B. Cassano; Jack D. Maser; Jean Endicott; M. Katherine Shear; Nannina Sarno; Marco Saettoni; Victoria J. Grochocinski; Ellen Frank

2002-01-01

361

Assessment of obsessive beliefs: Comparing individuals with obsessive-compulsive disorder to a medical sample  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cognitive behavior models for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) are based currently on the presence of specific beliefs associated with the disorder. Among these beliefs are inflated responsibility, concerns over thought-action fusion, and overimportance of thoughts. The aim of this study was to compare scores from the subscales of the Obsessive Beliefs Questionnaire (OBQ-87), developed by the Obsessive-Compulsive Cognitions Working Group (OCCWG,

Makilim Nunes Baptista; Luiz Alberto Magna; Dean McKay; José Alberto Del-Porto

2011-01-01

362

Secondary Psychometric Examination of the Dimensional Obsessive-Compulsive Scale: Classical Testing, Item Response Theory, and Differential Item Functioning.  

PubMed

The Dimensional Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (DOCS) is a promising measure of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) symptoms but has received minimal psychometric attention. We evaluated the utility and reliability of DOCS scores. The study included 832 students and 300 patients with OCD. Confirmatory factor analysis supported the originally proposed four-factor structure. DOCS total and subscale scores exhibited good to excellent internal consistency in both samples (? = .82 to ? = .96). Patient DOCS total scores reduced substantially during treatment (t = 16.01, d = 1.02). DOCS total scores discriminated between students and patients (sensitivity = 0.76, 1 - specificity = 0.23). The measure did not exhibit gender-based differential item functioning as tested by Mantel-Haenszel chi-square tests. Expected response options for each item were plotted as a function of item response theory and demonstrated that DOCS scores incrementally discriminate OCD symptoms ranging from low to extremely high severity. Incremental differences in DOCS scores appear to represent unbiased and reliable differences in true OCD symptom severity. PMID:25422521

Thibodeau, Michel A; Leonard, Rachel C; Abramowitz, Jonathan S; Riemann, Bradley C

2014-11-24

363

Relevance of Five-Factor Model personality traits for obsessive-compulsive symptoms in patients with psychotic disorders and their un-affected siblings.  

PubMed

High rates of obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCS) in schizophrenia require pathogenic explanations. Personality traits may represent risk and resiliency factors for the development of mental disorders and their comorbidities. The aim of the present study was to explore the associations between Five-Factor Model (FFM) personality traits and the liability for OCS in patients with psychotic disorders and in their un-affected siblings. FFM traits, occurrence and severity of OCS and (subclinical) psychotic symptoms were assessed in 208 patients and in 281 siblings. Differences in FFM traits between participants with vs. without comorbid OCS were examined and the predictive value of FFM traits on group categorization was evaluated. Associations between FFM traits and OCS severity were investigated. Patients and siblings with OCS showed significantly higher Neuroticism compared to their counterparts without OCS. Neuroticism was positively associated with higher OCS severity and significantly predicted group assignment in both patients and in siblings. Patients with comorbid OCS presented with lower scores on Extraversion and Conscientiousness. Higher Neuroticism, and to a lesser degree lower Extraversion and Conscientiousness might add to the vulnerability of patients with a psychotic disorder to also develop OCS. Future prospective studies are needed to elucidate proposed personality-psychopathology interrelations and possible mediating factors. PMID:25613659

Schirmbeck, Frederike; Boyette, Lindy-Lou; Valk, Renate van der; Meijer, Carin; Dingemans, Peter; Van, Rien; de Haan, Lieuwe; Kahn, René S; de Haan, Lieuwe; van Os, Jim; Wiersma, Durk; Bruggeman, Richard; Cahn, Wiepke; Meijer, Carin; Myin-Germeys, Inez

2015-02-28

364

Korean Self-Report Version of the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale: Factor Structure, Reliability, and Validity  

PubMed Central

Objective Although several self-report versions of the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS) have been developed and used widely, few psychometric studies have established the construct validity of this measure. Therefore, we developed Korean self-report version of the Y-BOCS and evaluated its factor structure, reliability, and validity. Methods A non-clinical student sample (n=206) and a clinical OCD sample (n=199) completed the Korean self-report version and other measures of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), depression, and anxiety. Results Consistent with the originally proposed structure, confirmatory factor analyses supported a factor structure comprised of Obsessions and Compulsions factors in the Korean self-report version. Two subscale scores and the total score of the Korean self-report version showed good internal consistency and convergent validity, but relatively poor discriminant validity. Applying a cutoff score of 16, 84% of OCD patients and 93% of the non-clinical sample were classified correctly. Conclusion Korean self-report version of the Y-BOCS is a psychometrically sound and valid measure for assessing OCD symptoms as compared with the clinician-administered version. The originally proposed division of OCD severity into obsessions and compulsions appears accurate in the Korean self-report version. The cutoff score for the Korean self-report version needs adjustment based on further researches. PMID:23482407

Seol, Soon-Ho; Kwon, Jun Soo

2013-01-01

365

Ultra-orthodox rabbinic responses to religious obsessive- compulsive disorder.  

PubMed

This presentation deals with the response of rabbis to ultra-orthodox people suffering from religious symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder. The symptoms are consistent with religious practice and patients justify their compulsive behaviors by the dictates of the codes of law.Will rabbis see their primary role as protection of the codes of law rather than alleviation of the suffering of the faithful? Will they see the person as someone who is meritoriously meticulous or in need of help? The writings of two eminent rabbis, and advice related by contemporary patients in Jerusalem, Israel are presented. The most arresting example of guidance is provided by Rabbi Nahman of Bratslav (1772-1810) who declared that he himself suffered from excessive religious practices typical of religious OCD until he overcame them. The accounts of rabbis and patients have features similar to the cognitive-behavioral treatment of choice for this disorder. The guidance of a rabbi is based on authority, and detailed knowledge of religious law, while a mental health therapist is an expert on OCD. The latter cannot give religious guidance, and has no authority within the ultra-orthodox community, and is only afforded a role with the rabbi's acquiescence. The role of the patient's rabbi is likely to be crucial in management. Religious guidance without professional help may often only have short-term benefit in this generally chronic condition, although studies have not been carried out. PMID:19398822

Greenberg, David; Shefler, Gaby

2008-01-01

366

Fluoxetine Treatment for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder in Children and Adolescents: A Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveThis study assesses the efficacy and tolerability of fluoxetine in the acute treatment of child and adolescent obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) during a 13-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

DANIEL A. GELLER; SHARON L. HOOG; JOHN H. HEILIGENSTEIN; RANDALL K. RICARDI; ROY TAMURA; STACY KLUSZYNSKI; JENNIE G. JACOBSON

2001-01-01

367

Nonverbal memory dysfunction in obsessive-compulsive disorder patients with checking compulsions.  

PubMed

Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a clinically heterogeneous disorder; nonetheless, most of the previous neuropsychological studies for assessing the involvement of memory dysfunction grouped together patients with different symptoms, thereby potentially accounting for the inconsistencies of results. The goals of this study were to compare the memory dysfunction of two main subtypes of OCD and to identify the type of memory dysfunction that is associated with the checking symptoms in OCD patients. The sample population comprised the cleaning-type OCD group (N=23), checking-type OCD group (N=24), and a control group of healthy volunteers (N=20). All the OCD patients were selected from the outpatient clinic. All the subjects underwent the Rey-Osterreith Complex Figure Test (RCFT) for the assessment of nonverbal memory function, the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test (HVLT) for verbal memory function, the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R), and the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST). The immediate and delayed memory scores of RCFT were significantly lower in the checking-type OCD group; there were no significant differences in HVLT scores amongst the three groups. Our results indicate that the checking-type compulsion of OCD patients is associated with nonverbal memory deficits and not with verbal memory deficits. PMID:17932960

Cha, Kyung Ryeol; Koo, Min-Seong; Kim, Chan-Hyung; Kim, Jang Woo; Oh, Wook-Jin; Suh, Ho Suk; Lee, Hong Shick

2008-01-01

368

Obsessionality & compulsivity: a phenomenology of obsessive-compulsive disorder  

PubMed Central

Progress in psychiatry depends on accurate definitions of disorders. As long as there are no known biologic markers available that are highly specific for a particular psychiatric disorder, clinical practice as well as scientific research is forced to appeal to clinical symptoms. Currently, the nosology of obsessive-compulsive disorder is being reconsidered in view of the publication of DSM-V. Since our diagnostic entities are often simplifications of the complicated clinical profile of patients, definitions of psychiatric disorders are imprecise and always indeterminate. This urges researchers and clinicians to constantly think and rethink well-established definitions that in psychiatry are at risk of being fossilised. In this paper, we offer an alternative view to the current definition of obsessive-compulsive disorder from a phenomenological perspective. Translation This article is translated from Dutch, originally published in [Handbook Obsessive-compulsive disorders, Damiaan Denys, Femke de Geus (Eds.), (2007). De Tijdstroom uitgeverij BV, Utrecht. ISBN13: 9789058980878.] PMID:21284843

2011-01-01

369

Gender differences in social and interpersonal features and personality disorders among Japanese patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder.  

PubMed

This study sought to elucidate the differential effect of gender on clinical features in 40 males and 54 females who met both DSM-III-R and DSM-IV criteria for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Males had a lower rate of marriage, and a higher rate of major impairment in social or occupational functioning, whereas females were significantly more likely to involve others in their OCD symptoms, such as reassurance-seeking. Although no significant differences were detected in the distribution of OCD symptoms, cluster A personality disorders (PDs), especially schizotypal PD, were more frequently diagnosed in males, and borderline and dependent PDs tended to be more prevalent in females. Thus, gender differences in OCD subjects were prominently observed in social or interpersonal features, which might be consistent with the differential PD pathology between males and females. PMID:10929794

Matsunaga, H; Kiriike, N; Matsui, T; Miyata, A; Iwasaki, Y; Fujimoto, K; Kasai, S; Kojima, M

2000-01-01

370

Prevalence, quality of life and psychosocial function in obsessive-compulsive disorder and subclinical obsessive-compulsive disorder in northern Germany  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Despite the worldwide relevance of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) there are considerable differences in prevalence rates\\u000a and gender ratios between the studies and a substantial lack of prevalence data on subclinical OCD. Moreover, data on quality\\u000a of life and on psychosocial function of subjects with OCD and subclinical OCD in the general population are missing to date.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods: German versions

H. J. Grabe; Ch. Meyer; U. Hapke; H.-J. Rumpf; H. J. Freyberger; H. Dilling; U. John

2000-01-01

371

Videoconference and cell phone-based cognitive-behavioral therapy of obsessive-compulsive disorder: A case series  

Microsoft Academic Search

For most patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) the availability of exposure-based therapy is limited. In our study six outpatients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) received 15 sessions of therapy delivered only over teleconference (six sessions) and cell phones (nine sessions) over a 3-month period of time. Five of the patients were women and the average age of the participants was 31.5

Patrick A. Vogel; Gunvor Launes; Erna M. Moen; Stian Solem; Bjarne Hansen; Ashild Tellefsen Haaland; Joseph A. Himle

372

Autism Spectrum and Obsessive–Compulsive Disorders: OC Behaviors, Phenotypes and Genetics  

PubMed Central

Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are a phenotypically and etiologically heterogeneous set of disorders that include obsessive–compulsive behaviors (OCB) that partially overlap with symptoms associated with obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD). The OCB seen in ASD vary depending on the individual’s mental and chronological age as well as the etiology of their ASD. Although progress has been made in the measurement of the OCB associated with ASD, more work is needed including the potential identification of heritable endophenotypes. Likewise, important progress toward the understanding of genetic influences in ASD has been made by greater refinement of relevant phenotypes using a broad range of study designs, including twin and family-genetic studies, parametric and nonparametric linkage analyses, as well as candidate gene studies and the study of rare genetic variants. These genetic analyses could lead to the refinement of the OCB phenotypes as larger samples are studied and specific associations are replicated. Like ASD, OCB are likely to prove to be multidimensional and polygenic. Some of the vulnerability genes may prove to be generalist genes influencing the phenotypic expression of both ASD and OCD while others will be specific to subcomponents of the ASD phenotype. In order to discover molecular and genetic mechanisms, collaborative approaches need to generate shared samples, resources, novel genomic technologies, as well as more refined phenotypes and innovative statistical approaches. There is a growing need to identify the range of molecular pathways involved in OCB related to ASD in order to develop novel treatment interventions. PMID:20029829

Jacob, Suma; Landeros-Weisenberger, Angeli; Leckman, James F.

2014-01-01

373

Treating obsessive-compulsive disorder in intimate relationships: a pilot study of couple-based cognitive-behavior therapy.  

PubMed

Although cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) involving exposure and response prevention (ERP) is an established treatment for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), not all patients respond optimally, and some show relapse upon discontinuation. Research suggests that for OCD patients in close relationships, targeting relationship dynamics enhances the effects of CBT. In the present study, we developed and pilot tested a 16-session couple-based CBT program for patients with OCD and their romantic partners. This program included (a) partner-assisted ERP, (b) techniques targeting maladaptive relationship patterns focal to OCD (e.g., symptom accommodation), and (c) techniques targeting non OCD-related relationship stressors. OCD, related symptoms, and relationship functioning were assessed at baseline, immediately following treatment (posttest), and at 6- and 12-month follow-up. At posttest, substantial improvements in OCD symptoms, relationship functioning, and depression were observed. Improvements in OCD symptoms were maintained up to 1year. Results are compared to findings from studies of individual CBT for OCD and discussed in terms of the importance of addressing interpersonal processes that maintain OCD symptoms. PMID:23768667

Abramowitz, Jonathan S; Baucom, Donald H; Boeding, Sara; Wheaton, Michael G; Pukay-Martin, Nicole D; Fabricant, Laura E; Paprocki, Christine; Fischer, Melanie S

2013-09-01

374

Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors for the Treatment of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder in Children and Adolescents  

PubMed Central

The introduction of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) has been a major advance in pediatric psychiatry, while contemporary advances in the understanding of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) phenomenon in children have facilitated its identification and treatment. Currently, fluvoxamine and sertraline are the only SSRIs that have received FDA approval for the treatment of childhood OCD. The purpose of this article is to review the safety and efficacy of SSRIs in the treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) in children and adolescents. PMID:23118677

Williams, Jennifer Schoelles; Moore, Thea; Collins, Candace L.; Thomas, Kerry-Ann E.

2003-01-01

375

5-HT2A/C receptors do not mediate the attenuation of compulsive checking by mCPP in the quinpirole sensitization rat model of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD).  

PubMed

There is emerging evidence for a dopamine (DA)-serotonin (5-HT) interaction underlying obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). In the quinpirole sensitization rat model of OCD, compulsive checking is induced by chronic treatment with the DA agonist quinpirole, and is attenuated by the 5-HT agonist drug mCPP. However, mCPP has affinity for a number of 5-HT receptor subtypes, and it is unknown by which receptors mCPP exerts its effects on quinpirole-treated animals. The present study tested in rats whether mCPP activity at 5-HT2A/C receptors mediates the attenuation of compulsive checking in quinpirole-treated animals. Rats were chronically treated with quinpirole on the open field for the induction of compulsive checking. Following the induction phase, animals were treated with mCPP (1.25 mg/kg) and the selective 5-HT2A/C receptor antagonist ritanserin (1 mg/kg or 5 mg/kg) to test whether blockade of 5-HT2A/C receptors inhibits attenuation of checking by mCPP. Results showed that as expected, quinpirole induced compulsive checking, and mCPP reduced its performance. However, 5-HT2A/C receptor blockade by ritanserin did not inhibit the attenuation of compulsive checking by mCPP. These results suggest that the reduction in compulsive checking by mCPP is not mediated by activity at 5-HT2A/C receptors, but by another receptor subtype. PMID:25449840

Tucci, Mark C; Dvorkin-Gheva, Anna; Johnson, Eric; Wong, Michael; Szechtman, Henry

2015-02-15

376

Toward a Neurodevelopmental Model of Obsessive–Compulsive Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Neurobiological models for obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) have consistently implicated ventral prefrontal cortical and striatal circuits in the pathophysiology of this disorder, but typically have not utilized a developmental framework for conceptualizing the illness.Methods: We describe an integrated series of neurobiologic studies aimed at testing the hypothesis that neurodevelopmental abnormalities of ventral prefrontal–striatal circuits may be involved in and contribute

David R. Rosenberg; Matcheri S. Keshavan

1998-01-01

377

Are there reliable neuropsychological deficits in obsessive–compulsive disorder?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to confirm in a large clinical sample that subjects with obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) have deficits on certain tasks of executive functioning, non-verbal memory, and\\/or motor speed. Our ultimate goal was to evaluate whether these deficits contribute to functional impairment and could be the target of a novel treatment intervention. Therefore, in a sample of

Helen Blair Simpson; Wilma Rosen; Jonathan D. Huppert; Shu-Hsing Lin; Edna B. Foa; Michael R. Liebowitz

2006-01-01

378

Neural responses of OCD patients towards disorder-relevant, generally disgust-inducing and fear-inducing pictures  

Microsoft Academic Search

This functional magnetic resonance imaging study investigated the disgust- and fear-reactivity of patients suffering from obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Ten OCD patients were scanned while viewing blocks of pictures showing OCD triggers from their personal environment and OCD-irrelevant disgust-inducing, fear-inducing and neutral scenes. Afterwards, the patients rated the intensity of the induced disgust, fear and OCD symptoms. The responses were compared

Anne Schienle; Axel Schäfer; Rudolf Stark; Bertram Walter; Dieter Vaitl

2005-01-01

379

Role of Medial Cortical Networks for Anticipatory Processing in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder  

PubMed Central

Recurrent anticipation of ominous events is central to obsessions, the core symptom of obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD), yet the neural basis of intrinsic anticipatory processing in OCD is unknown. We studied non-medicated adults with OCD and case matched healthy controls in a visual-spatial working memory task with distractor. Magnetoencephalography was used to examine the medial cortex activity during anticipation of to-be-inhibited distractors and to-be-facilitated retrieval stimuli. In OCD anticipatory activation to distractors was abnormally reduced within the posterior cingulate and fusiform gyrus compared to prominent activation in controls. Conversely, OCD subjects displayed significantly increased activation to retrieval stimuli within the anterior cingulate and supplementary motor cortex. This previously unreported discordant pattern of medial anticipatory activation in OCD was accompanied by normal performance accuracy. While increased anterior cortex activation in OCD is commonly viewed as failure of inhibition, the current pattern of data implicates the operation of an anterior compensatory mechanism amending the posterior medial self-regulatory networks disrupted in OCD. PMID:21882299

Ciesielski, Kristina T.; Rauch, Scott L.; Ahlfors, Seppo P.; Vangel, Mark E.; Wilhelm, Sabine; Rosen, Bruce R.; Hämäläinen, Matti S.

2011-01-01

380

Parental psychopathology in child and adolescent obsessive-compulsive disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  To identify the lifetime prevalence of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and other psychiatric diagnoses in parents of OCD\\u000a pediatric patients as well as the frequency of onset of psychiatric disorders in the 6 months prior to evaluation.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Parents (n = 63) of 32 children and adolescents (20 males and 12 females; mean age of 13.3 ± 2.4) with OCD and parents of (n = 63) 32 age and

Rosa Calvo; Luisa Lázaro; Josefina Castro; Astrid Morer; Josep Toro

2007-01-01

381

Thought–action fusion in individuals with OCD symptoms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rachman (Rachman, S. (1993). Obsessions, responsibility, and guilt. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 31, 149–154) suggested that patients with OCD may interpret thoughts as having special importance, thus experiencing thought–action fusion (TAF). Shafran, Thordarson and Rachman (Shafran, R., Thordarson, D. S. & Rachman, S. (1996). Thought–action fusion in obsessive compulsive disorder. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 710, 379–391) developed a questionnaire (TAF)

Nader Amir; Melinda Freshman; Brian Ramsey; Erin Neary; Bartholomew Brigidi

2001-01-01

382

Neuronal Antibody Biomarkers for Sydenham's Chorea Identify a New Group of Children with Chronic Recurrent Episodic Acute Exacerbations of Tic and Obsessive Compulsive Symptoms Following a Streptococcal Infection.  

PubMed

Several autoantibodies (anti-dopamine 1 (D1R) and 2 (D2R) receptors, anti-tubulin, anti-lysoganglioside-GM1) and antibody-mediated activation of calcium calmodulin dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) signaling activity are elevated in children with Sydenham's chorea (SC). Recognizing proposed clinical and autoimmune similarities between SC and PANDAS (pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorder associated with a streptococcal infection), we sought to identify serial biomarker changes in a slightly different population. Antineuronal antibodies were measured in eight children (mean 11.3 years) with chronic, dramatic, recurrent tics and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) associated with a group A ?-hemolytic streptococcal (GABHS) respiratory tract infection, but differing because they lacked choreiform movements. Longitudinal serum samples in most subjects included two pre-exacerbation samples, Exac), one midst Exac (abrupt recurrence of tic/OCD; temporally association with a GABHS infection in six of eight subjects), and two post-Exac. Controls included four groups of unaffected children (n = 70; mean 10.8 years) obtained at four different institutions and published controls. Clinical exacerbations were not associated with a significant rise in antineuronal antibody titers. CaMKII activation was increased at the GABHS exacerbation point in 5/6 subjects, exceeded combined and published control's 95th percentile at least once in 7/8 subjects, and median values were elevated at each time point. Anti-tubulin and anti-D2R titers did not differ from published or combined control group's 95th percentile or median values. Differences in anti-lysoganglioside-GM1 and anti-D1R titers were dependent on the selected control. Variances in antibody titers and CaMKII activation were identified among the institutional control groups. Based on comparisons to published studies, results identify two groups of PANDAS: 1) a cohort, represented by this study, which lacks choreiform movements and elevated antibodies against D2R; 2) the originally reported group with choreiform movements and elevated anti-D2R antibodies, similar to SC. Increased antibody mediated CaMKII activation was found in both groups and requires further study as a potential biomarker. PMID:25793715

Singer, Harvey S; Mascaro-Blanco, Adda; Alvarez, Kathy; Morris-Berry, Christina; Kawikova, Ivana; Ben-Pazi, Hilla; Thompson, Carol B; Ali, Syed F; Kaplan, Edward L; Cunningham, Madeleine W

2015-01-01

383

The Neural Bases of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder in Children and Adults  

PubMed Central

Functional imaging studies have reported with remarkable consistency hyperactivity in the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), and caudate nucleus of patients with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD). These findings have often been interpreted as evidence that abnormalities in cortico-basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical loops involving the OFC and ACC are causally related to OCD. This interpretation remains controversial, however, because such hyperactivity may represent either a cause or a consequence of the symptoms. This article analyzes the evidence for a causal role of these loops in producing OCD in children and adults. The article first reviews the strong evidence for anatomical abnormalities in these loops in patients with OCD. These findings are not sufficient to establish causality, however, because anatomical alterations may themselves be a consequence rather than a cause of the symptoms. The article then reviews three lines of evidence that, despite their own limitations, permit stronger causal inferences: the development of OCD following brain injury, pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infection, and neurosurgical lesions that attenuate OCD. Converging evidence from these various lines of research supports a causal role for the cortico-basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical loops that involve the OFC and ACC in the pathogenesis of OCD in children and adults. PMID:18838041

Maia, Tiago V.; Cooney, Rebecca E.; Peterson, Bradley S.

2011-01-01

384

Psychopathology and personality characteristics in relation to blood serotonin in Tourette's syndrome and obsessive–compulsive disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Family studies suggest an interrelationship between Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome (GTS) and some forms of obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD). Some authors consider GTS to be part of a serotonergicallyrmediated cluster of OCD spectrum disorders. The present study was undertaken to compare measures of psychopathology, personality and blood serotonin between GTS and OCD (without tics), and to investigate whether an OCD

Danielle C. Cath; Philip Spinhoven; Andrea D. Landman; Godfried M. J. van Kempen

2001-01-01

385

Relations between Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder and personality: beyond Axis I-Axis II comorbidity.  

PubMed

Most research on relations between Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) and personality addresses only comorbidity rates between OCD and Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder (OCPD). We first investigated empirical OCD-OCPD relations, but then also examined patterns of dimensional traits in OCD patients versus students and general outpatients. Results did not support a specific OCD-OCPD relation and the implications of this conclusion are discussed. Regarding traits, OCD patients shared with other patients elevated negative affectivity and lower positive affectivity. Differences on several lower order dimensions, including lower scores on manipulativeness, mistrust, and disinhibition distinguished the personality profile of OCD patients from others. Also noteworthy was a pattern of very low self-image for OCD patients, as suggested by the combination of low self-esteem and low entitlement scores. Overall, OCD patients showed a more specific pattern of personality pathology than did general outpatients, who were elevated more generally across personality disorders and negative affectivity scales. PMID:16326069

Wu, Kevin D; Clark, Lee Anna; Watson, David

2006-01-01

386

Information Processing and Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: Comorbidity of Delusions, Overvalued Ideas, and Schizophrenia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Schizophrenia, in conjunction with obsessive-compulsive symptoms, presents significant barriers to treatment. This is true even if the obsessive-compulsive symptoms would ordinarily be considered straightforward for cognitive-behavioral treatment. These many limitations in treatment are considered here in light of the information processing…

McKay, Dean; McKiernan, Kevin

2005-01-01

387

Using Motivational Interviewing to Enhance Treatment Outcome in People with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a leading cause of health-related disability. There are two evidence-based treatments for OCD, pharmacotherapy and cognitive-behavioral therapy consisting of exposure and response prevention (EX/RP). Although effective, outcome from both treatments is often limited by patient lack of adherence to the…

Simpson, Helen Blair; Zuckoff, Allan

2011-01-01

388

Rage Attacks in Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: Phenomenology and Clinical Correlates  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Rage attacks have been documented in youth with varied psychiatric disorders, but few data have been reported on the clinical characteristics and correlates of rage attacks among children with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Method: Participants were 86 children (ages 6-16 years) with a primary diagnosis of OCD. Patients and their…

Storch, Eric A.; Jones, Anna M.; Lack, Caleb W.; Ale, Chelsea M.; Sulkowski, Michael L.; Lewin, Adam B.; De Nadai, Alessandro S.; Murphy, Tanya K.

2012-01-01

389

Orbital Frontal and Amygdala Volume Reductions in Obsessive-compulsive Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Functional neuroimaging studies have implicated the frontal lobes and the hippocampus- amygdala complex in the pathophysiology of obsessive- compulsive disorder (OCD). These brain regions have not been well investigated in patients with OCD, how- ever, using magnetic resonance imaging. Methods: Volumes of the superior frontal gyrus, ante- rior cingulate gyrus, orbital frontal region, hippocampus, and amygdala were computed from

Philip R. Szeszko; Delbert Robinson; Jose Ma; J. Alvir; Robert M. Bilder; Todd Lencz; Manzar Ashtari; Houwei Wu; Bernhard Bogerts

1999-01-01

390

Obsessive compulsive disorder, response to serotonin reuptake inhibitors and the serotonin transporter gene  

Microsoft Academic Search

Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) is a common illness, characterized by anxiety- provoking thoughts and the need to perform rituals. OCD is most commonly treated with a class of pharmacological agents known as serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SRIs). SRIs block the reuptake of serotonin (5-HT) into the presynaptic neuron, a process mediated by the serotonin transporter (5-HTT). The successful use of SRIs

E A Billett; M A Richter; N King; A Heils; K P Lesch; J L Kennedy

1997-01-01

391

Neuropsychology of obsessive-compulsive disorder: a review and treatment implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The existing literature examining neuropsychological features of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is reviewed. The accumulated research points to a deficit in organizational strategies in general, suggesting problems in executive functioning. The available research is inconsistent in identifying memory deficits in OCD. However, memory problems are most evident when tests are used that require an implicit organizational strategy. While the majority of

Scott Greisberg; Dean McKay

2003-01-01

392

Cognitive Deficits in Obsessive–Compulsive Disorder on Tests of Frontal–Striatal Function  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Although neuropsychological and neuroimaging studies of obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) have implicated the frontal cortex and subcortical structures in the pathophysiology of the disorder, few studies have examined cognitive function in patients with OCD on tasks validated in the assessment of frontal lobe and subcortical dysfunction.Methods: The accuracy and latency of executive and visual memory function was assessed in 23

Rosemary Purcell; Paul Maruff; Michael Kyrios; Christos Pantelis

1998-01-01

393

A Review of Metacognition in Psychological Models of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cognitive-behavioural models and interventions for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) have always included some metacognitive elements but until recently these have been predominantly construed of as cognitive as opposed to metacognitive processes. Increasingly, psychological models of OCD are now recognising the importance of metacognitive…

Rees, Clare S.; Anderson, Rebecca A.

2013-01-01

394

Parent-Child Agreement in the Assessment of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the current study was to extend research regarding parent-child agreement in the assessment of anxiety disorders to include youth with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Ninety-three children and adolescents with OCD (50 female, 43 male), ages 6 to 17 years, and their parents were administered the Anxiety Disorders Interview…

Canavera, Kristin E.; Wilkins, Kendall C.; Pincus, Donna B.; Ehrenreich-May, Jill T.

2009-01-01

395

The Relationship between Semantic Organization and Memory in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: A variety of evidence suggests that frontostriatal dysfunction is involved in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). This evidence includes both neuroimaging findings and results from studies using neuropsychological assessments. Previous studies have documented nonverbal memory deficits in individuals with OCD, whereas verbal learning and memory were less affected. Methods: The present study examined both verbal and nonverbal memory in a sample

Thilo Deckersbach; Michael W. Otto; Cary R. Savage; Lee Baer; Michael A. Jenike

2000-01-01

396

Normalisation of immune cell imbalance after pharmacological treatments of patients suffering from obsessive-compulsive disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

AbstractRecent data have shown the presence of immunological alterations in adult patients suffering from obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The objective of this study was to examine the possible effects of 12 months of treatment with different serotonergic drugs, such as clomipramine and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) on peripheral immunological cells of 18 OCD patients. Both the absolute number and percent

D Marazziti; F Mungai; I Masala; S Baroni; L Vivarelli; F Ambrogi; M Catena Dell’Osso; G Consoli; G Massimetti; L Dell’Osso

2009-01-01

397

A School-Based Treatment Model for Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

School psychologists have expertise in the realm of school-based assessment and intervention for behavioral, educational, and psychological difficulties. Recent evidence indicates that many school psychologists lack evidenced based knowledge about assessment and treatment of pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD). Pediatric OCD is a…

Sloman, Glenn M.; Gallant, Jason; Storch, Eric A.

2007-01-01

398

Kinematic analysis of handwriting movements in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVESBasal ganglia dysfunction is supposed to play a part in the pathophysiology of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). A new computer aided technique for the analysis of hand movements, allowing the detection of subtle motor performance abnormalities, was applied in this study of patients with OCD and healthy controls.METHODSUsing a digitising graphic tablet, hand motor performance was studied in 22 unmedicated patients

P Mavrogiorgou; R Mergl; P Tigges; J El Husseini; A Schröter; G Juckel; M Zaudig; U Hegerl

2001-01-01

399

Repetitive Behaviour in Children with High Functioning Autism and Obsessive Compulsive Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) and children with Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) were compared on a range of repetitive behaviours. Parents reported similar levels of sameness behaviour and repetitive movements in the clinical groups, although children with OCD engaged in more repetitive behaviour focussed around routines and…

Zandt, Fiona; Prior, Margot; Kyrios, Michael

2007-01-01

400

Meta-Analysis of Randomized, Controlled Treatment Trials for Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To conduct a meta-analysis on randomized, controlled treatment trials of pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Method: Studies were included if they employed randomized, controlled methodology and treated young people (19 years or under) with OCD. A comprehensive literature search identified 13 RCTs containing 10…

Watson, Hunna J.; Rees, Clare S.

2008-01-01

401

Local-Global Processing in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder and Comorbid Tourette's Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Neuropsychological and neuroimaging studies implicate attentional difficulties in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), but results are inconsistent due possibly to sample heterogeneity and lack of control of comorbid disorders, such as Tourette's syndrome (TS). Nevertheless, it has been suggested that OCD symptomatology may be a result of…

Rankins, D.; Bradshaw, J. L.; Georgiou-Karistianis, N.

2005-01-01

402

Obsessive-compulsive disorder across developmental trajectory: Cognitive processing of threat in children, adolescents and adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. While the cognitive theory of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is one of the most widely accepted accounts of the maintenance of the disorder in adults, no study to date has systematically evaluated the theory across children, adolescence and adults with OCD. Method. This paper investigated developmental differences in the cognitive processing of threat in a sample of children, adolescents and

Lara Farrell; Paula Barrett

2006-01-01

403

Error-Related Negativity and Tic History in Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: The error-related negativity (ERN) is a negative deflection in the event-related potential after an incorrect response, which is often increased in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). However, the relation of the ERN to comorbid tic disorders has not been examined in patients with OCD. This study compared ERN amplitudes…

Hanna, Gregory L.; Carrasco, Melisa; Harbin, Shannon M.; Nienhuis, Jenna K.; LaRosa, Christina E.; Chen, Poyu; Fitzgerald, Kate D.; Gehring, William J.

2012-01-01

404

Early-onset obsessive–compulsive disorder and personality disorders in adulthood  

Microsoft Academic Search

Obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) often emerges in childhood or adolescence. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether adult patients with prepuberal onset differ from subjects with later onset in terms of personality disorder comorbidity. The Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis II Disorders was used to assess 148 patients with a principal diagnosis of OCD according to the

Giuseppe Maina; Umberto Albert; Virginio Salvi; Enrico Pessina; Filippo Bogetto

2008-01-01

405

Treating Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder and Schizophrenia: The Case of Sam  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes the case of Sam, a 22-year-old male with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and schizophrenia. The patient's background, the development and characteristics of his OCD and schizophrenia, and the history of what became a rather complicated treatment are described. In addition, four problem areas of therapy are identified.

Peasley-Miklus, Catherine; Massie, Elise; Baslett, Gaston; Carmin, Cheryl

2005-01-01

406

Cognitive Inflexibility and Frontal-Cortical Activation in Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Deficits in cognitive flexibility and response inhibition have been linked to perturbations in cortico-striatal-thalamic circuitry in adult obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Although similar cognitive deficits have been identified in pediatric OCD, few neuroimaging studies have been conducted to examine its neural correlates in the…

Britton, Jennifer C.; Rauch, Scott L.; Rosso, Isabelle M.; Killgore, William D. S.; Price, Lauren M.; Ragan, Jennifer; Chosak, Anne; Hezel, Dianne M.; Pine, Daniel S.; Leibenluft, Ellen; Pauls, David L.; Jenike, Michael A.; Stewart, S. Evelyn

2010-01-01

407

An Autistic Dimension: A Proposed Subtype of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article focuses on the possibility that autism spectrum disorder (ASD: Asperger syndrome, autism and atypical autism) in its milder forms may be clinically important among a substantial proportion of patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and discusses OCD subtypes based on this proposition. The hypothesis derives from extensive…

Bejerot, Susanne

2007-01-01

408

Changes in personality disorders following behavior therapy for obsessive-compulsive disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was conducted to determine the effect of behavior therapy on personality disorders when treatment focused on an Axis I diagnosis of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Twenty-one patients diagnosed with OCD participated. At pretest, the mean number of personality disorders was approximately four, whereas the posttest number was approximately three. Analyses suggest that this change, although apparently small, is clinically

Dean McKay; Fugen Neziroglu; John Todaro; Jose A. Yaryura-Tobias

1996-01-01

409

Cognitive-behavioral therapy with and without medication in the treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and pharmacotherapy with serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SRIs) are established monotherapies for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), yet research on their combined efficacy is lacking. Practicing psychologists who treat OCD are thus unable to say definitively whether exposure and ritual prevention would be more successful with concomitant SRI pharmacotherapy. The authors explored this issue in a clinical sample of 56

Martin E. Franklin; Jonathan S. Abramowitz; Lori A. Zoellner; Norah C. Feeny

2002-01-01

410

Three-Year Outcomes in Deep Brain Stimulation for Highly Resistant Obsessive–Compulsive Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the anterior limb of the internal capsule has been shown to be beneficial in the short term for obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) patients who exhaust conventional therapies. Nuttin et al, who published the first DBS for OCD series, found promising results using a capsule target immediately rostral to the anterior commissure extending into adjacent ventral capsule\\/ventral

Benjamin D Greenberg; Donald A Malone; Gerhard M Friehs; Ali R Rezai; Cynthia S Kubu; Paul F Malloy; Stephen P Salloway; Michael S Okun; Wayne K Goodman; Steven A Rasmussen

2006-01-01

411

Patient Adherence Predicts Outcome from Cognitive Behavioral Therapy in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To examine the effects of patient adherence on outcome from exposure and response prevention (EX/RP) therapy in adults with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Method: Thirty adults with OCD were randomized to EX/RP (n = 15) or EX/RP augmented by motivational interviewing strategies (n = 15). Both treatments included 3 introductory…

Simpson, Helen Blair; Maher, Michael J.; Wang, Yuanjia; Bao, Yuanyuan; Foa, Edna B.; Franklin, Martin

2011-01-01

412

Clinical Considerations when Tailoring Cognitive Behavioral Treatment for Young Children with Obsessive Compulsive Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research on the effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral therapy, and in particular, exposure with response prevention for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD), has only been systematically evaluated in children and adolescents ages 7-17. These treatments do not address the unique characteristics of young children with OCD. This paper discusses…

Choate-Summers, Molly L.; Freeman, Jennifer B.; Garcia, Abbe M.; Coyne, Lisa; Przeworski, Amy; Leonard, Henrietta L.

2008-01-01

413

Neuropsychological measures in women with obsessive-compulsive disorder and trichotillomania.  

PubMed

Women with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), trichotillomania (TTM) and normal controls completed a neuropsychological battery which was designed to test executive and visuospatial dysfunctions. Differences between the combined patient group and normal controls on the Rey-Osterreith Copy Test were consistent with previous work demonstrating similar neuropsychological dysfunctions in OCD and TTM. PMID:10459744

Coetzer, R; Stein, D J

1999-06-01

414

Developmental Aspects of Error and High-Conflict-Related Brain Activity in Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: A FMRI Study with a Flanker Task before and after CBT  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Heightened error and conflict monitoring are considered central mechanisms in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and are associated with anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) function. Pediatric obsessive-compulsive patients provide an opportunity to investigate the development of this area and its associations with psychopathology.…

Huyser, Chaim; Veltman, Dick J.; Wolters, Lidewij H.; de Haan, Else; Boer, Frits

2011-01-01

415

An examination of the common and unique processes associated with early symptom change as a function of cognitive therapy for avoidant and obsessive-compulsive personality disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Personality disorders are chronic, inflexible, and maladaptive patterns of thoughts, emotions, and behaviors that impact almost every aspect of an individual's life. The disorders found within Cluster C of the DSM-IV Axis II are especially prevalent in outpatient psychotherapy samples, and avoidant and obsessive-compulsive personality disorders (AVPD and OCPD, respectively) have been reported to be among the most frequently occurring

Jamie Lewis-Smith

2007-01-01

416

Characterizing the hoarding phenotype in individuals with OCD: Associations with comorbidity, severity and gender  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hoarding frequently occurs in obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD), and some evidence suggests that it constitutes a distinct OCD subtype, with genetic contributions. This study investigated differences between OCD patients with and without hoarding symptoms. Of the 473 OCD patients studied, 24% were classified as hoarders according to combined interviewer and self-ratings, which were validated with the Savings Inventory-Revised in a subsample.

Michael Wheaton; Kiara R. Timpano; V. Holland LaSalle-Ricci; Dennis Murphy

2008-01-01

417

Predictors and Moderators of Treatment Outcome in the Pediatric Obsessive Compulsive Treatment Study (POTS I)  

PubMed Central

Objective To identify predictors and moderators of outcome in the first Pediatric OCD Treatment Study (POTS I) among youth (N=112) randomly assigned to sertraline, cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), both sertraline and CBT (COMB), or a pill placebo. Method Potential baseline predictors and moderators were identified by literature review. The outcome measure was an adjusted week 12 predicted score for the Children’s Yale Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (CY-BOCS). Main and interactive effects of treatment condition and each candidate predictor or moderator variable were examined using GLM on the adjusted predicted week 12 CY-BOCS scores. Results Youth with lower OCD severity, less OCD-related functional impairment, greater insight, fewer comorbid externalizing symptoms, and lower levels of family accommodation showed greater improvement across treatment conditions than their counterparts after acute POTS treatment. Those with a family history of OCD had a six-fold decrease in effect size in CBT monotherapy relative to their counterparts in CBT without a family history of OCD. Conclusions Greater attention is needed to build optimized intervention strategies for more complex youth with OCD. Youth with a family history of OCD are not likely to benefit from CBT unless offered in combination with an SSRI. PMID:20855047

Garcia, Abbe Marrs; Sapyta, Jeffrey J.; Moore, Phoebe S.; Freeman, Jennifer B.; Franklin, Martin E.; March, John S.; Foa, Edna B.

2010-01-01

418

Efficacy of cognitive-behavioral therapy for obsessive-compulsive disorder.  

PubMed

Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), which encompasses exposure with response prevention (ERP) and cognitive therapy, has demonstrated efficacy in the treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). However, the samples studied (reflecting the heterogeneity of OCD), the interventions examined (reflecting the heterogeneity of CBT), and the definitions of treatment response vary considerably across studies. This review examined the meta-analyses conducted on ERP and cognitive therapy (CT) for OCD. Also examined was the available research on long-term outcome associated with ERP and CT. The available research indicates that ERP is the first line evidence based psychotherapeutic treatment for OCD and that concurrent administration of cognitive therapy that targets specific symptom-related difficulties characteristic of OCD may improve tolerance of distress, symptom-related dysfunctional beliefs, adherence to treatment, and reduce drop out. Recommendations are provided for treatment delivery for OCD in general practice and other service delivery settings. The literature suggests that ERP and CT may be delivered in a wide range of clinical settings. Although the data are not extensive, the available research suggests that treatment gains following ERP are durable. Suggestions for future research to refine therapeutic outcome are also considered. PMID:25613661

McKay, Dean; Sookman, Debbie; Neziroglu, Fugen; Wilhelm, Sabine; Stein, Dan J; Kyrios, Michael; Matthews, Keith; Veale, David

2015-02-28

419

Birth weight and gestational age in newborns exposed to maternal obsessive-compulsive disorder.  

PubMed

We examined the impact of maternal obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) on gestational age and birth weight of infants. The sample included 63 mothers (28 patient and 35 controls). OCD and other psychiatric diagnoses were determined with a structured clinical interview. Birth weight and gestational age were lower in the newborns exposed to maternal OCD compared to ones who were not exposed. The results suggest that maternal OCD may negatively affect fetal weight growth and gestational duration. PMID:25660733

Uguz, Faruk; Yuksel, Goksen; Karsidag, Cagatay; Guncu, Hatice; Konak, Murat

2015-03-30

420

Neuropsychological profile in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder over a period of 4-month treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the changes of the neuropsychological functions over a 4-month period of treatment in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Thirty-nine OCD patients and 31 healthy controls were evaluated with neuropsychological and clinical tests. The same tests were readministered 4-months after pharmacological treatment for the OCD patients. At the first series of tests, compared to the controls, the OCD

Myung-Sun Kim; Soo-Jin Park; Min Sup Shin; Jun Soo Kwon

2002-01-01

421

Using Direct-to-Consumer Marketing Strategies With Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder in the Nonprofit Sector  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three to four million individuals struggle with obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) in the United States at any given time. OCD can be a debilitating disorder associated with significant quality–of-life and occupational impairment. First-line treatments for OCD (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and exposure and response prevention therapy) have been shown to be effective; yet, many individuals suffering from OCD experience multiple barriers

Jeff Szymanski

422

Obsessive-compulsive and related disorders: a critical review of the new diagnostic class.  

PubMed

The fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders includes a new class of obsessive-compulsive and related disorders (OCRDs) that includes obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and a handful of other putatively related conditions. Although this new category promises to raise awareness of underrecognized and understudied problems, its empirical validity and practical utility are questionable. This article reviews the phenomenology of OCD and then presents a critical analysis of the arguments underlying the new OCRD class. This analysis leads to a rejection of the OCRD classification on both scientific and logical grounds. The article closes with a discussion of the treatment implications of the OCRDs approach. PMID:25581239

Abramowitz, Jonathan S; Jacoby, Ryan J

2015-03-28

423

Predictors of Parental Accommodation in Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: Findings from the Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Treatment Study (POTS) Trial  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Few studies have examined predictors of parental accommodation (assessed with the Family Accommodation Scale-Parent Report) among families of children with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). No studies have examined this phenomenon using empirically derived subscales of the Family Accommodation Scale-Parent Report (i.e., Caregiver…

Flessner, Christopher A.; Freeman, Jennifer B.; Sapyta, Jeffrey; Garcia, Abbe; Franklin, Martin E.; March, John S.; Foa, Edna

2011-01-01

424

Humor appreciation of captionless cartoons in obsessive-compulsive disorder  

PubMed Central

Background It seems that the core neural regions and cognitive processes implicated in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) pathophysiology may overlap with those involved in humor appreciation. However, to date, there have been no studies that have explored humor appreciation in OCD. The purpose of the present work was to investigate humor appreciation in a group of patients with OCD. Methods We examined 25 patients with OCD and 25 healthy controls, matched by age, education, and gender. We administered Penn's Humor Appreciation Test (PHAT), a computerized test comprising captionless cartoons by Mordillo. Each set of stimuli consisted of two almost identical drawings, one of which was funny due to the alteration of a detail in the cartoon, whereas the other was not funny. Severity of psychopathology was evaluated with the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS). Results No significant effect for group, gender or group × gender interaction was found on the PHAT scores. In OCD patients, humor appreciation was not significantly associated with age of onset, duration of illness, and obsessions, but correlated significantly with compulsions. Conclusions Humor appreciation, based on captionless cartoons in OCD, does not seem to be deficient compared to healthy subjects but may be related to illness characteristics. PMID:22103926

2011-01-01

425

Glutamatergic drugs exacerbate symptomatic behavior in a transgenic model of comorbid Tourette's syndrome and obsessive-compulsive disorder.  

PubMed

We previously created a transgenic mouse model of comorbid Tourette's syndrome and obsessive-compulsive disorder (TS+OCD), by expressing a neuropotentiating cholera toxin (CT) transgene in a subset of dopamine D1 receptor-expressing (D1+) neurons thought to induce cortical and amygdalar glutamate output. To test glutamate's role in the TS+OCD-like disorder of these transgenic mice (D1CT-7 line), the effects of glutamate receptor-binding drugs on their behavior were examined. MK-801, a non-competitive NMDA receptor antagonist that indirectly stimulates cortical-limbic glutamate output, aggravated a transgene-dependent abnormal behavior (repetitive climbing and leaping) in the D1CT-7 mice at doses insufficient to induce stereotypies, and more readily induced stereotypies and limbic seizure behaviors at high doses. NBQX, a seizure-inhibiting AMPA receptor antagonist, reduced only the MK-801-dependent stereotypic and limbic seizure behavior of D1CT-7 mice, but not their transgene-dependent behaviors. These data imply that TS+OCD-like behavior is mediated by cortical-limbic glutamate, but that AMPA glutamate receptors are not an essential part of this behavioral circuit. Our findings lead to the prediction that the symptoms of human Tourette's syndrome and obsessive-compulsive disorder are elicited by excessive forebrain glutamate output. PMID:10980239

McGrath, M J; Campbell, K M; Parks, C R; Burton, F H

2000-09-15

426

A baseline controlled examination of a 5-day intensive treatment for pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder.  

PubMed

This study extends support for a 5-day intensive exposure and response prevention (ERP) treatment protocol for pediatric obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). Twenty-two children with OCD received ERP treatment twice daily for 5 days. The treatment also emphasized teaching children and parents how to conduct ERP independently after they returned home. Symptoms were assessed at four time-points: Baseline, 4 weeks later at pre-treatment, one week after the intensive treatment 5-day treatment, and at 3 month follow-up. Changes on the primary outcome measure, clinician severity ratings on the Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule for Children, and secondary measures, indicated that OCD symptoms remained stable from the evaluation to baseline and improved significantly from baseline to follow-up. Moreover, parental accommodation of OCD decreased significantly from baseline to post-treatment and from post-treatment to follow-up. These data suggest that the 5-day intervention demonstrates efficacy in reducing OCD symptoms and may initiate change in parent accommodation that continues to improve after the family returns home. PMID:25070176

Whiteside, Stephen P H; McKay, Dean; De Nadai, Alessandro S; Tiede, Michael S; Ale, Chelsea M; Storch, Eric A

2014-12-15

427

Clinical predictors of early fluoxetine treatment response in obsessive-compulsive disorder.  

PubMed

Despite wide use, relatively little is known about sociodemographic and clinical characteristics that predict early fluoxetine response. What research has been conducted has produced inconsistent findings, which may be due to the statistical procedures used, and no studies to date have examined predictors of early fluoxetine treatment response. Sixty adults with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) completed an open-label fluoxetine trial for 8 weeks (up to 40 mg) after a 1-week, single-blind, placebo run-in before baseline assessment. The baseline and posttreatment assessment battery included the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale, the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression, and the Yale Global Tic Severity Scale. Patient characteristics included illness duration, age, age of onset, gender, and pharmacological treatment history. Independent t-tests and multiple logistic regression analysis showed that longer illness duration, older age, and greater symptom severity were associated with nonresponse. Our findings highlight the impact of functional psychiatric impairment on determining those who may respond to treatment. Furthermore, findings suggest early predictors of patients with certain characteristics who may ultimately need adjunctive care to facilitate response. PMID:16841343

Storch, Eric A; Larson, Michael J; Shapira, Nathan A; Ward, Herbert E; Murphy, Tanya K; Geffken, Gary R; Valerio, Holly; Goodman, Wayne K

2006-01-01

428

Decision-making heterogeneity in obsessive-compulsive disorder: ventromedial prefrontal cortex function predicts different treatment outcomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Certain clinical aspects of patients with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) appear similar to those of patients with damage to the ventromedial sector of the prefrontal cortex. The hypothesis for the involvement of the frontal region in OCD is also supported by neuropsychological findings. Building on this evidence, we assessed the performance of a group of 34 OCD patients on a measure

Paolo Cavedini; Giovanna Riboldi; Arcangela D'Annucci; Patrizia Belotti; Michele Cisima; Laura Bellodi

2002-01-01

429

The neuropsychology of obsessive compulsive disorder: the importance of failures in cognitive and behavioural inhibition as candidate endophenotypic markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) is a highly debilitating neuropsychiatric condition with estimated lifetime prevalence of 2-3%, more than twice that of schizophrenia. However, in contrast to other neuropsychiatric conditions of a comparable or lesser prevalence, relatively little is understood about the aetiology, neural substrates and cognitive profile of OCD. Despite strong evidence for OCD being familial, with risk to

S. R. Chamberlain; A. D. Blackwell; N. A. Fineberg; T. W. Robbins; B. J. Sahakian

2005-01-01

430

A Randomized Clinical Trial of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy versus Progressive Relaxation Training for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Effective treatments for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) exist, but additional treatment options are needed. The effectiveness of 8 sessions of acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) for adult OCD was compared with progressive relaxation training (PRT). Method: Seventy-nine adults (61% female) diagnosed with OCD (mean age = 37…

Twohig, Michael P.; Hayes, Steven C.; Plumb, Jennifer C.; Pruitt, Larry D.; Collins, Angela B.; Hazlett-Stevens, Holly; Woidneck, Michelle R.

2010-01-01

431

Neuropsychological Deficits in Obsessive-compulsive Disorder: A Comparison With Unipolar Depression, Panic Disorder, and Normal Controls  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The neuropsychological dysfunction as- sociated with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has similarities to the deficits reported in other affective or anxiety disorders. We directly compared cognitive func- tion in patients with OCD with that in matched patients with unipolar depression and panic disorder and healthy control subjects to establish the specific nature of neu- ropsychological deficits in OCD. Methods: Thirty

Rosemary Purcell; Paul Maruff; Michael Kyrios; Christos Pantelis

1998-01-01

432

Evidence for linkage disequilibrium between serotonin transporter protein gene (SLC6A4) and obsessive compulsive disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) is characterized by recurrent and intrusive thoughts that are distressing (obsessions) and\\/or repetitive behaviors or mental acts that the person feels driven to perform (compulsions). OCD has a partly genetic basis. For treatment of OCD, potent serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SRI) drugs (clomipramine (Anafranil), fluvoxamine (Luvox), fluoxetine (Prozac), sertraline (Zoloft), and paroxetine (Paxil)), which act on the

C J McDougle; C N Epperson; L H Price; J Gelernter

1998-01-01

433

Relationship of Possible Stress-Related Biochemical Markers to Oxidative\\/Antioxidative Status in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Free radicals have been found to play an important role in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). So, we measured the oxidative\\/antioxidative status of OCD patients, and assessed its use as a biological marker. The study was carried out on 20 healthy and 20 OCD subjects, aged between 20 and 40 years. Biochemical parameters of all subjects were assessed and compared. A significant

A. Behl; G. Swami; S. S. Sircar; M. S. Bhatia; B. D. Banerjee

2010-01-01

434

The Genetics of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder and Tourette Syndrome: An Epidemiological and Pathway-Based Approach for Gene Discovery  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To provide a contemporary perspective on genetic discovery methods applied to obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and Tourette syndrome (TS). Method: A review of research trends in genetics research in OCD and TS is conducted, with emphasis on novel approaches. Results: Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) are now in progress in OCD

Grados, Marco A.

2010-01-01

435

Wisconsin Card Sorting Test performance in obsessive-compulsive disorder: no evidence for involvement of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) performances were studied in 33 patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and 33 age-, sex-, and education-matched normal comparison subjects; the OCD patients were divided into four subgroups on the basis of their symptomatology. Neither the two groups of subjects nor the four OCD subgroups differed on any of the WCST neuropsychological indices. No relationship was

Massimo Abbruzzese; Stefano Ferri; Silvio Scarone

1995-01-01

436

High-Dose Glycine Treatment of Refractory Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder and Body Dysmorphic Disorder in a 5-Year Period  

PubMed Central

This paper describes an individual who was diagnosed with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) at age 17 when education was discontinued. By age 19, he was housebound without social contacts except for parents. Adequate trials of three selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, two with atypical neuroleptics, were ineffective. Major exacerbations following ear infections involving Group A ?-hemolytic streptococcus at ages 19 and 20 led to intravenous immune globulin therapy, which was also ineffective. At age 22, another severe exacerbation followed antibiotic treatment for H. pylori. This led to a hypothesis that postulates deficient signal transduction by the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR). Treatment with glycine, an NMDAR coagonist, over 5 years led to robust reduction of OCD/BDD signs and symptoms except for partial relapses during treatment cessation. Education and social life were resumed and evidence suggests improved cognition. Our findings motivate further study of glycine treatment of OCD and BDD. PMID:20182547

Cleveland, W. Louis; DeLaPaz, Robert L.; Fawwaz, Rashid A.; Challop, Roger S.

2009-01-01

437

Changes in Thalamus–Hypothalamus Serotonin Transporter Availability during Clomipramine Administration in Patients with Obsessive–Compulsive Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

To the authors' knowledge there is as of yet no study demonstrating in vivo alterations in human serotonin transporters (SERT) during clomipramine treatment in patients with obsessive–compulsive disorder. The only study in which SERT binding has been investigated in obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) patients before and after treatment is a small pilot study by Stengler-Wenzke et al (2006), who treated five

Werner Zitterl; Martin Aigner; Thomas Stompe; Karin Zitterl-Eglseer; Karin Gutierrez-Lobos; Thomas Wenzel; Georg Zettinig; Kurt Hornik; Walter Pirker; Kenneth Thau

2008-01-01

438

Basal ganglia dysfunction in OCD: subthalamic neuronal activity correlates with symptoms severity and predicts high-frequency stimulation efficacy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Functional and connectivity changes in corticostriatal systems have been reported in the brains of patients with obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD); however, the relationship between basal ganglia activity and OCD severity has never been adequately established. We recently showed that deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN), a central basal ganglia nucleus, improves OCD. Here, single-unit subthalamic neuronal activity was analysed

M-L Welter; P Burbaud; S Fernandez-Vidal; E Bardinet; J Coste; B Piallat; M Borg; S Besnard; P Sauleau; B Devaux; B Pidoux; P Chaynes; S Tézenas du Montcel; A Bastian; N Langbour; A Teillant; W Haynes; J Yelnik; C Karachi; L Mallet

2011-01-01

439

Obsessive–compulsive disorder in hospitalized patients with chronic schizophrenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Obsessive–compulsive (OC) symptoms have been observed in a substantial proportion of schizophrenic patients. In this study, we assessed the rate of occurrence of OC symptoms and the interrelationship between OC and schizophrenic symptoms in 68 hospitalized chronic schizophrenic patients. The patients were interviewed with the Structured Clinical Interview for Axis-I DSM-IV Disorders — Patient Edition (SCID-P) and the appropriate rating

Michael Poyurovsky; Sophia Hramenkov; Victoria Isakov; Boris Rauchverger; Ilan Modai; Michael Schneidman; Camil Fuchs; Abraham Weizman

2001-01-01

440

Treatment of severe, drug resistant obsessive compulsive disorder with the 5HT 1D agonist sumatriptan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The serotonergic system has been implicated in both the aetiology and pharmacological treatment of obsessive compulsive disorder. In pharmacological challenge tests, mCPP, a 5-HT agonist, with an affinity for 5HT2C as well as 5HT1A and 5HT1D, receptors, was associated with a transient exacerbation of obsessive compulsive symptoms. Chronic administration of mCPP was found to bring about some relief of these

Liat Stern; Joseph Zohar; Rivka Cohen; Yehuda Sasson

1998-01-01

441

Which is the driver, the obsessions or the compulsions, in OCD?  

E-print Network

The conventional view is that obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is driven by irrational beliefs, which are a putative basis of obsessions. Compulsions are considered a coping mechanism, which neutralize anxiety or reduce the likelihood...

Gillan, Claire M.; Sahakian, Barbara J.

2014-01-01

442

"Not Just Right Experiences" are specific to obsessive-compulsive disorder: Further evidence from Italian clinical samples.  

PubMed

Not Just Right Experiences (NJREs) are considered to be a perceptually tinged phenomenon mainly related to obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The evidence of an association between NJREs and OCD or OC symptoms have been accumulating in the last few years, whereas there is a paucity of studies about the role of this construct in other clinical conditions considered part of the "OCD spectrum". In the current study, the NJRE-Q-R Severity scale (a well-validated measure of NJREs) was administered to 41 patients with OCD, 53 with hair-pulling disorder (HPD), 38 with gambling disorder (GD) and 43 with eating disorders (ED) along with measures of OC symptoms and general distress. In each group, NJREs were consistently associated with OC symptoms; moreover, the pattern of associations appeared coherent with the main clinical features of each disorder. The OCD group reported higher levels of NJREs severity than GD and ED, whereas there were no differences between the OCD and HPD groups. However, HPD patients did not have higher scores of NJREs severity than GD and ED counterparts. NJREs appear to be specific to OCD, but further study is needed to establish the role of this construct in OCD-related disorders. PMID:25743760

Sica, Claudio; Bottesi, Gioia; Orsucci, Antonella; Pieraccioli, Caterina; Sighinolfi, Cecilia; Ghisi, Marta

2015-04-01

443

Obsessive–Compulsive Disorder Comorbidity: Clinical Assessment and Therapeutic Implications  

PubMed Central

Obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) is a neuropsychiatric disorder affecting approximately 1–3% of the population. OCD is probably an etiologically heterogeneous condition. Individuals with OCD frequently have additional psychiatric disorders concomitantly or at some time during their lifetime. Recently, some authors proposed an OCD sub-classification based on comorbidity. An important issue in assessing comorbidity is the fact that the non-response to treatment often involves the presence of comorbid conditions. Non-responsive patients are more likely to meet criteria for comorbid axis I or axis II disorders and the presence of a specific comorbid condition could be a distinguishing feature in OCD, with influence on the treatment adequacy and outcome. PMID:22203806

Pallanti, Stefano; Grassi, Giacomo; Sarrecchia, Elisa Dinah; Cantisani, Andrea; Pellegrini, Matteo

2011-01-01

444

Social Adjustment in Obsessive Compulsive Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Social Adjustment Scale-Self Report was administered to 32 subjects with Obsessive Compulsive Disorder and age-sex matched controls. The patients had global impairment, especially during leisure, which correlated with severity of the disorder. The improvement of this impairment with therapy is highlighted. It is stressed that social adjustment in Obsessive Compulsive Disorder subjects should be con sidered during their therapy.

Sumant Khanna; P. N. Rajendra; S. M. Channabasavanna

1988-01-01

445

Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder in Tourette Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several lines of evidence suggest a meaningful association between obsessive-compulsive disorder and Tourette syndrome, including comorbidity, phenomenologic overlap, evidence from family and genetic studies, and the possible role of basal ganglia circuitry in both conditions. Obsessive-compulsive behaviors occur frequently in patients who have Tourette syndrome and tend to have a later onset than tics. Despite commonalities, the approaches to treating

Wayne K. Goodman; Eric A. Storch; Gary R. Geffken; Tanya K. Murphy

2006-01-01

446

Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy vs Risperidone for Augmenting Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder  

PubMed Central

IMPORTANCE Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is one of the world’s most disabling illnesses according to the World Health Organization. Serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SRIs) are the only medications approved by the Food and Drug Administration to treat OCD, but few patients achieve minimal symptoms from an SRI alone. In such cases, practice guidelines recommend adding antipsychotics or cognitive-behavioral therapy consisting of exposure and ritual prevention (EX/RP). OBJECTIVE To compare the effects of these 2 SRI augmentation strategies vs pill placebo for the first time, to our knowledge, in adults with OCD. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS A randomized clinical trial (conducted January 2007–August 2012) at 2 academic outpatient research clinics that specialize in OCD and anxiety disorders. Patients (aged 18–70 years) were eligible if they had OCD of at least moderate severity despite a therapeutic SRI dose for at least 12 weeks prior to entry. Of 163 who were eligible, 100 were randomized (risperidone, n = 40; EX/RP, n = 40; and placebo, n = 20), and 86 completed the trial. INTERVENTIONS While continuing their SRI at the same dose, patients were randomized to the addition of 8 weeks of risperidone (up to 4 mg/d), EX/RP (17 sessions delivered twice weekly), or pill placebo. Independent assessments were conducted every 4 weeks. MAIN OUTCOME AND MEASURE The Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS) to measure OCD severity. RESULTS Patients randomized to EX/RP had significantly greater reduction in week 8 Y-BOCS scores based on mixed-effects models (vs risperidone: mean [SE], ?9.72 [1.38]; P<.001 vs placebo: mean [SE], ?10.10 [1.68]; P < .001). Patients receiving risperidone did not significantly differ from those receiving placebo (mean [SE], ?0.38 [1.72]; P=.83). More patients receiving EX/RP responded (Y-BOCS score decrease ?25%: 80% for EX/RP, 23% for risperidone, and 15% for placebo; P < .001). More patients receiving EX/RP achieved minimal symptoms (Y-BOCS score ?12: 43% for EX/RP, 13% for risperidone, and 5% for placebo; P = .001). Adding EX/RP was also superior to risperidone and placebo in improving insight, functioning, and quality of life. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Adding EX/RP to SRIs was superior to both risperidone and pill placebo. Patients with OCD receiving SRIs who continue to have clinically significant symptoms should be offered EX/RP before antipsychotics given its superior efficacy and less negative adverse effect profile. TRIAL REGISTRATION clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00389493. PMID:24026523

Simpson, Helen Blair; Foa, Edna B.; Liebowitz, Michael R.; Huppert, Jonathan D.; Cahill, Shawn; Maher, Michael J.; McLean, Carmen P.; Bender, James; Marcus, Sue M.; Williams, Monnica T.; Weaver, Jamie; Vermes, Donna; Van Meter, Page E.; Rodriguez, Carolyn I.; Powers, Mark; Pinto, Anthony; Imms, Patricia; Hahn, Chang-Gyu; Campeas, Raphael

2014-01-01

447

Reduced functional connectivity within the limbic cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical loop in unmedicated adults with obsessive-compulsive disorder.  

PubMed

Cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical (CSTC) loops project from the cortex to the striatum, then from the striatum to the thalamus via the globus pallidus, and finally from the thalamus back to the cortex again. These loops have been implicated in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) with particular focus on the limbic CSTC loop, which encompasses the orbitofrontal and anterior cingulate cortices, as well as the ventral striatum. Resting state functional-connectivity MRI (rs-fcMRI) studies, which examine temporal correlations in neural activity across brain regions at rest, have examined CSTC loop connectivity in patients with OCD and suggest hyperconnectivity within these loops in medicated adults with OCD. We used rs-fcMRI to examine functional connectivity within CSTC loops in unmedicated adults with OCD (n?=?23) versus healthy controls (HCs) (n?=?20). Contrary to prior rs-fcMRI studies in OCD patients on medications that report hyperconnectivity in the limbic CSTC loop, we found that compared with HCs, unmedicated OCD participants had reduced connectivity within the limbic CSTC loop. Exploratory analyses revealed that reduced connectivity within the limbic CSTC loop correlated with OCD symptom severity in the OCD group. Our finding of limbic loop hypoconnectivity in unmedicted OCD patients highlights the potential confounding effects of antidepressants on connectivity measures and the value of future examinations of the effects of pharmacological and/or behavioral treatments on limbic CSTC loop connectivity. PMID:24123377

Posner, Jonathan; Marsh, Rachel; Maia, Tiago V; Peterson, Bradley S; Gruber, Allison; Simpson, H Blair

2014-06-01

448

The Draw-A-Person: group differences among individuals with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Tourette Syndrome, and normal controls  

E-print Network

The purpose of the present study was to investigate the differences among the human figure drawings (HFDs) of individuals diagnosed with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD), Tourette Syndrome (TS), Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD...

Burch, Wendy A.

2005-11-01

449

The clinical impact of bipolar and unipolar affective comorbidity on obsessive–compulsive disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies on the comorbidity of Obsessive–Compulsive Disorder (OCD) have largely focused on comorbidity with major depressive and anxiety disorders. The present investigation deals with a more complex pattern of comorbidity involving bipolarity. Indeed, in a consecutive series of 315 OCD outpatients, 15.7% had such comorbidity (mostly with bipolar II disorder). Unlike non-bipolar OCD patients, these had a more gradual

Giulio Perugi; Hagop S Akiskal; Chiara Pfanner; Silvio Presta; Alfredo Gemignani; Alessandro Milanfranchi; Patrizia Lensi; Susanna Ravagli; Giovanni B Cassano

1997-01-01

450

A meta–analysis of functional neuroimaging in obsessive–compulsive disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent neurobiological models of obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) posit that a dysfunction in orbitofrontal–subcortical circuitry underlies the etiology of this disorder. Much of the empirical support for these theories comes from studies using neuroimaging techniques to compare brain activity in OCD patients with that in non-OCD controls. Qualitative reviews of this literature implicate the orbitofrontal cortex, caudate nuclei, and thalamus. In

Stephen P. Whiteside; John D. Port; Jonathan S. Abramowitz

2004-01-01

451

Diurnal Cortisol Levels and Cortisol Response in Youths with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aims: Recent results indicate a role of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in the pathophysiology of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Although childhood onset is common, the HPA axis has scarcely been studied in young OCD subjects. Therefore, the present study aimed at examining basal and response levels of salivary cortisol in a sample of young OCD subjects. Methods: Twenty-three children and adolescents

Per E. Gustafsson; Per A. Gustafsson; Tord Ivarsson; Nina Nelson

2008-01-01

452

Clinical characteristics in patients with anorexia nervosa and obsessive–compulsive disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. The purpose of this study was to assess clinical characteristics, including co-morbid personality disorders in patients with both anorexia nervosa (AN) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) in comparison with age- and sex-matched patients with OCD. Methods. Fifty-three female patients with AN were divided into two groups based on the presence or absence of a current diagnosis of OCD, as assessed

H. MATSUNAGA; N. KIRIIKE; Y. IWASAKI; A. MIYATA; S. YAMAGAMI; W. H. KAYE

1999-01-01

453

The psychobiology of obsessive-compulsive disorder: How important is the role of disgust?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Psychobiologic models of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) have focused on cortico-striatal-thalamic-cortical (CTSC) circuits,\\u000a noting normal function in cognitive and motoric procedural strategies. Such models have relied on the classification of OCD\\u000a as an anxiety disorder, seldom exploring other relevant emotions. Based on the hypothesis that a central emotion in OCD is\\u000a disgust, the authors review the literature on its psychobiology and

Dan J. Stein; Yijun Liu; Nathan A. Shapira; Wayne K. Goodman

2001-01-01

454

An Internet administered treatment program for obsessive–compulsive disorder: A feasibility study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study evaluates efficacy of a new Internet-administered cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) protocol, The OCD Program, designed to treat obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) remotely. This protocol comprises 8 online lessons delivered over 8 weeks and incorporates cognitive and behavioral techniques. Twenty-two individuals with a principal diagnosis of OCD received CBT-based online lessons, homework assignments, twice weekly contact from a clinical

Bethany M. Wootton; Nickolai Titov; Blake F. Dear; Jay Spence; Gavin Andrews; Luke Johnston; Karen Solley

2011-01-01

455

Perceived quality of life in obsessive-compulsive disorder: related factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) affects young adults and has great impact on the social, emotional and work spheres. METHODS: We measured perceived quality of life (QOL) in OCD patients, in order to analyse socio-demographic and clinical factors that may be associated with QOL perception. 64 OCD outpatients were assessed with the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview for DSM-IV, the Yale-Brown Obsessions

Beatriz Rodriguez-Salgado; Helen Dolengevich-Segal; Manuel Arrojo-Romero; Paola Castelli-Candia; Mercedes Navio-Acosta; Maria M Perez-Rodriguez; Jeronimo Saiz-Ruiz; Enrique Baca-Garcia

2006-01-01

456

Treatment of Refractory Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: The St. Louis Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, we describe a cognitive behavioral treatment approach to cases of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) that have not responded to standard outpatient evidence-based treatment. The approach begins with an assessment of the reasons why patients have not responded to treatment, which can be grouped into two categories: (a)…

VanDyke, Melanie M.; Pollard, C. Alec

2005-01-01

457

Decreased Family Accommodation Associated with Improved Therapy Outcome in Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a chronic, disabling condition that affects both patients and their families. Despite the identification of efficacious treatments (e.g., cognitive-behavioral therapy and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor medications), not all patients respond fully. The purpose of the present study was to…

Merlo, Lisa J.; Lehmkuhl, Heather D.; Geffken, Gary R.; Storch, Eric A.

2009-01-01

458

Inflated responsibility in obsessive compulsive disorder: Validation of an operational definition  

Microsoft Academic Search

An excessive sense of responsibility has been identified in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) where patients evaluate their thoughts in terms of the harm they could cause to themselves or others. In a new definition, responsibility was defined as the belief that one possesses pivotal power to provoke or prevent subjective crucial negative outcomes. In order to empirically test the validity of

Josée Rhéaume; Robert Ladouceur; Mark H. Freeston; Hélène Letarte

1995-01-01

459

Family Factors Predict Treatment Outcome for Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To examine family conflict, parental blame, and poor family cohesion as predictors of treatment outcome for youths receiving family-focused cognitive behavioral therapy (FCBT) for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Method: We analyzed data from a sample of youths who were randomized to FCBT (n = 49; 59% male; M age = 12.43 years) as…

Peris, Tara S.; Sugar, Catherine A.; Bergman, R. Lindsey; Chang, Susanna; Langley, Audra; Piacentini, John

2012-01-01

460

Whole Blood Serotonin and Disruptive Behaviors in Juvenile Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveThe study was conducted with children and adolescents with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) to assess the relationship of whole blood serotonin (5-HT) content to a concurrent diagnosis of a disruptive behavior disorder (DBD) and to severity ratings of aggressive behavior.

Gregory L. Hanna; Arthur Yuwiler; Janice K. Coates

1995-01-01

461

Differential Brain Metabolic Predictors of Response to Paroxetine in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Versus Major Depression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SRI) medications are effective in the treatment of both major depressive disor- der and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), but it is unknown whether the neu- ral substrates of treatment response for the two disorders are the same or differ- ent. The authors sought to identify pre- treatment cerebral glucose metabolic markers of responsiveness to SRI treat- ment

Sanjaya Saxena; Arthur L. Brody; Matthew L. Ho; B. S. Narineh Zohrabi; Karron M. Maidment; M. A. Lewis; R. Baxter

2003-01-01

462

Recent Developments in the Assessment and Treatment of Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although tremendous strides have recently been made in the development of assessment and treatment methods for pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), more accurate methods for diagnosis, more effective treatments, and more refined instruments for monitoring progress during therapy are still needed. The present commentary highlights the…

Berman, Noah C.; Abramowitz, Jonathan S.

2010-01-01

463

Treatment of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder in Young Children: An Intervention Model and Case Series  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents an intervention model for young children with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The intervention, designed to reduce compulsive behavior and improve parenting practices, was tested using a multiple baseline design with 7 children (M = 6 years old; 57% female) in which participants were randomly assigned to 1, 2, or 3 weeks…

Ginsburg, Golda S.; Burstein, Marcy; Becker, Kimberly D.; Drake, Kelly L.

2011-01-01

464

Acceptance and Commitment Therapy as a Treatment for Scrupulosity in Obsessive Compulsive Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study evaluated acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) for scrupulosity-based obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). Five adults were treated with eight sessions of ACT, without in-session exposure, in a multiple baseline across participants design. Daily monitoring of compulsions and avoided valued activities were tracked throughout the…

Dehlin, John P.; Morrison, Kate L.; Twohig, Michael P.

2013-01-01

465

Organizational strategies mediate nonverbal memory impairment in obsessive–compulsive disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Previous neuropsychological studies of obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) have indicated impaired executive functioning and nonverbal memory. The extent to which impaired executive functioning impacts nonverbal memory has not been established. The current study investigated the mediating effects of organizational strategies used when copying a figure on subsequent nonverbal memory for that figure.Methods: We examined neuropsychological performance in 20 unmedicated subjects

Cary R Savage; Lee Baer; Nancy J Keuthen; Halle D Brown; Scott L Rauch; Michael A Jenike

1999-01-01

466

The Application of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy to Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper is part of a case series illustrating the application of different therapies to a case of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). It describes the hypothetical application of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT). This paper covers the philosophy and basic research on language and cognition that inform ACT. It also provides an ACT-based…

Twohig, Michael P.

2009-01-01

467

Repetitive Behaviors in Autism and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: New Perspectives from a Network Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The association between autism and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) seems largely dependent upon observed similarities in the repetitive behaviors that manifest in both disorders. The aim of this study was to use a network approach to explore the interactions between these behaviors. We constructed a network based on clinician's…

Ruzzano, Laura; Borsboom, Denny; Geurts, Hilde M.

2015-01-01

468

Demographic and Clinical Characteristics of Adolescents in Hawaii With Obsessive-compulsive Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: A high prevalence rate of obsessive- compulsive disorder (OCD) among Hawaiian adoles- cents, particularly Native Hawaiians, has been reported. Be- cause Native Hawaiian and other Polynesian youth are at an increased risk for rheumatic fever, caused by an auto- immune response to group A-hemolytic streptococci, we hypothesized that the genetic and environmental risk fac- tors for streptococcal infections and

Anthony P. S. Guerrero; Earl S. Hishinuma; Naleen N. Andrade; Cathy K. Bell; David K. Kurahara; Terry G. Lee; Helen Turner; Jason Andrus; Noelle Y. C. Yuen; Alexander J. Stokes

2003-01-01

469

Cognitive Control of a Simple Mental Image in Patients with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The nature of obsessions has led researchers to try to determine if the main problem in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is impaired inhibitory control. Previous studies report that the effort to suppress is one of the factors that increase the frequency of obsessive thoughts. Based on these results and those of the present study that suggest…

Kocak, Orhan Murat; Ozpolat, Aysegul Yilmaz; Atbasoglu, Cem; Cicek, Metehan

2011-01-01

470

Is Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder a Disturbance of Security Motivation? Comment on Szechtman and Woody (2004)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

H. Szechtman and E. Woody proposed that obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is caused by a malfunctioning brain security motivation system. In the current article, the authors' review of the model suggests that it is limited in the following ways: (a) It is built on a selective review of the empirical literature, (b) it offers no explanation for…

Taylor, Steven; McKay, Dean; Abramowitz, Jonathan S.

2005-01-01

471

School Psychologists' Views and Management of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder in Children and Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Over the past decade, an increasing body of research has been conducted on evidence-based psychological and psychiatric treatment for pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Despite this improved understanding, however, these treatments are not being performed. This study descriptively examined the practices and views of school…

Gallant, Jason; Storch, Eric A.; Valderhaug, Robert; Geffken, Gary R.

2007-01-01

472

Current Educational Practices in Classifying and Serving Students with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Current educational practices for classifying and serving students with mental health disorders such as obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) have been associated with specific problems. These include the stigma of labeling, misalignment of school-based categories (e.g., E/BD, OHI) with clinical diagnoses, and concerns regarding the provision of…

Adams, Gail B.; Smith, Thomas J.; Bolt, Sara E.; Nolten, Patrick

2007-01-01

473

The Effectiveness of Treatment for Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: A Meta-Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The last decade has seen a noticeable increase in the number of treatment outcome studies for pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The present article describes a meta-analysis of this literature with the aim of quantifying treatment effects and examining the extent to which various patient or treatment variables are related to outcome.…

Abramowitz, Jonathan S.; Whiteside, Sephen P.; Deacon, Brett J.

2005-01-01

474

The epidemiology of obsessive-compulsive disorder in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite significant advances in the study of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), important questions remain about the disorder's public health significance, appropriate diagnostic classification, and clinical heterogeneity. These issues were explored using data from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication, a nationally representative survey of US adults. A subsample of 2073 respondents was assessed for lifetime Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders,

A M Ruscio; D J Stein; W T Chiu; R C Kessler

2010-01-01

475

Treatment of obsessive–compulsive disorder: Cognitive behavior therapy vs. exposure and response prevention  

Microsoft Academic Search

The efficacy of contemporary cognitive therapy for obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) has only recently been investigated. The current study compares exposure and response prevention (ERP) and cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) delivered in an individual format. Participants were randomly assigned to the 12 consecutive-week CBT or ERP treatment. Based on 59 treatment completers, there was no significant difference in YBOCS scores between

Maureen L. Whittal; Dana S. Thordarson; Peter D. McLean

2005-01-01

476

Personality dimensions in obsessive-compulsive disorder: Relation to clinical variables  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research on the relationship between personality factors and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has proved difficult to interpret due to conceptual problems including a lack of consensus on the model of personality employed as a framework as well as a failure to consider the clinical heterogeneity of the disorder. The aim of this study was to examine the dimensional personality profile associated

Pino Alonso; José M. Menchón; Susana Jiménez; Jacint Segalàs; David Mataix-Cols; Nuria Jaurrieta; Javier Labad; Julio Vallejo; Narcís Cardoner; Jesús Pujol

2007-01-01

477

Cognitive therapy and exposure in vivo in the treatment of obsessive compulsive disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study is the first controlled study that evaluates the effects of cognitive therapy along the lines of Beck (1976) [Cognitive therapy and the emotional disorder. New York: International University Press] and Salkovskis (1985) [Behaviour Research and Therapy, 23, 571–583] in obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) and compares these effects with those of self-controlled exposure in vivo with response prevention.

Patricia Van Oppen; Else De Haan; Philip Spinhoven; Kees Hoogduin; Richard Van Dyck

1995-01-01

478

Disgust and fear responding in contamination-based obsessive-compulsive disorder during pictorial exposure.  

PubMed

The emotion of disgust has been implicated in the development and maintenance of contamination-based obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). In the present study nonclinical participants with high (n=26) and low (n=28) levels of OCD contamination symptoms were exposed to 2 categories of disgust stimuli (blood injury and body waste) across 4 blocks using standardized disgust images. Self-report disgust and fear were recorded, as well as cardiovascular heart rate. In both groups, an initial primary disgust reaction was observed. Self-report disgust and fear, but not heart rate deceleration, was greater in the high symptom group. The high symptom group showed reductions in heart rate deceleration, whereas the low symptom group did not. Significant differences in self-report changes across time were observed between the groups, with fear increasing to a greater extent for high contamination fearful individuals when viewing body waste images. The implications of these findings for theoretical models and clinical treatment of OCD with prominent contamination symptoms are discussed. PMID:23312424

Broderick, Joshua; Grisham, Jessica R; Weidemann, Gabrielle

2013-03-01